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  1. The human papillomavirus E7 oncoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin-Drubin, Margaret E. Muenger, Karl

    2009-02-20

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) E7 oncoprotein shares functional similarities with such proteins as adenovirus E1A and SV40 large tumor antigen. As one of only two viral proteins always expressed in HPV-associated cancers, E7 plays a central role in both the viral life cycle and carcinogenic transformation. In the HPV viral life cycle, E7 disrupts the intimate association between cellular differentiation and proliferation in normal epithelium, allowing for viral replication in cells that would no longer be in the dividing population. This function is directly reflected in the transforming activities of E7, including tumor initiation and induction of genomic instability.

  2. The human papillomavirus type 16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins cooperate to induce mitotic defects and genomic instability by uncoupling centrosome duplication from the cell division cycle

    PubMed Central

    Duensing, Stefan; Lee, Lily Y.; Duensing, Anette; Basile, John; Piboonniyom, Siribang-on; Gonzalez, Sonia; Crum, Christopher P.; Münger, Karl

    2000-01-01

    Loss of genomic integrity is a defining feature of many human malignancies, including human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated preinvasive and invasive genital squamous lesions. Here we show that aberrant mitotic spindle pole formation caused by abnormal centrosome numbers represents an important mechanism in accounting for numeric chromosomal alterations in HPV-associated carcinogenesis. Similar to what we found in histopathological specimens, HPV-16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins cooperate to induce abnormal centrosome numbers, aberrant mitotic spindle pole formation, and genomic instability. The low-risk HPV-6 E6 and E7 proteins did not induce such abnormalities. Whereas the HPV-16 E6 oncoprotein has no immediate effects on centrosome numbers, HPV-16 E7 rapidly induces abnormal centrosome duplication. Thus our results suggest a model whereby HPV-16 E7 induces centrosome-related mitotic disturbances that are potentiated by HPV-16 E6. PMID:10944189

  3. Cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A contributes to human papillomavirus oncoprotein E7-induced cell proliferation via E2F1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weifang; Chen, Hanxiang; Chen, Yan; Liu, Juan; Wang, Xiao; Yu, Xiuping; Chen, Jason J; Zhao, Weiming

    2015-03-10

    Cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A) is a recently identified oncoprotein that is overexpressed in many human malignant tumors including cervical cancer. Human papillomavirus (HPV) oncoprotein E7 is the key transformation factor in cervical cancer. Our previous data showed a positive association of CIP2A and HPV-16E7 protein levels; however, how CIP2A is regulated by HPV-E7 and the roles of CIP2A in HPV-E7-mediated cell proliferation are unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that HPV-16E7 protein significantly upregulating CIP2A mRNA and protein expression depended on retinoblastoma protein pRb rather than p130. CIP2A siRNA knockdown in HPV-E7-expressing cells inhibited cell proliferation, DNA synthesis and G1/S cell cycle progression. CIP2A siRNA decreased the protein levels of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1), Cdk2 and their partner cyclin A2, with no change in levels of Cdk4, Cdk6 and their partner cyclin D1. The downregulation of Cdk1 and Cdk2 was independent of c-Myc; instead, E2F1 was the main target of CIP2A in this process, as overexpression of E2F1 rescued the inhibitory effects of CIP2A siRNA knockdown on cell proliferation and G1 arrest of HPV-E7-expressing cells. Our studies reveal a novel function of CIP2A in HPV-16E7-mediated cell proliferation. PMID:25650660

  4. Gene expression profile regulated by the HPV16 E7 oncoprotein and estradiol in cervical tissue

    PubMed Central

    Cortés-Malagón, Enoc M.; Bonilla-Delgado, José; Díaz-Chávez, José; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Romero-Cordoba, Sandra; Üren, Aykut; Çelik, Haydar; McCormick, Matthew; Munguía-Moreno, José A.; Ibarra-Sierra, Eloisa; Escobar-Herrera, Jaime; Lambert, Paul F.; Mendoza-Villanueva, Daniel; Bermudez-Cruz, Rosa M.; Gariglio, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    The HPV16 E7 oncoprotein and 17β-estradiol are important factors for the induction of premalignant lesions and cervical cancer. The study of these factors is crucial for a better understanding of cervical tumorigenesis. Here, we assessed the global gene expression profiles induced by the HPV16 E7 oncoprotein and/or 17β-estradiol in cervical tissue of FvB and K14E7 transgenic mice. We found that the most dramatic changes in gene expression occurred in K14E7 and FvB groups treated with 17β-estradiol. A large number of differentially expressed genes involved in the immune response were observed in 17β-estradiol treated groups. The E7 oncoprotein mainly affected the expression of genes involved in cellular metabolism. Our microarray data also identified differentially expressed genes that have not previously been reported in cervical cancer. The identification of genes regulated by E7 and 17β-estradiol, provides the basis for further studies on their role in cervical carcinogenesis. PMID:24210110

  5. Human papillomavirus type 16 E7 oncoprotein mediates CCNA1 promoter methylation

    PubMed Central

    Chalertpet, Kanwalat; Pakdeechaidan, Watcharapong; Patel, Vyomesh; Mutirangura, Apiwat; Yanatatsaneejit, Pattamawadee

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) oncoproteins drive distinctive promoter methylation patterns in cancer. However, the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. Cyclin A1 (CCNA1) promoter methylation is strongly associated with HPV-associated cancer. CCNA1 methylation is found in HPV-associated cervical cancers, as well as in head and neck squamous cell cancer. Numerous pieces of evidence suggest that E7 may drive CCNA1 methylation. First, the CCNA1 promoter is methylated in HPV-positive epithelial lesions after transformation. Second, the CCNA1 promoter is methylated at a high level when HPV is integrated into the human genome. Finally, E7 has been shown to interact with DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1). Here, we sought to determine the mechanism by which E7 increases methylation in cervical cancer by using CCNA1 as a gene model. We investigated whether E7 induces CCNA1 promoter methylation, resulting in the loss of expression. Using both E7 knockdown and overexpression approaches in SiHa and C33a cells, our data showed that CCNA1 promoter methylation decreases with a corresponding increase in expression in E7 siRNA-transfected cells. By contrast, CCNA1 promoter methylation was augmented with a corresponding reduction in expression in E7-overexpressing cells. To confirm whether the binding of the E7–Dnmt1 complex to the CCNA1 promoter induced methylation and loss of expression, ChIP assays were carried out in E7-, del CR3-E7 and vector control-overexpressing C33a cells. The data showed that E7 induced CCNA1 methylation by forming a complex with Dnmt1 at the CCNA1 promoter, resulting in the subsequent reduction of expression in cancers. It is interesting to further explore the genome-wide mechanism of E7 oncoprotein-mediated DNA methylation. PMID:26250467

  6. Human papillomavirus type 16 E7 oncoprotein mediates CCNA1 promoter methylation.

    PubMed

    Chalertpet, Kanwalat; Pakdeechaidan, Watcharapong; Patel, Vyomesh; Mutirangura, Apiwat; Yanatatsaneejit, Pattamawadee

    2015-10-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) oncoproteins drive distinctive promoter methylation patterns in cancer. However, the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. Cyclin A1 (CCNA1) promoter methylation is strongly associated with HPV-associated cancer. CCNA1 methylation is found in HPV-associated cervical cancers, as well as in head and neck squamous cell cancer. Numerous pieces of evidence suggest that E7 may drive CCNA1 methylation. First, the CCNA1 promoter is methylated in HPV-positive epithelial lesions after transformation. Second, the CCNA1 promoter is methylated at a high level when HPV is integrated into the human genome. Finally, E7 has been shown to interact with DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1). Here, we sought to determine the mechanism by which E7 increases methylation in cervical cancer by using CCNA1 as a gene model. We investigated whether E7 induces CCNA1 promoter methylation, resulting in the loss of expression. Using both E7 knockdown and overexpression approaches in SiHa and C33a cells, our data showed that CCNA1 promoter methylation decreases with a corresponding increase in expression in E7 siRNA-transfected cells. By contrast, CCNA1 promoter methylation was augmented with a corresponding reduction in expression in E7-overexpressing cells. To confirm whether the binding of the E7-Dnmt1 complex to the CCNA1 promoter induced methylation and loss of expression, ChIP assays were carried out in E7-, del CR3-E7 and vector control-overexpressing C33a cells. The data showed that E7 induced CCNA1 methylation by forming a complex with Dnmt1 at the CCNA1 promoter, resulting in the subsequent reduction of expression in cancers. It is interesting to further explore the genome-wide mechanism of E7 oncoprotein-mediated DNA methylation. PMID:26250467

  7. Human papillomavirus type 16 E7 oncoprotein upregulates the retinoic acid receptor-beta expression in cervical cancer cell lines and K14E7 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Jorge; García-Villa, Enrique; Ocadiz-Delgado, Rodolfo; Cortés-Malagón, Enoc M; Vázquez, Juan; Roman-Rosales, Alejandra; Alvarez-Rios, Elizabeth; Celik, Haydar; Romano, Marta C; Üren, Aykut; Lambert, Paul F; Gariglio, Patricio

    2015-10-01

    Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses is the main etiological factor in cervical cancer (CC). The human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) E7 oncoprotein alters several cellular processes, regulating the expression of many genes in order to avoid cell cycle control. Retinoic acid receptor beta (RARB) blocks cell growth, inducing differentiation and apoptosis. This tumor suppressor gene is gradually silenced in late passages of foreskin keratinocytes immortalized with HPV16 and in various tumors, including CC, mainly by epigenetic modifications. We investigated the effect of E7 oncoprotein on RARB gene expression. We found that HPV16 E7 increases RARB mRNA and RAR-beta protein expression both in vitro and in the cervix of young K14E7 transgenic mice. In E7-expressing cells, RARB overexpression is further increased in the presence of the tumor suppressor p53 (TP53) R273C mutant. This effect does not change when either C33-A or E7-expressing C33-A cell line is treated with Trichostatin A, suggesting that E7 enhances RARB expression independently of histone deacetylases inhibition. These findings indicate that RARB overexpression is part of the early molecular events induced by the E7 oncoprotein. PMID:26173416

  8. HPV E7 Viral Oncoprotein Disrupts Transcriptional Regulation of L1Md Retrotransposon

    PubMed Central

    Montoya-Durango, Diego E.; Ramos, Kenneth S.

    2012-01-01

    Murine L1Md-A5 retrotransposon is a redox-inducible element regulated by Nrf-2/JunD and E2F/Rb-binding sites within its promoter (5′-UTR). Because the human papillomavirus (HPV) oncoprotein E7 interacts with retinoblastoma (pRb) and members of the AP1 family, studies were conducted to examine functional interactions between HPV E7, pRb, and histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) in the regulation of L1Md-A5. Using a transient heterologous transcription system we found that HPV E7 alone, or in combination with HDAC2, disrupted pRb-mediated L1MdA-5 transactivation. HPV E7 also ablated the transcriptional response of L1Md-A5 to genotoxic stress, but did not interfere with basal activity. We conclude that HPV E7 associates with proteins involved in the assembly of macromolecular complexes that regulate antioxidant and E2F/Rb sites within L1MdA-5 to regulate biological activity PMID:22172279

  9. Identification of the nuclear localization and export signals of high risk HPV16 E7 oncoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Alixandra A.; McManus, Patrick M.; Bockstall, Katy; Moroianu, Junona

    2009-01-05

    The E7 oncoprotein of high risk human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) binds and inactivates the retinoblastoma (RB) family of proteins. Our previous studies suggested that HPV16 E7 enters the nucleus via a novel Ran-dependent pathway independent of the nuclear import receptors (Angeline, M., Merle, E., and Moroianu, J. (2003). The E7 oncoprotein of high-risk human papillomavirus type 16 enters the nucleus via a nonclassical Ran-dependent pathway. Virology 317(1), 13-23.). Here, analysis of the localization of specific E7 mutants revealed that the nuclear localization of E7 is independent of its interaction with pRB or of its phosphorylation by CKII. Fluorescence microscopy analysis of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and 2xEGFP fusions with E7 and E7 domains in HeLa cells revealed that E7 contains a novel nuclear localization signal (NLS) in the N-terminal domain (aa 1-37). Interestingly, treatment of transfected HeLa cells with two specific nuclear export inhibitors, Leptomycin B and ratjadone, changed the localization of 2xEGFP-E7{sub 38-98} from cytoplasmic to mostly nuclear. These data suggest the presence of a leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES) and a second NLS in the C-terminal domain of E7 (aa 38-98). Mutagenesis of critical amino acids in the putative NES sequence ({sub 76}IRTLEDLLM{sub 84}) changed the localization of 2xEGFP-E7{sub 38-98} from cytoplasmic to mostly nuclear suggesting that this is a functional NES. The presence of both NLSs and an NES suggests that HPV16 E7 shuttles between the cytoplasm and nucleus which is consistent with E7 having functions in both of these cell compartments.

  10. Expression of the human papillomavirus type 16 E7 oncoprotein induces an autophagy-related process and sensitizes normal human keratinocytes to cell death in response to growth factor deprivation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Xiaobo; Muenger, Karl

    2009-03-01

    Expression of oncogenes, such as the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) E7 oncoprotein, promotes aberrant cell proliferation. In the absence of concurrent mitogenic stimuli, this triggers a cell-intrinsic defense mechanism, the 'trophic sentinel response', which eliminates such aberrant cells. The molecular pathways that elicit this response, however, remain obscure. We set up an experimental system to investigate the trophic sentinel pathway triggered by HPV16 E7 expression in normal human keratinocytes, the natural host cells of HPVs. Keratinocytes expressing HPV16 E7 cultured in E-medium undergo cell death and show increased sub-G1 DNA content when grown to confluence or under conditions of serum deprivation. Moreover, HPV16 E7 expressing human keratinocytes express higher levels of the autophagy marker, LC3-II, which can be abrogated by 3-methyladenine, an autophagy inhibitor. These findings indicate that even under normal culture conditions, HPV16 E7 expression triggers metabolic stress that may result in autophagy, a pathway implicated in carcinogenesis.

  11. Bridging Links between Long Noncoding RNA HOTAIR and HPV Oncoprotein E7 in Cervical Cancer Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sweta; Mandal, Paramita; Sadhukhan, Tamal; Roy Chowdhury, Rahul; Ranjan Mondal, Nidhu; Chakravarty, Biman; Chatterjee, Tanmay; Roy, Sudipta; Sengupta, Sharmila

    2015-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 oncoprotein E7 plays a major role in cervical carcinogenesis by interacting with and functionally inactivating various host regulatory molecules. Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) HOTAIR is one such regulator that recruits chromatin remodelling complex PRC2, creating gene silencing H3K27 me3 marks. Hence, we hypothesized that HOTAIR could be a potential target of E7, in HPV16 related cervical cancers (CaCx). We identified significant linear trend of progressive HOTAIR down-regulation through HPV negative controls, HPV16 positive non-malignants and CaCx samples. Majority of CaCx cases portrayed HOTAIR down-regulation in comparison to HPV negative controls, with corresponding up-regulation of HOTAIR target, HOXD10, and enrichment of cancer related pathways. However, a small subset had significantly higher HOTAIR expression, concomitant with high E7 expression and enrichment of metastatic pathways. Expression of HOTAIR and PRC2-complex members (EZH2 and SUZ12), showed significant positive correlation with E7 expression in CaCx cases and E7 transfected C33A cell line, suggestive of interplay between E7 and HOTAIR. Functional inactivation of HOTAIR by direct interaction with E7 could also be predicted by in silico analysis and confirmed by RNA-Immunoprecipitation. Our study depicts one of the causal mechanisms of cervical carcinogenesis by HPV16 E7, through modulation of HOTAIR expression and function. PMID:26152361

  12. Regulation of the Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway by Human Papillomavirus E6 and E7 Oncoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz Bello, Jesus Omar; Olmedo Nieva, Leslie; Contreras Paredes, Adriana; Fuentes Gonzalez, Alma Mariana; Rocha Zavaleta, Leticia; Lizano, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    Cell signaling pathways are the mechanisms by which cells transduce external stimuli, which control the transcription of genes, to regulate diverse biological effects. In cancer, distinct signaling pathways, such as the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, have been implicated in the deregulation of critical molecular processes that affect cell proliferation and differentiation. For example, changes in β-catenin localization have been identified in Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers as the lesion progresses. Specifically, β-catenin relocates from the membrane/cytoplasm to the nucleus, suggesting that this transcription regulator participates in cervical carcinogenesis. The E6 and E7 oncoproteins are responsible for the transforming activity of HPV, and some studies have implicated these viral oncoproteins in the regulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Nevertheless, new interactions of HPV oncoproteins with cellular proteins are emerging, and the study of the biological effects of such interactions will help to understand HPV-related carcinogenesis. This review addresses the accumulated evidence of the involvement of the HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins in the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. PMID:26295406

  13. Human papillomavirus type 16 E7 oncoprotein engages but does not abrogate the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Yueyang; Munger, Karl

    2012-10-10

    The mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) ensures faithful chromosome segregation during mitosis by censoring kinetochore-microtubule interactions. It is frequently rendered dysfunctional during carcinogenesis causing chromosome missegregation and genomic instability. There are conflicting reports whether the HPV16 E7 oncoprotein drives chromosomal instability by abolishing the SAC. Here we report that degradation of mitotic cyclins is impaired in cells with HPV16 E7 expression. RNAi-mediated depletion of Mad2 or BubR1 indicated the involvement of the SAC, suggesting that HPV16 E7 expression causes sustained SAC engagement. Mutational analyses revealed that HPV16 E7 sequences that are necessary for retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein binding as well as sequences previously implicated in binding the nuclear and mitotic apparatus (NuMA) protein and in delocalizing dynein from the mitotic spindle contribute to SAC engagement. Importantly, however, HPV16 E7 does not markedly compromise the SAC response to microtubule poisons.

  14. Effects of single nucleotide changes on the binding and activity of RNA aptamers to human papillomavirus 16 E7 oncoprotein.

    PubMed

    Nicol, Clare; Bunka, David H J; Blair, G Eric; Stonehouse, Nicola J

    2011-02-18

    A virally-encoded oncoprotein (E7 from human papillomavirus 16, involved in the initiation of cell transformation) was the target for RNA aptamer development by the process of systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). A number of aptamers were identified, one of which was shown to inhibit the interaction between E7 and its major binding partner, pRb. Aptamers with very similar sequences (more than 92% similarity in the random regions) did not share this activity. This study demonstrates the potential of aptamers to be highly specific, with small differences in aptamer sequence having profound effects on function. PMID:21238427

  15. Naive and radiolabeled antibodies to E6 and E7 HPV-16 oncoproteins show pronounced antitumor activity in experimental cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Phaëton, R; Gutierrez, J; Jiang, Z; Karabakhtsian, RG; Albanese, J; Sunkara, J; Fisher, DR; Goldberg, GL; Dadachova, E

    2015-01-01

    Background In spite of profound reduction in incidence, cervical cancer claims >275,000 lives annually. Previously we demonstrated efficacy and safety of radioimmunotherapy directed at HPV16 E6 oncoprotein in experimental cervical cancer. Materials & methods We undertook a direct comparison of targeting E7 and E6 oncoproteins with specific 188Rhenium-labeled monoclonal antibodies in CasKi subcutaneous xenografts of cervical cancer cells in mice. Results The most significant tumor inhibition was seen in radioimmunotherapy-treated mice, followed by the unlabeled monoclonal antibodies to E6 and E7. No hematological toxicity was observed. Immunohistochemistry suggests that the effect of unlabeled antibodies is C3 complement mediated. Conclusion We have demonstrated for the first time that radioimmunotherapy directed toward E7 oncoprotein inhibits experimental tumors growth, decreases E7 expression and may offer a novel approach to cervical cancer therapy. PMID:26098137

  16. Activation of Src, Fyn and Yes non-receptor tyrosine kinases in keratinocytes expressing human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 E7 oncoprotein

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Src family tyrosine kinases (SFK) are cellular regulatory proteins that influence cell adhesion, proliferation, invasion and survival during tumor development. Elevated activity of Src was associated with increased cell proliferation and invasivity in human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated malignancies; therefore, transduced human foreskin keratinocytes (HFK) were used to investigate whether SFK activation is a downstream effect of papillomaviral oncoproteins. Activation of ubiquitously expressed SFKs, namely Src, Yes and Fyn, was investigated in both proliferating and differentiating keratinocytes. Results In proliferating keratinocytes, Src, Yes and Fyn mRNA levels were not affected by HPV 16 E6 or E7 oncoproteins, while at the protein level as detected by western blot, the presence of both E6 and E7 resulted in substantial increase in Src and Yes expression, but did not alter the high constitutive level of Fyn. Phospo-kinase array revealed that all ubiquitously expressed SFKs are activated by phosphorylation in the presence of HPV 16 E7 oncoprotein. Keratinocyte differentiation led to increased Yes mRNA and protein levels in all transduced cell lines, while it did not influence the Src transcription but resulted in elevated Src protein level in HPV16 E7 expressing lines. Conclusions This study revealed that HPV 16 oncoproteins upregulate Src family kinases Src and Yes via posttranscriptional mechanisms. A further effect of HPV 16 E7 oncoprotein is to enhance the activating phosphorylation of SFKs expressed in keratinocytes. PMID:23497302

  17. Delocalization of the microtubule motor Dynein from mitotic spindles by the human papillomavirus E7 oncoprotein is not sufficient for induction of multipolar mitoses.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Christine L; McLaughlin-Drubin, Margaret E; Münger, Karl

    2008-11-01

    Dynein is a minus end-directed microtubule motor that transports numerous cargoes throughout the cell. During mitosis, dynein motor activity is necessary for the positioning of spindle microtubules and has also been implicated in inactivating the spindle assembly checkpoint. Mutations in dynein motor and/or accessory proteins are associated with human disease, including cancer, and the delocalization of dynein from mitotic spindles has been correlated with an increased incidence of multipolar spindle formation in some cancer cells that contain supernumerary centrosomes. The high-risk human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) E7 oncoprotein induces centrosome overduplication and has been shown to cause multipolar mitotic spindle formation, a diagnostic hallmark of HPV-associated neoplasias. Here, we show that HPV16 E7 expression leads to an increased population of mitotic cells with dynein delocalized from the mitotic spindle. This function maps to sequences of HPV16 E7 that are distinct from the region necessary for centrosome overduplication. However, contrary to previous reports, we provide evidence that dynein delocalization by HPV16 E7 is neither necessary nor sufficient to cause the formation of multipolar mitoses. PMID:18974113

  18. Nuclear export of cutaneous HPV8 E7 oncoprotein is mediated by a leucine-rich nuclear export signal via a CRM1 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Onder, Zeynep; Chang, Vivian; Moroianu, Junona

    2015-01-01

    We recently determined that the nuclear import of cutaneous beta genus HPV8 E7 oncoprotein it is mediated by its zinc-binding domain via direct hydrophobic interactions with the FG nucleoporins Nup62 and Nup153 (Onder and Moroianu, 2014). Here we investigated the nuclear export of HPV8 E7 oncoprotein using confocal microscopy after transfections of HeLa cells with EGFP–8cE7 and mutant plasmids and treatment with Ratjadone A nuclear export inhibitor. We determined that HPV8 E7 contains a leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES), {sub 76}IRTFQELLF{sub 84}, within its zinc-binding domain that mediates its nuclear export via a CRM1 pathway. We found that HPV8 E7 interacts with CRM1 and that the hydrophobic amino acid residues I76, F79 and L82 of the NES are essential for this interaction and for nuclear export of HPV8 E7 oncoprotein. - Highlights: • HPV8 E7 has a leucine-rich NES within its zinc-binding domain that mediates its nuclear export. • CRM1 nuclear export receptor interacts with HPV8 E7 and mediates its export. • Identification of the critical hydrophobic amino acids of the NES of HPV8 E7.

  19. Nuclear import of cutaneous beta genus HPV8 E7 oncoprotein is mediated by hydrophobic interactions between its zinc-binding domain and FG nucleoporins

    SciTech Connect

    Onder, Zeynep; Moroianu, Junona

    2014-01-20

    We have previously discovered and characterized the nuclear import pathways for the E7 oncoproteins of mucosal alpha genus HPVs, type 16 and 11. Here we investigated the nuclear import of cutaneous beta genus HPV8 E7 protein using confocal microscopy after transfections of HeLa cells with EGFP-8E7 and mutant plasmids and nuclear import assays in digitonin-permeabilized HeLa cells. We determined that HPV8 E7 contains a nuclear localization signal (NLS) within its zinc-binding domain that mediates its nuclear import. Furthermore, we discovered that a mostly hydrophobic patch {sub 65}LRLFV{sub 69} within the zinc-binding domain is essential for the nuclear import and localization of HPV8 E7 via hydrophobic interactions with the FG nucleoporins Nup62 and Nup153. Substitution of the hydrophobic residues within the {sub 65}LRLFV{sub 69} patch to alanines, and not R66A mutation, disrupt the interactions between the 8E7 zinc-binding domain and Nup62 and Nup153 and consequently inhibit nuclear import of HPV8 E7. - Highlights: • HPV8 E7 has a cNLS within its zinc-binding domain that mediates its nuclear import. • Discovery of a hydrophobic patch that is critical for the nuclear import of HPV8 E7. • HPV8 E7 nuclear import is mediated by hydrophobic interactions with FG-Nups, Nup62 and Nup153.

  20. Direct association of the HPV16 E7 oncoprotein with cyclin A/CDK2 and cyclin E/CDK2 complexes

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Christine L.; Mnger, Karl

    2008-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) E7 oncoprotein has been shown to associate with cyclin/CDK2 complexes. Here we present evidence that HPV E7 proteins can associate with cyclin A/CDK2 and cyclin E/CDK2 complexes in cells that lack retinoblastoma tumor suppressor family members through sequences outside of the core retinoblastoma tumor suppressor binding site. Moreover, we show that HPV16 E7 can directly associate with cyclin A/CDK2 and cyclin E/CDK2 complexes. These results suggest that cyclin/CDK2 complexes may be components of HPV E7-associated cellular complexes that do not contain retinoblastoma tumor suppressor family members. PMID:18718623

  1. The papillomavirus E7 oncoprotein is ubiquitinated by UbcH7 and Cullin 1- and Skp2-containing E3 ligase.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kwang-Jin; Kalinina, Anna; Wang, Jing; Nakayama, Keiko; Nakayama, Keiichi I; Bagchi, Srilata

    2004-05-01

    Recurrent infections with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are associated with human cervical cancers. All HPV-associated cancer tissues express the viral oncoproteins E6 and E7, which stimulate cell growth. The expression of E7 is crucial for both the initiation and the maintenance of HPV-associated cancer. Recent studies showed that the level of E7 in cancer cells is regulated by ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis through the 26S proteasome. In this study, we characterized the enzymes involved in the ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of E7. We show that UbcH7, an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, is specifically involved in the ubiquitination of E7. Furthermore, we show that E7 interacts with the SCF (Skp-Cullin-F box) ubiquitin ligase complex containing Cullin 1 (Cul1) and Skp2 and can be ubiquitinated by the Cul1-containing ubiquitin ligase in vitro. Coimmunoprecipitation analyses revealed that E7 interacts with Skp2 and Cul1 in vivo. Finally, the half-life of E7 was found to be significantly longer in Skp2(-/-) mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) than in wild-type MEFs. Taken together, these results suggest that the Cul1- and Skp2-containing ubiquitin ligase plays a role in the ubiquitination and proteolysis of E7. In HPV type 16-containing cervical carcinoma cell line Caski, E7 localizes to both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Brief treatment of Caski cells with MG132 (a proteasome inhibitor) causes the accumulation of E7 in discrete nuclear bodies. These nuclear bodies are detergent insoluble and contain polyubiquitinated E7. We suggest that E7 relocates to specific nuclear bodies for proteolysis in HPV-containing epithelial cells. PMID:15113913

  2. The high-risk HPV16 E7 oncoprotein mediates interaction between the transcriptional coactivator CBP and the retinoblastoma protein pRb

    PubMed Central

    Jansma, Ariane L.; Martinez-Yamout, Maria A.; Liao, Rong; Sun, Peiqing; Dyson, H. Jane; Wright, Peter E.

    2014-01-01

    The oncoprotein E7 from human papillomavirus (HPV) strains that confer high cancer risk mediates cell transformation by deregulating host cellular processes and activating viral gene expression through recruitment of cellular proteins such as the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and the CREB-binding protein (CBP) and its paralog p300. Here we show that the intrinsically disordered N-terminal region of E7 from high risk HPV16 binds the TAZ2 domain of CBP with greater affinity than E7 from low risk HPV6b. HPV E7 and the tumor suppressor p53 compete for binding to TAZ2. The TAZ2 binding site in E7 overlaps the LxCxE motif that is crucial for interaction with pRb. While TAZ2 and pRb compete for binding to a monomeric E7 polypeptide, the full-length E7 dimer mediates an interaction between TAZ2 and pRb by promoting formation of a ternary complex. Cell-based assays show that expression of full-length HPV16 E7 promotes increased pRb acetylation and that this response depends both on the presence of CBP/p300 and the ability of E7 to form a dimer. These observations suggest a model for the oncogenic effect of high risk HPV16-E7. The disordered region of one E7 molecule in the homodimer interacts with the pocket domain of pRb, while the same region of the other E7 molecule binds the TAZ2 domain of CBP/p300. Through its ability to dimerize, E7 recruits CBP/p300 and pRb into a ternary complex, bringing the histone acetyltransferase domain of CBP/p300 into proximity to pRb and promoting acetylation, leading to disruption of cell cycle control. PMID:25451029

  3. Functional Interaction between Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E6 and E7 Oncoproteins and Cigarette Smoke Components in Lung Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Muoz, Juan Pablo; Gonzlez, Carolina; Parra, Brbara; Corvaln, Alejandro H.; Tornesello, Maria Lina; Eizuru, Yoshito; Aguayo, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    The smoking habit is the most important, but not a sufficient cause for lung cancer development. Several studies have reported the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) presence and E6 and E7 transcripts expression in lung carcinoma cases from different geographical regions. The possible interaction between HPV infection and smoke carcinogens, however, remains unclear. In this study we address a potential cooperation between tobacco smoke and HPV16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins for alterations in proliferative and tumorigenic properties of lung epithelial cells. A549 (alveolar, tumoral) and BEAS-2B (bronchial, non-tumoral) cell lines were stably transfected with recombinant pLXSN vectors expressing HPV16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins and exposed to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) at different concentrations. HPV16 E6 and E7 expression was associated with loss of p53 stability, telomerase (hTERT) and p16INK4A overexpression in BEAS-2B cells as demonstrated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blotting (WB). In A549 cells we observed downregulation of p53 but not a significant increase of hTERT transcripts. In addition, the HPV16 E6/E7 transfected cell lines showed an increased proliferation rate and anchorage-independent growth in a HPV16 E6 and E7 expression-dependent manner. Moreover, both HPV16 E6/E7 and mock transfected cells showed an increased proliferation rate and anchorage-independent growth in the presence of 0.1 and 10 g/mL CSC. However, this increase was significantly greater in HPV16 E6/E7 transfected cells (p<0.001). Data were confirmed by FCSE proliferation assay. The results obtained in this study are suggestive of a functional interaction between tobacco smoke and HPV16 E6/E7 oncoproteins for malignant transformation and tumorigenesis of lung epithelial cells. More studies are warranted in order to dissect the molecular mechanisms involved in this cooperation. PMID:22662279

  4. Oligomerization properties of the viral oncoproteins adenovirus E1A and human papillomavirus E7 and their complexes with the retinoblastoma protein.

    PubMed

    Clements, A; Johnston, K; Mazzarelli, J M; Ricciardi, R P; Marmorstein, R

    2000-12-26

    Human papillomavirus 16 E7 (HPV16 E7) and adenovirus 5 E1A (Ad5 E1A) are encoded by highly divergent viruses yet are functionally similar in their ability to bind the retinoblastoma (pRB) tumor suppressor protein, causing the aberrant displacement of E2F trancription factors. The amino acid residues of HPV16 E7 that are necessary for stability, for inhibition of pRB function, and for cell transformation are also necessary for E7 oligomerization. However, neither the specific oligomerization state of HPV16 E7 nor of Ad5 E1A as a function of pRB-binding has been characterized. To gain insight into HPV16 E7 and Ad5 E1A oligomerization properties, sedimentation equilibrium experiments were performed with recombinant HPV16 E7 and Ad5 E1A proteins. These studies reveal that, despite the overall functional similarities between these proteins, monomers, dimers, and tetramers of HPV16 E7 were detected while only reversible monomer-dimer association was identified for Ad5 E1A. The apparent K(d(monomer)-(dimer)) of HPV16 E7 is approximately 100-fold lower than that of a comparable region of Ad5 E1A, and it is concluded that under physiological protein concentrations HPV16 E7 exists primarily as a dimer. Sedimentation equilibrium experiments of pRB/Ad5 E1A and of pRB/HPV16 E7 complexes demonstrate that the tight association of pRB with the viral oncoproteins does not disturb their inherent oligomerization properties. Taken together, this study demonstrates significant differences between the Ad5 E1A and HPV16 E7 oligomerization states that are potentially related to their distinct structures and specific mechanisms of pRB-inactivation. PMID:11123931

  5. The human papillomavirus type 58 E7 oncoprotein modulates cell cycle regulatory proteins and abrogates cell cycle checkpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Weifang; Li Jing; Kanginakudru, Sriramana; Zhao Weiming; Yu Xiuping; Chen, Jason J.

    2010-02-05

    HPV type 58 (HPV-58) is the third most common HPV type in cervical cancer from Eastern Asia, yet little is known about how it promotes carcinogenesis. In this study, we demonstrate that HPV-58 E7 significantly promoted the proliferation and extended the lifespan of primary human keratinocytes (PHKs). HPV-58 E7 abrogated the G1 and the postmitotic checkpoints, although less efficiently than HPV-16 E7. Consistent with these observations, HPV-58 E7 down-regulated the cellular tumor suppressor pRb to a lesser extent than HPV-16 E7. Similar to HPV-16 E7 expressing PHKs, Cdk2 remained active in HPV-58 E7 expressing PHKs despite the presence of elevated levels of p53 and p21. Interestingly, HPV-58 E7 down-regulated p130 more efficiently than HPV-16 E7. Our study demonstrates a correlation between the ability of down-regulating pRb/p130 and abrogating cell cycle checkpoints by HPV-58 E7, which also correlates with the biological risks of cervical cancer progression associated with HPV-58 infection.

  6. The human papillomavirus type 58 E7 oncoprotein modulates cell cycle regulatory proteins and abrogates cell cycle checkpoints

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weifang; Li, Jing; Kanginakudru, Sriramana; Zhao, Weiming; Yu, Xiuping; Chen, Jason J.

    2009-01-01

    HPV type 58 (HPV-58) is the third most common HPV type in cervical cancer from Eastern Asia, yet little is known about how it promotes carcinogenesis. In this study, we demonstrated that HPV-58 E7 significantly promoted the proliferation and extended the lifespan of primary human keratinocytes (PHKs). HPV-58 E7 abrogated the G1 postmitotic checkpoints, although less efficiently than HPV-16 E7. Consistent with these observations, HPV-58 E7 down-regulated the cellular tumor suppressor pRb to a lesser extent than HPV-16 E7. Similar to HPV-16 E7 expressing PHKs, Cdk2 remained active in HPV-58 E7 expressing PHKs despite the presence of elevated levels of p53 and p21. Interestingly, HPV-58 E7 down-regulated p130 more efficiently than HPV-16 E7. Our study demonstrates a correlation between the ability of down-regulating pRb/p130 and abrogating cell cycle checkpoints by HPV-58 E7, which also correlates with the biological risks of cervical cancer progression associated with HPV-58 infection. PMID:19945133

  7. Protein intrinsic disorder and human papillomaviruses: increased amount of disorder in E6 and E7 oncoproteins from high risk HPVs.

    PubMed

    Uversky, Vladimir N; Roman, Ann; Oldfield, Christopher J; Dunker, A Keith

    2006-08-01

    It is recognized now that many functional proteins or their long segments are devoid of stable secondary and/or tertiary structure and exist instead as very dynamic ensembles of conformations. They are known by different names including natively unfolded, intrinsically disordered, intrinsically unstructured, rheomorphic, pliable, and different combinations thereof. Many important functions and activities have been associated with these intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), including molecular recognition, signaling, and regulation. It is also believed that disorder of these proteins allows function to be readily modified through phosphorylation, acetylation, ubiquitination, hydroxylation, and proteolysis. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that IDPs comprise a large fraction of different proteomes. Furthermore, it is established that the intrinsic disorder is relatively abundant among cancer-related and other disease-related proteins and IDPs play a number of key roles in oncogenesis. There are more than 100 different types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs), which are the causative agents of benign papillomas/warts, and cofactors in the development of carcinomas of the genital tract, head and neck, and epidermis. With respect to their association with cancer, HPVs are grouped into two classes, known as low (e.g., HPV-6 and HPV-11) and high-risk (e.g., HPV-16 and HPV-18) types. The entire proteome of HPV includes six nonstructural proteins [E1, E2, E4, E5, E6, and E7 (the latter two are known to function as oncoproteins in the high-risk HPVs)] and two structural proteins (L1 and L2). To understand whether intrinsic disorder plays a role in the oncogenic potential of different HPV types, we have performed a detailed bioinformatics analysis of proteomes of high-risk and low-risk HPVs with the major focus on E6 and E7 oncoproteins. The results of this analysis are consistent with the conclusion that high-risk HPVs are characterized by the increased amount of intrinsic disorder in transforming proteins E6 and E7. PMID:16889404

  8. An improved rearranged Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E7 DNA vaccine candidate (HPV-16 E7SH) induces an E7 wildtype-specific T cell response.

    PubMed

    Ohlschläger, Peter; Pes, Michaela; Osen, Wolfram; Dürst, Matthias; Schneider, Achim; Gissmann, Lutz; Kaufmann, Andreas M

    2006-04-01

    A new and very promising approach in vaccine development is the application of naked DNA. In comparison to conventional vaccines it offers several advantages, especially if there is a need for the development of low cost vaccines. Infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses (hr-HPVs) is the major risk factor for the development of cervical cancer (cc), the third most common cancer in women worldwide. The HPV E7 oncogene is constitutively expressed in HPV-infected cells and represents an excellent target for immune therapy of HPV-related disease. Therefore, we chose the HPV-16 E7 as model antigen in the development of a therapeutic DNA vaccine candidate. For safety reasons the use of a transforming gene like the HPV-16 E7 for DNA vaccination is not feasible in humans. In consequence we have generated an artificial ("shuffled") HPV-16 E7-gene (HPV-16 E7SH), containing all putative cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTLs) epitopes and exhibiting high safety features. Here, we show the induction of a strong E7-wildtype (E7WT) directed cellular and humoral immune response including tumor protection and regression after in vivo immunization in the murine system. Moreover, the vaccine candidate demonstrated immunogenicity in humans, demonstrated by priming of antigen-specific T cells in vitro. Importantly, the artificial HPV-gene has completely lost its transforming properties as measured in soft agar transformation assays. These results may be of importance for the development of vaccines based on oncogenes or oncoproteins. PMID:16472545

  9. High Risk HPV E6/E7 Oncoprotein Expression in Women with High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion.

    PubMed

    Valença, Jefferson Elias Cordeiro; Gonçalves, Ana Katherine; Guerreiro da Silva, Ismael Dale Cotrim; Eleutério Junior, José; Tenório da Silva, Terezinha; Bruneska, Danyelly; Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar

    2016-03-01

    Purpose To correlate the expression of high-risk HPV E6 mRNA with pap smear, colposcopy, and biopsy results in women with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). Methods A cross-sectional study was performed on women referred for primary care services after cytological diagnosis of HSIL. We evaluated the expression of E6/E7 mRNA of HPV types 16,18,31,33, and 45 and correlated the results with those of Pap smear, colposcopy, and biopsy. For amplification/detection of mRNA E6 / E7 we used NucliSENSEasyQ kit to detect HPV mRNA by polymerase chain reaction with primers/probes for HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, and 45. Results Out of 128 valid tests, the results of 30 (23.4%) tests were negative and 98 (70%) tests were positive. Only one type of HPV was detected in 87.7% of the E6/E7 mRNA positive cases. HPV16 was detected in 61.2% of the cases, followed by HPV33 (26.5%), HPV31 (17.3%), HPV18 (10%), and HPV45 (4.08%). Pap smear tests revealed that the E6/E7 test was positive in 107 (83.8%) women with atypical squamous cells - high grade (ASC-H), HSIL, or higher. The E6/E7 test was positive in 69 (57.5%) specimens presenting negative cytology results. When analyzing the association with colposcopy results, the frequency of positive E6/E7 results increased with the severity of the injury, ranging from 57.1% in women without colposcopy-detected injury to 86.5% in those with higher levels of colposcopy findings. Of the 111 women who underwent biopsy and E6/E7 testing, the E6/E7 test was positive in 84.7% of the women who presented with lesions of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or higher. Finally, 41.2% of women with a negative biopsy presented a positive E6/E7 test. Conclusions E6/E7 mRNA expression was higher in women with HSIL and CIN grade 2 or higher. PMID:27022787

  10. Efficiency of binding the retinoblastoma protein correlates with the transforming capacity of the E7 oncoproteins of the human papillomaviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Heck, D V; Yee, C L; Howley, P M; Münger, K

    1992-01-01

    The human papillomaviruses (HPVs) associated with genital tract lesions can be classified as either "high risk" or "low risk" based on their association with human anogenital cancer. The E7 proteins of the high-risk and the low-risk viruses are quite similar in their amino acid composition and structural organization yet differ in their transforming potential and in a number of biochemical properties. A series of chimeric proteins consisting of segments of the high-risk HPV-16 and the low-risk HPV-6 E7 proteins were constructed in order to define which domains within the amino-terminal half of E7 were responsible for the different biological and biochemical properties. The E7 oncogenic capacity, which was determined by assaying transformation of baby rat kidney cells in cooperation with an activated ras oncogene, segregated with the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (pRB) binding domain of the HPV-16 E7 protein. A comparison of the pRB binding sites of the sequenced genital tract HPVs revealed a consistent amino acid difference (aspartic acid/glycine) between the high-risk and low-risk viruses. Single amino acid substitution mutations were generated at this position in the HPV-6 and HPV-16 E7 proteins, and this single amino acid residue was shown to be the principal determinant responsible for the differences in the apparent pRB binding affinity and transformation capacity distinguishing the HPV E7 proteins of the high-risk and low-risk HPVs. Images PMID:1316608

  11. The human papillomavirus (HPV) E7 protein antagonises an Imiquimod-induced inflammatory pathway in primary human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Richards, Kathryn H; Wasson, Christopher W; Watherston, Oliver; Doble, Rosella; Eric Blair, G; Wittmann, Miriam; Macdonald, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the etiological pathogen of cervical and a number of ano-genital cancers. How HPVs overcome the significant barriers of the skin immune system has been the topic of intensive research. The E6 and E7 oncoproteins have emerged as key players in the deregulation of host innate immune pathways that are required for the recruitment of effector cells of the immune response. Here we demonstrate that E7, and to a lesser extend E6, strongly reduce NFκB activation in response to the inflammatory mediator imiquimod. Moreover, we establish that undifferentiated keratinocytes do not express the putative receptor for imiquimod, TLR7, and as such are stimulated by imiquimod through a novel pathway. Inhibition of imiquimod induced cytokine production required residues in the CR1 and CR3 regions of E7 and resulted in reduced nuclear translocation and acetylation of the p65 sub-unit of NFκB. The results provide further evidence for a TLR7-independent role of imiquimod in the epithelial immune response and reinforce the ability of the HPV oncoproteins to disrupt the innate immune response, which may have important consequences for establishment of a chronic infection. PMID:26268216

  12. Inducing Oncoprotein Degradation to Improve Targeted Cancer Therapy1

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Dipankar; Cuneo, Kyle C.; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Nyati, Mukesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, inhibition of the kinase activities of oncogenic proteins using small molecules and antibodies has been a mainstay of our anticancer drug development effort, resulting in several Food and Drug Administration–approved cancer therapies. The clinical effectiveness of kinase-targeted agents has been inconsistent, mostly because of the development of resistance. The expression and function of oncoproteins and tumor suppressors are regulated by numerous posttranslational protein modifications including phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and acetylation; hence, targeting specific posttranslational protein modifications provides for an attractive strategy for anticancer drug development. The present review discusses the hypothesis that targeted degradation of an oncoprotein may overcome many of the shortcomings seen with kinase inhibitors and that the approach would enable targeted inhibition of oncogenic proteins previously thought to be undruggable. PMID:26476077

  13. Inducing Oncoprotein Degradation to Improve Targeted Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ray, Dipankar; Cuneo, Kyle C; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz; Lawrence, Theodore S; Nyati, Mukesh K

    2015-09-01

    Over the past decade, inhibition of the kinase activities of oncogenic proteins using small molecules and antibodies has been a mainstay of our anticancer drug development effort, resulting in several Food and Drug Administration-approved cancer therapies. The clinical effectiveness of kinase-targeted agents has been inconsistent, mostly because of the development of resistance. The expression and function of oncoproteins and tumor suppressors are regulated by numerous posttranslational protein modifications including phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and acetylation; hence, targeting specific posttranslational protein modifications provides for an attractive strategy for anticancer drug development. The present review discusses the hypothesis that targeted degradation of an oncoprotein may overcome many of the shortcomings seen with kinase inhibitors and that the approach would enable targeted inhibition of oncogenic proteins previously thought to be undruggable. PMID:26476077

  14. Recombinant Lipidated HPV E7 Induces a Th-1-Biased Immune Response and Protective Immunity against Cervical Cancer in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Kuan-Yin; Chang, Li-Sheng; Yeh, Yi-Chen; Chen, I-Hua; Chong, Pele; Liu, Shih-Jen; Leng, Chih-Hsiang

    2012-01-01

    The E7 oncoprotein of human papillomavirus (HPV) is an ideal target for developing immunotherapeutic strategies against HPV-associated tumors. However, because protein-based immunogens alone are poor elicitors of the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses, they have been difficult to exploit for therapeutic purposes. In this study, we report that a recombinant lipoprotein consisting of inactive E7 (E7m) biologically linked to a bacterial lipid moiety (rlipo-E7m) induces the maturation of mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells through toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), skews the immune responses toward the Th1 responses and induces E7-specific CTL responses. We further studied the ability of rlipo-E7m to provide protection against a TC-1 tumor cell challenge in an animal model. Mice prophylactically immunized with two 10-µg doses of rlipo-E7m were found to be free of TC-1 tumor growth. Experiments in a therapeutic immunization model showed that the tumor volume in mice receiving a single dose of rlipo-E7m was less than 0.01 cm3 on day 40, whereas the tumor volume in mice treated with rE7m was 2.28±1.21 cm3. The tumor volume of the entire control group was over 3 cm3. In addition, we demonstrated that the CD8+ T cells play a major role in anti-tumor immunity when administration of rlipo-E7m. These results demonstrate that rlipo-E7m could be a promising candidate for treating HPV-associated tumors. PMID:22815882

  15. Nuclear import of high risk HPV16 E7 oncoprotein is mediated by its zinc-binding domain via hydrophobic interactions with Nup62

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhard, Jeremy; Onder, Zeynep; Moroianu, Junona

    2013-11-15

    We previously discovered that nuclear import of high risk HPV16 E7 is mediated by a cNLS located within the zinc-binding domain via a pathway that is independent of karyopherins/importins (Angeline et al., 2003; Knapp et al., 2009). In this study we continued our characterization of the cNLS and nuclear import pathway of HPV16 E7. We find that an intact zinc-binding domain is essential for the cNLS function in mediating nuclear import of HPV16 E7. Mutagenesis of cysteine residues to alanine in each of the two CysXXCys motifs involved in zinc-binding changes the nuclear localization of the EGFP-16E7 and 2xEGFP-16E7 mutants. We further discover that a patch of hydrophobic residues, {sub 65}LRLCV{sub 69}, within the zinc-binding domain of HPV16 E7 mediates its nuclear import via hydrophobic interactions with the FG domain of the central channel nucleoporin Nup62. - Highlights: • An intact zinc-binding domain is essential for the nuclear localization of HPV16 E7. • Identification of a hydrophobic patch that is critical for the nuclear import of HPV16 E7. • HPV16 E7 interacts via its zinc-binding domain with the FG domain of Nup62.

  16. Berberine alters epigenetic modifications, disrupts microtubule network, and modulates HPV-18 E6-E7 oncoproteins by targeting p53 in cervical cancer cell HeLa: a mechanistic study including molecular docking.

    PubMed

    Saha, Santu Kumar; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2014-12-01

    Increased evidence of chemo-resistance, toxicity and carcinogenicity necessitates search for alternative approaches for determining next generation cancer therapeutics and targets. We therefore tested the efficacy of plant alkaloid berberine on human papilloma virus (HPV) -18 positive cervical cancer cell HeLa systematically-involving certain cellular, viral and epigenetic factors. We observed disruptions of microtubule network and changes in membrane topology due to berberine influx through confocal and atomic force microscopies (AFM). We examined nuclear uptake, internucleosomal DNA damages, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) alterations and cell migration assays to validate possible mode of cell death events. Analytical data on interactions of berberine with pBR322 through fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and gel migration assay strengthen berberine׳s biologically significant DNA binding abilities. We measured cellular uptake, DNA ploidy and DNA strand-breaks through fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). To elucidate epigenetic modifications, in support of DNA binding associated processes, if any, we conducted methylation-specific restriction enzyme (RE) assay, methylation specific-PCR (MSP) and expression studies of histone proteins. We also analyzed differential interactions and localization of cellular tumor suppressor p53 and viral oncoproteins HPV-18 E6-E7 through siRNA approach. We further made in-silico approaches to determine possible binding sites of berberine on histone proteins. Overall results indicated cellular uptake of berberine through cell membrane depolarization causing disruption of microtubule networks and its biological DNA binding abilities that probably contributed to epigenetic modifications. Results of modulation in p53 and viral oncoproteins HPV-18 E6-E7 by berberine further proved its potential as a promising chemotherapeutic agent in cervical cancer. PMID:25448308

  17. Epithelium Expressing the E7 Oncoprotein of HPV16 Attracts Immune-Modulatory Dendritic Cells to the Skin and Suppresses Their Antigen-Processing Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Janin; Miao, Yan; Romoff, Natasha; Frazer, Ian H.

    2016-01-01

    Antigen presenting cells (APCs) in skin can promote either antigen-specific effector functions or antigen tolerance, and thus determine clearance or persistence of cutaneous viral infections. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections can persist in squamous epithelium in immunocompetent individuals, and some persisting HPV infections, particularly with HPV16, promote malignant epithelial transformation. Here, we investigate whether local expression of the HPV16 protein most associated with malignant transformation, HPV16-E7, affects the phenotype and function of APC subsets in the skin. We demonstrate an expanded population of Langerhans cells in HPV16-E7 transgenic skin with distinct cell surface markers which express immune-modulatory enzymes and cytokines not expressed by cells from non transgenic skin. Furthermore, HPV16-E7 transgene expression in keratinocytes attracts new APC subsets to the epidermis. In vivo migration and transport of antigen to the draining lymph node by these APCs is markedly enhanced in HPV16-E7 expressing skin, whereas antigen-processing, as measured by proteolytic cleavage of DQ-OVA and activation of T cells in vivo by APCs, is significantly impaired. These data suggest that local expression of HPV16-E7 in keratinocytes can contribute to persisting infection with this oncogenic virus, by altering the phenotype and function of local APCs. PMID:27031095

  18. High levels of p105 (NFKB1) and p100 (NFKB2) proteins in HPV16-transformed keratinocytes: role of E6 and E7 oncoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Havard, L.; Rahmouni, S.; Boniver, J.; Delvenne, P. . E-mail: P.Delvenne@ulg.ac.be

    2005-01-20

    We have previously shown that functional components of the NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway are up-regulated and sequestered in the cytoplasm of human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16)-transformed cell lines leading to a reduced activity of NF-{kappa}B. In this study, we examined the expression of the NF-{kappa}B precursors p100 and p105 in keratinocytes transformed or not by HPV16. Western immunoblotting experiments demonstrated high levels of p100 and p105 proteins not only in HPV16{sup +} cervical carcinoma-derived keratinocytes but also in keratinocytes stably transfected by HPV16 E6 or E7 oncogenes. Moreover, p100 and p105 proteins were predominantly cytoplasmic and nuclear in keratinocytes expressing E7 and E6, respectively. A predominantly cytoplasmic localization of E7 protein was also detected in all keratinocytes expressing E7. Our results suggest that HPV16 E6 and E7 proteins modulate the expression and the subcellular localization of p100 and p105 NF-{kappa}B precursors.

  19. Expression of human papillomavirus E6 and E7 oncoprotein mRNA in women with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or less.

    PubMed

    Casagrande, D C; Ribalta, J C L; Leite, K D P F; Schimidt, M; Speck, N M D G

    2016-01-01

    We verified the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 protein mRNA expression in patients with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs) and negative cervicovaginal cytology. To investigate the relationship between mRNA expression and viral infection type, we assessed genotyping in single infections. Samples from 825 women were submitted to the E6/E7 survey. We noticed a larger percentage of E6/E7 mRNA expression in the atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) and LSIL cytologies. Negative results of mRNA expression were in accordance with negative cytologies. In positive cases, the infection by a single HPV type was most common, with type 16 being most prevalent. The expression of mRNA was most prevalent in ASC-US and LSIL cytologies, compared with the negative cytology. The infection by a HPV type was more frequent in cases of positive expression, with HPV type 16 being found most frequently. Patients with LSIL cytologies had a higher percentage of multiple infections. PMID:27051039

  20. Human Papillomavirus E7 Induces Rereplication in Response to DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xueli; Liu, Yingwang; Heilman, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is necessary but not sufficient for cervical carcinogenesis. Genomic instability caused by HPV allows cells to acquire additional mutations required for malignant transformation. Genomic instability in the form of polyploidy has been demonstrated to play an important role in cervical carcinogenesis. We have recently found that HPV-16 E7 oncogene induces polyploidy in response to DNA damage; however, the mechanism is not known. Here we present evidence demonstrating that HPV-16 E7-expressing cells have an intact G2 checkpoint. Upon DNA damage, HPV-16 E7-expressing cells arrest at the G2 checkpoint and then undergo rereplication, a process of successive rounds of host DNA replication without entering mitosis. Interestingly, the DNA replication initiation factor Cdt1, whose uncontrolled expression induces rereplication in human cancer cells, is upregulated in E7-expressing cells. Moreover, downregulation of Cdt1 impairs the ability of E7 to induce rereplication. These results demonstrate an important role for Cdt1 in HPV E7-induced rereplication and shed light on mechanisms by which HPV induces genomic instability. PMID:23152514

  1. Mdm2 associates with Ras effector NORE1 to induce the degradation of oncoprotein HIPK1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Deresa; Park, Sang-Joon; Sung, Ki Sa; Park, Jikyoung; Lee, Sean Bong; Park, Sang-Yoon; Lee, Hyo Jeong; Ahn, Jang-Won; Choi, So Jung; Lee, Seok-Geun; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Duk-Hwan; Kim, Jhingook; Kim, Yongsok; Choi, Cheol Yong

    2012-02-01

    The Ras effector NORE1 is frequently silenced in primary adenocarcinomas, although the significance of this silencing for tumorigenesis is unclear. Here we show that NORE1 induces polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of oncoprotein HIPK1 by facilitating its interaction with the Mdm2 E3 ubiquitin ligase. Endogenous HIPK1 is stabilized in Nore1-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts, and depletion of HIPK1 in NORE1-silenced lung adenocarcinoma cells inhibits anchorage-independent cell growth and tumour formation in nude mice. These findings indicate that the control of HIPK1 stability by Mdm2-NORE1 has a major effect on cell behaviour, and epigenetic inactivation of NORE1 enables adenocarcinoma formation in vivo through HIPK1 stabilization. PMID:22173032

  2. HPV16 Oncoproteins Induce MMPs/RECK-TIMP-2 Imbalance in Primary Keratinocytes: Possible Implications in Cervical Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Cardeal, Laura Beatriz da Silva; Boccardo, Enrique; Termini, Lara; Rabachini, Tatiana; Andreoli, Maria Antonieta; di Loreto, Celso; Filho, Adhemar Longatto; Villa, Luisa Lina; Maria-Engler, Silvya Stuchi

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV types, principally HPV16 and 18 is the main risk factor for the development of this malignancy. However, the onset of invasive tumor occurs many years after initial exposure in a minority of infected women. This suggests that other factors beyond viral infection are necessary for tumor establishment and progression. Tumor progression is characterized by an increase in secretion and activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) produced by either the tumor cells themselves or tumor-associated fibroblasts or macrophages. Increased MMPs expression, including MMP-2, MMP-9 and MT1-MMP, has been observed during cervical carcinoma progression. These proteins have been associated with degradation of ECM components, tumor invasion, metastasis and recurrence. However, few studies have evaluated the interplay between HPV infection and the expression and activity of MMPs and their regulators in cervical cancer. We analyzed the effect of HPV16 oncoproteins on the expression and activity of MMP-2, MMP-9, MT1-MMP, and their inhibitors TIMP-2 and RECK in cultures of human keratinocytes. We observed that E7 expression is associated with increased pro-MMP-9 activity in the epithelial component of organotypic cultures, while E6 and E7 oncoproteins co-expression down-regulates RECK and TIMP-2 levels in organotypic and monolayers cultures. Finally, a study conducted in human cervical tissues showed a decrease in RECK expression levels in precancer and cancer lesions. Our results indicate that HPV oncoproteins promote MMPs/RECK-TIMP-2 imbalance which may be involved in HPV-associated lesions outcome. PMID:22438955

  3. Transcriptional regulation of genes involved in keratinocyte differentiation by human papillomavirus 16 oncoproteins.

    PubMed

    Gyöngyösi, Eszter; Szalmás, Anita; Ferenczi, Annamária; Póliska, Szilárd; Kónya, József; Veress, György

    2015-02-01

    The life cycle of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is strictly linked to the differentiation of their natural host cells. The HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins can delay the normal differentiation program of keratinocytes; however, the exact mechanisms responsible for this have not yet been identified. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of HPV16 oncoproteins on the expression of genes involved in keratinocyte differentiation. Primary human keratinocytes transduced by LXSN (control) retroviruses or virus vectors expressing HPV16 E6, E7 or E6/E7 genes were subjected to gene expression profiling. The results of microarray analysis showed that HPV 16 E6 and E7 have the capacity to downregulate the expression of several genes involved in keratinocyte differentiation. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays were performed to confirm the microarray data. To investigate the effects of the HPV oncoproteins on the promoters of selected keratinocyte differentiation genes, luciferase reporter assays were performed. Our results suggest that the HPV 16 E6 and/or E7 oncogenes are able to downregulate the expression of several genes involved in keratinocyte differentiation (such as desmocollin 1, keratin 4, S100 calcium-binding protein A8 and small proline-rich protein 1A), at least partially by downregulating their promoter activity. This activity of the HPV oncoproteins may have a role in the productive virus life cycle, and also in virus-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:25488293

  4. The HPV-16 E7 oncogene sensitizes malignant cells to IFN-alpha-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yisong

    2005-10-01

    Interferons (IFNs) exert antitumor effects in several human malignancies, but their mechanism of action is unclear. There is a great variability in sensitivity to IFN treatment depending on both tumor type and the individual patient. The reason for this variable sensitivity is not known. The fact that several IFN-induced anticellular effects are exerted through modulation of proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes may indicate that the malignant genotype may be decisive in the cell's sensitivity to IFN. To determine if a deregulated oncogene could alter the cellular response to IFN, a mouse lymphoma cell line (J3D) was stably transfected with the viral human papillomavirus-16 (HPV-16) E7 oncogene. The E7-transfected cells and their respective mock-transfected sister clones were treated with IFN-{alpha} and examined for possible IFN-induced anticellular effects. We found that the E7-transfected clones were greatly sensitized to IFN-{alpha}-induced apoptosis compared with their mock-transfected counterparts. Induction of apoptosis in the transfected cells correlated with the ability of IFN to activate parts of the proapoptotic machinery specifically in these cells, including activation of caspases and the proapoptotic protein Bak. In summary, our data suggest that transfection of malignant cells with the E7 oncogene can sensitize them to IFN-{alpha}-induced apoptosis. This demonstrates that an oncogenic event may alter the cellular sensitivity to IFN and might also have implications for treatment of HPV related diseases with IFN.

  5. Tetrasomy is induced by human papillomavirus type 18 E7 gene expression in keratinocyte raft cultures.

    PubMed

    Southern, S A; Noya, F; Meyers, C; Broker, T R; Chow, L T; Herrington, C S

    2001-06-15

    We have demonstrated previously that oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs) induce basal cell tetrasomy in low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix. To identify HPV genes and growth conditions involved in this process, we analyzed: (a) organotypic raft cultures of primary human keratinocytes transfected with whole HPV-18 genomes; and (b) organotypic raft cultures acutely infected with recombinant retroviruses expressing the HPV-18 E6, E7, or E6/E7 genes from the differentiation-dependent HPV-18 enhancer-promoter. Cultures were examined for HPV DNA by in situ hybridization and for karyotype by interphase cytogenetics. Tetrasomy occurred in the suprabasal strata of raft cultures expressing E7 and E6/E7 but not in those expressing E6 alone or in a control culture. These data indicate that suprabasal tetrasomy occurs in association with expression of the E7 gene alone. Basal cell tetrasomy was additionally observed in the raft culture transfected with whole HPV-18 genomes, consistent with observations in low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. The distribution of tetrasomic cells in these raft cultures may reflect the involvement of additional viral genes or possibly differences in the pattern of viral oncogene and host gene expression. PMID:11406563

  6. RUNX1 and its fusion oncoprotein derivative RUNX1-ETO induce senescence-like growth arrest independently of replicative stress

    PubMed Central

    Wolyniec, Kamil; Wotton, Sandy; Kilbey, Anna; Jenkins, Alma; Terry, Anne; Peters, Gordon; Stocking, Carol; Cameron, Ewan; Neil, James C.

    2016-01-01

    A role for the RUNX genes in cancer failsafe processes has been suggested by their induction of senescence-like growth arrest in primary murine fibroblasts and the failure of RAS-induced senescence in Runx2 deficient cells. We now show that RUNX1 induces senescence in human primary fibroblasts. High affinity DNA binding is necessary but not sufficient, as shown by the functional attenuation of the truncated RUNX1/AML1a isoform and the TEL-RUNX1 fusion oncoprotein. However, a similar phenotype was potently induced by the RUNX1-ETO (AML1-ETO) oncoprotein, despite its dominant negative potential. Detailed comparison of H-RASV12, RUNX1 and RUNX1-ETO senescent phenotypes showed that the RUNX effectors induce earlier growth stasis with only low levels of DNA damage signalling and a lack of chromatin condensation, a marker of irreversible growth arrest. In human fibroblasts, all effectors induced p53 in the absence of detectable p14ARF, while only RUNX1-ETO induced senescence in p16INK4a null cells. Correlation was noted between induction of p53, reactive oxygen species and phospho-p38, while p38MAPK inhibition rescued cell growth markedly. These findings reveal a role for replication-independent pathways in RUNX and RUNX1-ETO senescence, and show that the context-specific oncogenic activity of RUNX1 fusion proteins are mirrored in their distinctive interactions with failsafe responses. PMID:19448675

  7. HPV16-E7 Expression in skin induces TSLP secretion, type 2 ILC infiltration and atopic dermatitis-like lesions

    PubMed Central

    Bergot, Anne-Sophie; Monnet, Nastasia; Tran, Le Son; Mittal, Deepak; Al-Kouba, Jane; Steptoe, Raymond J.; Grimbaldeston, Michele A.; Frazer, Ian H.; Wells, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common pruritic and inflammatory skin disorder with unknown etiology. Most commonly occurring during early childhood, atopic dermatitis is associated with eczematous lesions and lichenification, in which the epidermis becomes hypertrophied resulting in thickening of the skin. In this study, we report an atopic dermatitis-like pathophysiology results in a murine model following the expression of the high-risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 16 oncoprotein E7 in keratinocytes under the Keratin 14 promoter. We show that HPV 16 E7 expression in the skin is associated with skin thickening, acanthosis and light spongiosis. Locally, HPV 16 E7 expressing skin secreted high levels of TSLP and contained increased numbers of ILCs. High levels of circulating IgE were associated with increased susceptibility to skin allergy in a model of cutaneous challenge, and to airway bronchiolar inflammation, enhanced airway goblet cell metaplasia and mucus production in a model of atopic march. Surprisingly, skin pathology occurred independently of T-cells and mast cells. Thus, our findings suggest that the expression of a single HPV oncogene in the skin can drive the onset of atopic dermatitis-like pathology through the induction of TSLP and type 2 ILC infiltration. PMID:25601274

  8. Increased sensitivity of HPV-positive head and neck cancer cell lines to x-irradiation ± Cisplatin due to decreased expression of E6 and E7 oncoproteins and enhanced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Ziemann, Frank; Arenz, Andrea; Preising, Stefanie; Wittekindt, Claus; Klussmann, Jens P; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Wittig, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck region (HNSCC), which is related to an infection with human papilloma virus (HPV), responds better to simultaneous radio-chemotherapy with Cisplatin based regimens than HPV-negative tumors. The underlying molecular mechanisms for this clinical observation are not fully understood. Therefore, the response of four HPV-positive (HPV+) (UM-SCC-47, UM-SCC-104, 93-VU-147T, UPCI:SCC152) and four HPV-negative (HPV-) (UD-SCC-1, UM-SCC-6, UM-SCC-11b, UT-SCC-33) HNSCC cell lines to x-irradiation ± Cisplatin incubation in terms of clonogenic survival, cell cycle progression, protein expression (cyclin A2, cyclin E2, E6, E7, p53) and induction of apoptosis, was investigated. HPV+ cells were more radio- and chemosensitive and were more effectively sensitized to x-irradiation by simultaneous Cisplatin incubation than HPV- cell lines. HPV+ cell lines revealed an increased and prolonged G2/M arrest after irradiation, whereas Cisplatin induced a blockage of cells in S phase. In comparison to irradiation only, addition of Cisplatin significantly enhanced apoptosis especially in HPV+ cell lines. While irradiation alone increased the amount of HPV E6 and E7 proteins, both were down-regulated by Cisplatin incubation either alone or in combination with x-rays, which however did not increase the expression of endogenous p53. Our results demonstrate that cell cycle deregulation together with downregulation of HPV E6 and E7 proteins facilitating apoptosis after Cisplatin incubation promote the enhanced sensitivity of HPV+ HNSCC cells to simultaneous radio-chemotherapy. Combined effects of irradiation and Cisplatin appear to be relevant in mediating the enhanced therapeutic response of HPV-related HNSCC and are indicative of the benefit of combined modality approaches in future treatment optimization strategies. PMID:26045983

  9. Reprogrammed CRISPR-Cas9 targeting the conserved regions of HPV6/11 E7 genes inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in E7-transformed keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Chen; Cai, Zhi-Ming; Zhang, Xue-Jun

    2016-01-01

    The persistence infection of low-risk type (type 6 or type 11) of human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause of genital warts. Given the high rate of recurrence after treatment, the use of a new molecular agent is certain to be of value. The aim of this study was to achieve targeted inactivation of viral E 7 gene in keratinocytes using the reprogrammed clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) 9 system. To accomplish this, a universal CRISPR-Cas9 system for targeting both HPV6/11 E 7 genes was constructed by using a dual guide RNA vector. After transfection of the vector into E 7-transfromed keratinocytes, the expression level of E 7 protein was measured using western-blot analysis and the sequence of the E 7 gene was determined using Sanger sequencing. Cell proliferation was analyzed by CCK-8 assay, and cell apoptosis was evaluated by Hoechst 33258 staining, flow cytometry analysis and ELISA assay. The results indicated that both HPV6/11 E 7 genes can be inactivated by the single CRISPR-Cas9 system. Furthermore, silencing of E 7 led to inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in E 7-transfromed keratinocytes but not in normal keratinocytes. Our data suggested that the reprogrammed CRISPR-Cas9 system has the potential for the development of an adjuvant therapy for genital warts. PMID:26228041

  10. Inhibitory role of TRIP-Br1 oncoprotein in hypoxia-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Li, Chengping; Jung, Samil; Yang, Young; Kim, Keun-Il; Lim, Jong-Seok; Cheon, Chung-Il; Lee, Myeong-Sok

    2016-06-01

    TRIP-Br1 oncoprotein is known to be involved in many vital cellular functions. In this study, we examined the role of TRIP-Br1 in hypoxia-induced cell death. Exposure to the overcrowded and CoCl2-induced hypoxic conditions increased TRIP-Br1 expression at the protein level in six breast cancer cell lines (MCF7, MDA-MB-231, T47D, Hs578D, BT549, and MDA-MB-435) but resulted in no significant change in three normal cell lines (MCF10A, MEF and NIH3T3). Our result revealed that CoCl2-induced hypoxia stimulated apoptosis and autophagy, in which TRIP-Br1 expression was found to be upregulated. Interestingly, TRIP-Br1 silencing in the MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cancer cells accelerated apoptosis and destabilization of XIAP under the CoCl2-induced hypoxic condition, implying that TRIP-Br1 may render cancer cells resistant to apoptosis through the stabilization of XIAP. We also propose that TRIP-Br1 seems to be upregulated at least partly as a result of the inhibition of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and the overexpression of HIF-1α. In conclusion, our findings suggest that TRIP-Br1 functions as an oncogenic protein by providing cancer cells resistance to the hypoxia-induced cell death. PMID:27035851

  11. Longitudinal assessment of DNA methylation changes during HPVE6E7-induced immortalization of primary keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Schütze, Denise M; Kooter, Jan M; Wilting, Saskia M; Meijer, Chris JLM; Quint, Wim; Snijders, Peter JF; Steenbergen, Renske DM

    2015-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV)-induced immortalization and malignant transformation are accompanied by DNA methylation of host genes. To determine when methylation is established during cell immortalization and whether it is hrHPV-type dependent, DNA methylation was studied in a large panel of HPVE6E7-immortalized keratinocyte cell lines. These cell lines displayed different growth behaviors, i.e., continuous growth versus crisis period prior to immortalization, reflecting differential immortalization capacities of the 7 HPV-types (16/18/31/33/45/66/70) studied. In this study, cells were monitored for hypermethylation of 14 host genes (APC, CADM1, CYGB, FAM19A4, hTERT, mir124–1, mir124–2, mir124–3, MAL, PHACTR3, PRDM14, RASSF1A, ROBO3, and SFRP2) at 4 different stages during immortalization. A significant increase in overall methylation levels was seen with progression through each stage of immortalization. At stage 1 (pre-immortalization), a significant increase in methylation of hTERT, mir124–2, and PRDM14 was already apparent, which continued over time. Methylation of ROBO3 was significantly increased at stage 2 (early immortal), followed by CYGB (stage 3) and FAM19A4, MAL, PHACTR3, and SFRP2 (stage 4). Methylation patterns were mostly growth behavior independent. Yet, hTERT methylation levels were significantly increased in cells that just escaped from crisis. Bisulfite sequencing of hTERT confirmed increased methylation in immortal cells compared to controls, with the transcription core and known repressor sites remaining largely unmethylated. In conclusion, HPV-induced immortalization is associated with a sequential and progressive increase in promoter methylation of a subset of genes, which is mostly independent of the viral immortalization capacity. PMID:25580631

  12. Codon Optimization of the Human Papillomavirus E7 Oncogene Induces a CD8+ T Cell Response to a Cryptic Epitope Not Harbored by Wild-Type E7

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Felix K. M.; Wilde, Susanne; Voigt, Katrin; Kieback, Elisa; Mosetter, Barbara; Schendel, Dolores J.; Uckert, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Codon optimization of nucleotide sequences is a widely used method to achieve high levels of transgene expression for basic and clinical research. Until now, immunological side effects have not been described. To trigger T cell responses against human papillomavirus, we incubated T cells with dendritic cells that were pulsed with RNA encoding the codon-optimized E7 oncogene. All T cell receptors isolated from responding T cell clones recognized target cells expressing the codon-optimized E7 gene but not the wild type E7 sequence. Epitope mapping revealed recognition of a cryptic epitope from the +3 alternative reading frame of codon-optimized E7, which is not encoded by the wild type E7 sequence. The introduction of a stop codon into the +3 alternative reading frame protected the transgene product from recognition by T cell receptor gene-modified T cells. This is the first experimental study demonstrating that codon optimization can render a transgene artificially immunogenic through generation of a dominant cryptic epitope. This finding may be of great importance for the clinical field of gene therapy to avoid rejection of gene-corrected cells and for the design of DNA- and RNA-based vaccines, where codon optimization may artificially add a strong immunogenic component to the vaccine. PMID:25799237

  13. Requirement for the SnoN oncoprotein in transforming growth factor beta-induced oncogenic transformation of fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qingwei; Pearson-White, Sonia; Luo, Kunxin

    2005-12-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) was originally identified by virtue of its ability to induce transformation of the AKR-2B and NRK fibroblasts but was later found to be a potent inhibitor of the growth of epithelial, endothelial, and lymphoid cells. Although the growth-inhibitory pathway of TGF-beta mediated by the Smad proteins is well studied, the signaling pathway leading to the transforming activity of TGF-beta in fibroblasts is not well understood. Here we show that SnoN, a member of the Ski family of oncoproteins, is required for TGF-beta-induced proliferation and transformation of AKR-2B and NRK fibroblasts. TGF-beta induces upregulation of snoN expression in both epithelial cells and fibroblasts through a common Smad-dependent mechanism. However, a strong and prolonged activation of snoN transcription that lasts for 8 to 24 h is detected only in these two fibroblast lines. This prolonged induction is mediated by Smad2 and appears to play an important role in the transformation of both AKR-2B and NRK cells. Reduction of snoN expression by small interfering RNA or shortening of the duration of snoN induction by a pharmacological inhibitor impaired TGF-beta-induced anchorage-independent growth of AKR-2B cells. Interestingly, Smad2 and Smad3 play opposite roles in regulating snoN expression in both fibroblasts and epithelial cells. The Smad2/Smad4 complex activates snoN transcription by direct binding to the TGF-beta-responsive element in the snoN promoter, while the Smad3/Smad4 complex inhibits it through a novel Smad inhibitory site. Mutations of Smad4 that render it defective in heterodimerization with Smad3, which are found in many human cancers, convert the activity of Smad3 on the snoN promoter from inhibitory to stimulatory, resulting in increased snoN expression in cancer cells. Thus, we demonstrate a novel role of SnoN in the transforming activity of TGF-beta in fibroblasts and also uncovered a mechanism for the elevated SnoN expression in some human cancer cells. PMID:16314499

  14. Bag3-Induced Autophagy Is Associated with Degradation of JCV Oncoprotein, T-Ag

    PubMed Central

    Sariyer, Ilker Kudret; Merabova, Nana; Patel, Prem Kumer; Knezevic, Tijana; Rosati, Alessandra; Turco, Maria C.; Khalili, Kamel

    2012-01-01

    JC virus, JCV, is a human neurotropic polyomavirus whose replication in glial cells causes the fatal demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). In addition, JCV possesses oncogenic activity and expression of its transforming protein, large T-antigen (T-Ag), in several experimental animals induces tumors of neural origin. Further, the presence of JCV DNA and T-Ag have been repeatedly observed in several human malignant tissues including primitive neuroectodermal tumors and glioblastomas. Earlier studies have demonstrated that Bag3, a member of the Bcl-2-associated athanogene (Bag) family of proteins, which is implicated in autophagy and apoptosis, is downregulated upon JCV infection of glial cells and that JCV T-Ag is responsible for suppressing the activity of the BAG3 promoter. Here, we investigated the possible impact of Bag3 on T-Ag expression in JCV-infected human primary glial cells as well as in cells derived from T-Ag-induced medulloblastoma in transgenic animals. Results from these studies revealed that overexpression of Bag3 drastically decreases the level of T-Ag expression by inducing the autophagic degradation of the viral protein. Interestingly, this event leads to the inhibition of JCV infection of glial cells, suggesting that the reduced levels of T-antigen seen upon the overexpression of Bag3 has a biological impact on the viral lytic cycle. Results from protein-protein interaction studies showed that T-Ag and Bag3 physically interact with each other through the zinc-finger of T-Ag and the proline rich domains of Bag3, and this interaction is important for the autophagic degradation of T-Ag. Our observations open a new avenue of research for better understanding of virus-host interaction by investigating the interplay between T-Ag and Bag3, and their impact on the development of JCV-associated diseases. PMID:22984599

  15. Arsenic trioxide and all-trans retinoic acid target NPM1 mutant oncoprotein levels and induce apoptosis in NPM1-mutated AML cells.

    PubMed

    Martelli, Maria Paola; Gionfriddo, Ilaria; Mezzasoma, Federica; Milano, Francesca; Pierangeli, Sara; Mulas, Floriana; Pacini, Roberta; Tabarrini, Alessia; Pettirossi, Valentina; Rossi, Roberta; Vetro, Calogero; Brunetti, Lorenzo; Sportoletti, Paolo; Tiacci, Enrico; Di Raimondo, Francesco; Falini, Brunangelo

    2015-05-28

    Nucleophosmin (NPM1) mutations represent an attractive therapeutic target in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) because they are common (?30% AML), stable, and behave as a founder genetic lesion. Oncoprotein targeting can be a successful strategy to treat AML, as proved in acute promyelocytic leukemia by treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) plus arsenic trioxide (ATO), which degrade the promyelocytic leukemia (PML)-retinoic acid receptor fusion protein. Adjunct of ATRA to chemotherapy was reported to be beneficial for NPM1-mutated AML patients. Leukemic cells with NPM1 mutation also showed sensibility to ATO in vitro. Here, we explore the mechanisms underlying these observations and show that ATO/ATRA induce proteasome-dependent degradation of NPM1 leukemic protein and apoptosis in NPM1-mutated AML cell lines and primary patients' cells. We also show that PML intracellular distribution is altered in NPM1-mutated AML cells and reverted by arsenic through oxidative stress induction. Interestingly, similarly to what was described for PML, oxidative stress also mediates ATO-induced degradation of the NPM1 mutant oncoprotein. Strikingly, NPM1 mutant downregulation by ATO/ATRA was shown to potentiate response to the anthracyclin daunorubicin. These findings provide experimental evidence for further exploring ATO/ATRA in preclinical NPM1-mutated AML in vivo models and a rationale for exploiting these compounds in chemotherapeutic regimens in clinics. PMID:25795919

  16. E1B and E4 oncoproteins of adenovirus antagonize the effect of apoptosis inducing factor

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, Roberta L.; Wilkinson, John C.; Ornelles, David A.

    2014-05-15

    Adenovirus inundates the productively infected cell with linear, double-stranded DNA and an abundance of single-stranded DNA. The cellular response to this stimulus is antagonized by the adenoviral E1B and E4 early genes. A mutant group C adenovirus that fails to express the E1B-55K and E4ORF3 genes is unable to suppress the DNA-damage response. Cells infected with this double-mutant virus display significant morphological heterogeneity at late times of infection and frequently contain fragmented nuclei. Nuclear fragmentation was due to the translocation of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) from the mitochondria into the nucleus. The release of AIF was dependent on active poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), which appeared to be activated by viral DNA replication. Nuclear fragmentation did not occur in AIF-deficient cells or in cells treated with a PARP-1 inhibitor. The E1B-55K or E4ORF3 proteins independently prevented nuclear fragmentation subsequent to PARP-1 activation, possibly by altering the intracellular distribution of PAR-modified proteins. - Highlights: • E1B-55K or E4orf3 prevents nuclear fragmentation. • Nuclear fragmentation requires AIF and PARP-1 activity. • Adenovirus DNA replication activates PARP-1. • E1B-55K or E4orf3 proteins alter the distribution of PAR.

  17. miR-24 and miR-205 expression is dependent on HPV onco-protein expression in keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    McKenna, Declan J.; Patel, Daksha; McCance, Dennis J.

    2014-01-05

    A screen of microRNA (miRNA) expression following differentiation in human foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs) identified changes in several miRNAs, including miR-24 and miR-205. We investigated how expression of Human Papilloma Virus Type-16 (HPV16) onco-proteins E6 and E7 affected expression of miR-24 and miR-205 during proliferation and differentiation of HFKs. We show that the induction of both miR-24 and miR-205 observed during differentiation of HFKs is lost in HFKs expressing E6 and E7. We demonstrate that the effect on miR-205 is due to E7 activity, as miR-205 expression is dependent on pRb expression. Finally, we provide evidence that miR-24 effects in the cell may be due to targeting of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p27. In summary, these results indicate that expression of both miR-24 and miR-205 are impacted by E6 and/or E7 expression, which may be one mechanism by which HPV onco-proteins can disrupt the balance between proliferation and differentiation in keratinocytes. - Highlights: • miR-24 and miR-205 are induced during keratinocyte differentiation. • This induction is lost in keratinocytes expressing HPV onco-proteins E6 and E7. • miR-205 is dependent upon pRb expression. • miR-24 targets p27 in cycling keratinocytes.

