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Sample records for ear external

  1. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    MedlinePlus

    ... drops, keeping water out of the ear, and pain relievers are the most common forms of treatment. External otitis may involve the entire canal, as ... does not allow fungus to grow as well. Treatment of boils depends on ... relievers, such as oxycodone with acetaminophen , can be given ...

  2. [External ear melanoma].

    PubMed

    Amando García, L; Suárez Nieto, C; Madrigal Rubiales, B; García García, J

    2003-02-01

    Cutaneous melanomas are the tumours that have increased more their incidence in the last fifty years. Melanomas arising from the external auditory canal are extraordinariously unfrequent. These tumours show an aggressive and silent behaviour, and due to this the diagnosis is frequently made in an advanced stage. A male with a malignant melanoma arising from his left external auditory canal was attended in our department, suspecting an epidermoid carcinoma. The clinical findings and the extension of the lesion required a lateral temporal bone resection, parotidectomy and neck dissection to achieve a total resection. We present a review of the literature about this entity and an analysis of the incidence, significance of the lymph node metastases and value of the elective neck dissection. PMID:12802982

  3. Cutaneous lesions of the external ear

    PubMed Central

    Sand, Michael; Sand, Daniel; Brors, Dominik; Altmeyer, Peter; Mann, Benno; Bechara, Falk G

    2008-01-01

    Skin diseases on the external aspect of the ear are seen in a variety of medical disciplines. Dermatologists, othorhinolaryngologists, general practitioners, general and plastic surgeons are regularly consulted regarding cutaneous lesions on the ear. This article will focus on those diseases wherefore surgery or laser therapy is considered as a possible treatment option or which are potentially subject to surgical evaluation. PMID:18261212

  4. Ewing Sarcoma of the External Ear Canal.

    PubMed

    Binnetoglu, Adem; Baglam, Tekin; Tokuc, Gulnur; Kecelioglu Binnetoglu, Kiymet; Gerin, Fatma; Sari, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a high-grade malignant tumor that has skeletal and extraskeletal forms and consists of small round cells. In the head and neck region, reported localization of extraskeletal ES includes the larynx, thyroid gland, submandibular gland, nasal fossa, pharynx, skin, and parotid gland, but not the external ear canal. Methods. We present the unique case of a 2-year-old boy with extraskeletal ES arising from the external ear canal, mimicking auricular hematoma. Results. Surgery was performed and a VAC/IE (vincristine, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide alternating with ifosfamide, and etoposide) regimen was used for adjuvant chemotherapy for 12 months. Conclusion. The clinician should consider extraskeletal ES when diagnosing tumors localized in the head and neck region because it may be manifested by a nonspecific clinical picture mimicking common otorhinolaryngologic disorders. PMID:27313930

  5. Ewing Sarcoma of the External Ear Canal

    PubMed Central

    Kecelioglu Binnetoglu, Kiymet; Gerin, Fatma; Sari, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a high-grade malignant tumor that has skeletal and extraskeletal forms and consists of small round cells. In the head and neck region, reported localization of extraskeletal ES includes the larynx, thyroid gland, submandibular gland, nasal fossa, pharynx, skin, and parotid gland, but not the external ear canal. Methods. We present the unique case of a 2-year-old boy with extraskeletal ES arising from the external ear canal, mimicking auricular hematoma. Results. Surgery was performed and a VAC/IE (vincristine, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide alternating with ifosfamide, and etoposide) regimen was used for adjuvant chemotherapy for 12 months. Conclusion. The clinician should consider extraskeletal ES when diagnosing tumors localized in the head and neck region because it may be manifested by a nonspecific clinical picture mimicking common otorhinolaryngologic disorders. PMID:27313930

  6. [Congenital malformations of the external and middle ear].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaoyan; Yang, Jun; Wu, Hao

    2013-07-01

    Congenital malformations of the external and middle ear is the common reason of pediatric hearing impairment and cosmic problem. The treatment composes of auricular plastic surgery and auditory reconstruction surgery. The use of BAHA, vibrant sound-bridge and tissue engineering materials can significantly improve the treatment outcomes. PMID:24073571

  7. Myxoid Neurofibromas of the External Ear Canal: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Maryam, Y K; Mohd Khairi, M D; Asmah Hanim, H

    2015-04-01

    Myxoid neurofibroma is benign tumours of perineural cell origin that arise from elements in the peripheral nervous system. We report a case of a 60-year-old female patient presented with history of right ear mass which was slowly growing. Her primary complaint was cosmetic deformity but hearing loss was also present. The mass was excised and histologically revealed a myxoid neurofibroma. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time that a myxoid neurofibroma arising from external auditory canal is reported. It should be included in the differential diagnosis of a mass originating from this location. PMID:26162387

  8. Carcinoma of the middle ear and external auditory canal

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, S.S.; Kim, J.A.; Goodchild, N.; Constable, W.C.

    1983-07-01

    Thirty-one patients with malignant tumors of the middle ear and external auditory canal (EAC) were observed at the University of Virginia Hospital from 1956 through 1980. Of 27 patients with carcinoma, 21 had squamous cell carcinoma, 4 had basal cell carcinoma and 2 had adenoid cystic carcinoma. The 27 patients with carcinoma are reviewed with regard to clinical presentation, treatment modality, results and complications. The majority (67%) of patients had a history of chronic ear drainage, 22% had a previous mastoidectomy or polypectomy and 7% had an associated cholesteatoma. Eighty percent of patients with carcinoma limited to EAC were alive and well at 5 years, compared to 43% of patients with involvement of the middle ear. Fifty-six percent of patients without invasion of the petrous bone were alive at 5 years compared to only 20% of patients with petrous bone involvement. The data strongly suggest that survival depends on the extent of disease. The corrected disease free 5 year survival rates were 14% for patients who had surgery alone and 50% for those who had surgery and radiotherapy. Of the three patients with advanced disease who received radiotherapy alone, none survived five years.

  9. Prominent ears: Anthropometric study of the external ear of primary school children of Harare, Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Muteweye, Wilfred; Muguti, Godfrey I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prominent ear is the most common congenital ear deformity affecting 5% of children in the Western world and has profound psychosocial effects on the bearer. It is important to know the prevalence in the local population to have a better appreciation of the local burden of the abnormality as well as to know the parameters of ear morphology locally. These parameters can be useful in the diagnosis and evaluation of ear anomalies and may help reconstructive surgeons in reproducing an anatomically correct ear of an African/Zimbabwean child. Objectives To evaluate the frequency of prominent ears in black school going children in Zimbabwe and to establish morphometric properties of the ear. Design Prospective observational, cross sectional study. Setting Three Primary schools in Harare. Two in a high density area and one in a low density area. Materials and methods Three Primary schools in Harare were selected at random. The following measurements were taken: ear lengths, ear projection and face height using a sliding caliper. Three hundred and five healthy pupils of the age range 9–13 years of both sexes were included in the study, whilst children with congenital anomalies, ear tumours and history of ear trauma were excluded. Results The mean ear height across the cohort was 56.95 ± 5.00 (right ear) and 56.86 ± 4.92 (left ear). Ear projection was 19.52 ± 2.14 (right ear) and 19.59 ± 2.09 (left ear). Gender related differences were noted. Mean ear height was significantly higher in males (p-value = 0.000). Ear projection was higher in males compared to females. A total of 6.89% had prominent ears. Among males, 7.69% had prominent ears whilst 6.17% of females had prominent ears. Conclusion The prevalence of prominent ear among black African children in the studied population is comparable to that of Caucasians. The study provides a set of biometric data of auricular dimensions for normal black African children aged 9–13 years. PMID:26468372

  10. First Branchial Cleft Fistula Associated with External Auditory Canal Stenosis and Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahi fakhim, Shahin; Naderpoor, Masoud; Mousaviagdas, Mehrnoosh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: First branchial cleft anomalies manifest with duplication of the external auditory canal. Case Report: This report features a rare case of microtia and congenital middle ear and canal cholesteatoma with first branchial fistula. External auditory canal stenosis was complicated by middle ear and external canal cholesteatoma, but branchial fistula, opening in the zygomatic root and a sinus in the helical root, may explain this feature. A canal wall down mastoidectomy with canaloplasty and wide meatoplasty was performed. The branchial cleft was excised through parotidectomy and facial nerve dissection. Conclusion: It should be considered that canal stenosis in such cases can induce cholesteatoma formation in the auditory canal and middle ear. PMID:25320705

  11. Cavernous Hemangioma of the External Canal, Tympanic Membrane, and Middle Ear Cleft: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Odat, Haitham; Al-Qudah, Mohannad; Al-Qudah, Mohammad A

    2016-06-01

    Cavernous hemangioma involving the external canal, tympanic membrane, and middle ear cavity is extremely rare. We present a case of a 45-year-old woman who had progressive right sided decreased hearing, pulsatile tinnitus, and aural fullness of 7 months duration. Microscopic examination, imaging studies, surgical treatment, and histological evaluation are reported. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of cavernous hemangioma with simultaneous involvement of the external ear, tympanic membrane, middle ear, and attic reported in English literature. PMID:26304856

  12. Modeling individual differences in ferret external ear transfer functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnupp, Jan W. H.; Booth, John; King, Andrew J.

    2003-04-01

    Individual variations in head and outer ear size, as well as growth of these structures during development, can markedly alter the values of the binaural and monaural cues which form the basis for auditory localization. This study investigated individual differences in the directional component of the head-related transfer function of both adult and juvenile ferrets. In line with previous studies in humans and cats, intersubject spectral differences were found to be reduced by scaling one of the directional transfer functions on a log-frequency axis. The optimal scale factor correlated most highly with pinna cavity height. Optimal frequency scaling reduced interear spectral difference equally well for adult-juvenile comparisons as for comparisons between pairs of adult ears. This illustrates that the developmental changes in localization cue values should be at least partly predictable on the basis of the expected growth rate of the outer ear structures. Predictions of interaural time differences (ITDs) were also derived from the physical dimensions of the head. ITDs were found to be poorly fitted by the spherical head model, while much better predictions could be derived from a model based on von Mises spherical basis functions. Together, these findings show how more accurate estimates of spatial cue values can be made from knowledge of the dimensions of the head and outer ears, and may facilitate the generation of virtual acoustic space stimuli in the absence of acoustical measurements from individual subjects.

  13. Bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis of the external ear canal: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Froelich, K; Radeloff, A; Köhler, C; Mlynski, R; Müller, J; Hagen, R; Kleinsasser, N H

    2011-08-01

    In 2003, osteonecrosis of the jaw was described as an intraoral complication of bisphosphonate therapy. More recently, cases of avascular necrosis of the hip were reported in patients with long-lasting bisphosphonate therapy. Thus, it was the aim of the present study to analyze cases of benign osteonecrosis of the external ear canal and to retrospectively identify a possible relationship to long-lasting bisphosphonate therapy. 13 patients with osteonecrosis of the external ear canal operated on between 2005 and 2009 were included. Patient histories were reviewed for possible previous or current bisphosphonate therapy. Three patients with osteonecrosis of the external ear canal and long-term bisphosphonate therapy could be identified. They had been treated either for breast cancer or multiple myeloma. Certainly, the jaw is an area of increased risk for developing osteonecrosis with its high mechanical stress and intraoral bacterial flora. However, osteonecrosis of the hips and the external ear canal in patients receiving long-term bisphosphonate therapy necessitate further investigation of a possible systemic, bisphosphonate-related phenomenon. PMID:21327733

  14. Assessment of thermal treatment via irrigation of external ear to reduce cisplatin-induced hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Spankovich, Christopher; Lobarinas, Edward; Ding, Dalian; Salvi, Richard; Le Prell, Colleen G

    2016-02-01

    Systemic and local changes in body temperature can have a profound effect on traumatic injuries including those to the inner ear. Therefore, we investigated the effects of acutely increasing or decreasing the temperature of the external ear canal on cisplatin-induced hearing loss. The external auditory canals of male guinea pigs were acutely irrigated with warm (44 °C), euthermic (37 °C), or cool (30 °C) water and subsequently injected with cisplatin (12 mg/kg, i.p.). Hearing was assessed by the auditory brainstem response and cochleograms were prepared to determine loss of hair cells. Ear canal irrigation with warm water potentiated cisplatin-induced hearing loss and outer hair cell loss whereas cool ear canal irrigation showed significant protection from cisplatin-induced hearing loss and outer hair cell loss. These results suggest that non-invasive cool water ear canal irrigation may be highly effective clinical procedure for protecting against cisplatin-induced hearing loss. PMID:26639015

  15. A Surprising Finding after External Ear Polypectomy in a Deaf Mute Patient

    PubMed Central

    Abdel Tawab, Hazem M.; Kumar V, Ravi; Tabook, Salim M. Sloma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. External auditory canal polyps usually reflect an inflammatory process. Rarely, they may reflect a serious condition that warrants urgent intervention. Case Report. A 19-year-old deaf mute female presented to our department with persistent left ear discharge and a reddish mass in the ear. After surgery, the cause was identified as a neglected foreign body. Tympanic membrane was intact. Conclusion. Aural polyp that is resistant to medical treatment should raise the suspicion of an inflammatory polyp with underlying chronic suppurative otitis media or foreign body. Rarer neoplastic and immunological causes should also be considered. PMID:25815226

  16. Numerical simulation of wave propagation in a realistic model of the human external ear.

    PubMed

    Fadaei, Mohaddeseh; Abouali, Omid; Emdad, Homayoun; Faramarzi, Mohammad; Ahmadi, Goodarz

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a numerical investigation is performed to evaluate the effects of high-pressure sinusoidal and blast wave's propagation around and inside of a human external ear. A series of computed tomography images are used to reconstruct a realistic three-dimensional (3D) model of a human ear canal and the auricle. The airflow field is then computed by solving the governing differential equations in the time domain using a computational fluid dynamics software. An unsteady algorithm is used to obtain the high-pressure wave propagation throughout the ear canal which is validated against the available analytical and numerical data in literature. The effects of frequency, wave shape, and the auricle on pressure distribution are then evaluated and discussed. The results clearly indicate that the frequency plays a key role on pressure distribution within the ear canal. At 4 kHz frequency, the pressure magnitude is much more amplified within the ear canal than the frequencies of 2 and 6 kHz, for the incident wave angle of 90° investigated in this study, attributable to the '4-kHz notch' in patients with noise-induced hearing loss. According to the results, the pressure distribution patterns at the ear canal are very similar for both sinusoidal pressure waveform with the frequency of 2 kHz and blast wave. The ratio of the peak pressure value at the eardrum to that at the canal entrance increases from about 8% to 30% as the peak pressure value of the blast wave increases from 5 to 100 kPa for the incident wave angle of 90° investigated in this study. Furthermore, incorporation of the auricle to the ear canal model is associated with centerline pressure magnitudes of about 50% and 7% more than those of the ear canal model without the auricle throughout the ear canal for sinusoidal and blast waves, respectively, without any significant effect on pressure distribution pattern along the ear canal for the incident wave angle of 90° investigated in this study. PMID

  17. Occurrence and distribution of Malassezia species on skin and external ear canal of horses.

    PubMed

    Shokri, Hojjatollah

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Malassezia species from the body skin and external ear canal of healthy horses. The samples were obtained by scraping the skin surface from the nose, groin and dorsum and swabbing from the external ear canal of 163 animals, and then incubated on sabouraud dextrose agar and modified Dixon agar. Malassezia species were isolated from 34.9% of horses. The percentages of Malassezia species were 64.3% for Arab, 35.7% for Persian, 35.4% for Thoroughbred and 27.1% for Turkmen breeds. The greatest abundance of Malassezia species was found in the external ear canal (47.7%, representing significant difference with other sites), followed by nose (26.3%), groin (15.8%) and dorsum (10.5%) (P < 0.05). A total of 57 strains from six Malassezia species were detected with a frequency rate as follows: M. pachydermatis (33.3%), M. globosa (26.3%), M. sympodialis (14.1%), M. restricta (10.5%), M. obtusa (8.8%) and M. furfur (7%). The most common age-group affected was 1-3 years (59.4%). This study confirmed that cutaneous Malassezia microbiota in healthy horses varies by body site and age but not by breed and gender, representing M. pachydermatis as the most prevalent species on horse skin. PMID:26549307

  18. Morphometric study of the external and middle ear anatomy in sheep: a possible model for ear experiments.

    PubMed

    Seibel, Valter Alberto Ayres; Lavinsky, Luiz; De Oliveira, José Alfredo Preto

    2006-09-01

    Sheep are a potentially useful model for otologic surgical training and experimentation, currently limited by the scarcity of morphological comparisons between the structure of the ear in sheep and in humans. A detailed morphometric study of the ear in sheep was carried out using computed tomography. Measurements made with AutoCAD Release 14 were compared with measurements for the human ear reported in the literature. In general, ear structures in sheep are two-thirds the size of those in humans. The important anatomical similarities found in this study between the ear in sheep and in humans suggest that sheep may be a useful model for surgical training and experimentation in some middle ear procedures. PMID:16287111

  19. Cholesterol granuloma presenting as a mass obstructing the external ear canal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cholesterol granuloma (CG) may involve the middle ear, the mastoid bone and the petrous apex. However, CG presenting as a mass obstructing the external ear canal (EEC) is relatively rare and it can be a diagnostic challenge. Case Presentation We report a case of a CG occupying the mastoid antrum and presenting as a mass into the EEC. Temporal bone computerized tomography showed a soft tissue mass which eroded the posterior-superior bony wall of the EEC. On magnetic resonance imaging, the mass revealed a high signal on both T1 and T2-weighted images. The CG was removed by a mastoidectomy procedure and the histopathologic report confirmed the diagnosis of CG. A type III tympanoplasty was performed. Conclusions The postoperative course was uneventful. PMID:20367883

  20. [Efficacy of Dioxidine antimicrobial preparation for the treatment of inflammatory diseases of the external and middle ear].

    PubMed

    Ovchinnikov, A Yu; Egiyan, S S

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the comparative analysis of the clinical efficacy of drugs for local therapy in patients with acute external otitis, acute purulent otitis media and exacerbation of chronic suppurative otitis media is presented. The results of the clinical study, dynamic bacteriological investigation confirmed the high efficacy, safety and good tolerance of dioxidine in treatment of external and middle ear infections. PMID:27213660

  1. Effect of diving and diving hoods on the bacterial flora of the external ear canal and skin.

    PubMed Central

    Brook, I; Coolbaugh, J C; Williscroft, R G

    1982-01-01

    The bacterial flora of the external ear canals and posterior auricular skin surfaces were investigated in a group of 26 divers after 25 dry-suit dives in harbor water and 20 dry-suit dives in clear test tank test. A control group of 16 divers wore rubber hoods 19 times for a similar period (25 to 30 min) but did not dive. The protective effect of 2% acetic acid was tested by instilling it in the left ear of 14 divers and 8 nondivers. Staphylococcus epidermidis, Propionibacterium acnes, alpha-hemolytic streptococci, and enteric gram-negative rods were the predominant isolates from skin and ear samples. After the divers dove or after they wore hoods without going in the water, there was a substantial increase in the number of these organisms on the skin (46.9%) or in the external ears (43.8%) of the divers. However, an increase in the bacterial counts in the external ear canals occurred in only 13.6% of the individuals treated prophylactically with acetic acid drops. Although no gram-negative rods were recovered from the skin or external ear canals of divers in clear tank water, 23 strains were isolated after the dives in harbor water. Identical gram-negative isolates also were recovered from the harbor water. Gram-negative organisms also were recovered from three newly acquired skin lacerations, where they persisted for at least 24 h. Our data show the acquisition of gram-negative rods when dives were made in polluted water. The data also demonstrate the increase in bacterial counts that occurs when rubber diving rods are worn (in or out of water) and that this increase can be controlled by pretreatment of ears with acetic acid. PMID:7096559

  2. Vibrant Soundbridge and Bone Conduction Hearing Aid in Patients with Bilateral Malformation of External Ear

    PubMed Central

    Mondelli, Maria Fernanda Capoani Garcia; Mariano, Thais Cristina Barbosa; Honório, Heitor Marques; Brito, Rubens Vuono de

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hearing loss is the most common clinical finding in patients with malformation of the external ear canal. Among the possibilities of treatment, there is the adaptation of hearing aids by bone conduction and the adaptation of implantable hearing aids. Objective To assess speech perception with the use of Vibrant Soundbridge (VBS - MED-EL, Innsbruck, Austria) associated with additional amplification in patients with bilateral craniofacial malformation. Method We evaluated 11 patients with bilateral malformation over 12 years with mixed hearing loss or bilateral conductive. They were using the Softband (Oticon Medical, Sweden) and bone conduction hearing aid in the ear opposite the one with the VSB. We performed the evaluation of speech perception using the Hearing in Noise Test. Results Participants were eight men and three women with a mean of 19.5 years. The signal / noise ratio presented significant results in patients fitted with VSB and bone conduction hearing aid. Conclusion The results of speech perception were significantly better with use of VBS combined with bone conduction hearing aids. PMID:26722343

  3. Histological study of the external, middle and inner ear of horses.

    PubMed

    Blanke, A; Aupperle, H; Seeger, J; Kubick, C; Schusser, G F

    2015-12-01

    Clinical, anatomical and histological aspects of the equine acoustic organ have been poorly investigated and illustrated in literature so far. It is understood that an intact acoustic organ and hearing function are of vital importance for the well-being of flight animals like horses. The knowledge of the acoustic organ is usually transferred analogously from other mammals to horses. The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed and complete histological description of the healthy equine auditory organ, and to determine its congruity to other mammalians. Anatomical dissections and histological preparations were carried out on ten cadaver heads. Specimens of various parts of the equine acoustic organ were taken and evaluated histologically. The histological composition of external, middle and inner ear structures are predominantly congruent to those of other mammals, especially to human beings. Unique inwardly directed rete pegs within the osseous ear canal and the prominent tensor tympani muscle are described for the first time. Results obtained in this study can be employed as references for further research on the equine acoustic organ and improve the understanding of the clinical development of hearing loss, otitis externa/media/interna or tympanosclerosis. PMID:25283481

  4. Clinical characteristics and follow-up of patients with external ear canal cholesteatoma treated conservatively.

    PubMed

    Sakalli, Erdal; Kaya, Deniz; Celikyurt, Cengiz; Erdurak, Selcuk Cem

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the clinical properties and follow-up of patients with external ear canal cholesteatoma (EECC) who were treated conservatively. Our study group was made up of 15 patients-6 men and 9 women, aged 21 to 82 years (mean: 48). In addition to demographic data, we compiled information on presenting signs and symptoms, the location of the lesion, treatment, and follow-up. All EECCs occurred spontaneously, and all were limited to the temporal bone. Lesions were left-sided in 7 patients, right-sided in 7, and bilateral in 1. For purposes of defining the location of the lesions, the ear canal was divided into four quadrants: anterior, posterior, superior, and inferior. Temporal bone computed tomography (CT) and otomicroscopic evaluation revealed that 7 of the 16 lesions (44%) were located in the anterior and inferior quadrants, 6 (38%) in the inferior quadrant only, 2 (13%) in the anterior, inferior, and posterior quadrants, and 1 (6%) in the anterior quadrant only. Otorrhea was present in 7 of the 15 patients (47%), otalgia in 6 (40%), itching in 4 (27%), fullness in 2 (13%), and occlusion in 1 (7%); 3 patients (20%) were asymptomatic. All patients were treated with local debridement and aspiration under otomicroscopy, and they were followed up with repeat aspirations approximately every 10 weeks under microscopy. The duration of follow-up ranged from 6 to 75 months (mean: 41). At study's end, cholesteatoma had not progressed in any patient during follow-up, indicating that repeat aspirations and regular follow-up of limited EECC prevent recurrence of signs and symptoms and progression of the disease. PMID:27434475

  5. External and middle ear sound pressure distribution and acoustic coupling to the tympanic membrane

    PubMed Central

    Bergevin, Christopher; Olson, Elizabeth S.

    2014-01-01

    Sound energy is conveyed to the inner ear by the diaphanous, cone-shaped tympanic membrane (TM). The TM moves in a complex manner and transmits sound signals to the inner ear with high fidelity, pressure gain, and a short delay. Miniaturized sensors allowing high spatial resolution in small spaces and sensitivity to high frequencies were used to explore how pressure drives the TM. Salient findings are: (1) A substantial pressure drop exists across the TM, and varies in frequency from ∼10 to 30 dB. It thus appears reasonable to approximate the drive to the TM as being defined solely by the pressure in the ear canal (EC) close to the TM. (2) Within the middle ear cavity (MEC), spatial variations in sound pressure could vary by more than 20 dB, and the MEC pressure at certain locations/frequencies was as large as in the EC. (3) Spatial variations in pressure along the TM surface on the EC-side were typically less than 5 dB up to 50 kHz. Larger surface variations were observed on the MEC-side. PMID:24606269

  6. Aesthetic reconstruction of the upper antihelix in external ear with banner pull-through flap

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Ebrahimi; Nasrin, Nejadsarvari; Azin, Ebrahimi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We can use pre auricular and post auricular skin as a pull through flap for upper antihelix defects reconstruction. Patients and Methods: This was a prospective case-series study, which was done in the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Ward. In this study, 15 patients (3 women, 12 men), ranging from 45 to 72 years old (mean, 58 years) underwent operation with pull through banner flap for reconstruction of upper antihelix (7 cases) and triangular fossa with superior and inferior crura (5cases) caused by BCC or SCC excision. Reconstruction of upper antihelix defects up to 20 × 30 mm with post auricle pull through flap and reconstruction of triangular fossa up to 20 × 20 mm with pre auricle pull through flap were done. Results: Our study showed that pull through flap with superior pedicle from post auricular and preauricular area was an effective method for reconstruction of upper ear antihelix defects. Conclusion: We advocate that the pull through flap with superior pedicle from post auricle and pre auricle is an excellent choice for reconstruction of upper antihelix ear reconstruction in both crura and triangular fossa. PMID:26865786

  7. Selective attention reduces physiological noise in the external ear canals of humans. I: auditory attention.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kyle P; Pasanen, Edward G; McFadden, Dennis

    2014-06-01

    In this study, a nonlinear version of the stimulus-frequency OAE (SFOAE), called the nSFOAE, was used to measure cochlear responses from human subjects while they simultaneously performed behavioral tasks requiring, or not requiring, selective auditory attention. Appended to each stimulus presentation, and included in the calculation of each nSFOAE response, was a 30-ms silent period that was used to estimate the level of the inherent physiological noise in the ear canals of our subjects during each behavioral condition. Physiological-noise magnitudes were higher (noisier) for all subjects in the inattention task, and lower (quieter) in the selective auditory-attention tasks. These noise measures initially were made at the frequency of our nSFOAE probe tone (4.0 kHz), but the same attention effects also were observed across a wide range of frequencies. We attribute the observed differences in physiological-noise magnitudes between the inattention and attention conditions to different levels of efferent activation associated with the differing attentional demands of the behavioral tasks. One hypothesis is that when the attentional demand is relatively great, efferent activation is relatively high, and a decrease in the gain of the cochlear amplifier leads to lower-amplitude cochlear activity, and thus a smaller measure of noise from the ear. PMID:24732069

  8. Selective attention reduces physiological noise in the external ear canals of humans. I: Auditory attention

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kyle P.; Pasanen, Edward G.; McFadden, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a nonlinear version of the stimulus-frequency OAE (SFOAE), called the nSFOAE, was used to measure cochlear responses from human subjects while they simultaneously performed behavioral tasks requiring, or not requiring, selective auditory attention. Appended to each stimulus presentation, and included in the calculation of each nSFOAE response, was a 30-ms silent period that was used to estimate the level of the inherent physiological noise in the ear canals of our subjects during each behavioral condition. Physiological-noise magnitudes were higher (noisier) for all subjects in the inattention task, and lower (quieter) in the selective auditory-attention tasks. These noise measures initially were made at the frequency of our nSFOAE probe tone (4.0 kHz), but the same attention effects also were observed across a wide range of frequencies. We attribute the observed differences in physiological-noise magnitudes between the inattention and attention conditions to different levels of efferent activation associated with the differing attentional demands of the behavioral tasks. One hypothesis is that when the attentional demand is relatively great, efferent activation is relatively high, and a decrease in the gain of the cochlear amplifier leads to lower-amplitude cochlear activity, and thus a smaller measure of noise from the ear. PMID:24732069

  9. Paternal uniparental isodisomy for human chromosome 20 and absence of external ears

    SciTech Connect

    Spinner, N.B.; Rand, E.; McDonald-McGinn, D.M.

    1994-09-01

    Uniparental disomy can cause disease if the involved chromosomal region contains imprinted genes. Uniparental disomy for portions of human chromosomes 6, 7, 9, 11, 14 and 15 have been associated with abnormal phenotypes. We studied a patient with multiple abnormalities including an absent left ear with a small right ear remnant, microcephaly, congenital heart disease and Hirschprung`s disease. Cytogenetics revealed a 45,XY,-20,-20,+ter rea(20;20)(p13;p13) in 10/10 cells from bone marrow and 20/20 cells from peripheral blood. Analysis of a skin culture revealed a second cell line with trisomy 20 resulting from an apparently normal chromosome 20 in addition to the terminally rearranged chromosome, in 8/100 cells studied. The unusual phenotype of our patient was not consistent with previously reported cases of deletions of 20p or mosaic trisomy 20. We hypothesized that the patient`s phenotype could either result from deletion of both copies of a gene near the p arm terminus of chromosome 20 or from uniparental disomy of chromosome 20. There were no alterations or rearrangements of PTP-alpha (which maps to distal 20p) by Southern or Northern blot analysis. A chromosome 20 sub-telomeric probe was found to be present on the rearranged 20 by FISH suggesting that subtelomeric sequences have not been lost as a consequece of this rearrangement. To determine the parental origin of the 2 chromosome 20`s in the terminal rearrangement, we studied the genotypes of the proband and his parents in lymphoblastoid cell lines at 8 polymorphic loci. Genotypes at D20S115, D20S186, and D20S119 indicated that there was paternal isodisomy. Other loci were uninformative. This is the first example of uniparental disomy for chromosome 20. Further studies are warranted to correlate phenotype with uniparental inheritance of this chromosome.

  10. Ear, Nose & Throat Issues & Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Throat Issues & Down Syndrome Ear, Nose & Throat Issues & Down Syndrome Ear, nose, and throat (ENT) problems are common ... What ENT Problems Are Common in Children With Down Syndrome? External Ear Canal Stenosis Stenotic ear canals (narrow ...

  11. ELECTRICAL STIMULATION OF THE VAGUS NERVE DERMATOME IN THE EXTERNAL EAR IS PROTECTIVE IN RAT CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA

    PubMed Central

    Ay, Ilknur; Napadow, Vitaly; Ay, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    Background Although cervical vagus nerve stimulation is effective for reducing infarct volume in rats, it is not feasible for acute human stroke as it requires surgical incision of the neck. We hypothesized that stimulation of the dermatome in the external ear innervated by the vagus nerve (auricular vagus nerve stimulation; aVNS) reduces infarct volume after transient focal ischemia in rats. Methods Animals were randomized to active aVNS or sham stimulation. For aVNS, electrical stimulation of the left cavum concha (1 hour duration) using percutaneous needles was initiated 30 min after induction of ischemia. Behavioral and tissue outcome were measured 24 hours after induction of ischemia. In a separate experimental dataset, c-Fos immunohistochemistry was performed to identify the brain regions activated after the stimulation. Results Stimulation of the left cavum concha resulted in bilateral c-Fos staining in the nuclei tractus solitarii and the loci coerulei in all animals. There was no c-Fos staining in any part of the brainstem in sham control animals. The mean infarct volume (SD) as calculated by indirect method was 44.20 ± 7.58% in controls and 31.65 ± 9.67% in treated animals (p<0.0001). The effect of aVNS on tissue outcome was associated with better neurological scores at 24 hours after ischemia (p<0.0001). Conclusions Electric stimulation of the vagus nerve dermatome in the external ear activates brainstem afferent vagal nuclei and reduces infarct volume in rats. This finding has potential to facilitate the development of treatments that leverage the brain’s endogenous neuroprotective pathways at the setting of acute ischemic stroke. PMID:25312600

  12. Histophysiological observations on the external auditory meatus, middle, and inner ear of the Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddelli).

    PubMed

    Welsch, U; Riedelsheimer, B

    1997-10-01

    The external auditory meatus, middle, and inner ear of the deep-diving Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddelli) were studied with light microscopic, histological, and histochemical techniques in order to contribute to the open discussion on the orientation of this seal in the darkness of the deep Antarctic seas. The external auditory meatus is characterized by a well-developed venous plexus, single apocrine ceruminous, and numerous holocrine sebaceous glands and an incomplete tube of elastic cartilage. The tympanic membrane is comprised of two layers of radially and concentrically arranged collagen fibers and by elastic fibers which are concentrated in the outer part of the ear drum. The tympanic cavity is lined by a pseudostratified prismatic ciliated epithelium with goblet cells; a plexus of wide venous vessels marks the subepithelial lamina propria. The cochlea is about 10 mm high and forms about two and a half turns. The richly pigmented stria vascularis is well vascularized, while the cell-rich prominentia spiralis contains only single small blood vessels. The organ of Corti contains one row of inner and three rows of outer hair cells. Cells of Hensen, Claudius, and Boettcher are present. The basilar membrane is of comparatively uniform simple structure and is composed of abundant glycoproteins, proteoglycans, collagenous fibers, and the loose tissue of the tympanal layer. The spiral ligament is built up by abundant proteoglycans and a complex system of radial and concentric collagen fibers; close to the osseous wall of the bony cochlea it contains fine elastic fibers. The inner zone of the osseous wall of the cochlea strikingly contains hyaline cartilage. The thin lamina spiralis ossea is covered by a limbus spiralis with interdental cells secreting the lamina tectoria, which has a fibrous texture and contains glycoproteins and negatively charged components. PMID:9329201

  13. Correlation of external ear auricle formation with staging of human embryos.

    PubMed

    Ozeki-Sato, Maimi; Yamada, Shigehito; Uwabe, Chigako; Ishizu, Koichi; Takakuwa, Tetsuya

    2016-03-01

    The formation of auricles in human embryos was evaluated between Carnegie stage (CS)19 and CS23, and the findings were correlated across the stages. The auricle was categorized into 11 steps according to Streeter's criteria with modifications. Mesenchyme cell condensation was observed at Step 7, and two layers of cartilage consisting of the auricle were recognized at Step11. The representative steps at each CS shifted from Step 3 to Step11 during CS16 and CS23, although several steps overlapped between adjacent CSs. These results indicate that observations of the auricle between CS19 and CS23 may be utilized for determining embryo staging as convincing supportive evidence of external features reflecting the internal histological structure, although other findings should also be taken into account. PMID:26508543

  14. Pierced Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Pierced Ears KidsHealth > For Kids > Pierced Ears Print A A ... cool, but infected ears do not! Getting Your Ears Pierced It's important to get your ears pierced ...

  15. Pathology of the Ear

    PubMed Central

    Orengo, Ida; Robbins, Kerri; Marsch, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    The external ear is exposed to weathering and trauma; it also has sparse vascularity, making it prone to infection and disease. The external location of the cutaneous ear makes it easily visible for diagnosis and accessible for treatment. In this article, the authors focus on diseases of the ear that are most commonly encountered and may be subject to surgical and medical evaluation and/or treatment. Epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical course, and treatment for each disease entity are discussed. PMID:23115534

  16. Swimmer's Ear (External Otitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español Making a Change – Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse Healthy School Lunch Planner How Can I ...

  17. Studies of certain factors affecting the microenvironment and microflora of the external ear of the dog in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Naoko; Naito, Fumiko; Fukata, Tsuneo

    2002-12-01

    A total of 187 dogs, 110 with clinical signs of otitis externa (OE), and 77 without history or clinical signs of OE, were examined microenvironment and microbiological analysis of their ear exudates made. The aural temperature and humidity of 160 dogs were measured. There were no significant difference between healthy dogs and OE dogs. German shepherd showed relatively lower temperature (p<0.01) and higher humidity (p<0.01). The mean log(10) number of microbial organisms of ears of OE dogs (4.16 +/- 0.31 cfu/g) was significantly increased, compared to that from the ears of non-OE group (2.55 +/- 0.24 cfu/g). Pseudomonas spp. and Proteus spp. were detected only from OE dogs. In addition, three enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from ear specimens. PMID:12520110

  18. Swimmer's Ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Swimmer's Ear KidsHealth > For Kids > Swimmer's Ear Print A A ... How Do I Know if I Have Swimmer's Ear? Swimmer's ear may start with some itching, but ...

  19. Ear Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Tubes Ear Tubes Patient Health Information News media ... and throat specialist) may be considered. What are ear tubes? Ear tubes are tiny cylinders placed through ...

  20. Postoperative Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the External Auditory Canal and Middle Ear: Treatment Outcomes, Marginal Misses, and Perspective on Target Delineation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wan-Yu; Kuo, Sung-Hsin; Chen, Yu-Hsuan; Lu, Szu-Huai; Tsai, Chiao-Ling; Chia-Hsien Cheng, Jason; Hong, Ruey-Long; Chen, Ya-Fang; Hsu, Chuan-Jen; Lin, Kai-Nan; Ko, Jenq-Yuh; Lou, Pei-Jen; Wang, Cheng-Ping; Chong, Fok-Ching; Wang, Chun-Wei

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To report outcomes of the rare disease of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the external auditory canal (EAC) and middle ear treated with surgery and postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Failure patterns related to spatial dose distribution were also analyzed to provide insight into target delineation. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was conducted of the records of 11 consecutive patients with SCC of the EAC and middle ear who were treated with curative surgery and postoperative IMRT at one institution between January 2007 and February 2010. The prescribed IMRT dose was 60 to 66 Gy at 2 Gy per fraction. Three patients also received concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy, and 1 patient received concurrent oral tegafur/uracil. The median follow-up time was 19 months (range, 6-33 months). Results: Four patients had locoregional recurrence, yielding an estimated 2-year locoregional control rate of 70.7%. Among them, 1 patient had persistent disease after treatment, and 3 had marginal recurrence. Distant metastasis occurred in 1 patient after extensive locoregional recurrence, yielding an estimated 2-year distant control rate of 85.7%. The estimated 2-year overall survival was 67.5%. The three cases of marginal recurrence were near the preauricular space and glenoid fossa of the temporomandibular joint, adjacent to the apex of the ear canal and glenoid fossa of the temporomandibular joint, and in the postauricular subcutaneous area and ipsilateral parotid nodes, respectively. Conclusions: Marginal misses should be recognized to improve target delineation. When treating SCC of the EAC and middle ear, care should be taken to cover the glenoid fossa of the temporomandibular joint and periauricular soft tissue. Elective ipsilateral parotid irradiation should be considered. The treatment planning procedure should also be refined to balance subcutaneous soft-tissue dosimetry and toxicity.

  1. Ear Infections

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Ear Infections Overview How does the ear work? A tube called the eustachian (say: "you-stay-shee-an") tube connects the middle ear with the back of the nose. Normally this ...

  2. Cauliflower Ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes What's Cauliflower Ear? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Cauliflower Ear? Print A A A Text Size Have you ever seen someone whose ear looks bumpy and lumpy? The person might have ...

  3. Ear Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... ear, where they make your eardrum vibrate. The vibrations are transmitted through three tiny bones, called ossicles, in your middle ear. The vibrations travel to your inner ear, a snail-shaped ...

  4. Swimmer's ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) Vinegar (acetic acid) ear drops People with chronic swimmer's ear may ... drop of alcohol with 1 drop of white vinegar and placing the mixture into the ears after ...

  5. Inflammation of the external ear in acute chikungunya infection: Experience from the outbreak in Johor Bahru, Malaysia, 2008.

    PubMed

    Javelle, Emilie; Tiong, Tee Hua; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Savini, Hélène; Simon, Fabrice

    2014-04-01

    The re-emerging invalidating chikungunya disease has recently extended to temperate areas. Other alphaviruses can also present with febrile arthalgias. Dengue virus transmitted by the same species of mosquitoes may cocirculate, leading to dual infections and concurrent epidemics. Although these diseases share similar clinical features, their prognoses considerably differ. Prominent and prolonged articular disorders are more consistent with chikungunya virus, whereas haemorrhages make the gravity of dengue infection. Specific symptoms are required, especially when diagnostic tests are not available or performable at a large scale. Indeed, early clinical suspicion of a vector-borne disease is crucial to isolate the first cases in the course of an outbreak, and discrimination between arboviruses help to optimal management of patients. No specific chikungunya clinical sign has been yet reported. We highlight here the high prevalence (about 25%) of acute ear redness in infected people during the 2008 chikungunya outbreak in Jahor Bahru in Malaysia. Nine consenting patients are more precisely described. Ear chondritis could be sensitive diagnostic criterion of the acute stage of chikungunya, every physician - even in occidental non endemic areas - should be aware of. PMID:24556566

  6. Ear Pieces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students make fanciful connections between art and medicine. This project challenges students to interpret "ear idioms" (e.g. "blow it out your ear," "in one ear and out the other") by relying almost entirely on realistic ear drawings, the placement of them, marks, and values. In that…

  7. Non-invasive access to the vagus nerve central projections via electrical stimulation of the external ear: fMRI evidence in humans

    PubMed Central

    Frangos, Eleni; Ellrich, Jens; Komisaruk, Barry R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Tract-tracing studies in cats and rats demonstrated that the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (ABVN) projects to the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS); it has remained unclear as to whether or not the ABVN projects to the NTS in humans. Objective To ascertain whether non-invasive electrical stimulation of the cymba conchae, a region of the external ear exclusively innervated by the ABVN, activates the NTS and the “classical” central vagal projections in humans. Methods Twelve healthy adults underwent two fMRI scans in the same session. Electrical stimulation (continuous 0.25ms pulses, 25Hz) was applied to the earlobe (control, scan #1) and left cymba conchae (scan #2). Statistical analyses were performed with FSL. Two region-of-interest analyses were performed to test the effects of cymba conchae stimulation (compared to baseline and control, earlobe, stimulation) on the central vagal projections (corrected; brainstem p<0.01, forebrain p<0.05), followed by a whole-brain analysis (corrected, p< 0.05). Results Cymba conchae stimulation, compared to earlobe (control) stimulation, produced significant activation of the “classical” central vagal projections, e.g., widespread activity in the ipsilateral nucleus of the solitary tract, bilateral spinal trigeminal nucleus, dorsal raphe, locus coeruleus, and contralateral parabrachial area, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens. Bilateral activation of the paracentral lobule was also observed. Deactivations were observed bilaterally in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. Conclusion These findings provide evidence in humans that the central projections of the ABVN are consistent with the “classical” central vagal projections and can be accessed non-invasively via the external ear. PMID:25573069

  8. Adaptive plasticity of the auditory space map in the optic tectum of adult and baby barn owls in response to external ear modification.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, E I; Esterly, S D; Olsen, J F

    1994-01-01

    1. This study demonstrates the influence of experience on the establishment and maintenance of the auditory map of space in the optic tectum of the barn owl. Auditory experience was altered either by preventing the structures of the external ears (the facial ruff and preaural flaps) from appearing in baby barn owls (baby ruff-cut owls) or by removing these structures in adults (adult ruff-cut owls). These structures shape the binaural cues used for localizing sounds in both the horizontal and vertical dimensions. 2. The acoustic effects of removing the external ear structures were measured using probe tube microphones placed in the ear canals. In both baby and adult ruff-cut owls, the spatial pattern of binaural localization cues was dramatically different from normal: interaural level difference (ILD) changed with azimuth instead of with elevation, the rate of change of ILD across space was decreased relative to normal, and the rate of change of interaural time difference (ITD) across frontal space was increased relative to normal. 3. The neurophysiological representations of ITD and ILD in the optic tectum were measured before and > or = 3 mo after ruff removal in adults and beginning at 4.5 months of age in baby ruff-cut owls. Multiunit tuning to ITD and to ILD was measured using dichotic stimulation in ketamine-anesthetized owls. The tectal maps of ITD and ILD were reconstructed using visual receptive field location as a marker for recording site location in the optic tectum. 4. Adjustment of the tectal map of ITD to the altered spatial pattern of acoustic ITD was essentially complete in adults as well as in baby ruff-cut owls. This adjustment changed the magnification of ITD across the tectum, with resultant changes in ITD tuning at individual tectal sites of up to approximately 25 microseconds (approximately 5% of the physiological range) relative to normal values. 5. Adaptation of the tectal ILD map to the ruff-cut spatial pattern of acoustic ILD was

  9. Ear canal cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    Holt, J J

    1992-06-01

    Although cholesteatomas are more commonly found in the middle ear and the mastoid, the disease can occur in the external ear canal. All cases of ear canal cholesteatoma treated by the author were reviewed. There were nine ears in seven patients, who had an average age of 62 years. The lesions ranged in size from a few millimeters to extensive mastoid destruction. Smaller lesions can be managed by frequent cleaning as an office procedure. Larger lesions require surgery, either canaloplasty or mastoidectomy. The otolaryngologist should suspect this disease in the elderly. Microscopic examination of the ear with meticulous cleaning of all wax, especially in elderly patients, is most useful in detecting early disease. Frequent applications of mineral oil to the canal should be used in the management of the disease and to prevent recurrence. PMID:1376388

  10. Ear wax

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the ear: Baby oil Commercial drops Glycerin Mineral oil Water Another method is to wash out the ... cloth or paper tissue wrapped around your finger. Mineral oil can be used to moisturize the ear and ...

