Note: This page contains sample records for the topic ear malformation cardiospondylocarpofacial from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

The ear and its malformations: strange beliefs and misconceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To explore the strange beliefs and misconceptions related to the ear and its malformations, and how these have changed from ancient times until today.Methods. Ancient documents, journal articles, and history books were studied to research ancient and current beliefs and misconceptions with regard to the ear and its malformations.Results. The ear has been the centre of various beliefs and

Irene E Gamatsi; Thomas P Nikolopoulos; Dimitra E Lioumi

2003-01-01

2

Congenital malformations of the external and middle ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the focus on imaging, this paper gives a summarized view of the present knowledge on fields, which are necessary to know for a profound understanding of congenital malformations of the external and middle ear. Typical and less typical combinations of malformed parts of the ear can be derived from the embryogenesis. Clinical signs and audiometric findings lead to diagnosis

S. Kösling; M. Omenzetter; S. Bartel-Friedrich

2009-01-01

3

Inner ear malformations in patients with sensorineural hearing loss: detection with gradient-echo (3DFT-CISS) MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity of different MRI sequences in the detection of inner ear malformations in patients presenting with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and\\/or vertigo was evaluated. We studied 650 patients presenting with SNHL and\\/or vertigo, clinically not suspected of having inner ear malformations. The sensitivity of T1-weighted, Gd-enhanced T1-weighted and (when available) T2-weighted spin-echo images, and three-dimensional Fourier transformation-constructive interference in

J. W. Casselman; R. Kuhweide; W. Ampe; G. D'Hont; E. F. Offeciers; W. K. Faes; G. Pattyn

1996-01-01

4

Evaluation of the Carhart effect in congenital middle ear malformation with both an intact external ear canal and a mobile stapes footplate.  

PubMed

The medical charts of 41 ears with congenital middle ear malformation with both an intact external ear canal and a mobile stapes footplate were reviewed retrospectively to study the Carhart effect. The operations were categorized as successful or unsuccessful according to the extent of decrease in the average air-bone gap. Statistically significant differences were observed between the 2 groups with respect to the changes in pure-tone average and the changes in the bone conduction (BC) threshold at 1 and 2 kHz. Linear regression analysis revealed weak correlations between the change in the BC threshold and the postoperative BC threshold at an overall level and at the 4 frequencies tested. Stapes ankylosis is a main cause of the Carhart effect. The present study showed that in congenital middle ear malformation, the Carhart effect was caused not only by stapes ankylosis but also by other types of disruption in the ossicular chain. PMID:21212712

Sakamoto, Takashi; Kakigi, Akinobu; Kashio, Akinori; Kanaya, Kaori; Suzuki, Mitsuya; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

2011-01-05

5

Chondrocyte-specific Smad4 gene conditional knockout results in hearing loss and inner ear malformation in mice.  

PubMed

Smad4 is the central intracellular mediator of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling, which plays crucial roles in tissue regeneration, cell differentiation, embryonic development, and regulation of the immune system. Conventional Smad4 gene knockout results in embryonic lethality, precluding its use in studies of the role of Smad4 in inner ear development. We used chondrocyte-specific Smad4 knockout mice (Smad4Co/Co) to investigate the function of Smad4 in inner ear development. Smad4Co/Co mice were characterized by a smaller cochlear volume, bone malformation, and abnormalities of the osseous spiral lamina and basilar membrane. The development of the hair cells was also abnormal, as evidenced by the disorganized stereocilia and reduced density of the neuronal processes beneath the hair cells. Auditory function tests revealed the homozygous Smad4Co/Co mice suffered from severe sensorineural hearing loss. Our results suggest that Smad4 is required for inner ear development and normal auditory function in mammals. PMID:19582869

Yang, Shi-ming; Hou, Zhao-hui; Yang, Guan; Zhang, Ji-shuai; Hu, Yin-yan; Sun, Jian-he; Guo, Wei-wei; He, David z z; Han, Dong-yi; Young, Wie-yen; Yang, Xiao

2009-08-01

6

Optical and tomographic imaging of a middle ear malformation in the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a combination of in vivo computerized tomography and histological staining, a middle ear anomaly in two wild-caught American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) is characterized. In these animals, the tympanic membrane, extrastapes, and pars media (shaft) of the stapes are absent on one side of the head, with the other side exhibiting normal morphology. The pars interna (footplate) of the stapes and the operculum are present in their normal positions at the entrance of the otic capsule on both the affected and unaffected sides. The pattern of deformity suggests a partial failure of development of tympanic pathway tissues, but with a preservation of the opercularis pathway. While a definitive proximate cause of the condition could not be determined, the anomalies show similarities to developmental defects in mammalian middle ear formation.

Horowitz, Seth S.; Simmons, Andrea Megela; Ketten, Darlene R.

2005-08-01

7

Congenital malformations of the external and middle ear: high-resolution CT findings of surgical import  

SciTech Connect

The external auditory canal, middle ear, and bulk of the ossicular chain develop from the first branchial groove, first and second branchial arches, and first pharyngeal pouch. Embryologic development of these structures is complex and only rarely are two anomalies identical. This study includes 11 cases of unilateral external auditory canal atresia and two cases of bilateral atresia. Eight cases (four bilateral) of isolated congenital ossicular anomalies are also included. Emphasis is placed on findings of surgical import. All patients were studied with computed tomography only, because it was believed that the bony and soft-tissue detail achieved is superior to that with conventional multidirectional tomography.

Swartz, J.D.; Faerber, E.N.

1985-03-01

8

Deletion of a conserved regulatory element required for Hmx1 expression in craniofacial mesenchyme in the dumbo rat: a newly identified cause of congenital ear malformation  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Hmx1 is a homeodomain transcription factor expressed in the developing eye, peripheral ganglia, and branchial arches of avian and mammalian embryos. Recent studies have identified a loss-of-function allele at the HMX1 locus as the causative mutation in the oculo-auricular syndrome (OAS) in humans, characterized by ear and eye malformations. The mouse dumbo (dmbo) mutation, with similar effects on ear and eye development, also results from a loss-of-function mutation in the Hmx1 gene. A recessive dmbo mutation causing ear malformation in rats has been mapped to the chromosomal region containing the Hmx1 gene, but the nature of the causative allele is unknown. Here we show that dumbo rats and mice exhibit similar neonatal ear and eye phenotypes. In midgestation embryos, dumbo rats show a specific loss of Hmx1 expression in neural-crest-derived craniofacial mesenchyme (CM), whereas Hmx1 is expressed normally in retinal progenitors, sensory ganglia and in CM, which is derived from mesoderm. High-throughput resequencing of 1 Mb of rat chromosome 14 from dmbo/dmbo rats, encompassing the Hmx1 locus, reveals numerous divergences from the rat genomic reference sequence, but no coding changes in Hmx1. Fine genetic mapping narrows the dmbo critical region to an interval of ?410 kb immediately downstream of the Hmx1 transcription unit. Further sequence analysis of this region reveals a 5777-bp deletion located ?80 kb downstream in dmbo/dmbo rats that is not apparent in 137 other rat strains. The dmbo deletion region contains a highly conserved domain of ?500 bp, which is a candidate distal enhancer and which exhibits a similar relationship to Hmx genes in all vertebrate species for which data are available. We conclude that the rat dumbo phenotype is likely to result from loss of function of an ultraconserved enhancer specifically regulating Hmx1 expression in neural-crest-derived CM. Dysregulation of Hmx1 expression is thus a candidate mechanism for congenital ear malformation, most cases of which remain unexplained.

Quina, Lely A.; Kuramoto, Takashi; Luquetti, Daniela V.; Cox, Timothy C.; Serikawa, Tadao; Turner, Eric E.

2012-01-01

9

Deletion of a conserved regulatory element required for Hmx1 expression in craniofacial mesenchyme in the dumbo rat: a newly identified cause of congenital ear malformation.  

PubMed

Hmx1 is a homeodomain transcription factor expressed in the developing eye, peripheral ganglia, and branchial arches of avian and mammalian embryos. Recent studies have identified a loss-of-function allele at the HMX1 locus as the causative mutation in the oculo-auricular syndrome (OAS) in humans, characterized by ear and eye malformations. The mouse dumbo (dmbo) mutation, with similar effects on ear and eye development, also results from a loss-of-function mutation in the Hmx1 gene. A recessive dmbo mutation causing ear malformation in rats has been mapped to the chromosomal region containing the Hmx1 gene, but the nature of the causative allele is unknown. Here we show that dumbo rats and mice exhibit similar neonatal ear and eye phenotypes. In midgestation embryos, dumbo rats show a specific loss of Hmx1 expression in neural-crest-derived craniofacial mesenchyme (CM), whereas Hmx1 is expressed normally in retinal progenitors, sensory ganglia and in CM, which is derived from mesoderm. High-throughput resequencing of 1 Mb of rat chromosome 14 from dmbo/dmbo rats, encompassing the Hmx1 locus, reveals numerous divergences from the rat genomic reference sequence, but no coding changes in Hmx1. Fine genetic mapping narrows the dmbo critical region to an interval of ?410 kb immediately downstream of the Hmx1 transcription unit. Further sequence analysis of this region reveals a 5777-bp deletion located ?80 kb downstream in dmbo/dmbo rats that is not apparent in 137 other rat strains. The dmbo deletion region contains a highly conserved domain of ?500 bp, which is a candidate distal enhancer and which exhibits a similar relationship to Hmx genes in all vertebrate species for which data are available. We conclude that the rat dumbo phenotype is likely to result from loss of function of an ultraconserved enhancer specifically regulating Hmx1 expression in neural-crest-derived CM. Dysregulation of Hmx1 expression is thus a candidate mechanism for congenital ear malformation, most cases of which remain unexplained. PMID:22736458

Quina, Lely A; Kuramoto, Takashi; Luquetti, Daniela V; Cox, Timothy C; Serikawa, Tadao; Turner, Eric E

2012-06-26

10

Pinna abnormalities and low-set ears  

MedlinePLUS

Low-set ears; Microtia; "Lop" ear ... Abnormal folds or location of the pinna Low-set ears No opening to the ear canal No ... The following common conditions can cause low-set and unusually ... and malformed ears include: Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome Potter ...

11

Brain Malformations  

MedlinePLUS

Most brain malformations begin long before a baby is born. Something damages the developing nervous system or causes it ... medicines, infections or radiation during pregnancy interferes with brain development. Types of brain malformations include missing parts ...

12

Fraser-Cryptophthalmos syndrome with cardiovascular malformations: a rare association.  

PubMed

Fraser-Cryptophthalmos syndrome is a multiple malformation disorder associated variably with cryptophthalmos (hidden eye), anomalies of the head, nose and ears; syndactyly, renal and genital malformations. In this report, we describe a case of Fraser syndrome with cardiovascular malformations: coarctation of aorta, an association not previously described. PMID:14530551

Hambire, Srinivas D; Bhavsar, Priyanka P; B, Meenakshi; Jayakar, Anagha V

2003-09-01

13

Swimmer's Ear  

MedlinePLUS

... get swimmer's ear from taking baths or showers. Bacteria get a chance to grow when water stays in the ear canal. A lot of swimming can lead to these wet conditions in the ear canal. Bacteria grow and the ear canal gets red and ...

14

Ear barotrauma  

MedlinePLUS

Barotitis media; Barotrauma; Ear popping; Pressure-related ear pain; Eustachian tube dysfunction ... The air pressure in the middle ear is usually the same as the air pressure outside of the body. The eustachian tube is a connection between the middle ear ...

15

Ear Pieces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students make fanciful connections between art and medicine. This project challenges students to interpret "ear idioms" (e.g. "blow it out your ear," "in one ear and out the other") by relying almost entirely on realistic ear drawings, the placement of them, marks, and values. In that…

DiJulio, Betsy

2011-01-01

16

Ear Anatomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The ear is divided into three compartments: external, middle, and inner. The eustachian tube connects the middle ear to the\\u000a nasopharynx. The external and middle ear develop from the branchial apparatus. The middle ear cavity is derived from the endodermal\\u000a first branchial cleft. The inner ear develops from the otic placode. The footplate of the stapes is derived from the

T. Metin Önerci

17

Swimmer's ear  

MedlinePLUS

... media) or upper respiratory infections such as colds. Swimming in polluted water can lead to swimmer's ear. ... the ear thoroughly after exposure to moisture. Avoid swimming in polluted water. Use earplugs when swimming. Consider ...

18

Ear Tumors  

MedlinePLUS

... and causing hearing loss and a buildup of earwax. Such tumors include small sacs filled with skin ... ear. Ceruminoma (cancer of the cells that produce earwax) develops in the outer third of the ear ...

19

Elephant ear  

MedlinePLUS

Elephant ear plants are indoor or outdoor plants with very large, arrow-shaped leaves. Poisoning may occur ... Elephant ear grows naturally in tropical and subtropical areas, but is easily found in northern climates as ...

20

Super Ears.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents an activity in which students design, construct, and test "super ears" to investigate sound and hearing. Students work in groups of three and explore how the outer ear funnels sound waves to the inner ear and how human hearing compares to that of other animals. (NB)|

Thompson, Stan

1995-01-01

21

Ear Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... affects the middle ear and is called otitis media. The tubes inside the ears become clogged with fluid and mucus. This can affect hearing, because sound cannot get through all that fluid. If your child isn't old enough to say "My ear ...

22

[Anorectal malformations].  

PubMed

Anorectal malformations (ARM) are the result of an abnormal development of the terminal part of the digestive tract interesting anus and/or rectum that occur early between the sixth and tenth week of embryonic development. They carry a malformation spectrum of severity depending on the level of disruption of the anorectal canal and of the associated caudal malformations (sacrum and spine). ARM are associated in over half the cases with other malformations that can be integrated in some cases in known syndromes. If surgical treatment to restore anatomy as normal as possible is indispensable, post-operative care is essential for these patients whose defecation mechanisms are altered, to reach if not continence, at least a socially acceptable cleanliness. PMID:23992833

Cretolle, C; Rousseau, V; Lottmann, H; Irtan, S; Lortat-Jacob, S; Alova, I; Michel, J L; Aigrain, Y; Podevin, G; Lehur, P A; Sarnacki, S

2013-09-01

23

Chiari Malformation  

MedlinePLUS

... signs and symptoms may not occur until late childhood or adulthood. The most common pediatric form, called ... I, signs and symptoms usually appear during late childhood or adulthood. Chiari malformation type II is usually ...

24

Chiari Malformation  

MedlinePLUS

... Chiari malformations (CMs) are structural defects in the cerebellum, the part of the brain that controls balance. ... of the skull is smaller than normal, the cerebellum and brain stem can be pushed downward. The ...

25

Ear Biometrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new class of biometrics based upon ear features is introduced for use in the development of passive identification systems.\\u000a The availability of the proposed biometric is shown both theoretically in terms of the uniqueness and measurability over time\\u000a of the ear, and in practice through the implementation of a computer vision based system. Each subject’s ear is modeled as

Mark Burge; Wilhelm Burger

26

Your Ears  

MedlinePLUS

... fluid in the semicircular canals stops moving, your brain gets the right message and you regain your balance. Three Cheers for the Ears! Your ears take care of you, so take care of them. Protect your hearing by wearing earplugs at loud music concerts and around noisy machinery, like in wood ...

27

Chiari Malformation  

MedlinePLUS

... of the back of the head or the neck and contains brain matter. The covering of the brain or spinal ... fusion of segments of the bones in the neck, and extra folds in the brain. How common are Chiari malformations? In the past, ...

28

Ear concha.  

PubMed

This article classifies man's ear concha to defined shape groups where the concha is the hollow area next to the ear canal. Quantitative results about the ear concha shapes as well as their classification into 36 defined shape groups are also reported. This quantitative survey is an additional step in analyzing the shape of face parts, where, in a article published in The Journal of Craniofacial Surgery (2011;22:1-4), nose shapes were analyzed quantitatively and classified into 14 shapes. It should be noted that in Google, under the subject, "Tamir the Journal of Craniofacial Surgery," the survey about noses is mentioned about 120 times! To the best of the author's knowledge, the quantitative approach on the shapes of ear concha has never been implemented before. The results are based on 2425 pictures of real ears. The major results are as follows: (1) The author succeeded in classifying all subjects' ear concha into 36 groups as demonstrated in a figure (numbers in the bottom left of each image are the absolute number of concha of a certain type; those in the bottom right indicate the percentage). (2) The most widespread concha is number 29, which appeared 393 times and is 16.2% of the total number. The less widespread shape is number 34, which appeared only once (0.04% of the total). In addition to the numerical results, the subjects were evaluated with respect to a human's ear--anatomy, shapes, and relation to a human's character. PMID:22421843

Tamir, Abraham

2012-03-01

29

Animal Ears  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into animal behavior and communication. Groups of learners will fashion a headband with fake ears, similar in shape to those of the animal they are going to observe. Then, they record observations of the animalâs reactions when a learner, wearing the ears in different positions, brings it a snack. Learners develop categories of behavior to organize and evaluate the results. Safety Note: an adult handler must be present if working with a horse or even a large dog. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Horse Ears.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

30

Ear emergencies  

MedlinePLUS

... and ruptured eardrums can be caused by: Inserting cotton swabs, toothpicks, pins, pens, or other objects into ... The person will have severe pain. Place sterile cotton gently in the outer ear canal to keep ...

31

Ear Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Spindly cells in the inner ear, called "hair" cells, are critical for both hearing and balance. Now, in a boon for research, neuro-scientists Jeffrey Corwin and Zhenqing Hu at the University of Virginia School of Medicine have finally grown and multiplied these cells in the lab.

Science Update (AAAS;)

2008-05-06

32

Ear Training  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using these websites, you can practice your ear training skills. There are links for intervals, chords, and short melodic segments. First, you should go to this website to practice intervals. Intervals Begin with the first option (simple intervals up). After mastering this, move to simple intervals down. As you become more advanced, continue down the line of interval options. They will become more difficult as you ...

2009-09-15

33

Ear Injuries (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... Inserting something into the ear. Things like a cotton swab, fingernail, or pencil can scratch the ear ... Never stick anything in their ears — not even cotton swabs or their fingers. Regular bathing should be ...

34

Ear and Further Anatomic Anomalies in Children Undergoing Stapedotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Aim of this study was to examine any stapes fixation-related clinical, intraoperative and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in children undergoing stapedotomy. Procedures: Detailed diagnostic assessment was performed in 12 children (18 ears) who underwent stapedotomy within the period 2005–2008. Results: Ear malformations such as malleus-incus anomalies, malleus-epitympanum fixation and absence of the stapedius tendon, small external auditory canal

Georgios Kontorinis; Friedrich Goetz; Thomas Lenarz; Burkard Schwab

2011-01-01

35

A Noncoding Point Mutation of Zeb1 Causes Multiple Developmental Malformations and Obesity in Twirler Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterozygous Twirler (Tw) mice develop obesity and circling behavior associated with malformations of the inner ear, whereas homozygous Tw mice have cleft palate and die shortly after birth. Zeb1 is a zinc finger protein that contributes to mesenchymal cell fate by repression of genes whose expression defines epithelial cell identity. This developmental pathway is disrupted in inner ears of Tw\\/Tw

Kiyoto Kurima; Ronna Hertzano; Oksana Gavrilova; Kelly Monahan; Karl B. Shpargel; Garani Nadaraja; Yoshiyuki Kawashima; Kyu Yup Lee; Taku Ito; Yujiro Higashi; David J. Eisenman; Scott E. Strome; Andrew J. Griffith

2011-01-01

36

Middle Ear Infections (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... a foreign object in the ear, or hard earwax. Consult your doctor to help determine the cause ... Surgery Ototoxicity (Ear Poisoning) Ear Injuries Dealing With Earwax Swimmer's Ear (Otitis Externa) What Is an Ear ...

37

Ear drainage culture  

MedlinePLUS

... needed. Your health care provider will use a cotton swab to collect the sample from inside the ... No pain is associated with using a cotton swab to take a sample of drainage from the outer ear. However, ear pain may be present if the ear is infected. Ear ...

38

Spinal arteriovenous malformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An 11-year-old girl presented with acute onset of paraplegia with bowel and bladder incontinence. She had spinal tenderness\\u000a and a sensory level at mid thoracic region. MRI spine revealed an intradural extramedullary arterio-venous malformation with\\u000a hemorrhage into the intramedullary region. Hence a diagnosis of spinal arterio-venous malformation was entertained.

S. Balasubramanian; So. Shivbalan; Sandeep D. Jaipurkar

2004-01-01

39

Intramedullary spinalcord cavernous malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intramedullary spinal cord cavernous malformations are rare lesions and account for a small percentage of clinically evident cavernous malformations. However, the reported incidence rates likely underestimate their true rate of occurrence. The advent of magnetic resonance imaging has increased the diagnosis of these lesions as it has that of their intracranial counterparts. Our understanding of their natural history, however, is

Frank P. K. Hsu; Richard E. Clatterbuck; Louis J. Kim; Robert F. Spetzler

2003-01-01

40

Ear infection - chronic  

MedlinePLUS

Middle ear infection - chronic; Otitis media - chronic; Chronic otitis media; Chronic ear infection ... Chole RA, Sudhoff HH. Chronic otitis media, mastoiditis, and ... eds. Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 5th ed. Philadelphia, ...

41

Otoplasty (Cosmetic Ear Surgery)  

MedlinePLUS

... CLICK TO ENLARGE Otoplasty Otoplasty — also known as cosmetic ear surgery — is a procedure to change the ... Society of Plastic Surgeons. http://www.plasticsurgery.org/Cosmetic-Procedures/Ear-Surgery.html. Accessed June 22, 2012. ...

42

Ear surgery - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... expose the ear cartilage. Sutures are used to fold the cartilage to reshape the ear. Other surgeons ... to the head by creating a more pronounced fold (called the antihelix) in the central portion of ...

43

Swimmer's Ear (External Otitis)  

MedlinePLUS

... ears. This is especially true if they use cotton-tipped applicators or dangerously sharp small objects, like ... all objects out of your ear canals — including cotton-tipped applicators — unless your doctor has told you ...

44

Flying and Your Child's Ears  

MedlinePLUS

... Tips for Easing Ear Pain Flying's Effects on Ears Many of us have felt that weird ear- ... equalization happen more easily. Continue Tips for Easing Ear Pain Some simple things to try during air ...

45

Vascular malformations in childhood.  