  18. Carboxyl-terminal fusion of E7 into Flagellin shifts TLR5 activation to NLRC4/NAIP5 activation and induces TLR5-independent anti-tumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Kuo-Hsing; Chang, Li-Sheng; Tian, Chun-Yuan; Yeh, Yi-Chen; Chen, Yu-Jie; Chuang, Tsung-Hsien; Liu, Shih-Jen; Leng, Chih-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    Flagellin has the capacity to activate both Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) and Nod-like receptor C4 (NLRC4)/neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein 5 (NAIP5) inflammasome signaling. We fused E7m (the inactivated E7 of human papillomavirus) to either end of the flagellin protein, and the resulting recombinant flagellin-E7m proteins (rFliCE7m and rE7mFliC) were used as immunogens. Both fusion proteins activated receptor signaling to different degrees. rE7mFliC-induced TLR5 activity was 10-fold higher than that of rFliCE7m, whereas rFliCE7m activated the NLRC4/NAIP5 pathway more strongly. Therefore, these recombinant proteins provided a tool to investigate which signaling pathway is critical for the induction of antigen-specific T cell responses and anti-tumor immunity. We demonstrated that rFliCE7m induced higher levels of E7-specific IFN-gamma-secreting cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) than rE7mFliC, and a single injection with rFliCE7m but not rE7mFliC inhibited E7-expressing tumor growth in vivo. Furthermore, we confirmed that CD8+ T cells played a major role in the anti-tumor immunity induced by rFliCE7m. These findings suggested that the NLRC4/NAIP5 intracellular signaling pathway was critical for the induction of anti-tumor immunity. These observations provide important information for the rational design of flagellin-based immunotherapy. PMID:27063435

  19. Carboxyl-terminal fusion of E7 into Flagellin shifts TLR5 activation to NLRC4/NAIP5 activation and induces TLR5-independent anti-tumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kuo-Hsing; Chang, Li-Sheng; Tian, Chun-Yuan; Yeh, Yi-Chen; Chen, Yu-Jie; Chuang, Tsung-Hsien; Liu, Shih-Jen; Leng, Chih-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    Flagellin has the capacity to activate both Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) and Nod-like receptor C4 (NLRC4)/neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein 5 (NAIP5) inflammasome signaling. We fused E7m (the inactivated E7 of human papillomavirus) to either end of the flagellin protein, and the resulting recombinant flagellin-E7m proteins (rFliCE7m and rE7mFliC) were used as immunogens. Both fusion proteins activated receptor signaling to different degrees. rE7mFliC-induced TLR5 activity was 10-fold higher than that of rFliCE7m, whereas rFliCE7m activated the NLRC4/NAIP5 pathway more strongly. Therefore, these recombinant proteins provided a tool to investigate which signaling pathway is critical for the induction of antigen-specific T cell responses and anti-tumor immunity. We demonstrated that rFliCE7m induced higher levels of E7-specific IFN-gamma-secreting cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) than rE7mFliC, and a single injection with rFliCE7m but not rE7mFliC inhibited E7-expressing tumor growth in vivo. Furthermore, we confirmed that CD8(+) T cells played a major role in the anti-tumor immunity induced by rFliCE7m. These findings suggested that the NLRC4/NAIP5 intracellular signaling pathway was critical for the induction of anti-tumor immunity. These observations provide important information for the rational design of flagellin-based immunotherapy. PMID:27063435

  20. Expression of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E7 Is Sufficient to Significantly Increase Expression of Angiogenic Factors But Is Not Sufficient to Induce Endothelial Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Joanna; Smiley, Lucy Clare; Ingram, David; Roman, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Tumor suppressors negatively regulate angiogenesis, an essential step in tumor progression. Together, HPV 16 E6 and E7 proteins, which target p53 and pRb family members, respectively, for degradation, increase the expression of two angiogenic inducers, VEGF and IL-8, in primary foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs). Conditioned media from such cells are sufficient to alter endothelial cell behavior. Here, the individual contribution of E6 and E7 to angiogenesis was investigated. E7 and, to a lesser extent E6, increased expression of VEGF and IL-8. Nevertheless, neither conditioned media from HPV 16 E6 nor E7-expressing HFKs were sufficient to induce migration of endothelial cells. Conditioned media from HFKs expressing the HPV 16 E6 and the E7 mutant E7C24G, which can target p107 and p130 but not pRb for degradation, contained increased levels of VEGF and IL-8. The results suggest that the mechanism of HPV 16 E7-mediated increased levels of VEGF is pRb-independent. PMID:21159359

  1. Chronic morphine induces up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic Fas receptor and down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 oncoprotein in rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Boronat, M Assumpció; García-Fuster, M Julia; García-Sevilla, Jesús A

    2001-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the influence of activation and blockade of the endogenous opioid system in the brain on two key proteins involved in the regulation of programmed cell death: the pro-apoptotic Fas receptor and the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 oncoprotein. The acute treatment of rats with the μ-opioid receptor agonist morphine (3 – 30 mg kg−1, i.p., 2 h) did not modify the immunodensity of Fas or Bcl-2 proteins in the cerebral cortex. Similarly, the acute treatment with low and high doses of the antagonist naloxone (1 and 100 mg kg−1, i.p., 2 h) did not alter Fas or Bcl-2 protein expression in brain cortex. These results discounted a tonic regulation through opioid receptors on Fas and Bcl-2 proteins in rat brain. Chronic morphine (10 – 100 mg kg−1, 5 days, and 10 mg kg−1, 13 days) induced marked increases (47 – 123%) in the immunodensity of Fas receptor in the cerebral cortex. In contrast, chronic morphine (5 and 13 days) decreased the immunodensity of Bcl-2 protein (15 – 30%) in brain cortex. Chronic naloxone (10 mg kg−1, 13 days) did not alter the immunodensities of Fas and Bcl-2 proteins in the cerebral cortex. The concurrent chronic treatment (13 days) of naloxone (10 mg kg−1) and morphine (10 mg kg−1) completely prevented the morphine-induced increase in Fas receptor and decrease in Bcl-2 protein immunoreactivities in the cerebral cortex. The results indicate that morphine, through the sustained activation of opioid receptors, can promote abnormal programmed cell death by enhancing the expression of pro-apoptotic Fas receptor protein and damping the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 oncoprotein. PMID:11704646

  2. Reactive oxygen species mediate N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide-induced cell death in malignant T cells and are inhibited by the HTLV-I oncoprotein Tax.

    PubMed

    Darwiche, N; Abou-Lteif, G; Bazarbachi, A

    2007-02-01

    N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (HPR) is a synthetic retinoid that inhibits growth of many human tumor cells, including those resistant to natural retinoids. HPR is an effective chemopreventive agent for prostate, cervix, breast, bladder, skin and lung cancers, and has shown promise for the treatment of neuroblastomas. We have previously shown that HPR inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-I-negative malignant T cells, whereas no effect is observed on normal lymphocytes. In this report, we identified HPR-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation as the key mediator of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of malignant T cells. HPR treatment of HTLV-I-negative malignant T cells was associated with a rapid and progressive ROS accumulation. Pre-treatment with the antioxidants vitamin C and dithiothreitol inhibited ROS generation, prevented HPR-induced ceramide accumulation, cell cycle arrest, cytochrome c release, caspase-activation and apoptosis. Therefore, anti-oxidants protected malignant T cells from HPR-induced growth inhibition. The expression of the HTLV-I oncoprotein Tax abrogated HPR-induced ROS accumulation in HTLV-I-infected cells, which explains their lower sensitivity to HPR. Defining the mechanism of free radical induction by HPR may support a potential therapeutic role for this synthetic retinoid in ATL and HTLV-I-negative T-cell lymphomas. PMID:17122865

  3. The human oncoprotein MDM2 induces replication stress eliciting early intra-S-phase checkpoint response and inhibition of DNA replication origin firing.

    PubMed

    Frum, Rebecca A; Singh, Shilpa; Vaughan, Catherine; Mukhopadhyay, Nitai D; Grossman, Steven R; Windle, Brad; Deb, Sumitra; Deb, Swati Palit

    2014-01-01

    Conventional paradigm ascribes the cell proliferative function of the human oncoprotein mouse double minute2 (MDM2) primarily to its ability to degrade p53. Here we report that in the absence of p53, MDM2 induces replication stress eliciting an early S-phase checkpoint response to inhibit further firing of DNA replication origins. Partially synchronized lung cells cultured from p53-/-:MDM2 transgenic mice enter S phase and induce S-phase checkpoint response earlier than lung cells from p53-/- mice and inhibit firing of DNA replication origins. MDM2 activates chk1 phosphorylation, elevates mixed lineage lymphoma histone methyl transferase levels and promotes checkpoint-dependent tri-methylation of histone H3 at lysine 4, known to prevent firing of late replication origins at the early S phase. In the absence of p53, a condition that disables inhibition of cyclin A expression by MDM2, MDM2 increases expression of cyclin D2 and A and hastens S-phase entry of cells. Consistently, inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases, known to activate DNA replication origins during firing, inhibits MDM2-mediated induction of chk1 phosphorylation indicating the requirement of this activity in MDM2-mediated chk1 phosphorylation. Our data reveal a novel pathway, defended by the intra-S-phase checkpoint, by which MDM2 induces unscheduled origin firing and accelerates S-phase entry of cells in the absence of p53. PMID:24163099

  4. Design, Immune Responses and Anti-Tumor Potential of an HPV16 E6E7 Multi-Epitope Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Agatha A. Muniz; Cavalher, Aline Marques; Lopes, Aline Soriano; Diniz, Mariana de Oliveira; Schanoski, Alessandra Soares; de Melo, Robson Lopes; Ferreira, Luís Carlos de Souza; de Oliveira, Maria Leonor S.; Demasi, Marilene; Ho, Paulo Lee

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a common type of cancer among women worldwide and infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPVs) types represents the major risk factor for the etiopathogenesis of the disease. HPV-16 is the most frequently identified HPV type in cervical lesions and expression of E6 and E7 oncoproteins is required for the uncontrolled cellular proliferation. In the present study we report the design and experimental testing of a recombinant multi-epitope protein containing immunogenic epitopes of HPV-16 E6 and E7. Tumor preventive assays, based on the engraftment of TC-1 cells in mice, showed that the E6E7 multi-epitope protein induced a full preventive anti-tumor protection in wild-type mice, as well as in mice deficient in expression of CD4+ T cells and TLR4 receptor. Nonetheless, no anti-tumor protection was observed in mice deficient in CD8+ T cells. Also, the vaccine promoted high activation of E6/E7-specific T cells and in a therapeutic-approach, E6E7 protein conferred full anti-tumor protection in mice. These results show a potential use of this E6E7 multi-epitope antigen as a new and promising antigen for the development of a therapeutic vaccine against tumors induced by HPV. PMID:26390407

  5. Human papillomavirus-induced carcinogenesis and the ubiquitin-proteasome system.

    PubMed

    Scheffner, Martin; Whitaker, Noel J

    2003-02-01

    Certain types of human papillomaviruses have been etiologically associated with malignant lesions, most notably with cervical cancer. The major oncoproteins of these cancer-associated viruses are encoded by the viral E6 and E7 genes. Thorough characterization of these oncoproteins and their interaction with cellular proteins has shown that both E6 and E7 exploit the ubiquitin-proteasome system to degrade and, thus, to functionally inactivate negative cell-regulatory proteins including members of the p110(RB) family and p53. This act of piracy is assumed to contribute to both the efficient propagation of HPVs and HPV-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:12507557

  6. Mechanistic Analysis of the Role of Bromodomain-containing Protein 4 (BRD4) in BRD4-NUT Oncoprotein-induced Transcriptional Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ranran; You, Jianxin

    2015-01-01

    NUT midline carcinoma (NMC) is a rare but highly aggressive cancer typically caused by the translocation t(15;19), which results in the formation of the BRD4-NUT fusion oncoprotein. Previous studies have demonstrated that fusion of the NUT protein with the double bromodomains of BRD4 may significantly alter the cellular gene expression profile to contribute to NMC tumorigenesis. However, the mechanistic details of this BRD4-NUT function remain poorly understood. In this study, we examined the NUT function in transcriptional regulation by targeting it to a LacO transgene array integrated in U2OS 2-6-3 cells, which allow us to visualize how NUT alters the in situ gene transcription dynamic. Using this system, we demonstrated that the NUT protein tethered to the LacO locus recruits p300/CREB-binding protein (CBP), induces histone hyperacetylation, and enriches BRD4 to the transgene array chromatin foci. We also discovered that, in BRD4-NUT expressed in NMC cells, the NUT moiety of the fusion protein anchored to chromatin by the double bromodomains also stimulates histone hyperacetylation, which causes BRD4 to bind tighter to chromatin. Consequently, multiple BRD4-interacting factors are recruited to the NUT-associated chromatin locus to activate in situ transgene expression. This gene transcription function was repressed by either expression of a dominant negative inhibitor of the p300-NUT interaction or treatment with (+)-JQ1, which dissociates BRD4 from the LacO chromatin locus. Our data support a model in which BRD4-NUT-stimulated histone hyperacetylation recruits additional BRD4 and interacting partners to support transcriptional activation, which underlies the BRD4-NUT oncogenic mechanism in NMC. PMID:25512383

  7. HTLV-1 Tax Oncoprotein Inhibits the Estrogen-Induced-ER α-Mediated BRCA1 Expression by Interaction with CBP/p300 Cofactors

    PubMed Central

    Shukrun, Meital; Jabareen, Azhar; Abou-Kandil, Ammar; Chamias, Rachel; Aboud, Mordechai; Huleihel, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    BRCA1 is a multifunctional tumor suppressor, whose expression is activated by the estrogen (E2)-liganded ERα receptor and regulated by certain recruited transcriptional co-activators. Interference with BRCA1 expression and/or functions leads to high risk of breast or/and ovarian cancer. Another multifunctional protein, HTLV-1Tax oncoprotein, is widely regarded as crucial for developing adult T-cell leukemia and other clinical disorders. Tax profile reveals that it can antagonize BRCA1 expression and/or functionality. Therefore, we hypothesize that Tax expression in breast cells can sensitize them to malignant transformation by environmental carcinogens. Here we examined Tax effect on BRCA1 expression by testing its influence on E2-induced expression of BRCA1 promoter-driven luciferase reporter (BRCA1-Luc). We found that E2 strongly stimulated this reporter expression by liganding to ERα, which consequently associated with BRCA1 promoter, while ERα concomitantly recruited CBP/p300 to this complex for co-operative enhancement of BRCA1 expression. Introducing Tax into these cells strongly blocked this E2-ERα-mediated activation of BRCA1 expression. We noted, also, that Tax exerted this inhibition by binding to CBP/p300 without releasing them from their complex with ERα. Chip assay revealed that the binding of Tax to the CBP/p300-ERα complex, prevented its link to AP1 site. Interestingly, we noted that elevating the intracellular pool of CBP or p300 to excessive levels dramatically reduced the Tax-mediated inhibition of BRCA1 expression. Exploring the mechanism of this reduction revealed that the excessive co-factors were sufficient to bind separately the free Tax molecules, thus lowering their amount in the CBP/p300-ERα complex and relieving, thereby, the inhibition of BRCA1 expression. PMID:24586743

  8. Characterization of Epithelial Progenitors in Normal Human Palatine Tonsils and Their HPV16 E6/E7-Induced Perturbation

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sung Yoon Catherine; Kannan, Nagarajan; Zhang, Lewei; Martinez, Victor; Rosin, Miriam P.; Eaves, Connie J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Human palatine tonsils are oropharyngeal lymphoid tissues containing multiple invaginations (crypts) in which the continuity of the outer surface epithelium is disrupted and the isolated epithelial cells intermingle with other cell types. We now show that primitive epithelial cells detectable in vitro in 2D colony assays and in a 3D culture system are CD44+NGFR+ and present in both surface and crypt regions. Transcriptome analysis indicated a high similarity between CD44+NGFR+ cells in both regions, although those isolated from the crypt contained a higher proportion of the most primitive (holo)clonogenic cells. Lentiviral transduction of CD44+NGFR+ cells from both regions with human papillomavirus 16-encoded E6/E7 prolonged their growth in 2D cultures and caused aberrant differentiation in 3D cultures. Our findings therefore reveal a shared, site-independent, hierarchical organization, differentiation potential, and transcriptional profile of normal human tonsillar epithelial progenitor cells. They also introduce a new model for investigating the mechanisms of their transformation. PMID:26527383

  9. Characterization of Epithelial Progenitors in Normal Human Palatine Tonsils and Their HPV16 E6/E7-Induced Perturbation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sung Yoon Catherine; Kannan, Nagarajan; Zhang, Lewei; Martinez, Victor; Rosin, Miriam P; Eaves, Connie J

    2015-12-01

    Human palatine tonsils are oropharyngeal lymphoid tissues containing multiple invaginations (crypts) in which the continuity of the outer surface epithelium is disrupted and the isolated epithelial cells intermingle with other cell types. We now show that primitive epithelial cells detectable in vitro in 2D colony assays and in a 3D culture system are CD44(+)NGFR(+) and present in both surface and crypt regions. Transcriptome analysis indicated a high similarity between CD44(+)NGFR(+) cells in both regions, although those isolated from the crypt contained a higher proportion of the most primitive (holo)clonogenic cells. Lentiviral transduction of CD44(+)NGFR(+) cells from both regions with human papillomavirus 16-encoded E6/E7 prolonged their growth in 2D cultures and caused aberrant differentiation in 3D cultures. Our findings therefore reveal a shared, site-independent, hierarchical organization, differentiation potential, and transcriptional profile of normal human tonsillar epithelial progenitor cells. They also introduce a new model for investigating the mechanisms of their transformation. PMID:26527383

  10. Protein vaccination with HPV16 E7/Pep-1 nanoparticles elicits a protective T-helper cell-mediated immune response.

    PubMed

    Mardani, Golnaz; Bolhassani, Azam; Agi, Elnaz; Shahbazi, Sepideh; Mehdi Sadat, Seyed

    2016-06-01

    Two human papillomavirus (HPV) viral oncoproteins, E6 and E7 represent ideal targets for development of a therapeutic HPV vaccine. It is important to reduce the rate of HPV-associated malignancies through improvement of vaccine modalities. In this study, we used a short amphipathic peptide carrier, Pep-1, for delivery of the full-length HPV16 E7 protein into mammalian cells and evaluated immune responses and protective effects of different formulations in C57BL/6 tumor mice model. Our results showed that the complexes of E7/Pep-1 protein form stable nanoparticles through noncovalent binding with an average size of 120 to 250 nm. The efficient delivery of E7 protein by Pep-1 at molar ratio of 1:20 was detected in HEK-293T cell line for 1 h and 3 h post-transfection. Immunization with E7/Pep-1 nanoparticles at a ratio of 1:20 induced a higher Th1 cellular immune response with the predominant IgG2a and IFN-γ levels than those induced by E7 protein in a murine tumor model. These data suggest that Pep-1 peptide would indicate promising applications for improvement of HPV therapeutic vaccines. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(6):459-467, 2016. PMID:27094221

  11. Oncoprotein mdig contributes to silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis by altering balance between Th17 and Treg T cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiaying; Zhang, Yadong; Lu, Yongju; Battelli, Lori; Porter, Dale W.; Chen, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Mineral dust-induced gene (mdig, also named Mina53) was first identified from alveolar macrophages of the coal miners with chronic lung inflammation or fibrosis, but how this gene is involved in lung diseases is poorly understood. Here we show that heterozygotic knockout of mdig (mdig+/−) ameliorates silica-induced lung fibrosis by altering the balance between Th17 cells and Treg cells. Relative to the wild type (WT) mice, infiltration of the macrophages and Th17 cells was reduced in lungs from silica-exposed mdig+/− mice. In contrast, an increased infiltration of the T regulatory (Treg) cells to the lung intestitium was observed in the mdig+/− mice treated with silica. Both the number of Th17 cells in the lung lymph nodes and the level of IL-17 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids were decreased in the mdig+/− mice in response to silica. Thus, these results suggest that mdig may contribute to silica-induced lung fibrosis by altering the balance between Th17 and Treg cells. Genetic deficiency of mdig impairs Th17 cell infiltration and function, but favors infiltration of the Treg cells, the immune suppressive T cells that are able to limit the inflammatory responses by repressing the Th17 cells and macrophages. PMID:25669985

  12. Involvement of c-Ski oncoprotein in carcinogenesis of cholangiocacinoma induced by Opisthorchis viverrini and N-nitrosodimethylamine.

    PubMed

    Boonmars, Thidarut; Wu, Zhiliang; Boonjaruspinyo, Sirintip; Puapairoj, Anucha; Kaewsamut, Butsara; Nagano, Isao; Pinlaor, Somchai; Yongvanit, Puangrat; Wonkchalee, Orasa; Juasook, Amornrat; Sudsarn, Pakkayanee; Srisawangwong, Tuanchai

    2011-06-01

    Opisthorchiasis is the major public health problem in the endemic areas of Thailand and Laos because Opisthorchis viverrini infection causes serious hepatobiliary diseases including CCA. The molecular mechanism of the CCA carcinogenesis induced by the infection remains obscure. To reveal the potential genes and signaling pathways to involve in the carcinogenesis, the present study investigated the expression of c-Ski, an oncogene, and two TGF-? signaling pathway relative genes, TGF-? and Smad4, during the development of CCA induced by O. viverrini infection in hamster model, and in human opisthorchiasis associated CCA. The results showed that the expression of c-Ski gene was greatly up-regulated during the carcinogenesis of CCA in hamster model. The overexpression of c-Ski was confirmed by immunohistological staining result which showed the increased expression of c-Ski protein in cytoplasm of the epithelial lining of hepatic bile ducts. Moreover, the immunohistological staining of the specimens of human opisthorchiasis associated CCA revealed the up-regulated expression of c-Ski and Smad4 proteins in the cytoplasm of the epithelial lining of hepatic bile ducts and stomal fibrosis respectively. The expression of TGF-? and Smad4 were up-regulated, which expression kinetics was time-dependent of CCA development. These results suggest that c-Ski is likely involved in the carcinogenesis of CCA induced by O. viverrini infection through regulating TGF-? signaling pathway. PMID:20853076

  13. Novel Functions of the Human Papillomavirus E6 Oncoproteins.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Nicholas A; Galloway, Denise A

    2015-11-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) infect the epidermis as well as mucous membranes of humans. They are the causative agents of anogenital tract and some oropharyngeal cancers. Infections begin in the basal epithelia, where the viral genome replicates slowly along with its host cell. As infected cells begin to differentiate and progress toward the periphery, the virus drives proliferation in cells that would otherwise be quiescent. To uncouple differentiation from continued cellular propagation, HPVs express two oncoproteins, HPV E6 and E7. This review focuses on high-risk α-HPV E6, which in addition to supporting viral replication has transforming properties. HPV E6 promotes p53 degradation and activates telomerase, but the multifaceted oncoprotein has numerous other functions that are highlighted here. PMID:26958922

  14. Effects of endotoxin on expression of ras, p53 and bcl-2 oncoprotein in hepatocarcinogenesis induced by thioacetamide in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jin-Ming; Han, De-Wu; Liang, Quan-Chen; Zhao, Jia-Li; Hao, Su-Yuan; Ma, Xue-Hui; Zhao, Yuan-Chang

    1997-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the relationship between expression of ras, p53 and bcl-2 gene products and hepatocarcinogenesis since the endotoxemia produced from lipopolysaccharide administration and/or the hypophagocytic state of splenectomy significantly accelerated hepatocarcinogenesis induced by thioacetamide. METHODS: The hepatocarcinoma model was induced by 6-mo oral intake of 0.03% thioacetamide. During the hepatocarcinoma modeling process, rats were additionally treated with splenectomy and/or lipopolysaccharide administration. The techniques of flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry and immunoelectronmicroscopy were applied for quantitative analysis of the expression of oncogene proteins. RESULTS: In this model system, overexpression of ras p21 protein mainly occurred in the precancerous cell population or in cells in the early stage of hepatocyte transformation. The levels of ras p21 declined when nuclear DNA aneuploidy increased. Expression of bcl-2 protein slowly and steadily rose, with more hepatocytes staying in S + G2M phases, as the hepatocarcinoma became more malignant. p53 was moderately expressed during hepatocarcinogenesis. There was no statistical correlation between endotoxemia levels and the changes in levels of ras, p53 and bcl-2 gene products. CONCLUSION: Overexpression of oncogene ras p21 was considered likely to be a precursor of premalignant hepatocytes and possibly as responsible for the initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis. Bcl-2 protein expression is proportional to the severity of malignancy in hepatocarcinogenesis. p53 may be involved in a key pathway underlying the transformation and development processes of hepatocarcinoma. This study confirmed the hypothesis that there are multiple genes and multiple steps involved in hepatocarcinogenesis. Expression of oncogene proteins reflects the properties of the premalignant and malignant cells, but is not directly related to endotoxemia statistically.

  15. Tobacco Smoke Activates Human Papillomavirus 16 p97 Promoter and Cooperates with High-Risk E6/E7 for Oxidative DNA Damage in Lung Cells

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Juan P.; Chnaiderman, Jonás; Urzúa, Ulises; León, Oscar; Tornesello, Maria L.; Corvalán, Alejandro H.; Soto-Rifo, Ricardo; Aguayo, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown a functional interaction between human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E6 and E7 oncoproteins and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) in lung cells suggesting cooperation during carcinogenesis. The molecular mechanisms of such interaction, however, remain to be elucidated. Here we first present evidence showing that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) has the ability to activate the HPV-16 p97 promoter by acting on the long control region (LCR) in lung epithelial cells. Interestingly, we observed that CSC-induced p97 promoter activation occurs in a dose-dependent manner in both tumor A-549 (lung adenocarcinoma), H-2170 (bronchial carcinoma), SiHa or Hela (cervical carcinoma) cells but not in non-tumor BEAS-2B (bronchial) or NL-20 (alveolar) lung cells unless they ectopically expressed the HPV-16 E6 and E7 oncogenes. In addition, we also observed a significant increase of primary DNA damage in tumor and non-tumor CSC-treated lung cells expressing HPV-16 E6 and E7 oncogenes suggesting a cooperative effect in this process, even though the contribution of E7 was significantly higher. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that tobacco smoke is able to induce the activation of the HPV-16 p97 promoter in cooperation with HPV-16 E6 and E7 oncogenes that, in turn, sensitize lung cells to tobacco smoke-induced DNA damage. PMID:25830243

  16. Disc large 1 expression is altered by human papillomavirus E6/E7 proteins in organotypic cultures of human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Valdano, M Bugnon; Cavatorta, A L; Morale, M G; Marziali, F; de Souza Lino, V; Steenbergen, R D M; Boccardo, E; Gardiol, D

    2016-02-01

    Loss of cell polarity is a fundamental process in cell transformation. Among polarity proteins, we focused on human disc large (DLG1), which is localized mainly at adherens junctions and contributes to the control of cell proliferation. We previously demonstrated that its expression is altered in HPV-associated cervical neoplastic lesions, but the mechanisms beyond this remain unknown. In this study, we analysed the contribution of HPV proteins to the changes in DLG1 expression in the squamous epithelium. We observed tissue and intracellular misdistribution of DLG1 when high-risk HPV-18 E7 or E6/E7 proteins were expressed in organotypic raft cultures. The viral oncoproteins induce the loss of DLG1 from the cell borders and an increase in the level of DLG1 protein, reflecting the pattern observed in cervical lesions. These findings were corroborated in cultures bearing the entire HPV-18 genome. Interestingly, changes in tissue distribution and abundance of DLG1 were also detected in organotypic cultures expressing the low-risk HPV-11 E7 or E6/E7 proteins, suggesting a conserved function among different HPV types. However, for low-risk HPVs, the subcellular localization of DLG1 at cell-to-cell contacts was predominantly maintained. This report offers new evidence, we believe, of the involvement of HPV proteins in DLG1 expression pattern and our data support previous observations regarding DLG1 expression in cervical lesions. PMID:26653181

  17. Cellular targets of the oncoproteins encoded by the cancer associated human papillomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Howley, P M; Münger, K; Romanczuk, H; Scheffner, M; Huibregtse, J M

    1991-01-01

    Insight into the mechanisms by which DNA tumor viruses transform cells has come from the recognition that the virus-encoded oncoproteins interact specifically with important cell regulatory proteins. The "high risk" human papillomaviruses such as HPV-16 and HPV-18 which are associated with human anogenital carcinomas encode two transforming genes (E6 and E7) which are expressed in HPV positive cancers and derived cell lines. E7 shares functional and structural features with the adenovirus E1A proteins. Like Ad E1A and the large T proteins of the polyomaviruses, E7 can complex pRB. The E7 proteins of the "high risk" HPVs associate with pRB with approximately a 10-fold higher affinity than do the E7 proteins of the "low risk" HPVs, and important biological differences between the E7 proteins of these two groups of HPVs are determined by amino-terminal sequences which include the pRB binding domain. Like SV40 large T and Ad 5 E1B, the E6 oncoprotein encoded by the "high risk" HPVs can form a complex with p53. In vitro, E6 promotes the degradation of p53 and this degradation involves the ubiquitin-dependent protease system. The selective degradation of cellular proteins such as p53 with negative regulatory functions provides a novel mechanism of action for dominant acting oncoproteins. The relevance of the inactivation of the normal functions of pRB and p53 in human cervical carcinogenesis has recently been demonstrated by the analysis of these two genes and their products in a series of HPV-positive and HPV-negative cell lines. Each of five HPV-positive cervical cancer cell lines expressed normal pRB and low levels of wild type p53 proteins, which are presumed to be altered in function as a consequence of association with the HPV oncoproteins. In contrast, mutations were identified in the p53 and RB genes expressed in the HPV-negative cervical carcinoma cell lines, C33-A and HT-3. These results support the hypothesis that the inactivation of the normal functions of the tumor suppressor proteins pRB and p53 are important steps in human cervical carcinogenesis, either by mutation or through complex formation with HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins. PMID:1668886

  18. Changes in global gene expression profiles induced by HPV 16 E6 oncoprotein variants in cervical carcinoma C33-A cells.

    PubMed

    Zacapala-Gómez, Ana Elvira; Del Moral-Hernández, Oscar; Villegas-Sepúlveda, Nicolás; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Romero-Córdoba, Sandra Lorena; Beltrán-Anaya, Fredy Omar; Leyva-Vázquez, Marco Antonio; Alarcón-Romero, Luz Del Carmen; Illades-Aguiar, Berenice

    2016-01-15

    We analyzed the effects of the expression of HPV 16 E6 oncoprotein variants (AA-a, AA-c, E-A176/G350, E-C188/G350, E-G350), and the E-Prototype in global gene expression profiles in an in vitro model. E6 gene was cloned into an expression vector fused to GFP and was transfected in C33-A cells. Affymetrix GeneChip Human Transcriptome Array 2.0 platform was used to analyze the expression of over 245,000 coding transcripts. We found that HPV16 E6 variants altered the expression of 387 different genes in comparison with E-Prototype. The altered genes are involved in cellular processes related to the development of cervical carcinoma, such as adhesion, angiogenesis, apoptosis, differentiation, cell cycle, proliferation, transcription and protein translation. Our results show that polymorphic changes in HPV16 E6 natural variants are sufficient to alter the overall gene expression profile in C33-A cells, explaining in part the observed differences in oncogenic potential of HPV16 variants. PMID:26655236

  19. Attenuated Recombinant Influenza A Virus Expressing HPV16 E6 and E7 as a Novel Therapeutic Vaccine Approach.

    PubMed

    Jindra, Christoph; Huber, Bettina; Shafti-Keramat, Saeed; Wolschek, Markus; Ferko, Boris; Muster, Thomas; Brandt, Sabine; Kirnbauer, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types, most often HPV16 and HPV18, causes all cervical and most anal cancers, and a subset of vulvar, vaginal, penile and oropharyngeal carcinomas. Two prophylactic virus-like particle (VLPs)-based vaccines, are available that protect against vaccine type-associated persistent infection and associated disease, yet have no therapeutic effect on existing lesions or infections. We have generated recombinant live-attenuated influenza A viruses expressing the HPV16 oncogenes E6 and E7 as experimental immunotherapeutic vaccine candidates. The influenza A virus life cycle lacks DNA intermediates as important safety feature. Different serotypes were generated to ensure efficient prime and boost immunizations. The immune response to vaccination in C57BL/6 mice was characterized by peptide ELISA and IFN-γ ELISpot, demonstrating induction of cell-mediated immunity to HPV16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins. Prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine efficacy was analyzed in the murine HPV16-positive TC-1 tumor challenge model. Subcutaneous (s.c.) prime and boost vaccinations of mice with recombinant influenza A serotypes H1N1 and H3N2, followed by challenge with TC-1 cells resulted in complete protection or significantly reduced tumor growth as compared to control animals. In a therapeutic setting, s.c. vaccination of mice with established TC-1 tumors decelerated tumor growth and significantly prolonged survival. Importantly, intralesional vaccine administration induced complete tumor regression in 25% of animals, and significantly reduced tumor growth in 50% of mice. These results suggest recombinant E6E7 influenza viruses as a promising new approach for the development of a therapeutic vaccine against HPV-induced disease. PMID:26381401

  20. Attenuated Recombinant Influenza A Virus Expressing HPV16 E6 and E7 as a Novel Therapeutic Vaccine Approach

    PubMed Central

    Jindra, Christoph; Huber, Bettina; Shafti-Keramat, Saeed; Wolschek, Markus; Ferko, Boris; Muster, Thomas; Brandt, Sabine; Kirnbauer, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types, most often HPV16 and HPV18, causes all cervical and most anal cancers, and a subset of vulvar, vaginal, penile and oropharyngeal carcinomas. Two prophylactic virus-like particle (VLPs)-based vaccines, are available that protect against vaccine type-associated persistent infection and associated disease, yet have no therapeutic effect on existing lesions or infections. We have generated recombinant live-attenuated influenza A viruses expressing the HPV16 oncogenes E6 and E7 as experimental immunotherapeutic vaccine candidates. The influenza A virus life cycle lacks DNA intermediates as important safety feature. Different serotypes were generated to ensure efficient prime and boost immunizations. The immune response to vaccination in C57BL/6 mice was characterized by peptide ELISA and IFN-γ ELISpot, demonstrating induction of cell-mediated immunity to HPV16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins. Prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine efficacy was analyzed in the murine HPV16-positive TC-1 tumor challenge model. Subcutaneous (s.c.) prime and boost vaccinations of mice with recombinant influenza A serotypes H1N1 and H3N2, followed by challenge with TC-1 cells resulted in complete protection or significantly reduced tumor growth as compared to control animals. In a therapeutic setting, s.c. vaccination of mice with established TC-1 tumors decelerated tumor growth and significantly prolonged survival. Importantly, intralesional vaccine administration induced complete tumor regression in 25% of animals, and significantly reduced tumor growth in 50% of mice. These results suggest recombinant E6E7 influenza viruses as a promising new approach for the development of a therapeutic vaccine against HPV-induced disease. PMID:26381401

  1. Design of a highly effective therapeutic HPV16 E6/E7-specific DNA vaccine: optimization by different ways of sequence rearrangements (shuffling).

    PubMed

    Almajhdi, Fahad N; Senger, Tilo; Amer, Haitham M; Gissmann, Lutz; Öhlschläger, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Persistent infection with the high-risk Human Papillomavirus type 16 (HPV 16) is the causative event for the development of cervical cancer and other malignant tumors of the anogenital tract and of the head and neck. Despite many attempts to develop therapeutic vaccines no candidate has entered late clinical trials. An interesting approach is a DNA based vaccine encompassing the nucleotide sequence of the E6 and E7 viral oncoproteins. Because both proteins are consistently expressed in HPV infected cells they represent excellent targets for immune therapy. Here we report the development of 8 DNA vaccine candidates consisting of differently rearranged HPV-16 E6 and E7 sequences within one molecule providing all naturally occurring epitopes but supposedly lacking transforming activity. The HPV sequences were fused to the J-domain and the SV40 enhancer in order to increase immune responses. We demonstrate that one out of the 8 vaccine candidates induces very strong cellular E6- and E7- specific cellular immune responses in mice and, as shown in regression experiments, efficiently controls growth of HPV 16 positive syngeneic tumors. This data demonstrates the potential of this vaccine candidate to control persistent HPV 16 infection that may lead to malignant disease. It also suggests that different sequence rearrangements influence the immunogenecity by an as yet unknown mechanism. PMID:25422946

  2. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition induced by keratinocyte growth conditions is overcome by E6 and E7 from HPV16, but not HPV8 and HPV38: Characterization of global transcription profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Azzimonti, Barbara; Dell'Oste, Valentina; Borgogna, Cinzia; Mondini, Michele; Gugliesi, Francesca; De Andrea, Marco; Chiorino, Giovanna; Scatolini, Maria; Ghimenti, Chiara; Landolfo, Santo; Gariglio, Marisa

    2009-06-05

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth properties of primary human keratinocytes expressing E6 and E7 proteins, which are from either the beta- or alpha-genotypes, under different culture conditions. We demonstrated that keratinocytes expressing E6 and E7, from both HPV8 and 38, irreversibly underwent the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) when grown on plastic with FAD medium (F12/DMEM/5%FBS). Expression of E6/E7 from HPV16 was capable of fully overcoming the FAD-induced EMT. Immortalization was only observed in HPV16-transduced cell lines, while the more proliferating phenotype of both KerHPV8 and 38 was mainly related to FAD-induced EMT. Microarray analysis of exponentially growing cells identified 146 cellular genes that were differentially regulated in HPV16 compared to HPV8- and 38-transduced cells. A large accumulation of transcripts associated with epidermal development and differentiation was observed in HPV16-transduced cells, whereas transcripts of genes involved in the extracellular matrix, multicellular organismal processes, and inflammatory response were affected in HPV8 and 38-transduced cells.

  3. Developing Michigan Cancer Foundation 7 Cells with Stable Expression of E7 Gene of Human Papillomavirus Type 16

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Faezeh; Rostami, Sina; Nabavinia, Maryam Sadat; Meshkat, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for the development of cervical neoplasia. Infection with human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) is a major risk factor for the development of cervical cancer. The virus encodes three oncoproteins (E5, E6 and E7), of which, the E7 oncoprotein is the major protein involved in cell immortalization and transformation of the infected cells. The aim of the current study was to develop Michigan Cancer Foundation 7 (MCF7) cells, which could stably express E7 protein of HPV type 16. Methods: E7 gene of HPV type 16 was introduced into MCF7 cells by Lipofectamine 2000 reagent and the transfected cells were treated with G418 antibiotic. After antibiotic selection of the transfected cells, stable expression of E7 gene of HPV16 was confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: Antibiotic selections of transfected cells were performed and transfected cells were alive in cytotoxic concentration of the antibiotic. RNA was extracted from transfected cells and E7 gene of HPV16 was amplified by RT-PCR method and a 350-bp band corresponds to E7 was observed. Conclusion: Results confirmed the stable transfection of cells. The stably transfected cells can be used as a useful tool in future studies on HPV16 and cancers caused by this virus. PMID:26870142

  4. A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF HPV16 L1, E6 AND E7 SEROPOSITIVITY AND ORAL HPV16 INFECTION

    PubMed Central

    Beachler, Daniel C.; Viscidi, Raphael; Sugar, Elizabeth A.; Minkoff, Howard; Strickler, Howard D.; Cranston, Ross D.; Wiley, Dorothy J.; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Weber, Kathleen M.; Margolick, Joseph B.; Reddy, Susheel; Gillison, Maura L.; D’Souza, Gypsyamber

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals with HPV infections can develop IgG antibodies to HPV proteins including the L1 capsid and E6 and E7 oncoproteins. Evidence on whether L1 antibodies reduce the risk of cervical HPV infection is mixed, but this has not been explored for oral HPV infections. Antibodies to HPV16’s E6 oncoprotein have been detected in some oropharyngeal cancer cases years prior to cancer diagnosis, but it is unknown if these antibodies are associated with oral HPV16 DNA. Methods Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays tested for serum antibodies to HPV16’s L1 capsid in 463 HIV-infected and 293 HIV-uninfected adults, and for antibodies to recombinantly expressed E6 and E7 oncoproteins to HPV16 in 195 HIV-infected and 69 HIV-uninfected cancer-free participants at baseline. Oral rinse samples were collected semi-annually for up to three years and tested for HPV DNA using PGMY 09/11 primers. Adjusted Poisson, logistic, and Wei-Lin-Weissfeld regression models were utilized. Results HPV16 L1 seroreactivity did not reduce the subsequent risk of incident oral HPV16 infection in unadjusted (HR=1.4, 95%CI=0.59–3.3) or adjusted (aHR=1.1, 95%CI=0.41–3.0) analysis. Antibodies to HPV16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins were detected in 7.6% and 3.4% of participants respectively, but they were not associated with baseline oral HPV16 DNA prevalence or oral HPV16 persistence (each p-value>0.40). Conclusions Naturally acquired HPV16 L1 antibodies did not reduce the risk of subsequent oral HPV16 infection. HPV16 E6 and E7 seropositivity was not a marker for oral HPV16 infection in this population without HPV-related cancer. PMID:25585068

  5. Effects of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 oncoproteins on the expression of involucrin in human keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The human papillomavirus (HPV) life cycle is closely linked to keratinocyte differentiation. Oncogenic HPV infection has been shown to hamper the normal differentiation of keratinocytes; however, the underlying mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon are yet to be clarified. Here, we aimed to study the effects of HPV16 E6 and E7 oncogenes on the expression of involucrin (IVL), an established marker of keratinocyte differentiation, in human foreskin keratinocyte (HFK) cells. Results The differentiation of HFK cells by serum and high calcium significantly increased both the mRNA and the protein levels of IVL. The E6 and E7 oncoproteins of HPV16 together caused strong down-regulation of IVL mRNA and protein both in proliferating and in differentiating HFK cells. To study the effects of HPV oncogenes on the IVL promoter, we made transient transfection assays and luciferase tests and found that HPV 16 E6 but not E7 repressed IVL promoter activity in proliferating HFK cells. The inhibitory effect of HPV 16 E6 on the human IVL promoter could be localised to the proximal regulatory region (PRR) of the gene. Conclusions These results suggest that the down-regulation of IVL promoter activity by HPV 16 E6 significantly contribute to the inhibition of endogenous IVL expression by the HPV 16 oncoproteins. In contrast, the down-regulation of endogenous IVL expression by HPV16 E7 is probably not caused by a direct and specific effect of E7 on the IVL promoter. PMID:22333115

  6. Enhanced Cytotoxic CD8 T Cell Priming Using Dendritic Cell-Expressing Human Papillomavirus-16 E6/E7-p16INK4 Fusion Protein with Sequenced Anti-Programmed Death-1.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Bates, Tatiana M; Kim, Eun; Concha-Benavente, Fernando; Trivedi, Sumita; Mailliard, Robbie B; Gambotto, Andrea; Ferris, Robert L

    2016-03-15

    The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related head and neck squamous cell carcinoma has increased in recent decades, though HPV prevention vaccines may reduce this rise in the future. HPV-related cancers express the viral oncoproteins E6 and E7. The latter inactivates the tumor suppressor protein retinoblastoma (Rb), which leads to the overexpression of p16(INK4) protein, providing unique Ags for therapeutic HPV-specific cancer vaccination. We developed potential adenoviral vaccines that express a fusion protein of HPV-16 E6 and E7 (Ad.E6E7) alone or fused with p16 (Ad.E6E7p16) and also encoding an anti-programmed death (PD)-1 Ab. Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) transduced with Ad.E6E7 or Ad.E6E7p16 with or without Ad.αPD1 were used to activate autologous CD8 CTL in vitro. CTL responses were tested against naturally HPV-infected head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells using IFN-γ ELISPOT and [(51)Cr]release assay. Surprisingly, stimulation and antitumor activity of CTL were increased after incubation with Ad.E6E7p16-transduced DC (DC.E6E7p16) compared with Ad.E6E7 (DC.E6E7), a result that may be due to an effect of p16 on cyclin-dependent kinase 4 levels and IL-12 secretion by DC. Moreover, the beneficial effect was most prominent when anti-PD-1 was introduced during the second round of stimulation (after initial priming). These data suggest that careful sequencing of Ad.E6E7.p16 with Ad.αPD1 could improve antitumor immunity against HPV-related tumors and that p16 may enhance the immunogenicity of DC, through cyclin-dependent pathways, Th1 cytokine secretion, and by adding a nonviral Ag highly overexpressed in HPV-induced cancers. PMID:26851223

  7. Molecular Targeting of the Oncoprotein PLK1 in Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia: RO3280, a Novel PLK1 Inhibitor, Induces Apoptosis in Leukemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Na-Na; Li, Zhi-Heng; Zhao, He; Tao, Yan-Fang; Xu, Li-Xiao; Lu, Jun; Cao, Lan; Du, Xiao-Juan; Sun, Li-Chao; Zhao, Wen-Li; Xiao, Pei-Fang; Fang, Fang; Su, Guang-Hao; Li, Yan-Hong; Li, Gang; Li, Yi-Ping; Xu, Yun-Yun; Zhou, Hui-Ting; Wu, Yi; Jin, Mei-Fang; Liu, Lin; Ni, Jian; Wang, Jian; Hu, Shao-Yan; Zhu, Xue-Ming; Feng, Xing; Pan, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) is highly expressed in many cancers and therefore a biomarker of transformation and potential target for the development of cancer-specific small molecule drugs. RO3280 was recently identified as a novel PLK1 inhibitor; however its therapeutic effects in leukemia treatment are still unknown. We found that the PLK1 protein was highly expressed in leukemia cell lines as well as 73.3% (11/15) of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) samples. PLK1 mRNA expression was significantly higher in AML samples compared with control samples (82.95 ± 110.28 vs. 6.36 ± 6.35; p < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that shorter survival time correlated with high tumor PLK1 expression (p = 0.002). The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of RO3280 for acute leukemia cells was between 74 and 797 nM. The IC50 of RO3280 in primary acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and AML cells was between 35.49 and 110.76 nM and 52.80 and 147.50 nM, respectively. RO3280 induced apoptosis and cell cycle disorder in leukemia cells. RO3280 treatment regulated several apoptosis-associated genes. The regulation of DCC, CDKN1A, BTK, and SOCS2 was verified by western blot. These results provide insights into the potential use of RO3280 for AML therapy; however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be determined. PMID:25574601

  8. Activated Notch1 Inhibits p53-Induced Apoptosis and Sustains Transformation by Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E6 and E7 Oncogenes through a PI3K-PKB/Akt-Dependent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Pradip; Somasundaram, Kumaravel; Krishna, Sudhir

    2003-01-01

    Activated Notch1 (AcN1) alleles cooperate with oncogenes from DNA tumor viruses in transformation of epithelial cells. AcN1 signaling has pleiotropic effects, and suggested oncogenic roles include driving proliferation through cyclin D1 or the generation of resistance to apoptosis on matrix withdrawal through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-PKB/Akt-dependent pathway. Here, we extend the antiapoptotic role for AcN1 by showing inhibition of p53-induced apoptosis and transactivation. Chemical inhibitors of the PI3K pathway block AcN1-induced inhibition of p53-dependent apoptosis and nuclear localization of Hdm2. We show that expression of wild-type p53 does not inhibit synergistic transformation by AcN1 and human papillomavirus E6 and E7 oncogenes. We suggest that activation of Notch signaling may serve as an additional mechanism to inhibit wild-type p53 function in papillomavirus-associated neoplasia. PMID:12768030

  9. Inhibition of HPV-16 E7 oncogenic activity by HPV-16 E2.

    PubMed

    Gammoh, N; Isaacson, E; Tomaić, V; Jackson, D J; Doorbar, J; Banks, L

    2009-06-11

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) E7 is essential in inducing S-phase progression in differentiating epithelial cells. We have previously shown that HPV-16 E7 activity can be controlled by a direct interaction with the viral transcriptional activator E2, thereby inhibiting transforming potential of E7. We have extended these analyses to show that E2 induces a generalized re-localization of E7 within the cell nucleus, one potential consequence of which is the inhibition of E7-induced degradation of pRb. Most importantly, we show that E2 can also inhibit the ability of E7 to induce centrosome abnormalities, thus preventing aberrant mitoses. Taken together, these studies highlight the central importance of E2 in controlling the functions of E7, independently of the ability of E2 to regulate transcription. PMID:19421149

  10. Protein domains governing interactions between E2F, the retinoblastoma gene product, and human papillomavirus type 16 E7 protein.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, P S; Patrick, D R; Edwards, G; Goodhart, P J; Huber, H E; Miles, L; Garsky, V M; Oliff, A; Heimbrook, D C

    1993-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the etiological agents for genital warts and contribute to the development of cervical cancer in humans. The HPV E7 gene product is expressed in these diseases, and the E7 genes from HPV types 16 and 18 contribute to transformation in mammalian cells. Mutation and deletion analysis of this gene suggests that the transforming activity of the protein product resides in the same domain as that which is directly involved in complex formation with the retinoblastoma gene product (pRB). This domain is one of two conserved regions (designated CRI and CRII) shared by E7 and other viral oncoproteins which bind pRB, including adenovirus E1A protein. Binding of HPV type 16 E7 protein to pRB has previously been shown to affect pRB's ability to bind DNA and to form complexes with other cellular proteins. In the current study, we map the functional interaction between E7 protein and pRB by monitoring the association between a 60-kDa version of the pRB, pRB60, and the cellular transcription factor E2F. We observe that CRII of E7 (amino acids 20 to 29), which completely blocks binding of full-length E7 protein, is necessary but not sufficient to inhibit E2F/pRB60 complex formation. While CRI of E1A (amino acids 37 to 55) appears to be sufficient to compete with E2F for binding to pRB60, the equivalent region of E7 is neither necessary nor sufficient. Only E7 fragments that contained both CRII and at least a portion of the zinc-binding domain (amino acids 60 to 98) inhibited E2F/pRB60 complex formation. These results suggest that pRB60 associates with E7 and E2F through overlapping but distinct domains. Images PMID:7678696

  11. Post-Translational Control of IL-1? via the Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E6 Oncoprotein: A Novel Mechanism of Innate Immune Escape Mediated by the E3-Ubiquitin Ligase E6-AP and p53

    PubMed Central

    Niebler, Martina; Qian, Xu; Hfler, Daniela; Kogosov, Vlada; Kaewprag, Jittranan; Kaufmann, Andreas M.; Ly, Regina; Bhmer, Gerd; Zawatzky, Rainer; Rsl, Frank; Rincon-Orozco, Bladimiro

    2013-01-01

    Infections with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are causally involved in the development of anogenital cancer. HPVs apparently evade the innate immune response of their host cells by dysregulating immunomodulatory factors such as cytokines and chemokines, thereby creating a microenvironment that favors malignancy. One central key player in the immune surveillance interactome is interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?) which not only mediates inflammation, but also links innate and adaptive immunity. Because of its pleiotropic physiological effects, IL-1? production is tightly controlled on transcriptional, post-translational and secretory levels. Here, we describe a novel mechanism how the high-risk HPV16 E6 oncoprotein abrogates IL-1? processing and secretion in a NALP3 inflammasome-independent manner. We analyzed IL-1? regulation in immortalized keratinocytes that harbor the HPV16 E6 and/or E7 oncogenes as well as HPV-positive cervical tumor cells. While in primary and in E7-immortalized human keratinocytes the secretion of IL-1? was highly inducible upon inflammasome activation, E6-positive cells did not respond. Western blot analyses revealed a strong reduction of basal intracellular levels of pro-IL-1? that was independent of dysregulation of the NALP3 inflammasome, autophagy or lysosomal activity. Instead, we demonstrate that pro-IL-1? is degraded in a proteasome-dependent manner in E6-positive cells which is mediated via the ubiquitin ligase E6-AP and p53. Conversely, in E6- and E6/E7-immortalized cells pro-IL-1? levels were restored by siRNA knock-down of E6-AP and simultaneous recovery of functional p53. In the context of HPV-induced carcinogenesis, these data suggest a novel post-translational mechanism of pro-IL-1? regulation which ultimately inhibits the secretion of IL-1? in virus-infected keratinocytes. The clinical relevance of our results was further confirmed in HPV-positive tissue samples, where a gradual decrease of IL-1? towards cervical cancer could be discerned. Hence, attenuation of IL-1? by the HPV16 E6 oncoprotein in immortalized cells is apparently a crucial step in viral immune evasion and initiation of malignancy. PMID:23935506

  12. The Curcumin Analogue 1,5-Bis(2-hydroxyphenyl)-1,4-pentadiene-3-one Induces Apoptosis and Downregulates E6 and E7 Oncogene Expression in HPV16 and HPV18-Infected Cervical Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Paulraj, Felicia; Abas, Faridah; Lajis, Nordin H; Othman, Iekhsan; Hassan, Sharifah Syed; Naidu, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to study curcumin analogues as an alternative to improve the therapeutic efficacy of curcumin, we screened the cytotoxic potential of four diarylpentanoids using the HeLa and CaSki cervical cancer cell lines. Determination of their EC50 values indicated relatively higher potency of 1,5-bis(2-hydroxyphenyl)-1,4-pentadiene-3-one (MS17, 1.03 ± 0.5 μM; 2.6 ± 0.9 μM) and 1,5-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,4-pentadiene-3-one (MS13, 2.8 ± 0.4; 6.7 ± 2.4 μM) in CaSki and HeLa, respectively, with significantly greater growth inhibition at 48 and 72 h of treatment compared to the other analogues or curcumin. Based on cytotoxic and anti-proliferative activity, MS17 was selected for comprehensive apoptotic studies. At 24 h of treatment, fluorescence microscopy detected that MS17-exposed cells exhibited significant morphological changes consistent with apoptosis, corroborated by an increase in nucleosomal enrichment due to DNA fragmentation in HeLa and CaSki cells and activation of caspase-3 activity in CaSki cells. Quantitative real-time PCR also detected significant down-regulation of HPV18- and HPV16-associated E6 and E7 oncogene expression following treatment. The overall data suggests that MS17 treatment has cytotoxic, anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing potential in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells. Furthermore, its role in down-regulation of HPV-associated oncogenes responsible for cancer progression merits further investigation into its chemotherapeutic role for cervical cancer. PMID:26132907

  13. Karyopherin {beta}3: A new cellular target for the HPV-16 E5 oncoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Krawczyk, Ewa; Hanover, John A.; Schlegel, Richard; Suprynowicz, Frank A.

    2008-07-11

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have shown that high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the causative agents of cervical cancer worldwide, and that HPV-16 is associated with more than half of these cases. In addition to the well-characterized E6 and E7 oncoproteins of HPV-16, recent evidence increasingly has implicated the HPV-16 E5 protein (16E5) as an important mediator of oncogenic transformation. Since 16E5 has no known intrinsic enzymatic activity, its effects on infected cells are most likely mediated by interactions with various cellular proteins and/or its documented association with lipid rafts. In the present study, we describe a new cellular target that binds to 16E5 in COS cells and in stable human ectocervical cell lines. This target is karyopherin {beta}3, a member of the nuclear import receptor family with critical roles in the nuclear import of ribosomal proteins and in the secretory pathway.

  14. Proliferation of cells and expression of RARs, RXRs and HPV viral E6 and E7 proteins in cervical cancer cell lines after treatment with ATRA.

    PubMed

    Myga-Nowak, Magdalena; Pacholska-Bogalska, Joanna; Kwaśniewski, Wojciech; Kwaśniewska, Anna; Goździcka-Józefiak, Anna

    2011-01-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is considered to be a potential chemotherapeutic drug due to its capability to regulate cell growth and differentiation. The effects of ATRA on the proliferation of cells and gene regulation are mediated by retinoid receptors (RAR and RXR), which belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand- inducible transcription factors. ATRA can act either as a growth inhibitor or growth promoter, according to the functional state of retinoic receptors. Thus, we have established the effect of ATRA on the proliferation of cervical cancer cells line HeLa and CaSki and expression of retinoids receptors as well as the viral HPV oncogenic proteins E6 and E7. ATRA had no effect on proliferation CaSki cells, but it stimulated the growth of HeLa cells, which depended on the incubation time and the concentration of ATRA in cell culture. The overexpression of RAR alpha in HeLa cells after the administration of 10(-7) mM ATRA was also observed 72 hours, and the decrease of CaSki by 60-90%. In the study of cervical cancer cell lines, the very low levels of other endogenous RAR and RXR receptors were observed. ATRA does not repress the expression of two viral oncoproteins E6 and E7 HPV16/18, which play a key role in carcinogenesis of the cervix. Our results support the suggestions that the cell response to vitamin A, and other retinoids in the diet, may depend on cell type, and that the cancer cells are differentially resistant to retinoids. Thus, despite the important biological functions of retinoids, the effects of retinoids in a supplementation in supra-physiological doses as well as their physiological action are difficult to define. PMID:21736279

  15. Intravaginal HPV DNA vaccination with electroporation induces local CD8+ T-cell immune responses and antitumor effects against cervicovaginal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Y; Peng, S; Qiu, J; Miao, J; Yang, B; Jeang, J; Hung, C-F; Wu, T-C

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines have the potential to inhibit the progression of an established HPV infection to precancer and cancer lesions by targeting HPV oncoproteins. We have previously developed a therapeutic DNA vaccine encoding calreticulin (CRT) linked to E7, CRT/E7 DNA vaccine, for use in the treatment of HPV-associated lesions. Since the transfection efficiency of DNA vaccines administered in vivo is typically low, we examined the use of electroporation as well as different routes of administration to enhance antigen-specific tumor control. We tested the effects of the CRT/E7 DNA vaccine administered intramuscularly or intravaginally, with or without electroporation, on the generation of CD8+ T-cell immunity and therapeutic antitumor effects in HPV16 E7-expressing cervicovaginal tumor-bearing mice. We found that intravaginal vaccination of CRT/E7 DNA followed by electroporation-induced potent E7-specific CD8+ T-cell responses in the cervicovaginal tract, compared with intramuscular injection followed by electroporation. Furthermore, tumor-bearing mice vaccinated intravaginally followed by electroporation had an enhanced survival, antitumor effects and local production of IFN-γ+CD8+ T cells compared with those vaccinated intramuscularly with electroporation. Thus, we show that intravaginal CRT/E7 DNA vaccination followed by electroporation generates the most potent therapeutic antitumor effects against an orthotopic E7-expressing tumor model. The current study will have significant clinical implications once a clinically applicable electroporation device for intravaginal use becomes available. PMID:25786869

  16. Intravaginal HPV DNA vaccination with electroporation induces local CD8+ T-cell immune responses and antitumor effects against cervicovaginal tumors.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Peng, S; Qiu, J; Miao, J; Yang, B; Jeang, J; Hung, C-F; Wu, T-C

    2015-07-01

    Therapeutic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines have the potential to inhibit the progression of an established HPV infection to precancer and cancer lesions by targeting HPV oncoproteins. We have previously developed a therapeutic DNA vaccine encoding calreticulin (CRT) linked to E7, CRT/E7 DNA vaccine, for use in the treatment of HPV-associated lesions. Since the transfection efficiency of DNA vaccines administered in vivo is typically low, we examined the use of electroporation as well as different routes of administration to enhance antigen-specific tumor control. We tested the effects of the CRT/E7 DNA vaccine administered intramuscularly or intravaginally, with or without electroporation, on the generation of CD8+ T-cell immunity and therapeutic antitumor effects in HPV16 E7-expressing cervicovaginal tumor-bearing mice. We found that intravaginal vaccination of CRT/E7 DNA followed by electroporation-induced potent E7-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses in the cervicovaginal tract, compared with intramuscular injection followed by electroporation. Furthermore, tumor-bearing mice vaccinated intravaginally followed by electroporation had an enhanced survival, antitumor effects and local production of IFN-?+CD8+ T cells compared with those vaccinated intramuscularly with electroporation. Thus, we show that intravaginal CRT/E7 DNA vaccination followed by electroporation generates the most potent therapeutic antitumor effects against an orthotopic E7-expressing tumor model. The current study will have significant clinical implications once a clinically applicable electroporation device for intravaginal use becomes available. PMID:25786869

  17. Functional diversity and mutational analysis of Agrobacterium 6B oncoproteins.

    PubMed

    Helfer, A; Pien, S; Otten, L

    2002-07-01

    Many Agrobacterium T-DNA genes belong to a diverse family of T-DNA genes, the rolB family. These genes cause various growth abnormalities but their modes of action remain largely unknown. So far, none of the RolB-like proteins has been subjected to mutational analysis. The RolB-like oncoprotein 6B, which induces tumours on species such as Nicotiana glauca and Kalanchoe tubiflora, was chosen to investigate the role of the most conserved amino acid residues within the RolB family. We first determined which of the natural 6B variants had the strongest oncogenic activity; to this end, six 6b coding sequences (A- 6b, AB- 6b, C- 6b, CG- 6b, S- 6b and T- 6b) were placed under the control of the strong constitutive 2x35S promoter and compared for tumour induction on N. glauca, N. tabacum and K. daigremontiana. Oncogenicity increased in the order C- 6b/CG- 6b, A- 6b/AB- 6b, and S- 6b/T- 6b. The most conserved amino acid residues in the strongly oncogenic T-6B protein were mutated and shown to be required for oncogenicity and accumulation of the T-6B protein in planta but not in bacteria. Hybrids between T-6B and the weakly oncogenic A-6B protein revealed an additional oncogenic determinant required for the formation of large tumours. PMID:12172796

  18. E7 properties of mucosal human papillomavirus types 26, 53 and 66 correlate with their intermediate risk for cervical cancer development

    SciTech Connect

    Mansour, Mariam; Touka, Majid; Hasan, Uzma; Bellopede, Angelica; Smet, Anouk; Accardi, Rosita; Gabet, Anne-Sophie; Sylla, Bakary S.; Tommasino, Massimo

    2007-10-10

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that 15 different mucosal human papillomavirus (HPV) types of the genus alpha of the HPV phylogetic tree are classified as high risk for cervical cancer development. Three additional HPV types of the same genus, HPV26, 53 and 66, are classified as probable high-risk types. In this study, we have characterized the biological properties of the E7 oncoproteins from these three HPV types. All of the corresponding E7 proteins were able to associate with retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and up-regulated the expression of several positive cell cycle regulators, i.e. CDK2, cyclin A and cylin E. However, HPV26 E7 appears to be more efficient than HPV53 and 66 E7 in up-regulating the transcription of cyclin A. Unlike E7 from the high-risk type HPV16 protein, HPV26, 53 and 66 did not efficiently promote pRb degradation. In addition, E7 from these viruses was able to promote proliferation of primary human keratinocytes and circumvent G1 arrest imposed by overexpression of p16{sup INK4a}, but with less efficiency than the high-risk HPV16 E7. Together, our data show that in vitro properties of these E7 proteins correlate with the epidemiological classification of HPV26, 53 and 66 as HPV types with an intermediate risk for cervical cancer development.

  19. Abrogation of the Postmitotic Checkpoint Contributes to Polyploidization in Human Papillomavirus E7-Expressing Cells ▿

    PubMed Central

    Heilman, Susan A.; Nordberg, Joshua J.; Liu, Yingwang; Sluder, Greenfield; Chen, Jason J.

    2009-01-01

    High-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) are considered the major causative agents of cervical carcinoma. The transforming ability of HPV resides in the E6 and E7 oncogenes, yet the pathway to transformation is not well understood. Cells expressing the oncogene E7 from high-risk HPVs have a high incidence of polyploidy, which has been shown to occur as an early event in cervical carcinogenesis and predisposes the cells to aneuploidy. The mechanism through which E7 contributes to polyploidy is not known. It has been hypothesized that E7 induces polyploidy in response to mitotic stress by abrogating the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint. It was also proposed that E7 may stimulate rereplication to induce polyploidy. We have tested these hypotheses by using human epithelial cells in which E7 expression induces a significant amount of polyploidy. We find that E7-expressing cells undergo normal mitoses with an intact spindle assembly checkpoint and that they are able to complete cytokinesis. Our results also exclude DNA rereplication as a major mechanism of polyploidization in E7-expressing cells upon microtubule disruption. Instead, we have shown that while normal cells arrest at the postmitotic checkpoint after adaptation to the spindle assembly checkpoint, E7-expressing cells replicate their DNA and propagate as polyploid cells. Thus, abrogation of the postmitotic checkpoint leads to polyploidy formation in E7-expressing human epithelial cells. Our results suggest that downregulation of pRb is important for E7 to induce polyploidy and abrogation of the postmitotic checkpoint. PMID:19129456

  20. Gene expression in RET/PTC3 and E7 transgenic mouse thyroids: RET/PTC3 but not E7 tumors are partial and transient models of human papillary thyroid cancers.

    PubMed

    Burniat, Agnès; Jin, Ling; Detours, Vincent; Driessens, Natacha; Goffard, Jean-Christophe; Santoro, Massimo; Rothstein, Jay; Dumont, Jacques E; Miot, Françoise; Corvilain, Bernard

    2008-10-01

    We studied gene expression profiles in two mouse models of human thyroid carcinoma: the Tg-RET/PTC3 (RP3) and Tg-E7 mice. RP3 fusion gene is the most frequent mutation found in the first wave post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid cancers (PTCs). E7 is an oncoprotein derived from the human papillomavirus 16 responsible for most cervical carcinoma in women. Both transgenic mice develop thyroid hyperplasia followed by solid differentiated carcinoma in older animals. To understand the different steps leading to carcinoma, we analyzed thyroid gene expression in both strains at different ages by microarray technology. Important biological processes were differentially regulated in the two tumor types. In E7 thyroids, cell cycle was the most up-regulated process, an observation consistent with the huge size of these tumors. In RP3 thyroids, contrary to E7 tumors, several human PTC characteristics were observed: overexpression of many immune-related genes, regulation of human PTC markers, up-regulation of EGF-like growth factors and significant regulation of angiogenesis and extracellular matrix remodeling-related genes. However, similarities were incomplete; they did not concern the overall gene expression and were not conserved in old animals. Therefore, RP3 tumors are partial and transient models of human PTC. They constitute a good model, especially in young animals, to study the respective role of the biological processes shared with human PTC and will allow testing drugs targeting these validated variables. PMID:18583418

  1. The association of mammalian DREAM complex and HPV16 E7 proteins

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Nurshamimi Nor; Rothan, Hussin A; Yusoff, Mohd Shahrizal Mohd

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian DREAM (Drosophila, RB, E2F, and Myb) complex was discovered in 2004 by several research groups. It was initially identified in Drosophila followed by Caenorhaditis elegans and later in mammalian cells. The composition of DREAM is temporally regulated during cell cycle; being associated with E2F-4 and either p107 or p130 in G0/G1 (repressive DREAM complexes) and with B-myb transcription factor in S/G2 (activator DREAM complex). High risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncoproteins expression are important for malignant transformation of cervical cancer cells. In particular, the E7 of high risk HPV binds to pRB family members (pRB, p107 and p130) for degradation. It has recently been discovered that the p107 and p130 ‘pocket proteins’ are members of mammalian DREAM complexes. With this understanding, we would like to hypothesise the mammalian DREAM complex could plays a critical role for malignant transformation in cervical cancer cells. PMID:26885443

  2. Expressions of E2 and E7-HPV16 proteins in pre-malignant and malignant lesions of the uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, N; Guerra, F; Camporeale, G; Quintana, S; Diaz, L B; Cuneo, N; Villacorta Hidalgo, J; Tatti, S A; Alonso, L G; Borkosky, S S; Prat Gay, G; Palaoro, L

    2015-01-01

    Continuous production of the E7 protein from different types of high risk human papilloma virus (HPV) is required for progression of malignancy. We developed antibodies against HPV type 16 E7 and E2 proteins to evaluate their utility as markers for diagnosis during early stages of cervical cancer. Forty biopsies from uterine cervices were diagnosed as low grade intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), high grade intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), squamous carcinoma (SC), in situ adenocarcinoma (ISA) and invasive adenocarcinoma (AC), all of which were infected with HPV 16. Immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the expressions of E7 and E2 (both from HPV 16) and p16. P16 was expressed in eight of 12 LSILs, in all HSILs, in 16 of 18 SC and in all ACs. E2 was expressed in six of 12 LSILs. E7 was positive in eight of 12 LSILs and in all HSIL and carcinomas. The expressions of E2 and E7 of HPV16 related to p16 expression confirmed the value of the viral oncogenic proteins as complementary to histology and support the carcinogenic model of the uterine cervix, because HPVDNA integration into cellular DNA implies the destruction of the gene encoding E2, which suppresses the expression of the E6 and E7 oncoproteins. E2 from HPV16 could be marker for LSILs, while E7 could be a marker for progression of LSILs to HSILs in patients infected by HPV16, because viral typing has little positive predictive value. PMID:26052817

  3. The Ski oncoprotein interacts with the Smad proteins to repress TGFbeta signaling.

    PubMed

    Luo, K; Stroschein, S L; Wang, W; Chen, D; Martens, E; Zhou, S; Zhou, Q

    1999-09-01

    Smad proteins are critical signal transducers downstream of the receptors of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) superfamily. On phosphorylation and activation by the active TGFbeta receptor complex, Smad2 and Smad3 form hetero-oligomers with Smad4 and translocate into the nucleus, where they interact with different cellular partners, bind to DNA, regulate transcription of various downstream response genes, and cross-talk with other signaling pathways. Here we show that a nuclear oncoprotein, Ski, can interact directly with Smad2, Smad3, and Smad4 on a TGFbeta-responsive promoter element and repress their abilities to activate transcription through recruitment of the nuclear transcriptional corepressor N-CoR and possibly its associated histone deacetylase complex. Overexpression of Ski in a TGFbeta-responsive cell line renders it resistant to TGFbeta-induced growth inhibition and defective in activation of JunB expression. This ability to overcome TGFbeta-induced growth arrest may be responsible for the transforming activity of Ski in human and avian cancer cells. Our studies suggest a new paradigm for inactivation of the Smad proteins by an oncoprotein through transcriptional repression. PMID:10485843

  4. Degradation of nuclear oncoproteins by the ubiquitin system in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Ciechanover, A.; Bercovich, B.; Orian, A. ); DiGiuseppe, J.A.; Schwartz, A.L.; Brodeur, G.M. ); Richter, J.D. )

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear oncoproteins are among the most rapidly degraded intracellular proteins. Previous work has implicated the ubiquitin-mediated proteolytic system in the turnover of short-lived intracellular proteins. In the present study, the authors have evaluated the potential role of the ubiquitin system in the degradation of the specific nuclear oncoproteins encoded by the N-myc, c-myc, c-fos, p53, and E1A genes. Each of these nuclear oncoproteins was synthesized in vitro by transcription of the appropriate cDNA and translation of the resulting mRNA in the presence of ({sup 35}S)methionine. Degradation of labeled proteins was monitored in the ubiquitin cell-free system. ATP stimulated the degradation of all the proteins between 3- and 10-fold. The degradation was completely inhibited by neutralizing antibody directed against the ubiquitin-activating enzyme, E{sub 1}, the first enzyme in the ubiquitin-mediated proteolytic cascade. Morever, degradation in E{sub 1}-depleted lysates could be restored in each case by the addition of affinity-purified E{sub 1}. These data suggest that the ubiquitin system mediates the degradation of these oncoproteins in vitro. Degradation of other proteins, such as superoxide dismutase, cytochrome c, enolase, RNase A, and ornithine decarboxylase, is not mediated by the ubiquitin cell-free system. This suggests that the nuclear oncoproteins studies here possess specific signals that target them for rapid turnover by this proteolytic pathway. Furthermore, the relative sensitivity to degradation of various E1A mutants in vivo is also maintained in the cell-free system, suggesting that the ubiquitin pathway may play a role in the cellular degradation of these proteins as well.

  5. The Msi Family of RNA-Binding Proteins Function Redundantly as Intestinal Oncoproteins.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Yousefi, Maryam; Nakauka-Ddamba, Angela; Li, Fan; Vandivier, Lee; Parada, Kimberly; Woo, Dong-Hun; Wang, Shan; Naqvi, Ammar S; Rao, Shilpa; Tobias, John; Cedeno, Ryan J; Minuesa, Gerard; Y, Katz; Barlowe, Trevor S; Valvezan, Alexander; Shankar, Sheila; Deering, Raquel P; Klein, Peter S; Jensen, Shane T; Kharas, Michael G; Gregory, Brian D; Yu, Zhengquan; Lengner, Christopher J

    2015-12-22

    Members of the Msi family of RNA-binding proteins have recently emerged as potent oncoproteins in a range of malignancies. MSI2 is highly expressed in hematopoietic cancers, where it is required for disease maintenance. In contrast to the hematopoietic system, colorectal cancers can express both Msi family members, MSI1 and MSI2. Here, we demonstrate that, in the intestinal epithelium, Msi1 and Msi2 have analogous oncogenic effects. Further, comparison of Msi1/2-induced gene expression programs and transcriptome-wide analyses of Msi1/2-RNA-binding targets reveal significant functional overlap, including induction of the PDK-Akt-mTORC1 axis. Ultimately, we demonstrate that concomitant loss of function of both MSI family members is sufficient to abrogate the growth of human colorectal cancer cells, and Msi gene deletion inhibits tumorigenesis in several mouse models of intestinal cancer. Our findings demonstrate that MSI1 and MSI2 act as functionally redundant oncoproteins required for the ontogeny of intestinal cancers. PMID:26673327

  6. Epstein-Barr virus oncoprotein super-enhancers control B cell growth.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hufeng; Schmidt, Stefanie C S; Jiang, Sizun; Willox, Bradford; Bernhardt, Katharina; Liang, Jun; Johannsen, Eric C; Kharchenko, Peter; Gewurz, Benjamin E; Kieff, Elliott; Zhao, Bo

    2015-02-11

    Super-enhancers are clusters of gene-regulatory sites bound by multiple transcription factors that govern cell transcription, development, phenotype, and oncogenesis. By examining Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), we identified four EBV oncoproteins and five EBV-activated NF-κB subunits co-occupying ∼1,800 enhancer sites. Of these, 187 had markedly higher and broader histone H3K27ac signals, characteristic of super-enhancers, and were designated "EBV super-enhancers." EBV super-enhancer-associated genes included the MYC and BCL2 oncogenes, which enable LCL proliferation and survival. EBV super-enhancers were enriched for B cell transcription factor motifs and had high co-occupancy of STAT5 and NFAT transcription factors (TFs). EBV super-enhancer-associated genes were more highly expressed than other LCL genes. Disrupting EBV super-enhancers by the bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 or conditionally inactivating an EBV oncoprotein or NF-κB decreased MYC or BCL2 expression and arrested LCL growth. These findings provide insight into mechanisms of EBV-induced lymphoproliferation and identify potential therapeutic interventions. PMID:25639793

  7. Epstein-Barr Virus oncoprotein super-enhancers control B cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hufeng; Schmidt, Stefanie CS; Jiang, Sizun; Willox, Bradford; Bernhardt, Katharina; Liang, Jun; Johannsen, Eric C; Kharchenko, Peter; Gewurz, Benjamin E; Kieff, Elliott; Zhao, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Summary Super-enhancers are clusters of gene-regulatory sites bound by multiple transcription factors that govern cell transcription, development, phenotype, and oncogenesis. By examining Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), we identified four EBV oncoproteins and five EBV-activated NF-κB subunits co-occupying ~1800 enhancer sites. Of these, 187 had markedly higher and broader histone H3K27ac signals characteristic of super-enhancers, and were designated “EBV super-enhancers”. EBV super-enhancer-associated genes included the MYC and BCL2 oncogenes, enabling LCL proliferation and survival. EBV super-enhancers were enriched for B cell transcription factor motifs and had a high co-occupancy of the transcription factors STAT5 and NFAT. EBV super-enhancer-associated genes were more highly expressed than other LCL genes. Disrupting EBV super-enhancers by the bromodomain inhibitor, JQ1 or conditionally inactivating an EBV oncoprotein or NF-κB decreased MYC or BCL2 expression and arrested LCL growth. These findings provide insight into mechanisms of EBV-induced lymphoproliferation and identify potential therapeutic interventions. PMID:25639793

  8. Interaction of the Ski oncoprotein with Smad3 regulates TGF-beta signaling.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Liu, X; Eaton, E N; Lane, W S; Lodish, H F; Weinberg, R A

    1999-10-01

    TGF-beta treatment of cells induces a variety of physiologic responses, including growth inhibition, differentiation, and induction of apoptosis. TGF-beta induces phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of Smad3. We describe here the association of Smad3 with the nuclear protooncogene protein Ski in response to the activation of TGF-beta signaling. Association with Ski represses transcriptional activation by Smad3, and overexpression of Ski renders cells resistant to the growth-inhibitory effects of TGF-beta. The transcriptional repression as well as the growth resistance to TGF-beta by overexpression of Ski can be overcome by overexpression of Smad3. These results demonstrate that Ski is a novel component of the TGF-beta signaling pathway and shed light on the mechanism of action of the Ski oncoprotein. PMID:10549282

  9. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax1 oncoprotein but not HTLV-2 Tax2 induces the expression of OX40 ligand by interacting with p52/p100 and RelB.

    PubMed

    Motai, Yosuke; Takahashi, Masahiko; Takachi, Takayuki; Higuchi, Masaya; Hara, Toshifumi; Mizuguchi, Mariko; Aoyagi, Yutaka; Terai, Shuji; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Fujii, Masahiro

    2016-02-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a causative retrovirus of adult T-cell leukemia and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy. Unlike HTLV-1, the same group of retrovirus HTLV-2 has not been found to be associated with these diseases. HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 encode transforming proteins Tax1 and Tax2, and a few distinct activities of Tax1 from those of Tax2 have been proposed to contribute to the HTLV-1-specific pathogenesis of disease. One significant difference of Tax1 from Tax2 is the activation of transcription factor NF-κB2/p100/p52. We found that Tax1 but not Tax2 induces the expression of OX40 ligand (OX40L) in a human T-cell line. To induce the OX40L expression, Tax1 but not Tax2 was observed to interact with NF-κB2/p100/p52 and RelB and the distinct interaction activity was mediated by the Tax1 amino acid region of 225-232. In addition, Tax1 but not Tax2 or Tax1/225-232 interacted with p65, p50, and c-Rel; however, the interactions were much less than those noted with NF-κB2/p100/p52 and RelB. OX40L is a T-cell costimulatory molecule of the tumor necrosis factor family, and its signal plays a critical role in establishing adaptive immunity by inducing the polarized differentiation of T-cells to cells such as T helper type 2 and T follicular helper cells. Therefore, the present findings suggest that Tax1 might alter the immune response to HTLV-1 and/or differentiation of HTLV-1-infected T-cells via OX40L induction, thereby acting as a factor mediating the distinct phenotypes and pathogenesis of HTLV-1 from that of HTLV-2. PMID:26739459

  10. NSD3-NUT Fusion Oncoprotein in NUT Midline Carcinoma: Implications for a Novel Oncogenic Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    French, Christopher A.; Rahman, Shaila; Walsh, Erica M.; Kühnle, Simone; Grayson, Adlai R.; Lemieux, Madeleine E.; Grunfeld, Noam; Rubin, Brian P.; Antonescu, Cristina R.; Zhang, Songlin; Venkatramani, Rajkumar; Cin, Paola Dal; Howley, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    NUT midline carcinoma (NMC) is an aggressive subtype of squamous cell carcinoma that typically harbors BRD4/3-NUT fusion oncoproteins that block differentiation and maintain tumor growth. In 20% of cases NUT is fused to uncharacterized non-BRD gene(s). We established a new patient-derived NMC cell line (1221) and demonstrated that it harbors a novel NSD3-NUT fusion oncogene. We find that NSD3-NUT is both necessary and sufficient for the blockade of differentiation and maintenance of proliferation in NMC cells. NSD3-NUT binds to BRD4, and BRD bromodomain inhibitors induce differentiation and arrest proliferation of 1221 cells. We find further that NSD3 is required for the blockade of differentiation in BRD4-NUT-expressing NMCs. These findings identify NSD3 as a novel critical oncogenic component and potential therapeutic target in NMC. PMID:24875858

  11. Human Papillomavirus E6/E7-Specific siRNA Potentiates the Effect of Radiotherapy for Cervical Cancer in Vitro and in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hun Soon; Rajasekaran, Nirmal; Song, Sang Yong; Kim, Young Deug; Hong, Sungyoul; Choi, Hyuck Jae; Kim, Young Seok; Choi, Jong-Sun; Choi, Yoon-La; Shin, Young Kee

    2015-01-01

    The functional inactivation of TP53 and Rb tumor suppressor proteins by the HPV-derived E6 and E7 oncoproteins is likely an important step in cervical carcinogenesis. We have previously shown siRNA technology to selectively silence both E6/E7 oncogenes and demonstrated that the synthetic siRNAs could specifically block its expression in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells. Herein, we investigated the potentiality of E6/E7 siRNA candidates as radiosensitizers of radiotherapy for the human cervical carcinomas. HeLa and SiHa cells were transfected with HPV E6/E7 siRNA; the combined cytotoxic effect of E6/E7 siRNA and radiation was assessed by using the cell viability assay, flow cytometric analysis and the senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal) assay. In addition, we also investigated the effect of combined therapy with irradiation and E6/E7 siRNA intravenous injection in an in vivo xenograft model. Combination therapy with siRNA and irradiation efficiently retarded tumor growth in established tumors of human cervical cancer cell xenografted mice. In addition, the chemically-modified HPV16 and 18 E6/E7 pooled siRNA in combination with irradiation strongly inhibited the growth of cervical cancer cells. Our results indicated that simultaneous inhibition of HPV E6/E7 oncogene expression with radiotherapy can promote potent antitumor activity and radiosensitizing activity in human cervical carcinomas. PMID:26035754

  12. Human Papillomavirus E6/E7-Specific siRNA Potentiates the Effect of Radiotherapy for Cervical Cancer in Vitro and in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hun Soon; Rajasekaran, Nirmal; Song, Sang Yong; Kim, Young Deug; Hong, Sungyoul; Choi, Hyuck Jae; Kim, Young Seok; Choi, Jong-Sun; Choi, Yoon-La; Shin, Young Kee

    2015-01-01

    The functional inactivation of TP53 and Rb tumor suppressor proteins by the HPV-derived E6 and E7 oncoproteins is likely an important step in cervical carcinogenesis. We have previously shown siRNA technology to selectively silence both E6/E7 oncogenes and demonstrated that the synthetic siRNAs could specifically block its expression in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells. Herein, we investigated the potentiality of E6/E7 siRNA candidates as radiosensitizers of radiotherapy for the human cervical carcinomas. HeLa and SiHa cells were transfected with HPV E6/E7 siRNA; the combined cytotoxic effect of E6/E7 siRNA and radiation was assessed by using the cell viability assay, flow cytometric analysis and the senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal) assay. In addition, we also investigated the effect of combined therapy with irradiation and E6/E7 siRNA intravenous injection in an in vivo xenograft model. Combination therapy with siRNA and irradiation efficiently retarded tumor growth in established tumors of human cervical cancer cell xenografted mice. In addition, the chemically-modified HPV16 and 18 E6/E7 pooled siRNA in combination with irradiation strongly inhibited the growth of cervical cancer cells. Our results indicated that simultaneous inhibition of HPV E6/E7 oncogene expression with radiotherapy can promote potent antitumor activity and radiosensitizing activity in human cervical carcinomas. PMID:26035754

  13. Fowlpox virus recombinants expressing HPV-16 E6 and E7 oncogenes for the therapy of cervical carcinoma elicit humoral and cell-mediated responses in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Around half million new cases of cervical cancer arise each year, making the development of an effective therapeutic vaccine against HPV a high priority. As the E6 and E7 oncoproteins are expressed in all HPV-16 tumour cells, vaccines expressing these proteins might clear an already established tumour and support the treatment of HPV-related precancerous lesions. Methods Three different immunisation regimens were tested in a pre-clinical trial in rabbits to evaluate the humoral and cell-mediated responses of a putative HPV-16 vaccine. Fowlpoxvirus (FP) recombinants separately expressing the HPV-16 E6 (FPE6) and E7 (FPE7) transgenes were used for priming, followed by E7 protein boosting. Results All of the protocols were effective in eliciting a high antibody response. This was also confirmed by interleukin-4 production, which increased after simultaneous priming with both FPE6 and FPE7 and after E7 protein boost. A cell-mediated immune response was also detected in most of the animals. Conclusion These results establish a preliminary profile for the therapy with the combined use of avipox recombinants, which may represent safer immunogens than vaccinia-based vectors in immuno-compromised individuals, as they express the transgenes in most mammalian cells in the absence of a productive replication. PMID:20409340

  14. Cell Cycle Regulatory Functions of the KSHV Oncoprotein LANA

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Fang; Gan, Jin; Wang, Chong; Zhu, Caixia; Cai, Qiliang

    2016-01-01

    Manipulation of cell cycle is a commonly employed strategy of viruses for achieving a favorable cellular environment during infection. Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), the primary etiological agent of several human malignancies including Kaposi’s sarcoma, and primary effusion lymphoma, encodes several oncoproteins that deregulate normal physiology of cell cycle machinery to persist with endothelial cells and B cells and subsequently establish a latent infection. During latency, only a small subset of viral proteins is expressed. Latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) is one of the latent antigens shown to be essential for transformation of endothelial cells in vitro. It has been well demonstrated that LANA is critical for the maintenance of latency, episome DNA replication, segregation and gene transcription. In this review, we summarize recent studies and address how LANA functions as an oncoprotein to steer host cell cycle-related events including proliferation and apoptosis by interacting with various cellular and viral factors, and highlight the potential therapeutic strategy of disrupting LANA-dependent signaling as targets in KSHV-associated cancers. PMID:27065950

  15. Cysteine-rich positions outside the structural zinc motif of human papillomavirus E7 provide conformational modulation and suggest functional redox roles.