  11. Ear examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003340.htm Ear examination To use the sharing features on this page, ... ear References King EF, Couch ME. History, physical examination, and the preoperative evaluation. In: Flint PW, Haughey ...

  12. Ear emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... the ear. CUTS ON THE OUTER EAR Apply direct pressure until the bleeding stops. Cover the injury ... Mosby; 2013:chap 143. Thomas SH, Goodloe JM. Foreign bodies. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, ...

  13. Your Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... Protect your hearing by wearing earplugs at loud music concerts and around noisy machinery, like in wood ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? What Is an Ear Infection? ...

  14. Ear wax

    MedlinePlus

    ... water to drain. You may need to repeat irrigation several times. To avoid damaging your ear or ... who may remove the wax by: Repeating the irrigation attempts Suctioning the ear canal Using a small ...

  15. Ear barotrauma

    MedlinePlus

    Barotitis media; Barotrauma; Ear popping; Pressure-related ear pain; Eustachian tube dysfunction ... The air pressure in the middle ear is most often the same as the air pressure outside of the body. The Eustachian tube is a connection between the middle ...

  16. Ear Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... affects the middle ear and is called otitis media. The tubes inside the ears become clogged with fluid and mucus. This can affect hearing, because sound cannot get through all that fluid. If your child isn't old enough to say "My ear ...

  17. Super Ears.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Stan

    1995-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students design, construct, and test "super ears" to investigate sound and hearing. Students work in groups of three and explore how the outer ear funnels sound waves to the inner ear and how human hearing compares to that of other animals. (NB)

  18. Petrous bone epidermoid cyst caused by penetrating injury to the external ear: Case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Kalfas, Fotios; Ramanathan, Dinesh; Mai, Jeffrey; Schwartz, Seth; Sekhar, Laligam N

    2012-04-01

    Epidermoid cysts are histologically benign, slow-growing congenital neoplasms of the central nervous system that may arise from retained ectodermal implants. The epidermoid lesions are generally caused during the 3(rd) to 5(th) week of gestation by an incomplete cleavage of the neural tissue from the cutaneous ectoderm, though it can also happen later in life due to introduction of skin elements by skin puncture, trauma or surgery. We present this unique case of a petromastoid epidermoid cyst associated with ipsilateral cerebellar abscesses, presenting 20 years after a penetrating trauma to the external auditory canal. Radical excision of both lesions and revision of the previous fistulous tract was performed. We present the diagnostic challenge and the operative treatment of this unique case, which to our knowledge is the first where an epidermoid cyst and an adjacent brain abscess occurred as a result of a single traumatic event. PMID:22870161

  19. Externalities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zicht, Barbara, Ed.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    This issue explains the concept of externalities (benefits or burdens which accrue to society when there is a difference between the private cost or benefit of an action and the social cost or benefit of that action). These external or social costs of individual actions are often referred to as spillover costs. Three brief teaching units follow…

  20. Treatment and Prognosis of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the External Auditory Canal and Middle Ear: A Multi-Institutional Retrospective Review of 87 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Kazuhiko . E-mail: kogawa@med.u-ryukyu.ac.jp; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Hatano, Kazuo; Uno, Takashi; Fuwa, Nobukazu; Itami, Jun; Kojya, Shizuo; Nakashima, Torahiko; Shinhama, Akihiko; Nakagawa, Takashi; Toita, Takafumi; Sakai, Mitsuhiro; Kodaira, Takeshi; Suzuki, Mikio; Ito, Hisao; Murayama, Sadayuki

    2007-08-01

    Purpose: To examine the relative roles of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy in the management of patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the external auditory canal and middle ear. Methods and Materials: The records of 87 patients with histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma who were treated between 1984 and 2005 were reviewed. Fifty-three patients (61%) were treated with surgery and radiotherapy (S + RT group) and the remaining 34 patients with radiotherapy alone (RT group). Chemotherapy was administered in 34 patients (39%). Results: The 5-year actuarial overall and disease-free survival (DFS) rates for all patients were 55% and 54%, respectively. On univariate analysis, T stage (Stell's classification), treatment modality, and Karnofsky performance status had significant impact on DFS. On multivariate analysis, T stage and treatment modality were significant prognostic factors. Chemotherapy did not influence DFS. The 5-year DFS rate in T1, T2, and T3 patients was 83%, 45%, and 0 in the RT group (p < 0.0001) and 75%, 75%, and 46% in the S + RT group (p = 0.13), respectively. The 5-year DFS rate in patients with negative surgical margins, those with positive margins, and those with macroscopic residual disease was 83%, 55%, and 38%, respectively (p = 0.007). Conclusions: Radical radiotherapy is the treatment of choice for early-stage (T1) diseases, whereas surgery (negative surgical margins if possible) with radiotherapy is recommended as the standard care for advanced (T2-3) disease. Further clarification on the role of chemotherapy is necessary.

  1. Elephant ear

    MedlinePlus

    Elephant ear plants are indoor or outdoor plants with very large, arrow-shaped leaves. Poisoning may occur if you ... The harmful substances in elephant ear plants are: Oxalic acid ... plant Note: Leaves and stems are the most dangerous when eaten ...

  2. Ear Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... this condition. Try an over-the-counter decongestant medicine for a few days. Putting a warm heating pad on your ear may help relieve the pain. If the pain is intense or doesn't go away in 1 or 2 days, see your doctor. No 9. Do you have tooth pain on the same side as the ear ...

  3. Melanotic and non-melanotic malignancies of the face and external ear - A review of current treatment concepts and future options.

    PubMed

    Kolk, Andreas; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Smeets, Ralf; Kesting, Marco; Hein, Rüdiger; Eckert, Alexander W

    2014-08-01

    Skin has the highest incidence and variety of tumors of all organs. Its structure is of great complexity, and every component has the potential to originate a skin neoplasm (SN). Because of its exposed nature, skin is vulnerable to carcinogenic stimuli such as UV radiation. Various entities can cause SN. Nonmelanotic skin cancers (NMSC) are the most common of all cancers, with over one million cases diagnosed annually in the US. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) accounts for approximately 80% of all NMSC, most of the remaining 20% being squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The skin of the head and neck is the most common site for tumors, accounting for more than 80% of all NMSC. BCC, SCC, and malignant melanomas (MM) represent 85-90% of all SN. Merkel cell tumors (MCC), lymphoepithelioma-like carcinomas of the skin (LELCS), dermato-fibro-sarcomas, leiomyosarkomas, and Kaposi-sarcomas are less frequent in the facial skin region and the external ear. Based on data from the German Federal Cancer Registry (2003/2004), 140,000 people in Germany were affected by SN (100,000 BCC, 22,000 SCC, 22,000 MM). This number increases considerably if malignant precursors, such as actinic keratosis, are included. Each year, the frequency of SN diagnosis rises by 3-7%. Among all known malignant tumors, MM exhibits the highest rate of increase in incidence. In the past, SN was primarily diagnosed in people aged 50 years or older. However, recently, the risk for developing SN has shifted, and younger people are also affected. Early diagnosis is significantly correlated with prognosis. Resection of SN creates defects that must be closed with local or microvascular flaps to avoid functional disturbing scar formation and deflection of the nose, eyelids, or lips. All therapeutic strategies for SN, the current standard for adjuvant and systemic treatment, and the management of the increasing number of patients under permanent blood thinner medication are described with regard to the treatment of SN

  4. Elephant ear

    MedlinePlus

    The harmful substances in elephant ear plants are: Oxalic acid Asparagine, a protein found in this plant Note: ... days to a week if treated correctly. Rarely, oxalic acid may cause swelling severe enough to block the ...

  5. Swimmer's ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... or a respiratory infection such as a cold. Swimming in unclean water can lead to swimmer's ear. ... very well after it has gotten wet. Avoid swimming in polluted water. Use earplugs when swimming. Try ...

  6. Cosmetic ear surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Otoplasty; Ear pinning; Ear surgery - cosmetic; Ear reshaping; Pinnaplasty ... 31. Thorne CH. Otoplasty. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap ...

  7. Numerical simulation of the human ear and the dynamic analysis of the middle ear sound transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, W.; Ma, J.; Huang, X.

    2013-06-01

    Based on the clinical CT of normal right ear, a 3-D ?nite element (FE) model of the human ear consisting of the external ear canal, middle ear(tympanic membrane, ossicular chain, ligaments, tendons), and inner ear (including semicircular canals, vestibular, spiral cochlear)was constructed in this paper. The complicated structures and inner boundary conditions of middle ear were described in this model. Model analysis and acoustic-structure-?uid coupled dynamic frequency response analysis were conducted on the model. The validity of this model was confirmed by comparing the results with published experimental data. The amplitudes and velocities of tympanic membrane and stapes footplate, sound pressure gain across the middle ear, and the cochlear input impedance were derived. Besides, it was concluded that the ear canal can amplify the sound signal in low frequencies.The modes of vibration of middle ear auditory ossicles, oval window and round window have been analysed. This model can well simulate the acoustic behavior with the interaction of external ear, middle ear and inner ear, which can supply more valuable theoretical support for development and improvement of hearing-aid and artificial inner ear.

  8. Ear Plastic Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Plastic Surgery Ear Plastic Surgery Patient Health Information ... they may improve appearance and self-confidence. Can Ear Deformities Be Corrected? Formation of the ear during ...

  9. Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease Patient Health Information ... with a hearing loss. How Does the Healthy Ear Work? The ear has three main parts: the ...

  10. Better Ear Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Better Ear Health Better Ear Health Patient Health Information News ... often helpful to those with this condition. Swimmer’s Ear An infection of the outer ear structures caused ...

  11. How the Ear Works

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You How the Ear Works How the Ear Works Patient Health Information News media interested in ... public relations staff at newsroom@entnet.org . The ear has three main parts: the outer ear (including ...

  12. Cosmetic ear surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Otoplasty; Ear pinning; Ear surgery - cosmetic; Ear reshaping; Pinnaplasty ... Cosmetic ear surgery may be done in the surgeon's office, an outpatient clinic, or a hospital. It can be performed under ...

  13. Ear defects.

    PubMed

    Shonka, David C; Park, Stephen S

    2009-08-01

    The projection and exposure of the auricle make it particularly susceptible to actinic injury and thus to cutaneous malignancies. Auricular reconstruction is challenging because of its unique surface anatomy and undulating topography. This article organizes auricular defects into different categories based on anatomic location and extent of tissue loss, including skin-only defects, small composite defects, full-thickness defects involving or sparing the upper third of the ear, and total auricular loss. The authors share an algorithm for repair of the array of auricular defects. PMID:19698921

  14. Ear disorders in scuba divers.

    PubMed

    Azizi, M H

    2011-01-01

    History of underwater diving dates back to antiquity. Breath-hold technique in diving was known to the ancient nations. However, deep diving progressed only in the early decades of the 19th century as the result of advancements in efficient underwater technologies which subsequently led to invention of sophisticated sets of scuba diving in the 20th century. Currently, diving is performed for various purposes including commercial, recreational, military, underwater construction, oil industry, underwater archeology and scientific assessment of marine life. By increasing popularity of underwater diving, dive-related medical conditions gradually became more evident and created a new challenge for the health care professionals, so that eventually, a specialty the so-called "diving medicine" was established. Most of the diving-associated disorders appear in the head and neck. The most common of all occupational disorders associated with diving are otologic diseases. External otitis has been reported as the most common otolaryngologic problem in underwater divers. Exostosis of the external ear canal may be formed in divers as the result of prolonged diving in cold waters. Other disorders of the ear and paranasal sinuses in underwater divers are caused by barometric pressure change (i.e., barotraumas), and to a lesser extent by decompression sickness. Barotrauma of the middle ear is the most prevalent barotrauma in divers. The inner ear barotraumas, though important, is less common. The present paper is a brief overview of diving-related ear disorders particularly in scuba divers. PMID:23022815

  15. Ears and Altitude

    MedlinePlus

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ears and Altitude Ears and Altitude Patient Health Information ... uncomfortable feeling of fullness or pressure. Why do ears pop? Normally, swallowing causes a little click or ...

  16. Ear tube insertion

    MedlinePlus

    Myringotomy; Tympanostomy; Ear tube surgery; Pressure equalization tubes; Ventilating tubes; Ear infection - tubes; Otitis - tubes ... trapped fluid can flow out of the middle ear. This prevents hearing loss and reduces the risk ...

  17. Ear tube insertion - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100045.htm Ear tube insertion - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... 4 Overview The eardrum (tympanic membrane) separates the ear canal from the middle ear. Update Date 8/ ...

  18. Reconstruction of middle ear malformations

    PubMed Central

    Schwager, Konrad

    2008-01-01

    Malformations of the middle ear are classified as minor and major malformations. Minor malformations appear with regular external auditory canal, tympanic membrane and aerated middle ear space. The conducting hearing loss is due to fixation or interruption of the ossicular chain. The treatment is surgical, following the rules of ossiculoplasty and stapes surgery. In major malformations (congenital aural atresia) there is no external auditory canal and a deformed or missing pinna. The mastoid and the middle ear space may be underdevelopped, the ossicular chain is dysplastic. Surgical therapy is possible in patients with good aeration of the temporal bone, existing windows, a near normal positioned facial nerve and a mobile ossicular chain. Plastic and reconstructive surgery of the pinna should proceed the reconstruction of the external auditory canal and middle ear. In cases of good prognosis unilateral aural atresia can be approached already in childhood. In patients with high risk of surgical failure, bone anchored hearing aids are the treatment of choice. Recent reports of implantable hearing devices may be discussed as an alternative treatment for selected patients. PMID:22073077

  19. [The threshold levels of the stapedius reflex depending on the relationship between the gas pressure in the external auditory meatus and the middle ear].

    PubMed

    Petrov, S M; Azizov, G R; Gritsiuk, M I; Timenko, A N

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to detect and elucidate effects of a single factor (gas pressure) responsible for the threshold levels of stapedius reflex. It was shown that the threshold reflexes were recorded at 105 dB SPL when the gas pressure in the external auditory meatus decreased by 150-200 pPa against the atmospheric pressure and when it increased by 100-150 pPa. These effects can be accounted for by the reduced compliance of the tympanic membrane and different changes in the state of the auditory ossicles undergoing compression and tension. When entering the most comfortable stapedial reflex levels into the patient's tuning chart, an account should be taken of the maximum value of tympanic membrane compliance. PMID:25377672

  20. Treatment of Prominent Ears and Otoplasty: A Contemporary Review.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Sachin S; Koch, Cody A; Murakami, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Prominent ears affect approximately 5% of the population and can have a significant psychological impact on patients. A wide variety of otoplasty techniques have been described, all sharing the goal of re-creating the normal appearance of the ear and achieving symmetry between the 2 sides. Recent trends in otoplasty techniques have consistently moved toward less invasive options, ranging from nonsurgical newborn ear molding to cartilage-sparing surgical techniques and even incisionless, office-based procedures. Herein, we review anatomy of the external ear, patient evaluation, the evolution of nonsurgical and surgical otoplasty techniques, otoplasty outcomes, and future trends for treatment of prominent ears. PMID:26158729

  1. Ear surgery - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100016.htm Ear surgery - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... Overview This image demonstrates normal appearance of the ears in relation to the face. Update Date 10/ ...

  2. Middle ear infection (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A middle ear infection is also known as otitis media. It is one of the most common of childhood infections. With this illness, the middle ear becomes red, swollen, and inflamed because of bacteria ...

  3. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  4. Ear Infections in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... shaped organ that converts sound vibrations from the middle ear into electrical signals. The auditory nerve carries these signals from the cochlea to the brain. Other nearby parts of the ear also can be involved in ...

  5. Ear infection - chronic

    MedlinePlus

    ... or wearing away of the bones of the middle ear, which help with hearing Paralysis of the face Inflammation around the brain ( epidural abscess ) or in the brain Damage to the part of the ear that helps with balance Hearing ...

  6. Ear drainage culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... needed. Your health care provider will use a cotton swab to collect the sample from inside the ... Using a cotton swab to take a sample of drainage from the outer ear is not painful. However, ear pain may ...

  7. Ear infection - chronic

    MedlinePlus

    Middle ear infection - chronic; Otitis media - chronic; Chronic otitis media; Chronic ear infection ... Chole RA. Chronic otitis media, mastoiditis, and petrositis. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. ...

  8. Ear infection - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Otitis media - acute; Infection - inner ear; Middle ear infection - acute ... Casselbrandt ML, Mandel EM. Acute otitis media and otitis media with effusion. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. ...

  9. Fusion of the ear bones

    MedlinePlus

    Fusion of the ear bones is the joining of the bones of the inner ear. These are the incus, malleus, and stapes bones. Related topics include: Chronic ear infection Otosclerosis Middle ear malformations

  10. Preventing Cauliflower Ear with a Modified Tie-Through Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimeff, Robert J.; Hough, David O.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a quick, simple tie-through suture technique (in which a collodion packing is secured to the auricle with two buttons) for preventing cauliflower ear following external ear trauma in wrestlers and boxers. The technique ensures constant compression; multiple treatments for fluid reaccumulation are rarely necessary. (SM)

  11. Middle Ear Infections and Ear Tube Surgery (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Zika & Pregnancy Middle Ear Infections and Ear Tube Surgery KidsHealth > For Parents > Middle Ear Infections and Ear ... medio y colocación de tubos de ventilación Why Surgery? Many kids get middle ear infections (known as ...

  12. Pathogenesis of Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto-Fukuda, Tomomi; Hishikawa, Yoshitaka; Shibata, Yasuaki; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu; Takahashi, Haruo; Koji, Takehiko

    2010-01-01

    Middle ear cholesteatoma is characterized by enhanced proliferation of epithelial cells with aberrant morphological characteristics. To investigate the origin of the cholesteatoma cells, we analyzed spontaneously occurring cholesteatomas associated with a new transplantation model in Mongolian gerbils (gerbils). Cholesteatomas were induced in gerbils with a transplanted tympanic membrane by using the external auditory canal (EAC) ligation method. After the pars flaccida of the tympanic membranes were completely removed from male gerbils, corresponding portions of tympanic membranes of female gerbils were transplanted to the area of defect, and then we ligated the EAC (hybrid-model group). As a control group, the EAC of normal male and female gerbils was ligated without myringoplasty. In all ears of each group, the induced cholesteatomas were seen. In situ PCR was then performed to detect the mouse X chromosome-linked phosphoglycerate kinase-1 (pgk-1) gene on the paraffin sections. One pgk-1 spot in the epithelial nuclei was detected in male cholesteatoma, and two pgk-1 spots were detected in female cholesteatoma, respectively. On the other hand, in the hybrid-model group, we detected not only one but also two pgk-1 spots in the epithelial nuclei of cholesteatoma. These results strengthened the evidence that the origin of epithelial cells in cholesteatoma is the tympanic membrane in this model, but not the residential middle ear epithelial cells or the skin of the EAC. PMID:20413684

  13. Ear - blocked at high altitudes

    MedlinePlus

    ... ears; Flying and blocked ears; Eustachian tube dysfunction - high altitude ... the middle ear and the back of the nose and upper throat. ... down from high altitudes. Chewing gum the entire time you are ...

  14. Ear problems in swimmers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mao-Che; Liu, Chia-Yu; Shiao, An-Suey; Wang, Tyrone

    2005-08-01

    Acute diffuse otitis externa (swimmer's ear), otomycosis, exostoses, traumatic eardrum perforation, middle ear infection, and barotraumas of the inner ear are common problems in swimmers and people engaged in aqua activities. The most common ear problem in swimmers is acute diffuse otitis externa, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the most common pathogen. The symptoms are itching, otalgia, otorrhea, and conductive hearing loss. The treatment includes frequent cleansing of the ear canal, pain control, oral or topical medications, acidification of the ear canal, and control of predisposing factors. Swimming in polluted waters and ear-canal cleaning with cotton-tip applicators should be avoided. Exostoses are usually seen in people who swim in cold water and present with symptoms of accumulated debris, otorrhea and conductive hearing loss. The treatment for exostoses is transmeatal surgical removal of the tumors. Traumatic eardrum perforations may occur during water skiing or scuba diving and present with symptoms of hearing loss, otalgia, otorrhea, tinnitus and vertigo. Tympanoplasty might be needed if the perforations do not heal spontaneously. Patients with chronic otitis media with active drainage should avoid swimming, while patients who have undergone mastoidectomy and who have no cavity problems may swim. For children with ventilation tubes, surface swimming is safe in a clean, chlorinated swimming pool. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss and some degree of vertigo may occur after diving because of rupture of the round or oval window membrane. PMID:16138712

  15. [Bone Conduction and Active Middle Ear Implants].

    PubMed

    Volkenstein, S; Thomas, J P; Dazert, S

    2016-05-01

    The majority of patients with moderate to severe hearing loss can be supplied with conventional hearing aids depending on severity and cause for hearing loss in a satisfying way. However, some patients either do not benefit enough from conventional hearing aids or cannot wear them due to inflammatory reactions and chronic infections of the external auditory canal or due to anatomical reasons. For these patients there are fully- and semi-implantable middle ear and bone conduction implants available. These devices either directly stimulate the skull (bone conduction devices), middle ear structures (active middle ear implants) or the cochlea itself (direct acoustic stimulation). Patients who failed surgical hearing rehabilitation or do not benefit from conventional hearing aids may achieve a significant better speech understanding and tremendous improvement in quality of life by implantable hearing devices with careful attention to the audiological and anatomical indication criteria. PMID:27135430

  16. Ear Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eardrum, ear canal, ossicles, cochlea, or the vestibular nerve. Here's a look at the most common ... may cause permanent hearing loss or balance problems. Vestibular therapy may help kids with balance problems. And ...

  17. Middle Ear Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental Disabilities Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ...

  18. Ear infection - acute

    MedlinePlus

    ... Risk factors for acute ear infections include: Attending day care (especially centers with more than 6 children) Changes ... hands and toys often. If possible, choose a day care that has 6 or fewer children. This can ...

  19. Ear canal hyperostosis--surfer's ear. An improved surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Seftel, D M

    1977-01-01

    The increased populatiry of surfing has produced a marked augmentation in the incidence of ear canal exostosis. However, when it becomes moderately severe, I prefer to call it "hyperostosis." Exposure to cold ocean water for many years can be an important etiologic factor in hyperostosis. There is a serious risk, and a high incidence of tympanic membrane perforations during the removal of large external canal hyperostosis. This injury can be prevented by placing a sheet of Silastic against the tympanic membrane beforehand. I describe the method. Serious degrees of hyperostosis, causing transient hearing loss and otitis externa, are increasingly common in coastal towns, where cold-water surfing is a popular year-around sport. PMID:831701

  20. Ear Infection and Hearing Loss Amongst Headphone Users

    PubMed Central

    Mazlan, R.; Saim, L.; Thomas, A.; Said, R.; Liyab, B.

    2002-01-01

    The use of headphone has been thought to cause infection in the ear canal and contribute to hearing loss. In this study, we examined 136 Customer Service Representative from Celcom (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd. who use headphone throughout their working hours. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of ear canal infection and other related diseases of the ear, nose and throat. Their hearing thresholds were also determined using the Amplaid 309 Clinical Audiometer. We found no incidence of infection of the external ear canal amongst the subjects. There were 4 cases of chronic middle ear infection and 4 cases of impacted wax. Hearing impairment was found in 25 subjects (21.2%). However, there was no significant association between hearing loss and the exposure to sound from headphone usage because the high frequencies were not predominantly affected. There was also no association between hearing loss and duration of service. PMID:22844220

  1. Chronic discharging ear in a child: are we missing something?

    PubMed

    Dutta, Mainak; Ghatak, Soumya; Biswas, Gautam

    2013-08-01

    Chronic discharging ear, mostly due to middle or external ear infection, is one of the leading causes for seeking healthcare among the paediatric population in a developing country. However, a long-standing forgotten middle ear foreign body forms a rare cause for such presentation demanding a high index of suspicion from the clinicians. Most of them are iatrogenic or accidental, and are removed by conventional permeatal approach; need for tympanotomy is rarely documented in the recent literature. We report the first case where a large stone was introduced into the middle ear through a pre-existing tympanic membrane perforation by the child himself, and only the second documentation of removal of a middle ear foreign body by tympanotomy in a child. PMID:24145273

  2. Red ear syndrome: literature review and a pediatric case report.

    PubMed

    Moitri, Misha O; Banglawala, Sarfaraz M; Archibald, Jason

    2015-03-01

    Red ear syndrome (RES) is characterized by recurrent unilateral or bilateral painful attacks of the external ear, accompanied by ear redness, burning, or warmth. Proposed etiologies of this rare condition include dysregulation of sympathetic outflow, upper cervical pathology, glossopharyngeal and trigeminal neuralgia, TMJ dysfunction, thalamic syndrome, and primary headache syndromes. Idiopathic cases also exist in the literature. Pediatric cases are particularly rare and more commonly associated with migraine. Given the various potential etiologies, no single treatment is effective in all cases. This paper summarizes the current understanding and management of RES, and describes a case of idiopathic pediatric RES. PMID:25583087

  3. [Inner Ear Hearing Loss].

    PubMed

    Hesse, G

    2016-06-01

    Hearing loss is one of the most dominant handicaps in modern societies, which additionally very often is not realized or not admitted. About one quarter of the general population suffers from inner ear hearing loss and is therefore restricted in communicational skills. Demographic factors like increasing age play an important role as well as environmental influences and an increasing sound and noise exposure especially in leisure activities. Thus borders between a "classical" presbyacusis - if it ever existed - and envirionmentally induced hearing loss disappear. Today restrictions in hearing ability develop earlier in age but at the same time they are detected and diagnosed earlier. This paper can eventually enlighten the wide field of inner ear hearing loss only fragmentarily; therefore mainly new research, findings and developments are reviewed. The first part discusses new aspects of diagnostics of inner ear hearing loss and different etiologies. PMID:27259171

  4. Ear - blocked at high altitudes

    MedlinePlus

    High altitudes and blocked ears; Flying and blocked ears; Eustachian tube dysfunction - high altitude ... you are going up or coming down from high altitudes. Chewing gum the entire time you are changing ...

  5. Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Involved You are here Home » Health Info Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Diseases and Conditions Age-Related ... Do You Need a Hearing Test? Interactive Quiz Ear Infections in Children Enlarged Vestibular Aqueducts and Childhood ...

  6. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Low-set ears; Microtia; "Lop" ear; Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect-pinna; Congenital defect-pinna ... The outer ear or "pinna" forms when the baby is growing in the mother's womb. The growth of this ear part ...

  7. From Ear to Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Doreen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper Doreen Kimura gives a personal history of the "right-ear effect" in dichotic listening. The focus is on the early ground-breaking papers, describing how she did the first dichotic listening studies relating the effects to brain asymmetry. The paper also gives a description of the visual half-field technique for lateralized stimulus…

  8. Reconstructive Middle Ear Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ruby, R.R.F.; Ballagh, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    Conductive hearing loss is a common cause of deafness and disability, particularly in children and young adults. This article presents a brief overview of the various methods currently available for reconstructing the tympanic membrane and middle ear ossicular chain, including some comments as to their indications and limitations. Schematic diagrams showing these techniques illustrate the various types of repair described. PMID:21221356

  9. How to Use Ear Drops

    MedlinePlus

    How to Use Ear Drops(Having someone else give you the ear drops may make this procedure easier.) Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and ... facecloth and then dry your ear. Warm the drops to near body temperature by holding the container ...

  10. Histologic characterization of the cat middle ear: in sickness and in health.

    PubMed

    Sula, M M; Njaa, B L; Payton, M E

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish microscopic normal in the middle ear of the cat while concurrently characterizing gross and microscopic lesions reflecting spontaneous otitis media. Both ears from 50 cats were examined grossly and processed for histologic examination of the external, middle, and internal ear on a single slide. Gross lesions of the middle ear were present in 14 of 100 (14%) and included turbid fluid, frank pus, hemorrhage, and fibrous thickening of the auricular mucoperiosteum. Histologically, 48 of 100 (48%) ears had evidence of ongoing or previous inflammatory middle ear disease, including proteinaceous fluid; vascular ectasia; expansion of the auricular mucoperiosteum by neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages; cholesterol clefts; hemorrhage; fibrin; granulation tissue; membranous pseudo-glands; fibrosis; proliferation and/or osteolysis of the tympanic and septum bullae. Histologic lesions were identified in 34 of 100 ears (34%) lacking gross evidence of disease. Ears were classified histologically as either normal (52/100 [52%]) or diseased (48/100 [48%]). Diseased ears were further classified as mild to moderate (37/100 [37%]) or severely (11/100 [11%]) affected. Internal ear involvement was present in 11 of 100 (11%) ears. Histologic evidence of middle ear disease in cats is far greater than gross lesions or clinical literature suggests; further investigation and correlation of clinical and histologic disease are warranted. With minimal additional preparation, diagnostic specimens may be readily prepared and evaluated for this integral sensing organ. PMID:24280942

  11. The contralateral ear in cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Sady Selaimen; Teixeira, Adriane Ribeiro; Rosito, Letícia Petersen Schmidt

    2016-07-01

    Middle ear cholesteatoma has been extensively studied. Theories of cholesteatoma pathogenesis involving previous tympanic membrane retraction are the most widely accepted, but the contralateral ear in patients with cholesteatoma remains unstudied. This study aimed to investigate the contralateral ear in patients with cholesteatoma, and to determine whether the characteristics of it differ according to patient age and cholesteatoma growth patterns. This study was cross sectional. We evaluated 356 patients with middle ear cholesteatoma in at least one ear, and no history of surgery, between August 2000 and March 2013. Otoendoscopy was conducted on both the affected and the contralateral ear. They were classified as normal, tympanic membrane perforation, moderate to severe tympanic membrane retraction and cholesteatoma. The mean age of the patients was 32.77 years, and 53.1 % of the cohort were female. Only 34.8 % of the contralateral ears were normal. The most common abnormality was moderate to severe tympanic membrane retraction (41.6 %). Cholesteatoma was identified in 16 %. Children exhibited a greater frequency of tympanic membrane retractions, whereas adults exhibited a greater frequency of cholesteatoma. All of the contralateral ears in the anterior epitympanic group were normal, but otherwise there were no differences in the contralateral ear when we compared the cholesteatoma growth patterns. We conclude that patients diagnosed with acquired cholesteatoma of one ear are significantly more likely to exhibit abnormalities of the contralateral ear. PMID:26223352

  12. Surgical and Technical Modalities for Hearing Restoration in Ear Malformations.

    PubMed

    Dazert, Stefan; Thomas, Jan Peter; Volkenstein, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Malformations of the external and middle ear often go along with an aesthetic and functional handicap. Independent of additional aesthetic procedures, a successful functional hearing restoration leads to a tremendous gain in quality of life for affected patients. The introduction of implantable hearing systems (bone conduction and middle ear devices) offers new therapeutic options in this field. We focus on functional rehabilitation of patients with malformations, either by surgical reconstruction or the use of different implantable hearing devices, depending on the disease itself and the severity of malformation as well as hearing impairment. Patients with an open ear canal and minor malformations are good candidates for surgical hearing restoration of middle ear structures with passive titanium or autologous implants. In cases with complete fibrous or bony atresia of the ear canal, the most promising functional outcome and gain in quality of life can be expected with an active middle ear implant or a bone conduction device combined with a surgical aesthetic rehabilitation in a single or multi-step procedure. Although the surgical procedure for bone conduction devices is straightforward and safe, more sophisticated operations for active middle ear implants (e.g., Vibrant Soundbridge, MED-EL, Innsbruck, Austria) provide an improved speech discrimination in noise and the ability of sound localization compared with bone conduction devices where the stimulation reaches both cochleae. PMID:26667632

  13. Ear recognition: a complete system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abaza, Ayman; Harrison, Mary Ann F.

    2013-05-01

    Ear Recognition has recently received significant attention in the literature. Even though current ear recognition systems have reached a certain level of maturity, their success is still limited. This paper presents an efficient complete ear-based biometric system that can process five frames/sec; Hence it can be used for surveillance applications. The ear detection is achieved using Haar features arranged in a cascaded Adaboost classifier. The feature extraction is based on dividing the ear image into several blocks from which Local Binary Pattern feature distributions are extracted. These feature distributions are then fused at the feature level to represent the original ear texture in the classification stage. The contribution of this paper is three fold: (i) Applying a new technique for ear feature extraction, and studying various optimization parameters for that technique; (ii) Presenting a practical ear recognition system and a detailed analysis about error propagation in that system; (iii) Studying the occlusion effect of several ear parts. Detailed experiments show that the proposed ear recognition system achieved better performance (94:34%) compared to other shape-based systems as Scale-invariant feature transform (67:92%). The proposed approach can also handle efficiently hair occlusion. Experimental results show that the proposed system can achieve about (78%) rank-1 identification, even in presence of 60% occlusion.

  14. The ear: Diagnostic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Vignaud, J.; Jardin, C.; Rosen, L.

    1986-01-01

    This is an English translation of volume 17-1 of Traite de radiodiagnostic and represents a reasonably complete documentation of the diseases of the temporal bone that have imaging manifestations. The book begins with chapters on embryology, anatomy and radiography anatomy; it continues with blood supply and an overview of temporal bone pathology. Subsequent chapters cover malformations, trauma, infections, tumors, postoperative changes, glomus tumors, vertebasilar insufficiency, and facial nerve canal lesions. A final chapter demonstrates and discusses magnetic resonance images of the ear and cerebellopontine angle.

  15. Morphology of the seagull's inner ear.

    PubMed

    Counter, S A; Tsao, P

    1986-01-01

    The morphology of the seagull ear was investigated and found to be generally similar to that of other Aves. Several specific outer middle and inner ear features were found to be sufficiently different as to be remarkable. Most notably, the dual membranes of the external auditory meatus: one, a collecting (and possibly amplifying and reflecting) parabolic membrane chamber situated immediately anterior to the slightly deeper tympanic membrane. The convex tympanic membrane attaches a cartilagenous extracolumella and a thick osseous columella, which is less thin and fragile than that observed in domestic fowl of comparable body size. The columella footplate and round window are completely covered with a second middle ear membrane which apparently serves as an H2O seal and hydrostatic pressure matcher. The short, hard seagull cochlea houses an elaborate basilar papilla which contains thousands of short and tall hair cells, each with a systematic arrangement of stereocilia bundles. In the seagull, the length of the basilar papilla and the length, width, and number of stereocilia, features which affect the transduction process and frequency resolution, are different from those reported for certain other Aves. PMID:3962648

  16. Dosimetry measurements using a probe tube microphone in the ear canal.

    PubMed

    Shotland, L I

    1996-02-01

    Federal and international standards recommended use of microphone placement either on or in the vicinity of the shoulder for dosimetry to minimize deviations from the undisturbed sound field. Probe microphone measurements from the ear canal were compared to shoulder and chest measures in order to investigate the validity of current dosimetry methodologies. Six subjects were monitored in an industrial setting. As expected, ear-canal levels exceeded other measures for all subjects. Shoulder and chest measures showed very low intersubject variability whereas ear-canal measures resulted in large intersubject variability. The ear-canal methodology has the potential to identify individuals whose external ear gain exceed the mean, putting them at increased risk of noise-induced permanent threshold shift (NIPTS). It is proposed that overall external ear pressure gain be used as an index to adjust exposure levels when predicting NIPTS using ISO 1999. A normative database of external ear pressure gain was constructed from 30 ears for this purpose. PMID:8609306

  17. Wax blockage in the ear (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The ear canal is lined with hair follicles and glands that produce a waxy oil called cerumen. Sometimes the ... wax than can be easily excreted out the ear. This extra wax may harden within the ear ...

  18. Otoscopic exam of the ear (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... intrument which is used to look into the ear canal. The ear speculum (a cone-shaped viewing piece of the otoscope) is slowly inserted into the ear canal while looking into the otoscope. The speculum ...

  19. Middle ear infection (otitis media) (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... is an inflammation and/or infection of the middle ear. Acute otitis media (acute ear infection) occurs ... or viral infection of the fluid of the middle ear, which causes production of fluid or pus. ...

  20. Outcomes in Endoscopic Ear Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kiringoda, Ruwan; Kozin, Elliott D; Lee, Daniel J

    2016-10-01

    Endoscopic ear surgery (EES) provides several advantages compared with traditional binocular microscopy, including a wide-field view, improved resolution with high magnification, and visual access to hidden corridors of the middle ear. Although binocular microscopic-assisted surgical techniques remain the gold standard for most otologists, EES is slowly emerging as a viable alternative for performing otologic surgery at several centers in the United States and abroad. In this review, we evaluate the current body of literature regarding EES outcomes, summarize our EES outcomes at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, and compare these results with data for microscopic-assisted otologic surgery. PMID:27565392

  1. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  2. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  3. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  4. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  5. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  6. Taking Care of Your Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... your hands before touching your pierced ears. Applying rubbing alcohol also can help keep germs away. With an adult's help, soak a cotton ball in rubbing alcohol and apply it to both sides of the ...

  7. Keloid above the ear (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Keloids are overgrowths of scar tissue that follow skin injuries. Keloids may appear after such minor trauma as ear piercing. Dark skinned individuals tend to form keloids more readily than lighter skinned individuals.

  8. "Swimmer's Ear" (Otitis Externa) Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Work: Healthy Swimming Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... you requested has moved to Ear Infections. Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ...

  9. Avoiding Infection After Ear Piercing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental Disabilities Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ...

  10. Middle Ear Infections (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the first 2 to 4 years of life for several reasons: Their eustachian tubes are shorter and more horizontal than those of adults, which lets bacteria and viruses find their way into the middle ear more ...

  11. What Is an Ear Infection?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Back-to-School Butterflies? ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes What Is an Ear Infection? KidsHealth > For Kids > What ...

  12. Multiple Osteomas in Middle Ear

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongxin; Li, Qiuhuan; Gong, Shusheng; Liu, Honggang; Yu, Zilong; Zhang, Luo

    2012-01-01

    Since the first description of middle ear osteomas by Thomas in 1964, only few reports were published within the English literatures (Greinwalid et al., 1998; Shimizu et al., 2003; Cho et al., 2005; and Jang et al., 2009), and only one case of the multiple osteomas in middle ear was described by Kim et al., 2006, which arose from the promontory, lateral semicircular canal, and epitympanum. Here we describe a patient with multiple middle ear osteomas arising from the promontory, incus, Eustachian tube, and bony semicanal of tensor tympani muscle. This patient also contracted the chronic otitis media in the ipsilateral ear. The osteomas were successfully removed by performing type III tympanoplasty in one stage. PMID:22928138

  13. Morphological Variations and Biometrics of Ear: An Aid to Personal Identification

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Harpreet Kaur; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Goyal, Sharry; Sudan, Madhu; Ladgotra, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The morphological characteristics and dimensions of external ear vary in different human ethnic races which can be utilized in forensics for personal identification of living or deceased. Aim To determine uniqueness of morphological and biometric variations of both ears for individualization among North East (NE) and North West (NW) subpopulation of India. Materials and Methods The study was conducted on randomly selected 80 students, 40 from each subgroup. Nine ear parameters were recorded twice using digital Vernier’s caliper by single investigator and two indices (Ear Index and Lobule Index) were calculated for both the ears. Morphological ear shapes and lobule attachment were also noted. Pearson’s coefficient correlation test was performed on cross-tabulations to evaluate significant relationship between different variables. Results Of the total 35% free and 65% attached ear lobes were noted in both population groups. Oval ear shape was most commonly noted followed by triangular, rectangular and round in both populations. On comparing anthropometric measurements of ears in two populations it was found that except the tragus length and lobule index all other values were noted more in NW population. No statistical difference was found in ear and lobular indices of males and females although the left ear index and lobule index were found to be higher than right in both populations except in NW females where right lobule index was recorded more than left. Conclusion The results obtained can be used in anthropological and forensic sciences for the inclusion and exclusion of persons for identification on the basis of ear variations. PMID:27437349

  14. The visible ear surgery simulator.

    PubMed

    Trier, Peter; Noe, Karsten Østergaard; Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten; Mosegaard, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a real-time computer simulation of surgical procedures in the ear, in which a surgeon drills into the temporal bone to gain access to the middle or inner ear. The purpose of this simulator is to support development of anatomical insight and training of drilling skills for both medical students and experienced otologists. The key contributions in this application are the visualization and interaction models in the context of ear surgical simulation. The visualization is based on an existing data set, "The Visible Ear", containing a unique volume depicting the inner ear in natural colours. The applied visualization is based on GPU ray casting, allowing high quality and flexible volume rendering using modern graphics card. In connection with the visualization model, different methods for optimizing the GPU ray casting procedure are presented, along with a method for combining polygon based graphics with volume rendering. In addition, different light models are presented that contribute to a realistic rendering of the different parts of the inner ear. To achieve a physically plausible drilling experience, a Phantom Omni force feedback device is utilized. The applied interaction model facilitates a realistic user experience of the response forces from the drilling tool. PMID:18391361

  15. Hyper immunoglobulin-E syndrome: a case with chronic ear draining mimicking polypoid otitis media.

    PubMed

    Görür, Kemal; Ozcan, Cengiz; Unal, Murat; Akbaş, Yücel; Vayisoğlu, Yusuf

    2003-04-01

    The hyper-IgE syndrome is a rare, complex immunoregulatory disorder characterized by pruritic dermatitis, recurrent staphylococcus skin abscesses and extremely elevated levels of IgE in serum. In this report, an 8-year-old girl with hyper-IgE syndrome is presented. She had pruritic dermatitis and skin abscesses on her extremities and scalp. Discharge and granulation tissue in right external ear canal were recognized in otorhinolaryngologic examination. Cultures of the suppuration of the external ear canal yielded S. aureus. Biopsy of the lesion was reported as granulation tissue. Local treatment of the ear canal was performed with ear wick soaked with steroid and antibiotic solutions two times per day. PMID:12663115

  16. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    PubMed Central

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  17. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  18. Surgical management of 2 different presentations of ear canal atresia in dogs.

    PubMed

    Béraud, Romain

    2012-04-01

    A 6-year-old French spaniel and a 14-month-old German shepherd dog were diagnosed with ear canal atresia. Based on presentation, computed tomography, and auditory function evaluation, the first dog underwent excision of the horizontal ear canal and bulla curettage, and the second underwent re-anastomosis of the vertical canal to the external meatus. Both dogs had successful outcomes. PMID:23024390

  19. Surgical management of 2 different presentations of ear canal atresia in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Béraud, Romain

    2012-01-01

    A 6-year-old French spaniel and a 14-month-old German shepherd dog were diagnosed with ear canal atresia. Based on presentation, computed tomography, and auditory function evaluation, the first dog underwent excision of the horizontal ear canal and bulla curettage, and the second underwent re-anastomosis of the vertical canal to the external meatus. Both dogs had successful outcomes. PMID:23024390

  20. Ear-body lift and a novel thrust generating mechanism revealed by the complex wake of brown long-eared bats (Plecotus auritus)

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, L. Christoffer; Håkansson, Jonas; Jakobsen, Lasse; Hedenström, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Large ears enhance perception of echolocation and prey generated sounds in bats. However, external ears likely impair aerodynamic performance of bats compared to birds. But large ears may generate lift on their own, mitigating the negative effects. We studied flying brown long-eared bats, using high resolution, time resolved particle image velocimetry, to determine the aerodynamics of flying with large ears. We show that the ears and body generate lift at medium to cruising speeds (3–5 m/s), but at the cost of an interaction with the wing root vortices, likely reducing inner wing performance. We also propose that the bats use a novel wing pitch mechanism at the end of the upstroke generating thrust at low speeds, which should provide effective pitch and yaw control. In addition, the wing tip vortices show a distinct spiraling pattern. The tip vortex of the previous wingbeat remains into the next wingbeat and rotates together with a newly formed tip vortex. Several smaller vortices, related to changes in circulation around the wing also spiral the tip vortex. Our results thus show a new level of complexity in bat wakes and suggest large eared bats are less aerodynamically limited than previous wake studies have suggested. PMID:27118083

  1. Ear-body lift and a novel thrust generating mechanism revealed by the complex wake of brown long-eared bats (Plecotus auritus).