PubMed

Vascular malformations are inborn errors of vascular embryogenesis present at birth that should be diagnosed in childhood and, when necessary, treated to prevent later complications. The current trend is to classify these lesions according to flow characteristics and the predominant type of vascular channel affected. Given the complexity, and in many cases, the rarity, of vascular malformations, they should be managed by multidisciplinary teams at vascular anomalies centers. Furthermore, because the association between vascular malformations and certain syndromes is becoming increasingly recognized, a better understanding of these lesions will help to improve overall patient management in this setting. PMID:22483320

Del Pozo, J; Gómez-Tellado, M; López-Gutiérrez, J C

2012-04-06

46

Congenital Hepatic Vascular Malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Congenital hepatic vascular malformations are rare entities that result in abnormal shunting of blood through the liver. Three\\u000a different types of shunting can occur: arteriovenous (hepatic artery to hepatic vein), arterioportal (hepatic artery to portal\\u000a vein) and portovenous (portal vein to hepatic vein). Malformations result from alterations in the formation of blood vessels\\u000a during fetal development and can occur as

Guadalupe Garcia-Tsao

47

Pathology of the Ear  

PubMed Central

The external ear is exposed to weathering and trauma; it also has sparse vascularity, making it prone to infection and disease. The external location of the cutaneous ear makes it easily visible for diagnosis and accessible for treatment. In this article, the authors focus on diseases of the ear that are most commonly encountered and may be subject to surgical and medical evaluation and/or treatment. Epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical course, and treatment for each disease entity are discussed.

Orengo, Ida; Robbins, Kerri; Marsch, Amanda

2011-01-01

48

Ear localization using hierarchical clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ear biometrics has been found to be a good and reliable technique for human recognition. With the initial doubts on uniqueness of the ear, ear biometrics could not attract much attention. But after it has been said that it is almost impossible to find two ears with all the parts identical, ear biometrics has gained its pace. To automate the

Surya Prakash; Umarani Jayaraman; Phalguni Gupta

2009-01-01

49

Middle Ear Infections and Ear Tube Surgery (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... atmospheric pressure in the middle ear. About Otitis Media The middle ear is an air-filled cavity ... learning. Continue Symptoms and Diagnosis Symptoms of otitis media include: pulling or rubbing the ears because of ...

50

Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease (AIED)  

MedlinePLUS

Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease What is autoimmunity? How is it connected to vestibular disorders? Parts of the immune system, working constantly ... reaction. The immune system can attack just the ear, attack the ear and some other body part ...

51

Ear - blocked at high altitudes  

MedlinePLUS

High altitudes and blocked ears; Flying and blocked ears; Eustachian tube dysfunction -high altitude ... opens the Eustachian tube, which connects the middle ear to the nose. These movements allow the pressure ...

52

Sound Conduction of the Ear.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Development of the cochlear potential method for study of conductive processes in the ear, and experiments showing the action of the middle ear and cochlear mechanisms, have added substantially to our understanding of the ear under normal and pathological...

E. G. Wever

1974-01-01

53

Ear tube insertion - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Ear tube insertion is recommended for: fluid in the middle ear (present for more than 12 weeks) recurrent ear ... the accumulated fluid is suctioned out. A small tube is inserted through the incised eardrum in order ...

54

Tracheoesophageal fistula with esophageal atresia with absent external ear: a unusual association.  

PubMed

Esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF with EA) is a common disease which is associated with many other congenital abnormalities. The most common association is with VACTERL syndrome.. Various types of ear malformations have been reported in CHARGE syndrome associated with EA and TEF. However, absence of external ear has not been described which is being reported in this article. We could not found this association even on extensive search of literature. PMID:23904729

Upadhyaya, Vijai D; Gangopadhyay, Ajay N; Srivastava, Punit K; Hasan, Zaheer; Sharma, Shiv P

2012-05-01

55

Rare malformation of glans penis: arteriovenous malformation.  

PubMed

Pediatric glans penis malformations, especially arteriovenous malformations (AVM), are very rare. Herein, we report two rare cases. A 14-year-old boy attended our outpatient clinic with chief complaints of purple swelling and rapidly growing lesion on the glans penis. The lesion was excised surgically after physical and radiological evaluations. Pathology reported AVM and the patient is being followed up. The second case is a 2-year-old boy who was admitted with a big lesion involving glans penis and genital area that has been present since birth. In physical and radiological evaluations, lesion on the glans penis was pulsatile. Parents of the patient did not want any surgery and patient has been in follow-up. Diagnosis of the vascular lesions on glans penis is very easy by physical and radiological examinations today. Long-term follow-up is very important for AVM. Clinicians must make a careful effort to document new glans lesions in the pediatric population and decrease anxiety in the parents of affected children. PMID:23771468

Akin, Y; Sarac, M; Yucel, S

56

Reoperation for Chiari Malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We undertook this study to characterize those patients who required reoperations for Chiari malformation and to determine whether modifications in surgical technique at the initial procedure might have obviated the need for repeat surgery. Methods: We reviewed the hospital records, imaging studies, operative reports, and follow-up data of those patients who were undergoing a second operation as part of

David Sacco; R. Michael Scott

2003-01-01

57

Familial cerebral cavernous malformation.  

PubMed

Cavernous malformations (CMs) occur in approximately 0.5% of the general population and represent 5-10% of the central nervous system vascular malformations. The majority of CMs appear sporadically but genetically determined familial forms account for 10% to 15% of all cases. The aim of this study was to discuss the clinical, pathological and genetic aspects of familial cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs). We report on five members of a family who underwent surgery due to CCMs. However, only two members were treated in our Department. The age of onset of symptoms in these cases (4 men and 1 women) ranged from 3 to 28 years. Three members of the family were asymptomatic but it turned out that they were obligatory gene carriers and in one of them the cavernous malformation was confirmed by neuroimaging study. The clinical symptoms of CCMs included seizure (three patients) and focal neurological deficit (two patients). Multiple CCMs were identified in two symptomatic patients (two lesions) and in one asymptomatic patient (three lesions). The lesions were located superficially (4), in the basal ganglia (1), in the brainstem (2) and in the cerebellar vermis (1). In two patients, the subsequent imaging studies showed a single de novo CCM formation. Only one patient with mutation of CCM2 gene was treated surgically. In patients with cavernous malformations the detailed clinical and family history of neurological events ought to be collected. This is particular important in patients with multiple changes or with de novo CCMs formation, identified in subsequent imaging studies. A well-documented family history can help to establish the final diagnosis and makes it possible to offer all members of the family proper neurological and genetic care. PMID:22773461

Dziedzic, Tomasz; Kunert, Przemys?aw; Matyja, Ewa; Ziora-Jakutowicz, Karolina; Sidoti, Antonella; Marchel, Andrzej

2012-01-01

58

BIOMECHANICAL STUDY OF MIDDLE EAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The human ear is a complex biomechanical system and is divided by three parts: outer, middle and inner ear. The middle ear is formed by three ossicles (malleus, incus and stapes) that amplify the sound sending the sound waves to the inner ear. However, the ossicles can suffer from several damages, for example, the Otosclerosis, being a need the

M Moreira; E Almeida

59

Sports Injuries of the Ear  

PubMed Central

The author describes common sports injuries involving the ear. Such injuries include hematoma, lacerations, foreign bodies (tattoo), and thermal injuries. Ear canal injuries include swimmer's ear and penetrating injuries. Tympanum injuries include tympanic membrane perforations, ossicular discontinuity, eustachian tube dysfunction, temporal bone fractures and traumatic facial nerve palsy. Inner ear injuries include traumatic sensorineural deafness. The author emphasizes the management of these injuries.

Wagner, G. A.

1972-01-01

60

Ear Plastic Surgery (Otoplasty)  

MedlinePLUS

... can have an artificial ear surgically attached for cosmetic reasons. These are custom formed to match the ... child will experience the psychological benefits of the cosmetic improvement. However, a patient may have the surgery ...

61

Cleaning Your Ears  

MedlinePLUS

... Anything In The Ear Canal This means no cotton swabs, no fingers and certainly no sharp objects, ... the opposite result — rather than removing earwax, a cotton swab or other object often will push wax ...

62

Ebstein’s malformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Ebstein’s malformation of the tricuspid valve is a complex and heterogeneous disorder that has diverse hemodynamic and arrhythmic\\u000a manifestations. Hemodynamic dysfunction is due to valvar regurgitation and decreased pulmonary blood flow, varying in severity\\u000a from mild tricuspid insufficiency to severe dysplasia of the right ventricle without forward flow. Atrioventricular reentrant\\u000a tachycardia and atrial tachyarrhythmias are commonly associated with Ebstein’s

Adel K. Younoszai; Michael M. Brook; Norman H. Silverman

1999-01-01

63

ArterioVenous Malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intracranial arterio-venous malformations (AVM) are relatively uncommon, but increasingly recognized lesions that can cause\\u000a serious neurological symptoms or death. Although AVM can initially present with hemorrhages or seizures, an increasing number\\u000a is detected before symptomatic bleeding due to the recently developed imaging techniques. Over the last decades, the management\\u000a of AVM has been widely modified due to the availability of

Markus W. Gross; Rita Engenhart-Cabillic

64

Vein of Galen malformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1984, 43 patients with true vein of Galen ancurysmal malformations have been referred to us and managed according to our patient selection, technique, and follow-up guidelines. Thirty-four were embolized transarterially with bucrilate (isobutyl cyanoacrylate) or enbucrilate (N-butyl cyanoacrylate) embolization. No cutdown or hypotension during or after the embolization was used and no balloon catheter was employed. Forty-seven percent of

P. Lasjaunias; R. Garcia-Monaco; G. Rodesch; K. Ter Brugge; M. Zerah; M. Tardieu; D. Victor

1991-01-01

65

External and middle ear trauma resulting from ear impressions.  

PubMed

When taking an impression of the external ear canal and ear, the audiologist is engaged in an invasive procedure whereby a foreign body is first placed into the ear canal and then removed. There is always an element of risk for significant medical problems when a clinician is performing an invasive procedure. Although some minor patient discomfort and, at times, some slight trauma to the ear canal occur when taking ear impressions, the incidence of significant trauma to the external or middle ear appears to be low. The purpose of this report is to provide some illustrative cases of significant external and middle ear trauma as a result of taking impressions of the external ear. Audiologists are advised to develop and implement an appropriate risk management program for taking ear impressions to reduce the potential risks associated with this procedure to their patients and to their practices. PMID:10976496

Wynne, M K; Kahn, J M; Abel, D J; Allen, R L

66

Treatment of congenital malformations.  

PubMed

The prevalence of müllerian malformations is 1 in 200, or 0.5%. A third of the anomalies are septate, a third bicornuate uteri, 10% arcuate uterus, 10% didelphis and unicornuate uterus, and < 5% uterine and vaginal aplasia. Correct diagnosis of the malformation is most important but often very difficult. Correct treatment can only be performed if the malformation is clear. Longitudinal vaginal septums have to be removed due to potential obstetric problems. Transverse vaginal septums can cause hematocolpos and pain and have to be incised crosswise and excised so as not to shorten the vagina at the same time. Congenital vaginal agenesis occurs in Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome patients and in androgen insensitivity syndrome. The first choice for surgical treatment should be the new laparoscopic-assisted creation of a neovagina. Septate uterus has to be distinguished from a bicornuate uterus. Even if it is not proven to be a cause for infertility, the chance of miscarriage can be diminished by performing hysteroscopic metroplasty. Repair of a uterine septum in infertility patients often improves pregnancy rates. In contrast, surgical repair of a bicornuate uterus requires an abdominal metroplasty. This should only be performed if the patient has recurrent fetal loss due to the uterine structural defect. In a unicornuate uterus it is most important to determine if there is a second uterine horn that can cause cyclic pain if it has functioning endometrium. The only surgical option in these cases is to remove the rudimentary uterus with endometrium and hematometra, respectively. PMID:21437824

Brucker, Sara Yvonne; Rall, Katharina; Campo, Rudi; Oppelt, Peter; Isaacson, Keith

2011-03-24

67

Chiari II Malformation and Syringomyelia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chiari II malformation was described at the end of the nineteenth century (1891–1896) by Hans Chiari, a German pathologist,\\u000a as a congenital malformation in a post-mortem examination of a child who died from a constellation of malformations including\\u000a prolapse of the cerebellum, part of the brain stem and part of the hindbrain, involving the upper part of the cervical

Spyros Sgouros

68

Listening to the ear  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Otoacoustic emissions demonstrate that the ear creates sound while listening to sound, offering a promising acoustic window on the mechanics of hearing in awake, listening human beings. That window is clouded, however, by an incomplete knowledge of wave reflection and transmission, both forth and back within the cochlea and through the middle ear. This thesis "does windows," addressing wave propagation and scattering on both sides of the middle ear. A summary of highlights follows. Measurements of the cochlear input impedance in cat are used to identify a new symmetry in cochlear mechanics-termed "tapering symmetry" after its geometric interpretation in simple models-that guarantees that the wavelength of the traveling wave changes slowly with position near the stapes. Waves therefore propagate without reflection through the basal turns of the cochlea. Analytic methods for solving the cochlear wave equations using a perturbative scattering series are given and used to demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, conventional cochlear models exhibit negligible internal reflection whether or not they accurately represent the tapering symmetries of the inner ear. Frameworks for the systematic "deconstruction" of eardrum and middle-ear transduction characteristics are developed and applied to the analysis of noninvasive measurements of middle-ear and cochlear mechanics. A simple phenomenological model of inner-ear compressibility that correctly predicts hearing thresholds in patients with missing or disarticulated middle-ear ossicles is developed and used to establish an upper bound on cochlear compressibility several orders of magnitude smaller than that provided by direct measurements. Accurate measurements of stimulus frequency evoked otoacoustic emissions are performed and used to determine the form and frequency variation of the cochlear traveling-wave ratio noninvasively. Those measurements are inverted to obtain the spatial distribution of mechanical inhomogeneities responsible for evoked emission. Although current models require that the periodicities found in emission spectra and threshold hearing curves originate in a corresponding corrugation in the mechanics of the cochlea, it is shown that the observed spectral periodicities can arise spontaneously through the dynamics of wave propagation and reflection and that the organ of Corti, as suggested by the anatomy, need manifest no particular translational symmetries.

Shera, Christopher A.

69

Listening to the Ear  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Otoacoustic emissions demonstrate that the ear creates sound while listening to sound, offering a promising acoustic window on the mechanics of hearing in awake, listening human beings. That window is clouded, however, by an incomplete knowledge of wave reflection and transmission, both forth and back within the cochlea and through the middle ear. This thesis "does windows," addressing wave propagation and scattering on both sides of the middle ear. A summary of highlights follows. Measurements of the cochlear input impedance in cat are used to identify a new symmetry in cochlear mechanics--termed "tapering symmetry" after its geometric interpretation in simple models--that guarantees that the wavelength of the traveling wave changes slowly with position near the stapes. Waves therefore propagate without reflection through the basal turns of the cochlea. Analytic methods for solving the cochlear wave equations using a perturbative scattering series are given and used to demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, conventional cochlear models exhibit negligible internal reflection whether or not they accurately represent the tapering symmetries of the inner ear. Frameworks for the systematic "deconstruction" of eardrum and middle-ear transduction characteristics are developed and applied to the analysis of noninvasive measurements of middle-ear and cochlear mechanics. A simple phenomenological model of inner-ear compressibility that correctly predicts hearing thresholds in patients with missing or disarticulated middle-ear ossicles is developed and used to establish an upper bound on cochlear compressibility several orders of magnitude smaller than that provided by direct measurements. Accurate measurements of stimulus -frequency evoked otoacoustic emissions are performed and used to determine the form and frequency variation of the cochlear traveling-wave ratio noninvasively. Those measurements are inverted to obtain the spatial distribution of mechanical inhomogeneities responsible for evoked emission. Although current models require that the periodicities found in emission spectra and threshold hearing curves originate in a corresponding corrugation in the mechanics of the cochlea, it is shown that the observed spectral periodicities can arise spontaneously through the dynamics of wave propagation and reflection and that the organ of Corti, as suggested by the anatomy, need manifest no particular translational symmetries.

Shera, Christopher Alan

70

Uterine arteriovenous malformation.  

PubMed

Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare condition, with fewer than 100 cases reported in the literature. Despite it being rare, it is a potentially life-threatening condition. This case report describes a 33-year-old woman who presented with secondary post-partum hemorrhage. Transabdominal ultrasound (US) of the pelvis showed increased vascularity with multidirectional flow of the uterus and a prominent vessel, located on the left lateral wall. She also had retained product of conception, which complicated the diagnosis. A uterine artery angiogram confirmed an AVM in the fundal region with an early draining vein. Embolisation of the AVM was performed successfully. PMID:23983582

Hashim, Hilwati; Nawawi, Ouzreiah

2013-03-01

71

Arteriovenous Malformation Management  

SciTech Connect

Arteriovenous malformations (AVM) are rare vascular lesions that can present with a myriad of clinical presentations. In our institutions, initial workup consists of a clinical exam, color Doppler imaging, and magnetic resonance imaging. After the initial noninvasive workup, arteriography, at times closed system venography, and ethanol endovascular repair of the AVM is performed under general anesthesia. Depending on the size of the lesion, additional Swan-Ganz line and arterial line monitoring are performed. Patients are usually observed overnight and uneventfully discharged the following day if no complication occurs. Patients are followed at periodic intervals despite cure of their lesion. Long-term follow-up is essential in AVM management.

Yakes, Wayne F. [Interventional Radiology and Interventional Neuroradiology, Radiology Imaging Associates, P.C., Colorado NeurologicalInstitute, Swedish Medical Center, 501 E. Hampden Avenue, Englewood, CO 80110 (United States); Rossi, Plinio [Department of Radiology, Universita Degli Studi Di Roma, 'La Sapienza', 00161 Rome (Italy); Odink, Henk [Department of Radiology, De Wever Hospital, Henri Dunanstrat 5, 6419 PC Heerlen (Netherlands)

1996-11-15

72

Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation  

PubMed Central

Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare condition, with fewer than 100 cases reported in the literature. Despite it being rare, it is a potentially life-threatening condition. This case report describes a 33-year-old woman who presented with secondary post-partum hemorrhage. Transabdominal ultrasound (US) of the pelvis showed increased vascularity with multidirectional flow of the uterus and a prominent vessel, located on the left lateral wall. She also had retained product of conception, which complicated the diagnosis. A uterine artery angiogram confirmed an AVM in the fundal region with an early draining vein. Embolisation of the AVM was performed successfully.

Hashim, Hilwati; Nawawi, Ouzreiah

2013-01-01

73

Ear localization using hierarchical clustering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ear biometrics has been found to be a good and reliable technique for human recognition. With the initial doubts on uniqueness of the ear, ear biometrics could not attract much attention. But after it has been said that it is almost impossible to find two ears with all the parts identical, ear biometrics has gained its pace. To automate the ear based recognition process, ear in the image is required to be localized automatically. This paper presents a technique for the same. Ear localization in the proposed technique is carried out by using the hierarchical clustering of the edges obtained from the side face image. The technique is tested on a database consisting of 500 side face images of human faces collected at IIT Kanpur. It is found to be giving 94.6% accuracy.

Prakash, Surya; Jayaraman, Umarani; Gupta, Phalguni

2009-05-01

74

A facet of ear training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ear training is a familiar therapeutic concept to speech clinicians working with children having articulation defects. In this article a modified approach to classical ear?training methods is described.

Lon Emerick

1967-01-01

75

Protecting Your Ears  

MedlinePLUS

... your headset If you have a ringing sound in your ears after hearing loud sounds Content last updated July 24, 2013 top Twitter Facebook About this site Mission Statement Privacy Policy For the Media Contact Us This site is owned and maintained ...

76

Ringing in Your Ears?  

MedlinePLUS

... Features Claims About Cocoa Ringing in Your Ears? Wise Choices Links What Causes Tinnitus? Several conditions can lead to tinnitus, including: Noise-induced hearing loss Diseases of the heart or blood vessels Ménière’s disease, a disorder of the inner ...

77

From Ear to Brain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper Doreen Kimura gives a personal history of the "right-ear effect" in dichotic listening. The focus is on the early ground-breaking papers, describing how she did the first dichotic listening studies relating the effects to brain asymmetry. The paper also gives a description of the visual half-field technique for lateralized stimulus…

Kimura, Doreen

2011-01-01

78

Mimicking the human ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prosthetic device, called a cochlear implant, can be implanted in the inner ear and can restore partial hearing to profoundly deaf people. Some individuals with implants can now communicate without lip-reading or signing, and some can communicate over the telephone. The success of cochlear implants can be attributed to the combined efforts of scientists from various disciplines including bioengineering,

P. C. Loizou

1998-01-01

79

Ear infection - acute  

MedlinePLUS

... Kearney DH, et al. Treatment of acute otitis media in children under 2 years of age. N Engl J ... the development of asymptomatic middle ear effusion in children with acute otitis media: a meta-analysis of individual patient data. Arch ...

80

Cervico-Facial Vascular Malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Craniofacial vascular lesions are best categorized into hemangiomas (i.e., showing proliferation and potential involution) and vascular malformations (i.e., not showing such behavior) [1]. While hemangiomas and PHACE syndrome will briefly be dealt with at the end of this chapter, vascular malformations are\\u000a the main focus of this paper.

Jeyaledchumy Mahadevan; Hortensia Alvarez; Pierre Lasjaunias

81

Ear Biometrics in Computer Vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

A class of biometrics based upon ear features is introduced for use in the development of passive identification systems. The viability of the proposed biometric is shown both theoretically in terms of the uniqueness and measurability over time of the ear, and in practice through the implementation of a computer vision based system. Each subject's ear is modeled as an

Mark Burge; Wilhelm Burger

2000-01-01

82

Management of venous malformations.  

PubMed

Venous malformations (VMs) frequently occur in the head and neck with a predilection for the parotid gland, submandibular triangle, buccal space, muscles of mastication, lips, and upper aerodigestive tract. They are composed of congenitally disrupted ectatic veins with inappropriate connections and tubular channels. Because VMs have poorly defined boundaries and a tendency to infiltrate normal tissue, they require calculated treatment decisions in the effort to preserve surrounding architecture. Sclerotherapy, surgical excision, neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser therapy, or a combination of these modalities is employed in the management of VMs. Although many small VMs can be cured, the objective is often to control the disease with periodic therapy. Location, size, and proximity to vital structures dictate the type of therapy chosen. Vigilance with long-term follow up is important. This review outlines current diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to simple and extensive cervicofacial VMs. PMID:23188688

Richter, Gresham T; Braswell, Leah

2012-11-27

83

Uterine arteriovenous malformation.  

