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1

Postnatal growth retardation, facial dysmorphism, spondylocarpal synostosis, cardiac defect, and inner ear malformation (cardiospondylocarpofacial syndrome?)--a distinct syndrome?  

PubMed

We report on two unrelated cases born to nonconsanguineous parents with a similar clinical presentation: hypotonia since the neonatal period, severe failure to thrive, postnatal growth retardation, facial dysmorphism, congenital cardiac defects (septal defect and non progressive multiple valve dysplasia), shortened extremities, carpal/tarsal and extensive vertebral synostosis, delayed carpal bone age, deafness, and inner ear malformations. Presently, both patients present with normal psychomotor development. Additional abnormal findings include extra oral frenulum, nasal speech, and vesico-ureteral reflux. Molecular analysis in one patient excluded the Noggin gene and Filamin B (FLNB) was excluded in the other patient. Although some features are similar to spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome, the exclusion of FLNB and this constellation of findings suggest a new entity, closely similar to an autosomal dominant condition reported by Forney et al. 1966 in a unique family. Identification of similarly affected patients should aid in the further elucidation of this syndrome. PMID:20186786

Sousa, Sérgio B; Baujat, Geneviéve; Abadie, Véronique; Bonnet, Damien; Sidi, Daniel; Munnich, Arnold; Krakow, Deborah; Cormier-Daire, Valérie

2010-03-01

2

Classification and diagnosis of ear malformations  

PubMed Central

In the ENT region 50% of the malformations affect the ear. Malformations of the outer and middle ear are predominantly unilateral (ca. 70-90%) and mostly involve the right ear. Inner ear malformations can be unilateral or bilateral. The incidence of ear malformations is approximately 1 in 3800 newborns. Ear malformations may be genetic (associated with syndromes or not, with family history, spontaneous mutations) or acquired in nature. Malformations can affect the outer ear (pinna and external auditory canal, EAC), middle ear and inner ear, not infrequently in combination. Formal classification is advisable in order to be able to predict the prognosis and compare treatment schedules. Various classifications have been proposed: pinna and EAC malformations according to Weerda [1], middle ear malformations according to Kösling [2], and inner ear malformations according to Jackler [3], [4], to Marangos [5] and to Sennaroglu [6]. Additionally, we describe Altmann’s classification of atresia auris congenita [7] and the Siegert-Mayer-Weerda score [8] for EAC and middle ear malformations, systems of great practicability that are in widespread clinical use. The diagnostic steps include clinical examination, audiological testing, genetic analysis and, especially, CT and MRI. These imaging methods are most usefully employed in combination. Precise description of the malformations by means of CT and MRI is indispensable for the planning and successful outcome of operative ear reconstruction and rehabilitation procedures, including cochlear implantation. PMID:22073081

Bartel-Friedrich, Sylva; Wulke, Cornelia

2008-01-01

3

COCHLEAR IMPLANTATION IN PATIENTS WITH INNER EAR MALFORMATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performing cochlear implantation in patients with inner ear malformation has always been a matter of dispute. This study was designed to analyze the operative findings, complications, and post- operative performance of patients with inner ear anomalies who underwent cochlear implantation. Six patients with inner ear malformations underwent implantation in our academic tertiary referral center from 1997 to 2002. The average

M. H. Khalessi; M. Motesaddi Zarandi; P. Borghei; S. Abdi

4

Hypothelia, syndactyly, and ear malformation--a variant of the scalp-ear-nipple syndrome?: Case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

The scalp-ear-nipple syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant condition that involves lesions of the scalp, malformed external ears, and absence of rudimentary nipples and breasts. We report a case of a woman with hypothelia, bilateral mildly malformed ears, and syndactyly of the hands and feet, and review the literature on the hypothelia/athelia phenotype. This case may represent a mild phenotype of the scalp-ear-nipple syndrome or a newly recognized entity. PMID:15712197

Baris, Hagit; Tan, Wen-Hann; Kimonis, Virginia E

2005-04-15

5

Inner ear malformations in patients with sensorineural hearing loss: detection with gradient-echo (3DFT-CISS) MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity of different MRI sequences in the detection of inner ear malformations in patients presenting with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and\\/or vertigo was evaluated. We studied 650 patients presenting with SNHL and\\/or vertigo, clinically not suspected of having inner ear malformations. The sensitivity of T1-weighted, Gd-enhanced T1-weighted and (when available) T2-weighted spin-echo images, and three-dimensional Fourier transformation-constructive interference in

J. W. Casselman; R. Kuhweide; W. Ampe; G. D'Hont; E. F. Offeciers; W. K. Faes; G. Pattyn

1996-01-01

6

FGF23 Deficiency Leads to Mixed Hearing Loss and Middle Ear Malformation in Mice  

PubMed Central

Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a circulating hormone important in phosphate homeostasis. Abnormal serum levels of FGF23 result in systemic pathologies in humans and mice, including renal phosphate wasting diseases and hyperphosphatemia. We sought to uncover the role FGF23 plays in the auditory system due to shared molecular mechanisms and genetic pathways between ear and kidney development, the critical roles multiple FGFs play in auditory development and the known hearing phenotype in mice deficient in klotho (KL), a critical co-factor for FGF23 signaling. Using functional assessments of hearing, we demonstrate that Fgf mice are profoundly deaf. Fgf mice have moderate hearing loss above 20 kHz, consistent with mixed conductive and sensorineural pathology of both middle and inner ear origin. Histology and high-voltage X-ray computed tomography of Fgf mice demonstrate dysplastic bulla and ossicles; Fgf mice have near-normal morphology. The cochleae of mutant mice appear nearly normal on gross and microscopic inspection. In wild type mice, FGF23 is ubiquitously expressed throughout the cochlea. Measurements from Fgf mice do not match the auditory phenotype of Kl?/? mice, suggesting that loss of FGF23 activity impacts the auditory system via mechanisms at least partially independent of KL. Given the extensive middle ear malformations and the overlap of initiation of FGF23 activity and Eustachian tube development, this work suggests a possible role for FGF23 in otitis media. PMID:25243481

Lysaght, Andrew C.; Yuan, Quan; Fan, Yi; Kalwani, Neil; Caruso, Paul; Cunnane, MaryBeth; Lanske, Beate; Stankovi?, Konstantina M.

2014-01-01

7

Congenital malformations of the external and middle ear: high-resolution CT findings of surgical import  

Microsoft Academic Search

The external auditory canal, middle ear, and bulk of the ossicular chain develop from the first branchial groove, first and second branchial arches, and first pharyngeal pouch. Embryologic development of these structures is complex and only rarely are two anomalies identical. This study includes 11 cases of unilateral external auditory canal atresia and two cases of bilateral atresia. Eight cases

Joel D. Swartz; Eric N. Faerber

1985-01-01

8

Optical and tomographic imaging of a middle ear malformation in the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a combination of in vivo computerized tomography and histological staining, a middle ear anomaly in two wild-caught American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) is characterized. In these animals, the tympanic membrane, extrastapes, and pars media (shaft) of the stapes are absent on one side of the head, with the other side exhibiting normal morphology. The pars interna (footplate) of the stapes and the operculum are present in their normal positions at the entrance of the otic capsule on both the affected and unaffected sides. The pattern of deformity suggests a partial failure of development of tympanic pathway tissues, but with a preservation of the opercularis pathway. While a definitive proximate cause of the condition could not be determined, the anomalies show similarities to developmental defects in mammalian middle ear formation.

Horowitz, Seth S.; Simmons, Andrea Megela; Ketten, Darlene R.

2005-08-01

9

Congenital malformations of the external and middle ear: high-resolution CT findings of surgical import  

SciTech Connect

The external auditory canal, middle ear, and bulk of the ossicular chain develop from the first branchial groove, first and second branchial arches, and first pharyngeal pouch. Embryologic development of these structures is complex and only rarely are two anomalies identical. This study includes 11 cases of unilateral external auditory canal atresia and two cases of bilateral atresia. Eight cases (four bilateral) of isolated congenital ossicular anomalies are also included. Emphasis is placed on findings of surgical import. All patients were studied with computed tomography only, because it was believed that the bony and soft-tissue detail achieved is superior to that with conventional multidirectional tomography.

Swartz, J.D.; Faerber, E.N.

1985-03-01

10

Fusion of the ear bones  

MedlinePLUS

Fusion of the ear bones is the joining of the bones of the inner ear. These are the incus, malleus, and stapes bones. Related topics include: Chronic ear infection Otosclerosis Middle ear malformations

11

Deletion of a conserved regulatory element required for Hmx1 expression in craniofacial mesenchyme in the dumbo rat: a newly identified cause of congenital ear malformation  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Hmx1 is a homeodomain transcription factor expressed in the developing eye, peripheral ganglia, and branchial arches of avian and mammalian embryos. Recent studies have identified a loss-of-function allele at the HMX1 locus as the causative mutation in the oculo-auricular syndrome (OAS) in humans, characterized by ear and eye malformations. The mouse dumbo (dmbo) mutation, with similar effects on ear and eye development, also results from a loss-of-function mutation in the Hmx1 gene. A recessive dmbo mutation causing ear malformation in rats has been mapped to the chromosomal region containing the Hmx1 gene, but the nature of the causative allele is unknown. Here we show that dumbo rats and mice exhibit similar neonatal ear and eye phenotypes. In midgestation embryos, dumbo rats show a specific loss of Hmx1 expression in neural-crest-derived craniofacial mesenchyme (CM), whereas Hmx1 is expressed normally in retinal progenitors, sensory ganglia and in CM, which is derived from mesoderm. High-throughput resequencing of 1 Mb of rat chromosome 14 from dmbo/dmbo rats, encompassing the Hmx1 locus, reveals numerous divergences from the rat genomic reference sequence, but no coding changes in Hmx1. Fine genetic mapping narrows the dmbo critical region to an interval of ?410 kb immediately downstream of the Hmx1 transcription unit. Further sequence analysis of this region reveals a 5777-bp deletion located ?80 kb downstream in dmbo/dmbo rats that is not apparent in 137 other rat strains. The dmbo deletion region contains a highly conserved domain of ?500 bp, which is a candidate distal enhancer and which exhibits a similar relationship to Hmx genes in all vertebrate species for which data are available. We conclude that the rat dumbo phenotype is likely to result from loss of function of an ultraconserved enhancer specifically regulating Hmx1 expression in neural-crest-derived CM. Dysregulation of Hmx1 expression is thus a candidate mechanism for congenital ear malformation, most cases of which remain unexplained. PMID:22736458

Quina, Lely A.; Kuramoto, Takashi; Luquetti, Daniela V.; Cox, Timothy C.; Serikawa, Tadao; Turner, Eric E.

2012-01-01

12

Syndromic Ear Anomalies and Renal Ultrasounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Although many pediatricians pursue renal ultrasonography when patients are noted to have external ear malformations, there is much confusion over which specific ear malformations do and do not require imaging. The objective of this study was to de- lineate characteristics of a child with external ear malfor- mations that suggest a greater risk of renal anomalies. We highlight several

Raymond Y. Wang; Dawn L. Earl; Robert O. Ruder; John M. Graham

2001-01-01

13

Brain Malformations  

MedlinePLUS

Most brain malformations begin long before a baby is born. Something damages the developing nervous system or causes it ... medicines, infections or radiation during pregnancy interferes with brain development. Types of brain malformations include missing parts ...

14

Amphibian malformations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Frog malformations have been reported from 42 states. The broad geographic distribution of these malformations warrants national attention. Scientists at the USGS National Wildlife Health Center in Madison, Wisconsin are studying this problem in an effort to document its scope and to determine the causes of the observed malformations.

National Wildlife Health Center

1998-01-01

15

Malformed Frogs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into using indicator species to assess the health of an environment. Groups of learners will collect as many frogs as they can from a pond, looking for malformations, which will be documented and further sorted as either symmetrical or asymmetrical. This data will then be graphed to identify a prevalent trend and possible cause of malformations. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Malformed Frogs.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2005-01-01

16

Ear emergencies  

MedlinePLUS

Ear emergencies include objects in the ear canal and ruptured eardrums. ... Children often put objects into their ears. These objects can be hard to remove. The ear canal is a tube of solid bone that is lined with thin, sensitive ...

17

Ear Tubes  

MedlinePLUS

Ear Tubes Ear Tubes Patient Health Information News media interested in covering the latest from AAO-HNS/ ... and throat specialist) may be considered. What are ear tubes? Ear tubes are tiny cylinders placed through ...

18

Your Ears  

MedlinePLUS

... you can hear and process sounds. The Outer Ear: Catch the Wave The outer ear is called ... gross. It's gross and useful. Continue The Middle Ear: Good Vibrations After sound waves enter the outer ...

19

Ear examination  

MedlinePLUS

An ear examination is when a health care provider looks inside your ear using an instrument called an otoscope. ... the head tilted toward the shoulder opposite the ear being examined. The health care provider will gently ...

20

Ear Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... most common illness in infants and young children. Tinnitus, a roaring in your ears, can be the ... problems in your inner ear; its symptoms include tinnitus and dizziness. Ear barotrauma is an injury to ...

21

Ear Tumors  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources for Help and Information The One-Page Merck Manual of Health Medical Terms Conversion Tables Manuals available ... Perichondritis Dermatitis of the Ear Canal Ear Tumors Merck Manual > Patients & Caregivers > Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders > Outer ...

22

Ear Pieces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students make fanciful connections between art and medicine. This project challenges students to interpret "ear idioms" (e.g. "blow it out your ear," "in one ear and out the other") by relying almost entirely on realistic ear drawings, the placement of them, marks, and values. In that…

DiJulio, Betsy

2011-01-01

23

The ear: Diagnostic imaging  

SciTech Connect

This is an English translation of volume 17-1 of Traite de radiodiagnostic and represents a reasonably complete documentation of the diseases of the temporal bone that have imaging manifestations. The book begins with chapters on embryology, anatomy and radiography anatomy; it continues with blood supply and an overview of temporal bone pathology. Subsequent chapters cover malformations, trauma, infections, tumors, postoperative changes, glomus tumors, vertebasilar insufficiency, and facial nerve canal lesions. A final chapter demonstrates and discusses magnetic resonance images of the ear and cerebellopontine angle.

Vignaud, J.; Jardin, C.; Rosen, L.

1986-01-01

24

Ear wax  

MedlinePLUS

The ear canal is lined with hair follicles and glands that produce a waxy oil called cerumen. The wax usually makes ... Wax can build up and block the ear canal. Wax blockage is one of the most common ...

25

Elephant ear  

MedlinePLUS

Elephant ear plants are indoor or outdoor plants with very large, arrow-shaped leaves. Poisoning may occur ... Elephant ear grows naturally in tropical and subtropical areas, but is easily found in northern climates as ...

26

Cerebral Cavernous Malformation  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Cerebral Cavernous Malformation Information Page Synonym(s): Cavernomas, Cavernous Angioma, Congenital Vascular Cavernous Malformations, Familial Hemangioma, Nevus Cavernosus, Vascular Erectile Tumor, Cavernous Malformation Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) ...

27

Ear barotrauma  

MedlinePLUS

Barotitis media; Barotrauma; Ear popping; Pressure-related ear pain; Eustachian tube dysfunction ... The air pressure in the middle ear is most often the same as the air pressure outside of the body. The Eustachian tube is a connection between the middle ...

28

Super Ears.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity in which students design, construct, and test "super ears" to investigate sound and hearing. Students work in groups of three and explore how the outer ear funnels sound waves to the inner ear and how human hearing compares to that of other animals. (NB)

Thompson, Stan

1995-01-01

29

Anorectal malformations  

PubMed Central

Anorectal malformations (ARMs) are among the more frequent congenital anomalies encountered in paediatric surgery, with an estimated incidence ranging between 1 in 2000 and 1 in 5000 live births. Antenatal diagnosis of an isolated ARM is rare. Most cases are diagnosed in the early neonatal period. There is a wide spectrum of presentation ranging from low anomalies with perineal fistula having simple management to high anomalies with complex management. Advances in the imaging techniques with improvement in knowledge of the embryology, anatomy and physiology of ARM cases have refined diagnosis and initial management. There has been marked improvement in survival of such patient over the last century. The management of ARM has moved forward from classical procedures to PSARP to minimal invasive procedures. But still the fecal and urinary incontinence can occur even with an excellent anatomic repair, mainly due to associated problems. There has been a paradigm shift in approach to these patients which involves holistic approach to the syndrome of Anorectal malformations with a long term goal of achievement of complete fecal and urinary continence with excellent quality of life. PMID:25552824

Gangopadhyay, Ajay Narayan; Pandey, Vaibhav

2015-01-01

30

Anorectal malformations.  

PubMed

Anorectal malformations (ARMs) are among the more frequent congenital anomalies encountered in paediatric surgery, with an estimated incidence ranging between 1 in 2000 and 1 in 5000 live births. Antenatal diagnosis of an isolated ARM is rare. Most cases are diagnosed in the early neonatal period. There is a wide spectrum of presentation ranging from low anomalies with perineal fistula having simple management to high anomalies with complex management. Advances in the imaging techniques with improvement in knowledge of the embryology, anatomy and physiology of ARM cases have refined diagnosis and initial management. There has been marked improvement in survival of such patient over the last century. The management of ARM has moved forward from classical procedures to PSARP to minimal invasive procedures. But still the fecal and urinary incontinence can occur even with an excellent anatomic repair, mainly due to associated problems. There has been a paradigm shift in approach to these patients which involves holistic approach to the syndrome of Anorectal malformations with a long term goal of achievement of complete fecal and urinary continence with excellent quality of life. PMID:25552824

Gangopadhyay, Ajay Narayan; Pandey, Vaibhav

2015-01-01

31

Ear Biometrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new class of biometrics based upon ear features is introduced for use in the development of passive identification systems.\\u000a The availability of the proposed biometric is shown both theoretically in terms of the uniqueness and measurability over time\\u000a of the ear, and in practice through the implementation of a computer vision based system. Each subject’s ear is modeled as

Mark Burge; Wilhelm Burger

32

Ear Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... if the fluid doesn’t go away on its own? If the fluid stays for more than a few months, your doctor may want to check your child's hearing. Your doctor may recommend ear tubes (also called tympanostomy tubes) to drain the fluid. Ear tubes ...

33

Anorectal malformations  

PubMed Central

Anorectal malformations comprise a wide spectrum of diseases, which can affect boys and girls, and involve the distal anus and rectum as well as the urinary and genital tracts. They occur in approximately 1 in 5000 live births. Defects range from the very minor and easily treated with an excellent functional prognosis, to those that are complex, difficult to manage, are often associated with other anomalies, and have a poor functional prognosis. The surgical approach to repairing these defects changed dramatically in 1980 with the introduction of the posterior sagittal approach, which allowed surgeons to view the anatomy of these defects clearly, to repair them under direct vision, and to learn about the complex anatomic arrangement of the junction of rectum and genitourinary tract. Better imaging techniques, and a better knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the pelvic structures at birth have refined diagnosis and initial management, and the analysis of large series of patients allows better prediction of associated anomalies and functional prognosis. The main concerns for the surgeon in correcting these anomalies are bowel control, urinary control, and sexual function. With early diagnosis, management of associated anomalies and efficient meticulous surgical repair, patients have the best chance for a good functional outcome. Fecal and urinary incontinence can occur even with an excellent anatomic repair, due mainly to associated problems such as a poorly developed sacrum, deficient nerve supply, and spinal cord anomalies. For these patients, an effective bowel management program, including enema and dietary restrictions has been devised to improve their quality of life. PMID:17651510

Levitt, Marc A; Peña, Alberto

2007-01-01

34

Renal ultrasonography not required in babies with isolated minor ear anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To determine whether infants with isolated minor anomalies of the external ear are at increased risk of renal malformations.Methods: Consecutive infants with isolated minor anomalies of the external ear (preauricular skin tags, preauricular sinuses, ear pits, and misshapen pinnae) were offered renal ultrasonography by experienced sonographers over a 41 month period. The prevalence of renal anomalies in such infants

S A Deshpande; H Watson

2006-01-01

35

Ear Infections in Children  

MedlinePLUS

... Ear Infections, and Deafness Ear Infections in Children Ear Infections in Children On this page: What is ... can I get more information? What is an ear infection? An ear infection is an inflammation of ...

36

Animal Ears  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into animal behavior and communication. Groups of learners will fashion a headband with fake ears, similar in shape to those of the animal they are going to observe. Then, they record observations of the animal’s reactions when a learner, wearing the ears in different positions, brings it a snack. Learners develop categories of behavior to organize and evaluate the results. Safety Note: an adult handler must be present if working with a horse or even a large dog. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Horse Ears.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

37

Outcome of cochlear implantation in children with cochlear malformations.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was the evaluation of outcomes of cochlear implantation (CI) in children with cochlear malformations. A retrospective case-control study was conducted in a tertiary referral centre. The patients were children with inner ear malformation judged by high-resolution computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging treated with uni- or bilateral CI and a follow-up period of at least 3 years. They were matched with a control group of children operated for other reasons. The patients were operated by one of two surgeons using similar techniques including a standard perimodiolar electrode in all cases. The intervention was therapeutic and rehabilitative. The main outcome measures were category of auditory performance (CAP) and speech intelligibility rating (SIR). Eighteen children were diagnosed with cochlear malformations (12 % of children receiving CI). No statistical differences regarding CAP and SIR scores were found between the two groups. Only one child was diagnosed with a common cavity and performed below average. Children with auditory neuropathy performed beyond average. Children with cochlear malformations performed equally to children without malformation in the long term. Standard perimodiolar electrodes can be used despite cochlear malformations. The most important factors determining the outcome is the age of the child at the time of implantation and duration of hearing loss before CI. Awareness towards an increased risk of complications in case of inner ear malformations is recommended. PMID:24407715

Bille, Jesper; Fink-Jensen, Vibeke; Ovesen, Therese

2015-03-01

38

Swimmer's ear  

MedlinePLUS

Guss J, Ruckenstein MJ. Infections of the external ear. In: Cummings CW, Flint PW, Haughey BH, et al, eds. Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2010:chap 137. ...

39

Right Ear/Left Ear  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (4th on the page), learners conduct a series of tests to find out which of their ears is more dominant. In other words, do they prefer to use their right or left ear to complete tasks? Learners work in pairs and observe each other doing simple tasks like listening to a whisper, listening to a mystery object in a box, and listening through a wall. Learners collect data to draw conclusions about their partner's "earedness."

2012-06-26

40

Better Ear Health  

MedlinePLUS

Better Ear Health Better Ear Health Patient Health Information News media interested in covering the latest from AAO-HNS/ ... often helpful to those with this condition. Swimmer?s Ear An infection of the outer ear structures caused ...

41

Ear Plastic Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

Ear Plastic Surgery Ear Plastic Surgery Patient Health Information News media interested in covering the latest from ... they may improve appearance and self-confidence. Can Ear Deformities Be Corrected? Formation of the ear during ...

42

Swimmer's Ear (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... Flu Pregnancy Precautions Checkups: What to Expect Swimmer's Ear (Otitis Externa) KidsHealth > Parents > Infections > Ear Infections > Swimmer's ... Treatment When to Call the Doctor About Swimmer's Ear Otitis externa — commonly known as swimmer's ear — is ...

43

Ear Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Spindly cells in the inner ear, called "hair" cells, are critical for both hearing and balance. Now, in a boon for research, neuro-scientists Jeffrey Corwin and Zhenqing Hu at the University of Virginia School of Medicine have finally grown and multiplied these cells in the lab.

Science Update (AAAS; )

2008-05-06

44

Ear Training  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using these websites, you can practice your ear training skills. There are links for intervals, chords, and short melodic segments. First, you should go to this website to practice intervals. Intervals Begin with the first option (simple intervals up). After mastering this, move to simple intervals down. As you become more advanced, continue down the line of interval options. They will become more difficult as you ...

2009-09-15

45

Scalp-Ear-Nipple Syndrome: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

The scalp-ear-nipple (SEN) syndrome is an infrequent congenital disease. Its main features are scalp defects, malformed ears, and absence of nipples. Most of the reported cases are autosomal dominant. We report on a patient suffering SEN syndrome with possible autosomal recessive inheritance. It is concluded that SEN syndrome should be recognized as an entity with genetic heterogeneity once there is evidence of different genetic manner of inheritance described in this disease. PMID:24660003

Morales-Peralta, Estela; Andrés, Vivian; Campillo Betancourt, Dainé

2014-01-01

46

Travel Inside the Ear  

MedlinePLUS

... Travel Inside the Ear Video Travel Inside the Ear Video When sound waves reach your ear, you know you've heard a soft sound ... loud sound. The sound passes through the outer ear and is funneled into the middle ear, where ...

47

Prenatal Ultrasound Screening for External Ear Abnormality in the Fetuses  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To investigate the best time of examination and section chosen of routine prenatal ultrasound screening for external ear abnormalities and evaluate the feasibility of examining the fetal external ear with ultrasonography. Methods. From July 2010 until August 2011, 42118 pregnant women with single fetus during 16–40 weeks of pregnancy were enrolled in the study. Fetal auricles and external auditory canal in the second trimester of pregnancy were evaluated by routine color Doppler ultrasound screening and systematic screening. Ultrasound images of fetal external ears were obtained on transverse-incline view at cervical vertebra level and mandible level and on parasagittal view and coronal view at external ear level. Results. Five fetuses had anomalous ears including bilateral malformed auricles with malformed external auditory canal, unilateral deformed external ear, and unilateral microtia. The detection rate of both auricles was negatively correlated with gestational age. Of the 5843 fetuses undergoing a routine ultrasound screening, 5797 (99.21%) had bilateral auricles. Of the 4955 fetuses following systematic screening, all fetuses (100%) had bilateral auricles. The best time for fetal auricles observation with ultrasonography is 20–24 weeks of pregnancy. Conclusions. Detection of external ear abnormalities may assist in the diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:25050343

Wei, Jun; Ran, Suzhen; Yang, Zhengchun; Lin, Yun; Tang, Jing

2014-01-01

48

Flying and Your Child's Ears  

MedlinePLUS

... Checkups: What to Expect Flying and Your Child's Ears KidsHealth > Parents > General Health > Your Kid's Eyes, Ears, ... Tips for Easing Ear Pain Flying's Effects on Ears Many of us have felt that weird ear- ...

49

Middle Ear Infections (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... 3 years old. A Close Look at the Ear To understand how ear infections develop, let's review ... leading to an ear infection. Continue About Middle Ear Infections Inflammation in the middle ear area is ...

50

Congenital ossicular anomalies without malformations of the external ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Es wird über 18 Ohren mit kongenitaler Gehörknöchelchenmißbildung ohne Deformierung des äußeren Ohres berichtet. Sie werden in drei Gruppen eingeteilt: 8 fehlende Incudostapedialverbindungen, 3 Malleus- oder Inkusfixationen und 7 Stapesfixationen.

Sotaro Funasaka

1979-01-01

51

Vascular malformations revisited.  

PubMed

Vascular malformations are congenital anomalies that can affect each part of the vasculature. Combined forms are common and they are often part of complex syndromes. Most malformations are diagnosed during infancy, but some get obvious only later in life. The field of vascular malformations is emerging with recently described new entities and treatments. Still, misdiagnosis is common in this field, leading to nosologic confusion and wrong treatment. Clinical evaluation and imaging are the gold standard for diagnostic confirmation. Sclerotherapy and embolization are the main treatment techniques but are also used preoperatively to reduce blood loss and shrink the lesion if surgery is planned. Despite new treatment options, especially if extensive in size or involving vulnerable structures, vascular malformations are still considered chronic diseases and cause significant morbidity. Common understanding and agreement on terminology and a multidisciplinary approach are the basis of successful treatment and long-term support for these patients. Continuing research in the field of vascular anomalies will improve knowledge and create further treatment options. PMID:25537054

Clemens, Robert K; Pfammatter, Thomas; Meier, Thomas O; Alomari, Ahmad I; Amann-Vesti, Beatrice R

2015-01-01

52

Reoperation for Chiari Malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We undertook this study to characterize those patients who required reoperations for Chiari malformation and to determine whether modifications in surgical technique at the initial procedure might have obviated the need for repeat surgery. Methods: We reviewed the hospital records, imaging studies, operative reports, and follow-up data of those patients who were undergoing a second operation as part of

David Sacco; R. Michael Scott

2003-01-01

53

Ear drainage culture  

MedlinePLUS

... needed. Your health care provider will use a cotton swab to collect the sample from inside the ... Using a cotton swab to take a sample of drainage from the outer ear is not painful. However, ear pain may ...

54

Ear infection - chronic  

MedlinePLUS

Middle ear infection - chronic; Otitis media - chronic; Chronic otitis media; Chronic ear infection ... Kerschner JE. Otitis media. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders ...

55

Ototoxicity (Ear Poisoning) (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... the drugs. When a medication damages the inner ear — the part of the ear responsible for receiving/sending sounds and controlling balance — it's called ototoxicity or "ear poisoning." The degree of damage to the ear ...

56

Whale and Human Ears  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What do whale ears look like? You might be surprised! These two versions of this diagram -- one with the anatomical parts labeled and one that students can label themselves -- compare the anatomy of a whale ear to that of a human ear. From Marine Biology: Environment, Diversity, and Ecology by David Lerman

2003-09-26

57

Therapeutic embolization of the dural arteriovenous malformation involving the jugular bulb.  

PubMed Central

Pulsatile tinnitus is a rarely occurring symptom of vascular origin. Most frequently, the symptoms are due to an arteriovenous malformation, to a tumor of the jugular glomus or to a local arterial stenosis. A 39-yr-old Korean male suffering from pulsatile tinnitus of the left ear was diagnosed to have dural arteriovenous malformation of the jugular bulb. Magnetic resonance imaging and angiography revealed a high-velocity vascular lesion encroaching the internal jugular vein and sigmoid sinuses. Digital subtraction angiography demonstrated a dural arteriovenous malformation involving the jugular bulb. The arterial supply was from the neuromeningeal branch of the left ascending pharyngeal artery and inferior tympanic artery. Stenosis of the left jugular vein caused retrograde venous drainage through the contralateral transverse sinus. Superselective embolization of these feeding arteries was successfully performed using 25% mixture of N-butylcyanoacrylate and lipiodol. In postembolization period, his complaints of pulsatile tinnitus and buzzing noise behind his left ear disappeared. PMID:11511804

Park, J. Y.; Ahn, J. Y.; Lee, B. H.; Huh, R.; Choi, H. K.; Shin, M. S.

2001-01-01

58

Ear, Nose & Throat Issues & Down Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Associated Conditions » Ear, Nose & Throat Issues & Down Syndrome Ear, Nose & Throat Issues & Down Syndrome Ear, nose, and ... Are Common in Children With Down Syndrome? External Ear Canal Stenosis Stenotic ear canals (narrow ear canals) ...

59

Arteriovenous Malformation Management  

SciTech Connect

Arteriovenous malformations (AVM) are rare vascular lesions that can present with a myriad of clinical presentations. In our institutions, initial workup consists of a clinical exam, color Doppler imaging, and magnetic resonance imaging. After the initial noninvasive workup, arteriography, at times closed system venography, and ethanol endovascular repair of the AVM is performed under general anesthesia. Depending on the size of the lesion, additional Swan-Ganz line and arterial line monitoring are performed. Patients are usually observed overnight and uneventfully discharged the following day if no complication occurs. Patients are followed at periodic intervals despite cure of their lesion. Long-term follow-up is essential in AVM management.

Yakes, Wayne F. [Interventional Radiology and Interventional Neuroradiology, Radiology Imaging Associates, P.C., Colorado NeurologicalInstitute, Swedish Medical Center, 501 E. Hampden Avenue, Englewood, CO 80110 (United States); Rossi, Plinio [Department of Radiology, Universita Degli Studi Di Roma, 'La Sapienza', 00161 Rome (Italy); Odink, Henk [Department of Radiology, De Wever Hospital, Henri Dunanstrat 5, 6419 PC Heerlen (Netherlands)

1996-11-15

60

Pathology of the Ear  

PubMed Central

The external ear is exposed to weathering and trauma; it also has sparse vascularity, making it prone to infection and disease. The external location of the cutaneous ear makes it easily visible for diagnosis and accessible for treatment. In this article, the authors focus on diseases of the ear that are most commonly encountered and may be subject to surgical and medical evaluation and/or treatment. Epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical course, and treatment for each disease entity are discussed. PMID:23115534

Orengo, Ida; Robbins, Kerri; Marsch, Amanda

2011-01-01

61

Redundant functions of Rac GTPases in inner ear morphogenesis  

PubMed Central

Development of the mammalian inner ear requires coordination of cell proliferation, cell fate determination and morphogenetic movements. While significant progress has been made in identifying developmental signals required for inner ear formation, less is known about how distinct signals are coordinated by their downstream mediators. Members of the Rac family of small GTPases are known regulators of cytoskeletal remodeling and numerous other cellular processes. However, the function of Rac GTPases in otic development is largely unexplored. Here, we show that Rac1 and Rac3 redundantly regulate many aspects of inner ear morphogenesis. While no morphological defects were observed in Rac3-/- mice, Rac1CKO; Rac3-/- double mutants displayed enhanced vestibular and cochlear malformations compared to Rac1CKO single mutants. Moreover, in Rac1CKO; Rac3-/- mutants, we observed compromised E-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion, reduced cell proliferation and increased cell death in the early developing otocyst, leading to a decreased size and malformation of the membranous labyrinth. Finally, cochlear extension was severely disrupted in Rac1CKO; Rac3-/-mutants, accompanied by a loss of epithelial cohesion and formation of ectopic sensory patches underneath the cochlear duct. The compartmentalized expression of otic patterning genes within the Rac1CKO; Rac3-/- mutant otocyst was largely normal, however, indicating that Rac proteins regulate inner ear morphogenesis without affecting cell fate specification. Taken together, our results reveal an essential role for Rac GTPases in coordinating cell adhesion, cell proliferation, cell death and cell movements during otic development. PMID:22182523

Grimsley-Myers, Cynthia M.; Sipe, Conor W.; Wu, Doris K.; Lu, Xiaowei

2012-01-01

62

Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease (AIED)  

MedlinePLUS

... VEDA” to receive a 15% discount. Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease What is autoimmunity? How is it connected ... reaction. The immune system can attack just the ear, attack the ear and some other body part ...

63

Ear - blocked at high altitudes  

MedlinePLUS

High altitudes and blocked ears; Flying and blocked ears; Eustachian tube dysfunction -high altitude ... opens the Eustachian tube, which connects the middle ear to the nose. These movements allow the pressure ...

64

Taking Care of Your Ears  

MedlinePLUS

... Body Works Main Page Taking Care of Your Ears KidsHealth > Kids > Staying Healthy > Being Good to My ... you clean it out. Taking Care of Pierced Ears Pierced ears may look pretty, but you need ...

65

Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness  

MedlinePLUS

... Info Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness DefaultPage Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Diseases and Conditions Age-Related ... Processing Disorder Do You Need a Hearing Test? Ear Infections in Children Enlarged Vestibular Aqueducts (EVA) Hearing ...

66

What Is an Ear Infection?  

MedlinePLUS

... the Body Works Main Page What Is an Ear Infection? KidsHealth > Kids > Illnesses & Injuries > I Feel Sick! > ... pain and a fever . What Is a Middle Ear Infection? Middle ear infections are one of the ...

67

Management strategy for facial venous malformations  

PubMed Central

Venous malformations (VMs) are slow-flow vascular malformations, caused by abnormalities in the development of the veins. Venous malformations vary in size and location within the body. When the skin or tissues just under the skin are affected, they appear as slightly blue-colored skin stains or swellings. These can vary in size from time to time because of swelling within the malformation. As these are vascular malformations, they are present at birth and grow proportionately with the child. Venous malformations can be very small to large in size, and sometimes, can involve a significant area within the body, When the venous malformation is well localized, this may cause localized swelling, however, when the venous malformation is more extensive, there may be more widespread swelling of the affected body part. Some patients with venous malformations have abnormal blood clotting within the malformation. Most venous malformations cause no life-threatening problems for patients. Some venous malformations cause repeated pain due to intermittent swelling and congestion of the malformation or due to the formation of blood clots within the malformation. Rarely, venous malformations may be part of a syndrome (an association of several clinically recognizable features) or be linked to an underlying genetic abnormality. We present 12 cases of venous malformations of the head and neck area, which have been managed at our hospital. PMID:25298729

Kumar, Shailendra; Kumar, Vijay; Kumar, Sanjeev; Kumar, Surender

2014-01-01

68

Middle-ear myoclonus.  

PubMed

Tinnitus produced by repetitive contraction of the middle-ear muscles is a rare condition. We present an interesting case of bilateral middle-ear myoclonus causing incapacitating tinnitus in a patient with multiple sclerosis. Otological examination demonstrated rhythmic involuntary movement of the tympanic membrane. These movements correlated with a rhythmic 'rushing wind' noise perceived by the patient. Oropharyngeal examination showed no evidence of palatal myoclonus. Impedance audiometry confirmed rhythmic change in the middle-ear volume. Medical management was unsuccessful. The patient's tinnitus was subsequently cured with bilateral sectioning of the tensor tympani and stapedial tendons. PMID:10829111

Zipfel, T E; Kaza, S R; Greene, J S

2000-03-01

69

Progressive tentorial cavernous malformation  

PubMed Central

Background: Because extra-axial cavernous malformations (CMs) are rare, the common clinical course remains unclear. We report the case of a patient with progressive CM originating from the cerebellar tentorium. Case Description: A 64-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with the complaint of diplopia. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a lesion attached to the left cerebellar tentorium, close to the cerebral peduncle. This well-demarcated lesion rapidly enlarged for 3 months and eroded into the midbrain. Cerebral angiography showed a branch of the middle meningeal artery supplying the lesion and pooling of the contrast medium in the venous phase. A dark reddish and mulberry-like mass of the tentorium was observed intraoperatively, allowing the diagnosis of a tentorial CM. The feeding artery was identified in the tentorium and was coagulated. Postoperative MR imaging showed remarkable mass reduction and central necrosis of the lesion. However, the lesion recurred in 3 months; consequently, gamma knife radiosurgery was performed. After an additional 2 months, the lesion shrank in response to the radiosurgery. Conclusions: We report an extremely rare case of tentorial CM which showed rapid growth in a short period. Coagulation of the feeding artery was not sufficient to control the lesion. Gamma knife radiosurgery may prove highly effective for recurrent lesions. PMID:22439109

Furuta, Takuya; Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Watanabe, Takuya; Hayashi, Yutaka; Hamada, Jun-Ichiro

2012-01-01

70

Pediatric dural arteriovenous malformations.  

PubMed

Pediatric dural arteriovenous malformations (dAVMs) are rare lesions that have a high mortality rate and require complex management. The authors report 3 cases of pediatric dAVMs that presented with macrocrania and extracranial venous distension. Dural sinus thrombosis developed in 2 of the cases prior to any intervention, which is an unusual occurrence for this particular disease. All 3 cases were treated using staged endovascular embolization with a favorable outcome in 1 case and a poor outcome in the other 2 cases. Complications developed in all cases and included dural sinus thrombosis, parenchymal hemorrhage, intracranial venous hypertension, and seizures. The strategies and challenges used in managing these patients will be presented and discussed, along with a review of the literature. While outcomes remain poor, the authors conclude that prompt treatment with endovascular embolization provides the best results for children with these lesions. A well-established venous collateral circulation draining directly to the internal jugular veins may further improve the rate of favorable outcome after embolization. PMID:24867128

Appaduray, Shaun P; King, James A J; Wray, Alison; Lo, Patrick; Maixner, Wirginia

2014-07-01

71

Swimmer's Ear (External Otitis)  

MedlinePLUS

KidsHealth > Teens > Infections > Bacterial & Viral Infections > Swimmer's Ear (External Otitis) Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? What Is External Otitis? What Are the Signs and Symptoms of ...

72

Ear Injuries (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... head, sports injuries, and even listening to loud music can cause ear damage, which can affect hearing ... But for kids and teens, listening to loud music (at concerts, in the car, through headphones) is ...

73

How the Ear Works  

MedlinePLUS

... car horn, etc.). Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery. Reproduction or republication strictly ... without prior written permission. More Resources About: General Otolaryngology Otology/Neurotology Ears Related Links Link: A Quick ...

74

[Unusual presentation of rib malformation].  