    PubMed

    Johansson, L Christoffer; Håkansson, Jonas; Jakobsen, Lasse; Hedenström, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Large ears enhance perception of echolocation and prey generated sounds in bats. However, external ears likely impair aerodynamic performance of bats compared to birds. But large ears may generate lift on their own, mitigating the negative effects. We studied flying brown long-eared bats, using high resolution, time resolved particle image velocimetry, to determine the aerodynamics of flying with large ears. We show that the ears and body generate lift at medium to cruising speeds (3-5 m/s), but at the cost of an interaction with the wing root vortices, likely reducing inner wing performance. We also propose that the bats use a novel wing pitch mechanism at the end of the upstroke generating thrust at low speeds, which should provide effective pitch and yaw control. In addition, the wing tip vortices show a distinct spiraling pattern. The tip vortex of the previous wingbeat remains into the next wingbeat and rotates together with a newly formed tip vortex. Several smaller vortices, related to changes in circulation around the wing also spiral the tip vortex. Our results thus show a new level of complexity in bat wakes and suggest large eared bats are less aerodynamically limited than previous wake studies have suggested. PMID:27118083

  2. Development of the inner ear.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Tanya T

    2015-06-01

    The vertebrate inner ear is a sensory organ of exquisite design and sensitivity. It responds to sound, gravity and movement, serving both auditory (hearing) and vestibular (balance) functions. Almost all cell types of the inner ear, including sensory hair cells, sensory neurons, secretory cells and supporting cells, derive from the otic placode, one of the several ectodermal thickenings that arise around the edge of the anterior neural plate in the early embryo. The developmental patterning mechanisms that underlie formation of the inner ear from the otic placode are varied and complex, involving the reiterative use of familiar signalling pathways, together with roles for transcription factors, transmembrane proteins, and extracellular matrix components. In this review, I have selected highlights that illustrate just a few of the many recent discoveries relating to the development of this fascinating organ system. PMID:25796080

  3. Leiomyoma of External Auditory Canal.

    PubMed

    George, M V; Puthiyapurayil, Jamsheeda

    2016-09-01

    This article reports a case of piloleiomyoma of external auditory canal, which is the 7th case of leiomyoma of the external auditory canal being reported and the 2nd case of leiomyoma arising from arrectores pilorum muscles, all the other five cases were angioleiomyomas, arising from blood vessels. A 52 years old male presented with a mass in the right external auditory canal and decreased hearing of 6 months duration. Tumor excision done by end aural approach. Histopathological examination report was leiomyoma. It is extremely rare for leiomyoma to occur in the external auditory canal because of the non-availability of smooth muscles in the external canal. So it should be considered as a very rare differential diagnosis for any tumor or polyp in the ear canal. PMID:27508144

  4. How to Prevent Painful Swimmer's Ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159452.html How to Prevent Painful Swimmer's Ear Simple steps after a day in the water ... 2016 SATURDAY, June 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Swimmer's ear -- a common summertime problem among children -- is easy ...

  5. Infant Ear Infections Becoming Less Common

    MedlinePlus

    ... who is director of pediatric otolaryngology at the New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of Mount Sinai, in New ... Galveston; Joseph Bernstein, M.D., director, pediatric otolaryngology, New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of Mount Sinai, New York ...

  6. Physiological functioning of the ear and masking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The physiological functions of the ear and the role masking plays in speech communication are examined. Topics under investigation include sound analysis of the ear, the aural reflex, and various types of noise masking.

  7. Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders Pediatric Obesity and Ear, ... all children be regularly screened for snoring. Middle ear infections Acute otitis media (AOM) and chronic ear ...

  8. Proteomics and the Inner Ear

    PubMed Central

    Thalmann, Isolde

    2001-01-01

    The inner ear, one of the most complex organs, contains within its bony shell three sensory systems, the evolutionary oldest gravity receptor system, the three semicircular canals for the detection of angular acceleration, and the auditory system - unrivaled in sensitivity and frequency discrimination. All three systems are susceptible to a host of afflictions affecting the quality of life for all of us. In the first part of this review we present an introduction to the milestones of inner ear research to pave the way for understanding the complexities of a proteomics approach to the ear. Minute sensory structures, surrounded by large fluid spaces and a hard bony shell, pose extreme challenges to the ear researcher. In spite of these obstacles, a powerful preparatory technique was developed, whereby precisely defined microscopic tissue elements can be isolated and analyzed, while maintaining the biochemical state representative of the in vivo conditions. The second part consists of a discussion of proteomics as a tool in the elucidation of basic and pathologic mechanisms, diagnosis of disease, as well as treatment. Examples are the organ of Corti proteins OCP1 and OCP2, oncomodulin, a highly specific calcium-binding protein, and several disease entities, Meniere's disease, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, and perilymphatic fistula. PMID:11790893

  9. The caecilian ear: further observations.

    PubMed

    Wever, E G; Gans, C

    1976-10-01

    The structure of the ear is examined in two species of caecilians, Ichthyophis glutinosus and I. orthoplicatus, and the sensitivity to aerial sounds is assessed in terms of the electrical potentials of the cochlea. The results are in general agreement with previous reports on other caecilian species. PMID:1068485

  10. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An ear prosthesis is a silicone rubber solid device intended to be implanted to reconstruct the...

  11. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An ear prosthesis is a silicone rubber solid device intended to be implanted to reconstruct the...

  12. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An ear prosthesis is a silicone rubber solid device intended to be implanted to reconstruct the...

  13. Immunologic Disorders of the Inner Ear.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, William C.; Hughes, Gordon B.

    1997-01-01

    Immune inner ear disease represents a series of immune system mediated problems that can present with hearing loss, dizziness, or both. The etiology, presentation, testing, and treatment of primary immune inner ear disease is discussed. A review of secondary immune inner ear disease is presented for comparison. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  14. Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? KidsHealth > For Kids > Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? Print A A A Text ... up? Oh! You want to know if loud music can hurt your ears . Are you asking because ...

  15. The Effect of Ear Canal Pressure on Spontaneous Otoacoustic Emissions:. Comparison Between Human and Lizard Ears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dijk, P.; Manley, G. A.

    2009-02-01

    The center frequency, height and width of peaks in SOAE spectra depend on ear canal pressure. The width is interpreted as a measure of the inner ear source-signal-to-(e.g. thermal)-noise ratio. In humans, width increases with decreasing height. Apparently, ear canal pressure modifies the amplitude of the inner ear emission source signal. In lizards, the relation between peak width and height is not consistent. Here, middle ear transmission changes may account for many the observed amplitude effects.

  16. LDV measurement of bird ear vibrations to determine inner ear impedance and middle ear power flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muyshondt, Pieter G. G.; Pires, Felipe; Dirckx, Joris J. J.

    2016-06-01

    The mechanical behavior of the middle ear structures in birds and mammals is affected by the fluids in the inner ear (IE) that are present behind the oval window. In this study, the aim was to gather knowledge of the acoustic impedance of the IE in the ostrich, to be able to determine the effect on vibrations and power flow in the single-ossicle bird middle ear for future studies. To determine the IE impedance, vibrations of the ossicle were measured for both the quasi-static and acoustic stimulus frequencies. In the acoustic regime, vibrations were measured with a laser Doppler vibrometer and electromagnetic stimulation of the ossicle. The impedance of the inner ear could be determined by means of a simple RLC model in series, which resulted in a stiffness reactance of KIE = 0.20.1012 Pa/m3, an inertial impedance of MIE = 0.652.106 Pa s2/m3, and a resistance of RIE = 1.57.109 Pa s/m. The measured impedance is found to be considerably smaller than what is found for the human IE.

  17. EEG Recorded from the Ear: Characterizing the Ear-EEG Method

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, Kaare B.; Kappel, Simon L.; Mandic, Danilo P.; Kidmose, Preben

    2015-01-01

    Highlights Auditory middle and late latency responses can be recorded reliably from ear-EEG.For sources close to the ear, ear-EEG has the same signal-to-noise-ratio as scalp.Ear-EEG is an excellent match for power spectrum-based analysis. A method for measuring electroencephalograms (EEG) from the outer ear, so-called ear-EEG, has recently been proposed. The method could potentially enable robust recording of EEG in natural environments. The objective of this study was to substantiate the ear-EEG method by using a larger population of subjects and several paradigms. For rigor, we considered simultaneous scalp and ear-EEG recordings with common reference. More precisely, 32 conventional scalp electrodes and 12 ear electrodes allowed a thorough comparison between conventional and ear electrodes, testing several different placements of references. The paradigms probed auditory onset response, mismatch negativity, auditory steady-state response and alpha power attenuation. By comparing event related potential (ERP) waveforms from the mismatch response paradigm, the signal measured from the ear electrodes was found to reflect the same cortical activity as that from nearby scalp electrodes. It was also found that referencing the ear-EEG electrodes to another within-ear electrode affects the time-domain recorded waveform (relative to scalp recordings), but not the timing of individual components. It was furthermore found that auditory steady-state responses and alpha-band modulation were measured reliably with the ear-EEG modality. Finally, our findings showed that the auditory mismatch response was difficult to monitor with the ear-EEG. We conclude that ear-EEG yields similar performance as conventional EEG for spectrogram-based analysis, similar timing of ERP components, and equal signal strength for sources close to the ear. Ear-EEG can reliably measure activity from regions of the cortex which are located close to the ears, especially in paradigms employing frequency

  18. EEG Recorded from the Ear: Characterizing the Ear-EEG Method.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, Kaare B; Kappel, Simon L; Mandic, Danilo P; Kidmose, Preben

    2015-01-01

    Highlights Auditory middle and late latency responses can be recorded reliably from ear-EEG.For sources close to the ear, ear-EEG has the same signal-to-noise-ratio as scalp.Ear-EEG is an excellent match for power spectrum-based analysis. A method for measuring electroencephalograms (EEG) from the outer ear, so-called ear-EEG, has recently been proposed. The method could potentially enable robust recording of EEG in natural environments. The objective of this study was to substantiate the ear-EEG method by using a larger population of subjects and several paradigms. For rigor, we considered simultaneous scalp and ear-EEG recordings with common reference. More precisely, 32 conventional scalp electrodes and 12 ear electrodes allowed a thorough comparison between conventional and ear electrodes, testing several different placements of references. The paradigms probed auditory onset response, mismatch negativity, auditory steady-state response and alpha power attenuation. By comparing event related potential (ERP) waveforms from the mismatch response paradigm, the signal measured from the ear electrodes was found to reflect the same cortical activity as that from nearby scalp electrodes. It was also found that referencing the ear-EEG electrodes to another within-ear electrode affects the time-domain recorded waveform (relative to scalp recordings), but not the timing of individual components. It was furthermore found that auditory steady-state responses and alpha-band modulation were measured reliably with the ear-EEG modality. Finally, our findings showed that the auditory mismatch response was difficult to monitor with the ear-EEG. We conclude that ear-EEG yields similar performance as conventional EEG for spectrogram-based analysis, similar timing of ERP components, and equal signal strength for sources close to the ear. Ear-EEG can reliably measure activity from regions of the cortex which are located close to the ears, especially in paradigms employing frequency

  19. The War of Jenkins’ Ear

    PubMed Central

    Graboyes, Evan M.; Hullar, Timothy E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective In 1731, Spanish sailors boarded the British brig Rebecca off the coast of Cuba and sliced off the left ear of its captain, Robert Jenkins. This traumatic auriculectomy was used as a pretext by the British to declare war on Spain in 1739, a conflict that is now known as the War of Jenkins’ Ear. Here, we examine the techniques available for auricular repair at the time of Jenkins’ injury and relate them to the historical events surrounding the incident. Methods Review of relevant original published manuscripts and monographs. Results Surgeons in the mid-18th century did not have experience with repair of traumatic total auriculectomies. Some contemporary surgeons favored auricular prostheses over surgical treatment. Methods for the reconstruction of partial defects were available, and most authors advocated a local post-auricular flap instead of a free tissue transfer. Techniques for repair of defects of the auricle lagged behind those for repair of the nose. Conclusion Limitations in care of traumatic auricular defects may have intensified the significance of Jenkins’ injury and helped lead to the War of Jenkins’ Ear, but conflict between Britain and Spain was probably unavoidable due to their conflicting commercial interests in the Caribbean. PMID:23444484

  20. The ototoxic effect of intratympanic terbinafine applied in the middle ear of rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Otomycosis is defined as an infection of the external ear canal with fungal agents. The treatment of the disease is cleansing and drying of the external ear canal, identification and treatment of any predisposing factors and application of topical antifungal agents. Terbinafine is used as an antifungal agent to treat otomycosis. We proposed to investigate the probable ototoxic effect of terbinafine solution on auditory brain stem response (ABR) and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) when applied intratympanically in the middle ear of rats. Methods The experiment was performed on 30 female Wistar albino rats. Thirty animals were divided into three groups of 10 animals each. 1% terbinafine solution was administered to the first group (group T). The second group (group G) was administered 40 mg/ml gentamicin solution (ototoxic control). The third group (group S) was administered saline solution (negative control). Baseline DPOAE measurements and ABR testing from the left ears were obtained from the animals in all groups under general anesthesia. Ear solutions were applied in the middle ear intratympanically with a dental needle. Treatment was initiated after baseline measurements and repeated once every two days for fifteen days. Results Pre and post-treatment DPOAE responses for all tested frequencies of group T and Group S showed no statistically significant difference. However, the group G demonstrated a significant change in ABR thresholds and DPOAE responses. Conclusions Terbinafine solution is a broad spectrum antifungal agent effective in the treatment of otomycosis. The present study demonstrated that its direct administration in the middle ear of rats does not affect inner ear function as measured by ABR and DPOAE responses. PMID:23663536

  1. Ear canal dynamic motion as a source of power for in-ear devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delnavaz, Aidin; Voix, Jérémie

    2013-02-01

    Ear canal deformation caused by temporomandibular joint (jaw joint) activity, also known as "ear canal dynamic motion," is introduced in this paper as a candidate source of power to possibly recharge hearing aid batteries. The geometrical deformation of the ear canal is quantified in 3D by laser scanning of different custom ear moulds. An experimental setup is proposed to measure the amount of power potentially available from this source. The results show that 9 mW of power is available from a 15 mm3 dynamic change in the ear canal volume. Finally, the dynamic motion and power capability of the ear canal are investigated in a group of 12 subjects.

  2. 21 CFR 874.5800 - External nasal splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false External nasal splint. 874.5800 Section 874.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5800 External nasal splint....

  3. 21 CFR 874.5800 - External nasal splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External nasal splint. 874.5800 Section 874.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5800 External nasal splint....

  4. 21 CFR 874.5800 - External nasal splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false External nasal splint. 874.5800 Section 874.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5800 External nasal splint....

  5. 21 CFR 874.5800 - External nasal splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false External nasal splint. 874.5800 Section 874.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5800 External nasal splint....

  6. 21 CFR 874.5800 - External nasal splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false External nasal splint. 874.5800 Section 874.5800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5800 External nasal splint....

  7. ["Otinum" in the therapy of middle ear diseases].

    PubMed

    Poliakova, T S; Voznesenskiĭ, N L; Mironov, A A

    1991-01-01

    Otinum, a new drug made in Poland, was used to treat inflammatory diseases of the middle ear of 40 patients. The drug was applied topically as drops or tampons inserted into the external acoustic meatus. As controls, 16 patients with identical problems, who were treated with 3% boric acid alcohol, were used. Otinum had a distinct pain-killing and anti-inflammatory effect, as well as a mild keratolytic effect. Otinum is recommended to be used for acute otitis media and exacerbated chronic otitis media in the absence of pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:2048256

  8. Why Internally Coupled Ears (ICE) Work Well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hemmen, J. Leo

    2014-03-01

    Many vertebrates, such as frogs and lizards, have an air-filled cavity between left and right eardrum, i.e., internally coupled ears (ICE). Depending on source direction, internal time (iTD) and level (iLD) difference as experienced by the animal's auditory system may greatly exceed [C. Vossen et al., JASA 128 (2010) 909-918] the external, or interaural, time and level difference (ITD and ILD). Sensory processing only encodes iTD and iLD. We present an extension of ICE theory so as to elucidate the underlying physics. First, the membrane properties of the eardrum explain why for low frequencies iTD dominates whereas iLD does so for higher frequencies. Second, the plateau of iTD = γ ITD for constant 1 < γ < 5 and variable input frequency <ν∘ follows; e.g., for the Tockay gecko ν∘ ~ 1 . 5 kHz. Third, we use a sectorial instead of circular membrane to quantify the effect of the extracolumella embedded in the tympanum and connecting with the cochlea. The main parameters can be adjusted so that the model is species independent. Work done in collaboration with A.P. Vedurmudi and J. Goulet; partially supported by BCCN-Munich.

  9. Listening to Nature's orchestra with peculiar ears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager, David D.

    2003-04-01

    Insects use hearing for the crucial tasks of communicating with conspecifics and avoiding predators. Although all are based on the same acoustic principles, the diversity of insect ears is staggering and instructive. For instance, a South African grasshopper demonstrates that hearing conspecific calls is possible over distances 1 km with ears that do not have tympana. Actually, these creatures have six pairs of ears that play different roles in behavior. In numerical contrast, praying mantises have just a single ear in the ventral midline. The ear is very effective at detecting ultrasonic bat cries. However, the bioacoustics of sound transduction by two tympana facing each other in a deep, narrow slit is a puzzle. Tachinid flies demonstrate that directional hearing at 5 kHz is possible with a pair of ears fused together to give a total size of 1 mm. The ears are under the fly's chin. Hawk moths have their ears built into their mouthparts and the tympanum is more like a hollow ball than the usual membrane. As an apt last example, cicada ears are actually part of the orchestra: their tympana function both in sound reception and sound production.

  10. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yahui; Lu, Guangming; Zhang, David

    2015-01-01

    The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition. PMID:26061553

  11. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yahui; Lu, Guangming; Zhang, David

    2015-01-01

    The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition. PMID:26061553

  12. Burn Ear Reconstruction Using Porous Polyethylene Implants and Tissue Expansion.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Justin R; Driscoll, Daniel N

    2016-01-01

    Reconstruction of the external ear after a burn is particularly challenging. The nature of the injury poses many problems including excessive scar tissue, poor blood supply, and the lack of adequate and appropriate materials for a framework. The use of costochondral grafts often leads to marginal outcomes which do not justify the morbidity. Children under the age of 10 years commonly have insufficient cartilage for a graft. Medpor (Stryker, Kalamazoo, MI) offers minimal morbidity and a very effective result. In this series, the authors describe the experience using Medpor and scalp tissue expansion to reconstruct severely burned ears. A total of 16 pediatric patients underwent 18 reconstructions, with two patients receiving bilateral procedures. All patients received Medpor implants. Thirteen patients were tissue expanded under the subgaleal plane before reconstruction, for concomitant scalp alopecia reconstruction. Eleven temporoparietal fascial flaps were performed. In the remaining patients, coverage of the implant was achieved by local advancement flaps. Only two patients had complications, with exposure of the construct after several years. In these two cases, the implants were removed. The experience has shown porous polyethylene reconstruction to be very efficient, with low morbidity and good cosmetic outcomes. Medpor is an excellent option for the reconstruction of both fully and partially burned ears as you may implant only the helical rim, base, or both pieces. The best results were achieved after tissue expansion and the use of the alopecic skin overlying a temporoparietal fascial flap. This has become the preferred method. PMID:26284635

  13. The blood supply to the canine middle ear.

    PubMed

    Stevens-Sparks, Cathryn; Jarrett, Keith; McNulty, Margaret A; Strain, George M

    2016-07-01

    Current descriptions of the anatomy of the blood supply to the canine middle ear are either incomplete or inconsistent, particularly in regards to the vascular branches in close proximity to the temporomandibular articulation (TMJ). To further investigate this blood supply, dissections (n = 9), corrosion casts (n = 4), and computed tomography (n = 8) of canine temporal regions/ears were performed. The goal of this study was to identify and describe branches of the external carotid and maxillary arteries in close proximity to the TMJ that supply the middle ear of the dog. Specific focus was placed on the constancy and origin of the canine rostral tympanic artery since this artery was anticipated to arise from the maxillary artery and enter a foramen at the medial aspect of the mandibular fossa adjacent to the TMJ. New anatomical variations of three canine arteries are described in this study. (1) The rostral tympanic artery is a branch of the temporomandibular ramus and is accommodated by a small foramen located within a depression medial to the temporomandibular joint. (2) A pharyngeal branch of the caudal deep temporal artery was identified. (3) The origin of the caudal auricular artery occurred opposite the lingual artery in 25.8% of dissected specimens, contrary to published descriptions. Anat Rec, 299:907-917, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27082971

  14. Tympanostomy tubes and otic suspensions: do they reach the middle ear space?

    PubMed

    Hebert, R L; Vick, M L; King, G E; Bent, J P

    2000-03-01

    The treatment of patients with tympanostomy tubes (TTs) and otorrhea with medicated otic suspensions is well known, but confirmation of penetration into the middle ear is difficult. To address this question, we created an in vitro model of the human head and ear and then tested it with 5 different types of liquid exposure: tap water, soapy water, polymyxin B sulfate (Cortisporin), tobramycin and dexamethasone (TobraDex), and ciprofloxacin (Cipro) suspensions. A positive test result corresponded to liquids entering the middle ear through the TT. No positive test result was elicited with tap water (0/20), but soapy water did enter the middle ear (10/40) and was statistically significant (P = 0.0112). Without the use of slight tragal pressure, Cortisporin, TobraDex, and Cipro drops did not consistently pass through the TT (0/20, 1/25, 1/25). By placing the drops with the addition of tragal pressure, a statistically significant difference was obtained for each solution (20/20, 20/20, and 20/20, respectively [P < 0.0001]). We conclude that with a clean external auditory canal, patent TT, and no middle ear fluid, medicated otic suspensions enter the middle ear only when combined with slight tragal pressure. PMID:10699804

  15. Facial Nerve Paralysis in Patients With Chronic Ear Infections: Surgical Outcomes and Radiologic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin Woong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical features, radiologic findings, and treatment outcomes in patients of facial nerve paralysis with chronic ear infections. And we also aimed to evaluate for radiologic sensitivities on facial canal, labyrinth and cranial fossa dehiscences in middle ear cholesteatomas. Methods A total of 13 patients were enrolled in this study. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for clinical features, radiologic findings, surgical findings, and recovery course. In addition, retrospective review of temporal bone computed tomography (CT) and operative records in 254 middle ear cholesteatoma patients were also performed. Results Of the 13 patients, eight had cholesteatomas in the middle ear, while two patients exhibited external auditory canal cholesteatomas. Chronic suppurative otitis media, petrous apex cholesteatoma and tuberculous otitis media were also observed in some patients. The prevalence of facial paralysis in middle ear cholesteatoma patients was 3.5%. The most common involved site of the facial nerve was the tympanic segment. Labyrinthine fistulas and destruction of cranial bases were more frequently observed in facial paralysis patients than nonfacial paralysis patients. The radiologic sensitivity for facial canal dehiscence was 91%. The surgical outcomes for facial paralysis were relatively satisfactory in all patients except in two patients who had petrous apex cholesteatoma and requiring conservative management. Conclusion Facial paralyses associated with chronic ear infections were observed in more advanced lesions and the surgical outcomes for facial paralysis were relatively satisfactory. Facial canal dehiscences can be anticipated preoperatively with high resolution CTs. PMID:26330915

  16. Loudness changes resulting from an electrically induced middle-ear reflex.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunn, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in order to determine the changes in loudness brought about by electro-cutaneous elicitation of the middle-ear reflex. Subjects were required to judge the relative loudness of the second of three consecutive 30-msec bursts of tone, the second tone being accompanied by an electrical shock to the external auditory meatus, capable of eliciting a contraction of the middle-ear muscles. The difference between these judgments and those of the control condition (shock on the arm) was taken to represent a measure of the attenuation provided by contraction of the middle-ear muscles. Test tones were 500, 1000, 2000, and 3000 Hz at levels of 65, 75, 85, 95, and 105 dB. The results indicate that the middle-ear reflex decreases the middle-ear's transmission mainly for low-frequency sounds. The results fail to lend support to the Loeb-Riopelle hypothesis that the middle-ear reflex acts as a limiter, rather than a linear attenuator.

  17. Biomimetic ears for a sensor agent robot to localize sound sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Daniel J.; Mita, Akira

    2011-04-01

    Our current environment and architecture are mainly static even though our surrounding society is constantly changing. This is why the Biofication of Living Spaces field was created, to get more adaptive and suitable living spaces. On the other hand, human was naturally empowered with a lot of features responding to the environment. His/her 2 ears are powerful tools from which he/she can acquire a lot of information such as the source localization of a sound. Interaural (between both ears) time differences enable a lateral localization and this function can be technologically reproduced. However, the sound localization in the median plane of the head provided amongst others by our external ear called the pinna is yet to be imitated in robotics. The idea of this paper is to build some biomimetic ear prototypes and to analyze theirs influences on a transfer function called Interaural Transfer Function (ITF). Once achieved, attaching these prototyped ears to a sensor agent robot, we aim particularly at a sound localization in the median plane of the robot. However, we will have a quick look at the horizontal sound localization too. Finally, these "ears" on the sensor agent robot will be convenient to get a" much accurate and useful information as possible with only 2 microphones and to use this agent for biofication of living spaces issues.

  18. Ear malformation and hearing loss in patients with Treacher Collins syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pron, G; Galloway, C; Armstrong, D; Posnick, J

    1993-01-01

    Although the hearing loss of patients with Treacher Collins syndrome is well documented, few studies have reported jointly on their hearing loss and ear pathology. This paper reports on the hearing loss and computerized tomography (CT) assessments of ear malformations in a large pediatric series of patients with Treacher Collins. Of the 29 subjects assessed by the Craniofacial Program between 1986 and 1990, paired audiologic and complete CT assessments were available for 23 subjects. The external ear canal abnormalities were largely symmetric, either bilaterally stenotic or atretic. In most cases, the middle ear cavity was bilaterally hypoplastic and dysmorphic, and ossicles were symmetrically dysmorphic or missing. Inner ear structures were normal in all patients. The majority of patients had a unilateral or bilateral moderate or greater degree of hearing loss and almost half had an asymmetric hearing loss. The hearing loss of all subjects was conductive, except for three whose loss was bilateral mixed. Two types of bilaterally symmetric hearing loss configurations, flat and reverse sloping, were noted. Conductive hearing loss in patients with Treacher Collins is mainly attributable to their middle ear malformations, which are similar for those of patients with malformed or missing ossicles. PMID:8418881

  19. Playing by Ear: Foundation or Frill?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Many people divide musicians into two types: those who can read music and those who play by ear. Formal music education tends to place great emphasis on producing musically literate performers but devotes much less attention to teaching students to make music without notation. Some would suggest that playing by ear is a specialized skill that is…

  20. Is Attention Shared Between the Ears?1

    PubMed Central

    Shiffrin, Richard M.; Pisoni, David B.; Castaneda-Mendez, Kicab

    2012-01-01

    This study tests the locus of attention during selective listening for speech-like stimuli. Can processing be differentially allocated to the two ears? Two conditions were used. The simultaneous condition involved one of four randomly chosen stop-consonants being presented to one of the ears chosen at random. The sequential condition involved two intervals; in the first S listened to the right ear; in the second S listened to the left ear. One of the four consonants was presented to an attended ear during one of these intervals. Experiment I used no distracting stimuli. Experiment II utilized a distracting consonant not confusable with any of the four target consonants. This distractor was always presented to any ear not containing a target. In both experiments, simultaneous and sequential performance were essentially identical, despite the need for attention sharing between the two ears during the simultaneous condition. We conclude that selective attention does not occur during perceptual processing of speech sounds presented to the two ears. We suggest that attentive effects arise in short-term memory following processing. PMID:23226838

  1. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification....

  2. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification....

  3. INNER EAR EMBRYOGENESIS: GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The anatomy and developmental molecular genetics of the inner ear from establishment of the otic placode to formation of the definitive cochlea and vestibular apparatus will be reviewed and the complex 3-D structural changes that shape the developing inner ear will be illustrated...

  4. Middle ear malformations in identical twins.

    PubMed

    Kidowaki, Naoko; Kamitani, Toru; Nakamura, Takashi; Taki, Masakatsu; Sakaguchi, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Hisa, Yasuo

    2014-06-01

    The majority of the congenital anomalies of middle ear are solitary and a non-hereditary. We report cases of identical twins with congenital incudo-stapedial disconnection. Case 1 was an 8-year-old girl. Hearing impairment was identified at the age of three. She was referred to our university hospital in April 2005. Pure-tone audiogram showed conductive hearing impairments. Computed tomography (CT) revealed the incudo-stapedial disconnections in both ears. The exploratory tympanotomies on the right and left ears were performed in May and July 2005, respectively. The surgical findings showed absence of the long process and presence of the lenticular process of the incus in both ears. After the reconstructions of ossicular chain, the hearing of both ears improved. Case 2 was an 11-year-old girl. The hearing impairment of the right ear was identified in May 2008. She was referred to our university hospital three months later. Pure-tone audiogram showed the conductive hearing impairment in the right ear. CT revealed the incudo-stapedial disconnection in the right ear. The surgery showed the same findings as those of case 1. Anomalies of both cases suggest that the lenticular process of the incus and the stapes originate from a common primordium. PMID:24355584

  5. The laser microprobe mass analysis technique in the studies of the inner ear.

    PubMed

    Orsulakova, A; Morgenstern, C; Kaufmann, R; D'Haese, M

    1982-01-01

    Laser microprobe mass analysis (LAMMA) has been used to investigate cation and anion concentration in shock frozen, freeze-dried and plastic embedded inner ear tissue. Dissected inner ear specimens were prepared in various media of known ionic compositions and the influence on the K/Na ratio was measured in the lateral cochlea wall (spiral ligament, stria vascularis). For control purposes of the various procedures employed, muscle specimens (external standard) were processed in parallel. It was found that there is a good correlation between the K/Na ratio and the preservation of the tissue fine structure by comparing the results in tissues with different degrees of freezing damage. PMID:6764025

  6. Understanding fly-ear inspired directional microphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haijun; Zhang, Xuming; Yu, Miao

    2009-03-01

    In this article, the equivalent two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) model for the hypersensitive ear of fly Ormia ocharacea is revisited. It is found that in addition to the mechanical coupling between the ears, the key to the remarkable directional hearing ability of the fly is the proper contributions of the rocking mode and bending mode of the ear structure. This can serve as the basis for the development of fly-ear inspired directional microphones. New insights are also provided to establish the connection between the mechanics of the fly ear and the prior biological experiments, which reveals that the fly ear is a nature-designed optimal structure that might have evolved to best perform its localization task at 5 kHz. Based on this understanding, a new design of the fly-ear inspired directional microphone is presented and a corresponding normalized continuum mechanics model is derived. Parametric studies are carried out to study the influence of the identified non-dimensional parameters on the microphone performance. Directional microphones are developed to verify the understanding and concept. This study provides a theoretical guidance to develop miniature bio-inspired directional microphones, and can impact many fronts that require miniature directional microphones.

  7. [Inner Ear Hearing Loss Part II: Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss, Therapeutic Options].

    PubMed

    Hesse, Gerhard

    2016-07-01

    The great majority of hearing disorders generates from pathologies in the inner ear, mainly the outer hair cells, as mentioned in the first part of this review. Very often, however, hearing loss appears suddenly and even without external causes like noise exposure. This sudden hearing loss is mostly unilateral, recovers very often spontaneously and should be treated, if persisting. Only in this acute stage there are therapeutic options available. If the inner ear hearing loss is chronic there is no curative therapy, an effective management of the hearing disorder is only possible through rehabilitation. This is due to the fact, that hair cells of all mammals, incl. humans, have no regenerative capacity and neither pharmaceutic agents nor other means can induce regeneration and recovery of hair cells. Even a gen-therapy is not available yet. In the second part of this review the main focus lies in sudden hearing loss and general therapeutic options for inner ear hearing loss. PMID:27392187

  8. A Non-Coding Genomic Duplication at the HMX1 Locus Is Associated with Crop Ears in Highland Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Caroline Tina; Bruggmann, Rémy; Tetens, Jens; Drögemüller, Cord

    2013-01-01

    Highland cattle with congenital crop ears have notches of variable size on the tips of both ears. In some cases, cartilage deformation can be seen and occasionally the external ears are shortened. We collected 40 cases and 80 controls across Switzerland. Pedigree data analysis confirmed a monogenic autosomal dominant mode of inheritance with variable expressivity. All affected animals could be traced back to a single common ancestor. A genome-wide association study was performed and the causative mutation was mapped to a 4 Mb interval on bovine chromosome 6. The H6 family homeobox 1 (HMX1) gene was selected as a positional and functional candidate gene. By whole genome re-sequencing of an affected Highland cattle, we detected 6 non-synonymous coding sequence variants and two variants in an ultra-conserved element at the HMX1 locus with respect to the reference genome. Of these 8 variants, only a non-coding 76 bp genomic duplication (g.106720058_106720133dup) located in the conserved region was perfectly associated with crop ears. The identified copy number variation probably results in HMX1 misregulation and possible gain-of-function. Our findings confirm the role of HMX1 during the development of the external ear. As it is sometimes difficult to phenotypically diagnose Highland cattle with slight ear notches, genetic testing can now be used to improve selection against this undesired trait. PMID:24194898

  9. Numerical evaluation of implantable hearing devices using a finite element model of human ear considering viscoelastic properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Tian, Jiabin; Ta, Na; Huang, Xinsheng; Rao, Zhushi

    2016-08-01

    Finite element method was employed in this study to analyze the change in performance of implantable hearing devices due to the consideration of soft tissues' viscoelasticity. An integrated finite element model of human ear including the external ear, middle ear and inner ear was first developed via reverse engineering and analyzed by acoustic-structure-fluid coupling. Viscoelastic properties of soft tissues in the middle ear were taken into consideration in this model. The model-derived dynamic responses including middle ear and cochlea functions showed a better agreement with experimental data at high frequencies above 3000 Hz than the Rayleigh-type damping. On this basis, a coupled finite element model consisting of the human ear and a piezoelectric actuator attached to the long process of incus was further constructed. Based on the electromechanical coupling analysis, equivalent sound pressure and power consumption of the actuator corresponding to viscoelasticity and Rayleigh damping were calculated using this model. The analytical results showed that the implant performance of the actuator evaluated using a finite element model considering viscoelastic properties gives a lower output above about 3 kHz than does Rayleigh damping model. Finite element model considering viscoelastic properties was more accurate to numerically evaluate implantable hearing devices. PMID:27276992

  10. Squamous cell carcinoma of the middle ear: report of three cases

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xi-Dong; Wu, Ting-Ting; Zhou, Shui-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the middle ear (SCCME) accounts for 1.5% of malignant tumors in the ear. Because of the low incidence and infrequent reports of SCCME, the extent of concordance between CT and MRI results, surgical findings, and pathology reports are not well-characterized. In the present study, we reported CT and MRI images in three SCCME cases, and assessed the relationship between these results and those of surgery and the pathological report. Middle ear carcinoma is frequently misdiagnosed before surgery. In three cases of middle ear carcinoma, CT revealed the following: 1) soft tissue density lesions centered around the middle tympanum, exhibiting increased density, with external auditory canal involvement; 2) damage and absorption in the mastoid area, ossicles, and facial nerve canal, characterized by an irregular, worm-eaten appearance, without sclerotic margins; and 3) lesion infiltration of the surrounding bony substance of the middle ear, temporal squama, temporomandibular joint, anterior wall of the sigmoid sinus, and horizontal segment of the canalis caroticus (in one case lesion invasion into the intracranial cavity occurred through sigmoid sinus walls; no signs of intracranial invasion were seen in the other two cases). Enhanced lesion imaging revealed partial heterogeneous enhancement. In one patient MRI revealed a defined mass in the mastoid area of the middle ear. Signals in the lesion were partially heterogeneous and similar to brain tissue in T1- and T2-weighted images. The lesion was significantly enhanced following application of a contrast agent, while the adjacent meninges also exhibited linear enhancement. No abnormal signals were detected in the brain parenchyma. The destruction of adjacent bone plates was poorly defined. The CT and MRI results were consistent with the invasive features of middle ear cancer documented in the post-surgery pathology report. PMID:25932267

  11. Responses of the ear to low frequency sounds, infrasound and wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Salt, Alec N; Hullar, Timothy E

    2010-09-01

    Infrasonic sounds are generated internally in the body (by respiration, heartbeat, coughing, etc) and by external sources, such as air conditioning systems, inside vehicles, some industrial processes and, now becoming increasingly prevalent, wind turbines. It is widely assumed that infrasound presented at an amplitude below what is audible has no influence on the ear. In this review, we consider possible ways that low frequency sounds, at levels that may or may not be heard, could influence the function of the ear. The inner ear has elaborate mechanisms to attenuate low frequency sound components before they are transmitted to the brain. The auditory portion of the ear, the cochlea, has two types of sensory cells, inner hair cells (IHC) and outer hair cells (OHC), of which the IHC are coupled to the afferent fibers that transmit "hearing" to the brain. The sensory stereocilia ("hairs") on the IHC are "fluid coupled" to mechanical stimuli, so their responses depend on stimulus velocity and their sensitivity decreases as sound frequency is lowered. In contrast, the OHC are directly coupled to mechanical stimuli, so their input remains greater than for IHC at low frequencies. At very low frequencies the OHC are stimulated by sounds at levels below those that are heard. Although the hair cells in other sensory structures such as the saccule may be tuned to infrasonic frequencies, auditory stimulus coupling to these structures is inefficient so that they are unlikely to be influenced by airborne infrasound. Structures that are involved in endolymph volume regulation are also known to be influenced by infrasound, but their sensitivity is also thought to be low. There are, however, abnormal states in which the ear becomes hypersensitive to infrasound. In most cases, the inner ear's responses to infrasound can be considered normal, but they could be associated with unfamiliar sensations or subtle changes in physiology. This raises the possibility that exposure to the

  12. Distribution of disease symptoms and mycotoxins in maize ears infected by Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Oldenburg, Elisabeth; Ellner, Frank

    2015-08-01

    Red ear rot an important disease of maize cultivated in Europe is caused by toxigenic Fusarium species like Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum. To get detailed information on the time course of the infection process leading to the accumulation of Fusarium mycotoxins in maize ears, a field study was conducted over 2 years with two maize varieties, which were inoculated with F. culmorum or F. graminearum isolates at the stage of female flowering. Every fortnight after inoculation, infection and contamination progress in the ears was followed by visually evaluating disease signs and analysing Fusarium toxin concentrations in the infected ear tissues. In principle, infection and mycotoxin distribution were similar in respect of pathogens, varieties, and years. External infection symptoms showing some small pale or brown-marbled kernels with dark brown pedicels were mainly seen at the ear tip, whereas internal infection symptoms on the rachis were much more pronounced and spread in the upper half showing greyish brownish or pink discoloration of the pith. Well correlated with disease symptoms, a top-down gradient from high to low toxin levels within the ear with considerably higher concentrations in the rachis compared with the kernels was observed. It is suggested that both Fusarium pathogens primarily infect the rachis from the tip toward the bottom, whereas the kernels are subsequently infected via the rachillae connected to the rachis. A special focus on the pronounced disease symptoms visible in the rachis may be an approach to improve the evaluation of maize-genotype susceptibility against red ear rot pathogens. It has to be underlined that the accumulation of Fusarium mycotoxins in the rachis greatly accelerated 6 weeks after inoculation; therefore, highest contamination risk is indicated for feedstuffs containing large amounts of rachis (e.g., corn cob mix), especially when cut late in growing season. PMID:25904523

  13. Estimation of sex from the anthropometric ear measurements of a Sudanese population.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Altayeb Abdalla; Omer, Nosyba

    2015-09-01

    The external ear and its prints have multifaceted roles in medico-legal practice, e.g., identification and facial reconstruction. Furthermore, its norms are essential in the diagnosis of congenital anomalies and the design of hearing aids. Body part dimensions vary in different ethnic groups, so the most accurate statistical estimations of biological attributes are developed using population-specific standards. Sudan lacks comprehensive data about ear norms; moreover, there is a universal rarity in assessing the possibility of sex estimation from ear dimensions using robust statistical techniques. Therefore, this study attempts to establish data for normal adult Sudanese Arabs, assessing the existence of asymmetry and developing a population-specific equation for sex estimation. The study sample comprised 200 healthy Sudanese Arab volunteers (100 males and 100 females) in the age range of 18-30years. The physiognomic ear length and width, lobule length and width, and conchal length and width measurements were obtained by direct anthropometry, using a digital sliding caliper. Moreover, indices and asymmetry were assessed. Data were analyzed using basic descriptive statistics and discriminant function analyses employing jackknife validations of classification results. All linear dimensions used were sexually dimorphic except lobular lengths. Some of the variables and indices show asymmetry. Ear dimensions showed cross-validated sex classification accuracy ranging between 60.5% and 72%. Hence, the ear measurements cannot be used as an effective tool in the estimation of sex. However, in the absence of other more reliable means, it still can be considered a supportive trait in sex estimation. Further, asymmetry should be considered in identification from the ear measurements. PMID:25813757

  14. Ear Infections in Autistic and Normal Children. Brief Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantareas, M. Mary; Homatidis, Soula

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation of the frequency of ear infections, ear tube drainage, and deafness for 51 autistic children (ages 2-18) indicated that autistic children had a greater incidence of ear infections than matched normal peers and lower functioning children had an earlier onset of ear infections than higher functioning autistic peers. (Author)

  15. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  16. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  17. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  18. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  19. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  20. 38 CFR 4.87 - Schedule of ratings-ear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Schedule of ratings-ear...—ear. Diseases of the Ear Rating 6200Chronic suppurative otitis media, mastoiditis, or cholesteatoma... of the substance 10 6208Malignant neoplasm of the ear (other than skin only) 100 Note: A rating...

  1. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  2. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  3. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  4. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  5. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  6. An analysis of the acoustic input impedance of the ear.

    PubMed

    Withnell, Robert H; Gowdy, Lauren E

    2013-10-01

    Ear canal acoustics was examined using a one-dimensional lossy transmission line with a distributed load impedance to model the ear. The acoustic input impedance of the ear was derived from sound pressure measurements in the ear canal of healthy human ears. A nonlinear least squares fit of the model to data generated estimates for ear canal radius, ear canal length, and quantified the resistance that would produce transmission losses. Derivation of ear canal radius has application to quantifying the impedance mismatch at the eardrum between the ear canal and the middle ear. The length of the ear canal was found, in general, to be longer than the length derived from the one-quarter wavelength standing wave frequency, consistent with the middle ear being mass-controlled at the standing wave frequency. Viscothermal losses in the ear canal, in some cases, may exceed that attributable to a smooth rigid wall. Resistance in the middle ear was found to contribute significantly to the total resistance. In effect, this analysis "reverse engineers" physical parameters of the ear from sound pressure measurements in the ear canal. PMID:23917695

  7. Middle Ear Adenoma: Case Report and Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Vrugt, B.; Huber, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Despite modern radiological workup, surgeons can still be surprised by intraoperative findings or by the pathologist's report. Materials & Methods. We describe the case of a 52-year-old male who was referred to our clinic with a single sided conductive hearing loss. He ultimately underwent middle ear exploration and excision of a middle ear tumour followed by second look and ossiculoplasty a year later. Results. Though preoperative CT and MRI scanning were suggestive of a congenital cholesteatoma, the pathologist's report diagnosed a middle ear adenoma. Discussion. Middle ear glandular tumors are extremely rare and, despite numerous histological techniques, continue to defy satisfactory classification. Most surgeons advocate surgical excision though evidence of the tumour's natural course and risk of recurrence is lacking. PMID:25045567

  8. Directional Sensitivity of the Human Ear.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitt, John D.; Bazley, Martin

    1985-01-01

    Presents a classroom experiment that demonstrates the directional sensitivity of the human ear. Outlines the activity's procedures and provides a diagrammatical view of the experimental arrangement. Also included is an analysis of the expected results. (ML)

  9. A prediction of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) middle-ear transfer functiona)

    PubMed Central

    Tubelli, Andrew A.; Zosuls, Aleks; Ketten, Darlene R.; Yamato, Maya; Mountain, David C.