PubMed

Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a little known condition of which, to date, very few cases have been described. It has a very diverse symptomatology, even though in most cases, it is diagnosed during a severe and acute haemorrhagic event. Its treatment can vary from expectant management to hysterectomy; however, current evidence suggests that the embolisation of uterine arteries is the most effective approach, especially if fertility is to be preserved. We present a case report classified as AVM, with additional images that show the appearance of this pathology in a short span of time. This case has a number of peculiarities: unusual persistence of human chorionic gonadotropin hormone (?-HCG), asymptomatic patient, quick establishment of the lesion and its duration with unchanging characteristics and finally its spontaneous resolution without further consequences. This entity shows an aetiopathogenesis, that is, not well established or described. We discuss its physiopathology and aetiopathogenesis. PMID:23396842

Sellers, Francisco; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Moliner, Belen; Bernabeu, Rafael

2013-02-07

84

Drug delivery to the ear.  

PubMed

Drug delivery to the ear is used to treat conditions of the middle and inner ear such as acute and chronic otitis media, Ménière's disease, sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus. Drugs used include antibiotics, antifungals, steroids, local anesthetics and neuroprotective agents. A literature review was conducted searching Medline (1966-2012), Embase (1988-2012), the Cochrane Library and Ovid (1966-2012), using search terms 'drug delivery', 'middle ear', 'inner ear' and 'transtympanic'. There are numerous methods of drug delivery to the middle ear, which can be categorized as topical, systemic (intravenous), transtympanic and via the Eustachian tube. Localized treatments to the ear have the advantages of targeted drug delivery allowing higher therapeutic doses and minimizing systemic side effects. The ideal scenario would be a carrier system that could cross the intact tympanic membrane loaded with drugs or biochemical agents for the treatment of middle and inner ear conditions. PMID:23323784

Hoskison, E; Daniel, M; Al-Zahid, S; Shakesheff, K M; Bayston, R; Birchall, J P

2013-01-01

85

Controversies in Chiari I malformations  

PubMed Central

Background: The diagnosis and management of Chiari I malformations (CMI) remains controversial, particularly since it is often an incidental finding on cervical MR scans performed for neck pain and/or headaches. Recently, some surgeons “over-operated” on asymptomatic patients with Chiari I malformations, or even on those without the requisite radiographic diagnostic features for Chiari I malformations: unfortunately, only a subset were admonished for indiscriminate surgery. Nevertheless, when this hindbrain malformation is truly symptomatic, contributing to impaired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation, various valid surgical management strategies may be adopted. Methods: This review focuses on the current literature regarding the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and surgical management of Chiari I malformation. Variations in the surgical technique are also presented and critiqued. Results: The recommended treatment for Chiari I malformations I consists of decompressive suboccipital craniectomy and duroplasty when abnormal cine-flow MRI is observed preoperatively and blockage of CSF flow persists intraoperatively despite bony decompression. Conclusions: Controversy continues regarding the optimal surgical technique to address Chiari malformations I. Proper diagnostic studies and patient selection are needed to optimize patient outcomes, while avoiding unnecessary surgical procedures.

Baisden, Jamie

2012-01-01

86

Complications of ear disease.  

PubMed

Forty-seven patients with acute mastoiditis were treated in our hospital over a 2 and a half year period. Seven patients were symptomatic for a short period only. The other 40 gave a history of chronic ear disease, 22 of them with cholesteatoma. Post auricular swelling is an important sign of acute mastoiditis but was found in only 64% of the patients. Forty-five percent of our patients were found to have infection spread beyond the mastoid. Meningitis was the most common complication (13 patients). Most of the patients who presented without post auricular swelling were diagnosed as a result of having one or more complications. We believe that in cases of intracranial pathology or septic fever associated with ear disease, the diagnosis of mastoiditis is most likely. Early operation combined with appropriate antibiotic treatment can prevent further complications and fatal outcome. PMID:3243012

Yaniv, E; Pocock, R

1988-10-01

87

Analysis and Classification of Cerebellar Malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Because of improved visualization of posterior fossa struc- tures with MR imaging, cerebellar malformations are recognized with increasing frequency. Herein we attempt to describe and propose a rational classification of cerebellar malformations. METHODS: MR images obtained in 70 patients with cerebellar malformations were retro- spectively reviewed. The cerebellar malformations were initially divided into those with hyp- oplasia

Sandeep Patel; A. James Barkovich

2002-01-01

88

Pathologie neurovasculaire malformative de l'enfant : malformations anévrismales de la veine de Galien (MAVG), malformations artérioveineuses piales (MAVP), malformations des sinus duraux (MSD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to give an overview of the cerebral and spinal cord pediatric malformations; we particularly describe three of them: Vein of Galen arteriovenous Malformation, Pial Arteriovenous Malformation, and Dural Sinus Malformation. We report the experience of Bicêtre since 1981 to 2003, with 317 VGAM, 302 Pial AVM and 30 DSM. We describe natural history, clinical

A. Ozanne; H. Alvarez; T. Krings; P. Lasjaunias

2007-01-01

89

Human Ear Recognition in 3D  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human ear is a new class of relatively stable biometrics that has drawn researchers' attention recently. In this paper, we propose a complete human recognition system using 3D ear biometrics. The system consists of 3D ear detection, 3D ear identification, and 3D ear verification. For ear detection, we propose a new approach which uses a single reference 3D ear shape

Hui Chen; Bir Bhanu

2007-01-01

90

Epidemiologic characteristics of kidney malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infants with kidney agenesis or dysgenesis, infants with cystic kidneys, and infants with horse-shoe kidneys were studied, based on data from three large and population-based congenital malformation registers: a total of 2666 infants among 5.83 million births. There is a strong variability between programs of the rates of registered unilateral kidney malformations and these are strongly over-represented in dead infants

John Harris; Elisabeth Robert; Bengt Källén

2000-01-01

91

Congenital malformations of human dermatoglyphs  

PubMed Central

A classification for congenital malformations of dermatoglyphs is presented, dividing them into ridge aplasia, ridge hypoplasia, ridge dissociation, ridges-off-the-end, and a combination of the last two. The medical and genetic significance of these are considered in the light both of previous published cases and of new material. Malformations of dermatoglyphs are important as physical signs in paediatric diagnosis. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7

David, T. J.

1973-01-01

92

Neuroradiological diagnosis of Chiari malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chiari malformations 1, 2, 3 represent different degrees of herniation of posterior fossa content into the cervical canal\\u000a (Chiari 1 and 2), or through an upper-cervical meningocele (Chiari 3), whereas Chiari 4 anomaly consists of hypoplasia of\\u000a the cerebellum. Chiari 1 malformation (CM1) is the commonest anomaly; it is probably related to a mesodermal defect that create\\u000a a congenitally small

Luisa Chiapparini; Veronica Saletti; Carlo Lazzaro Solero; Maria Grazia Bruzzone; Laura Grazia Valentini

93

[Unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations].  

PubMed

Cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) often become symptomatic in young adults with a variety of neurological symptoms such as epileptic seizures, recurrent headaches, progressive neurological deficits or sudden intracranial hemorrhage. However, recent epidemiological data suggest a large number of AVMs are found without signs of hemorrhage and a relatively low rupture risk of less than 1% per year. Continuous technical progress has led to several specific treatment options for brain AVMs including endovascular embolization, microneurosurgery, and stereotactic radiotherapy, either alone or in any combination. Depending on AVM topography and vascular anatomy, interventional treatment strategies have shown successful occlusion rates ranging between 50 and 100% and a relatively low average procedural morbidity of 10% overall. For unruptured brain AVMs, however, the clinical benefit of invasive treatment remains as yet to be determined. To address this issue, A randomized trial of unruptured brain AVMs (ARUBA) is currently underway evaluating long-term outcome of best possible standard interventional therapy as compared to the natural history risk in a prospective multidisciplinary international study (www.arubastudy.org). PMID:18786684

Stapf, C

2008-09-10

94

Save Your Ears  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game depicts a woman going through her day, faced with various loud sounds. In each situation, she has the choice of how to deal with the loud sound: Ear Plugs, Turn It Down, Move Away, or Do Nothing. You only have 3 of each choice available, symbolized by cards on screen. Your goal is to reach the end of the game with undamaged hearing and one set of earplugs, so you can enjoy an awesome rock concert. After each decision, you find out whether your hearing was damaged and if you made the best choice.

Omsi

2010-01-01

95

Bells in Your Ears  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Does sound travel better through solids or gases? This material is part of a series of hands-on science activities designed to arouse student interest. Here the student hangs a metal fork from a pencil using string, and then strikes the fork while the eraser end of the pencil is in his or her ear. The activity includes a description, a list of science process skills and complex reasoning strategies being used, and a compilation of applicable national science standards for grades K-12. Also provided are content topics, a list of necessary supplies, instructions to perform the activity, and presentation techniques. The activity's content is explained, and assessment suggestions are provided.

Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL); Jacobs, Steve

2004-01-01

96

[Unusual presentation of rib malformation].  

PubMed

Rib malformation and anatomical variations are not well known and are still often underdiagnosed. Usually, rib malformations are fortuitously discovered. We describe here the case of a girl, 4 years and 4 months old, who presented at the emergency unit for fever and an anterior tumefaction of the ribcage, without any other symptoms. She was eupneic with a normal pulmonary auscultation and viral tonsillitis with a negative streptococcus test. The thoracic tumefaction was parasternal, painless, and fixed and measured approximately 2.5 × 2cm. Ultrasound findings consisted of a duplicated and hypoechogenic hypertrophy of the sterno-costal cartilage of the 4th left rib. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed the diagnosis of chondral bifidity of the sterno-costal junction of the 4th left rib. Fever, due to the viral tonsillitis, disappeared after 4 days. Rib malformations are rare, often anterior, unilateral, and preferentially located on the 3rd or the 4th rib. The main malformative rib lesions are bifid ribs, rib spurs, and widened ribs. Very rarely, they can be associated with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or with other malformations such as VATER complex. The main differential diagnoses of these rib malformations are traumatic, tumoral, and infectious etiologies. In case of tumoral diseases, the topography of the lesion focuses the etiologic diagnosis: whereas an anterior and cartilaginous lesion is always benign, a lateral or posterior lesion can be an Ewing sarcoma. Rib malformation investigation consists in meticulous questioning, a complete clinical examination looking for any associated anomaly, completed by basic imaging explorations such as plain thoracic radiography focused on the ribcage and ultrasound. Finally, complementary computerized tomography or preferably MRI, depending on the anatomic location of the lesion, confirms the final diagnosis, as presented in our case report, and removes any uncertainty. PMID:23037576

Cosson, M-A; Breton, S; Aprahamian, A; Grevent, D; Cheron, G

2012-10-01

97

Compartmentalization of massive vascular malformations.  

PubMed

A total of 18 patients with massive vascular malformations of the head and neck region were treated with compartmentalization using nonabsorbable sutures followed by injection of a sclerosant agent into each compartment. The indication for compartmentalization was either to stop potentially uncontrollable, life-threatening hemorrhage during the dissection of the lesion or to reduce its vascularity to allow a less dangerous subsequent resection. Compartmentalization was used in both high-flow and low-flow vascular malformations. In this technique, large nonabsorbable sutures are placed deeply in multiple areas within the lesion. The aim is to divide the malformation into multiple compartments by changing the direction of the suturing; in this way the sclerosing agent is provided with a more effective environment. The sclerosant used was either sodium tetradecyl sulfate 3%, absolute alcohol, or both. The total amount of infiltrate varied from 3 to 35 cc, according to the size of malformation. After compartmentalization, swelling was the most noticeable complication. With this technique, it was possible to treat what were considered untreatable malformations using standard techniques and to control the inevitable serious bleeding. PMID:15622226

Jackson, Ian T; Keskin, Mustafa; Yavuzer, Reha; Kelly, Christopher P

2005-01-01

98

21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710...Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear oximeter is an extravascular device used...

2013-04-01

99

Ear Infection Treatment: Do Alternative Therapies Work?  

MedlinePLUS

... use only. Ear infection treatment: Do alternative therapies work? By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http://www. ... Sign up Ear infection treatment: Do alternative therapies work? Alternative ear infection treatments aren't generally recommended ...

100

How to Use Ear Drops Properly  

MedlinePLUS

How to Use Ear Drops Properly (Having someone else give you the ear drops may make this procedure easier.) 1 Wash your hands ... with soap and water. 2 Gently clean your ear with a damp facecloth and then dry your ...

101

NICKEL CORRECTS MOUSE-EAR.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The mouse-ear disorder of pecan is a long standing problem that has resisted a solution for nearly a 100 years. Information is discussed relating to how mouse-ear is induced and what orchard managers can do to correct the disorder. Orchard management factors such as soil pH, soil moisture, amount ...

102

Arteriovenous malformations: ethanolamine oleate sclerotherapy.  

PubMed

Peripheral vascular malformations are now described according to some accepted guidelines, and the principle of proper treatment (nodus ablation) is becoming clear. An appropriate classification schema for vascular anomalies and definite indications for treatment are important to successful treatment overall. Non-invasive imaging (US, CT, and MRI) in association with clinical findings is critical in establishing the diagnosis, evaluating the extent of the malformation, and planning appropriate treatment. Direct nidus phlebography is useful not only in making a correct diagnosis but also in treating the lesion by sclerotherapy. When a patient suffers clinical complications, the nidus sclerotherapy becomes mandatory. If the vascular malformation remains bloodstream to a drainage vein during nidus opacification, flow control is necessary to achieve complete nidus ablation. A multidisciplinary approach is needed in the treatment of a high-flow lesion. A dedicated team approach is necessary for appropriate management in most cases. PMID:17988037

Hyodoh, H; Hyodoh, K

2007-01-01

103

Middle Ear Mucocele  

PubMed Central

The complications of posterior fossa surgery continue to decrease in incidence as our collective experience broadens. Most complications are seen in the immediate postoperative period and the minimized by careful attentiveness to subtle changes in mental status, vital signs, and cranial nerve examination. Long-term follow-up is necessary to identify tumor recurrence, but strict imaging protocols as yet do not exist to facilitate the early identification of recurrent disease, as recurrence is very rare. We report the first case of secondary mucocele formation in the middle ear cleft following translabyrinthine excision of an intracanalicular acoustic neuroma. This complication was found in the fourth postoperative year on routine magnetic resonance imaging, which itself followed previously normal contrasted magnetic resonance imaging in the second postoperative year. The genesis of this complication and possible treatment options are discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5

Farris, Paul; Brown, Karla; Vuitch, Frank; Meyerhoff, William L.

1997-01-01

104

Pressure difference receiving ears.  

PubMed

Directional sound receivers are useful for locating sound sources, and they can also partly compensate for the signal degradations caused by noise and reverberations. Ears may become inherently directional if sound can reach both surfaces of the eardrum. Attempts to understand the physics of such pressure difference receiving ears have been hampered by lack of suitable experimental methods. In this review, we review the methods for collecting reliable data on the binaural directional cues at the eardrums, on how the eardrum vibrations depend on the direction of sound incidence, and on how sound waves behave in the air spaces leading to the interior surfaces of eardrums. A linear mathematical model with well-defined inputs is used for exploring how the directionality varies with the binaural directional cues and the amplitude and phase gain of the sound pathway to the inner surface of the eardrum. The mere existence of sound transmission to the inner surface does not ensure a useful directional hearing, since a proper amplitude and phase relationship must exist between the sounds acting on the two surfaces of the eardrum. The gain of the sound pathway must match the amplitude and phase of the sounds at the outer surfaces of the eardrums, which are determined by diffraction and by the arrival time of the sound, that is by the size and shape of the animal and by the frequency of sound. Many users of hearing aids do not obtain a satisfactory improvement of their ability to localize sound sources. We suggest that some of the mechanisms of directional hearing evolved in Nature may serve as inspiration for technical improvements. PMID:18364558

Michelsen, Axel; Larsen, Ole Naesbye

2007-12-19

105

Arteriovenous Malformation of the Pancreas  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic arteriovenous malformation (PAVM) is a very rare and mostly congenital lesion, with less than 80 cases described in the English-published literature. It is defined as a tumorous vascular abnormality that is constructed between an anomalous bypass anastomosis of the arterial and venous networks within the pancreas. It represents about 5% of all arteriovenous malformations found in the gastrointestinal tract. Herein, we present a 64-year-old patient with symptomatic PAVM involving the body and tail of the organ, which was successfully treated by transcatheter arterial embolization. The disease spectrum and review of the literature are also presented.

Charalabopoulos, Alexandros; Macheras, Nikolas; Krivan, Sylvia; Petropoulos, Konstantinos; Misiakos, Evangelos; Macheras, Anastasios

2011-01-01

106

Glioblastoma Mimicking an Arteriovenous Malformation  

PubMed Central

Abnormal cerebral vasculature can be a manifestation of a vascular malformation or a neoplastic process. We report the case of a patient with angiography-negative subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) who re-presented 3?years later with a large intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Although imaging following the intraparenchymal hemorrhage was suggestive of arteriovenous malformation, the patient was ultimately found to have an extensive glioblastoma associated with abnormal tumor vasculature. The case emphasizes the need for magnetic resonance imaging to investigate angiography-negative SAH in suspicious cases to rule out occult etiologies, such as neoplasm. We also discuss diagnostic pitfalls when brain tumors are associated with hemorrhage and abnormal vasculature.

Khanna, Arjun; Venteicher, Andrew S.; Walcott, Brian P.; Kahle, Kristopher T.; Mordes, Daniel A.; William, Christopher M.; Ghogawala, Zoher; Ogilvy, Christopher S.

2013-01-01

107

DNA content, mitotic activity, and incorporation of tritiated thymidine in the developing inner ear of the rat  

SciTech Connect

The rat inner ear is ectodermally derived from a region adjacent to the developing hindbrain. Beginning on day 8 of a 22-day gestational period, This zone of ectoderm first forms the otic placode, then the otocyst, and ultimately the definitive membranous labyrinth. This report provides an estimation of total DNA content of the developing inner ear, and hence an estimation of the total number of cells that comprise the inner ear at each developmental stage. The incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine indicates that most cells of the inner ear undergo DNA synthetic activity during gestational days 13 to 15. Radioautographic observations indicate a zone of DNA synthetic activity at the base of the outpocketing cochlear duct during early development. At the later stages of development, DNA synthesis is restricted to the cristae ampullares of the semicircular canals and the maculae of the utricle and the saccule. In contradistinction to the findings of other investigators, the statoacoustic ganglion complex undergoes terminal mitosis during gestational days 17 and 18. The gestational period between days 13 and 15 may prove to be a critical stage in normal otic development. The normal values of total DNA content and the number of cells that comprise the inner ear during development, established by these methods, can be compared with pathologic inner ears to provide quantitative means of assessing the damage in malformed inner ears. These values also form the baseline for future experimental studies of inner ear development.

Khan, K.M.; Marovitz, W.F.

1982-04-01

108

Inner and outer ear anatomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sounds are actually waves from vibrations. The outer ear catches these waves and funnels them down into the inner ear. The waves reach the eardrum and in turn make the eardrum vibrate. Three small bones receive these vibrations next, then a snail shell-shaped structure called the cochlea. The cochlea is filled with liquid, and this liquid stimulates hairs inside the inner ear. The hairs transmit the signal to the auditory nerve where the signal is taken to the brain and processed as sound.

Zina Deretsky (National Science Foundation;)

2006-10-23

109

Cyclopism as a Hereditary Malformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

CYCLOPISM is a malformation which has been recognized for many years and which may have furnished the model for the Homeric monsters. It has been suggested that this developmental disorder is hereditary, but until recently there has been no proof of this.

Peter Pfitzer; Horst Müntefering

1968-01-01

110

Ear identification: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Although several papers have recently been devoted to establishing the validity of identification using the ear, this part of the human body still remains underexploited in forensic science. The perfect overlap of two images of the same ear is not really possible, but photographs of the ears as a reliable means of inferring the identity of an individual are poorly treated in the literature. In this study, we illustrate a simple, reproducible method, which divides the photograph of an ear into four parts-helix, antihelix, concha, and lobe-by means of a suitable grid of four straight lines. Although the division does not follow exact anatomical features, their edges do join anatomical points which are more easily identifiable. Measurement of certain areas of these parts can be combined to produce a code allowing personal identification. This method produces false-positive identifications of <0.2%. Last, the repeatability and reproducibility aspects of the method are tested. PMID:21729082

Cameriere, Roberto; DeAngelis, Danilo; Ferrante, Luigi

2011-04-19

111

Avoiding Infection After Ear Piercing  

MedlinePLUS

... for Families (PedFACTs) Home Strength Training for Young Athletes HealthyChildren.org Post-it Notes Pediatric First Aid for Caregivers ... Chronic Conditions Developmental Disabilities Ear Nose & Throat Emotional ...

112

[Viral infection and ear diseases].  

PubMed

The association of viral infection to ear disease has triggered a great deal of interests. In the present paper, we provide a critical review of the viral hypothesis of ear diseases. Detection of viral antigen and antibody or RNA and DNA in the patients serum, endolymphatic fluid or surgical pathology specimens reveals that virus may have relevance to certain kinds of ear diseases, such as Meniere's disease, idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss, otosclerosis. Bell's palsy and otitis media. The most appealing is the herpesvirus, which can cause latent infection in the neurons, and its reactivation may be the mechanism of recurrent attacks of ear diseases. Currently, antiviral drug treatment plus supportive therapy are the most effective managements dealing with viral infection. Although antiviral vaccine will become a promising preventive strategy in the future. PMID:23937021

Liu, Yuehang; Wang, Zhengmin

2013-05-01

113

AUTISM WITH OPHTHALMOLOGIC MALFORMATIONS: THE PLOT THICKENS  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Purpose To review the association of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in individuals manifesting thalidomide embryopathy and Möbius sequence and compare them with three new studies in which ASD was also associated with ocular and systemic malformations: (1) a Swedish study of individuals with CHARGE association (Coloboma, Heart, choanal Atresia, developmental or growth Retardation, Genital anomaly, and Ear involvement); (2) a Swedish study of Goldenhar syndrome; and (3) Brazilian Möbius syndrome (sequence) study. Methods In the Swedish CHARGE study, 31 patients met the inclusion criteria (3+ or 4 of the common characteristics of the CHARGE syndrome). The same team of investigators also evaluated 20 Swedish patients with Goldenhar syndrome. In the Brazilian Möbius study, 28 children with a diagnosis of Möbius sequence were studied; some children had a history of exposure during their mother’s pregnancy to the abortifacient drug misoprostol in an unsuccessful abortion attempt Results In the CHARGE study, five patients had the more severe autism disorder and five had autistic-like condition. In the Goldenhar study, two had autism disorder and one had autistic-like condition. In the Brazilian Möbius study, the systemic findings of the misoprostol-exposed and misoprostol-unexposed patients were almost undistinguishable, and ASD was present in both groups (autism disorder in five and autistic-like condition in three). Conclusion Autism spectrum disorder has been reported in two conditions with known early pregnancy exposure to the teratogenic agents thalidomide and misoprostol. In the Brazilian Möbius study, autism also occurred in both the misoprostol-exposed and misoprostol-unexposed groups. Autism also was present in patients with both CHARGE association and Goldenhar syndrome.