    PubMed

    Chemes, Lucía B; Camporeale, Gabriela; Sánchez, Ignacio E; de Prat-Gay, Gonzalo; Alonso, Leonardo G

    2014-03-18

    The E7 protein from high-risk human papillomavirus is essential for cell transformation in cervical, oropharyngeal, and other HPV-related cancers, mainly through the inactivation of the retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor. Its high cysteine content (~7%) and the observation that HPV-transformed cells are under oxidative stress prompted us to investigate the redox properties of the HPV16 E7 protein under biologically compatible oxidative conditions. The seven cysteines in HPV16 E7 remain reduced in conditions resembling the basal reduced state of a cell. However, under oxidative stress, a stable disulfide bridge forms between cysteines 59 and 68. Residue 59 has a protective effect on the other cysteines, and its mutation leads to an overall increase in the oxidation propensity of E7, including cysteine 24 central to the Rb binding motif. Gluthationylation of Cys 24 abolishes Rb binding, which is reversibly recovered upon reduction. Cysteines 59 and 68 are located 18.6 Å apart, and the formation of the disulfide bridge leads to a large structural rearrangement while retaining strong Zn association. These conformational and covalent changes are fully reversible upon restoration of the reductive environment. In addition, this is the first evidence of an interaction between the N-terminal intrinsically disordered and the C-terminal globular domains, known to be highly and separately conserved among human papillomaviruses. The significant conservation of such noncanonical cysteines in HPV E7 proteins leads us to propose a functional redox activity. Such an activity adds to the previously discovered chaperone activity of E7 and supports the picture of a moonlighting pathological role of this paradigmatic viral oncoprotein. PMID:24559112

  16. TRIP-Br1 oncoprotein inhibits autophagy, apoptosis, and necroptosis under nutrient/serum-deprived condition

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Jingjing; Lee, Soonduck; Kim, Kyeri; Park, Yeonji; Yang, Young; Kim, Keun-Il; Lim, Jong-Seok; Cheon, Chung-Il; Kang, Young-Sook; Lee, Myeong-Sok

    2015-01-01

    TRIP-Br1 oncogenic protein has been shown to have multiple biological functions in cells. In this study, we demonstrate that TRIP-Br1 functions as an oncoprotein by inhibiting autophagy, apoptosis, and necroptosis of cancer cells and eventually helping them to survive under the nutrient/serum starved condition. TRIP-Br1 expression level was significantly increased in conditions with low levels of nutrients. Nutrient depleted conditions were induced by culturing cancer cells until they were overcrowded with high cell density or in media deprived of glucose, amino acids, or serum. Among them, serum starvation significantly enhanced the expression of TRIP-Br1 only in all tested breast cancer cell lines (MCF7, MDA-MB-231, T47D, MDA-MB-435, Hs578D, BT549, and MDA-MB-435) but not in the three normal cell lines (MCF10A, HfCH8, and NIH3T3). As compared with the control cells, the introduction of TRIP-Br1 silencing siRNA into MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells accelerated cell death by inducing apoptosis and necroptosis. In this process, TRIP-Br1 confers resistance to serum starvation-induced cell deaths by stabilizing the XIAP protein and inhibiting cellular ROS production. Moreover, our data also show that the intracellular increase of TRIP-Br1 protein resulting from serum starvation seems to occur in part through the blockage of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. PMID:26334958

  17. Clastogenic effect of the human T-cell leukemia virus type I Tax oncoprotein correlates with unstabilized DNA breaks.

    PubMed

    Majone, F; Jeang, K T

    2000-10-20

    Expression of the human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) Tax oncoprotein rapidly engenders DNA damage as reflected in a significant increase of micronuclei (MN) in cells. To understand better this phenomenon, we have investigated the DNA content of MN induced by Tax. Using an approach that we termed FISHI, fluorescent in situ hybridization and incorporation, we attempted to characterize MN with centric or acentric DNA fragments for the presence or absence of free 3'-OH ends. Free 3'-OH ends were defined as those ends accessible to in situ addition of digoxigenin-dUTP using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. MN were also assessed for centromeric sequences using standard fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Combining these results, we determined that Tax oncoprotein increased the frequency of MN containing centric DNA with free 3'-OH and decreased the frequency of MN containing DNA fragments that had incorporation-inaccessible 3'-ends. Recently, it has been suggested that intracellular DNA breaks without detectable 3'-OH ends are stabilized by the protective addition of telomeric caps, while breaks with freely detectable 3'-OH are uncapped and are labile to degradation, incomplete replication, and loss during cell division. Accordingly, based on increased detection of free 3'-OH-containing DNA fragments, we concluded that HTLV-I Tax interferes with protective cellular mechanism(s) used normally for stabilizing DNA breaks. PMID:10969065

  18. The HBx oncoprotein of hepatitis B virus engages nucleophosmin to promote rDNA transcription and cellular proliferation.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Richa; Kapoor, Neetu Rohit; Kumar, Vijay

    2015-08-01

    The pleiotropic HBx oncoprotein of hepatitis B virus is well known to promote the expression of ribosomal RNAs and several host proteins that are known to support the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). While overexpression of the nucleolar phosphoprotein, nucleophosmin (NPM), correlates with HCC progression, its upregulation by viral HBx and the resulting impact on perturbed nucleolar functions remain enigmatic. The present study shows that HBx up-regulates NPM levels and hijacks its functions to promote cellular proliferation. We found that HBx expression stabilizes NPM through post-translational modifications. Enhanced CDK2-mediated phosphorylation of NPM at Thr199 upon HBx expression prevented its proteolytic cleavage and provided resistance to apoptosis. Further, HBx directly interacted with the C-terminal domain of NPM and got translocated into the nucleolus where it facilitated the recruitment of RNA polymerase I transcriptional machinery onto the rDNA promoter. Our results indicate that HBx enhances rDNA transcription via a novel regulatory mechanism involving acetylation of NPM and the subsequent depletion of histones from the rDNA promoter. Enhanced production of ribosomal RNA resulting from co-expression of HBx and NPM promoted ribosome biogenesis, cellular proliferation and transformation. Taken together, our study strongly suggests an important role of NPM in mediating the oncogenic effects of HBx and the corresponding nucleolar perturbations induced by this viral oncoprotein. PMID:25918010

  19. Papillomavirus E7 protein binding to the retinoblastoma protein is not required for viral induction of warts.

    PubMed Central

    Defeo-Jones, D; Vuocolo, G A; Haskell, K M; Hanobik, M G; Kiefer, D M; McAvoy, E M; Ivey-Hoyle, M; Brandsma, J L; Oliff, A; Jones, R E

    1993-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the etiologic agents responsible for benign epithelial proliferative disorders including genital warts and are a contributory factor in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. HPVs demonstrate strict species and cell-type specificity, which is manifested by the inability of these viruses to induce disease in any species other than humans. The natural history of HPV infection in humans is closely mimicked by cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) infection in domestic laboratory rabbits. The CRPV E7 gene is known to play an essential role in virus-mediated induction of papillomas. We now show by mutational analysis that the CRPV E7 protein's biochemical and biological properties, including binding to the retinoblastoma suppressor protein (pRB), transcription factor E2F transactivation of the adenovirus E2 promoter, disruption of pRB-E2F complexes, and cellular transformation as measured by growth in soft agar, mimic those of the HPV E7 protein. Intradermal injection of CRPV DNA lacking E7 gene sequences critical for the binding of the CRPV E7 protein to pRB induced papillomas in rabbits. These studies indicate that E7 protein binding to pRB is not required in the molecular pathogenesis of virally induced warts and suggest that other properties intrinsic to the E7 protein are necessary for papilloma formation. Images PMID:8380462

  20. KIAA1324 Suppresses Gastric Cancer Progression by Inhibiting the Oncoprotein GRP78.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jin Muk; Park, Sujin; Kim, Staci Jakyong; Kim, Hyojung; Lee, Bona; Kim, Junil; Park, Jinah; Kim, Shin Tae; Yang, Han-Kwang; Kim, Woo Ho; Kim, Seong-Jin

    2015-08-01

    Recent advances in genome and transcriptome analysis have contributed to the identification of many potential cancer-related genes. Furthermore, biological and clinical investigations of the candidate genes provide us with a better understanding of carcinogenesis and development of cancer treatment. Here, we report a novel role of KIAA1324 as a tumor suppressor in gastric cancer. We observed that KIAA1324 was downregulated in most gastric cancers from transcriptome sequencing data and found that histone deacetylase was involved in the suppression of KIAA1324. Low KIAA1324 levels were associated with poor prognosis in gastric cancer patients. In the xenograft model, KIAA1324 significantly reduced tumor formation of gastric cancer cells and decreased development of preformed tumors. KIAA1324 also suppressed proliferation, invasion, and drug resistance and induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. Through protein interaction analysis, we identified GRP78 (glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa) as a KIAA1324-binding partner. KIAA1324 blocked oncogenic activities of GRP78 by inhibiting GRP78-caspase-7 interaction and suppressing GRP78-mediated AKT activation, thereby inducing apoptosis. In conclusion, our study reveals a tumor suppressive role of KIAA1324 via inhibition of GRP78 oncoprotein activities and provides new insight into the diagnosis and treatment of gastric cancer. PMID:26045166

  1. Therapeutic bispecific T-cell engager antibody targeting the intracellular oncoprotein WT1

    PubMed Central

    Dao, Tao; Pankov, Dmitry; Scott, Andrew; Korontsvit, Tatyana; Zakhaleva, Victoriya; Xu, Yiyang; Xiang, Jingyi; Yan, Su; de Morais Guerreiro, Manuel Direito; Veomett, Nicholas; Dubrovsky, Leonid; Curcio, Michael; Doubrovina, Ekaterina; Ponomarev, Vladimir; Liu, Cheng; O’Reilly, Richard J; Scheinberg, David A

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular tumor antigens presented on the cell surface in the context of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules have been targeted by T cell–based therapies, but there has been little progress in developing small-molecule drugs or antibodies directed to these antigens. Here we describe a bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE) antibody derived from a T-cell receptor (TCR)-mimic monoclonal antibody (mAb) ESK1, which binds a peptide derived from the intracellular oncoprotein WT1 presented on HLA-A*02:01. Despite the very low density of the complexes at the cell surface, ESK1-BiTE selectively activated and induced proliferation of cytolytic human T cells that killed cells from multiple leukemias and solid tumors in vitro and in mice. We also discovered that in an autologous in vitro setting, ESK1-BiTE induced a robust secondary CD8 T-cell response specific for tumor-associated antigens other than WT1. Our study provides an approach that targets tumor-specific intracellular antigens without using cell therapy and suggests that epitope spreading could contribute to the therapeutic efficacy of this BiTE. PMID:26389576

  2. αB-Crystallin is a novel oncoprotein that predicts poor clinical outcome in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Moyano, Jose V.; Evans, Joseph R.; Chen, Feng; Lu, Meiling; Werner, Michael E.; Yehiely, Fruma; Diaz, Leslie K.; Turbin, Dmitry; Karaca, Gamze; Wiley, Elizabeth; Nielsen, Torsten O.; Perou, Charles M.; Cryns, Vincent L.

    2006-01-01

    Recent gene profiling studies have identified a new breast cancer subtype, the basal-like group, which expresses genes characteristic of basal epithelial cells and is associated with poor clinical outcomes. However, the genes responsible for the aggressive behavior observed in this group are largely unknown. Here we report that the small heat shock protein α-basic–crystallin (αB-crystallin) was commonly expressed in basal-like tumors and predicted poor survival in breast cancer patients independently of other prognostic markers. We also demonstrate that overexpression of αB-crystallin transformed immortalized human mammary epithelial cells (MECs). In 3D basement membrane culture, αB-crystallin overexpression induced luminal filling and other neoplastic-like changes in mammary acini, while silencing αB-crystallin by RNA interference inhibited these abnormalities. αB-Crystallin overexpression also induced EGF- and anchorage-independent growth, increased cell migration and invasion, and constitutively activated the MAPK kinase/ERK (MEK/ERK) pathway. Moreover, the transformed phenotype conferred by αB-crystallin was suppressed by MEK inhibitors. In addition, immortalized human MECs overexpressing αB-crystallin formed invasive mammary carcinomas in nude mice that recapitulated aspects of human basal-like breast tumors. Collectively, our results indicate that αB-crystallin is a novel oncoprotein expressed in basal-like breast carcinomas that independently predicts shorter survival. Our data also implicate the MEK/ERK pathway as a potential therapeutic target for these tumors. PMID:16395408

  3. AlphaB-crystallin is a novel oncoprotein that predicts poor clinical outcome in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Moyano, Jose V; Evans, Joseph R; Chen, Feng; Lu, Meiling; Werner, Michael E; Yehiely, Fruma; Diaz, Leslie K; Turbin, Dmitry; Karaca, Gamze; Wiley, Elizabeth; Nielsen, Torsten O; Perou, Charles M; Cryns, Vincent L

    2006-01-01

    Recent gene profiling studies have identified a new breast cancer subtype, the basal-like group, which expresses genes characteristic of basal epithelial cells and is associated with poor clinical outcomes. However, the genes responsible for the aggressive behavior observed in this group are largely unknown. Here we report that the small heat shock protein alpha-basic-crystallin (alphaB-crystallin) was commonly expressed in basal-like tumors and predicted poor survival in breast cancer patients independently of other prognostic markers. We also demonstrate that overexpression of alphaB-crystallin transformed immortalized human mammary epithelial cells (MECs). In 3D basement membrane culture, alphaB-crystallin overexpression induced luminal filling and other neoplastic-like changes in mammary acini, while silencing alphaB-crystallin by RNA interference inhibited these abnormalities. alphaB-Crystallin overexpression also induced EGF- and anchorage-independent growth, increased cell migration and invasion, and constitutively activated the MAPK kinase/ERK (MEK/ERK) pathway. Moreover, the transformed phenotype conferred by alphaB-crystallin was suppressed by MEK inhibitors. In addition, immortalized human MECs overexpressing alphaB-crystallin formed invasive mammary carcinomas in nude mice that recapitulated aspects of human basal-like breast tumors. Collectively, our results indicate that alphaB-crystallin is a novel oncoprotein expressed in basal-like breast carcinomas that independently predicts shorter survival. Our data also implicate the MEK/ERK pathway as a potential therapeutic target for these tumors. PMID:16395408

  4. The oncoprotein gankyrin interacts with RelA and suppresses NF-{kappa}B activity

    SciTech Connect

    Higashitsuji, Hiroaki Higashitsuji, Hisako; Liu, Yu; Masuda, Tomoko; Fujita, Takanori; Abdel-Aziz, H. Ismail; Kongkham, Supranee; Dawson, Simon; John Mayer, R.; Itoh, Yoshito; Sakurai, Toshiharu; Itoh, Katsuhiko; Fujita, Jun

    2007-11-23

    Gankyrin is an oncoprotein commonly overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinomas. It interacts with multiple proteins and accelerates degradation of tumor suppressors Rb and p53. Since gankyrin consists of 7 ankyrin repeats and is structurally similar to I{kappa}Bs, we investigated its interaction with NF-{kappa}B. We found that gankyrin directly binds to RelA. In HeLa and 293 cells, overexpression of gankyrin suppressed the basal as well as TNF{alpha}-induced transcriptional activity of NF-{kappa}B, whereas down-regulation of gankyrin increased it. Gankyrin did not affect the NF-{kappa}B DNA-binding activity or nuclear translocation of RelA induced by TNF{alpha} in these cells. Leptomycin B that inhibits nuclear export of RelA suppressed the NF-{kappa}B activity, which was further suppressed by gankyrin. The inhibitory effect of gankyrin was abrogated by nicotinamide as well as down-regulation of SIRT1, a class III histone deacetylase. Thus, gankyrin binds to NF-{kappa}B and suppresses its activity at the transcription level by modulating acetylation via SIRT1.

  5. Unique potential of 4-1BB agonist antibody to promote durable regression of HPV+ tumors when combined with an E6/E7 peptide vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Bartkowiak, Todd; Singh, Shailbala; Yang, Guojun; Galvan, Gloria; Haria, Dhwani; Ai, Midan; Allison, James P.; Sastry, K. Jagannadha; Curran, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Antibody modulation of T-cell coinhibitory (e.g., CTLA-4) or costimulatory (e.g., 4-1BB) receptors promotes clinical responses to a variety of cancers. Therapeutic cancer vaccination, in contrast, has produced limited clinical benefit and no curative therapies. The E6 and E7 oncoproteins of human papilloma virus (HPV) drive the majority of genital cancers, and many oropharyngeal tumors. We discovered 1519 amino acid peptides from HPV-16 E6/E7 for which induction of T-cell immunity correlates with disease-free survival in patients treated for high-grade cervical neoplasia. We report here that intranasal vaccination with these peptides and the adjuvant alpha-galactosylceramide elicits systemic and mucosal T-cell responses leading to reduced HPV+ TC-1 tumor growth and prolonged survival in mice. We hypothesized that the inability of these T cells to fully reject established tumors resulted from suppression in the tumor microenvironment which could be ameliorated through checkpoint modulation. Combining this E6/E7 peptide vaccine with checkpoint blockade produced only modest benefit; however, coadministration with a 4-1BB agonist antibody promoted durable regression of established genital TC-1 tumors. Relative to other therapies tested, this combination of vaccine and ?4-1BB promoted the highest CD8+ versus regulatory FoxP3+ T-cell ratios, elicited 2- to 5-fold higher infiltration by E7-specific CTL, and evoked higher densities of highly cytotoxic TcEO (T cytotoxic Eomesodermin) CD8 (>70-fold) and ThEO (T helper Eomesodermin) CD4 (>17-fold) T cells. These findings have immediate clinical relevance both in terms of the direct clinical utility of the vaccine studied and in illustrating the potential of 4-1BB antibody to convert therapeutic E6/E7 vaccines already in clinical trials into curative therapies. PMID:26351680

  6. Unique potential of 4-1BB agonist antibody to promote durable regression of HPV+ tumors when combined with an E6/E7 peptide vaccine.

    PubMed

    Bartkowiak, Todd; Singh, Shailbala; Yang, Guojun; Galvan, Gloria; Haria, Dhwani; Ai, Midan; Allison, James P; Sastry, K Jagannadha; Curran, Michael A

    2015-09-22

    Antibody modulation of T-cell coinhibitory (e.g., CTLA-4) or costimulatory (e.g., 4-1BB) receptors promotes clinical responses to a variety of cancers. Therapeutic cancer vaccination, in contrast, has produced limited clinical benefit and no curative therapies. The E6 and E7 oncoproteins of human papilloma virus (HPV) drive the majority of genital cancers, and many oropharyngeal tumors. We discovered 15-19 amino acid peptides from HPV-16 E6/E7 for which induction of T-cell immunity correlates with disease-free survival in patients treated for high-grade cervical neoplasia. We report here that intranasal vaccination with these peptides and the adjuvant alpha-galactosylceramide elicits systemic and mucosal T-cell responses leading to reduced HPV(+) TC-1 tumor growth and prolonged survival in mice. We hypothesized that the inability of these T cells to fully reject established tumors resulted from suppression in the tumor microenvironment which could be ameliorated through checkpoint modulation. Combining this E6/E7 peptide vaccine with checkpoint blockade produced only modest benefit; however, coadministration with a 4-1BB agonist antibody promoted durable regression of established genital TC-1 tumors. Relative to other therapies tested, this combination of vaccine and ?4-1BB promoted the highest CD8(+) versus regulatory FoxP3(+) T-cell ratios, elicited 2- to 5-fold higher infiltration by E7-specific CTL, and evoked higher densities of highly cytotoxic TcEO (T cytotoxic Eomesodermin) CD8 (>70-fold) and ThEO (T helper Eomesodermin) CD4 (>17-fold) T cells. These findings have immediate clinical relevance both in terms of the direct clinical utility of the vaccine studied and in illustrating the potential of 4-1BB antibody to convert therapeutic E6/E7 vaccines already in clinical trials into curative therapies. PMID:26351680

  7. Oncoprotein 18 is a phosphorylation-responsive regulator of microtubule dynamics.

    PubMed Central

    Marklund, U; Larsson, N; Gradin, H M; Brattsand, G; Gullberg, M

    1996-01-01

    Oncoprotein 18 (Op18, also termed p19, p18, prosolin or stathmin) is a cytosolic protein of previously unknown function. Phosphorylation of Op18 is cell cycle regulated by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and expression of a 'CDK target site-deficient mutant' results in a phenotype indicative of a role for Op18 during mitosis. This phenotype is compatible with the idea that Op18 is a phosphorylation-responsive regulator of microtubule (MT) dynamics. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed MTs in cells induced to express either wild-type or mutated Op18. The results showed that wild-type Op18 and a CDK target site mutant both efficiently elicited rapid depolymerization of MTs. This result contrasts with clear-cut differences in their cell cycle phenotypes. Morphological analysis of MTs explained this apparent discrepancy: while interphase MTs were depolymerized in cells expressing either Op18 derivative, apparently normal mitotic spindles were formed only in cells overexpressing wild-type Op18. This result correlates with our finding that only mutated Op18 causes a block during mitosis. Hence, we conclude that Op18 decreases MT stability and that this activity of Op18 is subject to cell cycle regulation by CDKs. Images PMID:8895574

  8. Structure of the replicative helicase of the oncoprotein SV40 large tumour antigen.

    SciTech Connect

    Li, D.; Zhao, R.; Lilyestrom, W.; Gai, D.; Zhang, R.; DeCaprio, J. A.; Fanning, E.; Joachimiak, A.; Szakonyi, G.; Chen, X. S.; Univ. of Colorado Health Science Center; Dana-Farber Cancer Ins.; Vanderbilt Univ.

    2003-05-29

    The oncoprotein large tumour antigen (LTag) is encoded by the DNA tumour virus simian virus 40. LTag transforms cells and induces tumours in animals by altering the functions of tumour suppressors (including pRB and p53) and other key cellular proteins. LTag is also a molecular machine that distorts/melts the replication origin of the viral genome and unwinds duplex DNA. LTag therefore seems to be a functional homologue of the eukaryotic minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex. Here we present the X-ray structure of a hexameric LTag with DNA helicase activity. The structure identifies the p53-binding surface and reveals the structural basis of hexamerization. The hexamer contains a long, positively charged channel with an unusually large central chamber that binds both single-stranded and double-stranded DNA. The hexamer organizes into two tiers that can potentially rotate relative to each other through connecting alpha-helices to expand/constrict the channel, producing an 'iris' effect that could be used for distorting or melting the origin and unwinding DNA at the replication fork.

  9. High Expression of the PAX3-FKHR Oncoprotein Is Required to Promote Tumorigenesis of Human Myoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Shujuan J.; Holder, Dara D.; Pawel, Bruce R.; Zhang, Chune; Barr, Frederic G.

    2009-01-01

    PAX3-FKHR is a fusion oncoprotein generated by the 2;13 chromosomal translocation in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS), a cancer associated with the skeletal muscle lineage. Previous studies determined that high-level PAX3-FKHR expression is a consistent feature in ARMS tumors. To investigate the relationship between expression and phenotype in human myogenic cells, PAX3-FKHR was introduced into immortalized human myoblasts to produce a low overall PAX3-FKHR expression level. Although PAX3-FKHR alone failed to exert transforming activity, a combination of PAX3-FKHR and MYCN induced transforming activity in cell culture assays. Furthermore, myoblasts expressing PAX3-FKHR with or without MYCN formed tumors in SCID mice. These tumors demonstrated invasive features and expressed myogenic markers, consistent with rhabdomyosarcoma. Comparisons of tumor and parental cells revealed that only a subset of parental cells developed into tumors and that tumor cells expressed high PAX3-FKHR levels compared with transduced parental cells. Subcloning of parental PAX3-FKHR/MYCN-transduced myoblasts identified rare high PAX3-FKHR-expressing subclones with high transforming and tumorigenic activity; however, most subclones expressed low PAX3-FKHR and showed neither transforming nor tumorigenic activity. Finally, RNA interference experiments in myoblast-derived tumor and ARMS cells revealed that high PAX3-FKHR expression plays a crucial role in regulating proliferation, transformation, and differentiation. These findings support the premise that high PAX3-FKHR-expressing cells are selected during tumorigenesis. PMID:19893043

  10. The Subcellular Localisation of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 16 E7 Protein in Cervical Cancer Cells and Its Perturbation by RNA Aptamers

    PubMed Central

    Cesur, Özlem; Nicol, Clare; Groves, Helen; Mankouri, Jamel; Blair, George Eric; Stonehouse, Nicola J.

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common viral infection of the reproductive tract, affecting both men and women. High-risk oncogenic types are responsible for almost 90% of anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers including cervical cancer. Some of the HPV “early” genes, particularly E6 and E7, are known to act as oncogenes that promote tumour growth and malignant transformation. Most notably, HPV-16 E7 interacts with the tumour suppressor protein pRb, promoting its degradation, leading to cell cycle dysregulation in infected cells. We have previously shown that an RNA aptamer (termed A2) selectively binds to HPV16 E7 and is able to induce apoptosis in HPV16-transformed cervical carcinoma cell lines (SiHa) through reduction of E7 levels. In this study, we investigated the effects of the A2 aptamer on E7 localisation in order to define its effects on E7 activity. We demonstrate for the first time that E7 localised to the plasma membrane. In addition, we show that A2 enhanced E7 localisation in the ER and that the A2-mediated reduction of E7 was not associated with proteasomal degradation. These data suggest that A2 perturbs normal E7 trafficking through promoting E7 ER retention. PMID:26131956

  11. Structure of the oncoprotein Rcl bound to three nucleotide analogues.

    PubMed

    Padilla, André; Amiable, Claire; Pochet, Sylvie; Kaminski, Pierre Alexandre; Labesse, Gilles

    2013-02-01

    Rcl is a novel N-glycoside hydrolase found in mammals that shows specificity for the hydrolysis of 5'-monophosphate nucleotides. Its role in nucleotide catabolism and the resulting production of 2-deoxyribose 5-phosphate has suggested that it might fuel cancer growth. Its expression is regulated by c-Myc, but its role as an oncoprotein remains to be clarified. In parallel, various nucleosides have been shown to acquire pro-apoptotic properties upon 5'-monophosphorylation in cells. These include triciribine, a tricyclic nucleoside analogue that is currently in clinical trials in combination with a farnesyltransferase inhibitor. Similarly, an N(6)-alkyl-AMP has been shown to be cytotoxic. Interestingly, Rcl has been shown to be inhibited by such compounds in vitro. In order to gain better insight into the precise ligand-recognition determinants, the crystallization of Rcl with these nucleotide analogues was attempted. The first crystal structure of Rcl was solved by molecular replacement using its NMR structure in combination with distantly related crystal structures. The structures of Rcl bound to two other nucleotides were then solved by molecular replacement using the previous crystal structure as a template. The resulting structures, solved at high resolution, led to a clear characterization of the protein-ligand interactions that will guide further rational drug design. PMID:23385460

  12. The HTLV-1 Tax oncoprotein represses Ku80 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Ducu, Razvan I; Dayaram, Tajhal; Marriott, Susan J

    2011-07-20

    The HTLV-I oncoprotein Tax interferes with DNA double strand break repair. Since non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is a major pathway used to repair DNA double strand breaks we examined the effect of Tax on this pathway, with particular interest in the expression and function of Ku80, a critical component of the NHEJ pathway. Tax expression decreased Ku80 mRNA and protein levels, and repressed transcription from the Ku80 promoter. Conversely, Ku80 mRNA increased following siRNA knockdown of Tax in HTLV-I infected cells. Tax expression was associated with an elevated number of micronuclei and nucleoplasmic bridges, hallmarks of improper DNA double strand break repair. Our studies identified Tax as a transcriptional repressor of Ku80 that correlates with decreased DNA repair function. The reduction of Ku80 transcription by Tax may deplete the cell of an essential DNA break binding protein, resulting in reduced repair of DNA double strand breaks and accumulation genomic mutations. PMID:21571351

  13. Oct4 is required ~E7.5 for proliferation in the primitive streak.

    PubMed

    DeVeale, Brian; Brokhman, Irina; Mohseni, Paria; Babak, Tomas; Yoon, Charles; Lin, Anthony; Onishi, Kento; Tomilin, Alexey; Pevny, Larysa; Zandstra, Peter W; Nagy, Andras; van der Kooy, Derek

    2013-11-01

    Oct4 is a widely recognized pluripotency factor as it maintains Embryonic Stem (ES) cells in a pluripotent state, and, in vivo, prevents the inner cell mass (ICM) in murine embryos from differentiating into trophectoderm. However, its function in somatic tissue after this developmental stage is not well characterized. Using a tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase and floxed alleles of Oct4, we investigated the effect of depleting Oct4 in mouse embryos between the pre-streak and headfold stages, ~E6.0-E8.0, when Oct4 is found in dynamic patterns throughout the embryonic compartment of the mouse egg cylinder. We found that depletion of Oct4 ~E7.5 resulted in a severe phenotype, comprised of craniorachischisis, random heart tube orientation, failed turning, defective somitogenesis and posterior truncation. Unlike in ES cells, depletion of the pluripotency factors Sox2 and Oct4 after E7.0 does not phenocopy, suggesting that ~E7.5 Oct4 is required within a network that is altered relative to the pluripotency network. Oct4 is not required in extraembryonic tissue for these processes, but is required to maintain cell viability in the embryo and normal proliferation within the primitive streak. Impaired expansion of the primitive streak occurs coincident with Oct4 depletion ∼E7.5 and precedes deficient convergent extension which contributes to several aspects of the phenotype. PMID:24244203

  14. Expression of c-erbB-2 oncoprotein: a prognostic indicator in human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wright, C; Angus, B; Nicholson, S; Sainsbury, J R; Cairns, J; Gullick, W J; Kelly, P; Harris, A L; Horne, C H

    1989-04-15

    Sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from 185 primary breast carcinomas were stained immunohistochemically using a polyclonal antibody against the c-erbB-2 oncoprotein. Positive staining, which is known to correlate with gene amplification, was associated with earlier relapse, shorter postrelapse survival, and shorter overall survival. Lymph node, epidermal growth factor receptor, and estrogen receptor status, tumor size, and histological grade also had prognostic significance but, applying multivariate analysis, only lymph node status was a more important predictor of relapse-free and overall survival than staining for the oncoprotein. Positive staining was correlated with negative estrogen receptor status and high histological grade, but there was no association with either lymph node or epidermal growth factor receptor status or tumor size. Expression of the c-erbB-2 oncoprotein appears to be an important independent indicator of prognosis in human breast cancer. PMID:2564806

  15. Mutual reinforcement of inflammation and carcinogenesis by the Helicobacter pylori CagA oncoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Nobumi; Murata-Kamiya, Naoko; Yanagiya, Kohei; Suda, Wataru; Hattori, Masahira; Kanda, Hiroaki; Bingo, Atsuhiro; Fujii, Yumiko; Maeda, Shin; Koike, Kazuhiko; Hatakeyama, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori cagA-positive strain delivers the CagA oncoprotein into gastric epithelial cells and at the same time elicits stomach inflammation. To experimentally investigate the pathophysiological interplay between CagA and inflammation, transgenic mice systemically expressing the bacterial cagA gene were treated with a colitis inducer, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Compared with control mice, DSS-induced colitis was markedly deteriorated in cagA-transgenic mice. In the colonic epithelia of cagA-transgenic mice, there was a substantial decrease in the level of IκB, which binds and sequesters NF-κB in the cytoplasm. This IκB reduction was due to CagA-mediated inhibition of PAR1, which may stimulate IκB degradation by perturbing microtubule stability. Whereas the CagA-mediated IκB reduction did not automatically activate NF-κB, it lowered the threshold of NF-κB activation by inflammogenic insults, thereby contributing to colitis exacerbation in cagA-transgenic mice. CagA also activates inflammasomes independently of NF-κB signaling, which further potentiates inflammation. The incidence of colonic dysplasia was elevated in DSS-treated cagA-transgenic mice due to a robust increase in the number of pre-cancerous flat-type dysplasias. Thus, CagA deteriorated inflammation, whereas inflammation strengthened the oncogenic potential of CagA. This work revealed that H. pylori CagA and inflammation reinforce each other in creating a downward spiral that instigates neoplastic transformation. PMID:25944120

  16. Mutual reinforcement of inflammation and carcinogenesis by the Helicobacter pylori CagA oncoprotein.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Nobumi; Murata-Kamiya, Naoko; Yanagiya, Kohei; Suda, Wataru; Hattori, Masahira; Kanda, Hiroaki; Bingo, Atsuhiro; Fujii, Yumiko; Maeda, Shin; Koike, Kazuhiko; Hatakeyama, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori cagA-positive strain delivers the CagA oncoprotein into gastric epithelial cells and at the same time elicits stomach inflammation. To experimentally investigate the pathophysiological interplay between CagA and inflammation, transgenic mice systemically expressing the bacterial cagA gene were treated with a colitis inducer, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Compared with control mice, DSS-induced colitis was markedly deteriorated in cagA-transgenic mice. In the colonic epithelia of cagA-transgenic mice, there was a substantial decrease in the level of I?B, which binds and sequesters NF-?B in the cytoplasm. This I?B reduction was due to CagA-mediated inhibition of PAR1, which may stimulate I?B degradation by perturbing microtubule stability. Whereas the CagA-mediated I?B reduction did not automatically activate NF-?B, it lowered the threshold of NF-?B activation by inflammogenic insults, thereby contributing to colitis exacerbation in cagA-transgenic mice. CagA also activates inflammasomes independently of NF-?B signaling, which further potentiates inflammation. The incidence of colonic dysplasia was elevated in DSS-treated cagA-transgenic mice due to a robust increase in the number of pre-cancerous flat-type dysplasias. Thus, CagA deteriorated inflammation, whereas inflammation strengthened the oncogenic potential of CagA. This work revealed that H. pylori CagA and inflammation reinforce each other in creating a downward spiral that instigates neoplastic transformation. PMID:25944120

  17. The oncoprotein HBXIP promotes glucose metabolism reprogramming via downregulating SCO2 and PDHA1 in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    You, Xiaona; Liu, Yunxia; Li, Yinghui; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Yue

    2015-01-01

    The glucose metabolism reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer. The oncoprotein hepatitis B X-interacting protein (HBXIP) functions in the development of breast cancer. In this study, we supposed that HBXIP might be involved in the glucose metabolism reprogramming in breast cancer. We showed that HBXIP led to increases in generation of intracellular glucose and lactate, as well as decreases in generation of reactive oxygen species. Expression of synthesis of cytochrome c oxidase 2 (SCO2) and pyruvate dehydrogenase alpha 1 (PDHA1), two factors of metabolic switch from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis, was suppressed by HBXIP. In addition, miR-183/182 and miR-96 directly inhibited the expression of SCO2 and PDHA1 through targeting their mRNA coding sequences (CDSs), respectively. Interestingly, HBXIP elevated the miR-183/96/182 cluster expression through hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α). The stability of HIF1α was enhanced by HBXIP through disassociating interaction of von Hippel-Lindau protein (pVHL) with HIF1α. Moreover, miR-183 increased the levels of HIF1α protein through directly targeting CDS of VHL mRNA, forming a feedback loop of HIF1α/miR-183/pVHL/HIF1α. In function, HBXIP-elevated miR-183/96/182 cluster enhanced the glucose metabolism reprogramming in vitro. HBXIP-triggered glucose metabolism reprogramming promoted the growth of breast cancer in vivo. Thus, we conclude that the oncoprotein HBXIP enhances glucose metabolism reprogramming through suppressing SCO2 and PDHA1 in breast cancer. PMID:26309161

  18. Polycation-π Interactions Are a Driving Force for Molecular Recognition by an Intrinsically Disordered Oncoprotein Family

    PubMed Central

    Tompa, Peter; Lee, Kevin A. W.; Chan, Hue Sun

    2013-01-01

    Molecular recognition by intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) commonly involves specific localized contacts and target-induced disorder to order transitions. However, some IDPs remain disordered in the bound state, a phenomenon coined “fuzziness”, often characterized by IDP polyvalency, sequence-insensitivity and a dynamic ensemble of disordered bound-state conformations. Besides the above general features, specific biophysical models for fuzzy interactions are mostly lacking. The transcriptional activation domain of the Ewing's Sarcoma oncoprotein family (EAD) is an IDP that exhibits many features of fuzziness, with multiple EAD aromatic side chains driving molecular recognition. Considering the prevalent role of cation-π interactions at various protein-protein interfaces, we hypothesized that EAD-target binding involves polycation- π contacts between a disordered EAD and basic residues on the target. Herein we evaluated the polycation-π hypothesis via functional and theoretical interrogation of EAD variants. The experimental effects of a range of EAD sequence variations, including aromatic number, aromatic density and charge perturbations, all support the cation-π model. Moreover, the activity trends observed are well captured by a coarse-grained EAD chain model and a corresponding analytical model based on interaction between EAD aromatics and surface cations of a generic globular target. EAD-target binding, in the context of pathological Ewing's Sarcoma oncoproteins, is thus seen to be driven by a balance between EAD conformational entropy and favorable EAD-target cation-π contacts. Such a highly versatile mode of molecular recognition offers a general conceptual framework for promiscuous target recognition by polyvalent IDPs. PMID:24086122

  19. Globalization and sustainable development an E7 point of view

    SciTech Connect

    Strassburg, W.

    1998-07-01

    The energy sector is a crucial feedstock to economic development. One example of this industry sector's contribution towards sustainable development is the so-called E7 initiative on sustainable energy development of some of the biggest electric utilities. E7 members from Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan and the US are demonstrating the functioning of the requested globally synchronized approach between developed and developing countries. E7 members focus their activities on (1) the efficient use of primary energy resources, (2) maximizing the use of renewable energy resources, (3) maximizing efficiency in the generation, delivery, and use of electricity, (4) minimizing environmental impacts of energy production and use and, (5) implementing innovative options to promote win-win benefits for the environment and the economy through their network of expertise on a pro bono basis. A main emphasis lies in the consistent Joint Implementation given the fact that innovative and efficient Green House Gas reduction measures will be the core of future E7 activities. Especially commercial projects will provide valuable contributions to Green House Gas reductions as well as to economic development of the recipient country. Other instruments, such Emission Trading and Clean Development Mechanism will have to be investigated appropriately in terms of their practicability for Green House Gas reductions so that their will be a notification by the international climate protection regime. Therefore Emission Trading and Clean Development Mechanism are of importance for E7 members' future operations, too. With respect to Sustainable Development industry, energy and environmental policy in leading industry countries must be more closely aligned to a global approach than has so far been the case. The electricity sector is called on to make a major contribution.

  20. A Conserved E7-derived Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Epitope Expressed on Human Papillomavirus 16-transformed HLA-A2+ Epithelial Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Riemer, Angelika B.; Keskin, Derin B.; Zhang, Guanglan; Handley, Maris; Anderson, Karen S.; Brusic, Vladimir; Reinhold, Bruce; Reinherz, Ellis L.

    2010-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus 16 (HPV-16) has been identified as the causative agent of 50% of cervical cancers and many other HPV-associated tumors. The transforming potential/tumor maintenance capacity of this high risk HPV is mediated by two viral oncoproteins, E6 and E7, making them attractive targets for therapeutic vaccines. Of 21 E6 and E7 peptides computed to bind HLA-A*0201, 10 were confirmed through TAP-deficient T2 cell HLA stabilization assay. Those scoring positive were investigated to ascertain which were naturally processed and presented by surface HLA molecules for CTL recognition. Because IFN? ELISpot frequencies from healthy HPV-exposed blood donors against HLA-A*0201-binding peptides were unable to identify specificities for tumor targeting, their physical presence among peptides eluted from HPV-16-transformed epithelial tumor HLA-A*0201 immunoprecipitates was analyzed by MS3 Poisson detection mass spectrometry. Only one epitope (E71119) highly conserved among HPV-16 strains was detected. This 9-mer serves to direct cytolysis by T cell lines, whereas a related 10-mer (E71120), previously used as a vaccine candidate, was neither detected by MS3 on HPV-transformed tumor cells nor effectively recognized by 9-mer specific CTL. These data underscore the importance of precisely defining CTL epitopes on tumor cells and offer a paradigm for T cell-based vaccine design. PMID:20615877

  1. The levels of epithelial anchor proteins β-catenin and zona occludens-1 are altered by E7 of human papillomaviruses 5 and 8.

    PubMed

    Heuser, Sandra; Hufbauer, Martin; Marx, Benjamin; Tok, Ali; Majewski, Slawomir; Pfister, Herbert; Akgül, Baki

    2016-02-01

    Infection with viruses of the genus Betapapillomavirus, β-human papillomaviruses (β-HPV), is implicated in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer. This was first evidenced for HPV5 and HPV8 in patients with the skin disease epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV). The relocalization of the junctional bridging proteins β-catenin and zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) from the adherens and tight junctions are common processes of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) associated with tumour invasion. Here, we report that β-catenin and ZO-1 are strongly upregulated by the E7 oncoproteins of HPV5 and HPV8 in keratinocytes grown in organotypic skin cultures. Although the membrane-tethered form of β-catenin was elevated, no signs of β-catenin activity within the canonical Wnt signalling pathway could be detected. The upregulation of β-catenin and ZO-1 could also be confirmed in the skin of HPV8 transgenic mice as well as in cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas of EV patients. These data provide the first evidence that β-catenin and ZO-1 are direct targets of E7 of the oncogenic β-HPV types 5 and 8. The ability to deregulate these epithelial junction proteins may contribute to the oncogenic potential of these viruses in human skin. PMID:26645068

  2. Homologous sequences in adenovirus E1A and human papillomavirus E7 proteins mediate interaction with the same set of cellular proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Dyson, N; Guida, P; Münger, K; Harlow, E

    1992-01-01

    Studies of adenovirus E1A oncoprotein mutants suggest that the association of E1A with the retinoblastoma protein (pRB) is necessary for E1A-mediated transformation. Mutational analysis of E1A indicates that two regions of pRB are required for E1A to form stable complexes with the retinoblastoma protein. In addition to pRB binding, these regions are necessary for E1A association with several other cellular proteins, including p130, p107, cyclin A, and p33cdk2. Here we show that short synthetic peptides containing the pRB-binding sequences of E1A are sufficient for interaction with p107, cyclin A, and p130. The E7 protein of human papillomavirus type 16 contains an element that binds to pRB and appears to be functionally homologous to the E1A sequences. Peptides containing this region of the E7 protein were able to interact with p107, cyclin A, and p130 in addition to pRB. These findings suggest that the common mechanism of transformation used by these viral oncogenes involves their association with a set of polypeptides. Images PMID:1331501

  3. Detection of transcriptionally active high-risk HPV in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma as visualized by a novel E6/E7 mRNA in situ hybridization method.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Justin A; Ma, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Hongwei; Luo, Yuling; Illei, Peter B; Begum, Shanaz; Taube, Janis M; Koch, Wayne M; Westra, William H

    2012-12-01

    Evidence for transcriptional activation of the viral oncoproteins E6 and E7 is regarded as the gold standard for the presence of clinically relevant human papillomavirus (HPV), but detection of E6/E7 mRNA requires RNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction amplification-a challenging technique that is restricted to the research laboratory. The development of RNA in situ hybridization (ISH) probes complementary to E6/E7 mRNA permits direct visualization of viral transcripts in routinely processed tissues and has opened the door for accurate HPV detection in the clinical care setting. Tissue microarrays containing 282 head and neck squamous cell carcinomas from various anatomic subsites were tested for the presence of HPV using p16 immunohistochemistry, HPV DNA ISH, and an RNA ISH assay (RNAscope) targeting high-risk HPV E6/E7 mRNA transcripts. The E6/E7 mRNA assay was also used to test an additional 25 oropharyngeal carcinomas in which the HPV status as recorded in the surgical pathology reports was equivocal due to conflicting detection results (ie, p16 positive, DNA ISH negative). By the E6/E7 mRNA method, HPV was detected in 49 of 282 (17%) HNSCCs including 43 of 77 (56%) carcinomas from the oropharynx, 2 of 3 (67%) metastatic HNSCCs of an unknown primary site, 2 of 7 (29%) carcinomas from the sinonasal tract, and 2 of 195 (1%) carcinomas from other head and neck sites. p16 expression was strongly associated with the presence of HPV E6/E7 mRNA: 46 of 49 HPV-positive tumors exhibited p16 expression, whereas only 22 of 233 HPV-negative tumors were p16 positive (94% vs. 9%, P<0.0001). There was also a high rate of concordance (99%) between the E6/E7 mRNA method and HPV DNA ISH. For the selected group of discordant HNSCCs (p16/HPV DNA), the presence of E6/E7 transcripts was detected in 21 of 25 (84%) cases. The E6/E7 mRNA method confirmed the presence of transcriptionally active HPV-related HNSCC that has a strong predilection for the oropharynx and is strongly associated with high levels of p16 expression. Testing for HPV E6/E7 transcripts by RNA ISH is ideal because it confirms the presence of integrated and transcriptionally active virus, permits visualization of viral transcripts in tissues, and is technically feasible for routine testing in the clinical laboratory. PMID:23060353

  4. Ordered Self-Assembly Mechanism of a Spherical Oncoprotein Oligomer Triggered by Zinc Removal and Stabilized by an Intrinsically Disordered Domain

    PubMed Central

    Smal, Clara; Alonso, Leonardo G.; Wetzler, Diana E.; Heer, Angeles; de Prat Gay, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    Background Self-assembly is a common theme in proteins of unrelated sequences or functions. The human papillomavirus E7 oncoprotein is an extended dimer with an intrinsically disordered domain, that can form large spherical oligomers. These are the major species in the cytosol of HPV transformed and cancerous cells. E7 binds to a large number of targets, some of which lead to cell transformation. Thus, the assembly process not only is of biological relevance, but represents a model system to investigate a widely distributed mechanism. Methodology/Principal Findings Using various techniques, we monitored changes in secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure in a time course manner. By applying a robust kinetic model developed by Zlotnik, we determined the slow formation of a monomeric “Z-nucleus” after zinc removal, followed by an elongation phase consisting of sequential second-order events whereby one monomer is added at a time. This elongation process takes place at a strikingly slow overall average rate of one monomer added every 28 seconds at 20 µM protein concentration, strongly suggesting either a rearrangement of the growing complex after binding of each monomer or the existence of a “conformation editing” mechanism through which the monomer binds and releases until the appropriate conformation is adopted. The oligomerization determinant lies within its small 5 kDa C-terminal globular domain and, remarkably, the E7 N-terminal intrinsically disordered domain stabilizes the oligomer, preventing an insoluble amyloid route. Conclusion We described a controlled ordered mechanism with features in common with soluble amyloid precursors, chaperones, and other spherical oligomers, thus sharing determining factors for symmetry, size and shape. In addition, such a controlled and discrete polymerization reaction provides a valuable tool for nanotechnological applications. Finally, its increased immunogenicity related to its supramolecular structure is the basis for the development of a promising therapeutic vaccine candidate for treating HPV cancerous lesions. PMID:22590549

  5. Problem-Solving Test: The Mechanism of Action of a Human Papilloma Virus Oncoprotein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2009-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: human papilloma virus; cervical cancer; oncoproteins; malignant transformation; retinoblastoma protein; cell cycle; quiescent and cycling cells; cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) complexes; E2F; S-phase genes; enhancer element; proto-oncogenes; tumor suppressor genes; radioactive…

  6. Problem-Solving Test: The Mechanism of Action of a Human Papilloma Virus Oncoprotein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2009-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: human papilloma virus; cervical cancer; oncoproteins; malignant transformation; retinoblastoma protein; cell cycle; quiescent and cycling cells; cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) complexes; E2F; S-phase genes; enhancer element; proto-oncogenes; tumor suppressor genes; radioactive

  7. Casein kinase II phosphorylation of the human papillomavirus-18 E7 protein is critical for promoting S-phase entry.

    PubMed

    Chien, W M; Parker, J N; Schmidt-Grimminger, D C; Broker, T R; Chow, L T

    2000-08-01

    The human papillomavirus type 18 E7 protein subverts the pRb/E2F pathway to promote S-phase reentry by postmitotic, differentiated primary human keratinocytes in support of viral DNA amplification. We prepared a panel of HPV-18 E7 mutations in pRb binding or in casein kinase II (CKII) phosphorylation. Our results showed that the ability of E7 binding to pRb correlated with the activation of DNA polymerase alpha or cyclin E to various extents in differentiated keratinocytes of organotypic cultures but was insufficient to induce the proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Proteins mutated in the CKII recognition sequence or in one or both serine substrates (S32 and S34) bound pRb in vitro, but only those with negative charges at these two residues induced proliferating cell nuclear antigen effectively. Nevertheless, unscheduled cellular DNA synthesis occurred very inefficiently relative to the wild-type E7, if at all. Thus, both pRb binding and CKII phosphorylation of E7 are critical for activating cellular genes essential for S-phase entry. PMID:10965847

  8. Ubiquitination and degradation of the hominoid-specific oncoprotein TBC1D3 is regulated by protein palmitoylation

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Chen; Lange, Jeffrey J.; Samovski, Dmitri; Su, Xiong; Liu, Jialiu; Sundaresan, Sinju; Stahl, Philip D.

    2013-05-03

    Highlights: •Hominoid-specific oncogene TBC1D3 is targeted to plasma membrane by palmitoylation. •TBC1D3 is palmitoylated on two cysteine residues: 318 and 325. •TBC1D3 palmitoylation governs growth factors-induced TBC1D3 degradation. •Post-translational modifications may regulate oncogenic properties of TBC1D3. -- Abstract: Expression of the hominoid-specific oncoprotein TBC1D3 promotes enhanced cell growth and proliferation by increased activation of signal transduction through several growth factors. Recently we documented the role of CUL7 E3 ligase in growth factors-induced ubiquitination and degradation of TBC1D3. Here we expanded our study to discover additional molecular mechanisms that control TBC1D3 protein turnover. We report that TBC1D3 is palmitoylated on two cysteine residues: 318 and 325. The expression of double palmitoylation mutant TBC1D3:C318/325S resulted in protein mislocalization and enhanced growth factors-induced TBC1D3 degradation. Moreover, ubiquitination of TBC1D3 via CUL7 E3 ligase complex was increased by mutating the palmitoylation sites, suggesting that depalmitoylation of TBC1D3 makes the protein more available for ubiquitination and degradation. The results reported here provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms that govern TBC1D3 protein degradation. Dysregulation of these mechanisms in vivo could potentially result in aberrant TBC1D3 expression and promote oncogenesis.

  9. Targeting the Two Oncogenic Functional Sites of the HPV E6 Oncoprotein with a High-Affinity Bivalent Ligand.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Juan; Poirson, Juline; Foltz, Clémence; Chebaro, Yassmine; Schrapp, Maxime; Meyer, Amandine; Bonetta, Anaëlle; Forster, Anne; Jacob, Yves; Masson, Murielle; Deryckère, François; Travé, Gilles

    2015-06-26

    The E6 oncoproteins of high-risk mucosal (hrm) human papillomaviruses (HPVs) contain a pocket that captures LxxLL motifs and a C-terminal motif that recruits PDZ domains, with both functions being crucial for HPV-induced oncogenesis. A chimeric protein was built by fusing a PDZ domain and an LxxLL motif, both known to bind E6. NMR spectroscopy, calorimetry and a mammalian protein complementation assay converged to show that the resulting PDZ-LxxLL chimera is a bivalent nanomolar ligand of E6, while its separated PDZ and LxxLL components are only micromolar binders. The chimera binds to all of the hrm-HPV E6 proteins tested but not to low-risk mucosal or cutaneous HPV E6. Adenovirus-mediated expression of the chimera specifically induces the death of HPV-positive cells, concomitant with increased levels of the tumour suppressor P53, its transcriptional target p21, and the apoptosis marker cleaved caspase 3. The bifunctional PDZ-LxxLL chimera opens new perspectives for the diagnosis and treatment of HPV-induced cancers. PMID:26014966

  10. The high-risk HPV E6 oncoprotein preferentially targets phosphorylated nuclear forms of hDlg

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, Nisha; Subbaiah, Vanitha Krishna; Banks, Lawrence

    2009-04-25

    High-risk mucosal HPV E6 oncoproteins target a number of PDZ domain-containing substrates for proteasome mediated degradation. One of these, Discs Large (Dlg), is involved in the regulation of cell polarity and proliferation control. Previous studies had suggested that Dlg when hyperphosphorylated by osmotic shock, or when present in the nucleus could be preferentially targeted by E6. In this study we use phospho-specific antibodies directed against Dlg phosphorylated at residues S158 and S442 to show that these two observations are, in fact, linked. Dlg, when phosphorylated on S158 and S442 by CDK1 or CDK2, shows a preferential nuclear accumulation. However, these forms of Dlg are absent in cells derived from HPV-induced cervical cancers. Upon either proteasome inhibition or siRNA ablation of E6 expression, we see specific rescue of these phosphorylated forms of Dlg. These results demonstrate that nuclear forms of Dlg phosphorylated on its CDK phospho-acceptor sites has enhanced susceptibility to E6-induced degradation and place previous studies on the stress-induced phosphorylation of Dlg into a relevant biological context.

  11. Targeting the Two Oncogenic Functional Sites of the HPV E6 Oncoprotein with a High-Affinity Bivalent Ligand**

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Juan; Poirson, Juline; Foltz, Clémence; Chebaro, Yassmine; Schrapp, Maxime; Meyer, Amandine; Bonetta, Anaëlle; Forster, Anne; Jacob, Yves; Masson, Murielle; Deryckère, François; Travé, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    The E6 oncoproteins of high-risk mucosal (hrm) human papillomaviruses (HPVs) contain a pocket that captures LxxLL motifs and a C-terminal motif that recruits PDZ domains, with both functions being crucial for HPV-induced oncogenesis. A chimeric protein was built by fusing a PDZ domain and an LxxLL motif, both known to bind E6. NMR spectroscopy, calorimetry and a mammalian protein complementation assay converged to show that the resulting PDZ-LxxLL chimera is a bivalent nanomolar ligand of E6, while its separated PDZ and LxxLL components are only micromolar binders. The chimera binds to all of the hrm-HPV E6 proteins tested but not to low-risk mucosal or cutaneous HPV E6. Adenovirus-mediated expression of the chimera specifically induces the death of HPV-positive cells, concomitant with increased levels of the tumour suppressor P53, its transcriptional target p21, and the apoptosis marker cleaved caspase 3. The bifunctional PDZ-LxxLL chimera opens new perspectives for the diagnosis and treatment of HPV-induced cancers. PMID:26014966

  12. Amino-functionalized poly(l-lactide) lamellar single crystals as a valuable substrate for delivery of HPV16-E7 tumor antigen in vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Di Bonito, Paola; Petrone, Linda; Casini, Gabriele; Francolini, Iolanda; Ammendolia, Maria Grazia; Accardi, Luisa; Piozzi, Antonella; D’Ilario, Lucio; Martinelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Background Poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) is a biodegradable polymer currently used in many biomedical applications, including the production of resorbable surgical devices, porous scaffolds for tissue engineering, nanoparticles and microparticles for the controlled release of drugs or antigens. The surfaces of lamellar PLLA single crystals (PLLAsc) were provided with amino groups by reaction with a multifunctional amine and used to adsorb an Escherichia coli-produced human papillomavirus (HPV)16-E7 protein to evaluate its possible use in antigen delivery for vaccine development. Methods PLLA single crystals were made to react with tetraethylenepentamine to obtain amino-functionalized PLLA single crystals (APLLAsc). Pristine and amino-functionalized PLLAsc showed a two-dimensional microsized and one-dimensional nanosized lamellar morphology, with a lateral dimension of about 15–20 μm, a thickness of about 12 nm, and a surface specific area of about 130 m2/g. Both particles were characterized and loaded with HPV16-E7 before being administered to C57BL/6 mice for immunogenicity studies. The E7-specific humoral-mediated and cell-mediated immune response as well as tumor protective immunity were analyzed in mice challenged with TC-1 cancer cells. Results Pristine and amino-functionalized PLLAsc adsorbed similar amounts of E7 protein, but in protein-release experiments E7-PLLAsc released a higher amount of protein than E7-APLLAsc. When the complexes were dried for observation by scanning electron microscopy, both samples showed a compact layer, but E7-APLLAsc showed greater roughness than E7-PLLAsc. Immunization experiments in mice showed that E7-APLLAsc induced a stronger E7-specific immune response when compared with E7-PLLAsc. Immunoglobulin G isotyping and interferon gamma analysis suggested a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response in both E7-PLLAsc-immunized and E7-APLLAsc-immunized mice. However, only the mice receiving E7-APLLAsc were fully protected from TC-1 tumor growth after three doses of vaccine. Conclusion Our results show that APLLA single crystals improve the immunogenicity of HPV16-E7 and indicate that E7-APLLAsc could be used for development of an HPV16 therapeutic vaccine against HPV16-related tumors. PMID:26056443

  13. The human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 oncoproteins promotes nuclear localization of active caspase 8

    SciTech Connect

    Manzo-Merino, Joaquin; Lizano, Marcela

    2014-02-15

    The HPV-16 E6 and E6{sup ⁎} proteins have been shown previously to be capable of regulating caspase 8 activity. We now show that the capacity of E6 to interact with caspase 8 is common to diverse HPV types, being also seen with HPV-11 E6, HPV-18 E6 and HPV-18 E6{sup ⁎}. Unlike most E6-interacting partners, caspase 8 does not appear to be a major proteasomal target of E6, but instead E6 appears able to stimulate caspase 8 activation, without affecting the overall apoptotic activity. This would appear to be mediated in part by the ability of the HPV E6 oncoproteins to recruit active caspase 8 to the nucleus. - Highlights: • Multiple HPV E6 oncoproteins interact with the caspase 8 DED domain. • HPV E6 stimulates activation of caspase 8. • HPV E6 promotes nuclear accumulation of caspase 8.

  14. Nanofluidic proteomic assay for serial analysis of oncoprotein activation in clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Fan, Alice C; Deb-Basu, Debabrita; Orban, Mathias W; Gotlib, Jason R; Natkunam, Yasodha; O'Neill, Roger; Padua, Rose-Ann; Xu, Liwen; Taketa, Daryl; Shirer, Amy E; Beer, Shelly; Yee, Ada X; Voehringer, David W; Felsher, Dean W

    2009-05-01

    Current methods of protein detection are insensitive to detecting subtle changes in oncoprotein activation that underlie key cancer signaling processes. The requirement for large numbers of cells precludes serial tumor sampling for assessing a response to therapeutics. Therefore, we have developed a nanofluidic proteomic immunoassay (NIA) to quantify total and low-abundance protein isoforms in nanoliter volumes. Our method can quantify amounts of MYC oncoprotein and B cell lymphoma protein-2 (BCL2) in Burkitt's and follicular lymphoma; identify changes in activation of extracellular signal-related kinases-1 (ERK1) and ERK2, mitogen-activated kinase-1 (MEK), signal transducer and activator of transcription protein-3 (STAT3) and STAT5, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and caspase-3 in imatinib-treated chronic myelogeneous leukemia (CML) cells; measure an unanticipated change in the phosphorylation of an ERK2 isomer in individuals with CML who responded to imatinib; and detect a decrease in STAT3 and STAT5 phosphorylation in individuals with lymphoma who were treated with atorvastatin. Therefore, we have described a new and highly sensitive method for determining oncoprotein expression and phosphorylation in clinical specimens for the development of new therapeutics for cancer. PMID:19363496

  15. Merkel cell polyomavirus small T antigen controls viral replication and oncoprotein expression by targeting the cellular ubiquitin ligase SCFFbw7.

    PubMed

    Kwun, Hyun Jin; Shuda, Masahiro; Feng, Huichen; Camacho, Carlos J; Moore, Patrick S; Chang, Yuan

    2013-08-14

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) causes an aggressive human skin cancer, Merkel cell carcinoma, through expression of small T (sT) and large T (LT) viral oncoproteins. MCV sT is also required for efficient MCV DNA replication by the multifunctional MCV LT helicase protein. We find that LT is targeted for proteasomal degradation by the cellular SCF(Fbw7) E3 ligase, which can be inhibited by sT through its LT-stabilization domain (LSD). Consequently, sT also stabilizes cellular SCF(Fbw7) targets, including the cell-cycle regulators c-Myc and cyclin E. Mutating the sT LSD decreases LT protein levels and eliminates synergism in MCV DNA replication as well as sT-induced cell transformation. SCF(Fbw7) knockdown mimics sT-mediated stabilization of LT, but this knockdown is insufficient to fully reconstitute the transforming activity of a mutant LSD sT protein. Thus, MCV has evolved a regulatory system involving SCF(Fbw7) that controls viral replication but also contributes to host cell transformation. PMID:23954152

  16. Activation of MEK-1 and SEK-1 by Tpl-2 proto-oncoprotein, a novel MAP kinase kinase kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Salmeron, A; Ahmad, T B; Carlile, G W; Pappin, D; Narsimhan, R P; Ley, S C

    1996-01-01

    The Tpl-2 protein serine/threonine kinase was originally identified, in a C-terminally deleted form, as the product of an oncogene associated with the progression of Moloney murine leukemia virus-induced T cell lymphomas in rats. The kinase domain of Tpl-2 is homologous to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene product, STE11, which encodes a MAP kinase kinase kinase. This suggested that Tpl-2 might have a similar activity. Consistent with this hypothesis, immunoprecipitated Tpl-2 and Tpl-2deltaC (a C-terminally truncated mutant) phosphorylated and activated recombinant fusion proteins of the mammalian MAP kinase kinases, MEK-1 and SEK-1, in vitro. Furthermore, transfection of Tpl-2 into COS-1 cells or Jurkat T cells. markedly activated the MAP kinases, ERK-1 and SAP kinase (JNK), which are substrates for MEK-1 and SEK-1, respectively. Tpl-2, therefore, is a MAP kinase kinase kinase which can activate two MAP kinase pathways. After Raf and Mos, Tpl-2 is the third serine/threonine oncoprotein kinase that has been shown to function as a direct activator of MEK-1. Images PMID:8631303

  17. Eradication of B-ALL using chimeric antigen receptor-expressing T cells targeting the TSLPR oncoprotein.

    PubMed

    Qin, Haiying; Cho, Monica; Haso, Waleed; Zhang, Ling; Tasian, Sarah K; Oo, Htoo Zarni; Negri, Gian Luca; Lin, Yongshun; Zou, Jizhong; Mallon, Barbara S; Maude, Shannon; Teachey, David T; Barrett, David M; Orentas, Rimas J; Daugaard, Mads; Sorensen, Poul H B; Grupp, Stephan A; Fry, Terry J

    2015-07-30

    Adoptive transfer of T cells genetically modified to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeting the CD19 B cell-associated protein have demonstrated potent activity against relapsed/refractory B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). Not all patients respond, and CD19-negative relapses have been observed. Overexpression of the thymic stromal lymphopoietin receptor (TSLPR; encoded by CRLF2) occurs in a subset of adults and children with B-ALL and confers a high risk of relapse. Recent data suggest the TSLPR signaling axis is functionally important, suggesting that TSLPR would be an ideal immunotherapeutic target. We constructed short and long CARs targeting TSLPR and tested efficacy against CRLF2-overexpressing B-ALL. Both CARs demonstrated activity in vitro, but only short TSLPR CAR T cells mediated leukemia regression. In vivo activity of the short CAR was also associated with long-term persistence of CAR-expressing T cells. Short TSLPR CAR treatment of mice engrafted with a TSLPR-expressing ALL cell line induced leukemia cytotoxicity with efficacy comparable with that of CD19 CAR T cells. Short TSLPR CAR T cells also eradicated leukemia in 4 xenograft models of human CRLF2-overexpressing ALL. Finally, TSLPR has limited surface expression on normal tissues. TSLPR-targeted CAR T cells thus represent a potent oncoprotein-targeted immunotherapy for high-risk ALL. PMID:26041741

  18. The splicing factor SRSF6 is amplified and is an oncoprotein in lung and colon cancers.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Eliav, Michal; Golan-Gerstl, Regina; Siegfried, Zahava; Andersen, Claus L; Thorsen, Kasper; Ørntoft, Torben F; Mu, David; Karni, Rotem

    2013-03-01

    An increasing body of evidence connects alterations in the process of alternative splicing with cancer development and progression. However, a direct role of splicing factors as drivers of cancer development is mostly unknown. We analysed the gene copy number of several splicing factors in colon and lung tumours, and found that the gene encoding for the splicing factor SRSF6 is amplified and over-expressed in these cancers. Moreover, over-expression of SRSF6 in immortal lung epithelial cells enhanced proliferation, protected them from chemotherapy-induced cell death and converted them to be tumourigenic in mice. In contrast, knock-down of SRSF6 in lung and colon cancer cell lines inhibited their tumourigenic abilities. SRSF6 up- or down-regulation altered the splicing of several tumour suppressors and oncogenes to generate the oncogenic isoforms and reduce the tumour-suppressive isoforms. Our data suggest that the splicing factor SRSF6 is an oncoprotein that regulates the proliferation and survival of lung and colon cancer cells. PMID:23132731

  19. Genomic instability driven by the human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) oncoprotein, Tax.

    PubMed

    Lemoine, Francene J; Marriott, Susan J

    2002-10-17

    The importance of maintaining genomic stability is evidenced by the fact that transformed cells often contain a variety of chromosomal abnormalities such as euploidy, translocations, and inversions. Gene amplification is a well-characterized hallmark of genomic instability thought to result from recombination events following the formation of double-strand, chromosomal breaks. Therefore, gene amplification frequency serves as an indicator of genomic stability. The PALA assay is designed to measure directly the frequency with which a specific gene, CAD, is amplified within a cell's genome. We have used the PALA assay to analyse the effects of the human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) oncoprotein, Tax, on genomic amplification. We demonstrate that Tax-expressing cells are five-times more likely to undergo gene amplification than control cells. Additionally, we show that Tax alters the ability of cells to undergo the typical PALA-mediated G(1) phase cell cycle arrest, thereby allowing cells to replicate DNA in the absence of appropriate nucleotide pools. This effect is likely the mechanism by which Tax induces gene amplification. These data suggest that HTLV-I Tax alters the genomic stability of cells, an effect that may play an important role in Tax-mediated, HTLV-I associated cellular transformation. PMID:12370813

  20. Role of dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1B (Dyrk1B) in S-phase entry of HPV E7 expressing cells from quiescence

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Na; Yuan, Shoudao; Wang, Rongchun; Zhang, Weifang; Chen, Jason J.

    2015-01-01

    The high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent for cervical cancer. The HPV E7 oncogene promotes S-phase entry from quiescent state in the presence of elevated cell cycle inhibitor p27Kip1, a function that may contribute to carcinogenesis. However, the mechanism by which HPV E7 induces quiescent cells to entry into S-phase is not fully understood. Interestingly, we found that Dyrk1B, a dual-specificity kinase and negative regulator of cell proliferation in quiescent cells, was upregulated in E7 expressing cells. Surprisingly and in contrast to what was previously reported, Dyrk1B played a positive role in S-phase entry of quiescent HPV E7 expressing cells. Mechanistically, Dyrk1B contributed to p27 phosphorylation (at serine 10 and threonine 198), which was important for the proliferation of HPV E7 expressing cells. Moreover, Dyrk1B up-regulated HPV E7. Taken together, our studies uncovered a novel function of Dyrk1B in high-risk HPV E7-mediated cell proliferation. Dyrk1B may serve as a target for therapy in HPV-associated cancers. PMID:26307683

  1. Casein kinase II motif-dependent phosphorylation of human papillomavirus E7 protein promotes p130 degradation and S-phase induction in differentiated human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Nicholas J; Banerjee, N Sanjib; Broker, Thomas R; Chow, Louise T

    2008-05-01

    The E7 proteins of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) promote S-phase reentry in differentiated keratinocytes of the squamous epithelia to support viral DNA amplification. In this study, we showed that nuclear p130 was present in the differentiated strata of several native squamous epithelia susceptible to HPV infection. In contrast, p130 was below the level of detection in HPV-infected patient specimens. In submerged and organotypic cultures of primary human keratinocytes, the E7 proteins of the high-risk mucosotrophic HPV-18, the benign cutaneous HPV-1, and, to a lesser extent, the low-risk mucosotropic HPV-11 destabilized p130. This E7 activity depends on an intact pocket protein binding domain and a casein kinase II (CKII) phosphorylation motif. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments showed that both E7 domains were important for binding to p130 in extracts of organotypic cultures. Metabolic labeling in vivo demonstrated that E7 proteins were indeed phosphorylated in a CKII motif-dependent manner. Moreover, the efficiencies of the E7 proteins of various HPV types or mutations to induce S-phase reentry in spinous cells correlated with their relative abilities to bind and to destabilize p130. Collectively, these data support the notion that p130 controls the homeostasis of the differentiated keratinocytes and is therefore targeted by E7 for degradation to establish conditions permissive for viral DNA amplification. PMID:18321970

  2. Seminatural SUSY from the E7 nonlinear sigma model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harigaya, Keisuke; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.; Yokozaki, Norimi

    2015-08-01

    We present a new focus point supersymmetry-breaking scenario based on the supersymmetric E_7 nonlinear sigma model. In this model, squarks and sleptons are identified with (pseudo) Nambu-Goldstone bosons. Their masses are generated only radiatively through gauge and Yukawa interactions, and they are much smaller than the gravitino and gaugino masses at a high energy scale. On the other hand, Higgs doublets belong to matter multiplets and hence may have unsuppressed supersymmetry-breaking soft masses. We consider their masses to be equal to the gravitino mass at the high energy scale, assuming the minimal Kähler potential for Higgs doublets. We show that the fine-tuning measure of the electroweak symmetry-breaking scale is reduced significantly to Δ =30{-}70, if the ratio of the gravitino mass to the gaugino mass is around 5/4. Also, the prospects for the discovery/exclusion of supersymmetric particles at the Large Hadron Collider and dark matter direct detection experiments are discussed.

  3. Potential antitumor applications of a monoclonal antibody specifically targeting human papilloma virus 16 E7 49-57 peptide.

    PubMed

    Lei, Jianqiang; Zhang, GaoXia

    2012-07-01

    Our study aims to evaluate whether the approach of TCRm mAb has therapeutic potential against HPV-induced tumors. In the present study, we generated a murine IgG2a mAb 6C10 specifically recognizing HPV-16-E7(49-57) epitope (RAHYNIVTF) in the polypeptides and in complex with a MHC class I molecule. Analysis of the primary structure shows that the 6C10 Ab displays a novel sequence in the CDR of the heavy chain, compared to the sequences in the Kabat database, which suggests the Ab has completed its affinity maturation. The 6C10 Ab can specifically recognize E7 and Trx-E7(30-67) protein in ELISA, and can also specifically bind to T2 cell carrying HPV-16-E7(49-57) peptide. In the TC-1 cell tumor-bearing mouse model, 6C10 exhibits tumor suppression activity when compared to the isotype control Ab. 6C10 Ab has showed tumor-inhibition potency in a mouse model and this Ab may have the prospect of cancer therapy. PMID:22469208

  4. API2-MALT1 oncoprotein promotes lymphomagenesis via unique program of substrate ubiquitination and proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Rosebeck, Shaun; Lim, Megan S; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo S J; McAllister-Lucas, Linda M; Lucas, Peter C

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) is the most common extranodal B cell tumor and accounts for 8% of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. Gastric MALT lymphoma is the best-studied example and is a prototypical neoplasm that occurs in the setting of chronic inflammation brought on by persistent infection or autoimmune disease. Cytogenetic abnormalities are commonly acquired during the course of disease and the most common is chromosomal translocation t(11;18)(q21;q21), which creates the API2-MALT1 fusion oncoprotein. t(11;18)-positive lymphomas can be clinically aggressive and have a higher rate of dissemination than t(11;18)-negative tumors. Many cancers, including MALT lymphomas, characteristically exhibit deregulated over-activation of cellular survival pathways, such as the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. Molecular characterization of API2-MALT1 has revealed it to be a potent activator of NF-κB, which is required for API2-MALT1-induced cellular transformation, however the mechanisms by which API2-MALT1 exerts these effects are only recently becoming apparent. The API2 moiety of the fusion binds tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor associated factor (TRAF) 2 and receptor interacting protein 1 (RIP1), two proteins essential for TNF receptor-induced NF-κB activation. By effectively mimicking ligand-bound TNF receptor, API2-MALT1 promotes TRAF2-dependent ubiquitination of RIP1, which then acts as a scaffold for nucleating and activating the canonical NF-κB machinery. Activation occurs, in part, through MALT1 moiety-dependent recruitment of TRAF6, which can directly modify NF-κB essential modulator, the principal downstream regulator of NF-κB. While the intrinsic MALT1 protease catalytic activity is dispensable for this canonical NF-κB signaling, it is critical for non-canonical NF-κB activation. In this regard, API2-MALT1 recognizes NF-κB inducing kinase (NIK), the essential upstream regulator of non-canonical NF-κB, and cleaves it to generate a stable, constitutively active fragment. Thus, API2-MALT1 harnesses multiple unique pathways to achieve deregulated NF-κB activation. Emerging data from our group and others have also detailed additional gain-of-function activities of API2-MALT1 that extend beyond NF-κB activation. Specifically, API2-MALT1 recruits and subverts multiple other signaling factors, including LIM domain and actin-binding protein 1 (LIMA1) and Smac/DIABLO. Like NIK, LIMA1 represents a unique substrate for API2-MALT1 protease activity, but unlike NIK, its cleavage sets in motion a major NF-κB-independent pathway for promoting oncogenesis. In this review, we highlight the most recent results characterizing these unique and diverse gain-of-function activities of API2-MALT1 and how they contribute to lymphomagenesis. PMID:26981201

  5. API2-MALT1 oncoprotein promotes lymphomagenesis via unique program of substrate ubiquitination and proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Rosebeck, Shaun; Lim, Megan S; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo S J; McAllister-Lucas, Linda M; Lucas, Peter C

    2016-02-26

    Lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) is the most common extranodal B cell tumor and accounts for 8% of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Gastric MALT lymphoma is the best-studied example and is a prototypical neoplasm that occurs in the setting of chronic inflammation brought on by persistent infection or autoimmune disease. Cytogenetic abnormalities are commonly acquired during the course of disease and the most common is chromosomal translocation t(11;18)(q21;q21), which creates the API2-MALT1 fusion oncoprotein. t(11;18)-positive lymphomas can be clinically aggressive and have a higher rate of dissemination than t(11;18)-negative tumors. Many cancers, including MALT lymphomas, characteristically exhibit deregulated over-activation of cellular survival pathways, such as the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. Molecular characterization of API2-MALT1 has revealed it to be a potent activator of NF-κB, which is required for API2-MALT1-induced cellular transformation, however the mechanisms by which API2-MALT1 exerts these effects are only recently becoming apparent. The API2 moiety of the fusion binds tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor associated factor (TRAF) 2 and receptor interacting protein 1 (RIP1), two proteins essential for TNF receptor-induced NF-κB activation. By effectively mimicking ligand-bound TNF receptor, API2-MALT1 promotes TRAF2-dependent ubiquitination of RIP1, which then acts as a scaffold for nucleating and activating the canonical NF-κB machinery. Activation occurs, in part, through MALT1 moiety-dependent recruitment of TRAF6, which can directly modify NF-κB essential modulator, the principal downstream regulator of NF-κB. While the intrinsic MALT1 protease catalytic activity is dispensable for this canonical NF-κB signaling, it is critical for non-canonical NF-κB activation. In this regard, API2-MALT1 recognizes NF-κB inducing kinase (NIK), the essential upstream regulator of non-canonical NF-κB, and cleaves it to generate a stable, constitutively active fragment. Thus, API2-MALT1 harnesses multiple unique pathways to achieve deregulated NF-κB activation. Emerging data from our group and others have also detailed additional gain-of-function activities of API2-MALT1 that extend beyond NF-κB activation. Specifically, API2-MALT1 recruits and subverts multiple other signaling factors, including LIM domain and actin-binding protein 1 (LIMA1) and Smac/DIABLO. Like NIK, LIMA1 represents a unique substrate for API2-MALT1 protease activity, but unlike NIK, its cleavage sets in motion a major NF-κB-independent pathway for promoting oncogenesis. In this review, we highlight the most recent results characterizing these unique and diverse gain-of-function activities of API2-MALT1 and how they contribute to lymphomagenesis. PMID:26981201

  6. HPV-E7 Delivered by Engineered Exosomes Elicits a Protective CD8+ T Cell-Mediated Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Di Bonito, Paola; Ridolfi, Barbara; Columba-Cabezas, Sandra; Giovannelli, Andrea; Chiozzini, Chiara; Manfredi, Francesco; Anticoli, Simona; Arenaccio, Claudia; Federico, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    We developed an innovative strategy to induce a cytotoxic T cell (CTL) immune response against protein antigens of choice. It relies on the production of exosomes, i.e., nanovesicles spontaneously released by all cell types. We engineered the upload of huge amounts of protein antigens upon fusion with an anchoring protein (i.e., HIV-1 Nefmut), which is an inactive protein incorporating in exosomes at high levels also when fused with foreign proteins. We compared the immunogenicity of engineered exosomes uploading human papillomavirus (HPV)-E7 with that of lentiviral virus-like particles (VLPs) incorporating equivalent amounts of the same antigen. These exosomes, whose limiting membrane was decorated with VSV-G, i.e., an envelope protein inducing pH-dependent endosomal fusion, proved to be as immunogenic as the cognate VLPs. It is noteworthy that the immunogenicity of the engineered exosomes remained unaltered in the absence of VSV-G. Most important, we provide evidence that the inoculation in mouse of exosomes uploading HPV-E7 induces production of anti-HPV E7 CTLs, blocks the growth of syngeneic tumor cells inoculated after immunization, and controls the development of tumor cells inoculated before the exosome challenge. These results represent the proof-of-concept about both feasibility and efficacy of the Nefmut-based exosome platform for the induction of CD8+ T cell immunity. PMID:25760140

  7. Eradication of large tumors expressing human papillomavirus E7 protein by therapeutic vaccination with E7 fused to the extra domain a from fibronectin.