    2012-01-01

    The lack of baleen whale (Cetacea Mysticeti) audiograms impedes the assessment of the impacts of anthropogenic noise on these animals. Estimates of audiograms, which are difficult to obtain behaviorally or electrophysiologically for baleen whales, can be made by simulating the audiogram as a series of components representing the outer, middle, and inner ear (Rosowski, 1991; Ruggero and Temchin, 2002). The middle-ear portion of the system can be represented by the middle-ear transfer function (METF), a measure of the transmission of acoustic energy from the external ear to the cochlea. An anatomically accurate finite element model of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) middle ear was developed to predict the METF for a mysticete species. The elastic moduli of the auditory ossicles were measured by using nanoindentation. Other mechanical properties were estimated from experimental stiffness measurements or from published values. The METF predicted a best frequency range between approximately 30 Hz and 7.5 kHz or between 100 Hz and 25 kHz depending on stimulation location. Parametric analysis found that the most sensitive parameters are the elastic moduli of the glove finger and joints and the Rayleigh damping stiffness coefficient β. The predicted hearing range matches well with the vocalization range. PMID:23145610

  10. Multiwavelength Fluorescence Otoscope for Video-Rate Chemical Imaging of Middle Ear Pathology

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A common motif in otolaryngology is the lack of certainty regarding diagnosis for middle ear conditions, resulting in many patients being overtreated under the worst-case assumption. Although pneumatic otoscopy and adjunctive tests offer additional information, white light otoscopy has been the main tool for diagnosis of external auditory canal and middle ear pathologies for over a century. In middle ear pathologies, the inability to avail high-resolution structural and/or molecular imaging is particularly glaring, leading to a complicated and erratic decision analysis. Here, we propose a novel multiwavelength fluorescence-based video-rate imaging strategy that combines readily available optical elements and software components to create a novel otoscopic device. This modified otoscope enables low-cost, detailed and objective diagnosis of common middle ear pathological conditions. Using the detection of congenital cholesteatoma as a specific example, we demonstrate the feasibility of fluorescence imaging to differentiate this proliferative lesion from uninvolved middle ear tissue based on the characteristic autofluorescence signals. Availability of real-time, wide-field chemical information should enable more complete removal of cholesteatoma, allowing for better hearing preservation and substantially reducing the well-documented risks, costs and psychological effects of repeated surgical procedures. PMID:25226556

  11. Predictions of middle-ear and passive cochlear mechanics using a finite element model of the pediatric ear.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuelin; Keefe, Douglas H; Gan, Rong Z

    2016-04-01

    A finite element (FE) model was developed based on histological sections of a temporal bone of a 4-year-old child to simulate middle-ear and cochlear function in ears with normal hearing and otitis media. This pediatric model of the normal ear, consisting of an ear canal, middle ear, and spiral cochlea, was first validated with published energy absorbance (EA) measurements in young children with normal ears. The model was used to simulate EA in an ear with middle-ear effusion, whose results were compared to clinical EA measurements. The spiral cochlea component of the model was constructed under the assumption that the mechanics were passive. The FE model predicted middle-ear transfer functions between the ear canal and cochlea. Effects of ear structure and mechanical properties of soft tissues were compared in model predictions for the pediatric and adult ears. EA responses are predicted to differ between adult and pediatric ears due to differences in the stiffness and damping of soft tissues within the ear, and any residual geometrical differences between the adult ear and pediatric ear at age 4 years. The results have significance for predicting effects of otitis media in children. PMID:27106321

  12. Suction-generated noise in an anatomic silicon ear model.

    PubMed

    Luxenberger, Wolfgang; Lahousen, T; Walch, C

    2012-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate noise levels generated during micro-suction aural toilet using an anatomic silicon ear model. It is an experimental study. In an anatomic ear model made of silicone, the eardrum was replaced by a 1-cm diameter microphone of a calibrated sound-level measuring device. Ear wax was removed using the sucker of a standard ENT treatment unit (Atmos Servant 5(®)). Mean and peak sound levels during the suction procedure were recorded with suckers of various diameters (Fergusson-Frazier 2.7-4 mm as well as Rosen 1.4-2.5 mm). Average noise levels during normal suction in a distance of 1 cm in front of the eardrum ranged between 97 and 103.5 dB(A) (broadband noise). Peak noise levels reached 118 dB(A). During partial obstruction of the sucker by cerumen or dermal flakes, peak noise levels reached 146 dB(A). Peak noise levels observed during the so-called clarinet phenomena were independent of the diameter or type of suckers used. Although micro-suction aural toilet is regarded as an established, widespread and usually safe method to clean the external auditory canal, some caution seems advisable. The performance of long-lasting suction periods straight in front of the eardrum without sound-protecting earwax between sucker and eardrum should be avoided. In particular, when clarinet phenomena are occurring (as described above), the suction procedure should be aborted immediately. In the presence of dermal flakes blocking the auditory canal, cleaning with micro-forceps or other non-suctioning instruments might represent a reasonable alternative. PMID:22740154

  13. Mapping ear canal movement using area-based surface matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenness, Malcolm J.; Osborn, Jon; Weller, W. Lee

    2002-02-01

    Movement of the external ear canal, associated with jaw motion, relative to the concha region of the pinna has been studied. Pairs of open-jaw and closed-jaw impressions were taken of 14 ears from 10 subjects. Three-dimensional coordinate data were obtained from the concha and the anterior surface of the canal using a reflex microscope. Proprietary area-based matching software was used to evaluate distortion of the two surfaces between the two jaw positions. The canal data from each pair were placed into the same coordinate system with their respective concha regions aligned. Difference maps of the canal data were used to demonstrate the amount of anterior-posterior (A-P), superior-inferior (S-I), and medial-lateral (M-L) movement, relative to the concha, that occurred between the open- and closed-jaw impressions. The concha regions did not undergo significant deformation. The canal regions underwent varying amounts of deformation with all canals conforming within an rms of 136 μm across the entire surface. The majority of canals underwent significant movement relative to the concha. M-L movement ranged from +2.0 to -3.8 mm; eight canals moved laterally, five moved medially, and two showed no movement. S-I movement ranged from +3.7 to -2.7 mm; nine canals moved inferiorly, two moved superiorly, and three showed no movement. A-P movement ranged between +7.5 and -8.5 mm, with five canals moving anteriorly, three posteriorly, and four in a mixed fashion. This study has shown the variability of canal movement relative to the concha and does not support previous reports that suggest that the ear canal only widens with jaw opening.

  14. Active reactions of the rabbit ear artery to distension.

    PubMed

    Speden, R N

    1984-06-01

    Changes in the external diameter of active arteries, excised from the rabbit ear, were recorded following jumps in pressure within the arteries. The arteries were either spontaneously active or were constricted with noradrenaline. Active arteries dilated when the transmural pressure was jumped from 60 to 100 mmHg, but the dilatation was largely, sometimes completely, overcome by compensatory constriction within 1-2 min. Varying the constriction from 15 to 80% of the maximal constriction had no effect on the ability of the arteries to counteract distension. An average of 90 +/- 2% of the distension was overcome in 2 min and this was achieved against increases in stress (force/wall cross-sectional area) on the muscle of not less than 74%. Jumps in pressure rarely enhanced constriction and then only when constriction was slight (less than 15% of maximal). Restoring the transmural pressure to 60 from 100 mmHg produced a transient constriction when the initial constriction was less than 50% of the maximal constriction. The sequence of counteraction of distension and transient constriction on reversing the pressure jump was reproducible for many hours. Increasing constriction of the arteries first decreased and then, at maximal constriction, suppressed all transient changes in diameter. Smaller jumps in pressure produced less dilatation which was more readily prevented by increasing constriction. These results show that the wall of the ear artery possesses a pressure-sensitive, negative feed-back mechanism which minimized changes in diameter following jumps in pressure. PMID:6747877

  15. Drop weld thermal injuries to the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Keogh, I J; Portmann, D

    2009-01-01

    Drop weld injuries to the tympanic membrane and middle ear caused by hot sparks or molten slag are a rare but significant injury. Steel workers and welders who are regularly exposed to flying sparks and molten metal slag are predisposed. This type of transtympanic thermal injury occurs when the slag literally drops into the external auditory canal and burns through the tympanic membrane. A spectrum of severity of injury occurs which includes chronic tympanic membrane perforation, chronic otorrhoea, facial nerve injury and deafness. Chronic tympanic membrane perforation is the most common sequelae and is perhaps one of the most challenging of all perforations to repair The combination of direct thermal injury and foreign body reaction results in continuing or recurrent suppuration. The foreign body reaction is due to the embedding of metal slag in the promontorial mucosa. We present a case of drop weld injury to the left tympanic membrane, resulting in chronic middle ear inflammation, otorrhoea and tympanic perforation. CAT scan clearly demonstrated a metallic promontorial foreign body with localised bone erosion. We emphasise the importance of removing these foreign bodies and recommend a cartilage reinforced underlay tympanoplasty technique to repair these perforations. Transtympanic thermal trauma is a preventable occupational injury, which is best, avoided by earplugs and increased awareness. PMID:20597421

  16. Mutations in KCTD1 Cause Scalp-Ear-Nipple Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Marneros, Alexander G.; Beck, Anita E.; Turner, Emily H.; McMillin, Margaret J.; Edwards, Matthew J.; Field, Michael; de Macena Sobreira, Nara Lygia; Perez, Ana Beatriz A.; Fortes, Jose A.R.; Lampe, Anne K.; Giovannucci Uzielli, Maria Luisa; Gordon, Christopher T.; Plessis, Ghislaine; Le Merrer, Martine; Amiel, Jeanne; Reichenberger, Ernst; Shively, Kathryn M.; Cerrato, Felecia; Labow, Brian I.; Tabor, Holly K.; Smith, Joshua D.; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Bamshad, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Scalp-ear-nipple (SEN) syndrome is a rare, autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by cutis aplasia of the scalp; minor anomalies of the external ears, digits, and nails; and malformations of the breast. We used linkage analysis and exome sequencing of a multiplex family affected by SEN syndrome to identify potassium-channel tetramerization-domain-containing 1 (KCTD1) mutations that cause SEN syndrome. Evaluation of a total of ten families affected by SEN syndrome revealed KCTD1 missense mutations in each family tested. All of the mutations occurred in a KCTD1 region encoding a highly conserved bric-a-brac, tram track, and broad complex (BTB) domain that is required for transcriptional repressor activity. KCTD1 inhibits the transactivation of the transcription factor AP-2α (TFAP2A) via its BTB domain, and mutations in TFAP2A cause cutis aplasia in individuals with branchiooculofacial syndrome (BOFS), suggesting a potential overlap in the pathogenesis of SEN syndrome and BOFS. The identification of KCTD1 mutations in SEN syndrome reveals a role for this BTB-domain-containing transcriptional repressor during ectodermal development. PMID:23541344

  17. Comparison of ear tattoo, ear notching and microtattoo in rats undergoing cardiovascular telemetry.

    PubMed

    Kasanen, I H E; Voipio, H-M; Leskinen, H; Luodonpää, M; Nevalainen, T O

    2011-07-01

    Individual and permanent identification of experimental animals is a common and often essential research practice. There is little information available on the short-term effects of these procedures on the animals. In this study, seven rats were implanted with telemetric devices. The effects of three different identification methods (ear tattoo, ear notching and microtattoo) were compared. Cardiovascular data were collected for 24 h after the procedures. Time periods of 0-1, 1-4, 4-16 h (dark) and 16-24 h after the procedure were analysed separately. The most pronounced differences in measured parameters were observed during the first hour after the procedures were performed. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was significantly higher (P < 0.012) following the ear tattoo than the microtattoo procedure by a difference of approximately 5 mmHg. Heart rate (HR) was significantly elevated (P < 0.001) after ear tattoo compared with both ear notching (Δ = 31 beats per minute [bpm]) and microtattoo (Δ = 44 bpm). During the 1-4 h period and the following dark period, the MAP was highest in the ear notching group, but no differences were observed in the HRs. During the following dark period (4-16 h) and the next day (16-24 h) differences in MAP and HR were minor. In conclusion, microtattoo appears to cause the mildest changes in HR and blood pressure. Based on these results, ear tattoo and ear notching should be replaced by microtattoo whenever possible. PMID:21504993

  18. Structure and function of the mammalian middle ear. I: Large middle ears in small desert mammals.

    PubMed

    Mason, Matthew J

    2016-02-01

    Many species of small desert mammals are known to have expanded auditory bullae. The ears of gerbils and heteromyids have been well described, but much less is known about the middle ear anatomy of other desert mammals. In this study, the middle ears of three gerbils (Meriones, Desmodillus and Gerbillurus), two jerboas (Jaculus) and two sengis (elephant-shrews: Macroscelides and Elephantulus) were examined and compared, using micro-computed tomography and light microscopy. Middle ear cavity expansion has occurred in members of all three groups, apparently in association with an essentially 'freely mobile' ossicular morphology and the development of bony tubes for the middle ear arteries. Cavity expansion can occur in different ways, resulting in different subcavity patterns even between different species of gerbils. Having enlarged middle ear cavities aids low-frequency audition, and several adaptive advantages of low-frequency hearing to small desert mammals have been proposed. However, while Macroscelides was found here to have middle ear cavities so large that together they exceed brain volume, the bullae of Elephantulus are considerably smaller. Why middle ear cavities are enlarged in some desert species but not others remains unclear, but it may relate to microhabitat. PMID:26104342

  19. Congenital Malformations of the Inner Ear: Case Series and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Piromchai, Patorn; Kasemsiri, Pornthep; Thanawirattananit, Panida; Yimtae, Kwanchanok

    2015-08-01

    Patients with craniofacial anomalies often present to doctors due to their noticeable disfigurement and are routinely assessed by otolaryngologists for hearing evaluation. However, small percentage of craniofacial anomaly patients may present with delayed speech though they may not have initial obvious external deformation. The objective of case series is to identify the congenital inner ear malformation. The series of clinical presentation, physical examination, investigations, treatments and follow-up results were demonstrated followed by the discussion. PMID:26742393

  20. Infrared tympanic temperature and ear canal morphology.

    PubMed

    Daanen, H A M

    2006-01-01

    Several publications indicate that the infrared tympanic temperature (IRTT) underestimates the core temperature of the body when the ear canal is long, curvy and narrow. In order to quantify these observations, a study was performed in 10 subjects. The IRTT was determined and compared to the oesophageal temperature (Tes), taken as the reference for core temperature. Also, the oral and rectal temperatures were monitored. A three-dimensional print of the ear canal was made to determine the ear canal morphology. The core temperature of the subjects was increased by at least 1 degrees C during the experiment in order to investigate the dynamics of the core temperature assessment. Two devices were used to determine the IRTT: the Braun Thermoscan PRO 1 and the predecessor of the Braun IRT3020 (code name IRT3000P). Both IRTT-devices underestimated the core temperature, as measured by Tes, by 0.38 degrees C on average. The difference DeltaT between IRTT and Tes was related to ear canal morphology. The circumference of the ear canal at the distal bend in the ear canal and the visibility of the tympanum were the most important parameters. About 22% of the variance in DeltaT was explained by ear canal morphology for the steady state resting period. Wide ear canals and good visibility of the tympanic membrane were related to a smaller DeltaT. A good visibility of the tympanic membrane was generally found in the absence of cerumen. The IRT3000P showed better results than the PRO 1 (DeltaT: -0.31 +/- 0.27 degrees C and -0.44 +/- 0.30 degrees C respectively). Also, the IRT3000P was less dependent on ear canal morphology. The dynamic response of the measured core temperatures was determined by the decrease or rise in core temperature after the heating period was ended. The oesophageal temperature dropped by 0.22 degrees C. The IRTT and oral temperature showed an identical increase of 0.19 degrees C. The slow reacting rectal temperature had an after rise of 0.49 degrees C. PMID

  1. Pregnancy tumour of the external auditory canal: treatment in clinic.

    PubMed

    Dick, David Crawford; Elliott, Kelly; Napier, Seamus; Adair, Robin

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 29-year-old woman with a symptomatic lobular capillary haemangioma (pregnancy tumour) arising from the external ear canal. A literature review shows this to be an uncommon lesion in a rare location. The lesion was successfully diagnosed and treated in clinic with complete resolution and no recurrence. PMID:26884074

  2. Ear Acupuncture in European Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Firenzuoli, Fabio

    2007-01-01

    Auricular acupuncture is a diagnostic and treatment system based on normalizing the body's dysfunction through stimulation of definite points on the ear. Rudimentary forms of acupuncture which probably arose during the Stone Age have survived in many parts of the world right down to present day. It was used in the ancient Egypt, Rome, Greece and all the Mediterranean area. It is a microacupuncture technique similar to reflexology, and was first described in France in 1950 by Paul Nogier who is considered the Father of modern ear acupuncture. It was speculated that the technique works because groups of pluripotent cells contain information from the whole organism and create regional organization centers representing different parts of the body. Nevertheless stimulation of a reflex point in the ear seems relieve symptoms of distant pathologies. Modern research is confirming the efficacy of ear acupuncture for analgesia and anxiety related disease, while tobacco dependence and other substance abuse still need confirmation. Actually main methodological problems with auricular acupuncture are that exist too many maps with little agreement regarding point location in the ear, and that the correspondence or reflex systems does not correlated with modern knowledge of anatomy and physiology. PMID:18227925

  3. Passive and active middle ear implants

    PubMed Central

    Beutner, Dirk; Hüttenbrink, Karl-Bernd

    2011-01-01

    Besides eradication of chronic middle ear disease, the reconstruction of the sound conduction apparatus is a major goal of modern ear microsurgery. The material of choice in cases of partial ossicular replacement prosthesis is the autogenous ossicle. In the event of more extensive destruction of the ossicular chain diverse alloplastic materials, e.g. metals, ceramics, plastics or composits are used for total reconstruction. Their specialised role in conducting sound energy within a half-open implant bed sets high demands on the biocompatibility as well as the acoustic-mechanic properties of the prosthesis. Recently, sophisticated titanium middle ear implants allowing individual adaptation to anatomical variations are widely used for this procedure. However, despite modern developments, hearing restoration with passive implants often faces its limitations due to tubal-middle-ear dysfunction. Here, implantable hearing aids, successfully used in cases of sensorineural hearing loss, offer a promising alternative. This article reviews the actual state of affairs of passive and active middle ear implants. PMID:22073102

  4. Evolution and development of the vertebrate ear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritzsch, B.; Beisel, K. W.

    2001-01-01

    This review outlines major aspects of development and evolution of the ear, specifically addressing issues of cell fate commitment and the emerging molecular governance of these decisions. Available data support the notion of homology of subsets of mechanosensors across phyla (proprioreceptive mechanosensory neurons in insects, hair cells in vertebrates). It is argued that this conservation is primarily related to the specific transducing environment needed to achieve mechanosensation. Achieving this requires highly conserved transcription factors that regulate the expression of the relevant structural genes for mechanosensory transduction. While conserved at the level of some cell fate assignment genes (atonal and its mammalian homologue), the ear has also radically reorganized its development by implementing genes used for cell fate assignment in other parts of the developing nervous systems (e.g., neurogenin 1) and by evolving novel sets of genes specifically associated with the novel formation of sensory neurons that contact hair cells (neurotrophins and their receptors). Numerous genes have been identified that regulate morphogenesis, but there is only one common feature that emerges at the moment: the ear appears to have co-opted genes from a large variety of other parts of the developing body (forebrain, limbs, kidneys) and establishes, in combination with existing transcription factors, an environment in which those genes govern novel, ear-related morphogenetic aspects. The ear thus represents a unique mix of highly conserved developmental elements combined with co-opted and newly evolved developmental elements.

  5. Virtual endoscopy of the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Neri, E; Caramella, D; Panconi, M; Berrettini, S; Sellari Franceschini, S; Forli, F; Bartolozzi, C

    2001-01-01

    Virtual endoscopy is a computer-generated simulation of fiberoptic endoscopy, and its application to the study of the middle ear has been recently proposed. The need to represent the middle ear anatomy by means of virtual endoscopy arose from the increased interest of otolarygologists in transtympanic endoscopy. In fact, this imaging method allows the visualization of middle ear anatomy with high detail, but it is evasive and is essentially used for surgical guidance. Virtual endoscopy provides similar perspectives of the tympanic cavity but does not require the tympanic perforation. In the study of the middle ear, specific attention is given to the retroperitoneum. This region contains elevations of the medial wall (pyramidal eminence and ridge, styloid eminence and ridge, subiculum, ponticulus) and depressions (sinus tympani, posterior sinus tympani, facial sinus, fossula of Grivot, oval window fossula), which can be effectively displayed by virtual endoscopy. Virtual endoscopy is foreseen as a useful tool in preoperative management of patients who are candidates for middle ear surgery, since it can predict with high detail the patient's specific anatomy by imaging perspectives familiar to otosurgeons. PMID:11194916

  6. Precise individualized armature for ear reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evenhouse, Raymond J.; Chen, Xiaoming

    1991-04-01

    The cosmetic result of an ear restored surgically or via prosthetics is dependent on the surgeon''s ability to carve a precise cartilage armature at the time of surgery or the prosthetist''s ability to sculpt in wax an exact duplicate of the patient''s " missing" ear. Introducing CAD/CAM technology into the process benefits the esthetic outcome of these procedures. By utilizing serial section information derived from CAT MRI or moulage techniques a mirrorimage of the patient''s " donor" ear is generated. The resulting earform data is then used for the design of a cartilage armature produced by multi-axis milling or to produce by stereolithography a model which serves as the basis for a prosthesis.

  7. [Complications Resulting from Taking Ear Impressions].

    PubMed

    Sugiuchi, Tomoko; Kodera, Kazuoki; Zusho, Hiroyuki; Asano, Yoshikazu; Kanesada, Keiko; Hayashida, Mitsuhiro; Kanaya, Koichiro; Tokumaru, Takeshi

    2015-08-01

    In 2012, we carried out a study in a large sample to understand the secondary injuries caused during the taking ear impressions for hearing aids. This study is a follow-up of previous research conducted in 1986 (285 medical institutions) and 1999 (98 medical institutions). We posted a questionnaire survey to the otolaryngology departments of 3,257 medical institutions. The response rate to the questionnaire was 62.9% (2,050 of the 3,257 institutions), and the results indicated that 301 of the 2050 institutions (14.7%) had experience with secondary injuries, with a total of 460 cases reported. In 342 of the 460 cases (74.3%), the secondary injuries occurred at hearing-aid dealerships, followed by 67 cases (14.6%) at affiliated medical institutions, and 51 cases (11.1%) in other locations, including other medical institutions, rehabilitation counseling centers, and educational institutions. The most common type of secondary injury (298 cases, 64.8%) was caused by the presence of foreign bodies in the ear, which in turn was a result of complications occurring during the removal of residual ear impression material. Of these 298 cases, 32 required excision of the foreign bodies and surgical intervention under general anesthesia. The remaining 10 cases exhibited isolated tympanic membrane perforation without foreign body-related complications. Furthermore, 146 cases (31.7%) developed bleeding and otitis externa following removal of the ear impression, and there were reports of cases with bleeding that required long-term outpatient care and treatment. Therefore, since retention of a foreign body in the ear and tympanic membrane perforation can occur even in patients without a history of surgery or prior otologic history, adjustment of hearing aids requires prior otorhinolaryngological examination. Furthermore, because of the risk of secondary injury when taking ear impressions, this procedure must be performed with caution under the guidance of an otolaryngologist. PMID

  8. Anthropometry of external auditory canal by non-contactable measurement.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jen-Fang; Lee, Kun-Che; Wang, Ren-Hung; Chen, Yen-Sheng; Fan, Chun-Chieh; Peng, Ying-Chin; Tu, Tsung-Hsien; Chen, Ching-I; Lin, Kuei-Yi

    2015-09-01

    Human ear canals cannot be measured directly with existing general measurement tools. Furthermore, general non-contact optical methods can only conduct simple peripheral measurements of the auricle and cannot obtain the internal ear canal shape-related measurement data. Therefore, this study uses the computed tomography (CT) technology to measure the geometric shape of the ear canal and the shape of the ear canal using a non-invasive method, and to complete the anthropometry of external auditory canal. The results of the study show that the average height and width of ear canal openings, and the average depth of the first bend for men are generally longer, wider and deeper than those for women. In addition, the difference between the height and width of the ear canal opening is about 40% (p < 0.05). Hence, the circular cross-section shape of the earplugs should be replaced with an elliptical cross-section shape during manufacturing for better fitting. PMID:25959317

  9. The prevalence of middle ear diseases among 7- to 13-year-old primary school students in Yozgat province.

    PubMed

    Ozkiriş, Mahmut; Kapusuz, Zeliha; Saydam, Levent

    2012-01-01

    External and/or middle ear pathologies are commonly encountered by otolaryngologists, family practitioners and pediatricians. If left undiagnosed, these conditions may result in significant irreversible damage such as varying degree of hearing loss that can affect the social or professional performance of the individuals in later stages of life. In this study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of several external and/or middle ear diseases among 7-13-year-old primary school students in Yozgat province. The province of Yozgat serves as a transition point between the Central Anatolian and Black Sea regions of Turkey. Nine hundred and seventy-eight primary school students were included in the study between March 1, 2012 and March 15, 2012. All subjects underwent a routine ear examination in school with a diagnostic otoscope. The students with pathologic ear findings were further evaluated to identify the underlying process. The age range of 978 students (527 males, 451 females) was 7 to 13 (mean: 10.5) years. Tympanic membrane (TM) pathology was detected in 33 (3.37%) of the cases overall. Of the cases, 3 (0.30%) had TM perforation, 11 (1.12%) had myringosclerosis (MS), 13 (1.32%) had serous otitis media, 1 (0.10%) had atresia of the left ear, and 4 (0.40%) had retraction pocket. One patient (0.10%) had undergone a left cochlear implantation procedure. The results of our study seem to be comparable with the other studies reported in the literature. Routine periodic ear examinations during the primary school ages are mandatory to obtain the exact prevalence of these pathologies in the entire population. We believe that early childhood screening of middle ear disease will have a positive effect on treatment. PMID:23427512

  10. Effects of oral intake of cetirizine HCl and desloratadine molecules on the middle ear mucosa: an experimental animal study.

    PubMed

    Songu, Murat; Ozkul, Yilmaz; Kirtay, Seyithan; Arslanoglu, Secil; Ozkut, Mahmut; Inan, Sevinc; Onal, Kazim

    2014-04-01

    We have planned to demonstrate histopathologic effects of mid- or long-term oral use of desloratadine and cetirizine HCl molecules on middle ear mucosa of rats. Thirty-six rats were randomized equally into six groups. Desloratadine groups received once daily doses of 1 mg/ml desloratadine for 30 (D30 Group) or 60 (D60 Group) days. The Cetirizine study groups were given once daily doses of 1 mg/ml cetirizine for 30 (S30 Group) or 60 (S60 Group) days. Control groups were given 2 cc physiologic saline using orogastric gavage method through a 12 G gavage catheter for 30 (K30 Group) or 60 (K60) days. At the end of 30 days, D30, S30 and K30 Groups were sacrificed. Tissue samples harvested from groups were evaluated between 1 and 4 Grades for histological characteristics of middle ear canal, eardrum, middle ear epithelium and connective tissue, edema, vascular congestion and inflammatory cells. In the control group no pathological finding was encountered in rats sacrificed on 30 and 60 days. No statistical difference was observed when groups were compared on external ear epithelial tissue, external ear sebaceous gland, middle ear inflammation, and middle ear capillary dilatation both on 30 and 60 days. Tympanic membrane collagen was more evident in D30 and D60 groups when compared with C30 and C60 groups. Comparison of histopathological grading results between 30 and 60 days revealed no significant changes. In conclusion, oral intake of cetirizine and desloratadine preparations has effects of tympanic membrane collagen, degrees of edema and vascular congestion being more prominent with desloratadine molecule. PMID:24526000

  11. Dysmorphism of the middle ear: case report.

    PubMed

    Solero, P; Ferrara, M; Musto, R; Pira, A; Di Lisi, D

    2005-10-01

    Although there are numerous publications in the literature describing the wide range of diagnosis, classifications and treatment of malformations of the hearing apparatus, even more variations can be found in clinical practice. Indeed, each individual case is unique as far as concerns pathogenesis, clinical course and treatment. The case reported herein describes a 12-year-old boy affected by cranio-facial dysmorphism and monolateral conductive hearing loss in the right ear: followed from radiological diagnosis--carried out to study a malformation of the ear pinna--to surgical treatment. PMID:16602328

  12. Dysmorphism of the middle ear: case report

    PubMed Central

    Solero, P; Ferrara, M; Musto, R; Pira, A; Di Lisi, D

    2005-01-01

    Summary Although there are numerous publications in the literature describing the wide range of diagnosis, classifications and treatment of malformations of the hearing apparatus, even more variations can be found in clinical practice. Indeed, each individual case is unique as far as concerns pathogenesis, clinical course and treatment. The case reported herein describes a 12-year-old boy affected by cranio-facial dysmorphism and monolateral conductive hearing loss in the right ear: followed from radiological diagnosis – carried out to study a malformation of the ear pinna – to surgical treatment. PMID:16602328

  13. High intensity anthropogenic sound damages fish ears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCauley, Robert D.; Fewtrell, Jane; Popper, Arthur N.

    2003-01-01

    Marine petroleum exploration involves the repetitive use of high-energy noise sources, air-guns, that produce a short, sharp, low-frequency sound. Despite reports of behavioral responses of fishes and marine mammals to such noise, it is not known whether exposure to air-guns has the potential to damage the ears of aquatic vertebrates. It is shown here that the ears of fish exposed to an operating air-gun sustained extensive damage to their sensory epithelia that was apparent as ablated hair cells. The damage was regionally severe, with no evidence of repair or replacement of damaged sensory cells up to 58 days after air-gun exposure.

  14. Middle ear cholesteatoma in 11 dogs

    PubMed Central

    Greci, Valentina; Travetti, Olga; Di Giancamillo, Mauro; Lombardo, Rocco; Giudice, Chiara; Banco, Barbara; Mortellaro, Carlo M.

    2011-01-01

    Middle ear cholesteatoma is a rare condition in dogs with chronic otitis. Otorrhea, otodinia, and pain on temporomandibular joint palpation are the most common clinical signs. Neurological abnormalities are often detectable. Computed tomography reveals the presence of an expansive and invasive unvascularized lesion involving the tympanic cavity and the bulla, with little or no contrast enhancement after administration of contrast mediu. Video-otoscopy may detect pearly growth or white/yellowish scales in the middle ear cavity. Surgery is the only therapy but is associated with a high risk of recurrence. PMID:22131579

  15. Acinetobacter and similar organisms in ear infections.

    PubMed

    Dadswell, J V

    1976-08-01

    Fifty-seven strains of acinetobacter-like organisms were isolated over a period of 26 months from the ears of 55 patients with acute or chronic otitis media, or otitis externa, and one strain was isolated in a survey of 50 normal ears. After comparison with eight reference strains, 32 of the isolates were identified as Acinetobacter anitratus, 22 as Acinetobacter Iwoffii, three as Moraxella spp. and one as Achromobacter sp. Analysis of the clinical findings suggests that although most of these organisms played little part in the disease process, a few strains were probably pathogenic in this situation. PMID:957420

  16. Results of bone conduction following surgery for chronic ear disease.

    PubMed

    Vartiainen, E; Seppä, J

    1997-01-01

    Preoperative and postoperative bone conduction thresholds were compared in 181 chronic ears operated on over a 5-year period between 1990 to 1994. In the majority (92%) of cases the bone conduction thresholds remained unchanged (+/-10 dB). Nine ears (5%) showed better thresholds after surgery, with improvements ranging from 11 dB to 25 dB. This improvement was especially noted in ears with severe tympanic pathology. One ear with a large labyrinthine fistula became totally deaf after surgery. In 5 ears (3%) bone-conduction thresholds deteriorated, but remained measurable at all frequencies tested. In these latter cases this impairment ranged from 11 dB to 27 dB. Cholesteatomatous ears having intact ossicular chains were found to be at the highest risk of inner ear damage when "canal wall-down" mastoidectomies were performed. Methods for prevention of sensorineural hearing loss following chronic ear surgery are discussed. PMID:9332894

  17. Ear tube surgery - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000220.htm Ear tube surgery - what to ask your doctor To ... enable JavaScript. Your child is being evaluated for ear tube insertion. This is the placement of tubes ...

  18. Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... You Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing ... learning important speech and language skills. Types of hearing loss Conductive hearing loss is a form of hearing ...

  19. Modeling sound transmission of human middle ear and its clinical applications using finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shou-I; Lee, Ming-Hsiao; Yao, Chih-Min; Chen, Peir-Rong; Chou, Yuan-Fang; Liu, Tien-Chen; Song, Yu-Lin; Lee, Chia-Fone

    2013-03-01

    We have developed a new finite element (FE) model of human right ear, including the accurate geometry of middle ear ossicles, external ear canal, tympanic cavity, and mastoid cavity. The FE model would be suitable to study the dynamic behaviors of pathological middle ear conditions, including changes of stapedial ligament stiffness, tensor tympani ligament (TTL), and tympanic membrane (TM) stiffness and thickness. Increasing stiffness of stapedial ligament has substantial effect on stapes footplate movement, especially at low frequencies, but less effect on umbo movement. Softer TTL will result in increasing umbo and stapes footplate displacement, especially at low frequencies (f<1000Hz). When the TTL was detached, the vibration amplitude of umbo increased by 6dB at 600Hz and two peaks (300 and 600Hz) were found in the vibration amplitude of stapes footplate. Increasing the stiffness of tensor tympani resulted in a slightly decreased umbo amplitude at very low frequencies (f<500Hz) and significantly decreased displacement up to 12dB at middle frequencies (1000Hz1500Hz. As (TM) thickness was increased, the umbo displacement was reduced, especially at very low frequencies (f<600Hz). Otherwise, the stapes displacement was reduced at all frequencies. PMID:23465416

  20. Hands-free device control using sound picked up in the ear canal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhatpar, Siddharth R.; Ngia, Lester; Vlach, Chris; Lin, Dong; Birkhimer, Craig; Juneja, Amit; Pruthi, Tarun; Hoffman, Orin; Lewis, Tristan

    2008-04-01

    Hands-free control of unmanned ground vehicles is essential for soldiers, bomb disposal squads, and first responders. Having their hands free for other equipment and tasks allows them to be safer and more mobile. Currently, the most successful hands-free control devices are speech-command based. However, these devices use external microphones, and in field environments, e.g., war zones and fire sites, their performance suffers because of loud ambient noise: typically above 90dBA. This paper describes the development of technology using the ear as an output source that can provide excellent command recognition accuracy even in noisy environments. Instead of picking up speech radiating from the mouth, this technology detects speech transmitted internally through the ear canal. Discreet tongue movements also create air pressure changes within the ear canal, and can be used for stealth control. A patented earpiece was developed with a microphone pointed into the ear canal that captures these signals generated by tongue movements and speech. The signals are transmitted from the earpiece to an Ultra-Mobile Personal Computer (UMPC) through a wired connection. The UMPC processes the signals and utilizes them for device control. The processing can include command recognition, ambient noise cancellation, acoustic echo cancellation, and speech equalization. Successful control of an iRobot PackBot has been demonstrated with both speech (13 discrete commands) and tongue (5 discrete commands) signals. In preliminary tests, command recognition accuracy was 95% with speech control and 85% with tongue control.

  1. Virtual adult ears reveal the roles of acoustical factors and experience in auditory space map development

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Robert A. A.; King, Andrew J.; Nodal, Fernando R.; Schnupp, Jan W. H.; Carlile, Simon; Doubell, Timothy P.

    2009-01-01

    Auditory neurons in the superior colliculus (SC) respond preferentially to sounds from restricted directions to form a map of auditory space. The development of this representation is shaped by sensory experience, but little is known about the relative contribution of peripheral and central factors to the emergence of adult responses. By recording from the SC of anesthetized ferrets at different age points, we show that the map matures gradually after birth; the spatial receptive fields (SRFs) become more sharply tuned and topographic order emerges by the end of the second postnatal month. Principal components analysis of the head-related transfer function revealed that the time course of map development is mirrored by the maturation of the spatial cues generated by the growing head and external ears. However, using virtual acoustic space stimuli, we show that these acoustical changes are not by themselves responsible for the emergence of SC map topography. Presenting stimuli to infant ferrets through virtual adult ears did not improve the order in the representation of sound azimuth in the SC. But using linear discriminant analysis to compare different response properties across age, we found that the SRFs of infant neurons nevertheless became more adult-like when stimuli were delivered through virtual adult ears. Hence, although the emergence of auditory topography is likely to depend on refinements in neural circuitry, maturation of the structure of the SRFs (particularly their spatial extent) can be largely accounted for by changes in the acoustics associated with growth of the head and ears. PMID:18987192

  2. Virtual adult ears reveal the roles of acoustical factors and experience in auditory space map development.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Robert A A; King, Andrew J; Nodal, Fernando R; Schnupp, Jan W H; Carlile, Simon; Doubell, Timothy P

    2008-11-01

    Auditory neurons in the superior colliculus (SC) respond preferentially to sounds from restricted directions to form a map of auditory space. The development of this representation is shaped by sensory experience, but little is known about the relative contribution of peripheral and central factors to the emergence of adult responses. By recording from the SC of anesthetized ferrets at different age points, we show that the map matures gradually after birth; the spatial receptive fields (SRFs) become more sharply tuned and topographic order emerges by the end of the second postnatal month. Principal components analysis of the head-related transfer function revealed that the time course of map development is mirrored by the maturation of the spatial cues generated by the growing head and external ears. However, using virtual acoustic space stimuli, we show that these acoustical changes are not by themselves responsible for the emergence of SC map topography. Presenting stimuli to infant ferrets through virtual adult ears did not improve the order in the representation of sound azimuth in the SC. But by using linear discriminant analysis to compare different response properties across age, we found that the SRFs of infant neurons nevertheless became more adult-like when stimuli were delivered through virtual adult ears. Hence, although the emergence of auditory topography is likely to depend on refinements in neural circuitry, maturation of the structure of the SRFs (particularly their spatial extent) can be largely accounted for by changes in the acoustics associated with growth of the head and ears. PMID:18987192

  3. Endoscopic Management of Middle Ear and Temporal Bone Lesions.

    PubMed

    Isaacson, Brandon; Nogueira, João Flávio

    2016-10-01

    Tantamount to the management of temporal bone neoplasms is the ability to visualize the pathology and its relationship with the numerous critical structures housed therein. Transcanal endoscopic ear surgery provides the surgeon with an unparalleled view of the entire middle ear. This article presents the latest information on the usefulness of transcanal endoscopic ear surgery in the management of middle ear and temporal bone neoplasms. PMID:27468636

  4. The Role of Immittance Audiometry in Detecting Middle Ear Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, John T.

    1981-01-01

    Immittance audiometry is an objective technique which evaluates middle ear function by three procedures: static immittance, tympanometry, and the measurement of acoustic reflex threshold sensitivity. This article discusses the technique's ability to identify middle ear effusion, the single leading ear disease in children. A comparison of immittance screening and traditional pure tone audiometry was conducted on 311 school aged children. The results of this study reveal the superiority of immittance audiometry in detecting middle ear pathology. PMID:21289666

  5. How to Prevent Painful Swimmer's Ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Children's Health Ear Infections Water Safety (Recreational) About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow us Disclaimers Copyright Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For ...

  6. "Hot Tub Rash" and "Swimmer's Ear" (Pseudomonas)

    MedlinePlus

    Facts About “Hot Tub Rash” and “Swimmer’s Ear” (Pseudomonas) What is Pseudomonas and how can it affect me? Pseudomonas (sue-doh- ... a major cause of infections commonly known as “hot tub rash” and “swimmer’s ear.” This germ is ...

  7. Ear biometric recognition using local texture descriptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benzaoui, Amir; Hadid, Abdenour; Boukrouche, Abdelhani

    2014-09-01

    Automated personal identification using the shape of the human ear is emerging as an appealing modality in biometric and forensic domains. This is mainly due to the fact that the ear pattern can provide rich and stable information to differentiate and recognize people. In the literature, there are many approaches and descriptors that achieve relatively good results in constrained environments. The recognition performance tends, however, to significantly decrease under illumination variation, pose variation, and partial occlusion. In this work, we investigate the use of local texture descriptors, namely local binary patterns, local phase quantization, and binarized statistical image features for robust human identification from two-dimensional ear imaging. In contrast to global image descriptors which compute features directly from the entire image, local descriptors representing the features in small local image patches have proven to be more effective in real-world conditions. Our extensive experimental results on the benchmarks IIT Delhi-1, IIT Delhi-2, and USTB ear databases show that local texture features in general and BSIF in particular provide a significant performance improvement compared to the state-of-the-art.

  8. Evolution: Fossil Ears and Underwater Sonar.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Olivier

    2016-08-22

    A key innovation in the history of whales was the evolution of a sonar system together with high-frequency hearing. Fossils of an archaic toothed whale's inner ear bones provide clues for a stepwise emergence of underwater echolocation ability. PMID:27554653

  9. Getting Teens to Read with Their Ears

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fues, Marianne Cole

    2009-01-01

    Audiobooks have been around for years in various formats, like cassette tapes and CDs. This article describes a new type of audiobook on the market which is generating an interest in "reading." The device, called Playaway, is the size of a MP3 player and comes with a lanyard and ear buds. Buttons on the back of the player control the speed and…

  10. Ear Infections - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... on this page, please enable JavaScript. French (français) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) ... moyenne - français (French) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Japanese (日本語) Middle Ear Infection 中耳炎 - 日本語 (Japanese) Bilingual ...

  11. The formation and management of middle ear granulation tissue in chronic ear disease.

    PubMed

    Roland, Peter S

    2004-01-01

    Granulation tissue is an important pathogenic feature of all types of chronic ear disease, and it can be controlled and treated with good aural toilet, appropriate antibiotic therapy, topical steroids, and chemical cautery or surgical debridement. PMID:14986396

  12. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation...

  13. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class...

  14. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation...

  15. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class...

  16. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class...

  17. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class...

  18. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class...

  19. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class...

  20. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class...

  1. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class...

  2. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class...

  3. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class...

  4. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class...

  5. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class...

  6. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation...

  7. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation...

  8. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class...

  9. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class...

  10. 40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound... “Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors and Physical Attenuation...

  11. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class...

  12. Is Malassezia nana the main species in horses' ear canal microbiome?

    PubMed

    Aldrovandi, Ana Lúcia; Osugui, Lika; Acqua Coutinho, Selene Dall'

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize genotypically Malassezia spp. isolated from the external ear canal of healthy horses. Fifty-five horses, 39 (70.9%) males and 16 (29.1%) females, from different breeds and adults were studied. External ear canals were cleaned and a sterile cotton swab was introduced to collect cerumen. A total of 110 samples were cultured into Dixon medium and were incubated at 32°C for up to 15 days. Macro- and micromorphology and phenotypic identification were performed. DNA was extracted, strains were submitted to polymerase chain reaction technique, and the products obtained were submitted to Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism using the restriction enzymes BstCI and HhaI. Strains were sent off to genetic sequencing of the regions 26S rDNA D1/D2 and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA. Malassezia spp. were isolated from 33/55 (60%) animals and 52/110 (47%) ear canals. No growth on Sabouraud dextrose agar was observed, confirming the lipid dependence of all strains. Polymerase chain reaction-Restriction fragment length polymorphism permitted the molecular identification of Malassezia nana - 42/52 (81%) and Malassezia slooffiae - 10/52 (19%). Sequencing confirmed RFLP identification. It was surprising that M. nana represented over 80% of the strains and no Malassezia equina was isolated in this study, differing from what was expected. PMID:27287335

  13. An experimental evaluation of auricular diagnosis: the somatotopic mapping or musculoskeletal pain at ear acupuncture points.

    PubMed

    Oleson, T D; Kroening, R J; Bresler, D E

    1980-04-01

    The present study was designed to experimentally evaluate the claims by French and Chinese acupuncturists that a somatotopic mapping of the body is represented upon the external ear. According to this system of diagnosis, areas of the auricle where there is increased electrical conductivity and heightened tenderness to touch correspond to specific areas of the body where there is some pathological condition. The hypothetical map of different bodily regions appears on the external ear as an inverted fetus, with the head represented towards the lower lobule, the hands and feet represented at the uppermost portion of the auricle, and the body in between. Forty patients were medically examined to determine areas of their body where there was musculoskeletal pain. Each patient was then draped with a sheet to conceal any visible physical problems. The physician conducting the auricular diagnosis had no prior knowledge of the patient's medical condition, but simply examined the patient's ear for areas of elevated skin conductivity or tenderness. The concordance between the established medical diagnosis and the auricular diagnoses was 75.2%. Both quantified readings of electrical current flow and subjective ratings of dermal tenderness were statistically significant in arriving at accurate diagnoses. These results thus support the hypothesis that there is a somatotopoic organization of the body represented upon the human auricle. PMID:7402685

  14. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Ear Care in Coastal Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Ganapathi, Keerthan; Kanthila, Jayashree

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ear as an organ is necessary for the perception of sound and body balance. Ear infection, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and excessive use of mobile phone for listening to music at high volume all can reduce hearing. No earlier study was available in the costal Karnataka population, regarding the practice of ear care. The study objective was to ascertain the level of knowledge of the community regarding ear care, to find out whether some of the common conditions affecting hearing are known and to find out the common practices involved in maintaining ear hygiene. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 subjects in two tertiary care hospitals by convenient sampling, using self-administered questionnaire. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice across the age groups, religion & education background were studied. Results Across different education groups, 66.7%-90% did not know that ‘cold’ can cause ear infection and 46.7%-75.0% did not know that diabetes and hypertension can reduce hearing. When there is ear pain or discharge, people put ear drops available at home in 48.3%-75.0% across 3 age groups; 58.5%-61.5% across 3 religions and 44.8%-67.9% across 5 education groups. No statistically significant difference was found in the practice of pouring oil into ears across religions. A total of 58.6%-100% daily clean inside the ear and 70-100% use cotton buds. Conclusion General perception of the people is that ear is necessary only for hearing. Majority did not know that nasal infection can affect the ear and that DM and hypertension can cause hearing loss. When there is ear pain and discharge, most of the adults put drops that are available at home. Pouring oil into the ears and cleaning inside the ear canals is routinely practiced in costal Karnataka. PMID:26816922

  15. External Beam Therapy (EBT)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z External Beam Therapy (EBT) External beam therapy (EBT) is a ... follow-up should I expect? What is external beam therapy and how is it used? External beam ...

  16. Better-ear glimpsing in hearing-impaired listeners

    PubMed Central

    Best, Virginia; Mason, Christine R.; Kidd, Gerald; Iyer, Nandini; Brungart, Douglas S.