Miller, Marilyn T; Stromland, Kerstin; Ventura, Liana; Johansson, Maria; Bandim, Jose M; Gillberg, Christopher

2004-01-01

114

Middle ear effusion: current concepts.  

PubMed

Middle ear fluid is a common problem in children. Eustachian tube dysfunction has been considered the key to the pathogenesis of this disorder, but new studies show that other factors may be operative. Inflammation appears to play a significant role in high-viscosity effusion, and these effusions may be related to acute suppurative otitis media. Since persistent mild hearing loss may adversely affect verbal development, new emphasis on early treatment of middle ear effusion is warranted. PMID:645530

McCurdy, J A

1978-04-01

115

The management of arteriovenous malformations.  

PubMed

Arteriovenous malformations (AVM) can occur in the entire central nervous system with a predilection of the supratentorial intracranial compartment. Intracerebral hemorrhage is the most common clinical presentation of AVM and associated with a high morbidity and mortality rate. Correct management of these lesions is therefore of utmost importance. In this review, the authors present actual diagnostic and interdisciplinary treatment modalities based on their experience in a major neurovascular center and taking into consideration actual literature data. Different treatment strategies are discussed. PMID:21464810

Sandalcioglu, I E; Wanke, I; Zappala, V; Forsting, M; Sure, U

2011-03-01

116

Influence on the ear-to-ear link loss from heterogeneous head phantom variations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the detuning of the antennas and the ear-to-ear link loss for the in-the-ear (ITE) binaural hearing aids considering the different heterogeneous human phantoms through FDTD simulations. It was found that the resonance frequency shifts differently for different phantoms and between the ears within the same phantom. The ear-to-ear link loss between the antennas for the homogeneous SAM

Rohit Chandra; Anders J Johansson

2011-01-01

117

Ear disorders in scuba divers.  

PubMed

History of underwater diving dates back to antiquity. Breath-hold technique in diving was known to the ancient nations. However, deep diving progressed only in the early decades of the 19th century as the result of advancements in efficient underwater technologies which subsequently led to invention of sophisticated sets of scuba diving in the 20th century. Currently, diving is performed for various purposes including commercial, recreational, military, underwater construction, oil industry, underwater archeology and scientific assessment of marine life. By increasing popularity of underwater diving, dive-related medical conditions gradually became more evident and created a new challenge for the health care professionals, so that eventually, a specialty the so-called "diving medicine" was established. Most of the diving-associated disorders appear in the head and neck. The most common of all occupational disorders associated with diving are otologic diseases. External otitis has been reported as the most common otolaryngologic problem in underwater divers. Exostosis of the external ear canal may be formed in divers as the result of prolonged diving in cold waters. Other disorders of the ear and paranasal sinuses in underwater divers are caused by barometric pressure change (i.e., barotraumas), and to a lesser extent by decompression sickness. Barotrauma of the middle ear is the most prevalent barotrauma in divers. The inner ear barotraumas, though important, is less common. The present paper is a brief overview of diving-related ear disorders particularly in scuba divers. PMID:23022815

Azizi, M H

2011-01-01

118

3D printed bionic ears.  

PubMed

The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

2013-06-12

119

Local Inner Ear Drug Delivery and Pharmacokinetics  

PubMed Central

Summary A number of drugs are in widespread clinical use for the treatment of inner ear disorders by applying them directly to the inner ear. Many new substances and drug delivery systems specific to the inner ear are under development, and in some cases are undergoing evaluations in animal experiments and in clinical studies. The pharmacokinetics of drugs in the inner ear, however, is not well defined and the field is plagued by technical problems in obtaining pure samples of the inner ear fluids for analysis. Nevertheless, a basic understanding of the mechanisms of drug dispersal in the inner ear has emerged that facilitates the design and interpretation of future pharmacokinetic studies.

Salt, Alec N.; Plontke, Stefan K.R.

2008-01-01

120

The Chiari II malformation: cause and impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionIt is the Chiari II malformation and its effects that determine the quality of life of the individual born with spina bifida.DiscussionThe cause of this malformation has been a source of debate for many years. Understanding the cause enables strategies for the management of problems created by this malformation to be developed. An open neural tube defect allows fluid to

David G. McLone; Mark S. Dias

2003-01-01

121

Radiological Evaluation of Myelomeningocele — Chiari II Malformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myelomeningocele (MMC) is a malformation characterized by the failure of closure of the neural tube, usually (but not only)\\u000a at the lumbo-sacral level. Synonyms are spina bifida aperta, open spinal dysra — phism, and Chiari II malformation complex.\\u000a MMC is typically associated with a metamerically consistent paraplegia, a posterior fossa deformity known as the Chiari II\\u000a malformation, hydrocephalus, and a

Charles Raybaud; Elka Miller

122

[Malformations of the esophagus: diagnosis and therapy].  

PubMed

Esophageal malformations are rare and can occur sporadically or as a component of various syndromes. The variations and classifications are manifold. With the available modern operation techniques most malformations can be resolved with good results. However, esophageal malformations are often combined with further malformations which limit the prognosis. The separation of the trachea and esophagus after gastrulation is not yet completely researched. The results so far indicate that the localized expression of various homeodomain transcription factors is essential for normal development of the trachea and esophagus. PMID:23423505

Falkeis, C; Hager, T; Freund-Unsinn, K; Wohlschläger, J; Veits, L; Hager, J

2013-03-01

123

Within-ear and across-ear interference in a cocktail-party listening task  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although many researchers have shown that listeners are able to selectively attend to a target speech signal when a masking talker is present in the same ear as the target speech or when a masking talker is present in a different ear than the target speech, little is known about selective auditory attention in tasks with a target talker in one ear and independent masking talkers in both ears at the same time. In this series of experiments, listeners were asked to respond to a target speech signal spoken by one of two competing talkers in their right (target) ear while ignoring a simultaneous masking sound in their left (unattended) ear. When the masking sound in the unattended ear was noise, listeners were able to segregate the competing talkers in the target ear nearly as well as they could with no sound in the unattended ear. When the masking sound in the unattended ear was speech, however, speech segregation in the target ear was substantially worse than with no sound in the unattended ear. When the masking sound in the unattended ear was time-reversed speech, speech segregation was degraded only when the target speech was presented at a lower level than the masking speech in the target ear. These results show that within-ear and across-ear speech segregation are closely related processes that cannot be performed simultaneously when the interfering sound in the unattended ear is qualitatively similar to speech.

Brungart, Douglas S.; Simpson, Brian D.

2002-12-01

124

Earedness: Left-eared and right-eared listeners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Huggins pitch (HP) stimulus known as HP- is created with a broadband background noise having an interaural phase difference of zero, together with a narrow boundary region wherein the interaural phase varies with frequency. At the spectral center of the boundary region the interaural phase is 180 deg. Therefore, HP- is symmetrical with respect to the two ears. Despite

William M. Hartmann; Peter Xinya Zhang; John F. Culling

2001-01-01

125

Maternal distress and congenital malformations: do mothers of malformed fetuses have more problems?  

Microsoft Academic Search

As compared with 580 randomly chosen pregnant women without malformed offspring, 161 women with malformed offspring at the index pregnancy had a more frequent history of previous multiple offspring deaths and somewhat increased maternal age but were not different on social class, marital or cohabitation status or parity. As compared with demographically similar reproducing women (n=54) interviewed, malformation cases (n=98)

Gun Torstensson Nimby; Louise Lundberg; Tomas Sveger; Thomas F McNeil

1999-01-01

126

Diffuse malformations of cortical development.  

PubMed

Malformations of cortical development (MCD) represent a major cause of developmental disabilities and severe epilepsy. Advances in imaging and genetics have improved the diagnosis and classification of these conditions. Up to now, eight genes have been involved in different types of MCD. Lissencephaly-pachygyria and subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) represent a malformative spectrum resulting from mutations of either LIS1 or DCX genes. LIS1 mutations cause a more severe malformation in the posterior brain regions. DCX mutations usually cause anteriorly predominant lissencephaly in males and SBH in female patients. Additional forms are X-linked lissencephaly with corpus callosum agenesis and ambiguous genitalia associated with mutations of the ARX gene. Lissencephaly with cerebellar hypoplasia (LCH) encompass heterogeneous disorders named LCH types a to d. LCHa is related to mutation in LIS1 or DCX, LCHb with mutation of the RELN gene, and LCHd could be related to the TUBA1A gene. Polymicrogyria encompasses a wide range of clinical, etiological, and histological findings. Among several syndromes, recessive bilateral fronto-parietal polymicrogyria has been associated with mutations of the GPR56 gene. Bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria has been associated with mutations in the SRPX2 gene in a few individuals and with linkage to chromosome Xq28 in a some other families. X-linked bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) consists of PNH with focal epilepsy in females and prenatal lethality in males. Filamin A (FLNA) mutations have been reported in some families and in sporadic patients. It is possible to infer the most likely causative gene by brain imaging studies and other clinical findings. PMID:23622213

Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Guerrini, Renzo

2013-01-01

127

Inner ear drug delivery for auditory applications.  

PubMed

Many inner ear disorders cannot be adequately treated by systemic drug delivery. A blood-cochlear barrier exists, similar physiologically to the blood-brain barrier, which limits the concentration and size of molecules able to leave the circulation and gain access to the cells of the inner ear. However, research in novel therapeutics and delivery systems has led to significant progress in the development of local methods of drug delivery to the inner ear. Intratympanic approaches, which deliver therapeutics to the middle ear, rely on permeation through tissue for access to the structures of the inner ear, whereas intracochlear methods are able to directly insert drugs into the inner ear. Innovative drug delivery systems to treat various inner ear ailments such as ototoxicity, sudden sensorineural hearing loss, autoimmune inner ear disease, and for preserving neurons and regenerating sensory cells are being explored. PMID:18848590

Swan, Erin E Leary; Mescher, Mark J; Sewell, William F; Tao, Sarah L; Borenstein, Jeffrey T

2008-09-21

128

Foreign Object in the Ear: First Aid  

MedlinePLUS

Foreign object in the ear: First aid Basics Resources Reprints A single copy of this article may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Foreign object in the ear: First aid By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: ...

129

21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification. An ear prosthesis...

2013-04-01

130

Inner Ear Drug Delivery for Auditory Applications  

PubMed Central

Many inner ear disorders cannot be adequately treated by systemic drug delivery. A blood-cochlear barrier exists, similar physiologically to the blood-brain barrier, which limits the concentration and size of molecules able to leave the circulation and gain access to the cells of the inner ear. However, research in novel therapeutics and delivery systems has led to significant progress in the development of local methods of drug delivery to the inner ear. Intratympanic approaches, which deliver therapeutics to the middle ear, rely on permeation through tissue for access to the structures of the inner ear, whereas intracochlear methods are able to directly insert drugs into the inner ear. Innovative drug delivery systems to treat various inner ear ailments such as ototoxicity, sudden sensorineural hearing loss, autoimmune inner ear disease, and for preserving neurons and regenerating sensory cells are being explored.

Swan, Erin E. Leary; Mescher, Mark J.; Sewell, William F.; Tao, Sarah L.; Borenstein, Jeffrey T.

2008-01-01

131

Mutations in KCTD1 Cause Scalp-Ear-Nipple Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Scalp-ear-nipple (SEN) syndrome is a rare, autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by cutis aplasia of the scalp; minor anomalies of the external ears, digits, and nails; and malformations of the breast. We used linkage analysis and exome sequencing of a multiplex family affected by SEN syndrome to identify potassium-channel tetramerization-domain-containing 1 (KCTD1) mutations that cause SEN syndrome. Evaluation of a total of ten families affected by SEN syndrome revealed KCTD1 missense mutations in each family tested. All of the mutations occurred in a KCTD1 region encoding a highly conserved bric-a-brac, tram track, and broad complex (BTB) domain that is required for transcriptional repressor activity. KCTD1 inhibits the transactivation of the transcription factor AP-2? (TFAP2A) via its BTB domain, and mutations in TFAP2A cause cutis aplasia in individuals with branchiooculofacial syndrome (BOFS), suggesting a potential overlap in the pathogenesis of SEN syndrome and BOFS. The identification of KCTD1 mutations in SEN syndrome reveals a role for this BTB-domain-containing transcriptional repressor during ectodermal development.

Marneros, Alexander G.; Beck, Anita E.; Turner, Emily H.; McMillin, Margaret J.; Edwards, Matthew J.; Field, Michael; de Macena Sobreira, Nara Lygia; Perez, Ana Beatriz A.; Fortes, Jose A.R.; Lampe, Anne K.; Giovannucci Uzielli, Maria Luisa; Gordon, Christopher T.; Plessis, Ghislaine; Le Merrer, Martine; Amiel, Jeanne; Reichenberger, Ernst; Shively, Kathryn M.; Cerrato, Felecia; Labow, Brian I.; Tabor, Holly K.; Smith, Joshua D.; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Bamshad, Michael J.

2013-01-01

132

Mutations in KCTD1 cause scalp-ear-nipple syndrome.  

PubMed

Scalp-ear-nipple (SEN) syndrome is a rare, autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by cutis aplasia of the scalp; minor anomalies of the external ears, digits, and nails; and malformations of the breast. We used linkage analysis and exome sequencing of a multiplex family affected by SEN syndrome to identify potassium-channel tetramerization-domain-containing 1 (KCTD1) mutations that cause SEN syndrome. Evaluation of a total of ten families affected by SEN syndrome revealed KCTD1 missense mutations in each family tested. All of the mutations occurred in a KCTD1 region encoding a highly conserved bric-a-brac, tram track, and broad complex (BTB) domain that is required for transcriptional repressor activity. KCTD1 inhibits the transactivation of the transcription factor AP-2? (TFAP2A) via its BTB domain, and mutations in TFAP2A cause cutis aplasia in individuals with branchiooculofacial syndrome (BOFS), suggesting a potential overlap in the pathogenesis of SEN syndrome and BOFS. The identification of KCTD1 mutations in SEN syndrome reveals a role for this BTB-domain-containing transcriptional repressor during ectodermal development. PMID:23541344

Marneros, Alexander G; Beck, Anita E; Turner, Emily H; McMillin, Margaret J; Edwards, Matthew J; Field, Michael; de Macena Sobreira, Nara Lygia; Perez, Ana Beatriz A; Fortes, Jose A R; Lampe, Anne K; Giovannucci Uzielli, Maria Luisa; Gordon, Christopher T; Plessis, Ghislaine; Le Merrer, Martine; Amiel, Jeanne; Reichenberger, Ernst; Shively, Kathryn M; Cerrato, Felecia; Labow, Brian I; Tabor, Holly K; Smith, Joshua D; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Deborah A; Bamshad, Michael J

2013-03-28

133

Tertiary Lymphoid Organs in Lymphatic Malformations  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Examine lymphatic malformation lymphoid aggregates for the expression of tertiary lymphoid organ markers. Determine how lymphoid aggregate density relates to lymphatic malformation clinical features. Methods and Results Retrospective cohort study. Tissue and clinical data were reviewed from 29 patients in the Vascular Anomaly Database who represented the spectrum of head and neck lymphatic malformations and had >5 years of follow-up. Archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lymphatic malformation tissue was immunohistochemically stained with antibodies for tertiary lymphoid organ markers, which included follicular and mature myeloid dendritic cells, high endothelial venules, segregated B and T-cells, lymphatic endothelial cells, and lymphoid homing chemokines (CXCL13, CCL21). Lymphoid aggregate density (count/mm2) was quantified by 2 independent, blinded reviewers. Lymphoid aggregate density and lymphatic malformation clinical features were characterized using analysis of variance. Larger lymphatic malformation tissue lymphoid aggregates stained consistently for tertiary lymphoid organ markers. In oral cavity and neck specimens from the same patients (n?=?9), there were more tertiary lymphoid organ in oral cavity than in neck specimens (p?=?0.0235). In lymphatic malformation neck tissue, de Serres stage 4 lymphatic malformations displayed the highest tertiary lymphoid organ density. No significant association was seen between tertiary lymphoid organ density and other clinical features. Conclusion This study demonstrates that some lymphoid aggregates within lymphatic malformations represent tertiary lymphoid organs. There was an association between tertiary lymphoid organ density and lymphatic malformation location. Further study is required to define the role of lymphoid neogenesis and tertiary lymphoid organ formation in lymphatic malformation pathogenesis.

Kirsh, Andrew L.; Cushing, Sharon L.; Chen, Eunice Y.; Schwartz, Stephen M.

2011-01-01

134

Dynamic study of the middle ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human ear is a complex biomechanical system and is divided by three parts: outer, middle and inner ear.\\u000a \\u000a When a sound is made outside the outer ear, the sound waves travel down the external auditory canal and strike the eardrum.\\u000a It vibrates and the vibrations pass through three tiny bones in the middle ear called the ossicles (malleus, incus

F Gentil; R M Natal Jorge; A J M Ferreira; M P L Parente; M Moreira; E Almeida

135

Total alloplastic middle ear implant.  

PubMed

A total alloplastic middle ear prosthesis (TAM), composed of a spongy substance consisting of Teflon and pyrolytic graphite is presented. This prosthesis allows a safe eradication of the diseased tissue and approximates a physiological reconstruction of the sound conducting system. The results obtained in three patients with this TAM up to an observation period of more than two years are promising. PMID:7406761

Grote, J J; Kuijpers, W

1980-09-01

136

Mechanics of the frog ear  

PubMed Central

The frog inner ear contains three regions that are sensitive to airborne sound and which are functionally distinct. (1) The responses of nerve fibres innervating the low-frequency, rostral part of the amphibian papilla (AP) are complex. Electrical tuning of hair cells presumably contributes to the frequency selectivity of these responses. (2) The caudal part of the AP covers the mid-frequency portion of the frog's auditory range. It shares the ability to generate both evoked and spontaneous otoacoustic emissions with the mammalian cochlea and other vertebrate ears. (3) The basilar papilla functions mainly as a single auditory filter. Its simple anatomy and function provide a model system for testing hypotheses concerning emission generation. Group delays of stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs) from the basilar papilla are accounted for by assuming that they result from forward and reverse transmission through the middle ear, a mechanical delay due to tectorial membrane filtering and a rapid forward and reverse propagation through the inner ear fluids, with negligible delay.

van Dijk, Pim; Mason, Matthew J.; Schoffelen, Richard L. M.; Narins, Peter M.; Meenderink, Sebastiaan W. F.

2010-01-01

137

Frog eye, ear, and nostril  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You can clearly see the frog's eye. There is an air opening near a black spot on the frog's skin. The opening to the frog's ear is covered by the round, tan membrane to the left in the picture. This membrane is called the tympanum.

Ren West (None;)

2006-08-07

138

Tympanoplasty on only hearing ears.  

PubMed

The methods, results, and indications for operation on only hearing ears are discussed on the basis of 13 patients operated upon for chronic otitis media and its sequelae. Although good results were obtained, with an air-bone gas closure within 15 dB. in 77 per cent, this should not serve as propaganda for the general use of surgery on only hearing ears. On the other hand, they show that surgery on only hearing ears should not be rejected a priori and that on certain indications and under c ertain circumstanc es it may be carried out with minimal risk of aggravating the hearing loss. In most of the patients the indication for surgery was a progressing cholesteatoma, in some cases the sequelae of otitis, either in the form of myringoplasty or type II tympanoplasty, and one patient had the operation on a vital indication. To avoid postoperative exacerbation of the hearing, the patients must be strictly selected, the ears have to be pretreated conservatively, the Eustachian tube must be passable, the operation must be carried out by the most experienced otosurgeon, and thoroughly tested, very gentle operative methods must be used. PMID:1202116

Tos, M; Falbe Hansen, J

1975-10-01

139

Capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome: a report of 2 cases, diagnostic criteria, and management.  

PubMed

Capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome is a rare type of vascular malformation first described in 2003. It is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder that has been reported in association with heterozygous mutations in the RASA1 gene, which encodes the protein RASp21. The clinical picture is characterized by multiple small capillary malformations which are associated with either arteriovenous malformations or arteriovenous fistulas in both the affected individual and other members of their family. We describe 2 new familial cases of this syndrome that were clinically and genetically diagnosed and studied in our hospital. PMID:23933248

Català, A; Roé, E; Vikkula, M; Baselga, E

2013-08-08

140

Maternal distress and congenital malformations: do mothers of malformed fetuses have more problems?  

PubMed

As compared with 580 randomly chosen pregnant women without malformed offspring. 161 women with malformed offspring at the index pregnancy had a more frequent history of previous multiple offspring deaths and somewhat increased maternal age but were not different on social class, marital or cohabitation status or parity. As compared with demographically similar reproducing women (n = 54) interviewed, malformation cases (n = 98) reported having had significantly more strong stress before identification of the malformation, as well as a clear tendency toward less appropriate timing of the pregnancy. Women with malformed offspring represent a psychosocially vulnerable group and should receive special clinical and personal support. PMID:10404467

Nimby, G T; Lundberg, L; Sveger, T; McNeil, T F

141

A Simple Geometric Approach for Ear Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increase in need for strong security systems, the biometric systems are becoming more and more popular. These systems are based on human traits which, unlike passwords or pins, cannot be lost, stolen or forgotten. One such trait is ear. With the initial doubts on uniqueness of ear, ear biometrics could not attract much attention. But after it has

Dasari Shailaja; Phalguni Gupta

2006-01-01

142

STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION IN WHALE EARS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasonic echolocation abilities are well documented in several dolphin species, but hearing characteristics are unknown for most whales. Vocalization data suggest whale hearing spans infra- to ultrasonic ranges. This paper presents an overview of whale ear anatomy and analyzes 1) how whale ears are adapted for underwater hearing and 2) how inner ear differences relate to different hearing capacities among

DARLENE R. KETTEN

1997-01-01

143

Handedness and Preferred Ear for Telephoning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined relationship between handedness and preferred ear for telephoning in 140 college students. Increased degree of sinistrality was associated with increased tendency to use left ear for telephoning. Found tendency to pick up telephone receiver with preferred hand and hold earpiece to ipsilateral ear. Results may relate to reports of reduced…

Williams, Stephen M.