    PubMed

    Mansilla, Cristina; Berraondo, Pedro; Durantez, Maika; Martínez, Marta; Casares, Noelia; Arribillaga, Laura; Rudilla, Francesc; Fioravanti, Jessica; Lozano, Teresa; Villanueva, Lorea; Sarobe, Pablo; Borrás, Francisco; Leclerc, Claude; Prieto, Jesús; Lasarte, Juan José

    2012-08-01

    Cervical carcinoma is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide. It is well established that chronic infection of the genital tract by various mucosatropic human papillomavirus (HPV) types causes cervical cancer. Cellular immunity to E7 protein from HPV (HPVE7) has been associated with clinical and cytologic resolution of HPV-induced lesions. Thus, we decided to test if targeting of HPVE7 to dendritic cells using a fusion protein containing the extra domain A (EDA) from fibronectin, a natural ligand for TLR4, and HPVE7 (EDA-HPVE7) might be an efficient vaccine for the treatment of cervical carcinoma. We found that EDA-HPVE7 fusion protein was efficiently captured by bone marrow derived dendritic cells in vitro and induced their maturation, with the upregulation of maturation markers and the production of IL-12. Immunization of mice with EDA-HPVE7 fusion protein induced antitumor CD8(+) T cell responses in the absence of additional adjuvants. Repeated intratumoral administration of EDA-HPVE7 in saline was able to cure established TC-1 tumors of 5-7 mm in diameter. More importantly, intravenous injection with EDA-HPVE7 in combination with the TLR ligand polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (pIC), or with low doses of cyclophosphamide and the TLR9 ligand CpG-B complexed in cationic lipids, were able to eradicate large established TC-1 tumors (1.2 cm in diameter). Thus, therapeutic vaccination with EDA-HPVE7 fusion protein may be effective in the treatment of human cervical carcinoma. PMID:21898393

  8. Expression and In Silico Analysis of the Recombinant Bovine Papillomavirus E6 Protein as a Model for Viral Oncoproteins Studies

    PubMed Central

    Mazzuchelli-de-Souza, J.; Carvalho, R. F.; Ruiz, R. M.; Melo, T. C.; Araldi, R. P.; Carvalho, E.; Thompson, C. E.; Sircili, M. P.; Beçak, W.; Stocco, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    Bovine papillomaviruses (BPVs) are recognized as the causal agents of economical relevant diseases in cattle, associated with the development of tumors in skin and mucosa. The oncogenesis process is mainly associated with different viral oncoprotein expressions, which are involved in cell transformation. The expression and characterization of recombinant viral oncoproteins represent an attractive strategy to obtain biotechnological products as antibodies and potential vaccines, Thus, the aim of this work was to clone and express the BPV-1 and BPV-2 E6 recombinant proteins and perform in silico analysis in order to develop a strategy for the systematic study of other papillomaviruses oncoproteins. The results demonstrated that BPV-1 and BPV-2 E6 recombinant proteins were expressed and purified from bacterial system as well as its in silico analysis was performed in order to explore and predict biological characteristics of these proteins. PMID:23878806

  9. Intracellular Analysis of the Interaction between the Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E6 Oncoprotein and Inhibitory Peptides.

    PubMed

    Stutz, Christina; Reinz, Eileen; Honegger, Anja; Bulkescher, Julia; Schweizer, Johannes; Zanier, Katia; Travé, Gilles; Lohrey, Claudia; Hoppe-Seyler, Karin; Hoppe-Seyler, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Oncogenic types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause cervical cancer and other malignancies in humans. The HPV E6 oncoprotein is considered to be an attractive therapeutic target since its inhibition can lead to the apoptotic cell death of HPV-positive cancer cells. The HPV type 16 (HPV16) E6-binding peptide pep11, and variants thereof, induce cell death specifically in HPV16-positive cancer cells. Although they do not encompass the LxxLL binding motif found in cellular HPV16 E6 interaction partners, such as E6AP, the pep11 variants strongly bind to HPV16 E6 by contacting the recently identified E6AP binding pocket. Thus, these peptides can serve as prototype E6-inhibitory molecules which target the E6AP pocket. We here analyzed their intracellular interaction with HPV16 E6. By comprehensive intracellular binding studies and GST pull-down assays, we show that E6-binding competent pep11 variants induce the formation of a trimeric complex, consisting of pep11, HPV16 E6 and p53. These findings indicate that peptides, which do not contain the LxxLL motif, can reshape E6 to enable its interaction with p53. The formation of the trimeric HPV16 E6 / peptide / p53 complex was associated with an increase of endogenous HPV16 E6 protein amounts. Yet, total cellular p53 amounts were also increased, indicating that the E6 / E6AP-mediated degradation of p53 is blocked. These findings suggest that inhibition of oncogenic activities by targeting the E6AP pocket on HPV16 E6 could be a strategy for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26151636

  10. Regulation of microtubule dynamics by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase IV/Gr-dependent phosphorylation of oncoprotein 18.

    PubMed Central

    Melander Gradin, H; Marklund, U; Larsson, N; Chatila, T A; Gullberg, M

    1997-01-01

    Oncoprotein 18 (Op18; also termed p19, 19K, p18, prosolin, and stathmin) is a regulator of microtubule (MT) dynamics and is phosphorylated by multiple kinase systems on four Ser residues. In addition to cell cycle-regulated phosphorylation, external signals induce phosphorylation of Op18 on Ser-25 by the mitogen-activated protein kinase and on Ser-16 by the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase IV/Gr (CaMK IV/Gr). Here we show that induced expression of a constitutively active mutant of CaMK IV/Gr results in phosphorylation of Op18 on Ser-16. In parallel, we also observed partial degradation of Op18 and a rapid increase of total cellular MTs. These results suggest a link between CaMK IV/Gr, Op18, and MT dynamics. To explore such a putative link, we optimized a genetic system that allowed conditional coexpression of a series of CaMK IV/Gr and Op18 derivatives. The result shows that CaMK IV/Gr can suppress the MT-regulating activity of Op18 by phosphorylation on Ser-16. In line with these results, by employing a chemical cross-linking protocol, it was shown that phosphorylation of Ser-16 is involved in weakening of the interactions between Op18 and tubulin. Taken together, these data suggest that the mechanism of CaMK IV/Gr-mediated suppression of Op18 activity involves both partial degradation of Op18 and direct modulation of the MT-destabilizing activity of this protein. These results show that Op18 phosphorylation by CaMK IV/Gr may couple alterations of MT dynamics in response to external signals that involve Ca2+. PMID:9154845

  11. Intracellular Analysis of the Interaction between the Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E6 Oncoprotein and Inhibitory Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Stutz, Christina; Reinz, Eileen; Honegger, Anja; Bulkescher, Julia; Schweizer, Johannes; Zanier, Katia; Travé, Gilles; Lohrey, Claudia; Hoppe-Seyler, Karin; Hoppe-Seyler, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Oncogenic types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause cervical cancer and other malignancies in humans. The HPV E6 oncoprotein is considered to be an attractive therapeutic target since its inhibition can lead to the apoptotic cell death of HPV-positive cancer cells. The HPV type 16 (HPV16) E6-binding peptide pep11, and variants thereof, induce cell death specifically in HPV16-positive cancer cells. Although they do not encompass the LxxLL binding motif found in cellular HPV16 E6 interaction partners, such as E6AP, the pep11 variants strongly bind to HPV16 E6 by contacting the recently identified E6AP binding pocket. Thus, these peptides can serve as prototype E6-inhibitory molecules which target the E6AP pocket. We here analyzed their intracellular interaction with HPV16 E6. By comprehensive intracellular binding studies and GST pull-down assays, we show that E6-binding competent pep11 variants induce the formation of a trimeric complex, consisting of pep11, HPV16 E6 and p53. These findings indicate that peptides, which do not contain the LxxLL motif, can reshape E6 to enable its interaction with p53. The formation of the trimeric HPV16 E6 / peptide / p53 complex was associated with an increase of endogenous HPV16 E6 protein amounts. Yet, total cellular p53 amounts were also increased, indicating that the E6 / E6AP-mediated degradation of p53 is blocked. These findings suggest that inhibition of oncogenic activities by targeting the E6AP pocket on HPV16 E6 could be a strategy for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26151636

  12. Role of ubiquitin and the HPV E6 oncoprotein in E6AP-mediated ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Franziska; Schneider, Daniel; Barbic, Tanja; Sladewska-Marquardt, Anna; Kühnle, Simone; Marx, Andreas; Scheffner, Martin

    2015-08-11

    Deregulation of the ubiquitin ligase E6 associated protein (E6AP) encoded by the UBE3A gene has been associated with three different clinical pictures. Hijacking of E6AP by the E6 oncoprotein of distinct human papillomaviruses (HPV) contributes to the development of cervical cancer, whereas loss of E6AP expression or function is the cause of Angelman syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder, and increased expression of E6AP has been involved in autism spectrum disorders. Although these observations indicate that the activity of E6AP has to be tightly controlled, only little is known about how E6AP is regulated at the posttranslational level. Here, we provide evidence that the hydrophobic patch of ubiquitin comprising Leu-8 and Ile-44 is important for E6AP-mediated ubiquitination, whereas it does not affect the catalytic properties of the isolated catalytic HECT domain of E6AP. Furthermore, we show that the HPV E6 oncoprotein rescues the disability of full-length E6AP to use a respective hydrophobic patch mutant of ubiquitin for ubiquitination and that it stimulates E6AP-mediated ubiquitination of Ring1B, a known substrate of E6AP, in vitro and in cells. Based on these data, we propose that E6AP exists in at least two different states, an active and a less active or latent one, and that the activity of E6AP is controlled by noncovalent interactions with ubiquitin and allosteric activators such as the HPV E6 oncoprotein. PMID:26216987

  13. Role of ubiquitin and the HPV E6 oncoprotein in E6AP-mediated ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Franziska; Schneider, Daniel; Barbic, Tanja; Sladewska-Marquardt, Anna; Kühnle, Simone; Marx, Andreas; Scheffner, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Deregulation of the ubiquitin ligase E6 associated protein (E6AP) encoded by the UBE3A gene has been associated with three different clinical pictures. Hijacking of E6AP by the E6 oncoprotein of distinct human papillomaviruses (HPV) contributes to the development of cervical cancer, whereas loss of E6AP expression or function is the cause of Angelman syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder, and increased expression of E6AP has been involved in autism spectrum disorders. Although these observations indicate that the activity of E6AP has to be tightly controlled, only little is known about how E6AP is regulated at the posttranslational level. Here, we provide evidence that the hydrophobic patch of ubiquitin comprising Leu-8 and Ile-44 is important for E6AP-mediated ubiquitination, whereas it does not affect the catalytic properties of the isolated catalytic HECT domain of E6AP. Furthermore, we show that the HPV E6 oncoprotein rescues the disability of full-length E6AP to use a respective hydrophobic patch mutant of ubiquitin for ubiquitination and that it stimulates E6AP-mediated ubiquitination of Ring1B, a known substrate of E6AP, in vitro and in cells. Based on these data, we propose that E6AP exists in at least two different states, an active and a less active or latent one, and that the activity of E6AP is controlled by noncovalent interactions with ubiquitin and allosteric activators such as the HPV E6 oncoprotein. PMID:26216987

  14. Human papillomavirus type 16 E7 protein inhibits DNA binding by the retinoblastoma gene product.

    PubMed Central

    Stirdivant, S M; Huber, H E; Patrick, D R; Defeo-Jones, D; McAvoy, E M; Garsky, V M; Oliff, A; Heimbrook, D C

    1992-01-01

    The human papillomavirus E7 gene can transform murine fibroblasts and cooperate with other viral oncogenes in transforming primary cell cultures. One biochemical property associated with the E7 protein is binding to the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene product (pRB). Biochemical properties associated with pRB include binding to viral transforming proteins (E1A, large T, and E7), binding to cellular proteins (E2F and Myc), and binding to DNA. The mechanism by which E7 stimulates cell growth is uncertain. However, E7 binding to pRB inhibits binding of cellular proteins to pRB and appears to block the growth-suppressive activity of pRB. We have found that E7 also inhibits binding of pRB to DNA. A 60-kDa version of pRB (pRB60) produced in reticulocyte translation reactions or in bacteria bound quantitatively to DNA-cellulose. Recombinant E7 protein used at a 1:1 or 10:1 molar ratio with pRB60 blocked 50 or greater than 95% of pRB60 DNA-binding activity, respectively. A mutant E7 protein (E7-Ala-24) with reduced pRB60-binding activity exhibited a parallel reduction in its blocking of pRB60 binding to DNA. An E7(20-29) peptide that blocks binding of E7 protein to pRB60 restored the DNA-binding activity of pRB60 in the presence of E7. Peptide E7(2-32) did not block pRB60 binding to DNA, while peptide E7(20-57) and an E7 fragment containing residues 1 to 60 partially blocked DNA binding. E7 species containing residues 3 to 75 were fully effective at blocking pRB60 binding to DNA. These studies indicate that E7 protein specifically blocks pRB60 binding to DNA and suggest that the E7 region responsible for this property lies between residues 32 and 75. The functional significance of these observations is unclear. However, we have found that a point mutation in pRB60 that impairs DNA-binding activity also blocks the ability of pRB60 to inhibit cell growth. This correlation suggests that the DNA-binding activity of retinoblastoma proteins contributes to their biological properties. Images PMID:1314947

  15. Prothymosin alpha associates with the oncoprotein SET and is involved in chromatin decondensation.

    PubMed

    Karetsou, Zoe; Martic, Goran; Tavoulari, Sotiria; Christoforidis, Savvas; Wilm, Matthias; Gruss, Claudia; Papamarcaki, Thomais

    2004-11-19

    Prothymosin alpha (ProTalpha) is a histone H1-binding protein that interacts with the transcription coactivator CREB-binding protein and potentiates transcription. Based on coimmunoprecipitation and mammalian two-hybrid assays, we show here that ProTalpha forms a complex with the oncoprotein SET. ProTalpha efficiently decondenses human sperm chromatin, while overexpression of GFP-ProTalpha in mammalian cells results in global chromatin decondensation. These results indicate that decondensation of compacted chromatin fibers is an important step in the mechanism of ProTalpha function. PMID:15556635

  16. Low- and high-risk human papillomavirus E7 proteins regulate p130 differently

    SciTech Connect

    Barrow-Laing, Lisa; Chen Wei; Roman, Ann

    2010-05-10

    The E7 protein of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR HPVs) targets pRb family members (pRb, p107 and p130) for degradation; low-risk (LR) HPV E7 only targets p130 for degradation. The effect of HR HPV 16 E7 and LR HPV 6 E7 on p130 intracellular localization and half-life was examined. Nuclear/cytoplasmic fractionation and immunofluorescence showed that, in contrast to control and HPV 6 E7-expressing cells, a greater amount of p130 was present in the cytoplasm in the presence of HPV 16 E7. The half-life of p130, relative to control cells, was decreased in the cytoplasm in the presence of HPV 6 E7 or HPV 16 E7, but only decreased by HPV 6 E7 in the nucleus. Inhibition of proteasomal degradation extended the half-life of p130, regardless of intracellular localization. These results suggest that there may be divergent mechanisms by which LR and HR HPV E7 target p130 for degradation.

  17. Low- and High-Risk Human Papillomavirus E7 Proteins Regulate p130 Differently

    PubMed Central

    Barrow-Laing, Lisa; Chen, Wei; Roman, Ann

    2010-01-01

    The E7 protein of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR HPVs) targets pRb family members (pRb, p107 and p130) for degradation; low-risk (LR) HPV E7 only targets p130 for degradation. The effect of HR HPV 16 E7 and LR HPV 6 E7 on p130 intracellular localization and half-life was examined. Nuclear/cytoplasmic fractionation and immunofluorescence showed that, in contrast to control and HPV 6 E7-expressing cells, a greater amount of p130 was present in the cytoplasm in the presence of HPV 16 E7. The half-life of p130, relative to control cells, was decreased in the cytoplasm in the presence of HPV 6 E7 or HPV 16 E7, but only decreased by HPV 6 E7 in the nucleus. Inhibition of proteasomal degradation extended the half-life of p130, regardless of intracellular localization. These results suggest that there may be divergent mechanisms by which LR and HR HPV E7 target p130 for degradation. PMID:20189212

  18. Acetylation of the c-MYC oncoprotein is required for cooperation with the HTLV-1 p30II accessory protein and the induction of oncogenic cellular transformation by p30II/c-MYC

    PubMed Central

    Romeo, Megan M.; Ko, Bookyung; Kim, Janice; Brady, Rebecca; Heatley, Hayley C.; He, Jeffrey; Harrod, Carolyn K.; Barnett, Braden; Ratner, Lee; Lairmore, Michael D.; Martinez, Ernest; Lüscher, Bernhard; Robson, Craig N.; Henriksson, Marie; Harrod, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The human T-cell leukemia retrovirus type-1 (HTLV-1) p30II protein is a multifunctional latency-maintenance factor that negatively regulates viral gene expression and deregulates host signaling pathways involved in aberrant T-cell growth and proliferation. We have previously demonstrated that p30II interacts with the c-MYC oncoprotein and enhances c-MYC-dependent transcriptional and oncogenic functions. However, the molecular and biochemical events that mediate the cooperation between p30II and c-MYC remain to be completely understood. Herein we demonstrate that p30II induces lysine-acetylation of the c-MYC oncoprotein. Acetylation-defective c-MYC Lys→Arg substitution mutants are impaired for oncogenic transformation with p30II in c-myc−/− HO15.19 fibroblasts. Using dual-chromatin-immunoprecipitations (dual-ChIPs), we further demonstrate that p30II is present in c-MYC-containing nucleoprotein complexes in HTLV-1-transformed HuT-102 T-lymphocytes. Moreover, p30II inhibits apoptosis in proliferating cells expressing c-MYC under conditions of genotoxic stress. These findings suggest that c-MYC-acetylation is required for the cooperation between p30II/c-MYC which could promote proviral replication and contribute to HTLV-1-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:25569455

  19. Nano-fluidic proteomic assay for serial analysis of oncoprotein activation in clinical specimens

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Alice C.; Deb-Basu, Debabrita; Orban, Mathias W.; Gotlib, Jason R.; Natkunam, Yasodha; O’Neill, Roger; Padua, Rose-Ann; Xu, Liwen; Taketa, Daryl; Shirer, Amy E.; Beer, Shelly; Yee, Ada X.; Voehringer, David W.; Felsher, Dean W.

    2014-01-01

    Current methods of protein detection are insensitive to detecting subtle changes in oncoprotein activation that underlie critical cancer signaling processes. The requirement for large numbers of cells precludes serial tumor sampling for assessing a response to therapeutics. Therefore, we have developed a nano-fluidic proteomic immunoassay (NIA) to quantify total and low abundance protein isoforms in 4 nanoliters of lysate. Our method could quantify levels of MYC and BCL2 proteins in Burkitt’s versus follicular lymphoma; identify changes in activation of ERK1/2, MEK1, STAT3/5, JNK and caspase 3 in imatinib-treated chronic myelogeneous leukemia (CML) cells; measure a novel change in phosphorylation of an ERK2 isomer in CML patients who responded to imatinib; and detect a decrease in STAT3/5 phosphorylation in lymphoma patients treated with atorvastatin. Therefore, we have described a novel and highly sensitive method for interrogating oncoprotein expression and phosphorylation in clinical specimens for the development of new therapeutics for cancer. PMID:19363496

  20. Elucidating Molecular Interactions of Natural Inhibitors with HPV-16 E6 Oncoprotein through Docking Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jena, Lingaraja; Galande, Sneha; Daf, Sangeeta; Mohod, Kanchan; Varma, Ashok K.

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the leading cause of cancer mortality among women worldwide. The life-threatening infection caused by HPV demands the need for designing anticancerous drugs. In the recent years, different compounds from natural origins, such as carrageenan, curcumin, epigallocatechin gallate, indole-3-carbinol, jaceosidin, and withaferin, have been used as a hopeful source of anticancer therapy. These compounds have been shown to suppress HPV infection by different researchers. In the present study, we explored these natural inhibitors against E6 oncoprotein of high-risk HPV-16, which is known to inactivate the p53 tumor suppressor protein. A robust homology model of HPV-16 E6 was built to anticipate the interaction mechanism of E6 oncoprotein with natural inhibitory molecules using a structure-based drug designing approach. Docking analysis showed the interaction of these natural compounds with the p53-binding site of E6 protein residues 113-122 (CQKPLCPEEK) and helped the restoration of p53 functioning. Docking analysis, besides helping in silico validation of natural compounds, also helps understand molecular mechanisms of protein-ligand interactions. PMID:25031569

  1. Clinicopathological correlation of Bcl-2 oncoprotein expression in oral precancer and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Arya, Vandana; Singh, Subash; Daniel, M. Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of the oral cavity. Normally the death of cell and the growth are active processes and depend not only on external factors but also on the expression of genes such as Bcl-2, which activate and inhibit apoptosis. The term Bcl-2 is an acronym for B-cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 genes. It has been reported that there is deregulation of Bcl-2 expression during progression from oral epithelial dysplasia to squamous cell carcinoma. Expression of this oncoprotein can be detected by immunohistochemistry. Aims and objectives An attempt was made to evaluate Bcl-2 oncoprotein expression in patients with oral precancer and cancer. Materials and methods A selective prospective clinical and immunohistochemical study. Clinicopathological examination was correlated with immunohistochemical findings. The immunolocalization of Bcl-2 protein was performed using the labeled streptavidin biotin method. To visualize the reaction, 3,3-diaminobenzidine was used. Results Bcl-2 expression was positive in 11 [36.66%, low Bcl-2 expression 3 (10.00%), moderate Bcl-2 expression 7 (23.33%), and high Bcl-2 expression 1 (3.33%)] oral cancer cases and 14 [87.50%, low expression 8 (50%), moderate expression 6 (37.50%)] precancer cases. Conclusion On the basis of the results of our study, we conclude that positive Bcl-2 expression may be an indicator of poor prognosis in oral cancer and precancer. PMID:26937364

  2. Identification of seroreactive epitopes of human papillomavirus type 18 E7 protein by synthetic peptides.

    PubMed

    Krchnák, V; Pistĕk, T; Vágner, J; Suchánková, A; Kañka, J; Ritterová, L; Vonka, V

    1993-10-01

    Nine everlapping peptides covering the entire sequence of early protein E7 of human papillomavirus type 18 (HPV-18) were synthesized and tested as antigens with pools of selected human sera in ELISA. Peptides denoted 18/E7-2, 18/E7-3, and 18/E7-5 (amino acid positions 11-33, 21-40, and 41-60, respectively) were reactive with pooled sera originating from HPV-18 DNA-positive cervical cancer patients but not with sera from HPV-16 DNA-positive cervical cancer patients or from condyloma acuminata patients. This suggested that the epitopes contained in these peptides were HPV-18 type-specific, relative to HPV types 16, 11, and 6. On the other hand, 18/E7-1 (aa 1-23) and 18/E7-6 (aa 51-70) peptides were cross-reactive. The prevalence of antibodies reactive with 18/E7-2, 18/E7-3, and 18/E7-5 peptides in cervical carcinoma patients was very low. Thus, the utilization of these peptides for monitoring HPV-18 infection seems to be rather limited. PMID:7514354

  3. [Prokaryotic expression and polyclonal antibody preparation of HPV6b E7 protein].

    PubMed

    Tang, Yi; Zhou, Qiang; Wang, Qi; Cheng, Hao

    2011-09-01

    To express and prepare polyclonal antibody of Human papillomavirus type 6b (HPV6b) E7 protein. a prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-4T-2/HPV6b E7 was constructed and GST-HPV6b E7 fusion protein was expressed as a soluble protein in E. coli. The expressed fusion protein was purified via Glutathione-Sepharose 4B column and thrombin cleavage in order to obtain HPV6b E7 protein. Polyclonal IgG antibody was prepared by immunizing New-Zealand rabbits with HPV6b E7 protein. Western-Blot and immunofluorescence analysis showed that the polyclonal IgG antibody could specifically recognize HPV6b E7 protein and its titer was identified. SDS-PAGE analysis demonstrated that large amounts of soluble GST-HPV6b E7 fusion protein was expressed in E. coli after 3.0-6.0 hours of IPTG induction. Polyclonal IgG antibody successfully prepared from immunized rabbits showed high titer and high specificity as confirmed by Western-Blot and immunofluorescence. The preparation of anti-HPV6b E7 polyclonal antibody will facilitate further research on the biological and immunological functions of HPV6b E7 protein. PMID:21998951

  4. Identification and characterization of mechanism of action of P61-E7, a novel phosphine catalysis-based inhibitor of geranylgeranyltransferase-I.

    PubMed

    Chan, Lai N; Fiji, Hannah D G; Watanabe, Masaru; Kwon, Ohyun; Tamanoi, Fuyuhiko

    2011-01-01

    Small molecule inhibitors of protein geranylgeranyltransferase-I (GGTase-I) provide a promising type of anticancer drugs. Here, we first report the identification of a novel tetrahydropyridine scaffold compound, P61-E7, and define effects of this compound on pancreatic cancer cells. P61-E7 was identified from a library of allenoate-derived compounds made through phosphine-catalyzed annulation reactions. P61-E7 inhibits protein geranylgeranylation and blocks membrane association of geranylgeranylated proteins. P61-E7 is effective at inhibiting both cell proliferation and cell cycle progression, and it induces high p21(CIP1/WAF1) level in human cancer cells. P61-E7 also increases p27(Kip1) protein level and inhibits phosphorylation of p27(Kip1) on Thr187. We also report that P61-E7 treatment of Panc-1 cells causes cell rounding, disrupts actin cytoskeleton organization, abolishes focal adhesion assembly and inhibits anchorage independent growth. Because the cellular effects observed pointed to the involvement of RhoA, a geranylgeranylated small GTPase protein shown to influence a number of cellular processes including actin stress fiber organization, cell adhesion and cell proliferation, we have evaluated the significance of the inhibition of RhoA geranylgeranylation on the cellular effects of inhibitors of GGTase-I (GGTIs). Stable expression of farnesylated RhoA mutant (RhoA-F) results in partial resistance to the anti-proliferative effect of P61-E7 and prevents induction of p21(CIP1/WAF1) and p27(Kip1) by P61-E7 in Panc-1 cells. Moreover, stable expression of RhoA-F rescues Panc-1 cells from cell rounding and inhibition of focal adhesion formation caused by P61-E7. Taken together, these findings suggest that P61-E7 is a promising GGTI compound and that RhoA is an important target of P61-E7 in Panc-1 pancreatic cancer cells. PMID:22028818

  5. A DNA vaccine encoding mutated HPV58 mE6E7-Fc-GPI fusion antigen and GM-CSF and B7.1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, He; Yu, Jiyun; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Background Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is a predominant cause of cervical cancer, and HPV58 is the third most common virus detected in the patients with cervical cancer in Asia. E6 and E7 are the viral oncogenes which are constitutively expressed in HPV-associated tumor cells and can be used as target antigens for related immunotherapy. In this study, we modified the HPV58 E6 and E7 oncogenes to eliminate their oncogenic potential and constructed a recombinant DNA vaccine that coexpresses the sig-HPV58 mE6E7-Fc-GPI fusion antigen in addition to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and B7.1 as molecular adjuvants (PVAX1-HPV58 mE6E7FcGB) for the treatment of HPV58 (+) cancer. Methods PVAX1-HPV58 mE6E7FcGB recombinant DNA vaccine was constructed to express a fusion protein containing a signal peptide, a modified HPV58 mE6E7 gene, and human IgG Fc and glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchoring sequences using the modified DNA vaccine vector PVAX1-IRES-GM/B7.1 that coexpresses GM-CSF, and B7.1. C57BL/6 mice were challenged by HPV58 E6E7-expressing B16-HPV58 E6E7 cells, followed by immunization by PVAX1-HPV58 mE6E7FcGB vaccine on days 7, 14, 21 after tumor challenge. The cellular immune responses in immunized mice were assessed by measuring IFN-γ production in splenocytes upon stimulation by HPV58 E6E7-GST protein and the lysis of B16-HPV58 E6E7 target cells by splenocytes after restimulation with HPV58 E6E7-GST protein. The antitumor efficacy was evaluated by monitoring the growth of the tumor. Results PVAX1-HPV58 mE6E7FcGB elicited varying levels of IFN-lsgdB58onn T-cell immune responses and lysis of target cell in mice in response to the recombinant antigen HPV58 E6E7-GST. Furthermore, the vaccine also induced antitumor responses in the HPV58 (+) B16-HPV58 E6E7 tumor challenge model as evidenced by delayed tumor development. Conclusion The recombinant DNA vaccine PVAX1-HPV58 mE6E7FcGB efficiently generates cellular immunity and antitumor efficacy in immunized mice. These data provide a basis for the further study of this recombinant vaccine as a potential candidate vaccine. PMID:26604780

  6. An RNA Aptamer Targets the PDZ-Binding Motif of the HPV16 E6 Oncoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Belyaeva, Tamara A.; Nicol, Clare; Cesur, Özlem; Travé, Gilles; Blair, George Eric; Stonehouse, Nicola J.

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) is a high-risk DNA tumour virus which is the primary causative agent of cervical cancer. Cell transformation arises from deregulated expression of the E6 and E7 oncogenes. E6 has been shown to bind a number of cellular proteins, including p53 and proteins containing a PDZ domain. This study reports the first RNA aptamers to E6. These have been employed as molecular tools to further investigate E6-p53 and E6-PDZ interactions. This study is focussed on two aptamers (termed F2 and F4) which induced apoptosis in cells derived from an HPV16-transformed cervical carcinoma. The molecules were able to inhibit the interaction between E6 and PDZ1 from Magi1, with F2 being the most effective inhibitor. Neither of the aptamers inhibited E6-p53 interaction or p53 degradation. This study shows the specificity of this approach and highlights the potential benefits of the E6 aptamers as potential therapeutic or diagnostic agents in the future. PMID:25062098

  7. COX-2/PGE2: molecular ambassadors of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus oncoprotein-v-FLIP

    PubMed Central

    Sharma-Walia, N; Patel, K; Chandran, K; Marginean, A; Bottero, V; Kerur, N; Paul, A G

    2012-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) latent oncoprotein viral FLICE (FADD-like interferon converting enzyme)-like inhibitory protein (v-FLIP) or K13, a potent activator of NF-κB, has well-established roles in KSHV latency and oncogenesis. KSHV-induced COX-2 represents a novel strategy employed by KSHV to promote latency and inflammation/angiogenesis/invasion. Here, we demonstrate that v-FLIP/K13 promotes tumorigenic effects via the induction of host protein COX-2 and its inflammatory metabolite PGE2 in an NF-κB-dependent manner. In addition to our previous studies demonstrating COX-2/PGE2's role in transcriptional regulation of KSHV latency promoter and latent gene expression, the current study adds to the complexity that though LANA-1 (latency associated nuclear antigen) is utilizing COX-2/PGE2 as critical factors for its transcriptional regulation, it is the v-FLIP/K13 gene in the KSHV latency cluster that maintains continuous COX-2/PGE2 levels in the infected cells. We demonstrate that COX-2 inhibition, via its chemical inhibitors (NS-398 or celecoxib), reduced v-FLIP/K13-mediated NF-κB induction, and extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction-mediated signaling, mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) levels, and subsequently downregulated detachment-induced apoptosis (anoikis) resistance. vFLIP expression mediated the secretion of cytokines, and spindle cell differentiation activated the phosphorylation of p38, RSK, FAK, Src, Akt and Rac1-GTPase. The COX-2 inhibition in v-FLIP/K13-HMVECs reduced inflammation and invasion/metastasis-related genes, along with reduced anchorage-independent colony formation via modulating ‘extrinsic' as well as ‘intrinsic' cell death pathways. COX-2 blockade in v-FLIP/K13-HMVEC cells drastically augmented cell death induced by removal of essential growth/survival factors secreted in the microenvironment. Transformed cells obtained from anchorage-independent colonies of COX-2 inhibitor-treated v-FLIP/K13-HMVEC cells expressed lower levels of endothelial–mesenchymal transition genes such as slug, snail and twist, and higher expression of the tumor-suppressor gene, E-cadherin. Taken together, our study provides strong evidences that FDA-approved COX-2 inhibitors have great potential in blocking tumorigenic events linked to KSHV's oncogenic protein v-FLIP/K13. PMID:23552603

  8. Hydrophobic Effect Drives Oxygen Uptake in Myoglobin via Histidine E7*

    PubMed Central

    Boechi, Leonardo; Arrar, Mehrnoosh; Martí, Marcelo A.; Olson, John S.; Roitberg, Adrián E.; Estrin, Darío A.

    2013-01-01

    Since the elucidation of the myoglobin (Mb) structure, a histidine residue on the E helix (His-E7) has been proposed to act as a gate with an open or closed conformation controlling access to the active site. Although it is believed that at low pH, the His-E7 gate is in its open conformation, the full relationship between the His-E7 protonation state, its conformation, and ligand migration in Mb is hotly debated. We used molecular dynamics simulations to first address the effect of His-E7 protonation on its conformation. We observed the expected shift from the closed to the open conformation upon protonation, but more importantly, noted a significant difference between the conformations of the two neutral histidine tautomers. We further computed free energy profiles for oxygen migration in each of the possible His-E7 states as well as in two instructive Mb mutants: Ala-E7 and Trp-E7. Our results show that even in the closed conformation, the His-E7 gate does not create a large barrier to oxygen migration and permits oxygen entry with only a small rotation of the imidazole side chain and movement of the E helix. We identify, instead, a hydrophobic site in the E7 channel that can accommodate an apolar diatomic ligand and enhances ligand uptake particularly in the open His-E7 conformation. This rate enhancement is diminished in the closed conformation. Taken together, our results provide a new conceptual framework for the histidine gate hypothesis. PMID:23297402

  9. The E6 and E7 genes of the human papillomavirus type 16 together are necessary and sufficient for transformation of primary human keratinocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Münger, K; Phelps, W C; Bubb, V; Howley, P M; Schlegel, R

    1989-01-01

    The early human papillomavirus type 16 genes that directly participate in the in vitro transformation of primary human keratinocytes have been defined. In the context of the full viral genome, mutations in either the E6 or E7 open reading frame completely abrogated transformation of these cells. Mutations in the E1, E2, and E2-E4 open reading frames, on the other hand, had no effect. Thus, both the full-length E6 and E7 genes were required for the induction of keratinocyte immortalization and resistance to terminal differentiation. The E6 and E7 genes expressed together from the human beta-actin promoter were sufficient for this transformation; mutation of either gene in the context of this recombinant plasmid eliminated the ability to induce stable differentiation-resistant transformants. PMID:2476573

  10. Therapeutic DNA vaccination against colorectal cancer by targeting the MYB oncoprotein.

    PubMed

    Cross, Ryan S; Malaterre, Jordane; Davenport, Alexander J; Carpinteri, Sandra; Anderson, Robin L; Darcy, Phillip K; Ramsay, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    Cancers can be addicted to continued and relatively high expression of nuclear oncoproteins. This is evident in colorectal cancer (CRC) where the oncoprotein and transcription factor MYB is over expressed and essential to continued proliferation and tumour cell survival. Historically, targeting transcription factors in the context of cancer has been very challenging. Nevertheless, we formulated a DNA vaccine to generate a MYB-specific immune response in the belief MYB peptides might be aberrantly presented on the cell surface of CRC cells. MYB, like many tumour antigens, is weakly immunogenic as it is a 'self' antigen and is subject to tolerance. To break tolerance, a fusion vaccine was generated comprising a full-length MYB complementary DNA (cDNA) flanked by two potent CD4-epitopes derived from tetanus toxoid. Vaccination was achieved against tumours initiated by two distinct highly aggressive, syngeneic cancer cell lines (CT26 and MC38) that express MYB. This was done in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mouse strains respectively. We introduced multiple inactivating mutations into the oncogene sequence for safety and sub-cloned the cDNA into a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-compliant vector. We used low dose cyclophosphamide (CY) to overcome T-regulatory cell immune suppression, and anti-program cell death receptor 1 (anti-PD-1) antibodies to block T-cell exhaustion. Anti-PD-1 administered alone slightly delayed tumour growth in MC38 and more effectively in CT26 bearing mice, while CY treatment alone did not. We found that therapeutic vaccination elicits protection when MC38 tumour burden is low, mounts tumour-specific cell killing and affords enhanced protection when MC38 and CT26 tumour burden is higher but only in combination with anti-PD-1 antibody or low dose CY, respectively. PMID:25671128

  11. Therapeutic DNA vaccination against colorectal cancer by targeting the MYB oncoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Ryan S; Malaterre, Jordane; Davenport, Alexander J; Carpinteri, Sandra; Anderson, Robin L; Darcy, Phillip K; Ramsay, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    Cancers can be addicted to continued and relatively high expression of nuclear oncoproteins. This is evident in colorectal cancer (CRC) where the oncoprotein and transcription factor MYB is over expressed and essential to continued proliferation and tumour cell survival. Historically, targeting transcription factors in the context of cancer has been very challenging. Nevertheless, we formulated a DNA vaccine to generate a MYB-specific immune response in the belief MYB peptides might be aberrantly presented on the cell surface of CRC cells. MYB, like many tumour antigens, is weakly immunogenic as it is a ‘self' antigen and is subject to tolerance. To break tolerance, a fusion vaccine was generated comprising a full-length MYB complementary DNA (cDNA) flanked by two potent CD4-epitopes derived from tetanus toxoid. Vaccination was achieved against tumours initiated by two distinct highly aggressive, syngeneic cancer cell lines (CT26 and MC38) that express MYB. This was done in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mouse strains respectively. We introduced multiple inactivating mutations into the oncogene sequence for safety and sub-cloned the cDNA into a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-compliant vector. We used low dose cyclophosphamide (CY) to overcome T-regulatory cell immune suppression, and anti-program cell death receptor 1 (anti-PD-1) antibodies to block T-cell exhaustion. Anti-PD-1 administered alone slightly delayed tumour growth in MC38 and more effectively in CT26 bearing mice, while CY treatment alone did not. We found that therapeutic vaccination elicits protection when MC38 tumour burden is low, mounts tumour-specific cell killing and affords enhanced protection when MC38 and CT26 tumour burden is higher but only in combination with anti-PD-1 antibody or low dose CY, respectively. PMID:25671128

  12. Oncoprotein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2001-02-27

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD or 55 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and theonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  13. Natural variant of the Helicobacter pylori CagA oncoprotein that lost the ability to interact with PAR1.

    PubMed

    Hashi, Kana; Murata-Kamiya, Naoko; Varon, Christine; Mgraud, Francis; Dominguez-Bello, Maria Gloria; Hatakeyama, Masanori

    2014-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori strains carrying the cagA gene are associated with severe disease outcomes, most notably gastric cancer. CagA protein is delivered into gastric epithelial cells by a type IV secretion system. The translocated CagA undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation at the C-terminal EPIYA motifs by host cell kinases. Tyrosine-phosphorylated CagA acquires the ability to interact with and activate SHP2, thereby activating mitogenic signaling and inducing cell morphological transformation (hummingbird phenotype). CagA also interacts with PAR1b via the CM sequence, resulting in induction of junctional and polarity defects. Furthermore, CagA-PAR1b interaction stabilizes the CagA-SHP2 complex. Because transgenic mice systemically expressing CagA develop gastrointestinal and hematological malignancies, CagA is recognized as a bacterium-derived oncoprotein. Interestingly, the C-terminal region of CagA displays a large diversity among H.pylori strains, which influences the ability of CagA to bind to SHP2 and PAR1b. In the present study, we investigated the biological activity of v225d CagA, an Amerindian CagA of H.pylori isolated from a Venezuelan Piaroa Amerindian subject, because the variant CagA does not possess a canonical CM sequence. We found that v225d CagA interacts with SHP2 but not PAR1b. Furthermore, SHP2-binding activity of v225d CagA was much lower than that of CagA of H.pylori isolated from Western countries (Western CagA). v225d CagA also displayed a reduced ability to induce the hummingbird phenotype than that of Western CagA. Given that perturbation of PAR1b and SHP2 by CagA underlies the oncogenic potential of CagA, the v225d strain is considered to be less oncogenic than other well-studied cagA-positive H.pylori strains. PMID:24354359

  14. The Epstein-Barr virus encoded LMP1 oncoprotein modulates cell adhesion via regulation of activin A/TGFβ and β1 integrin signalling.

    PubMed

    Morris, Mhairi A; Dawson, Christopher W; Laverick, Louise; Davis, Alexandra M; Dudman, Joe P R; Raveenthiraraj, Sathuwarman; Ahmad, Zeeshan; Yap, Lee-Fah; Young, Lawrence S

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 20% of global cancer incidence is causally linked to an infectious agent. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) accounts for around 1% of all virus-associated cancers and is associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), the major oncoprotein encoded by EBV, behaves as a constitutively active tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor activating a variety of signalling pathways, including the three classic MAPKs (ERK-MAPK, p38 MAPK and JNK/SAPK). The present study identifies novel signalling properties for this integral membrane protein via the induction and secretion of activin A and TGFβ1, which are both required for LMP1's ability to induce the expression of the extracellular matrix protein, fibronectin. However, it is evident that LMP1 is unable to activate the classic Smad-dependent TGFβ signalling pathway, but rather elicits its effects through the non-Smad arm of TGFβ signalling. In addition, there is a requirement for JNK/SAPK signalling in LMP1-mediated fibronectin induction. LMP1 also induces the expression and activation of the major fibronectin receptor, α5β1 integrin, an effect that is accompanied by increased focal adhesion formation and turnover. Taken together, these findings support the putative role for LMP1 in the pathogenesis of NPC by contributing to the metastatic potential of epithelial cells. PMID:26782058

  15. The Epstein-Barr virus encoded LMP1 oncoprotein modulates cell adhesion via regulation of activin A/TGFβ and β1 integrin signalling

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Mhairi A.; Dawson, Christopher W.; Laverick, Louise; Davis, Alexandra M.; Dudman, Joe P. R.; Raveenthiraraj, Sathuwarman; Ahmad, Zeeshan; Yap, Lee-Fah; Young, Lawrence S.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 20% of global cancer incidence is causally linked to an infectious agent. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) accounts for around 1% of all virus-associated cancers and is associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), the major oncoprotein encoded by EBV, behaves as a constitutively active tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor activating a variety of signalling pathways, including the three classic MAPKs (ERK-MAPK, p38 MAPK and JNK/SAPK). The present study identifies novel signalling properties for this integral membrane protein via the induction and secretion of activin A and TGFβ1, which are both required for LMP1’s ability to induce the expression of the extracellular matrix protein, fibronectin. However, it is evident that LMP1 is unable to activate the classic Smad-dependent TGFβ signalling pathway, but rather elicits its effects through the non-Smad arm of TGFβ signalling. In addition, there is a requirement for JNK/SAPK signalling in LMP1-mediated fibronectin induction. LMP1 also induces the expression and activation of the major fibronectin receptor, α5β1 integrin, an effect that is accompanied by increased focal adhesion formation and turnover. Taken together, these findings support the putative role for LMP1 in the pathogenesis of NPC by contributing to the metastatic potential of epithelial cells. PMID:26782058

  16. Receptor Protein-tyrosine Phosphatase α Regulates Focal Adhesion Kinase Phosphorylation and ErbB2 Oncoprotein-mediated Mammary Epithelial Cell Motility*

    PubMed Central

    Boivin, Benoit; Chaudhary, Fauzia; Dickinson, Bryan C.; Haque, Aftabul; Pero, Stephanie C.; Chang, Christopher J.; Tonks, Nicholas K.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the role of protein-tyrosine phosphatase α (PTPα) in regulating signaling by the ErbB2 oncoprotein in mammary epithelial cells. Using this model, we demonstrated that activation of ErbB2 led to the transient inactivation of PTPα, suggesting that attenuation of PTPα activity may contribute to enhanced ErbB2 signaling. Furthermore, RNAi-induced suppression of PTPα led to increased cell migration in an ErbB2-dependent manner. The ability of ErbB2 to increase cell motility in the absence of PTPα was characterized by prolonged interaction of GRB7 with ErbB2 and increased association of ErbB2 with a β1-integrin-rich complex, which depended on GRB7-SH2 domain interactions. Finally, suppression of PTPα resulted in increased phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase on Tyr-407, which induced the recruitment of vinculin and the formation of a novel focal adhesion kinase complex in response to ErbB2 activation in mammary epithelial cells. Collectively, these results reveal a new role for PTPα in the regulation of motility of mammary epithelial cells in response to ErbB2 activation. PMID:24217252

  17. Oncogenic and nononcogenic human genital papillomaviruses generate the E7 mRNA by different mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Smotkin, D; Prokoph, H; Wettstein, F O

    1989-01-01

    A new promoter located within E6 was mapped in human papillomavirus type 6b (HPV6b)- and HPV11-containing benign genital condylomata (genital warts). The RNA transcribed from this promoter represented the major RNA species colinear with open reading frames E6 and E7 and can encode the E7 protein. No equivalent promoter was active in HPV16-containing cancers and cancer-derived cell lines. In those, the major transcripts contained one of two different introns within E6 and the RNAs could encode two different E6 proteins and E7. Images PMID:2536845

  18. CCAAT Displacement Protein Binds to and Negatively Regulates Human Papillomavirus Type 6 E6, E7, and E1 Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Wandong; Toussaint, Esra; Roman, Ann

    1999-01-01

    Expression of human papillomavirus genes increases as the target cell, the keratinocyte, differentiates. CCAAT displacement protein (CDP) is a cellular protein which has been shown in other cell types to negatively regulate gene expression in undifferentiated cells but not in differentiated cells. We have previously shown that a 66-bp purine-thymidine-rich sequence (the 66-mer) binds CDP and negatively regulates the human papillomavirus type 6 (HPV-6) E6 promoter (S. Pattison, D. G. Skalnik, and A. Roman, J. Virol. 71:2013–2022, 1997). Cotransfection experiments with a plasmid expressing luciferase from the HPV-6 E6, E7, or E1 regulatory region and a plasmid carrying the CDP gene indicate that CDP represses transcription from all three HPV-6 promoters. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs), we have shown that CDP binds HPV-6 both upstream and downstream of the E6, E7, and E1 transcription initiation start sites. Furthermore, when keratinocytes were induced to differentiate, all three promoter activities increased. Consistent with this, immunoblotting and EMSAs revealed that endogenous nucleus CDP and, correspondingly, DNA binding activity decreased when keratinocytes were induced to differentiate. The elevated promoter activities were abrogated by exogenously transfected CDP. Our data demonstrate that CDP fulfills the requirement of a differentiation-dependent negative regulator that could tie the HPV life cycle to keratinocyte differentiation. PMID:10196318

  19. CCAAT displacement protein binds to and negatively regulates human papillomavirus type 6 E6, E7, and E1 promoters.

    PubMed

    Ai, W; Toussaint, E; Roman, A

    1999-05-01

    Expression of human papillomavirus genes increases as the target cell, the keratinocyte, differentiates. CCAAT displacement protein (CDP) is a cellular protein which has been shown in other cell types to negatively regulate gene expression in undifferentiated cells but not in differentiated cells. We have previously shown that a 66-bp purine-thymidine-rich sequence (the 66-mer) binds CDP and negatively regulates the human papillomavirus type 6 (HPV-6) E6 promoter (S. Pattison, D. G. Skalnik, and A. Roman, J. Virol. 71:2013-2022, 1997). Cotransfection experiments with a plasmid expressing luciferase from the HPV-6 E6, E7, or E1 regulatory region and a plasmid carrying the CDP gene indicate that CDP represses transcription from all three HPV-6 promoters. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs), we have shown that CDP binds HPV-6 both upstream and downstream of the E6, E7, and E1 transcription initiation start sites. Furthermore, when keratinocytes were induced to differentiate, all three promoter activities increased. Consistent with this, immunoblotting and EMSAs revealed that endogenous nucleus CDP and, correspondingly, DNA binding activity decreased when keratinocytes were induced to differentiate. The elevated promoter activities were abrogated by exogenously transfected CDP. Our data demonstrate that CDP fulfills the requirement of a differentiation-dependent negative regulator that could tie the HPV life cycle to keratinocyte differentiation. PMID:10196318

  20. 42 CFR 52e.7 - What are the terms and conditions of awards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... by subpart Q of 45 CFR part 74. (b) The Director may permit unobligated grant funds remaining in the... HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.7 What are the...

  1. 42 CFR 52e.7 - What are the terms and conditions of awards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... by subpart Q of 45 CFR part 74. (b) The Director may permit unobligated grant funds remaining in the... HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.7 What are the...

  2. 42 CFR 52e.7 - What are the terms and conditions of awards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... by subpart Q of 45 CFR part 74. (b) The Director may permit unobligated grant funds remaining in the... HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.7 What are the...

  3. 42 CFR 52e.7 - What are the terms and conditions of awards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... by subpart Q of 45 CFR part 74. (b) The Director may permit unobligated grant funds remaining in the... HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.7 What are the...

  4. 42 CFR 52e.7 - What are the terms and conditions of awards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... by subpart Q of 45 CFR part 74. (b) The Director may permit unobligated grant funds remaining in the... HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.7 What are the...

  5. Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) vFLIP oncoprotein induces B cell transdifferentiation and tumorigenesis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ballon, Gianna; Chen, Kang; Perez, Rocio; Tam, Wayne; Cesarman, Ethel

    2011-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) is specifically associated with Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and 2 B cell lymphoproliferative diseases, namely primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and multicentric Castleman disease (MCD). KS, PEL, and MCD are largely incurable and poorly understood diseases most common in HIV-infected individuals. Here, we have revealed the role of viral FLICE-inhibitory protein (vFLIP) in the initiation of PEL and MCD by specifically expressing vFLIP at different stages of B cell differentiation in vivo. Mice showed MCD-like abnormalities and immunological defects including lack of germinal centers (GCs), impaired Ig class switching, and affinity maturation. In addition, they showed increased numbers of cells expressing cytoplasmic IgM-λ, a thus far enigmatic feature of the KSHV-infected cells in MCD. B cell–derived tumors arose at high incidence and displayed Ig gene rearrangement with downregulated expression of B cell–associated antigens, which are features of PEL. Interestingly, these tumors exhibited characteristics of transdifferentiation and acquired expression of histiocytic/dendritic cell markers. These results define immunological functions for vFLIP in vivo and reveal what we believe to be a novel viral-mediated tumorigenic mechanism involving B cell reprogramming. Additionally, the robust recapitulation of KSHV-associated diseases in mice provides a model to test inhibitors of vFLIP as potential anticancer agents. PMID:21339646

  6. Downstream and Intermediate Interactions of Synovial Sarcoma-Associated Fusion Oncoproteins and Their Implication for Targeted Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Przybyl, Joanna; Jurkowska, Monika; Rutkowski, Piotr; Debiec-Rychter, Maria; Siedlecki, Janusz A.

    2012-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma (SS), an aggressive type of soft tissue tumor, occurs mostly in adolescents and young adults. The origin and molecular mechanism of the development of SS remain only partially known. Over 90% of SS cases are characterized by the t(X;18)(p11.2;q11.2) translocation, which results mainly in the formation of SS18-SSX1 or SS18-SSX2 fusion genes. In recent years, several reports describing direct and indirect interactions of SS18-SSX1/SSX2 oncoproteins have been published. These reports suggest that the fusion proteins particularly affect the cell growth, cell proliferation, TP53 pathway, and chromatin remodeling mechanisms, contributing to SS oncogenesis. Additional research efforts are required to fully explore the protein-protein interactions of SS18-SSX oncoproteins and the pathways that are regulated by these partnerships for the development of effective targeted therapy. PMID:22550415

  7. Repression of MHC class I transcription by HPV16E7 through interaction with a putative RXR{beta} motif and NF-{kappa}B cytoplasmic sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hui; Zhan, TaiLan; Li, Chang; Liu, Mugen; Wang, Qing K.

    2009-10-16

    Down-regulation of transcription of the MHC class I genes in HPV16 tumorigenic cells is partly due to HPV16E7 associated with the MHC class I promoter and repressed chromatin activation. In this study, we further demonstrated that HPV16E7 is physically associated with a putative RXR{beta} binding motif (GGTCA) of the proximal promoter of the MHC class I genes by using reporter transcriptional assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Our data also provide evidence that HPV16E7 inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced up-regulation of MHC class I transcription by impaired nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B. More importantly, CaSki tumor cells treated with TSA and transfected with the constitutively active mutant form of IKK-{alpha} (which can activate NF-{kappa}B directly) showed a maximal level of up-regulation of MHC-I expression. Taken together, our results suggest that HPV16E7 may employ two independent mechanisms to ensure that either the constitutive or inducible transcription of MHC class I genes is down-regulated.

  8. Acetylation of the c-MYC oncoprotein is required for cooperation with the HTLV-1 p30{sup II} accessory protein and the induction of oncogenic cellular transformation by p30{sup II}/c-MYC

    SciTech Connect

    Romeo, Megan M.; Ko, Bookyung; Kim, Janice; Brady, Rebecca; Heatley, Hayley C.; He, Jeffrey; Harrod, Carolyn K.; Barnett, Braden; Ratner, Lee; Lairmore, Michael D.; Martinez, Ernest; Lüscher, Bernhard; Robson, Craig N.; Henriksson, Marie; Harrod, Robert

    2015-02-15

    The human T-cell leukemia retrovirus type-1 (HTLV-1) p30{sup II} protein is a multifunctional latency-maintenance factor that negatively regulates viral gene expression and deregulates host signaling pathways involved in aberrant T-cell growth and proliferation. We have previously demonstrated that p30{sup II} interacts with the c-MYC oncoprotein and enhances c-MYC-dependent transcriptional and oncogenic functions. However, the molecular and biochemical events that mediate the cooperation between p30{sup II} and c-MYC remain to be completely understood. Herein we demonstrate that p30{sup II} induces lysine-acetylation of the c-MYC oncoprotein. Acetylation-defective c-MYC Lys→Arg substitution mutants are impaired for oncogenic transformation with p30{sup II} in c-myc{sup −/−} HO15.19 fibroblasts. Using dual-chromatin-immunoprecipitations (dual-ChIPs), we further demonstrate that p30{sup II} is present in c-MYC-containing nucleoprotein complexes in HTLV-1-transformed HuT-102 T-lymphocytes. Moreover, p30{sup II} inhibits apoptosis in proliferating cells expressing c-MYC under conditions of genotoxic stress. These findings suggest that c-MYC-acetylation is required for the cooperation between p30{sup II}/c-MYC which could promote proviral replication and contribute to HTLV-1-induced carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Acetylation of c-MYC is required for oncogenic transformation by HTLV-1 p30{sup II}/c-MYC. • Acetylation-defective c-MYC mutants are impaired for foci-formation by p30{sup II}/c-MYC. • The HTLV-1 p30{sup II} protein induces lysine-acetylation of c-MYC. • p30{sup II} is present in c-MYC nucleoprotein complexes in HTLV-1-transformed T-cells. • HTLV-1 p30{sup II} inhibits apoptosis in c-MYC-expressing proliferating cells.

  9. In Silico Profiling of the Potentiality of Curcumin and Conventional Drugs for CagA Oncoprotein Inactivation.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Akhileshwar K; Tewari, Mallika; Shukla, Hari S; Roy, Bijoy K

    2015-08-01

    The oncoprotein cytotoxic associated gene A (CagA) of Helicobacter pylori plays a pivotal role in the development of gastric cancer, so it has been an important target for anti-H. pylori drugs. Conventional drugs are currently being implemented against H. pylori. The inhibitory role of plant metabolites like curcumin against H. pylori is still a major scientific challenge. Curcumin may represent a novel promising drug against H. pylori infection without producing side effects. In the present study, a comparative analysis between curcumin and conventional drugs (clarithromycin, amoxicillin, pantoprazole, and metronidazole) was carried out using databases to investigate the potential of curcumin against H. pylori targeting the CagA oncoprotein. Curcumin was filtered using Lipinski's rule of five and the druglikeness property for evaluation of pharmacological properties. Subsequently, molecular docking was employed to determine the binding affinities of curcumin and conventional drugs to the CagA oncoprotein. According to the results obtained from FireDock, the binding energy of curcumin was higher than those of amoxicillin, pantoprazole, and metronidazole, except for clarithromycin, which had the highest binding energy. Accordingly, curcumin may become a promising lead compound against CagA+ H. pylori infection. PMID:25996140

  10. Flat cells come full sphere: Are mutant cytoskeletal-related proteins oncoprotein-monsters or useful immunogens?

    PubMed

    Parry, Michele L; Blanck, George

    2016-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta is inherited as a dominant disease because if one allele is mutated, it contributes a mutant, destructive subunit polypeptide to collagen, which requires many subunits to form normal, polymeric, collagenous structures. Recent cancer genome atlas (TCGA) data indicate that cytoskeletal-related proteins are among the most commonly mutated proteins in human cancers, in distinct mutation frequency groups, i.e., including low mutation frequency groups. Part of the explanation for this observation is likely to be the fact that many of the coding regions for these proteins are very large, and indeed, it is likely these coding regions are mutated in many cells that never become cancerous. However, it would not be surprising if mutations in cytoskeletal proteins, when combined with oncoprotein or tumor suppressor protein mutations, had significant impacts on cancer development, for a number of reasons, including results obtained almost 5 decades ago indicating that well-spread cells in tissue culture, with well-formed cytoskeletons, were less tumorigenic than spherical cells with disrupted cytoskeletons. This raises the question, are mutant cytoskeletal proteins, which would likely interfere with polymer formation, a new class of oncoproteins, in particular, dominant negative oncoproteins? If these proteins are so commonly mutant, could they be the bases for common cancer vaccines? PMID:26225584

  11. Transforming growth factor beta1 induces differentiation in human papillomavirus-positive keratinocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Ozbun, M A; Meyers, C

    1996-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are implicated in the etiology of anogenital cancers. Expression of the HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins is believed to contribute to the carcinogenic process. Progressive loss of the ability to differentiate and resistance to the growth-inhibitory effects of endogenous signals also appear important in multistep tumorigenesis. Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) is a potent growth inhibitor for a variety of cultured cells. There have been conflicting reports on the ability of TGF-beta1 to inhibit the growth of HPV-positive keratinocytes in monolayer cultures. We have employed the organotypic (raft) tissue culture system, which more accurately mimics the in vivo cellular environment and architecture. We have investigated the TGF-beta1 response of HPV-positive keratinocytes derived from neoplastic cervical biopsies. Growth of these cell lines as raft tissues showed that many were altered in the ability to stratify and synthesize differentiation-specific proteins. When the organotypic tissues were treated with TGF-beta1, a more complete differentiation of the keratinocytes was induced. Treatment with 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate gave similar results. TGF-beta1 treatment of HPV-positive raft epithelia led to a dose-dependent increase in E7 RNA expression in contrast to results from previous studies with monolayer cultures. Furthermore, TGF-beta1 interfered with the proliferation of HPV-positive cell lines grown in monolayer cultures. Our results suggest that loss of the ability to express markers of differentiation, a characteristic of malignancy, is a two-step process. The first step is reversible; the second is irreversible. PMID:8764055

  12. The Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Oncoprotein Tax Controls Forkhead Box O4 Activity through Degradation by the Proteasome▿

    PubMed Central

    Oteiza, Alexandra; Mechti, Nadir

    2011-01-01

    Activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway by the viral Tax oncoprotein plays a pivotal role in clonal expansion of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-infected cells. As the Forkhead box O (FoxO) tumor suppressors act as downstream effectors of PI3K/Akt, they represent good candidate targets whose dysregulation by Tax might be involved in HTLV-1-mediated activation and transformation of infected cells. In this report, we provide evidence showing that Tax induces a dose-dependent degradation of FoxO4 by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Consistent with that, we demonstrate that Tax expression increases the interaction between FoxO4 and Mdm2 E3 ligase, leading to a strong FoxO4 polyubiquitination. These processes require the phosphorylation of FoxO4 by Akt, since a mutant of FoxO4 with mutations on its three Akt phosphorylation sites appears to be resistant to Tax-mediated degradation and ubiquitination. In addition, we show that Tax expression is associated with degradation and phosphorylation of endogenous FoxO4 in Jurkat T cells. Finally, we demonstrate that Tax represses FoxO4 transcriptional activity. Our study demonstrates that Tax can control FoxO4 protein stability and transcriptional activity and provides new insight into the subversion of cell signaling pathways during HTLV-1 infection. PMID:21525355

  13. Cloning and expression of the cDNA for E6-AP, a protein that mediates the interaction of the human papillomavirus E6 oncoprotein with p53.

    PubMed Central

    Huibregtse, J M; Scheffner, M; Howley, P M

    1993-01-01

    The E6 oncoproteins of the cancer-associated or high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) target the cellular p53 protein. The association of E6 with p53 leads to the specific ubiquitination and degradation of p53 in vitro, suggesting a model by which E6 deregulates cell growth control by the elimination of the p53 tumor suppressor protein. Complex formation between E6 and p53 requires an additional cellular factor, designated E6-AP (E6-associated protein), which has a native and subunit molecular mass of approximately 100 kDa. Here we report the purification of E6-AP and the cloning of its corresponding cDNA, which contains a novel open reading frame encoding 865 amino acids. E6-AP, translated in vitro, has the following properties: (i) it associates with wild-type p53 in the presence of the HPV16 E6 protein and simultaneously stimulates the association of E6 with p53, (ii) it associates with the high-risk HPV16 and HPV18 E6 proteins in the absence of p53, and (iii) it induces the E6- and ubiquitin-dependent degradation of p53 in vitro. Images PMID:8380895

  14. Animal-specific C-terminal domain links myeloblastosis oncoprotein (Myb) to an ancient repressor complex

    PubMed Central

    Andrejka, Laura; Wen, Hong; Ashton, Jonathan; Grant, Megan; Iori, Kevin; Wang, Amy; Manak, J. Robert; Lipsick, Joseph S.

    2011-01-01

    Members of the Myb oncoprotein and E2F-Rb tumor suppressor protein families are present within the same highly conserved multiprotein transcriptional repressor complex, named either as Myb and synthetic multivuval class B (Myb-MuvB) or as Drosophila Rb E2F and Myb-interacting proteins (dREAM). We now report that the animal-specific C terminus of Drosophila Myb but not the more highly conserved N-terminal DNA-binding domain is necessary and sufficient for (i) adult viability, (ii) proper localization to chromosomes in vivo, (iii) regulation of gene expression in vivo, and (iv) interaction with the highly conserved core of the MuvB/dREAM transcriptional repressor complex. In addition, we have identified a conserved peptide motif that is required for this interaction. Our results imply that an ancient function of Myb in regulating G2/M genes in both plants and animals appears to have been transferred from the DNA-binding domain to the animal-specific C-terminal domain. Increased expression of B-MYB/MYBL2, the human ortholog of Drosophila Myb, correlates with poor prognosis in human patients with breast cancer. Therefore, our results imply that the specific interaction of the C terminus of Myb with the MuvB/dREAM core complex may provide an attractive target for the development of cancer therapeutics. PMID:21969598

  15. Truncated ERG Oncoproteins from TMPRSS2-ERG Fusions Are Resistant to SPOP-Mediated Proteasome Degradation.

    PubMed

    An, Jian; Ren, Shancheng; Murphy, Stephen J; Dalangood, Sumiya; Chang, Cunjie; Pang, Xiaodong; Cui, Yangyan; Wang, Liguo; Pan, Yunqian; Zhang, Xiaowei; Zhu, Yasheng; Wang, Chenji; Halling, Geoffrey C; Cheng, Liang; Sukov, William R; Karnes, R Jeffrey; Vasmatzis, George; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Jun; Cheville, John C; Yan, Jun; Sun, Yinghao; Huang, Haojie

    2015-09-17

    SPOP mutations and TMPRSS2-ERG rearrangements occur collectively in up to 65% of human prostate cancers. Although the two events are mutually exclusive, it is unclear whether they are functionally interrelated. Here, we demonstrate that SPOP, functioning as an E3 ubiquitin ligase substrate-binding protein, promotes ubiquitination and proteasome degradation of wild-type ERG by recognizing a degron motif at the N terminus of ERG. Prostate cancer-associated SPOP mutations abrogate the SPOP-mediated degradation function on the ERG oncoprotein. Conversely, the majority of TMPRSS2-ERG fusions encode N-terminal-truncated ERG proteins that are resistant to the SPOP-mediated degradation because of degron impairment. Our findings reveal degradation resistance as a previously uncharacterized mechanism that contributes to elevation of truncated ERG proteins in prostate cancer. They also suggest that overcoming ERG resistance to SPOP-mediated degradation represents a viable strategy for treatment of prostate cancers expressing either mutated SPOP or truncated ERG. PMID:26344096

  16. Impact of Ser17 Phosphorylation on the Conformational Dynamics of the Oncoprotein MDM2.

    PubMed

    Bueren-Calabuig, Juan A; Michel, Julien

    2016-05-01

    MDM2 is an important oncoprotein that downregulates the activity of the tumor suppressor protein p53 via binding of its N-terminal domain to the p53 transactivation domain. The first 24 residues of the MDM2 N-terminal domain form an intrinsically disordered "lid" region that interconverts on a millisecond time scale between "open" and "closed" states in unliganded MDM2. While the former conformational state is expected to facilitate p53 binding, the latter competes in a pseudo-substrate manner with p53 for its binding site. Phosphorylation of serine 17 in the MDM2 lid region is thought to modulate the equilibrium between "open" and "closed" lid states, but contradictory findings on the favored lid conformational state upon phosphorylation have been reported. Here, the nature of the conformational states of MDM2 pSer17 and Ser17Asp variants was addressed by means of enhanced sampling molecular dynamics simulations. Detailed analyses of the computed lid conformational ensembles indicate that both lid variants stabilize a "closed" state, with respect to wild type. Nevertheless, the nature of the closed-state conformational ensembles differs significantly between the pSer17 and Ser17Asp variants. Thus, care should be applied in the interpretation of biochemical experiments that use phosphomimetic variants to model the effects of phosphorylation on the structure and dynamics of this disordered protein region. PMID:27050388

  17. DNA binding and transcriptional activation by the Ski oncoprotein mediated by interaction with NFI.

    PubMed Central

    Tarapore, P; Richmond, C; Zheng, G; Cohen, S B; Kelder, B; Kopchick, J; Kruse, U; Sippel, A E; Colmenares, C; Stavnezer, E

    1997-01-01

    The Ski oncoprotein has been found to bind non-specifically to DNA in association with unindentified nuclear factors. In addition, Ski has been shown to activate transcription of muscle-specific and viral promoters/enhancers. The present study was undertaken to identify Ski's DNA binding and transcriptional activation partners by identifying specific DNA binding sites. We used nuclear extracts from a v-Ski-transduced mouse L-cell line and selected Ski-bound sequences from a pool of degenerate oligonucleotides with anti-Ski monoclonal antibodies. Two sequences were identified by this technique. The first (TGGC/ANNNNNT/GCCAA) is the previously identified binding site of the nuclear factor I (NFI) family of transcription factors. The second (TCCCNNGGGA) is the binding site of Olf-1/EBF. By electophoretic mobility shift assays we find that Ski is a component of one or more NFI complexes but we fail to detect Ski in Olf-1/EBF complexes. We show that Ski binds NFI proteins and activates transcription of NFI reporters, but only in the presence of NFI. We also find that homodimerization of Ski is essential for co-activation with NFI. However, the C-terminal dimerization domain of c-Ski, which is missing in v-Ski, can be substituted by the leucine zipper domain of GCN4. PMID:9380514

  18. Elucidation of Ligand-Dependent Modulation of Disorder-Order Transitions in the Oncoprotein MDM2

    PubMed Central

    Bueren-Calabuig, Juan A.; Michel, Julien

    2015-01-01

    Numerous biomolecular interactions involve unstructured protein regions, but how to exploit such interactions to enhance the affinity of a lead molecule in the context of rational drug design remains uncertain. Here clarification was sought for cases where interactions of different ligands with the same disordered protein region yield qualitatively different results. Specifically, conformational ensembles for the disordered lid region of the N-terminal domain of the oncoprotein MDM2 in the presence of different ligands were computed by means of a novel combination of accelerated molecular dynamics, umbrella sampling, and variational free energy profile methodologies. The resulting conformational ensembles for MDM2, free and bound to p53 TAD (17-29) peptide identify lid states compatible with previous NMR measurements. Remarkably, the MDM2 lid region is shown to adopt distinct conformational states in the presence of different small-molecule ligands. Detailed analyses of small-molecule bound ensembles reveal that the ca. 25-fold affinity improvement of the piperidinone family of inhibitors for MDM2 constructs that include the full lid correlates with interactions between ligand hydrophobic groups and the C-terminal lid region that is already partially ordered in apo MDM2. By contrast, Nutlin or benzodiazepinedione inhibitors, that bind with similar affinity to full lid and lid-truncated MDM2 constructs, interact additionally through their solubilizing groups with N-terminal lid residues that are more disordered in apo MDM2. PMID:26046940

  19. Functional and Structural Mimicry of Cellular Protein Kinase A Anchoring Proteins by a Viral Oncoprotein

    PubMed Central

    King, Cason R.; Cohen, Michael J.; Fonseca, Gregory J.; Dirk, Brennan S.; Dikeakos, Jimmy D.; Mymryk, Joe S.

    2016-01-01

    The oncoproteins of the small DNA tumor viruses interact with a plethora of cellular regulators to commandeer control of the infected cell. During infection, adenovirus E1A deregulates cAMP signalling and repurposes it for activation of viral gene expression. We show that E1A structurally and functionally mimics a cellular A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP). E1A interacts with and relocalizes protein kinase A (PKA) to the nucleus, likely to virus replication centres, via an interaction with the regulatory subunits of PKA. Binding to PKA requires the N-terminus of E1A, which bears striking similarity to the amphipathic α-helical domain present in cellular AKAPs. E1A also targets the same docking-dimerization domain of PKA normally bound by cellular AKAPs. In addition, the AKAP like motif within E1A could restore PKA interaction to a cellular AKAP in which its normal interaction motif was deleted. During infection, E1A successfully competes with endogenous cellular AKAPs for PKA interaction. E1A’s role as a viral AKAP contributes to viral transcription, protein expression and progeny production. These data establish HAdV E1A as the first known viral AKAP. This represents a unique example of viral subversion of a crucial cellular regulatory pathway via structural mimicry of the PKA interaction domain of cellular AKAPs. PMID:27137912

  20. Defective human retinoblastoma protein identified by lack of interaction with the E1A oncoprotein.

    PubMed

    Paggi, M G; Martelli, F; Fanciulli, M; Felsani, A; Sciacchitano, S; Varmi, M; Bruno, T; Carapella, C M; Floridi, A

    1994-02-15

    Inactivating mutations of the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene (Rb) are involved in the pathogenesis of hereditary and sporadic retinoblastoma. Alterations in the Rb gene have also been found in several other human tumors occurring with epidemiological incidence higher than that of retinoblastoma. Four human malignant glioma cell lines were examined for abnormalities in the retinoblastoma gene product (pRb), using a procedure based on the interaction of pRb with an in vitro-translated adenovirus E1A oncoprotein. In the CRS-A2 cell line, derived from a glioblastoma multiforme, pRb did not bind with the in vitro-translated E1A protein. Restriction analysis of the CRS-A2 Rb gene and Rb mRNA expression provided patterns that could not be distinguished from the other glioma cell lines. Further investigation revealed the presence of a truncated pRb in the CRS-A2 cell line, due to a nucleotide insertion in the coding sequence at position 2550. In addition, this truncated Rb protein was undetectable in phosphorylated form. The binding assay with the in vitro-translated E1A was also used to study other cell lines with known mutations in the Rb gene. This method, which evaluates the interaction between in vitro-translated E1A and the pRb, is proposed as a rapid screening for detecting functional alterations in the retinoblastoma protein. PMID:8313367

  1. A small molecule that binds and inhibits the ETV1 transcription factor oncoprotein.

    PubMed

    Pop, Marius S; Stransky, Nicolas; Garvie, Colin W; Theurillat, Jean-Philippe; Hartman, Emily C; Lewis, Timothy A; Zhong, Cheng; Culyba, Elizabeth K; Lin, Fallon; Daniels, Douglas S; Pagliarini, Raymond; Ronco, Lucienne; Koehler, Angela N; Garraway, Levi A

    2014-06-01

    Members of the ETS transcription factor family have been implicated in several cancers, where they are often dysregulated by genomic derangement. ETS variant 1 (ETV1) is an ETS factor gene that undergoes chromosomal translocation in prostate cancers and Ewing sarcomas, amplification in melanomas, and lineage dysregulation in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Pharmacologic perturbation of ETV1 would be appealing in these cancers; however, oncogenic transcription factors are often deemed "undruggable" by conventional methods. Here, we used small-molecule microarray screens to identify and characterize drug-like compounds that modulate the biologic function of ETV1. We identified the 1,3,5-triazine small molecule BRD32048 as a top candidate ETV1 perturbagen. BRD32048 binds ETV1 directly, modulating both ETV1-mediated transcriptional activity and invasion of ETV1-driven cancer cells. Moreover, BRD32048 inhibits p300-dependent acetylation of ETV1, thereby promoting its degradation. These results point to a new avenue for pharmacologic ETV1 inhibition and may inform a general means to discover small molecule perturbagens of transcription factor oncoproteins. PMID:24737027

  2. A small molecule that binds and inhibits the ETV1 transcription factor oncoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Pop, Marius S; Stransky, Nicolas; Garvie, Colin W; Theurillat, Jean-Philippe; Lewis, Timothy A; Zhong, Cheng; Culyba, Elizabeth K; Lin, Fallon; Daniels, Douglas S; Pagliarini, Raymond; Ronco, Lucienne; Koehler, Angela N; Garraway, Levi A

    2014-01-01

    Members of the ETS transcription factor family have been implicated in several cancers, where they are often dysregulated by genomic derangement. ETS variant 1 (ETV1) is an ETS factor gene that undergoes chromosomal translocation in prostate cancers and Ewing's sarcomas, amplification in melanomas, and lineage dysregulation in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Pharmacologic perturbation of ETV1 would be appealing in these cancers; however, oncogenic transcription factors are often deemed “undruggable” by conventional methods. Here, we used small-molecule microarray (SMM) screens to identify and characterize drug-like compounds that modulate the biological function of ETV1. We identified the 1,3,5-triazine small molecule BRD32048 as a top candidate ETV1 perturbagen. BRD32048 binds ETV1 directly, modulating both ETV1-mediated transcriptional activity and invasion of ETV1-driven cancer cells. Moreover, BRD32048 inhibits p300-dependent acetylation of ETV1, thereby promoting its degradation. These results point to a new avenue for pharmacological ETV1 inhibition and may inform a general means to discover small molecule perturbagens of transcription factor oncoproteins. PMID:24737027

  3. Role of the YAP Oncoprotein in Priming Ras-Driven Rhabdomyosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Slemmons, Katherine K.; Crose, Lisa E. S.; Rudzinski, Erin; Bentley, Rex C.; Linardic, Corinne M.

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), a cancer characterized by features of skeletal muscle histogenesis, is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of childhood and adolescence. Survival for high-risk groups is less than 30% at 5 years. RMS also occurs during adulthood, with a lower incidence but higher mortality. Recently, mutational profiling has revealed a correlation between activating Ras mutations in the embryonal (eRMS) and pleomorphic (pRMS) histologic variants of RMS, and a poorer outcome for those patients. Independently, the YAP transcriptional coactivator, an oncoprotein kept in check by the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway, is upregulated in eRMS. Here we show that YAP promotes cell proliferation and antagonizes apoptosis and myogenic differentiation of human RMS cells bearing oncogenic Ras mutations in cell culture studies in vitro and in murine xenografts in vivo. Pharmacologic inhibition of YAP by the benzoporphyrin derivative verteporfin decreased cell proliferation and tumor growth in vivo. To interrogate the temporal contribution of YAP in eRMS tumorigenesis, we used a primary human cell-based genetic model of Ras-driven RMS. Constitutively active YAP functioned as an early genetic lesion, permitting bypass of senescence and priming myoblasts to tolerate subsequent expression of hTERT and oncogenic Ras, which were necessary and sufficient to generate murine xenograft tumors mimicking RMS in vivo. This work provides evidence for cooperation between YAP and oncogenic Ras in RMS tumorigenesis, laying the foundation for preclinical co-targeting of these pathways. PMID:26496700

  4. Role of the YAP Oncoprotein in Priming Ras-Driven Rhabdomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Slemmons, Katherine K; Crose, Lisa E S; Rudzinski, Erin; Bentley, Rex C; Linardic, Corinne M

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), a cancer characterized by features of skeletal muscle histogenesis, is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of childhood and adolescence. Survival for high-risk groups is less than 30% at 5 years. RMS also occurs during adulthood, with a lower incidence but higher mortality. Recently, mutational profiling has revealed a correlation between activating Ras mutations in the embryonal (eRMS) and pleomorphic (pRMS) histologic variants of RMS, and a poorer outcome for those patients. Independently, the YAP transcriptional coactivator, an oncoprotein kept in check by the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway, is upregulated in eRMS. Here we show that YAP promotes cell proliferation and antagonizes apoptosis and myogenic differentiation of human RMS cells bearing oncogenic Ras mutations in cell culture studies in vitro and in murine xenografts in vivo. Pharmacologic inhibition of YAP by the benzoporphyrin derivative verteporfin decreased cell proliferation and tumor growth in vivo. To interrogate the temporal contribution of YAP in eRMS tumorigenesis, we used a primary human cell-based genetic model of Ras-driven RMS. Constitutively active YAP functioned as an early genetic lesion, permitting bypass of senescence and priming myoblasts to tolerate subsequent expression of hTERT and oncogenic Ras, which were necessary and sufficient to generate murine xenograft tumors mimicking RMS in vivo. This work provides evidence for cooperation between YAP and oncogenic Ras in RMS tumorigenesis, laying the foundation for preclinical co-targeting of these pathways. PMID:26496700

  5. A complex promoter element mediates transactivation of the human proliferating cell nuclear antigen promoter by the 243-residue adenovirus E1A oncoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Labrie, C; Morris, G F; Mathews, M B

    1993-01-01

    The adenovirus E1A oncoproteins interfere with the normal regulation of cellular proliferation through interactions with cell cycle regulatory proteins. In view of the essential role of proliferating-cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in DNA replication, we performed a mutational analysis of the minimal human PCNA promoter (nucleotides -87 to +62) to define sequence elements which mediate transactivation by the 243-residue E1A protein (E1A 243R). Linker-scanning and site-directed mutants were examined for basal and E1A-induced expression of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) from PCNA promoter-CAT reporter constructs transiently expressed in HeLa cells. The results define the cis-acting element required for induction of PCNA by E1A 243R as a region between -59 and -45 relative to the transcription initiation site. This PCNA E1A-responsive element (PERE), which is protected from DNase I digestion by nuclear extracts from 293 cells, includes the sequence AGCGTGG immediately upstream of the ATF binding site previously shown to be important for activation of PCNA by E1A 243R (G. F. Morris and M. B. Mathews, J. Virol. 65:6397-6406, 1991). Mutation of either the upstream component or the ATF site within the PERE diminishes basal promoter activity and abrogates transactivation by E1A 243R. This novel cis-acting element is also essential for both basal and E1A-induced expression in the context of the full-length PCNA promoter. Images PMID:8095093

  6. Emerging Concepts in the Analysis of Transcriptional Targets of the MYC Oncoprotein

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Steven B.