PubMed

Rib malformation and anatomical variations are not well known and are still often underdiagnosed. Usually, rib malformations are fortuitously discovered. We describe here the case of a girl, 4 years and 4 months old, who presented at the emergency unit for fever and an anterior tumefaction of the ribcage, without any other symptoms. She was eupneic with a normal pulmonary auscultation and viral tonsillitis with a negative streptococcus test. The thoracic tumefaction was parasternal, painless, and fixed and measured approximately 2.5 × 2cm. Ultrasound findings consisted of a duplicated and hypoechogenic hypertrophy of the sterno-costal cartilage of the 4th left rib. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed the diagnosis of chondral bifidity of the sterno-costal junction of the 4th left rib. Fever, due to the viral tonsillitis, disappeared after 4 days. Rib malformations are rare, often anterior, unilateral, and preferentially located on the 3rd or the 4th rib. The main malformative rib lesions are bifid ribs, rib spurs, and widened ribs. Very rarely, they can be associated with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or with other malformations such as VATER complex. The main differential diagnoses of these rib malformations are traumatic, tumoral, and infectious etiologies. In case of tumoral diseases, the topography of the lesion focuses the etiologic diagnosis: whereas an anterior and cartilaginous lesion is always benign, a lateral or posterior lesion can be an Ewing sarcoma. Rib malformation investigation consists in meticulous questioning, a complete clinical examination looking for any associated anomaly, completed by basic imaging explorations such as plain thoracic radiography focused on the ribcage and ultrasound. Finally, complementary computerized tomography or preferably MRI, depending on the anatomic location of the lesion, confirms the final diagnosis, as presented in our case report, and removes any uncertainty. PMID:23037576

Cosson, M-A; Breton, S; Aprahamian, A; Grevent, D; Cheron, G

2012-11-01

75

Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations.  

PubMed

Within the past decade, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) have evolved from rare curiosities to not uncommon clinical states, with the latest estimates suggesting a prevalence of ~1 in 2,600. PAVMs provide anatomic right-to-left shunts, allowing systemic venous blood to bypass gas exchange and pulmonary capillary bed processing. Hypoxemia and enhanced ventilatory demands result, although both are usually asymptomatic. Paradoxical emboli lead to strokes and cerebral abscesses, and these commonly occur in individuals with previously undiagnosed PAVMs. PAVM hemorrhage is rare but is the main cause of maternal death in pregnancy. PAVM occlusion by embolization is the standard of care to reduce these risks. However, recent data demonstrate that currently recommended management protocols can result in levels of radiation exposure that would be classified as harmful. Recent publications also provide a better appreciation of the hematologic and cardiovascular demands required to maintain arterial oxygen content and oxygen consumption in hypoxemic patients, identify patient subgroups at higher risk of complications, and emphasize the proportion of radiologically visible PAVMs too small to treat by embolization. This review, therefore, outlines medical states that exacerbate the consequences of PAVMs. Chief among these is iron deficiency, which is commonly present due to concurrent hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: iron deficiency impairs hypoxemia compensations by restricting erythropoiesis and increases the risk of ischemic strokes. Management of periodontal disease, dental interventions, pulmonary hypertension, and pregnancy also requires specific consideration in the setting of PAVMs. The review concludes by discussing to what extent previously recommended protocols may benefit from modification or revision. PMID:25420112

Shovlin, Claire L

2014-12-01

76

Intralesional radiofrequency in venous malformations.  

PubMed

Venous malformations are usually asymptomatic and managed conservatively. Treatment, in the form of laser, sclerotherapy, or resection, is needed only if lesions present with symptoms or cosmetic deformity. The aim of this study was to find out how effective radiofrequency ablation was in patients with incomplete or unsatisfactory resolution of a venous malformation after an intralesional injection of bleomycin. During the 5 year period 2008-2012, we organised a prospective, clinical study at a tertiary care centre. Patients were selected from the outpatient department of the Lady Hardinge Medical College and associated hospitals, New Delhi, India. Five patients with venous malformations were treated by intralesional injection of bleomycin in a dose of 0.5U/kg body weight, which was repeated every 2 weeks for a total of 8 injections. They then had multiple intralesional radiofrequency ablation every 2 months until a satisfactory outcome was achieved. After the initial 8 doses the reduction in the size of the lesions was minimal (less than 50%). After 2-4 applications of radiofrequency ablation there was appreciable reduction in the size of the lesions (about 80%) with good functional and cosmetic outcomes. Radiofrequency ablation is an effective adjunct for patients with venous malformations of the head and neck that have not responded satisfactorily to intralesional injection of bleomycin. To our knowledge radiofrequency ablation after intralesional injection of bleomycin has not previously been described as a treatment for venous malformations. PMID:25554592

Garg, S; Kumar, S; Singh, Y B

2015-03-01

77

Occurrence of Different External Ear Deformities in Monozygotic Twins: Report of 2 Cases  

PubMed Central

Summary: Microtia is a spectrum of congenital deformities, which varies from barely discernable to anotia. Twinning is a well-known risk factor for congenital defects including external ear deformities. Monozygotic twins usually show identical appearances as well as congenital malformations. In special conditions as ear deformities, “mirror-image” may also occur. We report 2 cases of monozygotic twins with different ear deformities. The 8-year-old propositus with lobule type microtia and her identical female twin presented with facial symmetry. Patient A had sausage-type right microtia with absence of external auditory canal. The left external ear showed normal appearance. Patient B presented with left-sided preauricular skin tag and right-sided malformation of tragus with skin tag combined with hyperplasia of underlying cartilage. A granule-size skin tag was also noticed at crus of right helix. A 7-year-old male patient with right-sided conchal type microtia presented to an ear reconstruction center. The patient’s mother showed normal auricular appearance. Her monozygotic twin sister, whose son and daughter had normal ear appearance, was diagnosed with a leftsided lobule type microtia. PMID:25426389

Hu, Jin-Tian; Liu, Tun; Qian, Jin; Zhang, Yong-Biao; Zhou, Xu

2014-01-01

78

Signaling regulating inner ear development: cell fate determination, patterning, morphogenesis, and defects.  

PubMed

The membranous labyrinth of the inner ear is a highly complex organ that detects sound and balance. Developmental defects in the inner ear cause congenital hearing loss and balance disorders. The membranous labyrinth consists of three semicircular ducts, the utricle, saccule, and endolymphatic ducts, and the cochlear duct. These complex structures develop from the simple otic placode, which is established in the cranial ectoderm adjacent to the neural crest at the level of the hindbrain at the early neurula stage. During development, the otic placode invaginates to form the otic vesicle, which subsequently gives rise to neurons for the vestibulocochlear ganglion, the non-sensory and sensory epithelia of the membranous labyrinth that includes three ampullary crests, two maculae, and the organ of Corti. Combined paracrine and autocrine signals including fibroblast growth factor, Wnt, retinoic acid, hedgehog, and bone morphogenetic protein regulate fate determination, axis formation, and morphogenesis in the developing inner ear. Juxtacrine signals mediated by Notch pathways play a role in establishing the sensory epithelium, which consists of mechanosensory hair cells and supporting cells. The highly differentiated organ of Corti, which consists of uniformly oriented inner/outer hair cells and specific supporting cells, develops during fetal development. Developmental alterations/arrest causes congenital malformations in the inner ear in a spatiotemporal-restricted manner. A clearer understanding of the mechanisms underlying inner ear development is important not only for the management of patients with congenital inner ear malformations, but also for the development of regenerative therapy for impaired function. PMID:25040109

Nakajima, Yuji

2015-02-01

79

Intracranial vascular malformations: MR and CT imaging  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-four patients with 29 cerebrovascular malformations were evaluated with a combination of computed tomography (CT), angiography, and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Characteristics of the malformations on MR images were reviewed retrospectively, and a comparative evaluation of MR and CT images was made. Of 14 angiographically evident malformations, 13 intra-axial lesions were detected on both CT and MR images, and one dural malformation gave false-negative results on both modalities. The appearance of parenchymal lesions on MR images closely mirrored characteristic CT findings. Angiographically evident malformations have a highly characteristic appearance on MR images. MR may be more sensitive than CT in the detection of small hemorrhagic foci associated with cryptic arteriovenous malformations and may add specificity in the diagnosis of occult malformations in some cases, but MR is less sensitive than CT for the detection of small calcified malformations.

Kucharczyk, W.; Lemme-Pleghos, L.; Uske, A.; Brant-Zawadzki, M.; Dooms, G.; Norman, D.

1985-08-01

80

Digital ear scanner : measuring the compliance of the ear  

E-print Network

This paper seeks to resolve the biggest problem with hearing aids, their physical fit. By digitally scanning the ear canal and taking the dynamics of the ear into account the performance and comfort of a hearing aid can ...

Hernandez-Stewart, Daniel

2010-01-01

81

Management of perinatal lung malformations.  

PubMed

This review uses the most up-to-date literature to help guide obstetrical providers through the diagnosis and management of perinatal lung malformations. These lesions, which include congenital pulmonary airway malformation [CPAM, formerly congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM)] and bronchopulmonary sequestration (BPS), are relatively rare but are becoming increasingly common because of the improved resolution and enhanced sensitivity of fetal ultrasound. Serial assessment throughout pregnancy remains the norm rather than the exception. Perinatal management strategies can differ based on the sonographic characteristics and dynamic growth patterns of lung masses. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging and other diagnostic testing can sometimes be helpful in providing additional prognostic information. Over the last decade, the importance of echocardiography and utility of maternal steroids have been recognized in cases of non-immune hydrops. Fetal surgery is now rarely performed. Decisions regarding whether delivery of these fetuses should occur in a tertiary care center with pediatric surgery coverage versus delivery at a local community hospital are now highly relevant in most prenatal counseling discussions with families. Large lung malformations may require urgent surgical removal in the early postnatal period because of respiratory distress. Other complications, such as recurrent pneumonia, pneumothorax, and cancer, are indications for lung resection on an elective basis. In the vast majority of cases, the overall prognosis remains excellent. PMID:25310108

Macardle, C A; Kunisaki, S M

2015-02-01

82

Congenital Pulmonary Malformation in Children  

PubMed Central

Congenital Pulmonary Malformations (CPMs) are a group of rare lung abnormalities affecting the airways, parenchyma, and vasculature. They represent a spectrum of abnormal development rather than discrete pathological entities. They are caused by aberrant embryological lung development which occurs at different stages of intrauterine life. PMID:24278678

Nadeem, Montasser; Elnazir, Basil; Greally, Peter

2012-01-01

83

Amphibian Population Declines and Malformations  

E-print Network

1 Amphibian Population Declines and Malformations Matthew J. Gray University of Tennessee Hyla regilla, ORBufo periglenes, CR Extinct, 1989 Worldwide Amphibian Population Declines Global Amphibian of Amphibian Declines Prior 1970s: 1970-mid-1980s: Late 80s-Now: ·Few extinctions; some localized die-offs ·Few

Gray, Matthew

84

Foreign object in ear (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... get stuck in the ear canal. It is important to remove the object since infection is most likely to occur. In most cases, a doctor will need to use special instruments to examine the ear and safely remove ...

85

A clockwork ear.  

PubMed

Objective tinnitus refers to a tinnitus that can also be heard by the examiner. It is a relatively rare condition, and can be misdiagnosed or neglected. Some causes of objective tinnitus are head and neck vascular malformations, or muscular myoclonus of the tensor tympani, stapedial, or palatal muscles. The case of an 11-year-old girl with an objective tinnitus lasting from 1 year is herein presented, and the diagnostic workup performed in this unusual case is described. PMID:22711231

Alicandri-Ciufelli, M; Soloperto, Davide; Palma, Silvia; Marrara, Antonino; Genovese, Elisabetta

2012-06-01

86

Sports injuries of the ear.  

PubMed

The author describes common sports injuries involving the ear. Such injuries include hematoma, lacerations, foreign bodies (tattoo), and thermal injuries. Ear canal injuries include swimmer's ear and penetrating injuries. Tympanum injuries include tympanic membrane perforations, ossicular discontinuity, eustachian tube dysfunction, temporal bone fractures and traumatic facial nerve palsy. Inner ear injuries include traumatic sensorineural deafness. The author emphasizes the management of these injuries. PMID:20468791

Wagner, G A

1972-07-01

87

From Ear to Brain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper Doreen Kimura gives a personal history of the "right-ear effect" in dichotic listening. The focus is on the early ground-breaking papers, describing how she did the first dichotic listening studies relating the effects to brain asymmetry. The paper also gives a description of the visual half-field technique for lateralized stimulus…

Kimura, Doreen

2011-01-01

88

Mimicking the human ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prosthetic device, called a cochlear implant, can be implanted in the inner ear and can restore partial hearing to profoundly deaf people. Some individuals with implants can now communicate without lip-reading or signing, and some can communicate over the telephone. The success of cochlear implants can be attributed to the combined efforts of scientists from various disciplines including bioengineering,

P. C. Loizou

1998-01-01

89

The red ear syndrome  

PubMed Central

Red Ear Syndrome (RES) is a very rare disorder, with approximately 100 published cases in the medical literature. Red ear (RE) episodes are characterised by unilateral or bilateral attacks of paroxysmal burning sensations and reddening of the external ear. The duration of these episodes ranges from a few seconds to several hours. The attacks occur with a frequency ranging from several a day to a few per year. Episodes can occur spontaneously or be triggered, most frequently by rubbing or touching the ear, heat or cold, chewing, brushing of the hair, neck movements or exertion. Early-onset idiopathic RES seems to be associated with migraine, whereas late-onset idiopathic forms have been reported in association with trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs). Secondary forms of RES occur with upper cervical spine disorders or temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction. RES is regarded refractory to medical treatments, although some migraine preventative treatments have shown moderate benefit mainly in patients with migraine-related attacks. The pathophysiology of RES is still unclear but several hypotheses involving peripheral or central nervous system mechanisms have been proposed. PMID:24093332

2013-01-01

90

Protecting Your Ears  

MedlinePLUS

... hearing. That’s because the sheer force of the sound vibrations may damage tiny cells inside your ear. And once they’re damaged, that’s it — they can’t be fixed. The effects of noise add up over a lifetime , which ...

91

Ear Biometrics in Computer Vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

A class of biometrics based upon ear features is introduced for use in the development of passive identification systems. The viability of the proposed biometric is shown both theoretically in terms of the uniqueness and measurability over time of the ear, and in practice through the implementation of a computer vision based system. Each subject's ear is modeled as an

Mark Burge; Wilhelm Burger

2000-01-01

92

Arteriovenous malformations in the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Arteriovenous malformations (AVM) are a leading cause of intracerebral hemorrhage, especially among the young. Because they\\u000a pose a lifelong risk of serious bleeding, definitive treatment to obliterate the AVM should be pursued in the majority of\\u000a patients. Microsurgical resection of a small AVM located in the superficial or noneloquent brain achieves high cure rates\\u000a with low morbidity, and is

Glenn D. Graham

2002-01-01

93

Ear recognition: a complete system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ear Recognition has recently received significant attention in the literature. Even though current ear recognition systems have reached a certain level of maturity, their success is still limited. This paper presents an efficient complete ear-based biometric system that can process five frames/sec; Hence it can be used for surveillance applications. The ear detection is achieved using Haar features arranged in a cascaded Adaboost classifier. The feature extraction is based on dividing the ear image into several blocks from which Local Binary Pattern feature distributions are extracted. These feature distributions are then fused at the feature level to represent the original ear texture in the classification stage. The contribution of this paper is three fold: (i) Applying a new technique for ear feature extraction, and studying various optimization parameters for that technique; (ii) Presenting a practical ear recognition system and a detailed analysis about error propagation in that system; (iii) Studying the occlusion effect of several ear parts. Detailed experiments show that the proposed ear recognition system achieved better performance (94:34%) compared to other shape-based systems as Scale-invariant feature transform (67:92%). The proposed approach can also handle efficiently hair occlusion. Experimental results show that the proposed system can achieve about (78%) rank-1 identification, even in presence of 60% occlusion.

Abaza, Ayman; Harrison, Mary Ann F.

2013-05-01

94

Human Ear Recognition in 3D  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human ear is a new class of relatively stable biometrics that has drawn researchers' attention recently. In this paper, we propose a complete human recognition system using 3D ear biometrics. The system consists of 3D ear detection, 3D ear identification, and 3D ear verification. For ear detection, we propose a new approach which uses a single reference 3D ear shape

Hui Chen; Bir Bhanu

2007-01-01

95

Cryptic vascular malformations involving the brainstem  

SciTech Connect

Six patients with angiographically cryptic vascular malformations involving the brainstem were examined with computed tomography (CT). The clinical and CT findings of cryptic vascular malformations of the brainstem are described and distinguished from those of brainstem glioma and multiple sclerosis. Calcification within a brainstem lesion that displays relatively little mass effect and shows little contrast enhancement, particularly when associated with a long history of waxing and waning brainstem symptoms, should suggest a vascular malformation.

Yeates, A.; Enzmann, D.

1983-01-01

96

Radiological Evaluation of Myelomeningocele — Chiari II Malformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myelomeningocele (MMC) is a malformation characterized by the failure of closure of the neural tube, usually (but not only)\\u000a at the lumbo-sacral level. Synonyms are spina bifida aperta, open spinal dysra — phism, and Chiari II malformation complex.\\u000a MMC is typically associated with a metamerically consistent paraplegia, a posterior fossa deformity known as the Chiari II\\u000a malformation, hydrocephalus, and a

Charles Raybaud; Elka Miller

97

Middle ear effusion in children.  

PubMed

The middle ear function of over 100 school children has been observed for more than seven years with the aid of an electroacoustic impedance instrument. The technique readily demonstrates middle ear abnormalities. A few children may have middle ear malfunction for considerable periods without this being detected by those responsible for their health care. The presence of fluid in the middle ear is not necessarily an indication for treatment. The concept of acoustic impedance screening is advocated with suitable safeguards to prevent over-referral. PMID:1011325

Brooks, D N

1976-12-01

98

Genetics Home Reference: Megalencephaly-capillary malformation syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Megalencephaly-capillary malformation syndrome On this page: Description Genetic changes ... Glossary definitions Reviewed February 2014 What is ... malformation syndrome? Megalencephaly-capillary malformation syndrome (MCAP) is ...

99

Scalp arteriovenous malformations in young  

PubMed Central

Scalp arteriovenous malformations are an exceptional group of vascular lesions with curious presentations and an elusive natural history. Their detection in the pediatric population is a rarer occurrence. We discuss our experience with five children suffering from this pathology and their surgical management carried at our institution from 2007 to 2013. The genesis in pediatric patients is, usually, spontaneous in contrast with the history of trauma seen in adults. Clinical symptoms, usually, range from an asymptomatic lesion, local discomfort, headaches to necrosis and massive hemorrhage. Selective angiography remains the cornerstone for investigation. Complete surgical excision, embolization or an approach combining the modalities is curative. PMID:25624933

Gupta, Rakesh; Kayal, Akshat

2014-01-01

100

Save Your Ears  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game depicts a woman going through her day, faced with various loud sounds. In each situation, she has the choice of how to deal with the loud sound: Ear Plugs, Turn It Down, Move Away, or Do Nothing. You only have 3 of each choice available, symbolized by cards on screen. Your goal is to reach the end of the game with undamaged hearing and one set of earplugs, so you can enjoy an awesome rock concert. After each decision, you find out whether your hearing was damaged and if you made the best choice.

2012-06-26

101

A Case of Swyer-James-Macleod Syndrome Associated with Middle Lobe Hypoplasia and Arteriovenous Malformation  

PubMed Central

A 58-year-old female patient presented to the hospital with hearing loss. In the chest radiography obtained before her ear surgery, volume decrease in the right hemithorax, elevation of the right diaphragm, and increase of ventilation in the right lung were detected. At the thorax CT-CT angiography, hypoplasia of the main pulmonary artery and its branches and arteriovenous malformation localized in the middle lobe of the right lung were detected. Thus, diagnosis of Swyer-James-Macleod syndrome associated with right lung middle lobe hypoplasia and arteriovenous malformation was made. This kind of association has not been reported earlier, so we are presenting it in the light of the literature knowledge. PMID:23304165

Kaplanoglu, Hatice; Kaplanoglu, Veysel; Toprak, Ugur; Dilli, Alper; Hekimoglu, Baki

2012-01-01

102

A case of swyer-james-macleod syndrome associated with middle lobe hypoplasia and arteriovenous malformation.  

PubMed

A 58-year-old female patient presented to the hospital with hearing loss. In the chest radiography obtained before her ear surgery, volume decrease in the right hemithorax, elevation of the right diaphragm, and increase of ventilation in the right lung were detected. At the thorax CT-CT angiography, hypoplasia of the main pulmonary artery and its branches and arteriovenous malformation localized in the middle lobe of the right lung were detected. Thus, diagnosis of Swyer-James-Macleod syndrome associated with right lung middle lobe hypoplasia and arteriovenous malformation was made. This kind of association has not been reported earlier, so we are presenting it in the light of the literature knowledge. PMID:23304165

Kaplanoglu, Hatice; Kaplanoglu, Veysel; Toprak, Ugur; Dilli, Alper; Hekimoglu, Baki

2012-01-01

103

Novel Vascular Malformation in an Affected Newborn with Deletion Del(4)(q31.3)  

PubMed Central

We report on a newborn male patient with a terminal deletion in the long arm of the chromosome 4 with a congenital heart defect unreported before in association with this syndrome. The patient had multiple congenital anomalies including a pointed duplicated fingernail, low set posteriorly rotated ears, large anterior fontanel, micrognathia, glabellar capillary vascular malformation, and Interrupted Aortic Arch type C. The patient died due to multiple congenital malformations; a peripheral chromosome analysis showed 46, XY, del(4)(q31.3) de novo. The only reported case with the same deletion was a male newborn that exhibited the pattern of minor anomalies of deletion 4q31 syndrome. The parents were cytogenetically normal. We compare clinical signs to other cases with a deletion in long arm of chromosome 4. PMID:23320208

de León Ojeda, Norma Elena; Soriano-Torres, Michel; Cabrera, Mercedes J.; Benítez Ramos, Dunia Bárbara

2012-01-01

104

Intramedullary spinal cord cavernous malformations.  

PubMed

Although originally the subject of rare case reports, intramedullary spinal cord cavernous malformations (CMs) have recently surfaced in an increasing number of case series and natural history reports in the literature. The authors reviewed 27 publications with 352 patients to consolidate modern epidemiological, natural history, and clinical and surgical data to facilitate decision making when managing these challenging vascular malformations. The mean age at presentation was 42 years without a sex predilection. Thirty-eight percent of the cases were cervical, 57% thoracic, 4% lumbar, and 1% unspecified location. Nine percent of the patients had a family history of CNS CMs. Twenty-seven percent of the patients had an associated cranial CM. On presentation 63% of the patients had motor deficits, 65% had sensory deficits, 27% had pain, and 11% had bowel or bladder dysfunction. Presentation was acute in 30%, recurrent in 16%, and progressive in 54% of cases. An overall annual hemorrhage rate was calculated as 2.5% for 92 patients followed up for a total of 2571 patient-years. Across 24 reviewed surgical series, a 91% complete resection rate was found. Transient morbidity was seen in 36% of cases. Sixty-one percent of patients improved, 27% were unchanged, and 12% were worse at the long-term follow-up. Using this information, the authors review surgical nuances in treating these lesions and propose a management algorithm. PMID:20809755

Gross, Bradley A; Du, Rose; Popp, A John; Day, Arthur L

2010-09-01

105

21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710...Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear oximeter is an extravascular device used...

2014-04-01

106

21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710...Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear oximeter is an extravascular device used...

2010-04-01

107

Wax blockage in the ear (image)  

MedlinePLUS

The ear canal is lined with hair follicles and glands that produce a waxy oil called cerumen. Sometimes the ... wax than can be easily excreted out the ear. This extra wax may harden within the ear ...

108

Otoscopic exam of the ear (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... intrument which is used to look into the ear canal. The ear speculum (a cone-shaped viewing piece of the otoscope) is slowly inserted into the ear canal while looking into the otoscope. The speculum ...

109

21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710...Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear oximeter is an extravascular device used...

2012-04-01

110

21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710...Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear oximeter is an extravascular device used...

2013-04-01

111

How to Use Ear Drops Properly  

MedlinePLUS

How to Use Ear Drops Properly (Having someone else give you the ear drops may make this procedure easier.) 1 Wash your hands ... with soap and water. 2 Gently clean your ear with a damp facecloth and then dry your ...

112

21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710...Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear oximeter is an extravascular device used...

2011-04-01

113

21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An ear prosthesis is a silicone rubber solid device intended to be implanted to reconstruct the external ear. (b) Classification. Class...

2013-04-01

114

21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An ear prosthesis is a silicone rubber solid device intended to be implanted to reconstruct the external ear. (b) Classification. Class...

2010-04-01

115

21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An ear prosthesis is a silicone rubber solid device intended to be implanted to reconstruct the external ear. (b) Classification. Class...

2014-04-01

116

North American Reporting Center for Amphibian Malformations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created in June, 1997 and funded by the US Geological Survey and Environmental Protection Agency, this site is a response to the discovery of numerous deformed amphibians (mostly frogs) in areas as widespread as Minnesota, California, and Florida. Malformations include extra or missing limbs, missing eyes, and split limbs. The site is intended to serve as a central repository for data on the type and relative frequency of such malformations throughout the US. Researchers hope to use the site to help discover the cause(s) of these deformities. The site contains a map of where malformations have been reported, background on the occurrence and possible causes of defects, numerous images of malformed amphibians, a searchable bibliography, instructions on how to report the discovery of a malformed amphibian, and links to eight related web sites. NARCAM's site also contains a toll-free number for citizen reports.

Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center.

1997-01-01

117

DNA content, mitotic activity, and incorporation of tritiated thymidine in the developing inner ear of the rat  

SciTech Connect

The rat inner ear is ectodermally derived from a region adjacent to the developing hindbrain. Beginning on day 8 of a 22-day gestational period, This zone of ectoderm first forms the otic placode, then the otocyst, and ultimately the definitive membranous labyrinth. This report provides an estimation of total DNA content of the developing inner ear, and hence an estimation of the total number of cells that comprise the inner ear at each developmental stage. The incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine indicates that most cells of the inner ear undergo DNA synthetic activity during gestational days 13 to 15. Radioautographic observations indicate a zone of DNA synthetic activity at the base of the outpocketing cochlear duct during early development. At the later stages of development, DNA synthesis is restricted to the cristae ampullares of the semicircular canals and the maculae of the utricle and the saccule. In contradistinction to the findings of other investigators, the statoacoustic ganglion complex undergoes terminal mitosis during gestational days 17 and 18. The gestational period between days 13 and 15 may prove to be a critical stage in normal otic development. The normal values of total DNA content and the number of cells that comprise the inner ear during development, established by these methods, can be compared with pathologic inner ears to provide quantitative means of assessing the damage in malformed inner ears. These values also form the baseline for future experimental studies of inner ear development.

Khan, K.M.; Marovitz, W.F.

1982-04-01

118

Pressure difference receiving ears.  

PubMed

Directional sound receivers are useful for locating sound sources, and they can also partly compensate for the signal degradations caused by noise and reverberations. Ears may become inherently directional if sound can reach both surfaces of the eardrum. Attempts to understand the physics of such pressure difference receiving ears have been hampered by lack of suitable experimental methods. In this review, we review the methods for collecting reliable data on the binaural directional cues at the eardrums, on how the eardrum vibrations depend on the direction of sound incidence, and on how sound waves behave in the air spaces leading to the interior surfaces of eardrums. A linear mathematical model with well-defined inputs is used for exploring how the directionality varies with the binaural directional cues and the amplitude and phase gain of the sound pathway to the inner surface of the eardrum. The mere existence of sound transmission to the inner surface does not ensure a useful directional hearing, since a proper amplitude and phase relationship must exist between the sounds acting on the two surfaces of the eardrum. The gain of the sound pathway must match the amplitude and phase of the sounds at the outer surfaces of the eardrums, which are determined by diffraction and by the arrival time of the sound, that is by the size and shape of the animal and by the frequency of sound. Many users of hearing aids do not obtain a satisfactory improvement of their ability to localize sound sources. We suggest that some of the mechanisms of directional hearing evolved in Nature may serve as inspiration for technical improvements. PMID:18364558

Michelsen, Axel; Larsen, Ole Naesbye

2008-03-01

119

Midline cerebral malformations and schizophrenia.  

PubMed

To investigate a possible association of midline cerebral malformations with psychotic disorders, MRI and CT scans were blindly evaluated for 52 patients with schizophrenia, 9 with schizoaffective disease, and 79 consecutive nonpsychotic control subjects. Midline abnormalities were present in 10 of 61 patients (16.4%) versus 4 of 79 control subjects (5.1%; P < 0.05, chi-square). Of 52 schizophrenic patients, 8 had abnormalities of the septum pellucidum (SP): 5 had cavum vergae (CaV), 2 had cavum septum pellucidum (CaSP), and 1 had agenesis of the corpus callosum and SP. Of 9 schizoaffective patients, 2 had SP abnormalities: 1 CaV and 1 CaSP. Abnormalities of the SP, especially CaV, were significantly more frequent in women than in men (P < 0.02, chi-square). PMID:8369638

Scott, T F; Price, T R; George, M S; Brillman, J; Rothfus, W

1993-01-01

120

Cephalic Pancreaticoduodenectomy for Bleeding Duodenal Arteriovenous Malformation  

PubMed Central

Introduction?Treatment of recurrent severe gastrointestinal bleeding due to arteriovenous malformations may require complex resections. In some particular locations, extensive surgery is the only way out, as shown in this report. Case Report?A 2.5-year-old child suffered repeated episodes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding since the first month of life. After an extensive diagnostic workout, the diagnosis of duodenal arteriovenous malformation was established. Cephalic pancreaticoduodenectomy with pyloric preservation was performed and no further episodes of bleeding occurred in the ensuing 2 years. Conclusion?Bleeding malformations located in the pancreaticoduodenal area can be effectively treated in children by pylorus-preserving cephalic pancreaticoduodenectomy. PMID:25755960

Ortiz, Ruben; Dominguez, Eva; Barrena, S.; Martinez, Leopoldo; Prieto, Gerardo; Burgos, Emilio; Tovar, Juan Antonio

2014-01-01

121

A gene map of congenital malformations.  

PubMed Central

Congenital malformations frequently arise sporadically, making it difficult to determine whether or not they are genetic in aetiology, let alone which gene(s) may be involved. Nevertheless, rapid progress has been made over recent years in the localisation and identification of gene mutations in specific malformations. This review draws from Mendelian inheritance in man (Johns Hopkins University Press, 11th ed, 1994) and the online version (OMIM) to catalogue 139 loci (including 65 specifically identified genes) implicated in congenital malformations. Some of the most interesting recent developments are discussed. PMID:7966186

Wilkie, A O; Amberger, J S; McKusick, V A

1994-01-01

122

Inner and outer ear anatomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sounds are actually waves from vibrations. The outer ear catches these waves and funnels them down into the inner ear. The waves reach the eardrum and in turn make the eardrum vibrate. Three small bones receive these vibrations next, then a snail shell-shaped structure called the cochlea. The cochlea is filled with liquid, and this liquid stimulates hairs inside the inner ear. The hairs transmit the signal to the auditory nerve where the signal is taken to the brain and processed as sound.

Zina Deretsky (National Science Foundation; )

2006-10-23

123

Middle-Ear Pressure Under Basal Conditions  

E-print Network

Middle-Ear Pressure Under Basal Conditions Leif Hergils, MD, Bengt Magnuson, MD, PhD \\s=b\\Spontaneous pressure changes in the middle ear were measured under bas- al conditions in ten subjects with healthy ears. Results showed that the pressure in the majority of ears remained slightly above the atmo- spheric

Allen, Jont

124

Otoacoustic Emissions from a Nonvertebrate Ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

Otoacoustic emissions are produced by the inner ear of vertebrates and result from the active and nonlinear processing of input sound by sensory hair cells. We recorded pronounced distortion-product otoacoustic emissions from the ear of the grasshopper, and these emissions proved remarkably similar to those described for the mammalian ear. This is despite the fact that the grasshopper ear is

M. Kössl; G. S. Boyan

1998-01-01

125

Genetics Home Reference: Cerebral cavernous malformation  

MedlinePLUS

... inheritance ; malformation ; mutation ; nervous system ; pattern of inheritance ; population ; protein ; retina ; sporadic You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . ...

126

Avoiding Infection After Ear Piercing  

MedlinePLUS

... Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Developmental Disabilities Ear, Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Fever Genitals & Urinary Tract Head, Neck & Nervous System Obesity Skin Treatments View all Injuries & Emergencies Sports Injuries Vaccine Preventable Diseases Diphtheria Haemophilus ...

127

Wonder Ears: Identification of Identical Twins from Ear Images Hossein Nejati  

E-print Network

Wonder Ears: Identification of Identical Twins from Ear Images Hossein Nejati , Li Zhang ,Terence explored automatic ear recognition for identical twin identification. Ear image recognition has been stud (performed manually). We here explore the possibility of automatic twin identification from their ear images

Sim, Terence

128

Responses of the Inner Ear toResponses of the Inner Ear to InfrasoundInfrasound  

E-print Network

Responses of the Inner Ear toResponses of the Inner Ear to InfrasoundInfrasound Alec N. Salt, Ph this TalkTake-Home Messages from this Talk · The ear is sensitive and responds to low frequency sounds Noise Floor Electrical recording from the guinea pig earElectrical recording from the guinea pig ear

Salt, Alec N.

129

Radiotherapy-induced ear toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite their particular functional consequences, radiotherapy-induced ear injuries remain under-evaluated and under-reported. These reactions may have acute or late character, may affect all structures of the hearing organ, and result in conductive, sensorineural or mixed hearing loss. Up to 40% of patients have acute middle ear side effects during radical irradiation including acoustic structures and about one-third of patients develop

Barbara A Jereczek-Fossa; Andrzej Zarowski; Franco Milani; Roberto Orecchia

2003-01-01

130

Evolution of the Amphibian Ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Most amphibians have within their ears the substrate to hear efficiently underwater, underground, and in air, a talent few\\u000a if any other vertebrates can lay claim to. They have achieved this by being very conservative in the nature of novel addition\\u000a s and specialized adaptations to their ears. Indeed, regressive events appear to be just as common as progressive trends

Michael Smotherman; Peter Narins

131

Congenital hand anomaly: etiology and associated malformations.  

PubMed

Congenital malformations of the hand may be present as part of syndromes. The recognition of these syndromes directly influences the surgical care of the hand anomaly. The natural history of the disorder may be predicted. The associated malformations may affect surgical timings and the indications for surgical correction. Various schema are presented here for evaluating the common abnormalities of the hand--radial club hand, ulnar defects, syndactyly, and polydactyly. PMID:3007544

Goldberg, M J; Bartoshesky, L E

1985-08-01

132

The microcephaly-capillary malformation syndrome.  

PubMed

We report on three children from two families with a new pattern recognition malformation syndrome consisting of severe congenital microcephaly (MIC), intractable epilepsy including infantile spasms, and generalized capillary malformations that was first reported recently in this journal [Carter et al. (2011); Am J Med Genet A 155: 301-306]. Two of our reported patients are an affected brother and sister, suggesting this is an autosomal recessive severe congenital MIC syndrome. PMID:21815250

Mirzaa, Ghayda M; Paciorkowski, Alex R; Smyser, Christopher D; Willing, Marcia C; Lind, Anne C; Dobyns, William B

2011-09-01

133

The Microcephaly-Capillary Malformation Syndrome  

PubMed Central

We report on three children from two families with a new pattern recognition malformation syndrome consisting of severe congenital microcephaly (MIC), intractable epilepsy including infantile spasms, and generalized capillary malformations that was first reported recently in this journal [Carter et al. (2011); Am J Med Genet A 155: 301–306]. Two of our reported patients are an affected brother and sister, suggesting this is an autosomal recessive severe congenital MIC syndrome. PMID:21815250

Mirzaa, Ghayda M.; Paciorkowski, Alex R.; Smyser, Christopher D.; Willing, Marcia C.; Lind, Anne C.; Dobyns, William B.

2012-01-01

134

Malformation and plastic surgery in childhood  

PubMed Central

Malformations of the head and neck show a huge variety of clinical symptoms with functional and esthetic consequences. Often times its rehabilitation requires multi-staged and multi-disciplinary procedures and concepts. These must consider eating, speech, mimic expression, hearing and “esthetics” or at least “normality”. A survey of the most common head and neck malformations and their treatment options are presented here. PMID:25587361

Siegert, Ralf; Magritz, Ralph

2014-01-01

135

Venous Malformation: update on etiopathogenesis, diagnosis & management  

PubMed Central

The aim of this review was to discuss the current knowledge on etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and therapeutic management of venous malformations. Venous malformations (VMs) are slow-flow vascular anomalies. They are simple, sporadic or familial (cutaneo-mucosal venous malformation or glomuvenous malformations), combined (e.g. capillaro-venous, capillaro-lymphaticovenous malformations) or syndromic (Klippel-Trenaunay, Blue Rubber Bleb Naevus and Maffucci). Genetic studies have identified causes of familial forms and of 40% of sporadic VMs. Another diagnostic advancement is the identification of elevated D-dimer level as the first biomarker of venous malformations within vascular anomalies. Those associated with pain are often responsive to Low Molecular Weight Heparin which should also be used to avoid disseminated intravascular coagulopathy secondary to intervention, especially if fibrinogen level is low. Finally, development of a modified sclerosing agent, ethylcellulose–ethanol, has improved therapy. It is efficient and safe, and widens indications for sclerotherapy to sensitive and dangerous areas such as hands, feet and periocular area. PMID:20870869

Dompmartin, Anne; Vikkula, Miikka; Boon, Laurence M

2011-01-01

136

Nature, frequency and natural history of intracranial cavernous malformations in adults   

E-print Network

Scottish Intracranial Vascular Malformation Study was the first prospective, population-based study of the major types of intracranial vascular malformations; arteriovenous, cavernous and venous malformations including ...

Hall, Julie Maria

2014-07-05

137

Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation mimicking congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation in a newborn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are rare lesions, usually asymptomatic. We report on the case of a baby who was thought to have a congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of the left upper lobe based on prenatal and postnatal imaging. Final pathology revealed a congenital pulmonary AVM. Neither the child nor her family have any evidence of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. To

Andreana Bütter; Mohammad Emran; Ayman Al-Jazaeri; Dorothée Bouron-Dal Soglio; Sarah Bouchard

2006-01-01

138

Ear problems and injuries in athletes.  

PubMed

The ear is an unique organ--the principal structure involved in both hearing and balance. Although not common, problems with the ear may be encountered in specific sporting populations. Common conditions affecting the ear in the athlete include otitis externa, an infection of the external ear; external auditory canal exostoses, or abnormal bony growths in the canal; and otitis media, an infection of the middle ear. Given its position on the head, the ear is subject to trauma, often resulting in an auricular hematoma. Divers, due to pressure changes on descent and ascent, are subject to both ear barotrauma and ear decompression sickness. This article will discuss recognition, treatment, and prevention of these conditions affecting the ear in the athlete. PMID:24412886

Cassaday, Kacie; Vazquez, Gerardo; Wright, Justin M

2014-01-01

139

3D printed bionic ears.  

PubMed

The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

2013-06-12

140

3D Printed Bionic Ears  

PubMed Central

The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

2013-01-01

141

Mutations in KCTD1 Cause Scalp-Ear-Nipple Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Scalp-ear-nipple (SEN) syndrome is a rare, autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by cutis aplasia of the scalp; minor anomalies of the external ears, digits, and nails; and malformations of the breast. We used linkage analysis and exome sequencing of a multiplex family affected by SEN syndrome to identify potassium-channel tetramerization-domain-containing 1 (KCTD1) mutations that cause SEN syndrome. Evaluation of a total of ten families affected by SEN syndrome revealed KCTD1 missense mutations in each family tested. All of the mutations occurred in a KCTD1 region encoding a highly conserved bric-a-brac, tram track, and broad complex (BTB) domain that is required for transcriptional repressor activity. KCTD1 inhibits the transactivation of the transcription factor AP-2? (TFAP2A) via its BTB domain, and mutations in TFAP2A cause cutis aplasia in individuals with branchiooculofacial syndrome (BOFS), suggesting a potential overlap in the pathogenesis of SEN syndrome and BOFS. The identification of KCTD1 mutations in SEN syndrome reveals a role for this BTB-domain-containing transcriptional repressor during ectodermal development. PMID:23541344

Marneros, Alexander G.; Beck, Anita E.; Turner, Emily H.; McMillin, Margaret J.; Edwards, Matthew J.; Field, Michael; de Macena Sobreira, Nara Lygia; Perez, Ana Beatriz A.; Fortes, Jose A.R.; Lampe, Anne K.; Giovannucci Uzielli, Maria Luisa; Gordon, Christopher T.; Plessis, Ghislaine; Le Merrer, Martine; Amiel, Jeanne; Reichenberger, Ernst; Shively, Kathryn M.; Cerrato, Felecia; Labow, Brian I.; Tabor, Holly K.; Smith, Joshua D.; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Bamshad, Michael J.