1987-01-01

144

Mutation of Rubie, a Novel Long Non-Coding RNA Located Upstream of Bmp4, Causes Vestibular Malformation in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background The vestibular apparatus of the vertebrate inner ear uses three fluid-filled semicircular canals to sense angular acceleration of the head. Malformation of these canals disrupts the sense of balance and frequently causes circling behavior in mice. The Epistatic circler (Ecl) is a complex mutant derived from wildtype SWR/J and C57L/J mice. Ecl circling has been shown to result from the epistatic interaction of an SWR-derived locus on chromosome 14 and a C57L-derived locus on chromosome 4, but the causative genes have not been previously identified. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed a mouse chromosome substitution strain (CSS-14) that carries an SWR/J chromosome 14 on a C57BL/10J genetic background and, like Ecl, exhibits circling behavior due to lateral semicircular canal malformation. We utilized CSS-14 to identify the chromosome 14 Ecl gene by positional cloning. Our candidate interval is located upstream of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4) and contains an inner ear-specific, long non-coding RNA that we have designated Rubie (RNA upstream of Bmp4 expressed in inner ear). Rubie is spliced and polyadenylated, and is expressed in developing semicircular canals. However, we discovered that the SWR/J allele of Rubie is disrupted by an intronic endogenous retrovirus that causes aberrant splicing and premature polyadenylation of the transcript. Rubie lies in the conserved gene desert upstream of Bmp4, within a region previously shown to be important for inner ear expression of Bmp4. We found that the expression patterns of Bmp4 and Rubie are nearly identical in developing inner ears. Conclusions/Significance Based on these results and previous studies showing that Bmp4 is essential for proper vestibular development, we propose that Rubie is the gene mutated in Ecl mice, that it is involved in regulating inner ear expression of Bmp4, and that aberrant Bmp4 expression contributes to the Ecl phenotype.

Roberts, Kristina A.; Abraira, Victoria E.; Tucker, Andrew F.; Goodrich, Lisa V.; Andrews, Nancy C.

2012-01-01

145

Arteriovenous malformation of the spinal cord  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of spinal arteriovenous malformation (AVM) in which detailed morphological examination of the intramedullary vascular lesion was carried out employing serial section studies. The relationship of the malformation to parenchymal lesions was evaluated. An abnormal vessel at the spinomedullary transition, whose lamina elastica was partially interrupted, was suggestive of a shunt vessel. The location of the intramedullary

Tsuyoshi Ishida; Shigeo Murayama; Kazuyoshi Yamaguchi; Yoshinori Urano; Makoto Iwata

1989-01-01

146

A Framework for Detecting Malformed SMS Attack  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malformed messages in different protocols pose a serious threat because they are used to remotely launch malicious activity. Furthermore, they are capable of crashing servers and end points, sometimes with a single message. Recently, it was shown that a malformed SMS can crash a mobile phone or gain unfettered access to it. In spite of this, little research has been

M Zubair Rafique; Muhammad Khurram Khan; Khaled Alghathbar; Muddassar Farooq

2011-01-01

147

Congenital malformations due to antiepileptic drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify the major risk factors for the increased incidence of congenital malformations in offspring of mothers being treated for epilepsy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) during pregnancy and, to determine the relative teratogenic risk of AEDs, we prospectively analyzed 983 offspring born in Japan, Italy, and Canada. The incidence of congenital malformations in offspring without drug exposure was 3.1%, versus

S Kaneko; D Battino; E Andermann; K Wada; R Kan; A Takeda; Y Nakane; Y Ogawa; G Avanzini; C Fumarola; T Granata; F Molteni; G Pardi; L Minotti; R Canger; L Dansky; M Oguni; I Lopes-Cendas; A Sherwin; F Andermann; M.-H Seni; M Okada; T Teranishi

1999-01-01

148

Early presentation of an extremity arteriovenous malformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a very rare case of a high flow arteriovenous malformation (AVM) of the upper limb that caused high output cardiac failure at birth. There was early transfer of the baby to the care of a multidisciplinary team. After radiological intervention, the arm distal to the malformation became ischaemic and an urgent amputation through the upper-humerus followed. Methods of

Jill B. Webb; Mary O'Brien; Philip R. John; Hiroshi Nishikawa

2004-01-01

149

Imaging of head and neck venous malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Venous malformations (VMs) are non proliferative lesions that consist of dysplastic venous channels. The aim of imaging is to characterise the lesion and define its anatomic extent. We will describe the plain film, ultrasound (US) (including colour and duplex Doppler), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), conventional angiographic and direct phlebographic appearances of venous malformations. They will be illustrated

Christine M. Flis; Stephen E. Connor

2005-01-01

150

Maternal Age and Malformations in Singleton Births  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the effect of maternal age on inci- dence of nonchromosomal fetal malformations. Methods: Malformations detected at birth or in the new- born nursery were catalogued prospectively for 102,728 pregnancies, including abortions, stillbirths, and live births, from January 1, 1988 to December 31, 1994. Maternal age was divided into seven epochs. Relative risks (RRs) were used to compare

LISA M. HOLLIER; KENNETH J. LEVENO; MARY ANN KELLY; DONALD D. MCINTIRE; F. GARY CUNNINGHAM

2000-01-01

151

Maternal age and malformations in singleton births  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the effect of maternal age on incidence of nonchromosomal fetal malformations.Methods: Malformations detected at birth or in the newborn nursery were catalogued prospectively for 102,728 pregnancies, including abortions, stillbirths, and live births, from January 1, 1988 to December 31, 1994. Maternal age was divided into seven epochs. Relative risks (RRs) were used to compare demographic variables and

Lisa M Hollier; Kenneth J Leveno; Mary Ann Kelly; Donald D MCIntire; F. Gary Cunningham

2000-01-01

152

Identification of brain malformations: neuropathological approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThe sophistication of prenatal brain imaging (US, MRI) has awakened interest in fetal neuropathology and changed the concept of brain malformations, defined until recently through descriptive terms and considered as senseless accidents of development. Usually, most CNS malformations are documented from a clinical and radiological point of view. However, only a detailed neuropathological study permits their exact phenotype to be

Férechté Encha-Razavi

2003-01-01

153

North American Reporting Center for Amphibian Malformations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created in June, 1997 and funded by the US Geological Survey and Environmental Protection Agency, this site is a response to the discovery of numerous deformed amphibians (mostly frogs) in areas as widespread as Minnesota, California, and Florida. Malformations include extra or missing limbs, missing eyes, and split limbs. The site is intended to serve as a central repository for data on the type and relative frequency of such malformations throughout the US. Researchers hope to use the site to help discover the cause(s) of these deformities. The site contains a map of where malformations have been reported, background on the occurrence and possible causes of defects, numerous images of malformed amphibians, a searchable bibliography, instructions on how to report the discovery of a malformed amphibian, and links to eight related web sites. NARCAM's site also contains a toll-free number for citizen reports.

Center., Northern P.

1997-01-01

154

Autogenous and prosthetic reconstruction of the ear.  

PubMed

Injuries to the ear can result in partial or complete loss of the external ear. Resection of the external ear may be necessary secondary to malignant tumor or infection. This article discusses the diagnosis and management of acquired defects of the external ear. Because autogenous reconstruction is not always possible, both autogenous and prosthetic reconstruction are presented as well as the indications for both. This information should help guide the clinician in the decision-making process. In the hands of experienced clinicians, reconstruction of the external ear can result in an excellent outcome, with improved quality of life for the patient. PMID:23522966

Louis, Patrick J; Aponte-Wesson, Ruth A; Fernandes, Rui P; Clemow, Justin

2013-03-21

155

Biophysics of the ensiferan ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The small (anterior) tympanal membrane in the ear of the cricketGryllus campestris L. is non-functional in hearing (Fig. 4).2.The large (posterior) tympanum vibrates in its basic mode in the entire frequency range investigated (1–30 kHz).3.The velocity and the phase angle (sound pressure to vibration velocity) of the large tympanum are very much influenced by whether the ipsilateral spiracle is open

Ole N. Larsen; Axel Michelsen

1978-01-01

156

A noncoding point mutation of Zeb1 causes multiple developmental malformations and obesity in Twirler mice.  

PubMed

Heterozygous Twirler (Tw) mice develop obesity and circling behavior associated with malformations of the inner ear, whereas homozygous Tw mice have cleft palate and die shortly after birth. Zeb1 is a zinc finger protein that contributes to mesenchymal cell fate by repression of genes whose expression defines epithelial cell identity. This developmental pathway is disrupted in inner ears of Tw/Tw mice. The purpose of our study was to comprehensively characterize the Twirler phenotype and to identify the causative mutation. The Tw/+ inner ear phenotype includes irregularities of the semicircular canals, abnormal utricular otoconia, a shortened cochlear duct, and hearing loss, whereas Tw/Tw ears are severely malformed with barely recognizable anatomy. Tw/+ mice have obesity associated with insulin-resistance and have lymphoid organ hypoplasia. We identified a noncoding nucleotide substitution, c.58+181G>A, in the first intron of the Tw allele of Zeb1 (Zeb1(Tw)). A knockin mouse model of c.58+181G>A recapitulated the Tw phenotype, whereas a wild-type knockin control did not, confirming the mutation as pathogenic. c.58+181G>A does not affect splicing but disrupts a predicted site for Myb protein binding, which we confirmed in vitro. In comparison, homozygosity for a targeted deletion of exon 1 of mouse Zeb1, Zeb1(?Ex1), is associated with a subtle abnormality of the lateral semicircular canal that is different than those in Tw mice. Expression analyses of E13.5 Twirler and Zeb1(?Ex1) ears confirm that Zeb1(?Ex1) is a null allele, whereas Zeb1(Tw) RNA is expressed at increased levels in comparison to wild-type Zeb1. We conclude that a noncoding point mutation of Zeb1 acts via a gain-of-function to disrupt regulation of Zeb1(Tw) expression, epithelial-mesenchymal cell fate or interactions, and structural development of the inner ear in Twirler mice. This is a novel mechanism underlying disorders of hearing or balance. PMID:21980308

Kurima, Kiyoto; Hertzano, Ronna; Gavrilova, Oksana; Monahan, Kelly; Shpargel, Karl B; Nadaraja, Garani; Kawashima, Yoshiyuki; Lee, Kyu Yup; Ito, Taku; Higashi, Yujiro; Eisenman, David J; Strome, Scott E; Griffith, Andrew J

2011-09-29

157

Interventional occlusion of congenital vascular malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  New materials and devices have been used in the management of cardiac malformations. In this paper, we present our experience\\u000a with interventional occlusion of congenital vascular malformations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Between January 1997 and December 2005, 139 patients with congenital vascular malformations who had undergone interventional\\u000a occlusion in the Children’s Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine were studied. The clinical data of the

Chun-Hong Xie; Cheng-Sen Xia; Fang-Qi Gong; Yin-Bao Zhou; Wei-Hua Zhu

2009-01-01

158

Fetal MRI clues to diagnose cloacal malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Prenatal US detection of cloacal malformations is challenging and rarely confirms this diagnosis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  To define the prenatal MRI findings in cloacal malformations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  We performed a retrospective study of patients with cloacal malformations who had pre- and post-natal assessment at our institution.\\u000a Fetal MRI was obtained in six singleton pregnancies between 26 and 32 weeks of gestation. Imaging analysis was

Maria A. Calvo-Garcia; Beth M. Kline-Fath; Marc A. Levitt; Foong-Yen Lim; Leann E. Linam; Manish N. Patel; Steven Kraus; Timothy M. Crombleholme; Alberto Peña

159

Ear canal dynamic motion as a source of power for in-ear devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ear canal deformation caused by temporomandibular joint (jaw joint) activity, also known as ``ear canal dynamic motion,'' is introduced in this paper as a candidate source of power to possibly recharge hearing aid batteries. The geometrical deformation of the ear canal is quantified in 3D by laser scanning of different custom ear moulds. An experimental setup is proposed to measure the amount of power potentially available from this source. The results show that 9 mW of power is available from a 15 mm3 dynamic change in the ear canal volume. Finally, the dynamic motion and power capability of the ear canal are investigated in a group of 12 subjects.

Delnavaz, Aidin; Voix, Jérémie

2013-02-01

160

21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...tonsil guillotine; tonsil screw; tonsil snare; tonsil suction tube; tonsil suturing...rongeur; nasal saw; nasal scissors; nasal snare; sinus irrigator; sinus trephine; ear...excavator; ear rasp; ear scissor, ear snare; ear spoon; ear suction tube;...

2010-04-01

161

21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...tonsil guillotine; tonsil screw; tonsil snare; tonsil suction tube; tonsil suturing...rongeur; nasal saw; nasal scissors; nasal snare; sinus irrigator; sinus trephine; ear...excavator; ear rasp; ear scissor, ear snare; ear spoon; ear suction tube;...

2009-04-01

162

Numerical simulation of the human ear and the dynamic analysis of the middle ear sound transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the clinical CT of normal right ear, a 3-D ?nite element (FE) model of the human ear consisting of the external ear canal, middle ear(tympanic membrane, ossicular chain, ligaments, tendons), and inner ear (including semicircular canals, vestibular, spiral cochlear)was constructed in this paper. The complicated structures and inner boundary conditions of middle ear were described in this model. Model analysis and acoustic-structure-?uid coupled dynamic frequency response analysis were conducted on the model. The validity of this model was confirmed by comparing the results with published experimental data. The amplitudes and velocities of tympanic membrane and stapes footplate, sound pressure gain across the middle ear, and the cochlear input impedance were derived. Besides, it was concluded that the ear canal can amplify the sound signal in low frequencies.The modes of vibration of middle ear auditory ossicles, oval window and round window have been analysed. This model can well simulate the acoustic behavior with the interaction of external ear, middle ear and inner ear, which can supply more valuable theoretical support for development and improvement of hearing-aid and artificial inner ear.

Yao, W.; Ma, J.; Huang, X.

2013-06-01

163

Huge arteriovenous malformation in masseter muscle.  

PubMed

Arteriovenous malformation is a tumor characterized by direct connection between an artery and vein without capillaries in-between, and it is commonly located intracranially. Intramuscular arteriovenous malformations are rare in the head and neck region. Less than 1% of the vascular tumors are localized in a muscle, 15% of them are in the head and neck muscles. Among the head and neck muscles, masseter muscle is the most common location, with the rate of 4.9%. The condition of a 36-year-old patient who applied to our clinic with the complaints of progressively increasing pain and progressively growing mass in the right cheek that appeared 1.5 years ago was diagnosed as arteriovenous malformation located in the masseter muscle. After preoperative embolization, the mass was successfully treated with total excision. In this case report, diagnostic and therapeutic tools addressing arteriovenous malformation located in the masseter muscle are discussed in the light of current literature. PMID:19625853

Karaman, Emin; Mercan, Hasan; Ozdilek, Alper; Alimoglu, Yalcin; Korkut, Nazim

2009-07-01

164

Chiari malformation with thick occipital bone.  

PubMed

A case of a Chiari malformation with an extraordinarily thick occipital bone is described. The thick occipital bone might make the posterior fossa narrow with consequent herniation of the cerebellar tonsils to the foramen magnum and formation of a syrinx. At dural plasty, well-developed marginal and occipital sinuses should be deliberately handled with the preservation of normal venous drainage. This case gives us the essence of the occurrence mechanisms of Chiari malformation and foramen magnum decompression. PMID:21339798

Yasuhara, Takao; Miyoshi, Yasuyuki; Date, Isao

2011-02-01

165

Imaging diagnosis--split cord malformation.  

PubMed

The features of a calf with a split cord malformation are described. Clinically, there was severe cervicothoracic kyphoscoliosis and an interscapular dermal sinus associated with cerebrospinal fluid drainage. Using magnetic resonance imaging, complete duplication of the spinal cord at the cervical intumescence was detected. There was associated syringohydromyelia, multiple cervicothoracic vertebral malformations resulting in kyphoscoliosis and rachischisis, herniation of the cerebellar vermis, meningoencephalocele, and calvarial defects. PMID:20166395

Zani, Davide D; De Zani, Donatella; Morandi, Nicola; Biggi, Marianna; Belloli, Angelo G; Riccaboni, Pietro; Rondena, Marco; Di Giancamillo, Mauro; Pravettoni, Davide

166

Maternal diabetes mellitus and infant malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effects of pregestational, as opposed to gestational, diabetes on infant malformations.METHODS:All women delivering infants at Parkland Hospital between January 1, 1991, and December 31, 2000, were ascertained. Screening for gestational diabetes was methodically employed throughout the study period using National Diabetes Data Group criteria for diagnosis of pregestational and gestational diabetes. Standardized definitions of major infant malformations

Jeanne S Sheffield; Erin L Butler-Koster; Brian M Casey; Donald D McIntire; Kenneth J Leveno

2002-01-01

167

The Microcephaly-Capillary Malformation Syndrome  

PubMed Central

We report on three children from two families with a new pattern recognition malformation syndrome consisting of severe congenital microcephaly (MIC), intractable epilepsy including infantile spasms, and generalized capillary malformations that was first reported recently in this journal [Carter et al. (2011); Am J Med Genet A 155: 301–306]. Two of our reported patients are an affected brother and sister, suggesting this is an autosomal recessive severe congenital MIC syndrome.

Mirzaa, Ghayda M.; Paciorkowski, Alex R.; Smyser, Christopher D.; Willing, Marcia C.; Lind, Anne C.; Dobyns, William B.

2012-01-01

168

Endoscopic Anatomy of the Middle Ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

Good knowledge of anatomy is fundamental for every surgeon. Middle ear anatomy is really complex and sometimes is challenging\\u000a for otologists, who need to explore every single compartment for a radical removal of pathology. With introduction of the\\u000a endoscope in middle ear surgery, anatomy of middle ear spaces has become wider and clearer due to a better magnification and\\u000a to

Daniele Marchioni; Gabriele Molteni; Livio Presutti

2011-01-01

169

Virtual endoscopy of the middle ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual endoscopy is a computer-generated simulation of fiberoptic endoscopy, and its application to the study of the middle\\u000a ear has been recently proposed. The need to represent the middle ear anatomy by means of virtual endoscopy arose from the\\u000a increased interest of otolarygologists in transtympanic endoscopy. In fact, this imaging method allows the visualization of\\u000a middle ear anatomy with high

E. Neri; D. Caramella; M. Panconi; S. Berrettini; S. Sellari Franceschini; F. Forli; C. Bartolozzi

2001-01-01

170

Using Ear Biometrics for Personal Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Application and research of ear recognition technology is a new subject in the field of biometrics recognition. Earlier research\\u000a showed that human ear is one of the representative human biometrics with uniqueness and stability. Feasibility and characteristics\\u000a of ear recognition was discussed and recent advances in 2D and 3D domain was presented. Furthermore, a proposal for future\\u000a research topics was

Li Yuan; Zhichun Mu; Zhengguang Xu

2005-01-01

171

Protein isolation from ear wax made easy.  

PubMed

Cerumen is a waxy substance with a mixture of different lipids and and not yet identified proteins. Analysing ear wax can be quite laborious because of the different and sometimes interfering components. Therefore, time-consuming techniques such as chromatography or spectrometry were used to gain informations about the components of ear wax. Conclusions were drawn from immunohistochemical detections of special proteins within the skin or the glands of the external ear canal about the existence of these proteins within the ear wax. But directly analysing the proteins within the ear wax was difficult. We, therefore, worked out a method to isolate proteins from ear wax. Ear wax was collected from 16 adults with no infections of the external ear canal. The protein isolation was conducted using the Qproteome Mammalian Protein Prep Kit by Qiagen in two different kind of ways (cell and lysat fraction). Afterwards, we performed a quantification of the total protein concentration using the BCA method. There was a statistical significant difference in the total protein concentration between the two different (cell and lysat fraction) described ways. Furthermore, it is a fast and easy method to extract proteins from ear wax. The benefit of the described method and the field of application will be discussed. PMID:19347346

Schwaab, Matthias; Hansen, Stefan; Gurr, Andre; Schwaab, Thomas; Minovi, Amir; Sudhoff, Holger; Dazert, Stefan

2009-04-04

172

Otitis media and ear tubes.  

PubMed

The placement of myringotomy tubes remains an effective treatment of recurrent acute otitis media and chronic otitis media with effusion. Infants and young children are prone to these entities because of their immature anatomy and immunology. Several host, pathogenic, and environmental factors contribute to the development of these conditions. The identification and modification of some these factors can preclude the need for intervention. The procedure continues to be one of the most common outpatient pediatric procedures. Close vigilance and identification of potential complications is of utmost importance in the ongoing management of the child with middle ear disease. PMID:23905821

Lambert, Elton; Roy, Soham

2013-06-14

173

[Study on middle ear ventilation using positional tympanometry--post mastoidectomy ear].  

PubMed

The middle ear is a cavity surrounded by solid bone, lined with mucosa with a lumen filled with gas. To examine this unique ventilation system under atmospheric pressure, the middle ear pressure of 50 normal ears was previously examined. Positional tympanometry, whereby the middle ear pressure is increased as the subject assumes the lateral position under atmospheric pressure was used. As a result, (1) The middle ear pressure was elevated by the change from the sitting position to the lateral position. Venous pressure was regarded as causative factor of this pressure elevation. (2) The elevation of the middle ear pressure in the lateral position suggested gas production from the mastoid cells of the middle ear. In this study, a proportion of the mastoid cells were removed to resect a tumor of the internal acoustic meatus in conjunction with resection of an acoustic tumor. After resection the area was filled with fascia and fatty tissue. The middle ear pressure of each subject was monitored to determine the effect of a decrease in the mastoid cell volume on middle ear pressure. The results were continuously recorded every 12 seconds for the lower ear when the subjects were in the lateral position. The following results were obtained. (1) The elevation of the middle ear pressure due to positional change among subjects which had had acoustic tumors resected was noticeably greater than the elevation in normal ears. This is thought to have been the result of an elevation in cerebrospinal fluid pressure attributable to positional change, along with an elevation in intravenous pressure. (2) We made comparisons of increases in middle ear pressure 10 minutes after assuming the lateral position in 14 ears after acoustic tumor resection and in 21 normal ears. No noticeable differences were found in the middle ear pressure increases between the two groups despite the fact that the volume of the mastoid cells in the group that had tumors resected had been greatly reduced. PMID:8551378

Ebihara, H

1995-12-01

174

14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105...First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards...

2013-01-01

175

14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205...Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards...

2013-01-01

176

14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305...Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards...

2013-01-01

177

14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105 Section 67.105 Aeronautics... § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class airman...

2010-01-01

178

14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205 Section 67.205 Aeronautics... § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class airman...

2009-01-01

179

14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105 Section 67.105 Aeronautics... § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class airman...

2009-01-01

180

14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205 Section 67.205 Aeronautics... § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class airman...

2010-01-01

181

14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305 Section 67.305 Aeronautics... § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class airman...

2010-01-01

182

14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305 Section 67.305 Aeronautics... § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class airman...

2009-01-01

183

Playing by Ear: Foundation or Frill?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many people divide musicians into two types: those who can read music and those who play by ear. Formal music education tends to place great emphasis on producing musically literate performers but devotes much less attention to teaching students to make music without notation. Some would suggest that playing by ear is a specialized skill that is…

Woody, Robert H.