    2015-01-01

    When competing speech sounds are spatially separated, listeners can make use of the ear with the better target-to-masker ratio. Recent studies showed that listeners with normal hearing are able to efficiently make use of this “better-ear,” even when it alternates between left and right ears at different times in different frequency bands, which may contribute to the ability to listen in spatialized speech mixtures. In the present study, better-ear glimpsing in listeners with bilateral sensorineural hearing impairment, who perform poorly in spatialized speech mixtures, was investigated. The results suggest that this deficit is not related to better-ear glimpsing. PMID:25698053

  17. Pulsed Nd:YAG laser welding of titanium ear implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedopt, Jan; Delarbre, Erwin

    2000-11-01

    Three different prototypes of ear implants have been successfully produced using Nd-YAG laser welding. The prototypes differ in use and dimensions. This presentation will deal with the latest developed ear implant, i.e. a box containing special electronics inside. The implant has to be He leak tight, the weld penetration should be between 50 and 65% of the cover in order to be sure to avoid damage of the electronics in the box and the temperature should not exceed 100 degree(s)C during welding. Furthermore no sharp edges and no surface contamination or oxidation is allowed. Pulsed Nd-YAG welding proved to be a fabrication technique who allowed satisfying those conditions. Through an appropriate choice of pulse energy, pulse time, pulse frequency, overlap and an external cooling device we succeeded to fulfil all those requirements. Special devices have been developed and are used to position the boxes adequately in front of the laser beam. During the welding a copper heat sink was used to eliminate the developed heat, and at the same time this was used to keep a good contact between the cover and the rest of the box. In the development phase the internal temperature during the welding cycle has been measured. With an appropriate choice of pulse frequency, pulse time, the internal temperature could be limited to about 80 degree(s)C. XPS measurements have also been performed on dummies in order to control the eventual formation of a titanium deposit during welding. Finally 30 implants have been welded successfully, and they will now be used for further medical tests, first on animals and later on human beings.

  18. Squamous cell carcinoma in situ of the external auditory canal.

    PubMed

    Shu, Min-Tsan; Lin, Hung-Ching; Yang, Cheng-Chien; Chang, Kuo-Ming

    2006-08-01

    We report two cases of carcinoma in situ in the external auditory canal (EAC), presenting with symptoms such as pain, long-term itching of the ear, easy contact bleeding, canal otorrhea and hearing loss. Otoscopic examination revealed granulation tissue and a greyish-black tumour with irregular surface. The first patient had previously been diagnosed with otitis externa with persistent ear itching for the past three years. The second patient had received tympanoplasty for treatment of chronic otitis media on the right ear ten years ago. The first case was treated with wide excision, whereas the second patient received resection of the skin of the EAC together with its adjacent soft tissue, followed by skin grafting. No tumour recurrence was noted in the fourth and third post-operative year for the first and second patient respectively. We suggest that EAC carcinoma can be detected early and treated. PMID:16719955

  19. Estimation of outer-middle ear transmission using DPOAEs and fractional-order modeling of human middle ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghibolhosseini, Maryam

    Our ability to hear depends primarily on sound waves traveling through the outer and middle ear toward the inner ear. Hence, the characteristics of the outer and middle ear affect sound transmission to/from the inner ear. The role of the middle and outer ear in sound transmission is particularly important for otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), which are sound signals generated in a healthy cochlea, and recorded by a sensitive microphone placed in the ear canal. OAEs are used to evaluate the health and function of the cochlea; however, they are also affected by outer and middle ear characteristics. To better assess cochlear health using OAEs, it is critical to quantify the impact of the outer and middle ear on sound transmission. The reported research introduces a noninvasive approach to estimate outer-middle ear transmission using distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). In addition, the role of the outer and middle ear on sound transmission was investigated by developing a physical/mathematical model, which employed fractional-order lumped elements to include the viscoelastic characteristics of biological tissues. Impedance estimations from wideband refectance measurements were used for parameter fitting of the model. The model was validated comparing its estimates of the outer-middle ear sound transmission with those given by DPOAEs. The outer-middle ear transmission by the model was defined as the sum of forward and reverse outer-middle ear transmissions. To estimate the reverse transmission by the model, the probe-microphone impedance was calculated through estimating the Thevenin-equivalent circuit of the probe-microphone. The Thevenin-equivalent circuit was calculated using measurements in a number of test cavities. Such modeling enhances our understanding of the roles of different parts of the outer and middle ear and how they work together to determine their function. In addition, the model would be potentially helpful in diagnosing pathologies of

  20. Subarachnoid space: middle ear pathways and recurrent meningitis.

    PubMed

    Barcz, D V; Wood, R P; Stears, J; Jafek, B W; Shields, M

    1985-03-01

    Congenital bony abnormalities of the inner ear may result in a communication between the middle ear and the subarachnoid space. Patients with this anomaly often present with recurrent meningitis associated with acute otitis media or with middle ear fluid. This article presents three cases of recurrent meningitis with open middle ear--subarachnoid space connections. The first two cases involve a cerebrospinal fluid leak into the middle ear via the oval window, both patients having a Mondini-type of inner ear deformity. The pathway in the third case opened into the middle ear along the horizontal portion of the facial nerve. Computed tomography (CT) scanning with metrizamide and differential density calculations helped to identify the abnormal pathway and to confirm that the leak has been closed postoperatively. Use of the CT scanner in these cases can be helpful in planning the surgical closure and in postoperative follow-up. PMID:4039111

  1. Effect of anesthetic gas on middle ear fluid.

    PubMed

    Tom, L W; Tsao, F; Marsh, R R; Kessler, A; Konkle, D F

    1994-07-01

    Tympanometry was performed before (preoperative) and after (intraoperative) the administration of inhalation anesthesia including nitrous oxide and halothane on 109 children undergoing myringotomy with pressure equalization tube insertion. A total of 213 preoperative tympanograms were compared with their intraoperative counterparts and the presence or absence of middle ear effusion at myringotomy. When preoperative tympanograms were consistent with pneumatized middle ears, intraoperative findings demonstrated a mean middle ear pressure increase of +147 daPa. When preoperative tympanometry suggested middle ear effusion, less than 1% demonstrated intraoperative tympanometric changes and/or findings at surgery that would support anesthesia clearing middle ear effusion. Preoperative tympanometric data were poor predictors of the presence or absence of effusion at myringotomy. The relationship between inhalation anesthetics (i.e., nitrous oxide and halothane) and middle ear fluids, and the reliability of tympanometry to predict middle ear effusion are discussed. PMID:8022245

  2. Structures that Contribute to Middle-Ear Admittance in Chinchilla

    PubMed Central

    Rosowski, John J.; Ravicz, Michael E.; Songer, Jocelyn E.

    2009-01-01

    We describe measurements of middle-ear input admittance in chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera) before and after various manipulations that define the contributions of different middle-ear components to function. The chinchilla’s middle-ear air spaces have a large effect on the low-frequency compliance of the middle ear, and removing the influences of these spaces reveals a highly admittant tympanic membrane and ossicular chain. Measurements of the admittance of the air spaces reveal that the high-degree of segmentation of these spaces has only a small effect on the admittance. Draining the cochlea further increases the middle-ear admittance at low frequencies and removes a low-frequency (less than 300 Hz) level dependence in the admittance. Spontaneous or sound-driven contractions of the middle-ear muscles in deeply anesthetized animals were associated with significant changes in middle-ear admittance. PMID:16944166

  3. Indigenous nasopharyngeal, auditory canal, and middle ear bacterial flora of gerbils: animal model for otitis media.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, T A; Gardner, D; Fulghum, R S; Daniel, H J; Allen, W E; Worthington, J M; Williams, P P

    1981-01-01

    The indigenous microbial flora of the middle ear cavity of Mongolian gerbils, Meriones unguiculatus, was isolated, characterized, and identified, showing it to be sparse and transitory. Organisms, when found in the middle ear cavity, were most likely to be Staphylococcus epidermidis-like organisms. Cerumen from the external auditory canal of these animals yielded mostly staphylococci, coryneforms, and other gram-positive rods, including some anaerobic species. The nasopharynx supported a flora consisting mainly of staphylococci, lactobacilli, and coryneforms, with a smaller incidence and numbers of many other species. No mycoplasmas were cultured or seen in scanning electron microscope studies. None of the major pathogens of human otitis media were found; therefore, Mongolian gerbils are microbiologically acceptable candidates as a model for induced otitis media, using organisms isolated from human otitic infections. PMID:7251160

  4. An Ear-Worn Vital Signs Monitor.

    PubMed

    He, David Da; Winokur, Eric S; Sodini, Charles G

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a wearable vital signs monitor at the ear. The monitor measures the electrocardiogram (ECG), ballistocardiogram (BCG), and photoplethysmogram (PPG) to obtain pre-ejection period (PEP), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), and pulse transit time (PTT). The ear is demonstrated as a natural anchoring point for the integrated sensing of physiological signals. All three signals measured can be used to obtain heart rate (HR). Combining the ECG and BCG allows for the estimation of the PEP, while combining the BCG and PPG allows for the measurement of PTT. Additionally, the J-wave amplitude of the BCG is correlated with the SV and, when combined with HR, yields CO. Results from a clinical human study on 13 subjects demonstrate this proof-of-concept device. PMID:26208264

  5. The inner ear and the neurologist

    PubMed Central

    Agrup, Charlotte; Gleeson, Michael; Rudge, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Inner ear disorders are common and patients with vestibular failure often present to a neurology clinic because of their dizziness, gait unsteadiness and oscillopsia. Vestibular disorders can be divided into peripheral and central vestibular disorders. Most of the peripheral vestibular disorders have a clinical diagnosis, and a thorough history and examination will often provide a clear direction as to the diagnosis. Correct diagnosis allows treatment for many of the peripheral and central vestibular disorders. As inner ear damage is generally irreversible, early diagnosis allowing prompt treatment is important. The aim of this review is to discuss some audiovestibular conditions that may well appear in a neurology clinic, and to discuss some recent advances within the audiovestibular field that may be of interest to neurologists. Some of the most common audiovestibular conditions will be discussed along side more uncommon conditions. PMID:17229743

  6. Diseases of the middle ear in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Minovi, Amir; Dazert, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Middle ear diseases in childhood play an important role in daily ENT practice due to their high incidence. Some of these like acute otitis media or otitis media with effusion have been studied extensively within the last decades. In this article, we present a selection of important childhood middle ear diseases and discuss the actual literature concerning their treatment, management of complications and outcome. Another main topic of this paper deals with the possibilities of surgical hearing rehabilitation in childhood. The bone-anchored hearing aid BAHA® and the active partially implantable device Vibrant Soundbridge® could successfully be applied for children. In this manuscript, we discuss the actual literature concerning clinical outcomes of these implantable hearing aids. PMID:25587371

  7. Clinical-scintigraphy discordance in a case of malignant external otitis.

    PubMed

    Morales-Avellaneda, T; González-Ramírez, A I; Rodríguez-Alfonso, B; Mucientes-Rasilla, J; García-Berrocal, J R; De Diego, B

    2012-09-01

    We report the case of an immunocompromised female patient with external otitis, who developed a picture of external otitis with poor response to conventional treatment and subsequent isolation of Pseudomona Aeruginosa in the ear secretion culture. The final diagnosis was malignant external otitis. Our objective is to describe the scintigraphic findings as well as to analyze their correlation with the clinical pattern and to evaluate the possible causes of the discordance found. PMID:23067529

  8. The glue ear 'epidemic': a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Alderson, David

    2011-12-01

    This paper explores the historical context of the dramatic rise in surgery for glue ear in the mid-20th century, and questions the published assertion that this represented a manufactured 'epidemic'. In examining historical sources, the reader's theoretical viewpoint greatly influences their conclusions: the sustained rise in treatment for glue ear may be seen as the advance of science in a golden age or the resistance of insular professionals to reason in the light of new scientific study methods. Current views on the practice of medicine, consumerism, science and standardisation, rationing and the nature of 'truth' all affect the way that we see this period. Technological advances clearly allowed better diagnosis and more effective treatment, but these did not appear to drive an 'epidemic', rather they were developed to meet the pre-existing challenges of otological practice. The proposition that an 'epidemic' was created does not appear to have any solid grounding. Society's perception of what constitutes disease and what needs treatment may have evolved, but the prevalence of other important diseases changed dramatically over this time period, and a real change in the epidemiology of glue ear cannot be dismissed. In defining the case for and against surgical treatment, a solely positivist, quantitative worldview cannot give us a complete picture of benefit and risk to individuals, families and society at large. PMID:21653931

  9. Ear recognition from one sample per person.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long; Mu, Zhichun; Zhang, Baoqing; Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Biometrics has the advantages of efficiency and convenience in identity authentication. As one of the most promising biometric-based methods, ear recognition has received broad attention and research. Previous studies have achieved remarkable performance with multiple samples per person (MSPP) in the gallery. However, most conventional methods are insufficient when there is only one sample per person (OSPP) available in the gallery. To solve the OSPP problem by maximizing the use of a single sample, this paper proposes a hybrid multi-keypoint descriptor sparse representation-based classification (MKD-SRC) ear recognition approach based on 2D and 3D information. Because most 3D sensors capture 3D data accessorizing the corresponding 2D data, it is sensible to use both types of information. First, the ear region is extracted from the profile. Second, keypoints are detected and described for both the 2D texture image and 3D range image. Then, the hybrid MKD-SRC algorithm is used to complete the recognition with only OSPP in the gallery. Experimental results on a benchmark dataset have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method in resolving the OSPP problem. A Rank-one recognition rate of 96.4% is achieved for a gallery of 415 subjects, and the time involved in the computation is satisfactory compared to conventional methods. PMID:26024226

  10. Ear Recognition from One Sample Per Person

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Long; Mu, Zhichun; Zhang, Baoqing; Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Biometrics has the advantages of efficiency and convenience in identity authentication. As one of the most promising biometric-based methods, ear recognition has received broad attention and research. Previous studies have achieved remarkable performance with multiple samples per person (MSPP) in the gallery. However, most conventional methods are insufficient when there is only one sample per person (OSPP) available in the gallery. To solve the OSPP problem by maximizing the use of a single sample, this paper proposes a hybrid multi-keypoint descriptor sparse representation-based classification (MKD-SRC) ear recognition approach based on 2D and 3D information. Because most 3D sensors capture 3D data accessorizing the corresponding 2D data, it is sensible to use both types of information. First, the ear region is extracted from the profile. Second, keypoints are detected and described for both the 2D texture image and 3D range image. Then, the hybrid MKD-SRC algorithm is used to complete the recognition with only OSPP in the gallery. Experimental results on a benchmark dataset have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method in resolving the OSPP problem. A Rank-one recognition rate of 96.4% is achieved for a gallery of 415 subjects, and the time involved in the computation is satisfactory compared to conventional methods. PMID:26024226

  11. Analytical model of internally coupled ears.

    PubMed

    Vossen, Christine; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; van Hemmen, J Leo

    2010-08-01

    Lizards and many birds possess a specialized hearing mechanism: internally coupled ears where the tympanic membranes connect through a large mouth cavity so that the vibrations of the tympanic membranes influence each other. This coupling enhances the phase differences and creates amplitude differences in the tympanic membrane vibrations. Both cues show strong directionality. The work presented herein sets out the derivation of a three dimensional analytical model of internally coupled ears that allows for calculation of a complete vibration profile of the membranes. The analytical model additionally provides the opportunity to incorporate the effect of the asymmetrically attached columella, which leads to the activation of higher membrane vibration modes. Incorporating this effect, the analytical model can explain measurements taken from the tympanic membrane of a living lizard, for example, data demonstrating an asymmetrical spatial pattern of membrane vibration. As the analytical calculations show, the internally coupled ears increase the directional response, appearing in large directional internal amplitude differences (iAD) and in large internal time differences (iTD). Numerical simulations of the eigenfunctions in an exemplary, realistically reconstructed mouth cavity further estimate the effects of its complex geometry. PMID:20707461

  12. Pathology of ear hematomas in swine.

    PubMed

    Drolet, Richard; Hélie, Pierre; D'Allaire, Sylvie

    2016-05-01

    The objectives of our study were to describe the pathology of ear hematomas in swine and to add to the comprehension of the pathogenesis of this condition. The pathogenesis of aural hematomas has been studied mainly in dogs; however, disagreements exist about the precise anatomic location of the hemorrhage. Sixteen pigs with ear hematoma at various stages of development were included in this study. The pigs were submitted for routine autopsy for various and unrelated reasons over a period of several years. Based on gross examination, the 16 cases of aural hematomas were subjectively classified as acute (n = 6), subacute (n = 3), and chronic (n = 7). The age of the animals at the time of autopsy ranged from 2 weeks to adulthood, with all acute cases being <7 weeks of age. Morphologic examination of all acute cases revealed that the hematoma developed predominantly in a subperichondral location on both sides of the cartilaginous plate simultaneously. Within these same cases, there were also some areas in which blood-filled clefts had formed within the cartilage itself. Besides fibroplasia, neoformation of cartilage was found to represent a significant part of the repair process. All chronic cases were characterized on cross-section of the ear by the presence of at least 2 distinct, wavy, focally folded, and roughly parallel plates of cartilage separated from each other by fibrous tissue. PMID:27034341

  13. Rabbit's ear in cold acclimation studied on the change in ear temperature.

    PubMed

    Harada, E; Kanno, T

    1975-03-01

    The role of the rabbit's ear in cold acclimation was studied by varying the temperature of a climatic room in the range from -10 to +30 degrees C; The skin temperature in a nonanesthetized rabbit's ear showed a characteristic response to changes in ambient temperatures; plotting the ear temperature against the ambient temperature yielded an S-shaped curve. The mean ambient temperature corresponding to the inflection point on the S-shaped curve shifted significantly from about 13 degrees C to about 8 degrees C after cold acclimated of a group fed for 7 wk at -10 degrees C. The shift of the S-shaped curve after cold acclimation may not be due to the change in the norepinephrine sensitivity of the vascular beds of the ear: the effect of norepinephrine on the pressure-flow curve in the isolated rabbit's ear was almost unchanged between the control and the cold-acclimated groups. It is proposed that the shift of the inflection point gives a qualitative index of the acclimated state of the rabbit at a particular temperature. PMID:1150550

  14. Predicting skin deficits through surface area measurements in ear reconstruction and adult ear surface area norms.

    PubMed

    Yazar, Memet; Sevim, Kamuran Zeynep; Irmak, Fatih; Yazar, Sevgi Kurt; Yeşilada, Ayşin Karasoy; Karşidağğ, Semra Hacikerim; Tatlidede, Hamit Soner

    2013-07-01

    Ear reconstruction is one of the most challenging procedures in plastic surgery practice. Many studies and techniques have been described in the literature for carving a well-pronounced framework. However, just as important as the cartilage framework is the ample amount of delicate skin coverage of the framework. In this report, we introduce an innovative method of measuring the skin surface area of the auricle from a three-dimensional template created from the healthy ear.The study group consisted of 60 adult Turkish individuals who were randomly selected (30 men and 30 women). The participant ages ranged from 18 to 45 years (mean, 31.5 years), and they had no history of trauma or congenital anomalies. The template is created by dividing the ear into aesthetic subunits and using ImageJ software to estimate the necessary amount of total skin surface area required.Reconstruction of the auricle is a complicated process that requires experience and patience to provide the auricular details. We believe this estimate will shorten the learning curve for residents and surgeons interested in ear reconstruction and will help surgeons obtain adequate skin to drape over the well-sculpted cartilage frameworks by providing a reference list of total ear skin surface area measurements for Turkish men and women. PMID:23851770

  15. Do Swiftlets have an ear for echolocation? The functional morphology of Swiftlets' middle ears.

    PubMed

    Thomassen, Henri A; Gea, Stefan; Maas, Steve; Bout, Ron G; Dirckx, Joris J J; Decraemer, Willem F; Povel, G David E

    2007-03-01

    The Oilbird and many Swiftlet species are unique among birds for their ability to echolocate. Echolocaters may benefit from improved hearing sensitivity. Therefore, morphological adaptations to echolocation might be present in echolocating birds' middle ears. We studied the functional morphology of the tympano-ossicular chain of seven specimens of four echolocating Swiftlet species and one specimen each of five non-echolocating species. Three dimensional (3D) reconstructions were made from micro-Computer-Tomographic (muCT) scans. The reconstructions were used in functional morphological analyses and model calculations. A two dimensional (2D) rigid rod model with fixed rotational axes was developed to study footplate output-amplitudes and to describe how changes in the arrangement of the tympano-ossicular chain affect its function. A 3D finite element model was used to predict ossicular-chain movement and to investigate the justification of the 2D approach. No morphological adaptations towards echolocation were found in the middle-ear lever system or in the mass impedance of the middle ear. A wide range of middle-ear configurations result in maximum output-amplitudes and all investigated species are congruent with these predicted best configurations. Echolocation is unlikely to depend on adaptations in the middle ear tympano-ossicular chain. PMID:17229537

  16. Endoscopic Ear Surgery: Critical Review of Anatomy and Physiology of Normal and Reconstructive Middle Ear.

    PubMed

    Udagatti, Vithal D; Dinesh Kumar, Rajendran

    2016-06-01

    Middle ear anatomy is complex hence it is difficult to study the microscopic vibration of tympanic membrane and ossicles. The basic research has been done in few centres. Our experience is based on clinical data. The lack of quantitative understanding of structural and functional relationship in the mechanical response of the normal and reconstructed middle ear is major factor in poor hearing results after surgery (Merchant et al. in J Laryngol Otol 112:715-731, 1998). The vibration pattern of tympanic membrane changes with different frequencies. It depends upon shape, position and tension of tympanic membrane. Sometimes reconstructed tympanic membrane loses its shape and tension and thus its vibratory response (Pusalkar and Steinbach in Transplants and implants in otology II, 1992). Then what should be the shape, position, tension of the tympanic membrane and the ossicles. In order to have a serviceable hearing, dry and safe ear, there is a necessity of answering all these queries by us. PMID:27340629

  17. Ear Cubes for local controlled drug delivery to the inner ear.

    PubMed

    Gehrke, M; Sircoglou, J; Gnansia, D; Tourrel, G; Willart, J-F; Danede, F; Lacante, E; Vincent, C; Siepmann, F; Siepmann, J

    2016-07-25

    A new type of advanced drug delivery systems is proposed: Miniaturized implants, which can be placed into tiny holes drilled into (or close to) the oval window. They consist of two parts: 1) A cylinder, which is inserted into the hole crossing the oval window. The cylinder (being longer than the depth of the hole) is partly located within the inner ear and surrounded by perilymph. This provides direct access to the target site, and at the same time assures implant fixation. 2) A cuboid, which is located in the middle ear, serving as a drug reservoir. One side of the cuboid is in direct contact with the oval window. Drug release into the cochlea occurs by diffusion through the cylindrical part of the Ear Cubes and by diffusion from the cuboid into and through the oval window. High precision molds were used to prepare two differently sized Ear Cubes by injection molding. The miniaturized implants were based on silicone and loaded with different amounts of dexamethasone (10 to 30 % w/w). The systems were thoroughly characterized before and upon exposure to artificial perilymph at 37°C. Importantly, drug release can effectively be controlled and sustained during long time periods (up to several years). Furthermore, the implants did not swell or erode to a noteworthy extent during the observation period. Drug diffusion through the polymeric matrix, together with limited dexamethasone solubility effects, seem to control the resulting drug release kinetics, which can roughly be estimated using mathematical equations derived from Fick's second law. Importantly, the proposed Ear Cubes are likely to provide much more reliable local long term drug delivery to the inner ear compared to liquid or semi-solid dosage forms administered into the middle ear, due to a more secured fixation. Furthermore, they require less invasive surgeries and can accommodate higher drug amounts compared to intracochlear implants. Thus, they offer the potential to open up new horizons for innovative

  18. Chinchilla middle-ear admittance and sound power: High-frequency estimates and effects of inner-ear modifications

    PubMed Central

    Ravicz, Michael E.; Rosowski, John J.

    2012-01-01

    The middle-ear input admittance relates sound power into the middle ear (ME) and sound pressure at the tympanic membrane (TM). ME input admittance was measured in the chinchilla ear canal as part of a larger study of sound power transmission through the ME into the inner ear. The middle ear was open, and the inner ear was intact or modified with small sensors inserted into the vestibule near the cochlear base. A simple model of the chinchilla ear canal, based on ear canal sound pressure measurements at two points along the canal and an assumption of plane-wave propagation, enables reliable estimates of YTM, the ME input admittance at the TM, from the admittance measured relatively far from the TM. YTM appears valid at frequencies as high as 17 kHz, a much higher frequency than previously reported. The real part of YTM decreases with frequency above 2 kHz. Effects of the inner-ear sensors (necessary for inner ear power computation) were small and generally limited to frequencies below 3 kHz. Computed power reflectance was ∼0.1 below 3.5 kHz, lower than with an intact ME below 2.5 kHz, and nearly 1 above 16 kHz. PMID:23039439

  19. Rare embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of external acoustic canal: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Eksan, M S; Noorizan, Y; Chew, Y K; Noorafidah, M D; Asma, A

    2014-01-01

    Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of external ear canal is very rare, even in the pediatric population. We report an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of external acoustic canal, occurring in a 12-year-old Chinese girl who presented with left ear canal mass. Wide local excision of the mass was done under local anesthesia. Histopathological examination revealed the diagnosis. She then underwent 20 cycles of radiotherapy. CECT scan post treatment showed clearance of tumor cell. Now, patient is disease free for 5 years. We believe that early diagnosis followed by complete resection of the tumor with clear margin and radiotherapy improves the prognosis of the disease. PMID:25128187

  20. Computer-integrated finite element modeling of human middle ear.

    PubMed

    Sun, Q; Gan, R Z; Chang, K-H; Dormer, K J

    2002-10-01

    The objective of this study was to produce an improved finite element (FE) model of the human middle ear and to compare the model with human data. We began with a systematic and accurate geometric modeling technique for reconstructing the middle ear from serial sections of a freshly frozen temporal bone. A geometric model of a human middle ear was constructed in a computer-aided design (CAD) environment with particular attention to geometry and microanatomy. Using the geometric model, a working FE model of the human middle ear was created using previously published material properties of middle ear components. This working FE model was finalized by a cross-calibration technique, comparing its predicted stapes footplate displacements with laser Doppler interferometry measurements from fresh temporal bones. The final FE model was shown to be reasonable in predicting the ossicular mechanics of the human middle ear. PMID:14595544

  1. Computed Tomography Staging of Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

    PubMed Central

    Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek Abdel; Ghonim, Mohamed Rashad; Ashraf, Bassem

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background To establish computed tomography (CT) staging of middle ear cholesteatoma and assess its impact on the selection of the surgical procedure. Material/Methods Prospective study was conducted on 61 consecutive patients (mean age 26.8 years) with middle ear cholesteatoma. CT scan of the temporal bone and surgery were performed in all patients. CT staging classified cholesteatoma according to its location in the tympanic cavity (T); extension into the mastoid (M); and associated complications (C). Cholesteatoma was staged as stage I (T1, T2), stage II (T3, M1, M2, C1), and stage III (C2). Results The overall sensitivity of CT staging of cholesteatoma compared to surgery was 88% with excellent agreement and correlation between CT findings and intra-operative findings (K=0.863, r=0.86, P=0.001). There was excellent agreement and correlation of CT staging with surgical findings for T location (K=0.811, r=0.89, P=0.001), good for M extension (K=0.734, r=0.88, P=0.001), and excellent for associated C complications (K=1.00, r=1.0, P=0.001). Atticotympanotomy was carried out in stage I (n=14), intact canal wall surgery was performed in stage II (n=38), and canal wall down surgery was done in stage III (n=5) and stage II (n=4). Conclusions We established CT staging of middle ear cholesteatoma that helps surgeons to select an appropriate surgery. PMID:26171086

  2. Bending mechanics of the red-eared slider turtle carapace.

    PubMed

    Achrai, Ben; Bar-On, Benny; Wagner, H Daniel

    2014-02-01

    The turtle shell is a natural shield that possesses complex hierarchical structure, giving rise to superior mechanical properties. The keratin-covered boney top (dorsal) part of the shell, termed carapace, is composed of rigid sandwich-like ribs made of a central foam-like interior flanked by two external cortices. The ribs are attached to one another in a 3-D interdigitated manner at soft unmineralized collagenous sutures. This unique structural combination promotes sophisticated mechanical response upon predator attacks. In the present study mechanical bending tests were performed to examine the static behavior of the red-eared slider turtle carapace, in different orientations and from various locations, as well as from whole-rib and sub-layer regions. In addition, the suture properties were evaluated as well and compared with those of the rib. A simplified classical analysis was used here to rationalize the experimental results of the whole rib viewed as a laminated composite. The measured strength (~300MPa) and bending modulus (~7-8.5GPa) of the rib were found to be of the same order of magnitude as the strength and modulus of the cortices. The theoretical prediction of the ribs' moduli, predicted in terms of the individual sub-layers moduli, agreed well with the experimental results. The suture regions were found to be more compliant and weaker than the ribs, but comparatively tough, likely due to the interlocking design of the boney zigzag elements. PMID:24333673

  3. The effects of fibrin tissue adhesive on the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Katzke, D; Pusalkar, A; Steinbach, E

    1983-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of fibrin glue ('Tissucol', Immuno Pty. Ltd.) in the middle and inner ear. Small amounts of the adhesive were used in 36 operations performed on 18 rabbits. The light microscopic examination of these ears four, eight and 12 weeks after surgery showed that the adhesive was well tolerated and that it did not have any toxic effect on the middle ear or membranous labyrinth. The fibrin tissue adhesive can therefore safely be used to facilitate reconstructive middle-ear surgery and, with the aid of fascia, also for the closure of labyrinthine fistulae; or to achieve a definite seal of oval window niche after stapes surgery. PMID:6600776

  4. Neuroendocrine Adenoma of the Middle Ear: A Rare Histopathological Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    McGinness, Sam; Coleman, Hedley; Varikatt, Winny; da Cruz, Melville

    2016-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours occur throughout the body but are rare in the head and neck region and particularly rare in the middle ear. Clinical findings are often nonspecific and therefore pose a diagnostic challenge. Furthermore, the nomenclature of neuroendocrine tumours of the middle ear is historically controversial. Herein a case is presented of a middle ear adenoma in a 33-year-old patient who presented with otalgia, hearing loss, and facial nerve palsy. A brief discussion is included regarding the histopathological features of middle ear adenomas and seeks to clarify the correct nomenclature for these tumours. PMID:27429819

  5. Fly-ear inspired acoustic sensors for gunshot localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haijun; Currano, Luke; Gee, Danny; Yang, Benjamin; Yu, Miao

    2009-05-01

    The supersensitive ears of the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea have inspired researchers to develop bio-inspired directional microphone for sound localization. Although the fly ear is optimized for localizing the narrow-band calling song of crickets at 5 kHz, experiments and simulation have shown that it can amplify directional cues for a wide frequency range. In this article, a theoretical investigation is presented to study the use of fly-ear inspired directional microphones for gunshot localization. Using an equivalent 2-DOF model of the fly ear, the time responses of the fly ear structure to a typical shock wave are obtained and the associated time delay is estimated by using cross-correlation. Both near-field and far-field scenarios are considered. The simulation shows that the fly ear can greatly amplify the time delay by ~20 times, which indicates that with an interaural distance of only 1.2 mm the fly ear is able to generate a time delay comparable to that obtained by a conventional microphone pair with a separation as large as 24 mm. Since the parameters of the fly ear structure can also be tuned for muzzle blast and other impulse stimulus, fly-ear inspired acoustic sensors offers great potential for developing portable gunshot localization systems.

  6. EARS, MARS combined radio observations - 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomezzoli, Giancarlo

    2014-02-01

    The Lyrid meteor shower was generated on 21-22 April 2014 by the passage of the Earth through the path of the debris of the comet C/1861 G1 (Thatcher). The Camelopardalids meteor shower was generated on 23-24 May 2014 by the passage of the Earth through the path of the debris of the comet 209P/Linear. The EurAstro Radio Station (EARS) and the Malta Astro Radio Station (MARS) were operated in parallel for two combined radio observation campaigns. The campaigns revealed that further combined radio observation campaigns are necessary to solve the problem of estimating the number of lost radio meteor echoes.

  7. Steroid receptor expression in the fish inner ear varies with sex, social status, and reproductive state

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Gonadal and stress-related steroid hormones are known to influence auditory function across vertebrates but the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for steroid-mediated auditory plasticity at the level of the inner ear remain unknown. The presence of steroid receptors in the ear suggests a direct pathway for hormones to act on the peripheral auditory system, but little is known about which receptors are expressed in the ear or whether their expression levels change with internal physiological state or external social cues. We used qRT-PCR to measure mRNA expression levels of multiple steroid receptor subtypes (estrogen receptors: ERα, ERβa, ERβb; androgen receptors: ARα, ARβ; corticosteroid receptors: GR2, GR1a/b, MR) and aromatase in the main hearing organ of the inner ear (saccule) in the highly social African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni, and tested whether these receptor levels were correlated with circulating steroid concentrations. Results We show that multiple steroid receptor subtypes are expressed within the main hearing organ of a single vertebrate species, and that expression levels differ between the sexes. We also show that steroid receptor subtype-specific changes in mRNA expression are associated with reproductive phase in females and social status in males. Sex-steroid receptor mRNA levels were negatively correlated with circulating estradiol and androgens in both males and females, suggesting possible ligand down-regulation of receptors in the inner ear. In contrast, saccular changes in corticosteroid receptor mRNA levels were not related to serum cortisol levels. Circulating steroid levels and receptor subtype mRNA levels were not as tightly correlated in males as compared to females, suggesting different regulatory mechanisms between sexes. Conclusions This is the most comprehensive study of sex-, social-, and reproductive-related steroid receptor mRNA expression in the peripheral auditory system of any single

  8. Gene transfer to the developing mouse inner ear by in vivo electroporation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingyan; Jiang, Han; Brigande, John V

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian inner ear has 6 distinct sensory epithelia: 3 cristae in the ampullae of the semicircular canals; maculae in the utricle and saccule; and the organ of Corti in the coiled cochlea. The cristae and maculae contain vestibular hair cells that transduce mechanical stimuli to subserve the special sense of balance, while auditory hair cells in the organ of Corti are the primary transducers for hearing. Cell fate specification in these sensory epithelia and morphogenesis of the semicircular canals and cochlea take place during the second week of gestation in the mouse and are largely completed before birth. Developmental studies of the mouse inner ear are routinely conducted by harvesting transgenic embryos at different embryonic or postnatal stages to gain insight into the molecular basis of cellular and/or morphological phenotypes. We hypothesize that gene transfer to the developing mouse inner ear in utero in the context of gain- and loss-of-function studies represents a complimentary approach to traditional mouse transgenesis for the interrogation of the genetic mechanisms underlying mammalian inner ear development(6). The experimental paradigm to conduct gene misexpression studies in the developing mouse inner ear demonstrated here resolves into three general steps: 1) ventral laparotomy; 2) transuterine microinjection; and 3) in vivo electroporation. Ventral laparotomy is a mouse survival surgical technique that permits externalization of the uterus to gain experimental access to the implanted embryos. Transuterine microinjection is the use of beveled, glass capillary micropipettes to introduce expression plasmid into the lumen of the otic vesicle or otocyst. In vivo electroporation is the application of square wave, direct current pulses to drive expression plasmid into progenitor cells. We previously described this electroporation-based gene transfer technique and included detailed notes on each step of the protocol(11). Mouse experimental

  9. Responses of the ear to low frequency sounds, infrasound and wind turbines

    PubMed Central

    Salt, Alec N.; Hullar, Timothy E.

    2010-01-01

    Infrasonic sounds are generated internally in the body (by respiration, heartbeat, coughing, etc) and by external sources, such as air conditioning systems, inside vehicles, some industrial processes and, now becoming increasingly prevalent, wind turbines. It is widely assumed that infrasound presented at an amplitude below what is audible has no influence on the ear. In this review, we consider possible ways that low frequency sounds, at levels that may or may not be heard, could influence the function of the ear. The inner ear has elaborate mechanisms to attenuate low frequency sound components before they are transmitted to the brain. The auditory portion of the ear, the cochlea, has two types of sensory cells, inner hair cells (IHC) and outer hair cells (OHC), of which the IHC are coupled to the afferent fibers that transmit “hearing” to the brain. The sensory stereocilia (“hairs”) on the IHC are “fluid coupled” to mechanical stimuli, so their responses depend on stimulus velocity and their sensitivity decreases as sound frequency is lowered. In contrast, the OHC are directly coupled to mechanical stimuli, so their input remains greater than for IHC at low frequencies. At very low frequencies the OHC are stimulated by sounds at levels below those that are heard. Although the hair cells in other sensory structures such as the saccule may be tuned to infrasonic frequencies, auditory stimulus coupling to these structures is inefficient so that they are unlikely to be influenced by airborne infrasound. Structures that are involved in endolymph volume regulation are also known to be influenced by infrasound, but their sensitivity is also thought to be low. There are, however, abnormal states in which the ear becomes hypersensitive to infrasound. In most cases, the inner ear’s responses to infrasound can be considered normal, but they could be associated with unfamiliar sensations or subtle changes in physiology. This raises the possibility that

  10. Sp8 regulates inner ear development.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hyeyoung A; Medina-Ruiz, Sofia; Harland, Richard M

    2014-04-29

    A forward genetic screen of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenized Xenopus tropicalis has identified an inner ear mutant named eclipse (ecl). Mutants developed enlarged otic vesicles and various defects of otoconia development; they also showed abnormal circular and inverted swimming patterns. Positional cloning identified specificity protein 8 (sp8), which was previously found to regulate limb and brain development. Two different loss-of-function approaches using transcription activator-like effector nucleases and morpholino oligonucleotides confirmed that the ecl mutant phenotype is caused by down-regulation of sp8. Depletion of sp8 resulted in otic dysmorphogenesis, such as uncompartmentalized and enlarged otic vesicles, epithelial dilation with abnormal sensory end organs. When overexpressed, sp8 was sufficient to induce ectopic otic vesicles possessing sensory hair cells, neurofilament innervation in a thickened sensory epithelium, and otoconia, all of which are found in the endogenous otic vesicle. We propose that sp8 is an important factor for initiation and elaboration of inner ear development. PMID:24722637

  11. Probing the Xenopus laevis inner ear transcriptome for biological function

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The senses of hearing and balance depend upon mechanoreception, a process that originates in the inner ear and shares features across species. Amphibians have been widely used for physiological studies of mechanotransduction by sensory hair cells. In contrast, much less is known of the genetic basis of auditory and vestibular function in this class of animals. Among amphibians, the genus Xenopus is a well-characterized genetic and developmental model that offers unique opportunities for inner ear research because of the amphibian capacity for tissue and organ regeneration. For these reasons, we implemented a functional genomics approach as a means to undertake a large-scale analysis of the Xenopus laevis inner ear transcriptome through microarray analysis. Results Microarray analysis uncovered genes within the X. laevis inner ear transcriptome associated with inner ear function and impairment in other organisms, thereby supporting the inclusion of Xenopus in cross-species genetic studies of the inner ear. The use of gene categories (inner ear tissue; deafness; ion channels; ion transporters; transcription factors) facilitated the assignment of functional significance to probe set identifiers. We enhanced the biological relevance of our microarray data by using a variety of curation approaches to increase the annotation of the Affymetrix GeneChip® Xenopus laevis Genome array. In addition, annotation analysis revealed the prevalence of inner ear transcripts represented by probe set identifiers that lack functional characterization. Conclusions We identified an abundance of targets for genetic analysis of auditory and vestibular function. The orthologues to human genes with known inner ear function and the highly expressed transcripts that lack annotation are particularly interesting candidates for future analyses. We used informatics approaches to impart biologically relevant information to the Xenopus inner ear transcriptome, thereby addressing the

  12. Extensively remodeled, fractured cetacean tympanic bullae show that whales can survive traumatic injury to the ears.

    PubMed

    Yamato, Maya; Khidas, Kamal; Pyenson, Nicholas D; Fordyce, R Ewan; Mead, James G

    2016-01-01

    Underwater human activities and anthropogenic noise in our oceans may be a major source of habitat degradation for marine life. This issue was highlighted by the opening of the United States Eastern Seaboard for seismic oil and gas exploration in 2014, which generated massive media coverage and widespread concern that seismic surveys could kill or deafen whales. We discovered 11 new specimens of fractured and healed cetacean ear bones, out of a survey of 2127 specimens housed in museum collections. This rare condition has been previously reported only in two specimens of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) from the early 1900s, summarized by Fraser & Purves (1953). All of our new specimens are represented by species for which this condition had never been reported previously, including both baleen and toothed whales. The baleen whale specimens (Balaenoptera physalus, Balaenoptera borealis, Balaenoptera acutorostrata) were collected during Canadian commercial whaling operations in the Atlantic Ocean in the 1970s; the specimens include ear bones with well-healed fractures, demonstrating that baleen whales are capable of overcoming traumatic injury to the ears. The toothed whale specimens (Delphinus sp., Berardius bairdii) were found dead on beaches in 1972 and 2001, respectively, with less remodeled fractures. Thus, ear injuries may be more lethal to the echolocating toothed whales, which rely on hearing for navigation and foraging. We explore several hypotheses regarding how these injuries could have occurred, and conclude that the most parsimonious explanations appear to be both direct and indirect effects of lytic processes from disease or calcium depletion, or damage from external pressure waves. Although further research is required to confirm whether the fractures resulted from natural or human-induced events, this study underscores the importance of museum collections and the work of stranding networks in understanding the potential effects of modern human

  13. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  14. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  15. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  16. CT of adenomas of the middle ear and mastoid cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Van Thong Ho; Rao, V.J.; Mikaelian, D.O.

    1996-03-01

    A case of mixed type adenoma of the middle ear and mastoid is presented in which CT showed complete opacification of the middle ear and mastoid air cells with bulging of the tympanic membrane but without ossicular or bony destruction. 7 refs., 1 figs.

  17. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  18. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  19. [Significance of the ear in the determination of age].

    PubMed

    Röhm, E; Adam, E

    1986-01-01

    The morphology of human ear conch is said to be rather individual, but a perfect person-identification by this mean is not possible. It is demonstrated by photographs-made in a 15 years' interval-that ear conch and auricular area can be typically marked by proceeding age and specific diseases. PMID:3741048

  20. [Adaptability of sweet corn ears to a frozen process].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Matheus, Alejandra O; Martínez, Norelkys Maribel; de Bertorelli, Ligia O; De Venanzi, Frank

    2004-12-01

    The effects of frozen condition on the quality of three sweet corn ears (2038, 2010, 2004) and the pattern (Bonanza), were evaluated. Biometrics characteristics like ear size, ear diameter, row and kernel deep were measured as well as chemical and physical measurement in fresh and frozen states. The corn ears were frozen at -95 degrees C by 7 minutes. The yield and stability of the frozen ears were evaluated at 45 and 90 days of frozen storage (-18 degrees C). The average commercial yield as frozen corn ear for all the hybrids was 54.2%. The industry has a similar value range of 48% to 54%. The ear size average was 21.57 cm, row number was 15, ear diameter 45.54 mm and the kernel corn deep was 8.57 mm. All these measurements were found not different from commercial values found for the industry. All corn samples evaluated showed good stability despites the frozen processing and storage. Hybrid 2038 ranked higher in quality. PMID:15969270

  1. The maize rachis affects Aspergillus flavus movement during ear development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used to follow infection in ears of maize hybrids resistant and susceptible to the fungus. Developing ears were needle-inoculated with GFP-transformed A. flavus 20 days after silk emergence, and GFP fluorescence in the pith was evalu...

  2. Alternative Ear-Canal Measures Related to Absorbance

    PubMed Central

    Neely, Stephen T.; Stenfelt, Stefan; Schairer, Kim S.