    2010-01-01

    Activation of the MYC oncoprotein is among the most ubiquitous events in human cancer. MYC functions in part as a sequence-specific regulator of transcription. Although early searches for direct downstream target genes that explain MYC’s potent biological activity were met with enthusiasm, the postgenomic decade has brought the realization that MYC regulates the transcription of not just a manageably small handful of target genes but instead up to 15% of all active loci. As the dust has begun to settle, two important concepts have emerged that reignite hope that understanding MYC’s downstream targets might still prove valuable for defining critical nodes for therapeutic intervention in cancer patients. First, it is now clear that MYC target genes are not a random sampling of the cellular transcriptome but instead fall into specific, critical biochemical pathways such as metabolism, chromatin structure, and protein translation. In retrospect, we should not have been surprised to discover that MYC rewires cell physiology in a manner designed to provide the tumor cell with greater biosynthetic properties. However, the specific details that have emerged from these studies are likely to guide the development of new clinical tools and strategies. This raises the second concept that instills renewed optimism regarding MYC target genes. It is now clear that not all MYC target genes are of equal functional relevance. Thus, it may be possible to discern, from among the thousands of potential MYC target genes, those whose inhibition will truly debilitate the tumor cell. In short, targeting the targets may ultimately be a realistic approach after all. PMID:21533016

  7. Loss of Dependence on Continued Expression of the Human Papillomavirus 16 E7 Oncogene in Cervical Cancers and Precancerous Lesions Arising in Fanconi Anemia Pathway-Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Soyeong; Park, Jung Wook; Pitot, Henry C; Lambert, Paul F

    2016-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare genetic disorder caused by defects in DNA damage repair. FA patients often develop squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) at sites where high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are known to cause cancer, including the cervix. However, SCCs found in human FA patients are often HPV negative, even though the majority of female FA patients with anogenital cancers had preexisting HPV-positive dysplasia. We hypothesize that HPVs contribute to the development of SCCs in FA patients but that the continued expression of HPV oncogenes is not required for the maintenance of the cancer state because FA deficiency leads to an accumulation of mutations in cellular genes that render the cancer no longer dependent upon viral oncogenes. We tested this hypothesis, making use of Bi-L E7 transgenic mice in which we temporally controlled expression of HPV16 E7, the dominant viral oncogene in HPV-associated cancers. As seen before, the persistence of cervical neoplastic disease was highly dependent upon the continued expression of HPV16 E7 in FA-sufficient mice. However, in mice with FA deficiency, cervical cancers persisted in a large fraction of the mice after HPV16 E7 expression was turned off, indicating that these cancers had escaped from their dependency on E7. Furthermore, the severity of precancerous lesions also failed to be reduced significantly in the mice with FA deficiency upon turning off expression of E7. These findings confirm our hypothesis and may explain the fact that, while FA patients have a high frequency of infections by HPVs and HPV-induced precancerous lesions, the cancers are frequently HPV negative. IMPORTANCE  : Fanconi anemia (FA) patients are at high risk for developing squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) at sites where high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) frequently cause cancer. Yet these SCCs are often HPV negative. FA patients have a genetic defect in their capacity to repair damaged DNA. HPV oncogenes cause an accumulation of DNA damage. We hypothesize, therefore, that DNA damage induced by HPV leads to an accumulation of mutations in patients with FA deficiency and that such mutations allow HPV-driven cancers to become independent of the viral oncogenes. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that cervical cancers arising in HPV16 transgenic mice with FA deficiency frequently escape from dependency on the HPV16 oncogene that drove its development. Our report provides further support for vaccination of FA patients against HPVs and argues for the need to define mutational profiles of SCCs arising in FA patients in order to inform precision medicine-based approaches to treating these patients. PMID:27190216

  8. The E6 and E7 genes of human papillomavirus type 6 have weak immortalizing activity in human epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Halbert, C L; Demers, G W; Galloway, D A

    1992-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the E7 gene of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 or 18 alone was sufficient for immortalization of human foreskin epithelial cells (HFE) and that the efficiency was increased in cooperation with the respective E6 gene, whereas the HPV6 E6 or E7 gene was not active in HFE. To detect weak immortalizing activities of the HPV6 genes, cells were infected with recombinant retroviruses containing HPV genes, alone and in homologous and heterologous combinations. The HPV6 genes, alone or together (HPV6 E6 plus HPV6 E7), were not able to immortalize cells. However the HPV6 E6 gene, in concert with HPV16 E7, increased the frequency of immortalization threefold over that obtained with HPV16 E7 alone. Interestingly, 6 of 20 clones containing the HPV16 E6 gene and the HPV6 E7 gene were immortalized, whereas neither gene alone was sufficient. Thus, the HPV6 E6 and E7 genes have weak immortalizing activities which can be detected in cooperation with the more active transforming genes of HPV16. Acute expression of the HPV6 and HPV16 E6 and E7 genes revealed that only HPV16 E7 was able to stimulate the proliferation of cells in organotypic culture, resulting in increased expression of the proliferative cell nuclear antigen and the formation of a disorganized epithelial layer. Additionally, combinations of genes that immortalized HFE cells (HPV16 E6 plus HPV16 E7, HPV16 E6 plus HPV6 E7, and HPV6 E6 plus HPV16 E7) also stimulated proliferation. Images PMID:1312623

  9. The HPV16 E6 oncoprotein and UVB irradiation inhibit the tumor suppressor TGFβ pathway in the epidermis of the K14E6 transgenic mouse.

    PubMed

    Popoca-Cuaya, Marco; Diaz-Chavez, Jose; Hernandez-Monge, Jesus; Alvarez-Rios, Elizabeth; Lambert, Paul F; Gariglio, Patricio

    2015-06-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs) are the causative agents of cervical cancer, and they are also associated with a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. In addition, HPVs have also been postulated in the development of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC). In these cancers, the oncogene E6 is best known for its ability to inactivate the tumor suppressor p53 protein. Interestingly, in transgenic mice for HPV16 E6 (K14E6), it was reported that E6 alone induced epithelial hyperplasia and delay in differentiation in skin epidermis independently of p53 inactivation. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) is an important regulator of cell growth/differentiation and apoptosis, and this pathway is often lost during tumorigenesis. Ultraviolet radiation B (UVB) exposure activates diverse cellular responses, including DNA damage and apoptosis. In this study, we investigated whether the E6 oncogene alone or in combination with UVB dysregulate some components of the TGFβ pathway in the epidermis of K14E6 mice. We used 8-day-old K14E6 and non-transgenic mice irradiated and unirradiated with a single dose of UVB. We found that the E6 oncogene and UVB irradiation impair the TGFβ pathway in epidermis of K14E6 mice by downregulation of the TGFβ type II receptor (TβRII). This loss of TβRII prevents downstream activation of Smad2 and target genes as p15, an important regulator of cell cycle progression. In summary, the TGFβ signalling in cells of the epidermis is downregulated in our mouse model by both the E6 oncoprotein and the UVB irradiation. PMID:25776923

  10. Apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells. Protein kinase C and oncoprotein Bcl-2 are involved in regulation of apoptosis in non-transformed rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Leszczynski, D.; Zhao, Y.; Luokkamki, M.; Foegh, M. L.

    1994-01-01

    We examined the effect of several inhibitors/activators of various protein kinases on the proliferation and apoptosis of nontransformed rat coronary vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC). As expected, all the compounds (calphostin C, KT5720, KT5823, verapamil, W7, and dibutyryl-cAMP) inhibited SMC proliferation, as judged by [3H]thymidine incorporation. Three (calphostin C, verapamil and dibutyryl-cAMP) of the six compounds caused occurrence of the classical apoptotic morphology in SMC. The effect of calphostin C, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, was examined in more detail due to the known involvement of this kinase in regulation of apoptosis in a variety of cell types. In SMC cultures exposed for 1, 2, and 3 days to 0.1 mumol/L calphostin C, 7 +/- 1%, 32 +/- 3%, and 29 +/- 3% of cells underwent apoptosis, respectively, as assessed by cell morphology (control cultures had 1 to 3% of apoptotic cells). The effect of calphostin C was transient in that on day 6 following exposure to this compound the number of apoptotic cells declined to control values. Simultaneous with the induction of apoptotic morphology in SMC, a decline was seen (within 24 hours) in expression of the oncoprotein Bcl-2 in morphologically nonapoptotic SMC. An altered distribution of Bcl-2 was seen in the apoptotic cells. The calphostin C-induced generation of apoptotic cells in SMC cultures and the decline/alteration of Bcl-2 expression were not accompanied by degradation of DNA into nucleosomal fragments. In conclusion, normal, nontransformed rat coronary artery vascular SMC undergo apoptosis when exposed to an inhibitor of protein kinase C (calphostin C), to a calcium channel blocker (verapamil), and to a stimulator of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (dibutyryl-cAMP). The induction of apoptosis by the inhibitor of protein kinase C is accompanied by alterations in the Bcl-2 expression but not by DNA fragmentation. Images Figure 3 Figure 2 PMID:7527616

  11. The HECT-domain ubiquitin ligase Huwe1 controls neural differentiation and proliferation by destabilizing the N-Myc oncoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xudong; Heng, Julian Ik-Tsen; Guardavaccaro, Daniele; Jiang, Richeng; Pagano, Michele; Guillemot, Francois; Iavarone, Antonio; Lasorella, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Development of the nervous system requires that timely withdrawal from the cell cycle be coupled with initiation of differentiation. Ubiquitin-mediated degradation of the N-Myc oncoprotein in neural stem/progenitor cells is thought to trigger the arrest of proliferation and begin differentiation. Here we report that the HECT-domain ubiquitin ligase Huwe1 ubiquitinates the N-Myc oncoprotein through Lys 48-mediated linkages and targets it for destruction by the proteasome. This process is physiologically implemented by embryonic stem (ES) cells differentiating along the neuronal lineage and in the mouse brain during development. Genetic and RNA interference-mediated inactivation of the Huwe1 gene impedes N-Myc degradation, prevents exit from the cell cycle by opposing the expression of Cdk inhibitors and blocks differentiation through persistent inhibition of early and late markers of neuronal differentiation. Silencing of N-myc in cells lacking Huwe1 restores neural differentiation of ES cells and rescues cell-cycle exit and differentiation of the mouse cortex, demonstrating that Huwe1 restrains proliferation and enables neuronal differentiation by mediating the degradation of N-Myc. These findings indicate that Huwe1 links destruction of N-Myc to the quiescent state that complements differentiation in the neural tissue. PMID:18488021

  12. Chaperonin TRiC/CCT Modulates the Folding and Activity of Leukemogenic Fusion Oncoprotein AML1-ETO.

    PubMed

    Roh, Soung-Hun; Kasembeli, Moses; Galaz-Montoya, Jesús G; Trnka, Mike; Lau, Wilson Chun-Yu; Burlingame, Alma; Chiu, Wah; Tweardy, David J

    2016-02-26

    AML1-ETO is the most common fusion oncoprotein causing acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a disease with a 5-year survival rate of only 24%. AML1-ETO functions as a rogue transcription factor, altering the expression of genes critical for myeloid cell development and differentiation. Currently, there are no specific therapies for AML1-ETO-positive AML. While known for decades to be the translational product of a chimeric gene created by the stable chromosome translocation t(8;21)(q22;q22), it is not known how AML1-ETO achieves its native and functional conformation or whether this process can be targeted for therapeutic benefit. Here, we show that the biosynthesis and folding of the AML1-ETO protein is facilitated by interaction with the essential eukaryotic chaperonin TRiC (or CCT). We demonstrate that a folding intermediate of AML1-ETO binds to TRiC directly, mainly through its β-strand rich, DNA-binding domain (AML-(1-175)), with the assistance of HSP70. Our results suggest that TRiC contributes to AML1-ETO proteostasis through specific interactions between the oncoprotein's DNA-binding domain, which may be targeted for therapeutic benefit. PMID:26706127

  13. Cloning, purification and metal binding of the HNH motif from colicin E7.

    PubMed

    Gyurcsik, Béla; Czene, Anikó; Jankovics, Hajnalka; Jakab-Simon, Noémi I; Ślaska-Kiss, Krystyna; Kiss, Antal; Kele, Zoltán

    2013-06-01

    The HNH family of endonucleases is characterized by a ββα metal-finger structural motif. Colicin E7 is a representative member of this family containing the strictly conserved HNH motif at its C-terminus. Structural and biochemical studies suggested that the HNH motif could contain all the residues necessary for metal ion binding and nuclease activity. In this work a 43 amino acid peptide extending from V534 to K576 of colicin E7 and encompassing the HNH motif was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli as a ubiquitin fusion protein. The N-terminal fusion tag was cleaved off by a specific protease, and the HNH peptide was purified free of ubiquitin. Circular dichroism, fluorescence and mass spectrometry showed that the zinc-ion binding affinity of the purified HNH peptide was much weaker than that of the intact nuclease domain suggesting that the N-terminal part of the nuclease domain is essential for stabilizing the structure of the HNH motif. The coordination sphere of the metal ion was found to be not fully equipped by the ligand - leaving a free coordination site for the substrate. Neither DNA binding nor DNAse activity of the purified HNH peptide was detected. Comparison of the glutathion-S-transferase-fused N-terminal deletion mutants of the colicin E7 nuclease domain suggested that the presence of the DNA-binding site is still not sufficient for the catalytic activity. PMID:23563167

  14. Alteration of a single amino acid in the basic domain of Marek's disease virus Meq oncoprotein plays an important role in T-cell transformation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mareks disease virus encoded oncoprotein, Meq, has been shown to play a major role in transformation of T-lymphocytes. We have earlier shown that replacement of the meq gene in the very virulent strain Md5 with that of vaccine strain CVI988/Rispens resulted in virus attenuation in chickens. To dete...

  15. A "public" T-helper epitope of the E7 transforming protein of human papillomavirus 16 provides cognate help for several E7 B-cell epitopes from cervical cancer-associated human papillomavirus genotypes.

    PubMed Central

    Tindle, R W; Fernando, G J; Sterling, J C; Frazer, I H

    1991-01-01

    We have identified a major T-cell epitope, amino acids 48-54 (DRAHYNI, in one-letter code) in the E7 open reading frame protein of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16. Lymph node cells from mice immunized with synthetic peptides containing DRAHYNI proliferated and produced interleukin when challenged in vitro with peptide or whole HPV-16 E7 fusion protein. The T epitope was recognized in association with all five major histocompatibility complex class II I-A and I-E alleles tested. Synthetic peptides consisting of DRAHYNI linked to major B-cell epitopes on the E7 molecule formed immunogens capable of eliciting strong antibody responses to HPV-16 E7. The T epitope could provide help for the production of antibody to several B epitopes simultaneously, including a B epitope of HPV-18 E7 protein. Mice immunized with a peptide containing DRAHYNI and B epitope and, at a later date, infected with recombinant vaccinia E7 virus, displayed secondary antibody responses to E7. Because E7 has a role in cell transformation and is the most abundant viral protein in HPV-associated neoplastic cervical epithelial cells, the data have implications for vaccine strategies. PMID:1712110

  16. Tyrosine B10 triggers a heme propionate hydrogen bonding network loop with glutamine E7 moiety

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos-Santana, Brenda J.; Lopez-Garriga, Juan

    2012-08-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H-bonding network loop by PheB10Tyr mutation is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The propionate group H-bonding network restricted the flexibility of the heme. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hydrogen bonding interaction modulates the electron density of the iron. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Propionate H-bonding network loop explains the heme-ligand stabilization. -- Abstract: Propionates, as peripheral groups of the heme active center in hemeproteins have been described to contribute in the modulation of heme reactivity and ligand selection. These electronic characteristics prompted the question of whether the presence of hydrogen bonding networks between propionates and distal amino acids present in the heme ligand moiety can modulate physiological relevant events, like ligand binding association and dissociation activities. Here, the role of these networks was evaluated by NMR spectroscopy using the hemoglobin I PheB10Tyr mutant from Lucina pectinata as model for TyrB10 and GlnE7 hemeproteins. {sup 1}H-NMR results for the rHbICN PheB10Tyr derivative showed chemical shifts of TyrB10 OH{eta} at 31.00 ppm, GlnE7 N{sub {epsilon}1}H/N{sub {epsilon}2}H at 10.66 ppm/-3.27 ppm, and PheE11 C{sub {delta}}H at 11.75 ppm, indicating the presence of a crowded, collapsed, and constrained distal pocket. Strong dipolar contacts and inter-residues crosspeaks between GlnE7/6-propionate group, GlnE7/TyrB10 and TyrB10/CN suggest that this hydrogen bonding network loop between GlnE7, TyrB10, 6-propionate group, and the heme ligand contribute significantly to the modulation of the heme iron electron density as well as the ligand stabilization mechanism. Therefore, the network loop presented here support the fact that the electron withdrawing character of the hydrogen bonding is controlled by the interaction of the propionates and the nearby electronic environments contributing to the modulation of the heme electron density state. Thus, we hypothesize that in hemeproteins with similar electrostatic environment the flexibility of the heme-6-propionate promotes a hydrogen bonding network loop between the 6-propionate, the heme ligand and nearby amino acids, tailoring in this way the electron density in the heme-ligand moiety.

  17. A New E6/P63 Pathway, Together with a Strong E7/E2F Mitotic Pathway, Modulates the Transcriptome in Cervical Cancer Cells▿

    PubMed Central

    Teissier, Sébastien; Ben Khalifa, Youcef; Mori, Marcella; Pautier, Patricia; Desaintes, Christian; Thierry, Françoise

    2007-01-01

    Cervical carcinoma is associated with certain types of human papillomaviruses expressing the E6 and E7 oncogenes, which are involved in carcinogenesis through their interactions with the p53 and pRB pathways, respectively. A critical event on the path to malignant transformation is often manifested by the loss of expression of the viral E2 transcription factor due to the integration into the host genome of the viral DNA. Using microarrays, we have previously shown that reintroduction of a functional E2 in the HeLa cervical carcinoma cell line activates a cluster of p53 target genes while at the same time severely repressing a group of E2F target genes. In the present study, using new high-density microarrays containing more than 22,000 human cDNA sequences, we identified a novel p63 pathway among E2-activated genes and 38 new mitotic genes repressed by E2. We then sought to determine the pathways through which these genes were modulated and used an approach that relies on small interfering RNA to demonstrate that the p63 target genes were activated through silencing of the E6/E6AP pathway while the mitotic genes were mainly repressed through E7 silencing. Importantly, a subset of the mitotic genes was shown to be significantly induced in biopsies of stage IV cervical cancers, which points to a prominent E7 pathway in cervical carcinoma. PMID:17582001

  18. Identification of the murine H-2D(b) and human HLA-A*0201 MHC class I-restricted HPV6 E7-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shiwen; Mattox, Austin; Best, Simon R; Barbu, Anca M; Burns, James A; Akpeng, Belinda; Jeang, Jessica; Yang, Benjamin; Ishida, Eiichi; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, Tzyy-Choou; Pai, Sara I

    2016-03-01

    Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, most commonly types 6 (HPV-6) and 11 (HPV-11). Due to failed host immune responses, HPV is unable to be cleared from the host, resulting in recurrent growth of HPV-related lesions that can obstruct the lumen of the airway within the upper aerodigestive tract. In our murine model, the HPV-6b and HPV-11 E7 antigens are not innately immunogenic. In order to enhance the host immune responses against the HPV E7 antigen, we linked calreticulin (CRT) to HPV-6b E7 and found that vaccinating C57BL/6 mice with the HPV-6b CRT/E7 DNA vaccine is able to induce a CD8(+) T cell response that recognizes an H-2D(b)-restricted E7aa21-29 epitope. Additionally, vaccination of HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice with HPV-6b CRT/E7 DNA generated a CD8(+) T cell response against the E7aa82-90 epitope that was not observed in the wild-type C57BL/6 mice, indicating this T cell response is restricted to HLA-A*0201. In vivo cytotoxic T cell killing assays demonstrated that the vaccine-induced CD8(+) T cells are able to efficiently kill target cells. Interestingly, the H-2D(b)-restricted E7aa21-29 sequence and the HLA-A*0201-restricted E7aa82-90 sequence are conserved between HPV-6b and HPV-11 and may represent shared immunogenic epitopes. The identification of the HPV-6b/HPV-11 CD8(+) T cell epitopes facilitates the evaluation of various immunomodulatory strategies in preclinical models. More importantly, the identified HLA-A*0201-restricted T cell epitope may serve as a peptide vaccination strategy, as well as facilitate the monitoring of vaccine-induced HPV-specific immunologic responses in future human clinical trials. PMID:26759151

  19. Increase of human papillomavirus-16 E7-specific T helper type 1 response in peripheral blood of cervical cancer patients after radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Félix Giovanni; Martínez, Elizabeth; Céspedes, María Angélica; Bravo, María Mercedes; Navas, María Cristina; Rojas, Alba Lucía Cómbita

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that tumour cell lysis by gamma-radiation induces a tumoral antigen release eliciting an immune response. It is not clear how a specific immune response in cervical cancer patients is developed after radiotherapy. This study is an attempt to investigate the role of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E7-specific T helper response before and after radiotherapy. Lymphocytes were isolated from 32 cervical cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and from 16 healthy women. They were stimulated for 12 hr with autologous HPV-16 E7-pulsed monocyte-derived dendritic cells or directly with HPV-16 E7 synthetic peptides: E751–70, E765–84 and E779–98. The cells were stained for CD4, CD69, intracellular interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) cytokines and analysed by flow cytometry. A specific CD4+ CD69+ IFN-γ+ immune response against HPV-16 E779–98 peptide was observed in 10 of 14 patients (71·4%) after treatment, compared with 4 of 14 (28·5%) before radiotherapy (P = 0·039); however, this response was not associated with a successful clinical response. Before treatment, 5 of 31 patients showed a HPV-16 E779–98-specific T helper type 2 (Th2) response. Interestingly, this response was significantly associated with a decrease in disease-free survival (P = 0·027). These results suggest that a Th2-type cellular response could be useful as a predictor of recurrence and poor prognosis. An increase of the HPV-specific immune response was observed after radiotherapy; however, it is not enough to control completely the disease after treatment. Our results support that the E7-specific T-cell IFN-γ response in cervical cancer patients, rather than reflecting the host’s capability of controlling tumour growth, might be an indicator for disease severity. PMID:18778290

  20. Characterization of the transport signals that mediate the nucleocytoplasmic traffic of low risk HPV11 E7

    SciTech Connect

    McKee, Courtney H.; Onder, Zeynep; Ashok, Aditya; Cardoso, Rebeca; Moroianu, Junona

    2013-08-15

    We previously discovered that nuclear import of low risk HPV11 E7 is mediated by its zinc-binding domain via a pathway that is independent of karyopherins/importins (Piccioli et al., 2010. Virology 407, 100–109). In this study we mapped and characterized a leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES), {sub 76}IRQLQDLLL{sub 84}, within the zinc-binding domain that mediates the nuclear export of HPV11 E7 in a CRM1-dependent manner. We also identified a mostly hydrophobic patch {sub 65}VRLVV{sub 69} within the zinc-binding domain that mediates nuclear import of HPV11 E7 via hydrophobic interactions with the FG-repeats domain of Nup62. Substitutions of hydrophobic residues to alanine within the {sub 65}VRLVV{sub 69} sequence disrupt the nuclear localization of 11E7, whereas the R66A mutation has no effect. Overall the data support a model of nuclear entry of HPV11 E7 protein via hydrophobic interactions with FG nucleoporins at the nuclear pore complex. - Highlights: • HPV11 E7 has a leucine-rich nuclear export signal that mediates its nuclear export via CRM1. • HPV11 E7 interacts via its unique cNLS with the FG domain of Nup62. • Identification of a hydrophobic patch essential for nuclear localization of HPV11 E7.

  1. 17 CFR 240.14e-7 - Unlawful tender offer practices in connection with roll-ups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Unlawful tender offer practices in connection with roll-ups. 240.14e-7 Section 240.14e-7 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... tender offer practices in connection with roll-ups. In order to implement section 14(h) of the Act (15...

  2. 17 CFR 240.14e-7 - Unlawful tender offer practices in connection with roll-ups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Unlawful tender offer practices in connection with roll-ups. 240.14e-7 Section 240.14e-7 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... tender offer practices in connection with roll-ups. In order to implement section 14(h) of the Act (15...

  3. 17 CFR 240.14e-7 - Unlawful tender offer practices in connection with roll-ups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Unlawful tender offer practices in connection with roll-ups. 240.14e-7 Section 240.14e-7 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... tender offer practices in connection with roll-ups. In order to implement section 14(h) of the Act (15...

  4. 17 CFR 240.14e-7 - Unlawful tender offer practices in connection with roll-ups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Unlawful tender offer practices in connection with roll-ups. 240.14e-7 Section 240.14e-7 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... tender offer practices in connection with roll-ups. In order to implement section 14(h) of the Act (15...

  5. 17 CFR 240.14e-7 - Unlawful tender offer practices in connection with roll-ups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unlawful tender offer practices in connection with roll-ups. 240.14e-7 Section 240.14e-7 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... tender offer practices in connection with roll-ups. In order to implement section 14(h) of the Act (15...

  6. Induction of apoptosis and autophagic cell death by the vanillin derivative 6-bromine-5-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde is accompanied by the cleavage of DNA-PKcs and rapid destruction of c-Myc oncoprotein in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yu-Qian; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Lin; Xie, Yue-Hua; Peng, Tao; Bai, Bei; Zhou, Ping-Kun

    2007-07-18

    Autophagy is a regulated lysosomal pathway involving the bulk degradation of cytoplasmic contents, and is an emerging attractive therapeutic approach for treating cancers. In the present study, we demonstrates that bromovanin (6-bromine-5-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde), a vanillin derivative, exhibits a potent antiproliferative effect on a broad spectrum of cancer cell lines, but it induces apoptosis with a large variation in extent on different cancer cell lines. Ultrastructural observation in transmission electron microscopy reveals that autophagy is another type of cell death induced by bromovanin in HepG2 cells. Treatment with bromovanin significantly increases cellular ROS level as well as elicits DNA double-strand breaks as indicated by comet assay and the increased phosphorylated H2AX. Cleavage and inactivation of DNA-PKcs induced by bromovanin is found to occur concurrently with a rapid destruction of c-Myc oncoprotein. These multiple effects of bromovanin, especially the induction of both apoptosis and autophagy, make it very appealing for the development as a novel anticancer drug. PMID:17316978

  7. Structure and Catalytic Mechanism of the Thioesterase CalE7 in Enediyne Biosynthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Kotaka, Masayo; Kong, Rong; Qureshi, Insaf; Ho, Qin Shi; Sun, Huihua; Liew, Chong Wai; Goh, Lan Pei; Cheung, Peter; Mu, Yuguang; Lescar, Julien; Liang, Zhao-Xun

    2009-01-01

    The biosynthesis of the enediyne moiety of the antitumor natural product calicheamicin involves an iterative polyketide synthase (CalE8) and other ancillary enzymes. In the proposed mechanism for the early stage of 10-membered enediyne biosynthesis, CalE8 produces a carbonyl-conjugated polyene with the assistance of a putative thioesterase (CalE7). We have determined the x-ray crystal structure of CalE7 and found that the subunit adopts a hotdog fold with an elongated and kinked substrate-binding channel embedded between two subunits. The 1.75-Å crystal structure revealed that CalE7 does not contain a critical catalytic residue (Glu or Asp) conserved in other hotdog fold thioesterases. Based on biochemical and site-directed mutagenesis studies, we proposed a catalytic mechanism in which the conserved Arg37 plays a crucial role in the hydrolysis of the thioester bond, and that Tyr29 and a hydrogen-bonded water network assist the decarboxylation of the β-ketocarboxylic acid intermediate. Moreover, computational docking suggested that the substrate-binding channel binds a polyene substrate that contains a single cis double bond at the C4/C5 position, raising the possibility that the C4=C5 double bond in the enediyne moiety could be generated by the iterative polyketide synthase. Together, the results revealed a hotdog fold thioesterase distinct from the common type I and type II thioesterases associated with polyketide biosynthesis and provided interesting insight into the enediyne biosynthetic mechanism. PMID:19357082

  8. Mutagenic Potential ofBos taurus Papillomavirus Type 1 E6 Recombinant Protein: First Description

    PubMed Central

    Araldi, Rodrigo Pinheiro; Mazzuchelli-de-Souza, Jacqueline; Modolo, Diego Grando; de Souza, Edislane Barreiros; de Melo, Thatiana Corrêa; Spadacci-Morena, Diva Denelle; Magnelli, Roberta Fiusa; de Carvalho, Márcio Augusto Caldas Rocha; de Sá Júnior, Paulo Luis; de Carvalho, Rodrigo Franco; Beçak, Willy; Stocco, Rita de Cassia

    2015-01-01

    Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is considered a useful model to study HPV oncogenic process. BPV interacts with the host chromatin, resulting in DNA damage, which is attributed to E5, E6, and E7 viral oncoproteins activity. However, the oncogenic mechanisms of BPV E6 oncoprotein per se remain unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the mutagenic potential of Bos taurus papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) E6 recombinant oncoprotein by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMNA) and comet assay (CA). Peripheral blood samples of five calves were collected. Samples were subjected to molecular diagnosis, which did not reveal presence of BPV sequences. Samples were treated with 1 μg/mL of BPV-1 E6 oncoprotein and 50 μg/mL of cyclophosphamide (positive control). Negative controls were not submitted to any treatment. The samples were submitted to the CBMNA and CA. The results showed that BPV E6 oncoprotein induces clastogenesis per se, which is indicative of genomic instability. These results allowed better understanding the mechanism of cancer promotion associated with the BPV E6 oncoprotein and revealed that this oncoprotein can induce carcinogenesis per se. E6 recombinant oncoprotein has been suggested as a possible vaccine candidate. Results pointed out that BPV E6 recombinant oncoprotein modifications are required to use it as vaccine. PMID:26783529

  9. The DEK Oncoprotein Is a Critical Component of the EKLF/KLF1 Enhancer in Erythroid Cells.

    PubMed

    Lohmann, Felix; Dangeti, Mohan; Soni, Shefali; Chen, Xiaoyong; Planutis, Antanas; Baron, Margaret H; Choi, Kyunghee; Bieker, James J

    2015-11-01

    Understanding how transcriptional regulators are themselves controlled is important in attaining a complete picture of the intracellular effects that follow signaling cascades during early development and cell-restricted differentiation. We have addressed this issue by focusing on the regulation of EKLF/KLF1, a zinc finger transcription factor that plays a necessary role in the global regulation of erythroid gene expression. Using biochemical affinity purification, we have identified the DEK oncoprotein as a critical factor that interacts with an essential upstream enhancer element of the EKLF promoter and exerts a positive effect on EKLF levels. This element also binds a core set of erythroid transcription factors, suggesting that DEK is part of a tissue-restricted enhanceosome that contains BMP4-dependent and -independent components. Together with local enrichment of properly coded histones and an open chromatin domain, optimal transcriptional activation of the EKLF locus can be established. PMID:26303528

  10. The DEK Oncoprotein Is a Critical Component of the EKLF/KLF1 Enhancer in Erythroid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lohmann, Felix; Dangeti, Mohan; Soni, Shefali; Chen, Xiaoyong; Planutis, Antanas; Baron, Margaret H.; Choi, Kyunghee

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how transcriptional regulators are themselves controlled is important in attaining a complete picture of the intracellular effects that follow signaling cascades during early development and cell-restricted differentiation. We have addressed this issue by focusing on the regulation of EKLF/KLF1, a zinc finger transcription factor that plays a necessary role in the global regulation of erythroid gene expression. Using biochemical affinity purification, we have identified the DEK oncoprotein as a critical factor that interacts with an essential upstream enhancer element of the EKLF promoter and exerts a positive effect on EKLF levels. This element also binds a core set of erythroid transcription factors, suggesting that DEK is part of a tissue-restricted enhanceosome that contains BMP4-dependent and -independent components. Together with local enrichment of properly coded histones and an open chromatin domain, optimal transcriptional activation of the EKLF locus can be established. PMID:26303528

  11. Establishment of immunoassay for detecting HPV16 E6 and E7 RNA

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Sen; Qian, Steven Y.; Zhang, Yang; Wu, Wenlei; Lu, Gensheng; Lu, Yan; Feng, Xiujing; Li, Li; Shen, Pingping

    2015-01-01

    Cervical carcinoma is the most prevalent malignancy second only to breast cancer among women worldwide. Since more than 99% of cervical cancers are caused by human papilloma virus (HPV), measurement of HPV (HPV test) was commonly used in screening risk and/or early stage of cervical cancer as well as assessing the efficacies of the treatments that can decrease the incidence of cervical cancer. Many approaches that diagnose HPV infections have been developed, while most of them have distinct shortcomings. We here established a novel immunoassay method in which the pairs of unlabeled DNA probes firstly bind to HPV16 E6 and E7 RNAs to form the DNA-RNA hybrids, and the hybrids will subsequently be identified by S9.6 antibody. The sensitivity of this highly specific method can reach ~0.923 pg/mL and ~0.424 pg/mL of in vitro transcribed HPV16 E6 and E7 RNA, respectively, and reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification were no longer needed. Thus, our immunoassay approaches can precisely reflect the actually viral load that is related to the course of HPV infection. In addition, it has also fast and low cost characteristic feature. PMID:26333509

  12. Differences in the frequency of ERG oncoprotein expression between index tumors of Caucasian American and African American prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Philip; Pfister, David; Young, Denise; Petrovics, Gyorgy; Chen, Yongmei; Cullen, Jennifer; Böhm, Diana; Perner, Sven; Dobi, Albert; McLeod, David G.; Sesterhenn, Isabell A.; Srivastava, Shiv

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Tosystematically evaluate ERG alterations in the multifocal tumor context by using whole-mount prostatectomy specimens of African American and Caucasian American patients matched for age, pathologic grade and stage. Oncogenic activation of the ETS-Related Gene (ERG) is the most common early genomic alteration in prostate cancer patients in Western countries. However, ERG alterations have not been systematically examined in African American patients with known higher risk of prostate cancer incidence and mortality. METHODS ERG oncoprotein expression was analyzed in 91 Caucasian American and 91 African American prostate cancer patients matched for age, Gleason score and pathologic stage. A unique aspect of this study was the evaluation of ERG in whole-mount prostatectomy sections, minimizing sampling bias and allowing the careful assessment of ERG in the multifocal tumor context of prostate cancer. RESULTS The frequency of ERG positive prostate tumors was significantly greater among Caucasian Americans vs. African Americans when assessed in all tumor foci (41.9% vs. 23.9%, p<0.0001). Markedly higher frequency of the ERG oncoprotein expression was noted between the index tumors of Caucasian Americans (63.3%) and African Americans (28.6%). Of note, in African American patients the higher grade index tumors were predominantly ERG negative. CONCLUSIONS ERG typing of prostate tumors establishes a major difference between the index tumors of Caucasian and African American patients. ERG negative index tumors may indicate less favorable outcome in African American patients. This study underscores that typing of prostate tumors for ERG may enhance our understanding of biological differences between the examined ethnic groups. PMID:22950997

  13. Structure of the retinoblastoma protein bound to adenovirus E1A reveals the molecular basis for viral oncoprotein inactivation of a tumor suppressor

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xin; Marmorstein, Ronen

    2008-04-02

    The adenovirus (Ad) E1A (Ad-E1A) oncoprotein mediates cell transformation, in part, by displacing E2F transcription factors from the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) tumor suppressor. In this study we determined the crystal structure of the pRb pocket domain in complex with conserved region 1 (CR1) of Ad5-E1A. The structure and accompanying biochemical studies reveal that E1A-CR1 binds at the interface of the A and B cyclin folds of the pRb pocket domain, and that both E1A-CR1 and the E2F transactivation domain use similar conserved nonpolar residues to engage overlapping sites on pRb, implicating a novel molecular mechanism for pRb inactivation by a viral oncoprotein.

  14. Arsenic Trioxide Is a Potent Inhibitor of the Interaction of SMRT Corepressor with Its Transcription Factor Partners, Including the PML-Retinoic Acid Receptor ? Oncoprotein Found in Human Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Suk-Hyun; Yang, Zhihong; Privalsky, Martin L.

    2001-01-01

    The SMRT corepressor complex participates in transcriptional repression by a diverse array of vertebrate transcription factors. The ability to recruit SMRT appears to play a crucial role in leukemogenesis by the PML-retinoic acid receptor ? (RAR?) oncoprotein, an aberrant nuclear hormone receptor implicated in human acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Arsenite induces clinical remission of APL through a incompletely understood mechanism. We report here that arsenite is a potent inhibitor of the interaction of SMRT with its transcription factor partners, including PML-RAR?. Arsenite operates, in part, through a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade culminating in phosphorylation of the SMRT protein, dissociation of SMRT from its nuclear receptor partners, and a relocalization of SMRT out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm of the cell. Conversely, inhibition of this MAP kinase cascade attenuates the effects of arsenite on APL cells. Our results implicate SMRT as an important biological target for the actions of arsenite in both normal and neoplastic cells. PMID:11585900

  15. Exosomal sorting of the viral oncoprotein LMP1 is restrained by TRAF2 association at signalling endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Verweij, Frederik J.; de Heus, Cecilia; Kroeze, Stefanie; Cai, Houjian; Kieff, Elliott; Piersma, Sander R.; Jimenez, Connie R.; Middeldorp, Jaap M.; Pegtel, Dirk Michiel

    2015-01-01

    The Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-encoded oncoprotein latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) constitutively activates nuclear factor κB (NFκB) from intracellular membranes to promote cell growth and survival. LMP1 associates with CD63 in intracellular membranes and is released via exosomes. Whether tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) mediate LMP1 NFκB signalling from endosomes and modulate exosomal sorting is unknown. In this article, we show that LMP1–TRAF2 signalling complexes accumulate at endosomes in a palmitoylation-dependent manner, thereby driving LMP1-dependent oncogenicity. Palmitoylation is a reversible post-translational modification and is considered to function as a membrane anchor for proteins. Mutagenesis studies showed that LMP1–TRAF2 trafficking to endosomes is dependent on one single cysteine residue (C78), a known palmitoylation site of LMP1. Notably, growth assays in soft agar revealed that oncogenic properties of the palmitoylation-deficient LMP1 mutant C78A were diminished compared to wild-type LMP1. Since LMP1 recruitment of TRAF2 and downstream NFκB signalling were not affected by a disturbance in palmitoylation, the specific localization of LMP1 at endosomal membranes appears crucial for its transforming potential. The importance of palmitoylation for trafficking to and signalling from endosomal membranes was not restricted to LMP1, as similar observations were made for the cellular oncoproteins Src and Fyn. Despite abundant LMP1–TRAF2 association at endosomal membranes TRAF2 could not be detected in exosomes by Western blotting or proteomics. Interestingly, point mutations that prevented TRAF binding strongly promoted the sorting and release of LMP1 via exosomes. These observations reveal that LMP1–TRAF2 complexes at endosomes support oncogenic NFκB activation and suggest that LMP1 dissociates from the activated signalling complexes upon sorting into intraluminal vesicles. We propose that “signalling endosomes” in EBV-infected tumour cells can fuse with the plasma membrane, explaining LMP1 release via exosomes. PMID:25865256

  16. Characterization of Intra-Type Variants of Oncogenic Human Papillomaviruses by Next-Generation Deep Sequencing of the E6/E7 Region

    PubMed Central

    Lavezzo, Enrico; Masi, Giulia; Toppo, Stefano; Franchin, Elisa; Gazzola, Valentina; Sinigaglia, Alessandro; Masiero, Serena; Trevisan, Marta; Pagni, Silvana; Palù, Giorgio; Barzon, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Different human papillomavirus (HPV) types are characterized by differences in tissue tropism and ability to promote cell proliferation and transformation. In addition, clinical and experimental studies have shown that some genetic variants/lineages of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) types are characterized by increased oncogenic activity and probability to induce cancer. In this study, we designed and validated a new method based on multiplex PCR-deep sequencing of the E6/E7 region of HR-HPV types to characterize HPV intra-type variants in clinical specimens. Validation experiments demonstrated that this method allowed reliable identification of the different lineages of oncogenic HPV types. Advantages of this method over other published methods were represented by its ability to detect variants of all HR-HPV types in a single reaction, to detect variants of HR-HPV types in clinical specimens with multiple infections, and, being based on sequencing of the full E6/E7 region, to detect amino acid changes in these oncogenes potentially associated with increased transforming activity. PMID:26985902

  17. Characterization of Intra-Type Variants of Oncogenic Human Papillomaviruses by Next-Generation Deep Sequencing of the E6/E7 Region.

    PubMed

    Lavezzo, Enrico; Masi, Giulia; Toppo, Stefano; Franchin, Elisa; Gazzola, Valentina; Sinigaglia, Alessandro; Masiero, Serena; Trevisan, Marta; Pagni, Silvana; Palù, Giorgio; Barzon, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Different human papillomavirus (HPV) types are characterized by differences in tissue tropism and ability to promote cell proliferation and transformation. In addition, clinical and experimental studies have shown that some genetic variants/lineages of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) types are characterized by increased oncogenic activity and probability to induce cancer. In this study, we designed and validated a new method based on multiplex PCR-deep sequencing of the E6/E7 region of HR-HPV types to characterize HPV intra-type variants in clinical specimens. Validation experiments demonstrated that this method allowed reliable identification of the different lineages of oncogenic HPV types. Advantages of this method over other published methods were represented by its ability to detect variants of all HR-HPV types in a single reaction, to detect variants of HR-HPV types in clinical specimens with multiple infections, and, being based on sequencing of the full E6/E7 region, to detect amino acid changes in these oncogenes potentially associated with increased transforming activity. PMID:26985902

  18. Effect of 60 Hz magnetic fields on the activation of hsp70 promoter in cultured INER-37 and RMA E7 cells.

    PubMed

    Heredia-Rojas, J Antonio; Rodríguez de la Fuente, Abraham Octavio; Alcocer González, Juan Manuel; Rodríguez-Flores, Laura E; Rodríguez-Padilla, Cristina; Santoyo-Stephano, Martha A; Castañeda-Garza, Esperanza; Taméz-Guerra, Reyes S

    2010-10-01

    It has been reported that 50-60 Hz magnetic fields (MF) with flux densities ranging from microtesla to millitesla are able to induce heat shock factor or heat shock proteins in various cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of 60 Hz sinusoidal MF at 8 and 80 μT on the expression of the luciferase gene contained in a plasmid labeled as electromagnetic field-plasmid (pEMF). This gene construct contains the specific sequences previously described for the induction of hsp70 expression by MF, as well as the reporter for the luciferase gene. The pEMF vector was transfected into INER-37 and RMA E7 cell lines that were later exposed to either MF or thermal shock (TS). Cells that received the MF or TS treatments and their controls were processed according to the luciferase assay system for evaluate luciferase activity. An increased luciferase gene expression was observed in INER-37 cells exposed to MF and TS compared with controls (p < 0.05), but MF exposure had no effect on the RMA E7 cell line. PMID:20835776

  19. Suppression of HPV E6 and E7 expression by BAF53 depletion in cervical cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kiwon; Lee, Ah-Young; Kwon, Yunhee Kim; Kwon, Hyockman

    2011-08-26

    Highlights: {yields} Integration of HPV into host genome critical for activation of E6 and E7 oncogenes. {yields} BAF53 is essential for higher-order chromatin structure. {yields} BAF53 knockdown suppresses E6 and E7 from HPV integrants, but not from episomal HPVs. {yields} BAF53 knockdown decreases H3K9Ac and H4K12Ac on P105 promoter of integrated HPV 18. {yields} BAF53 knockdown restores the p53-dependent signaling pathway in HeLa and SiHa cells. -- Abstract: Deregulation of the expression of human papillomavirus (HPV) oncogenes E6 and E7 plays a pivotal role in cervical carcinogenesis because the E6 and E7 proteins neutralize p53 and Rb tumor suppressor pathways, respectively. In approximately 90% of all cervical carcinomas, HPVs are found to be integrated into the host genome. Following integration, the core-enhancer element and P105 promoter that control expression of E6 and E7 adopt a chromatin structure that is different from that of episomal HPV, and this has been proposed to contribute to activation of E6 and E7 expression. However, the molecular basis underlying this chromatin structural change remains unknown. Previously, BAF53 has been shown to be essential for the integrity of higher-order chromatin structure and interchromosomal interactions. Here, we examined whether BAF53 is required for activated expression of E6 and E7 genes. We found that BAF53 knockdown led to suppression of expression of E6 and E7 genes from HPV integrants in cervical carcinoma cell lines HeLa and SiHa. Conversely, expression of transiently transfected HPV18-LCR-Luciferase was not suppressed by BAF53 knockdown. The level of the active histone marks H3K9Ac and H4K12Ac on the P105 promoter of integrated HPV 18 was decreased in BAF53 knockdown cells. BAF53 knockdown restored the p53-dependent signaling pathway in HeLa and SiHa cells. These results suggest that activated expression of the E6 and E7 genes of integrated HPV is dependent on BAF53-dependent higher-order chromatin structure or nuclear motor activity.

  20. Velocity dispersions in galaxies. I - The E7 galaxy NGC 7332.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, D. C.; Chevalier, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    A coude spectrum of the E7 galaxy NGC 7332 with 0.9 A-resolution from 4186 to 4364 A was obtained with the Princeton SEC vidicon television camera and the Hale telescope. Comparisons with spectra of G and K giant stars, numerically broadened for various Maxwellian velocity distributions, give a dispersion velocity in the line of sight of 160 (plus or minus 20) km/sec with the best fit at G8 III. The dispersion appears to be constant within plus or minus 35 km/sec out to 1.4 kpc. After correction for projection, the rotation curve has a slope of 0.18 km/sec per pc at the center and a velocity of 130 km/sec at 1.4 kpc where it is still increasing. For an estimated effective radius of 3.5 kpc enclosing half the light, the virial theorem gives a mass of 140 billion solar masses if the mass-to-light ratio is constant throughout the galaxy.

  1. Characterization of the transport signals that mediate the nucleocytoplasmic traffic of low risk HPV11 E7.

    PubMed

    McKee, Courtney H; Onder, Zeynep; Ashok, Aditya; Cardoso, Rebeca; Moroianu, Junona

    2013-08-15

    We previously discovered that nuclear import of low risk HPV11 E7 is mediated by its zinc-binding domain via a pathway that is independent of karyopherins/importins (Piccioli et al., 2010. Virology 407, 100-109). In this study we mapped and characterized a leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES), 76IRQLQDLLL84, within the zinc-binding domain that mediates the nuclear export of HPV11 E7 in a CRM1-dependent manner. We also identified a mostly hydrophobic patch 65VRLVV69 within the zinc-binding domain that mediates nuclear import of HPV11 E7 via hydrophobic interactions with the FG-repeats domain of Nup62. Substitutions of hydrophobic residues to alanine within the 65VRLVV69 sequence disrupt the nuclear localization of 11E7, whereas the R66A mutation has no effect. Overall the data support a model of nuclear entry of HPV11 E7 protein via hydrophobic interactions with FG nucleoporins at the nuclear pore complex. PMID:23725695

  2. Characterization of the transport signals that mediate the nucleocytoplasmic traffic of low risk HPV11 E7

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Courtney H.; Onder, Zeynep; Ashok, Aditya; Cardoso, Rebeca; Moroianu, Junona

    2013-01-01

    We previously discovered that nuclear import of low risk HPV11 E7 is mediated by its zinc-binding domain via a pathway that is independent of karyopherins/importins (Piccioli et al., 2010. Virology 407, 100–109). In this study we mapped and characterized a leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES), 76IRQLQDLLL84, within the zinc-binding domain that mediates the nuclear export of HPV11 E7 in a CRM1-dependent manner. We also identified a mostly hydrophobic patch 65VRLVV69 within the zinc-binding domain that mediates nuclear import of HPV11 E7 via hydrophobic interactions with the FG-repeats domain of Nup62. Substitutions of hydrophobic residues to alanine within the 65VRLVV69 sequence disrupt the nuclear localization of 11E7, whereas the R66A mutation has no effect. Overall the data support a model of nuclear entry of HPV11 E7 protein via hydrophobic interactions with FG nucleoporins at the nuclear pore complex. PMID:23725695

  3. The E7 protein of the cottontail rabbit papillomavirus immortalizes normal rabbit keratinocytes and reduces pRb levels, while E6 cooperates in immortalization but neither degrades p53 nor binds E6AP

    SciTech Connect

    Ganzenmueller, Tina; Matthaei, Markus; Muench, Peter; Scheible, Michael; Iftner, Angelika; Hiller, Thomas; Leiprecht, Natalie; Probst, Sonja; Stubenrauch, Frank; Iftner, Thomas

    2008-03-15

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause cervical cancer and are associated with the development of non-melanoma skin cancer. A suitable animal model for papillomavirus-associated skin carcinogenesis is the infection of domestic rabbits with the cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV). As the immortalizing activity of CRPV genes in the natural target cells remains unknown, we investigated the properties of CRPV E6 and E7 in rabbit keratinocytes (RK) and their influence on the cell cycle. Interestingly, CRPV E7 immortalized RK after a cellular crisis but showed no such activity in human keratinocytes. Co-expressed CRPV E6 prevented cellular crisis. The HPV16 or CRPV E7 protein reduced rabbit pRb levels thereby causing rabbit p19{sup ARF} induction and accumulation of p53 without affecting cellular proliferation. Both CRPV E6 proteins failed to degrade rabbit p53 in vitro or to bind E6AP; however, p53 was still inducible by mitomycin C. In summary, CRPV E7 immortalizes rabbit keratinocytes in a species-specific manner and E6 contributes to immortalization without directly affecting p53.

  4. Discovery of a small-molecule binder of the oncoprotein gankyrin that modulates gankyrin activity in the cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Anasuya; O’Connor, Cornelius J.; Zhang, Fengzhi; Galvagnion, Celine; Galloway, Warren R. J. D.; Tan, Yaw Sing; Stokes, Jamie E.; Rahman, Taufiq; Verma, Chandra; Spring, David R.; Itzhaki, Laura S.

    2016-04-01

    Gankyrin is an ankyrin-repeat oncoprotein whose overexpression has been implicated in the development of many cancer types. Elevated gankyrin levels are linked to aberrant cellular events including enhanced degradation of tumour suppressor protein p53, and inhibition of gankyrin activity has therefore been identified as an attractive anticancer strategy. Gankyrin interacts with several partner proteins, and a number of these protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are of relevance to cancer. Thus, molecules that bind the PPI interface of gankyrin and interrupt these interactions are of considerable interest. Herein, we report the discovery of a small molecule termed cjoc42 that is capable of binding to gankyrin. Cell-based experiments demonstrate that cjoc42 can inhibit gankyrin activity in a dose-dependent manner: cjoc42 prevents the decrease in p53 protein levels normally associated with high amounts of gankyrin, and it restores p53-dependent transcription and sensitivity to DNA damage. The results represent the first evidence that gankyrin is a “druggable” target with small molecules.

  5. Discovery of a small-molecule binder of the oncoprotein gankyrin that modulates gankyrin activity in the cell.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Anasuya; O'Connor, Cornelius J; Zhang, Fengzhi; Galvagnion, Celine; Galloway, Warren R J D; Tan, Yaw Sing; Stokes, Jamie E; Rahman, Taufiq; Verma, Chandra; Spring, David R; Itzhaki, Laura S

    2016-01-01

    Gankyrin is an ankyrin-repeat oncoprotein whose overexpression has been implicated in the development of many cancer types. Elevated gankyrin levels are linked to aberrant cellular events including enhanced degradation of tumour suppressor protein p53, and inhibition of gankyrin activity has therefore been identified as an attractive anticancer strategy. Gankyrin interacts with several partner proteins, and a number of these protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are of relevance to cancer. Thus, molecules that bind the PPI interface of gankyrin and interrupt these interactions are of considerable interest. Herein, we report the discovery of a small molecule termed cjoc42 that is capable of binding to gankyrin. Cell-based experiments demonstrate that cjoc42 can inhibit gankyrin activity in a dose-dependent manner: cjoc42 prevents the decrease in p53 protein levels normally associated with high amounts of gankyrin, and it restores p53-dependent transcription and sensitivity to DNA damage. The results represent the first evidence that gankyrin is a "druggable" target with small molecules. PMID:27046077

  6. Altered nuclear co-factor switching in retinoic resistant variants of the PML-RARα oncoprotein of acute promyelocytic leukemia†

    PubMed Central

    Farris, Mindy; Lague, Astrid; Manuelyan, Zara; Statnekov, Jacob; Francklyn, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL) results from a reciprocal translocation that fuses the gene for the PML tumor suppressor to that encoding the retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARα). The resulting PML-RARα oncogene product interferes with multiple regulatory pathways associated with myeloid differentiation, including normal PML and RARα functions. The standard treatment for APL includes anthracycline-based chemotherapeutic agents plus the RARα agonist all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). Relapse, which is often accompanied by ATRA resistance, occurs in an appreciable frequency of treated patients. One potential mechanism suggested by model experiments featuring the selection of ATRA resistant APL cell lines involves ATRA resistant versions of the PML-RARα oncogene, where the relevant mutations localize to the RARα ligand-binding domain (LBD). Such mutations may act by compromising agonist binding, but other mechanisms are possible. Here, we studied the molecular consequence of ATRA resistance by use of circular dichroism, protease resistance, and fluorescence anisotropy assays employing peptides derived from the NCOR nuclear co-repressor and the ACTR nuclear co-activator. The consequences of the mutations on global structure and co-factor interaction functions were assessed quantitatively, providing insights into the basis of agonist resistance. Attenuated co-factor switching and increased protease resistance represent features of the LBDs of ATRA-resistant PML-RARα, and these properties may be recapitulated in the full-length oncoproteins. PMID:22228505

  7. Control of microtubule dynamics by oncoprotein 18: dissection of the regulatory role of multisite phosphorylation during mitosis.

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, N; Marklund, U; Gradin, H M; Brattsand, G; Gullberg, M

    1997-01-01

    Oncoprotein 18 (Op18; also termed p19, 19K, metablastin, stathmin, and prosolin) is a conserved protein that regulates microtubule (MT) dynamics. Op18 is multisite phosphorylated on four Ser residues during mitosis; two of these Ser residues, Ser-25 and Ser-38, are targets for cyclin-dependent protein kinases (CDKs), and the other two Ser residues, Ser-16 and Ser-63, are targets for an unidentified protein kinase. Mutations of the two CDK sites have recently been shown to result in a mitotic block caused by destabilization of MTs. To understand the role of Op18 in regulation of MT dynamics during mitosis, in this study we dissected the functions of all four phosphorylation sites of Op18 by combining genetic, morphological, and biochemical analyses. The data show that all four phosphorylation sites are involved in switching off Op18 activity during mitosis, an event that appears to be essential for formation of the spindle during metaphase. However, the mechanisms by which specific sites down-regulate Op18 activity differ. Hence, dual phosphorylation on the CDK sites Ser-25 and Ser-38 appears to be required for phosphorylation of Ser-16 and Ser-63; however, by themselves, the CDK sites are of only minor importance in direct regulation of Op18 activity. Subsequent phosphorylation of either Ser-16, Ser-63, or both efficiently switches off Op18 activity. PMID:9271428

  8. Oncogenic nexus of cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A): An oncoprotein with many hands

    PubMed Central

    De, Pradip; Carlson, Jennifer; Leyland-Jones, Brian; Dey, Nandini

    2014-01-01

    Oncoprotein CIP2A a Cancerous Inhibitor of PP2A forms an “oncogenic nexus” by virtue of its control on PP2A and MYC stabilization in cancer cells. The expression and prognostic function of CIP2A in different solid tumors including colorectal carcinoma, head & neck cancers, gastric cancers, lung carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, esophageal cancers, pancreatic carcinoma, brain cancers, breast carcinoma, bladder cancers, ovarian carcinoma, renal cell carcinomas, tongue cancers, cervical carcinoma, prostate cancers, and oral carcinoma as well as a number of hematological malignancies are just beginning to emerge. Herein, we reviewed the recent progress in our understanding of (1) how an “oncogenic nexus” of CIP2A participates in the tumorigenic transformation of cells and (2) how we can prospect/view the clinical relevance of CIP2A in the context of cancer therapy. The review will try to understand the role of CIP2A (a) as a biomarker in cancers and evaluate the prognostic value of CIP2A in different cancers (b) as a therapeutic target in cancers and (c) in drug response and developing chemo-resistance in cancers. PMID:25015035

  9. Discovery of a small-molecule binder of the oncoprotein gankyrin that modulates gankyrin activity in the cell

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Anasuya; O’Connor, Cornelius J.; Zhang, Fengzhi; Galvagnion, Celine; Galloway, Warren R. J. D.; Tan, Yaw Sing; Stokes, Jamie E.; Rahman, Taufiq; Verma, Chandra; Spring, David R.; Itzhaki, Laura S.

    2016-01-01

    Gankyrin is an ankyrin-repeat oncoprotein whose overexpression has been implicated in the development of many cancer types. Elevated gankyrin levels are linked to aberrant cellular events including enhanced degradation of tumour suppressor protein p53, and inhibition of gankyrin activity has therefore been identified as an attractive anticancer strategy. Gankyrin interacts with several partner proteins, and a number of these protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are of relevance to cancer. Thus, molecules that bind the PPI interface of gankyrin and interrupt these interactions are of considerable interest. Herein, we report the discovery of a small molecule termed cjoc42 that is capable of binding to gankyrin. Cell-based experiments demonstrate that cjoc42 can inhibit gankyrin activity in a dose-dependent manner: cjoc42 prevents the decrease in p53 protein levels normally associated with high amounts of gankyrin, and it restores p53-dependent transcription and sensitivity to DNA damage. The results represent the first evidence that gankyrin is a “druggable” target with small molecules. PMID:27046077

  10. Interplay Between Oncoproteins and Antioxidant Enzymes in Esophageal Carcinoma Treated Without and With Chemoradiotherapy: A Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Tranum; Gupta, Rajesh; Vaiphei, Kim; Kapoor, Rakesh; Gupta, N.M.; Khanduja, K.L.

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: To analyze p53, bcl-2, c-myc, and cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression changes and examine their relationship with various antioxidant enzymes in esophageal carcinoma patients. Methods and Materials: Patients in Group 1 underwent transhiatal esophagectomy and those in Group 2 were administered chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery after 4 weeks of neoadjuvant therapy. Results: The relationship analysis among the various protein markers and antioxidant enzymes showed an inverse correlation between bcl-2 and superoxide dismutase/catalase in tumor tissues, irrespective of the treatment arm followed. An important positive association was observed between bcl-2 and reduced glutathione levels in the tumor tissue of patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy. Another apoptosis-modulating marker, c-myc, in the tumor tissue of Group 2 patients showed similar pattern levels (high and low) as that of superoxide dismutase/catalase. The association of cyclooxygenase-2 and p53 with various antioxidant enzymes showed a significant positive correlation between cyclooxygenase-2 expression and catalase activity and an inverse trend between p53 expression and superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in the tumor tissue of patients given neoadjuvant therapy. In addition, patients with overexpressed p53 protein levels had lower glutathione peroxidase enzyme levels and vice versa in the tumor tissue of patients who had undergone surgery as their main mode of treatment. Conclusion: The results of this study broaden the insight into the relationships shared among oncoproteins and the antioxidant defense system, and this could be helpful in the clinical management of esophageal carcinoma.

  11. The oncoprotein HBXIP upregulates PDGFB via activating transcription factor Sp1 to promote the proliferation of breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yingyi; Zhao, Yu; Li, Leilei; Shen, Yu; Cai, Xiaoli; Zhang, Xiaodong; Ye, Lihong

    2013-05-03

    Highlights: •HBXIP is able to upregulate the expression of PDGFB in breast cancer cells. •HBXIP serves as a coactivator of activating transcription factor Sp1. •HBXIP stimulates the PDGFB promoter via activating transcription factor Sp1. •HBXIP promotes the proliferation of breast cancer cell via upregulating PDGFB. -- Abstract: We have reported that the oncoprotein hepatitis B virus X-interacting protein (HBXIP) acts as a novel transcriptional coactivator to promote proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells. Previously, we showed that HBXIP was able to activate nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in breast cancer cells. As an oncogene, the platelet-derived growth factor beta polypeptide (PDGFB) plays crucial roles in carcinogenesis. In the present study, we found that both HBXIP and PDGFB were highly expressed in breast cancer cell lines. Interestingly, HBXIP was able to increase transcriptional activity of NF-κB through PDGFB, suggesting that HBXIP is associated with PDGFB in the cells. Moreover, HBXIP was able to upregulate PDGFB at the levels of mRNA, protein and promoter in the cells. Then, we identified that HBXIP stimulated the promoter of PDGFB through activating transcription factor Sp1. In function, HBXIP enhanced the proliferation of breast cancer cells through PDGFB in vitro. Thus, we conclude that HBXIP upregulates PDGFB via activating transcription factor Sp1 to promote proliferation of breast cancer cells.

  12. A plant alkaloid, veratridine, potentiates cancer chemosensitivity by UBXN2A-dependent inhibition of an oncoprotein, mortalin-2

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Ammara; Sane, Sanam; Branick, Kate A.; Freeling, Jessica L.; Wang, Hongmin; Zhang, Dong; Rezvani, Khosrow

    2015-01-01

    Veratridine (VTD), an alkaloid derived from the Liliaceae plant shows anti-tumor effects; however, its molecular targets have not been thoroughly studied. Using a high-throughput drug screen, we found that VTD enhances transactivation of UBXN2A, resulting in upregulation of UBXN2A in the cytoplasm, where UBXN2A binds and inhibits the oncoprotein mortalin-2 (mot-2). VTD-treated cancer cells undergo cell death in UBXN2A- and mot-2-dependent manners. The cytotoxic function of VTD is grade-dependent, and the combined treatment with a sub-optimal dose of the standard chemotherapy, 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and etoposide, demonstrated a synergistic effect, resulting in higher therapeutic efficacy. VTD influences the CD44+ stem cells, possibly through UBXN2A-dependent inhibition of mot-2. The VTD-dependent expression of UBXN2A is a potential candidate for designing novel strategies for colon cancer treatment because: 1) In 50% of colon cancer patients, UBXN2A protein levels in tumor tissues are significantly lower than those in the adjacent normal tissues. 2) Cytoplasmic expression of the mot-2 protein is very low in non-cancerous cells; thus, VTD can produce tumor-specific toxicity while normal cells remain intact. 3) Finally, VTD or its modified analogs offer a valuable adjuvant chemotherapy strategy to improve the efficacy of 5-FU-based chemotherapy for colon cancer patients harboring WT-p53. PMID:26188124

  13. Identification of relevant conformational epitopes on the HER2 oncoprotein by using Large Fragment Phage Display (LFPD).

    PubMed

    Gabrielli, Federico; Salvi, Roberto; Garulli, Chiara; Kalogris, Cristina; Arima, Serena; Tardella, Luca; Monaci, Paolo; Pupa, Serenella M; Tagliabue, Elda; Montani, Maura; Quaglino, Elena; Stramucci, Lorenzo; Curcio, Claudia; Marchini, Cristina; Amici, Augusto

    2013-01-01

    We developed a new phage-display based approach, the Large Fragment Phage Display (LFPD), that can be used for mapping conformational epitopes on target molecules of immunological interest. LFPD uses a simplified and more effective phage-display approach in which only a limited set of larger fragments (about 100 aa in length) are expressed on the phage surface. Using the human HER2 oncoprotein as a target, we identified novel B-cell conformational epitopes. The same homologous epitopes were also detected in rat HER2 and all corresponded to the epitopes predicted by computational analysis (PEPITO software), showing that LFPD gives reproducible and accurate results. Interestingly, these newly identified HER2 epitopes seem to be crucial for an effective immune response against HER2-overexpressing breast cancers and might help discriminating between metastatic breast cancer and early breast cancer patients. Overall, the results obtained in this study demonstrated the utility of LFPD and its potential application to the detection of conformational epitopes on many other molecules of interest, as well as, the development of new and potentially more effective B-cell conformational epitopes based vaccines. PMID:23555577

  14. Identification of Relevant Conformational Epitopes on the HER2 Oncoprotein by Using Large Fragment Phage Display (LFPD)

    PubMed Central

    Gabrielli, Federico; Salvi, Roberto; Garulli, Chiara; Kalogris, Cristina; Arima, Serena; Tardella, Luca; Monaci, Paolo; Pupa, Serenella M.; Tagliabue, Elda; Montani, Maura; Quaglino, Elena; Stramucci, Lorenzo; Curcio, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    We developed a new phage-display based approach, the Large Fragment Phage Display (LFPD), that can be used for mapping conformational epitopes on target molecules of immunological interest. LFPD uses a simplified and more effective phage-display approach in which only a limited set of larger fragments (about 100 aa in length) are expressed on the phage surface. Using the human HER2 oncoprotein as a target, we identified novel B-cell conformational epitopes. The same homologous epitopes were also detected in rat HER2 and all corresponded to the epitopes predicted by computational analysis (PEPITO software), showing that LFPD gives reproducible and accurate results. Interestingly, these newly identified HER2 epitopes seem to be crucial for an effective immune response against HER2-overexpressing breast cancers and might help discriminating between metastatic breast cancer and early breast cancer patients. Overall, the results obtained in this study demonstrated the utility of LFPD and its potential application to the detection of conformational epitopes on many other molecules of interest, as well as, the development of new and potentially more effective B-cell conformational epitopes based vaccines. PMID:23555577

  15. On section conditions of E 7(+7) exceptional field theory and superparticle in N=8 central charge superspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandos, Igor

    2016-01-01

    We study the properties of section conditions of the E 7(+7) exceptional field theory from the perspective of superparticle model in N=8 D = 4 superspace enlarged by additional bosonic coordinates related to the central charge of the maximal supersymmetry superalgebra. In particular, the superparticle model suggests that only a part of the section conditions corresponding to generators of SU(8) subgroup of E 7(+7) is independent, and we show that this part indeed suffices to obtain the (classical counterpart of the) general solution of the strong section condition.

  16. The heme iron coordination complex in His64(E7)Tyr recombinant sperm whale myoglobin.

    PubMed

    Pin, S; Alpert, B; Cortès, R; Ascone, I; Chiu, M L; Sligar, S G

    1994-09-27

    By using site-directed mutagenesis of recombinant sperm whale (SW) myoglobin, the native distal histidine residue, at position 64 (the helical position E7), has been replaced with a tyrosine. The mutation of His64Tyr SW myoglobin has an analogous heme iron electronic structure as that of native hemoglobins M Boston and M Saskatoon. Optical spectroscopy showed that the distal tyrosine bound to the heme iron had a pK value of 5.6. In the pH range of 4.7-11.0, electron spin resonance spectroscopy suggested the presence of two heme iron ligation schemes: the heme iron bound to a distal water molecule or to a distal tyrosine residue. The heme iron coordination in the wild-type myoglobin and in the His64Tyr SW Mb mutant was studied by X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. Indeed, the heme iron K-edge reflects the electronic organization of the metal inside the six-coordinated complex. Comparative analysis of X-ray absorption heme iron K-edge shapes showed that the heme iron of His64Tyr SW myoglobin is bound to the oxygen atom from the phenol group of the distal tyrosine residue (Fe-OH phi). When the pH value decreased from pH 7 to 5.6, the Fe-OH phi bond strength decreased, resulting in an increase of the heme iron high-spin population of His64Tyr SW myoglobin. At low pH values, the Fe-OH phi bond can be disrupted with the possibility of heme iron binding of another ligand having a higher affinity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7918375

  17. The nuclear localization of low risk HPV11 E7 protein mediated by its zinc binding domain is independent of nuclear import receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Piccioli, Zachary; McKee, Courtney H.; Leszczynski, Anna; Onder, Zeynep; Hannah, Erin C.; Mamoor, Shahan; Crosby, Lauren; Moroianu, Junona

    2010-11-10

    We investigated the nuclear import of low risk HPV11 E7 protein using 1) transfection assays in HeLa cells with EGFP fusion plasmids containing 11E7 and its domains and 2) nuclear import assays in digitonin-permeabilized HeLa cells with GST fusion proteins containing 11E7 and its domains. The EGFP-11E7 and EGFP-11cE7{sub 39-98} localized mostly to the nucleus. The GST-11E7 and GST-11cE7{sub 39-98} were imported into the nuclei in the presence of either Ran-GDP or RanG19V-GTP mutant and in the absence of nuclear import receptors. This suggests that 11E7 enters the nucleus via a Ran-dependent pathway, independent of nuclear import receptors, mediated by a nuclear localization signal located in its C-terminal domain (cNLS). This cNLS contains the zinc binding domain consisting of two copies of Cys-X-X-Cys motif. Mutagenesis of Cys residues in these motifs changed the localization of the EGFP-11cE7/-11E7 mutants to cytoplasmic, suggesting that the zinc binding domain is essential for nuclear localization of 11E7.

  18. Interaction of Marek's Disease Virus (MDV) Oncoprotein Meq with Host Proteins: A Proteomic Approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s Disease is a T cell lymphoma disease of chicken induced by an oncogenic, cell associated alpha herpes virus. Oncogenicity in the Marek’s disease is mostly attributed to a transcription factor termed as Meq. To understand the mechanisms of oncogenicity of Meq, it is necessary to understand it...

  19. The human papillomavirus18 E7 protein inhibits CENP-C binding to α-satellite DNA.

    PubMed

    Yaginuma, Yuji; Yoshimoto, Masafumi; Eguchi, Ayami; Tokuda, Aoi; Takahashi, Shoko

    2015-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection leads to aneuploidy, a numerical chromosomal aberration that is caused by dysregulation of chromosomal segregation. We previously found that the E7 proteins of high-risk HPVs, but not of low-risk HPVs, could bind to centromere protein-C (CENP-C). In this study, we first found that CENP-C could bind centromere α-satellite DNAs using ChIP analysis and HA-tagged CENP-C/nuc transfected 293T cells. We then investigated if HA-CENP-C/nuc binding to α-satellite DNAs was affected by the E7 proteins of high- or low-risk HPVs. We found that transfection of the FLAG tagged HPV18 E7 inhibited the binding of HA-CENP-C/nuc to α-satellite DNAs. This finding was confirmed in HeLa S3 cells transfected with siRNA targeted to HPV18 E7 expression. We therefore speculate that altered function of kinetochores as a result of inhibition of CENP-C and α-satellite DNAs binding may be associated with the chromosomal abnormalities observed in HPV18-positive cancers. PMID:25997930

  20. Cleavage of HPV-16 E6/E7 mRNA mediated by modified 10-23 deoxyribozymes.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Gutiérrez, Pablo; Alvarez-Salas, Luis M

    2009-09-01

    Deoxyribozymes (DXZs) are small oligodeoxynucleotides capable of mediating phosphodiester bond cleavage of a target RNA in a sequence-specific manner. These molecules are a new generation of artificial catalytic nucleic acids currently used to silence many disease-related genes. The present study describes a DXZ (Dz1023-434) directed against the polycistronic mRNA from the E6 and E7 genes of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16), the main etiological agent of cervical cancer. Dz1023-434 showed efficient cleavage against a bona fide antisense window at nt 410-445 within HPV-16 E6/E7 mRNA even in low [Mg(2+)] conditions. Using a genetic analysis as guidance, we introduced diverse chemical modifications within Dz1023-434 catalytic core to produce a stable locked nucleic acid (LNA)-modified DXZ (Dz434-LNA) with significant cleavage activity of full E6/E7 transcripts. Cell culture testing of Dz434-LNA produced a sharp decrement of E6/E7 mRNA levels in HPV-16-positive cells resulting in decreased proliferation and considerable cell death in a specific and dose-dependent manner. No significant effects were observed with inactive or scrambled control DXZs nor from using HPV-negative cells, suggesting catalysis-dependent effect and high specificity. The biological effects of Dz434-LNA suggest a potential use for the treatment of cervical cancer. PMID:19732021

  1. Langerhans Cell Homeostasis and Activation Is Altered in Hyperplastic Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E7 Expressing Epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Abd Warif, Nor Malia; Stoitzner, Patrizia; Leggatt, Graham R.; Mattarollo, Stephen R.; Frazer, Ian H.; Hibma, Merilyn H.

    2015-01-01

    It has previously been shown that expression of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV) E7 in epidermis causes hyperplasia and chronic inflammation, characteristics of pre-malignant lesions. Importantly, E7-expressing epidermis is strongly immune suppressed and is not rejected when transplanted onto immune competent mice. Professional antigen presenting cells are considered essential for initiation of the adaptive immune response that results in graft rejection. Langerhans cells (LC) are the only antigen presenting cells located in normal epidermis and altered phenotype and function of these cells may contribute to the immune suppressive microenvironment. Here, we show that LC are atypically activated as a direct result of E7 expression in the epidermis, and independent of the presence of lymphocytes. The number of LC was significantly increased and the LC are functionally impaired, both in migration and in antigen uptake. However when the LC were extracted from K14E7 skin and matured in vitro they were functionally competent to present and cross-present antigen, and to activate T cells. The ability of the LC to present and cross-present antigen following maturation supports retention of full functional capacity when removed from the hyperplastic skin microenvironment. As such, opportunities are afforded for the development of therapies to restore normal LC function in hyperplastic skin. PMID:25992642

  2. Immunohistochemical co-expression of c-erbb-2/Neu oncoprotein, altered tumour suppressor (p53) protein, EGF-R and EMA in histological subtypes of infiltrating duct carcinoma of the breast.

    PubMed

    Sharma, B K; Ray, A; Kaur, S; Gupta, S

    1999-03-01

    Carcinoma of the breast has an unpredictable biological behaviour. Several oncogenes have been implicated in the progression of breast cancer. Immunohistochemical staining of c-erbB-2 (Neu) oncoprotein and mutant p53 protein on 45 cases of infiltrating duct carcinoma (IDC) of the breast revealed 33% membrane positivity of c-erbB-2 oncoprotein, 46% nuclear positivity of mutated p53 protein, 33% and 84% membrane positivity of EGF-R and EMA respectively. Staining profile of c-erb-B2 oncoprotein in various histological subtypes of IDC of the breast indicated a high positivity rate in comedo followed by NOS and cibriform subtype. Similarly, high incidence of immunopositivity of mutated p53 protein was observed in comedo and cibriform subtypes while papillary carcinoma were found exclusively positive for mutated p53 protein. Interestingly, tubular subtype of IDC was not positive for c-erbB-2 oncoprotein as well as p53 mutant protein. Further, comedo and cibriform subtypes of IDC revealed 'high grade' histological features of tumour of the breast with high mitotic count, presence of marked pleomorphism and multinucleation thus, reflecting a positive relationship with overexpression of c-erbB-2 (Neu) oncoprotein as well as mutant p53 protein. The results on immunoexpression of c-erbB-2 oncoprotein and mutated p53 protein in various histological subtypes of IDC of the breast demonstrated c-erbB-2 status as an important predictor and also indicated that oncogene product may be involved in growth factor response pathway. PMID:10641149

  3. Recombinant adeno-associated virus expressing human papillomavirus type 16 E7 peptide DNA fused with heat shock protein DNA as a potential vaccine for cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, D W; Tsao, Y P; Kung, J T; Ding, Y A; Sytwu, H K; Xiao, X; Chen, S L

    2000-03-01

    In this study, we explore a potential vaccine for human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced tumors, using heat shock protein as an adjuvant, a peptide vaccine for safety, and adeno-associated virus (AAV) as a gene delivery vector. The tumor vaccine was devised by constructing a chimeric gene which contained HPV type 16 E7 cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitope DNA (M. C. Feltkamp, H. L. Smits, M. P. Vierboom, R. P. Minnaar, B. M. de Jongh, J. W. Drijfhout, J. ter Schegget, C. J. Melief, and W. M. Kast, Eur. J. Immunol. 23:2242-2249, 1993) fused with the heat shock protein gene as a tumor vaccine delivered via AAV. Our results demonstrate that this vaccine can eliminate tumor cells in syngeneic animals and induce CD4- and CD8-dependent CTL activity in vitro. Moreover, studies with knockout mice with distinct T-cell deficiencies confirm that CTL-induced tumor protection is CD4 and CD8 dependent. Taken together, the evidence indicates that this chimeric gene delivered by AAV has potential as a cervical cancer vaccine. PMID:10684306

  4. Acetylation at lysine 346 controls the transforming activity of the HTLV-1 Tax oncoprotein in the Rat-1 fibroblast model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Transformation by the Tax oncoprotein of the human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is governed by actions on cellular regulatory signals, including modulation of specific cellular gene expression via activation of signaling pathways, acceleration of cell cycle progression via stimulation of cyclin-dependent kinase activity leading to retinoblastoma protein (pRb) hyperphosphorylation and perturbation of survival signals. These actions control early steps in T cell transformation and development of Adult T cell leukemia (ATL), an aggressive malignancy of HTLV-1 infected T lymphocytes. Post-translational modifications of Tax by phosphorylation, ubiquitination, sumoylation and acetylation have been implicated in Tax-mediated activation of the NF-?B pathway, a key function associated with Tax transforming potential. Results In this study, we demonstrate that acetylation at lysine K346 in the carboxy-terminal domain of Tax is modulated in the Tax nuclear bodies by the acetyltransferase p300 and the deacetylases HDAC5/7 and controls phosphorylation of the tumor suppressor pRb by Tax-cyclin D3-CDK4-p21CIP complexes. This property correlates with the inability of the acetylation deficient K346R mutant, but not the acetylation mimetic K346Q mutant, to promote anchorage-independent growth of Rat-1 fibroblasts. By contrast, acetylation at lysine K346 had no effects on the ability of Tax carboxy-terminal PDZ-binding domain to interact with the tumor suppressor hDLG. Conclusions The identification of the acetyltransferase p300 and the deacetylase HDAC7 as enzymes modulating Tax acetylation points to new therapeutic targets for the treatment of HTLV-1 infected patients at risk of developing ATL. PMID:23880157

  5. TARGETING THE MUC1-C ONCOPROTEIN DOWNREGULATES HER2 ACTIVATION AND ABROGATES TRASTUZUMAB RESISTANCE IN BREAST CANCER CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Raina, Deepak; Uchida, Yasumitsu; Kharbanda, Akriti; Rajabi, Hasan; Panchamoorthy, Govind; Jin, Caining; Kharbanda, Surender; Scaltriti, Maurizio; Baselga, Jose; Kufe, Donald

    2014-01-01

    Patients with HER2 positive breast cancer often exhibit intrinsic or acquired resistance to trastuzumab treatment. The transmembrane MUC1-C oncoprotein is aberrantly overexpressed in breast cancer cells and associates with HER2. The present studies demonstrate that silencing MUC1-C in HER2-overexpressing SKBR3 and BT474 breast cancer cells results in downregulation of constitutive HER2 activation. Moreover, treatment with the MUC1-C inhibitor, GO-203, was associated with disruption of MUC1-C/HER2 complexes and decreases in tyrosine phosphorylated HER2 (p-HER2) levels. In studies of trastuzumab-resistant SKBR3R and BT474R cells, we found that the association between MUC1-C and HER2 is markedly increased (~20-fold) as compared to that in sensitive cells. Additionally, silencing MUC1-C in the trastuzumab-resistant cells or treatment with GO-203 decreased p-HER2 and AKT activation. Moreover, targeting MUC1-C was associated with downregulation of phospho-p27 and cyclin E, which confer trastuzumab resistance. Consistent with these results, targeting MUC1-C inhibited the growth and clonogenic survival of both trastuzumab-resistant cells. Our results further demonstrate that silencing MUC1-C reverses resistance to trastuzumab and that the combination of GO-203 and trastuzumab is highly synergistic. These findings indicate that MUC1-C contributes to constitutive activation of the HER2 pathway and that targeting MUC1-C represents a potential approach to abrogate trastuzumab resistance. PMID:23912457

  6. Oncogenic HPV infection interrupts the expression of tumor-suppressive miR-34a through viral oncoprotein E6.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohong; Wang, Hsu-Kun; McCoy, J Philip; Banerjee, Nilam S; Rader, Janet S; Broker, Thomas R; Meyers, Craig; Chow, Louise T; Zheng, Zhi-Ming

    2009-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) play pivotal roles in controlling cell proliferation and differentiation. Aberrant miRNA expression in human is becoming recognized as a new molecular mechanism of carcinogenesis. However, the causes for alterations in miRNA expression remain largely unknown. Infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus types 16 (HPV16) and 18 (HPV18) can lead to cervical and other ano-genital cancers. Here, we have demonstrated that cervical cancer tissues and cervical cancer-derived cell lines containing oncogenic HPVs display reduced expression of tumor-suppressive miR-34a. The reduction of miR-34a expression in organotypic tissues derived from HPV-containing primary human keratinocytes correlates with the early productive phase and is attributed to the expression of viral E6, which destabilizes the tumor suppressor p53, a known miR-34a transactivator. Knockdown of viral E6 expression in HPV16(+) and HPV18(+) cervical cancer cell lines by siRNAs leads to an increased expression of p53 and miR-34a and accumulation of miR-34a in G(0)/G(1) phase cells. Ectopic expression of miR-34a in HPV18(+) HeLa cells and HPV(-) HCT116 cells results in a substantial induction of cell growth retardation and a moderate cell apoptosis. Together, this is the first time a viral oncoprotein has been shown to regulate cellular miRNA expression. Our data have provided new insights into mechanisms by which high-risk HPVs contribute to the development of cervical cancer. PMID:19258450

  7. Oncogenic HPV infection interrupts the expression of tumor-suppressive miR-34a through viral oncoprotein E6

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaohong; Wang, Hsu-Kun; McCoy, J. Philip; Banerjee, Nilam S.; Rader, Janet S.; Broker, Thomas R.; Meyers, Craig; Chow, Louise T.; Zheng, Zhi-Ming

    2009-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) play pivotal roles in controlling cell proliferation and differentiation. Aberrant miRNA expression in human is becoming recognized as a new molecular mechanism of carcinogenesis. However, the causes for alterations in miRNA expression remain largely unknown. Infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus types 16 (HPV16) and 18 (HPV18) can lead to cervical and other ano-genital cancers. Here, we have demonstrated that cervical cancer tissues and cervical cancer-derived cell lines containing oncogenic HPVs display reduced expression of tumor-suppressive miR-34a. The reduction of miR-34a expression in organotypic tissues derived from HPV-containing primary human keratinocytes correlates with the early productive phase and is attributed to the expression of viral E6, which destabilizes the tumor suppressor p53, a known miR-34a transactivator. Knockdown of viral E6 expression in HPV16+ and HPV18+ cervical cancer cell lines by siRNAs leads to an increased expression of p53 and miR-34a and accumulation of miR-34a in G0/G1 phase cells. Ectopic expression of miR-34a in HPV18+ HeLa cells and HPV? HCT116 cells results in a substantial induction of cell growth retardation and a moderate cell apoptosis. Together, this is the first time a viral oncoprotein has been shown to regulate cellular miRNA expression. Our data have provided new insights into mechanisms by which high-risk HPVs contribute to the development of cervical cancer. PMID:19258450

  8. Identification of target genes of synovial sarcoma-associated fusion oncoprotein using human pluripotent stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hayakawa, Kazuo; Department of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, Kyoto; Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya ; Ikeya, Makoto; Fukuta, Makoto; Department of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, Kyoto; Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya ; Woltjen, Knut; Tamaki, Sakura; Takahara, Naoko; Kato, Tomohisa; Sato, Shingo; Otsuka, Takanobu; Toguchida, Junya; Department of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, Kyoto; Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► We tried to identify targets of synovial sarcoma (SS)-associated SYT–SSX fusion gene. ► We established pluripotent stem cell (PSC) lines with inducible SYT–SSX gene. ► SYT–SSX responsive genes were identified by the induction of SYT–SSX in PSC. ► SS-related genes were selected from database by in silico analyses. ► 51 genes were finally identified among SS-related genes as targets of SYT–SSX in PSC. -- Abstract: Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a malignant soft tissue tumor harboring chromosomal translocation t(X; 18)(p11.2; q11.2), which produces SS-specific fusion gene, SYT–SSX. Although precise function of SYT–SSX remains to be investigated, accumulating evidences suggest its role in gene regulation via epigenetic mechanisms, and the product of SYT–SSX target genes may serve as biomarkers of SS. Lack of knowledge about the cell-of-origin of SS, however, has placed obstacle in the way of target identification. Here we report a novel approach to identify SYT–SSX2 target genes using human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) containing a doxycycline-inducible SYT–SSX2 gene. SYT–SSX2 was efficiently induced both at mRNA and protein levels within three hours after doxycycline administration, while no morphological change of hPSCs was observed until 24 h. Serial microarray analyses identified genes of which the expression level changed more than twofold within 24 h. Surprisingly, the majority (297/312, 95.2%) were up-regulated genes and a result inconsistent with the current concept of SYT–SSX as a transcriptional repressor. Comparing these genes with SS-related genes which were selected by a series of in silico analyses, 49 and 2 genes were finally identified as candidates of up- and down-regulated target of SYT–SSX, respectively. Association of these genes with SYT–SSX in SS cells was confirmed by knockdown experiments. Expression profiles of SS-related genes in hPSCs and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were strikingly different in response to the induction of SYT–SSX, and more than half of SYT–SSX target genes in hPSCs were not induced in hMSCs. These results suggest the importance of cellular context for correct understanding of SYT–SSX function, and demonstrated how our new system will help to overcome this issue.