2012-01-01

184

TOPICAL REVIEW: Pressure difference receiving ears  

Microsoft Academic Search

Directional sound receivers are useful for locating sound sources, and they can also partly compensate for the signal degradations caused by noise and reverberations. Ears may become inherently directional if sound can reach both surfaces of the eardrum. Attempts to understand the physics of such pressure difference receiving ears have been hampered by lack of suitable experimental methods. In this

Axel Michelsen; Ole Næsbye Larsen

2008-01-01

185

Reading disability and middle ear disease.  

PubMed Central

The association between specific reading disability and middle ear disease was investigated in a longitudinal study of 962 children followed from age 5 to 11. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of middle ear abnormalities between the reading disabled group (n = 49) and the remainder.

Share, D L; Chalmers, D; Silva, P A; Stewart, I A

1986-01-01

186

Human ear recognition based on block segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new human ear recognition approach based on block segmentation is proposed in this paper. In this method, an original ear image is partitioned into several smaller sub-images, then the sub-images are extracted by features, As a result, the lower dimension space features that can replace the original images are obtained. Finally the pattern classification can be implemented by the

Wang Xiaoyun; Yuan Weiqi

2009-01-01

187

Inner ear drug delivery for auditory applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many inner ear disorders cannot be adequately treated by systemic drug delivery. A blood-cochlear barrier exists, similar physiologically to the blood-brain barrier, which limits the concentration and size of molecules able to leave the circulation and gain access to the cells of the inner ear. However, research in novel therapeutics and delivery systems has led to significant progress in the

Erin E. Leary Swan; Mark J. Mescher; William F. Sewell; Sarah L. Tao; Jeffrey T. Borenstein

2008-01-01

188

Playing by Ear: Foundation or Frill?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many people divide musicians into two types: those who can read music and those who play by ear. Formal music education tends to place great emphasis on producing musically literate performers but devotes much less attention to teaching students to make music without notation. Some would suggest that playing by ear is a specialized skill that is…

Woody, Robert H.

2012-01-01

189

The development of the vertebrate inner ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inner ear is a complex sensory organ responsible for balance and sound detection in vertebrates. It originates from a transient embryonic structure, the otic vesicle, that contains all of the information to develop autonomously into the mature inner ear. We review here the development of the otic vesicle, bringing together classical embryological experiments and recent genetic and molecular data.

Miguel Torres; Fernando Giráldez

1998-01-01

190

Tests For Assessing Inner-Ear Dysfunction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. Quantitative tests of vestibular (inner-ear) and visual-motor function have been developed. Previous clinical tests for assessing inner-ear dysfunction were time-con...

1983-01-01

191

Surgical anatomy of the rat middle ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to aid experimental otologic studies of the rat middle ear. The topographic anatomy of the albino rat middle ear is described. A set of microphotographs with matching illustrations presents the structural details at several surgical exposures. Anatomic differences between the rat, guinea pig, and cat are noted. (Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1997;117:438-47.)

RICHARD F. JUDKINS; HONGYAN LI

1997-01-01

192

PHONETICS EAR-TRAINING - DESIGN AND DURATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study of the product of routine phonetics ear- training revealed a number of effects. The goal\\/benchmark was mastery of the sounds of the IPA (including Cardinal Vowels). Students with no previous experience of phonetics were followed through a typical one year ear-training programme; their ability to recognise sounds was tested at two points during the year. Vowel identification findings confirmed

Patricia D. S. Ashby

2007-01-01

193

Pathophysiology of inner ear fluid imbalance.  

PubMed

Maintenance of homeostasis of inner ear fluids and biochemical integrity of inner ear tissue are essential for proper functioning of the auditory and vestibular end organs. Although various regulatory mechanisms exist in a different portion of the labyrinth, the inner ear is known to respond to systemic challenges. The association of Meniere's syndrome with an imbalance of inner ear fluid homeostasis has been hypothesized for the past century. Among many factors, the effects of hormonal imbalance on inner ear fluid composition and inner ear function have however scarcely been studied. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the autonomic nervous system and inner ear function and possible mechanisms of functional disturbances in an experimental condition. An infusion of supraphysiologic amounts of epinephrine, a stress related hormone, resulted in an elevation of osmolality in serum and perilymph. Furthermore, the infusion of epinephrine resulted in elevation of threshold, prolongation of latency, and depression of amplitude in the compound action potential of the auditory nerve. These findings were most marked at high frequencies. We hypothesized that the epinephrine-induced hearing loss was brought about by an increase in perilymphatic osmolality, as well as by the ionic imbalance caused by the osmotic gradient. Since emotional stress has been implicated as a mechanism of inducing a Meniere's attack, evaluation of the relationship between the autonomic system and cochlear function may contribute to the understanding of possible mechanisms of inner ear dysfunction caused by hormonal imbalances. PMID:1843177

Juhn, S K; Ikeda, K; Morizono, T; Murphy, M

1991-01-01

194

Human Ear Detection From 3D Side Face Range Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ear is a new class of relatively stable biometrics which is not affected by facial expressions, cosmetics and eye glasses.\\u000a To use ear biometrics for human identification, ear detection is the first part of an ear recognition system. In this chapter\\u000a we propose two approaches for locating human ears in side face range images: (a) template matching based ear detection

H. Chen; B. Bhanu

195

Effects of middle-ear disorders on power reflectance measured in cadaveric ear canals  

PubMed Central

Objective Reflectance measured in the ear canal offers a noninvasive method to monitor the acoustic properties of the middle ear, and few systematic measurements exist on the effects of various middle-ear disorders on the reflectance. This work utilizes a human cadaver-ear preparation and a mathematical middle-ear model to both measure and predict how power reflectance ? is affected by the middle-ear disorders of static middle-ear pressures, middle-ear fluid, fixed stapes, disarticulated incudo-stapedial joint, and tympanic-membrane perforations. Design ? was calculated from ear-canal pressure measurements made on human-cadaver ears in the normal condition and five states: (1) positive and negative pressure in the middle-ear cavity, (2) fluid-filled middle ear, (3) stapes fixed with dental cement, (4) incudo-stapedial joint disarticulated, and (5) tympanic-membrane perforations. The middle-ear model of Kringlebotn (1988) was modified to represent the middle-ear disorders. Model predictions are compared to measurements. Results For a given disorder, the general trends of the measurements and model were similar. The changes from normal in ?, induced by the simulated disorder, generally depend on frequency and the extent of the disorder (except for the disarticulation). Systematic changes in middle-ear static pressure (up to ± 300 daPa) resulted in systematic increases in ?. These affects were most pronounced for frequencies up to 1000 to 2000 Hz. Above about 2000 Hz there were some asymmetries in behavior between negative and positive pressures. Results with fluid in the middle-ear air space were highly dependent on the percentage of the air space that was filled. Changes in ? were minimal when a smaller fraction of the air space was filled with fluid, and as the air space was filled with more saline, ? increased at most frequencies. Fixation of the stapes generally resulted in a relatively small low-frequency increase in ?. Disarticulation of the incus with the stapes led to a consistent low-frequency decreases in ? with a distinctive minimum below 1000 Hz. Perforations of the tympanic membrane resulted in a decrease in ? for frequencies up to about 2000 Hz; at these lower frequencies, smaller perforations led to larger changes from normal as compared to larger perforations. Conclusions These preliminary measurements help assess the utility of power reflectance as a diagnostic tool for middle-ear disorders. In particular, the measurements document (1) the frequency ranges for which the changes are largest and (2) the extent of the changes from normal for a spectrum of middle-ear disorders.

Merchant, Gabrielle R.; Horton, Nicholas J.

2011-01-01

196

Massive localised lymphoedema: a rare vascular malformation.  

PubMed

Lymphatic malformations are a subset of congenital vascular malformations, and are caused by a defect in lymphatic development during embryogenesis. When lymphatic mesoderm development is prematurely arrested, it retains it proliferative potential. Stimulus in the future can cause the lesion to proliferate locally without coordination or regulation, resulting in the rare condition known as massive localised lymphoedema (MLL). We present a case report of MLL, a rare and ill-defined soft tissue mass reported in the morbidly obese, with reference to the existing literature. PMID:23761611

Williams, K J; Al-Sakkal, M N; Alsafi, A; Davies, A H

2013-06-12

197

Multiple hamartomas associated with intracranial malformation.  

PubMed

We examined a newborn infant with multiple hamartomas, including an epidermal nevus syndrome and a giant pigmented congenital nevocellular nevus, associated with other structural developmental abnormalities such as nevus flammeus, vascular malformation, cutis aplasia congenita of the scalp, cartilage hamartoma, and a lipodermoid of the conjunctiva. This child had a significant brain malformation, diagnosed by sonography and computerized tomography, consisting of a significant enlargement of the left hemisphere not associated with asymmetry of the skull or facial bones. We suggest a careful investigation of the intracranial structures by computerized tomography and/or ultrasonography in case of either extensive linear nevus sebaceous sequence and/or giant pigmented nevocellular nevus. PMID:3725699

Mimouni, F; Han, B K; Barnes, L; Ballard, J L; Dignan, P S; Kiessling, M A; Lucky, A W

1986-06-01

198

Venous malformations of the genitals: a therapeutic dilemma.  

PubMed

Venous malformations may occur anywhere in the body but are rare in the genitourinary tract and external genitalia. The authors report a case of a venous malformation in the glans penis and discuss the controversy over optimal management. PMID:20442077

Kaufman, Daniel; Feber, Kevin M; Palmer, Lane S; Freedman, Alan M

2010-01-01

199

Human antimicrobial proteins in ear wax.  

PubMed

The external auditory canal is vulnerable to bacterial infections, but little is known about thechemical compositions of ear wax regarding antimicrobial peptides. We, therefore, studied the proteinconcentrations of ten well-known human antimicrobial peptides from ear wax.Twenty ear wax samples from healthy individuals were analysed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine theprotein concentrations of the antimicrobial peptides hBD1-3, lactoferrin, LL-37, BPI, hSLPI and HNP1-3. All ten antimicrobial peptides are present in ear wax. Some of these proteins seem to be merelycell-bound in ear wax. Antimicrobial peptides in ear wax prevent bacteria and fungi from causing infections inthe external auditory canal. The role and importance of these proteins for the blind-ending ear externalcanal is discussed. If this local defence system fails, infections of the external auditory canal may result.The knowledge about the presence of antimicrobial peptides in cerumen may lead to new concepts ofthe local treatment of external auditory canal diseases in the future. PMID:21298458

Schwaab, M; Gurr, A; Neumann, A; Dazert, S; Minovi, A

2011-02-06

200

Diffusion tensor imaging of midline posterior fossa malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Diffusion tensor imaging and tractography have been used to evaluate a variety of brain malformations. However, these studies have focused mainly on malformations involving the supratentorial compartments. There is a paucity of data on diffusion tensor imaging of posterior fossa malformations.Objective  To describe the color vector maps and modified or abnormal tracts of midline posterior fossa malformations.Materials and Methods  Diffusion tensor imaging

Elysa Widjaja; Susan Blaser; Charles Raybaud

2006-01-01

201

Hypertension as a presentation of bilateral intrarenal arateriovenous malformation.  

PubMed

Congenital arteriovenous malformations are rare lesions of the kidneys. The first case of bilateral renal arteriovenous malformations was described in 1987. A case of extensive bilateral intrarenal arterivenous malformations presented to us as a case of hypertension. Renal angiography confirmed the diagnosis. Magnetic resonance angiography ruled out these malformations in cerebral circulation, and enhanced abdominal CT scan was normal. The blood pressure of the patient was controlled by medical therapy only. PMID:18212459

El-Lozi, M S; Hadad, A F

202

Earedness: Left-eared and right-eared listeners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Huggins pitch (HP) stimulus known as HP- is created with a broadband background noise having an interaural phase difference of zero, together with a narrow boundary region wherein the interaural phase varies with frequency. At the spectral center of the boundary region the interaural phase is 180 deg. Therefore, HP- is symmetrical with respect to the two ears. Despite the symmetry, most listeners hear the HP image strongly lateralized to one side of the head. Some hear it on the right; others hear it on the left. Two surveys, involving 51 listeners, found that these perceptions do not change when the headphones are reversed. Extensive experiments with five listeners found that the lateralization directions were usually insensitive to variations in the frequency of the boundary region (more than two octaves). The left or right preference was strong enough that listeners chose alias locations (differing from a more central location by 360 deg) on the preferred side when various frequency-independent interaural delays and phase shifts were added to the HP stimulus. The experiments suggest that given ambiguous stimuli, listeners exhibit earedness-a preference similar to, but not as strong as, handedness. [Work supported by the NIDCD Grant DC 00181.

Hartmann, William M.; Zhang, Peter Xinya; Culling, John F.

2001-05-01

203

A Novel Algorithm for Autologous Ear Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Sculpting a tridimensional autologous rib cartilage framework is essential to restore a natural ear shape and becomes routine with preoperative training, but management of the skin is the key to minimizing complications. Here the authors provide a classification scheme to manage auricular skin: Type 1 is a Z-plasty with transposition of the lobule; type 2 is a transfixion incision of the microtic ear; type 3 exposes the cartilage remnants through a cutaneous incision. They also explain how to choose between the three types, depending upon the auricular skin potential. With training and method, results in ear reconstruction using autologous rib cartilage are excellent and reproducible.

Firmin, Francoise; Marchac, Alexandre

2011-01-01

204

Hearing: How Do Our Ears Work?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the anatomy of the ear and how the ears work as a sound sensor. Ear anatomy parts and structures are explained in detail, as well as how sound is transmitted mechanically and then electrically through them to the brain. Students use LEGO® robots with sound sensors to measure sound intensities, learning how the NXT brick (computer) converts the intensity of sound measured by the sensor input into a number that transmits to a screen. They build on their experiences from the previous activities and establish a rich understanding of the sound sensor and its relationship to the TaskBot's computer.

GK-12 Program, Computational Neurobiology Center,

205

The Ear Pages - Nobel Prize Educational Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 1961 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded for the discovery of how sound is analyzed and communicated in the cochlea in the inner ear. Explore "The Ear Pages" and collect the snail shaped symbols of the cochlea to gain chances to answer a question correct in the quiz! (The cochlea works as a frequency/pitch analyzer in the inner ear.) You can choose between three levels of quizzes ÃÂ beginner, advanced and expert. If you manage to get all the answers correct you will appear on the "High score of the week" list!

2009-01-01

206

Congenital malformations by the parental occupation in finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Finnish Register of Congenital Malformations, a case-referent register, was used to analyze the associations between the parental occupation and the children born with malformations. The women working in industrial and construction occupations had more children with central nervous system (CNS) and musculoskeletal malformations than the referent mothers. The women employed in transport and communication occupations had more children with

K. Hemminki; P. Mutanen; K. Luoma; I. Saloniemi

1980-01-01

207

Interventional treatment of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVM) are congenital vascular communications in the lungs. They act as right to left shunts so that the blood running through these malformations is not oxygenated or filtered. These patients are typically hypoxaemic with exercise intolerance and are at high risk of paradoxical emboli to the brain and other organs. These malformations are most commonly seen in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) (Mb. Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome). Nowadays, the generally accepted treatment strategy of first choice is embolization of the afferent arteries to the arteriovenous malformations. It is a minimally invasive procedure and at the same time a lung preserving treatment with a very high technical success, high effectiveness and low morbidity and mortality. Embolization prevents cerebral stroke and abscess as well as pulmonary haemorrhage and further raises the functional level. Embolization is a well-established method of treating PAVM, with a significant effect on oxygenation of the blood. Screening for PAVM in patients at risk is recommended, especially in patients with HHT.

Andersen, Poul Erik; Kjeldsen, Anette Dr?hse

2010-01-01

208

Cardiovascular malformations in experimental congenital diaphragmatic hernia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Purpose: Newborns with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) frequently have associated anomalies that have a major impact on survival rate independent of pulmonary hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension. Cardiovascular malformations (CVM) represent a major group of lethal extrapulmonary abnormalities that often assume greatest prognostic significance in most CDH studies. Animal models resembling human CDH may aid knowledge of the basic embryology that

Paul D Losty; M. Gwen Connell; Ralf Freese; Stefan Laval; Bruce O Okoye; Audrey Smith; Dietrich Kluth; David A Lloyd

1999-01-01

209

Chiari malformation in female monozygotic twins.  

PubMed

We describe the cases of female monozygotic twins who presented almost synchronously with symptomatic Chiari malformation type I. Both were successfully treated with foramen magnum decompression. We analyse these findings in the context of previously reported cases and discuss the genetic implications. PMID:20649405

Solth, A; Barrett, C; Holliman, D; Mitchell, P

2010-10-01

210

Anatomical progression of the Chiari II malformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate whether anatomic change of the relationship of the Chiari II malformation and the cranial base was occurring, 22 children with meningomyelocele had serial MRI scans reviewed. A ratio (B\\/A) was established between the distance from the foramen magnum to the caudalmost portion of herniated cerebellum (B) and the diameter of the foramen magnum (A) and this ratio was

John R. Ruge; Jeff Masciopinto; Bruce B. Storrs; David G. McLone

1992-01-01

211

Angular craniometry in craniocervical junction malformation.  

PubMed

The craniometric linear dimensions of the posterior fossa have been relatively well studied, but angular craniometry has been poorly studied and may reveal differences in the several types of craniocervical junction malformation. The objectives of this study were to evaluate craniometric angles compared with normal subjects and elucidate the main angular differences among the types of craniocervical junction malformation and the correlation between craniocervical and cervical angles. Angular craniometries were studied using primary cranial angles (basal and Boogard's) and secondary craniocervical angles (clivus canal and cervical spine lordosis). Patients with basilar invagination had significantly wider basal angles, sharper clivus canal angles, larger Boogard's angles, and greater cervical lordosis than the Chiari malformation and control groups. The Chiari malformation group does not show significant differences when compared with normal controls. Platybasia occurred only in basilar invagination and is suggested to be more prevalent in type II than in type I. Platybasic patients have a more acute clivus canal angle and show greater cervical lordosis than non-platybasics. The Chiari group does not show significant differences when compared with the control, but the basilar invagination groups had craniometric variables significantly different from normal controls. Hyperlordosis observed in the basilar inavagination group was associated with craniocervical kyphosis conditioned by acute clivus canal angles. PMID:23640096

Botelho, Ricardo Vieira; Ferreira, Edson Dener Zandonadi

2013-05-03

212

Familial Dandy-Walker malformation and leukodystrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the first familial cases with two different types of posterior fossa cystic malformation and a leukodystrophic-like aspect on cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The girl and her brother had severe encephalopathy, marked hypotonia, absent deep tendon reflexes, macrocrania, gigantism, and dysmorphic face and extremities. The girl had generalized seizures. The boy had unilateral cataract and bilateral optic atrophy.

Véronique T. Humbertclaude; Philippe A. Coubes; Nicolas Leboucq; Bernard B. Echenne

1997-01-01

213

Unilateral regional odontodysplasia with ipsilateral mandibular malformation.  

PubMed

Regional odontodysplasia is a rare developmental anomaly with an unknown cause. This disorder involves both the ectodermal and mesodermal dental layers. The affected teeth generally cannot be rehabilitated for functional use; therefore, the treatment of choice is extraction with prosthetic replacement. A unique case of unilateral regional odontodysplasia with ipsilateral mandibular malformation is reported. PMID:2356083

Raez, A G

1990-06-01

214

Obstetric complications and congenital malformation in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have witnessed increasingly intense research activity concerning early life somatic trauma and dysmorphogenesis which are associated with the later development of schizophrenia. The two somatic factors that have received the most extensive scientific attention as antecedents of schizophrenia are obstetric complications (OCs) and the congenital malformations termed `minor physical anomalies' (MPAs). Head circumference (HC) at birth has also

Thomas F McNeil; Elizabeth Cantor-Graae; Baher Ismail

2000-01-01

215

[Study on middle ear ventilation using positional tympanometry--normal ear].  

PubMed

The middle ear is a cavity surrounded by solid bones, lined with mucosa, which has a gas-filled lumen. Cavernous organs such as the ear should have their own ventilation system under atmospheric pressure. The mechanism of ventilation in the middle ear has not been sufficiently clarified. Ventilation performed in the middle ear may be classified into two types: 1) passive ventilation via the Eustachian tube, required in cases of abnormal pressure and 2) unique physiological active ventilation of the middle ear performed under atmospheric pressure and not involving the Eustachian tube. The purpose of the present study is to prove the existence of this active ventilation under atmospheric pressure. The subjects were 50 normal ears and elevation of middle ear pressure in the lateral position (determined by positional tympanometry) was studied. The change in the peak level, on tympanometry, was used as an index. The results were continuously recorded every 12 seconds. The following results were obtained. 1. Middle ear pressure was elevated by changing from the sitting to the lateral position. Venous pressure was regarded as a causative factor in this pressure elevation. 2. The elevated middle ear pressure in the lateral position suggested gas production from mastoid cells of the middle ear. The observation that the middle ear pressure was stabilized with the increase in pressure, up to a level of 85-90 mm H2O, indicated the existence of gas leakage from the Eustachian tube and a mechanism for controlling gas production from the mastoid cells of the middle ear. PMID:7629643

Ebihara, H

1995-06-01

216

Gastrointestinal malformations in Gorgan, North of Iran: epidemiology and associated malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the prevalence and pattern of gastrointestinal malformations (GIM) among\\u000a Iranian newborns in Gorgan, North of Iran. From 1998 through 2003, 37,951 live births in Dezyani hospital in Gorgan, North\\u000a of Iran, were screened for gastrointestinal malformations. Clinical and demographic factors of diagnosed cases were recorded\\u000a in a pre-designed questionnaire for analysis;

Mohammad Jafar Golalipour; Elham Mobasheri; Kaniz-Reza Hoseinpour; Abbas Ali Keshtkar

2007-01-01

217

Indications and Candidacy for Active Middle Ear Implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, there are two active middle ear implants available commercially: the Vibrant Soundbridge system and the Carina system. A third active middle ear implant, the Esteem, is under clinical evaluation. All devices are indicated for patients with moderate-to-severe hearing loss. Because active middle ear implants are directly coupled to middle ear structures, many of the problems that patients with conventional

F. Wagner; I. Todt; J. Wagner; A. Ernst

2010-01-01

218

Human ear detection from side face range images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ear detection is an important part of an ear recognition system. In this paper, we address human ear detection from side face range images. We introduce a simple and an effective method to detect ears, which has two stages: offline model template building and on-line detection. The model template is represented by an averaged histogram of shape index. The on-line

Hui Chen; Bir Bhanu

2004-01-01

219

An analysis of the acoustic input impedance of the ear.  