2013-01-01

142

Management of middle ear myoclonus.  

PubMed

Tinnitus produced by synchronous repetitive contraction of the middle ear muscles (middle ear myoclonus) is a rare condition. We present six cases of middle ear myoclonus in whom different management regimes were successful. In two patients, the tinnitus was controlled by conservative measures. In one patient, whose tinnitus was associated with blepharospasm, significant improvement occurred following botulinum toxin injection into the ipsilateral orbicularis oculi. Three patients were cured by tympanotomy with stapedial and tensor tympani tendon section. The aetiology of this type of myoclonus remains unclear. The diagnosis is based on the history of involuntary and rhythmic clicking or buzzing tinnitus which is invariably unilateral. The primary differential diagnosis is palatal myoclonus whilst other local aural pathologies must be excluded by careful clinical assessment. Surgical section of these muscles via tympanotomy brings guaranteed relief when conservative measures fail. PMID:8035114

Badia, L; Parikh, A; Brookes, G B

1994-05-01

143

Tuning in the bullfrog ear.  

PubMed Central

When electrical resonances were observed in acoustic sensory cells of lower vertebrates, the hearing research community was presented with the exciting possibility that tuning in the ears of those animals might be explained directly in terms of familiar molecular devices. It is reported here that in the frog sacculus, where electrical resonances have been observed in isolated hair cells, the effects of those resonances are completely obscured in the tuning properties of the sacculus in the intact ear. This observation has important implications not only for students of the ear, but for reductionist biologists in general. All of the dynamic properties of a system of connected, bidirectional processes are consequences of all of those processes at once; in such a system, the properties of an experimentally isolated subsystem may be totally obscured in the operation of the system as a whole. PMID:3258166

Lewis, E R

1988-01-01

144

Middle Ear Infections and Ear Tube Surgery (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... A Text Size What's in this article? Why Surgery? About Otitis Media Infection Symptoms and Diagnosis Treatment Tympanostomy Tube Surgery After Surgery Why Surgery? Many kids get middle ear infections (known as otitis media, or OM), usually when they're between 6 ...

145

Bisphenol A induces otolith malformations during vertebrate embryogenesis  

E-print Network

Bisphenol A induces otolith malformations during vertebrate embryogenesis Gibert et al. Gibert et) #12;RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Bisphenol A induces otolith malformations during vertebrate Background: The plastic monomer and plasticizer bisphenol A (BPA), used for manufacturing polycarbonate

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

146

Physiological functioning of the ear and masking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The physiological functions of the ear and the role masking plays in speech communication are examined. Topics under investigation include sound analysis of the ear, the aural reflex, and various types of noise masking.

1984-01-01

147

Neurosensory Development in the Zebrafish Inner Ear  

E-print Network

The vertebrate inner ear is a complex structure responsible for hearing and balance. The inner ear houses sensory epithelia composed of mechanosensory hair cells and non-sensory support cells. Hair cells synapse with neurons of the VIIIth cranial...

Vemaraju, Shruti

2012-02-14

148

21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An ear prosthesis is a silicone rubber solid...

2011-04-01

149

21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An ear prosthesis is a silicone rubber solid...

2012-04-01

150

Extrapyramidal dysfunction with cerebral arteriovenous malformations 1  

PubMed Central

Arteriovenous malformations have only rarely been implicated as a cause of basal ganglia dysfunction. In four instances where such a lesion was uncovered, abnormal involuntary movements were present. In two, tremor involving the contralateral limbs occurred, while in others the head and neck were involved in dystonic movements and posture. The clinical and angiographic characteristics of these four patients have been assessed and are presented in detail in this report. The possible mechanism by which arteriovenous malformations may disturb the internal circuitry of the basal ganglia and induce symptoms are discussed. Images PMID:4829531

Lobo-Antunes, Joao; Yahr, Melvin D.; Hilal, Sadek K.

1974-01-01

151

Percutaneous Cryotherapy of Vascular Malformation: Initial Experience  

SciTech Connect

The present report describes a case of percutaneous cryotherapy in a 36-year-old woman with a large and painful pectoral venous malformation. Cryoablation was performed in a single session for this 9-cm mass with 24 h hospitalisation. At 2- and 6-month follow-up, the pain had completely disappeared, and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a significant decrease in size. Percutaneous cryoablation shows promise as a feasible and apparently safe method for local control in patients with symptomatic venous vascular malformations.

Cornelis, F., E-mail: francoiscornelis@hotmail.com [Institut Bergonie, Department of Radiology (France); Neuville, A. [Institut Bergonie, Department of Pathology (France); Labreze, C. [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Pediatric Dermatology (France); Kind, M. [Institut Bergonie, Department of Radiology (France); Bui, B. [Institut Bergonie, Department of Oncology (France); Midy, D. [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery (France); Palussiere, J. [Institut Bergonie, Department of Radiology (France); Grenier, N. [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Radiology (France)

2013-06-15

152

Ear recognition based on Gabor features and KFDA.  

PubMed

We propose an ear recognition system based on 2D ear images which includes three stages: ear enrollment, feature extraction, and ear recognition. Ear enrollment includes ear detection and ear normalization. The ear detection approach based on improved Adaboost algorithm detects the ear part under complex background using two steps: offline cascaded classifier training and online ear detection. Then Active Shape Model is applied to segment the ear part and normalize all the ear images to the same size. For its eminent characteristics in spatial local feature extraction and orientation selection, Gabor filter based ear feature extraction is presented in this paper. Kernel Fisher Discriminant Analysis (KFDA) is then applied for dimension reduction of the high-dimensional Gabor features. Finally distance based classifier is applied for ear recognition. Experimental results of ear recognition on two datasets (USTB and UND datasets) and the performance of the ear authentication system show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:24778595

Yuan, Li; Mu, Zhichun

2014-01-01

153

Effects of Middle-Ear Disorders on Power Reflectance Measured in Cadaveric Ear Canals  

E-print Network

Effects of Middle-Ear Disorders on Power Reflectance Measured in Cadaveric Ear Canals Susan E. Voss,1 Gabrielle R. Merchant,2 and Nicholas J. Horton3 Objective: Reflectance measured in the ear canal offers a noninvasive method to monitor the acoustic properties of the middle ear, and few systematic

Allen, Jont

154

Ear Modeling and Sound Signal Processing Ear modeling can significantly improve sound signal processing and  

E-print Network

Ear Modeling and Sound Signal Processing Jack Xin Abstract Ear modeling can significantly improve sound signal processing and the design of hearing devices. Ear models based on mechanics and neu- ral phenomenology of the inner ear (cochlea) form a class of nonlinear nonlocal dispersive partial differential

Xin, Jack

155

Frog eye, ear, and nostril  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You can clearly see the frog's eye. There is an air opening near a black spot on the frog's skin. The opening to the frog's ear is covered by the round, tan membrane to the left in the picture. This membrane is called the tympanum.

Ren West (None; )

2006-08-07

156

Sound Reception Types of ears  

E-print Network

Perfect Ear · Wide frequency range (20 kHz) · Wide dynamic range (100 db) · Accurate frequency resolution information #12;Pressure detector · Membrane must be thin so that impedance is close to that of air · Larger cos )/ where A = the surface area of the membrane P = sound pressure L = the extra distance

Wilkinson, Gerald S.

157

The caecilian ear: further observations.  

PubMed

The structure of the ear is examined in two species of caecilians, Ichthyophis glutinosus and I. orthoplicatus, and the sensitivity to aerial sounds is assessed in terms of the electrical potentials of the cochlea. The results are in general agreement with previous reports on other caecilian species. PMID:1068485

Wever, E G; Gans, C

1976-10-01

158

Congenital atresia of the ear.  

PubMed

Congenital atresia of the ear requires prompt diagnosis and an early assessment of hearing. In bilateral atresia, aural rehabilitation should be started early in life to avoid late sequelae of speech problems. In unilateral atresia, the need is not urgent if the child hears normally in the other ear. Polytomography and audiometric testing are the two most important parts of the patient's evaluation. Precise audiometric testing may be difficult, or even impossible, in these children. The indications for surgery are presented. The risk of injuring an abnormally placed facial nerve remains a deterrent to many otologic surgeons who would otherwise operate on atresia. Surgery for correction of atresia was performed on 20 ears in 18 patients. A method of fascia graft overlay in conjunction with a center-hole skin graft was used. In 14 or 17 ears where an attempt was made at hearing rehabilitation the average preoperative air conduction threshold was 59 db and the average postoperative air conduction threshold was 24 db. Two unique cases are discussed in detail. One is a primary cholesteatoma in association with atresia, and the other is a finding of primitive and embryonic subepithelial tissue in the mastoid air cell system. PMID:355751

Jahrsdoerfer, R A

1978-09-01

159

Ear Biometrics in Human Identification A Dissertation  

E-print Network

Ear Biometrics in Human Identification A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate School and Engineering Notre Dame, Indiana June 2006 #12;Ear Biometrics in Human Identification Abstract by Ping Yan the ear as a biometric and investigate its potential with both 2D and 3D data. Our work is the largest

Bowyer, Kevin W.

160

Designing Medical Devices for the Ear  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to engineering, specifically to biomedical engineering and the engineering design process, through a short lecture and an associated hands-on activity in which they design their own medical devices for retrieving foreign bodies from the ear canal. Through the lesson, they learn the basics of ear anatomy and how ear infections occur and are treated. Besides antibiotic treatment, the most common treatment for chronic ear infections is the insertion of ear tubes to drain fluid from the middle ear space to relieve pressure on the ear drum. Medical devices for this procedure, a very common children's surgery, are limited, sometimes resulting in unnecessary complications from a simple procedure. Thus, biomedical engineers must think creatively to develop new solutions (that is, new and improved medical devices/instruments) for inserting ear tubes into the ear drum. The class learns the engineering design process from this ear tube example of a medical device design problem. In the associated activity, students explore biomedical engineering on their own by designing prototype medical devices to solve another ear problem commonly experienced by children: the lodging of a foreign body (such as a pebble, bead or popcorn kernel) in the ear canal. The activity concludes by teams sharing and verbally analyzing their devices.

Biomedical Engineering,

161

Immunologic Disorders of the Inner Ear.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Immune inner ear disease represents a series of immune system mediated problems that can present with hearing loss, dizziness, or both. The etiology, presentation, testing, and treatment of primary immune inner ear disease is discussed. A review of secondary immune inner ear disease is presented for comparison. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

Kinney, William C.; Hughes, Gordon B.

1997-01-01

162

Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy in Ureteral and Kidney Malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) has long been accepted worldwide in the treatment of kidney stone disease. Upper ureter calculi in ureteral and kidney malformations are rather frequent (10–25%). The aims of this retrospective study were to determine whether malformations might impair fragment expulsion. Material and Methods: From 1986 to 1995, 203 patients with ureteral and kidney malformations were

Michele Gallucci; Andrea Vincenzoni; Manlio Schettini; Pasquale Fortunato; Antonella Cassanelli; Antonio Zaccara

2001-01-01

163

Normative inner ear volumetric measurements.  

PubMed

In the current study, we attempted to determine normative inner ear volumetric measurements generated from three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) images. In addition, we investigated a correlation between the axial length and the volume of the labyrinth and discussed clinical outcomes of this correlation. Amira 5.2.2 software was used to create three-dimensional isosurface images of the human labyrinth using two-dimensional CT images from 35 anatomically normal patients. With the three-dimensional labyrinths, complete dimensional analysis was performed to gain insight into both the volume and the greatest axial length of the inner ear. Paired t test and Pearson correlation were used. Our volume of the inner ear inquiry reported a mean volume of 221.5 with SD of 24.3 ?L (0.228 ?L for males and 0.218 ?L for females). The length showed a mean of 1.713 cm with SD of 0.064 cm (1.753 cm for males and 1.695 cm for females). The length was used to estimate the volume, and the estimates were within 10% of the measured volume 74.3% of the time. Normative volumetric measurements of the inner ear can be obtained by using three-dimensional CT Imaging by Amira 5.2.2 software. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between the axial length of the labyrinth and the volume of the labyrinth. The axial length of the labyrinth could be used to estimate the volume of the labyrinth, which may be clinically important to estimate the concentration of the drug distributed in the inner ear. PMID:25490572

Teixido, Michael T; Kirkilas, Gary; Seymour, Peter; Sem, Kanik; Iaia, Alberto; Sabra, Omar; Isildak, Huseyin

2015-01-01

164

The Effect of Ear Canal Pressure on Spontaneous Otoacoustic Emissions:. Comparison Between Human and Lizard Ears  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The center frequency, height and width of peaks in SOAE spectra depend on ear canal pressure. The width is interpreted as a measure of the inner ear source-signal-to-(e.g. thermal)-noise ratio. In humans, width increases with decreasing height. Apparently, ear canal pressure modifies the amplitude of the inner ear emission source signal. In lizards, the relation between peak width and height is not consistent. Here, middle ear transmission changes may account for many the observed amplitude effects.

van Dijk, P.; Manley, G. A.

2009-02-01

165

Angiographically occult arteriovenous malformations of the brain  

PubMed Central

Six patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations which did not show any pathological circulation at angiography are described. Computed tomogram appearances of such lesions may be difficult to distinguish from tumours. The need for surgical exploration in localised high attenuation lesions of uncertain nature is stressed, and the literature is reviewed. Images PMID:731249

Bell, B. A.; Kendall, B. E.; Symon, L.

1978-01-01

166

Familial Dandy-Walker malformation and leukodystrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the first familial cases with two different types of posterior fossa cystic malformation and a leukodystrophic-like aspect on cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The girl and her brother had severe encephalopathy, marked hypotonia, absent deep tendon reflexes, macrocrania, gigantism, and dysmorphic face and extremities. The girl had generalized seizures. The boy had unilateral cataract and bilateral optic atrophy.

Véronique T. Humbertclaude; Philippe A. Coubes; Nicolas Leboucq; Bernard B. Echenne

1997-01-01

167

Bronchopulmonary foregut malformations. The spectrum of anomalies.  

PubMed

Ventral anomalies of accessory pulmonary tissue have been classified as "bronchopulmonary foregut malformations." Between July 1, 1981, and May 31, 1985, 10 children with bronchopulmonary malformations have been cared for on the Pediatric Surgical Service at the University of Virginia. Six patients had bronchogenic cysts, one in an extrathoracic location and one associated with a pulmonary sequestration. Diagnosis was suspected in each case by plain chest radiographs and confirmed by computed tomography scans and ultrasound. Four patients had pulmonary sequestrations, two in association with diaphragmatic hernias. One patient had accessory pulmonary tissue, best classified as a tracheal lobe. Diagnosis in this patient was confirmed by bronchography. Nine patients underwent excision of the malformation without event. In one patient, a bronchogenic cyst was treated successfully by thoracoscopy. Review of the anatomy of these malformations leads to the conclusion that three embryologic events are cardinal in determining their ultimate form: (1) investment of the anomalous pulmonary tissue by the pulmonary artery; (2) the degree of involution of the original foregut communication; and (3) the stage of development leading to pleural investment. PMID:3707230

Rodgers, B M; Harman, P K; Johnson, A M

1986-05-01

168

Inner Time and Inner Ear  

E-print Network

Sounds are information sequences that cannot exist outside of a time base and therefore cannot be analyzed inside an animal without an accurate internal clock. It is suggested that the clock may be hidden in the inner ear. It is shown that if a mechanism of counting of the electrical charge passing through the inner ear hair cells exists then the mechanism can be used both for the conversion of acceleration into velocity and as the inner clock, in the presence of a constant current. The causes of vertigo during rotation are discussed. It is shown that if a continuous inner time exists then sleeping is a mathematical necessity. It is indicated that both for visual and hearing inputs the recognition of an input signal is recognition of function(s) of two variables.

Rvachov, Michael

2012-01-01

169

Inner Time and Inner Ear  

E-print Network

Sounds are information sequences that cannot exist outside of a time base and therefore cannot be analyzed inside an animal without an accurate internal clock. It is suggested that the clock may be hidden in the inner ear. It is shown that if a mechanism of counting of the electrical charge passing through the inner ear hair cells exists then the mechanism can be used both for the conversion of acceleration into velocity and as the inner clock, in the presence of a constant current. The causes of vertigo during rotation are discussed. It is shown that if a continuous inner time exists then sleeping is a "mathematical necessity". It is indicated that both for visual and hearing inputs the recognition of an input signal is recognition of function(s) of two variables.

Michael Rvachov

2012-11-10

170

The War of Jenkins’ Ear  

PubMed Central

Objective In 1731, Spanish sailors boarded the British brig Rebecca off the coast of Cuba and sliced off the left ear of its captain, Robert Jenkins. This traumatic auriculectomy was used as a pretext by the British to declare war on Spain in 1739, a conflict that is now known as the War of Jenkins’ Ear. Here, we examine the techniques available for auricular repair at the time of Jenkins’ injury and relate them to the historical events surrounding the incident. Methods Review of relevant original published manuscripts and monographs. Results Surgeons in the mid-18th century did not have experience with repair of traumatic total auriculectomies. Some contemporary surgeons favored auricular prostheses over surgical treatment. Methods for the reconstruction of partial defects were available, and most authors advocated a local post-auricular flap instead of a free tissue transfer. Techniques for repair of defects of the auricle lagged behind those for repair of the nose. Conclusion Limitations in care of traumatic auricular defects may have intensified the significance of Jenkins’ injury and helped lead to the War of Jenkins’ Ear, but conflict between Britain and Spain was probably unavoidable due to their conflicting commercial interests in the Caribbean. PMID:23444484

Graboyes, Evan M.; Hullar, Timothy E.

2012-01-01

171

Temporal lobe arteriovenous malformations: anatomical subtypes, surgical strategy, and outcomes  

PubMed Central

Object Descriptions of temporal lobe arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are inconsistent. To standardize reporting, the authors blended existing descriptions in the literature into an intuitive classification with 5 anatomical subtypes: lateral, medial, basal, sylvian, and ventricular. The authors’ surgical experience with temporal lobe AVMs was reviewed according to these subtypes. Methods Eighty-eight patients with temporal lobe AVMs were treated surgically. Results Lateral temporal lobe AVMs were the most common (58 AVMs, 66%). Thirteen AVMs (15%) were medial, 9 (10%) were basal, and 5 (6%) were sylvian. Ventricular AVMs were least common (3 AVMs, 3%). A temporal craniotomy based over the ear was used in 64%. Complete AVM resection was achieved in 82 patients (93%). Four patients (5%) died in the perioperative period (6 in all were lost to follow-up); 71 (87%) of the remaining 82 patients had good outcomes (modified Rankin Scale scores 0–2); and 68 (83%) were unchanged or improved after surgery. Conclusions Categorization of temporal AVMs into subtypes can assist with surgical planning and also standardize reporting. Lateral AVMs are the easiest to expose surgically, with circumferential access to feeding arteries and draining veins at the AVM margins. Basal AVMs require a subtemporal approach, often with some transcortical dissection through the inferior temporal gyrus. Medial AVMs are exposed tangentially with an orbitozygomatic craniotomy and transsylvian dissection of anterior choroidal artery and posterior cerebral artery feeders in the medial cisterns. Medial AVMs posterior to the cerebral peduncle require transcortical approaches through the temporooccipi tal gyrus. Sylvian AVMs require a wide sylvian fissure split and differentiation of normal arteries, terminal feeding arteries, and transit arteries. Ventricular AVMs require a transcortical approach through the inferior temporal gyrus that avoids the Meyer loop. Surgical results with temporal lobe AVMs are generally good, and classifying them does not offer any prediction of surgical risk. PMID:23848823

Canals, Andreu Gabarrós; Rodríguez-Hernández, Ana; Young, William L.; Lawton, Michael T.

2014-01-01

172

[Cognitive and affective characteristics of children with malformation syndrome].  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to study the psychological and relational aspects in children suffering from specific malformative syndrome and precisely Down s., Sotos s., X-Fragile s. and Williams s. Indeed literature provides much data related to the phenotype, to the organic-biological characteristics, but little or nothing is known about the affective structure, the episodes and to the particular dynamics that emerge in he relation between the parents and the malformed child. A protocol was applied to our sample group (16 subjects). This protocol includes laboratory and instrumental tests (chromosome test, neurometabolic screening, EEG, CT or cranial MRI, cardiac and abdominal ultrasonography, ear and eye test) aspects. This evaluation is carried out through the proposal of standardized situations (psychometric tests) and a use of a freer observational setting. This permits us to understand how the child perceives himself the awareness and the image he has of himself and how able he is to integrate his illness experiences and his way of relating with the environment. The data of our observations are thus used to compile a grill for the structural diagnosis of the personality. Besides, this evaluation is flanked by the observation of the family in order to explore the psychological image that parents have of their child, his character, his good points, his bad points, his similarities, how he relates to them, any educational problems and the emotional reaction that the communication of the diagnosis has raised in them. The videotaped observations are subsequently evaluated through the application of a grill for the study of the mother-child relationship. The results obtained from the psychological research underline a reasonable heterogeneity both of the intellectual level and of the metapsychological profile. Twelve subjects were mentally retarded (5 with mild mental retardation, 7 with moderate mental retardation); the remaining 4 had a normal cognitive development (3 with Sotos s., 1 with Williams s.). Psychological disturbances are present and thus divided: light disturbances (affective immaturity, neurotic-depressive organisation) in 11 subjects. Average disturbances (dysharmonious structure, and borderline personality) in 4 subjects; severe disturbances (psychosis) in 1 subject. Besides, above all in the group of subjects with X-Fragile s. and Down s., the tendency to assume behaviour of a regressive type, also postural, emerges. Among the 4 groups it is frequent to resort to defence mechanisms of hypomaniac type, accompanied by the denial of the patient's "sick parts". Another common characteristic concerns the quality of imaginary life which is shown to be repetitive and stereotype in content. Indeed these children's play activity characterized by a limited capacity of symbolization. Instead, when the symbolic process is more developed, contents concerning a deteriorated and destructive image of the Self emerges. Through the evaluation of family dynamics what is more noticeable is that the parent-malformed child interaction appears to be quite nonstimulating and noninvolving or incoherent, lacking in harmony and empathy towards the child's inner world. Indeed we can notice a lack of both verbal and extraverbal exchange of communication and brief interactive sequences which do not usually take into account the child's proposals and an affective tonality of depressive and nonaffective type. Therefore it may be concluded a certain smoothness in the clinical expression of the syndromes considered, both as far as the cognitive deficit entity and the psychic problems are concerned. Referring to the interactive dynamics between parents and children with dismorphic syndrom it seems that the child's pathology becomes the organizational summit of the above-mentioned relational dynamics among most of the patients examined... PMID:8569638

Tosi, B; Maestro, S; Marcheschi, M

1995-10-01

173

Injectable chitosan thermogels for sustained and localized delivery of pingyangmycin in vascular malformations.  

PubMed

Pingyangmycin (PYM) is an effective drug to treat vascular malformations (VM), but can easily diffuse from the injection site, which will reduce its therapeutic effect and increase side effect. Our study was to evaluate PYM-loaded chitosan thermogels for sustained and localized embolization therapy. It was shown that in vitro release of PYM thermogels could be delayed up to 12 days. The results measured by MTT assay showed that PYM thermogels could inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of EA.hy926 cells in a concentration and time dependent manner. In vivo pharmacokinetics study demonstrated that compared with PYM injections, PYM thermogels had a better sustained delivery of PYM. Macroscopic observation and histological examination of rabbit ear veins displayed that after administration with PYM thermogels for 18 days, obvious venous embolization and inflammatory response could be found. These results indicate that PYM thermogels is likely to achieve excellent prospects for VM treatment. PMID:25283699

Chen, Fen; Song, Shuangshuang; Wang, Hongwei; Zhang, Wenji; Lin, Congcong; Ma, Shilin; Ye, Tiantian; Zhang, Ling; Yang, Xinggang; Qin, Xingjun; Pan, Weisan

2014-12-10

174

Ear canal dynamic motion as a source of power for in-ear devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ear canal deformation caused by temporomandibular joint (jaw joint) activity, also known as "ear canal dynamic motion," is introduced in this paper as a candidate source of power to possibly recharge hearing aid batteries. The geometrical deformation of the ear canal is quantified in 3D by laser scanning of different custom ear moulds. An experimental setup is proposed to measure the amount of power potentially available from this source. The results show that 9 mW of power is available from a 15 mm3 dynamic change in the ear canal volume. Finally, the dynamic motion and power capability of the ear canal are investigated in a group of 12 subjects.

Delnavaz, Aidin; Voix, Jérémie

2013-02-01

175

Ear protection against water-borne infection: an objective evaluation.  

PubMed

Eight different ear plug materials were tested, in 5 ears each, in artificial shallow underwater conditions for 30 minutes, in order to determine their efficacy in sealing the ear canals to avoid water-borne infections in ear canals and open middle ears. Most of the plugs tested would meet everyday requirements for protection, but the polymeric foam plugs, treated with petroleum jelly, and moldable plastic materials were most effective in protecting both the middle ear and the ear canal skin. PMID:3805874

Laitakari, K; Sorri, M; Pirilâ, T; Löppönen, H; Helisten, L

1986-12-01

176

GI-Associated Hemangiomas and Vascular Malformations  

PubMed Central

Hemangiomas and vascular malformations of the gastrointestinal tract, rare clinical entities, present as overt or occult bleeding. They can be distributed throughout the intestinal digestive system, or present as a singular cavernous hemangioma or malformation, which is often located in the rectosigmoid region. Misdiagnosis is common despite characteristic radiographic features such as radiolucent phleboliths on plain film imaging and a purplish nodule on endoscopy. Adjunctive imaging such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are suggested as there is potential for local invasion. Endorectal ultrasound with Doppler has also been found to be useful in some instances. Surgical resection is the mainstay of treatment, with an emphasis on sphincter preservation. Nonsurgical endoscopic treatment with banding and sclerotherapy has been reported with success, especially in instances where an extensive resection is not feasible. PMID:22942801

Yoo, Stephen

2011-01-01

177

Neuropathology of cerebral arteriovenous malformations in children.  

PubMed Central

Neuropathological findings in children who had died of cerebral arteriovenous malformation under 6 years of age were contrasted with those of children aged 6 to 15 years. In all subjects, the abnormalities were more marked in the shunting vessels and veins distal to the arteriovenous shunt than in the arteries. Fibrous thickening, calcification an adherent thrombus of vessel wall, and gliosis and haemosiderin in contiguous neural tissue were more common in the older than the younger children. Children less than 1 week old with vein of Galen malformations presented with congestive heart failure and "watershed" cerebral infarction; most of those over one week old had hydrocephalus and venous thrombosis with haemorrhagic infarction. Images PMID:7420086

Takashima, S; Becker, L E

1980-01-01

178

Treatment of arteriovenous malformations of the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of ruptured and unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) is driven by the need to prevent incident\\u000a or recurrent intracranial hemorrhages. Improving feasibility of the rapidly developing endovascular, neurosurgical, and radiotherapeutic\\u000a procedures leads to invasive treatment of an increasing number of neurologically intact patients with accidentally diagnosed\\u000a AVMs. Recent data confirm that the natural history risk of unruptured AVMs

Andreas Hartmann; Henning Mast; Jae H. Choi; Christian Stapf; Jay P. Mohr

2007-01-01

179

Statins and congenital malformations: cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the teratogenic potential of statins. Design Cohort study. Setting United States. Participants A cohort of 886?996 completed pregnancies linked to liveborn infants of women enrolled in Medicaid from 2000 to 2007. Methods We examined the risk of major congenital malformations and organ specific malformations in offspring associated with maternal use of a statin in the first trimester. Propensity score based methods were used to control for potential confounders, including maternal demographic characteristics, obstetric and medical conditions, and use of other drugs. Results 1152 (0.13%) women used a statin during the first trimester. In unadjusted analyses, the prevalence of malformations in the offspring of these women was 6.34% compared with 3.55% in those of women who did not use a statin in the first trimester (relative risk 1.79, 95% confidence interval 1.43 to 2.23). Controlling for confounders, particularly pre-existing diabetes, accounted for this increase in risk (1.07, 0.85 to 1.37). There were also no statistically significant increases in any of the organ specific malformations assessed after accounting for confounders. Results were similar across a range of sensitivity analyses. Conclusions Our analysis did not find a significant teratogenic effect from maternal use of statins in the first trimester. However, these findings need to be replicated in other large studies, and the long term effects of in utero exposure to statins needs to be assessed, before use of statins in pregnancy can be considered safe. PMID:25784688

Hernandez-Diaz, Sonia; Fischer, Michael A; Seely, Ellen W; Ecker, Jeffrey L; Franklin, Jessica M; Desai, Rishi J; Allen-Coleman, Cora; Mogun, Helen; Avorn, Jerry; Huybrechts, Krista F

2015-01-01

180

Developmental genetic malformations of the cerebral cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cortical malformations give rise to severe clinical manifestations such as epilepsy and mental retardation, but sometimes\\u000a to more subtle problems like dyslexia. From a clinical standpoint, such structural abnormalities are diagnosed by radiographic\\u000a and histologic findings, with disease classifications often based on these observations. Using this categorization, many of\\u000a the responsible genes have been determined and now provide a means

Volney L. Sheen; Christopher A. Walsh

2003-01-01

181

Nocturnal apnea in Chiari type I malformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 4-year-old girl presented with sleep-disordered breathing. Her parents described breathing pauses of up to 20 s and progressive\\u000a tiredness during the day. Obstructive apneas from an enlarged adenoid were thought to be the most probable cause. However,\\u000a an adenotomy did not resolve the problem. Polysomnography demonstrated central apneas, and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging\\u000a revealed a Chiari type I malformation. We

Lonneke A. M. Aarts; Michèl A. A. P. Willemsen; Nele L. E. VandenBussche; René van Gent

2011-01-01

182

Numerical simulation of the human ear and the dynamic analysis of the middle ear sound transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the clinical CT of normal right ear, a 3-D ?nite element (FE) model of the human ear consisting of the external ear canal, middle ear(tympanic membrane, ossicular chain, ligaments, tendons), and inner ear (including semicircular canals, vestibular, spiral cochlear)was constructed in this paper. The complicated structures and inner boundary conditions of middle ear were described in this model. Model analysis and acoustic-structure-?uid coupled dynamic frequency response analysis were conducted on the model. The validity of this model was confirmed by comparing the results with published experimental data. The amplitudes and velocities of tympanic membrane and stapes footplate, sound pressure gain across the middle ear, and the cochlear input impedance were derived. Besides, it was concluded that the ear canal can amplify the sound signal in low frequencies.The modes of vibration of middle ear auditory ossicles, oval window and round window have been analysed. This model can well simulate the acoustic behavior with the interaction of external ear, middle ear and inner ear, which can supply more valuable theoretical support for development and improvement of hearing-aid and artificial inner ear.

Yao, W.; Ma, J.; Huang, X.

2013-06-01

183

Malformations of cortical development and epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Malformations of cortical development (MCDs) are macroscopic or microscopic abnormalities of the cerebral cortex that arise as a consequence of an interruption to the normal steps of formation of the cortical plate. The human cortex develops its basic structure during the first two trimesters of pregnancy as a series of overlapping steps, beginning with proliferation and differentiation of neurons, which then migrate before finally organizing themselves in the developing cortex. Abnormalities at any of these stages, be they environmental or genetic in origin, may cause disruption of neuronal circuitry and predispose to a variety of clinical consequences, the most common of which is epileptic seizures, A large number of MCDs have now been described, each with characteristic pathological, clinical, and imaging features. The causes of many of these MCDs have been determined through the study of affected individuals, with many MCDs now established as being secondary to mutations in cortical development genes. This review will highlight the best-known of the human cortical malformations associated with epilepsy. The pathological, clinical, imaging, and etioiogic features of each MCD will be summarized, with representative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images shown for each MCD, The malformations tuberous sclerosis, focal cortical dysplasia, hemimegalencephaiy, classical iissencephaly, subcortical band heterotopia, periventricular nodular heterotopia, polymicrogyria, and schizencephaly will be presented. PMID:18472484

Leventer, Richard J.; Guerrini, Renzo; Dobyns, William B.

184

[Hypopharyngeal carcinoma and red ear drum].  

PubMed

A 46-year-old male patient with an unresectable hypopharyngeal carcinoma was treated with primary radio-chemotherapy. At follow-up, the patient presented with a red ear drum and combined hearing loss. Because of radiotherapy-induced tubal dysfunction, paracentesis was performed. Biopsy of the polypoid middle ear mucosa revealed petrous bone infiltration of hypopharyngeal carcinoma. MRI studies revealed paracarotideal tumor infiltration to the petrous bone and the middle ear arising from a cervical retropharyngeal lymph node metastasis. PMID:20963385

Bender, B; Widmann, G; Riechelmann, H; Schmutzhard, J

2011-04-01

185

Molecular Mechanisms of Inner Ear Development  

PubMed Central

The inner ear is a structurally complex vertebrate organ built to encode sound, motion, and orientation in space. Given its complexity, it is not surprising that inner ear dysfunction is a relatively common consequence of human genetic mutation. Studies in model organisms suggest that many genes currently known to be associated with human hearing impairment are active during embryogenesis. Hence, the study of inner ear development provides a rich context for understanding the functions of genes implicated in hearing loss. This chapter focuses on molecular mechanisms of inner ear development derived from studies of model organisms. PMID:22855724

Wu, Doris K.; Kelley, Matthew W.

2012-01-01

186

Fear the EAR: Discovering and Mitigating Execution After Redirect Vulnerabilities  

E-print Network

Fear the EAR: Discovering and Mitigating Execution After Redirect Vulnerabilities Adam Doupé, Bryce Execution After Redirect, or EAR. A web application de- veloper can introduce an EAR by calling a redirect web frameworks are to EAR vulnerabilities. We then discuss the results from the EAR challenge

California at Santa Barbara, University of

187

Cytoarchitecture and Transcriptional Profiles of Neocortical Malformations in Inbred Mice  

PubMed Central

Malformations of neocortical development are associated with cognitive dysfunction and increased susceptibility to epileptogenesis. Rodent models are widely used to study neocortical malformations and have revealed important genetic and environmental mechanisms that contribute to neocortical development. Interestingly, several inbred mice strains commonly used in behavioral, anatomical, and/or physiological studies display neocortical malformations. In the present report we examine the cytoarchitecture and myeloarchitecture of the neocortex of 11 inbred mouse strains and identified malformations of cortical development, including molecular layer heterotopia, in all but one strain. We used in silico methods to confirm our observations and determined the transcriptional profiles of cells found within heterotopia. These data indicate cellular and transcriptional diversity present in cells in malformations. Furthermore, the presence of dysplasia in nearly every inbred strain examined suggests that malformations of neocortical development are a common feature in the neocortex of inbred mice. PMID:18308707

Ramos, Raddy L.; Smith, Phoebe T.; DeCola, Christopher; Tam, Danny; Corzo, Oscar

2008-01-01

188

Malformations in neotropical viperids: qualitative and quantitative analysis.  

PubMed

Malformations can occur in all living species, but there is little information about anomalies that occur in snakes and their frequency. This study assessed malformations in newborn South American pit vipers (Bothrops jararaca) and South American rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus) from wild captured pregnant females (240 and 35 litters, respectively). Newborn snakes were measured, weighed, sexed and studied grossly and by radiography for the presence of malformations. Ninety-five malformed pit vipers were identified from 4,087 births (2.3%), while 36 malformed rattlesnakes were found from 324 births (11.1%). Spinal abnormalities were the most common in both species, followed by fusion of ventral scales. Pit vipers showed a greater range of malformations including schistosomia (22.1%), kinked tail (13.7%), bicephaly (3.1%) and hydrocephaly (2.1%). PMID:23885804

Sant'Anna, S S; Grego, K F; Lorigados, C A B; Fonseca-Pinto, A C B C; Fernandes, W; Sá-Rocha, L C; Catão-Dias, J L

2013-11-01

189

Otologics active middle ear implants.  

PubMed

This article describes outcomes for the Otologics active middle ear implant for the semi-implantable and fully implantable (Carina, Otologics LLC, Boulder, CO) devices. Inclusion and exclusion criteria are reported in detail for surgical and audiologic management. Results from the clinical trial demonstrated no change for unaided air and bone conduction thresholds and no significant change in monosyllabic word scores or sentences in noise. Experiments are reported for conductive and mixed types of hearing losses in animal and human cadaveric models. These devices are in their infancy, and further study is needed to better identify candidates and develop appropriate expectations. PMID:25301507

Jenkins, Herman A; Uhler, Kristin

2014-12-01

190

Extracranial vascular malformations (hemangiomas and vascular malformations) in children and adolescents – diagnosis, clinic, and therapy  

PubMed Central

The field of extracranial vascular anomalies is considered as special focus of pediatric otolaryngology and it has shown a rapid development during the last years. The reason for this interest is finally also due to the global acceptance of the classification introduced by the ISSVA (International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies). Hemangiomas are the most frequently observed vascular tumors. Today the systemic propranolol therapy is mostly used for therapy of hemangiomas requiring treatment. Increasingly, the topical application of beta blocker is discussed while the benefit in the head and neck seems to be limited. Vascular malformations are classified according to the morphology of the affected part of the vascular system in arterial, venous, arterio-venous, lymphatic, capillary, and combined vascular malformations. Conventional surgery, sclerosing therapy, and laser treatment are invasive options for the treatment of lymphatic malformations. The options for the treatment of venous malformations could be significantly improved during the last years. In this context, the use of Nd:YAG laser, the conservative treatment of the localized disseminated intravascular coagulation with low-molecular weight heparin, the re-discovery of bleomycin as effective sclerosing agent, and the improvement of alcohol-based embolization agents must be mentioned. Today the treatment with dye laser is the preferred therapy for capillary malformations and it is superior to other therapeutic options as for example photodynamic therapy. Arterio-venous malformations as representatives for high-flow lesions are the high-risk lesions. Frequently they are compared to malignant head and neck tumors, in particular when a curative treatment can no longer be assured because of diffuse or multifocal extent and when the disease shows a progressive course. The combined treatment of embolization and surgical resection and if necessary consecutive defect reconstruction have turned out to be appropriate for arterio-venous malformations. Incurable findings are still a major challenge. Despite the introduction of antiangiogenetic drugs in oncology, the medicamentous therapeutic approach could not be established for arterio-venous malformations up to now. PMID:25587362

Eivazi, Behfar; Werner, Jochen A.

2014-01-01

191

Malformations Among the X-Linked Intellectual Disability Syndromes  

PubMed Central

Malformations are significant contributions to childhood mortality and disability. Their co-occurrence with intellectual disability may compound the health burden, requiring additional evaluation and management measures. Overall, malformations of greater or lesser severity occur in at least some cases of almost half of the 153 XLID syndromes. Genitourinary abnormalities are most common, but tend to contribute little or no health burden and occur in only a minority of cases of a given XLID syndrome. Some malformations (e.g., lissencephaly, hydranencephaly, long bone deficiency, renal agenesis/dysplasia) are not amenable to medical or surgical intervention; others (e.g., hydrocephaly, facial clefting, cardiac malformations, hypospadias) may be substantially corrected. PMID:24166814

Stevenson, Roger E.; Schwartz, Charles E.; Rogers, R. Curtis

2013-01-01

192

14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205...Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards...

2011-01-01

193

Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss  

MedlinePLUS

Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss Patient ... Otitis media refers to inflammation of the middle ear. When infection occurs, the condition is called " acute ...