    2013-01-01

    Several alternative ear-canal measures are similar to absorbance in their requirement for prior determination of a Thévenin-equivalent sound source. Examples are (1) sound intensity level (SIL), (2) forward-pressure level (FPL), (3) time-domain ear-canal reflectance (TDR), and (4) cochlear reflectance (CR). These four related measures are similar to absorbance in their utilization of wide-band stimuli and their focus on recording ear-canal sound pressure. The related measures differ from absorbance in how the ear-canal pressure is analyzed and in the type of information that is extracted from the recorded response. SIL and FPL have both been shown to be better as measures of sound level in the ear canal compared to sound pressure level (SPL) because they reduced calibration errors due to standing waves in studies of behavioral thresholds and otoacoustic emissions. TDR may be used to estimate ear-canal geometry and may have the potential to assess middle-ear pathology. CR reveals information about the inner ear that is similar to what is provided by other types of otoacoustic emissions and may have theoretical advantages that strengthen its interpretation. PMID:23900185

  3. Replantation of an avulsed ear, using a single arterial anastamosis.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, G; Bhatti, K; Masood, S

    2008-01-01

    Avulsion of the ear is relatively uncommon and replantation a technical challenge. A case in which an avulsed ear was successfully replanted using a single arterial anastamosis is described. The surgical difficulties encountered, the pharmaceutical approach to postoperative care and the problems which resulted from the lack of venous drainage are discussed. PMID:18061545

  4. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the External Auditory Canal: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Boamah, Harry; Knight, Glenn; Taylor, Joseph; Palka, Kevin; Ballard, Billy

    2011-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the temporal bone and external auditory canal is a rare tumor with a reported incidence of between 1 to 6 cases per million population per year. Because squamous cell carcinoma of the temporal bone and auditory canal is so rare, developing an adequate tumor staging system and treatment has been difficult. We present a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal in 65-year-old Hispanic female who presented with a 6-month history of right ear pain, 3-month history of serosanguineous right ear drainage, and symptoms of facial paralysis. Due to the extensive spread of her tumor into the middle ear at the time of diagnosis, her tumor was deemed unresectable and she received palliative chemotherapy and radiation therapy and was sent to Alice Hospice and died several weeks later. PMID:22937370

  5. Dichotic listening ear preference after childhood cerebral lesions.

    PubMed

    Woods, B T

    1984-01-01

    Patients with unilateral (right or left) nonprogressive cerebral lesions acquired in infancy (before age one) or childhood (ages one to fifteen) were given a dichotic listening test. The two groups of patients with the childhood lesions showed the pattern of ear preference typically seen after hemispheric lesions in adults; loss of right ear preference after left hemisphere (LH) lesions, and enhanced right ear preference after right hemisphere (RH) lesions. The two groups of patients with the very early lesions failed to show any consistent ear preference or to differ from one another in ear preference. It is postulated that this lack of a consistent lesion effect following very early lateralized brain lesions is due to the greater degree of functional reorganization that takes place after such lesions. PMID:6462424

  6. Alpha adrenoceptors in the rabbit ear thermoregulatory microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Koman, L A; Smith, B P; Gordon, E S; Smith, T L

    1998-03-01

    The rabbit ear microcirculation was analyzed in a chronic unanesthetized model to evaluate alpha adrenergic microvascular control in a thermoregulatory end organ. This model allowed direct measurement of microcirculatory responses without the effects of anesthetics or inflammatory responses induced by acute surgical intervention. The ipsilateral facial artery was catheterized for drug injections into the experimental ear. Microvascular diameter changes following stimulation or blockade of adrenoceptor (AR) subtypes were observed directly through a chronic microvascular chamber implanted in the rabbit ear. Vascular alpha1- and alpha2-ARs appear to be distributed differently across the arterioles and AVAs of the rabbit ear. Both alpha1- and alpha2-ARs appear to contribute to vasoconstriction of AVAs in the conscious rabbit ear. In contrast, alpha1-AR's (vs alpha2-ARs) appear to predominate in adrenergically mediated sympathetic vasoconstriction of arterioles. PMID:9521886

  7. Audiometric Predictions Using SFOAE and Middle-Ear Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, John C.; Keefe, Douglas H.

    2006-01-01

    Objective The goals of the study are to determine how well stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs) identify hearing loss, classify hearing loss as mild or moderate-severe, and correlate with pure-tone thresholds in a population of adults with normal middle-ear function. Other goals are to determine if middle-ear function as assessed by wideband acoustic transfer function (ATF) measurements in the ear canal account for the variability in normal thresholds, and if the inclusion of ATFs improves the ability of SFOAEs to identify hearing loss and predict pure-tone thresholds. Design The total suppressed SFOAE signal and its corresponding noise were recorded in 85 ears (22 normal ears and 63 ears with sensorineural hearing loss) at octave frequencies from 0.5 – 8 kHz using a nonlinear residual method. SFOAEs were recorded a second time in three impaired ears to assess repeatability. Ambient-pressure ATFs were obtained in all but one of these 85 ears, and were also obtained from an additional 31 normal-hearing subjects in whom SFOAE data were not obtained. Pure-tone air-and bone-conduction thresholds and 226-Hz tympanograms were obtained on all subjects. Normal tympanometry and the absence of air-bone gaps were used to screen subjects for normal middle-ear function. Clinical decision theory was used to assess the performance of SFOAE and ATF predictors in classifying ears as normal or impaired, and linear regression analysis was used to test the ability of SFOAE and ATF variables to predict the air-conduction audiogram. Results The ability of SFOAEs to classify ears as normal or hearing impaired was significant at all test frequencies. The ability of SFOAEs to classify impaired ears as either mild or moderate-severe was significant at test frequencies from 0.5 to 4 kHz. SFOAEs were present in cases of severe hearing loss. SFOAEs were also significantly correlated with air-conduction thresholds from 0.5 to 8 kHz. The best performance occurred using the SFOAE

  8. Inner ear symptoms and disease: Pathophysiological understanding and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Ciuman, Raphael R.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, huge advances have taken place in understanding of inner ear pathophysiology causing sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. Advances in understanding comprise biochemical and physiological research of stimulus perception and conduction, inner ear homeostasis, and hereditary diseases with underlying genetics. This review describes and tabulates the various causes of inner ear disease and defines inner ear and non-inner ear causes of hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. The aim of this review was to comprehensively breakdown this field of otorhinolaryngology for specialists and non-specialists and to discuss current therapeutic options in distinct diseases and promising research for future therapies, especially pharmaceutic, genetic, or stem cell therapy. PMID:24362017

  9. In Vitro Efficacy of a Consumer-Marketed Ear Cleaning Tool

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, G. Todd; Crane, Benjamin T.

    2014-01-01

    Hypothesis The WaxVac ear cleaning device may be a useful adjunct for patients requiring aural toilet. Background Cerumen removal and routine aural toilet is a common complaint that presents to the otolaryngology clinic. We tested this device in order to make an appropriate recommendation to our patients. Methods We conducted in vitro testing of the WaxVac device on an artificial ear canal model and cadaveric temporal bones testing the strength of the suction, noise created by the device, and the ability of the device to remove foreign bodies from the external auditory canal. These foreign bodies included a PE tube, baby powder, a q-tip head, saline, and artificial cerumen. Results The WaxVac created very little suction as compared to Frazier tip suctions used in clinic. The device produced very little noise in the canal which was equivalent to a #3 Frazier tip suction. The WaxVac was unable to remove q-tip heads or artificial cerumen from the ear canal model or the cadaveric temporal bones. Very little of the saline could be removed by the WaxVac and only 20–50% of trials demonstrated removal of a PE tube. However, a large amount of the powder was able to be removed by the device. Conclusion While the concept of this device is good, the actual product does not produce adequate suction to remove cerumen or most common foreign bodies from the external auditory canal. It is unlikely to be useful for aural toilet. PMID:24691508

  10. Effect of low-intensity focused ultrasound on the middle ear in a mouse model of acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Noda, Kanako; Hirano, Takashi; Noda, Kenji; Kodama, Satoru; Ichimiya, Issei; Suzuki, Masashi

    2013-03-01

    We hypothesized that low-intensity focused ultrasound (LIFU) increases vessel permeability and antibacterial drug activity in the mouse middle ear. We determined appropriate settings by applying LIFU to mouse ears with the external auditory canal filled with normal saline and performed histologic and immunohistologic examination. Acute otitis media was induced in mice with nontypable Haemophilus influenzae, and they were given ampicillin (50, 10, or 2 mg/kg) intraperitoneally once daily for 3 days with or without LIFU (1.0 W/cm(2), 20% duty cycle, 30 s). In the LIFU(+) groups receiving the 2- and 10-mg/kg doses, viable bacteria counts, number of inflammatory cells and IL-1β and TNF-α levels in middle ear effusion were significantly lower than in the LIFU(-) groups on the same doses. Severity of AOM also tended to be reduced more in the LIFU(+) groups than in the LIFU(-) groups. LIFU application with antibiotics may be effective for middle ear infection. PMID:23312959

  11. "Play It by Ear"--Teachers' Responses to Ear-Playing Tasks during One-to-One Instrumental Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varvarigou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports findings from the Ear-Playing Project in relation to the teaching strategies that 15 instrumental teachers adopted during one-to-one instrumental lessons whilst helping their students to copy music by ear from a recording. Overall, the teachers used a variety of strategies including singing and humming along with or without the…

  12. Relapsing Polychondritis: Inflamed Joints and Ears

    PubMed Central

    Melikoğlu, Meltem Alkan; Şenel, Kazım

    2015-01-01

    Background: Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is an episodic and progressive inflammatory disease of the cartilaginous structures, including elastic cartilage of the ear and nose, hyaline cartilage of the peripheral joints, fibrocartilage at axial sites, and cartilage of the tracheo-bronchial tree. The spectrum of its presentations may vary from intermittent mild episodes of chondritis to occasional organ involvement or even life-threatening manifestations. Case Report: We presented a 64 year-old male patient with bilaterally knee arthritis and discoloration of pinna. Conclusion: There is lack of awareness about this disease due to its rarity. With this case presentation, our goal was to draw attention to this disease, which could be delayed for the diagnosis. PMID:25759785

  13. Mechanics of the exceptional anuran ear

    PubMed Central

    Segenhout, Johannes M.; van Dijk, Pim

    2008-01-01

    The anuran ear is frequently used for studying fundamental properties of vertebrate auditory systems. This is due to its unique anatomical features, most prominently the lack of a basilar membrane and the presence of two dedicated acoustic end organs, the basilar papilla and the amphibian papilla. Our current anatomical and functional knowledge implies that three distinct regions can be identified within these two organs. The basilar papilla functions as a single auditory filter. The low-frequency portion of the amphibian papilla is an electrically tuned, tonotopically organized auditory end organ. The high-frequency portion of the amphibian papilla is mechanically tuned and tonotopically organized, and it emits spontaneous otoacoustic emissions. This high-frequency portion of the amphibian papilla shows a remarkable, functional resemblance to the mammalian cochlea. PMID:18386018

  14. Fish ears are sensitive to sex change

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Stefan P.W.; McCormick, Mark I.

    2008-01-01

    Many reef fishes change sex during their life. The testing of life-history theory and effective fisheries management therefore relies on our ability to detect when this fundamental transition occurs. This study experimentally illustrates the potential to glean such information from the otolithic bodies of the inner-ear apparatus in the sex-changing fish Parapercis cylindrica. It will now be possible to reconstruct the complete, often complex life history of hermaphroditic individuals from hatching through to terminal reproductive status. The validation of sex-change associated otolith growth also illustrates the potential for sex-specific sensory displacement. It is possible that sex-changing fishes alter otolith composition, and thus sensory-range specificity, to optimize life history in accordance with their new reproductive mode. PMID:19033133

  15. Beyond the middle ear: endoscopic surgical anatomy and approaches to inner ear and lateral skull base.

    PubMed

    Presutti, Livio; Nogueira, João Flávio; Alicandri-Ciufelli, Matteo; Marchioni, Daniele

    2013-04-01

    Currently, the main application of endoscopic surgery relies on the middle ear cholesteatoma surgical treatment. However, in the natural evolution of the technique there are the steps toward of lateral skull base surgery and treatment of pathologic conditions of pertous bone. The endoscopic approaches to lateral skull base are (1) a transcanal exclusively endoscopic approach or (2) combined approaches (microscopic endoscope-assisted), including transotic, infralabyrinthine, and suprameatal translabyrinthine. PMID:23566905

  16. Passage of albumin from the middle ear to the inner ear in otitis media in the chinchilla

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, B.; Goycoolea, M.V.; Schleivert, P.M.; Shea, D.; Schachern, P.; Paparella, M.M.; Carpenter, A.M.

    1981-08-01

    A study of the permeability of the middle ear-inner ear interface for macromolecules was carried out in chinchillas with open and obstructed eustachian tubes utilizing tritiated human serum albumin and immunoelectrophoresis. Tritiated albumin was placed in the round window niche area or normal animals and animals in which the eustachian tubes had been obstructed for 24 hours or 14 days. The tritiated albumin was allowed to remain in the middle ear cavity for 24 hours, Samples of middle ear effusion, perilymph, blood and cerebrospinal fluid were collected and measured for radioactivity. Radioactivity was demonstrated in the perilymph. Samples of middle ear effusions and perilymph were also studied by immunoelectrophoresis with goat antihuman albumin. Albumin placed in the round window niche of an experimental animal could be recovered unchanged in the perilymph. The results suggest a pathophysiologic explanation for the association of otitis media and sensorineural hearing loss or endolymphatic hydrops.

  17. Selective attention reduces physiological noise in the external ear canals of humans. II: visual attention.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kyle P; Pasanen, Edward G; McFadden, Dennis

    2014-06-01

    Human subjects performed in several behavioral conditions requiring, or not requiring, selective attention to visual stimuli. Specifically, the attentional task was to recognize strings of digits that had been presented visually. A nonlinear version of the stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emission (SFOAE), called the nSFOAE, was collected during the visual presentation of the digits. The segment of the physiological response discussed here occurred during brief silent periods immediately following the SFOAE-evoking stimuli. For all subjects tested, the physiological-noise magnitudes were substantially weaker (less noisy) during the tasks requiring the most visual attention. Effect sizes for the differences were >2.0. Our interpretation is that cortico-olivo influences adjusted the magnitude of efferent activation during the SFOAE-evoking stimulation depending upon the attention task in effect, and then that magnitude of efferent activation persisted throughout the silent period where it also modulated the physiological noise present. Because the results were highly similar to those obtained when the behavioral conditions involved auditory attention, similar mechanisms appear to operate both across modalities and within modalities. Supplementary measurements revealed that the efferent activation was spectrally global, as it was for auditory attention. PMID:24732070

  18. Reducing individual differences in the external-ear transfer functions of the Mongolian gerbil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maki, Katuhiro; Furukawa, Shigeto

    2005-10-01

    This study examines individual differences in the directional transfer functions (DTFs), the directional components of head-related transfer functions of gerbils, and seeks a method for reducing these differences. The difference between the DTFs of a given animal pair was quantified by the intersubject spectral difference (ISSD), which is the variance in the difference spectra of DTFs for frequencies between 5 and 45 kHz and for 361 source directions. An attempt was made to reduce the ISSD by scaling the DTFs of one animal in frequency and/or rotating the DTFs along the source coordinate sphere. The ISSD was reduced by a median of 12% after optimal frequency scaling alone, by a median of 19% after optimal spatial rotation alone, and by a median of 36% after simultaneous frequency scaling and spatial rotation. The optimal scaling factor (OSF) and the optimal coordinate rotation (OCR) correlated strongly with differences in head width and pinna angles (i.e., pinna inclination around the vertical and front-back axes), respectively. Thus, linear equations were derived to estimate the OSF and OCR from these anatomical measurements. The ISSD could be reduced by a median of 22% based on the estimated OSF and OCR.

  19. Zwislocki's model of the middle ear re-visited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withnell, Robert H.; Fields, Taylor N.

    2015-12-01

    Zwislocki's circuit model of the middle ear [11] has been used, in original or modified form, in subsequent studies modeling the ear [4, 6]. The model includes two eardrum modes of vibration, a shunt for flexible coupling between the incus and stapes, and a single tuned oscillator for ossicular vibration. The contribution of each of these mechanisms was examined by fitting a model of the ear to acoustic input impedance data from healthy human ears. The circuit elements for a non-ossicular eardrum vibration and a flexible coupling between the incus and stapes were found to be detrimental or non-essential for the model-fit-to-data. A single mode of eardrum vibration for sound transmission to the middle ear is consistent with the eardrum acting as an impedance-matching device, with pars-tensa eardrum vibration coupled to the ossicles [1]. A single-tuned oscillator was insufficient to account for the bandwidth of the ear. The frequency response of the ear suggests multiple resonant modes of ossicular vibration.

  20. Comparison of Tympanoplasty Results in Dry and Wet Ears

    PubMed Central

    Naderpour, Masoud; Shahidi, Nikzad; Hemmatjoo, Taghi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tympanoplasty is the standard and well established procedure for closure of tympanic membrane perforations .This paper compares the results of tympanoplasty in terms of hearing improvement and graft incorporation in patients with chronic perforation of the tympanic membrane between two groups with and without active drainage at the time of surgery. Materials and Methods: Sixty referring patients to specialty and subspecialty clinics between the age 15 to 60 years-old were selected. All patients suffered from Chronic Otitis Media and they were categorized into two groups: a) those with wet ears and b) those with dry ears. Tympanoplasty surgery was performed through the use of embedding technique of temporalis fascia graft and in medial position (Medial Graft Technique). Finally, the data about the level of hearing improvement and the repair of tympanic membrane were analyzed. Results: Although there was hearing improvement in both groups - with wet or dry ear - no statistically significant difference was observed between two groups. Following the surgery, tympanic membrane in two patients with wet ear and one with dry ear was not repaired, however according to the statistical analysis this difference was not significant. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that in contrast to the common perception that tympanoplasty results in the patients with wet ear is poorer than those with dry ear, there was little difference in the results of the operations performed on two groups. PMID:27429950

  1. Automated External Defibrillator

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is an Automated External Defibrillator? An automated external defibrillator (AED) is a portable device that ... Institutes of Health Department of Health and Human Services USA.gov

  2. Decrease in Middle Ear Resonance Frequency During Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dag, Emine Kutlu; Gulumser, Cagri; Erbek, Seyra

    2016-04-20

    Many physiological changes occur during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to reveal whether there is a change in middle ear resonance frequency during pregnancy. A prospective case-control study was designed at a tertiary referral center. The study included 46 pregnant women at the third trimester (27-40 weeks) and 43 nonpregnant voluntary women. All the study subjects underwent pure-tone audiometry and multifrequency tympanometry. Pure-tone hearing levels at frequencies of 250 to 8000 Hz and resonance frequency values were compared between pregnant and nonpregnant women. Impact of age, side of the tested ear, and weight gained in pregnancy on resonance frequency were evaluated. Air conduction threshold values at frequencies of 250 Hz and 500 Hz were significantly higher in pregnant women than in the control group (P<0.001). Middle ear resonance frequency values of both ears in pregnant women were found to be significantly lower than those in control group (P<0.001). There was no statistically significant relation of middle ear resonance frequency values to age or side of the tested ear in both groups (P>0.05). A negative correlation between weight gained in pregnancy and middle ear resonance frequency values was determined for the left ear (correlation coefficient for left ears: -0.348, P=0.018). The results of this study suggest that resonance frequency may be decreased during the pregnancy. More comprehensive studies in which many pregnant women followed regularly before and after pregnancy are needed to have more certain links. PMID:27588163

  3. Decrease in Middle Ear Resonance Frequency During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Dag, Emine Kutlu; Gulumser, Cagri; Erbek, Seyra

    2016-01-01

    Many physiological changes occur during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to reveal whether there is a change in middle ear resonance frequency during pregnancy. A prospective case-control study was designed at a tertiary referral center. The study included 46 pregnant women at the third trimester (27-40 weeks) and 43 nonpregnant voluntary women. All the study subjects underwent pure-tone audiometry and multifrequency tympanometry. Pure-tone hearing levels at frequencies of 250 to 8000 Hz and resonance frequency values were compared between pregnant and nonpregnant women. Impact of age, side of the tested ear, and weight gained in pregnancy on resonance frequency were evaluated. Air conduction threshold values at frequencies of 250 Hz and 500 Hz were significantly higher in pregnant women than in the control group (P<0.001). Middle ear resonance frequency values of both ears in pregnant women were found to be significantly lower than those in control group (P<0.001). There was no statistically significant relation of middle ear resonance frequency values to age or side of the tested ear in both groups (P>0.05). A negative correlation between weight gained in pregnancy and middle ear resonance frequency values was determined for the left ear (correlation coefficient for left ears: –0.348, P=0.018). The results of this study suggest that resonance frequency may be decreased during the pregnancy. More comprehensive studies in which many pregnant women followed regularly before and after pregnancy are needed to have more certain links. PMID:27588163

  4. 3D ear identification based on sparse representation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Ding, Zhixuan; Li, Hongyu; Shen, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Biometrics based personal authentication is an effective way for automatically recognizing, with a high confidence, a person's identity. Recently, 3D ear shape has attracted tremendous interests in research field due to its richness of feature and ease of acquisition. However, the existing ICP (Iterative Closet Point)-based 3D ear matching methods prevalent in the literature are not quite efficient to cope with the one-to-many identification case. In this paper, we aim to fill this gap by proposing a novel effective fully automatic 3D ear identification system. We at first propose an accurate and efficient template-based ear detection method. By utilizing such a method, the extracted ear regions are represented in a common canonical coordinate system determined by the ear contour template, which facilitates much the following stages of feature extraction and classification. For each extracted 3D ear, a feature vector is generated as its representation by making use of a PCA-based local feature descriptor. At the stage of classification, we resort to the sparse representation based classification approach, which actually solves an l1-minimization problem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work introducing the sparse representation framework into the field of 3D ear identification. Extensive experiments conducted on a benchmark dataset corroborate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach. The associated Matlab source code and the evaluation results have been made publicly online available at http://sse.tongji.edu.cn/linzhang/ear/srcear/srcear.htm. PMID:24740247

  5. Human fetal inner ear involvement in congenital cytomegalovirus infection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a leading cause of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). The mechanisms of pathogenesis of CMV-related SNHL are still unclear. The aim is to study congenital CMV-related damage in the fetal inner ear, in order to better understand the underlying pathophysiology behind CMV-SNHL. Results We studied inner ears and brains of 20 human fetuses, all at 21 week gestational age, with a high viral load in the amniotic fluid, with and without ultrasound (US) brain abnormalities. We evaluated histological brain damage, inner ear infection, local inflammatory response and tissue viral load. Immunohistochemistry revealed that CMV was positive in 14/20 brains (70%) and in the inner ears of 9/20 fetuses (45%). In the cases with inner ear infection, the marginal cell layer of the stria vascularis was always infected, followed by infection in the Reissner’s membrane. The highest tissue viral load was observed in the inner ear with infected Organ of Corti. Vestibular labyrinth showed CMV infection of sensory cells in the utricle and in the crista ampullaris. US cerebral anomalies were detected in 6 cases, and in all those cases, the inner ear was always involved. In the other 14 cases with normal brain scan, histological brain damage was present in 8 fetuses and 3 of them presented inner ear infection. Conclusions CMV-infection of the marginal cell layer of the stria vascularis may alter potassium and ion circulation, dissipating the endocochlear potential with consequent SNHL. Although abnormal cerebral US is highly predictive of brain and inner ear damage, normal US findings cannot exclude them either. PMID:24252374

  6. Ontogenetic and phylogenetic transformations of the ear ossicles in marsupial mammals.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R; Gemballa, Sven; Nummela, Sirpa; Smith, Kathleen K; Maier, Wolfgang

    2002-03-01

    some phalangeriforms, the latter showing a short neck, absence of the lamina, and a ventrally directed manubrium. Hearing starts in M. domestica at an age in which the external auditory meatus has not yet fully developed, the ossicles are not fully ossified, and the middle ear space is partially filled with loose mesenchyme. The ontogenetic changes in hearing abilities in M. domestica between postnatal days 30 and 40 may be at least partially related to changes in middle ear structures. PMID:11835361

  7. 3D visualization of middle ear structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Uwe; Schmitt, Thomas

    1998-06-01

    The achievement of volume geometry data from middle ear structures and surrounding components performs a necessary supposition for the finite element simulation of the vibrational and transfer characteristics of the ossicular chain. So far those models base on generalized figures and size data from anatomy textbooks or particular manual and one- or two-dimensional distance measurements of single ossicles, mostly obtained by light microscopy, respectively. Therefore the goal of this study is to create a procedure for complete three-dimensional imaging of real middle ear structures (tympanic membrane, ossicles, ligaments) in vitro or even in vivo. The main problems are their microscopic size with relevant structures from 10 micrometer to 5 mm, representing various tissue properties (bone, soft tissue). Additionally, these structures are surrounded by the temporal bone, the most solid bone of the human body. Generally there exist several established diagnostic tools for medical imaging that could be used for geometry data acquisition, e.g., X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Basically they image different tissue parameters, either bony structures (ossicles), or soft tissue (tympanic membrane, ligaments). But considering this application those standard techniques allow low spatial resolution only, usually in the 0.5 - 1mm range, at least in one spatial direction. Thus particular structures of the middle ear region could even be missed completely because of their spatial location. In vitro there is a way out by collecting three complete data sets, each distinguished by 90 degree rotation of a cube-shaped temporal bone specimen. That allows high-resolution imaging in three orthogonal planes, which essentially supports the three-dimensional interpolation of the unknown elements, starting from the regularly set elements of the cubic grid with an edge extension given by the original two-dimensional matrix. A different approach represents the

  8. Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor in the Dermis of the External Auditory Meatus.

    PubMed

    Maghari, Amin; Zaleski, Theresa A; Jow, Tiffany; Lambert, W Clark

    2016-01-01

    A 26-year-old African American woman with a history of a recurring "oozing papule" in the right ear presented to the emergency department in July 2010 with a 2-month history of an enlarging, painful growth in the right ear canal. Physical examination revealed a 1-cm round cystic lesion along the right, anterior external auditory canal wall, just medial to the tragus. Initial diagnosis was an infected cyst of the external ear canal. The patient was instructed to follow-up with an ear, nose, and throat (ENT) office. Two months following the emergency department visit, inspection by ENT revealed a 3- to 4-mm round, firm subcutaneous nodule that did not extend into the ear canal or cartilage. According to the patient, this lesion had recurred with several infections. The lesion was biopsied in the outpatient setting and demonstrated ulceration with marked acute and chronic inflammation in addition to granulation tissue. Two months later, the lesion was surgically excised. The final diagnosis of giant cell tumor, tenosynovial type with lesion-free margins, and no involvement of the cartilage was made (Figures 1-3). No further treatment was recommended. Gross examination of the excised lesion revealed tan to white soft tissue measuring 1.0×0.7×0.3 cm. Results from factor XIII A immunostain was negative, confirming that the lesion did not represent an unusual variant of fibrous histiocytoma (Figure 4). To date, recurrence of this lesion has not been appreciated. PMID:27072732

  9. Middle ear mucosal regeneration with three-dimensionally tissue-engineered autologous middle ear cell sheets in rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Yuichiro; Murakami, Daisuke; Yamato, Masayuki; Hama, Takanori; Yamamoto, Kazuhisa; Kojima, Hiromi; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Okano, Teruo

    2016-03-01

    The likelihood of recurrent retraction and adhesion of newly formed tympanic membrane is high when middle ear mucosa is extensively lost during cholesteatoma and adhesive otitis media surgery. If rapid postoperative regeneration of the mucosa on the exposed bone surface can be achieved, prevention of recurrent eardrum adhesion and cholesteatoma formation, for which there has been no definitive treatment, can be expected. Suture-less transplantation of tissue-engineered mucosal cell sheets was examined immediately after the operation of otitis media surgery in order to quickly regenerate middle ear mucosa lost during surgery in a rabbit model. Transplantable middle ear mucosal cell sheets with a three-dimensional tissue architecture very similar to native middle ear mucosa were fabricated from middle ear mucosal tissue fragments obtained in an autologous manner from middle ear bulla on temperature-responsive culture surfaces. Immediately after the mucosa was resected from middle ear bone bulla inner cavity, mucosal cell sheets were grafted at the resected site. Both bone hyperplasia and granulation tissue formation were inhibited and early mucosal regeneration was observed in the cell sheet-grafted group, compared with the control group in which only mucosal removal was carried out and the bone surface exposed. This result indicates that tissue engineered mucosal cell sheets would be useful to minimize complications after the surgical operation on otitis media and future clinical application is expected. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23894137

  10. Two Ears Are Not Always Better than One: Mandatory Vowel Fusion Across Spectrally Mismatched Ears in Hearing-Impaired Listeners.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Lina A J; Eggleston, Jessica L; Walker, Emily P; Oh, Yonghee

    2016-08-01

    Hearing loss and auditory prostheses can alter auditory processing by inducing large pitch mismatches and broad pitch fusion between the two ears. Similar to integration of incongruent inputs in other sensory modalities, the mismatched, fused pitches are often averaged across ears for simple stimuli. Here, we measured parallel effects on complex stimulus integration using a new technique based on vowel classification in five bilateral hearing aid users and eight bimodal cochlear implant users. Continua between five pairs of synthetic vowels were created by varying the first formant spectral peak while keeping the second formant constant. Comparison of binaural and monaural vowel classification functions for each vowel pair continuum enabled visualization of the following frequency-dependent integration trends: (1) similar monaural and binaural functions, (2) ear dominance, (3) binaural averaging, and (4) binaural interference. Hearing aid users showed all trends, while bimodal cochlear implant users showed mostly ear dominance or interference. Interaural pitch mismatches, frequency ranges of binaural pitch fusion, and the relative weightings of pitch averaging across ears were also measured using tone and/or electrode stimulation. The presence of both large interaural pitch mismatches and broad pitch fusion was not sufficient to predict vowel integration trends such as binaural averaging or interference. The way that pitch averaging was weighted between ears also appears to be important for determining binaural vowel integration trends. Abnormally broad spectral fusion and the associated phoneme fusion across mismatched ears may underlie binaural speech perception interference observed in hearing aid and cochlear implant users. PMID:27220769

  11. Evolution of Gravity Receptors in the Ear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popper, Arthur N. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The general status of a grant to investigate the origins and evolution of two hair cell types in the ears of a teleost fish, Astronotus ocellatus (the oscar), is presented. First, it was demonstrated that the cells in the rostral end of the saccule of the , Carassius auratus, are type 1-like, while those at the caudal end are type 2 cells. It was demonstrated that the dichotomy of hair cell types found in the utricle of the oscar is also found in the goldfish. Second, the lateral line system of the oscar was examined using gentamicin sulphate, an ototocix drug that destroys type 1- like hair cells but does not appear to damage type 2 hair cells. It was demonstrated that the hair cells found in neuromasts of lateral line canal organs were totally destroyed within 1 day of treatment, while the hair cells in free neuromasts were undamaged after 12 days of treatment. Third, it was demonstrated that the calyx, the specialized nerve ending, is not unique to amniotes and that it is present at least in the cristae of semicirular canals in goldfish. These results have demonstrated that: (1) there are multiple hair cell types in the vestibular endorgans of the ear of fishes, (2) these hair cell types are very similar to those found in the mammalian vestibular endorgans, (3) the nerve calyx is also present in fishes, and (4) multiple hair cell types and the calyx have evolved far earlier in the course of vertebrate evolution than heretofore thought. Understanding the structure of the vestibular endorgans has important implications for being able to understand how these organs respond to gravistatic, acceleration and acoustic input. The vestibular endorgans of fishes may provide an ideal system in which to analyze functional differences in hair cells. Not only are the two hair cell types similar to those found in mammals, they are located in very discrete regions in each endorgan. Thus, it is relatively easy to gain access to cells of one or the other type. The presence of two

  12. EARS : Repositioning data management near data acquisition.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinquin, Jean-Marc; Sorribas, Jordi; Diviacco, Paolo; Vandenberghe, Thomas; Munoz, Raquel; Garcia, Oscar

    2016-04-01

    The EU FP7 Projects Eurofleets and Eurofleets2 are an European wide alliance of marine research centers that aim to share their research vessels, to improve information sharing on planned, current and completed cruises, on details of ocean-going research vessels and specialized equipment, and to durably improve cost-effectiveness of cruises. Within this context logging of information on how, when and where anything happens on board of the vessel is crucial information for data users in a later stage. This forms a primordial step in the process of data quality control as it could assist in the understanding of anomalies and unexpected trends recorded in the acquired data sets. In this way completeness of the metadata is improved as it is recorded accurately at the origin of the measurement. The collection of this crucial information has been done in very different ways, using different procedures, formats and pieces of software in the context of the European Research Fleet. At the time that the Eurofleets project started, every institution and country had adopted different strategies and approaches, which complicated the task of users that need to log general purpose information and events on-board whenever they access a different platform loosing the opportunity to produce this valuable metadata on-board. Among the many goals the Eurofleets project has, a very important task is the development of an "event log software" called EARS (Eurofleets Automatic Reporting System) that enables scientists and operators to record what happens during a survey. EARS will allow users to fill, in a standardized way, the gap existing at the moment in metadata description that only very seldom links data with its history. Events generated automatically by acquisition instruments will also be handled, enhancing the granularity and precision of the event annotation. The adoption of a common procedure to log survey events and a common terminology to describe them is crucial to provide

  13. Crouzon’s Syndrome with Life-Threatening Ear Bleed: Ruptured Jugular Vein Diverticulum Treated by Endovascular Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Mondel, Prabath Kumar Anand, Sunanda Limaye, Uday S.

    2015-08-15

    Crouzon’s syndrome is the commonest variety of syndromic craniosynostosis. Life-threatening ear bleed due to ruptured jugular venous diverticulum in Crouzon’s syndrome has not been described previously. In patients with syndromic craniosynostosis, definitive repair of jugular diverticulum by open surgery is fraught with high risk of bleeding, poor functional outcomes, and even death. A 24-year-old woman with Crouzon’s syndrome presented with conductive hearing loss and recurrent episodes of torrential bleeding from her left ear. On computed tomography, a defect in the roof of jugular fossa containing jugular venous diverticulum immediately inferior to the bony external auditory canal was seen. The clinical presentation, imaging features, and endovascular management of Crouzon’s syndrome due to a ruptured jugular venous diverticulum is described.

  14. Profile of capsaicin-induced mouse ear oedema as neurogenic inflammatory model: comparison with arachidonic acid-induced ear oedema.

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, H.; Nagata, N.; Koshihara, Y.

    1993-01-01

    1. We have investigated the mechanism of capsaicin-induced mouse ear oedema compared with that of arachidonic acid (AA)-induced ear oedema, and evaluated the possible involvement of neuropeptides in the development of capsaicin-induced oedema. 2. Topical application of capsaicin (0.1-1.0 mg per ear) to the ear of mice produced immediate vasodilatation and erythema followed by the development of oedema which was maximal at 30 min after the treatment. This oedema was of shorter duration with less swelling than AA-induced oedema (2.0 mg per ear). 3. Capsaicin-induced ear oedema was unaffected when inhibitors of arachidonate metabolites including platelet activating factor (PAF) were administered before capsaicin (250 micrograms per ear) application, while these agents significantly prevented AA-induced oedema. Dexamethasone, histamine H1 and/or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) antagonists, and substance P (SP) antagonists were effective in inhibiting both models. Furthermore, a Ca(2+)-channel blocker and the capsaicin inhibitor, ruthenium red, were effective inhibitors of capsaicin oedema but had no effect on AA-induced oedema. 4. Phosphoramidon (50 micrograms kg-1, i.v.), an endopeptidase inhibitor, markedly (P < 0.001) enhanced only capsaicin-induced ear oedema, but bestatin (0.5 mg kg-1, i.v.), an aminopeptidase, failed to enhance oedema formation. 5. Neuropeptides (1-100 pmol per site) such as rat calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), SP, neurokinin A (NKA), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), which are released from capsaicin-sensitive neurones, caused ear oedema by intradermal injection. Furthermore, a synergistic effect of CGRP (10 fmol per site) and SP (10pmol per site) on oedema formation was observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7508328

  15. External artery heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor); Ernst, Donald M. (Inventor); Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An improved heat pipe with an external artery. The longitudinal slot in the heat pipe wall which interconnects the heat pipe vapor space with the external artery is completely filled with sintered wick material and the wall of the external artery is also covered with sintered wick material. This added wick structure assures that the external artery will continue to feed liquid to the heat pipe evaporator even if a vapor bubble forms within and would otherwise block the liquid transport function of the external artery.

  16. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4420 Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat manual...

  17. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  18. 21 CFR 874.3620 - Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3620 Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material. (a) Identification. Ear, nose, and throat synthetic...

  19. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  20. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  1. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  2. 21 CFR 874.3620 - Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3620 Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material. (a) Identification. Ear, nose, and throat synthetic...

  3. 15 CFR 732.2 - Steps regarding scope of the EAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Steps regarding scope of the EAR. 732... FOR USING THE EAR § 732.2 Steps regarding scope of the EAR. Steps 1 though 6 are designed to aid you in determining the scope of the EAR. A flow chart describing these steps is contained in...

  4. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4420 Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat manual...

  5. 21 CFR 874.3620 - Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3620 Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material. (a) Identification. Ear, nose, and throat synthetic...

  6. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  7. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  8. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  9. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  10. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  11. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  12. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  13. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  14. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  15. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4420 Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat manual...

  16. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4420 Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat manual...

  17. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  18. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  19. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  20. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  1. 15 CFR 732.2 - Steps regarding scope of the EAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Steps regarding scope of the EAR. 732... FOR USING THE EAR § 732.2 Steps regarding scope of the EAR. Steps 1 though 6 are designed to aid you in determining the scope of the EAR. A flow chart describing these steps is contained in...

  2. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  3. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  4. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  5. Technical considerations in brachytherapy boost for a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal based on our case.

    PubMed

    Ilangovan, Bhargavi; Stumpf, Janos; Murali, V; Sasikumar, Neetu; Devi, Rathna

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal is a rare entity. The patients present with ear discharge and otalgia. They are treated with radiotherapy and surgery. Surgery with oncological priorities is quite complex with substantial consequences. We are reporting a patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal, who was treated with limited surgery followed by radiotherapy. Radiotherapy was a combination of external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy. High dose rate brachytherapy was given using an ear speculum fixed with wax and a suction catheter. This article is to highlight the technique and dosimetry of the brachytherapy procedure. PMID:26458716

  6. An investigation of matching symmetry in the human pinnae with possible implications for 3D ear recognition and sound localization.

    PubMed

    Claes, Peter; Reijniers, Jonas; Shriver, Mark D; Snyders, Jonatan; Suetens, Paul; Nielandt, Joachim; De Tré, Guy; Vandermeulen, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The human external ears, or pinnae, have an intriguing shape and, like most parts of the human external body, bilateral symmetry is observed between left and right. It is a well-known part of our auditory sensory system and mediates the spatial localization of incoming sounds in 3D from monaural cues due to its shape-specific filtering as well as binaural cues due to the paired bilateral locations of the left and right ears. Another less broadly appreciated aspect of the human pinna shape is its uniqueness from one individual to another, which is on the level of what is seen in fingerprints and facial features. This makes pinnae very useful in human identification, which is of great interest in biometrics and forensics. Anatomically, the type of symmetry observed is known as matching symmetry, with structures present as separate mirror copies on both sides of the body, and in this work we report the first such investigation of the human pinna in 3D. Within the framework of geometric morphometrics, we started by partitioning ear shape, represented in a spatially dense way, into patterns of symmetry and asymmetry, following a two-factor anova design. Matching symmetry was measured in all substructures of the pinna anatomy. However, substructures that 'stick out' such as the helix, tragus, and lobule also contained a fair degree of asymmetry. In contrast, substructures such as the conchae, antitragus, and antihelix expressed relatively stronger degrees of symmetric variation in relation to their levels of asymmetry. Insights gained from this study were injected into an accompanying identification setup exploiting matching symmetry where improved performance is demonstrated. Finally, possible implications of the results in the context of ear recognition as well as sound localization are discussed. PMID:25382291

  7. [Aural polyp in chronic inflammatory middle ear disease].

    PubMed

    López Aguado, D; López Campos, D; Pérez Piñero, B; Campos Bañales, M E

    2003-03-01

    240 patients with chronic otitis media (COM) were studied: 166 ears termed as non cholesteatomatous otitis media and 74 with cholesteatoma. In 38 ears an aural polyp was found with no evidence of cholesteatoma in 19 ears (11.4%) whereas a cholesteatoma was present in the remaining 19 ears. The histology of the polyp and the characteristics of the chronic process were matched: a) The aural polyp is an infrequent complication in COM. b) After histological analysis was found to present two different pictures: The inflammatory reaction polyp, present in non cholesteatomatous COM; and the polyp with granulation tissue and foreign body reaction (keratina) usually found in cholesteatomatous COM. c) The finding of granulation tissue reaction and keratina in an aural polyp is a good predictor for the presence of a cholesteatoma. PMID:12825338

  8. Ear tube surgery - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Below are some questions you may want to ask your child's health care provider to help you ... What to ask your doctor about ear tube surgery; Tympanostomy - what to ask your doctor; Myringotomy - what to ask your doctor

  9. Revision Stapedectomy in a Female Patient with Inner Ear Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Tirth R.; Moberly, Aaron C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We describe an unusual case of surgical management of congenital mixed hearing loss in a female patient with inner ear malformation. This report outlines the role of temporal bone imaging and previous surgical history in evaluating a patient's risk of perilymph gusher during stapes surgery. Methods. A 68-year-old female patient with a history of profound bilateral mixed hearing loss due to ossicular and cochlear malformation presented to our otology clinic. She had undergone multiple unsuccessful previous ear surgeries. Computed tomography revealed bilateral inner ear malformations. She elected to proceed with revision stapedectomy. Results. The patient received modest benefit to hearing, and no operative complications occurred. Conclusions. Although stapedectomy has been shown to improve hearing in patients with stapes fixation, there is risk of perilymph gusher in patients with inner ear abnormalities. Evaluation and counseling of the risk of gusher during stapes surgery should be done on a case-by-case basis. PMID:27144044

  10. A rabbit ear model for cold stress testing.

    PubMed

    Smith, T L; Gordon, S; Holden, M B; Smith, B P; Russell, G B; Koman, L A

    1994-01-01

    A rabbit ear model resembling the human digit was studied to determine the vascular response of the rabbit ear to a cold stress. Following moderate cooling (10 minutes at 5 degrees - 8 degrees C), auricular blood flow and cutaneous perfusion were reduced. This decrease was reversed by 30 minutes of warming. The response in the rabbit ear to cold stress is similar to that of normal human digits. The similarities between the control of the circulation in human digits and rabbit ears may result from the similarities in digital and auricular vascular receptors and receptor subtypes. Verification of the rabbit model provides an experimental method for obtaining important data regarding digital pathophysiology and the treatment of cold intolerance. Further study with this model will provide clinically relevant information regarding the pathophysiology of digital thermoregulatory abnormalities. PMID:7830538

  11. Ear projection and the posterior auricular muscle insertion.

    PubMed

    Guyuron, B; DeLuca, L

    1997-08-01

    Prominent ears is a common congenital anomaly affecting approximately 5 percent of the general population. The etiology has been attributed to three basic deformities in the ear structure: valgus of the concha with a cranioauricular angle greater than 40 degrees, underfolding of the anthelix, and rarely, hypertrophy of the concha. It is believed that by virtue of its insertion onto the ponticulus, the cranial surface of the concha, the posterior auricular muscle may function to pull the auricle back toward the head. A proximally (anteromedially) displaced insertion site would decrease the length of the effective momentum of the muscle, leading to protrusion of the auricle. This study was conducted to determine if indeed a relationship between the posterior muscle insertion site and ear projection could be established clinically by measuring these parameters intraoperatively in patients presenting for otoplasty and in patients without prominent ears who required conchal cartilage grafts for other procedures. PMID:9252616

  12. Barotrauma of the ears and sinuses after scuba diving.

    PubMed

    Becker, G D; Parell, G J

    2001-05-01

    The pathophysiology, differential diagnosis, and currently available management of barotrauma affecting the ears and sinuses after scuba diving are reviewed, along with medical standards for resuming scuba diving after barotrauma has resolved. PMID:11407445

  13. How minute sooglossid frogs hear without a middle ear

    PubMed Central

    Boistel, Renaud; Aubin, Thierry; Cloetens, Peter; Peyrin, Françoise; Scotti, Thierry; Herzog, Philippe; Gerlach, Justin; Pollet, Nicolas; Aubry, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic communication is widespread in animals. According to the sensory drive hypothesis [Endler JA (1993) Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 340(1292):215–225], communication signals and perceptual systems have coevolved. A clear illustration of this is the evolution of the tetrapod middle ear, adapted to life on land. Here we report the discovery of a bone conduction–mediated stimulation of the ear by wave propagation in Sechellophryne gardineri, one of the world’s smallest terrestrial tetrapods, which lacks a middle ear yet produces acoustic signals. Based on X-ray synchrotron holotomography, we measured the biomechanical properties of the otic tissues and modeled the acoustic propagation. Our models show how bone conduction enhanced by the resonating role of the mouth allows these seemingly deaf frogs to communicate effectively without a middle ear. PMID:24003145

  14. Green laser light activates the inner ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, Gentiana I.; Balster, Sven; Zhang, Kaiyin; Lim, Hubert H.; Reich, Uta; Massow, Ole; Lubatschowski, Holger; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Lenarz, Thomas; Reuter, Guenter

    2009-07-01

    The hearing performance with conventional hearing aids and cochlear implants is dramatically reduced in noisy environments and for sounds more complex than speech (e. g. music), partially due to the lack of localized sensorineural activation across different frequency regions with these devices. Laser light can be focused in a controlled manner and may provide more localized activation of the inner ear, the cochlea. We sought to assess whether visible light with parameters that could induce an optoacoustic effect (532 nm, 10-ns pulses) would activate the cochlea. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were recorded preoperatively in anesthetized guinea pigs to confirm normal hearing. After opening the bulla, a 50-μm core-diameter optical fiber was positioned in the round window niche and directed toward the basilar membrane. Optically induced ABRs (OABRs), similar in shape to those of acoustic stimulation, were elicited with single pulses. The OABR peaks increased with energy level (0.6 to 23 μJ/pulse) and remained consistent even after 30 minutes of continuous stimulation at 13 μJ, indicating minimal or no stimulation-induced damage within the cochlea. Our findings demonstrate that visible light can effectively and reliably activate the cochlea without any apparent damage. Further studies are in progress to investigate the frequency-specific nature and mechanism of green light cochlear activation.