  9. c-Myc Oncoprotein: A Dual Pathogenic Role in Neoplasia and Cardiovascular Diseases?

    PubMed Central

    Napoli, Claudio; Lerman, Lilach O; de Nigris, Filomena; Sica, Vincenzo

    2002-01-01

    Abstract A growing body of evidence indicates that c-Myc can play a pivotal role both in neoplasia and cardiovascular diseases. Indeed, alterations of the basal machinery of the cell and perturbations of c-Myc-dependent signaling network are involved in the pathogenesis of certain cardiovascular disorders. Down-regulation of c-Myc induced by intervention with antioxidants or by antisense technology may protect the integrity of the arterial wall as well as neoplastic tissues. Further intervention studies are necessary to investigate the effects of tissue-specific block of c-Myc overexpression in the development of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:11988837

  10. c-Jun associates with the oncoprotein Ski and suppresses Smad2 transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Pessah, Marcia; Marais, Jacqueline; Prunier, Celine; Ferrand, Nathalie; Lallemand, Francois; Mauviel, Alain; Atfi, Azeddine

    2002-08-01

    The Smad proteins are key intracellular effectors of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) cytokines. The ability of Smads to modulate transcription results from a functional cooperativity with the coactivators p300/cAMP-response element-binding protein-binding protein (CBP), or the corepressors TGIF and Ski. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway, another downstream target activated by TGF-beta receptors, has also been suggested to inhibit TGF-beta signaling through interaction of c-Jun with Smad2 and Smad3. Here we show that c-Jun directly interacts with Ski to enhance the association of Ski with Smad2 in the basal state. Interestingly, TGF-beta signaling induces dissociation of c-Jun from Ski, thereby relieving active repression by c-Jun. Moreover, activation of JNK pathway suppressed the ability of TGF-beta to induce dissociation of c-Jun from ski. Thus, the formation of a c-Jun/Ski complex maintains the repressed state of Smad2-responsive genes in the absence of ligand and participates in negative feedback regulation of TGF-beta signaling by the JNK cascade. PMID:12034730

  11. Regulator role of HPV E7 protein on miR-21 expression in cervical carcinoma cells and its functional implication

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Qingqin; Wang, Wenfeng; Li, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second leading malignant tumor in women. Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) is one risk factor for cervical cancer, with its expressed E7 protein can facilitate the transformation of cervical epithelial cells. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is one important tumor growth regulatory factor involving in angiogenesis, tumor invasion and metastasis. This study thus aimed to investigate the role of high-risk HPV16 E7 protein in regulating miR-21 expression in cervical carcinoma and its related functions. Hela cells were transfected with pcDNA-HPV16 E7 expressing vectors. The expression level of E7 was determined by Western blotting, while miR-21 level was quantified by real-time PCR. The alternation of tumor cell proliferation is determined by transfecting miR-21 inhibitor into E7-overexpressing Hela cells. Cell apoptosis was studied by caspase-3 assay, while cell invasion was illustrated in Transwell chamber. The overexpression of HPV E7 protein facilitated the expression of miR-21, which potentiated Hela cell proliferation and invasion. The inhibition of miR-21 in E7-overexpressin Hela cells can inhibit both proliferation and invasion, but without significant effects on caspase-3 activity. HPV16 E7 protein can up-regulate host miR-21 expression, thus elevating cervical carcinoma cell growth, proliferation and invasion. Therefore, E7 protein is one critical factor in occurrence and progression of cervical carcinoma. PMID:26884851

  12. Genetic variability in E6, E7, and L1 genes of human papillomavirus genotype 52 from Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiwen; Cao, Man; Wang, Mengting; Ding, Xianping; Jing, Yaling; Chen, Zuyi; Ma, Tengjiao; Chen, Honghan

    2016-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the major causative agent of cervical cancer, which accounts for the second highest cancer burden in women worldwide. HPV-52, the prevalent subtype in Asia, especially in southwest China, was analyzed in this study. To analyze polymorphisms, intratypic variants, and genetic variability in the E6-E7 (n=26) and L1 (n=53) genes of HPV-52, these genes were sequenced and the sequences were submitted to GenBank. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using the neighbor-joining and Kimura 2-parameters methods, followed by analysis of the diversity of secondary structure. Finally, we estimated the selection pressures acting on the E6-E7 and L1 genes. Fifty-one novel variants of HPV-52 L1, and two novel variants of HPV-52 E6-E7 were identified in this study. Thirty single nucleotide changes were observed in HPV-52 E6-E7 sequences with 19/30 non-synonymous mutations and 11/30 synonymous mutations (five in the alpha helix and five in the beta sheet). Fifty-five single nucleotide changes were observed in HPV-52 L1 sequences with 17/55 non-synonymous mutations (seven in the alpha helix and fourteen in the beta sheet) and 38/55 synonymous mutations. Selective pressure analysis predicted that most of these mutations reflect positive selection. Identifying new variants in HPV-52 may inform the rational design of new vaccines specifically for women in southwest China. Knowledge of genetic variation in HPV may be useful as an epidemiologic correlate of cervical cancer risk, or may even provide critical information for developing diagnostic probes. PMID:26968892

  13. The oncoprotein HBXIP up-regulates FGF4 through activating transcriptional factor Sp1 to promote the migration of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hui; Li, Yinghui; Feng, Guoxing; Li, Leilei; Fang, Runping; Wang, Zhen; Qu, Jie; Ding, Peijian; Zhang, Xiaodong; Ye, Lihong

    2016-02-26

    We have reported that the oncoprotein hepatitis B X-interacting protein (HBXIP) is able to promote migration of breast cancer cells. Fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4) is a multipotent growth factor and is highly expressed in various human cancers. However, the regulatory mechanism of FGF4 in breast cancer remains poorly understood. In the present study, we report that HBXIP is able to up-regulate FGF4 to enhance the migration of breast cancer cells. Immunohistochemistry staining showed that HBXIP and FGF4 were highly expressed in clinical metastatic lymph nodes of breast tumor. The expression levels of HBXIP were positively related to those of FGF4 in clinical breast cancer tissues. Then, we validated that HBXIP up-regulated the expression of FGF4 at the levels of promoter, mRNA and protein by luciferase reporter gene assays, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Moreover, we found that HBXIP was able to activate FGF4 promoter through transcriptional factor Sp1 by luciferase reporter gene assays. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed that HBXIP coactivated Sp1 to stimulate FGF4 promoter. In function, we showed that HBXIP promoted breast cancer cell migration through FGF4 by wound healing and transwell cell migration assays. Thus, we conclude that the oncoprotein HBXIP up-regulates FGF4 through activating transcriptional factor Sp1 to promote the migration of breast cancer cells. Therapeutically, HBXIP may serve as a novel target in breast cancer. PMID:26828265

  14. Detection of JC virus DNA sequence and expression of the viral oncoprotein, tumor antigen, in brain of immunocompetent patient with oligoastrocytoma.

    PubMed Central

    Rencic, A; Gordon, J; Otte, J; Curtis, M; Kovatich, A; Zoltick, P; Khalili, K; Andrews, D

    1996-01-01

    We describe molecular and clinical findings in an immunocompetent patient with an oligoastrocytoma and the concomitant presence of the human papovavirus, JC virus (JCV), which is the etiologic agent of the subacute, debilitating demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Histologic review revealed a glial neoplasm consisting primarily of a moderately cellular oligodendroglioma with distinct areas of a fibrillary astrocytoma. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed nuclear staining of tumor cells with antibodies against the viral oncoprotein [tumor antigen (T antigen)], the proliferation marker (Ki67), and the cellular proliferation regulator (p53). Using primers specific to the JCV control region, PCR yielded amplified DNA that was identical to the control region of the Mad-4 strain of the virus. PCR analysis demonstrated the presence of the genome for the viral oncoprotein, T antigen, and results from primer extension studies revealed synthesis of the viral early RNA for T antigen in the tumor tissues. The presence of viral T antigen in the tumor tissue was further demonstrated by immunoblot assay. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of JCV DNA, RNA, and T antigen in tissue in which viral T antigen is localized to tumor cell nuclei and suggests the possible association of JCV with some glial neoplasms. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8692997

  15. Primary human cervical carcinoma cells require human papillomavirus E6 and E7 expression for ongoing proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Magaldi, Thomas G.; Almstead, Laura L.; Bellone, Stefania; Prevatt, Edward G.; Santin, Alessandro D.; Yale Comprehensive Cancer Center, P.O. Box 208028, New Haven, CT 06520-8028 ; DiMaio, Daniel; Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, P.O. Box 208040, New Haven, CT 06520-8040; Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale School of Medicine, P.O. Box 208024; Yale Comprehensive Cancer Center, P.O. Box 208028, New Haven, CT 06520-8028

    2012-01-05

    Repression of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncogenes in established cervical carcinoma cell lines causes senescence due to reactivation of cellular tumor suppressor pathways. Here, we determined whether ongoing expression of HPV16 or HPV18 oncogenes is required for the proliferation of primary human cervical carcinoma cells in serum-free conditions at low passage number after isolation from patients. We used an SV40 viral vector expressing the bovine papillomavirus E2 protein to repress E6 and E7 in these cells. To enable efficient SV40 infection and E2 gene delivery, we first incubated the primary cervical cancer cells with the ganglioside GM1, a cell-surface receptor for SV40 that is limiting in these cells. Repression of HPV in primary cervical carcinoma cells caused them to undergo senescence, but the E2 protein had little effect on HPV-negative primary cells. These data suggest that E6 and E7 dependence is an inherent property of human cervical cancer cells.

  16. HPV16-E7 Expression Causes Fluorodeoxyuridine-mediated Radiosensitization in SW620 Human Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Axelson, Michael D; Davis, Mary A; Ethier, Stephen P; Lawrence, Theodore S

    1999-01-01

    Abstract We have reported that HT29 colon cancer cells, which are radiosensitized by fluorodeoxyuridine (FdUrd), exhibit a greater increase in cyclin E-dependent kinase activity and progress further into S phase in the presence of FdUrd than do SW620 colon cancer cells, which are only minimally sensitized by this drug (Cancer Res 56: 3203, 1996). Although these findings suggested that the ability to progress into S phase in the presence of FdUrd permits cells to be radiosensitized, we wished to test this hypothesis by attempting to drive SW620 human colon cells into S phase by transducing them with the HPV16-E7 gene. Two-parameter flow cytometry showed that E7-transduced cells progressed through S phase after radiation and FdUrd treatment more rapidly than SW620 parental cells. We found that E7-transduced SW620 cells were significantly radiosensitized by FdUrd (100 nmol/L, 14 hours) with an enhancement ratio for 2 clones of 1.47±0.03 and 1.51±0.14, compared with 1.24±0.04 in SW620 parental cells. These data strongly support the hypothesis that dysregulation of S-phase progression is an important factor in FdUrd-mediated radiosensitization. PMID:10933053

  17. MUC1-C Oncoprotein Promotes STAT3 Activation in an Autoinductive Regulatory Loop

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Rehan; Rajabi, Hasan; Kosugi, Michio; Joshi, Maya Datt; Alam, Maroof; Vasir, Baldev; Kawano, Takeshi; Kharbanda, Surender; Kufe, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is activated in human breast cancer and other malignancies. Mucin 1 (MUC1) is a heterodimeric cell surface glycoprotein that is overexpressed in human carcinomas and, like STAT3, promotes cell survival and induces transformation. Here, we showed that in breast cancer cells, the MUC1 carboxyl-terminal receptor subunit (MUC1-C) associated with the gp130Janus-activated kinase 1 (JAK1)STAT3 complex. The MUC1-C cytoplasmic domain interacted directly with JAK1 and STAT3, and MUC1-C was necessary for JAK1-mediated STAT3 activation. In turn, MUC1-C and activated STAT3 occupied the promoter of MUC1, and MUC1-C contributed to STAT3-mediated activation of MUC1 transcription. The MUC1-C inhibitor GO-201 blocked the MUC1-C interaction with STAT3, thereby decreasing MUC1-C and STAT3 occupancy on the MUC1 and STAT3 promoters and activation of STAT3 target genes, including MUC1 itself. These findings indicate that MUC1-C promotes STAT3 activation and that MUC1-C and STAT3 function in an autoinductive lopp that may play a role in cancer cell survival. PMID:21325207

  18. BCR-ABL1 promotes leukemia by converting p27 into a cytoplasmic oncoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Ryan J.; Besson, Arnaud; Jeng, Sophia; Carey, Alyssa; LaTocha, Dorian H.; Fleischman, Angela G.; Duquesnes, Nicolas; Eide, Christopher A.; Vasudevan, Kavin B.; Loriaux, Marc M.; Firpo, Eduardo; Cortes, Jorge E.; McWeeney, Shannon; O’Hare, Thomas; Roberts, James M.; Druker, Brian J.; Deininger, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that p27, a nuclear cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor and tumor suppressor, can acquire oncogenic activities upon mislocalization to the cytoplasm. To understand how these antagonistic activities influence oncogenesis, we dissected the nuclear and cytoplasmic functions of p27 in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), a well-characterized malignancy caused by the BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase. p27 is predominantly cytoplasmic in CML and nuclear in normal cells. BCR-ABL1 regulates nuclear and cytoplasmic p27 abundance by kinase-dependent and -independent mechanisms, respectively. p27 knockdown in CML cell lines with predominantly cytoplasmic p27 induces apoptosis, consistent with a leukemogenic role of cytoplasmic p27. Accordingly, a p27 mutant (p27CK−) devoid of Cdk inhibitory nuclear functions enhances leukemogenesis in a murine CML model compared with complete absence of p27. In contrast, p27 mutations that enhance its stability (p27T187A) or nuclear retention (p27S10A) attenuate leukemogenesis over wild-type p27, validating the tumor-suppressor function of nuclear p27 in CML. We conclude that BCR-ABL1 kinase-dependent and -independent mechanisms convert p27 from a nuclear tumor suppressor to a cytoplasmic oncogene. These findings suggest that cytoplasmic mislocalization of p27 despite BCR-ABL1 inhibition by tyrosine kinase inhibitors may contribute to drug resistance, and effective therapeutic strategies to stabilize nuclear p27 must also prevent cytoplasmic mislocalization. PMID:25293778

  19. Systemic delivery of siRNA by actively targeted polyion complex micelles for silencing the E6 and E7 human papillomavirus oncogenes.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Haruka; Matsumoto, Yoko; Kawana, Kei; Christie, R James; Naito, Mitsuru; Kim, Beob Soo; Toh, Kazuko; Min, Hyun Su; Yi, Yu; Matsumoto, Yu; Kim, Hyun Jin; Miyata, Kanjiro; Taguchi, Ayumi; Tomio, Kensuke; Yamashita, Aki; Inoue, Tomoko; Nakamura, Hiroe; Fujimoto, Asaha; Sato, Masakazu; Yoshida, Mitsuyo; Adachi, Katsuyuki; Arimoto, Takahide; Wada-Hiraike, Osamu; Oda, Katsutoshi; Nagamatsu, Takeshi; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Kataoka, Kazunori; Osuga, Yutaka; Fujii, Tomoyuki

    2016-06-10

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncogenes are essential for the immortalization and maintenance of HPV-associated cancer and are ubiquitously expressed in cervical cancer lesions. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) coding for E6 and E7 oncogenes is a promising approach for precise treatment of cervical cancer, yet a delivery system is required for systemic delivery to solid tumors. Here, an actively targeted polyion complex (PIC) micelle was applied to deliver siRNAs coding for HPV E6/E7 to HPV cervical cancer cell tumors in immune-incompetent tumor-bearing mice. A cell viability assay revealed that both HPV type 16 and 18 E6/E7 siRNAs (si16E6/E7 and si18E6/E7, respectively) interfered with proliferation of cervical cancer cell lines in an HPV type-specific manner. A fluorescence imaging biodistribution analysis further revealed that fluorescence dye-labeled siRNA-loaded PIC micelles efficiently accumulated within the tumor mass after systemic administration. Ultimately, intravenous injection of si16E6/E7 and si18E6/E7-loaded PIC micelles was found to significantly suppress the growth of subcutaneous SiHa and HeLa tumors, respectively. The specific activity of siRNA treatment was confirmed by the observation that p53 protein expression was restored in the tumors excised from the mice treated with si16E6/E7- and si18E6/E7-loaded PIC micelles for SiHa and HeLa tumors, respectively. Therefore, the actively targeted PIC micelle incorporating HPV E6/E7-coding siRNAs demonstrated its therapeutic potential against HPV-associated cancer. PMID:26979870

  20. Expression of the MOZ-TIF2 oncoprotein in mice represses senescence.

    PubMed

    Largeot, Anne; Perez-Campo, Flor Maria; Marinopoulou, Elli; Lie-A-Ling, Michael; Kouskoff, Valerie; Lacaud, Georges

    2016-04-01

    The MOZ-TIF2 translocation, which fuses monocytic leukemia zinc finger protein (MOZ) histone acetyltransferase (HAT) with the nuclear co-activator TIF2, is associated with the development of acute myeloid leukemia. We recently found that in the absence of MOZ HAT activity, p16(INK4a) transcriptional levels are significantly increased, triggering an early entrance into replicative senescence. Because oncogenic fusion proteins must bypass cellular safeguard mechanisms, such as senescence and apoptosis, to induce leukemia, we hypothesized that this repressive activity of MOZ over p16(INK4a) transcription could be preserved, or even reinforced, in MOZ leukemogenic fusion proteins, such as MOZ-TIF2. We describe here that, indeed, MOZ-TIF2 silences expression of the CDKN2A locus (p16(INK4a) and p19(ARF)), inhibits the triggering of senescence and enhances proliferation, providing conditions favorable to the development of leukemia. Furthermore, we describe that abolishing the MOZ HAT activity of the fusion protein leads to a significant increase in expression of the CDKN2A locus and the number of hematopoietic progenitors undergoing senescence. Finally, we report that inhibition of senescence by MOZ-TIF2 is associated with increased apoptosis, suggesting a role for the fusion protein in p53 apoptosis-versus-senescence balance. Our results underscore the importance of the HAT activity of MOZ, preserved in the fusion protein, for repression of the CDKN2A locus transcription and the subsequent block of senescence, a necessary step for the survival of leukemic cells. PMID:26854485

  1. Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 is a key regulator of the MYCN oncoprotein in neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji Hyun; Szemes, Marianna; Vieira, Gabriella Cunha; Melegh, Zsombor; Malik, Sally; Heesom, Kate J.; Von Wallwitz-Freitas, Laura; Greenhough, Alexander; Brown, Keith W.; Zheng, Y. George; Catchpoole, Daniel; Deery, Michael J.; Malik, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Approximately half of poor prognosis neuroblastomas (NBs) are characterized by pathognomonic MYCN gene amplification and MYCN over-expression. Here we present data showing that short-interfering RNA mediated depletion of the protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) in cell-lines representative of NBs with MYCN gene amplification leads to greatly impaired growth and apoptosis. Growth suppression is not apparent in the MYCN-negative SH-SY5Y NB cell-line, or in two immortalized human fibroblast cell-lines. Immunoblotting of NB cell-lines shows that high PRMT5 expression is strongly associated with MYCN-amplification (P < 0.004, MannWhitney U-test) and immunohistochemical analysis of primary NBs reveals that whilst PRMT5 protein is ubiquitously expressed in the cytoplasm of most cells, MYCN-amplified tumours exhibit pronounced nuclear PRMT5 staining. PRMT5 knockdown in MYCN-overexpressing cells, including the SHEP-21N cell-line with inducible MYCN expression leads to a dramatic decrease in MYCN protein and MYCN-associated cell-death in SHEP-21N cells. Quantitative gene expression analysis and cycloheximide chase experiments suggest that PRMT5 regulates MYCN at a post-transcriptional level. Reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that endogenous PRMT5 and MYCN interact in both SK-N-BE(2)C and NGP cell lines. By using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of immunoprecipitated MYCN protein, we identified several potential sites of arginine dimethylation on the MYCN protein. Together our studies implicate PRMT5 in a novel mode of MYCN post-translational regulation and suggest PRMT5 plays a major role in NB tumorigenesis. Small-molecule inhibitors of PRMT5 may therefore represent a novel therapeutic strategy for neuroblastoma and other cancers driven by the MYCN oncogene. PMID:25475372

  2. Radiosensitization of Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells by Human Papillomavirus 16 Oncoprotein E6*I

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, Ervinna; Delic, Naomi C.; Hong, Angela; Zhang Mei; Rose, Barbara R.; Lyons, J. Guy

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: Patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) whose disease is associated with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection have a significantly better outcome than those with HPV-negative disease, but the reasons for the better outcome are not known. We postulated that they might relate to an ability of HPV proteins to confer a better response to radiotherapy, a commonly used treatment for OSCC. Methods and Materials: We stably expressed the specific splicing-derived isoforms, E6*I and E6*II, or the entire E6 open reading frame (E6total), which gives rise to both full length and E6*I isoforms, in OSCC cell lines. Radiation resistance was measured in clonogenicity assays, p53 activity was measured using transfected reporter genes, and flow cytometry was used to analyze cell cycle and apoptosis. Results: E6*I and E6total sensitized the OSCC cells to irradiation, E6*I giving the greatest degree of radiosensitization (approximately eightfold lower surviving cell fraction at 10 Gy), whereas E6*II had no effect. In contrast to radiosensitivity, E6*I was a weaker inhibitor than E6total of tumor suppressor p53 transactivator activity in the same cells. Flow cytometric analyses showed that irradiated E6*I expressing cells had a much higher G2M:G1 ratio than control cells, indicating that, after G2, cells were diverted from the cell cycle to programmed cell death. Conclusion: This study supports a role for E6*I in the enhanced responsiveness of HPV-positive oropharyngeal carcinomas to p53-independent radiation-induced death.

  3. Expression of the MOZ-TIF2 oncoprotein in mice represses senescence

    PubMed Central

    Largeot, Anne; Perez-Campo, Flor Maria; Marinopoulou, Elli; Lie-a-Ling, Michael; Kouskoff, Valerie; Lacaud, Georges

    2016-01-01

    The MOZ-TIF2 translocation, which fuses monocytic leukemia zinc finger protein (MOZ) histone acetyltransferase (HAT) with the nuclear co-activator TIF2, is associated with the development of acute myeloid leukemia. We recently found that in the absence of MOZ HAT activity, p16INK4a transcriptional levels are significantly increased, triggering an early entrance into replicative senescence. Because oncogenic fusion proteins must bypass cellular safeguard mechanisms, such as senescence and apoptosis, to induce leukemia, we hypothesized that this repressive activity of MOZ over p16INK4a transcription could be preserved, or even reinforced, in MOZ leukemogenic fusion proteins, such as MOZ-TIF2. We describe here that, indeed, MOZ-TIF2 silences expression of the CDKN2A locus (p16INK4a and p19ARF), inhibits the triggering of senescence and enhances proliferation, providing conditions favorable to the development of leukemia. Furthermore, we describe that abolishing the MOZ HAT activity of the fusion protein leads to a significant increase in expression of the CDKN2A locus and the number of hematopoietic progenitors undergoing senescence. Finally, we report that inhibition of senescence by MOZ-TIF2 is associated with increased apoptosis, suggesting a role for the fusion protein in p53 apoptosis-versus-senescence balance. Our results underscore the importance of the HAT activity of MOZ, preserved in the fusion protein, for repression of the CDKN2A locus transcription and the subsequent block of senescence, a necessary step for the survival of leukemic cells. PMID:26854485

  4. Human Papillomavirus type 16 E6 and E 7 proteins alter NF-kB in cultured cervical epithelial cells and inhibition of NF-kB promotes cell growth and immortalization

    PubMed Central

    Vandermark, Erik R.; Deluca, Krysta A.; Gardner, Courtney R.; Marker, Daniel F.; Schreiner, Cynthia N.; Strickland, David A.; Wilton, Katelynn M.; Mondal, Sumona; Woodworth, Craig D.

    2012-01-01

    The NF-kB family of transcription factors regulates important biological functions including cell growth, survival and the immune response. We found that Human Papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E7 and E6/E7 proteins inhibited basal and TNF-alpha-inducible NF-kB activity in human epithelial cells cultured from the cervical transformation zone, the anatomic region where most cervical cancers develop. In contrast, HPV-16 E6 regulated NF-kB in a cell type- and cell growth-dependent manner. NF-kB influenced immortalization of cervical cells by HPV16. Inhibition of NF-kB by an IkB alpha repressor mutant increased colony formation and immortalization by HPV-16. In contrast, activation of NF-kB by constitutive expression of p65 inhibited proliferation and immortalization. Our results suggest that inhibition of NF-kB by HPV-16 E6/E7 contributes to immortalization of cells from the cervical transformation zone. PMID:22284893

  5. Human papillomavirus type 16 E6 and E 7 proteins alter NF-kB in cultured cervical epithelial cells and inhibition of NF-kB promotes cell growth and immortalization

    SciTech Connect

    Vandermark, Erik R.; Deluca, Krysta A.; Gardner, Courtney R.; Marker, Daniel F.; Schreiner, Cynthia N.; Strickland, David A.; Wilton, Katelynn M.; Mondal, Sumona; Woodworth, Craig D.

    2012-03-30

    The NF-kB family of transcription factors regulates important biological functions including cell growth, survival and the immune response. We found that Human Papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E7 and E6/E7 proteins inhibited basal and TNF-alpha-inducible NF-kB activity in human epithelial cells cultured from the cervical transformation zone, the anatomic region where most cervical cancers develop. In contrast, HPV-16 E6 regulated NF-kB in a cell type- and cell growth-dependent manner. NF-kB influenced immortalization of cervical cells by HPV16. Inhibition of NF-kB by an IkB alpha repressor mutant increased colony formation and immortalization by HPV-16. In contrast, activation of NF-kB by constitutive expression of p65 inhibited proliferation and immortalization. Our results suggest that inhibition of NF-kB by HPV-16 E6/E7 contributes to immortalization of cells from the cervical transformation zone.

  6. High affinity interaction of poly(ADP-ribose) and the human DEK oncoprotein depends upon chain length†

    PubMed Central

    Fahrer, Jörg; Popp, Oliver; Malanga, Maria; Beneke, Sascha; Markovitz, David M.; Ferrando-May, Elisa; Bürkle, Alexander; Kappes, Ferdinand

    2010-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a molecular DNA damage sensor that catalyzes the synthesis of the complex biopolymer poly(ADP-ribose) [PAR] under consumption of NAD+. PAR engages in fundamental cellular processes such as DNA metabolism and transcription, and interacts non-covalently with specific binding proteins involved in DNA repair and regulation of chromatin structure. A factor implicated in DNA repair and chromatin organization is the DEK oncoprotein, an abundant and conserved constituent of metazoan chromatin, and the only member of its protein class. We have recently demonstrated that DEK, under stress conditions, is covalently modified with PAR by PARP-1, leading to a partial release of DEK into the cytoplasm. Additionally, we have also observed a non-covalent interaction between DEK and PAR, which we detail in the present work. Using sequence alignment, we identify three functional PAR-binding sites in the DEK primary sequence and confirm their functionality in PAR binding studies. Furthermore, we show that the non-covalent binding to DEK is dependent on PAR chain length as revealed by an overlay blot technique and PAR EMSA. Intriguingly, DEK promotes the formation of a defined complex with a 54mer PAR (KD=6 × 10−8 M), whereas no specific interaction is detected with a short PAR chain (18mer). In stark contrast to covalent poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of DEK, the non-covalent interaction does not affect the overall ability of DEK to bind to DNA. Instead the non-covalent interaction interferes with subsequent DNA-dependent multimerization activities of DEK, as seen in South-Western, EMSA, topology and aggregation assays. In particular, non-covalent attachment of PAR to DEK promotes the formation of DEK-DEK complexes by competing with DNA binding. This was seen by the reduced affinity of PAR-bound DEK for DNA templates in solution. Taken together, our findings deepen the molecular understanding of the DEK-PAR interplay and support the existence of a cellular “PAR code” represented by PAR chain length. PMID:20669926

  7. Nucleolar and nuclear localization properties of a herpesvirus bZIP oncoprotein, MEQ.

    PubMed

    Liu, J L; Lee, L F; Ye, Y; Qian, Z; Kung, H J

    1997-04-01

    Marek's disease virus (MDV) is one of the most oncogenic herpesviruses and induces T lymphomas in chickens within weeks after infection. Only a limited number of viral transcripts are detected in MDV tumor samples and cell lines. One of the major transcripts encodes MEQ, a 339-amino-acid bZIP protein which is homologous to the Jun/Fos family of transcription factors. The C-terminal half of MEQ contains proline-rich repeats and, when fused to the DNA-binding domain of a yeast transcription factor, Gal4 (residues 1 to 147), exhibits transactivation function. MEQ can dimerize with itself and with c-Jun. The MEQ-c-Jun heterodimers bind to an AP-1-like enhancer within the MEQ promoter region with greater affinity than do homodimers of either protein, and they transactivate MEQ expression. Here we show that MEQ is expressed in the nucleus but, interestingly, with a predominant fraction in the nucleoli and coiled bodies. This makes MEQ the first bZIP protein to be identified in the nucleoli. MEQ contains two stretches of basic residues, designated basic region 1 (BR1) and basic region 2 (BR2). Using a series of deletion mutants, we have mapped the primary nuclear localization signal (NLS) and the sole nucleolar localization signal (NoLS) to the BR2 region. BR1 was shown to provide an auxiliary signal in nuclear translocation. To demonstrate that BR2 is an authentic NoLS, BR2 was fused to cytoplasmic v-Raf (delta gag) kinase. The BR2-Raf fusion protein was observed to migrate into the nucleoplasm and the nucleolus. The BR2 region can be further divided into two long arginine-lysine stretches, BR2N and BR2C, which are separated by the five amino acids Asn-Arg-Asp-Ala-Ala (NRDAA). We provide evidence that the requirement for nuclear translocation is less stringent than that for nucleolar translocation, as either BR2N or BR2C alone is sufficient to translocate the cytoplasmic v-Raf (delta gag) into the nucleus, but only in combination can they translocate v-Raf (delta gag) into the nucleolus. Our studies demonstrate that MEQ is both a nuclear and nucleolar protein, adding MEQ to the growing list of transactivators which localize to the nucleolus. PMID:9060682

  8. O2 and Water Migration Pathways between the Solvent and Heme Pockets of Hemoglobin with Open and Closed Conformations of the Distal HisE7.

    PubMed

    Shadrina, Maria S; Peslherbe, Gilles H; English, Ann M

    2015-09-01

    Hemoglobin transports O2 by binding the gas at its four hemes. Hydrogen bonding between the distal histidine (HisE7) and heme-bound O2 significantly increases the affinity of human hemoglobin (HbA) for this ligand. HisE7 is also proposed to regulate the release of O2 to the solvent via a transient E7 channel. To reveal the O2 escape routes controlled by HisE7 and to evaluate its role in gating heme access, we compare simulations of O2 diffusion from the distal heme pockets of the T and R states of HbA performed with HisE7 in its open (protonated) and closed (neutral) conformations. Irrespective of HisE7's conformation, we observe the same four or five escape routes leading directly from the α- or β-distal heme pockets to the solvent. Only 21-53% of O2 escapes occur via these routes, with the remainder escaping through routes that encompass multiple internal cavities in HbA. The conformation of the distal HisE7 controls the escape of O2 from the heme by altering the distal pocket architecture in a pH-dependent manner, not by gating the E7 channel. Removal of the HisE7 side chain in the GlyE7 variant exposes the distal pockets to the solvent, and the percentage of O2 escapes to the solvent directly from the α- or β-distal pockets of the mutant increases to 70-88%. In contrast to O2, the dominant water route from the bulk solvent is gated by HisE7 because protonation and opening of this residue dramatically increase the rate of influx of water into the empty distal heme pockets. The occupancy of the distal heme site by a water molecule, which functions as an additional nonprotein barrier to binding of the ligand to the heme, is also controlled by HisE7. Overall, analysis of gas and water diffusion routes in the subunits of HbA and its GlyE7 variant sheds light on the contribution of distal HisE7 in controlling polar and nonpolar ligand movement between the solvent and the hemes. PMID:26226401

  9. Characterization of Immortalized Human Corneal Endothelial Cell Line using HPV 16 E6/E7 on Lyophilized Human Amniotic Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Ju; Ryu, Yang-Hwan; Ahn, Jae-Il; Park, Jeong-Keuk

    2006-01-01

    Purpose To establish the immortalized human corneal endothelial cell line (IHCEn) by transducing human papilloma virus (HPV) 16 E6/E7 oncogenes, and to identify their characteristics when cultivated on a lyophilized human amniotic membrane (LAM). Methods Primary human corneal endothelial cells (PHCEn) were infected using a retroviral vector with HPV 16 E6/E7, and transformed cells were clonally selected by G418. Growth properties and characteristics of IHCEn were compared with PHCEn by cell counting and RT-PCR of VDAC3, SLC4A4, CLCN3, FGF-1, Col IV, and Na+/K+ ATPase. IHCEn were cultured on LAM. Messenger RNA expressions of VDAC3, CLCN3, and Na+/K+ ATPase, and protein expressions of Na+/K+ ATPase and Col IV in IHCEn cultivated on LAM were investigated by RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, and immunohistochemical staining, respectively. Results Successful immortalization was confirmed by stable expression of HPV 16 E6/E7 mRNA by RT-PCR, and IHCEn exhibited typical corneal endothelial morphology. Doubling time of IHCEn was 30.15±10.96 hrs. Both IHCEn and PHCEn expressed VDAC3, CLCN3, SLC4A4, FGF-1, Col IV, and Na+/K+ ATPase. IHCEn cultivated on LAM showed stronger expression of VDAC3, CLCN4, and Na+/K+ ATPase mRNA than on plastic culture dish. Immunohistochemical staining and immunofluorescence revealed the positive expression of Na+/K+ ATPase and Col IV. Conclusions IHCEn were successfully established, and LAM is a good substrate for the culture of human corneal endothelial cells. PMID:16768190

  10. Kinetic screening of antibody-Im7 conjugates by capture on a colicin E7 DNase domain using optical biosensors.

    PubMed

    Hosse, Ralf J; Tay, Leigh; Hattarki, Meghan K; Pontes-Braz, Luisa; Pearce, Lesley A; Nuttall, Stewart D; Dolezal, Olan

    2009-02-15

    Antibody generation by phage display and related in vitro display technologies routinely yields large panels of clones detected in primary end-point screenings such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). However, for the development of clinical lead candidates, rapid determination of secondary characteristics such as kinetics and thermodynamics is of nearly equal importance. Surface plasmon resonance-based biosensors are ideal tools for carrying out such high-throughput secondary screenings, allowing preliminary but confident ranking and identification of lead clones. A key feature of these assays is the stable and reversible capture of antibody fragments from crude samples leading to high-resolution kinetic analysis of library outputs. Here we exploit the high-affinity interaction between the naturally occurring nuclease domain of E. coli colicin E7 (DNaseE7) and its cognate partner, the immunity protein 7 (Im7), to develop a ligand capture system suitable for accurate kinetic ranking of library clones. We demonstrate generic applicability for a range of antibody formats: scFv antibodies, diabodies, antigen binding fragments (Fabs), and shark V(NAR) single domain antibodies. The system is adaptable and reproducible, with comparable results achieved for both the Biacore T100 and ProteOn XPR36 array biosensors. PMID:19073134

  11. [Construction and eukaryotic expression of PVAX1-hPV58mE6E7fcGB composite gene vaccine].

    PubMed

    Wang, He; Yu, Jiyun; Li, Li

    2013-10-01

    To construct and express a composite gene vaccine for human papillomavirus 58(HPV58)-associated cervical cancer, we inserted HPV58mE6E7 fusion gene into pCI-Fc-GPI eukaryotic expression vector, constructing a recombinant plasmid named pCI-sig-HPV58mE6E7-Fc-GPI. Then we further inserted fragment of sig-HPV58mE6E7Fc-GPI into the novel vaccine vector PVAX1-IRES-GM/B7, constructing PVAX1-HPV58mE6E7FcGB composite gene vaccine. PVAX1-HPV58mE6E7FcGB vaccine was successfully constructed and identified by restriction endonuclease and sequencing analysis. Eukaryotic expression of fusion antigen sig-HPV58mE6E7-Fc-GPI and molecular ad-juvant GM-CSF and B7. 1 were proved to be realized at the same time by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. So PVAX1-HPV58mE6E7FcGB can be taken as a candidate of therapeutic vaccine for HPV58-associated tumors and their precancerous transformations. PMID:24459978

  12. An in silico appraisal of azoic and disulphide derivatives for anticancer activity against HPV E6 oncoprotein to medicate cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Arpita Das; Choudhury, Manabendra Dutta; Chetia, Pankaj; Chowdhury, Abhishek; Talukdar, Anupam Das

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second largest form of cancer to infest the leading cause of death in women worldwide. There are many causes of cancer but viruses are the most common among them. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are found to be the causative organism in almost 99.7% of the cases. HPV16 is the most frequent HPV type in malignant neoplastic growth in about 60% of cervical carcinoma cases. There is limited success achieved in surgical removal or by immune modulation and more effective therapies are under investigation. Observing the mortality rate we theorize a need for alternative treatment approaches and propose a blueprint of compounds with desirable properties that may lead to the development of drugs to treat HPV-associated neoplasias. E6 oncoprotein of HPV16 has a potential zinc finger domain critical for binding to E6AP, causing p53 degradation and malignancy. Some azoics and disulfides were selected depending on their affinity towards E6 zinc finger and thereby preventing E6-E6AP complex formation. Combinatorial nontoxic derivatives of these azoics and disulfides were docked and validated against the oncoprotein to inhibit E6-E6AP interaction. Among these, two compounds (E)-N-(2-amino-2-oxoethyl)-N-(4-chlorophenyl) diazene-1,2-dicarboxamide and (E)-N-(2- amino-2-methylpropyl)-N-(thiophen-2-yl)diazene-1,2-dicarboxamide showed binding affinity of -23.70, -19.53 and -5.49, -4.65 Kcal/mol respectively in FlexX and Autodock4.2. These compounds are found more effective than those of the approved E6-E6AP binding inhibitors. Pharmacophores of these compounds were generated to confirm it with pharm mapping mechanism. The study may confer the way of design of new mechanism and new compounds to treat cervical cancer. PMID:24164050

  13. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2002-01-29

    The present invention provides an isolated polynucleotide encoding a c-Jun peptide consisting of about amino acid residues 33 to 79 as set fort in SEQ ID NO: 10 or conservative variations thereof. The invention also provides a method for producing a peptide of SEQ ID NO:1 comprising (a) culturing a host cell containing a polynucleotide encoding a c-Jun peptide consisting of about amino acid residues 33 to 79 as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 10 under conditions which allow expression of the polynucleotide; and (b) obtaining the peptide of SEQ ID NO:1.

  14. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Linn, Anning

    1996-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK.

  15. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1998-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  16. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1997-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  17. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, M.; Hibi, M.; Lin, A.

    1997-02-25

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE is disclosed. The polypeptide has serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences. The method of detection of JNK is also provided. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites. 44 figs.

  18. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2004-03-16

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  19. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Roger; Derijard, Benoit; Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2005-01-25

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  20. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning; Davis, Roger; Derijard, Benoit

    2005-03-08

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  1. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1999-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD or 55 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and theonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  2. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning; Davis, Roger; Derijard, Benoit

    2003-02-04

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  3. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1997-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  4. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Lin, Anning

    1999-11-30

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD or 55 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and theonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  5. International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on E7 Studies in Support of Special Populations; Geriatrics; Questions and Answers; availability. Notice.

    PubMed

    2012-02-21

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled ``E7 Studies in Support of Special Populations: Geriatrics; Questions and Answers.'' The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The questions and answers (Q&A) guidance addresses special considerations for the design and conduct of clinical trials of drugs likely to have significant use in the elderly. The Q&As are intended to provide guidance on the use of geriatric data to adequately characterize and represent the safety and efficacy of a drug for a marketing application, including data collected postmarketing. PMID:22379685

  6. Synthetic peptides derived from E7 region of human papillomavirus type 16 used as antigens in ELISA.

    PubMed

    Krchnák, V; Vágner, J; Suchánková, A; Krcmár, M; Ritterová, L; Vonka, V

    1990-11-01

    Nine overlapping peptides (20 amino acid) covering the entire sequence of early antigen E7 of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) were synthesized and tested as antigens with human sera in ELISA. Five of these peptides (no. 1 to 5 counting from the N terminus of the E7 protein) reacted with a pool of sera from HPV-16-infected individuals (as determined by molecular hybridization with their biopsy specimens); one (no. 5) was also reactive with pools of HPV-18- and HPV-6- or 11-infected individuals. Sera from 24 patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and from 29 invasive cervical carcinoma (INCA) patients were tested for the presence of antibodies reactive with peptides, no. 1 to 4 covering amino acids 1 to 50 and with peptide no. 5 covering amino acids 41 to 60. Only one of the sera from CIN patients was reactive with peptides no. 1 (amino acids 1 to 20) and no. 4 (amino acids 31 to 50). However, the majority of these sera reacted with peptide no. 5. The occurrence of this antibody was only slightly less frequent in sera from healthy subjects compared to CIN patients. On the other hand, sera from the INCA patients were reactive with the peptides no. 1 to 3 more frequently than the sera from matched control subjects. Positive reactions of sera from INCA patients were most frequently seen with no. 2; 24% of these sera but only 7% of the controls were reactive with no. 2 peptide. The present data suggest that no. 1 to 3 are HPV-16-specific, whereas no. 5 is broadly cross-reactive. PMID:2174961

  7. Intron definition and a branch site adenosine at nt 385 control RNA splicing of HPV16 E6*I and E7 expression.

    PubMed

    Ajiro, Masahiko; Jia, Rong; Zhang, Lifang; Liu, Xuefeng; Zheng, Zhi-Ming

    2012-01-01

    HPV16 E6 and E7, two viral oncogenes, are expressed from a single bicistronic pre-mRNA. In this report, we provide the evidence that the bicistronic pre-mRNA intron 1 contains three 5' splice sites (5' ss) and three 3' splice sites (3' ss) normally used in HPV16(+) cervical cancer and its derived cell lines. The choice of two novel alternative 5' ss (nt 221 5' ss and nt 191 5' ss) produces two novel isoforms of E6E7 mRNAs (E6*V and E6*VI). The nt 226 5' ss and nt 409 3' ss is preferentially selected over the other splice sites crossing over the intron to excise a minimal length of the intron in RNA splicing. We identified AACAAAC as the preferred branch point sequence (BPS) and an adenosine at nt 385 (underlined) in the BPS as a branch site to dictate the selection of the nt 409 3' ss for E6*I splicing and E7 expression. Introduction of point mutations into the mapped BPS led to reduced U2 binding to the BPS and thereby inhibition of the second step of E6E7 splicing at the nt 409 3' ss. Importantly, the E6E7 bicistronic RNA with a mutant BPS and inefficient splicing makes little or no E7 and the resulted E6 with mutations of (91)QYNK(94) to (91)PSFW(94) displays attenuate activity on p53 degradation. Together, our data provide structural basis of the E6E7 intron 1 for better understanding of how viral E6 and E7 expression is regulated by alternative RNA splicing. This study elucidates for the first time a mapped branch point in HPV16 genome involved in viral oncogene expression. PMID:23056301

  8. A C-terminal Hydrophobic, Solvent-protected Core and a Flexible N-terminus are Potentially Required for Human Papillomavirus 18 E7 Protein Functionality

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, S.; Tian, Y; Greenaway, F; Sun, M

    2010-01-01

    The oncogenic potential of the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) relies on the expression of genes specifying the E7 and E6 proteins. To investigate further the variation in oligomeric structure that has been reported for different E7 proteins, an HPV-18 E7 cloned from a Hispanic woman with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia was purified to homogeneity most probably as a stable monomeric protein in aqueous solution. We determined that one zinc ion is present per HPV-18 E7 monomer by amino acid and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy analysis. Intrinsic fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopic results indicate that the zinc ion is important for the correct folding and thermal stability of HPV-18 E7. Hydroxyl radical mediated protein footprinting coupled to mass spectrometry and other biochemical and biophysical data indicate that near the C-terminus, the four cysteines of the two Cys-X{sub 2}-Cys motifs that are coordinated to the zinc ion form a solvent inaccessible core. The N-terminal LXCXE pRb binding motif region is hydroxyl radical accessible and conformationally flexible. Both factors, the relative flexibility of the pRb binding motif at the N-terminus and the C-terminal metal-binding hydrophobic solvent-protected core, combine together and facilitate the biological functions of HPV-18 E7.

  9. E6/E7 mRNA expression analysis: a test for the objective assessment of cervical adenocarcinoma in clinical prognostic procedure.

    PubMed

    Hovland, Siri; Muller, Susanne; Skomedal, Hanne; Mints, Michael; Bergström, Jakob; Wallin, Keng-Ling; Karlsen, Frank; Johansson, Bo; Andersson, Sonia

    2010-06-01

    Detection of E6/E7 mRNA expression using the real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification assay (NASBA) PreTect HPV-Proofer was compared with results of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA detection in 98 paraffin-embedded samples from patients with cervical adenocarcinoma. HR-HPV DNA was detected in 61 (62%), while HR-HPV E6/E7 mRNA was detected in 63 (64%) of the samples. Correlation between results from DNA analyses and the E6/E7 mRNA assay showed consistent results in 87% of samples (47 of 54). The results from these two methods in detecting presence of HPV infection of any type agreed in 77%. Overall agreement between the methods was seen in 82 of the 98 cases (84%). When evaluating change in sensitivity for detection of HPV positives by adding more HPV types to the HPV DNA assay, maximum sensitivity was reached by targeting four HPV types. The coverage of HPV DNA presence was 76.9%, while the E6/E7 mRNA assay achieved a maximum coverage of 80.8% using only three HPV types. Thus, E6/E7 oncogene expression analysis may provide a more objective test for assessment of neoplastic glandular cells. Further studies may reveal whether the clinical performance of the E6/E7 mRNA assay will be of prognostic value in management of cervical adenocarcinoma. PMID:20428778

  10. [Optimized expression, preparation of human papillomavirus 16 L2E7 fusion protein and its inhibitory effect on tumor growth in mice].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yunshui; Li, Jianbo; Gao, Meng; Ren, Jiao; Jin, Sufeng; Chen, Gang; Wu, Jie; Zhuang, Fangcheng; Tian, Houwen

    2015-04-01

    HPV16 L2E7 is a fusion protein used for therapeutical vaccine targeting HPV virus. To increase its expression in Escherichia coli, we optimized the codon usage of HPV16 l2e7 gene based on its codon usage bias. The optimized gene of HPV16 sl2e7 was cloned into three different vectors: pGEX-5X-1, pQE30, ET41a, and expressed in JM109, JM109 (DE3) and BL21 (DE3) lines separately. A high expression line was selected with pET41a vector in BL21 (DE3) cells. After optimization of the growth condition, including inoculation amount, IPTG concentration, induction time and temperature, the expression level of HPV16 L2E7 was increased from less than 10% to about 28% of total protein. HPV16 L2E7 protein was then purified from 15 L culture by means of SP Sepharose Fast Flow, Q Sepharose Fast Flow and Superdex 200 pg. After renaturing, HPV16 L2E7 protein with ≥ 95% purity was achieved, which was confirmed via SDS-PAGE gel and Western blotting. The combined use of purified HPV16 L2E7 and CpG helper has shown clear inhibition of tumor growth in mice injected with tumor cells, with six out of eight mice shown no sign of tumor. This study lays a solid foundation for a new pipeline of large-scale vaccine production. PMID:26380413

  11. Rearrangement of the distal pocket accompanying E7 His yields Gln substitution in elephant carbonmonoxy- and oxymyoglobin: sup 1 H NMR identification of a new aromatic residue in the heme pocket

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, L.P.; La Mar, G.N. ); Mizukami, H. )

    1990-03-13

    Two-dimensional {sup 1}H NMR methods have been used to assign side-chain resonances for the residues in the distal heme pocket of elephant carbonmonoxymyoglobin (MbCO) and oxymyoglobin (MbO{sub 2}). It is shown that, while the other residues in the heme pocket are minimally perturbed, the Phe CD4 residue in elephant MbCO and MbO{sub 2} resonates considerably upfield compared to the corresponding residue in sperm whale MbCO. The new NOE connectivities to Val E11 and heme-induced ring current calculations indicate that Phe CD4 has been inserted into the distal heme pocket by reorienting the aromatic side chain and moving the CD corner closer to the heme. The C{zeta}H proton of the Phe CD4 was found to move toward the iron of the heme by {approximately}4 {angstrom} relative to the position in sperm whale MbCO, requiring minimally a 3-{angstrom} movement of the CD helical backbone. The significantly altered distal conformation in elephant myoglobin, rather than the single distal E7 substitution, forms a plausible basis for its altered functional properties of lower autoxidation rate, higher redox potential, and increased affinity for CO ligand. These results demonstrate that one-to-one interpretation of amino acid residue substitution (E7 His {yields} Gln) is oversimplified and that conformational changes of substituted proteins which are not readily predicted have to be considered for interpretation of their functional properties.

  12. Tattoo Delivery of a Semliki Forest Virus-Based Vaccine Encoding Human Papillomavirus E6 and E7

    PubMed Central

    van de Wall, Stephanie; Walczak, Mateusz; van Rooij, Nienke; Hoogeboom, Baukje-Nynke; Meijerhof, Tjarko; Nijman, Hans W.; Daemen, Toos

    2015-01-01

    The skin is an attractive organ for immunization because of the presence of antigen-presenting cells. Intradermal delivery via tattooing has demonstrated superior vaccine immunogenicity of DNA vaccines in comparison to conventional delivery methods. In this study, we explored the efficacy of tattoo injection of a tumor vaccine based on recombinant Semliki Forest virus replicon particles (rSFV) targeting human papillomavirus (HPV). Tattoo injection of rSFV particles resulted in antigen expression in both the skin and draining lymph nodes. In comparison with intramuscular injection, the overall antigen expression determined at the site of administration and draining lymph nodes was 10-fold lower upon tattoo injection. Delivery of SFV particles encoding the E6 and E7 antigens of human papillomavirus type 16 (SFVeE6,7) via tattooing resulted in HPV-specific cytotoxic T cells and in vivo therapeutic antitumor response. Strikingly, despite the observed lower overall transgene expression, SFVeE6,7 delivered via tattoo injection resulted in higher or equal levels of immune responses as compared to intramuscular injection. The intrinsic immunogenic potential of tattooing provides a benefit for immunotherapy based on an alphavirus. PMID:26343186

  13. Ubiquitination and Degradation of the Hominoid-Specific Oncoprotein TBC1D3 Is Mediated by CUL7 E3 Ligase

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Chen; Samovski, Dmitri; Srikanth, Priya; Wainszelbaum, Marisa J.; Charron, Audra J.; Liu, Jialiu; Lange, Jeffrey J.; Chen, Pin-I; Pan, Zhen-Qiang; Su, Xiong; Stahl, Philip D.

    2012-01-01

    Expression of the hominoid-specific TBC1D3 oncoprotein enhances growth factor receptor signaling and subsequently promotes cellular proliferation and survival. Here we report that TBC1D3 is degraded in response to growth factor signaling, suggesting that TBC1D3 expression is regulated by a growth factor-driven negative feedback loop. To gain a better understanding of how TBC1D3 is regulated, we studied the effects of growth factor receptor signaling on TBC1D3 post-translational processing and turnover. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified CUL7, the scaffolding subunit of the CUL7 E3 ligase complex, as a TBC1D3-interacting protein. We show that CUL7 E3 ligase ubiquitinates TBC1D3 in response to serum stimulation. Moreover, TBC1D3 recruits F-box 8 (Fbw8), the substrate recognition domain of CUL7 E3 ligase, in pull-down experiments and in an in vitro assay. Importantly, alkaline phosphatase treatment of TBC1D3 suppresses its ability to recruit Fbw8, indicating that TBC1D3 phosphorylation is critical for its ubiquitination and degradation. We conclude that serum- and growth factor-stimulated TBC1D3 ubiquitination and degradation are regulated by its interaction with CUL7-Fbw8. PMID:23029530

  14. The transcription elongation factor ELL2 is specifically upregulated in HTLV-1-infected T-cells and is dependent on the viral oncoprotein Tax

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, Melanie C. Strobel, Sarah Fleckenstein, Bernhard Kress, Andrea K.

    2014-09-15

    The oncoprotein Tax of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a potent transactivator of viral and cellular transcription. Here, we identified ELL2 as the sole transcription elongation factor to be specifically upregulated in HTLV-1-/Tax-transformed T-cells. Tax contributes to regulation of ELL2, since transient transfection of Tax increases ELL2 mRNA, Tax transactivates the ELL2 promoter, and repression of Tax results in decrease of ELL2 in transformed T-lymphocytes. However, we also measured upregulation of ELL2 in HTLV-1-transformed cells exhibiting undetectable amounts of Tax, suggesting that ELL2 can still be maintained independent of continuous Tax expression. We further show that Tax and ELL2 synergistically activate the HTLV-1 promoter, indicating that ELL2 cooperates with Tax in viral transactivation. This is supported by our findings that Tax and ELL2 accumulate in nuclear fractions and that they co-precipitate upon co-expression in transiently-transfected cells. Thus, upregulation of ELL2 could contribute to HTLV-1 gene regulation. - Highlights: • ELL2, a transcription elongation factor, is upregulated in HTLV-1-positive T-cells. • Tax transactivates the ELL2 promoter. • Tax and ELL2 synergistically activate the HTLV-1 promoter. • Tax and ELL2 interact in vivo.

  15. BCR-ABL and v-SRC tyrosine kinase oncoproteins support normal erythroid development in erythropoietin receptor-deficient progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari, Saghi; Wu, Hong; Gerlach, Melissa; Han, Ying; Lodish, Harvey F.; Daley, George Q.

    1999-01-01

    Erythropoietin (Epo)-independent differentiation of erythroid progenitors is a major characteristic of myeloproliferative disorders, including chronic myeloid leukemia. Epo receptor (EpoR) signaling is crucial for normal erythroid development, as evidenced by the properties of Epo?/? and EpoR?/? mice, which contain a normal number of fetal liver erythroid progenitors but die in utero from a severe anemia attributable to the absence of red cell maturation. Here we show that two constitutively active cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinases, P210BCR-ABL and v-SRC, can functionally replace the EpoR and support full proliferation, differentiation, and maturation of fetal liver erythroid progenitors from EpoR?/? mice. These protein tyrosine kinases can also partially complement the myeloid growth factors IL-3, IL-6, and Steel factor, which are normally required in addition to Epo for erythroid development. Additionally, BCR-ABL mutants that lack residues necessary for transformation of fibroblasts or bone marrow cells can fully support normal erythroid development. These results demonstrate that activated tyrosine kinase oncoproteins implicated in tumorigenesis and human leukemia can functionally complement for cytokine receptor signaling pathways to support normal erythropoiesis in EpoR-deficient cells. Moreover, terminal differentiation of erythroid cells requires generic signals provided by activated protein tyrosine kinases and does not require a specific signal unique to a cytokine receptor. PMID:10557295

  16. Stabilization of SIRT7 deacetylase by viral oncoprotein HBx leads to inhibition of growth restrictive RPS7 gene and facilitates cellular transformation.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Vijaya; Kumar, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Sirtuin-7 (SIRT7) deacetylase exhibits a high selectivity for acetylated H3K18 and has been implicated in the maintenance of malignant phenotype. However, it remains unclear if SIRT7 and H3K18ac play a role in the tumorigenic program driven by oncogenic viruses. We show that ectopically expressed HBx oncoprotein of hepatitis B virus promoted intracellular stability of SIRT7 by salvaging it from ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation. HBx-dependent accumulation of SIRT7 favored H3K18 deacetylation and down-regulated the small ribosomal protein gene, RPS7, involved in cell death and DNA damage response. HBx facilitated the recruitment of SIRT7 to RPS7 promoter thus impeding H3K18ac occupancy and hindering RPS7 transcription. The antagonistic relationship between SIRT7 and RPS7 was also observed in the HBx transgenic mice, where elevated levels of SIRT7 protein were coincident with low levels of H3K18ac and RPS7. Strikingly, inhibition of cellular deubiquitinase activity restored RPS7 gene transcription. Further, depletion of endogenous SIRT7 led to decreased cell viability and transformation. The biological relevance of RPS7 suppression by HBx-SIRT7 axis was evident from ectopic expression of RPS7 which attenuated clonogenicity of cells. Thus, our findings suggest that SIRT7 is a critical regulator of HBx-driven oncogenic program, through its antagonistic impact on growth restrictive ribosomal protein RPS7. PMID:26442981

  17. Dependence of Intracellular and Exosomal microRNAs on Viral E6/E7 Oncogene Expression in HPV-positive Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Honegger, Anja; Schilling, Daniela; Bastian, Sandra; Sponagel, Jasmin; Kuryshev, Vladimir; Sültmann, Holger; Scheffner, Martin; Hoppe-Seyler, Karin; Hoppe-Seyler, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Specific types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause cervical cancer. Cervical cancers exhibit aberrant cellular microRNA (miRNA) expression patterns. By genome-wide analyses, we investigate whether the intracellular and exosomal miRNA compositions of HPV-positive cancer cells are dependent on endogenous E6/E7 oncogene expression. Deep sequencing studies combined with qRT-PCR analyses show that E6/E7 silencing significantly affects ten of the 52 most abundant intracellular miRNAs in HPV18-positive HeLa cells, downregulating miR-17-5p, miR-186-5p, miR-378a-3p, miR-378f, miR-629-5p and miR-7-5p, and upregulating miR-143-3p, miR-23a-3p, miR-23b-3p and miR-27b-3p. The effects of E6/E7 silencing on miRNA levels are mainly not dependent on p53 and similarly observed in HPV16-positive SiHa cells. The E6/E7-regulated miRNAs are enriched for species involved in the control of cell proliferation, senescence and apoptosis, suggesting that they contribute to the growth of HPV-positive cancer cells. Consistently, we show that sustained E6/E7 expression is required to maintain the intracellular levels of members of the miR-17~92 cluster, which reduce expression of the anti-proliferative p21 gene in HPV-positive cancer cells. In exosomes secreted by HeLa cells, a distinct seven-miRNA-signature was identified among the most abundant miRNAs, with significant downregulation of let-7d-5p, miR-20a-5p, miR-378a-3p, miR-423-3p, miR-7-5p, miR-92a-3p and upregulation of miR-21-5p, upon E6/E7 silencing. Several of the E6/E7-dependent exosomal miRNAs have also been linked to the control of cell proliferation and apoptosis. This study represents the first global analysis of intracellular and exosomal miRNAs and shows that viral oncogene expression affects the abundance of multiple miRNAs likely contributing to the E6/E7-dependent growth of HPV-positive cancer cells. PMID:25760330

  18. Listeria-based HPV-16 E7 vaccines limit autochthonous tumor growth in a transgenic mouse model for HPV-16 transformed tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sewell, Duane A.; Pan, Zhen Kun; Paterson, Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    We have shown that Listeria-based cancer vaccines inhibit the growth of transplanted tumors in a transgenic mouse model of immune tolerance where HPV-16 E7 is expressed in the thyroid gland. In this study we determine whether these vaccines are able to inhibit autochthonous tumor growth in this animal model. Mice treated with Listeria vaccines expressing E7 had significantly smaller thyroid tumors than did mice treated with controls and possessed higher numbers of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells within the spleens, tumors, and peripheral blood. This study shows that Listeria-based vaccines are able to slow autochthonous tumor growth and break immunological tolerance. PMID:18680778

  19. Influence of chromosomal integration on glucocorticoid-regulated transcription of growth-stimulating papillomavirus genes E6 and E7 in cervical carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Von Knebel Doeberitz, M.; Bauknecht, T.; Bartsch, D.; Zur Hausen, H. )

    1991-02-15

    In most cervical carcinoma cells the E6 and E7 genes of specific human papillomaviruses are transcribed from viral sequences integrated into host cell chromosomes. Glucocorticoids activate the promoter elements of various human papillomaviruses in transient-expression assays. The authors have analyzed the effect of dexamethasone on the transcription rate of human papillomaviruses 18 E6 and E7 genes integrated at different chromosomal sites in four cervical cancer cell lines. Dexamethasone led to an increase in the transcription rate of the integrated E6-E7 sequences in C4-1 and C4-2 cells but led to a decrease in SW 756 cells and did not affect the transcription rate in HeLa cells. It thus appears that dominant regulatory mechanisms presumably depending on the chromosomal integration site are able to override the response of the viral promoter to steroid hormones. The growth rate of all dexamethasone-treated cell lines correlated consistently with the expression of the papillomavirus E6 and E7 genes, supporting their role in the maintenance of the proliferative phenotype of cervical carcinoma cells. Since human papillomaviruses are integrated into the host cell genome at variable, presumably randomly selected chromosomal loci, regulatory mechanisms that influence viral gene expression, and hence cell growth, may differ among cancers of independent clonal origin.

  20. The E7 protein of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 expressed by recombinant vaccinia virus can be used for detection of antibodies in sera from cervical cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Nindl, I; Gissmann, L; Fisher, S G; Bribiesca, L B; Berumen, J; Mller, M

    1996-10-01

    Sera from 128 Mexican cervical cancer patients (age 30-80; mean 53.6) and from 47 healthy women (age 25-69; mean 49.2) were investigated using a newly developed assay for the detection of serum antibodies to the human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 early protein E7. This test (CIPA), based upon immunoprecipitation followed by Western blot analysis, uses the complete E7 protein expressed in HeLa cells infected with recombinant vaccinia virus. To determine the sensitivity and specificity of this assay, these results were compared with previous results of the same sera tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; using synthetic peptides derived from HPV 16 E7) and radio-immunoprecipitation (RIPA) using in vitro translated HPV 16 E7 protein. CIPA (45% positives) demonstrated a significant increase in detection rate compared to the peptide-ELISA (30% positives; P = 0.014, chi2-test) and only a slight increase compared to RIPA (38% positives; P = 0.204, chi2-test). Based on the testing of sera from patients with HPV 16 DNA positive tumors the specificity and sensitivity of the CIPA were 0.98 and 0.59, respectively. PMID:8910651

  1. HPV E6/E7 mRNA versus HPV DNA biomarker in cervical cancer screening of a group of Macedonian women.

    PubMed

    Duvlis, Sotirija; Popovska-Jankovic, Katerina; Arsova, Zorica Sarafinovska; Memeti, Shaban; Popeska, Zaneta; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana

    2015-09-01

    High risk types of human papillomaviruses E6/E7 oncogenes and their association with tumor suppressor genes products are the key factors of cervical carcinogenesis. This study proposed them as specific markers for cervical dysplasia screening. The aim of the study is to compare the clinical and prognostic significance of HPV E6/E7 mRNA as an early biomarker versus HPV DNA detection and cytology in triage of woman for cervical cancer. The study group consists of 413 women: 258 NILM, 26 ASC-US, 81 LSIL, 41 HSIL, and 7 unsatisfactory cytology. HPV4AACE screening, real-time multiplex PCR and MY09/11 consensus PCR primers methods were used for the HPV DNA detection. The real-time multiplex nucleic acid sequence-based assay (NucliSENS EasyQ HPV assay) was used for HPV E6/E7 mRNA detection of the five most common high risk HPV types in cervical cancer (16, 18, 31, 33, and 45). The results show that HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing had a higher specificity 50% (95% CI 32-67) and positive predictive value (PPV) 62% (95% CI 46-76) for CIN2+ compared to HPV DNA testing that had specificity of 18% (95% CI 7-37) and PPV 52% (95% CI 39-76) respectively. The higher specificity and PPV of HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing are valuable in predicting insignificant HPV DNA infection among cases with borderline cytological finding. It can help in avoiding aggressive procedures (biopsies and over-referral of transient HPV infections) as well as lowering patient's anxiety and follow up period. PMID:25880030

  2. The Oncogenic MicroRNA OncomiR-21 Overexpressed during Marek's Disease Lymphomagenesis Is Transactivated by the Viral Oncoprotein Meq

    PubMed Central

    Stik, Grégoire; Dambrine, Ginette; Pfeffer, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Gallid herpesvirus 2 (GaHV-2) is an oncogenic herpesvirus that causes T lymphoma in chicken. GaHV-2 encodes a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) protein of the AP-1 family, Meq. Upon formation of homo- or heterodimers with c-Jun, Meq may modulate the expression of viral and cellular genes involved in lymphomagenesis. GaHV-2 also encodes viral microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in latency and apoptosis escape. However, little is known about cellular miRNA deregulation during the development of GaHV-2-associated lymphoma. We determined the cellular miRNA expression profiles of chickens infected with a very virulent strain (RB-1B) or a vaccine strain (CVI988) or noninfected. Among the most deregulated cellular miRNAs, we focused our efforts on gga-miR-21, which is upregulated during GaHV-2 infection. We mapped the gga-miR-21 promoter to the 10th intron of the TMEM49 gene and found it to be driven by AP-1- and Ets-responsive elements. We show here that the viral oncoprotein Meq binds to this promoter, thereby transactivating gga-miR-21 expression. We confirmed that this miRNA targets chicken programmed death cell 4 (PDCD4) and promotes tumor cell growth and apoptosis escape. Finally, gga-miR-21 was overexpressed only during infection with a very virulent strain (RB-1B) and not during infection with a nononcogenic strain (CVI988), providing further evidence for its role in GaHV-2 lymphomagenesis. Our data therefore suggest an additional role for Meq in GaHV-2-mediated lymphomagenesis through the induction of miR-21 expression. PMID:23055556

  3. Identification of novel posttranscriptional targets of the BCR/ABL oncoprotein by ribonomics: requirement of E2F3 for BCR/ABL leukemogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Eiring, Anna M.; Neviani, Paolo; Santhanam, Ramasamy; Oaks, Joshua J.; Chang, Ji Suk; Notari, Mario; Willis, William; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo; Volinia, Stefano; Marcucci, Guido; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Leone, Gustavo W.

    2008-01-01

    Several RNA binding proteins (RBPs) have been implicated in the progression of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) from the indolent chronic phase to the aggressively fatal blast crisis. In the latter phase, expression and function of specific RBPs are aberrantly regulated at transcriptional or posttranslational levels by the constitutive kinase activity of the BCR/ABL oncoprotein. As a result, altered expression/function of RBPs leads to increased resistance to apoptotic stimuli, enhanced survival, growth advantage, and differentiation arrest of CD34+ progenitors from patients in CML blast crisis. Here, we identify the mRNAs bound to the hnRNP-A1, hnRNP-E2, hnRNP-K, and La/SSB RBPs in BCR/ABLtransformed myeloid cells. Interestingly, we found that the mRNA encoding the transcription factor E2F3 associates to hnRNP-A1 through a conserved binding site located in the E2F3 3′ untranslated region (UTR). E2F3 levels were up-regulated in CML-BCCD34+ in a BCR/ABL kinase– and hnRNP-A1 shuttling–dependent manner. Moreover, by using shRNA-mediated E2F3 knock-down and BCR/ABL-transduced lineage-negative bone marrow cells from E2F3+/+ and E2F3−/− mice, we show that E2F3 expression is important for BCR/ABL clonogenic activity and in vivo leukemogenic potential. Thus, the complexity of the mRNA/RBP network, together with the discovery of E2F3 as an hnRNP-A1–regulated factor, outlines the relevant role played by RBPs in posttranscriptional regulation of CML development and progression. PMID:17925491

  4. Involvement of the c-Ski oncoprotein in cell cycle arrest and transformation during nurse cell formation after Trichinella spiralis infection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Z; Nagano, I; Boonmars, T; Takahashi, Y

    2006-09-01

    The role of c-Ski, an oncoprotein encoded by the oncogene, c-ski, in Trichinella spiralis-infected muscle tissues during nurse cell formation, was investigated by following the expression kinetics and distribution of c-Ski (both protein and mRNA) in the infected muscle cell, as well as the expression kinetics of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signaling pathway factor genes (TGF-beta, Smad2 and Smad4) which cooperate with c-Ski. Immunohistochemical analysis using an anti-c-Ski antibody indicated that in the early stages of infection (13 and 18 days post-infection (p.i.)) the increased expression of the c-Ski protein was limited to the eosinophilic cytoplasm and not the enlarged nuclei or basophilic cytoplasm. At a later stage of infection (23 and 28 days p.i.) the c-Ski protein was limited to the enlarged nuclei in the basophilic cytoplasm, rather than the eosinophilic cytoplasm. At 48 days p.i., the c-Ski protein was barely detectable. Real-time PCR analysis showed that expression of the c-ski gene increased from 13 days p.i., reached a peak at 23-28 days p.i. and then decreased to a low level by 48 days p.i. Expression kinetics for the TGF-beta signaling pathway factor genes (TGF-beta, Smad2 and Smad4) were similar to that of c-ski. These findings provide evidence that the c-Ski protein is involved in nurse cell formation through the TGF-beta signaling pathway process in the host cell nucleus. PMID:16890942

  5. c-erbB-2 oncoprotein detected by automated quantitative immunocytochemistry in breast carcinomas correlates with patients' overall and disease-free survival.

    PubMed Central

    Charpin, C.; Garcia, S.; Bouvier, C.; Martini, F.; Lavaut, M. N.; Allasia, C.; Bonnier, P.; Andrac, L.

    1997-01-01

    The prognostic significance of c-erbB-2 oncoprotein overexpression detected in tumours by immunocytochemical assays (ICAs) was investigated in 148 breast carcinomas. ICAs were performed under optimal technical conditions with frozen tissue sections and included automated immunoperoxidase technique and computer-assisted analysis (densitometry) of digitized coloured microscopic images. Results of quantitative ICAs (expressed in percentages of c-erbB-2-positive surfaces and mean optical densities) were correlated with the patients' follow-up in axillary lymph node-positive (N+) and node-negative (N-) subgroups of patients. Patients' follow-up ranged from 9 months (for the first death) to 101 months (for the 121 alive patients) with a 62.5 months mean overall follow-up. It was shown that marked c-erbB-2 immunocytochemical expression in tumours (cut-off point 35%) significantly correlated with the patients' poor overall survival in N+ and in N- patients (Kaplan-Meier, log-rank test, P = 0.045 and P = 0.015). Also, marked c-erbB-2 immunohistochemical expression correlates with short disease-free (P = 0.005), recurrence-free (P = 0.048) and metastasis-free survival (P = 0.05) (Kaplan-Meier, log-rank test) in N+, but not in N- subgroups. It is concluded that in optimal conditions (automated and quantitative ICAs on frozen sections) c-erbB immunohistochemical expression is a significant prognostic indicator in terms of overall and disease-free survival. The c-erbB-2 protein prognostic significance is independent of node status in terms of overall survival, but not of disease-free survival. Images Figure 1 PMID:9184184

  6. Human translocation liposarcoma-CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein (TLS-CHOP) oncoprotein prevents adipocyte differentiation by directly interfering with C/EBPbeta function.

    PubMed

    Adelmant, G; Gilbert, J D; Freytag, S O

    1998-06-19

    Human translocation liposarcoma (TLS)-CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein (CHOP) is a fusion oncoprotein found specifically in a malignant tumor of adipose tissue and results from a t(12;16) translocation that fuses the amino-terminal part of TLS to the entire coding region of CHOP. Being that CHOP is a member of the C/EBP transcription factor family, proteins that comprise part of the adipocyte differentiation machinery, we examined whether TLS-CHOP blocked adipocyte differentiation by directly interfering with C/EBP function. Using a single-step retroviral infection protocol, either wild-type or mutant TLS-CHOP were co-expressed along with C/EBPbeta in naïve NIH3T3 cells, and their ability to inhibit C/EBPbeta-driven adipogenesis was determined. TLS-CHOP was extremely effective at blocking adipocyte differentiation when expressed at a level comparable to that observed in human myxoid liposarcoma. This effect of TLS-CHOP required a functional leucine zipper domain and correlated with its ability to heterodimerize with C/EBPbeta and inhibit C/EBPbeta DNA binding and transactivation activity in situ. In contrast, the TLS-CHOP basic region was dispensable, making it unlikely that the inhibitory effect of TLS-CHOP is attributable to unscheduled gene expression resulting from TLS-CHOP's putative transactivation activity. Another adipogenic transcription factor, PPARgamma2, was able to rescue TLS-CHOP-inhibited cells, indicating that TLS-CHOP interferes primarily with C/EBPbeta-driven adipogenesis and not with other requisite events of the adipocyte differentiation program. Together, the results demonstrate that TLS-CHOP blocks adipocyte differentiation by directly preventing C/EBPbeta from binding to and transactivating its target genes. Moreover, they provide strong support for the thesis that a blockade to normal differentiation is an important aspect of the cancer process. PMID:9624148

  7. Celastrol Induces Cell Apoptosis and Inhibits the Expression of the AML1-ETO/C-KIT Oncoprotein in t(8;21) Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xianjun; Ruan, Xuzhi; Zhang, Jingxuan; Zhao, Qun

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to chemotherapy is a major challenge to improving overall survival in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). Therefore, the development of innovative therapies and the identification of more novel agents for AML are urgently needed. Celastrol, a compound extracted from the Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook, exerts anticancer activity. We investigated the effect of celastrol in the t(8;21) AML cell lines Kasumi-1 and SKNO-1. We demonstrated that inhibition of cell proliferation activated caspases and disrupted mitochondrial function. In addition, we found that celastrol downregulated the AML1-ETO fusion protein, therefore downregulating C-KIT kinases and inhibiting AKT, STAT3 and Erk1/2. These findings provide clear evidence that celastrol might provide clinical benefits to patients with t(8;21) leukemia. PMID:27144550

  8. Enhanced growth of primary tumors in cancer-prone mice after immunization against the mutant region of an inherited oncoprotein.

    PubMed

    Siegel, C T; Schreiber, K; Meredith, S C; Beck-Engeser, G B; Lancki, D W; Lazarski, C A; Fu, Y X; Rowley, D A; Schreiber, H

    2000-06-01

    One major objective of tumor immunologists is to prevent cancer development in individuals at high risk. (TG.AC x C57BL/6)F1 mice serve as a model for testing the feasibility of this objective. The mice carry in the germline a mutant ras oncogene that has an arginine at codon 12 instead of glycine present in the wild-type, and after physical (wounding) or chemical promotion, these mice have a high probability for developing papillomas that progress to cancer. Furthermore, F1 mice immunized with Arg(12) mutant ras peptide in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) develop T cells within 10 d that proliferate in vitro on stimulation with the Arg(12) mutant ras peptide. Within 14 d, these mice have delayed-type hypersensitivity to the peptide. Immunization with CFA alone or with a different Arg(12) mutant ras peptide in CFA induced neither response. To determine the effect of immunization on development of tumors, mice immunized 3 wk earlier were painted on the back with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate every 3 d for 8 wk. The time of appearance and the number of papillomas were about the same in immunized and control mice, but the tumors grew faster and became much larger in the mice immunized with the Arg(12) mutant ras peptide. Thus, the immunization failed to protect against growth of papillomas. The peptide-induced CD4(+) T cells preferentially recognized the peptide but not the native mutant ras protein. On the other hand, mice immunized with Arg(12) mutant ras peptide and bearing papillomas had serum antibodies that did bind native mutant ras protein. Together, these studies indicate that active immunization of cancer-prone individuals may result in immune responses that fail to eradicate mutant oncogene-expressing tumor cells, but rather induce a remarkable enhancement of tumor growth. PMID:10839809

  9. The oncoprotein and transcriptional regulator Bcl-3 governs plasticity and pathogenicity of auto-immune T cells

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Wanhu; Wang, Hongshan; Claudio, Estefania; Tassi, Ilaria; Ha, Hye-lin; Saret, Sun; Siebenlist, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Summary Bcl-3 is an atypical member of the IκB family that modulates transcription in the nucleus via association with p50 (NF-κB1) or p52 (NF-κB2) homodimers. Despite evidence attesting to the overall physiologic importance of Bcl-3, little is known about its cell-specific functions or mechanisms. Here we demonstrate a T cell-intrinsic function of Bcl-3 in autoimmunity. Bcl-3-deficient T cells failed to induce disease in T cell transfer-induced colitis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. The protection against disease correlated with a decrease in Th1 cells that produced the cytokines IFNγ- and GM-CSF, and an increase in Th17 cells. Although differentiation into Th1 cells was not impaired in the absence of Bcl-3, differentiated Th1 cells converted to less pathogenic Th17-like cells, in part via mechanisms involving expression of the RORγt transcription factor. Thus, Bcl-3 constrained Th1 cell plasticity and promoted pathogenicity by blocking conversion to Th17-like cells, revealing a unique type of regulation that shapes adaptive immunity. PMID:25367572

  10. Phosphorylation by Casein Kinase I Promotes the Turnover of the Mdm2 Oncoprotein via the SCFβ-TRCP Ubiquitin Ligase

    PubMed Central

    Inuzuka, Hiroyuki; Tseng, Alan; Gao, Daming; Zhai, Bo; Zhang, Qing; Shaik, Shavali; Wan, Lixin; Ang, Xiaolu L.; Mock, Caroline; Yin, Haoqiang; Stommel, Jayne M.; Gygi, Steven; Lahav, Galit; Asara, John; Jim Xiao, Zhi-Xiong; Kaelin, William G.; Harper, J. Wade; Wei, Wenyi

    2010-01-01

    Summary Mdm2 is the major negative regulator of the p53 pathway. Here we report that Mdm2 is rapidly degraded after DNA damage and that phosphorylation of Mdm2 by Casein Kinase I (CKI) at multiple sites triggers its interaction with, and subsequent ubiquitination and destruction, by SCFβ-TRCP. Inactivation of either β-TRCP or CKI results in accumulation of Mdm2 and decreased p53 activity, and resistance to apoptosis induced by DNA damaging-agents. Moreover, SCFβ-TRCP-dependent Mdm2 turnover also contributes to the control of repeated p53 pulses in response to persistent DNA damage. Our results provide insight into the signaling pathways controlling Mdm2 destruction and further suggest that compromised regulation of Mdm2 results in attenuated p53 activity, thereby facilitating tumor progression. PMID:20708156

  11. Overexpression of HPV16 E6/E7 mediated HIF-1α upregulation of GLUT1 expression in lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Rong; Hou, Wei-Jian; Zhao, Yu-Jie; Liu, Shu-Li; Qiu, Xue-Shan; Wang, En-Hua; Wu, Guang-Ping

    2016-04-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection may play an important role in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) development. However, some recent studies have proved that it was not directly associated with lung cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the underlying molecular mechanism that HPV16 regulate the expression of GLUT1 and may promote the development of lung cancer. HPV16, HIF-1α, and GLUT1 were detected in pleural effusions of patients with lung cancer (n = 95) and with benign lung disease (n = 55) by immunocytochemistry. Western blotting and qRT-PCR were used to detect the expression chances of HPV16 E6/E7, HIF-1α, and GLUT1 in lung cancer cells. HPV16, HIF-1α, and GLUT1 were significantly more likely to be expressed in the malignant group than in the benign group as detected by immunocytochemistry (ICC), and HIF-1α was significantly correlated with HPV16 or GLUT1 in the malignant group (P < 0.01). Expression changes of E6 and E7 significantly promoted the protein expression of HIF-1α, the expression of both protein and mRNA of GLUT1, but had no effect on the expression of HIF-1α mRNA in lung cancer cells. After inhibition of HIF-1α, it obviously downregulated the expression of both protein and mRNA of GLUT1 in lung cancer cells. E6 and E7 regulated the expression of GLUT1 may be due to the mediation of HIF-1α in lung cancer cells. These results suggest that both E6 and E7 play the important role in the regulation of Warburg effect and may be a valuable therapeutic target for HPV-related cancer. PMID:26508030

  12. T-Cell Response to Human Papillomavirus Type 58 L1, E6, and E7 Peptides in Women with Cleared Infection, Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia, or Invasive Cancer▿

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Paul K. S.; Liu, Shih-Jen; Cheung, T. H.; Yeo, Winnie; Ngai, S. M.; Cheung, Jo L. K.; Chong, Pele; Man, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Human papillomavirus type 58 (HPV-58) exists in a relatively high prevalence in certain parts of the world, including East Asia. This study examined the T-cell response to HPV-58 L1, E6, and E7 peptides among women with cleared infection, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2) or CIN3, or invasive cervical cancer (ICC). Peptides found to be reactive in the in vitro peptide binding assay or mouse-stimulating study were tested with a gamma interferon (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay to detect peptide-specific responses from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) collected from 91 HPV-58-infected women (32 with cleared infection, 16 CIN2, 15 CIN3, and 28 ICC). Four HLA-A11-restricted HPV-58 L1 peptides, located at amino acid positions 296 to 304, 327 to 335, 101 to 109, and 469 to 477, showed positive IFN-γ ELISPOT results and were mainly from women with cleared infection. Two HLA-A11-restricted E6 peptides (amino acid positions 64 to 72 and 94 to 102) and three HLA-A11-restricted E7 peptides (amino acid positions 78 to 86, 74 to 82, and 88 to 96) showed a positive response. A response to E6 and E7 peptides was mainly observed from subjects with CIN2 or above. One HLA-A2-restricted E6 peptide, located at amino acid position 99 to 107, elicited a positive response in two CIN2 subjects. One HLA-A24-restricted L1 peptide, located at amino acid position 468 to 476, also elicited a positive response in two CIN2 subjects. In summary, this study has identified a few immunogenic epitopes for HPV-58 E6 and E7 proteins. It is worthwhile to further investigate whether responses to these epitopes have a role in clearing an established cervical lesion. PMID:20668141

  13. Targeting the Human Papillomavirus E6 and E7 Oncogenes through Expression of the Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1 E2 Protein Stimulates Cellular Motility▿†

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Monique A.; Morreale, Richard J.; Akunuru, Shailaja; Kofron, Matthew; Zheng, Yi; Wells, Susanne I.