194

15 CFR 734.2 - Important EAR terms and principles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Important EAR terms and principles. 734.2 Section 734...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS § 734.2 Important EAR terms and principles. (a) Subject to the EAR—Definition. (1) “Subject to the...

2012-01-01

195

14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305...Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards...

2013-01-01

196

21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

197

14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205...Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards...

2012-01-01

198

14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205...Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards...

2010-01-01

199

14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105...First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards...

2012-01-01

200

15 CFR 734.2 - Important EAR terms and principles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Important EAR terms and principles. 734.2 Section 734...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS § 734.2 Important EAR terms and principles. (a) Subject to the EAR—Definition. (1) “Subject to the...

2014-01-01

201

14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205...Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards...

2013-01-01

202

14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305...Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards...

2012-01-01

203

14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305...Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards...

2010-01-01

204

15 CFR 734.2 - Important EAR terms and principles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Important EAR terms and principles. 734.2 Section 734...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS § 734.2 Important EAR terms and principles. (a) Subject to the EAR—Definition. (1) “Subject to the...

2013-01-01

205

15 CFR 734.2 - Important EAR terms and principles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Important EAR terms and principles. 734.2 Section 734...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS § 734.2 Important EAR terms and principles. (a) Subject to the EAR—Definition. (1) “Subject to the...

2010-01-01

206

15 CFR 734.2 - Important EAR terms and principles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Important EAR terms and principles. 734.2 Section 734...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS § 734.2 Important EAR terms and principles. (a) Subject to the EAR—Definition. (1) “Subject to the...

2011-01-01

207

14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105...First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards...

2014-01-01

208

21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

209

14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305...Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards...

2014-01-01

210

14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105...First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards...

2013-01-01

211

14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305...Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards...

2011-01-01

212

14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105...First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards...

2011-01-01

213

14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105...First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards...

2010-01-01

214

21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

215

14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205...Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards...

2014-01-01

216

21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device...

2011-04-01

217

21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device...

2012-04-01

218

[Ear prostheses in burns of the external ear. Technical notes].  

PubMed

Ear reconstruction is best performed with autologous tissue. However, there are selected cases in which a prosthesis may be preferred. Some patients are unwilling to undertake multiple surgical procedures, others do not accept the chest wall scar. More importantly, in severe post burn cases, the scars in the periauricular region can truly compromise the outcome of an autologous reconstruction. In such cases, the authors perform a prosthetic reconstruction which is anchored to the cranial bone by means of osteointegrated titanium screws. The method described here has been modified compared to the original Bränemark system. A new microscrew design allows the implants to be inserted in a single surgical procedure. A magnetic anchoring system avoids cumbersome external rods, and the overall size of the masses emerging from the skin is significantly reduced. These improvements increase patient comfort and compliance. PMID:7574403

Signorini, M; Rafanelli, G; Pajardi, G; Stefani, A; Venini, G

1995-06-01

219

Playing by Ear: Foundation or Frill?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many people divide musicians into two types: those who can read music and those who play by ear. Formal music education tends to place great emphasis on producing musically literate performers but devotes much less attention to teaching students to make music without notation. Some would suggest that playing by ear is a specialized skill that is…

Woody, Robert H.

2012-01-01

220

INNER EAR EMBRYOGENESIS: GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The anatomy and developmental molecular genetics of the inner ear from establishment of the otic placode to formation of the definitive cochlea and vestibular apparatus will be reviewed and the complex 3-D structural changes that shape the developing inner ear will be illustrated...

221

The development of the vertebrate inner ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inner ear is a complex sensory organ responsible for balance and sound detection in vertebrates. It originates from a transient embryonic structure, the otic vesicle, that contains all of the information to develop autonomously into the mature inner ear. We review here the development of the otic vesicle, bringing together classical embryological experiments and recent genetic and molecular data.

Miguel Torres; Fernando Giráldez

1998-01-01

222

"Hot Tub Rash" and "Swimmer's Ear" (Pseudomonas)  

MedlinePLUS

Facts About “Hot Tub Rash” and “Swimmer’s Ear” (Pseudomonas) What is Pseudomonas and how can it affect me? Pseudomonas (sue-doh- ... a major cause of infections commonly known as “hot tub rash” and “swimmer’s ear.” This germ is ...

223

Congenital malformation and maternal occupational exposure to glycol ethers. Occupational Exposure and Congenital Malformations Working Group.  

PubMed

Glycol ethers are found in a wide range of domestic and industrial products, many of which are used in women's work environments. Motivated by concern about their potential reproductive toxicity, we have evaluated the risk of congenital malformations related to glycol ether exposure during pregnancy as part of a multicenter case-control study, conducted in six regions in Europe. The study comprised 984 cases of major congenital malformations and 1,134 controls matched for place and date of birth. Interviews of the mothers provided information about occupation during pregnancy, sociodemographic variables, and other potential risk factors (medical history, tobacco, alcohol, drugs). A chemist specializing in glycol ethers evaluated exposure during pregnancy, using the job description given by the mother, without knowledge of case or control status. We classified malformations into 22 subgroups. The overall odds ratio (OR) of congenital malformation associated with glycol ether exposure was 1.44 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10-1.90], after adjustment for several potential confounders. The association with exposure to glycol ethers appeared particularly strong in three subgroups: neural tube defects (OR = 1.94; 95% CI = 1.16-3.24), multiple anomalies (OR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.24-3.23), and cleft lip (OR = 2.03; 95% CI = 1.11-3.73). In this last subgroup, risk, especially of an isolated defect, tended to increase with level of exposure. PMID:9209847

Cordier, S; Bergeret, A; Goujard, J; Ha, M C; Aymé, S; Bianchi, F; Calzolari, E; De Walle, H E; Knill-Jones, R; Candela, S; Dale, I; Dananché, B; de Vigan, C; Fevotte, J; Kiel, G; Mandereau, L

1997-07-01

224

Somatic Mutations in Cerebral Cortical Malformations  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Although there is increasing recognition of the role of somatic mutations in genetic disorders, the prevalence of somatic mutations in neurodevelopmental disease and the optimal techniques to detect somatic mosaicism have not been systematically evaluated. METHODS Using a customized panel of known and candidate genes associated with brain malformations, we applied targeted high-coverage sequencing (depth, ?200×) to leukocyte-derived DNA samples from 158 persons with brain malformations, including the double-cortex syndrome (subcortical band heterotopia, 30 persons), polymicrogyria with megalencephaly (20), periventricular nodular heterotopia (61), and pachygyria (47). We validated candidate mutations with the use of Sanger sequencing and, for variants present at unequal read depths, subcloning followed by colony sequencing. RESULTS Validated, causal mutations were found in 27 persons (17%; range, 10 to 30% for each phenotype). Mutations were somatic in 8 of the 27 (30%), predominantly in persons with the double-cortex syndrome (in whom we found mutations in DCX and LIS1), persons with periventricular nodular heterotopia (FLNA), and persons with pachygyria (TUBB2B). Of the somatic mutations we detected, 5 (63%) were undetectable with the use of traditional Sanger sequencing but were validated through subcloning and subsequent sequencing of the subcloned DNA. We found potentially causal mutations in the candidate genes DYNC1H1, KIF5C, and other kinesin genes in persons with pachygyria. CONCLUSIONS Targeted sequencing was found to be useful for detecting somatic mutations in patients with brain malformations. High-coverage sequencing panels provide an important complement to whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing in the evaluation of somatic mutations in neuropsychiatric disease. (Funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and others.) PMID:25140959

Jamuar, Saumya S.; Lam, Anh-Thu N.; Kircher, Martin; D'Gama, Alissa M.; Wang, Jian; Barry, Brenda J.; Zhang, Xiaochang; Hill, Robert Sean; Partlow, Jennifer N.; Rozzo, Aldo; Servattalab, Sarah; Mehta, Bhaven K.; Topcu, Meral; Amrom, Dina; Andermann, Eva; Dan, Bernard; Parrini, Elena; Guerrini, Renzo; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Leventer, Richard J.; Shen, Yiping; Wu, Bai Lin; Barkovich, A. James; Sahin, Mustafa; Chang, Bernard S.; Bamshad, Michael; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Shendure, Jay; Poduri, Annapurna; Yu, Timothy W.; Walsh, Christopher A.

2014-01-01

225

Laser treatment of oral vascular malformations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oral Vascular Malformations (OVM) are congenital anomalies characterized by morph-structural and/or functional changes of nature in severity and extension. OVM can affect any type of vessels arterial, venous or lymphatic and any capillary or anatomical. They are divided into two categories: low and high flow. In this study were treated 40 patients with OVM with a range size from 2 mm to 44 mm; they were subjected to clinical examination supported by Colour-Doppler Ultrasound instrumental examination and only for doubt cases the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was prescribed. Only low flow venous and capillary malformations were treated by GaAlAs laser (Wiser®, Lambda, Brindole,Italy, 980nm) and KTP laser (SmartLite®, DEKA, Florence, Italy, 532nm) with two different techniques: the Transmucosal Thermophotocoagulation (TMT) and the Intralesional Photocoagulation (ILP). These techniques permitted a good control of haemostasis, avoiding bleeding both during surgery and in the postoperative. It is obtained an excellent and good healing respectively in 10% and 60% of cases, a moderate and poor resolution respectively in 22.5% and 7.5% of cases. A clear diagnosis allowed the management of Venous malformations (VM) by laser devices with wavelengths highly absorbed in haemoglobin in safety and efficacy and according to the principles of minimal invasive surgery. The aim of this study was to verify if the laser is effective in the treatment of OVM for the purpose of the clinical findings and the postoperative course. The Authors concluded that the laser can be considered the "gold standard" for treating OVM.

Romeo, U.; Gaimari, G.; Mohsen, M.; Tenore, G.; Palaia, G.

2014-01-01

226

BIOLOGY OF VASCULAR MALFORMATIONS OF THE BRAIN  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose This review discusses recent research on the genetic, molecular, cellular, and developmental mechanisms underlying the etiology of vascular malformations of the brain (VMBs), including cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM), sporadic brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM), and the AVMs of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Summary of Review The identification of gene mutations and genetic risk factors associated with CCM, HHT, and sporadic AVM has enabled the development of animal models for these diseases and provided new insights into their etiology. All of the genes associated with VMBs to date have known or plausible roles in angiogenesis and vascular remodeling. Recent work suggests that the angiogenic process most severely disrupted by VMB gene mutation is that of vascular stabilization, the process whereby vascular endothelial cells form capillary tubes, strengthen their intercellular junctions, and recruit smooth muscle cells to the vessel wall. In addition, there is now good evidence that in some cases CCM lesion formation involves a genetic two-hit mechanism, in which a germline mutation in one copy of a CCM gene is followed by a somatic mutation in the other copy. There is also increasing evidence that environmental second hits can produce lesions when there is a mutation to a single allele of a VMB gene. Conclusions Recent findings begin to explain how mutations in VMB genes render vessels vulnerable to rupture when challenged with other inauspicious genetic or environmental factors, and have suggested candidate therapeutics. Understanding of the cellular mechanisms of VMB formation and progression in humans has lagged behind that in animal models. New knowledge of lesion biology will spur new translational work. Several well-established clinical and genetic database efforts are already in place, and further progress will be facilitated by collaborative expansion and standardization of these. PMID:19834013

Leblanc, Gabrielle G.; Golanov, Eugene; Awad, Issam A.; Young, William L.

2009-01-01

227

Pretreatment imaging of peripheral vascular malformations  

PubMed Central

Peripheral vascular malformations (VMs) are complex and diverse vascular lesions which require individualized pretreatment planning. Pretreatment imaging using various modalities, especially magnetic resonance imaging and time-resolved magnetic resonance angiography, is a valuable tool for classifying peripheral VMs to allow proper diagnosis, demonstrate complete extent, identify the nidus, and distinguish between low-flow and high-flow dynamics that determines the treatment approach. We discuss pretreatment imaging findings in four patients with peripheral VMs and how diagnostic imaging helped guide management. PMID:25625123

Johnson, Joshua B; Cogswell, Petrice M; McKusick, Michael A; Binkovitz, Larry A; Riederer, Stephen J; Young, Phillip M

2015-01-01

228

Spinal Arteriovenous Malformation Masquerating Zoster Sine Herpete  

PubMed Central

Zoster sine herpete (ZSH) is difficult to diagnosis during an acute period due to the absence of the characteristic zosteriform dermatomal rash; therefore, progression to postherpetic neuralgia is more common than typical zoster. In addition, misdiagnosis of other neuropathic pain as ZSH is common in clinical situations. Here, we report a case of spinal arteriovenous malformation that mimics ZSH. This is a rare condition; therefore, high clinical suspicion for a correct diagnosis and proper examination are not easy. However, early diagnosis and definitive treatment are essential to prevent neurologic deficit and mortality. PMID:23342212

Lee, Ji Young; Ok, Se Jin; Oh, Chang Keun; Park, Sun Kyung; Kim, Do Wan

2013-01-01

229

Spinal arteriovenous malformation masquerating zoster sine herpete.  

PubMed

Zoster sine herpete (ZSH) is difficult to diagnosis during an acute period due to the absence of the characteristic zosteriform dermatomal rash; therefore, progression to postherpetic neuralgia is more common than typical zoster. In addition, misdiagnosis of other neuropathic pain as ZSH is common in clinical situations. Here, we report a case of spinal arteriovenous malformation that mimics ZSH. This is a rare condition; therefore, high clinical suspicion for a correct diagnosis and proper examination are not easy. However, early diagnosis and definitive treatment are essential to prevent neurologic deficit and mortality. PMID:23342212

Lee, Ji Young; Ok, Se Jin; Oh, Chang Keun; Park, Sun Kyung; Kim, Do Wan; Yang, Jong Yeun

2013-01-01

230

Role of Embolization for Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations  

PubMed Central

Cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are complex high-flow lesions that can result in devastating neurological injury when they hemorrhage. Embolization is a critical component in the management of many patients with cerebral AVMs. Embolization may be used as an independent curative therapy or more commonly in an adjuvant fashion prior to either micro- or radiosurgery. Although the treatment-related morbidity and mortality for AVMs—including that due to microsurgery, embolization, and radiosurgery—can be substantial, its natural history offers little solace. Fortunately, care by a multidisciplinary team experienced in the comprehensive management of AVMs can offer excellent results in most cases. PMID:25624978

Ellis, Jason A.; Lavine, Sean D.

2014-01-01

231

Congenital bronchopulmonary vascular malformations, “sequestration” and beyond  

PubMed Central

Congenital bronchopulmonary vascular malformations (BPVMs) include a broad spectrum of disorders that involve abnormalities in the form of disruptions of normal communication and/or presence of abnormal communication between one or more of the three main systems of the lung, namely, the airways, arteries, and veins. The establishment of abnormal communications by means of small openings or anastomoses is termed as malinosculation. The aim of this pictorial essay is to illustrate the imaging appearances of the various types of pulmonary malinosculation. PMID:25709164

Irodi, Aparna; Prabhu, Shailesh M; John, Reetu Amrita; Leena, RV

2015-01-01

232

Gene therapy for the inner ear  

PubMed Central

Animal studies on inner ear development, repair and regeneration provide understanding of molecular pathways that can be harnessed for treating inner ear disease. Use of transgenic mouse technology, in particular, has contributed knowledge of genes that regulate development of hair cells and innervation, and of molecular players that can induce regeneration, but this technology is not applicable for human treatment, for practical and ethical reasons. Therefore other means for influencing gene expression in the inner ear are needed. We describe several gene vectors useful for inner ear gene therapy and the practical aspects of introducing these vectors into the ear. We then review the progress toward using gene transfer for therapies in both auditory and balance systems, and discuss the technological milestones needed to advance to clinical application of these methods. PMID:23265411

Fukui, Hideto; Raphael, Yehoash

2012-01-01

233

Numerical analysis of ossicular chain lesion of human ear  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lesion of ossicular chain is a common ear disease impairing the sense of hearing. A comprehensive numerical model of human ear can provide better understanding of sound transmission. In this study, we propose a three-dimensional finite element model of human ear that incorporates the canal, tympanic membrane, ossicular bones, middle ear suspensory ligaments/muscles, middle ear cavity and inner ear fluid. Numerical analysis is conducted and employed to predict the effects of middle ear cavity, malleus handle defect, hypoplasia of the long process of incus, and stapedial crus defect on sound transmission. The present finite element model is shown to be reasonable in predicting the ossicular mechanics of human ear.

Liu, Yingxi; Li, Sheng; Sun, Xiuzhen

2009-04-01

234

Oculocerebrocutaneous syndrome: the brain malformation defines a core phenotype  

PubMed Central

Background: Oculocerebrocutaneous syndrome (OCCS) is characterised by orbital cysts and anophthalmia or microphthalmia, focal aplastic or hypoplastic skin defects, skin appendages, and brain malformations. The eye and skin abnormalities are well described but the neuropathological features less so. To date, 28 patients with an unequivocal diagnosis of OCCS have been reported, with a preponderance of males. Objective: To evaluate the brain imaging studies, clinical records, photographs, and pathological material of two new and nine previously reported cases of OCCS. Results: There was a consistent pattern of malformations in eight of the 11 cases, consisting of frontal predominant polymicrogyria and periventricular nodular heterotopia, enlarged lateral ventricles or hydrocephalus, agenesis of the corpus callosum sometimes associated with interhemispheric cysts, and a novel mid-hindbrain malformation. The latter consisted of a giant and dysplastic tectum, absent cerebellar vermis, small cerebellar hemispheres in most cases, and a large posterior fossa fluid collection. Conclusions: The mid-hindbrain malformation appears pathognomonic for OCCS. The eye and skin features of OCCS show considerable overlap with several other syndromes, such as encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis, oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, and focal dermal hypoplasia, none of which has a comparable pattern of brain malformations. In particular the unique mid-hindbrain malformation also distinguishes OCCS from related syndromes with comparable forebrain anomalies. The pattern of malformation described thus helps in differentiating OCCS from other entities. The mid-hindbrain malformation points to a defect of the mid-hindbrain organiser as the underlying pathogenic mechanism. PMID:15879499

Moog, U; Jones, M; Bird, L; Dobyns, W

2005-01-01

235

Cerebral cavernous malformations (cavernomas) in the pediatric age-group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cavernomas are vascular malformations composed of a compact mass of sinusoidal-type vessels that are immediately contiguous with one another and have no intervening parenchyma. Cavernous malformations were previously held to be a rare pathology occurring predominantly in adults. New neuroradiological techniques such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrate, on the contrary, that these lesions are also

C. Mazza; R. Scienza; A. Beltramello; R. Da Pian

1991-01-01

236

Congenital Malformations in Perinatal Autopsies – A Study of 100 Cases  

PubMed Central

Background Congenital malformations remain a common cause of perinatal deaths and even though ultrasonogram can give fairly accurate diagnosis, perinatal autopsy is essential to confirm the diagnosis and look for associated malformations. Objectives To emphasize the importance of perinatal autopsy in diagnosing congenital malformations and to compare the same with the prenatal ultrasound findings. Methods The present study comprises 100 consecutive perinatal autopsies conducted after obtaining the approval from the Institutional Ethics Committee. In cases where prenatal ultrasound findings were available they were compared with the autopsy findings. Results Out of 100 perinatal autopsies, 44 cases were congenital anomalies with M:F = 1:1.5. Majority of the fetuses with congenital malformations (36.36%) were therapeutically terminated, Cental nervous system malformations being the commonest indication. The most common timing of therapeutic termination being 20 -24weeks. Congenital malformations were common between 35-39 weeks gestational age and birth weight range 350- 1000g. The malformations involving the central nervous system were commonest, seen in 15 cases (34.09%) followed by renal anomalies in 9 cases (20.45%) and multiple malformations in 7cases ( 15.91%). Autopsy confirmed the prenatal ultrasound findings in 50% of the cases, added to diagnosis in 29.54%, while it completely changed the primary diagnosis in 9.09% of the cases. Conclusion This study highlights the importance of perinatal autopsy in confirming the diagnosis of congenital anomalies by prenatal ultrasound findings. PMID:23373038

Andola, Uma S; AM, Anita; Ahuja, Mukta; Andola, Sainath K

2012-01-01

237

Field Guide to Malformations of Frogs and Toads  

E-print Network

Field Guide to Malformations of Frogs and Toads With Radiographic Interpretations U.S. Department recently metamorphosed frogs that were collected in Minnesota, Vermont, Wisconsin and Maine and examined on the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens). The malformations and the method of their classification are reported

Torgersen, Christian

238

Research Report Genetic interactions among cortical malformation genes that  

E-print Network

Research Report Genetic interactions among cortical malformation genes that influence consequences of decreasing the activity of nematode gene homologs within the LIS1 pathway that are associated with a human cortical malformation termed lissencephaly. Bioinformatic analysis revealed the nud-2 gene

Caldwell, Guy

239

Lumbar extradural arteriovenous malformation: case report and literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background contextMost spinal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are dural arteriovenous fistulas in which a singularly intradural venous drainage emanates from an extradural nidus. A pure extradural spinal arteriovenous malformation (E-AVM), in the absence of a vertebral body (cavernous) hemangioma, is extremely rare, and full clinical, radiological, and operative descriptions are scant.

Laurence A. G. Marshman; Karoly M. David; Sanjiv J. Chawda

2007-01-01

240

Stenogyria - not only in Chiari II malformation.  

PubMed

Stenogyria, meaning multiple small compacted gyri separated by shallow sulci, is reported in the literature in association with Chiari II malformation (CM II) which in turn is reported in association with myelomeningocele (MMC). The authors present five cases of stenogyria (and other abnormalities found in CM II, like callosal hypoplasia/dysplasia, agenesis of the anterior commissure, hypoplasia of the falx cerebri) in children without the history of MMC or any other form of open spinal dysraphism. In these cases stenogyria was associated with Chiari I malformation, rhombencephalosynapsis and spina bifida. Stenogyria, which is not a true neuronal migration disorder, should not be mistaken for polymicrogyria which is also present in CM II. It is histologically different from polymicrogyria because the cortex is normally organized. Also on MRI, the general sulcal pattern is preserved in stenogyria, while it is completely distorted in polymicrogyria. The authors conclude that features traditionally attributed to CM II, like stenogyria, occur not only in the population of patients with MMC as opposed to the widely accepted theory. PMID:25282544

Bekiesinska-Figatowska, Monika; Duczkowska, Agnieszka; Br?goszewska, Hanna; Duczkowski, Marek; Mierzewska, Hanna

2014-12-15

241

Intralesional laser therapy for vascular malformations.  

PubMed

Intralesional laser therapy for the treatment of vascular malformations (VMs) has been previously reported for select patient populations. Larger studies, over a wider variety of indications, are needed to better define the potential role of this technology. In the current study, a 12-year, retrospective review of 44 patients who underwent 73 intralesional Nd:YAG or diode laser treatments of VMs was performed. The most commonly encountered lesions were venous malformations (66%) and the most commonly involved anatomic locations were the head and neck regions (41%) and lower extremity (39%). Primary indications for treatment were enlargement (73%) and pain (52%). Lesion size was reduced in 94% of cases after treatment and pain was improved in 91% of cases. Minor postoperative complications occurred in 16 (36%) patients. There was no difference in treatment response among various VM subtypes or anatomic locations (P=0.497, P=0.866) or in the incidence of complications (P=0.531, P=0.348). Age was the only factor associated with an increased risk of complications (odds ratio, 1.034; P=0.038). When used in accordance with the suggested guidelines, intralesional laser therapy is a safe and effective treatment modality for VMs of varying compositions and locations. PMID:24625513

Ma, Linda W; Levi, Benjamin; Oppenheimer, Adam J; Kasten, Steven J

2014-11-01

242

An evolutionary perspective on middle ears.  

PubMed

The traditional view that a tympanic middle ear developed only once, when vertebrates made the transition from fish in water to land-living animals, has been shown to be incorrect. Middle ears with a tympanum connected by one or more ossicles to the cochlea developed very much later in evolutionary history and independently in many amniote vertebrate lineages - most now extinct. The mammalian middle ear is unique but it is not simply an "improved" single-ossicle middle ear. It is a radical and fortuitous new development that owes its origin more to changes in feeding patterns than to hearing. It happened to transmit higher-frequency sounds better than single-ossicle middle ears and enabled the evolution of the high upper-frequency hearing limits of most mammals. Parallel to the development of a tympanic middle ear in therian mammals, the brain increased in size and a secondary palate developed, resulting in the ancestral pressure-gradient middle ear being replaced by a purely pressure system. Sound localization then became almost completely dependent on neural computation and this was the most important factor driving up the upper frequency limits of early mammals. This paper presents an historical perspective on these remarkably simple and yet highly effective structures. PMID:19786082

Manley, Geoffrey A

2010-05-01

243

Human antimicrobial proteins in ear wax.  

PubMed

The external auditory canal is vulnerable to bacterial infections, but little is known about thechemical compositions of ear wax regarding antimicrobial peptides. We, therefore, studied the proteinconcentrations of ten well-known human antimicrobial peptides from ear wax.Twenty ear wax samples from healthy individuals were analysed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine theprotein concentrations of the antimicrobial peptides hBD1-3, lactoferrin, LL-37, BPI, hSLPI and HNP1-3. All ten antimicrobial peptides are present in ear wax. Some of these proteins seem to be merelycell-bound in ear wax. Antimicrobial peptides in ear wax prevent bacteria and fungi from causing infections inthe external auditory canal. The role and importance of these proteins for the blind-ending ear externalcanal is discussed. If this local defence system fails, infections of the external auditory canal may result.The knowledge about the presence of antimicrobial peptides in cerumen may lead to new concepts ofthe local treatment of external auditory canal diseases in the future. PMID:21298458

Schwaab, M; Gurr, A; Neumann, A; Dazert, S; Minovi, A

2011-08-01

244

The Ear Pages - Nobel Prize Educational Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 1961 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded for the discovery of how sound is analyzed and communicated in the cochlea in the inner ear. Explore "The Ear Pages" and collect the snail shaped symbols of the cochlea to gain chances to answer a question correct in the quiz! (The cochlea works as a frequency/pitch analyzer in the inner ear.) You can choose between three levels of quizzes Â? beginner, advanced and expert. If you manage to get all the answers correct you will appear on the "High score of the week" list!

2009-01-01

245

Hearing: How Do Our Ears Work?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the anatomy of the ear and how the ears work as a sound sensor. Ear anatomy parts and structures are explained in detail, as well as how sound is transmitted mechanically and then electrically through them to the brain. Students use LEGO® robots with sound sensors to measure sound intensities, learning how the NXT brick (computer) converts the intensity of sound measured by the sensor input into a number that transmits to a screen. They build on their experiences from the previous activities and establish a rich understanding of the sound sensor and its relationship to the TaskBot's computer.

2014-09-18

246

Purdue extensionGibberella Ear Rot Purdue extension  

E-print Network

1 Purdue extensionGibberella Ear Rot BP-77-W Purdue extension d i s e a s e s o f c o r n Gibberella Ear Rot Authors: Charles Woloshuk Kiersten Wise www.btny.purdue.edu Photos by Charles Woloshuk Gibberella ear rot, or Gib ear rot, is caused by the fungus, Gibberella zeae (Fusarium graminearum

Holland, Jeffrey

247

Short Papers___________________________________________________________________________________________________ Comparison and Combination of Ear and Face  

E-print Network

___________________________________________________________________________________________________ Comparison and Combination of Ear and Face Images in Appearance-Based Biometrics Kyong Chang, Kevin W. Bowyer that the ear may have advantages over the face for biometric recognition. Our previous experiments with ear performance using ear images. We report results of similar experiments on larger data sets that are more

Bowyer, Kevin W.

248

PURDUE EXTENSIONArrested Ear Development in Hybrid Corn PURDUE EXTENSION  

E-print Network

1 PURDUE EXTENSIONArrested Ear Development in Hybrid Corn BP-85-W PURDUE EXTENSION D I S E A S E S O F C O R N Arrested Ear Development in Hybrid Corn www.btny.purdue.edu Arrested ear develop- ment to the abnormal corn ear development caused by a number of stress factors, including the application of nonionic

Holland, Jeffrey

249

Purdue extensionDiplodia Ear Rot Purdue extension  

E-print Network

1 Purdue extensionDiplodia Ear Rot BP-75-W Purdue extension d i s e a s e s o f c o r n Diplodia Ear Rot Authors: Charles Woloshuk Kiersten Wise www.btny.purdue.edu Diplodia ear rot, caused Diplodia ear rot. Hybrid susceptibility and weather also contribute to disease development. This bulletin

Holland, Jeffrey

250

ORIGINAL COMMUNICATION Imaging Microscopy of the Middle and Inner Ear  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL COMMUNICATION Imaging Microscopy of the Middle and Inner Ear Part I: CT Microscopy JOHN I. This approach to the study of the inner ear avoids tissue destruction inherent in histological preparations. We-Liss, Inc. Key words: CT microscopy; temporal bone; middle ear; inner ear INTRODUCTION The temporal bone

Allen, Jont

251

Diagnosis and management of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation is a rare anomaly that presents in several different ways. It can present as an isolated finding, or more often in the context of hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia. It can also complicate palliative surgery such as the Glenn operation for complex congenital heart disease with single ventricle physiology. Its management includes transcatheter embolization, which is the preferred mode of therapy, surgery (including resection of the affected lobe, segment, or the fistula itself), or rarely, medical therapy. Complications of the disease itself and of various modes of treatment are relatively common, and patients require close surveillance for possible recurrence, or development of new fistulas. In cases related to the Glenn operation, redirection of hepatic venous flow or heart transplantation may cure the problem. PMID:22368610

Papagiannis, J; Apostolopoulou, S; Sarris, GE; Rammos, S

2002-01-01

252

Multimodal device for assessment of skin malformations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of multi-spectral imaging devices is commercially available and used for skin diagnostics and monitoring; however, an alternative cost-efficient device can provide an advanced spectral analysis of skin. A compact multimodal device for diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions was developed and tested. A polarized LED light source illuminates the skin surface at four different wavelengths - blue (450 nm), green (545 nm), red (660 nm) and infrared (940 nm). Spectra of reflected light from the 25 mm wide skin spot are imaged by a CMOS sensor. Four spectral images are obtained for mapping of the main skin chromophores. The specific chromophore distribution differences between different skin malformations were analyzed and information of subcutaneous structures was consecutively extracted.

Bekina, A.; Garancis, V.; Rubins, U.; Spigulis, J.; Valeine, L.; Berzina, A.

2013-11-01

253

EAR TO THE GROUND IN THIS ISSUE  

E-print Network

Dates 9 Lava eruption at Tolbachik volcano, Russia (credit: Benjamin Edwards) Update from the Division. Although there may be no immediate tangible benefit, visibility for EAR across the Foundation, as well

254

Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears?  

MedlinePLUS

... noise (from music or other sources such as machinery or jet engines) can cause both temporary and ... by wearing ear protection when you're using machinery, like in metal shop at school. Also remember ...

255

Maternal Hypothyroidism in Early Pregnancy and Infant Structural Congenital Malformations  

PubMed Central

Background. The question is debated on whether maternal hypothyroidism or use of thyroxin in early pregnancy affects the risk for infant congenital malformations. Objectives. To expand the previously published study on maternal thyroxin use in early pregnancy and the risk for congenital malformations. Methods. Data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register were used for the years 1996–2011 and infant malformations were identified from national health registers. Women with preexisting diabetes or reporting the use of thyreostatics, anticonvulsants, or antihypertensives were excluded from analysis. Risk estimates were made as odds ratios (ORs) or risk ratios (RRs) after adjustment for year of delivery, maternal age, parity, smoking, and body mass index. Results. Among 23?259 infants whose mothers in early pregnancy used thyroxin, 730 had a major malformation; among all 1?567?736 infants, 48012 had such malformations. The adjusted OR was 1.06 (95% CI 0.98–1.14). For anal atresia the RR was 1.85 (95% CI 1.00–1.85) and for choanal atresia 3.14 (95% CI 1.26–6.47). The risk of some other malformations was also increased but statistical significance was not reached. Conclusions. Treated maternal hypothyroidism may be a weak risk factor for infant congenital malformations but an association with a few rare conditions is possible. PMID:24744955

Norstedt Wikner, Birgitta

2014-01-01

256

Recent advances in the genetic etiology of brain malformations.  

PubMed

In the past few years, the increasing accessibility of next-generation sequencing technology has translated to a number of significant advances in our understanding of brain malformations. Genes causing brain malformations, previously intractable due to their complex presentation, rarity, sporadic occurrence, or molecular mechanism, are being identified at an unprecedented rate and are revealing important insights into central nervous system development. Recent discoveries highlight new associations of biological processes with human disease including the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway in brain overgrowth syndromes, the trafficking of cellular proteins in microcephaly-capillary malformation syndrome, and the role of the exosome in the etiology of pontocerebellar hypoplasia. Several other gene discoveries expand our understanding of the role of mitosis in the primary microcephaly syndromes and post-translational modification of dystroglycan in lissencephaly. Insights into polymicrogyria and heterotopias show us that these 2 malformations are complex in their etiology, while recent work in holoprosencephaly and Dandy-Walker malformation suggest that, at least in some instances, the development of these malformations requires "multiple-hits" in the sonic hedgehog pathway. The discovery of additional genes for primary microcephaly, pontocerebellar hypoplasia, and spinocerebellar ataxia continue to impress upon us the significant degree of genetic heterogeneity associated with many brain malformations. It is becoming increasingly evident that next-generation sequencing is emerging as a tool to facilitate rapid and cost-effective molecular diagnoses that will be translated into routine clinical care for these rare conditions in the near future. PMID:23793931

Dyment, David A; Sawyer, Sarah L; Chardon, Jodi Warman; Boycott, Kym M

2013-08-01

257

Finite element analysis of middle ear mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An essential component in the process of hearing is the transformation of sound from acoustic to mechanical vibration in the middle ear. In order to study this phenomenon, computational models have been introduced to model the behavior of the tympanic membrane and its interaction with the surrounding acoustical spaces. Using such a computational model, one gains an increased understanding of the relationship between its structure and performance, which may assist in preventive, diagnostic, and reconstructive medical applications. The goal of this present work is to expand the computational simulation capabilities of current eardrum models using modern finite element modeling techniques. A fully coupled structural acoustic model is presented using modern shell element technology. Anatomical geometries for the eardrum, acoustic spaces of the ear canal and middle ear cavity, and the ossicles are utilized via muCT imaging. A new computational algorithm is used to compute the frequency response of this model over a wide frequency range. This approach uses the matrix Pade-via-Lanczos algorithm to construct reduced-order models around chosen reference frequencies, which can be solved efficiently at many frequencies within a frequency window. An adaptive algorithm is introduced to span a given frequency range by introducing new reference frequencies as necessary. Results for the middle ear model, using this multifrequency algorithm, are presented for intact and modified middle ear anatomies. These modifications serve to demonstrate the utility of the computational approach in understanding the relationships between the morphological structure of the middle ear and its functionality.

Tuck-Lee, James Peter

2007-12-01

258

Imaging of Chiari type I malformation and syringohydromyelia.  

PubMed

Chiari malformations are anatomic anomalies that comprise a broad spectrum of neurologic conditions. The most common malformation, a Chiari type I malformation, can present with a variety of signs and symptoms, most frequently an occipital Valsalva-induced headache. Cranial and spinal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is used to identify the degree of tonsillar descent and document the presence of syringohydromyelia. The advent of cine-MR flow imaging (cine as in "cinema") has provided new insight as to the dynamic process involved in the evolution of this pathophysiology. This article reviews the neuroimaging of this fascinating disorder. PMID:24287386

McVige, Jennifer W; Leonardo, Jody

2014-02-01

259

How to See What Whales Hear Biomedical imaging reveals new insights into marine mammal ears  

E-print Network

abandoned external ears as a concession to better underwater mobility. Still, they do have ears buried basic ear components: an external ear flap, or pinna, is connected via an ear canal to the middle earHow to See What Whales Hear Biomedical imaging reveals new insights into marine mammal ears

260

Pulmonary vascular malformation complicating cryptococcal pneumonia in an immunocompetent patient  

PubMed Central

An immunocompetent 50-year-old male presented with slight cough and occasional lung congestion. The radiologic findings included diffuse, bilateral reticular and one nodular opacity at the upper lobe of right lung without clear margin. A wedge resection of the lesion showed disordered distribution of the medium-sized vessels and arterioles, several arterioles densely gathered including a few occlusive arterioles, or medium veins dilated with irregular and elongated cavity, indicating the existence of vascular malformation. Interestingly, near to the malformed vessels, a large area of necrosis with granulomatous inflammation was found. Of note, numerous intracytoplasmic organisms with a nucleus, a wall and a thick capsule, were free in the alveoli or located within the macrophages and polykaryocytes, suggesting cryptococci infection. This is to our best knowledge the first case showing concurrent vascular malformation and local pulmonary cryptococcosis, and vascular malformation was likely an important pathological predisposing factor for local pulmonary cryptococcosis infection. PMID:24696743

Liu, Fang; Chen, Hanzhang; Zhu, Hailong; Li, Shuai; Gu, Pan; Fang, Xia; Wu, Yunjin; Zhang, Suxia; Zhang, Lanjing; Yi, Xianghua

2014-01-01

261

Contracted foal syndrome associated with multiple malformations in two foals.  

PubMed

Congenital anomalies in horses are very rare, and contracted foal syndrome is one of the most commonly reported. This malformation is characterized by contraction of the joints of the forelimbs and/or hindlimbs. In addition, the syndrome can be characterized by vertebral column malformations, such as scoliosis or torticollis, and cranial deformity. The present report describes the radiological and necroscopical findings of multiple rare malformations in two foals. Both foals showed skeletal abnormalities and fenestration of the abdominal cavity. Other pathological findings include a interventricular septal defect in one and a unilateral hydronephrosis and partial hydroureter in the other foal. Although in this report a specific aetiology could not be provided, insecticides treatment provided during the second month of pregnancy might play a role in the pathogenesis of these malformations. PMID:23406278

Binanti, D; Zani, D D; De Zani, D; Turci, T; Zavaglia, G; Riccaboni, P

2014-02-01

262

The Chiari malformations: a review with emphasis on anatomical traits.  

PubMed

Hindbrain herniations come in many forms and have been further subdivided as their original descriptions. For cerebellar tonsillar ectopia, they can be divided into two categories, acquired and congenital. Acquired hindbrain herniations are due to increased intracranial pressure caused by certain conditions such as trauma or brain tumor. Although the mechanism for their formation is not clear, congenital hindbrain herniation makes up the majority of these congenital malformations. Furthermore, these malformations are often found to harbor additional anatomical derailments in addition to the hindbrain herniation whether it be the cerebellar tonsils (Chiari I malformation) or the cerebellar vermis (Chiari II malformation). This article reviews these forms of cerebellar ectopia and describes the details of their anomalous anatomy. Moreover, this article compares and contrasts the differing embryological theories found in this literature. PMID:25065525

Cesmebasi, Alper; Loukas, Marios; Hogan, Elizabeth; Kralovic, Sara; Tubbs, R Shane; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

2015-03-01

263

Genetics Home Reference: Microcephaly-capillary malformation syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... proper balance of protein production and breakdown (protein homeostasis) that cells need to function and survive. Studies ... cell ; degrade ; developmental delay ; egg ; endocytosis ; epilepsy ; gene ; homeostasis ; inheritance ; inherited ; malformation ; microcephaly ; myoclonus ; pattern of inheritance ; ...

264

MALLEABLE INSPECTION STATION WHERE WORKERS ELIMINATE MALFORMED CASTINGS AND SEPARATED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MALLEABLE INSPECTION STATION WHERE WORKERS ELIMINATE MALFORMED CASTINGS AND SEPARATED GOOD CASTINGS PRIOR TO ANNEALING. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Malleable Annealing Building, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

265

Vein of Galen malformations: epidemiology, clinical presentations, management.  

PubMed

The vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation is a congenital vascular malformation that comprises 30% of the pediatric vascular and 1% of all pediatric congenital anomalies. Treatment is dependent on the timing of presentation and clinical manifestations. With the development of endovascular techniques, treatment paradigms have changed and clinical outcomes have significantly improved. In this article, the developmental embryology, clinical features and pathophysiology, diagnostic workup, and management strategies are reviewed. PMID:22107867

Recinos, Pablo F; Rahmathulla, Gazanfar; Pearl, Monica; Recinos, Violette Renard; Jallo, George I; Gailloud, Philippe; Ahn, Edward S

2012-01-01

266

Laparoscopic approach in the management of anorectal malformations.  