  15. Tricellular Tight Junctions in the Inner Ear

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) are structures that seal the space between the epithelial cell sheets. In the inner ear, the barrier function of TJs is indispensable for the separation of the endolymphatic and perilymphatic spaces, which is essential for the generation and maintenance of the endocochlear potential (EP). TJs are formed by the intercellular binding of membrane proteins, known as claudins, and mutations in these proteins cause deafness in humans and mice. Within the epithelial cell sheet, however, a bound structure is present at the site where the corners of three cells meet (tricellular tight junctions (tTJs)), and the maintenance of the barrier function at this location cannot be explained by the claudins alone. Tricellulin and the angulin family of proteins (angulin-1/LSR, angulin-2/ILDR1, and angulin-3/ILDR2) have been identified as tTJ-associated proteins. Tricellulin and ILDR1 are localized at the tTJ and alterations in these proteins have been reported to be involved in deafness. In this review, we will present the current state of knowledge for tTJs. PMID:27195292

  16. Tricellular Tight Junctions in the Inner Ear.

    PubMed

    Kitajiri, Shin-Ichiro; Katsuno, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) are structures that seal the space between the epithelial cell sheets. In the inner ear, the barrier function of TJs is indispensable for the separation of the endolymphatic and perilymphatic spaces, which is essential for the generation and maintenance of the endocochlear potential (EP). TJs are formed by the intercellular binding of membrane proteins, known as claudins, and mutations in these proteins cause deafness in humans and mice. Within the epithelial cell sheet, however, a bound structure is present at the site where the corners of three cells meet (tricellular tight junctions (tTJs)), and the maintenance of the barrier function at this location cannot be explained by the claudins alone. Tricellulin and the angulin family of proteins (angulin-1/LSR, angulin-2/ILDR1, and angulin-3/ILDR2) have been identified as tTJ-associated proteins. Tricellulin and ILDR1 are localized at the tTJ and alterations in these proteins have been reported to be involved in deafness. In this review, we will present the current state of knowledge for tTJs. PMID:27195292

  17. Blackbody for metrological control of ear thermometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cárdenas-García, D.; Méndez-Lango, E.

    2013-09-01

    Body temperature is an important parameter in medical practice, and most of health diagnoses are made based upon measured temperature values. Non-contact measurements are attractive to both patients and physicians, and ear thermometers (ET) are part of the set of infrared thermometers for medical applications. ETs sense the tympanic membrane temperature which best represents body temperature. They take advantage of the natural high effective emissivity cavity that is formed as radiation source. To calibrate or to check the performance of ETs, we designed a high-emissivity spherical cavity as a blackbody source which can be placed in a dry block oven. Although the blackbody cavity can have any shape, we decided to build it spherical because its effective emissivity can be easily calculated in a closed form. The cavity is made of Aluminum to take advantage of its high thermal conductivity while its inner side is covered with a black paint to increase the cavity effective emissivity. Based on paint emissivity measurements and the geometrical shape, we calculated that the cavity has an effective emissivity higher than 0.999. Blackbody temperature is measured with a calibrated contact thermometer placed inside the bottom wall of the cavity. We present the design of the cavity, the experimental setup, and results of three commercial ETs compared with this cavity.

  18. Ear keloids: a review and update of treatment options

    PubMed Central

    SOBEC, RALUCA; DOBREANU, CODRIN; FODOR, LUCIAN; ŞOMCUTEAN, ANA; ŢICHIL, IOANA; COSGAREA, MARCEL

    2013-01-01

    Ear keloids are among the most challenging plastic surgery conditions and may have significant psychosocial impact for the patient. Their aesthetic considerations are serious and despite a variety of treatment options, they often proved to be recurrent. This paper reviews the management options of ear keloids available in literature up to date. Multiple therapeutic options are discussed, such as: surgical treatment, corticosteroid injections, laser therapy, cryotherapy, radiotherapy, pressure therapy, therapy with antitumor or immunosuppressive agents. PMID:26527968

  19. SHIELD: an integrative gene expression database for inner ear research.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jun; Scheffer, Déborah I; Kwan, Kelvin Y; Corey, David P

    2015-01-01

    The inner ear is a highly specialized mechanosensitive organ responsible for hearing and balance. Its small size and difficulty in harvesting sufficient tissue has hindered the progress of molecular studies. The protein components of mechanotransduction, the molecular biology of inner ear development and the genetic causes of many hereditary hearing and balance disorders remain largely unknown. Inner-ear gene expression data will help illuminate each of these areas. For over a decade, our laboratories and others have generated extensive sets of gene expression data for different cell types in the inner ear using various sample preparation methods and high-throughput genome-wide approaches. To facilitate the study of genes in the inner ear by efficient presentation of the accumulated data and to foster collaboration among investigators, we have developed the Shared Harvard Inner Ear Laboratory Database (SHIELD), an integrated resource that seeks to compile, organize and analyse the genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic knowledge of the inner ear. Five datasets are currently available. These datasets are combined in a relational database that integrates experimental data and annotations relevant to the inner ear. The SHIELD has a searchable web interface with two data retrieval options: viewing the gene pages online or downloading individual datasets as data tables. Each retrieved gene page shows the gene expression data and detailed gene information with hyperlinks to other online databases with up-to-date annotations. Downloadable data tables, for more convenient offline data analysis, are derived from publications and are current as of the time of publication. The SHIELD has made published and some unpublished data freely available to the public with the hope and expectation of accelerating discovery in the molecular biology of balance, hearing and deafness. PMID:26209310

  20. SHIELD: an integrative gene expression database for inner ear research

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jun; Scheffer, Déborah I.; Kwan, Kelvin Y.; Corey, David P.

    2015-01-01

    The inner ear is a highly specialized mechanosensitive organ responsible for hearing and balance. Its small size and difficulty in harvesting sufficient tissue has hindered the progress of molecular studies. The protein components of mechanotransduction, the molecular biology of inner ear development and the genetic causes of many hereditary hearing and balance disorders remain largely unknown. Inner-ear gene expression data will help illuminate each of these areas. For over a decade, our laboratories and others have generated extensive sets of gene expression data for different cell types in the inner ear using various sample preparation methods and high-throughput genome-wide approaches. To facilitate the study of genes in the inner ear by efficient presentation of the accumulated data and to foster collaboration among investigators, we have developed the Shared Harvard Inner Ear Laboratory Database (SHIELD), an integrated resource that seeks to compile, organize and analyse the genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic knowledge of the inner ear. Five datasets are currently available. These datasets are combined in a relational database that integrates experimental data and annotations relevant to the inner ear. The SHIELD has a searchable web interface with two data retrieval options: viewing the gene pages online or downloading individual datasets as data tables. Each retrieved gene page shows the gene expression data and detailed gene information with hyperlinks to other online databases with up-to-date annotations. Downloadable data tables, for more convenient offline data analysis, are derived from publications and are current as of the time of publication. The SHIELD has made published and some unpublished data freely available to the public with the hope and expectation of accelerating discovery in the molecular biology of balance, hearing and deafness. Database URL: https://shield.hms.harvard.edu PMID:26209310

  1. Temporal bone meningioma involving the middle ear: A case report

    PubMed Central

    RICCIARDIELLO, FILIPPO; FATTORE, LUCIA; LIGUORI, MARIA ESTER; OLIVA, FLAVIA; LUCE, AMALIA; ABATE, TERESA; CARAGLIA, MICHELE; PIANESE, ANNALISA; RAUCCI, ALDO FALCO

    2015-01-01

    Meningioma is a common intracranial tumor involving the meninges. The localization of this type of tumor is rarely extracranial due to its typically low invasive properties. Furthermore, invasion of the middle ear is exceptional. The present study reported a case of meningioma extending into the middle ear from the middle cranial fossa through the tegmen tympani. The clinical and pathological characteristics, as well as the outcome of the patient, were described. PMID:26622828

  2. Lumped parametric model of the human ear for sound transmission.

    PubMed

    Feng, Bin; Gan, Rong Z

    2004-09-01

    A lumped parametric model of the human auditoria peripherals consisting of six masses suspended with six springs and ten dashpots was proposed. This model will provide the quantitative basis for the construction of a physical model of the human middle ear. The lumped model parameters were first identified using published anatomical data, and then determined through a parameter optimization process. The transfer function of the middle ear obtained from human temporal bone experiments with laser Doppler interferometers was used for creating the target function during the optimization process. It was found that, among 14 spring and dashpot parameters, there were five parameters which had pronounced effects on the dynamic behaviors of the model. The detailed discussion on the sensitivity of those parameters was provided with appropriate applications for sound transmission in the ear. We expect that the methods for characterizing the lumped model of the human ear and the model parameters will be useful for theoretical modeling of the ear function and construction of the ear physical model. PMID:15300453

  3. Minnesota wolf ear lengths as possible indicators of taxonomic differences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David

    2011-01-01

    Genetic findings suggest that 2 types of wolves, Canis lupus (Gray Wolf) and C. lycaon (Eastern Wolf), and/or their hybrids occupy Minnesota (MN), and this study examines adult wolf ear lengths as a possible distinguisher between these two. Photographic evidence suggested that the Eastern Wolf possesses proportionately longer ears than Gray Wolves. Ear lengths from 22 northwestern MN wolves from the early 1970s and 22 Alaskan wolves were used to represent Gray Wolves, and the greatest length of the sample (12.8 cm) was used as the least length to demarcate Eastern Wolf from Gray Wolf influence in the samples. Twenty-three percent of 112 adult wolves from Algonquin Park in eastern Ontario and 30% of 106 recent adult wolves in northeastern MN possessed ears >12.8 cm. The northeastern MN sample differed significantly from that of current and past northwestern MN wolves. Ear-lengths of wolves in the eastern half of the northeastern MN wolf population were significantly longer than those in the western half of that study area, even though the mean distance between the 2 areas was only 40 km, and the mean length of my 2004–2009 sample was significantly longer than that of 1999–2003. These findings support the hypothesis that Eastern Wolves tend to possess longer ears than do Gray Wolves and suggest a dynamic hybridization process is still underway in MN.

  4. Alternative splicing of inner-ear-expressed genes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanfei; Liu, Yueyue; Nie, Hongyun; Ma, Xin; Xu, Zhigang

    2016-09-01

    Alternative splicing plays a fundamental role in the development and physiological function of the inner ear. Inner-ear-specific gene splicing is necessary to establish the identity and maintain the function of the inner ear. For example, exon 68 of Cadherin 23 (Cdh23) gene is subject to inner-ear-specific alternative splicing, and as a result, Cdh23(+ 68) is only expressed in inner ear hair cells. Alternative splicing along the tonotopic axis of the cochlea contributes to frequency tuning, particularly in lower vertebrates, such as chickens and turtles. Differential splicing of Kcnma1, which encodes for the α subunit of the Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel (BK channel), has been suggested to affect the channel gating properties and is important for frequency tuning. Consequently, deficits in alternative splicing have been shown to cause hearing loss, as we can observe in Bronx Waltzer (bv) mice and Sfswap mutant mice. Despite the advances in this field, the regulation of alternative splicing in the inner ear remains elusive. Further investigation is also needed to clarify the mechanism of hearing loss caused by alternative splicing deficits. PMID:27376950

  5. Retinoid signaling in inner ear development: A "Goldilocks" phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Frenz, Dorothy A; Liu, Wei; Cvekl, Ales; Xie, Qing; Wassef, Lesley; Quadro, Loredana; Niederreither, Karen; Maconochie, Mark; Shanske, Alan

    2010-12-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is a biologically active derivative of vitamin A that is indispensable for inner ear development. The normal function of RA is achieved only at optimal homeostatic concentrations, with an excess or deficiency in RA leading to inner ear dysmorphogenesis. We present an overview of the role of RA in the developing mammalian inner ear, discussing both how and when RA may act to critically control a program of inner ear development. Molecular mechanisms of otic teratogenicity involving two members of the fibroblast growth factor family, FGF3 and FGF10, and their downstream targets, Dlx5 and Dlx6, are examined under conditions of both RA excess and deficiency. We term the effect of too little or too much RA on FGF/Dlx signaling a Goldilocks phenomenon. We demonstrate that in each case (RA excess, RA deficiency), RA can directly affect FGF3/FGF10 signaling within the otic epithelium, leading to downregulated expression of these essential signaling molecules, which in turn, leads to diminution in Dlx5/Dlx6 expression. Non-cell autonomous affects of the otic epithelium subsequently occur, altering transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) expression in the neighboring periotic mesenchyme and serving as a putative explanation for RA-mediated otic capsule defects. We conclude that RA coordinates inner ear morphogenesis by controlling an FGF/Dlx signaling cascade, whose perturbation by deviations in local retinoid concentrations can lead to inner ear dysmorphogenesis. PMID:21108385

  6. Sound pressure gain produced by the human middle ear.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, H; Goode, R L

    1995-10-01

    The acoustic function of the middle ear is to match sound passing from the low impedance of air to the high impedance of cochlear fluid. Little information is available on the actual middle ear pressure gain in human beings. This article describes experiments on middle ear pressure gain in six fresh human temporal bones. Stapes footplate displacement and phase were measured with a laser Doppler vibrometer before and after removal of the tympanic membrane, malleus, and incus. Acoustic insulation of the round window with clay was performed. Umbo displacement was also measured before tympanic membrane removal to assess baseline tympanic membrane function. The middle ear has its major gain in the lower frequencies, with a peak near 0.9 kHz. The mean gain was 23.0 dB below 1.0 kHz, the resonant frequency of the middle ear; the mean peak gain was 26.6 dB. Above 1.0 kHz, the second pressure gain decreased at a rate of -8.6 dB/octave, with a mean gain of 6.5 dB at 4.0 kHz. Only a small amount of gain was present above 7.0 kHz. Significant individual differences in pressure gain were found between ears that appeared related to variations in tympanic membrane function and not to variations in cochlear impedance. PMID:7567003

  7. Auditory Brainstem Circuits That Mediate the Middle Ear Muscle Reflex

    PubMed Central

    Mukerji, Sudeep; Windsor, Alanna Marie; Lee, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    The middle ear muscle (MEM) reflex is one of two major descending systems to the auditory periphery. There are two middle ear muscles (MEMs): the stapedius and the tensor tympani. In man, the stapedius contracts in response to intense low frequency acoustic stimuli, exerting forces perpendicular to the stapes superstructure, increasing middle ear impedance and attenuating the intensity of sound energy reaching the inner ear (cochlea). The tensor tympani is believed to contract in response to self-generated noise (chewing, swallowing) and nonauditory stimuli. The MEM reflex pathways begin with sound presented to the ear. Transduction of sound occurs in the cochlea, resulting in an action potential that is transmitted along the auditory nerve to the cochlear nucleus in the brainstem (the first relay station for all ascending sound information originating in the ear). Unknown interneurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus project either directly or indirectly to MEM motoneurons located elsewhere in the brainstem. Motoneurons provide efferent innervation to the MEMs. Although the ascending and descending limbs of these reflex pathways have been well characterized, the identity of the reflex interneurons is not known, as are the source of modulatory inputs to these pathways. The aim of this article is to (a) provide an overview of MEM reflex anatomy and physiology, (b) present new data on MEM reflex anatomy and physiology from our laboratory and others, and (c) describe the clinical implications of our research. PMID:20870664

  8. Vitamin D receptor deficiency impairs inner ear development in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hye-Joo

    2016-09-16

    The biological actions of vitamin D are largely mediated through binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR), a member of the nuclear hormone receptor family, which regulates gene expression in a wide variety of tissues and cells. Mutations in VDR gene have been implicated in ear disorders (hearing loss and balance disorder) but the mechanisms are not well established. In this study, to investigate the role of VDR in inner ear development, morpholino-mediated gene knockdown approaches were used in zebrafish model system. Two paralogs for VDR, vdra and vdrb, have been identified in zebrafish. Knockdown of vdra had no effect on ear development, whereas knockdown of vdrb displayed morphological ear defects including smaller otic vesicles with malformed semicircular canals and abnormal otoliths. Loss-of-vdrb resulted in down-regulation of pre-otic markers, pax8 and pax2a, indicating impairment of otic induction. Furthermore, zebrafish embryos lacking vdrb produced fewer sensory hair cells in the ears and showed disruption of balance and motor coordination. These data reveal that VDR signaling plays an important role in ear development. PMID:27526995

  9. Seasonal dynamics of spinose ear tick Otobius megnini associated with horse otoacariasis in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Diyes, G C P; Rajakaruna, R S

    2016-07-01

    Otobius megnini is a one host, nidicolous soft tick (Family Argasidae) whose larvae and nymphs parasitize the external ear canal of many wild and domestic animals and occasionally humans. The present study was conducted to determine the seasonal dynamics of O. megnini infesting stabled horses in Nuwara Eliya racecourses. Ticks were sampled biweekly for two years from May 2013 to May 2015 from the ear canal of seven thoroughbred male horses. Weather data: temperature, rainfall and humidity for the study period were obtained from the Meteorological Department, Colombo. A total of 23, 287 ticks of O. megnini were collected from the ear canal of horses and all of which were immature stages comprising 41.4% larvae and 59.6% nymphs. Larval counts were high during warmer months of the year with minimum numbers recording September-November. High larval abundance may be due to the high hatching rate of eggs at high temperatures. Larval abundance was significantly affected by maximum temperature, minimum relative humidity and average relative humidity (Multiple regression; r(2)=0.5, F=3.7, p=0.01). Population peaks for nymphs occurred in May, October and January. Nymph counts were low in March and April. Weather conditions did not have any correlation with the abundance of nymphs. Rainfall had no effect on both larvae and nymph counts. Even though control measures have been taken, O. megnini infestation is a serious problem for the stable owners especially because these horses are used in racing and other recreational purposes. Further, there is a high risk of spreading this tick within the country due to the presence of suitable hosts and the adaptability of the tick to survive in changing climatic conditions. Information on the seasonal dynamics of the tick population is important for employing control measures. PMID:27012721

  10. Morphogenesis of the inner ear at different stages of normal human development.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Saki; Shiraki, Naoto; Yamada, Shigehito; Uwabe, Chigako; Imai, Hirohiko; Matsuda, Tetsuya; Yoneyama, Akio; Takeda, Tohoru; Takakuwa, Tetsuya

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the external morphology and morphometry of the human embryonic inner ear membranous labyrinth and documented its three-dimensional position in the developing embryo using phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. A total of 27 samples between Carnegie stage (CS) 17 and the postembryonic phase during trimester 1 (approximately 6-10 weeks after fertilization) were included. The otic vesicle elongated along the dorso-ventral axis and differentiated into the end lymphatic appendage and cochlear duct (CD) at CS 17. The spiral course of the CD began at CS18, with anterior and posterior semicircular ducts (SDs) forming prominent circles with a common crus. The spiral course of the CD comprised more than two turns at the postembryonic phase, at which time the height of the CD was evident. A linear increase was observed in the length of anterior, posterior, and lateral SDs, in that order, and the length of the CD increased exponentially over the course of development. Bending in the medial direction was observed between the cochlear and vestibular parts from the latero-caudal view, with the angle decreasing during development. The position of the inner ear was stable throughout the period of observation on the lateral to ventral side of the rhombencephalon, caudal to the pontine flexure, and adjacent to the auditory ganglia. The plane of the lateral semicircular canal was approximately 8.0°-14.6° with respect to the cranial caudal (z-)axis, indicating that the orientation of the inner ear changes during growth to adulthood. PMID:26369281

  11. External radiation surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site.

  12. FT-IR Microspectroscopy of Rat Ear Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Benedicto de Campos; Mello, Maria Luiza S.

    2016-01-01

    Rat ear cartilage was studied using Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy to expand the current knowledge which has been established for relatively more complex cartilage types. Comparison of the FT-IR spectra of the ear cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) with published data on articular cartilage, collagen II and 4-chondroitin-sulfate standards, as well as of collagen type I-containing dermal collagen bundles (CBs) with collagen type II, was performed. Ear cartilage ECM glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were revealed histochemically and as a reduction in ECM FT-IR spectral band heights (1140–820 cm-1) after testicular hyaluronidase digestion. Although ear cartilage is less complex than articular cartilage, it contains ECM components with a macromolecular orientation as revealed using polarization microscopy. Collagen type II and GAGs, which play a structural role in the stereo-arrangement of the ear cartilage, contribute to its FT-IR spectrum. Similar to articular cartilage, ear cartilage showed that proteoglycans add a contribution to the collagen amide I spectral region, a finding that does not recommend this region for collagen type II quantification purposes. In contrast to articular cartilage, the symmetric stretching vibration of –SO3- groups at 1064 cm-1 appeared under-represented in the FT-IR spectral profile of ear cartilage. Because the band corresponding to the asymmetric stretching vibration of –SO3- groups (1236–1225 cm-1) overlapped with that of amide III bands, it is not recommended for evaluation of the –SO3- contribution to the FT-IR spectrum of the ear cartilage ECM. Instead, a peak (or shoulder) at 1027–1016 cm-1 could be better considered for this intent. Amide I/amide II ratios as calculated here and data from the literature suggest that protein complexes of the ear cartilage ECM are arranged with a lower helical conformation compared to pure collagen II. The present results could motivate further studies on this tissue

  13. FT-IR Microspectroscopy of Rat Ear Cartilage.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Benedicto de Campos; Mello, Maria Luiza S

    2016-01-01

    Rat ear cartilage was studied using Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy to expand the current knowledge which has been established for relatively more complex cartilage types. Comparison of the FT-IR spectra of the ear cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) with published data on articular cartilage, collagen II and 4-chondroitin-sulfate standards, as well as of collagen type I-containing dermal collagen bundles (CBs) with collagen type II, was performed. Ear cartilage ECM glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were revealed histochemically and as a reduction in ECM FT-IR spectral band heights (1140-820 cm-1) after testicular hyaluronidase digestion. Although ear cartilage is less complex than articular cartilage, it contains ECM components with a macromolecular orientation as revealed using polarization microscopy. Collagen type II and GAGs, which play a structural role in the stereo-arrangement of the ear cartilage, contribute to its FT-IR spectrum. Similar to articular cartilage, ear cartilage showed that proteoglycans add a contribution to the collagen amide I spectral region, a finding that does not recommend this region for collagen type II quantification purposes. In contrast to articular cartilage, the symmetric stretching vibration of -SO3- groups at 1064 cm-1 appeared under-represented in the FT-IR spectral profile of ear cartilage. Because the band corresponding to the asymmetric stretching vibration of -SO3- groups (1236-1225 cm-1) overlapped with that of amide III bands, it is not recommended for evaluation of the -SO3- contribution to the FT-IR spectrum of the ear cartilage ECM. Instead, a peak (or shoulder) at 1027-1016 cm-1 could be better considered for this intent. Amide I/amide II ratios as calculated here and data from the literature suggest that protein complexes of the ear cartilage ECM are arranged with a lower helical conformation compared to pure collagen II. The present results could motivate further studies on this tissue under

  14. Rehabilitation of a missing ear with an implant retained auricular prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Guttal, Satyabodh Sheshraj; Shanbhag, Shruti; Kulkarni, Sudhindra S; Thakur, Srinath L

    2015-01-01

    Burns can leave a patient with a severely debilitating disability even after treatment. The objectives of burn rehabilitation are to minimize the adverse effects caused by the injury while rehabilitating the patient's physical and psychological well-being, maximizing social integration. Long-term success of maxillofacial prostheses mainly depends on the retention. Extra oral implant retained prostheses have proved to be a predictable treatment option for maxillofacial rehabilitation. Replacement of a severely deformed external ear with burned tissues may be satisfactorily accomplished by a cosmetic prosthesis anchored by implants integrated in the skull. The use of such implants is now a well-recognized method for creating a stable result in maxillofacial rehabilitation. This case report describes a safe, simple and economical method for the rehabilitation of a patient with missing right auricle using an implant supported silicone prosthesis. The implant was placed in the mastoid region of the temporal bone. Reconstruction of the ear was done with auricular silicone prosthesis, retained using magnets incorporated in an autopolymerizing resin shim to decrease the weight of the prosthesis on a single implant. This method eliminates the need of tedious laboratory procedures and exact casting and fitting requirements of a metal substructure while minimizing the overall weight and cost of the prosthesis while maintaining adequate support, esthetics and retention of the prosthesis. PMID:26929490

  15. Middle ear structure and bone conduction in Spalax, Eospalax, and Tachyoryctes mole-rats (Rodentia: Spalacidae).

    PubMed

    Mason, Matthew J; Lai, Flora W S; Li, Jin-Gang; Nevo, Eviatar

    2010-04-01

    There is evidence that spalacine, tachyoryctine, and myospalacine mole-rats all communicate with conspecifics through a form of seismic signaling, but the route for the detection of these signals is disputed. It has been proposed that two unusual anatomical adaptations in Spalax allow jaw vibrations to pass to the inner ear via the incus and stapes: a pseudoglenoid (=postglenoid) fossa which accomodates the condylar process of the mandible, and a bony cup, supported by a periotic lamina, through which the incus articulates with the skull. In this study, a combination of dissection and computed tomography was used to examine the ear region in more detail in both Spalax and its subterranean relatives Tachyoryctes and Eospalax, about which much less is known. Tachyoryctes was found to lack a pseudoglenoid fossa, while Eospalax lacks a periotic lamina and bony cup. This shows that these structures need not simultaneously be present for the detection of ground vibrations in mole-rats. Based on the observed anatomy, three hypothetical modes of bone conduction are argued to represent more likely mechanisms through which mole-rats can detect ground vibrations: ossicular inertial bone conduction, a pathway involving sound radiation into the external auditory meatus, and a newly-described fluid pathway between pseudoglenoid fossa and cranial cavity. The caudolateral extension of the tympanic cavity and the presence of a bony cup might represent synapomorphies uniting Spalax and Tachyoryctes, while the loss of the tensor tympani muscle in Spalax and Eospalax may be convergently derived. PMID:19941379

  16. The role of the Utah Artificial Ear project in the development of the modern cochlear implant.

    PubMed

    Dorman, Michael F; Parkin, James L

    2015-05-01

    The cochlear implant has provided the first substantial restoration of a human sense by a medical intervention. This accomplishment was brought about by the efforts, over a 50+ year period, of many individuals in laboratories around the world. In this paper, we recount the history of one of the early projects - the Utah Artificial Ear project. In 1970 researchers at the University of Utah began work on an auditory prosthesis. A critical early decision was to create a 'transparent' link between external signal processing and the electrodes implanted in the cochlea, i.e., a percutaneous pedestal. The pedestal allowed D. Eddington, then a graduate student, to conduct, in 1975-1978, the first thorough, parametric, psychophysical studies of electrical stimulation of the cochlea in multiple human volunteers. The early work by Eddington and colleagues evolved in 1983 into the 4-channel, Ineraid cochlear implant. Many years later, highly effective, modern signal processing algorithms, e.g., continuous interleaved sampling (CIS), fine structure processing (FSP), and virtual channel processing, were first tested and developed with the aid of Ineraid patients fit with pedestals of the Utah design. Because for many years the Ineraid provided as high a level of speech understanding as that provided by other devices and because the percutaneous pedestal allowed the first testing of many modern signal processing algorithms, the Utah Artificial Ear project may be viewed as one of the most valuable research projects in the history of cochlear implants. PMID:25941941

  17. [Equivalent Lever Principle of Ossicular Chain and Amplitude Reduction Effect of Internal Ear Lymph].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoyan; Qin, Renjia

    2015-04-01

    This paper makes persuasive demonstrations on some problems about the human ear sound transmission principle in existing physiological textbooks and reference books, and puts forward the authors' view to make up for its literature. Exerting the knowledge of lever in physics and the acoustics theory, we come up with an equivalent simplified model of manubrium mallei which is to meet the requirements as the long arm of the lever. We also set up an equivalent simplified model of ossicular chain--a combination of levers of ossicular chain. We disassemble the model into two simple levers, and make full analysis and demonstration on them. Through the calculation and comparison of displacement amplitudes in both external auditory canal air and internal ear lymph, we may draw a conclusion that the key reason, which the sound displacement amplitude is to be decreased to adapt to the endurance limit of the basement membrane, is that the density and sound speed in lymph is much higher than those in the air. PMID:26211249

  18. En bloc temporal bone resections in squamous cell carcinoma of the ear. Technique, principles, and limits.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, Antonio; Zanoletti, Elisabetta; Marioni, Gino; Martini, Alessandro

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions En bloc resection should always be primarily considered in ear carcinoma, also in advanced tumors growing beyond the walls of the external auditory canal, because it achieves a full specimen for histopathological evaluation and allows a correlation between clinical, pathological features, and outcomes. Objective and methods Dismal outcome of surgical and radiotherapic therapies for advanced ear carcinoma required a critical discussion of the oncological principles of treatment. Our analysis involved preliminarily a detailed description of surgical technique including the contribution of modern skull base microsurgery. Results Evident limits in diagnostic protocols, surgical treatment and outcome evaluation modalities pointed to the need of a new approach towards an accurate definition of pre-operative tumor location, size, and behavior. En bloc resection achieved a specimen for a final pathological evaluation and an adjunctive piecemeal excision was necessary only whenever resection was not felt falling in safe, tumor-free tissue. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy should be considered in selected cases for adjuvant treatment. PMID:26824405

  19. Tail Docking and Ear Cropping Dogs: Public Awareness and Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Katelyn E.; Robbins, Jesse; von Keyserlingk, Marina A. G.

    2016-01-01

    Tail docking and ear cropping are two surgical procedures commonly performed on many dog breeds. These procedures are classified as medically unnecessary surgeries whose purpose is primarily cosmetic. Available attitude research surrounding these controversial practices has been limited to surveys of veterinarians and dog breeders familiar with both practices. The aim of this project was to: 1) assess public awareness of tail docking and ear cropping, 2) determine whether physical alteration of a dog affects how the dog, and 3) owner are perceived. In Experiment 1 awareness was measured using a combination of both explicit and implicit measures. We found that 42% of participants (n = 810) were unable to correctly explain the reason why tail docked and ear cropped dogs had short ears and tails. Similarly, an implicit measure of awareness (‘nature vs nurture task’), found that the majority of participants believed short tails and erect ears were a consequence of genetics rather than something the owner or breeder had done. The results obtained in Experiment 2 (n = 392) provide evidence that ear cropped and tail docked dogs are perceived differently than an identical dog in its ‘natural’ state. Modified dogs were perceived as being more aggressive, more dominant, less playful and less attractive than natural dogs. Experiment 3 (n = 410) is the first evidence that owners of modified dogs are perceived as being more aggressive, more narcissistic, less playful, less talkative and less warm compared to owners of natural dogs. Taken together, these results suggest that although a significant proportion of subjects appear unaware of the practices of tail docking and ear cropping in dogs, these procedures have significant impacts on how modified dogs and their owners are perceived by others. PMID:27348817

  20. Tail Docking and Ear Cropping Dogs: Public Awareness and Perceptions.

    PubMed

    Mills, Katelyn E; Robbins, Jesse; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2016-01-01

    Tail docking and ear cropping are two surgical procedures commonly performed on many dog breeds. These procedures are classified as medically unnecessary surgeries whose purpose is primarily cosmetic. Available attitude research surrounding these controversial practices has been limited to surveys of veterinarians and dog breeders familiar with both practices. The aim of this project was to: 1) assess public awareness of tail docking and ear cropping, 2) determine whether physical alteration of a dog affects how the dog, and 3) owner are perceived. In Experiment 1 awareness was measured using a combination of both explicit and implicit measures. We found that 42% of participants (n = 810) were unable to correctly explain the reason why tail docked and ear cropped dogs had short ears and tails. Similarly, an implicit measure of awareness ('nature vs nurture task'), found that the majority of participants believed short tails and erect ears were a consequence of genetics rather than something the owner or breeder had done. The results obtained in Experiment 2 (n = 392) provide evidence that ear cropped and tail docked dogs are perceived differently than an identical dog in its 'natural' state. Modified dogs were perceived as being more aggressive, more dominant, less playful and less attractive than natural dogs. Experiment 3 (n = 410) is the first evidence that owners of modified dogs are perceived as being more aggressive, more narcissistic, less playful, less talkative and less warm compared to owners of natural dogs. Taken together, these results suggest that although a significant proportion of subjects appear unaware of the practices of tail docking and ear cropping in dogs, these procedures have significant impacts on how modified dogs and their owners are perceived by others. PMID:27348817

  1. [The efficacy of alphamethrin-impregnated ear tags against ticks].

    PubMed

    Schröder, J; van Schalkwyk, P C

    1989-06-01

    The efficacy of 3 kinds of alphamethrin-impregnated ear tags was tested against natural Amblyomma hebraeum, Boophilus decoloratus, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi infestations of cattle. One type of ear tag was also tested in combination with a tail band of similar material. Ticks were counted macroscopically on their predilection sites. Counts of B. decoloratus, R. appendiculatus, and R. e. evertsi on all trial animals diminished steadily during the first 7d after application of the devices. Counts on untreated control cattle had returned to their pre-treatment levels by Day 14 in the case of B. decoloratus, and by Day 21 for R. appendiculatus. R. e. evertsi did not regain their pre-treatment numbers during the trial period on the controls, but did so on one of the treated groups. This temporary drop could be interpreted as being the result of pyrethroid contamination from the hands of the investigators at the time of applying the ear tags, but did not interfere with the assessment of the effect of the tags. None of the forms of treatment showed acceptable efficacy against B. decoloratus. Ear tags alone were not very effective against R. e. evertsi, but the numbers of these ticks on the perineum were diminished by the use of tail bands. Two kinds of ear tags showed superior efficacy against R. appendiculatus, and in the case of these, one ear tag appeared to be as effective as two. The effect against A. hebraeum was evidently influenced by the distribution of the impregnated devices. Two types of ear tags were used alone and had no effect.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2607535

  2. Auditory Location in the Irrelevant Sound Effect: The Effects of Presenting Auditory Stimuli to Either the Left Ear, Right Ear or Both Ears

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadlington, Lee; Bridges, Andrew M.; Darby, Richard J.

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments used both irrelevant speech and tones in order to assess the effect of manipulating the spatial location of irrelevant sound. Previous research in this area had produced inconclusive results (e.g., Colle, 1980). The current study demonstrated a novel finding, that sound presented to the left ear produces the greatest level of…

  3. The External Degree Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syracuse Univ., NY. School of Management.

    An external degree is one granted on the basis of academic work undertaken through independent and flexible study and pursued in whole or in part outside of the framework of existing college and university courses. A person's qualifications for an external degree are measured not by a list of accumulated formal courses taken and passed, but by an…

  4. The shape of ears to come: dynamic coding of auditory space.

    PubMed

    King, A J.; Schnupp, J W.H.; Doubell, T P.

    2001-06-01

    In order to pinpoint the location of a sound source, we make use of a variety of spatial cues that arise from the direction-dependent manner in which sounds interact with the head, torso and external ears. Accurate sound localization relies on the neural discrimination of tiny differences in the values of these cues and requires that the brain circuits involved be calibrated to the cues experienced by each individual. There is growing evidence that the capacity for recalibrating auditory localization continues well into adult life. Many details of how the brain represents auditory space and of how those representations are shaped by learning and experience remain elusive. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that the task of processing auditory spatial information is distributed over different regions of the brain, some working hierarchically, others independently and in parallel, and each apparently using different strategies for encoding sound source location. PMID:11390297

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of the inner ear in Meniere's disease.

    PubMed

    Pyykkö, Ilmari; Zou, Jing; Poe, Dennis; Nakashima, Tsutomu; Naganawa, Shinji

    2010-10-01

    Recent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have made it possible to examine the compartments of the cochlea using gadolidium-chelate (GdC) as a contrast agent. As GdC loads into the perilymph space without entering the endolymph in healthy inner ears, the technique provides possibilities to visualize the different cochlear compartments and evaluate the integrity of the inner ear barriers. This critical review presents the recent advancements in the inner ear MRI technology, contrast agent application and the correlated ototoxicity study, and the uptake dynamics of GdC in the inner ear. GdC causes inflammation of the mucosa of the middle ear, but there are no reports or evidence of toxicity-related changes in vivo either in animals or in humans. Intravenously administered GdC reached the guinea pig cochlea about 10 minutes after administration and loaded the scala tympani and scala vestibuli with the peak at 60 minutes. However, the perilymphatic loading peak was 80 to 100 minutes in mice after intravenous administration of GdC. In healthy animals the scala media did not load GdC. In mice in which GdC was administered topically onto the round window, loading of the cochlea peaked at 4 hours, at which time it reached the apex. The initial portions of the organ to be filled were the basal turn of the cochlea and vestibule. In animal models with endolymphatic hydrops (EH), bulging of the Reissner's membrane was observed as deficit of GdC in the scala vestibuli. Histologically the degree of bulging correlated with the MR images. In animals with immune reaction-induced EH, MRI showed that EH could be limited to restricted regions of the inner ear, and in the same inner ear both EH and leakage of GdC into the scala media were visualized. More than 100 inner ear MRI scans have been performed to date in humans. Loading of GdC followed the pattern seen in animals, but the time frame was different. In intravenous delivery of double-dose GdC, the inner ear compartments

  6. Assessment of genetic diversity in Chinese eared pheasant using fluorescent-AFLP markers.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiujuan; Zhu, Yaohong; Liu, Panqi; Zhuge, Zengyu; Su, Guosheng; Wang, Jiufeng

    2010-10-01

    The eared pheasant consists of four species: white eared pheasant (Crossoptilon crossoptilon), Tibetan eared pheasant (Crossoptilon harmani), blue eared pheasant (Crossoptilon auritum), and brown eared pheasant (Crossoptilon mantchuricum). These species are found only in China, and are also on the list of the world's threatened species. In this paper, 74 individuals from the four eared pheasant species were assessed for population genetic diversity by means of fluorescent-AFLP markers. A total of 429 AFLP peaks were amplified by 11 pairs of fluorescent EcoRI/TaqI primer combinations. Out of all markers, 329 AFLPs were polymorphic. Each primer combination produced in reactions from 19 to 72 fragments and the polymorphic peaks percentage ranged from 53.33% to 86.11% with an average of 74.36% polymorphic bands. Genetic distance between species and genetic diversity within species were evaluated using Jaccard's similarity coefficients (SC) and the corresponding dendrogram. It was found that there was a moderate genetic distance between the four species (SC=0.674-0.832). Brown eared pheasant was genetically closely related to blue eared pheasant (SC=0.832), while white eared pheasant was more closely related to Tibetan eared pheasant (SC=0.812). Genetic diversity was lower in brown eared pheasant (SC=0.913) and Tibetan eared pheasant (SC=0.903) than in white eared pheasant (SC=0.832) and blue eared pheasant (SC=0.853). PMID:20595068

  7. [Sonic Hedgehog signaling pathway and regulation of inner ear development].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-Qiang; Han, Xin-Huan; Cao, Xin

    2013-09-01

    During inner ear development, Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway is involved in the ventral otic identity, cell fate determination of statoacoustic ganglion neurons and hair cell development. Shh protein, secreted from floor plate, antagonizes Wnt protein from roof plate, which refines and maintains dorsoventral axial patterning in the ear. Shh, served as a mitogen during neurogenesis, directly promotes the development of spiral ganglion neuron. After Shh signaling pathway is activated, Ngn1 is freed from Tbx1 repression. As a result, Shh indirectly upregulates the expression of Ngn1, thus regulating neurogenic patterning of inner ear. In addition, Shh regulates the differentiation of hair cells by influencing cell cycle of the progenitor cells located in the cochlea. The basal-to-apical wave of Shh decline ensures the normal devel- opment pattern of hair cells. It is confirmed by a quantity of researches conducted in both animals and patients with hereditary hearing impairment that abnormal Shh signaling results in aberrant transcription of target genes, disturbance of the proper development of inner ear, and human hearing impairment. In humans, diseases accompanied by hearing disorders caused by abnormal Shh signaling include Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome (GCPS), Pallister-Hall syndrome (PHS), Waardenburg syndrome (WS) and medulloblastoma, etc. This review would provide a theoretical basis for further study of molecular mechanisms and clinical use of inner ear development. PMID:24400478

  8. Target Speaker Detection with Concealed EEG Around the Ear

    PubMed Central

    Mirkovic, Bojana; Bleichner, Martin G.; De Vos, Maarten; Debener, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Target speaker identification is essential for speech enhancement algorithms in assistive devices aimed toward helping the hearing impaired. Several recent studies have reported that target speaker identification is possible through electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. If the EEG system could be reduced to acceptable size while retaining the signal quality, hearing aids could benefit from the integration with concealed EEG. To compare the performance of a multichannel around-the-ear EEG system with high-density cap EEG recordings an envelope tracking algorithm was applied in a competitive speaker paradigm. The data from 20 normal hearing listeners were concurrently collected from the traditional state-of-the-art laboratory wired EEG system and a wireless mobile EEG system with two bilaterally-placed around-the-ear electrode arrays (cEEGrids). The results show that the cEEGrid ear-EEG technology captured neural signals that allowed the identification of the attended speaker above chance-level, with 69.3% accuracy, while cap-EEG signals resulted in the accuracy of 84.8%. Further analyses investigated the influence of ear-EEG signal quality and revealed that the envelope tracking procedure was unaffected by variability in channel impedances. We conclude that the quality of concealed ear-EEG recordings as acquired with the cEEGrid array has potential to be used in the brain-computer interface steering of hearing aids. PMID:27512364

  9. Convergence vs. Specialization in the ear region of moles (Mammalia).

    PubMed

    Crumpton, Nick; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Asher, Robert J

    2015-08-01

    We investigated if and how the inner ear region undergoes similar adaptations in small, fossorial, insectivoran-grade mammals, and found a variety of inner ear phenotypes. In our sample, afrotherian moles (Chrysochloridae) and the marsupial Notoryctes differ from most other burrowing mammals in their relatively short radii of semicircular canal curvature; chrysochlorids and fossorial talpids share a relatively long interampullar width. Chrysochlorids are unique in showing a highly coiled cochlea with nearly four turns. Extensive cochlear coiling may reflect their greater ecological dependence on low frequency auditory cues compared to talpids, tenrecids, and the marsupial Notoryctes. Correspondingly, the lack of such extensive coiling in the inner ear of other fossorial species may indicate a greater reliance on other senses to enable their fossorial lifestyle, such as tactile sensation from vibrissae and Eimer's organs. The reliance of chrysochlorids on sound is evident in the high degree of coiling and in the diversity of its mallear types, and may help explain the lack of any semiaquatic members of that group. The simplest mallear types among chrysochlorids are not present in the basal-most members of that clade, but all extant chrysochlorids investigated to date exhibit extensive cochlear coiling. The chrysochlorid ear region thus exhibits mosaic evolution; our data suggest that extensive coiling evolved in chrysochlorids prior to and independently of diversification in middle ear ossicle size and shape. PMID:25858660

  10. An abbreviated history of the ear: from Renaissance to present.

    PubMed

    Hachmeister, Jorge E

    2003-01-01

    In this article we discuss important discoveries in relation to the anatomy and physiology of the ear from Renaissance to present. Before the Renaissance, there was a paucity of knowledge of the anatomy of the ear, because of the relative inaccessibility of the temporal bone and the general perception that human dissections should not be conducted. It was not until the sixteenth century that the middle ear was described with detail. Further progress would be made between the sixteenth and eighteenth century in describing the inner ear. In the nineteenth century, technological advancement permitted a description of the cells and structures that constitute the cochlea. Von Helmholtz made further progress in hearing physiology when he postulated his resonance theory and later von Békésy when he observed a traveling wave in human cadavers within the cochlea. Brownell later made a major advance when he discovered that the ear has a mechanism for sound amplification, via outer hair cell electromotility. PMID:15369636

  11. Target Speaker Detection with Concealed EEG Around the Ear.

    PubMed

    Mirkovic, Bojana; Bleichner, Martin G; De Vos, Maarten; Debener, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Target speaker identification is essential for speech enhancement algorithms in assistive devices aimed toward helping the hearing impaired. Several recent studies have reported that target speaker identification is possible through electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. If the EEG system could be reduced to acceptable size while retaining the signal quality, hearing aids could benefit from the integration with concealed EEG. To compare the performance of a multichannel around-the-ear EEG system with high-density cap EEG recordings an envelope tracking algorithm was applied in a competitive speaker paradigm. The data from 20 normal hearing listeners were concurrently collected from the traditional state-of-the-art laboratory wired EEG system and a wireless mobile EEG system with two bilaterally-placed around-the-ear electrode arrays (cEEGrids). The results show that the cEEGrid ear-EEG technology captured neural signals that allowed the identification of the attended speaker above chance-level, with 69.3% accuracy, while cap-EEG signals resulted in the accuracy of 84.8%. Further analyses investigated the influence of ear-EEG signal quality and revealed that the envelope tracking procedure was unaffected by variability in channel impedances. We conclude that the quality of concealed ear-EEG recordings as acquired with the cEEGrid array has potential to be used in the brain-computer interface steering of hearing aids. PMID:27512364

  12. An abbreviated history of the ear: from Renaissance to present.

    PubMed Central

    Hachmeister, Jorge E.