PubMed

Ear canal acoustics was examined using a one-dimensional lossy transmission line with a distributed load impedance to model the ear. The acoustic input impedance of the ear was derived from sound pressure measurements in the ear canal of healthy human ears. A nonlinear least squares fit of the model to data generated estimates for ear canal radius, ear canal length, and quantified the resistance that would produce transmission losses. Derivation of ear canal radius has application to quantifying the impedance mismatch at the eardrum between the ear canal and the middle ear. The length of the ear canal was found, in general, to be longer than the length derived from the one-quarter wavelength standing wave frequency, consistent with the middle ear being mass-controlled at the standing wave frequency. Viscothermal losses in the ear canal, in some cases, may exceed that attributable to a smooth rigid wall. Resistance in the middle ear was found to contribute significantly to the total resistance. In effect, this analysis "reverse engineers" physical parameters of the ear from sound pressure measurements in the ear canal. PMID:23917695

Withnell, Robert H; Gowdy, Lauren E

2013-08-06

220

Passive Piezoelectric Prosthesis for the Inner Ear.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A tubular prosthesis formed by an assembly of electrode segments enclosing an elongated inner chamber, is inserted into the inner ear of a patient for piezoelectric generation of electrical impulses and localized injection thereof in response to externall...

S. A. Fisher A. S. DeReggi

1997-01-01

221

Design Factors and Use of Ear Protection*  

PubMed Central

The problems of protecting the ear against hazardous noise are the subject of a general review, supported where relevant by data from the authors' own researches. Ear protectors are classified into two main types?plugs and muffs—and the general principles of their function and limitations are stated. Examples of representative ear protectors are given in more detail, with particular respect to their relative merits and pure-tone attenuation characteristics. The effects of earplugs on speech communication are considered and the relationships between pure-tone attenuation and protection against continuous noise are discussed in some detail. The results of temporary threshold shift (T.T.S.) reduction studies of the efficiency of V.51R and Selectone-K earplugs in protecting against reverberant and non-reverberant impulsive noises are presented. The design requirements of ear protectors and some of the problems created by them are also outlined. Images

Rice, C. G.; Coles, R. R. A.

1966-01-01

222

Pharmacological characterization of mouse ear PCA.  

PubMed

Effects of some antiallergic agents on homologous passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in mouse ear were investigated by means of assessing the amount of extravasated dye. Antihistamines (chlorpheniramine and diphenhydramine) and antiserotonins (methysergide and cyproheptadine) suppressed mouse ear PCA significantly. In contrast, an antagonist of slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS-A) (FPL 55712) and an inhibitor of SRS-A synthesis (AA-861) did not suppress the reaction. beta-Adrenergic stimulants (isoproterenol and salbutamol) and theophylline, which elevate cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels, also suppressed mouse ear PCA significantly. The antiallergic agents, N(3',4'-dimethoxycinnamoyl)anthranilic acid(N-5') and ketotifen suppressed mouse ear PCA significantly, but disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) failed to suppress the reaction. PMID:2864316

Inagaki, N; Goto, S; Nagai, H; Koda, A

1985-01-01

223

Congenital occipitoatlantoaxial malformations in the horse.  

PubMed

From a clinical, radiological and morphological study of 9 horses with congenital malformations of the occiput, atlas and axis, and from a study of 2 reported cases, 3 diseases were defined: A. Familial occipitalisation of the atlas with atlantalisation of the axis in Arabian horses (7 cases in this report and the case reported by Leipold, et al., 1974). These horses had congenital atlantooccipital fusion, hypoplasia of the atlas and dens, malformation of the axis and modification of the atlantoaxial joint. B. Congenital asymmetrical occipitoatlantoaxial malformation (2 cases in this report). A Standardbred and a Morgan horse had atlantooccipital fusion, a wedge shaped vertebral piece attached to the caudal end of the axis and sigmoid scoliosis of the cervical vertebrae. C. Asymmetrical atlantooccipital fusion (the case reported by Schmaltz, 1915). This horse of an unknown breed had asymmetrical fusion between the atlas and occiput and cervical scoliosis. The clinical syndromes shown by horses with these malformations were variable but were broadly classified as: 1. Foal dead at birth, seen in one foal with A. 2. Tetraparesis at birth, seen in 5 foals with A. These foals were born with signs varying from tetraparesis to tetraplegia. 3. Progressive ataxia, seen in 2 foals with A. Clinical signs were due to a progressive focal cervical compressive myelopathy. 4. Congenital cervical scoliosis/deviated head, seen in the 2 horses with B and the horse with C. These horses had no signs of spinal cord or brain disease. The diagnoses were made clinically by palpation of the occipitoatlantoaxial region and were confirmed radiographically and/or by post mortem examination in all except one case. Pedigree analysis showed the familial nature of the particular occipitoatlantoaxial malformation seen in horses of only the Arabian breed. PMID:565704

Mayhew, I G; Watson, A G; Heissan, J A

1978-04-01

224

Genetic Requirement for Pneumococcal Ear Infection  

PubMed Central

Background Ear infection or otitis media (OM) accounts for most bacterial respiratory infections in children in both developed and developing nations. Streptococcus pneumoniae, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis are the major OM pathogens. However, little is known about the genetic basis of bacterial OM largely due to practical difficulties in conducting research in ear infection models and genetically manipulating clinical isolates. Here, we report the first genome-scale in vivo screen for bacterial genes required for ear infection in a chinchilla model by signature tagged mutagenesis (STM), a high throughput mutant screen technique. Methodology/Principal Findings STM strains were constructed with a multi-drug resistant OM isolate ST556 (serotype 19F) and screened in a chinchilla OM model. Out of 5,280 mutants tested, 248 mutants were substantially underrepresented in the mutant pools recovered from the middle ear fluids of the infected chinchillas, indicating the impaired ability to survive and replicate in the middle ears due to genetic disruptions in the chromosome of strain ST556. Further DNA sequencing analysis mapped the mutations to 169 pneumococcal genes. Surprisingly, only 52 of these genes were required for pneumococcal nasopharyngeal colonization in a murine model. This infection site-specific gene requirement was verified by targeted mutagenesis in the selected genes. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that there are a subset of pneumococcal genes required for ear infection and that these may be distinct from those required for nasal colonization. Our data thus provide comprehensive gene targets for mechanistic understanding of pneumococcal ear infection. Finally, this study has also developed a model for future genome-scale search for virulence determinants in other pathogens associated with ear infections.

Yang, Jun; O'Brien, Christopher J.; Lee, Scott L.; Mazurkiewicz, Joseph E.; Haataja, Sauli; Yan, Jing-Hua; Gao, George F.; Zhang, Jing-Ren

2008-01-01

225

Extensive Intramuscular Venous Malformation in the Lower Extremity  

PubMed Central

Typical venous malformations are easily diagnosed by skin color changes, focal edema or pain. Venous malformation in the skeletal muscles, however, has the potential to be missed because their involved sites are invisible and the disease is rare. In addition, the symptoms of intramuscular venous malformation overlaps with myofascial pain syndrome or muscle strain. Most venous malformation cases have reported a focal lesion involved in one or adjacent muscles. In contrast, we have experienced a case of intramuscular venous malformation that involved a large number of muscles in a lower extremity extensively.

Chul, Jung Ho; Park, Byung Kyu; Park, Myung Kyu

2012-01-01

226

Finite element analysis of middle ear mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An essential component in the process of hearing is the transformation of sound from acoustic to mechanical vibration in the middle ear. In order to study this phenomenon, computational models have been introduced to model the behavior of the tympanic membrane and its interaction with the surrounding acoustical spaces. Using such a computational model, one gains an increased understanding of the relationship between its structure and performance, which may assist in preventive, diagnostic, and reconstructive medical applications. The goal of this present work is to expand the computational simulation capabilities of current eardrum models using modern finite element modeling techniques. A fully coupled structural acoustic model is presented using modern shell element technology. Anatomical geometries for the eardrum, acoustic spaces of the ear canal and middle ear cavity, and the ossicles are utilized via muCT imaging. A new computational algorithm is used to compute the frequency response of this model over a wide frequency range. This approach uses the matrix Pade-via-Lanczos algorithm to construct reduced-order models around chosen reference frequencies, which can be solved efficiently at many frequencies within a frequency window. An adaptive algorithm is introduced to span a given frequency range by introducing new reference frequencies as necessary. Results for the middle ear model, using this multifrequency algorithm, are presented for intact and modified middle ear anatomies. These modifications serve to demonstrate the utility of the computational approach in understanding the relationships between the morphological structure of the middle ear and its functionality.

Tuck-Lee, James Peter

227

Temporal lobe arteriovenous malformations: anatomical subtypes, surgical strategy, and outcomes.  

PubMed

Object Descriptions of temporal lobe arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are inconsistent. To standardize reporting, the authors blended existing descriptions in the literature into an intuitive classification with 5 anatomical subtypes: lateral, medial, basal, sylvian, and ventricular. The authors' surgical experience with temporal lobe AVMs was reviewed according to these subtypes. Methods Eighty-eight patients with temporal lobe AVMs were treated surgically. Results Lateral temporal lobe AVMs were the most common (58 AVMs, 66%). Thirteen AVMs (15%) were medial, 9 (10%) were basal, and 5 (6%) were sylvian. Ventricular AVMs were least common (3 AVMs, 3%). A temporal craniotomy based over the ear was used in 64%. Complete AVM resection was achieved in 82 patients (93%). Four patients (5%) died in the perioperative period (6 in all were lost to follow-up); 71 (87%) of the remaining 82 patients had good outcomes (modified Rankin Scale scores 0-2); and 68 (83%) were unchanged or improved after surgery. Conclusions Categorization of temporal AVMs into subtypes can assist with surgical planning and also standardize reporting. Lateral AVMs are the easiest to expose surgically, with circumferential access to feeding arteries and draining veins at the AVM margins. Basal AVMs require a subtemporal approach, often with some transcortical dissection through the inferior temporal gyrus. Medial AVMs are exposed tangentially with an orbitozygomatic craniotomy and transsylvian dissection of anterior choroidal artery and posterior cerebral artery feeders in the medial cisterns. Medial AVMs posterior to the cerebral peduncle require transcortical approaches through the temporo-occipital gyrus. Sylvian AVMs require a wide sylvian fissure split and differentiation of normal arteries, terminal feeding arteries, and transit arteries. Ventricular AVMs require a transcortical approach through the inferior temporal gyrus that avoids the Meyer loop. Surgical results with temporal lobe AVMs are generally good, and classifying them does not offer any prediction of surgical risk. PMID:23848823

Gabarrós Canals, Andreu; Rodríguez-Hernández, Ana; Young, William L; Lawton, Michael T

2013-07-12

228

[Cognitive and affective characteristics of children with malformation syndrome].  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to study the psychological and relational aspects in children suffering from specific malformative syndrome and precisely Down s., Sotos s., X-Fragile s. and Williams s. Indeed literature provides much data related to the phenotype, to the organic-biological characteristics, but little or nothing is known about the affective structure, the episodes and to the particular dynamics that emerge in he relation between the parents and the malformed child. A protocol was applied to our sample group (16 subjects). This protocol includes laboratory and instrumental tests (chromosome test, neurometabolic screening, EEG, CT or cranial MRI, cardiac and abdominal ultrasonography, ear and eye test) aspects. This evaluation is carried out through the proposal of standardized situations (psychometric tests) and a use of a freer observational setting. This permits us to understand how the child perceives himself the awareness and the image he has of himself and how able he is to integrate his illness experiences and his way of relating with the environment. The data of our observations are thus used to compile a grill for the structural diagnosis of the personality. Besides, this evaluation is flanked by the observation of the family in order to explore the psychological image that parents have of their child, his character, his good points, his bad points, his similarities, how he relates to them, any educational problems and the emotional reaction that the communication of the diagnosis has raised in them. The videotaped observations are subsequently evaluated through the application of a grill for the study of the mother-child relationship. The results obtained from the psychological research underline a reasonable heterogeneity both of the intellectual level and of the metapsychological profile. Twelve subjects were mentally retarded (5 with mild mental retardation, 7 with moderate mental retardation); the remaining 4 had a normal cognitive development (3 with Sotos s., 1 with Williams s.). Psychological disturbances are present and thus divided: light disturbances (affective immaturity, neurotic-depressive organisation) in 11 subjects. Average disturbances (dysharmonious structure, and borderline personality) in 4 subjects; severe disturbances (psychosis) in 1 subject. Besides, above all in the group of subjects with X-Fragile s. and Down s., the tendency to assume behaviour of a regressive type, also postural, emerges. Among the 4 groups it is frequent to resort to defence mechanisms of hypomaniac type, accompanied by the denial of the patient's "sick parts". Another common characteristic concerns the quality of imaginary life which is shown to be repetitive and stereotype in content. Indeed these children's play activity characterized by a limited capacity of symbolization. Instead, when the symbolic process is more developed, contents concerning a deteriorated and destructive image of the Self emerges. Through the evaluation of family dynamics what is more noticeable is that the parent-malformed child interaction appears to be quite nonstimulating and noninvolving or incoherent, lacking in harmony and empathy towards the child's inner world. Indeed we can notice a lack of both verbal and extraverbal exchange of communication and brief interactive sequences which do not usually take into account the child's proposals and an affective tonality of depressive and nonaffective type. Therefore it may be concluded a certain smoothness in the clinical expression of the syndromes considered, both as far as the cognitive deficit entity and the psychic problems are concerned. Referring to the interactive dynamics between parents and children with dismorphic syndrom it seems that the child's pathology becomes the organizational summit of the above-mentioned relational dynamics among most of the patients examined... PMID:8569638

Tosi, B; Maestro, S; Marcheschi, M

1995-10-01

229

An evaluation of tympanometric estimates of ear canal volume.  

PubMed

The accuracy of tympanometric estimates of ear canal volume was evaluated by testing the following two assumptions on which the procedure is based: (a) ear canal volume does not change when ear canal pressure is varied, and (b) an ear canal pressure of 200 daPa drives the impedance of the middle ear transmission system to infinity so the immittance measured at 200 daPa can be attributed to the ear canal volume alone. The first assumption was tested by measuring the changes in ear canal volume in eight normal subjects for ear canal pressures between +/- 400 daPa using a manometric procedure based on Boyle's gas law. The data did not support the first assumption. Ear canal volume changed by a mean of .113 ml over the +/- 400 daPa pressure range with slightly larger volume changes occurring for negative ear canal pressures than for positive ear canal pressures. Most of the volume change was attributed to movement of the probe and to movement of the cartilaginous walls of the ear canal. The second assumption was tested by comparing estimates of ear canal volume from susceptance tympanograms with a direct measurement of ear canal volume adjusted for changes in volume due to changes in ear canal pressure between +/- 400 daPa. These data failed to support the second assumption. All tympanometric estimates of ear canal volume were larger than the measured volumes. The largest error (39%) occurred for an ear canal pressure of 200 daPa at 220 Hz, whereas the smallest error (10%) occurred for an ear canal pressure of -400 daPa at 660 Hz. This latter susceptance value (-400 daPa at 660 Hz) divided by three is suggested to correct the 220-Hz tympanogram to the plane of the tympanic membrane. Finally, the effects of errors in estimating ear canal volume on static immittance and on tympanometry are discussed. PMID:7329051

Shanks, J E; Lilly, D J

1981-12-01

230

Relationship between the incidences of ear and spikelet infection of Fusarium ear blight in wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a urgent need to develop a rational strategy for managing Fusarium ear blight in order to reduce current reliance on routine fungicide applications, based on an objective assessment of disease risks. One of important components for such a management strategy is a fast, easy, accurate and reliable method for disease assessment. The relationship between incidence of Fusarium ear

X.-m. Xu; D. W. Parry; S. G. Edwards; B. M. Cooke; F. M. Doohan; A. Maanen; J. M. Brennan; S. Monaghan; A. Moretti; G. Tocco; G. Mule; L. Hornok; G. Giczey; J. Tatnell; P. Nicholson; A. Ritieni

2004-01-01

231

GI-Associated Hemangiomas and Vascular Malformations  

PubMed Central

Hemangiomas and vascular malformations of the gastrointestinal tract, rare clinical entities, present as overt or occult bleeding. They can be distributed throughout the intestinal digestive system, or present as a singular cavernous hemangioma or malformation, which is often located in the rectosigmoid region. Misdiagnosis is common despite characteristic radiographic features such as radiolucent phleboliths on plain film imaging and a purplish nodule on endoscopy. Adjunctive imaging such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are suggested as there is potential for local invasion. Endorectal ultrasound with Doppler has also been found to be useful in some instances. Surgical resection is the mainstay of treatment, with an emphasis on sphincter preservation. Nonsurgical endoscopic treatment with banding and sclerotherapy has been reported with success, especially in instances where an extensive resection is not feasible.

Yoo, Stephen

2011-01-01

232

Diphallus with anorectal malformation-case report.  

PubMed

Diphallus is a very rare condition. We report a case of a newborn with absent anal opening and duplication of external genitalia. Examination of the external genitalia showed two well formed penises with fully descended testis within each of the separate hemiscrotums along with soft tissue mass resembling accessory buttock behind the hemiscrotum. Staged reconstruction of duplicated genitalia and anorectal malformation was done. We achieved excellent cosmetic and functional external genitalia. PMID:20223333

Mukunda, Ramachandra; Bendre, Pradnya S; Redkar, Rajeev G; Hambarde, Sandeep

2010-03-01

233

Cerebral Anomalies and Chiari Type 1 Malformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To analyze the association of diverse cerebral anomalies in a series of pediatric patients with cerebellar tonsillar ectopia. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 60 children diagnosed with Chiari type 1 malformation (CM1), of these, 20 patients (11 boys and 9 girls; mean age 7.2 years, range 2–16 years) had an associated cerebral anomaly. Symptoms of tonsillar ectopia

Marcelo Galarza; Juan F. Martínez-Lage; Steven Ham; Sandeep Sood

2010-01-01

234

The spectrum of anorectal malformations in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anorectal malformations (ARM) remain a significant birth defect with geographic variation in incidence, individual phenotypes\\u000a and regional geographic subtypes. Although early studies indicated a low incidence in Black patients, there is a great paucity\\u000a of knowledge as to the types, frequency and incidence of ARMs encountered in the African continent and their associated anomalies.\\u000a Current evidence suggests a significant clinical

S. W. Moore; A. Alexander; D. Sidler; J. Alves; G. P. Hadley; A. Numanoglu; B. Banieghbal; M. Chitnis; D. Birabwa-Male; B. Mbuwayesango; A. Hesse; K. Lakhoo

2008-01-01

235

Imaging of arteriovenous malformation following stereotactic radiosurgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Stereotactic radiosurgery allows for a high dose of focused radiation to be delivered to a small lesion such as an arteriovenous\\u000a malformation (AVM). The clinical change and brain response over time to this localized high-dose radiation can be quite striking.\\u000a Objective. The objective of this study to describe and analyse the imaging changes following radiotherapy for AVMs. Materials and

Jeffrey V. Tranchida; Christopher J. Mehall; Thomas L. Slovis; Miguel Lis-Planells

1997-01-01

236

Bronchopulmonary foregut malformations: embryology, radiology and quandary  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Bronchopulmonary foregut malformations (BPFM) are a heterogeneous group of pulmonary developmental anomalies that present\\u000a at varying ages and with overlapping symptoms, signs and radiology. This article discusses the embryology of these lesions\\u000a with reference to possible common origins and the link between aetiology and radiological appearance. The radiology of each\\u000a lesion, both antenatally and postnatally, is described and illustrated. A

N. A. Barnes; D. W. Pilling

2003-01-01

237

Percutaneous Treatment of Peripheral Vascular Malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular malformations arise from errors in the morphological processes that shape the embryonic\\u000avascular system during fetal development. These developmental errors result in abnormal clusters of\\u000ablood vessels. Although these lesions are present at birth, they might not become visible until weeks or\\u000aeven years after birth. Typically, the lesions grow in proportion to the growth of the child. A

Linden van der E

2011-01-01

238

CSF flow study in Chiari I malformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe aim of this prospective study was to define the role of cardiac gated phase-contrast ciné magnetic resonance imaging in deciding the therapeutic strategy in patients with Chiari I malformation.Materials and methodsTwenty-one patients operated on between February 2000 and July 2002 were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent a detailed preoperative neurological examination. MRI of the craniovertebral junction and

M. Panigrahi; B. Praveen Reddy; A. K. Reddy; J. J. M. Reddy

2004-01-01

239

The surgical treatment of Chiari I malformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A retrospective study was undertaken on 133 patients with a Chiari I malformation treated within the last 16 years at the Departments of Neurosurgery at the Nordstadt Hospital Hannover, Germany, and the University of California, Los Angeles, U.S.A. Ninety-seven patients presented with symptoms related to accompanying syringomyelia and 4 with associated syringobulbia. They underwent 149 surgical procedures and were

J. Klekamp; U. Batzdorf; M. Samii; H. W. Bothe

1996-01-01

240

The challenge of large vascular malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular malformations are of the low- or high-flow variety, the latter variety also having shunting characteristics. In this\\u000a manuscript, significant and challenging conditions will be presented. The high-flow lesions can cause excessive growth in\\u000a the local area, and severe bleeding is always a possibility, either spontaneous or during surgery. Clinical examination, angiography,\\u000a and Doppler studies confirm the diagnosis. In treatment

Ian T. Jackson

2009-01-01

241

Passive and active middle ear implants  

PubMed Central

Besides eradication of chronic middle ear disease, the reconstruction of the sound conduction apparatus is a major goal of modern ear microsurgery. The material of choice in cases of partial ossicular replacement prosthesis is the autogenous ossicle. In the event of more extensive destruction of the ossicular chain diverse alloplastic materials, e.g. metals, ceramics, plastics or composits are used for total reconstruction. Their specialised role in conducting sound energy within a half-open implant bed sets high demands on the biocompatibility as well as the acoustic-mechanic properties of the prosthesis. Recently, sophisticated titanium middle ear implants allowing individual adaptation to anatomical variations are widely used for this procedure. However, despite modern developments, hearing restoration with passive implants often faces its limitations due to tubal-middle-ear dysfunction. Here, implantable hearing aids, successfully used in cases of sensorineural hearing loss, offer a promising alternative. This article reviews the actual state of affairs of passive and active middle ear implants.