PubMed

Seventeen years have passed since the first description of the laparoscopic approach for anorectal malformation and approximately 68 articles have been published on the subject. In this review article, we aim to describe the advantages as well as the indications and contraindications of this approach when dealing with each specific type of anorectal malformation, according to what has been described in the literature and to our own experience. The ideal and undisputable indication for laparoscopy remains for cases in which the abdomen needs to be entered to repair the malformation. Only 10 % of male patients with anorectal malformation are born with a recto-bladder neck fistula that requires an abdominal approach, this represents an ideal indication for laparoscopy. In females, only the complex cloacae with a common channel length greater than 3 cm are the ones that require a laparotomy; they represent about 30 % of the cloacae. However, the repair of this type of cloacae also requires sophisticated and technically demanding maneuvers that have never been done laparoscopically. In cases of recto-urethral prostatic fistulas the malformation can be repaired either way: laparoscopically or posterior sagitally. In all other malformations: recto-perineal fistula, recto-urethral bulbar fistula, anorectal malformation without fistula, rectal atresia, recto-vestibular fistula; no justification for laparoscopy could be found; and in some cases, laparoscopy is contraindicated. In the published reports, there is no evidence supporting the idea that laparoscopic repair results in better functional results when compared with non-laparoscopic operation; there is a tendency to omit information relevant to bowel control such as the characteristics of the sacrum and the presence or absence of tethered cord; and most authors do not compare results between comparable malformations. PMID:25725614

Bischoff, Andrea; Martinez-Leo, Bruno; Peña, Alberto

2015-05-01

267

Giant Cystic Cerebral Cavernous Malformation with Multiple Calcification - Case Report  

PubMed Central

Cerebral cavernous malformation with giant cysts is rare and literature descriptions of its clinical features are few. In this case study, the authors describe the clinical symptoms, radiological findings, and pathological diagnosis of cerebral cavernous malformations with giant cysts, reviewing the relevant literature to clearly differentiate this from other disease entities. The authors present a case of a 19-year-old male with a giant cystic cavernous malformation, who was referred to the division of neurosurgery due to right sided motor weakness (grade II/II). Imaging revealed a large homogenous cystic mass, 7.2×4.6×6 cm in size, in the left fronto-parietal lobe and basal ganglia. The mass had an intra-cystic lesion, abutting the basal portion of the mass. The initial diagnosis considered this mass a glioma or infection. A left frontal craniotomy was performed, followed by a transcortical approach to resect the mass. Total removal was accomplished without post-operative complications. An open biopsy and a histopathological exam diagnosed the mass as a giant cystic cavernous malformation. Imaging appearances of giant cavernous malformations may vary. The clinical features, radiological features, and management of giant cavernous malformations are described based on pertinent literature review. PMID:24167810

Kim, Il-Chun; Rhee, Jong-Joo; Lee, Jong-Won; Hur, Jin-Woo; Lee, Hyun-Koo

2013-01-01

268

Morphological variation of "complex vertebral malformation" in Holstein calves.  

PubMed

A study was performed to investigate the morphological expression of the inherited syndrome "complex vertebral malformation" (CVM) in Holstein calves. A total of 107 late-term aborted, premature, or neonatal calves suspected of having CVM were necropsied and retrospectively analyzed for the causal mutation in the gene SLC35A3. Sixty-two calves were homozygous affected, 16 were heterozygous, and 29 were homozygous normal. Calves affected by CVM were growth retarded. Vertebral lesions identified by radiography were present in 61 cases, of which 58 also had costal malformation. Malformation of the head, primarily in the form of dysplasia or palatoschisis, was present in 15 cases. Bilateral symmetric flexion of the carpal and metacarpophalangeal joints was present in all cases, whereas posterior arthrogryposis was found in 54 cases. Interventricular septal defects occurred in 33 calves, often in combination with other cardiac malformations. A wide spectrum of additional malformations was found. Other congenital syndromes were in most cases distinguishable from CVM on a morphological basis. However, a calf with a prenatal infection with bovine virus diarrhea virus constituted a phenocopy. The study demonstrated that the morphological expression of CVM is wide, but certain aspects, i.e., growth retardation, vertebral malformation, and symmetric arthrogryposis, are almost constant findings. However, cases without vertebral defects and phenocopies constitute a diagnostic problem. A presumptive diagnosis of CVM can in most cases be based on necropsy findings combined with information on descent and paternal CVM genotype, whereas a definitive diagnosis requires genotyping. PMID:15586570

Agerholm, Jorgen S; Bendixen, Christian; Arnbjerg, Jens; Andersen, Ole

2004-11-01

269

Congenital brain abnormalities: an update on malformations of cortical development and infratentorial malformations.  

PubMed

In the past two decades, significant progress in neuroimaging and genetic techniques has allowed for advances in the correct definition/classification of congenital brain abnormalities, which have resulted in a better understanding of their pathogenesis. In addition, new groups of diseases, such as axonal guidance disorders or tubulinopathies, are increasingly reported. Well-defined neuroimaging diagnostic criteria have been suggested for the majority of congenital brain abnormalities. Accurate diagnoses of these complex abnormalities, including distinction between malformations and disruptions, are of paramount significance for management, prognosis, and family counseling. In the next decade, these advances will hopefully be translated into deeper understanding of these disorders and more specific treatments. PMID:25192502

Poretti, Andrea; Boltshauser, Eugen; Huisman, Thierry A G M

2014-07-01

270

Evolution and development of the vertebrate ear  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This review outlines major aspects of development and evolution of the ear, specifically addressing issues of cell fate commitment and the emerging molecular governance of these decisions. Available data support the notion of homology of subsets of mechanosensors across phyla (proprioreceptive mechanosensory neurons in insects, hair cells in vertebrates). It is argued that this conservation is primarily related to the specific transducing environment needed to achieve mechanosensation. Achieving this requires highly conserved transcription factors that regulate the expression of the relevant structural genes for mechanosensory transduction. While conserved at the level of some cell fate assignment genes (atonal and its mammalian homologue), the ear has also radically reorganized its development by implementing genes used for cell fate assignment in other parts of the developing nervous systems (e.g., neurogenin 1) and by evolving novel sets of genes specifically associated with the novel formation of sensory neurons that contact hair cells (neurotrophins and their receptors). Numerous genes have been identified that regulate morphogenesis, but there is only one common feature that emerges at the moment: the ear appears to have co-opted genes from a large variety of other parts of the developing body (forebrain, limbs, kidneys) and establishes, in combination with existing transcription factors, an environment in which those genes govern novel, ear-related morphogenetic aspects. The ear thus represents a unique mix of highly conserved developmental elements combined with co-opted and newly evolved developmental elements.

Fritzsch, B.; Beisel, K. W.

2001-01-01

271

Ear Acupuncture in European Traditional Medicine  

PubMed Central

Auricular acupuncture is a diagnostic and treatment system based on normalizing the body's dysfunction through stimulation of definite points on the ear. Rudimentary forms of acupuncture which probably arose during the Stone Age have survived in many parts of the world right down to present day. It was used in the ancient Egypt, Rome, Greece and all the Mediterranean area. It is a microacupuncture technique similar to reflexology, and was first described in France in 1950 by Paul Nogier who is considered the Father of modern ear acupuncture. It was speculated that the technique works because groups of pluripotent cells contain information from the whole organism and create regional organization centers representing different parts of the body. Nevertheless stimulation of a reflex point in the ear seems relieve symptoms of distant pathologies. Modern research is confirming the efficacy of ear acupuncture for analgesia and anxiety related disease, while tobacco dependence and other substance abuse still need confirmation. Actually main methodological problems with auricular acupuncture are that exist too many maps with little agreement regarding point location in the ear, and that the correspondence or reflex systems does not correlated with modern knowledge of anatomy and physiology. PMID:18227925

Firenzuoli, Fabio

2007-01-01

272

Passive and active middle ear implants  

PubMed Central

Besides eradication of chronic middle ear disease, the reconstruction of the sound conduction apparatus is a major goal of modern ear microsurgery. The material of choice in cases of partial ossicular replacement prosthesis is the autogenous ossicle. In the event of more extensive destruction of the ossicular chain diverse alloplastic materials, e.g. metals, ceramics, plastics or composits are used for total reconstruction. Their specialised role in conducting sound energy within a half-open implant bed sets high demands on the biocompatibility as well as the acoustic-mechanic properties of the prosthesis. Recently, sophisticated titanium middle ear implants allowing individual adaptation to anatomical variations are widely used for this procedure. However, despite modern developments, hearing restoration with passive implants often faces its limitations due to tubal-middle-ear dysfunction. Here, implantable hearing aids, successfully used in cases of sensorineural hearing loss, offer a promising alternative. This article reviews the actual state of affairs of passive and active middle ear implants. PMID:22073102

Beutner, Dirk; Hüttenbrink, Karl-Bernd

2011-01-01

273

Fraser syndrome and cryptophthalmos: review of the diagnostic criteria and evidence for phenotypic modules in complex malformation syndromes  

PubMed Central

Fraser syndrome is characterised by cryptophthalmos, cutaneous syndactyly, malformations of the larynx and genitourinary tract, craniofacial dysmorphism, orofacial clefting, mental retardation, and musculoskeletal anomalies. The inheritance is autosomal recessive. No diagnostic cytogenetic abnormalities have been documented in affected patients, and no molecular genetic studies have been reported. We have reviewed 117 cases diagnosed as Fraser syndrome or cryptophthalmos published since the comprehensive review of Thomas et al in 1986 in order to validate the published diagnostic criteria and to delineate the phenotype associated with this syndrome. Our series showed more females (57/117) than males and consanguinity was present in 29/119 (24.8%). Eighty-eight patients satisfied the diagnostic criteria for Fraser syndrome (75%). Cryptophthalmos was present in 103/117 (88%), syndactyly in 72/117 (61.5%), and ambiguous genitalia in 20/117 (17.1%). Ear malformations were recorded in 69/117 (59%), and renal agenesis in 53/117 (45.3%). Use of the published diagnostic criteria excluded several patients with cryptophthalmos and one or more physical feature(s) consistent with Fraser syndrome. The frequency of additional anomalies in our series was also higher than previously reported (for example, imperforate anus or anal stenosis were found in 34/117 (29%) compared with 2/124 (2%) in the series of Thomas et al (1986) and choanal stenosis or atresia was present in 7/117 (6%) compared to 0/124. These findings emphasise the clinical variability associated with Fraser syndrome and support genetic heterogeneity of the syndrome. We also noted patterns of anomalies (for example, bicornuate uterus with imperforate anus or anal stenosis and renal malformations) that are found in other syndromes and associations without cryptophthalmos, suggesting that common modifier genes may explain some of the phenotypic variation in Fraser syndrome. PMID:12205104

Slavotinek, A; Tifft, C

2002-01-01

274

Surgical approaches to brainstem cavernous malformations.  

PubMed

Brainstem cavernous malformations (CMs) are low-flow vascular lesions in eloquent locations. Their presentation is often marked with symptomatic hemorrhages that appear to occur more frequently than hemorrhage from supratentorial cavernomas. Brainstem CMs can be removed using 1 of the 5 standard skull-base approaches: retrosigmoid, suboccipital (with or without telovelar approach), supracerebellar infratentorial, orbitozygomatic, and far lateral. Patients being referred to a tertiary institution often have lesions that are aggressive with respect to bleeding rates. Nonetheless, the indications for surgery, in the authors' opinion, are the same for all lesions: those that are symptomatic, those that cause mass effect, or those that abut a pial surface. Patients often have relapsing and remitting courses of symptoms, with each hemorrhage causing a progressive and stepwise decline. Many patients experience new postoperative deficits, most of which are transient and resolve fully. Despite the risks associated with operating in this highly eloquent tissue, most patients have had favorable outcomes in the authors' experience. Surgical treatment of brainstem CMs protects patients from the potentially devastating effects of rehemorrhage, and the authors believe that the benefits of intervention outweigh the risks in patients with the appropriate indications. PMID:20809766

Abla, Adib A; Turner, Jay D; Mitha, Alim P; Lekovic, Gregory; Spetzler, Robert F

2010-09-01

275

The role of pendrin in the development of the murine inner ear.  

PubMed

Enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct (EVA) is a common inner ear malformation found in children with sensorineural hearing loss that is frequently associated with loss-of-function or hypo-function mutations of SLC26A4. SLC26A4 codes for pendrin, which is a protein that is expressed in apical membranes of selected epithelia and functions as an anion exchanger. The comparatively high prevalence of EVA provides a strong imperative to develop rational interventions that delay, ameliorate or prevent hearing loss associated with this phenotype. The development of rational interventions requires a fundamental understanding of the role that pendrin plays in the normal development of hearing, as well as a detailed understanding of the pathobiologic mechanisms that, in the absence of fully functional pendrin, lead to an unstable hearing phenotype, with fluctuating or progressive loss of hearing. This review summarizes studies in mouse models that have focused on delineating the role of pendrin in the physiology of the inner ear and the pathobiology that leads to hearing loss. PMID:22116367

Wangemann, Philine

2011-01-01

276

Aberrant Carotid Artery in the Middle Ear  

PubMed Central

Background: Carotid artery abnormality in the middle ear is a rare clinical condition. Recognition of the problems related with this abnormality is important since it may mimic vascular tumors. Any intervention with incomplete evaluation can be fatal. Case Report: A 23-year-old girl with carotid abnormality and sensorineural hearing loss, unsteadiness and tinnitus is presented. She was followed for 2 months elsewhere assuming that she had Meniere’s disease and had previously received some medication for otitis media with effusion. Conclusion: Tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the temporal bone are very helpful for visualization of an aberrant carotid in the middle ear. Radiological presentations are the reduced caliber of the aberrant carotid, an absence of cranial opening of carotid canal, tubular coursing along the medial wall of the middle ear in continuity with the horizontal carotid canal, dehiscence of the lateral carotid plate and enlargement of the tympanic canalicus.

Yeti?er, Sertaç

2015-01-01

277

Precise individualized armature for ear reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cosmetic result of an ear restored surgically or via prosthetics is dependent on the surgeon''s ability to carve a precise cartilage armature at the time of surgery or the prosthetist''s ability to sculpt in wax an exact duplicate of the patient''s " missing" ear. Introducing CAD/CAM technology into the process benefits the esthetic outcome of these procedures. By utilizing serial section information derived from CAT MRI or moulage techniques a mirrorimage of the patient''s " donor" ear is generated. The resulting earform data is then used for the design of a cartilage armature produced by multi-axis milling or to produce by stereolithography a model which serves as the basis for a prosthesis.

Evenhouse, Raymond J.; Chen, Xiaoming

1991-04-01

278

RASA1 mutations and associated phenotypes in 68 families with capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation.  

PubMed

Capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation (CM-AVM) is an autosomal-dominant disorder, caused by heterozygous RASA1 mutations, and manifesting multifocal CMs and high risk for fast-flow lesions. A limited number of patients have been reported, raising the question of the phenotypic borders. We identified new patients with a clinical diagnosis of CM-AVM, and patients with overlapping phenotypes. RASA1 was screened in 261 index patients with: CM-AVM (n = 100), common CM(s) (port-wine stain; n = 100), Sturge-Weber syndrome (n = 37), or isolated AVM(s) (n = 24). Fifty-eight distinct RASA1 mutations (43 novel) were identified in 68 index patients with CM-AVM and none in patients with other phenotypes. A novel clinical feature was identified: cutaneous zones of numerous small white pale halos with a central red spot. An additional question addressed in this study was the "second-hit" hypothesis as a pathophysiological mechanism for CM-AVM. One tissue from a patient with a germline RASA1 mutation was available. The analysis of the tissue showed loss of the wild-type RASA1 allele. In conclusion, mutations in RASA1 underscore the specific CM-AVM phenotype and the clinical diagnosis is based on identifying the characteristic CMs. The high incidence of fast-flow lesions warrants careful clinical and radiologic examination, and regular follow-up. PMID:24038909

Revencu, Nicole; Boon, Laurence M; Mendola, Antonella; Cordisco, Maria Rosa; Dubois, Josée; Clapuyt, Philippe; Hammer, Frank; Amor, David J; Irvine, Alan D; Baselga, Eulalia; Dompmartin, Anne; Syed, Samira; Martin-Santiago, Ana; Ades, Lesley; Collins, Felicity; Smith, Janine; Sandaradura, Sarah; Barrio, Victoria R; Burrows, Patricia E; Blei, Francine; Cozzolino, Mariarosaria; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Vicente, Asuncion; Abramowicz, Marc; Désir, Julie; Vilain, Catheline; Chung, Wendy K; Wilson, Ashley; Gardiner, Carol A; Dwight, Yim; Lord, David J E; Fishman, Leona; Cytrynbaum, Cheryl; Chamlin, Sarah; Ghali, Fred; Gilaberte, Yolanda; Joss, Shelagh; Boente, Maria Del C; Léauté-Labrèze, Christine; Delrue, Marie-Ange; Bayliss, Susan; Martorell, Loreto; González-Enseñat, Maria-Antonia; Mazereeuw-Hautier, Juliette; O'Donnell, Brid; Bessis, Didier; Pyeritz, Reed E; Salhi, Aicha; Tan, Oon T; Wargon, Orli; Mulliken, John B; Vikkula, Miikka

2013-12-01

279

Middle ear cholesteatoma in 11 dogs  

PubMed Central

Middle ear cholesteatoma is a rare condition in dogs with chronic otitis. Otorrhea, otodinia, and pain on temporomandibular joint palpation are the most common clinical signs. Neurological abnormalities are often detectable. Computed tomography reveals the presence of an expansive and invasive unvascularized lesion involving the tympanic cavity and the bulla, with little or no contrast enhancement after administration of contrast mediu. Video-otoscopy may detect pearly growth or white/yellowish scales in the middle ear cavity. Surgery is the only therapy but is associated with a high risk of recurrence. PMID:22131579

Greci, Valentina; Travetti, Olga; Di Giancamillo, Mauro; Lombardo, Rocco; Giudice, Chiara; Banco, Barbara; Mortellaro, Carlo M.

2011-01-01

280

Epidemiology and natural history of arteriovenous malformations.  

PubMed

The epidemiology and natural history of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) remains incompletely elucidated. Several factors are responsible. With regard to the incidence and prevalence of AVMs, the results of prior studies have suffered because of the retrospective design, the use of nonspecific ICD-9 codes, and a focus on small genetically isolated populations. Recent data from the New York Islands AVM Hemorrhage Study, an ongoing, prospective, population-based survey determining the incidence of AVM-related hemorrhage and the associated rates of morbidity and mortality in a zip code-defined population of 10 million people, suggests that the AVM detection rate is 1.21/100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.42) and the incidence of AVM-hemorrhage is 0.42/100,000 person-years (95% CI 0.32-0.55). Contemporaneous data from the Northern Manhattan Stroke Study, a prospective, longitudinal population-based study of nearly 150,000 patients in which the focus is to define the incidence of stroke, suggest the crude incidence for first-ever AVM-related hemorrhage to be 0.55/100,000 person-years (95% CI 0.11-1.61). Efforts are ongoing to study the natural history of both ruptured and unruptured AVMs in these datasets to examine the relevance of prior studies of patients selected for conservative follow up in Finland. In addition, data are being gathered to determine whether risk factors for future hemorrhage, which have previously been established in small case series, are valid when applied to whole populations. Together, these data should help inform therapeutic decisionmaking. PMID:16466233

Stapf, C; Mohr, J P; Pile-Spellman, J; Solomon, R A; Sacco, R L; Connolly, E S

2001-01-01

281

Acoustics of the human middle-ear air space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impedance of the middle-ear air space was measured on three human cadaver ears with complete mastoid air-cell systems. Below 500 Hz, the impedance is approximately compliance-like, and at higher frequencies (500-6000 Hz) the impedance magnitude has several (five to nine) extrema. Mechanisms for these extrema are identified and described through circuit models of the middle-ear air space. The measurements demonstrate that the middle-ear air space impedance can affect the middle-ear impedance at the tympanic membrane by as much as 10 dB at frequencies greater than 1000 Hz. Thus, variations in the middle-ear air space impedance that result from variations in anatomy of the middle-ear air space can contribute to inter-ear variations in both impedance measurements and otoacoustic emissions, when measured at the tympanic membrane.

Stepp, Cara E.; Voss, Susan E.

2005-08-01

282

[An ear thermometer based on infrared thermopiles sensor].  

PubMed

According to the development of body temperature measurement mode, an ear thermometer with infrared thermopiles sensor is designed for body thermometry Compared with oral thermometer, the accuracy of ear thermometer is acceptable. PMID:24409789

Xie, Haiyuan; Qian, Mingli

2013-09-01

283

Reverse Engineering the Cetacean Ear to Extract Audiograms  

E-print Network

-acquisition hardware running custom MATLAB scripts was used to control the experiments. Inner ear preparations variedReverse Engineering the Cetacean Ear to Extract Audiograms Aleks Zosuls, Seth O. Newburg, Darlene R

284

Ear's electrical missing link found BY BRYN NELSON  

E-print Network

at the tips of the inner ear's unusual hair cells - a channel shared among humans, mice, fish and even fruit Rube Goldberg-like progression of sound through the human ear leads to a snail-like structure

Allen, Jont

285

Split-thickness skin graft in nonhelical ear reconstruction.  

PubMed

Defects of the nonhelical ear after skin cancer extirpation can be challenging. When other reconstructive options are not optimal, split-thickness grafting is an easy and effective technique for successful aesthetic and functional restoration of the ear. PMID:16970699

Hendi, Ali; Brodland, David G

2006-09-01

286

Vein of Galen arteriovenous malformation mimicking coarctation of the aorta.  

PubMed

Arteriovenous malformation of the vein of Galen is a rare congenital intracranial anomaly lacking a capillary bed and subsequent aneurysmal enlargement of the arterial and venous system, warranting careful management due to associated morbidity and mortality. Coarctations of aorta demonstrate similar neonatal echocardiographic signs to the vein of Galen arterial malformation (VGAM). We present a boy at 37 weeks of gestation whose initial ultrasound and echocardiographic investigations showed a dominant right ventricle and isthmal hypoplasia, suggestive of coarctation of aorta. Follow-up ultrasound and echocardiography revealed an arteriovenous malformation involving middle and posterior cerebral artery branches, eliminating coarctation of aorta. VGAM was confirmed by further ultrasound and angiographic investigation, which demonstrated a tangle of cerebral and choroidal arterial branches centrally feeding into an enlarged vein of Galen. The boy's hemodynamic and neurological statuses were confirmed to be stable despite increased venous pressure. Elective embolization at 7 months of age was complicated by a cerebrovascular accident, resulting in right hemiparesis despite no residual cardiac issues. This case demonstrates that rarely, arteriovenous malformations such as the vein of Galen malformations may be the primary cause of patients presenting with coarctation of aorta. The rarity of this condition and its guarded prognosis make our case of special interest to cardiologists and the perinatal care team. PMID:25368688

Firdouse, Mohammed; Agarwal, Arnav; Mondal, Tapas

2014-12-01

287

Defining anural malformations in the context of a developmental problem  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper summarizes terminology and general concepts involved in animal development for the purpose of providing background for the study and understanding of frog malformations. The results of our radiographic investigation of rear limb malformations in Rana pipiens provide evidence that frog malformations are the product of early developmental errors. Although bacteria, parasites and viruses were identified in these metamorphosed frogs, the relevant window to look for the teratogenic effect of these agents is in the early tadpole stage during limb development. As a result, our microbiological findings must be regarded as inconclusive relative to determining their contribution to malformations because we conducted our examinations on metamorphosed frogs not tadpoles. Future studies need to look at teratogenic agents (chemical, microbial, physical or mechanical) that are present in the embryo, tadpole, and their environments at the stages of development that are relevant for the malformation type. The impact of these teratogenic agents then needs to be assessed in appropriate animal models using studies that are designed to mimic field conditions. The results of these laboratory tests should then be analyzed in such a way that will allow comparison with the findings in the wild-caught tadpoles and frogs.

Meteyer, C.U.; Cole, R.A.; Converse, K.A.; Docherty, D.E.; Wolcott, M.; Helgen, J.C.; Levey, R.; Eaton-Poole, L.; Burkhart, J.G.

2000-01-01

288

Gross congenital malformation at birth in a government hospital.  

PubMed

A hospital-based cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine proportion of gross congenital malformation (GCMF) occurring at intramural births. Rate of GCMF was found to be 16.4/1000 consecutive singleton births (>28 weeks) with three leading malformation as anencephaly (44.68%), talipes equinovarus (17.02%) and meningomyelocele (10.63%). Higher risk of malformed births were noticed amongst un-booked (2.07%) in-comparison to booked (1.01%) mothers; women with low level of education (up to 8 years [2.14%] vs. at least 9 years of schooling [0.82%]); gravida status of at least 3 (2.69%) followed by 1 (1.43%) and 2 (1.0%) respectively; pre-term (5.13%) vs. term (0.66%); cesarean section (4.36%) versus vaginal delivery (0.62%). Mortality was significantly higher among congenitally malformed (17.35%) than normal (0.34%) newborns. With-in study limitation, emergence of neural tube defect as the single largest category of congenital malformation indicates maternal malnutrition (especially folic acid) that needs appropriate attention and management. PMID:24748359

Sachdeva, Sandeep; Nanda, Smiti; Bhalla, Kapil; Sachdeva, Ruchi

2014-01-01

289

Anorectal Malformations Associated with Esophageal Atresia in Neonates  

PubMed Central

Purpose Anorectal malformations are often associated with other anomalies, reporting frequency with 40-70%. Gastrointestinal anomalies have been known to be relatively less common than associated anomalies of other organ system. This study was performed to assess a distinctive feature of cases associated with esophageal atresia. Methods Clinical data (from January 2000 through December 2011) on the 196 subjects with anorectal malformations, managed in our Hospital, were reviewed. Total 14 neonates were identified with accompanying esophageal atresia and retrospective analysis was conducted. Results The incidence was 7.1% and there were 8 male and 6 female subjects. Only 2 cases were associated with esophageal atresia without tracheoesophageal fistula. Although variable cases of anorectal malformation in female subjects, almost cases were anorectal malformations with rectourethral fistula in male. Other associated anomalies were identified in all cases, with more than 3 anomalies in 10 cases. There were 4 VACTERL (Vertebral abnormalities, Anal atresia, Cardiac anomalies, Tracheoesophageal fistula, Esophageal atresia, Renal and Limb anomalies) associations accounting for 28.6%, but could not identify chromosomal anomaly. Most cases were managed with staged procedure, usually primary repair of esophageal atresia and diverting colostomy. Overall mortality rate was 21.4%, mainly caused by heart problems. Conclusion This study shows that early diagnosis and rational surgical approach with multidisciplinary plan are mandatory in managing anorectal malformations with esophageal atresia, when considering a high frequency of associated anomaly and a relative high mortality. PMID:24010103

Byun, Shin Yun; Lim, Ryoung Kyoung; Park, Kyung Hee; Kim, Hae Young

2013-01-01

290

Bone lengthening in malformed upper limbs: a four year experience.  

PubMed

Bone lengthening by corticotomy, gradual distraction and stabilization with an external frame has proved to be effective in the repair of osseous defects in lower extremities. More recently this technique has been introduced also in the treatment of post-traumatic deformities and malformations of the upper limbs. From 1989 to 1992 we treated 38 patients (46 upper limbs) with bone lengthening of which 12 (16 upper limbs) affected by post-traumatic deformities and 26 (30 upper limbs) by malformations. We present herein our four year experience with malformed cases only. The results suggest that bone lengthening is a simple and reliable procedure to obtain good function, to correct angular deviations and, also, to give a better esthetic appearance. Satisfying results, low complication rates and simple execution recommend its use in the treatment of many congenital malformations of the upper limbs, usually in association with traditional techniques. However, we are now strongly selecting the indications in order to improve our future results. We stress in particular that the treatment of some malformations, as ulnar or radial club hands, could be radically modified by introduction of bone lengthening. PMID:7618398

Pajardi, G; Campiglio, G L; Candiani, P

1994-01-01

291

A familial venous malformation locus is on chromosome 9p  

SciTech Connect

Venous malformation is the most common vascular malformation affecting 0.2% of the population. Depending upon size and location, these slow-flow lesions may cause pain, anatomic distortion and threaten life. Most venous malformations occur sporadically and present as solitary lesions. For this reason, determining their pathogenic bases has proven elusive. However, venous malformations also occur in several rare syndromes, some of which demonstrate Mendelian inheritance. As a first step towards identifying the pathogenic bases for these lesions, we have mapped a locus for an autosomal dominant disorder in a three generation family that manifests as multiple cutaneous and mucosal venous malformations. This locus lies within a 24.5 cM interval on chromosome 9p, defined by the markers D9S157 and D9S163. A maximum LOD score of 4.11 at {theta} = 0.05 is obtained with several markers within the interval. The interferon gene cluster, which has previously been implicated in angiogenesis, and the multiple tumor suppressor gene, responsible for several types of malignant tumors, also lie within this interval and are potential candidates.

Boon, L.M.; Mulliken, J.B. [Children`s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Vikkula, M. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

292

Mutations affecting development of the zebrafish ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a large scale screen for genetic defects in zebrafish embryogenesis we identified mutations affecting several aspects of ear development, including: specification of the otic placode, growth of the otic vesicle (otocyst), otolith formation, morphogenesis of the semicircular canals and differentiation of the otic capsule. Here we report initial phenotypic and genetic characterization of 20 of these mutations defining 13

Jarema Malicki; Alexander F. Schier; Lilianna Solnica-Krezel; Derek L. Stemple; Stephan C. F. Neuhauss; Didier Y. R. Stainier; Salim Abdelilah; Zehava Rangini; Fried Zwartkruis; Wolfgang Driever

293

The Croton oil ear test revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

measurement the ear plugs were homogenized in physiological saline containing 0.1% of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide. The post 15,000 g supernatants of the homogenates (which contained more than 95% of the PA) were used for the assay [5]. PA units are expressed as nmoles of tetraguaiacol\\/min at 25~ Results and discussion

A. Tubaro; P. Dri; G. Delbello; C. Zilli; R. Della Loggia

1986-01-01

294

Force field feature extraction for ear biometrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall objective in defining feature space is to reduce the dimensionality of the original pattern space, whilst maintaining discriminatory power for classification. To meet this objec- tive in the context of ear biometrics a new force field transformation treats the image as an array of mutually attracting particles that act as the source of a Gaussian force field. Under-

David J. Hurley; Mark S. Nixon; John N. Carter

2005-01-01

295

Ca2+ Signaling in the Inner Ear  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The inner ear contains delicate sensory receptors that have adapted to detect the minutest mechanical disturbances. Ca2+ ions are implicated in all steps of the transduction process, as well as in its regulation by an impressive ensemble of finely tuned feedback control mechanisms. Recent studies have unveiled some of the key players, but things do not sound quite right yet.

2007-04-01

296

Ear biometric recognition using local texture descriptors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automated personal identification using the shape of the human ear is emerging as an appealing modality in biometric and forensic domains. This is mainly due to the fact that the ear pattern can provide rich and stable information to differentiate and recognize people. In the literature, there are many approaches and descriptors that achieve relatively good results in constrained environments. The recognition performance tends, however, to significantly decrease under illumination variation, pose variation, and partial occlusion. In this work, we investigate the use of local texture descriptors, namely local binary patterns, local phase quantization, and binarized statistical image features for robust human identification from two-dimensional ear imaging. In contrast to global image descriptors which compute features directly from the entire image, local descriptors representing the features in small local image patches have proven to be more effective in real-world conditions. Our extensive experimental results on the benchmarks IIT Delhi-1, IIT Delhi-2, and USTB ear databases show that local texture features in general and BSIF in particular provide a significant performance improvement compared to the state-of-the-art.

Benzaoui, Amir; Hadid, Abdenour; Boukrouche, Abdelhani

2014-09-01

297

Cell fate specification in the inner ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

From its origin as a single ectodermal patch, the inner ear becomes a labyrinth of chambers housing six to eight sensory organs. Along the way, specific cell fates are realized. The secrets underlying these cell fate specifications are beginning to be revealed through the application of several molecular-genetic approaches. Recent paper describing such approaches have included gene expression studies in

Donna M Fekete

1996-01-01

298

november 2011 Dynamic Ear | Home Helper  

E-print Network

ResearchUC november 2011 Dynamic Ear | Home Helper Studying Surgical Stress Annual Report Edition cylinder of a pipe with ease. n UCReseaRch November 2011 Photo:DottieStover #12;Vol. 6, No. 1 UC Research Around Campus 10 Keeping Stress at a Distance Studying how experienced surgeons combat it 12 Report

Papautsky, Ian

299

Getting Teens to Read with Their Ears  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Audiobooks have been around for years in various formats, like cassette tapes and CDs. This article describes a new type of audiobook on the market which is generating an interest in "reading." The device, called Playaway, is the size of a MP3 player and comes with a lanyard and ear buds. Buttons on the back of the player control the speed and…

Fues, Marianne Cole

2009-01-01

300

Do Your Ears Pop in Space?  

Microsoft Academic Search

R Mike Mullane is a US astronaut who has flown into space three times on the Space Shuttle. He resigned from NASA in 1990 and has since pursued a career as a professional speaker and author. Do Your Ears Pop in Space? is his third book, and is based on the simple idea of writing down the 500 questions he

Robert Lambourne

1997-01-01

301

38 CFR 4.87 - Schedule of ratings-ear.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Schedule of ratings-ear. 4.87 Section 4.87 Pensions, Bonuses...Auditory Acuity § 4.87 Schedule of ratings—ear. Diseases of the Ear Rating 6200Chronic suppurative otitis...

2010-07-01

302

40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211...Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound attenuation...Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors...

2010-07-01

303

40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211...Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound attenuation...Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors...

2011-07-01

304

40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211...Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound attenuation...Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors...

2013-07-01

305

40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211...Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound attenuation...Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors...

2014-07-01

306

Ear Problems Approved by the UHS Patient Education Committee  

E-print Network

Ear Problems Approved by the UHS Patient Education Committee Reviewed 02/08/2012 Page 1 of 1 Otitis Media Otitis Media is an infection of the middle ear behind the eardrum. Most infections occur after does not equalize air pressure properly. Symptoms of otitis media include ear pain, fever, fullness

307

15 CFR 734.3 - Items subject to the EAR.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Items subject to the EAR. 734.3 Section 734.3 Commerce...REGULATIONS § 734.3 Items subject to the EAR. (a) Except for items excluded in...the following items are subject to the EAR: (1) All items in the United...

2011-01-01

308

38 CFR 4.87 - Schedule of ratings-ear.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Schedule of ratings-ear. 4.87 Section 4.87 Pensions, Bonuses...Auditory Acuity § 4.87 Schedule of ratings—ear. Diseases of the Ear Rating 6200Chronic suppurative otitis...

2013-07-01

309

40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211...Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound attenuation...Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors...

2012-07-01

310

15 CFR 734.3 - Items subject to the EAR.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Items subject to the EAR. 734.3 Section 734.3 Commerce...REGULATIONS § 734.3 Items subject to the EAR. (a) Except for items excluded in...the following items are subject to the EAR: (1) All items in the United...

2012-01-01

311

15 CFR 734.3 - Items subject to the EAR.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Items subject to the EAR. 734.3 Section 734.3 Commerce...REGULATIONS § 734.3 Items subject to the EAR. (a) Except for items excluded in...the following items are subject to the EAR: (1) All items in the United...

2013-01-01

312

38 CFR 4.87 - Schedule of ratings-ear.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Schedule of ratings-ear. 4.87 Section 4.87 Pensions, Bonuses...Auditory Acuity § 4.87 Schedule of ratings—ear. Diseases of the Ear Rating 6200Chronic suppurative otitis...

2011-07-01

313

38 CFR 4.87 - Schedule of ratings-ear.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Schedule of ratings-ear. 4.87 Section 4.87 Pensions, Bonuses...Auditory Acuity § 4.87 Schedule of ratings—ear. Diseases of the Ear Rating 6200Chronic suppurative otitis...

2014-07-01

314

15 CFR 734.3 - Items subject to the EAR.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Items subject to the EAR. 734.3 Section 734.3 Commerce...REGULATIONS § 734.3 Items subject to the EAR. (a) Except for items excluded in...the following items are subject to the EAR: (1) All items in the United...

2014-01-01

315

38 CFR 4.87 - Schedule of ratings-ear.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Schedule of ratings-ear. 4.87 Section 4.87 Pensions, Bonuses...Auditory Acuity § 4.87 Schedule of ratings—ear. Diseases of the Ear Rating 6200Chronic suppurative otitis...

2012-07-01

316

History of Studies on Mammalian Middle Ear Evolution: A  

E-print Network

History of Studies on Mammalian Middle Ear Evolution: A Comparative Morphological and Developmental for Developmental Biology, RIKEN, Kobe, Japan The mammalian middle ear represents one of the most fundamental middle ear was derived from elements of the jaw joint of nonmammalian amniotes. Fossils of mammalian

Sullivan, Jack

317

Understanding Inner Ear Development with Gene Expression Profiling  

E-print Network

Understanding Inner Ear Development with Gene Expression Profiling Zheng-Yi Chen,1,2 David P. Corey, Maryland 20815 ABSTRACT: Understanding the development of the inner ear requires knowing the spatial-tissue comparisons will identify genes unique to the inner ear, which will expe- dite the identification of new

Corey, David P.

318

Ear growth, developmental stages and yield in winter wheat  

E-print Network

Ear growth, developmental stages and yield in winter wheat Jean-François LEDENT Volkmar STOY Helena in length (R,) of ear primordia was measured in collections of winter wheats (Triticum aestivum (L.) em or morphological characters. However, genotypes with faster growing ear primordia tended to have smaller cars

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

319

Purdue extensionAspergillus Ear Rot Purdue extension  

E-print Network

1 Purdue extensionAspergillus Ear Rot BP-83-W Purdue extension d i s e a s e s o f c o r n Aspergillus Ear Rot Authors: Charles Woloshuk Kiersten Wise www.btny.purdue.edu The fungus Aspergillus flavus causes Aspergillus ear rot, one of the most important diseases in corn. The fungus pro- duces a mycotoxin

Holland, Jeffrey

320

A Survey on Ear Biometrics AYMAN ABAZA, WVHTC Foundation  

E-print Network

22 A Survey on Ear Biometrics AYMAN ABAZA, WVHTC Foundation ARUN ROSS, West Virginia University Recognizing people by their ear has recently received significant attention in the literature. Several reasons account for this trend: first, ear recognition does not suffer from some problems associated with other

Ross, Arun Abraham

321

Otitis externa complicated with chloramphenicol ear drops-induced perichondritis.  

PubMed

Otitis externa is a common condition of the ear. It is manifested as narrowing of the lumen owing to the edematous swelling of the ear canal lining. Perichondritis may occur independently or as a complication of the otitis externa. We report a case of perichondritis after using a topical ear drop. Changing the medication provides immediate resolution of the condition. PMID:25606295

Mohamad, I; Johan, Kb; Hashim, Hz; Nik Othman, Na

2014-01-01

322

Endolymphatic hydrops in experimental caustic burns of the Ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caustic burns of the Ear may be accidental or rarely even intentional by quack doctors who use strong acids to deal with the granulations of the Ear. Accidental cases are usually met with in members of Gold Smith families who come in to contact with acids more often than others. After the ingress of the corrosive into the Ear, apart

T. Gopi Chand

1972-01-01

323

Towards Understanding the Symmetry of Human Ears: A Biometric Perspective  

E-print Network

of the external ear). The anatomy of the pinna depicting the individual components can be seen in Figure 1 prior to further processing. c) Ear edge segmentation/localization (Optional): Finding the external Fossa (9) Incisure Intertragica Fig. 1. External anatomy of the ear Fig. 2. Iannarelli measurement 3

Ross, Arun Abraham

324

Energy Reflectance and Tympanometry in Normal and Otosclerotic Ears  

E-print Network

of this study was to examine differences in the middle ear mechano-acoustical properties of normal ears and ears machine, the Virtual 310 equipped with a high-frequency option. Two of the parameters, static admittance and tympanometric width, were measured automatically at a standard 226 Hz frequency. The remaining two parameters

Allen, Jont

325

Ear and kidney syndromes: Molecular versus clinical approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ear and kidney syndromes: Molecular versus clinical approach.The association between ear and kidney anomalies is not usually due to an insult to the embryo. In recent years, many essential development control genes that coordinate the assembly and function of kidney and ear have been discovered through the generation of animal mutants and have increased our understanding of the mechanisms of

HASSANE IZZEDINE; FREDERIC TANKERE; VINCENT LAUNAY-VACHER; GILBERT DERAY

2004-01-01

326

Optimum management of the discharging ear.  