    2011-01-01

    Expression of the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncogenes is essential for the initiation and maintenance of cervical cancer. The repression of both was previously shown to result in activation of their respective tumor suppressor targets, p53 and pRb, and subsequent senescence induction in cervical cancer cells. Consequently, viral oncogene suppression is a promising approach for the treatment of HPV-positive tumors. One well-established method of E6/E7 repression involves the reexpression of the viral E2 protein which is usually deleted in HPV-positive cancer cells. Here, we show that, surprisingly, bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV1) E2 but not RNA interference-mediated E6/E7 repression in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells stimulates cellular motility and invasion. Migration correlated with the dynamic formation of cellular protrusions and was dependent upon cell-to-cell contact. While E2-expressing migratory cells were senescent, migration was not a general feature of cellular senescence or cell cycle arrest and was specifically observed in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells. Interestingly, E2-expressing cells not only were themselves motile but also conferred increased motility to admixed HeLa cervical cancer cells. Together, our data suggest that repression of the viral oncogenes by E2 stimulates the motility of E6/E7-targeted cells as well as adjacent nontargeted cancer cells, thus raising the possibility that E2 expression may unfavorably increase the local invasiveness of HPV-positive tumors. PMID:21835799

  14. Stereoselective chemo-enzymatic oxidation routes for (1R,3E,7E,11S,12S)-3,7,18-dolabellatriene

    PubMed Central

    Görner, Christian; Hirte, Max; Huber, Stephanie; Schrepfer, Patrick; Brück, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The diterpene (1R,3E,7E,11S,12S)-3,7,18-dolabellatriene from the marine brown alga Dilophus spiralis belongs to the dolabellanes natural product family and has antimicrobial activity against multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Recently, we generated a CotB2 diterpene synthase mutant (W288G), which instead of its native product cyclooctat-9-en-7-ol, generates (1R,3E,7E,11S,12S)-3,7,18-dolabellatriene. In vivo CotB2 W288G reconstitution in an Escherichia coli based terpene production system, allowed efficient production of this olefinic macrocycle. To diversify the 3,7,18-dolabellatriene bioactivity we evaluated chemical and enzymatic methods for selective oxidation. Epoxidation by acetic peracid, which was formed in situ by a lipase catalyzed reaction of acetic acid with H2O2, provided efficient access to two monooxidized dolabellanes and to a novel di-epoxidated dolabellane species. These compounds could act as synthons en-route to new dolabellanes with diversified bioactivities. Furthermore, we demonstrate the almost quantitative 3,7,18-dolabellatriene conversion into the new, non-natural compound (1R,3E,7E,11S,12S,18R)-dolabella-3,7-diene-20-ol by hydroboration–oxidation with an enantiomeric excess of 94%, for the first time. PMID:26528263

  15. APOBEC3A possesses anticancer and antiviral effects by differential inhibition of HPV E6 and E7 expression on cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shan; Li, Xiao; Qin, Junpu; Chen, Yuan; Liu, Longyang; Zhang, Dongqing; Wang, Minyi; Wang, Maocai; Zhang, Dikai

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide and is the leading cause of deaths in developing countries. Persistent infections with a subset of HPVs, called high-risk HPVs, including HPV16 and HPV18, are the primary cause of cervical cancer. The apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC) family of proteins is a group of cellular enzymes that catalyze the deamination of cytidine (C) to uracil (U) in single-stranded DNA/RNA, and functions as antiviral factors in the innate immune system of the host. Recent studies have shown that APOBEC3A could restrict certain DNA viruses, including HPVs. In this study, we confirmed that the expression of APOBEC3A was decreased in cervical cancer tissues. Furthermore, APOBEC3A inhibited the cervical cells proliferation, migration as well as invasion, and promoted apoptosis depend on cytidine deaminase. In addition, APOBEC3A decreased HPV16-E6, HPV16-E7 and HPV18-E6 depend on cytidine deaminase, but no effect on HPV18-E7. Therefore, we believe that, in cervical cancer cells, the expression of APOBEC3A possesses anticancer and antiviral effects by differential inhibition of HPV E6 and E7 expression depend on cytidine deaminase. PMID:26379844

  16. Human papillomavirus E5 oncoproteins bind the A4 endoplasmic reticulum protein to regulate proliferative ability upon differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kotnik Halavaty, Katarina; Regan, Jennifer; Mehta, Kavi; Laimins, Laimonis

    2014-03-15

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) infect stratified epithelia and link their life cycles to epithelial differentiation. The HPV E5 protein plays a role in the productive phase of the HPV life cycle but its mechanism of action is still unclear. We identify a new binding partner of E5, A4, using a membrane-associated yeast-two hybrid system. The A4 protein co-localizes with HPV 31 E5 in perinuclear regions and forms complexes with E5 and Bap31. In normal keratinocytes, A4 is found primarily in basal cells while in HPV positive cells high levels of A4 are seen in both undifferentiated and differentiated cells. Reduction of A4 expression by shRNAs, enhanced HPV genome amplification and increased cell proliferation ability following differentiation but this was not seen in cells lacking E5. Our studies suggest that the A4 protein is an important E5 binding partner that plays a role in regulating cell proliferation ability upon differentiation. - Highlights: • A4 associates with HPV 31 E5 proteins. • A4 is localized to endoplasmic reticulum. • HPV proteins induce A4 expression in suprabasal layers of stratified epithelium. • E5 is important for proliferation ability of differentiating HPV positive cells.

  17. The Hippo/YAP pathway interacts with EGFR signaling and HPV oncoproteins to regulate cervical cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    He, Chunbo; Mao, Dagan; Hua, Guohua; Lv, Xiangmin; Chen, Xingcheng; Angeletti, Peter C; Dong, Jixin; Remmenga, Steven W; Rodabaugh, Kerry J; Zhou, Jin; Lambert, Paul F; Yang, Peixin; Davis, John S; Wang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The Hippo signaling pathway controls organ size and tumorigenesis through a kinase cascade that inactivates Yes-associated protein (YAP). Here, we show that YAP plays a central role in controlling the progression of cervical cancer. Our results suggest that YAP expression is associated with a poor prognosis for cervical cancer. TGF-α and amphiregulin (AREG), via EGFR, inhibit the Hippo signaling pathway and activate YAP to induce cervical cancer cell proliferation and migration. Activated YAP allows for up-regulation of TGF-α, AREG, and EGFR, forming a positive signaling loop to drive cervical cancer cell proliferation. HPV E6 protein, a major etiological molecule of cervical cancer, maintains high YAP protein levels in cervical cancer cells by preventing proteasome-dependent YAP degradation to drive cervical cancer cell proliferation. Results from human cervical cancer genomic databases and an accepted transgenic mouse model strongly support the clinical relevance of the discovered feed-forward signaling loop. Our study indicates that combined targeting of the Hippo and the ERBB signaling pathways represents a novel therapeutic strategy for prevention and treatment of cervical cancer. PMID:26417066

  18. The effects of amino acid substitution at position E7 (residue 64) on the kinetics of ligand binding to sperm whale myoglobin.

    PubMed

    Rohlfs, R J; Mathews, A J; Carver, T E; Olson, J S; Springer, B A; Egeberg, K D; Sligar, S G

    1990-02-25

    Association and dissociation rate constants were measured for O2, CO, and alkyl isocyanide binding to a set of genetically engineered sperm whale myoglobins with site-specific mutations at residue 64 (the E7 helical position). Native His was replaced by Gly, Val, Leu, Met, Phe, Gln, Arg, and Asp using the synthetic gene and expression system developed by Springer and Sligar (Springer, B. A., and Sligar, S. G. (1987) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84, 8961-8965). The His64----Gly substitution produced a sterically unhindered myoglobin that exhibited ligand binding parameters similar to those of chelated protoheme suspended in soap micelles. The order of the association rate constants for isocyanide binding to the mutant myoglobins was Gly64 (approximately 10(7) M-1 s-1) much greater than Val64 approximately Leu64 (approximately 10(6) M-1 s-1) greater than Met64 greater than Phe64 approximately His64 approximately Gln64 (10(5)-10(3) M-1 s-1) and indicates that the barrier to isocyanide entry into the distal pocket is primarily steric in nature. The bimolecular rates of methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, and n-butyl isocyanide binding to the His64----Arg and His64----Asp mutants were abnormally high (1-5 x 10(6) M-1 s-1), suggesting that Arg64 and Asp64 adopt conformations with the charged side chains pointing out toward the solvent creating a less hindered pathway for ligand binding. In contrast to the isocyanide data, the association rate constants for O2 and CO binding exhibited little dependence on the size of the E7 side chain. The values for all the mutants except His64----Gln approached or were larger than those for chelated model heme (i.e. approximately 1 x 10(8) M-1 s-1 for O2 and approximately 1 x 10(7) M-1 s-1 for CO), whereas the corresponding rate parameters for myoglobin containing either Gln64 or His64 were 5- to 10-fold smaller. This result suggests that a major kinetic barrier for O2 and CO binding to native myoglobin may involve disruption of polar interactions between His64 and water molecules found in the distal pocket of deoxymyoglobin. Finally, the rate and equilibrium parameters for O2 and CO binding to the His64----Gln, His64----Val, and His64----Leu mutants were compared to those reported previously for Asian elephant myoglobin (Gln-E7), Aplysia limacina myoglobin (Val-E7), and monomeric Hb II from Glycera dibranchiata (Leu-E7). PMID:2303446

  19. Ponatinib inhibits polyclonal drug-resistant KIT oncoproteins and shows therapeutic potential in heavily pretreated gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) patients

    PubMed Central

    Anjum, Rana; Vodala, Sadanand; Schrock, Alexa; Zhou, Tianjun; Serrano, Cesar; Eilers, Grant; Zhu, Meijun; Ketzer, Julia; Wardwell, Scott; Ning, Yaoyu; Song, Youngchul; Kohlmann, Anna; Wang, Frank; Clackson, Tim; Heinrich, Michael C.; Fletcher, Jonathan A.; Bauer, Sebastian; Rivera, Victor M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose KIT is the major oncogenic driver of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Imatinib, sunitinib and regorafenib are approved therapies; however, efficacy is often limited by the acquisition of polyclonal secondary resistance mutations in KIT, with those located in the activation (A) loop (exons 17/18) being particularly problematic. Here we explored the KIT inhibitory activity of ponatinib in preclinical models and describe initial characterization of its activity in GIST patients. Experimental Design The cellular and in vivo activities of ponatinib, imatinib, sunitinib and regorafenib against mutant KIT were evaluated using an accelerated mutagenesis assay and a panel of engineered and GIST-derived cell lines. The ponatinib-KIT co-structure was also determined. The clinical activity of ponatinib was examined in three GIST patients previously treated with all 3 FDA-approved agents. Results In engineered and GIST-derived cell lines, ponatinib potently inhibited KIT exon 11 primary mutants and a range of secondary mutants, including those within the A-loop. Ponatinib also induced regression in engineered and GIST-derived tumor models containing these secondary mutations. In a mutagenesis screen, 40 nM ponatinib was sufficient to suppress outgrowth of all secondary mutants except V654A, which was suppressed at 80 nM. This inhibitory profile could be rationalized based on structural analyses. Ponatinib (30 mg daily) displayed encouraging clinical activity in two of three GIST patients. Conclusion Ponatinib possesses potent activity against most major clinically-relevant KIT mutants, and has demonstrated preliminary evidence of activity in patients with refractory GIST. These data strongly support further evaluation of ponatinib in GIST patients. PMID:25239608

  20. EVI1 oncoprotein interacts with a large and complex network of proteins and integrates signals through protein phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Bard-Chapeau, Emilie A; Gunaratne, Jayantha; Kumar, Pankaj; Chua, Belinda Q; Muller, Julius; Bard, Frederic A; Blackstock, Walter; Copeland, Neal G; Jenkins, Nancy A

    2013-07-30

    Ecotropic viral integration site-1 (EVI1) is an oncogenic zinc finger transcription factor whose expression is frequently up-regulated in myeloid leukemia and epithelial cancers. To better understand the mechanisms underlying EVI1-associated disease, we sought to define the EVI1 interactome in cancer cells. By using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics, we could confidently assign 78 proteins as EVI1-interacting partners for FLAG-tagged EVI1. Subsequently, we showed that 22 of 27 tested interacting proteins could coimmunoprecipitate with endogenous EVI1 protein, which represented an 81.5% validation rate. Additionally, by comparing the stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) data with high-throughput yeast two hybrid results, we showed that five of these proteins interacted directly with EVI1. Functional classification of EVI1-interacting proteins revealed associations with cellular transcription machinery; modulators of transcription; components of WNT, TGF-β, and RAS pathways; and proteins regulating DNA repair, recombination, and mitosis. We also identified EVI1 phosphorylation sites by MS analysis and showed that Ser538 and Ser858 can be phosphorylated and dephosphorylated by two EVI1 interactome proteins, casein kinase II and protein phosphatase-1α. Finally, mutations that impair EVI1 phosphorylation at these sites reduced EVI1 DNA binding through its C-terminal zinc finger domain and induced cancer cell proliferation. Collectively, these combinatorial proteomic approaches demonstrate that EVI1 interacts with large and complex networks of proteins, which integrate signals from various different signaling pathways important for oncogenesis. Comprehensive analysis of the EVI1 interactome has thus provided an important resource for dissecting the molecular mechanisms of EVI1-associated disease. PMID:23858473

  1. Cell-type-specific separate regulation of the E6 and E7 promoters of human papillomavirus type 6a by the viral transcription factor E2.

    PubMed Central

    Rapp, B; Pawellek, A; Kraetzer, F; Schaefer, M; May, C; Purdie, K; Grassmann, K; Iftner, T

    1997-01-01

    Gene expression of human papillomaviruses (HPV) is tightly controlled by cellular factors and by the virally encoded E2 protein through binding to distinct sites within the regulatory noncoding region. While for the high-risk genital papillomaviruses a single promoter drives the expression of all early genes, a second promoter present in the E6 open reading frame of the low-risk HPV type 6 (HPV6) would allow an independent regulation of E6 and E7 oncogene expression. In this report, we provide the first evidence that E2 regulates both early promoters of HPV6 separately and we show that promoter usage as well as E2 regulation is cell type dependent. Among the different epithelial cell lines tested, only RTS3b cells allowed an expression pattern similar to that observed in naturally infected benign condylomas. While the E6 promoter was repressed by E2 to 50% of its basal activity, the E7 promoter was simultaneously stimulated up to fivefold. Activation of the E7 promoter was mediated predominantly by the binding of E2 to the most promoter-distal E2 binding site. Repression of the E6 promoter depended on the presence of two intact promoter-proximal binding sites. Mutation of both of these repressor binding sites reversed the effect of E2 on the E6 promoter from repression to activation. In contrast, in HT3 cells we observed an E2-mediated activation of the E6 promoter in the context of the wild-type noncoding region. This indicated that repression of the E6 promoter by binding of E2 to both promoter-proximal binding sites did not function in the cellular environment provided by HT3 cells. These data suggest that the separate regulation of the E6 and E7 promoters of HPV6 is mediated through successive occupation of binding sites with different affinities for E2 depending on the intracellular concentration of E2 and on the cellular environment provided by the infected cell. PMID:9261424

  2. RET/PTC-induced cell growth is mediated in part by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation: evidence for molecular and functional interactions between RET and EGFR.

    PubMed

    Croyle, Michelle; Akeno, Nagako; Knauf, Jeffrey A; Fabbro, Doriano; Chen, Xu; Baumgartner, Jacqueline E; Lane, Heidi A; Fagin, James A

    2008-06-01

    RET/PTC rearrangements are one of the genetic hallmarks of papillary thyroid carcinomas. RET/PTC oncoproteins lack extracellular or transmembrane domains, and activation takes place through constitutive dimerization mediated through coiled-coil motifs in the NH(2) terminus of the chimeric protein. Based on the observation that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase inhibitor PKI166 decreased RET/PTC kinase autophosphorylation and activation of downstream effectors in thyroid cells, despite lacking activity on the purified RET kinase, we proceeded to examine possible functional interactions between RET/PTC and EGFR. Conditional activation of RET/PTC oncoproteins in thyroid PCCL3 cells markedly induced expression and phosphorylation of EGFR, which was mediated in part through mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. RET and EGFR were found to coimmunoprecipitate. The ability of RET to form a complex with EGFR was not dependent on recruitment of Shc or on their respective kinase activities. Ligand-induced activation of EGFR resulted in phosphorylation of a kinase-dead RET, an effect that was entirely blocked by PKI166. These effects were biologically relevant, as the EGFR kinase inhibitors PKI166, gefitinib, and AEE788 inhibited cell growth induced by various constitutively active mutants of RET in thyroid cancer cells as well as NIH3T3 cells. These data indicate that EGFR contributes to RET kinase activation, signaling, and growth stimulation and may therefore be an attractive therapeutic target in RET-induced neoplasms. PMID:18519677

  3. Amolimogene bepiplasmid, a DNA-based therapeutic encoding the E6 and E7 epitopes from HPV, for cervical and anal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Salas, Luis M

    2008-12-01

    MGI Pharma Biologics is developing amolimogene bepiplasmid as a potential therapy for HPV-associated diseases, including cervical dysplasia. Amolimogene bepiplasmid is a polymer-encapsulated DNA vaccine consisting of a plasmid expressing a chimeric peptide comprising immunogenic hybrid epitopes from HPV-16 and HPV-18 E6 and E7 proteins and an HLA-DRalpha intracellular trafficking peptide. In phase I and I/II clinical trials of ZYC-101 (the precursor of amolimogene bepiplasmid containing a single epitope from HPV-16 E7) in patients with cervical dysplasia and patients with anal dysplasia, ZYC-101 produced significant histological regression and was safe and well tolerated. Results from this trial led to a phase II clinical trial of amolimogene bepiplasmid in patients with cervical dysplasia. This phase II trial demonstrated that treatment with amolimogene bepiplasmid resolution of disease was not significantly superior to placebo except in the predefined group of women who were less than 25 years of age. A phase II/III clinical trial was ongoing at the time of publication examining amolimogene bepiplasmid in this patient population. PMID:19051140

  4. Transcription of human papillomavirus type 16 early genes in a cervical cancer and a cancer-derived cell line and identification of the E7 protein.

    PubMed Central

    Smotkin, D; Wettstein, F O

    1986-01-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 DNA and RNA were characterized in the cervical cancer-derived CaSki cell line, which contains only integrated DNA, and in a cervical cancer, which contains predominantly plasmid DNA. In both, a major RNA can code for the early open reading frame E7 and a minor one can code for E6. The cervical cancer, but not the CaSki cell line, contains a minor RNA that can code for an intact E2 protein, and this may relate to the continued presence of plasmid DNA. The RNA mapping data suggest that the poly(A)+ RNA is transcribed from a minor fraction of the several hundred gene copies present, and in the cervical cancer these genomes appear to be integrated. The E7 protein has been identified in CaSki cells and the prevalence of its mRNA suggests a possible function in progression to, or long-term maintenance of, the malignant state. Images PMID:3014503

  5. Oncoprotein protein kinase antibody kit

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2008-12-23

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  6. Prognostic Value of HPV E6/E7 mRNA Assay in Women with Negative Colposcopy or CIN1 Histology Result: A Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Benevolo, Maria; Vocaturo, Amina; Caraceni, Donatella; Ciccocioppo, Lucia; Frega, Antonio; Terrenato, Irene; Zappacosta, Roberta

    2013-01-01

    Pap test, and especially HPV DNA test, identify a large group of women who do not have any clinically relevant lesions, i.e., CIN2+ (Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia grade 2 or worse), but who are at greater risk of getting lesions in the future. The follow up of these women needs new biomarkers with prognostic value. The objective of this study is to evaluate the prognostic value of E6/E7 mRNA over-expression assay (PreTect HPV-Proofer, Norchip) for 5 HR-HPV types (16, 18, 31, 33, and 45) for progression to CIN2+ after a negative colposcopy. This prospective study, conducted at four Italian centres, enrolled 673 women with either a negative colposcopy or a negative or CIN1 histology. The clinical end-point was histological confirmation of CIN2+. Women were classified at baseline according to mRNA results and managed according to local colposcopy protocols. At least one conclusive follow-up test was obtained for 347 women (25 months average lapse since recruitment, range 5–74). Only seven CIN2+ were detected during follow up, three among the 82 women positive for mRNA at baseline, two among the 250 negative (Fisher exact test, p = 0.02), and two among the 12 with an invalid test. Absolute CIN2+ risk was 6.7/1,000 person/years in the whole cohort. The absolute CIN2+ risk was 18.4/1,000 person/years and 3.6/1,000 person/years in mRNA-positive and mRNA-negative women, respectively. In conclusion, E6/E7 mRNA over-expression appears to be a good candidate as a prognostic biomarker to manage HR-HPV DNA-positive women with negative colposcopy or histology, particularly in order to decrease follow-up intensity in those who are negative. PMID:23460880

  7. The E7 proteins of the nononcogenic human papillomavirus type 6b (HPV-6b) and of the oncogenic HPV-16 differ in retinoblastoma protein binding and other properties.

    PubMed Central

    Gage, J R; Meyers, C; Wettstein, F O

    1990-01-01

    The E7 early viral protein of the oncogenic human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) has been strongly implicated in the maintenance of the malignant phenotype in cervical cancers and cancer-derived cell lines. HPV-16 E7 is a nuclear phosphoprotein that can cooperate with ras to transform baby rat kidney cells, transactivates the adenovirus E2 promoter, and binds to the retinoblastoma (RB) protein. The E7 phosphoprotein of the nononcogenic HPV-6b, which is generally associated with benign genital warts, is similar to the HPV-16 E7 in amino acid sequence but differs dramatically in migration in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels, sedimentation in nondenaturing glycerol gradients, and the ability to bind the RB protein. Our results indicate that the RB protein preferentially binds the phosphorylated form of HPV-6b E7, which comprises a minor fraction of the total E7 expressed in transiently transfected COS-7 cells. These characteristics may help to explain the difference in the oncogenic potential of the oncogenic and nononcogenic types of genital papillomaviruses. Images PMID:2153238

  8. Long-term culture and immortalization of epithelial cells from normal adult human pancreatic ducts transfected by the E6E7 gene of human papilloma virus 16.

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, T.; Duguid, W. P.; Rosenberg, L.; Viallet, J.; Galloway, D. A.; Tsao, M. S.

    1996-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal cancers in humans. The majority of these cancers arise from the pancreatic duct epithelium. Research into the pathogenesis of pancreatic carcinoma has largely relied on animal models. In vitro models of pancreatic carcinogenesis using propagable cultured epithelial cells derived from the pancreatic ducts of rats and hamsters have been described. A human model, however, has been nonexistent due to the unavailability of propagable cultured duct epithelial cells derived from normal human pancreas. We report here a reproducible method for the long-term culture of pancreatic duct epithelial cells derived from normal and benign adult human pancreata by infection with a retrovirus containing the E6 and E7 genes of the human papilloma virus 16. One of these cell lines has become immortal and has propagated continuously for more than 20 passages. They remain anchorage dependent in their growth and nontumorigenic in nude mice. These cell lines and the methodology described here to establish them may provide new avenues for in vitro studies of the roles played by duct epithelium in human pancreatic diseases and cancers. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8669463

  9. Successful Rechallenge with Imatinib in a Patient with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Who Previously Experienced Imatinib Mesylate Induced Pneumonitis

    PubMed Central

    Go, Seong Woo; Kim, Boo Kyeong; Lee, Sung Hak; Kim, Tae-Jung; Huh, Joo Yeon; Lee, Jong Min; Hah, Jick Hwan; Kim, Dong Whi; Cho, Min Jung; Kim, Tae Wan

    2013-01-01

    Imatinib mesylate is a targeted therapy that acts by inhibiting tyrosine kinase of the bcr-abl fusion oncoprotein, which is specific to chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and the c-transmembrane receptor, which is specific to gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Interstitial pneumonitis is a rare adverse event of imatinib therapy. It is clinically difficult to distinguish from infectious pneumonia, which can frequently occur due to the underlying disease. The standard treatment for imatinib-induced pneumonitis is to discontinue the medication and optionally administer corticosteroids. However, there are a few cases of successful retrial with imatinib. We describe a case of successful rechallenge of imatinib in a patient with imatinib-induced interstitial pneumonitis and CML without a recurrence of the underlying disease after 3 months of follow-up. PMID:24416057

  10. Crystal Diagnostics Xpress™ E7 STEC Kit for the Rapid Multiplex Detection of E. coli O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weidong; Stumpf, Curtis H; Bullard, Brian; Kuzenko, Stephanie; Niehaus, Gary D

    2015-01-01

    The Crystal Diagnostics (CDx) Xpress E7 STEC kit is a rapid and sensitive detection assay for the detection of Escherichia coli O157 and six non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (serogroups O26, O45, O1O3, O111, O121, and O145, collectively referred to as STEC) at 1 CFU/325 g of raw ground beef and raw beef trim, or 200 g of spinach. The system comprises an automatic Crystal Diagnostics Xpress System Reader that integrates immunochemical and optical processes for the liquid crystal-based detection of microorganisms, a CDx BioCassette that incorporates antibody-coupled microspheres and liquid crystal for selective identification of the intended microbe, and additional commercially available components. The Crystal Diagnostics Xpress System(TM) combines proprietary liquid crystal technology with antibody-coated paramagnetic microspheres to selectively capture and detect STEC from food matrixes. The Xpress System expeditiously (9.5 h enrichment) provides the sensitivity and specificity of the U. S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service and the U. S. Food and Drug Administration reference methods in screening as low as 1 STEC CFU/test portion. The inclusivity validation demonstrated detection of 53 of 54 STEC test strains. Shelf life testing of the antibody-coated microspheres and other Crystal Diagnostic consumables indicated that all materials were stable for a minimum of 3 months (ongoing), and lot-to-lot testing demonstrated consistent results between lots (data not shown). The internal and independent laboratory tests demonstrate that the method is rapid and sensitive for screening of the target STEC. PMID:26651567

  11. Integrated analyses of genome-wide DNA occupancy and expression profiling identify key genes and pathways involved in cellular transformation by the Marek's disease virus oncoprotein Meq

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD) is an economically significant disease in chickens caused by the highly oncogenic Marek’s disease virus (MDV). A major unanswered question is the mechanism of MDV-induced tumor formation. Meq, a bZIP transcription factor discovered in the 1990s, is largely attributed for viral o...

  12. Late Intervention with anti-BRAFV600E Therapy Induces Tumor Regression in an Orthotopic Mouse Model of Human Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nehs, Matthew A.; Nucera, Carmelo; Nagarkatti, Sushruta S.; Sadow, Peter M.; Morales-Garcia, Dieter; Hodin, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Human anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a lethal disease with an advanced clinical presentation and median survival of 3 months. The BRAFV600E oncoprotein is a potent transforming factor that causes human thyroid cancer cell progression in vitro and in vivo; therefore, we sought to target this oncoprotein in a late intervention model of ATC in vivo. We used the human ATC cell line 8505c, which harbors the BRAFV600E and TP53R248G mutations. Immunocompromised mice were randomized to receive the selective anti-BRAFV600E inhibitor, PLX4720, or vehicle by oral gavage 28 d after tumor implantation, 1 wk before all animals typically die due to widespread metastatic lung disease and neck compressive symptoms in this model. Mice were euthanized weekly to evaluate tumor volume and metastases. Control mice showed progressive tumor growth and lung metastases by 35 d after tumor implantation. At that time, all control mice had large tumors, were cachectic, and were euthanized due to their tumor-related weight loss. PLX4720-treated mice, however, showed a significant decrease in tumor volume and lung metastases in addition to a reversal of tumor-related weight loss. Mouse survival was extended to 49 d in PLX4720-treated animals. PLX4720 treatment inhibited cell cycle progression from 28 d to 49 d in vivo. PLX4720 induces striking tumor regression and reversal of cachexia in an in vivo model of advanced thyroid cancer that harbors the BRAFV600E mutation. PMID:22202162

  13. Biosynthesis of the Cyanogenic Glucosides Linamarin and Lotaustralin in Cassava: Isolation, Biochemical Characterization, and Expression Pattern of CYP71E7, the Oxime-Metabolizing Cytochrome P450 Enzyme1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Jrgensen, Kirsten; Morant, Anne Vinther; Morant, Marc; Jensen, Niels Bjerg; Olsen, Carl Erik; Kannangara, Rubini; Motawia, Mohammed Saddik; Mller, Birger Lindberg; Bak, Sren

    2011-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a eudicotyledonous plant that produces the valine- and isoleucine-derived cyanogenic glucosides linamarin and lotaustralin with the corresponding oximes and cyanohydrins as key intermediates. CYP79 enzymes catalyzing amino acid-to-oxime conversion in cyanogenic glucoside biosynthesis are known from several plants including cassava. The enzyme system converting oxime into cyanohydrin has previously only been identified in the monocotyledonous plant great millet (Sorghum bicolor). Using this great millet CYP71E1 sequence as a query in a Basic Local Alignment Search Tool-p search, a putative functional homolog that exhibited an approximately 50% amino acid sequence identity was found in cassava. The corresponding full-length cDNA clone was obtained from a plasmid library prepared from cassava shoot tips and was assigned CYP71E7. Heterologous expression of CYP71E7 in yeast afforded microsomes converting 2-methylpropanal oxime (valine-derived oxime) and 2-methylbutanal oxime (isoleucine-derived oxime) to the corresponding cyanohydrins, which dissociate into acetone and 2-butanone, respectively, and hydrogen cyanide. The volatile ketones were detected as 2.4-dinitrophenylhydrazone derivatives by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A KS of approximately 0.9 ?m was determined for 2-methylbutanal oxime based on substrate-binding spectra. CYP71E7 exhibits low specificity for the side chain of the substrate and catalyzes the conversion of aliphatic and aromatic oximes with turnovers of approximately 21, 17, 8, and 1 min?1 for the oximes derived from valine, isoleucine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine, respectively. A second paralog of CYP71E7 was identified by database searches and showed approximately 90% amino acid sequence identity. In tube in situ polymerase chain reaction showed that in nearly unfolded leaves, the CYP71E7 paralogs are preferentially expressed in specific cells in the endodermis and in most cells in the first cortex cell layer. In fully unfolded leaves, the expression is pronounced in the cortex cell layer just beside the epidermis and in specific cells in the vascular tissue cortex cells. Thus, the transcripts of the CYP71E7 paralogs colocalize with CYP79D1 and CYP79D2. We conclude that CYP71E7 is the oxime-metabolizing enzyme in cyanogenic glucoside biosynthesis in cassava. PMID:21045121

  14. Sequential Cisplatin Therapy and Vaccination with HPV16 E6E7L2 Fusion Protein in Saponin Adjuvant GPI-0100 for the Treatment of a Model HPV16+ Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Shiwen; Wang, Joshua W.; Karanam, Balasubramanyam; Wang, Chenguang; Huh, Warner K.; Alvarez, Ronald D.; Pai, Sara I.; Hung, Chien-fu; Wu, T. -C.; Roden, Richard B. S.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies suggest that responses to HPV16 E6E7L2 fusion protein (TA-CIN) vaccination alone are modest, and GPI-0100 is a well-tolerated, potent adjuvant. Here we sought to optimize both the immunogenicity of TA-CIN via formulation with GPI-0100 and treatment of HPV16+ cancer by vaccination after cisplatin chemotherapy. HPV16 neutralizing serum antibody titers, CD4+ T cell proliferative and E6/E7-specific CD8+ T cell responses were significantly enhanced when mice were vaccinated subcutaneously (s.c.) or intramuscularly (i.m.) with TA-CIN formulated with GPI-0100. Vaccination was tested for therapy of mice bearing syngeneic HPV16 E6/E7+ tumors (TC-1) either in the lung or subcutaneously. Mice treated with TA-CIN/GPI-0100 vaccination exhibited robust E7-specific CD8+ T cell responses, which were associated with reduced tumor burden in the lung, whereas mice receiving either component alone were similar to controls. Since vaccination alone was not sufficient for cure, mice bearing s.c. TC-1 tumor were first treated with two doses of cisplatin and then vaccinated. Vaccination with TA-CIN/GPI-0100 i.m. substantially retarded tumor growth and extended survival after cisplatin therapy. Injection of TA-CIN alone, but not GPI-0100, into the tumor (i.t.) was similarly efficacious after cisplatin therapy, but the mice eventually succumbed. However, tumor regression and extended remission was observed in 80% of the mice treated with cisplatin and then intra-tumoral TA-CIN/GPI-0100 vaccination. These mice also exhibited robust E7-specific CD8+ T cell and HPV16 neutralizing antibody responses. Thus formulation of TA-CIN with GPI-0100 and intra-tumoral delivery after cisplatin treatment elicits potent therapeutic responses in a murine model of HPV16+ cancer. PMID:25560237

  15. Epstein-Barr virus oncoprotein LMP1 mediates survivin upregulation by p53 contributing to G1/S cell cycle progression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    GUO, LILI; TANG, MIN; YANG, LIFANG; XIAO, LANBO; BODE, ANN M.; LI, LILI; DONG, ZIGANG; CAO, YA

    2012-01-01

    Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is an important oncogenic protein encoded by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and plays an important role in the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Our previous study has shown that p53 protein was accumulated and phosphorylated in NPC, implying its transcription factor activity in NPC tumorigenesis. However, the biological function and potential downstream target of p53 mediated by LMP1 in NPC remain unknown. In this study, we found that LMP1 simultaneously induced upregulation of both p53 and survivin at the protein level, as well as their phosphorylation. Knockdown of p53 by siRNA revealed that LMP1 increased survivin expression by p53 directly. Furthermore, we found that LMP1 upregulated survivin by p53 at the transcriptional level by increasing p53-mediated survivin promoter activity and DNA binding activity. Moreover, LMP1 induced the co-localization of p53 and survivin in the nucleus, conferring to their related functions in NPC tumorigenesis. We further found that p53 promoted G1/S cell cycle progression, but did not induce apoptosis in LMP1-positive NPC cells. Collectively, these findings suggest that p53 acting as a transcription factor promotes the transcriptional activity of survivin, and further increases its protein expression and phosphorylation in the regulation of LMP1, thus, leading to G1/S cell cycle progression with no effect on apoptosis in NPC tumorigenesis. PMID:22266808

  16. Epstein–Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C interact with p73: Interplay between a viral oncoprotein and cellular tumor suppressor

    SciTech Connect

    Sahu, Sushil Kumar; Mohanty, Suchitra; Kumar, Amit; Kundu, Chanakya N.; Verma, Subhash C.; Choudhuri, Tathagata

    2014-01-05

    The p73 protein has structural and functional homology with the tumor suppressor p53, which plays an important role in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and DNA repair. The p73 locus encodes both a tumor suppressor (TAp73) and a putative oncogene (ΔNp73). p73 May play a significant role in p53-deficient lymphomas infected with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV). EBV produces an asymptomatic infection in the majority of the global population, but it is associated with several human B-cell malignancies. The EBV-encoded Epstein–Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C) is thought to disrupt the cell cycle checkpoint by interacting directly with p53 family proteins. Doxorubicin, a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent, induces apoptosis through p53 and p73 signaling such that the lowΔNp73 level promotes the p73-mediated intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. In this report, we investigated the mechanism by which EBV infection counters p73α-induced apoptosis through EBNA3C. - Highlights: • EBV-encoded EBNA3C suppresses doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in B-cell lymphomas. • EBNA3C binds to p73 to suppress its apoptotic effect. • EBNA3C maintains latency by regulating downstream mitochondrial pathways.

  17. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C interact with p73: Interplay between a viral oncoprotein and cellular tumor suppressor.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Sushil Kumar; Mohanty, Suchitra; Kumar, Amit; Kundu, Chanakya N; Verma, Subhash C; Choudhuri, Tathagata

    2014-01-01

    The p73 protein has structural and functional homology with the tumor suppressor p53, which plays an important role in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and DNA repair. The p73 locus encodes both a tumor suppressor (TAp73) and a putative oncogene (ΔNp73). p73 May play a significant role in p53-deficient lymphomas infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). EBV produces an asymptomatic infection in the majority of the global population, but it is associated with several human B-cell malignancies. The EBV-encoded Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C) is thought to disrupt the cell cycle checkpoint by interacting directly with p53 family proteins. Doxorubicin, a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent, induces apoptosis through p53 and p73 signaling such that the lowΔNp73 level promotes the p73-mediated intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. In this report, we investigated the mechanism by which EBV infection counters p73α-induced apoptosis through EBNA3C. PMID:24314664

  18. Niclosamide, an anti-helminthic molecule, downregulates the retroviral oncoprotein Tax and pro-survival Bcl-2 proteins in HTLV-1-transformed T lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Di; Yuan, Yunsheng; Chen, Li; Liu, Xin; Belani, Chandra; Cheng, Hua

    2015-08-14

    Adult T cell leukemia and lymphoma (ATL) is a highly aggressive form of hematological malignancy and is caused by chronic infection of human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). The viral genome encodes an oncogenic protein, Tax, which plays a key role in transactivating viral gene transcription and in deregulating cellular oncogenic signaling to promote survival, proliferation and transformation of virally infected T cells. Hence, Tax is a desirable therapeutic target, particularly at early stage of HTLV-1-mediated oncogenesis. We here show that niclosamide, an anti-helminthic molecule, induced apoptosis of HTLV-1-transformed T cells. Niclosamide facilitated degradation of the Tax protein in proteasome. Consistent with niclosamide-mediated Tax degradation, this compound inhibited activities of MAPK/ERK1/2 and IκB kinases. In addition, niclosamide downregulated Stat3 and pro-survival Bcl-2 family members such as Mcl-1 and repressed the viral gene transcription of HTLV-1 through induction of Tax degradation. Since Tax, Stat3 and Mcl-1 are crucial molecules for promoting survival and growth of HTLV-1-transformed T cells, our findings demonstrate a novel mechanism of niclosamide in inducing Tax degradation and downregulating various cellular pro-survival molecules, thereby promoting apoptosis of HTLV-1-associated leukemia cells. - Highlights: • Niclosamide is a promising therapeutic candidate for adult T cell leukemia. • Niclosamide employs a novel mechanism through proteasomal degradation of Tax. • Niclosamide downregulates certain cellular pro-survival molecules.

  19. Adenovirus E1A, simian virus 40 tumor antigen, and human papillomavirus E7 protein share the capacity to disrupt the interaction between transcription factor E2F and the retinoblastoma gene product.

    PubMed Central

    Chellappan, S; Kraus, V B; Kroger, B; Munger, K; Howley, P M; Phelps, W C; Nevins, J R

    1992-01-01

    The adenovirus E1A gene product, the simian virus 40 large tumor antigen, and the human papillomavirus E7 protein share a short amino acid sequence that constitutes a domain required for the transforming activity of these proteins. These sequences are also required for these proteins to bind to the retinoblastoma gene product (pRb). Recent experiments have shown that E1A can dissociate complexes containing the transcription factor E2F bound to pRb, dependent on this conserved sequence element. We now show that the E7 protein and the simian virus 40 large tumor antigen can dissociate the E2F-pRb complex, dependent on this conserved sequence element. We also find that the E2F-pRb complex is absent in various human cervical carcinoma cell lines that either express the E7 protein or harbor an RB1 mutation, suggesting that the loss of the E2F-pRb interaction may be an important aspect in human cervical carcinogenesis. We suggest that the ability of E1A, the simian virus 40 large tumor antigen, and E7 to dissociate the E2F-pRb complex may be a common activity of these viral proteins that has evolved to stimulate quiescent cells into a proliferating state so that viral replication can proceed efficiently. In circumstances in which a lytic infection does not proceed, the consequence of this action may be to initiate the oncogenic process in a manner analogous to the mutation of the RB1 gene. Images PMID:1316611

  20. Interleukin-21 regulates expression of key Epstein-Barr virus oncoproteins, EBNA2 and LMP1, in infected human B cells

    SciTech Connect

    Konforte, Danijela Simard, Nathalie; Paige, Christopher J.

    2008-04-25

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) persists for the life of the host by accessing the long-lived memory B cell pool. It has been proposed that EBV uses different combinations of viral proteins, known as latency types, to drive infected B cells to make the transition from resting B cells to memory cells. This process is normally antigen-driven. A major unresolved question is what factors coordinate expression of EBV latency proteins. We have recently described novel type III latency EBV{sup +} B cell lines (OCI-BCLs) that were induced to differentiate into late plasmablasts/early plasma cells in culture with interleukin-21 (IL-21), mimicking normal B cell development. The objective of this study was to determine whether IL-21-mediated signals also regulate the expression of key EBV latent proteins during this window of development. Here we show that IL-21-reduced gene and protein expression of growth-transforming EBV nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) in OCI-BCLs. By contrast, the expression of CD40-like, latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) strongly increased in these cells suggesting an EBNA2-independent mode of regulation. Same results were also observed in Burkitt's lymphoma line Jijoye and B95-8 transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines. The effect of IL-21 on EBNA2 and LMP1 expression was attenuated by a pharmacological JAK inhibitor indicating involvement of JAK/STAT signalling in this process. Our study also shows that IL-21 induced transcription of ebna1 from the viral Q promoter (Qp)

  1. Integrated Analyses of Genome-Wide DNA Occupancy and Expression Profiling Identify Key Genes and Pathways Involved in Cellular Transformation by a Marek's Disease Virus Oncoprotein, Meq

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Sugalesini; Johnston, John; Preeyanon, Likit; Brown, C. Titus; Kung, Hsing-Jien

    2013-01-01

    Marek's disease (MD) is an economically significant disease in chickens that is caused by the highly oncogenic Marek's disease virus (MDV). A major unanswered question is the mechanism of MDV-induced tumor formation. Meq, a bZIP transcription factor discovered in the 1990s, is critically involved in viral oncogenicity, but only a few of its host target genes have been described, impeding our understanding of MDV-induced tumorigenesis. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) and microarray analysis, a high-confidence list of Meq binding sites in the chicken genome and a global transcriptome of Meq-responsive genes were generated. Meq binding sites were found to be enriched in the promoter regions of upregulated genes but not in those of downregulated genes. ChIP-seq was also performed for c-Jun, a known heterodimeric partner of Meq. The close location of binding sites of Meq and c-Jun was noted, suggesting cooperativity between these two factors in modulating transcription. Pathway analysis indicated that Meq transcriptionally regulates many genes that are part of several signaling pathways including the extracellular signal-regulated kinase /mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK/MAPK), Jak-STAT, and ErbB pathways, which are critical for oncogenesis and/or include signaling mediators involved in apoptosis. Meq activates oncogenic signaling cascades by transcriptionally activating major kinases in the ERK/MAPK pathway and simultaneously repressing phosphatases, as verified using inhibitors of MEK and ERK1/2 in a cell proliferation assay. This study provides significant insights into the mechanistic basis of Meq-dependent cell transformation. PMID:23740999

  2. Comprehensive immunohistochemical analysis of Her-2/neu oncoprotein overexpression in breast cancer: HercepTest (Dako) for manual testing and Her-2/neuTest 4B5 (Ventana) for Ventana BenchMark automatic staining system with correlation to results of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    PubMed

    Mayr, Doris; Heim, Sibylle; Werhan, Cedric; Zeindl-Eberhart, Evelyn; Kirchner, Thomas

    2009-03-01

    Overexpression of Her-2/neu-oncoprotein is used as marker for Herceptin therapy. To investigate the sensitivity and specificity of automatic immunohistochemistry (Benchmark, Ventana), we compared the results to the manual testing (Dako) in 130 breast carcinomas and validated the results by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Manual and automatic immunohistochemistry of Her-2/neu-oncoprotein using two different antibodies (HercepTest, Her-2/neuTest 4B5) was analyzed. FISH was performed in all cases with uncertain or strong overexpression in either immunohistochemical stainings or with different immunohistochemical results. Same immunohistochemical results were seen in 73.8%. Two cases with overexpression, detected with Her-2/neuTest 4B5 and confirmed by FISH, showed no overexpression using HercepTest. From 21 cases with 2+ by Her-2/neuTest 4B5, 15 cases had no gene amplification (two of them with 3+ HercepTest); three cases showed a gene amplification (one of them with failing overexpression by HercepTest); two other cases were polysomic; one could not be analyzed. Ventana immunohistochemistry seems to be of same reliability like Dako with a little better concordance to FISH in our study. PMID:19169706

  3. Relationship between HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 45 DNA detection and quantitation and E6/E7 mRNA detection among a series of cervical specimens with various degrees of histological lesions.

    PubMed

    Baron, Carolina; Henry, Mireille; Tamalet, Catherine; Villeret, Julia; Richet, Herve; Carcopino, Xavier

    2015-08-01

    Better understanding of the correlation between high-risk HPV DNA testing, viral load quantitation, and E6/E7 mRNA detection is required. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between these markers and the severity of cervical lesions. One-hundred and fifty one directed cervical specimens were analysed (normal, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and cancer). HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, and 45 DNA detection and quantititation and E6/E7 mRNA detection were performed. DNA was detected in 87 (57.6%) samples and increased from 0% (normal) to 93.9% (cancer). E6/E7 mRNA was detected in 65 (43%) samples and increased with the severity of the lesions from 0% (normal) to 78.8% (26/33) (cancers) (P < 0.001). HPV DNA and E6/E7 mRNA detection were compared in the 141 samples harbouring HPV16, 18, 31, 33, or 45 infection: 45.4% (64/141) of specimens were DNA-/mRNA-, 46% (65/141) were DNA + /mRNA+ and 8.5% (12/141) were DNA + /mRNA-. The proportion of DNA + /mRNA+ specimens increased with the severity of the lesions (P < 0.001). All normal cervix specimens were DNA-/mRNA-. Among grade 2 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, prevalence of DNA was higher than that of mRNA: 41.6% (5/12) versus 25% (3/12), whereas it was 79.3% (46/58) versus 62% (36/58) among grade 3 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Full concordance was observed in cancers as all the 26 DNA+ specimens were mRNA +. Median overall HPV load was higher in DNA + /mRNA+ than in DNA + /mRNA- specimens (1.41 × 10(6) vs. 9.1 × 10(2) copies per million cells, P < 0.001). Both E6/E7 mRNA detection and concordant DNA + /mRNA+ detection increases with the severity of the lesions and with the HPV DNA load. PMID:25908062

  4. Diagnostic performance of HPV E6/E7, hTERT, and Ki67 mRNA RT-qPCR assays on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical tissue specimens from women with cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hye-Young; Kim, Geehyuk; Cho, Hyemi; Kim, Sunghyun; Lee, Dongsup; Park, Sunyoung; Park, Kwang Hwa; Lee, Hyeyoung

    2015-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a major cause of cervical cancer, which is the third most common cancer in women. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and Ki67 are tumor cell markers indicating cancer cell proliferation in cancer patients, and activation of hTERT and Ki67 leads to progressive cervical carcinogenesis. In the present study, we evaluated the CervicGen HPVE6/E7 mRNA RT-qDx assay, which detects 16 HPV high-risk (HR) genotypes (HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68 and 69), and the CervicGen hTERT and Ki67 mRNA RT-qDx assay using 117 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) cervical cancer tissue samples. The diagnostic validity of the CervicGen HPV RT-qDx assay for detecting histologically proven prevalent squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was 94% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 77.8% positive predictive value (PPV), and 78.9% negative predictive value (NPV). The most common HPV genotypes detected in FFPE cervical cancer tissue samples were HPV 16 (56%) and HPV 18 (10%). The positivity rate of hTERT and Ki67 mRNA expressions in FFPE cervical cancer tissue samples on RT-qPCR was 65% and 93% respectively. Moreover, the positivity rates were 92% for a combination of HPV E6/E7 and hTERT mRNA expressions, 97% for HPV E6/E7 and Ki67 mRNA expressions, and 99% (99/100) for the combination of HPV E6/E7, hTERT, and Ki67 mRNA expressions. These data showed that SSC FFPE cervical cancer tissue samples correlated more strongly with high Ki67 mRNA expressions than with hTERT mRNA expressions. Notably, hTERT and Ki67 mRNA expression level was increased in high-grade cervical lesions, but was very low in normal samples. Our findings suggest that the combination of HPV E6/E7, hTERT, and Ki67 mRNA expression levels could be used in a complementary manner in diagnosing high-grade cervical lesions. Further studies are required to evaluate these assays as a useful predictive tool for screening low-grade cervical lesions. PMID:25835783

  5. Interaction between Agrobacterium tumefaciens oncoprotein 6b and a tobacco nucleolar protein that is homologous to TNP1 encoded by a transposable element of Antirrhinum majus.

    PubMed

    Kitakura, Saeko; Terakura, Shinji; Yoshioka, Yasushi; Machida, Chiyoko; Machida, Yasunori

    2008-07-01

    When gene 6b on the T-DNA of Agrobacterium tumefaciens is transferred to plant cells, its expression causes plant hormone-independent division of cells in in vitro culture and abnormal cell growth, which induces various morphological defects in 6b-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum plants. Protein 6b localizes to the nuclei, a requirement for the abnormal cell growth, and binds to a tobacco nuclear protein called NtSIP1 and histone H3. In addition, 6b has histone chaperone-like activity in vitro and affects the expression of various plant genes, including cell division-related genes and meristem-related class 1 KNOX homeobox genes, in transgenic Arabidopsis. Here, we report that 6b binds to a newly identified protein NtSIP2, whose amino acid sequence is predicted to be 30% identical and 51% similar to that of the TNP1 protein encoded by the transposon Tam1 of Antirrhinum majus. Immunolocalization analysis using anti-T7 antibodies showed nucleolar localization of most of the T7 epitope-tagged NtSIP2 proteins. A similar analysis with the T7-tagged 6b protein also showed subnucleolar as well as nuclear localization of the 6b protein. These results suggest the involvement of 6b along with NtSIP2 in certain molecular processes in the nucleolus as well as the nucleoplasm. PMID:18463947

  6. The hematopoietic oncoprotein FOXP1 promotes tumor cell survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma by repressing S1PR2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Flori, Michael; Schmid, Corina A; Sumrall, Eric T; Tzankov, Alexandar; Law, Charity W; Robinson, Mark D; Müller, Anne

    2016-03-17

    Aberrant expression of the oncogenic transcription factor forkhead box protein 1 (FOXP1) is a common feature of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We have combined chromatin immunoprecipitation and gene expression profiling after FOXP1 depletion with functional screening to identify targets of FOXP1 contributing to tumor cell survival. We find that the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1PR2) is repressed by FOXP1 in activated B-cell (ABC) and germinal center B-cell (GCB) DLBCL cell lines with aberrantly high FOXP1 levels; S1PR2 expression is further inversely correlated with FOXP1 expression in 3 patient cohorts. Ectopic expression of wild-type S1PR2, but not a point mutant incapable of activating downstream signaling pathways, induces apoptosis in DLBCL cells and restricts tumor growth in subcutaneous and orthotopic models of the disease. The proapoptotic effects of S1PR2 are phenocopied by ectopic expression of the small G protein Gα13 but are independent of AKT signaling. We further show that low S1PR2 expression is a strong negative prognosticator of patient survival, alone and especially in combination with high FOXP1 expression. The S1PR2 locus has previously been demonstrated to be recurrently mutated in GCB DLBCL; the transcriptional silencing of S1PR2 by FOXP1 represents an alternative mechanism leading to inactivation of this important hematopoietic tumor suppressor. PMID:26729899

  7. HPV16-E2 induces prophase arrest and activates the cellular DNA damage response in vitro and in precursor lesions of cervical carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yuezhen; Toh, Shen Yon; He, Pingping; Lim, Thimothy; Lim, Diana; Pang, Chai Ling; Abastado, Jean-Pierre; Thierry, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and is the precursor to cervical carcinoma. The completion of the HPV productive life cycle depends on the expression of viral proteins which further determines the severity of the cervical neoplasia. Initiation of the viral productive replication requires expression of the E2 viral protein that cooperates with the E1 viral DNA helicase. A decrease in the viral DNA replication ability and increase in the severity of cervical neoplasia is accompanied by simultaneous elevated expression of E6 and E7 oncoproteins. Here we reveal a novel and important role for the HPV16-E2 protein in controlling host cell cycle during malignant transformation. We showed that cells expressing HPV16-E2 in vitro are arrested in prophase alongside activation of a sustained DDR signal. We uncovered evidence that HPV16-E2 protein is present in vivo in cells that express both mitotic and DDR signals specifically in CIN3 lesions, immediate precursors of cancer, suggesting that E2 may be one of the drivers of genomic instability and carcinogenesis in vivo. PMID:26474276

  8. PEBP2/CBF, the murine homolog of the human myeloid AML1 and PEBP2 beta/CBF beta proto-oncoproteins, regulates the murine myeloperoxidase and neutrophil elastase genes in immature myeloid cells.

    PubMed Central

    Nuchprayoon, I; Meyers, S; Scott, L M; Suzow, J; Hiebert, S; Friedman, A D

    1994-01-01

    The myeloperoxidase (MPO) and neutrophil elastase genes are expressed specifically in immature myeloid cells. The integrity of a polyomavirus enhancer core sequence, 5'-AACCACA-3', is critical to the activity of the murine MPO proximal enhancer. This element binds two species, myeloid nuclear factors 1 alpha and 1 beta (MyNF1 alpha and -beta), present in 32D cl3 myeloid cell nuclear extracts. The levels of the MyNF1s increase during early 32D cl3 cell granulocytic differentiation. Both MyNF1 alpha and -beta supershift with an antiserum raised by using a peptide derived from the N terminus of polyomavirus enhancer-binding protein 2/core-binding factor (PEBP2/CBF) alpha subunit. The specific peptide inhibits these supershifts. In vitro-translated PEBP2/CBF DNA-binding domain binds the murine MPO PEBP2/CBF site. An alternate PEBP2/CBF consensus site, 5'-GACCGCA-3', but not a simian virus 40 enhancer core sequence, 5'-TTCCACA-3', binds the MyNF1s in vitro and activates a minimal murine MPO-thymidine kinase promoter in vivo. The murine neutrophil elastase gene 100-bp 5'-flanking sequences contain several functional elements, including potential binding sites for PU.1, C/EBP, c-Myb, and PEBP2/CBF. The functional element 5'-GGCCACA-3' located at positions -66 to 72 differs from the PEBP2/CBF consensus (5'-PuACCPuCA-3') only by an A-to-G transition at position 2. This DNA element binds MyNF1 alpha and -beta weakly. The N terminis of two PEBP2/CBF alpha subunit family members, PEBP2 alpha A and PEBP2 alpha B (murine AML1), are nearly identical, and 32D c13 cl3 cells contain both corresponding mRNAs. Since t(8;21), t(3;21), and inv(16), associated with myeloid leukemias, disrupt subunits of PEBP2/CBF, we speculate that the resulting oncoproteins, AML1-ETO, AML1-EAP, AML1-Evi1, and CBF beta-MYH11, inhibit early myeloid differentiation. Images PMID:8035830

  9. Tobacco exposure results in increased E6 and E7 oncogene expression, DNA damage and mutation rates in cells maintaining episomal human papillomavirus 16 genomes

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Lanlan; Griego, Anastacia M.; Chu, Ming; Ozbun, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infections are necessary but insufficient agents of cervical and other epithelial cancers. Epidemiological studies support a causal, but ill-defined, relationship between tobacco smoking and cervical malignancies. In this study, we used mainstream tobacco smoke condensate (MSTS-C) treatments of cervical cell lines that maintain either episomal or integrated HPV16 or HPV31 genomes to model tobacco smoke exposure to the cervical epithelium of the smoker. MSTS-C exposure caused a dose-dependent increase in viral genome replication and correspondingly higher early gene transcription in cells with episomal HPV genomes. However, MSTS-C exposure in cells with integrated HR-HPV genomes had no effect on genome copy number or early gene transcription. In cells with episomal HPV genomes, the MSTS-C-induced increases in E6 oncogene transcription led to decreased p53 protein levels and activity. As expected from loss of p53 activity in tobacco-exposed cells, DNA strand breaks were significantly higher but apoptosis was minimal compared with cells containing integrated viral genomes. Furthermore, DNA mutation frequencies were higher in surviving cells with HPV episomes. These findings provide increased understanding of tobacco smoke exposure risk in HPV infection and indicate tobacco smoking acts more directly to alter HR-HPV oncogene expression in cells that maintain episomal viral genomes. This suggests a more prominent role for tobacco smoke in earlier stages of HPV-related cancer progression. PMID:25064354

  10. TALEN-mediated targeting of HPV oncogenes ameliorates HPV-related cervical malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zheng; Ding, Wencheng; Zhu, Da; Yu, Lan; Jiang, Xiaohui; Wang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Changlin; Wang, Liming; Ji, Teng; Liu, Dan; He, Dan; Xia, Xi; Zhu, Tao; Wei, Juncheng; Wu, Peng; Wang, Changyu; Xi, Ling; Gao, Qinglei; Chen, Gang; Liu, Rong; Li, Kezhen; Li, Shuang; Wang, Shixuan; Zhou, Jianfeng; Ma, Ding; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Persistent HPV infection is recognized as the main etiologic factor for cervical cancer. HPV expresses the oncoproteins E6 and E7, both of which play key roles in maintaining viral infection and promoting carcinogenesis. While siRNA-mediated targeting of E6 and E7 transcripts temporarily induces apoptosis in HPV-positive cells, it does not eliminate viral DNA within the host genome, which can harbor escape mutants. Here, we demonstrated that specifically targeting E6 and E7 within host DNA with transcription activator–like effector nucleases (TALENs) induces apoptosis, inhibits growth, and reduces tumorigenicity in HPV-positive cell lines. TALEN treatment efficiently disrupted E6 and E7 oncogenes, leading to the restoration of host tumor suppressors p53 and retinoblastoma 1 (RB1), which are targeted by E6 and E7, respectively. In the K14-HPV16 transgenic mouse model of HPV-driven neoplasms, direct cervical application of HPV16-E7–targeted TALENs effectively mutated the E7 oncogene, reduced viral DNA load, and restored RB1 function and downstream targets transcription factor E2F1 and cycling-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), thereby reversing the malignant phenotype. Together, the results from our study suggest that TALENs have potential as a therapeutic strategy for HPV infection and related cervical malignancy. PMID:25500889

  11. TALEN-mediated targeting of HPV oncogenes ameliorates HPV-related cervical malignancy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zheng; Ding, Wencheng; Zhu, Da; Yu, Lan; Jiang, Xiaohui; Wang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Changlin; Wang, Liming; Ji, Teng; Liu, Dan; He, Dan; Xia, Xi; Zhu, Tao; Wei, Juncheng; Wu, Peng; Wang, Changyu; Xi, Ling; Gao, Qinglei; Chen, Gang; Liu, Rong; Li, Kezhen; Li, Shuang; Wang, Shixuan; Zhou, Jianfeng; Ma, Ding; Wang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Persistent HPV infection is recognized as the main etiologic factor for cervical cancer. HPV expresses the oncoproteins E6 and E7, both of which play key roles in maintaining viral infection and promoting carcinogenesis. While siRNA-mediated targeting of E6 and E7 transcripts temporarily induces apoptosis in HPV-positive cells, it does not eliminate viral DNA within the host genome, which can harbor escape mutants. Here, we demonstrated that specifically targeting E6 and E7 within host DNA with transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) induces apoptosis, inhibits growth, and reduces tumorigenicity in HPV-positive cell lines. TALEN treatment efficiently disrupted E6 and E7 oncogenes, leading to the restoration of host tumor suppressors p53 and retinoblastoma 1 (RB1), which are targeted by E6 and E7, respectively. In the K14-HPV16 transgenic mouse model of HPV-driven neoplasms, direct cervical application of HPV16-E7-targeted TALENs effectively mutated the E7 oncogene, reduced viral DNA load, and restored RB1 function and downstream targets transcription factor E2F1 and cycling-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), thereby reversing the malignant phenotype. Together, the results from our study suggest that TALENs have potential as a therapeutic strategy for HPV infection and related cervical malignancy. PMID:25500889

  12. Human papillomavirus type 16 variant analysis of E6, E7, and L1 [corrected] genes and long control region in [corrected] cervical carcinomas in patients in northeast China.

    PubMed

    Shang, Qinglong; Wang, Yan; Fang, Yong; Wei, Lanlan; Chen, Sijia; Sun, Yuhui; Li, Baoxin; Zhang, Fengmin; Gu, Hongxi

    2011-07-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV 16) plays a cardinal role in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. HPV 16 has intratypic variants which show different geographical distributions and different oncogenic potentials. To analyze the presence of sequence variations of HPV 16 variants in northeast China, 71 cervical carcinomas were identified by HPV typing. HPV 16-positive specimens were analyzed by PCR-directed sequencing in the E6, E7, and L1 genes and the LCR (long control region). The variation data were compared with those of neighboring districts. In this hospital-based study, HPV 16 was the most common type (73.24%). In HPV 16-positive specimens, 67.31% belonged to the European (E) lineage, while 32.69% were Asian (As) variants. The Asian-American (AA), African-1 (Af-1), African-2 (Af-2), and northern American (NA) lineages were not detected. The most frequently observed variation sites were T178G (32.69%) in E6; A647G (34.62%), G666A (38.46%), and T846C (32.69%) in E7; C6826T (36.17%) and G7060A (61.70%) in L1; and G7521A (98.08%) in the LCR. The most prevalent amino acid variations were D25E in E6 and N29S in E7. In addition, 28 novel variations of HPV 16 were reported. Some covariations between different genes were obtained. In this study, HPV 16 variants belonged to the European lineage and the Asian lineage. Compared with neighboring districts, the distribution of HPV 16 variants in northeast China had a typical pattern. As the first report on HPV 16 variants in northeast China, it should be helpful for designing a HPV vaccine and HPV vaccination program in China. PMID:21593270

  13. A novel HPV 16 L1-based chimeric virus-like particle containing E6 and E7 seroreactive epitopes permits highly specific detection of antibodies in patients with CIN 1 and HPV-16 infection

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The presence of IgG antibodies to HPV-16 L1-virus like particles (VLPs) in serum has been reported as a result of persistent exposure to the virus and as a marker of disease progression. However, detection of VLP-specific antibodies in sera does not always indicate a malignant lesion as positive results may also be due to a nonmalignant viral infection. Furthermore, malignant lesions are associated with an increased antibody titer for E6 and E7 proteins. The aim of this study was to develop an ELISA using a novel chimeric virus-like particle (cVLP) encoding an L1 protein fused with a string of HPV-16 E6 and E7 seroreactive epitopes to its C-terminus to be used for detection of HPV-16 specific antibodies in patients with cervical intraepithelial lesion grade 1 (CIN 1). Results The sera of 30 patients with CIN 1 who also tested positive for HPV-16 DNA and of 30 age-matched normal donors negative for HPV infection were tested for the presence of IgG antibodies specific for either VLP-L1 (HPV-16 L1), gVLP (derived from Gardasil), or cVLP by ELISA. The cVLP-reactive sera yielded two distinct groups of results: (H) reactivity levels that presented very strong cVLP-specific titers, and (L) reactivity levels with significantly lower titers similar to those obtained with VLP-L1 and gVLP antigens. Additionally, the sera that presented the higher cVLP titers closely matched those that had significantly stronger reactivity to E6 and E7 epitopes. Interestingly, the samples with the highest titers corresponded to patients with the higher numbers of sexual partners and pregnancies. On the other hand only 4 out of the 12 sera that harbored antibodies with VLP neutralizing ability corresponded to the group with high cVLP antibody titers. Conclusion We report for the first time that chimeric particles containing HPV-16 L1 protein fused with E6 and E7 seroreactive epitopes enable much better detection of IgG antibodies in the sera of CIN 1 patients positive for HPV-16 infection than those obtained with VLPs containing only the HPV-16 L1 protein. We also found that the sera with higher cVLP antibody titers corresponded to patients with more sexual partners and pregnancies, and not always with to those with a high neutralizing activity. This novel assay could help in the development of a tool to evaluate cervical cancer risk. PMID:21306638

  14. Targeting MUC1-C is synergistic with bortezomib in downregulating TIGAR and inducing ROS-mediated myeloma cell death

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Li; Kufe, Turner; Avigan, David

    2014-01-01

    The proteosome inhibitor bortezomib (BTZ) induces endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress in multiple myeloma (MM) cells. The mucin 1 C-terminal subunit (MUC1-C) oncoprotein is aberrantly expressed in most MM cells, and targeting MUC1-C with GO-203, a cell-penetrating peptide inhibitor of MUC1-C homodimerization, is effective in inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated MM cell death. The present results demonstrate that GO-203 and BTZ synergistically downregulate expression of the p53-inducible regulator of glycolysis and apoptosis (TIGAR), which promotes shunting of glucose-6-phosphate into the pentose phosphate pathway to generate reduced glutathione (GSH). In turn, GO-203 blocks BTZ-induced increases in GSH and results in synergistic increases in ROS and MM cell death. The results also demonstrate that GO-203 is effective against BTZ-resistant MM cells. We show that BTZ resistance is associated with BTZ-induced increases in TIGAR and GSH levels, and that GO-203 resensitizes BTZ-resistant cells to BTZ treatment by synergistically downregulating TIGAR and GSH. The GO-203/BTZ combination is thus highly effective in killing BTZ-resistant MM cells. These findings support a model in which targeting MUC1-C is synergistic with BTZ in suppressing TIGAR-mediated regulation of ROS levels and provide an experimental rationale for combining GO-203 with BTZ in certain settings of BTZ resistance. PMID:24632713

  15. Human papillomavirus types detected in skin warts and cancer differ in their transforming properties but commonly counteract UVB induced protective responses in human keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Shterzer, Naama; Heyman, Dariya; Shapiro, Beny; Yaniv, Abraham; Jackman, Anna; Serour, Francis; Chaouat, Malka; Gonen, Pinhas; Tommasino, Massimo; Sherman, Levana

    2014-11-15

    In the present study, E6E7 and E6 proteins of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) associated with skin warts and cancer were compared for their transforming and carcinogenic abilities in primary human keratinocytes (PHKs). We show that E6E7 of cancer associated beta HPV types, notably 49 and 24, were able to extend the life span and enhance the clonogenic efficiency of PHKs when maintained in serum free/low calcium medium. Activities of the beta HPV E6E7 were lower than those of HPV16 E6E7. In contrast, E6 proteins from HPV types detected in skin warts or cancer, notably 10, 49 and 38, attenuated UVB induced protective responses in PHKs including cell death, proliferation arrest and accumulation of the proapoptotic proteins, p53, bax or bak. Together, this investigation revealed functional differences and commonalities between HPVs associated with skin warts and cancer, and allowed the identification of specific properties of beta HPVs supporting their involvement in skin carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Primary keratinocytes were used to evaluate transforming and carcinogenic abilities of cutaneous HPVs. • E6E7 of cancer associated β HPV types transform primary human keratinocytes. • E6 proteins of cancer and wart associated HPVs inhibit UVB induced cell death. • E6s of cancer and wart associated HPVs attenuate UVB induced proliferation arrest. • E6s of cancer and wart associated HPVs attenuate UVB induced apoptosis signaling.

  16. Metformin induces differentiation in acute promyelocytic leukemia by activating the MEK/ERK signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Huai, Lei; Wang, Cuicui; Zhang, Cuiping; Li, Qihui; Chen, Yirui; Jia, Yujiao; Li, Yan; Xing, Haiyan; Tian, Zheng; Rao, Qing; Wang, Min; Wang, Jianxiang

    2012-06-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metformin induces differentiation in NB4 and primary APL cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metformin induces activation of the MEK/ERK signaling pathway in APL cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metformin synergizes with ATRA to trigger maturation of NB4 and primary APL cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metformin induces the relocalization and degradation of the PML-RAR{alpha} fusion protein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study may be applicable for new differentiation therapy in cancer treatment. -- Abstract: Recent studies have shown that metformin, a widely used antidiabetic agent, may reduce the risk of cancer development. In this study, we investigated the antitumoral effect of metformin on both acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cells. Metformin induced apoptosis with partial differentiation in an APL cell line, NB4, but only displayed a proapoptotic effect on several non-M3 AML cell lines. Further analysis revealed that a strong synergistic effect existed between metformin and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) during APL cell maturation and that metformin induced the hyperphosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in APL cells. U0126, a specific MEK/ERK activation inhibitor, abrogated metformin-induced differentiation. Finally, we found that metformin induced the degradation of the oncoproteins PML-RAR{alpha} and c-Myc and activated caspase-3. In conclusion, these results suggest that metformin treatment may contribute to the enhancement of ATRA-induced differentiation in APL, which may deepen the understanding of APL maturation and thus provide insight for new therapy strategies.

  17. A basal-like breast cancer-specific role for SRF–IL6 in YAP-induced cancer stemness

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tackhoon; Yang, Suk-Jin; Hwang, Daehee; Song, Jinhoi; Kim, Minchul; Kyum Kim, Sang; Kang, Keunsoo; Ahn, Jaebum; Lee, Daeyoup; Kim, Mi-young; Kim, Seyun; Seung Koo, Ja; Seok Koh, Sang; Kim, Seon-Young; Lim, Dae-Sik

    2015-01-01

    The switch between stem/progenitor cell expansion and differentiation is critical for organ homeostasis. The mammalian Hippo pathway effector and oncoprotein YAP expands undifferentiated stem/progenitor cells in various tissues. However, the YAP-associated transcription factors and downstream targets underlying this stemness-promoting activity are poorly understood. Here we show that the SRF–IL6 axis is the critical mediator of YAP-induced stemness in mammary epithelial cells and breast cancer. Specifically, serum response factor (SRF)-mediated binding and recruitment of YAP to mammary stem cell (MaSC) signature-gene promoters induce numerous MaSC signature genes, among which the target interleukin (IL)-6 is critical for YAP-induced stemness. High SRF–YAP/TAZ expression is correlated with IL6-enriched MaSC/basal-like breast cancer (BLBC). Finally, we show that this high SRF expression enables YAP to more efficiently induce IL6 and stemness in BLBC compared with luminal-type breast cancer. Collectively, our results establish the importance of SRF–YAP–IL6 signalling in promoting MaSC-like properties in a BLBC-specific manner. PMID:26671411

  18. Methylated arsenic metabolites bind to PML protein but do not induce cellular differentiation and PML-RARα protein degradation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan Fang; Bu, Na; Zhou, Jin; Cao, Feng Lin; Naranmandura, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) is one of the most effective therapeutic agents used for patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). The probable explanation for As2O3-induced cell differentiation is the direct targeting of PML-RARα oncoprotein by As2O3, which results in initiation of PML-RARa degradation. However, after injection, As2O3 is rapidly methylated in body to different intermediate metabolites such as trivalent monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII) and dimethylarsinous acid (DMAIII), therefore, it remains unknown that which arsenic specie is actually responsible for the therapeutic effects against APL. Here we have shown the role of As2O3 (as iAsIII) and its intermediate metabolites (i.e., MMAIII/DMAIII) in NB4 cells. Inorganic iAsIII predominantly showed induction of cell differentiation, while MMAIII and DMAIII specifically showed to induce mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum-mediated apoptosis, respectively. On the other hand, in contrast to iAsIII, MMAIII showed stronger binding affinity for ring domain of PML recombinant protein, however, could not induce PML protein SUMOylation and ubiquitin/proteasome degradation. In summary, our results suggest that the binding of arsenicals to the ring domain of PML proteins is not associated with the degradation of PML-RARa fusion protein. Moreover, methylated arsenicals can efficiently lead to cellular apoptosis, however, they are incapable of inducing NB4 cell differentiation. PMID:26213848

  19. A basal-like breast cancer-specific role for SRF-IL6 in YAP-induced cancer stemness.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tackhoon; Yang, Suk-Jin; Hwang, Daehee; Song, Jinhoi; Kim, Minchul; Kyum Kim, Sang; Kang, Keunsoo; Ahn, Jaebum; Lee, Daeyoup; Kim, Mi-Young; Kim, Seyun; Seung Koo, Ja; Seok Koh, Sang; Kim, Seon-Young; Lim, Dae-Sik

    2015-01-01

    The switch between stem/progenitor cell expansion and differentiation is critical for organ homeostasis. The mammalian Hippo pathway effector and oncoprotein YAP expands undifferentiated stem/progenitor cells in various tissues. However, the YAP-associated transcription factors and downstream targets underlying this stemness-promoting activity are poorly understood. Here we show that the SRF-IL6 axis is the critical mediator of YAP-induced stemness in mammary epithelial cells and breast cancer. Specifically, serum response factor (SRF)-mediated binding and recruitment of YAP to mammary stem cell (MaSC) signature-gene promoters induce numerous MaSC signature genes, among which the target interleukin (IL)-6 is critical for YAP-induced stemness. High SRF-YAP/TAZ expression is correlated with IL6-enriched MaSC/basal-like breast cancer (BLBC). Finally, we show that this high SRF expression enables YAP to more efficiently induce IL6 and stemness in BLBC compared with luminal-type breast cancer. Collectively, our results establish the importance of SRF-YAP-IL6 signalling in promoting MaSC-like properties in a BLBC-specific manner. PMID:26671411

  20. The NFκB Signaling Pathway in Papillomavirus-induced Lesions: Friend or Foe?

    PubMed

    DA Costa, Rui M Gil; Bastos, Margarida M S M; Medeiros, Rui; Oliveira, Paula A

    2016-05-01

    Papillomaviruses induce a range of benign and malignant lesions in their hosts, including cervical cancer, that is associated with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types. The nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells (NFκB) plays a pivotal role in HPV-infected cells, and its expression and activity are modulated by several viral oncoproteins. NFκB modulation seems to first facilitate viral persistence and immune evasion, and later to drive tumour progression, but the many conflicting results and the complexity of its signaling networks require great prudence while interpreting the role of NFκB in papillomaviral lesions. Accordingly, the pharmacological targeting of the NFκB pathway in HPV-induced lesions is a complex and currently unmet challenge. This review deals with recent findings concerning NFκB activation in HPV-infected cells, its role in viral persistence, cell transformation and tumour progression, and with current efforts to target this pathway for cancer prevention and therapy. PMID:27127107

  1. Ethoxysanguinarine Induces Inhibitory Effects and Downregulates CIP2A in Lung Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zi; Ma, Liang; Wen, Zhe-Sheng; Cheng, Yong-Xian; Zhou, Guang-Biao

    2014-02-13

    Cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A) is an oncoprotein that is able to stabilize c-Myc oncogenic transcription factor and promote proliferation and transformation of cells. CIP2A is overexpressed in many primary tumors, and pharmacological inactivation of CIP2A is an emerging concept for the development of novel anticancer agents. In this study, we demonstrate that overexpression of CIP2A predicts poor prognosis in lung cancer, and a natural compound, ethoxysanguinarine (ESG), effectively downregulates CIP2A protein and its downstream signaling molecules, c-Myc and pAkt, and induces protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity. ESG inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of lung cancer cells, and enhances the effects of cisplatin on malignant cells. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that CIP2A is inversely associated with the clinical outcome of lung cancer, and ESG can serve as a lead compound for the development of CIP2A inhibitor for cancer therapies. PMID:24900782

  2. Pokemon (FBI-1) interacts with Smad4 to repress TGF-β-induced transcriptional responses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yutao; Cui, Jiajun; Xue, Feng; Zhang, Chuanfu; Mei, Zhu; Wang, Yue; Bi, Mingjun; Shan, Dapeng; Meredith, Alex; Li, Hui; Xu, Zhi-Qing David

    2015-03-01

    Pokemon, an important proto-oncoprotein, is a transcriptional repressor that belongs to the POK (POZ and Krüppel) family. Smad4, a key component of TGF-β pathway, plays an essential role in TGF-β-induced transcriptional responses. In this study, we show that Pokemon can interact directly with Smad4 both in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of Pokemon decreases TGF-β-induced transcriptional activities, whereas knockdown of Pokemon increases these activities. Interestingly, Pokemon does not affect activation of Smad2/3, formation of Smads complex, or DNA binding activity of Smad4. TGF-β1 treatment increases the interaction between Pokemon and Smad4, and also enhances the recruitment of Pokemon to Smad4-DNA complex. In addition, we also find that Pokemon recruits HDAC1 to Smad4 complex but decreases the interaction between Smad4 and p300/CBP. Taken together, all these data suggest that Pokemon is a new partner of Smad4 and plays a negative role in TGF-β pathway. PMID:25514493

  3. Interferon-γ-induced p27KIP1 binds to and targets MYC for proteasome-mediated degradation

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Siti Mariam; Frings, Oliver; Fahlén, Sara; Nilsson, Helén; Goodwin, Jacob; von der Lehr, Natalie; Su, Yingtao; Lüscher, Bernhard; Castell, Alina; Larsson, Lars-Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    The Myc oncoprotein is tightly regulated at multiple levels including ubiquitin-mediated protein turnover. We recently demonstrated that inhibition of Cdk2-mediated phosphorylation of Myc at Ser-62 pharmacologically or through interferon (IFN)-γ-induced expression of p27Kip1 (p27) repressed Myc's activity to suppress cellular senescence and differentiation. In this study we identified an additional activity of p27 to interfere with Myc independent of Ser-62 phosphorylation. p27 is required and sufficient for IFN-γ-induced turnover of Myc. p27 interacted with Myc in the nucleus involving the C-termini of the two proteins, including Myc box 4 of Myc. The C-terminus but not the Cdk2 binding fragment of p27 was sufficient for inducing Myc degradation. Protein expression data of The Cancer Genome Atlas breast invasive carcinoma set revealed significantly lower Myc protein levels in tumors with highly expressed p27 lacking phosphorylation at Thr-157 - a marker for active p27 localized in the nucleus. Further, these conditions correlated with favorable tumor stage and patient outcome. This novel regulation of Myc by IFN-γ/p27KIP1 potentially offers new possibilities for therapeutic intervention in tumors with deregulated Myc. PMID:26701207

  4. Translation-dependent mechanisms lead to PML upregulation and mediate oncogenic K-RAS-induced cellular senescence

    PubMed Central

    Scaglioni, Pier Paolo; Rabellino, Andrea; Yung, Thomas M; Bernardi, Rosa; Choi, Sooyeon; Konstantinidou, Georgia; Nardella, Caterina; Cheng, Ke; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Expression of oncogenic K-RAS in primary cells elicits oncogene-induced cellular senescence (OIS), a form of growth arrest that potently opposes tumourigenesis. This effect has been largely attributed to transcriptional mechanisms that depend on the p53 tumour suppressor protein. The PML tumour suppressor was initially identified as a component of the PML-RARα oncoprotein of acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL). PML, a critical OIS mediator, is upregulated by oncogenic K-RAS in vivo and in vitro. We demonstrate here that oncogenic K-RAS induces PML protein upregulation by activating the RAS/MEK1/mTOR/eIF4E pathway even in the absence of p53. Under these circumstances, PML mRNA is selectively associated to polysomes. Importantly, we find that the PML 5′ untranslated mRNA region plays a key role in mediating PML protein upregulation and that its presence is essential for an efficient OIS response. These findings demonstrate that upregulation of PML translation plays a central role in oncogenic K-RAS-induced OIS. Thus, selective translation initiation plays a critical role in tumour suppression with important therapeutic implications for the treatment of solid tumours and APL. PMID:22359342

  5. Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor Alleviates Tamoxifen-Induced Endometrial Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Keren; Bar-Joseph, Hadas; Grossman, Hadas; Hasky, Noa; Uri-Belapolsky, Shiri; Stemmer, Salomon M; Chuderland, Dana; Shalgi, Ruth; Ben-Aharon, Irit

    2015-12-01

    Tamoxifen is a cornerstone component of adjuvant endocrine therapy for patients with hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer. Its significant adverse effects include uterine hyperplasia, polyps, and increased risk of endometrial cancer. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. Excessive angiogenesis, a hallmark of tumorigenesis, is a result of disrupted balance between pro- and anti-angiogenic factors. VEGF is a pro-angiogenic factor shown to be elevated by tamoxifen in the uterus. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a potent anti-angiogenic factor that suppresses strong pro-angiogenic factors, such as VEGF. Our aim was to investigate whether angiogenic balance plays a role in tamoxifen-induced uterine pathologies, elucidate the molecular impairment in that network, and explore potential intervention to offset the proposed imbalance elicited by tamoxifen. Using in vivo mouse models, we demonstrated that tamoxifen induced a dose-dependent shift in endogenous uterine angiogenic balance favoring VEGF over PEDF. Treatment with recombinant PEDF (rPEDF) abrogated tamoxifen-induced uterine hyperplasia and VEGF elevation, resulting in reduction of blood vessels density. Exploring the molecular mechanism revealed that tamoxifen promoted survival and malignant transformation pathways, whereas rPEDF treatment prevents these changes. Activation of survival pathways was decreased, demonstrated by reduction in AKT phosphorylation concomitant with elevation in JNK phosphorylation. Estrogen receptor-α and c-Myc oncoprotein levels were reduced. Our findings provide novel insight into the molecular mechanisms tamoxifen induces in the uterus, which may become the precursor events of subsequent endometrial hyperplasia and cancer. We demonstrate that rPEDF may serve as a useful intervention to alleviate the risk of tamoxifen-induced endometrial pathologies. PMID:26450919

  6. Synthesis of 4-((1E, 6E)-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3, 5-dioxohepta-1, 6-dienyl)-2-methoxyphenyl 4-fluorobenzoate, a novel monoester derivative of curcumin, its experimental and theoretical (DFT) studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Sangeeta; Gupta, Preeti; Amandeep; Singh, Ranvijay Pratap

    2016-04-01

    Curcumin (1), isolated as a major component from the chloroform extract of Curcuma longa was converted to its ester derivative 4-((1E, 6E)-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3,5-dioxohepta-1,6-dienyl)-2-methoxyphenyl 4-fluorobenzoate (2). The compound has been characterized with the help of 1H, 13C NMR, UV, IR and mass spectrometry. The molecular geometry of synthesized compound was calculated in ground state by Density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) using 6-31G (d,p) basis set. 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts were calculated in ground state by using Gauge-Including Atomic Orbital (GIAO) approach and these values were correlated with experimental observations. The electronic properties such as HOMO and LUMO energies were calculated using time dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT). Stability of the molecule as a result of hyper conjugative interactions and electron delocalization were analysed using Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. Intramolecular interactions were analysed by AIM (Atom in molecule) approach. Global reactivity descriptors were calculated to study the reactive site within molecule. The vibrational wavenumbers were calculated using DFT method and assigned with the help of potential energy distribution (PED). First hyperpolarizability values have been calculated to describe the nonlinear optical (NLO) property of the synthesized compounds. Molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) analysis has also been carried out.