    2003-01-01

    In this article we discuss important discoveries in relation to the anatomy and physiology of the ear from Renaissance to present. Before the Renaissance, there was a paucity of knowledge of the anatomy of the ear, because of the relative inaccessibility of the temporal bone and the general perception that human dissections should not be conducted. It was not until the sixteenth century that the middle ear was described with detail. Further progress would be made between the sixteenth and eighteenth century in describing the inner ear. In the nineteenth century, technological advancement permitted a description of the cells and structures that constitute the cochlea. Von Helmholtz made further progress in hearing physiology when he postulated his resonance theory and later von Békésy when he observed a traveling wave in human cadavers within the cochlea. Brownell later made a major advance when he discovered that the ear has a mechanism for sound amplification, via outer hair cell electromotility. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:15369636

  13. Dosimetric analysis for low-level laser therapy (LLLT) of the human inner ear at 593 nm and 633 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, Wolfgang; Baumgartner, Reinhold; Tauber, Stefan

    1998-12-01

    The administration of low-level-laserlight for irradiation of the inner ear could represented a new therapeutic model for complex diseases of the inner ear. However, successful therapy requires a well-defined light dosimetry based on a dosimetric analysis of the human cochlea that represents a complex anatomy. The light distribution inside the cochlear windings, produced by an irradiation of the tympanic membrane, was quantitatively measured ex vivo for HeNe laser wavelengths of 593 nm and 633 nm. To obtain the space irradiance within an intact cochlea a correction factor of about 6 has been determined by Monte Carlo calculations. It follows from 3 contributions, first the backscattering of light in the bony parts removed during the preparation procedure of the specimen, second the change of index of refraction from the bony parts to air and third some geometrical factors due to the angular distribution of the radiation. The transmission of light across the tympanic cavity and the promontory depends strongly on the wavelength. Due to the observed spatial intensity variations of a factor 10 and more inside the cochlear windings the optimum external light dose has to be chosen with regard to the tonotopy of the ear.

  14. Ear-canal acoustic admittance and reflectance measurements in human neonates. II. Predictions of middle-ear dysfunction and sensorineural hearing loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keefe, Douglas H.; Gorga, Michael P.; Neely, Stephen T.; Zhao, Fei; Vohr, Betty R.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes relationships between middle-ear measurements of acoustic admittance and energy reflectance (YR) and measurements of hearing status using visual reinforcement audiometry in a neonatal hearing-screening population. Analyses were performed on 2638 ears in which combined measurements were obtained [Norton et al., Ear Hear. 21, 348-356 (2000)]. The measurements included distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE), transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE), and auditory brainstem responses (ABR). Models to predict hearing status using DPOAEs, TEOAEs, or ABRs were each improved by the addition of the YR factors as interactions, in which factors were calculated using factor loadings from Keefe et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 113, 389-406 (2003)]. This result suggests that information on middle-ear status improves the ability to predict hearing status. The YR factors were used to construct a middle-ear dysfunction test on 1027 normal-hearing ears in which DPOAE and TEOAE responses were either both present or both absent, the latter condition being viewed as indicative of middle-ear dysfunction. The middle-ear dysfunction test classified these ears with a nonparametric area (A) under the relative operating characteristic curve of A=0.86, and classified normal-hearing ears that failed two-stage hearing-screening tests with areas A=0.84 for DPOAE/ABR, and A=0.81 for TEOAE/ABR tests. The middle-ear dysfunction test adequately generalized to a new sample population (A=0.82).

  15. Non-ossicular signal transmission in human middle ears: Experimental assessment of the “acoustic route” with perforated tympanic membranes

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Susan E.; Rosowski, John J.; Merchant, Saumil N.; Peake, William T.

    2008-01-01

    Direct acoustic stimulation of the cochlea by the sound-pressure difference between the oval and round windows (called the “acoustic route”) has been thought to contribute to hearing in some pathological conditions, along with the normally dominant “ossicular route.” To determine the efficacy of this acoustic route and its constituent mechanisms in human ears, sound pressures were measured at three locations in cadaveric temporal bones [with intact and perforated tympanic membranes (TMs)]: (1) in the external ear canal lateral to the TM, PTM; (2) in the tympanic cavity lateral to the oval window, POW; and (3) near the round window, PRW. Sound transmission via the acoustic route is described by two concatenated processes: (1) coupling of sound pressure from ear canal to middle-ear cavity, HPCAV≡PCAV/PTM, where PCAV represents the middle-ear cavity pressure, and (2) sound-pressure difference between the windows, HWPD≡(POW−PRW)/PCAV. Results show that: HPCAV depends on perforation size but not perforation location; HWPD depends on neither perforation size nor location. The results (1) provide a description of the window pressures based on measurements, (2) refute the common otological view that TM perforation location affects the “relative phase of the pressures at the oval and round windows,” and (3) show with an intact ossicular chain that acoustic-route transmission is substantially below ossicular-route transmission except for low frequencies with large perforations. Thus, hearing loss from TM perforations results primarily from reduction in sound coupling via the ossicular route. Some features of the frequency dependence of HPCAV and HWPD can be interpreted in terms of a structure-based lumped-element acoustic model of the perforation and middle-ear cavities. PMID:17902851

  16. Mechanical properties of stapedial tendon in human middle ear.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tao; Gan, Rong Z

    2007-12-01

    Measurement on mechanical properties of the stapedial tendon in human middle ear has not been reported in the literature. In this paper, we used the material testing system to conduct uniaxial tensile, stress relaxation, and failure tests on stapedial tendon specimens harvested from human temporal bones. The digital image correlation method was employed to assess the boundary effect on experimental data. The stress-strain relationship of the tendon obtained from experiments was analyzed using the hyperelastic Ogden model. The results presented include (1) the constitutive equation of the tendon for stretch ratio of 1-1.4 or stress range of 0-1.45 MPa, (2) the mean ultimate stress and stretch ratio of the tendon at 4.04 MPa and 1.65, respectively, and (3) the hysteresis and normalized stress relaxation function of the tendon. The data reported in this paper contribute to ear mechanics, especially for theoretical analysis of human ear function. PMID:18067396

  17. A Ubiquitous Blood Pressure Sensor Worn at the Ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koizumi, Hiroshi; Shimada, Junichi; Uenishi, Yuji; Tochikubo, Osamu

    2009-12-01

    Blood pressure (BP) measurement and BP control are important for the prevention of lifestyle diseases, especially hypertension, which can lead to more serious conditions, such as cardiac infarction and cerebral apoplexy. The purpose of our study is to develop a ubiquitous blood pressure sensor that is more comfortable and less disruptive of users' daily activities than conventional blood pressure sensors. Our developed sensor is worn at an ear orifice and measures blood pressure at the tragus. This paper describes the concept, configuration, and the optical and electronic details of the developed ear-worn blood pressure sensor and presents preliminary evaluation results. The developed sensor causes almost no discomfort and produces signals whose quality is high enough for detecting BP at an ear, making it suitable for ubiquitous usage.

  18. Rotation of middle ear ossicles during cetacean development.

    PubMed

    Kinkel, M D; Thewissen, J G; Oelschläger, H A

    2001-08-01

    Cetacean middle ears are unique among mammals in that they have an elongated tympanic membrane, a greatly reduced manubrium mallei, and an incudal crus longum that is shorter than the crus breve. Elongation of the tympanic membrane and reduction of the manubrium is thought to be related to an evolutionary rotation of the incus and malleus out of the plane of the tympanic membrane. We examined if rotation also occurs during ontogeny by comparing the middle ears of two species of dolphins (Delphinus delphis, Stenella attenuata) at different stages of development. We observed that: the incus has the body and crural proportions as in terrestrial mammals early in development; the incudomallear complex rotates approximately 90 degrees following ossification; the tympanic membrane is not elongated until relatively late in development. Therefore, some of the unique characteristics of the cetacean middle ear develop as modifications of an initially terrestrial-like morphology. PMID:11466740

  19. Do musical hallucinations always arise from the inner ear?

    PubMed

    Gordon, A G

    1997-08-01

    It has been known for some time that musical hallucinations occur in deaf patients. This has been ignored, as it has been believed that neurological and psychiatric causes predominate. However, despite specific appeals, no one with musical hallucinations and a lesion in the brain but not in the ear has been produced. The postulated otological basis is a hyperactive state of the ear, a slight endolymphatic hydrops or pre-Meniere's disease. The hallucinations probably develop out of rhythmic tinnitus. A review of all the very disparate states and diseases supposedly causing musical hallucinations shows that peripheral ear symptoms are always present. It therefore seems that they always have the same simple otological trigger. PMID:9278923

  20. Human Action Recognition Using Wireless Wearable In-Ear Microphone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Jun; Kuroda, Tadahiro

    To realize the ubiquitous eating habits monitoring, we proposed the use of sounds sensed by an in-ear placed wireless wearable microphone. A prototype of wireless wearable in-ear microphone was developed by utilizing a common Bluetooth headset. We proposed a robust chewing action recognition algorithm which consists of two recognition stages: “chew-like” signal detection and chewing sound verification stages. We also provide empirical results on other action recognition using in-ear sound including swallowing, cough, belch, and etc. The average chewing number counting error rate of 1.93% is achieved. Lastly, chewing sound mapping is proposed as a new prototypical approach to provide an additional intuitive feedback on food groups to be able to infer the eating habits in their daily life context.

  1. Sensory Cells of the Fish Ear: A Hairy Enigma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popper, A. N.; Saidel, W. M.

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of the structure of the ears in teleost fishes has led to the tentative suggestion that otolithic endorgans may function differently, in different species. Recently, evidence has demonstrated different 'types' of sensory hair cells can be found in the ears of teleost fishes, and individual hair cell types are found in discrete regions of individual sensory, epithelia. The presence of multiple hair cell types in fishes provides strong support to the hypothesis of regional differences in the responses of individual otolithic sensory epithelia. The finding of hair cell types in fishes that closely resemble those found in amniote vestibular endorgans also suggests that hair cell heterogeneity arose earlier in the evolution of the vertebrate ear than previously thought.

  2. Soft tissue attenuation in middle ear on HRCT: Pictorial review

    PubMed Central

    Anbarasu, Arangasamy; Chandrasekaran, Kiruthika; Balakrishnan, Sivasubramanian

    2012-01-01

    Middle ear disease is a common clinical entity; imaging, especially High resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT), plays a crucial role in diagnosis and assessing the disease extent, helping to decide appropriate management. Temporal bone imaging is challenging and involves thorough understanding of the anatomy, especially in relation to HRCT imaging. Most of the middle ear pathologies appear as “soft tissue” on imaging. Careful analysis of the soft tissue on the HRCT is crucial in achieving the right diagnosis; clinical information is essential and the imaging findings need correlation with clinical presentation and otoscopic findings. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to enlist the pathologies that present as soft tissue in middle ear and to provide a structured and practical imaging approach that will serve as a guide for confident reporting in daily practice. PMID:23833422

  3. Spatiotemporal patterns of Musashi1 expression during inner ear development.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Hirofumi; Yaoi, Takeshi; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Okano, Hideyuki; Hisa, Yasuo; Fushiki, Shinji

    2004-04-29

    Musashi1 (Msi 1) is an RNA binding protein associated with asymmetric cell divisions in neural progenitor cells. To investigate the involvement of Msi1 in the inner ear development, we studied the expression of Msi1 in mouse inner ears with RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemistry revealed that Msi1 was expressed in all otocyst cells at embryonic day (E) 10 and 12. Msi1 immunoreactivity became lost in hair cells after E14 in vestibule and after E16 in cochlea, whereas it persisted in supporting cells until adulthood. The subcellular localization of Msi1 changed from "cytoplasmic predominance" to "nuclear predominance" during the first 2 weeks after birth. The present data suggested that Msi may play a role in inner ear development. PMID:15076722

  4. To Have an Ear: Music and the Otological Experience.

    PubMed

    Sattar, Atia

    2016-09-01

    This essay analyzes the historical development of otology in relation to music. It illustrates the integral role of music perception and appreciation in the study of hearing, where hearing operates not simply as a scientific phenomenon but signifies particular meaningful experiences in society. The four historical moments considered-Helmholtz's piano-keyed cochlea, the ear phonautograph, the hearing aid, and the cochlear implant-show how the sounds, perceptions, and instruments of music have mediated and continue to mediate our relationships with hearing. To have an ear, one does not just bear a physiological hearing mechanism; one experiences the aesthetics of musical sound. PMID:24994077

  5. Optoacoustic monitoring of laser correction of the ear shape

    SciTech Connect

    Omel'chenko, A I; Sobol', E N; Sviridov, A P; Harding, S; Jumel, K; Walker, R; Jones, N

    2000-11-30

    Acoustic monitoring of a plastic operation for reshaping the porcine ear using radiation from a Ho:YAG laser was performed to control a change in the elasticity of the ear cartilage. Variations in the cartilage elasticity were controlled by changes in the amplitude and shape of an acoustic wave during the laser action. It is shown that the optoacoustic signal amplitude exponentially decreases at least by a factor of 2-2.5 at the moment of the cartilage reshaping caused by the action of radiation pulses from a Ho:YAG laser. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  6. Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Invasion through Ear Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Boisen, Julie; Malone, C. Helen; Kelly, Brent; Wagner, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the ear represents a high-risk tumor location with an increased risk of metastasis and local tissue invasion. However, it is uncommon for these cancers to invade through nearby cartilage. Cartilage invasion is facilitated by matrix metalloproteases, specifically collagenase 3. We present the unusual case of a 76-year-old man with an auricular squamous cell carcinoma that exhibited full-thickness perforation of the scapha cartilage. Permanent sections through the eroded cartilage confirmed tumor invasion extending to the posterior ear skin. PMID:27293916

  7. Energy localization and frequency analysis in the locust ear

    PubMed Central

    Malkin, Robert; McDonagh, Thomas R.; Mhatre, Natasha; Scott, Thomas S.; Robert, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Animal ears are exquisitely adapted to capture sound energy and perform signal analysis. Studying the ear of the locust, we show how frequency signal analysis can be performed solely by using the structural features of the tympanum. Incident sound waves generate mechanical vibrational waves that travel across the tympanum. These waves shoal in a tsunami-like fashion, resulting in energy localization that focuses vibrations onto the mechanosensory neurons in a frequency-dependent manner. Using finite element analysis, we demonstrate that two mechanical properties of the locust tympanum, distributed thickness and tension, are necessary and sufficient to generate frequency-dependent energy localization. PMID:24196693

  8. Incorporating Endoscopic Ear Surgery into Your Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Kozin, Elliott D; Kiringoda, Ruwan; Lee, Daniel J

    2016-10-01

    Paralleling the introduction of endoscopes for sinus surgery more than two decades ago, otology is facing a similar paradigm shift in the use of endoscopes to perform ear surgery. The wide-angle and high-resolution image provided by endoscopes allows for improved visualization of the tympanic cavity using minimally invasive surgical portals. Incorporating endoscopic ear surgery into otologic practice is challenging. A graduated and step-wise introduction of EES to otologic surgery is recommended to ensure safe and successful implementation. PMID:27565389

  9. An in-the-ear platform for recording electroencephalogram.

    PubMed

    Looney, D; Park, C; Kidmose, P; Rank, M L; Ungstrup, M; Rosenkranz, K; Mandic, D P

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a novel approach to brain monitoring based on electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings from within the ear canal. While existing clinical and wearable systems are limited in terms of portability and ease of use, the proposed in-the-ear (ITE) recording platform promises a number of advantages including ease of implementation, minimally intrusive electrodes and enhanced accuracy (fixed electrode positions). It thus facilitates a crucial step towards the design of brain computer interfaces that integrate naturally with daily life. The feasibility of the ITE concept is demonstrated with recordings made from electrodes embedded on an earplug which are benchmarked against conventional scalp electrodes for a classic EEG paradigm. PMID:22255920

  10. The cyclopean ear: a new sense for the praying mantis.

    PubMed

    Yager, D D; Hoy, R R

    1986-02-14

    The praying mantis, thought to be deaf, possesses a sensitive and specialized acoustic sense. Neural recordings show that the auditory system responds primarily to ultrasound between 25 and 45 kilohertz with thresholds of 55 to 60 decibels. Other insects with auditory tympana possess paired, laterally placed ears; the mantis has only a single ear that is located in the ventral midline between the metathoracic legs. Some species of mantis abruptly and dramatically alter their flight path when stimulated with ultrasonic pulses, suggesting a behavioral response to insectivorous echo-locating bats. PMID:3945806

  11. Computerized documentation in middle ear surgery. Methods and clinical experiences.

    PubMed

    Harris, S

    1981-01-01

    A computerized system for recording results of ear surgery is presented. Specially designed forms are filled in at the time of operation as well as 2 months, 6 months and annually for 1-5 years after operation. The data are processed in a Univac 1100-80 by specific programmes written in FORTRAN. A Follow-up programme gives up-to-date information on hearing and healing after different types of operations. An Annual Production Control programme gives more detailed information about various correlations, such as results in draining ears, frequency of residual cholesteatoma etc. Four years experience with the system and obtainable data is discussed. PMID:6274131

  12. Evaluating External Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSantis, James R.

    1978-01-01

    Effective external communication by higher education institutions is described as an ongoing program, based on objective research, continuous informal feedback, and informed anticipation of changes in the environment that will force changes in the institution. (JMF)

  13. Future of External Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    This chapter builds on prior chapters and focuses on higher education trends on the horizon and the resulting impact on external reporting for institutional researchers. Three practical recommendations and examples for institutional researchers are also presented.

  14. Master external pressure charts

    SciTech Connect

    Michalopoulos, E.

    1996-12-01

    This paper presents a method to develop master external pressure charts from which individual external pressure charts for each material specification may be derived. The master external charts can represent a grouping of materials with similar chemical composition, similar stress-strain curves but produced to different strength levels. External pressure charts are used by various Sections of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel and Piping Codes to design various components such as cylinders, sphered, formed heads, tubes, piping, rings and other components, subjected to external pressure or axial compression loads. These charts are pseudo stress-strain curves for groups of materials with similar stress-strain shapes. The traditional approach was originally developed in the 1940`s and is a graphical approach where slopes to the strain curves are drawn graphically from which pseudo-strain levels are calculated. The new method presented in this paper develops mathematical relationships for the material stress-strain curves and the external pressure charts. The method has the ability to calculate stress-strain curves from existing external pressure charts. The relationships are a function of temperature, the modulus of elasticity, yield strength, and two empirical material constants. In this approach, conservative assumptions used to assign materials to lower bound external pressure charts can be removed. This increases the buckling strength capability of many materials in the Code, providing economic benefits while maintaining the margin of safety specified by the Code criteria. The method can also reduce the number of material charts needed in the Code and provides for the capability to extend the existing pressure charts to higher design temperatures. The new method is shown to contain a number of improvements over the traditional approach and is presently under consideration by appropriate ASME Code committees.

  15. Externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Cordula; Urban, Alexander S.; Charron, Heather; Joshi, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Externally modulated nanoparticles comprise a rapidly advancing class of cancer nanotherapeutics, which combine the favorable tumor accumulation of nanoparticles, with external spatio-temporal control on therapy delivery via optical, magnetic, or ultrasound modalities. The local control on therapy enables higher tumor treatment efficacy, while simultaneously reducing off-target effects. The nanoparticle interactions with external fields have an additional advantage of frequently generating an imaging signal, and thus such agents provide theranostic (both diagnostic and therapeutic) capabilities. In this review, we classify the emerging externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles according to the mode of external control and describe the physiochemical mechanisms underlying the external control of therapy, and illustrate the major embodiments of nanoparticles in each class with proven biological efficacy: (I) electromagnetic radiation in visible and near-infrared range is being exploited for gold based and carbon nanostructures with tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer, photochemistry based manipulations are employed for light sensitive liposomes and porphyrin based nanoparticles; (II) Magnetic field based manipulations are being developed for iron-oxide based nanostructures for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetothermal therapy; (III) ultrasound based methods are primarily being employed to increase delivery of conventional drugs and nanotherapeutics to tumor sites. PMID:24834381

  16. Inquiring Ears Want to Know: A Fact Sheet about Your Hearing Test

    MedlinePlus

    Inquiring Ears Want to Know A fact sheet about your hearing test This sheet explains your audiogram (hearing test) ... 4000 Hz Sample audiogram results ofFtreesqtuteonnceyin Hz Left Ear Thresholds 500 1000 2000 3000 4000 0 -5 ...

  17. Anatomy of the Human Ear/Questions to Ask Your Hearing Professional

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Anatomy of the Human Ear/ Questions to Ask your ... Focus on Communication" Articles Living with Hearing Loss / Anatomy of the Human Ear/Questions to Ask your ...

  18. Békésy’s contributions to our present understanding of sound conduction to the inner ear

    PubMed Central

    Puria, S; Rosowski, JJ

    2012-01-01

    In our daily life we hear airborne sounds that travel primarily through the external and the middle ear to the cochlear sensory epithelium. We also hear sounds that travel to the cochlea via a second sound conduction route, bone conduction. This second pathway is excited by vibrations of the head and body that result from substrate vibrations, direct application of vibrational stimuli to the head or body, or vibrations induced by airborne sound. The sensation of bone-conducted sound is affected by the presence of the external and middle ear but not completely dependent on their function. Measurements of the differential sensitivity of patients to airborne sound and direct vibration of the head are part of the routine battery of clinical tests used to separate conductive and sensorineural hearing losses. George von Békésy designed a careful set of experiments and pioneered many measurement techniques on human cadaver temporal bones, in physical models, and in human subjects to elucidate the basic mechanisms or air and bone conducted sound. Looking back one marvels at the sheer number of experiments he performed on sound conduction, mostly by himself without the aid of students or research associates. Békésy’s work had a profound impact on the field of middle ear mechanics and bone conduction fifty years ago when he received his Nobel Prize. Today many of Békésy’s ideas continue to be investigated and extended, some have been supported by new evidence, some have been refuted, while others remain to be tested. PMID:22617841

  19. Békésy's contributions to our present understanding of sound conduction to the inner ear.

    PubMed

    Puria, Sunil; Rosowski, John J

    2012-11-01

    In our daily lives we hear airborne sounds that travel primarily through the external and middle ear to the cochlear sensory epithelium. We also hear sounds that travel to the cochlea via a second sound-conduction route, bone conduction. This second pathway is excited by vibrations of the head and body that result from substrate vibrations, direct application of vibrational stimuli to the head or body, or vibrations induced by airborne sound. The sensation of bone-conducted sound is affected by the presence of the external and middle ear, but is not completely dependent upon their function. Measurements of the differential sensitivity of patients to airborne sound and direct vibration of the head are part of the routine battery of clinical tests used to separate conductive and sensorineural hearing losses. Georg von Békésy designed a careful set of experiments and pioneered many measurement techniques on human cadaver temporal bones, in physical models, and in human subjects to elucidate the basic mechanisms of air- and bone-conducted sound. Looking back one marvels at the sheer number of experiments he performed on sound conduction, mostly by himself without the aid of students or research associates. Békésy's work had a profound impact on the field of middle-ear mechanics and bone conduction fifty years ago when he received his Nobel Prize. Today many of Békésy's ideas continue to be investigated and extended, some have been supported by new evidence, some have been refuted, while others remain to be tested. PMID:22617841

  20. Computed tomographic anatomy of the canine inner and middle ear.

    PubMed

    Russo, Marco; Covelli, Eugenio M; Meomartino, Leonardo; Lamb, Christopher R; Brunetti, Arturo

    2002-01-01

    A series of high-resolution computed x-ray tomography (CT) images of the normal canine middle and inner ear are presented to serve as a reference for optimal interpretation of clinical CT images of animals with diseases affecting this region. PMID:11866039

  1. Systemic movement of Aspergillus parasiticus in maize stalks and ears

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preharvest infection of corn (Zea mays) kernels by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus is a chronic problem in the southern United States. It has been reported that these fungi infect developing kernels via the silk. This study was conducted to explore other avenues of infection of corn ears by ...

  2. Hyperspectral imaging system for whole corn ear surface inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Haibo; Kincaid, Russell; Hruska, Zuzana; Brown, Robert L.; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Cleveland, Thomas E.

    2013-05-01

    Aflatoxin is a mycotoxin produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus (A.flavus) and Aspergillus parasitiucus fungi that grow naturally in corn. Very serious health problems such as liver damage and lung cancer can result from exposure to high toxin levels in grain. Consequently, many countries have established strict guidelines for permissible levels in consumables. Conventional chemical-based analytical methods used to screen for aflatoxin such as thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are time consuming, expensive, and require the destruction of samples as well as proper training for data interpretation. Thus, it has been a continuing effort within the research community to find a way to rapidly and non-destructively detect and possibly quantify aflatoxin contamination in corn. One of the more recent developments in this area is the use of spectral technology. Specifically, fluorescence hyperspectral imaging offers a potential rapid, and non-invasive method for contamination detection in corn infected with toxigenic A.flavus spores. The current hyperspectral image system is designed for scanning flat surfaces, which is suitable for imaging single or a group of corn kernels. In the case of a whole corn cob, it is preferred to be able to scan the circumference of the corn ear, appropriate for whole ear inspection. This paper discusses the development of a hyperspectral imaging system for whole corn ear imaging. The new instrument is based on a hyperspectral line scanner using a rotational stage to turn the corn ear.

  3. Future Approaches for Inner Ear Protection and Repair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibata, Seiji B.; Raphael, Yehoash

    2010-01-01

    Health care professionals tending to patients with inner ear disease face inquiries about therapy options, including treatments that are being developed for future use but not yet available. The devastating outcome of sensorineural hearing loss, combined with the permanent nature of the symptoms, make these inquiries demanding and frequent. The…

  4. An outbreak of erysipelas in eared grebes (Podiceps nigricollis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jensen, W.I.; Cotter, S.E.

    1976-01-01

    An outbreak of erysipelas killed an estimated 5,000 aquatic birds on Great Salt Lake (Utah) in late November, 1975. Although several thousand ducks and gulls were using the lake, at least 99 percent of the victims were eared grebes. A hypothetical explanation for the selective mortality is offered.

  5. Intraoperative Indocyanine Green Laser Angiography in Pediatric Autologous Ear Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Martins, Deborah B; Farias-Eisner, Gina; Mandelbaum, Rachel S; Hoang, Han; Bradley, James P; Lee, Justine C

    2016-05-01

    Skin flap vascularity is a critical determinant of aesthetic results in autologous ear reconstruction. In this study, we investigate the use of intraoperative laser-assisted indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) as an adjunctive measure of skin flap vascularity in pediatric autologous ear reconstruction. Twenty-one consecutive pediatric patients undergoing first-stage autologous total ear reconstruction were retrospectively evaluated. The first 10 patients were treated traditionally (non-ICGA), and the latter 11 patients were evaluated with ICGA intraoperatively after implantation of the cartilage construct and administration of suction. Relative and absolute perfusion units in the form of contour maps were generated. Statistical analyses were performed using independent sample Student t test. Statistically significant differences in exposure and infection were not found between the 2 groups. However, decreased numbers of surgical revisions were required in cases with ICGA versus without ICGA (P = 0.03), suggesting that greater certainty in skin flap perfusion correlated with a reduction in revision surgeries. In cases of exposure, we found an average lowest absolute perfusion unit of 14.3, whereas cases without exposure had an average of 26.1 (P = 0.02), thereby defining objective parameters for utilizing ICGA data in tailoring surgical decision making for this special population of patients. Defined quantitative parameters for utilizing ICGA in evaluating skin flap vascularity may be a useful adjunctive technique in pediatric autologous ear reconstruction. PMID:27579233

  6. English Vocabulary for Chinese Learners: Words in Your Ear.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Monica

    1998-01-01

    This article describes "Words in Your Ear," a vocabulary learning program for tertiary Chinese students who are learners of English at the University of Hong Kong, noting the University's 3-year partnership agreement with IBM to provide notebook computers to first-year students and provide new collaborative research opportunities for faculty. With…

  7. Early Middle Ear Effusion and Language at Age Seven

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale L.; McCormick, David P.; Baldwin, Constance D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relation of middle ear effusion (MEE) in the first 3 years of life to language outcomes at age seven. It was hypothesized, on the basis of a literature review, that (1) a low, but positive relation between early MEE and language measures in general will be observed at age seven, and (2) major effects will be demonstrated…

  8. Radiologic evaluation of the ear anatomy in pediatric cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    Manolis, Evangelos N; Filippou, Dimitrios K; Tsoumakas, Constantinos; Diomidous, Marianna; Cunningham, Michael J; Katostaras, Theophanis; Weber, Alfred L; Eavey, Roland D

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the study was to describe computed tomography (CT) findings in middle ear cholesteatoma in pediatric patients. A cohort of 32 children with cholesteatoma (3-14 years old) entered the study. From them, 30 presented acquired cholesteatoma (AC), and 2 presented congenital cholesteatoma. All of the children were investigated using CT before surgery of the middle ear and mastoid. Computed tomography was performed with 1- or 2-mm axial and coronal sections of both temporal bones. Nineteen children with AC (63.3%) revealed a diffuse soft-tissue density isodense with muscle, whereas in 6 of them, the mass mimicked inflammation. The remaining revealed localized soft-tissue mass with partially lobulated contour. In AC, ossicular erosion was detected in 23 cases (76.7%), abnormal pneumatization in 19 cases (63.3%), and erosion-blunting of spur and enlargement of middle ear or mastoid in 8 cases (26.7%). The 2 congenital cholesteatomas revealed soft-tissue mass with polypoid densities, while a semicircular canal fistula was detected in one of them. High-resolution CT facilitates early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of pediatric cholesteatoma by assessing the anatomic abnormalities and the extent of disease, which are crucial in middle ear and mastoid surgery. PMID:19390457

  9. Ganglion and “Dendrite” Populations in EAS Ears

    PubMed Central

    Rask-Andersen, Helge; Liu, Wei; Linthicum, Fred H

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims EAS technique combines electric and acoustic stimulation in the same ear and utilizes both low frequency acoustic hearing and electric stimulation of preserved neurons. We present data of ganglion cell and dendrite populations in ears from normal individuals and those suffered from adult-onset hereditary progressive hearing loss with various residual low tone hearing. Some of these were potential candidates for EAS surgery. The data may give us information about the neuro-anatomic situation in EAS ears. Methods Dendrites and ganglion cells were calculated and audio-cytocochleograms constructed. The temporal bones were from the collection at the House Ear Institute in Los Angeles, USA. Normal human anatomy, based on surgical specimens, is presented. Results IHCs and OHCs, supporting cells, ganglion cells and dendrites were preserved in the apical region. In the mid-frequency region, around 1 kHz, the OC with inner and outer hair cells were often conserved while in the lower basal turn, representing frequencies above 3 kHz, OC was atrophic and replaced by thin cells. Despite loss of hair cells and lamina fibers ganglion cells were present even after 28 years duration of deafness. Conclusions Conditions with profound SNHL with preserved low tone hearing may have several causes and the pathology may vary accordingly. In our patients with progressive adult-onset SNHL (amalgamated into “presbyacusis”) neurons were conserved even after long duration of deafness. These spiral ganglion cells may be excellent targets for electric stimulation using EAS technique. PMID:19955718

  10. The endoscopic study of human middle ear mucociliary transport.

    PubMed

    Ilomäki, Jaana H; Karhuketo, T; Vasama, J P; Kääriäinen, J; Rautiainen, M

    2016-07-01

    The mucociliary clearance (MCC) is an important defence mechanism of the middle ear. The mucociliary transport (MCT) is a part of MCC. We measured the duration of MCT and visualised its routes in middle ears of 31 patients (mean age 45 years; range 7-61 years; SD 11.6) with intact tympanic membrane, with ventilated middle ears and without a history of prolonged otitis media. The transition time of indigo carmine dye from the promontory mucosa to the middle ear orifice of the Eustachian tube (ET) was observed with a rigid 30°, 1.7-mm-diameter tympanoscope. The dye took an average of 7 min (range 4.5-15 min; SD 3.4; median 4.5) to reach the ET orifice in 25 (81 %) patients. Three main ciliary pathways were detected: (1) below and parallel to the tensor tympani muscle; (2) downwards, anterior to the round window, and then ascending to the ET; and (3) straight across the promontory. PMID:26223351

  11. A symphony of inner ear developmental control genes.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sumantra; Kraus, Petra; Lufkin, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The inner ear is one of the most complex and detailed organs in the vertebrate body and provides us with the priceless ability to hear and perceive linear and angular acceleration (hence maintain balance). The development and morphogenesis of the inner ear from an ectodermal thickening into distinct auditory and vestibular components depends upon precise temporally and spatially coordinated gene expression patterns and well orchestrated signaling cascades within the otic vesicle and upon cellular movements and interactions with surrounding tissues. Gene loss of function analysis in mice has identified homeobox genes along with other transcription and secreted factors as crucial regulators of inner ear morphogenesis and development. While otic induction seems dependent upon fibroblast growth factors, morphogenesis of the otic vesicle into the distinct vestibular and auditory components appears to be clearly dependent upon the activities of a number of homeobox transcription factors. The Pax2 paired-homeobox gene is crucial for the specification of the ventral otic vesicle derived auditory structures and the Dlx5 and Dlx6 homeobox genes play a major role in specification of the dorsally derived vestibular structures. Some Micro RNAs have also been recently identified which play a crucial role in the inner ear formation. PMID:20637105

  12. Intraoperative Indocyanine Green Laser Angiography in Pediatric Autologous Ear Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Deborah B.; Farias-Eisner, Gina; Mandelbaum, Rachel S.; Hoang, Han; Bradley, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Skin flap vascularity is a critical determinant of aesthetic results in autologous ear reconstruction. In this study, we investigate the use of intraoperative laser-assisted indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) as an adjunctive measure of skin flap vascularity in pediatric autologous ear reconstruction. Twenty-one consecutive pediatric patients undergoing first-stage autologous total ear reconstruction were retrospectively evaluated. The first 10 patients were treated traditionally (non-ICGA), and the latter 11 patients were evaluated with ICGA intraoperatively after implantation of the cartilage construct and administration of suction. Relative and absolute perfusion units in the form of contour maps were generated. Statistical analyses were performed using independent sample Student t test. Statistically significant differences in exposure and infection were not found between the 2 groups. However, decreased numbers of surgical revisions were required in cases with ICGA versus without ICGA (P = 0.03), suggesting that greater certainty in skin flap perfusion correlated with a reduction in revision surgeries. In cases of exposure, we found an average lowest absolute perfusion unit of 14.3, whereas cases without exposure had an average of 26.1 (P = 0.02), thereby defining objective parameters for utilizing ICGA data in tailoring surgical decision making for this special population of patients. Defined quantitative parameters for utilizing ICGA in evaluating skin flap vascularity may be a useful adjunctive technique in pediatric autologous ear reconstruction. PMID:27579233

  13. Transcanal endoscopic resection for leiomyoma of the external auditory canal and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Ryoukichi; Tateda, Masaru; Okoshi, Akira; Morita, Shinkichi; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Hashimoto, Sho

    2016-02-01

    Leiomyoma usually originates from the uterus and alimentary tract, but in extremely rare cases leiomyoma can appear in the external auditory canal. Here we present a 37-year-old man with right auricular fullness. Preoperative findings suggested benign tumor or cholesteatoma in the right external auditory canal. We performed total resection using an endoauricular approach with transcanal endoscopic ear surgery. Histopathological and immunohistochemistry examination confirmed the diagnosis of leiomyoma of external auditory canal. Leiomyoma arising from soft tissue, including that in the external auditory canal, is classified into two types: that from the arrectores pilorum muscles and that from the muscle coats of blood vessels. Only four cases of leiomyoma of external auditor canal have been published in the English literature. The other four cases demonstrated vascular leiomyomas. This is the first report of leiomyoma of the EAC arising from arrectores pilorum muscles. PMID:26094018

  14. Dissecting the frog inner ear with Gaussian noise. II. Temperature dependence of inner ear function.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, P; Wit, H P; Segenhout, J M

    1997-12-01

    The temperature dependence of the response of single primary auditory nerve fibers (n = 31) was investigated in the European edible frog, Rana esculenta (seven ears). Nerve fiber responses were analyzed with Wiener kernel analysis and polynomial correlation. The responses were described with a cascade model, consisting of a linear bandpass filter, a static nonlinearity, and a linear lowpass filter. From the computed Wiener kernels and the polynomial correlation functions, the characteristics of the three model components were obtained. With increasing temperature (1) tuning of the first filter increased in the majority (n = 16) of amphibian papilla fibers (best excitatory frequency, BEF < 1 kHz, n = 21) but remained unchanged in the majority (n = 10) of basilar papilla fibers (BEF > 1 kHz, n = 11), (2) the gain of the first filter remained unchanged, (3) the shape of nonlinear IO function remained unchanged, (4) the combined gain of the static nonlinearity and the second filter usually increased, but displayed considerable scatter across fibers (from -0.7 dB/degrees C to 3 dB/degrees C), and (5) the cutoff frequency of the second lowpass filter increases, with average 0.13 oct/degrees C. The immunity of the shape of the nonlinearity is considered evidence of a temperature independent gating mechanism in the transduction channels. The temperature dependence of the second filter may have resulted from a decrease of the hair cell membrane resistance, but may also reflect changes in subsequent staging of nerve fiber excitation. PMID:9447937

  15. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524.1484d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications. The product contains 5 milligrams of neomycin... a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and...

  16. 21 CFR 344.52 - Labeling of ear drying aid drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. 344.52... Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. (a) Statement of identity. The labeling of the product contains the established name of the drug, if any, and identifies the product as an “ear drying aid.”...

  17. 21 CFR 344.52 - Labeling of ear drying aid drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. 344.52... Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. (a) Statement of identity. The labeling of the product contains the established name of the drug, if any, and identifies the product as an “ear drying aid.”...

  18. 21 CFR 344.52 - Labeling of ear drying aid drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. 344.52... Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. (a) Statement of identity. The labeling of the product contains the established name of the drug, if any, and identifies the product as an “ear drying aid.”...

  19. 15 CFR 732.2 - Steps regarding scope of the EAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 732.2, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Steps regarding scope of the EAR. 732... FOR USING THE EAR § 732.2 Steps regarding scope of the EAR. Steps 1 though 6 are designed to aid...

  20. 21 CFR 344.52 - Labeling of ear drying aid drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. 344.52... Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. (a) Statement of identity. The labeling of the product contains the established name of the drug, if any, and identifies the product as an “ear drying aid.”...

  1. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 732 - Subject to the Ear?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Subject to the Ear? No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 732 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... FOR USING THE EAR Pt. 732, Supp. 2 Supplement No. 2 to Part 732—Subject to the Ear? ER06FE04.001...

  2. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524.1484d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications. The product contains 5 milligrams of neomycin... a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and...

  3. 21 CFR 344.52 - Labeling of ear drying aid drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. 344.52... Labeling of ear drying aid drug products. (a) Statement of identity. The labeling of the product contains the established name of the drug, if any, and identifies the product as an “ear drying aid.”...

  4. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524.1484d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications. The product contains 5 milligrams of neomycin... a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and...

  5. 15 CFR 732.2 - Steps regarding scope of the EAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 732.2, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Steps regarding scope of the EAR. 732... FOR USING THE EAR § 732.2 Steps regarding scope of the EAR. Steps 1 though 6 are designed to aid...

  6. 15 CFR 732.2 - Steps regarding scope of the EAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... section. (2) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 732.2, see the List of CFR... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Steps regarding scope of the EAR. 732... FOR USING THE EAR § 732.2 Steps regarding scope of the EAR. Steps 1 though 6 are designed to aid...

  7. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524.1484d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG..., tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications. The product contains 5 milligrams of neomycin... a lesser degree, chronic otitis externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and...

  8. Maize resistance and susceptibility to multiple ear-damaging pests: Progress and prospects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three sets of corn germplasm (including both inbred lines and experimental hybrids from diverse genetic background) have been examined separately for major ear-feeding insect and ear-colonizing disease resistance for two years. The ear-feeding insect damage assessment included corn earworm, maize w...

  9. Potential Aflatoxin and Fumonisin Contamination in Mazie Hybrids with Various Ear Development Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted at Jonesville, LA in 2000 and at St. Joseph, LA in 2001, and 2003 to compare three corn (maize, Zea mays L.) hybrids (a fixed-ear hybrid, Pioneer 33K81; a semi-fixed ear hybrid, Pioneer 3223; and a flex-ear hybrid; Golden Acres 8460) and to determine the effect of irrigati...

  10. Effects of Melodic Pattern Difficulty and Performance Experience on Ability To Play by Ear.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delzell, Judith K.; Rohwer, Debbie A.; Ballard, Diane E.

    1999-01-01

    Attempts to determine the relative difficulty of playing selected types of melodic pattern by ear; studies the effects of performance experience and instrument family on the ability to play by ear; and investigates the relationship between tonal aptitude and ability to play by ear. Presents results and questions for further research. (DSK)

  11. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide..., nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser is a device intended for the surgical excision of tissue from the ear,...

  12. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide..., nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser is a device intended for the surgical excision of tissue from the ear,...

  13. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide..., nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser is a device intended for the surgical excision of tissue from the ear,...

  14. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide..., nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser is a device intended for the surgical excision of tissue from the ear,...

  15. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide..., nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser is a device intended for the surgical excision of tissue from the ear,...

  16. Ear surgery techniques results on hearing threshold improvement

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtarinejad, Farhad; Pour, Saeed Soheili; Nilforoush, Mohammad Hussein; Sepehrnejad, Mahsa; Mirelahi, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bone conduction (BC) threshold depression is not always by means of sensory neural hearing loss and sometimes it is an artifact caused by middle ear pathologies and ossicular chain problems. In this research, the influences of ear surgeries on bone conduction were evaluated. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted as a clinical trial study. The ear surgery performed on 83 patients classified in four categories: Stapedectomy, tympanomastoid surgery and ossicular reconstruction partially or totally; Partial Ossicular Replacement Prosthesis (PORP) and Total Ossicular Replacement Prosthesis (TORP). Bone conduction thresholds assessed in frequencies of 250, 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz pre and post the surgery. Results: In stapedectomy group, the average of BC threshold in all frequencies improved approximately 6 dB in frequency of 2000 Hz. In tympanomastoid group, BC threshold in the frequency of 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz changed 4 dB (P-value < 0.05). Moreover, In the PORP group, 5 dB enhancement was seen in 1000 and 2000 Hz. In TORP group, the results confirmed that BC threshold improved in all frequencies especially at 4000 Hz about 6.5 dB. Conclusion: In according to results of this study, BC threshold shift was seen after several ear surgeries such as stapedectomy, tympanoplasty, PORP and TORP. The average of BC improvement was approximately 5 dB. It must be considered that BC depression might happen because of ossicular chain problems. Therefore; by resolving middle ear pathologies, the better BC threshold was obtained, the less hearing problems would be faced. PMID:24381615

  17. Metasurface external cavity laser

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Luyao Curwen, Christopher A.; Williams, Benjamin S.; Hon, Philip W. C.; Itoh, Tatsuo; Chen, Qi-Sheng

    2015-11-30

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  18. Metasurface external cavity laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Luyao; Curwen, Christopher A.; Hon, Philip W. C.; Chen, Qi-Sheng; Itoh, Tatsuo; Williams, Benjamin S.

    2015-11-01

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  19. Microarray analysis of microRNA expression in mouse fetus at 13.5 and 14.5 days post-coitum in ear and back skin tissues.

    PubMed

    Torres, Leda; Juárez, Ulises; García, Laura; Miranda-Ríos, Juan; Frias, Sara

    2016-09-01

    There is no information regarding the role of microRNAs in the development of the external ear in mammals. The purpose of this study was to determine the stage-specific expression of microRNA during external ear development in mice under normal conditions. GeneChip miRNA 3.0 arrays by Affymetrix were used to obtain miRNA expression profiles from mice fetal pinnae and back skin tissues at 13.5 days-post-coitum (dpc) and 14.5 dpc. Biological triplicates for each tissue were analyzed; one litter represents one biological replica, each litter had 16 fetuses on average. The results were analyzed with Affymetrix's Transcriptome Analysis Console software to identify differentially expressed miRNAs. The inquiry showed significant differential expression of 25 miRNAs at 13.5 dpc and 31 at 14.5 dpc, some of these miRNAs were predicted to target genes implicated in external ear development. One example is mmu-miR-10a whose low expression in pinnae is known to impact ear development by modulating Hoxa1 mRNA levels Garzon et al. (2006), Gavalas et al. (1998) [1], [2]. Other findings like the upregulation of mmu-miR-200c and mmu-miR-205 in the pinnae tissues of healthy mice are in agreement with what has been reported in human patients with microtia, in which down regulation of both miRNAs has been found Li et al. (2013) [3]. This study uncovered a spatiotemporal pattern of miRNA expression in the external ear, which results from continuous transcriptional changes during normal development of body structures. All microarray data are available at the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) at NCBI under accession number GSE64945. PMID:27408816

  20. Ear segmentation using histogram based K-means clustering and Hough transformation under CVL dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Heng; Liu, Dekai

    2009-10-01

    Under CVL dataset, we provide an image segmentation approach based on adaptive histogram based K-means clustering and fast Hough transformation. This work firstly analyzes the characteristics of ear images in CVL face dataset. According to the analysis, we then use adaptive histogram based K-means clustering method to threshold ear images and then roughly segment the ear parts. After ear contour extraction, with boundary determination through vertical project, Hough transformation is utilized to locate the ear contour accurately. The experimental results and comparisons with other segmentation methods show our approach is effective.