PubMed

Discharge from the ear can be the result of many disease processes. The ear may discharge blood, pus, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or wax. Keratosis obturans, stenosis of the external meatus and benign tumours of the external meatus all lead to wax build-up, which may cause recurrent attacks of otitis externa. Malignant tumours, such as basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and tumours of ceruminous gland origin may also present with discharge. Tumours should be excluded by submitting all material removed from the external canal for histological examination. Single or multiple abscesses (known as furuncles) may occur in the hair follicles in the skin of the external acoustic meatus (EAM). Compulsive scratching, hearing aids and foreign bodies placed in the ear predispose to otitis externa, which is also often associated with infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and faecal organisms. Management may be with aluminium acetate 14%, topical antibiotic/steroid drops, a gauze wick soaked with icthammol 10% in glycerin or polymyxin B sulphate--neomycin sulphate--hydrocortisone acetate cream placed into the EAM and replaced every 24 to 48 hours, or systemic antibiotics according to severity. Malignant (necrotising) otitis externa causes progressive destruction of the temporal bone, and cranial nerve palsies (usually facial first). Treatment is limited debridement of infected bone, accompanied by intravenous aminoglycosides, and local antibiotic treatment and aural cleanout or oral ciprofloxacin. Middle ear conditions causing discharge include acute otitis media, infected grommets, traumatic perforations and chronic suppurative otitis media, as well as tumours of the ear canal skin and middle ear, radiation-induced otitis externa and osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone, tuberculosis, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, spontaneous or post-traumatic CSF leaks, Wegeners granulomatosis and immune deficiency states. Topical application of aminoglycoside antibiotics to the middle ear of laboratory animals such as rats, guinea pigs and chinchillas causes sensorineural hearing loss, an effect rarely seen clinically in humans. If the external acoustic meatus and tympanic membrane are obscured by discharge cotton buds, microsuction equipment or syringing are used to remove it. It is often useful to initiate treatment (usually with topical drops, wicks or an oral antibiotic) with a provisional diagnosis. A full examination and adequate visualisation of the tympanic membrane must eventually be performed, if necessary under anaesthesia, or else serious progressive conditions may be neglected. The most useful initial investigation is a swab sent for bacteriological assessment; other investigations are usually indicated by clinical findings and the provisional diagnosis. PMID:1372220

Ruddy, J; Bickerton, R C

1992-02-01

327

A pilot randomized controlled trial comparing bismuth iodine paraffin paste external ear pack and no ear pack after middle ear surgery.  

PubMed

To pilot a substantive randomized control trial comparing post-operative external ear canal pack with no ear pack after middle ear surgery, 32 adults undergoing primary posterior bony canal wall preserving middle ear surgery were randomized to have either a bismuth iodoform paraffin paste pack or no ear pack post-operatively. Outcome measures included clinician- and patient-recorded visual analogue scale scores for ear signs and symptoms at 3 weeks and 3 months and audiometric findings at 3 months post-operatively. There was no statistically significant inter-group difference in 3-week clinician and patient cumulative scores for ear signs and symptoms. There was also no significant difference in graft take rate, appearance of ear canals and audiometric results in either group at 3 months. No difference in ear symptoms, clinician findings or hearing was demonstrated between patients with a post-operative pack compared to those without a pack following middle ear surgery in this pilot study. PMID:24337896

Javed, Faisal; Whitwell, Russell; Hajioff, Daniel; Robinson, Philip; Rea, David; Macleod, Iain; White, Paul; Nunez, Desmond A

2015-03-01

328

The frog inner ear: picture perfect?  

PubMed

Many recent accounts of the frog peripheral auditory system have reproduced Wever's (1973) schematic cross-section of the ear of a leopard frog. We sought to investigate to what extent this diagram is an accurate and representative depiction of the anuran inner ear, using three-dimensional reconstructions made from serial sections of Rana pipiens, Eleutherodactylus limbatus and Xenopus laevis. In Rana, three discrete contact membranes were found to separate the posterior otic (=endolymphatic) labyrinth from the periotic (=perilymphatic) system: those of the amphibian and basilar recesses and the contact membrane of the saccule. The amphibian 'tegmentum vasculosum' was distinguishable as a thickened epithelial lining within a posterior recess of the superior saccular chamber. These features were also identified in Eleutherodactylus, but in this tiny frog the relative proportions of the semicircular canals and saccule resemble those of ranid tadpoles. There appeared to be a complete fluid pathway between the right and left periotic labyrinths in this species, crossing the cranial cavity. Xenopus lacks a tegmentum vasculosum and a contact membrane of the saccule; the Xenopus ear is further distinguished by a lateral passage separating stapes from periotic cistern and a more direct connection between periotic cistern and basilar recess. The basilar and lagenar recesses are conjoined in this species. Wever's diagram of the inner ear of Rana retains its value for diagrammatic purposes, but it is not anatomically accurate or representative of all frogs. Although Wever identified the contact membrane of the saccule, most recent studies of frog inner ear anatomy have overlooked both this and the amphibian tegmentum vasculosum. These structures deserve further attention. PMID:25630769

Mason, Matthew J; Segenhout, Johannes M; Cobo-Cuan, Ariadna; Quiñones, Patricia M; van Dijk, Pim

2015-04-01

329

Basic research Malformations of cortical development and epilepsy  

E-print Network

Malformations of cortical development (MCDs) are brain malformations that result from abnormalities affecting the normal processes of cortical development and involving cells that under normal circumstances would participate in formation of the cerebral cortex. Epileptic seizures result from paroxysmal, uncontrolled discharges of electricity from the brain that arise predominantly from the cerebral cortex. It is not surprising therefore that MCDs are often associated with recurrent seizures, and that these seizures may be difficult to control. The seizures in MCDs arise as a consequence of either malpositioning of normal cortical neurons or Malformations of cortical development (MCDs) are macroscopic or microscopic abnormalities of the cerebral cortex that arise as a consequence of an interruption to the normal steps of formation of the cortical plate. The human cortex develops its basic structure during the first two trimesters of pregnancy as a series of overlapping steps, beginning

Richard J. Leventer; Phd Renzo Guerrini; William B. Dobyns

330

Dural arteriovenous malformation in the anterior cranial fossa.  

PubMed

Two cases of dural arteriovenous malformation (AVM) at the base of the anterior cranial fossa are described. In both cases an intracerebral hematoma following the rupture of the AVM was the first indication of the disease. In one case, the malformation was supplied both by the anterior ethmoidal artery and frontopolar artery draining into the superior sagittal sinus. In the second case, the right anterior ethmoidal artery with draining veins into the superior sagittal sinus and sphenoparietal sinus was the feeding vessel. Surgical evacuation of the hematoma and excision of the malformation was performed on both patients. The typical clinical signs and radiological findings are described. A review of the pertinent literature is given. PMID:10350203

Gliemroth, J; Nowak, G; Arnold, H

1999-03-01

331

ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSORS POTENTIALLY RESPONSIBLE FOR MALFORMATIONS IN NORTH AMERICAN ANURAN AMPHIBIANS  

EPA Science Inventory

A number of species of anuran amphibians from different regions across North America have recently exhibited an increased occurrence of, predominantly, hind limb malformations. Research concerning factors potentially responsible for these malformations has focused extensively on ...

332

A rare newly described overgrowth syndrome with vascular malformations-Cloves syndrome.  

PubMed

There are many overgrowth syndromes described in the literature. Few are associated with vascular malformations. We describe a rare, newly described syndrome with features of overgrowth and vascular malformations. PMID:25709171

Gopal, Balaji; Keshava, Shyamkumar N; Selvaraj, Deepak

2015-01-01

333

A rare newly described overgrowth syndrome with vascular malformations-Cloves syndrome  

PubMed Central

There are many overgrowth syndromes described in the literature. Few are associated with vascular malformations. We describe a rare, newly described syndrome with features of overgrowth and vascular malformations. PMID:25709171

Gopal, Balaji; Keshava, Shyamkumar N; Selvaraj, Deepak

2015-01-01

334

Prenatal diagnosis of congenital renal and urinary tract malformations  

PubMed Central

Congenital abnormalities of the kidneys and the urinary tract are the most common sonographically identified malformations in the prenatal period. Obstructive uropathies account for the majority of cases. The aim of prenatal diagnosis and management is to detect those anomalies having impact on the prognosis of the affected child and requiring early postnatal evaluation or treatment to minimize adverse outcomes. In this paper, we summarize the embryology of kidneys and urinary tract, the normal sonographic appearance throughout pregnancy and the prenatal diagnosis of their congenital malformations. PMID:24753862

Hindryckx, A.; De Catte, L.

2011-01-01

335

Regression of a Large Congenital Hepatic Arteriovenous Malformation  

PubMed Central

Congenital hepatic arteriovenous malformations are rarely seen in association with persistent neonatal pulmonary hypertension. We report the case of a full-term female newborn who presented with heart failure and respiratory distress soon after birth. Echocardiographic investigation revealed severe persistent pulmonary hypertension and patent ductus arteriosus. Here we report spontaneous regression in size of both the feeder vessel and the vascular bed of the congenital hepatic arteriovenous malformation. We postulate that our conservative use of oral heart failure therapy, in the form of diuretic agents and captopril, decreased the congestion and diameter of the affected vessels. PMID:25873838

Zakaria, Rania; Mostafa, Fatma Alzahraa; Hamza, Hala

2015-01-01

336

Multiple Complex Congenital Malformations in a Rabbit Kit (Oryctolagus cuniculi)  

PubMed Central

Congenital malformations may occur during early embryogenesis in cases of genetic abnormalities or various environmental factors. Affected subjects most often have only one or 2 abnormalities; subjects rarely have several unrelated congenital defects. Here we describe a case of a stillborn New Zealand white rabbit with multiple complex congenital malformations, including synophthalmia, holoprosencephaly, gastroschisis, and a supernumerary hindlimb, among other anomalies. There was no historical exposure to teratogens or other known environmental causes. Although not confirmed, this case was most likely a rare spontaneous genetic event. PMID:24209970

Booth, Jennifer L; Peng, Xuwen; Baccon, Jennifer; Cooper, Timothy K

2013-01-01

337

Better-ear glimpsing in hearing-impaired listeners.  

PubMed

When competing speech sounds are spatially separated, listeners can make use of the ear with the better target-to-masker ratio. Recent studies showed that listeners with normal hearing are able to efficiently make use of this "better-ear," even when it alternates between left and right ears at different times in different frequency bands, which may contribute to the ability to listen in spatialized speech mixtures. In the present study, better-ear glimpsing in listeners with bilateral sensorineural hearing impairment, who perform poorly in spatialized speech mixtures, was investigated. The results suggest that this deficit is not related to better-ear glimpsing. PMID:25698053

Best, Virginia; Mason, Christine R; Kidd, Gerald; Iyer, Nandini; Brungart, Douglas S

2015-02-01

338

Estimation of outer-middle ear transmission using DPOAEs and fractional-order modeling of human middle ear  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our ability to hear depends primarily on sound waves traveling through the outer and middle ear toward the inner ear. Hence, the characteristics of the outer and middle ear affect sound transmission to/from the inner ear. The role of the middle and outer ear in sound transmission is particularly important for otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), which are sound signals generated in a healthy cochlea, and recorded by a sensitive microphone placed in the ear canal. OAEs are used to evaluate the health and function of the cochlea; however, they are also affected by outer and middle ear characteristics. To better assess cochlear health using OAEs, it is critical to quantify the impact of the outer and middle ear on sound transmission. The reported research introduces a noninvasive approach to estimate outer-middle ear transmission using distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). In addition, the role of the outer and middle ear on sound transmission was investigated by developing a physical/mathematical model, which employed fractional-order lumped elements to include the viscoelastic characteristics of biological tissues. Impedance estimations from wideband refectance measurements were used for parameter fitting of the model. The model was validated comparing its estimates of the outer-middle ear sound transmission with those given by DPOAEs. The outer-middle ear transmission by the model was defined as the sum of forward and reverse outer-middle ear transmissions. To estimate the reverse transmission by the model, the probe-microphone impedance was calculated through estimating the Thevenin-equivalent circuit of the probe-microphone. The Thevenin-equivalent circuit was calculated using measurements in a number of test cavities. Such modeling enhances our understanding of the roles of different parts of the outer and middle ear and how they work together to determine their function. In addition, the model would be potentially helpful in diagnosing pathologies of cochlear or middle ear origin.

Naghibolhosseini, Maryam

339

Human malformations of the midbrain and hindbrain: review and proposed classification scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although a great deal of interest in the genetics and etiology of cerebral, particularly forebrain, malformations has been generated in the past decade, relatively little is known about the basis of congenital malformations of the structures of the posterior fossa, namely the midbrain, cerebellum, pons, and medulla. In this review, we present a classification scheme for malformations of the midbrain

Melissa A. Parisi; William B. Dobyns

2003-01-01

340

Mimosa tenuiflora as a Cause of Malformations in Ruminants in the Northeastern Brazilian Semiarid Rangelands  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Craniofacial anomalies, eye malformations, and permanent flexures of the forelimbs are common malformations seen in ruminants grazing semiarid rangelands of Northeastern Brazil. To investigate the cause of these malformations, we fed 2 suspected plants, Mimosa tenuiflora or Prosopis juliflora, to gr...

341

Notch-1 Signalling Is Activated in Brain Arteriovenous Malformations in Humans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A role for the Notch signalling pathway in the formation of arteriovenous malformations during development has been suggested. However, whether Notch signalling is involved in brain arteriovenous malformations in humans remains unclear. Here, we performed immunohistochemistry on surgically resected brain arteriovenous malformations and found that,…

ZhuGe, Qichuan; Zhong, Ming; Zheng, WeiMing; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Mao, XiaoOu; Xie, Lin; Chen, Gourong; Chen, Yongmei; Lawton, Michael T.; Young, William L.; Greenberg, David A.; Jin, Kunlin

2009-01-01

342

A molecular and genetic view of human renal and urinary tract malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A molecular and genetic view of human renal and urinary tract malformations.Malformations of the kidney and lower urinary tract are common causes of chronic renal failure in infants and young children, but little is known about the molecular pathogenesis of these disorders. In animal experiments, the main causes of malformation are mutations, chemical and pharmaceutical teratogens, obstruction of fetal urinary

Adrian S Woolf

2000-01-01

343

Diseases of the middle ear in childhood  

PubMed Central

Middle ear diseases in childhood play an important role in daily ENT practice due to their high incidence. Some of these like acute otitis media or otitis media with effusion have been studied extensively within the last decades. In this article, we present a selection of important childhood middle ear diseases and discuss the actual literature concerning their treatment, management of complications and outcome. Another main topic of this paper deals with the possibilities of surgical hearing rehabilitation in childhood. The bone-anchored hearing aid BAHA® and the active partially implantable device Vibrant Soundbridge® could successfully be applied for children. In this manuscript, we discuss the actual literature concerning clinical outcomes of these implantable hearing aids. PMID:25587371

Minovi, Amir; Dazert, Stefan

2014-01-01

344

Analysis of OH Bolted Ear Connection  

SciTech Connect

The D0 endcap calorimeter outer hadronic (OH) modules play a major structural role in the calorimeter assembly. The disrete modules, once connected together, form a ring within which other massive calorimetry will reside. It has been proposed that the connection of the OH at the downstream end be accomplished by extending the downstream endplates in the radial direction to form 'ears', and then through-bolting between adjacent ears as shown in Fig. 1. A single 2 1/4 in. dia. bolt is used, and previous calculations have determined that the design load on this joint should be 130,000 lbs tension. The high load and serious consequences of failure make this a critical component in the calorimeter assembly. The purpose of this analysis is to investigate the stresses in the connection and other mechanical characteristics which determine joint performance.

Wands, Bob; /Fermilab

1987-12-30

345

A Rare Case of Petrified Ear  

PubMed Central

Calcification or ossification of the auricle, also referred to as petrified ear, is a rare diagnosis in dermatology. In medical literature, it has most often been attributed to trauma, hypothermia and frostbite, or hypercalcemia secondary to a metabolic or endocrine disorder, such as Addison's disease. Here, we report the clinical and radiologic findings of a 79-year-old African American male whose unilateral petrified auricle was an incidental finding. He had a preceding history of hyperparathyroidism and subsequent hypercalcemia treated with a subtotal parathyroidectomy three years prior to presentation. In addition to laboratory analysis, a history and physical examination was performed which revealed no other signs of hypercalcemia. Radiologic studies demonstrated partial ossification of the external auricular cartilage on the left side. The patient was diagnosed with the rare occurrence of a petrified ear. In light of this case, we provide a discussion concerning the possible etiologies of this diagnosis including appropriate patient evaluation and possible treatment recommendations. PMID:23259082

Buikema, Kathryn E.; Adams, Erin G.

2012-01-01

346

Common ear diseases: recognition and management.  

PubMed

External otitis is directly related to patient habit patterns. It is easily treated, but the habits must be changed to effect permanent cure. Serous otitis media is the most common cause of conductive hearing loss, and its presence my predispose to development of purulent otitis media. Removal of middle ear fluid may be advisable in persistent serous otitis and is recommended in acute purulent otitis. PMID:857250

Keim, R J

1977-05-01

347

Aspect Modification of an EAR Application a  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose aspect modification of compiled Java programs for which source code and documentation are not available. Aspect oriented programming is used to trace the program execution and identify points, in which aspects implementing new functionalities should be applied. A special tool for aspect oriented program tracing was designed and implemented. A modification in an real Enterprise Application Archive (EAR), compiled, without source code and documentation is presented in this paper. Advantages and disadvantages of described concepts are pointed out.

Bluemke, Ilona; Billewicz, Konrad

348

Mechanics of the exceptional anuran ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anuran ear is frequently used for studying fundamental properties of vertebrate auditory systems. This is due to its unique\\u000a anatomical features, most prominently the lack of a basilar membrane and the presence of two dedicated acoustic end organs,\\u000a the basilar papilla and the amphibian papilla. Our current anatomical and functional knowledge implies that three distinct\\u000a regions can be identified

Richard L. M. Schoffelen; Johannes M. Segenhout; Pim van Dijk

2008-01-01

349

Acute seismic sensitivity in the bullfrog ear.  

PubMed

Single axons in the auditory/vestibular nerve of the American bullfrog exhibit by far the most exquisite sensitivity to substrate-borne vibration yet reported for a quadruped vertebrate. Earlier dye-injection studies revealed that these axons, which are relatively insensitive to airborne sound, originate at the saccular and lagenar maculae of the bullfrog inner ear. The more sensitive axons exhibited clear responses to vibratory sinusoids with peak accelerations as low as 0.005 cm/s2. PMID:6982744

Koyama, H; Lewis, E R; Leverenz, E L; Baird, R A

1982-10-28

350

Proximity to Pollution Sources and Risk of Amphibian Limb Malformation  

PubMed Central

The cause of limb deformities in wild amphibian populations remains unclear, even though the apparent increase in prevalence of this condition may have implications for human health. Few studies have simultaneously assessed the effect of multiple exposures on the risk of limb deformities. In a cross-sectional survey of 5,264 hylid and ranid metamorphs in 42 Vermont wetlands, we assessed independent risk factors for nontraumatic limb malformation. The rate of nontraumatic limb malformation varied by location from 0 to 10.2%. Analysis of a subsample did not demonstrate any evidence of infection with the parasite Ribeiroia. We used geographic information system (GIS) land-use/land-cover data to validate field observations of land use in the proximity of study wetlands. In a multiple logistic regression model that included land use as well as developmental stage, genus, and water-quality measures, proximity to agricultural land use was associated with an increased risk of limb malformation (odds ratio = 2.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.42–3.58; p < 0.001). The overall discriminant power of the statistical model was high (C = 0.79). These findings from one of the largest systematic surveys to date provide support for the role of chemical toxicants in the development of amphibian limb malformation and demonstrate the value of an epidemiologic approach to this problem. PMID:16263502

Taylor, Brynn; Skelly, David; Demarchis, Livia K.; Slade, Martin D.; Galusha, Deron; Rabinowitz, Peter M.

2005-01-01

351

Diencephalic-Mesencephalic Junction Dysplasia: A Novel Recessive Brain Malformation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We describe six cases from three unrelated consanguineous Egyptian families with a novel characteristic brain malformation at the level of the diencephalic-mesencephalic junction. Brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a dysplasia of the diencephalic-mesencephalic junction with a characteristic "butterfly"-like contour of the midbrain on…

Zaki, Maha S.; Saleem, Sahar N.; Dobyns, William B.; Barkovich, A. James; Bartsch, Hauke; Dale, Anders M.; Ashtari, Manzar; Akizu, Naiara; Gleeson, Joseph G.; Grijalvo-Perez, Ana Maria

2012-01-01

352

Epileptogenic temporal cavernous malformations: Operative strategies and postoperative seizure outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operative treatment of epileptogenic cavernous malformations (CM) continues under debate. Most studies focus on surgery for supratentorial CM in general. For temporal lobe CM, surgical decision-making concerns in particular whether to perform lesionectomy alone or the additional excision of mesial temporal structures. The purpose of this case series was to evaluate operative strategies used to treat epileptogenic temporal CM and

Kristen Upchurch; John M. Stern; Noriko Salamon; Sandra Dewar; Jerome Engel Jr.; Harry V. Vinters; Itzhak Fried

2010-01-01

353

LIMITED PCB ANTAGONISM OF TCDD-INDUCED MALFORMATIONS IN MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

C57BL/6N mice, used to model induction of cleft palate and kidney malformations in offspring following maternal treatment with TCDD, were dosed on gestation day (gd) 9 with ,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachloro-biphenyl (HCB) (62.5, 125, 250, 500. 1000 mg/kg) and/or gd 10 with 2,3,7,8-tetrach...

354

The North American Reporting Center for Amphibian Malformations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) has posted several more resources online. This article introduces readers to The North American Reporting Center for Amphibian Malformations and discusses availability and uses of the Center's databases and resources. The resource may be browsed online or downloaded as a .zip file.

Fowle, Suzanne C.

355

Digital Subtraction Angiography for Arteriovenous Malformations in Stereotactic Radiosurgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Images coming from digital subtraction angiography (DSA) are affected by a perspective distortion due to the use of image intensifiers. As a result, DSA cannot be used for the accurate definition of stereotactic coordinates. A correction method has been developed to enable the use of DSA for the radiosurgery of arteriovenous malformations. A software program and a special phantom tool

E. Piovan; M. Dal Sasso; G. P. Urbani; R. Sartori; R. Foroni; A. Benati

1996-01-01

356

Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Children with Cerebellar Malformations: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cerebellar malformations are increasingly diagnosed in the fetal period. Consequently, their consideration requires stressful and often critical decisions from both clinicians and families. This has resulted in an emergent need to understand better the impact of these early life lesions on child development. We performed a comprehensive literature…

Bolduc, Marie-Eve; Limperopoulos, Catherine

2009-01-01

357

Diagnosis and Nonsurgical Management of Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation  

SciTech Connect

Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an uncommon problem and traditional treatment by hysterectomy excludes the possibility of future pregnancy. Developments in interventional techniques make transcatheter embolization of the feeding vessel(s) a therapeutic alternative, potentially preserving the patient's fertility. We present a case of successful endovascular treatment of uterine AVM.

Rangarajan, R. D.; Moloney, J. C.; Anderson, H. J. [Eastbourne District General Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Hugh.Anderson@esht.nhs.uk

2007-11-15

358

Antenatal management of pulmonary hyperplasia (congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 26-year-old lady was seen in antenatal clinic. Her anomaly scan at 20 weeks showed significant fetal abdominal ascites and an enlarged echo bright right lung with cardiac displacement. These findings were consistent with recognised type III congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM). An induction of labour was undertaken at 32 weeks' gestation due to increasing maternal morbidity. Labour was complicated

D. Ankers; N. Sajjad; P. Green; J. L. McPartland

2010-01-01

359

Paraspinal arteriovenous malformation Onyx embolization via an Ascent balloon  

PubMed Central

Purely extradural lumbar spinal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are rare lesions that have diverse presentations and imaging features. The treatment of a symptomatic high flow paraspinal AVM with multiple feeders remains a challenge. We report the first use of an Ascent balloon (dual lumen balloon catheter) to deliver Onyx with excellent penetration to a paraspinal AVM. PMID:23524491

Martínez-Galdámez, Mario; Rodriguez-Arias, Carlos A; Utiel, Elena; Arreba, Emilio; Gonzalo, Miguel; Arenillas, Juan F

2013-01-01

360

Polymicrogyria: a common and heterogeneous malformation of cortical development.  

PubMed

Polymicrogyria (PMG) is one of the most common malformations of cortical development. It is characterized by overfolding of the cerebral cortex and abnormal cortical layering. It is a highly heterogeneous malformation with variable clinical and imaging features, pathological findings, and etiologies. It may occur as an isolated cortical malformation, or in association with other malformations within the brain or body as part of a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome. Polymicrogyria shows variable topographic patterns with the bilateral perisylvian pattern being most common. Schizencephaly is a subtype of PMG in which the overfolded cortex lines full-thickness clefts connecting the subarachnoid space with the cerebral ventricles. Both genetic and non-genetic causes of PMG have been identified. Non-genetic causes include congenital cytomegalovirus infection and in utero ischemia. Genetic causes include metabolic conditions such as peroxisomal disorders and the 22q11.2 and 1p36 continguous gene deletion syndromes. Mutations in over 30 genes have been found in association with PMG, especially mutations in the tubulin family of genes. Mutations in the (PI3K)-AKT pathway have been found in association PMG and megalencephaly. Despite recent genetic advances, the mechanisms by which polymicrogyric cortex forms and causes of the majority of cases remain unknown, making diagnostic and prenatal testing and genetic counseling challenging. This review summarizes the clinical, imaging, pathologic, and etiologic features of PMG, highlighting recent genetic advances. PMID:24888723

Stutterd, Chloe A; Leventer, Richard J

2014-06-01

361

Vascular and nonvascular intracranial malformations associated with external capillary hemangiomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven patients with facial and scalp capillary hemangiomas with associated vascular and nonvascular intracranial malformations are presented. All patients were female. The most important anomalies include: Dandy-Walker disease, cerebellar hypoplasia, arterial angiomas, and abnormal origin and intracranial distribution of some of the principal cerebral arteries.

I. Pascual-Castroviejo

1978-01-01

362

The glue ear 'epidemic': a historical perspective.  

PubMed

This paper explores the historical context of the dramatic rise in surgery for glue ear in the mid-20th century, and questions the published assertion that this represented a manufactured 'epidemic'. In examining historical sources, the reader's theoretical viewpoint greatly influences their conclusions: the sustained rise in treatment for glue ear may be seen as the advance of science in a golden age or the resistance of insular professionals to reason in the light of new scientific study methods. Current views on the practice of medicine, consumerism, science and standardisation, rationing and the nature of 'truth' all affect the way that we see this period. Technological advances clearly allowed better diagnosis and more effective treatment, but these did not appear to drive an 'epidemic', rather they were developed to meet the pre-existing challenges of otological practice. The proposition that an 'epidemic' was created does not appear to have any solid grounding. Society's perception of what constitutes disease and what needs treatment may have evolved, but the prevalence of other important diseases changed dramatically over this time period, and a real change in the epidemiology of glue ear cannot be dismissed. In defining the case for and against surgical treatment, a solely positivist, quantitative worldview cannot give us a complete picture of benefit and risk to individuals, families and society at large. PMID:21653931

Alderson, David

2011-12-01

363

An investigation of ear necrosis in pigs  

PubMed Central

Porcine ear necrosis was investigated in 23 conveniently chosen farms, consisting of 14 case farms and 9 control farms. Biopsies of lesions and oral swabs from pigs on 11 case farms were examined by histology and bacterial culture. All farms were visited for observations and a survey on management, housing, and the presence of other clinical signs or behavioral vices. Histological examination revealed that the lesions began on the surface and progressed to deeper layers, and that vascular damage did not appear to be the initiating cause. Spirochetes were only rarely observed in histological examination and were not cultured from biopsies and oral swabs. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus hyicus were cultured from 91% and 66% of samples, respectively. Ear biting and a humid environment were associated with ear necrosis. On some farms large numbers of pigs were affected and lesions were sometimes extensive. The condition appears to be an infectious disease beginning on the surface of the skin; contributing environmental and management factors are likely. PMID:24155434

Park, Jeonghwa; Friendship, Robert M.; Poljak, Zvonimir; DeLay, Josepha; Slavic, Durda; Dewey, Catherine E.

2013-01-01

364

Notch signaling and the developing inner ear.  

PubMed

Sensory hair cells (HCs) and their associated nonsensory supporting cells (SCs) exhibit a typical mosaic pattern in each of the sensory patches in the inner ear. Notch signaling has been considered to conduct the formation of this mosaic pattern through one of its famous functions, known as 'lateral inhibition'. The two Notch ligands Delta-like1 and Jagged2 are believed to act synergistically at the stage of cell diversification in mammals. In addition, many current studies suggest that Notch signaling has another inductive, but not inhibiting, role in the determination of the prosensory region, which precedes the cell diversification of HCs and SCs and Jagged1 is thought to be an essential ligand in this process. Earlier in ear development, the first cell fate determination begins with the delamination of the neuroblasts from the otic epithelium. The delaminated neuroblasts migrate and coalesce to form cochleovestibular ganglion. Notch signaling pathway is thought to function during the delamination through its lateral inhibitory mechanism. Recently, many experiments examining Notch-related gene expression patterns and direct functional analyses of genes have revealed multiple important functions of Notch in inner ear development. Here, we survey a series of studies and discuss the issues that remain to be elucidated in the future. PMID:22399346

Murata, Junko; Ikeda, Katsuhisa; Okano, Hideyuki

2012-01-01

365

Why Do Elephants Flap Their Ears?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is estimated that a 4200 kg elephant generates as much as 5.12 kW of heat. How the elephant dissipates its metabolic heat and regulates its body temperature has been investigated during the past seven decades. Findings and conclusions differ sharply. The high rate of metabolic heat coupled with low surface area to volume ratio and the absence of sweat glands eliminate surface convection as the primary mechanism for heat removal. Noting that the elephant ears have high surface area to volume ratio and an extensive vascular network, ear flapping is thought to be the principal thermoregulatory mechanism. A computational and experimental program is carried out to examine flow and heat transfer characteristics. The ear is modeled as a uniformly heated oscillating rectangular plate. Our computational work involves a three-dimensional time dependent CFD code with heat transfer capabilities to obtain predictions of the flow field and surface temperature distributions. This information was used to design an experimental setup with a uniformly heated plate of size 0.2m x 0.3m oscillating at 1.6 cycles per second. Results show that surface temperature increases and reaches a steady periodic oscillation after a period of transient oscillation. The role of the vortices shed off the plate in heat transfer enhancement will be discussed.

Koffi, Moise; Jiji, Latif; Andreopoulos, Yiannis

2009-11-01

366

Middle-ear velocity transfer function, cochlear input immittance, and middle-ear efficiency in chinchilla  

PubMed Central

The transfer function HV between stapes velocity VS and sound pressure near the tympanic membrane PTM is a descriptor of sound transmission through the middle ear (ME). The ME power transmission efficiency (MEE), the ratio of sound power entering the cochlea to power entering the middle ear, was computed from HV measured in seven chinchilla ears and previously reported measurements of ME input admittance YTM and ME pressure gain GMEP [Ravicz and Rosowski, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, 2437–2454 (2012); J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133, 2208–2223 (2013)] in the same ears. The ME was open, and a pressure sensor was inserted into the cochlear vestibule for most measurements. The cochlear input admittance YC computed from HV and GMEP is controlled by a combination of mass and resistance and is consistent with a minimum-phase system up to 27?kHz. The real part Re{YC}, which relates cochlear sound power to inner-ear sound pressure, decreased gradually with frequency up to 25 kHz and more rapidly above that. MEE was about 0.5 between 0.1 and 8?kHz, higher than previous estimates in this species, and decreased sharply at higher frequencies. PMID:24116422

Ravicz, Michael E.; Rosowski, John J.

2013-01-01

367

Altered intrinsic properties of neuronal subtypes in malformed epileptogenic cortex.  

PubMed

Neuronal intrinsic properties control action potential firing rates and serve to define particular neuronal subtypes. Changes in intrinsic properties have previously been shown to contribute to hyperexcitability in a number of epilepsy models. Here we examined whether a developmental insult producing the cortical malformation of microgyria altered the identity or firing properties of layer V pyramidal neurons and two interneuron subtypes. Trains of action potentials were elicited with a series of current injection steps during whole cell patch clamp recordings. Cells in malformed cortex identified as having an apical dendrite had firing patterns similar to control pyramidal neurons. The duration of the second action potential in the train was increased in paramicrogyral (PMG) pyramidal cells, suggesting that these cells may be in an immature state, as was previously found for layer II/III pyramidal neurons. Based on stereotypical firing patterns and other intrinsic properties, fast-spiking (FS) and low threshold-spiking (LTS) interneuron subpopulations were clearly identified in both control and malformed cortex. Most intrinsic properties measured in malformed cortex were unchanged, suggesting that subtype identity is maintained. However, LTS interneurons in lesioned cortex had increased maximum firing frequency, decreased initial afterhyperpolarization duration, and increased total adaptation ratio compared to control LTS cells. FS interneurons demonstrated decreased maximum firing frequencies in malformed cortex compared to control FS cells. These changes may increase the efficacy of LTS while decreasing the effectiveness of FS interneurons. These data indicate that differential alterations of individual neuronal subpopulations may endow them with specific characteristics that promote epileptogenesis. PMID:21167139

George, Amanda L; Jacobs, Kimberle M

2011-02-16

368

Antioxidant properties of methanolic extracts from several ear mushrooms.  

PubMed

Five kinds of ear mushrooms are commercially available in Taiwan, including black, red, jin, snow, and silver ears. Methanolic extracts were prepared from these ear mushrooms, and their antioxidant properties were studied. For all methanolic extracts from ear mushrooms, the antioxidant activities in the 1,3-diethyl-2-thiobarbituric acid method were moderate (38.6 approximately 74.6%) at 1.0-5.0 mg/mL. Methanolic extracts from red, jin, and snow ears showed excellent antioxidant activities in the conjugated diene method at 5.0 mg/mL. At 5.0 mg/mL, reducing powers of methanolic extracts were in the descending order of snow > black approximately red approximately jin > silver ears. The scavenging effect of methanolic extracts from ear mushrooms on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals was excellent except for that from silver ears. Ear mushroom extracts were not good scavengers for hydroxyl free radicals but were good chelators for ferrous ions. Naturally occurring antioxidants, including ascorbic acid, tocopherols, and total phenols, were found in the methanolic extracts. However, beta-carotene was not detected. Total antioxidant components were 15.69, 30.09, 27.83, 49.17, and 31.70 mg/g for black, red, jin, snow, and silver ears, respectively. PMID:11714344

Mau, J L; Chao, G R; Wu, K T

2001-11-01

369

cis-Regulatory Mutations Are a Genetic Cause of Human Limb Malformations  

PubMed Central

The underlying mutations that cause human limb malformations are often difficult to determine, particularly for limb malformations that occur as isolated traits. Evidence from a variety of studies shows that cis-regulatory mutations, specifically in enhancers, can lead to some of these isolated limb malformations. Here, we provide a review of human limb malformations that have been shown to be caused by enhancer mutations and propose that cis-regulatory mutations will continue to be identified as the cause of additional human malformations as our understanding of regulatory sequences improves. PMID:21509892

VanderMeer, Julia E.; Ahituv, Nadav

2011-01-01

370

Is a Swine Model of Arteriovenous Malformation Suitable for Human Extracranial Arteriovenous Malformation? A Preliminary Study  

SciTech Connect

Objective: A chronic arteriovenous malformation (AVM) model using the swine retia mirabilia (RMB) was developed and compared with the human extracranial AVM (EAVM) both in hemodynamics and pathology, to see if this brain AVM model can be used as an EAVM model. Methods: We created an arteriovenous fistula between the common carotid artery and the external jugular vein in eight animals by using end-to-end anastomosis. All animals were sacrificed 1 month after surgery, and the bilateral retia were obtained at autopsy and performed hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry. Pre- and postsurgical hemodynamic evaluations also were conducted. Then, the blood flow and histological changes of the animal model were compared with human EAVM. Results: The angiography after operation showed that the blood flow, like human EAVM, flowed from the feeding artery, via the nidus, drained to the draining vein. Microscopic examination showed dilated lumina and disrupted internal elastic lamina in both RMB of model and nidus of human EAVM, but the thickness of vessel wall had significant difference. Immunohistochemical reactivity for smooth muscle actin, angiopoietin 1, and angiopoietin 2 were similar in chronic model nidus microvessels and human EAVM, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor was significant difference between human EAVM and RMB of model. Conclusions: The AVM model described here is similar to human EAVM in hemodynamics and immunohistochemical features, but there are still some differences in anatomy and pathogenetic mechanism. Further study is needed to evaluate the applicability and efficacy of this model.

Lv, Ming-ming, E-mail: lvmingming001@163.com [Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology (China)] [Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology (China); Fan, Xin-dong, E-mail: fanxindong@yahoo.com.cn [Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (China)] [Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (China); Su, Li-xin, E-mail: sulixin1975@126.com [Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology (China)] [Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology (China)

2013-10-15

371

Sham control methods used in ear-acupuncture/ear-acupressure randomized controlled trials: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Ear-acupuncture/ear-acupressure (EAP) has been used for a range of health conditions with numerous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating its efficacy and safety. However, the design of sham interventions in these RCTs varied significantly. This study systematically reviewed RCTs on EAP for all clinical conditions involving a number of sham EAPs as a control intervention. The review is guided by the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions 5.1.0 and investigated the types and differences of sham EAP interventions. Four electronic English databases (The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, CINAHL®) and two Chinese databases (CQVIP, CNKI) were searched in December 2012 and 55 published RCTs comparing real and sham EAP for any clinical condition were included. Characteristics of participants, real and sham interventions, and outcomes were extracted. Four types of sham methods were identified. Among the 55 RCTs, 25 studies involved treatment on nonspecific ear acupoints as the sham method; seven studies used nonacupoints on the ear; nine studies selected placebo needles or placebo ear-acupressure on the same ear acupoints for the real treatment; 10 studies employed pseudo-intervention; and five studies combined two of the above methods to be the sham control. Other factors of treatment such as number of points, treatment duration, and frequency also varied greatly. Risk of bias assessment suggests that 32 RCTs were "high risk" in terms of participants blinding, and 45 RCTs were "high risk" in terms of personnel blinding. Meta-analysis was not conducted due to the high clinical heterogeneity across included studies. No relationship was found between the sham designs and efficacy outcomes, or between the sham types and dropout rate. No solid conclusion of which design is the most appropriate sham control of EAP could be drawn in this review. PMID:24138333

Zhang, Claire Shuiqing; Yang, Angela Weihong; Zhang, Anthony Lin; May, Brian H; Xue, Charlie Changli

2014-03-01

372

Sham Control Methods Used in Ear-Acupuncture/Ear-Acupressure Randomized Controlled Trials: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Abstract Ear-acupuncture/ear-acupressure (EAP) has been used for a range of health conditions with numerous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating its efficacy and safety. However, the design of sham interventions in these RCTs varied significantly. This study systematically reviewed RCTs on EAP for all clinical conditions involving a number of sham EAPs as a control intervention. The review is guided by the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions 5.1.0 and investigated the types and differences of sham EAP interventions. Four electronic English databases (The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, CINAHL®) and two Chinese databases (CQVIP, CNKI) were searched in December 2012 and 55 published RCTs comparing real and sham EAP for any clinical condition were included. Characteristics of participants, real and sham interventions, and outcomes were extracted. Four types of sham methods were identified. Among the 55 RCTs, 25 studies involved treatment on nonspecific ear acupoints as the sham method; seven studies used nonacupoints on the ear; nine studies selected placebo needles or placebo ear-acupressure on the same ear acupoints for the real treatment; 10 studies employed pseudo-intervention; and five studies combined two of the above methods to be the sham control. Other factors of treatment such as number of points, treatment duration, and frequency also varied greatly. Risk of bias assessment suggests that 32 RCTs were “high risk” in terms of participants blinding, and 45 RCTs were “high risk” in terms of personnel blinding. Meta-analysis was not conducted due to the high clinical heterogeneity across included studies. No relationship was found between the sham designs and efficacy outcomes, or between the sham types and dropout rate. No solid conclusion of which design is the most appropriate sham control of EAP could be drawn in this review. PMID:24138333

Zhang, Claire Shuiqing; Yang, Angela Weihong; Zhang, Anthony Lin; May, Brian H.