  7. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance, voltammetry, spectroelectrochemical, and microscopic studies of adsorption behavior for (7E,7{prime}Z)-diphenyl-7,7{prime}-diapocarotene electrochemical oxidation product

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, G.; Wurm, D.B.; Kim, Y.T.; Kispert, L.D.

    1997-03-13

    Polymeric products, which are formed by reaction of the dications of (7E,7{prime}Z)-diphenyl-7,7{prime}-diapocarotene (I) generated by electrochemical oxidation in dichloromethane with the neutral carotenoid, are adsorbed on various electrode surfaces. An apparent average molar mass of 5400 g/(mol electrons) was calculated from simultaneous electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) measurements, and the green, fiber-like structure observed by optical microscopy confirms the formation of polymers. X-ray microanalysis of the surface composed of an uneven, layered structure indicates that electrolyte counter anions PF{sub 6}{sup -} are associated with the deposited material. Cathodic stripping voltammetry indicates that the film thickness ranges from 0.16 to 0.84 {mu}m as the charge increases from 10.0 to 51.1 {mu}C. Cation radicals of I show no adsorption behavior nor do the dications of carotenoids terminally substituted with one cyclohexene ring (V) or containing a triple bond at C15 (IV). Apparently a diphenyl-substituted carotenoid containing only double bonds in the backbone is required to observe this unusual behavior. 57 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  8. The Effect of Lactobacillus crispatus and Lactobacillus rhamnosusCulture Supernatants on Expression of Autophagy Genes and HPV E6 and E7 Oncogenes in The HeLa Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Motevaseli, Elahe; Azam, Rosa; Akrami, Seyed Mohammad; Mazlomy, Mohammadali; Saffari, Mojtaba; Modarressi, Mohammad Hossein; Daneshvar, Maryam; Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanism by which lactobacilli exert their cytotoxic effects on cervical cancer cells. In addition, we aimed to evalu- ate the effect of lactobacilli on the expression of human papilloma virus (HPV) onco- genes. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, using quantitative real-time polymer- ase chain reaction (PCR), we analyzed the expression of CASP3 and three autophagy genes [ATG14, BECN1 and alpha 2 catalytic subunit of AMPK (PRKAA2)] along with HPV18 E6 and E7 genes in HeLa cells before and after treatment with Lactobacillus crispatus and Lactobacillus rhamnosus culture supernatants. Results The expression of CASP3 and autophagy genes in HeLa cells was de- creased after treatment with lactobacilli culture supernatants. However, this de- crease was not significant for PRKAA2 when compared with controls. In addition, expression of HPV E6 was significantly decreased after treatment with lactobacilli culture supernatants. Conclusion Lactobacilli culture supernatants can decrease expression of ATG14 and BECN1 as well as the HPV E6 oncogene. It has been demonstrated that the main changes occurring during cervical carcinogenesis in cell machinery can be reversed by suppression of HPV oncogenes. Therefore, downregulation of HPV E6 by lacto- bacilli may have therapeutic potential for cervical cancer. As the role of autophagy in cancer is complicated, further work is required to clarify the link between downregula- tion of autophagy genes and antiproliferative effects exerted by lactobacilli. PMID:26862519

  9. Human papillomavirus 16-specific T cell responses in classic HPV-related vulvar intra-epithelial neoplasia. Determination of strongly immunogenic regions from E6 and E7 proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bourgault Villada, I; Moyal Barracco, M; Berville, S; Bafounta, M L; Longvert, C; Prmel, V; Villefroy, P; Jullian, E; Clerici, T; Paniel, B; Maillre, B; Choppin, J; Guillet, J G

    2010-01-01

    Cell-mediated immunity directed against human papillomavirus 16 (HPV-16) antigens was studied in 16 patients affected with classic vulvar intra-epithelial neoplasia (VIN), also known as bowenoid papulosis (BP). Ten patients had blood lymphocyte proliferative T cell responses directed against E6/2 (1434) and/or E6/4 (4568) peptides, which were identified in the present study as immunodominant among HPV-16 E6 and E7 large peptides. Ex vivo enzyme-linked immunospotinterferon (IFN)-? assay was positive in three patients who had proliferative responses. Twelve months later, proliferative T cell responses remained detectable in only six women and the immunodominant antigens remained the E6/2 (1434) and E6/4 (4568) peptides. The latter large fragments of peptides contained many epitopes able to bind to at least seven human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules and were strong binders to seven HLA-DR class II molecules. In order to build a therapeutic anti-HPV-16 vaccine, E6/2 (1434) and E6/4 (4568) fragments thus appear to be good candidates to increase HPV-specific effector T lymphocyte responses and clear classic VIN (BP) disease lesions. PMID:19843089

  10. Association of human papillomavirus with Fanconi anemia promotes carcinogenesis in Fanconi anemia patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guang Bin; Chen, Jiezhong; Wu, Zhan He; Zhao, Kong-Nan

    2015-11-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare recessive disorder associated with chromosomal fragility. FA patients are at very high risk of cancers, especially head and neck squamous cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas caused by infection of human papillomaviruses (HPVs). By integrating into the host genome, HPV oncogenes E6 and E7 drive the genomic instability to promote DNA damage and gene mutations necessary for carcinogenesis in FA patients. Furthermore, E6 and E7 oncoproteins not only inhibit p53 and retinoblastoma but also impair the FANC/BRCA signaling pathway to prevent DNA damage repair and alter multiple signals including cell-cycle checkpoints, telomere function, cell proliferation, and interference of the host immune system leading to cancer development in FA patients. In this review, we summarize recent advances in unraveling the molecular mechanisms of FA susceptibility to HPV-induced cancers, which facilitate rational preventive and therapeutic strategies. PMID:25776992

  11. Tristetraprolin is a tumor suppressor that impairs Myc-induced lymphoma and abolishes the malignant state

    PubMed Central

    Rounbehler, Robert J.; Fallahi, Mohammad; Yang, Chunying; Steeves, Meredith A.; Li, Weimin; Doherty, Joanne R.; Schaub, Franz X.; Sanduja, Sandhya; Dixon, Dan A.; Blackshear, Perry J.; Cleveland, John L.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Myc oncoproteins directly regulate transcription by binding to target genes, yet this only explains a fraction of the genes affected by Myc. mRNA turnover is controlled via AU-binding proteins (AUBPs) that recognize AU-rich elements (AREs) found within many transcripts. Analyses of precancerous and malignant Myc-expressing B cells revealed that Myc regulates hundreds of ARE-containing (ARED) genes and select AUBPs. Notably, Myc directly suppresses transcription of Tristetraprolin (TTP/ZFP36), an mRNA-destabilizing AUBP, and this circuit is also operational during B lymphopoiesis and IL7 signaling. Importantly, TTP suppression is a hallmark of cancers with MYC involvement, and restoring TTP impairs Myc-induced lymphomagenesis and abolishes maintenance of the malignant state. Further, there is a selection for TTP loss in malignancy; thus, TTP functions as a tumor suppressor. Finally, Myc/TTP-directed control of select cancer-associated ARED genes is disabled during lymphomagenesis. Thus, Myc targets AUBPs to regulate ARED genes that control tumorigenesis. PMID:22863009

  12. The presence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 mRNA transcripts in a subset of sinonasal carcinomas is evidence of involvement of HPV in its etiopathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Laco, Jan; Sieglová, Kateřina; Vošmiková, Hana; Dundr, Pavel; Němejcová, Kristýna; Michálek, Jaroslav; Čelakovský, Petr; Chrobok, Viktor; Mottl, Radovan; Mottlová, Alena; Tuček, Luboš; Slezák, Radovan; Chmelařová, Marcela; Sirák, Igor; Vošmik, Milan; Ryška, Aleš

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection in sinonasal carcinomas by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and polymerase chain reaction, detecting p16(INK4a) protein (p16) expression and presence of both HPV DNA and HPV E6/E7 messenger RNA (mRNA). The study comprised 47 males and 26 females, aged 23-83 years (median 62 years), mostly (67 %) with a squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Of the tumors, 53 % arose in the nasal cavity, 42 % in the maxillary sinus, and 5 % in the ethmoid complex. The follow-up period ranged 1-241 months (median 19 months). HPV16, HPV18, or HPV35 were detected in 18/73 (25 %) tumors, 17 SCCs, and 1 small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. There was a strong correlation between results of HPV detection methods and p16 expression (p < 0.005). HPV-positive SCCs occurred more frequently in smokers (p = 0.04) and were more frequently p16-positive (p < 0.0001) and nonkeratinizing (p = 0.02), the latter occurring more commonly in nasal cavity (p = 0.025). Median survival for HPV-positive SCC patients was 30 months, while for HPV-negative SCC patients was 14 months (p = 0.23). In summary, we confirm that HR-HPV is actively involved in the etiopathogenesis of a significant subset of sinonasal SCCs. p16 may be used as a reliable surrogate marker for determination of HPV status also in sinonasal SCCs. Although we observed a trend toward better overall survival in HPV-positive SCCs, the prognostic impact of HPV status in sinonasal carcinomas needs to be elucidated by further studies. PMID:26229021

  13. A comparison of human papillomavirus genotype-specific DNA and E6/E7 mRNA detection to identify anal precancer among HIV-infected men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Philip E.; Follansbee, Stephen; Borgonovo, Sylvia; Tokugawa, Diane; Schwartz, Lauren M.; Lorey, Thomas S.; LaMere, Brandon; Gage, Julia C.; Fetterman, Barbara; Darragh, Teresa M.; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) RNA detection is reportedly more specific for the detection of anogenital precancer than HPV DNA but it is unknown whether this is due to detection of RNA or due to HPV genotype restriction. Materials and Methods 363 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men had two anal cytology samples taken and were evaluated using high-resolution anoscopy and biopsies of visible lesions. Anal specimens were tested for E6/E7 RNA for 5 carcinogenic HPV genotypes (HPV16, 18, 31, 33, and 45) and tested for the DNA of 13 carcinogenic HPV genotypes. Results DNA testing was more likely to be positive than RNA testing (53% vs. 48%, p = 0.02) for the same 5 HPV genotypes in aggregate. When restricted to 5 HPV genotypes targeted by the RNA test, the sensitivity to detect anal precancer was the same for DNA and RNA (81%) while RNA was more specific than DNA (65% vs. 58%, p = 0.007). By comparison, DNA detection of all 13 carcinogenic HPV genotypes was more sensitive (96% vs. 81%, p = 0.001) but much less specific (65% vs. 33%, p < 0.001) compared to RNA detection of the 5 HPV genotypes. Conclusion After controlling for HPV genotypes, RNA was only slightly more specific than DNA detection for anal precancer. Impact DNA or RNA testing for a subset of the most carcinogenic HPV genotypes may be useful for distinguishing between those HPV-positive men at higher and lower risk of anal precancer and cancer. PMID:23155136

  14. A hydrogen-bonding network formed by the B10-E7-E11 residues of a truncated hemoglobin from Tetrahymena pyriformis is critical for stability of bound oxygen and nitric oxide detoxification.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Jotaro; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Matsuoka, Ariki

    2011-04-01

    Truncated hemoglobins (trHbs) are distributed from bacteria to unicellular eukaryotes and have roles in oxygen transport and nitric oxide detoxification. It is known that trHbs exist in ciliates of the Tetrahymena group, but trHb structure and function remain poorly understood. To investigate trHb function with respect to stability of bound oxygen and protein structure, we measured the oxygen binding kinetics of Tetrahymena pyriformis trHb, and determined the crystal structure of the protein. The O(2) association and dissociation rate constants of T. pyriformis trHb were 5.5 μM(-1 )s(-1) and 0.18 s(-1), respectively. The autooxidation rate constant was 3.8 × 10(-3) h(-1). These values are similar to those of HbN from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The three-dimensional structure of an Fe(II)-O(2) complex of T. pyriformis trHb was determined at 1.73-Å resolution. Tyr25 (B10) and Gln46 (E7) were hydrogen-bonded to a heme-bound O(2) molecule. Tyr25 donated a hydrogen bond to the terminal oxygen atom, whereas Gln46 hydrogen-bonded to the proximal oxygen atom. Furthermore, Tyr25 was hydrogen-bonded to the Gln46 and Gln50 (E11) residues. Mutations at Tyr25, Gln46, and Gln50 increased the O(2) dissociation and autooxidation rate constants. An Fe(III)-H(2)O complex of T. pyriformis trHb was formed following reaction of the Fe(II)-O(2) complex of T. pyriformis trHb, in a crystal state, with nitric oxide. This suggests that T. pyriformis trHb functions in nitric oxide detoxification. PMID:21298303

  15. Sensitivity of APTIMA HPV E6/E7 mRNA test in comparison with hybrid capture 2 HPV DNA test for detection of high risk oncogenic human papillomavirus in 396 biopsy confirmed cervical cancers.

    PubMed

    Basu, Partha; Banerjee, Dipanwita; Mittal, Srabani; Dutta, Sankhadeep; Ghosh, Ishita; Chowdhury, Nilarun; Abraham, Priya; Chandna, Puneet; Ratnam, Sam

    2016-07-01

    The sensitivity of E6/E7 mRNA-based Aptima HPV test (AHPV; Hologic, Inc.) for detection of cervical cancer has been reported based on only a small number of cases. We determined the sensitivity of AHPV in comparison with the DNA-based Hybrid Capture 2 HPV test (HC2; Qiagen) for the detection of oncogenic HPV in a large number of cervical cancers at the time of diagnosis using cervical samples obtained in ThinPrep (Hologic). Samples yielding discordant results were genotyped using Linear Array assay (LA; Roche). Of 396 cases tested, AHPV detected 377 (sensitivity, 95.2%; 95%CI: 93.1-97.3), and HC2 376 (sensitivity, 94.9%; 95%CI: 92.7-97.1) with an agreement of 97.2% (kappa 0.7; 95%CI: 0.54-0.87). Among six AHPV+/HC2- cases, LA identified oncogenic HPV types in four including a type 73 and was negative in two. Among five AHPV-/HC2+ cases, LA detected oncogenic HPV types in two including a type 73 and was negative in three. Of 14 AHPV-/HC2- cases, 13 were genotyped. LA detected oncogenic HPV types in six, non-oncogenic types in three, and was negative in four. This is the largest study to demonstrate the sensitivity of AHPV for the detection of invasive cervical cancer and this assay showed equal sensitivity to HC2. J. Med. Virol. 88:1271-1278, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26693677

  16. Retroviral gene transfer of dominant negative raf-1 mutants suppresses ha-ras-induced transformation and delays tumor formation.

    PubMed

    Heinicke, T; Radziwill, G; Nawrath, M; Rommel, C; Pavlovic, J; Moelling, K

    2000-05-01

    Activating mutants of ras are among the most frequently found genetic alterations in human cancers. Therefore, Ras appears to be an attractive target for therapeutic intervention using gene transfer. The protein kinase Raf-1 acts as a direct downstream effector of Ras and is involved in Ras-induced cellular transformation. Using the NIH3T3 fibroblast-derived tumor cell line PEJ, which expresses oncogenic Ha-rasG12V, we analyzed whether dominant negative mutants of Raf-1 can inhibit Ras-mediated transformation. Retroviral gene transfer was used to stably transduce PEJ cells with three different dominant negative mutants of Raf-1. This resulted in reversion of the transformed phenotype in vitro as evidenced by an increase in contact inhibition and reduced anchorage-independent growth. However, tumor formation in nude mice was significantly delayed only by one of these mutants. Therefore, dominant negative mutants of the oncoprotein Myc, which is known to synergize with Raf-1 in tumor formation, were transduced into PEJ cells expressing a dominant negative Raf mutant. This leads to killing of the cells. These results indicate that although interference with Ras-induced transformation using dominant negative mutants of Raf is feasible and effective in vitro using retroviral vectors, an additional block (e.g., that of Myc) is necessary to kill PEJ cells. These results also indicate that interference with Ras-dependent signaling is not sufficient for inhibition of tumor formation of PEJ cells in vivo. PMID:10830717

  17. STAT5 is crucial to maintain leukemic stem cells in acute myelogenous leukemias induced by MOZ-TIF2.

    PubMed

    Tam, Winnie F; Hähnel, Patricia S; Schüler, Andrea; Lee, Benjamin H; Okabe, Rachel; Zhu, Nan; Pante, Saskia V; Raffel, Glen; Mercher, Thomas; Wernig, Gerlinde; Bockamp, Ernesto; Sasca, Daniel; Kreft, Andreas; Robinson, Gertraud W; Hennighausen, Lothar; Gilliland, D Gary; Kindler, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    MOZ-TIF2 is a leukemogenic fusion oncoprotein that confers self-renewal capability to hematopoietic progenitor cells and induces acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) with long latency in bone marrow transplantation assays. Here, we report that FLT3-ITD transforms hematopoietic cells in cooperation with MOZ-TIF2 in vitro and in vivo. Coexpression of FLT3-ITD confers growth factor independent survival/proliferation, shortens disease latency, and results in an increase in the number of leukemic stem cells (LSC). We show that STAT5, a major effector of aberrant FLT3-ITD signal transduction, is both necessary and sufficient for this cooperative effect. In addition, STAT5 signaling is essential for MOZ-TIF2-induced leukemic transformation itself. Lack of STAT5 in fetal liver cells caused rapid differentiation and loss of replating capacity of MOZ-TIF2-transduced cells enriched for LSCs. Furthermore, mice serially transplanted with Stat5(-/-) MOZ-TIF2 leukemic cells develop AML with longer disease latency and finally incomplete penetrance when compared with mice transplanted with Stat5(+/+) MOZ-TIF2 leukemic cells. These data suggest that STAT5AB is required for the self-renewal of LSCs and represents a combined signaling node of FLT3-ITD and MOZ-TIF2 driven leukemogenesis. Therefore, targeting aberrantly activated STAT5 or rewired downstream signaling pathways may be a promising therapeutic option. PMID:23149921

  18. Identification of small molecules that induce apoptosis in a Myc-dependent manner and inhibit Myc-driven transformation

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Hao; Henriksson, Marie

    2006-01-01

    The Myc transcription factor plays a central role in the regulation of cell cycle progression, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and cellular transformation. Myc is a potent oncoprotein that is deregulated in a wide variety of human tumors and is therefore an attractive target for novel cancer therapies. Using a cellular screening approach, we have identified low-molecular-weight compounds, Myc pathway response agents (MYRAs), that induce apoptosis in a c-Myc-dependent manner and inhibit Myc-driven cellular transformation. MYRA-A inhibits Myc transactivation and interferes with the DNA-binding activity of Myc family proteins but has no effect on the E-box-binding protein USF. In contrast, MYRA-B induces Myc-dependent apoptosis without affecting Myc transactivation or Myc/Max DNA binding. Our data show that cellular screening assays can be a powerful strategy for the identification of candidate substances that modulate the Myc pathway. These compounds can be useful tools for studying Myc function and may also be of therapeutic potential as leads for drug development. PMID:16606833

  19. STAT5 Is Crucial to Maintain Leukemic Stem Cells in Acute Myelogenous Leukemias Induced by MOZ-TIF2

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Winnie F.; Hhnel, Patricia S.; Schler, Andrea; Lee, Benjamin H.; Okabe, Rachel; Zhu, Nan; Pante, Saskia V.; Raffel, Glen; Mercher, Thomas; Wernig, Gerlinde; Bockamp, Ernesto; Sasca, Daniel; Kreft, Andreas; Robinson, Gertraud W.; Hennighausen, Lothar; Gilliland, D. Gary; Kindler, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    MOZ-TIF2 is a leukemogenic fusion oncoprotein that confers self-renewal capability to hematopoietic progenitor cells and induces acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) with long latency in bone marrow transplantation assays. Here, we report that FLT3-ITD transforms hematopoietic cells in cooperation with MOZ-TIF2 in vitro and in vivo. Coexpression of FLT3-ITD confers growth factor independent survival/proliferation, shortens disease latency, and results in an increase in the number of leukemic stem cells (LSC). We show that STAT5, a major effector of aberrant FLT3-ITD signal transduction, is both necessary and sufficient for this cooperative effect. In addition, STAT5 signaling is essential for MOZ-TIF2induced leukemic transformation itself. Lack of STAT5 in fetal liver cells caused rapid differentiation and loss of replating capacity of MOZ-TIF2transduced cells enriched for LSCs. Furthermore, mice serially transplanted with Stat5?/? MOZ-TIF2 leukemic cells develop AML with longer disease latency and finally incomplete penetrance when compared with mice transplanted with Stat5+/+ MOZ-TIF2 leukemic cells. These data suggest that STAT5AB is required for the self-renewal of LSCs and represents a combined signaling node of FLT3-ITD and MOZ-TIF2 driven leukemogenesis. Therefore, targeting aberrantly activated STAT5 or rewired downstream signaling pathways may be a promising therapeutic option. PMID:23149921

  20. Human papillomavirus 16 E5 induces bi-nucleated cell formation by cell-cell fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Lulin; Plafker, Kendra; Vorozhko, Valeriya; Zuna, Rosemary E.; Hanigan, Marie H.; Gorbsky, Gary J.; Plafker, Scott M.; Angeletti, Peter C.; Ceresa, Brian P.

    2009-02-05

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) 16 is a DNA virus encoding three oncogenes - E5, E6, and E7. The E6 and E7 proteins have well-established roles as inhibitors of tumor suppression, but the contribution of E5 to malignant transformation is controversial. Using spontaneously immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells), we demonstrate that expression of HPV16 E5 is necessary and sufficient for the formation of bi-nucleated cells, a common characteristic of precancerous cervical lesions. Expression of E5 from non-carcinogenic HPV6b does not produce bi-nucleate cells. Video microscopy and biochemical analyses reveal that bi-nucleates arise through cell-cell fusion. Although most E5-induced bi-nucleates fail to propagate, co-expression of HPV16 E6/E7 enhances the proliferation of these cells. Expression of HPV16 E6/E7 also increases bi-nucleated cell colony formation. These findings identify a new role for HPV16 E5 and support a model in which complementary roles of the HPV16 oncogenes lead to the induction of carcinogenesis.

  1. Vanadium-induced apoptosis of HaCaT cells is mediated by c-fos and involves nuclear accumulation of clusterin

    PubMed Central

    Markopoulou, Soultana; Kontargiris, Evangelos; Batsi, Christina; Tzavaras, Theodore; Trougakos, Ioannis; Boothman, David A.; Gonos, Efstathios S.; Kolettas, Evangelos

    2016-01-01

    Vanadium exerts a variety of biological effects, including antiproliferative responses through activation of the respective signaling pathways and the generation of reactive oxygen species. As epidermal cells are exposed to environmental insults, human keratinocytes (HaCaT) were used to investigate the mechanism of the antiproliferative effects of vanadyl(IV) sulfate (VOSO4). Treatment of HaCaT cells with VOSO4 inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition of proliferation was associated with downregulation of cyclins D1 and E, E2F1, and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21Cip1/Waf1 and p27Kip1. Induction of apoptosis correlated with upregulation of the c-fos oncoprotein, changes in the expression of clusterin (CLU), an altered ratio of antiapoptotic to proapoptotic Bcl-2 protein family members, and poly(ADP-ribose) poly-merase-1 cleavage. Forced overexpression of c-fos induced apoptosis in HaCaT cells that correlated with secretory CLU downregulation and upregulation of nuclear CLU (nCLU), a pro-death protein. Overexpression of Bcl-2 protected HaCaT cells from vanadium-induced apoptosis, whereas secretory CLU overexpression offered no cytoprotection. In contrast, nCLU sensitized HaCaT cells to apoptosis. Our data suggest that vanadium-mediated apoptosis was promoted by c-fos, leading to alterations in CLU isoform processing and induction of the pro-death nCLU protein. PMID:19531052

  2. The Anticancer Effect of (1S,2S,3E,7E,11E)-3,7,11,15-Cembratetraen-17,2-olide(LS-1) through the Activation of TGF-β Signaling in SNU-C5/5-FU, Fluorouracil-Resistant Human Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Ji; Kang, Jung-Il; Kwak, Jeon-Won; Jeon, Chan-Hee; Tung, Nguyen-Huu; Kim, Young-Ho; Choi, Cheol-Hee; Hyun, Jin-Won; Koh, Young-Sang; Yoo, Eun-Sook; Kang, Hee-Kyoung

    2015-01-01

    The anticancer effect of (1S,2S,3E,7E,11E)-3,7,11,15-cembratetraen-17,2-olide (LS-1) from Lobophytum sp. has been already reported in HT-29 human colorectal cancer cells. In this study, we examined the effect of LS-1 on the apoptosis induction of SNU-C5/5-FU, fluorouracil-resistant human colon cancer cells. Furthermore, we investigated whether the apoptosis-induction effect of LS-1 could arise from the activation of the TGF-β pathway. In SNU-C5/5-FU treated with LS-1 of 7.1 μM (IC50), we could observe the various apoptotic characteristics, such as the increase of apoptotic bodies, the increase of the sub-G1 hypodiploid cell population, the decrease of the Bcl-2 level, the increase of procaspase-9 cleavage, the increase of procaspase-3 cleavage and the increase of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. Interestingly, the apoptosis-induction effect of LS-1 was also accompanied by the increase of Smad-3 phosphorylation and the downregulation of c-Myc in SNU-C5/5-FU. LS-1 also increased the nuclear localization of phospho-Smad-3 and Smad-4. We examined whether LS-1 could downregulate the expression of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a direct inhibitor of TGF-β signaling. LS-1 decreased the CEA level, as well as the direct interaction between CEA and TGF-βR1 in the apoptosis-induction condition of SNU-C5/5-FU. To examine whether LS-1 can induce apoptosis via the activation of TGF-β signaling, the SNU-C5/5-FU cells were treated with LS-1 in the presence or absence of SB525334, a TGF-βRI kinase inhibitor. SB525334 inhibited the effect of LS-1 on the apoptosis induction. These findings provide evidence demonstrating that the apoptosis-induction effect of LS-1 results from the activation of the TGF-β pathway via the downregulation of CEA in SNU-C5/5-FU. PMID:25786063

  3. Clinical validation of the HPV-risk assay, a novel real-time PCR assay for detection of high-risk human papillomavirus DNA by targeting the E7 region.

    PubMed

    Hesselink, A T; Berkhof, J; van der Salm, M L; van Splunter, A P; Geelen, T H; van Kemenade, F J; Bleeker, M G B; Heideman, D A M

    2014-03-01

    The HPV-Risk assay is a novel real-time PCR assay targeting the E7 region of 15 high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types (i.e., HPV16, -18, -31, -33, -35, -39, -45, -51, -52, -56, -58, -59, -66, -67, and -68), and provides additional genotype information for HPV16 and HPV18. This study evaluated the clinical performance and reproducibility of the HPV-Risk assay with cervical scraping specimens and its utility with self-collected (cervico)vaginal specimens. The clinical performance of the HPV-Risk assay for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) with cervical scraping specimens was evaluated by a noninferiority analysis, relative to high-risk HPV GP5+/6+ PCR, following international guidelines for HPV test requirements for cervical cancer screening. The HPV-Risk assay showed clinical sensitivity for CIN2+ of 97.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 89.1 to 99.3%; 67/69 samples) and a clinical specificity for CIN2+ of 94.3% (95% CI, 92.5 to 95.7%; 777/824 samples). The clinical sensitivity and specificity were noninferior to those of GP5+/6+ PCR (noninferiority score test, P=0.006 and 0.0003, respectively). Intralaboratory reproducibility over time (99.5% [95% CI, 98.6 to 99.8%]; 544/547 samples, kappa=0.99) and interlaboratory agreement (99.2% [95% CI, 98.6 to 99.8%]; 527/531 samples, kappa=0.98) for the HPV-Risk assay with cervical scraping specimens were high. The agreement of the HPV-Risk assay results for self-collected (cervico)vaginal specimens and clinician-obtained cervical scraping specimens was also high, i.e., 95.9% (95% CI, 85.1 to 99.0%; 47/49 samples, kappa=0.90) for self-collected lavage samples and 91.6% (95% CI, 84.6 to 95.6%; 98/107 samples, kappa=0.82) for self-collected brush samples. In conclusion, the HPV-Risk assay meets the cross-sectional clinical and reproducibility criteria of the international guidelines for HPV test requirements and can be considered clinically validated for cervical screening purposes. The compatibility of the HPV-Risk assay with self-collected specimens supports its utility for HPV self-sampling. PMID:24391196

  4. Clinical Validation of the HPV-Risk Assay, a Novel Real-Time PCR Assay for Detection of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus DNA by Targeting the E7 Region

    PubMed Central

    Berkhof, J.; van der Salm, M. L.; van Splunter, A. P.; Geelen, T. H.; van Kemenade, F. J.; Bleeker, M. G. B.; Heideman, D. A. M.

    2014-01-01

    The HPV-Risk assay is a novel real-time PCR assay targeting the E7 region of 15 high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types (i.e., HPV16, -18, -31, -33, -35, -39, -45, -51, -52, -56, -58, -59, -66, -67, and −68), and provides additional genotype information for HPV16 and HPV18. This study evaluated the clinical performance and reproducibility of the HPV-Risk assay with cervical scraping specimens and its utility with self-collected (cervico)vaginal specimens. The clinical performance of the HPV-Risk assay for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) with cervical scraping specimens was evaluated by a noninferiority analysis, relative to high-risk HPV GP5+/6+ PCR, following international guidelines for HPV test requirements for cervical cancer screening. The HPV-Risk assay showed clinical sensitivity for CIN2+ of 97.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 89.1 to 99.3%; 67/69 samples) and a clinical specificity for CIN2+ of 94.3% (95% CI, 92.5 to 95.7%; 777/824 samples). The clinical sensitivity and specificity were noninferior to those of GP5+/6+ PCR (noninferiority score test, P = 0.006 and 0.0003, respectively). Intralaboratory reproducibility over time (99.5% [95% CI, 98.6 to 99.8%]; 544/547 samples, kappa = 0.99) and interlaboratory agreement (99.2% [95% CI, 98.6 to 99.8%]; 527/531 samples, kappa = 0.98) for the HPV-Risk assay with cervical scraping specimens were high. The agreement of the HPV-Risk assay results for self-collected (cervico)vaginal specimens and clinician-obtained cervical scraping specimens was also high, i.e., 95.9% (95% CI, 85.1 to 99.0%; 47/49 samples, kappa = 0.90) for self-collected lavage samples and 91.6% (95% CI, 84.6 to 95.6%; 98/107 samples, kappa = 0.82) for self-collected brush samples. In conclusion, the HPV-Risk assay meets the cross-sectional clinical and reproducibility criteria of the international guidelines for HPV test requirements and can be considered clinically validated for cervical screening purposes. The compatibility of the HPV-Risk assay with self-collected specimens supports its utility for HPV self-sampling. PMID:24391196

  5. Inhibition of Myc-induced cell transformation by brain acid-soluble protein 1 (BASP1)

    PubMed Central

    Hartl, Markus; Nist, Andrea; Khan, M. Imran; Valovka, Taras; Bister, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Cell transformation by the Myc oncoprotein involves transcriptional activation or suppression of specific target genes with intrinsic oncogenic or tumor-suppressive potential, respectively. We have identified the BASP1 (CAP-23, NAP-22) gene as a novel target suppressed by Myc. The acidic 25-kDa BASP1 protein was originally isolated as a cortical cytoskeleton-associated protein from rat and chicken brain, but has also been found in other tissues and subcellular locations. BASP1 mRNA and protein expression is specifically suppressed in fibroblasts transformed by the v-myc oncogene, but not in cells transformed by other oncogenic agents. The BASP1 gene encompasses 2 exons separated by a 58-kbp intron and a Myc-responsive regulatory region at the 5? boundary of untranslated exon 1. Bicistronic expression of BASP1 and v-myc from a retroviral vector blocks v-myc-induced cell transformation. Furthermore, ectopic expression of BASP1 renders fibroblasts resistant to subsequent cell transformation by v-myc, and exogenous delivery of the BASP1 gene into v-myc-transformed cells leads to significant attenuation of the transformed phenotype. The inhibition of v-myc-induced cell transformation by BASP1 also prevents the transcriptional activation or repression of known Myc target genes. Mutational analysis showed that the basic N-terminal domain containing a myristoylation site, a calmodulin binding domain, and a putative nuclear localization signal is essential for the inhibitory function of BASP1. Our results suggest that down-regulation of the BASP1 gene is a necessary event in myc-induced oncogenesis and define the BASP1 protein as a potential tumor suppressor. PMID:19297618

  6. Selection of a recombinant Marek's disease virus in vivo through expression of the Marek's EcoRI-Q (Meq)-encoded oncoprotein: characterization of an rMd5-based mutant expressing the Meq of strain RB-1B.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pankaj; Dong, Huimin; Lenihan, Dawn; Gaddamanugu, Syamsundar; Katneni, Upendra; Shaikh, Shireen; Tavlarides-Hontz, Phaedra; Reddy, Sanjay M; Peters, Wachen; Parcells, Mark S

    2012-06-01

    Marek's disease (MD) is a highly contagious viral disease of chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) caused by MD virus (MDV), characterized by paralysis, neurologic signs, and the rapid onset of T-cell lymphomas. MDV-induced T-cell transformation requires a basic leucine zipper protein called Marek's EcoRI-Q-encoded protein (Meq). We have identified mutations in the coding sequence of Meq that correlated with virus pathotype (virulent, very virulent, and very virulent plus). The aim of this study was to determine whether recombinant viruses could be isolated based on Meq expression through in vivo selection. Chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) were cotransfected with an rMd5 strain-based Meq deletion virus (rMd5deltaMeq) and meq loci from strains representing different pathotypes of MDV. Transfected CEFs were inoculated into chickens in two independent studies. We were able to isolate a single recombinant virus, rMDV-1137, in a contact-exposed chicken. rMDV-1137 had recombined two copies of the meq gene of RB-1B and was found to have pathogenicity similar to both RB-1B and rMd5 parental strains. We found the RB-1B- and rMd5-induced lymphomas showed differences in composition and that rMDV-1137-induced lymphomas were intermediate in their composition. We were able to establish cell lines from both RB-1B- (MDCC-UD35, -UD37) and rMDV-1137 (MDCC-UD36, -UD38)-induced, but not rMd5-induced, lymphomas. To date, no rMd5- or parent Md5-transformed T-cell lines have been reported. Our results suggest that 1) a recombinant MDV can be selected on the basis of oncogenicity; 2) changes in Meq sequence seem to affect tumor composition and the ability to establish cell lines; and 3) in addition to meq, other genomic loci affect MDV pathogenicity and oncogenicity. PMID:22856190

  7. Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Small T Antigen Induces Cancer and Embryonic Merkel Cell Proliferation in a Transgenic Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Xuehui; Shuda, Yoko; Ostrowski, Stephen M.; Lukianov, Stefan; Jenkins, Frank J.; Honda, Kord; Maricich, Stephen M.; Moore, Patrick S.; Chang, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) causes the majority of human Merkel cell carcinomas (MCC) and encodes a small T (sT) antigen that transforms immortalized rodent fibroblasts in vitro. To develop a mouse model for MCV sT-induced carcinogenesis, we generated transgenic mice with a flox-stop-flox MCV sT sequence homologously recombined at the ROSA locus (ROSAsT), allowing Cre-mediated, conditional MCV sT expression. Standard tamoxifen (TMX) administration to adult UbcCreERT2; ROSAsT mice, in which Cre is ubiquitously expressed, resulted in MCV sT expression in multiple organs that was uniformly lethal within 5 days. Conversely, most adult UbcCreERT2; ROSAsT mice survived low-dose tamoxifen administration but developed ear lobe dermal hyperkeratosis and hypergranulosis. Simultaneous MCV sT expression and conditional homozygous p53 deletion generated multi-focal, poorly-differentiated, highly anaplastic tumors in the spleens and livers of mice after 60 days of TMX treatment. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts from these mice induced to express MCV sT exhibited anchorage-independent cell growth. To examine Merkel cell pathology, MCV sT expression was also induced during mid-embryogenesis in Merkel cells of Atoh1CreERT2/+; ROSAsT mice, which lead to significantly increased Merkel cell numbers in touch domes at late embryonic ages that normalized postnatally. Tamoxifen administration to adult Atoh1CreERT2/+; ROSAsT and Atoh1CreERT2/+; ROSAsT; p53flox/flox mice had no effects on Merkel cell numbers and did not induce tumor formation. Taken together, these results show that MCV sT stimulates progenitor Merkel cell proliferation in embryonic mice and is a bona fide viral oncoprotein that induces full cancer cell transformation in the p53-null setting. PMID:26544690

  8. c-Abl and Arg induce cathepsin-mediated lysosomal degradation of the NM23-H1 metastasis suppressor in invasive cancer.

    PubMed

    Fiore, L S; Ganguly, S S; Sledziona, J; Cibull, M L; Wang, C; Richards, D L; Neltner, J M; Beach, C; McCorkle, J R; Kaetzel, D M; Plattner, R

    2014-09-01

    Metastasis suppressors comprise a growing class of genes whose downregulation triggers metastatic progression. In contrast to tumor suppressors, metastasis suppressors are rarely mutated or deleted, and little is known regarding the mechanisms by which their expression is downregulated. Here, we demonstrate that the metastasis suppressor, NM23-H1, is degraded by lysosomal cysteine cathepsins (L,B), which directly cleave NM23-H1. In addition, activation of c-Abl and Arg oncoproteins induces NM23-H1 degradation in invasive cancer cells by increasing cysteine cathepsin transcription and activation. Moreover, c-Abl activates cathepsins by promoting endosome maturation, which facilitates trafficking of NM23-H1 to the lysosome where it is degraded. Importantly, the invasion- and metastasis-promoting activity of c-Abl/Arg is dependent on their ability to induce NM23-H1 degradation, and the pathway is clinically relevant as c-Abl/Arg activity and NM23-H1 expression are inversely correlated in primary breast cancers and melanomas. Thus, we demonstrate a novel mechanism by which cathepsin expression is upregulated in cancer cells (via Abl kinases). We also identify a novel role for intracellular cathepsins in invasion and metastasis (degradation of a metastasis suppressor). Finally, we identify novel crosstalk between oncogenic and metastasis suppressor pathways, thereby providing mechanistic insight into the process of NM23-H1 loss, which may pave the way for new strategies to restore NM23-H1 expression and block metastatic progression. PMID:24096484

  9. The adenovirus E1A proteins induce apoptosis, which is inhibited by the E1B 19-kDa and Bcl-2 proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Rao, L; Debbas, M; Sabbatini, P; Hockenbery, D; Korsmeyer, S; White, E

    1992-01-01

    Cooperation between the adenovirus E1A and E1B oncogenes is required for transformation of primary quiescent rodent cells. Although expression of E1A alone will stimulate cell proliferation sufficient to initiate transformed focus formation, proliferation fails to be sustained and foci degenerate. Coexpression of either the 19-kDa or 55-kDa E1B oncoproteins with E1A permits high-frequency transformation by overcoming this cytotoxic response. Without E1B 19-kDa protein expression, however, transformants remain susceptible to induction of cell death. Rapid loss of viability is coincident with nucleolytic cleavage of DNA in intranucleosomal regions and chromatin condensation, hallmarks of programmed cell death (apoptosis). Furthermore, overexpression of a known suppressor of apoptosis, the Bcl-2 protooncogene, can rescue E1A-induced focus degeneration. Thus E1A-dependent stimulation of cell proliferation is accompanied by apoptosis and thereby insufficient to singly induce transformation. High-frequency transformation requires a second function encoded by the E1B 19-kDa protein to block apoptosis. Images PMID:1457005

  10. Human papillomavirus causes an angiogenic switch in keratinocytes which is sufficient to alter endothelial cell behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, W.; Li, F.; Mead, L.; White, H.; Walker, J.; Ingram, D.A.; Roman, A.

    2007-10-10

    One of the requirements for tumor growth is the ability to recruit a blood supply, a process known as angiogenesis. Angiogenesis begins early in the progression of cervical disease from mild to severe dysplasia and on to invasive cancer. We have previously reported that expression of human papillomavirus type 16 E6 and E7 (HPV16 E6E7) proteins in primary foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs) decreases expression of two inhibitors and increases expression of two angiogenic inducers [Toussaint-Smith, E., Donner, D.B., Roman, A., 2004. Expression of human papillomavirus type 16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins in primary foreskin keratinocytes is sufficient to alter the expression of angiogenic factors. Oncogene 23, 2988-2995]. Here we report that HPV-induced early changes in the keratinocyte phenotype are sufficient to alter endothelial cell behavior both in vitro and in vivo. Conditioned media from HPV16 E6E7 expressing HFKs as well as from human cervical keratinocytes containing the intact HPV16 were able to stimulate proliferation and migration of human microvascular endothelial cells. In addition, introduction of the conditioned media into immunocompetent mice using a Matrigel plug model resulted in a clear angiogenic response. These novel data support the hypothesis that HPV proteins contribute not only to the uncontrolled keratinocyte growth seen following HPV infection but also to the angiogenic response needed for tumor formation.

  11. LMP1-Induced Sumoylation Influences the Maintenance of Epstein-Barr Virus Latency through KAP1

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Charles Randall; Whitehurst, Christopher B.; Moody, Cary A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT As a herpesvirus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) establishes a latent infection that can periodically undergo reactivation, resulting in lytic replication and the production of new infectious virus. Latent membrane protein-1 (LMP1), the principal viral oncoprotein, is a latency-associated protein implicated in regulating viral reactivation and the maintenance of latency. We recently found that LMP1 hijacks the SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9 via its C-terminal activating region-3 (CTAR3) and induces the sumoylation of cellular proteins. Because protein sumoylation can promote transcriptional repression, we hypothesized that LMP1-induced protein sumoylation induces the repression of EBV lytic promoters and helps maintain the viral genome in its latent state. We now show that with inhibition of LMP1-induced protein sumoylation, the latent state becomes less stable or leakier in EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines. The cells are also more sensitive to viral reactivation induced by irradiation, which results in the increased production and release of infectious virus, as well as increased susceptibility to ganciclovir treatment. We have identified a target of LMP1-mediated sumoylation that contributes to the maintenance of latency in this context: KRAB-associated protein-1 (KAP1). LMP1 CTAR3-mediated sumoylation regulates the function of KAP1. KAP1 also binds to EBV OriLyt and immediate early promoters in a CTAR3-dependent manner, and inhibition of sumoylation processes abrogates the binding of KAP1 to these promoters. These data provide an additional line of evidence that supports our findings that CTAR3 is a distinct functioning regulatory region of LMP1 and confirm that LMP1-induced sumoylation may help stabilize the maintenance of EBV latency. IMPORTANCE Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein-1 (LMP1) plays an important role in the maintenance of viral latency. Previously, we documented that LMP1 targets cellular proteins to be modified by a ubiquitin-like protein (SUMO). We have now identified a function for this LMP1-induced modification of cellular proteins in the maintenance of EBV latency. Because latently infected cells have to undergo viral reactivation in order to be vulnerable to antiviral drugs, these findings identify a new way to increase the rate of EBV reactivation, which increases cell susceptibility to antiviral therapies. PMID:25948750

  12. Inhibitory Mechanism of FAT4 Gene Expression in Response to Actin Dynamics during Src-Induced Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Takao; Taniguchi, Hiroaki; Fukagai, Kousuke; Okamuro, Shota; Kobayashi, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Oncogenic transformation is characterized by morphological changes resulting from alterations in actin dynamics and adhesive activities. Emerging evidence suggests that the protocadherin FAT4 acts as a tumor suppressor in humans, and reduced FAT4 gene expression has been reported in breast and lung cancers and melanoma. However, the mechanism controlling FAT4 gene expression is poorly understood. In this study, we show that transient activation of the Src oncoprotein represses FAT4 mRNA expression through actin depolymerization in the immortalized normal human mammary epithelial cell line MCF-10A. Src activation causes actin depolymerization via the MEK/Erk/Cofilin cascade. The MEK inhibitor U0126 blocks the inhibitory effect of Src on FAT4 mRNA expression and Src-induced actin depolymerization. To determine whether actin dynamics act on the regulation of FAT4 mRNA expression, we treated MCF-10A cells with the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632. Y-27632 treatment decreased FAT4 mRNA expression. This suppressive effect was blocked by siRNA-mediated knockdown of Cofilin1. Furthermore, simultaneous administration of Latrunculin A (an actin depolymerizing agent), Y-27632, and Cofilin1 siRNA to the cells resulted in a marked reduction of FAT4 mRNA expression. Intriguingly, we also found that FAT4 mRNA expression was reduced under both low cell density and low stiffness conditions, which suggests that mechanotransduction affects FAT4 mRNA expression. Additionally, we show that siRNA-mediated FAT4 knockdown induced the activity of the Hippo effector YAP/TAZ in MCF-10A cells. Taken together, our results reveal a novel inhibitory mechanism of FAT4 gene expression through actin depolymerization during Src-induced carcinogenesis in human breast cells. PMID:25679223

  13. Inhibitory mechanism of FAT4 gene expression in response to actin dynamics during Src-induced carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takao; Taniguchi, Hiroaki; Fukagai, Kousuke; Okamuro, Shota; Kobayashi, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Oncogenic transformation is characterized by morphological changes resulting from alterations in actin dynamics and adhesive activities. Emerging evidence suggests that the protocadherin FAT4 acts as a tumor suppressor in humans, and reduced FAT4 gene expression has been reported in breast and lung cancers and melanoma. However, the mechanism controlling FAT4 gene expression is poorly understood. In this study, we show that transient activation of the Src oncoprotein represses FAT4 mRNA expression through actin depolymerization in the immortalized normal human mammary epithelial cell line MCF-10A. Src activation causes actin depolymerization via the MEK/Erk/Cofilin cascade. The MEK inhibitor U0126 blocks the inhibitory effect of Src on FAT4 mRNA expression and Src-induced actin depolymerization. To determine whether actin dynamics act on the regulation of FAT4 mRNA expression, we treated MCF-10A cells with the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632. Y-27632 treatment decreased FAT4 mRNA expression. This suppressive effect was blocked by siRNA-mediated knockdown of Cofilin1. Furthermore, simultaneous administration of Latrunculin A (an actin depolymerizing agent), Y-27632, and Cofilin1 siRNA to the cells resulted in a marked reduction of FAT4 mRNA expression. Intriguingly, we also found that FAT4 mRNA expression was reduced under both low cell density and low stiffness conditions, which suggests that mechanotransduction affects FAT4 mRNA expression. Additionally, we show that siRNA-mediated FAT4 knockdown induced the activity of the Hippo effector YAP/TAZ in MCF-10A cells. Taken together, our results reveal a novel inhibitory mechanism of FAT4 gene expression through actin depolymerization during Src-induced carcinogenesis in human breast cells. PMID:25679223

  14. Transcription factor PREP1 induces EMT and metastasis by controlling the TGF-β–SMAD3 pathway in non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Risolino, Maurizio; Mandia, Nadia; Iavarone, Francescopaolo; Dardaei, Leila; Longobardi, Elena; Fernandez, Serena; Talotta, Francesco; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Pisati, Federica; Spaggiari, Lorenzo; Harter, Patrick N.; Mittelbronn, Michel; Schulte, Dorothea; Incoronato, Mariarosaria; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; Blasi, Francesco; Verde, Pasquale

    2014-01-01

    Pre–B-cell leukemia homeobox (Pbx)-regulating protein-1 (Prep1) is a ubiquitous homeoprotein involved in early development, genomic stability, insulin sensitivity, and hematopoiesis. Previously we have shown that Prep1 is a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor that inhibits neoplastic transformation by competing with myeloid ecotropic integration site 1 for binding to the common heterodimeric partner Pbx1. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is controlled by complex networks of proinvasive transcription factors responsive to paracrine factors such as TGF-β. Here we show that, in addition to inhibiting primary tumor growth, PREP1 is a novel EMT inducer and prometastatic transcription factor. In human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, PREP1 overexpression is sufficient to trigger EMT, whereas PREP1 down-regulation inhibits the induction of EMT in response to TGF-β. PREP1 modulates the cellular sensitivity to TGF-β by inducing the small mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 (SMAD3) nuclear translocation through mechanisms dependent, at least in part, on PREP1-mediated transactivation of a regulatory element in the SMAD3 first intron. Along with the stabilization and accumulation of PBX1, PREP1 induces the expression of multiple activator protein 1 components including the proinvasive Fos-related antigen 1 (FRA-1) oncoprotein. Both FRA-1 and PBX1 are required for the mesenchymal changes triggered by PREP1 in lung tumor cells. Finally, we show that the PREP1-induced mesenchymal transformation correlates with significantly increased lung colonization by cells overexpressing PREP1. Accordingly, we have detected PREP1 accumulation in a large number of human brain metastases of various solid tumors, including NSCLC. These findings point to a novel role of the PREP1 homeoprotein in the control of the TGF-β pathway, EMT, and metastasis in NSCLC. PMID:25157139

  15. Hepatitis B virus pre-S2 mutant surface antigen induces degradation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 through c-Jun activation domain-binding protein 1.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yi-Hsuan; Su, Ih-Jen; Wang, Hui-Ching; Tsai, Jui-He; Huang, Yu-Jun; Chang, Wen-Wei; Lai, Ming-Derg; Lei, Huan-Yaw; Huang, Wenya

    2007-10-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) large surface antigen (LHBS) mutant with deletion at the pre-S(2) region accumulates in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is associated with HBV-induced hepatocellular carcinogenesis. In this study, we found that the pre-S(2) LHBS mutant directly interacts with the Jun activation domain-binding protein 1 (JAB1). Association of pre-S(2) LHBS with JAB1 dissociated JAB1 from the JAB1/IRE1 complex in ER. The free (active) JAB1 then translocated into cell nuclei and rendered the Cdk inhibitor p27(Kip1) to cytosolic proteasome for degradation. The pre-S(2) LHBS mutant induced hyperphosphorylation of tumor suppressor retinoblastoma (RB) via cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2), a downstream molecule regulated by p27(Kip1). This effect is independent of the ER stress signaling pathway. The transgenic mice carrying the pre-S(2) mutant LHBS gene also exhibited Cdk2 activation, p27(Kip1) degradation, as well as RB hyperphosphorylation. The mouse hepatocytes exhibited morphologic abnormalities such as chromatin condensation, multinucleation, and dysplasia of hepatocytes. In summary, the pre-S(2) LHBS mutant causes p27(Kip1) degradation through direct interaction with JAB1. The pre-S(2) mutant LHBS is suggested to be a potential oncoprotein for HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:17951406

  16. SAR405838: an optimized inhibitor of MDM2-p53 interaction that induces complete and durable tumor regression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaomeng; Sun, Wei; Zhao, Yujun; McEachern, Donna; Meaux, Isabelle; Barrière, Cédric; Stuckey, Jeanne A; Meagher, Jennifer L; Bai, Longchuan; Liu, Liu; Hoffman-Luca, Cassandra Gianna; Lu, Jianfeng; Shangary, Sanjeev; Yu, Shanghai; Bernard, Denzil; Aguilar, Angelo; Dos-Santos, Odette; Besret, Laurent; Guerif, Stéphane; Pannier, Pascal; Gorge-Bernat, Dimitri; Debussche, Laurent

    2014-10-15

    Blocking the oncoprotein murine double minute 2 (MDM2)-p53 protein-protein interaction has long been considered to offer a broad cancer therapeutic strategy, despite the potential risks of selecting tumors harboring p53 mutations that escape MDM2 control. In this study, we report a novel small-molecule inhibitor of the MDM2-p53 interaction, SAR405838 (MI-77301), that has been advanced into phase I clinical trials. SAR405838 binds to MDM2 with K(i) = 0.88 nmol/L and has high specificity over other proteins. A cocrystal structure of the SAR405838:MDM2 complex shows that, in addition to mimicking three key p53 amino acid residues, the inhibitor captures additional interactions not observed in the p53-MDM2 complex and induces refolding of the short, unstructured MDM2 N-terminal region to achieve its high affinity. SAR405838 effectively activates wild-type p53 in vitro and in xenograft tumor tissue of leukemia and solid tumors, leading to p53-dependent cell-cycle arrest and/or apoptosis. At well-tolerated dose schedules, SAR405838 achieves either durable tumor regression or complete tumor growth inhibition in mouse xenograft models of SJSA-1 osteosarcoma, RS4;11 acute leukemia, LNCaP prostate cancer, and HCT-116 colon cancer. Remarkably, a single oral dose of SAR405838 is sufficient to achieve complete tumor regression in the SJSA-1 model. Mechanistically, robust transcriptional upregulation of PUMA induced by SAR405838 results in strong apoptosis in tumor tissue, leading to complete tumor regression. Our findings provide a preclinical basis upon which to evaluate SAR405838 as a therapeutic agent in patients whose tumors retain wild-type p53. PMID:25145672

  17. Spider Mite-Induced (3S)-(E)-Nerolidol Synthase Activity in Cucumber and Lima Bean. The First Dedicated Step in Acyclic C11-Homoterpene Biosynthesis1

    PubMed Central

    Bouwmeester, Harro J.; Verstappen, Francel W.A.; Posthumus, Maarten A.; Dicke, Marcel

    1999-01-01

    Many plant species respond to herbivory with de novo production of a mixture of volatiles that attracts carnivorous enemies of the herbivores. One of the major components in the blend of volatiles produced by many different plant species in response to herbivory by insects and spider mites is the homoterpene 4,8-dimethyl-1,3(E),7-nonatriene. One study (J. Donath, W. Boland [1995] Phytochemistry 39: 785–790) demonstrated that a number of plant species can convert the acyclic sesquiterpene alcohol (3S)-(E)-nerolidol to this homoterpene. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) both produce 4,8-dimethyl-1,3(E),7-nonatriene in response to herbivory. We report the presence in cucumber and lima bean of a sesquiterpene synthase catalyzing the formation of (3S)-(E)-nerolidol from farnesyl diphosphate. The enzyme is inactive in uninfested cucumber leaves, slightly active in uninfested lima bean leaves, and strongly induced by feeding of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) on both plant species, but not by mechanical wounding. The activities of the (3S)-(E)-nerolidol synthase correlated well with the levels of release of 4,8-dimethyl-1,3(E),7-nonatriene from the leaves of the different treatments. Thus, (3S)-(E)-nerolidol synthase is a good candidate for a regulatory role in the release of the important signaling molecule 4,8-dimethyl-1,3(E),7-nonatriene. PMID:10482672

  18. Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions & Treatments ▸ Conditions Dictionary ▸ Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Share | Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB) « Back to A to Z Listing Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction, (EIB), often known as exercise-induced ...

  19. CD4+ T lymphocytes are critical mediators of tumor immunity to simian virus 40 large tumor antigen induced by vaccination with plasmid DNA.

    PubMed

    Aldrich, Joel F; Lowe, Devin B; Shearer, Michael H; Winn, Richard E; Jumper, Cynthia A; Bright, Robert K; Kennedy, Ronald C

    2011-07-01

    A mechanistic analysis of tumor immunity directed toward the viral oncoprotein simian virus 40 (SV40) large tumor antigen (Tag) has previously been described by our laboratory for scenarios of recombinant Tag immunization in BALB/c mice. In the present study, we performed a preliminary characterization of the immune components necessary for systemic tumor immunity induced upon immunization with plasmid DNA encoding SV40 Tag as a transgene (pCMV-Tag). Antibody responses to SV40 Tag were observed via indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay following three intramuscular (i.m.) injections of pCMV-Tag and were typified by a mixed Th1/Th2 response. Complete tumor immunity within a murine model of pulmonary metastasis was achieved upon two i.m. injections of pCMV-Tag, as assessed by examination of tumor foci in mouse lungs, without a detectable antibody response to SV40 Tag. Induction-phase and effector-phase depletions of T cell subsets were performed in vivo via administration of depleting rat monoclonal antibodies, and these experiments demonstrated that CD4(+) T lymphocytes are required in both phases of the adaptive immune response. Conversely, depletion of CD8(+) T lymphocytes did not impair tumor immunity in either immune phase and resulted in the premature production of antibodies to SV40 Tag. Our findings are unique in that a dominant role could be ascribed to CD4(+) T lymphocytes within a model of DNA vaccine-induced tumor immunity to Tag-expressing tumor cells. Additionally, our findings provide insight into the general mechanisms of vaccine-induced tumor immunity directed toward tumors bearing distinct tumor-associated antigens. PMID:21593176

  20. Fructus Gardenia Extract ameliorates oxonate-induced hyperuricemia with renal dysfunction in mice by regulating organic ion transporters and mOIT3.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qing-Hua; Zhu, Ji-Xiao; Ji, Jing; Wei, Lin-Lin; Miao, Ming-Xing; Ji, Hui

    2013-01-01

    The potent anti-hyperuricemia activities of Fructus Gardenia Extract (FGE) have been well reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the uricosuric and nephro-protective effects of FGE and explore its possible mechanisms of action in oxonate-induced hyperuricemic mice. FGE was orally administered to hyperuricemic and normal mice for 1 week. Serum and urinary levels of uric acid, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and fractional excretion of uric acid (FEUA) were measured. The mRNA and protein levels of mouse urate transporter 1 (mURAT1), glucose transporter 9 (mGLUT9), ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G, 2 (mABCG2), organic anion transporter 1 (mOAT1), mOAT3, oncoprotein induced transcript 3 (mOIT3), organic cation/carnitine transporters in the kidney were analyzed. Simultaneously, Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein (THP) levels in urine and kidney were detected. FGE significantly reduced serum urate levels and increased urinary urate levels and FEUA in hyperuricemic mice. It could also effectively reverse oxonate-induced alterations in renal mURAT1, mGLUT9, mOAT1 and mOIT3 expressions, as well as THP levels, resulting in the enhancement of renal uric acid excretion. Moreover, FGE decreased serum creatinine and BUN levels, and up-regulated expression of organic cation/carnitine transporters, improving renal dysfunction in this model. Furthermore, FGE decreased renal mABCG2 expressions in hyperuricemic mice, contributing to its beneficial actions. However, further investigation is needed in clinical trials of FGE and its bioactive components. PMID:23899832

  1. Systemic Administration of CpG Oligodeoxynucleotide and Levamisole as Adjuvants for Gene-Gun-Delivered Antitumor DNA Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Šmahel, Michal; Poláková, Ingrid; Sobotková, Eva; Vajdová, Eva

    2011-01-01

    DNA vaccines showed great promise in preclinical models of infectious and malignant diseases, but their potency was insufficient in clinical trials and is needed to be improved. In this study, we tested systemic administration of two conventional adjuvants, synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide carrying immunostimulatory CpG motifs (CpG-ODN) and levamisole (LMS), and evaluated their effect on immune reactions induced by DNA vaccines delivered by a gene gun. DNA vaccination was directed either against the E7 oncoprotein of human papillomavirus type 16 or against the BCR-ABL1 oncoprotein characteristic for chronic myeloid leukemia. High doses of both adjuvants reduced activation of mouse splenic CD8+ T lymphocytes, but the overall antitumor effect was enhanced in both tumor models. High-dose CpG-ODN exhibited a superior adjuvant effect in comparison with any combination of CpG-ODN with LMS. In summary, our results demonstrate the benefit of combined therapy with gene-gun-delivered antitumor DNA vaccines and systemic administration of CpG-ODN or LMS. PMID:22028727

  2. Transformation with Oncogenic Ras and the Simian Virus 40 T Antigens Induces Caspase-Dependent Sensitivity to Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shihao; Spencer, Cody M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oncogenesis is frequently accompanied by the activation of specific metabolic pathways. One such pathway is fatty acid biosynthesis, whose induction is observed upon transformation of a wide variety of cell types. Here, we explored how defined oncogenic alleles, specifically the simian virus 40 (SV40) T antigens and oncogenic Ras12V, affect fatty acid metabolism. Our results indicate that SV40/Ras12V-mediated transformation of fibroblasts induces fatty acid biosynthesis in the absence of significant changes in the concentration of fatty acid biosynthetic enzymes. This oncogene-induced activation of fatty acid biosynthesis was found to be mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) dependent, as it was attenuated by rapamycin treatment. Furthermore, SV40/Ras12V-mediated transformation induced sensitivity to treatment with fatty acid biosynthetic inhibitors. Pharmaceutical inhibition of acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase (ACC), a key fatty acid biosynthetic enzyme, induced caspase-dependent cell death in oncogene-transduced cells. In contrast, isogenic nontransformed cells were resistant to fatty acid biosynthetic inhibition. This oncogene-induced sensitivity to fatty acid biosynthetic inhibition was independent of the cells' growth rates and could be attenuated by supplementing the medium with unsaturated fatty acids. Both the activation of fatty acid biosynthesis and the sensitivity to fatty acid biosynthetic inhibition could be conveyed to nontransformed breast epithelial cells through transduction with oncogenic Ras12V. Similar to what was observed in the transformed fibroblasts, the Ras12V-induced sensitivity to fatty acid biosynthetic inhibition was independent of the proliferative status and could be attenuated by supplementing the medium with unsaturated fatty acids. Combined, our results indicate that specific oncogenic alleles can directly confer sensitivity to inhibitors of fatty acid biosynthesis. IMPORTANCE Viral oncoproteins and cellular mutations drive the transformation of normal cells to the cancerous state. These oncogenic alterations induce metabolic changes and dependencies that can be targeted to kill cancerous cells. Here, we find that the cellular transformation resulting from combined expression of the SV40 early region with an oncogenic Ras allele is sufficient to induce cellular susceptibility to fatty acid biosynthetic inhibition. Inhibition of fatty acid biosynthesis in these cells resulted in programmed cell death, which could be rescued by supplementing the medium with nonsaturated fatty acids. Similar results were observed with the expression of oncogenic Ras in nontransformed breast epithelial cells. Combined, our results suggest that specific oncogenic alleles induce metabolic dependencies that can be exploited to selectively kill cancerous cells. PMID:25855740

  3. Biomarkers of gene expression: growth factors and oncoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Brandt-Rauf, P W

    1997-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on the application of methods for the detection of growth factors, oncogene proteins, and tumor-suppressor gene proteins in the blood of humans with cancer or who are at risk for the development of cancer. The research summarized here suggests that many of these biomarker assays can be used to distinguish between diseased and nondiseased states and in some instances may be able to predict susceptibility for future disease. Thus, these biomarkers could be valuable tools for monitoring at-risk populations for purposes of disease prevention and control. PMID:9255565

  4. Recognizing Rheumatoid Arthritis: Oncoprotein Survivin Opens New Possibilities

    PubMed Central

    Chun-Lai, Too; Murad, Shahnaz; Erlandsson, Malin C.; Hussein, Heselynn; Sulaiman, Wahinuddin; Dhaliwal, Jasbir S.; Bokarewa, Maria I.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Survivin is a biomarker of cancer known for its anti-apoptotic and cell-cycle regulating properties. In the context of non-cancer pathology, high levels of survivin may be measured in blood and synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and associate with early joint damage and poor therapy response. The aim of the study was to investigate the value of survivin measurements in blood for diagnosis of RA in the frame of the Malaysian epidemiological investigation of rheumatoid arthritis (MyEIRA) study. The study enrolled RA patients from eight rheumatology centres in Peninsular Malaysia. The healthy controls matched by age, gender and ethnicity were recruited on the community basis from the residential area of the patients. Levels of survivin were measured in blood of RA patients (n?=?1233) and controls (n?=?1566) by an enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA). The risk for RA was calculated as odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals in the individuals with high levels of survivin. The risk was calculated in relation to antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptides (ACPA), detected by ELISA and HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (SE) alleles, identified by the polymerase chain reaction using sequence specific oligonucleotide method. High levels of survivin were detected in 625 of 1233 (50.7%) RA cases and in 85 of 1566 (5.4%) controls, indicating its high specificity for RA. Survivin was association with an increase in RA risk in the patients having neither SE-alleles nor ACPA (OR?=?5.40, 95% CI 3.817.66). For the patients combining survivin, SE, and ACPA, the estimated risk for RA was 16-folds higher compared to the survivin negative patients with SE and ACPA(OR?=?16.21, 95% CI 5.7046.18). To conclude, detection of survivin in blood provides a simple test to improve diagnostic and to increase predictability for RA. PMID:25634192

  5. Regulation of the oncoprotein Smoothened by small molecules.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Hayley J; Wang, Weiru; Hannoush, Rami N; de Sauvage, Frederic J

    2015-04-01

    The Hedgehog pathway is critical for animal development and has been implicated in multiple human malignancies. Despite great interest in targeting the pathway pharmacologically, many of the principles underlying the signal transduction cascade remain poorly understood. Hedgehog ligands are recognized by a unique receptor system that features the transporter-like protein Patched and the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-like Smoothened (SMO). The biochemical interaction between these transmembrane proteins is the subject of intensive efforts. Recent structural and functional studies have provided great insight into the small-molecule regulation of SMO through identification of two distinct ligand-binding sites. In this Perspective, we review these recent findings and relate them to potential mechanisms for the endogenous regulation of SMO. PMID:25785427

  6. Measurements of prompt radiation induced conductivity of alumina and sapphire.

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, E. Frederick; Zarick, Thomas Andrew; Sheridan, Timothy J.; Preston, Eric F.

    2011-04-01

    We performed measurements of the prompt radiation induced conductivity in thin samples of Alumina and Sapphire at the Little Mountain Medusa LINAC facility in Ogden, UT. Five mil thick samples were irradiated with pulses of 20 MeV electrons, yielding dose rates of 1E7 to 1E9 rad/s. We applied variable potentials up to 1 kV across the samples and measured the prompt conduction current. Analysis rendered prompt conductivity coefficients between 1E10 and 1E9 mho/m/(rad/s), depending on the dose rate and the pulse width for Alumina and 1E7 to 6E7 mho/m/(rad/s) for Sapphire.

  7. Chronic cadmium exposure in vitro induces cancer cell characteristics in human lung cells

    SciTech Connect

    Person, Rachel J.; Tokar, Erik J.; Xu, Yuanyuan; Orihuela, Ruben; Ngalame, Ntube N. Olive; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2013-12-01

    Cadmium is a known human lung carcinogen. Here, we attempt to develop an in vitro model of cadmium-induced human lung carcinogenesis by chronically exposing the peripheral lung epithelia cell line, HPL-1D, to a low level of cadmium. Cells were chronically exposed to 5 μM cadmium, a noncytotoxic level, and monitored for acquired cancer characteristics. By 20 weeks of continuous cadmium exposure, these chronic cadmium treated lung (CCT-LC) cells showed marked increases in secreted MMP-2 activity (3.5-fold), invasion (3.4-fold), and colony formation in soft agar (2-fold). CCT-LC cells were hyperproliferative, grew well in serum-free media, and overexpressed cyclin D1. The CCT-LC cells also showed decreased expression of the tumor suppressor genes p16 and SLC38A3 at the protein levels. Also consistent with an acquired cancer cell phenotype, CCT-LC cells showed increased expression of the oncoproteins K-RAS and N-RAS as well as the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition marker protein Vimentin. Metallothionein (MT) expression is increased by cadmium, and is typically overexpressed in human lung cancers. The major MT isoforms, MT-1A and MT-2A were elevated in CCT-LC cells. Oxidant adaptive response genes HO-1 and HIF-1A were also activated in CCT-LC cells. Expression of the metal transport genes ZNT-1, ZNT-5, and ZIP-8 increased in CCT-LC cells culminating in reduced cadmium accumulation, suggesting adaptation to the metal. Overall, these data suggest that exposure of human lung epithelial cells to cadmium causes acquisition of cancer cell characteristics. Furthermore, transformation occurs despite the cell's ability to adapt to chronic cadmium exposure. - Highlights: • Chronic cadmium exposure induces cancer cell characteristics in human lung cells. • This provides an in vitro model of cadmium-induced human lung cell transformation. • This occurred with general and lung specific changes typical for cancer cells. • These findings add insight to the relationship between cadmium and lung cancer.

  8. Constitutive Phosphorylation of Aurora-A on Ser51 Induces Its Stabilization and Consequent Overexpression in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Ikuko; Tatsuka, Masaaki; Kawai, Hidehiko; Pagano, Michele; Takata, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    Background The serine/threonine kinase Aurora-A (Aur-A) is a proto-oncoprotein overexpressed in a wide range of human cancers. Overexpression of Aur-A is thought to be caused by gene amplification or mRNA overexpression. However, recent evidence revealed that the discrepancies between amplification of Aur-A and overexpression rates of Aur-A mRNA were observed in breast cancer, gastric cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, and ovarian cancer. We found that aggressive head and neck cancers exhibited overexpression and stabilization of Aur-A protein without gene amplification or mRNA overexpression. Here we tested the hypothesis that aberration of the protein destruction system induces accumulation and consequently overexpression of Aur-A in cancer. Principal Findings Aur-A protein was ubiquitinylated by APCCdh1 and consequently degraded when cells exited mitosis, and phosphorylation of Aur-A on Ser51 was observed during mitosis. Phosphorylation of Aur-A on Ser51 inhibited its APCCdh1-mediated ubiquitylation and consequent degradation. Interestingly, constitutive phosphorylation on Ser51 was observed in head and neck cancer cells with protein overexpression and stabilization. Indeed, phosphorylation on Ser51 was observed in head and neck cancer tissues with Aur-A protein overexpression. Moreover, an Aur-A Ser51 phospho-mimetic mutant displayed stabilization of protein during cell cycle progression and enhanced ability to cell transformation. Conclusions/Significance Broadly, this study identifies a new mode of Aur-A overexpression in cancer through phosphorylation-dependent inhibition of its proteolysis in addition to gene amplification and mRNA overexpression. We suggest that the inhibition of Aur-A phosphorylation can represent a novel way to decrease Aur-A levels in cancer therapy. PMID:17895985

  9. The role of gamma interferon in DNA vaccine-induced tumor immunity targeting simian virus 40 large tumor antigen.

    PubMed

    Aldrich, Joel F; Shearer, Michael H; Lowe, Devin B; Winn, Richard E; Jumper, Cynthia A; Kennedy, Ronald C; Bright, Robert K

    2013-02-01

    The central role of CD4+ T lymphocytes in mediating DNA vaccine-induced tumor immunity against the viral oncoprotein simian virus 40 (SV40) large tumor antigen (Tag) has previously been described by our laboratory. In the present study, we extend our previous findings by examining the roles of IFN-γ and Th1-associated effector cells within the context of DNA immunization in a murine model of pulmonary metastasis. Immunization of BALB/c mice with plasmid DNA encoding SV40 Tag (pCMV-Tag) generated IFN-γ-secreting T lymphocytes that produced this cytokine upon in vitro stimulation with mKSA tumor cells. The role of IFN-γ as a mediator of protection against mKSA tumor development was assessed via in vivo IFN-γ neutralization, and these experiments demonstrated a requirement for this cytokine in the induction immune phase. Neutralization of IFN-γ was associated with a reduction in Th1 cytokine-producing CD4+ and CD8+ splenocytes, as assessed by flow cytometry analysis, and provided further evidence for the role of CD4+ T lymphocytes as drivers of the cellular immune response. Depletion of NK cells and CD8+ T lymphocytes demonstrated the expendability of these cell types individually, but showed a requirement for a resident cytotoxic cell population within the immune effector phase. Our findings demonstrate the importance of IFN-γ in the induction of protective immunity stimulated by pCMV-Tag DNA-based vaccine and help to clarify the general mechanisms by which DNA vaccines trigger immunity to tumor cells. PMID:22926061

  10. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons—Induced ROS Accumulation Enhances Mutagenic Potential of T-Antigen From Human Polyomavirus JC

    PubMed Central

    WILK, ANNA; RSKI, PIOTR WALIGÓ; LASSAK, ADAM; VASHISTHA, HIMANSHU; LIRETTE, DAVID; TATE, DAVID; ZEA, ARNOLD H.; KOOCHEKPOUR, SHAHRIAR; RODRIGUEZ, PAULO; MEGGS, LEONARD G.; ESTRADA, JOHN J.; OCHOA, AUGUSTO; REISS, KRZYSZTOF

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the products of incomplete combustion of organic materials, which are present in cigarette smoke, deep-fried food, and in natural crude oil. Since PAH-metabolites form DNA adducts and cause oxidative DNA damage, we asked if these environmental carcinogens could affect transforming potential of the human Polyomavirus JC oncoprotein, T-antigen (JCV T-antigen). We extracted DMSO soluble PAHs from Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico (oil-PAHs), and detected several carcinogenic PAHs. The oil-PAHs were tested in exponentially growing cultures of normal mouse fibroblasts (R508), and in R508 stably expressing JCV T-antigen (R508/T). The oil-PAHs were cytotoxic only at relatively high doses (1:50–1:100 dilution), and at 1:500 dilution the growth and cell survival rates were practically unaffected. This non-toxic dose triggered however, a significant accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), caused oxidative DNA damage and the formation of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). Although oil-PAHs induced similar levels of DNA damage in R508 and R508/T cells, only T-antigen expressing cells demonstrated inhibition of high fidelity DNA repair by homologous recombination (HRR). In contrast, low-fidelity repair by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) was unaffected. This potential mutagenic shift between DNA repair mechanisms was accompanied by a significant increase in clonal growth of R508/T cells chronically exposed to low doses of the oil-PAHs. Our results indicate for the first time carcinogenic synergy in which oil-PAHs trigger oxidative DNA damage and JCV T-antigen compromises DNA repair fidelity. PMID:23558788

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-induced ROS accumulation enhances mutagenic potential of T-antigen from human polyomavirus JC.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Anna; Waligórski, Piotr; Lassak, Adam; Vashistha, Himanshu; Lirette, David; Tate, David; Zea, Arnold H; Koochekpour, Shahriar; Rodriguez, Paulo; Meggs, Leonard G; Estrada, John J; Ochoa, Augusto; Reiss, Krzysztof

    2013-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the products of incomplete combustion of organic materials, which are present in cigarette smoke, deep-fried food, and in natural crude oil. Since PAH-metabolites form DNA adducts and cause oxidative DNA damage, we asked if these environmental carcinogens could affect transforming potential of the human Polyomavirus JC oncoprotein, T-antigen (JCV T-antigen). We extracted DMSO soluble PAHs from Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico (oil-PAHs), and detected several carcinogenic PAHs. The oil-PAHs were tested in exponentially growing cultures of normal mouse fibroblasts (R508), and in R508 stably expressing JCV T-antigen (R508/T). The oil-PAHs were cytotoxic only at relatively high doses (1:50-1:100 dilution), and at 1:500 dilution the growth and cell survival rates were practically unaffected. This non-toxic dose triggered however, a significant accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), caused oxidative DNA damage and the formation of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). Although oil-PAHs induced similar levels of DNA damage in R508 and R508/T cells, only T-antigen expressing cells demonstrated inhibition of high fidelity DNA repair by homologous recombination (HRR). In contrast, low-fidelity repair by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) was unaffected. This potential mutagenic shift between DNA repair mechanisms was accompanied by a significant increase in clonal growth of R508/T cells chronically exposed to low doses of the oil-PAHs. Our results indicate for the first time carcinogenic synergy in which oil-PAHs trigger oxidative DNA damage and JCV T-antigen compromises DNA repair fidelity. PMID:23558788

  12. Expression profiling reveals transcriptional regulation by Fbxw7/mTOR pathway in radiation-induced mouse thymic lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Snijders, Antoine M.; Liu, Yueyong; Su, Li; Huang, Yurong; Mao, Jian-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The tumor suppressor gene FBXW7 is deleted and mutated in many different types of human cancers. FBXW7 primarily exerts its tumor suppressor activity by ubiquitinating different oncoproteins including mTOR. Here we used gene transcript profiling to gain a deeper understanding of the role of FBXW7 in tumor development and to determine the influence of mTOR inhibition by rapamycin on tumor transcriptome and biological functions. In comparison to tumors from p53 single heterozygous (p53+/−) mice, we find that radiation-induced thymic lymphomas from Fbxw7/p53 double heterozygous (Fbxw7+/−p53+/−) mice show significant deregulation of cholesterol metabolic processes independent of rapamycin treatment, while cell cycle related genes were upregulated in tumors from placebo treated Fbxw7+/−p53+/− mice, but not in tumors from rapamycin treated Fbxw7+/−p53+/− mice. On the other hand, tumors from rapamycin treated Fbxw7+/−p53+/− mice were enriched for genes involved in the integrated stress response, an adaptive mechanism to survive in stressful environments. Finally, we demonstrated that the Fbxw7 gene signatures identified in mouse tumors significantly overlap with FBXW7 co-expressed genes in human cancers. Importantly these common FBXW7 gene signatures between mouse and human are predictive for disease-free survival in human colon, breast and lung adenocarcinoma cancer patients. These results provide novel insights into the role of FBXW7 in tumor development and have identified a number of potential targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26575021

  13. Exercise-Induced Urticaria

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Exercise-induced Urticaria Overview What is exercise-induced urticaria? Exercise-induced urticaria is a condition that causes hives and other allergic symptoms. It can occur during ...

  14. Polymeric nanoparticles for co-delivery of synthetic long peptide antigen and poly IC as therapeutic cancer vaccine formulation.

    PubMed

    Rahimian, Sima; Fransen, Marieke F; Kleinovink, Jan Willem; Christensen, Jonatan Riis; Amidi, Maryam; Hennink, Wim E; Ossendorp, Ferry

    2015-04-10

    The aim of the current study was to develop a cancer vaccine formulation for treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced malignancies. Synthetic long peptides (SLPs) derived from HPV16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins have been used for therapeutic vaccination in clinical trials with promising results. In preclinical and clinical studies adjuvants based on mineral oils (such as incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) and Montanide) are used to create a sustained release depot at the injection site. While the depot effect of mineral oils is important for induction of robust immune responses, their administration is accompanied with severe adverse and long lasting side effects. In order to develop an alternative for IFA family of adjuvants, polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) based on hydrophilic polyester (poly(d,l lactic-co-hydroxymethyl glycolic acid) (pLHMGA)) were prepared. These NPs were loaded with a synthetic long peptide (SLP) derived from HPV16 E7 oncoprotein and a toll like receptor 3 (TLR3) ligand (poly IC) by double emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The therapeutic efficacy of the nanoparticulate formulations was compared to that of HPV SLP+poly IC formulated in IFA. Encapsulation of HPV SLP antigen in NPs substantially enhanced the population of HPV-specific CD8+ T cells when combined with poly IC either co-encapsulated with the antigen or in its soluble form. The therapeutic efficacy of NPs containing poly IC in tumor eradication was equivalent to that of the IFA formulation. Importantly, administration of pLHMGA nanoparticles was not associated with adverse effects and therefore these biodegradable nanoparticles are excellent substitutes for IFA in cancer vaccines. PMID:25660830

  15. Extrachromosomal inducible expression.

    PubMed

    Veltman, Douwe M; Van Haastert, Peter J M

    2013-01-01

    Inducible expression systems are very convenient for proteins that induce strong side effects such as retardation of growth or development and are essential for the expression of toxic proteins. In this chapter we describe the doxycycline-inducible expression system, optimized for the controlled expression in. Two types of inducible plasmids are pres