2014-01-01

373

Effects of ear-canal pressurization on middle-ear bone- and air-conduction responses  

PubMed Central

In extremely loud noise environments, it is important to not only protect one’s hearing against noise transmitted through the air-conduction (AC) pathway, but also through the bone-conduction (BC) pathways. Much of the energy transmitted through the BC pathways is concentrated in the mid-frequency range around 1.5–2 kHz, which is likely due to the structural resonance of the middle ear. One potential approach for mitigating this mid-frequency BC noise transmission is to introduce a positive or negative static pressure in the ear canal, which is known to reduce BC as well as AC hearing sensitivity. In the present study, middle-ear ossicular velocities at the umbo and stapes were measured using human cadaver temporal bones in response to both BC and AC excitations, while static air pressures of ±400 mm H2O were applied in the ear canal. For the maximum negative pressure of ?400 mm H2O, mean BC stapes-velocity reductions of about 5–8 dB were observed in the frequency range from 0.8 to 2.5 kHz, with a peak reduction of 8.6(± 4.7) dB at 1.6 kHz. Finite-element analysis indicates that the peak BC-response reduction tends to be in the mid-frequency range because the middle-ear BC resonance, which is typically around 1.5–2 kHz, is suppressed by the pressure-induced stiffening of the middle-ear structure. The measured data also show that the BC responses are reduced more for negative static pressures than for positive static pressures. This may be attributable to a difference in the distribution of the stiffening among the middle-ear components depending on the polarity of the static pressure. The characteristics of the BC-response reductions are found to be largely consistent with the available psychoacoustic data, and are therefore indicative of the relative importance of the middle-ear mechanism in BC hearing. PMID:19944139

Homma, Kenji; Shimizu, Yoshitaka; Kim, Namkeun; Du, Yu; Puria, Sunil

2014-01-01

374

The development of semicircular canals in the inner ear: role of FGFs in sensory cristae.  

PubMed

In the vertebrate inner ear, the ability to detect angular head movements lies in the three semicircular canals and their sensory tissues, the cristae. The molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of the three canals are largely unknown. Malformations of this vestibular apparatus found in zebrafish and mice usually involve both canals and cristae. Although there are examples of mutants with only defective canals, few mutants have normal canals without some prior sensory tissue specification, suggesting that the sensory tissues, cristae, might induce the formation of their non-sensory components, the semicircular canals. We fate-mapped the vertical canal pouch in chicken that gives rise to the anterior and posterior canals, using a fluorescent, lipophilic dye (DiI), and identified a canal genesis zone adjacent to each prospective crista that corresponds to the Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Bmp2)-positive domain in the canal pouch. Using retroviruses or beads to increase Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs) for gain-of-function and beads soaked with the FGF inhibitor SU5402 for loss-of-function experiments, we show that FGFs in the crista promote canal development by upregulating Bmp2. We postulate that FGFs in the cristae induce a canal genesis zone by inducing/upregulating Bmp2 expression. Ectopic FGF treatments convert some of the cells in the canal pouch from the prospective common crus to a canal-like fate. Thus, we provide the first molecular evidence whereby sensory organs direct the development of the associated non-sensory components, the semicircular canals, in vertebrate inner ears. PMID:15280215

Chang, Weise; Brigande, John V; Fekete, Donna M; Wu, Doris K

2004-09-01

375

Robust Multi biometric Recognition Using Face and Ear Images  

E-print Network

This study investigates the use of ear as a biometric for authentication and shows experimental results obtained on a newly created dataset of 420 images. Images are passed to a quality module in order to reduce False Rejection Rate. The Principal Component Analysis (eigen ear) approach was used, obtaining 90.7 percent recognition rate. Improvement in recognition results is obtained when ear biometric is fused with face biometric. The fusion is done at decision level, achieving a recognition rate of 96 percent.

Boodoo, Nazmeen Bibi

2009-01-01

376

Individual differences in external-ear transfer functions of cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the direction-dependent filter characteristics of the external ears is useful for the study of spatial hearing in experimental animals. The present study examined individual differences in the directional components of external-ear transfer functions ~directional transfer functions, DTFs! among 24 anesthetized cats. Ears were fixed in a frontal position. Inter-cat differences in DTFs were quantified across a mid-frequency range

Li Xu; John C. Middlebrooks

2000-01-01

377

Image reconstruction of the ear and face by laser scanning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In present study, a novel method of reconstruction and fabrication of a missing external ear is developed based on laser scanning technique and CAD/CAM technologies. Using the method, the prosthesis of an ear has been fabricated and applied in clinic successfully. The precision and efficiency of rehabilitation reconstruction is improved. The results suggest that the dimensions of the contralateral ear, its position and the shape of the deficient side of the face can be reliably measured on the patient and that laser scanning is useful technique for planning and monitoring facial reconstruction of the ear and other apparatus.

Wang, Dongmei; Huang, Xuemei; Ye, Ming; Wang, Chengtao; Jiao, Ting

2003-04-01

378

A case report of meningioma extending to the middle ear.  

PubMed

Extracranial meningioma with extension into a middle ear is very uncommon. A 74-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with right ear bleeding when removing earwax. In this case, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, her past history and operative findings would consider as infiltrative growth from the right sphenoid ridge meningioma to the right middle ear via the right petrous pyramid and bilateral optic nerve. She underwent only partial extirpation with decompression for optic nerve, rather than total extirpation including middle ear and temporal bone, due to wide invasion of the middle cranial fossa and caversinus sinus. PMID:24765466

Kusunoki, Takeshi; Ikeda, Katsuhisa; Miyashita, Mie

2012-05-29

379

Objective high-frequency tinnitus of middle-ear myoclonus.  

PubMed

Tinnitus produced by middle-ear myoclonus is a rare condition. In this article, a rare case of unilateral continuous high-frequency objective tinnitus caused by middle-ear myoclonus is described. This condition appears to be the second case reported in the literature. Otoscopic examination revealed visible rhythmic movements of the tympanic membrane. Weak clicking sounds were heard around the right ear by auscultation. Direct stimulation of the soft palate showed no evidence of palated myoclonus. Tympanometry confirmed rhythmic changes in the middle-ear compliance. The condition was effectively treated with a muscle relaxant (orphenadrine citrate). PMID:15068524

Abdul-Baqi, Khader J

2004-03-01

380

Empirical Evaluation of Advanced Ear Biometrics Ping Yan Kevin W. Bowyer  

E-print Network

Empirical Evaluation of Advanced Ear Biometrics Ping Yan Kevin W. Bowyer Department of Computer experimental inves- tigation of ear biometrics to date. Approaches consid- ered include a PCA ("eigen-ear the robustness and variability of ear biometrics, ear symmetry is also in- vestigated. In our experiments around

Bowyer, Kevin W.

381

Mammalian ear specializations in arid habitats: structural and functional evidence from sand cat ( Felis margarita )  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test whether structural specializations of sand-cat ears are adaptations to their desert habitats we measured structural and acoustic features of their ears. The area of the external ear's pinna flange is similar to that of domestic cat. The dimensions of the ear canal are about twice domestic cat's, as is the volume of the middle-ear air space. The magnitude

G. T. Huang; J. J. Rosowski; M. E. Ravicz; W. T. Peake

2002-01-01

382

Influence of middle ear pressure alteration and middle ear effusion on vibration characteristics of human tympanic membrane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laser doppler vibrometer was used to measure the motion of a simple middle ear model and tympanic membrane vibrations of human temporal bone specimen. Different pathological conditions were simulated: Increasing or decreasing middle ear pressure to defined levels create a situation similar to a barootitis. Additionally the middle ear cavities were partially or totally filled with fluids of different viscosities. Characteristic changes of the vibration patterns were detected: With increasing pressure difference between middle ear and atmosphere the vibration amplitudes decreased. In middle ear effusions diminished amplitudes were obtained, depending on the fluid-occupied volume within the tympanic cavity. The vibration pattern was not influenced by differences in the viscosity of the effusion. Therefore a preoperative examination of a patient with middle ear effusions by laser doppler vibrometer offers no predictive aspect to the decision whether a ventilation tube should be inserted or not.

Stasche, Norbert; Hoermann, Karl; Foth, Hans-Jochen; Bernecker, Frank; Barton, Thomas G.

1995-05-01

383

Historical development of active middle ear implants.  

PubMed

Active middle ear implants (AMEIs) are sophisticated technologies designed to overcome many of the shortcomings of conventional hearing aids, including feedback, distortion, and occlusion effect. Three AMEIs are currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for implantation in patients with sensorineural hearing loss. In this article, the history of AMEI technologies is reviewed, individual component development is outlined, past and current implant systems are described, and design and implementation successes and dead ends are highlighted. Past and ongoing challenges facing AMEI development are reviewed. PMID:25282038

Carlson, Matthew L; Pelosi, Stanley; Haynes, David S

2014-12-01

384

Complement activity in middle ear effusions.  

PubMed Central

Evidence for complement utilization in middle ear fluids (MEF) from patients with otitis media with effusion was sought. It was found that cleavage products of C3, C4 and Factor B could be demonstrated immunochemically in MEF, and that native C3 was present in much lower concentrations than other proteins, relative to their serum concentrations. Haemolytic assays for C1-C5 showed that early complement components are inactivated in MEF. Potential mechanisms for complement utilization in MEF are discussed. Images FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 PMID:102478

Bernstein, J M; Schenkein, H A; Genco, R J; Bartholomew, W R

1978-01-01

385

Diencephalic–mesencephalic junction dysplasia: a novel recessive brain malformation  

PubMed Central

We describe six cases from three unrelated consanguineous Egyptian families with a novel characteristic brain malformation at the level of the diencephalic–mesencephalic junction. Brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a dysplasia of the diencephalic–mesencephalic junction with a characteristic ‘butterfly’-like contour of the midbrain on axial sections. Additional imaging features included variable degrees of supratentorial ventricular dilatation and hypoplasia to complete agenesis of the corpus callosum. Diffusion tensor imaging showed diffuse hypomyelination and lack of an identifiable corticospinal tract. All patients displayed severe cognitive impairment, post-natal progressive microcephaly, axial hypotonia, spastic quadriparesis and seizures. Autistic features were noted in older cases. Talipes equinovarus, non-obstructive cardiomyopathy and persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous were additional findings in two families. One of the patients required shunting for hydrocephalus; however, this yielded no change in ventricular size suggestive of dysplasia rather than obstruction. We propose the term ‘diencephalic–mesencephalic junction dysplasia’ to characterize this autosomal recessive malformation. PMID:22822038

Saleem, Sahar N.; Dobyns, William B.; Barkovich, A. James; Bartsch, Hauke; Dale, Anders M.; Ashtari, Manzar; Akizu, Naiara; Gleeson, Joseph G.; Grijalvo-Perez, Ana Maria

2012-01-01

386

Diencephalic-mesencephalic junction dysplasia: a novel recessive brain malformation.  

PubMed

We describe six cases from three unrelated consanguineous Egyptian families with a novel characteristic brain malformation at the level of the diencephalic-mesencephalic junction. Brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a dysplasia of the diencephalic-mesencephalic junction with a characteristic 'butterfly'-like contour of the midbrain on axial sections. Additional imaging features included variable degrees of supratentorial ventricular dilatation and hypoplasia to complete agenesis of the corpus callosum. Diffusion tensor imaging showed diffuse hypomyelination and lack of an identifiable corticospinal tract. All patients displayed severe cognitive impairment, post-natal progressive microcephaly, axial hypotonia, spastic quadriparesis and seizures. Autistic features were noted in older cases. Talipes equinovarus, non-obstructive cardiomyopathy and persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous were additional findings in two families. One of the patients required shunting for hydrocephalus; however, this yielded no change in ventricular size suggestive of dysplasia rather than obstruction. We propose the term 'diencephalic-mesencephalic junction dysplasia' to characterize this autosomal recessive malformation. PMID:22822038

Zaki, Maha S; Saleem, Sahar N; Dobyns, William B; Barkovich, A James; Bartsch, Hauke; Dale, Anders M; Ashtari, Manzar; Akizu, Naiara; Gleeson, Joseph G; Grijalvo-Perez, Ana Maria

2012-08-01

387

Radiotherapy for intraarticular venous malformations of the knee.  

PubMed

Intraarticular venous malformation (IAVM) of the knee is a rare vascular disease that manifests with pain, swelling, and hemarthrosis. A young man with left knee pain and swelling was admitted to our institution for the treatment of the IAVM of the left knee which was diagnosed by a local orthopedic doctor via arthroscopy. A total dose of 40 Gy of radiotherapy was delivered with a daily dose of 2.0 Gy using 6 MV X-ray beams and a linear accelerator through anteroposterior portals. Fifteen months after radiotherapy, follow-up examination using radiologic imaging showed distinct shrinkage of the venous malformations. Swelling and pain of the left knee had decreased, and range of motion of the left knee was maintained. This report describes a case involving a 38-year-old man with IAVM of the left knee in whom favorable outcomes were obtained in response to radiotherapy. PMID:25017778

Fujita, Takeshi; Okimoto, Tomoaki; Ito, Katsuyoshi; Tanabe, Masahiro; Matsunaga, Naofumi

2014-11-01

388

Congenital umbilical arterio-venous malformation: a word of caution.  

PubMed

We report on an 18-month old girl who presented in good clinical shape with a pulsatile tumour in the umbilical area which had a shape and localization similar to that of an umbilical bowel hernia. The Doppler ultrasound of the umbilical tumour revealed a large arterio-venous vascular malformation with a haemodynamically significant blood shunting. Furthermore, the inferior caval vein and the hepatic veins were dilated. Computed tomography angiography revealed permeable umbilical veins and arteries communicating within a large dilated arterio-venous fistula. The growing tumour was excised without any perioperative complications. Further postoperative recovery was uneventful and the baby was discharged 10 days after surgery. We advocate careful antenatal ultrasound evaluation of these vascular malformations. Early surgical removal in newborns is vital in order to avoid severe complications. PMID:24550232

Gozar, Horea; Gozar, Liliana; Badiu, Catalin Constantin; Suciu, Horatiu

2014-05-01

389

Management of Cerebral Cavernous Malformations: From Diagnosis to Treatment  

PubMed Central

Cerebral cavernous malformations are the most common vascular malformations and can be found in many locations in the brain. If left untreated, cavernomas may lead to intracerebral hemorrhage, seizures, focal neurological deficits, or headaches. As they are angiographically occult, their diagnosis relies on various MR imaging techniques, which detect different characteristics of the lesions as well as aiding in planning the surgical treatment. The clinical presentation and the location of the lesion are the most important factors involved in determining the optimal course of treatment of cavernomas. We concisely review the literature and discuss the advantages and limitations of each of the three available methods of treatment—microsurgical resection, stereotactic radiosurgery, and conservative management—depending on the lesion characteristics. PMID:25629087

Mouchtouris, Nikolaos; Chitale, Ameet; Starke, Robert M.; Tjoumakaris, Stavropoula I.; Rosenwasser, Robert H.; Jabbour, Pascal M.

2015-01-01

390

An unusual presentation of type II Abernethy malformation.  

PubMed

Abernethy malformation is a rare anomaly of the splanchnic venous system. We report a case of an unusual portosystemic shunt via a dilated inferior mesenteric vein. A 20-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with complains of nonspecific abdominal pain for almost 3 years and hematochezia since 15 months old. Computed tomography and further transhepatic splenoportography revealed a hypoplastic portal vein and a giant inferior mesenteric vein, via which part of the portal venous blood drained into the inferior vena cava. The patient underwent a surgical ligation of the portocaval shunt and recovered well. We believe that this is the first case of type II Abernethy malformation presenting as a portosystemic shunt via the giant inferior mesenteric vein. PMID:24530574

Lu, Jingbo; Lin, Zhiqi; Liu, Hao; Liu, Zhengjun

2014-08-01

391

Congenital nephrotic syndrome of NPHS1 associated with cardiac malformation.  

PubMed

Congenital nephrotic syndrome (CNS) is a rare disease inherited as an autosomally recessive trait and defined as proteinuria manifesting at birth or in the first 3 months of life. The classical form is the Finnish type of CNS (CNF), which is caused by mutations in the nephrin gene (NPHS1). The classical findings include prematurity, large placenta and massive proteinuria. Minor cardiac findings have been reported as a minor functional disorder but CNS with major cardiac malformation is rare. Here we report the case of a Turkish child with CNS with small indel mutation (c.614_621delCACCCCGGinsTT) in exon 6 of NPHS1 and also major cardiac malformation who did not develop end-stage renal disease until the age of 5 years. PMID:25711261

Uysal, Berfin; Dönmez, Osman; Uysal, Fahrettin; Akac?, Okan; Vuru?kan, Berna Aytaç; Berdeli, Afig

2015-02-01

392

Behavioral effects of congenital ventromedial prefrontal cortex malformation  

PubMed Central

Background A detailed behavioral profile associated with focal congenital malformation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has not been reported previously. Here we describe a 14 year-old boy, B.W., with neurological and psychiatric sequelae stemming from focal cortical malformation of the left vmPFC. Case Presentation B.W.'s behavior has been characterized through extensive review Patience of clinical and personal records along with behavioral and neuropsychological testing. A central feature of the behavioral profile is severe antisocial behavior. He is aggressive, manipulative, and callous; features consistent with psychopathy. Other problems include: egocentricity, impulsivity, hyperactivity, lack of empathy, lack of respect for authority, impaired moral judgment, an inability to plan ahead, and poor frustration tolerance. Conclusions The vmPFC has a profound contribution to the development of human prosocial behavior. B.W. demonstrates how a congenital lesion to this cortical region severely disrupts this process. PMID:22136635

2011-01-01

393

Epidemiology, diagnostics and treatment of vascular tumours and malformations.  

PubMed

Vascular tumours and vascular malformations are common vasculose anomalies characteristic for dissimilar clinical course, specific biological as well as immune cytological and histological properties. Vascular lesions classification system and their detailed division into groups and subgroups were elaborated and implemented in Rome, in 1996, during meeting of the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA). It was based on modification of an earlier going division by Mullikien and G?owacki from 1982. Infantile hemangiomas are the most numerous group of benign tumours of mesenchymal origin. Vascular malformations appear definitely less often. They are composed of normal endothelium lined displastic vessels which originate from vascular tissue abnormal morphogenesis. In contrast, in hemangiomas, at the proliferation stage, increased, multiplication of endothelial cells is observed as well as of fibroblasts, mastocytes and macrophages. Infantile hemangiomas are usually not present at the moment of birth and white chloasma with superficial teleangiectasis appears which increases within 3-4 weeks and gets bright red colour and reveal very characteristic clinical course basing on intensive growth period and involution long process. Vascular malformations are observed most often at the delivery moment or they may appear at an early childhood. They enlarge proportionally along with the child's growth and their sudden expansion may be triggered by an infection, hormonal changes or trauma. Contrary to hemangiomas, they do not subside spontaneously and their abrupt increase may result in impairment or deformation of important anatomical structures. Infantile hemangiomas and vascular malformations require different and individual treatments which are often multi-stage procedures carried on in specialistic centres of plastic surgery, vascular surgery or maxillofacial surgery. PMID:24979522

Wójcicki, Piotr; Wójcicka, Karolina

2014-01-01

394

Parenting children with anorectal malformations: implications and experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parents play a crucial role in the life of a child suffering from an anorectal malformation (ARM), since their guidance contributes\\u000a to the degree to which the child learns to cope with his or her disability. We investigated whether they experience stress\\u000a in parenting such a child and also attempted to identify somatic or behavioral characteristics in the child that

E. A. M. Hassink; A. T. M. Brugman-Boezeman; L. M. H. Robbroeckx; P. N. M. A. Rieu; E. M. van Kuyk; P. M. A. Wels; C. Festen

1998-01-01

395

VATER association: report of a case with three unreported malformations.  

PubMed Central

The VATER association is the sporadic non-random association of Vertebral anomalies, Anal atresia, Tracheo-oesophageal fistula with Esophageal atresia, Renal defects, and Radial limb dysplasia. Cardiac defects are common, as are other limb malformations. The present report describes a premature infant with most of the known major and minor defects of the association as well as agenesis of the bladder and penis and an askeletal rudimentary tail. The latter have not previously been described. Images PMID:3351894

Dusmet, M; Fête, F; Crusi, A; Cox, J N

1988-01-01

396

Ultrasound diagnosis and perinatal management of surgically correctable fetal malformations.  

PubMed

Among 276 fetal malformations detected during the nine year period there were 97 potentially correctable anomalies which are described in detail as are the antenatal and postnatal corrective procedures undertaken. On 35 hydrocephalic fetuses 9 were operated upon postnatally in the last 2 yr. Three months after the operation four of the babies were found to be developing normally, three moderately well while two were severely retarded. Two out six babies with cystic hygroma were successfully operated after birth and their development is now normal. Of 23 malformations of the gastro-intestinal tract (two diaphragmatic hernias, three esophageal, four duodenal and four jejunal atresias, seven omphalocele, three gastroschisis) 13 babies were successfully operated and are developing normally. In 8 out of 10 antenatally detected cases of obstructive uropathy antenatal intervention was undertaken. In one case a shunt catheter was inserted for the last three weeks before delivery. Puncture and urine evacuation was performed in seven of the babies. Five were live born and surgical correction was successfully undertaken after birth, while two died (one multiple malformations and the other respiratory distress syndrome). After excluding multiple and chromosomal anomalies the best results are obtained in the correction of gastro-intestinal tract atresia (9 of 11) and obstructive uropathy (5 of 7), where once a passage has been established the baby develops normally. Interventions such as shunts in hydrocephalic babies are always a matter for discussion in relation to the final outcome, but when there is no other choice, this too is a way of endeavouring to help such a baby. Early antenatal diagnosis is therefore extremely important when interruption of pregnancy is still feasible. In cases of malformations detected at a later gestational age early diagnosis facilitates the assessment of the development of the affected organ, possible timely antenatal correction, team consultation regarding the time and mode of delivery and preparations for postnatal correction. Such an antenatal approach makes it possible to significantly influence the perinatal outcome. PMID:6239438

Kurjak, A; Gogolja, D; Kogler, A; Latin, V; Rajhvajn, B

1984-01-01

397

Novel Image-Guided Management of a Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation  

SciTech Connect

The investigators present a novel image-guided embolization, not previously described, of a uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) resistant to endovascular management. The uterus was exposed surgically, and Histoacryl (Braun, Fulda, Germany) was injected directly into the nidus using ultrasound guidance and fluoroscopy. The patient had a successful full-term pregnancy after this procedure. This technique may be a useful alternative management strategy in patients with uterine AVM who fail traditional endovascular embolization and who still desire fertility.

Przybojewski, Stefan J., E-mail: drstefanp@hotmail.com; Sadler, David J. [University of Calgary, Diagnostic Imaging Department, Foothills Hospital (Canada)

2011-02-15

398

Asymmetric crying facies: a possible marker for congenital malformations.  

PubMed

Asymmetric crying facies (ACF) is caused by agenesis or hypoplasia of the depressor anguli oris muscle on one side of the mouth. Though it is an isolated finding in most cases, ACF can be associated with other congenital malformations especially of the cardiovascular system. We report a case of ACF that was subsequently diagnosed as Cayler syndrome based on associated tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) and deletion of chromosome 22q11. PMID:16318980

Rioja-Mazza, Dora; Lieber, Ernest; Kamath, Vasudeva; Kalpatthi, Ram

2005-10-01

399

Risk of Endovascular Treatment of Brain Arteriovenous Malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—Independently assessed data on frequency, severity, and determinants of neurological deficits after endovascular treatment of brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are scarce. Methods—From the prospective Columbia AVM Study Project, 233 consecutive patients with brain AVM receiving1 endovascular treatments were analyzed. Neurological impairment was assessed by a neurologist using the Rankin Scale before and after completed endovascular therapy. Multivariate logistic

A. Hartmann; J. Pile-Spellman; C. Stapf; R. R. Sciacca; A. Faulstich; J. P. Mohr; H. C. Schumacher; H. Mast

2002-01-01

400

Malformations of cortical development: clinical features and genetic causes.  

PubMed

Malformations of cortical development are common causes of developmental delay and epilepsy. Some patients have early, severe neurological impairment, but others have epilepsy or unexpected deficits that are detectable only by screening. The rapid evolution of molecular biology, genetics, and imaging has resulted in a substantial increase in knowledge about the development of the cerebral cortex and the number and types of malformations reported. Genetic studies have identified several genes that might disrupt each of the main stages of cell proliferation and specification, neuronal migration, and late cortical organisation. Many of these malformations are caused by de-novo dominant or X-linked mutations occurring in sporadic cases. Genetic testing needs accurate assessment of imaging features, and familial distribution, if any, and can be straightforward in some disorders but requires a complex diagnostic algorithm in others. Because of substantial genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity for most of these genes, a comprehensive analysis of clinical, imaging, and genetic data is needed to properly define these disorders. Exome sequencing and high-field MRI are rapidly modifying the classification of these disorders. PMID:24932993

Guerrini, Renzo; Dobyns, William B

2014-07-01

401

Environmental monitoring using malformed embryos of the amphipod Monoporeia affinis  

SciTech Connect

Reproduction variables of Monoporeia affinis, such as embryonic malformation were confirmed as the most sensitive variable, when soft bottom microcosms were exposed to metals such as cadmium and lead, arsenic, organic compounds such as 4,5,6 trichloroguaiacol, contaminated sediment from areas impacted by heavy metals and pulp mill effluents. The effects were demonstrated also in low concentrations that did not significantly affect the meiofauna community. The microcosm test-system with high ecological realism could offer a possibility to translate laboratory results to the natural environments. Field surveys outside different types of pulp mills and metal works on the coast of the Gulf of Bothnia have confirmed the laboratory results. Significantly higher levels of malformed embryos of Monoporeia affinis were demonstrated in the impacted areas in comparison with reference areas. The reproduction variables of Monoporeia affinis have been used in the national environmental monitoring program during two years and results indicated possibilities to distinguish between effects of xenobiotica and secondary eutrophication effects, such as unsaturated oxygen condition and occurrence of sulfides, which resulted in increased frequencies of dead eggs but not affected the frequencies of malformed eggs and embryos.

Sundelin, B.; Eriksson, A.K. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Inst. of Applied Environmental Research

1995-12-31

402

Sonographic markers for early diagnosis of fetal malformations  

PubMed Central

Fetal malformations are very frequent in industrialized countries. Although advanced maternal age may affect pregnancy outcome adversely, 80%-90% of fetal malformations occur in the absence of a specific risk factor for parents. The only effective approach for prenatal screening is currently represented by an ultrasound scan. However, ultrasound methods present two important limitations: the substantial absence of quantitative parameters and the dependence on the sonographer experience. In recent years, together with the improvement in transducer technology, quantitative and objective sonographic markers highly predictive of fetal malformations have been developed. These markers can be detected at early gestation (11-14 wk) and generally are not pathological in themselves but have an increased incidence in abnormal fetuses. Thus, prenatal ultrasonography during the second trimester of gestation provides a “genetic sonogram”, including, for instance, nuchal translucency, short humeral length, echogenic bowel, echogenic intracardiac focus and choroid plexus cyst, that is used to identify morphological features of fetal Down’s syndrome with a potential sensitivity of more than 90%. Other specific and sensitive markers can be seen in the case of cardiac defects and skeletal anomalies. In the future, sonographic markers could limit even more the use of invasive and dangerous techniques of prenatal diagnosis (amniocentesis, etc.). PMID:24179631

Renna, Maria Daniela; Pisani, Paola; Conversano, Francesco; Perrone, Emanuele; Casciaro, Ernesto; Renzo, Gian Carlo Di; Paola, Marco Di; Perrone, Antonio; Casciaro, Sergio

2013-01-01

403

Acute Porphyria in a Patient with Arnold Chiari Malformation  

PubMed Central

Patient: Female, 33 Final Diagnosis: Acute porphyria Symptoms: Abdominal pain • alternating bowel habits Medication: Metronidazole • bactrim • oxybutynin Clinical Procedure: EMG • porhyria workup Specialty: Neurology Objective: Rare disease Background: Acute porphyria and Arnold Chiari malformation are both uncommon genetic disorders without known association. The insidious onset, non-specific clinical manifestations, and precipitating factors often cause diagnosis of acute porphyria to be missed, particularly in patients with comorbidities. Case Report: A women with Arnold Chiari malformation type II who was treated with oxybutynin and antibiotics, including Bactrim for neurogenic bladder and recurrent urinary tract infection, presented with non-specific abdominal pain, constipation, and diarrhea. After receiving Flagyl for C. difficile colitis, the patient developed psychosis, ascending paralysis, and metabolic derangements. She underwent extensive neurological workup due to her congenital neurological abnormalities, most of which were unremarkable. As a differential diagnosis of Guillain Barré syndrome, acute porphyria was then considered and ultimately proved to be the diagnosis. After hematin administration and intense rehabilitation, the patient slowly recovered from the full-blown acute porphyria attack. Conclusions: This case report, for the first time, documents acute porphyria attack as a result of a sequential combination of 3 common medications. This is the first case report of the concomitant presence of both acute porphyria and Arnold Chiari malformation, 2 genetic disorders with unclear association. PMID:25697467

Shen, Jianbin; O’Keefe, Kevin; Webb, Lisa B.; DeGirolamo, Angela

2015-01-01

404

Guidelines for the treatment of head and neck venous malformations  

PubMed Central

Venous malformation is one of the most common benign vascular lesions, with approximately 40% of cases appearing in the head and neck. They can affect a patient’s appearance and functionality and even cause life-threatening bleeding or respiratory tract obstruction. The current methods of treatment include surgery, laser therapy, sclerotherapy, or a combined. The treatment of small and superficial venous malformations is relatively simple and effective; however, the treatment of deep and extensive lesions involving multiple anatomical sites remains a challenge for the physicians. For complex cases, the outcomes achieved with one single treatment approach are poor; therefore, individualized treatment modalities must be formulated based on the patient’s condition and the techniques available. Comprehensive multidisciplinary treatments have been adapted to achieve the most effective results. In this paper, based on the national and international literature, we formulated the treatment guidelines for head and neck venous malformations to standardize clinical practice. The guideline will be renewed and updated in a timely manner to reflect cutting-edge knowledge and to provide the best treatment modalities for patients. PMID:23724158

Zheng, Jia Wei; Mai, Hua Ming; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Yan An; Fan, Xin Dong; Su, Li Xin; Qin, Zhong Ping; Yang, Yao Wu; Jiang, Yin Hua; Zhao, Yi Fang; Suen, James Y

2013-01-01

405

Probing the Xenopus laevis inner ear transcriptome for biological function  

PubMed Central

Background The senses of hearing and balance depend upon mechanoreception, a process that originates in the inner ear and shares features across species. Amphibians have been widely used for physiological studies of mechanotransduction by sensory hair cells. In contrast, much less is known of the genetic basis of auditory and vestibular function in this class of animals. Among amphibians, the genus Xenopus is a well-characterized genetic and developmental model that offers unique opportunities for inner ear research because of the amphibian capacity for tissue and organ regeneration. For these reasons, we implemented a functional genomics approach as a means to undertake a large-scale analysis of the Xenopus laevis inner ear transcriptome through microarray analysis. Results Microarray analysis uncovered genes within the X. laevis inner ear transcriptome associated with inner ear function and impairment in other organisms, thereby supporting the inclusion of Xenopus in cross-species genetic studies of the inner ear. The use of gene categories (inner ear tissue; deafness; ion channels; ion transporters; transcription factors) facilitated the assignment of functional significance to probe set identifiers. We enhanced the biological relevance of our microarray data by using a variety of curation approaches to increase the annotation of the Affymetrix GeneChip® Xenopus laevis Genome array. In addition, annotation analysis revealed the prevalence of inner ear transcripts represented by probe set identifiers that lack functional characterization. Conclusions We identified an abundance of targets for genetic analysis of auditory and vestibular function. The orthologues to human genes with known inner ear function and the highly expressed transcripts that lack annotation are particularly interesting candidates for future analyses. We used informatics approaches to impart biologically relevant information to the Xenopus inner ear transcriptome, thereby addressing the impediment imposed by insufficient gene annotation. These findings heighten the relevance of Xenopus as a model organism for genetic investigations of inner ear organogenesis, morphogenesis, and regeneration. PMID:22676585

2012-01-01

406

Sp8 regulates inner ear development.  

PubMed

A forward genetic screen of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenized Xenopus tropicalis has identified an inner ear mutant named eclipse (ecl). Mutants developed enlarged otic vesicles and various defects of otoconia development; they also showed abnormal circular and inverted swimming patterns. Positional cloning identified specificity protein 8 (sp8), which was previously found to regulate limb and brain development. Two different loss-of-function approaches using transcription activator-like effector nucleases and morpholino oligonucleotides confirmed that the ecl mutant phenotype is caused by down-regulation of sp8. Depletion of sp8 resulted in otic dysmorphogenesis, such as uncompartmentalized and enlarged otic vesicles, epithelial dilation with abnormal sensory end organs. When overexpressed, sp8 was sufficient to induce ectopic otic vesicles possessing sensory hair cells, neurofilament innervation in a thickened sensory epithelium, and otoconia, all of which are found in the endogenous otic vesicle. We propose that sp8 is an important factor for initiation and elaboration of inner ear development. PMID:24722637

Chung, Hyeyoung A; Medina-Ruiz, Sofia; Harland, Richard M

2014-04-29

407

Sp8 regulates inner ear development  

PubMed Central

A forward genetic screen of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenized Xenopus tropicalis has identified an inner ear mutant named eclipse (ecl). Mutants developed enlarged otic vesicles and various defects of otoconia development; they also showed abnormal circular and inverted swimming patterns. Positional cloning identified specificity protein 8 (sp8), which was previously found to regulate limb and brain development. Two different loss-of-function approaches using transcription activator-like effector nucleases and morpholino oligonucleotides confirmed that the ecl mutant phenotype is caused by down-regulation of sp8. Depletion of sp8 resulted in otic dysmorphogenesis, such as uncompartmentalized and enlarged otic vesicles, epithelial dilation with abnormal sensory end organs. When overexpressed, sp8 was sufficient to induce ectopic otic vesicles possessing sensory hair cells, neurofilament innervation in a thickened sensory epithelium, and otoconia, all of which are found in the endogenous otic vesicle. We propose that sp8 is an important factor for initiation and elaboration of inner ear development. PMID:24722637

Chung, Hyeyoung A.; Medina-Ruiz, Sofia; Harland, Richard M.

2014-01-01

408

496. Phys. Lett A., (2006) A.G.Ramm, The shape of the ear canal The shape of the ear canal #+  

E-print Network

496. Phys. Lett A., (2006) A.G.Ramm, The shape of the ear canal 1 #12; The shape of the ear canal@math.ksu.edu Abstract It is proved that the measurement of the acoustic pressure on the ear membrane allows one to determine the shape of the ear canal uniquely. 1 Introduction Consider a bounded domain D # R n , n = 3

409

Within-ear and across-ear interference in a cocktail-party listening task Douglas S. Brungart1 and Brian D. Simpson2  

E-print Network

Within-ear and across-ear interference in a cocktail-party listening task Douglas S. Brungart1 talker is present in the same ear as the target speech or when a masking talker is present in a different ear than the target speech, little is known about selective auditory attention in tasks with a target

Allen, Jont

410

CHD7 and retinoic acid signaling cooperate to regulate neural stem cell and inner ear development in mouse models of CHARGE syndrome  

PubMed Central

CHARGE syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly disorder that leads to life-threatening birth defects, such as choanal atresia and cardiac malformations as well as multiple sensory impairments, that affect hearing, vision, olfaction and balance. CHARGE is caused by heterozygous mutations in CHD7, which encodes an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzyme. Identification of the mechanisms underlying neurological and sensory defects in CHARGE is a first step toward developing treatments for CHARGE individuals. Here, we used mouse models of Chd7 deficiency to explore the function of CHD7 in the development of the subventricular zone (SVZ) neural stem cell niche and inner ear, structures that are important for olfactory bulb neurogenesis and hearing and balance, respectively. We found that loss of Chd7 results in cell-autonomous proliferative, neurogenic and self-renewal defects in the perinatal and mature mouse SVZ stem cell niche. Modulation of retinoic acid (RA) signaling prevented in vivo inner ear and in vitro neural stem cell defects caused by Chd7 deficiency. Our findings demonstrate critical, cooperative roles for RA and CHD7 in SVZ neural stem cell function and inner ear development, suggesting that altered RA signaling may be an effective method for treating Chd7 deficiency. PMID:24026680

Micucci, Joseph A.; Layman, Wanda S.; Hurd, Elizabeth A.; Sperry, Ethan D.; Frank, Sophia F.; Durham, Mark A.; Swiderski, Donald L.; Skidmore, Jennifer M.; Scacheri, Peter C.; Raphael, Yehoash; Martin, Donna M.

2014-01-01

411

CHD7 and retinoic acid signaling cooperate to regulate neural stem cell and inner ear development in mouse models of CHARGE syndrome.  

PubMed

CHARGE syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly disorder that leads to life-threatening birth defects, such as choanal atresia and cardiac malformations as well as multiple sensory impairments, that affect hearing, vision, olfaction and balance. CHARGE is caused by heterozygous mutations in CHD7, which encodes an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzyme. Identification of the mechanisms underlying neurological and sensory defects in CHARGE is a first step toward developing treatments for CHARGE individuals. Here, we used mouse models of Chd7 deficiency to explore the function of CHD7 in the development of the subventricular zone (SVZ) neural stem cell niche and inner ear, structures that are important for olfactory bulb neurogenesis and hearing and balance, respectively. We found that loss of Chd7 results in cell-autonomous proliferative, neurogenic and self-renewal defects in the perinatal and mature mouse SVZ stem cell niche. Modulation of retinoic acid (RA) signaling prevented in vivo inner ear and in vitro neural stem cell defects caused by Chd7 deficiency. Our findings demonstrate critical, cooperative roles for RA and CHD7 in SVZ neural stem cell function and inner ear development, suggesting that altered RA signaling may be an effective method for treating Chd7 deficiency. PMID:24026680

Micucci, Joseph A; Layman, Wanda S; Hurd, Elizabeth A; Sperry, Ethan D; Frank, Sophia F; Durham, Mark A; Swiderski, Donald L; Skidmore, Jennifer M; Scacheri, Peter C; Raphael, Yehoash; Martin, Donna M

2014-01-15

412

21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and...

2010-04-01

413

21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or...

2011-04-01

414

21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or...

2012-04-01

415

21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and...

2014-04-01

416

21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light...

2012-04-01

417

21 CFR 874.3620 - Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3620 Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer...

2011-04-01

418

32 CFR 250.7 - Pertinent portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). 250.7 Section 250.7 National Defense...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). The following pertinent section of the EAR is provided for the guidance of DoD...

2014-07-01

419

21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or...

2013-04-01

420

21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications...externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and other inflammatory...

2012-04-01

421

21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and...

2013-04-01

422

21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4420 Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical...

2013-04-01

423

21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4420 Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical...

2010-04-01

424

21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications...externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and other inflammatory...

2010-04-01

425

21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug...

2013-04-01

426

21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4420 Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical...

2014-04-01

427

21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or...

2010-04-01

428

Anatomy of the Human Ear/Questions to Ask your Hearing Professional  

MedlinePLUS

... Section: Focus on Communication Anatomy of the Human Ear/ Questions to Ask your Hearing Professional Past Issues / ... A feeling of fullness or fluid in the ear Ringing in your ears (called tinnitus) Causes Aging ...

429

32 CFR 250.7 - Pertinent portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). 250.7 Section 250.7 National Defense...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). The following pertinent section of the EAR is provided for the guidance of DoD...

2011-07-01

430

22 CFR 120.42 - Subject to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Subject to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR). 120.42 Section 120.42 Foreign Relations...Subject to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR). Items “subject to the EAR” are those items listed on the Commerce...

2014-04-01

431

21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light...

2011-04-01

432

21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light...

2014-04-01

433

21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications...externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and other inflammatory...

2011-04-01

434

21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light...

2013-04-01

435

21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug...

2014-04-01

436

21 CFR 874.3620 - Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3620 Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer...

2010-04-01

437

32 CFR 250.7 - Pertinent portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). 250.7 Section 250.7 National Defense...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). The following pertinent section of the EAR is provided for the guidance of DoD...

2013-07-01

438

21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug...

2011-04-01

439

78 FR 55664 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Unverified List (UVL)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Unverified List (UVL) AGENCY: Bureau...the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) by: requiring exporters to file an Automated...record for all exports subject to the EAR involving a party or parties to the...

2013-09-11

440

21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug...

2010-04-01

441

32 CFR 250.7 - Pertinent portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). 250.7 Section 250.7 National Defense...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). The following pertinent section of the EAR is provided for the guidance of DoD...

2010-07-01

442

21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or...

2014-04-01

443

32 CFR 250.7 - Pertinent portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). 250.7 Section 250.7 National Defense...portions of Export Administration Regulations (EAR). The following pertinent section of the EAR is provided for the guidance of DoD...

2012-07-01

444

21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and...

2011-04-01

445

21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and...

2012-04-01

446

21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4420 Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical...

2011-04-01

447

21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug...

2012-04-01

448

78 FR 76741 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Unverified List (UVL)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Unverified List (UVL) AGENCY: Bureau...the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) by: Requiring exporters to file an Automated...record for all exports subject to the EAR involving a party or parties to the...

2013-12-19

449

21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. 524.1484d Section 524...hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment. (a) Specifications...externa in dogs and cats. In treatment of ear canker and other inflammatory...

2013-04-01

450

21 CFR 874.3620 - Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3620 Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer...

2014-04-01

451

21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light...

2010-04-01

452

21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4420 Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical...

2012-04-01

453

The radiation impedance of the external ear of cat:Measurements and applications  

E-print Network

The radiation impedance of the external ear of cat:Measurements and applications J.J. Rosowski not be relatedto auditory performancet). Althoughmeasurementshavebeenmadeof how the external ears affect structuralvariationsprovidesa naturalopportunitytolearnhowtheacousticfunctionofthe external ear is related to structure

Allen, Jont

454

21 CFR 874.3620 - Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3620 Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material. (a) Identification. Ear,...

2013-04-01

455

Haemangiomas and vascular malformations of the limb in children.  

PubMed

Haemangiomas and vascular malformations of the limb in children are often difficult to manage. The role of surgery and intervention in current management is still not clear. The aim of this study was to review our experience of such patients. Patients were identified using the health board database of inpatient admissions between 1999 and 2003. Clinical notes were reviewed and data collected looking at patient demographics, site of lesion, clinical findings, investigative procedures, intervention and follow-up. A total of 288 patients were identified with a diagnosis of "Haemangioma" or "vascular malformation". Thirty-eight of these patients were found to have limb haemangiomas or vascular malformations (20 boys and 18 girls). The median age at referral was 1.9 years (0-13.2). The clinical presentation included gigantism, swelling, bruising, bleeding and cosmetic concern. Cosmetic concerns and bleeding being the most frequent. Investigative modalities were used in 19 patients. These included ultrasound, CT, MRI and angiography. Many patients had more then one imaging modality employed. Treatment options included observation, steroids, laser, embolisation and surgical excision. Twenty-five patients (66%) required surgical intervention. Most patients were required one or two procedures, mainly laser or simple excision. However two patients required multiple procedures while one patient with Kasabach-Merritt syndrome required a limb amputation. Patients were followed-up for a median of 3.75 years (0.08-14). Two patients were lost to follow-up. Two patients were noted to have related psychological problems. Haemangiomas and vascular malformations of the limb can be associated with significant functional impairment, especially if they are extending to deeper tissue planes. Such patients are likely to require surgical intervention. For many patients referred to tertiary care, surgery is still the mainstay of treatment and the only curative option. Serious complications were more common in patients with arterio-venous malformations and Kasabach-Merritt syndrome. Two of 38 patients (5.3%) were referred for formal psychological assessment. Given the potential for psychological morbidity we fear this is an aspect of care that may be under-recognised and require further specialist input. PMID:17390139

Steven, Mairi; Kumaran, Nagarajan; Carachi, Robert; Desai, Ashish; Bennet, George

2007-06-01

456

21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12...OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 344.12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient...

2010-04-01

457

21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12...OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 344.12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient...

2014-04-01

458

21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12...OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 344.12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient...

2012-04-01

459

CT of adenomas of the middle ear and mastoid cavity  

SciTech Connect

A case of mixed type adenoma of the middle ear and mastoid is presented in which CT showed complete opacification of the middle ear and mastoid air cells with bulging of the tympanic membrane but without ossicular or bony destruction. 7 refs., 1 figs.

Van Thong Ho [McGuire Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Richmond, VA (United States); Rao, V.J.; Mikaelian, D.O. [Thomas Jefferson Univ. Hospital and Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

1996-03-01

460

Differential Intensity Sensitivity of the Ear for Pure Tones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ratio of the minimum perceptible increment in sound intensity to the total intensity, DeltaEE, which is called the differential sensitivity of the ear, was measured as a function of frequency and intensity. Measurements were made over practically the entire range of frequencies and intensities for which the ear is capable of sensation. The method used was that of beating

R. R. Riesz

1928-01-01

461

21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12...OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 344.12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient...

2013-04-01

462

21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12...OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 344.12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient...

2011-04-01

463

On the problem of barotrauma of the middle ear  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pressure damage to the middle ear in 74 cases of pressure trauma was studied. It was found that pressure trauma can be most serious with respect to reducing work capability of personnel in flight, and that pressure trauma of the middle ear developed with acute rhinitis.

Medvezhova, R. A.

1973-01-01

464

Preventing Cauliflower Ear with a Modified Tie-Through Technique.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a quick, simple tie-through suture technique (in which a collodion packing is secured to the auricle with two buttons) for preventing cauliflower ear following external ear trauma in wrestlers and boxers. The technique ensures constant compression; multiple treatments for fluid reaccumulation are rarely necessary. (SM)

Dimeff, Robert J.; Hough, David O.

1989-01-01

465

The maize rachis affects Aspergillus flavus movement during ear development  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used to follow infection in ears of maize hybrids resistant and susceptible to the fungus. Developing ears were needle-inoculated with GFP-transformed A. flavus 20 days after silk emergence, and GFP fluorescence in the pith was evalu...

466

Identifying position, visibility, dimensions, and angulation of the ear.  

PubMed

We selected 254 subjects between the ages of 18 and 30 yr to assess the ear position, angulations of the ear in relation to the nose, visibility from the frontal view, and dimensions of the ear by using various anthropometric points of the face. Subjects were divided into four groups based on facial form. A reference plane indicator, facial topographical measurements, metal ruler, and digital photography were used. While considering the position of the ear, in all facial forms except square tapering, the most samples showed a tendency for the subaurale being in line with subnasale. Regression analysis showed a tendency to gnathion distance is the most dependent variable with length of the ear kept as a constant predictor, while both interalar distance and exocanthion to endocanthion distance correlate highly significantly to the width of the ear. In all subjects, the visibility of the ear when viewed from the front was an average of 1.5 mm. Regardless of facial form, ear angulation was generally less than nose angulation. PMID:25144173

Mohamed, Kasim; Christian, Jayanth; Jeyapalan, Karthigeyan; Natarajan, Shanmuganathan; Banu, Fathima; Veeravalli, Padmanabhan T

2014-01-01

467

Development of the vertebrate ear: insights from knockouts and mutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three divisions of the ear (outer, middle and inner) each have an important role in hearing, while the inner ear is also crucial for the sense of balance. How these three major components arise and coalesce to form the peripheral elements of the senses of hearing and balance is now being studied using molecular-genetic approaches. This article summarizes data

Donna M. Fekete

1999-01-01

468

Fundamental immune mechanisms of the brain and inner ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the blood-brain and blood-labyrinthine barriers, the brain and inner ear were once thought to be immunoprivileged sites. Although these barriers provide protection from inflammatory damage to the delicate structures of the organs, both sites have since been shown to be capable of active immune responses when appropriately stimulated. In the inner ear, perisacular tissue around the endolymphatic sac

JEFFREY P. HARRIS; ALLEN F. RYAN

1995-01-01

469

Pulsed Nd:YAG laser welding of titanium ear implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three different prototypes of ear implants have been successfully produced using Nd-YAG laser welding. The prototypes differ in use and dimensions. This presentation will deal with the latest developed ear implant, i.e. a box containing special electronics inside. The implant has to be He leak tight, the weld penetration should be between 50 and 65% of the cover in order

Jan Gedopt; Erwin Delarbre

2000-01-01

470

Middle Ear Resonance and Acoustic Immittance Measures in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study established a normal middle ear resonance estimated from sweep frequency tympanometry, established normal equivalent ear canal volume, static acoustic admittance, and tympanometric peak pressure at 226 hertz in 90 children with normal hearing and 68 children with deafness, ages 6-15. No significant intergroup or age differences were…

Hanks, Wendy D.; Rose, Katie J.

1993-01-01

471

Replantation of an avulsed ear, using a single arterial anastamosis.  

PubMed

Avulsion of the ear is relatively uncommon and replantation a technical challenge. A case in which an avulsed ear was successfully replanted using a single arterial anastamosis is described. The surgical difficulties encountered, the pharmaceutical approach to postoperative care and the problems which resulted from the lack of venous drainage are discussed. PMID:18061545

O'Toole, G; Bhatti, K; Masood, S

2008-01-01

472

[Significance of the ear in the determination of age].  

PubMed

The morphology of human ear conch is said to be rather individual, but a perfect person-identification by this mean is not possible. It is demonstrated by photographs-made in a 15 years' interval-that ear conch and auricular area can be typically marked by proceeding age and specific diseases. PMID:3741048

Röhm, E; Adam, E

1986-01-01

473

Inner ear symptoms and disease: Pathophysiological understanding and therapeutic options  

PubMed Central

In recent years, huge advances have taken place in understanding of inner ear pathophysiology causing sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. Advances in understanding comprise biochemical and physiological research of stimulus perception and conduction, inner ear homeostasis, and hereditary diseases with underlying genetics. This review describes and tabulates the various causes of inner ear disease and defines inner ear and non-inner ear causes of hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. The aim of this review was to comprehensively breakdown this field of otorhinolaryngology for specialists and non-specialists and to discuss current therapeutic options in distinct diseases and promising research for future therapies, especially pharmaceutic, genetic, or stem cell therapy. PMID:24362017

Ciuman, Raphael R.

2013-01-01

474

A syndromal and an isolated form of uterine arteriovenous malformations: two case-reports.  

PubMed

Uterine arteriovenous malformations are rare lesions with a considerable risk potential. Clinical presentation varies from no signs over various degrees of menorrhagia to massive life threatening vaginal bleeding. This is the first report of congenital uterine arteriovenous malformations in two patients with primary infertility. In one case, the uterine lesions were found in conjunction with other congenital malformations suggesting the diagnosis of hemihyperplasia/lipomatosis syndrome. Etiology, symptoms, diagnostic and therapeutic work-up are discussed; pathological findings are illustrated. PMID:11728664

Geerinckx, I; Willemsen, W; Hanselaar, T

2001-12-10

475

Self-Ear-Cleaning Among Educated Young Adults in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Context: Self-ear-cleaning has been reported to be common from several hospital-based studies and it has been associated with some diseases of the ear. Aims: To determine community-based prevalence of self-ear-cleaning and its sociodemographic correlates among educated young adults in Nigeria. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional survey conducted in a National Youth Service Corps camp in Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: Semistructured questionnaires were administered on a randomly selected sample of 1280 respondents. The outcome variable was self-ear-cleaning. Independent variables were sociodemographic variables, materials used and ear-cleaning habits. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15 was utilized for univariate, bivariate, and multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: There were 1012 respondents (M: F = 1.05:1). Mean age was 25.3 (standard deviation, 2.34). Prevalence of self-ear-cleaning was 93.4%. Mean age at first cleaning was 7.6 years. Cotton buds were the most frequently used objects (in 85.1%). Prevalence was high irrespective of sociodemographic class, significantly higher among females (?2 = 4.549, P = 0.033), those who believed the habit was beneficial (?2 = 114.185, P < 0.001) and those whose parents and siblings practiced the habit. Significant predictive factors were self-ear-cleaning in respondent's father [odds ratio (OR) P = 0.011) and owning cotton buds (OR = 0.192, P = 0.007). Conclusions: Self-ear-cleaning is almost universal. Most of the population is, therefore, at risk of possible harmful effects. Also, medical advice against self-ear-cleaning is not widely known. Rather, the erroneous perception that self-ear-cleaning is beneficial is common. Collaborative health education efforts targeted at families and schools and campaigns and advocacy for legislation regulating the sale of cotton buds are recommended. PMID:24791230

Olaosun, Adedayo Olugbenga

2014-01-01

476

"Play It by Ear"--Teachers' Responses to Ear-Playing Tasks during One-to-One Instrumental Lessons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports findings from the Ear-Playing Project in relation to the teaching strategies that 15 instrumental teachers adopted during one-to-one instrumental lessons whilst helping their students to copy music by ear from a recording. Overall, the teachers used a variety of strategies including singing and humming along with or without the…

Varvarigou, Maria

2014-01-01

477

Fgf8 and Fgf3 are required for zebrafish ear placode induction, maintenance and inner ear patterning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vertebrate inner ear develops from initially ‘simple’ ectodermal placode and vesicle stages into the complex three-dimensional structure which is necessary for the senses of hearing and equilibrium. Although the main morphological events in vertebrate inner ear development are known, the genetic mechanisms controlling them are scarcely understood. Previous studies have suggested that the otic placode is induced by signals

Sophie Léger; Michael Brand

2002-01-01

478

The comparative anatomy of the pig middle ear cavity: a model for middle ear inflammation in the human?  

PubMed Central

This study was undertaken to develop a functional model of otitis media with effusion (OME) in the pig (Sus scrofa), with the purpose of investigating the origin of lymphocytes populating the middle ear during the course of an inflammatory process. The relevance of the model to the human condition of OME is to a large extent dependent on the anatomical and physiological similarities between the middle ear cavity and the pharyngeal lymphoid tissue of the pig and man. Anatomical specimens were collected from 7 young Large White pigs to determine the gross anatomy of the middle ear cavity and the histological characteristics of the middle ear mucosa. It was found that the anatomy of the 3 parts of the middle ear cavity in man and in the pig is broadly similar, although some minor differences were observed. The porcine eustachian tube was seen to be cartilaginous throughout its length in contrast to the part osseous, part cartilaginous structure found in man; the porcine ossicles were slightly different in shape to those of man and the air cell system was situated inferior to the tympanic cavity in the pig as opposed to posteriorly in man. This paper describes the structure and morphology of the pig middle ear cavity and compares and contrasts it with that of man. The minor differences observed are of anatomical importance but do not diminish the usefulness of the pig middle ear cleft as a potential model for human middle ear disorders. PMID:9688502

PRACY, J. P.; WHITE, A.; MUSTAFA, Y.; SMITH, D.; PERRY, M. E.

1998-01-01

479

The genetics of auricular development and malformation: new findings in model systems driving future directions for microtia research.  

PubMed

Microtia is a term used to describe a wide array of phenotypic presentations of the outer ear. Although the majority of the cases are isolated in nature, much of our understanding of the causes of microtia has been driven by the identification of genes underlying syndromic forms where the anomaly co-presents with various other craniofacial and extra-craniofacial structural defects. In this review we discuss recent findings in mice deficient in Hoxa2, a key regulator of branchial arch patterning, which has necessitated a revision to the canonical model of pinna morphogenesis. The revised model will likely impact current classification schemes for microtia and, as we argue in this review, the interpretation of the developmental basis for various auricular malformations. In addition, we highlight recent studies in other mammalian species that are providing the first clues as to possible causes of at least some isolated anomalies and thus should now accelerate the search for the more elusive genetic contributions to the many isolated and non-syndromic cases of microtia. These findings, together with the application of new genome-level sequencing technologies and more thorough quantitative assessment of available mutant mouse resources, promise an exciting future for genetic studies in microtia. PMID:24880027

Cox, Timothy C; Camci, Esra D; Vora, Siddharth; Luquetti, Daniela V; Turner, Eric E

2014-08-01

480

Analysis of Earing in Deep Drawn Cups  

SciTech Connect

The cup-drawing of a strongly anisotropic sheet metal is simulated using a commercial finite element software along with a user material subroutine. In order to accurately describe the plastic anisotropy of the material the well-known recent yield function 'Yld2004-18p' is extended. Regarding the experimental characterization of the considered material the occurrence of dynamic strain aging lead to an oscillating signal of the width change of the tensile samples, which prevented a reliable determination of plastic strain ratios (r-values). Thus, an improved measurement concept was developed that leads to a very robust and reproducible determination of r-values. Furthermore, a novel plane-strain tensile test sample is presented which is used for the characterization of the plastic anisotropy in biaxial loading states. A quantitative comparison with measured earing profiles of deep drawn cups illustrates the predictive capabilities of the numerical simulation.

Aretz, Holger; Aegerter, Johannes; Engler, Olaf [Hydro Aluminium Deutschland GmbH, Research and Development, Georg-von-Boeselager-Str. 21, D-53117 Bonn (Germany)

2010-06-15

481

3D visualization of middle ear structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The achievement of volume geometry data from middle ear structures and surrounding components performs a necessary supposition for the finite element simulation of the vibrational and transfer characteristics of the ossicular chain. So far those models base on generalized figures and size data from anatomy textbooks or particular manual and one- or two-dimensional distance measurements of single ossicles, mostly obtained by light microscopy, respectively. Therefore the goal of this study is to create a procedure for complete three-dimensional imaging of real middle ear structures (tympanic membrane, ossicles, ligaments) in vitro or even in vivo. The main problems are their microscopic size with relevant structures from 10 micrometer to 5 mm, representing various tissue properties (bone, soft tissue). Additionally, these structures are surrounded by the temporal bone, the most solid bone of the human body. Generally there exist several established diagnostic tools for medical imaging that could be used for geometry data acquisition, e.g., X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Basically they image different tissue parameters, either bony structures (ossicles), or soft tissue (tympanic membrane, ligaments). But considering this application those standard techniques allow low spatial resolution only, usually in the 0.5 - 1mm range, at least in one spatial direction. Thus particular structures of the middle ear region could even be missed completely because of their spatial location. In vitro there is a way out by collecting three complete data sets, each distinguished by 90 degree rotation of a cube-shaped temporal bone specimen. That allows high-resolution imaging in three orthogonal planes, which essentially supports the three-dimensional interpolation of the unknown elements, starting from the regularly set elements of the cubic grid with an edge extension given by the original two-dimensional matrix. A different approach represents the application of a micro- tomographic imaging device. Therefore an X-ray beam focused down to few microns passes the object in a tomographic arrangement. Subsequently the slices become reconstructed. Generally spatial resolution down to 10 micrometer may be obtained by using this procedure. But there exist few devices only, it is not available as standard equipment. The best results concerning spatial resolution should be achieved by applying conventional histologic sectioning techniques. Of course the target will become destroyed during the procedure. It is cut into sections (e.g., 10 micrometer thick), every layer is stained, and the image acquired and stored by a digital still-camera with appropriate resolution (e.g., 2024 X 3036). Three-dimensional reconstruction is done with the computer. The staining allows visual selection of bones and soft tissues, resolutions down to 10 micrometer are possible without target segmentation. But there arise some practical problems. Mainly the geometric context of the layers is affected by the cutting procedure, especially if cutting bone. Another problem performs the adjustment of the -- possibly distorted -- slices to each other. Artificial markers are necessary, which could allow automatic adjustment too. But the introduction and imaging of the markers is difficult inside the temporal bone specimen, that is interspersed by several cavities. Of course the internal target structures must not be destroyed by the marker introduction. Furthermore the embedding compound could disturb the image acquisition, e.g., by optical scattering of paraffin. A related alternative is given by layered ablation/grinding and imaging of the top layer. This saves the geometric consistency, but requires very tricky and time-consuming embedding procedures. Both approaches require considerable expenditures. The possible approaches are evaluated in detail and first results are compared. So far none of the above-mentioned procedures has been established as a standard tool for three-dimensional geometry data acquisition of the middle ear. Otherwise the establi

Vogel, Uwe; Schmitt, Thomas

1998-06-01

482

Relapsing Polychondritis: Inflamed Joints and Ears  

PubMed Central

Background: Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is an episodic and progressive inflammatory disease of the cartilaginous structures, including elastic cartilage of the ear and nose, hyaline cartilage of the peripheral joints, fibrocartilage at axial sites, and cartilage of the tracheo-bronchial tree. The spectrum of its presentations may vary from intermittent mild episodes of chondritis to occasional organ involvement or even life-threatening manifestations. Case Report: We presented a 64 year-old male patient with bilaterally knee arthritis and discoloration of pinna. Conclusion: There is lack of awareness about this disease due to its rarity. With this case presentation, our goal was to draw attention to this disease, which could be delayed for the diagnosis.

Meliko?lu, Meltem Alkan; ?enel, Kaz?m

2015-01-01

483

Passage of albumin from the middle ear to the inner ear in otitis media in the chinchilla  

SciTech Connect

A study of the permeability of the middle ear-inner ear interface for macromolecules was carried out in chinchillas with open and obstructed eustachian tubes utilizing tritiated human serum albumin and immunoelectrophoresis. Tritiated albumin was placed in the round window niche area or normal animals and animals in which the eustachian tubes had been obstructed for 24 hours or 14 days. The tritiated albumin was allowed to remain in the middle ear cavity for 24 hours, Samples of middle ear effusion, perilymph, blood and cerebrospinal fluid were collected and measured for radioactivity. Radioactivity was demonstrated in the perilymph. Samples of middle ear effusions and perilymph were also studied by immunoelectrophoresis with goat antihuman albumin. Albumin placed in the round window niche of an experimental animal could be recovered unchanged in the perilymph. The results suggest a pathophysiologic explanation for the association of otitis media and sensorineural hearing loss or endolymphatic hydrops.

Goldberg, B.; Goycoolea, M.V.; Schleivert, P.M.; Shea, D.; Schachern, P.; Paparella, M.M.; Carpenter, A.M.

1981-08-01

484

Symptoms of Sleep Disordered Breathing in Children with Craniofacial Malformations  

PubMed Central

Study Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) symptoms in a clinical sample of children with congenital craniofacial malformations (CFM) followed at a tertiary medical center and non-selected for sleep problems. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 575 children aged 2-18 years followed at the Craniofacial Anomalies Program between March 2007 and May 2011. The Sleep-Related Breathing Disturbance scale of the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire was used to screen for SDB, snoring, and sleepiness. A cutoff value ? 0.33 of the total answered questions identified children with positive screening for SDB symptoms. Results: Overall, 25% of children screened positive for SDB, 28% for snoring, and 20% for sleepiness. In children with non-syndromic CFM, those with Robin sequence had the highest frequency of SDB, snoring, and sleepiness (43%, 44%, and 38%, respectively). In children with syndromic CFM, velocardiofacial/ DiGeorge syndrome had the highest frequency of SDB and sleepiness (48% and 43%, respectively). Children with Treacher Collins had the highest frequency of snoring (83%). The presence of cleft palate was not associated with an increased frequency of SDB symptoms. Nevertheless, children with syndromic CFM, compared to those with non-syndromic CFM, had a higher SDB score (0.27 ± 0.21 vs.0.21 ± 0.19, p = 0.003) and were more likely to have sleepiness (26% vs. 18%, p = 0.05). Conclusions: Congenital craniofacial malformations in children are associated with high risk for SDB symptoms. Our findings should encourage a high index of suspicion for SDB in children with CFM, with a low threshold for further testing and close follow-up. Citation: Moraleda-Cibrián M; Edwards SP; Kasten SJ; Berger M; Buchman SR; O'Brien LM. Symptoms of sleep disordered breathing in children with craniofacial malformations. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(3):307-312. PMID:24634629

Moraleda-Cibrián, Marta; Edwards, Sean P.; Kasten, Steven J.; Berger, Mary; Buchman, Steven R.; O'Brien, Louise M.

2014-01-01

485

Mutations in ?- and ?-tubulin encoding genes: implications in brain malformations.  

PubMed

The tubulin gene family is mainly expressed in post-mitotic neurons during cortical development with a specific spatial and temporal expression pattern. Members of this family encode dimeric proteins consisting of two closely related subunits (? and ?), representing the major constituents of microtubules. Tubulin genes play a crucial role in the mechanisms of the Central Nervous System development such as neuronal migration and axonal guidance (axon outgrowth and maintenance). Different mutations in ?/?-tubulin genes (TUBA1A, TUBA8, TUBB2A, TUBB4A, TUBB2B, TUBB3, and TUBB) might alter the dynamic properties and functions of microtubules in several ways, effecting a reduction in the number of functional tubulin heterodimers and causing alterations in GTP binding and disruptions of the binding of other proteins to microtubules (motor proteins and other microtubule interacting proteins). In recent years an increasing number of brain malformations has been associated with mutations in tubulin genes: malformations of cortical development such as lissencephaly and various grades of gyral disorganization, focal or diffuse polymicrogyria and open or closed-lips schizencephaly as likely consequences of an altered neuronal migration process; abnormalities or agenesis of the midline commissural structures (anterior commissure, corpus callosum and fornix), hypoplasia of the oculomotor and optic nerves, dysmorphisms of the hind-brain as expression of axon guidance disorders. Dysmorphisms of the basal ganglia (fusion between the caudate nucleus and putamen with absence of the anterior limb of the internal capsule) and hippocampi were also observed. A rare form of leukoencephalopathy characterized by hypomyelination with atrophy of the basal ganglia an cerebellum (H-ABC) was also recently described. The present review, describing the structural and functional features of tubulin genes, aims to revise the main cerebral associated malformations and related clinical aspects, suggesting a genotype-phenotype correlation. PMID:25008804

Romaniello, Romina; Arrigoni, Filippo; Bassi, Maria Teresa; Borgatti, Renato

2015-03-01

486

Late presentation of congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung  

SciTech Connect

Although most often recognized in neonates and young children, congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung (CCAM) occasionally appears in later years. Three patients, aged 35, 24, and 7 years, are reported. Chest radiographs in each case suggested a localized patchy density, a cystic mass, or a multicystic mass, but computed tomography (CT) best demonstrated the cystic and solid components while ruling out bronchiectasis or major bronchial obstruction. Bronchography contributed no further diagnostic information compared with CT. Each patient underwent lobectomy. Histologically, the characteristic overgrowth of bronchiolar elements replacing normal parenchymal architecture was accompanied by some superimposed inflammatory change.

Hulnick, D.H.; Naidich, D.P.; McCauley, D.I.; Feiner, H.D.; Avitabile, A.M.; Greco, M.A.; Genieser, N.B.

1984-06-01

487

[Some features of the nose in craniofacial malformations].  

PubMed

In craniofacial malformations, the nose is variably affected: in its location, its shape or by lack of development. In this short chapter, some of the common problems encountered by the specialized teams are summarized. Craniofacial astronomies can modify the skeleton of the nose during growth, sometime at an early age. However, most rhinoplasties are performed at adulthood. The nasal pyramid may present deformations that produce functional and aesthetics impairment that should be treated when necessary. Respiratory problems should be recognized as early as possible and treated in priority. PMID:25303936

Arnaud, E

2014-12-01

488

Polypoid Arteriovenous Malformation Presenting with Jejunojejunal Intussusceptions in an Adult  

PubMed Central

Jejunal polypoid arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and jejunojejunal intussusceptions are both rare. Here, we present the case of a 61-year-old woman who suffered intermittent episodes of abdominal pain over the course of 13 years. A computed tomography scan of her abdomen and pelvis revealed a distal jejunojejunal intussusception. A suspected low density mass was observed at the tip of the intussusception. Treatment comprised laparoscopic small bowel resection with end-to-end jejunostomy. The final diagnosis was a polypoid AVM measuring 5×3.5×3 cm. We suggest that polypoid AVM should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with small intestinal neoplasms. PMID:25505727

Lim, Doo-Ho; Seo, Myeongsook; Yun, Ji Hyun; Kim, Tae Hyung; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Kim, Jin-Ho; Park, Young Soo

2014-01-01

489

Treatment of vascular malformation of the gastrointestinal tract  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vascular malformations of the gastrointestinal tract are rare phenomenon. They are generally manifested by upper or lower GI - bleeding and do not resolve spontaneously. Emergency intervention is necessary. This paper reports on 10 cases, treated in the Dept. of Pediatric surgery of the FU Berlin, recorded from 1981 to 1999. We use the Nd:YAG laser 1064 nm, Fibertom 5100, Dornier, Germany, with a 600nm barefiber. Reduction in size of the hemangiomas and stop of the GI-bleeding was achieved in all cases.

Waldschmidt, Juergen; Stroedter, L.; Doede, T.; Kischkel, A.

2000-06-01

490

3D Ear Identification Based on Sparse Representation  

PubMed Central

Biometrics based personal authentication is an effective way for automatically recognizing, with a high confidence, a person’s identity. Recently, 3D ear shape has attracted tremendous interests in research field due to its richness of feature and ease of acquisition. However, the existing ICP (Iterative Closet Point)-based 3D ear matching methods prevalent in the literature are not quite efficient to cope with the one-to-many identification case. In this paper, we aim to fill this gap by proposing a novel effective fully automatic 3D ear identification system. We at first propose an accurate and efficient template-based ear detection method. By utilizing such a method, the extracted ear regions are represented in a common canonical coordinate system determined by the ear contour template, which facilitates much the following stages of feature extraction and classification. For each extracted 3D ear, a feature vector is generated as its representation by making use of a PCA-based local feature descriptor. At the stage of classification, we resort to the sparse representation based classification approach, which actually solves an l1-minimization problem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work introducing the sparse representation framework into the field of 3D ear identification. Extensive experiments conducted on a benchmark dataset corroborate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach. The associated Matlab source code and the evaluation results have been made publicly online available at http://sse.tongji.edu.cn/linzhang/ear/srcear/srcear.htm. PMID:24740247

Zhang, Lin; Ding, Zhixuan; Li, Hongyu; Shen, Ying

2014-01-01

491

Cells, molecules and morphogenesis: The making of the vertebrate ear  

PubMed Central

The development and evolution of mechanosensory cells and the vertebrate ear is reviewed with an emphasis on delineating the cellular, molecular and developmental basis of these changes. Outgroup comparisons suggests that mechanosensory cells are ancient features of multicellular organisms. Molecular evidence suggests that key genes involved in mechanosensory cell function and development are also conserved among metazoans. The divergent morphology of mechanosensory cells across phyla is interpreted here as ‘deep molecular homology’ that was in parallel shaped into different forms in each lineage. The vertebrate mechanosensory hair cell and its associated neuron are interpreted as uniquely derived features of vertebrates. It is proposed that the vertebrate otic placode presents a unique embryonic adaptation in which the diffusely distributed ancestral mechanosensory cells became concentrated to generate a large neurosensory precursor population. Morphogenesis of the inner ear is reviewed and shown to depend on genes expressed in and around the hindbrain that interact with the otic placode to define boundaries and polarities. These patterning genes affect downstream genes needed to maintain proliferation and to execute ear morphogenesis. We propose that fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors (FGFRs) are a crucial central node to translate patterning into the complex morphology of the vertebrate ear. Unfortunately, the FGF and FGFR genes have not been fully analyzed in the many mutants with morphogenetic ear defects described thus far. Likewise, little information exists on the ear histogenesis and neurogenesis in many mutants. Nevertheless, a molecular mechanism is now emerging for the formation of the horizontal canal, an evolutionary novelty of the gnathostome ear. The existing general module mediating vertical canal growth and morphogenesis was modified by two sets of new genes: one set responsible for horizontal canal morphogenesis and another set for neurosensory formation of the horizontal crista and associated sensory neurons. The dramatic progress in deciphering the molecular basis of ear morphogenesis offers grounds for optimism for translational research toward intervention in human morphogenetic defects of the ear. PMID:16643865

Fritzsch, Bernd; Pauley, Sarah; Beisel, Kirk W.

2014-01-01

492

Tumors and tumorlike lesions of dog and cat ears.  

PubMed

Bacterial and fungal otitis constitutes most ear disease in companion animals. However, a wide spectrum of infectious and noninfectious disease processes involve the structures of the ear and are of primary diagnostic consideration in cases of recurrent otitis or those refractive to traditional treatments. This article discusses several common to reasonably rare neoplastic and nonneoplastic space-occupying lesions of the external, middle, and internal ear. Although some conditions present as unique entities, many present similar to or concurrent with otitis, and should be considered in cases of clinically unresponsive otitis. PMID:23122175

Sula, Mee Ja M

2012-11-01

493

Shaping sound in space: the regulation of inner ear patterning  

PubMed Central

The inner ear is one of the most morphologically elaborate tissues in vertebrates, containing a group of mechanosensitive sensory organs that mediate hearing and balance. These organs are arranged precisely in space and contain intricately patterned sensory epithelia. Here, we review recent studies of inner ear development and patterning which reveal that multiple stages of ear development – ranging from its early induction from the embryonic ectoderm to the establishment of the three cardinal axes and the fine-grained arrangement of sensory cells – are orchestrated by gradients of signaling molecules. PMID:22186725

Groves, Andrew K.; Fekete, Donna M.

2012-01-01

494

A Case of Atypical Granuloma Annulare Involving Both Ears  

PubMed Central

We report a rare case of granuloma annulare (GA), affecting both ear antihelixes, in a 28-year old male patient that presented with a 1-year history of non-tender, firm, skin-colored, 1~5 mm papules on both ear antihelixes. There was no history of trauma. An excisional biopsy specimen taken from one of the lesions of the right ear revealed infiltration of histiocytes and lymphocytes around a zone of collagen alteration in the dermis. Based on the clinical and pathological findings, the patient was diagnosed with a rare case of bilateral GA of both antihelixes; this is the first report in the Korean dermatology literature. PMID:20523836

Kim, Jin Gu; Lee, Seung Hun

2009-01-01

495

Patterns of ear disease in the southwestern American Indian.  

PubMed

Native Americans are predisposed to one of the highest incidences of otitis media in mankind. The origin of otitis media in Indians remains multifaceted. However, an unusually high prevalence of congenital anomalies of the ear and oral cavity, ie, oral clefts, facial paralysis in diabetics, and the absence of otosclerosis, suggest racial inheritance as a predominant factor for their pattern or ear disease. An analysis of outpatient and operative records at the Phoenix (Ariz) Indian Medical Center substantiates this hypothesis and shows contrasts in ear disease between American Indians and white persons. PMID:454296

Wiet, R J

1979-07-01

496

COMPARING THE EFFECTS OF RETINOIC ACID ON AMPHIBIAN LIMB DEVELOPMENT AND LETHALITY: CHRONIC EXPOSURE RESULTS IN LETHALITY NOT LIMB MALFORMATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Recently, high frequencies of malformations have been reported in amphibians across the United States. It has been suggested that the malformations may be the result of xenobiotic disruption of retinoid signaling pathways during embryogenesis and tadpole development. Therefore, a...

497

Model organisms inform the search for the genes and developmental pathology underlying malformations of the human hindbrain  

PubMed Central

Congenital malformations the human hindbrain, including the cerebellum, are poorly understood largely because their recognition is a relatively recent advance for imaging diagnostics. Cerebellar malformations are the most obvious and best characterized hindbrain malformations due to their relative ease to view by MRI and the recent identification of several causative genes1. Malformations of the pons and medulla have also been described both in isolation and in association with cerebellar malformations2. Although little is understood regarding the specific developmental pathologies underlying hindbrain malformations in humans, much is known regarding the mechanisms and genes driving hindbrain development in vertebrate model organisms. Thus, studies in vertebrate models provide a developmental framework in which to categorize human hindbrain malformations and serve to inform our thinking regarding disrupted developmental processes and candidate genes. Here we survey the basic principles of vertebrate hindbrain development and integrate our current knowledge of human hindbrain malformations into this framework. PMID:19778712

Aldinger, Kimberly A.; Elsen, Gina E.; Prince, Victoria E.; Millen, Kathleen J.

2009-01-01

498

Previously apparently undescribed syndrome: Shallow orbits, ptosis, coloboma, trigonocephaly, gyral malformations, and mental and growth retardation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe 2 children with severe ptosis, trigonocephaly, broad nasal bridge, and major brain malformation. A total of 8 children have been reported who share most of these findings. Two of the individuals have had identical pericentric inversions involving chromosome 2p12-q14. These cases appear to represent a unique malformation syndrome. 14 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Jeanette C. Ramer; R. L. Ladda; A. E. Lin; Robin Winter; Ségolène Aymé; Rosanna Pallotta

1995-01-01

499

Leaping lopsided: a review of the current hypotheses regarding etiologies of limb malformations in frogs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent progress in the investigation of limb malformations in free-living frogs has underlined the wide range in the types of limb malformations and the apparent spatiotemporal clustering of their occurrence. Here, we review the current understanding of normal and abnormal vertebrate limb development and regeneration and discuss some of the molecular events that may bring about limb malformation. Consideration of the differences between limb development and regeneration in amphibians has led us to the hypothesis that some of the observed limb malformations come about through misdirected regeneration. We report the results of a pilot study that supports this hypothesis. In this study, the distal aspect of the right hindlimb buds of X. laevis tadpoles was amputated at the pre-foot paddle stage. The tadpoles were raised in water from a pond in Minnesota at which 7% of surveyed newly metamorphosed feral frogs had malformations. Six percent (6 of 100) of the right limbs of the tadpoles raised in pond water developed abnormally. One truncated right limb was the only malformation in the control group, which was raised in dechlorinated municipal water. All unamputated limbs developed normally in both groups. Three major factors under consideration for effecting the limb malformations are discussed. These factors include environmental chemicals (primarily agrichemicals), encysted larvae (metacercariae) of trematode parasites, and increased levels of ultraviolet light. Emphasis is placed on the necessary intersection of environmental stressors and developmental events to bring about the specific malformations that are observed in free-living frog populations.

Loeffler, I.K.; Stocum, D.L.; Fallon, J.F.; Meteyer, C.U.

2001-01-01

500

A review of contemporary options for medical management of hemangiomas, other vascular tumors, and vascular malformations.  

PubMed

Vascular anomalies include vascular tumors and vascular malformations. With growing pharmacologic options and parallels to cancer treatment and biology, the hematologist-oncologist has assumed a more prominent role in clinical care and research relating to these diagnoses. This also is a growing area for targeted therapies and drug repositioning. We performed a review of contemporary options for medical management of these lesions. PubMed was searched for "vascular anomaly", "hemangioma", "vascular malformation", "arteriovenous malformation", "capillary malformation", "cerebral cavernous malformation", "lymphatic malformation", and "venous malformation", each with "drug treatment" as a modifier. Manuscripts were reviewed to verify diagnoses, indications for treatment, dose-schedules, evidence of effectiveness, toxicities, and mechanisms of action. ClinicalTrials.gov also was reviewed for relevant trials. More than 20 agents were identified which have been used to treat vascular anomalies. Rigorous studies are lacking for many of these. The rarity of these tumors has limited development of medical approaches to treatment. Cooperative group trials will be needed to prove the effectiveness of drugs which have shown promise in cases and small series. The observant clinician remains a powerful tool for identifying potential new treatments for vascular tumors and malformations. PMID:23665062

Blatt, Julie; McLean, Thomas W; Castellino, Sharon M; Burkhart, Craig N

2013-09-01