Beutner, Dirk; Huttenbrink, Karl-Bernd

2011-01-01

242

Ear Acupuncture in European Traditional Medicine  

PubMed Central

Auricular acupuncture is a diagnostic and treatment system based on normalizing the body's dysfunction through stimulation of definite points on the ear. Rudimentary forms of acupuncture which probably arose during the Stone Age have survived in many parts of the world right down to present day. It was used in the ancient Egypt, Rome, Greece and all the Mediterranean area. It is a microacupuncture technique similar to reflexology, and was first described in France in 1950 by Paul Nogier who is considered the Father of modern ear acupuncture. It was speculated that the technique works because groups of pluripotent cells contain information from the whole organism and create regional organization centers representing different parts of the body. Nevertheless stimulation of a reflex point in the ear seems relieve symptoms of distant pathologies. Modern research is confirming the efficacy of ear acupuncture for analgesia and anxiety related disease, while tobacco dependence and other substance abuse still need confirmation. Actually main methodological problems with auricular acupuncture are that exist too many maps with little agreement regarding point location in the ear, and that the correspondence or reflex systems does not correlated with modern knowledge of anatomy and physiology.

Firenzuoli, Fabio

2007-01-01

243

Assessment of ear disorders using power reflectance.  

PubMed

This article describes the effect of various pathologies on power reflectance (PR) and absorbance measured in human adults. The pathologies studied include those affecting the tympanic membrane, the middle-ear ossicles, the middle-ear cavity, the inner ear, and intracranial pressure. Interesting pathology-induced changes in PR that are statistically significant have been reported. Nevertheless, because measurements of PR obtained from normal-hearing subjects have large variations and some pathology-induced changes are small, it can be difficult to use PR alone for differential diagnosis. There are, however, common clinical situations without reliable diagnostic methods that can benefit from PR measurements. These conditions include ears with a normal-appearing tympanic membrane, aerated middle-ear cavity, and unknown etiology of conductive hearing loss. PR measurements in conjunction with audiometric measurements of air–bone gap have promise in differentiating among stapes fixation, ossicular discontinuity, and superior semicircular canal dehiscence. Another possible application is to monitor an individual for possible changes in intracranial pressure. Descriptions of mechanisms affecting PR change and utilization of PR measurements in clinical scenarios are presented. PMID:23900180

Nakajima, Hideko Heidi; Rosowski, John J; Shahnaz, Navid; Voss, Susan E

2013-07-01

244

Rhombencephalosynapsis - isolated anomaly or complex malformation?  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: Rhombencephalosynapsis (RES) is a rare malformation of the posterior cranial fossa, characterized by fusion of the cerebellar hemispheres, medial cerebellar peduncles and dentate nuclei. Over the period of 7 years 8 cases of this anomaly have been diagnosed in two pediatric centers in Warsaw including one on the prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Material/Methods: Material consists of involves one fetus examined at the gestational age of 27 and 33 weeks and 7 children (5 girls and 2 boys) aged 8 months – 16 years. All of them underwent brain MRI with the use of 1.5T scanners. Results: In 1 case RES was an isolated anomaly, in 1 case it was accompanied by hydrocephalus only, in the remaining 6 cases RES was an element of a complex malformation. The additional anomalies were as follows: callosal hypoplasia in 3 children, abnormalities of gyration in 2, brainstem hypoplasia in 2, isolated fourth ventricle in 1, abnormal white matter signal intensity in 4 (in 2 cases in supratentorial compartment, in 1 in the cerebellum and in 1 in the pons), abnormally dilated extraaxial fluid collections in 2, syringohydromyelia in 2. In 5 cases RES was total, in 3 – partial. Conclusions: Rhombencephalosynapsis has a very characteristic appearance on magnetic resonance imaging which allows diagnosis of this malformation at any age, including prenatal period.

Bekiesinska-Figatowska, Monika; Jurkiewicz, Elzbieta; Szkudlinska-Pawlak, Sylwia; Malczyk, Katarzyna; Nowak, Katarzyna

2012-01-01

245

Malformations of cortical development and epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Malformations of cortical development (MCDs) are macroscopic or microscopic abnormalities of the cerebral cortex that arise as a consequence of an interruption to the normal steps of formation of the cortical plate. The human cortex develops its basic structure during the first two trimesters of pregnancy as a series of overlapping steps, beginning with proliferation and differentiation of neurons, which then migrate before finally organizing themselves in the developing cortex. Abnormalities at any of these stages, be they environmental or genetic in origin, may cause disruption of neuronal circuitry and predispose to a variety of clinical consequences, the most common of which is epileptic seizures, A large number of MCDs have now been described, each with characteristic pathological, clinical, and imaging features. The causes of many of these MCDs have been determined through the study of affected individuals, with many MCDs now established as being secondary to mutations in cortical development genes. This review will highlight the best-known of the human cortical malformations associated with epilepsy. The pathological, clinical, imaging, and etioiogic features of each MCD will be summarized, with representative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images shown for each MCD, The malformations tuberous sclerosis, focal cortical dysplasia, hemimegalencephaiy, classical iissencephaly, subcortical band heterotopia, periventricular nodular heterotopia, polymicrogyria, and schizencephaly will be presented.

Leventer, Richard J.; Guerrini, Renzo; Dobyns, William B.

246

Local inner-ear drug delivery and pharmacokinetics.  

PubMed

Several drugs that are applied directly to the inner ear are in widespread clinical use for the treatment of inner-ear disorders. Many new substances and drug delivery systems specific to the inner ear are under development and in some cases are being evaluated in animal experiments and in clinical studies. However, the pharmacokinetics of drugs in the inner ear is not well defined and the field is plagued by technical problems in obtaining pure samples of the inner-ear fluids for analysis. Nevertheless, a basic understanding of the mechanisms of drug dispersal in the inner ear has emerged, which facilitates the design and interpretation of future pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:16214674

Salt, Alec N; Plontke, Stefan K R

2005-10-01

247

Cell Type-Specific Transcriptome Analysis Reveals a Major Role for Zeb1 and miR-200b in Mouse Inner Ear Morphogenesis  

PubMed Central

Cellular heterogeneity hinders the extraction of functionally significant results and inference of regulatory networks from wide-scale expression profiles of complex mammalian organs. The mammalian inner ear consists of the auditory and vestibular systems that are each composed of hair cells, supporting cells, neurons, mesenchymal cells, other epithelial cells, and blood vessels. We developed a novel protocol to sort auditory and vestibular tissues of newborn mouse inner ears into their major cellular components. Transcriptome profiling of the sorted cells identified cell type–specific expression clusters. Computational analysis detected transcription factors and microRNAs that play key roles in determining cell identity in the inner ear. Specifically, our analysis revealed the role of the Zeb1/miR-200b pathway in establishing epithelial and mesenchymal identity in the inner ear. Furthermore, we detected a misregulation of the ZEB1 pathway in the inner ear of Twirler mice, which manifest, among other phenotypes, malformations of the auditory and vestibular labyrinth. The association of misregulation of the ZEB1/miR-200b pathway with auditory and vestibular defects in the Twirler mutant mice uncovers a novel mechanism underlying deafness and balance disorders. Our approach can be employed to decipher additional complex regulatory networks underlying other hearing and balance mouse mutants.

Hertzano, Ronna; Elkon, Ran; Kurima, Kiyoto; Morrisson, Annie; Chan, Siaw-Lin; Sallin, Michelle; Biedlingmaier, Andrew; Darling, Douglas S.; Griffith, Andrew J.; Eisenman, David J.; Strome, Scott E.

2011-01-01

248

Primary ear fibroblast derivation from mice.  

PubMed

Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) are commonly utilized as a primary cell culture model and have several advantages over other types of ex vivo-derived cells. However, the successful generation of MEFs is time consuming and requires a certain level of mouse expertise to successfully complete. Thus, primary ear-derived fibroblasts offer an acceptable alternative to MEFs. Fibroblasts derived from the pinna of adult mice are easily attainable with minimal skill, proliferate rapidly, and are easy to manipulate. Likewise, because they are derived from adult mice, other organs can be concurrently harvested for the isolation of additional types of primary cells. Similar to MEFs, ear fibroblasts are an excellent ex vivo model system to study mechanisms associated with virus infection and produce a diverse array of inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and interferon. Here, we describe a highly versatile and simple method for the derivation, maintenance, and viral challenge of primary ear-derived fibroblasts from mice. PMID:23824888

Moore, Chris B; Allen, Irving C

2013-01-01

249

[The tempestuous history of middle ear operation].  

PubMed

The paper is a review of primary and secondary historical and scientific literature concerning the surgical treatment of the middle ear diseases. The development of mastoid surgery can be traced through the past 4 centuries. Once used as a means of evacuating a postauricular abscess, it has evolved to become a method for gaining entry into the middle ear to control acute and chronic ear diseases, or for treatment of otogenic complications. Earlier works led the way to the postauricular "Wilde incision", which gave rise to Schwartze mastoidectomy. Oscar Wilde's ultimate demise from an otogenic meningitis appears all the more ironic when one considers the role his father, Sir William Wilde, played as one of the founding fathers of modern otology. The death of baron von Berger after mastoidectomy performed for treatment of tinnitus and hypacusis, stopped the further development of surgical procedures for about hundred years. The Joseph Toynbee's "Diseases of the ear" was the first work about ear diseases on a pathologic anatomical base, and fundamental for otology of the German speaking countries in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Otology was emerging as a specific specialty. Von Tröltsch was the first surgeon, who proposed the antral opening through the external ear canal. When Schwartze and his assistant, Eysell, published their paper: "On the Artificial Opening of the Mastoid Air Cells," a century or so had passed since the few previous attempts to remove the tegmen of the mastoid had been reported. One of the greatest otologists of the 19th century was Adam Politzer, His influence on the 50 years of otology has never been equaled. It is in his honor that the International Society of Otology bears his name. PMID:18837236

Betlejewski, Stanis?aw; Betlejewski, Andrzej

2008-01-01

250

Malformations in neotropical viperids: qualitative and quantitative analysis.  

PubMed

Malformations can occur in all living species, but there is little information about anomalies that occur in snakes and their frequency. This study assessed malformations in newborn South American pit vipers (Bothrops jararaca) and South American rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus) from wild captured pregnant females (240 and 35 litters, respectively). Newborn snakes were measured, weighed, sexed and studied grossly and by radiography for the presence of malformations. Ninety-five malformed pit vipers were identified from 4,087 births (2.3%), while 36 malformed rattlesnakes were found from 324 births (11.1%). Spinal abnormalities were the most common in both species, followed by fusion of ventral scales. Pit vipers showed a greater range of malformations including schistosomia (22.1%), kinked tail (13.7%), bicephaly (3.1%) and hydrocephaly (2.1%). PMID:23885804

Sant'anna, S S; Grego, K F; Lorigados, C A B; Fonseca-Pinto, A C B C; Fernandes, W; Sá-Rocha, L C; Catão-Dias, J L

2013-07-23

251

Cytoarchitecture and Transcriptional Profiles of Neocortical Malformations in Inbred Mice  

PubMed Central

Malformations of neocortical development are associated with cognitive dysfunction and increased susceptibility to epileptogenesis. Rodent models are widely used to study neocortical malformations and have revealed important genetic and environmental mechanisms that contribute to neocortical development. Interestingly, several inbred mice strains commonly used in behavioral, anatomical, and/or physiological studies display neocortical malformations. In the present report we examine the cytoarchitecture and myeloarchitecture of the neocortex of 11 inbred mouse strains and identified malformations of cortical development, including molecular layer heterotopia, in all but one strain. We used in silico methods to confirm our observations and determined the transcriptional profiles of cells found within heterotopia. These data indicate cellular and transcriptional diversity present in cells in malformations. Furthermore, the presence of dysplasia in nearly every inbred strain examined suggests that malformations of neocortical development are a common feature in the neocortex of inbred mice.

Ramos, Raddy L.; Smith, Phoebe T.; DeCola, Christopher; Tam, Danny; Corzo, Oscar

2008-01-01

252

High intensity anthropogenic sound damages fish ears  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine petroleum exploration involves the repetitive use of high-energy noise sources, air-guns, that produce a short, sharp, low-frequency sound. Despite reports of behavioral responses of fishes and marine mammals to such noise, it is not known whether exposure to air-guns has the potential to damage the ears of aquatic vertebrates. It is shown here that the ears of fish exposed to an operating air-gun sustained extensive damage to their sensory epithelia that was apparent as ablated hair cells. The damage was regionally severe, with no evidence of repair or replacement of damaged sensory cells up to 58 days after air-gun exposure.

McCauley, Robert D.; Fewtrell, Jane; Popper, Arthur N.

2003-01-01

253

Congenital malformations at birth — A prospective study from south India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital malformations were studied prospectively from September 1989 to December 1992 covering 12,797 consecutive deliveries.\\u000a The overall incidence of malformations was 3.7% and it was 3.2% among live births and 15.7% among still births. Three hundred\\u000a and ninety seven birth defects were observed among 308 live births and 72 among 45 still births. The incidence of malformation\\u000a was significantly higher

B. Vishnu Bhat; Lokesh Babu

1998-01-01

254

Assessment of dysphagia in infants with facial malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In infants with facial malformation, dysphagia is frequent and can lead to respiratory and nutritional complications whatever\\u000a the phenotype. The aim of our study was to assess the severity and mechanisms of dysphagia in infants with facial malformations\\u000a in order to guide therapeutic management. Forty-two newborn infants with dysphagia and recognizable malformation patterns\\u000a other than isolated Pierre Robin sequence had:

Jean-Jacques Baudon; Francis Renault; Jean-Michel Goutet; Valérie Biran-Mucignat; Georges Morgant; Erea-Noel Garabedian; Marie-Paule Vazquez

2009-01-01

255

Hemangiomas and Vascular Malformations: Current Theory and Management  

PubMed Central

Vascular anomalies are a heterogeneous group of congenital blood vessel disorders more typically referred to as birthmarks. Subcategorized into vascular tumors and malformations, each anomaly is characterized by specific morphology, pathophysiology, clinical behavior, and management approach. Hemangiomas are the most common vascular tumor. Lymphatic, capillary, venous, and arteriovenous malformations make up the majority of vascular malformations. This paper reviews current theory and practice in the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of these more common vascular anomalies.

Richter, Gresham T.; Friedman, Adva B.

2012-01-01

256

Associated malformations among infants with radial ray deficiency.  

PubMed

Infants with radial ray deficiencies very often have other associated congenital anomalies. The reported frequency and types of associated malformations vary between different studies. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the frequency and types of associated malformations among infants with radial ray deficiencies in a geographically well-defined population from 1979 to 2004 of 346,831 consecutive births. Of the 73 infants with radial ray deficiencies born during this period (prevalence at birth of 2.1 per 10,000), 75% had associated malformations. Infants with associated malformation were divided into recognizable conditions (16 (22%) infants with chromosomal and 20 (27%) with non chromosomal conditions), and non recognizable conditions (19 (26%) infants with multiple malformations). Trisomies 18 and autosomal deletions were the most frequent chromosomal abnormalities. VACTERL association, thrombocytopenia absent radii syndrome, Fanconi anemia and Holt-Oram syndrome were most often present in recognizable non chromosomal conditions. Malformations in the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and urogenital systems were the most common other anomalies in infants with multiple malformations and non recognizable conditions. The frequency of associated malformations in infants with radial ray deficiencies emphasizes the need for a thorough investigation of these infants. Routine screening for other malformations especially musculoskeletal, cardiac and urogenital systems anomalies may need to be considered in infants with radial ray deficiencies, and referral of these infants for genetic evaluation and counseling seems warranted. PMID:24032294

Stoll, C; Dott, B; Alembik, Y; Roth, M-P

2013-01-01

257

Facial nerve mapping and monitoring in lymphatic malformation surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveEstablish the efficacy of preoperative facial nerve mapping and continuous intraoperative EMG monitoring in protecting the facial nerve during resection of cervicofacial lymphatic malformations.

Jospeh Chiara; Greg Kinney; Jefferson Slimp; Gi Soo Lee; Sepehr Oliaei; Jonathan A. Perkins

2009-01-01

258

2009 Meeting Materials of the Ear, Nose, and Throat Devices ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Roster of the Ear, Nose, and Throat Devices Panel. ? -. Resources for You. ... 2009 Meeting Materials of the Ear, Nose, and Throat Devices Panel. -. ... More results from www.fda.gov/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials/medicaldevices

259

Acoustics of the human middle-ear air space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impedance of the middle-ear air space was measured on three human cadaver ears with complete mastoid air-cell systems. Below 500 Hz, the impedance is approximately compliance-like, and at higher frequencies (500-6000 Hz) the impedance magnitude has several (five to nine) extrema. Mechanisms for these extrema are identified and described through circuit models of the middle-ear air space. The measurements demonstrate that the middle-ear air space impedance can affect the middle-ear impedance at the tympanic membrane by as much as 10 dB at frequencies greater than 1000 Hz. Thus, variations in the middle-ear air space impedance that result from variations in anatomy of the middle-ear air space can contribute to inter-ear variations in both impedance measurements and otoacoustic emissions, when measured at the tympanic membrane.

Stepp, Cara E.; Voss, Susan E.

2005-08-01

260

Psychosocial Effects of Otoplasty in Children with Prominent Ears  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to investigate changes experienced by children during the pre- and postoperative periods of prominent ear\\u000a corrective surgery. A total of 30 patients with prominent ears, sometimes called “lop ears” or “cup ears,” ranging in age\\u000a from 6 to 14 years were consecutively enrolled in this study. Half of the patients (n = 15, 50%) were male. The inclusion criteria

J. Á. Lourenço Gasques; J. M. Pereira de Godoy; E. M. T. Navarro Cruz

2008-01-01

261

Structures that contribute to middle-ear admittance in chinchilla  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe measurements of middle-ear input admittance in chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera) before and after various manipulations that define the contributions of different middle-ear components to function. The\\u000a chinchilla’s middle-ear air spaces have a large effect on the low-frequency compliance of the middle ear, and removing the\\u000a influences of these spaces reveals a highly admittant tympanic membrane and ossicular chain. Measurements

John J. Rosowski; Michael E. Ravicz; Jocelyn E. Songer

2006-01-01

262

Getting Teens to Read with Their Ears  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Audiobooks have been around for years in various formats, like cassette tapes and CDs. This article describes a new type of audiobook on the market which is generating an interest in "reading." The device, called Playaway, is the size of a MP3 player and comes with a lanyard and ear buds. Buttons on the back of the player control the speed and…

Fues, Marianne Cole

2009-01-01

263

Groovy flow patterns in the fish ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dense, bony otoliths contained in the fish ear oscillate with respect to their surrounding tissue and endolymph in the presence of sound waves. How an otolith actually transduces this acoustically induced fluid motion into the hair cell displacements that the fish ``hears'' is not fully understood, however. The fluid flow created by the oscillation of the irregularly shaped otolith

Charlotte W. Kotas; Peter H. Rogers; Minami Yoda

2007-01-01

264

Diving injuries to the inner ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two skin divers and 7 SCUBA divers, all men, aged 21–33 years, are presented. The injury occurred at shallow depths and difficulties with pressure equilibration to the ears were a common complaint. Vertigo and hearing losses. When a perilymph fistula is suspected and decompression sickness can be in the round, the other in the oval window. The latter patient also

O. I. Molvær; E. Natrud; S. Eidsvik

1978-01-01

265

Getting Teens to Read with Their Ears  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Audiobooks have been around for years in various formats, like cassette tapes and CDs. This article describes a new type of audiobook on the market which is generating an interest in "reading." The device, called Playaway, is the size of a MP3 player and comes with a lanyard and ear buds. Buttons on the back of the player control the speed and…

Fues, Marianne Cole

2009-01-01

266

Targeted Therapy of the Inner Ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is experimental evidence that targeted delivery of steroids to the inner ear can protect hearing during cochlear implant surgery. The best protection appears to be achieved through pre-treatment of the cochlea, but the time period required for treatment is long compared with the duration of surgery, and needs further optimization. The stability of hearing thresholds is determined over

Sangeeta Maini; Halina Lisnichuk; Hayden Eastwood; Darren Pinder; David James; Rachael T. Richardson; Andrew Chang; Tim Connolly; David Sly; Gordana Kel; Stephen J. O’Leary

2009-01-01

267

Collagen types in the middle ear mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of various collagen types — in particular that of type 11 as the major collagen in cartilage — in normal auricular structures is discussed with reference to a 1994 report by Ovesen describing the presence of collagen type II in normal middle ear mucosa. In contrast to this report, no collagen type 11 is normally found in the

A. G. Nerlich

1995-01-01

268

Do Your Ears Pop in Space?  

Microsoft Academic Search

R Mike Mullane is a US astronaut who has flown into space three times on the Space Shuttle. He resigned from NASA in 1990 and has since pursued a career as a professional speaker and author. Do Your Ears Pop in Space? is his third book, and is based on the simple idea of writing down the 500 questions he

Robert Lambourne

1997-01-01

269

A review of microvascular ear replantation.  

PubMed

Microvascular ear replantation is a significant challenge because of the small size of the vessels and the fact that traumatic amputations are frequently avulsed. The zone of trauma is therefore extended and the primary repair of the injured vessel is rendered unlikely. The purpose of this study is to review the literature of ear replantation. A review of the relevant literature that has been published since 1980 revealed 47 cases reported in 37 publications. We present 5 cases from our own experience and analyze a total 52 cases of microvascular ear replantation. The patient's age, sex, degree of amputation, cause of injury, ischemic time, method of arterial and venous anastomosis, complications, any additional outflow used, postoperative medications, the requirement for transfusions, and the number of hospital admission days are described. Successful microvascular ear replantations require anastomosis of the vessels if possible. Rather than a vein graft, primary repair of the vessels, or at least pedicled repair of the artery, should be considered to ensure flap survival. In addition, vein repair should be considered if possible to ensure the secure drainage of blood from the replant. With secure circulation, the replant can survive, resulting in a very satisfactory outcome. PMID:23277409

Jung, Sung Won; Lee, Junsang; Oh, Suk Joon; Koh, Sung Hoon; Chung, Chul Hoon; Lee, Jong Wook

2012-12-31

270

Force field feature extraction for ear biometrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall objective in defining feature space is to reduce the dimensionality of the original pattern space, whilst maintaining discriminatory power for classification. To meet this objec- tive in the context of ear biometrics a new force field transformation treats the image as an array of mutually attracting particles that act as the source of a Gaussian force field. Under-

David J. Hurley; Mark S. Nixon; John N. Carter

2005-01-01

271

Ca2+ Signaling in the Inner Ear  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The inner ear contains delicate sensory receptors that have adapted to detect the minutest mechanical disturbances. Ca2+ ions are implicated in all steps of the transduction process, as well as in its regulation by an impressive ensemble of finely tuned feedback control mechanisms. Recent studies have unveiled some of the key players, but things do not sound quite right yet.

2007-04-01

272

Mutations affecting development of the zebrafish ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a large scale screen for genetic defects in zebrafish embryogenesis we identified mutations affecting several aspects of ear development, including: specification of the otic placode, growth of the otic vesicle (otocyst), otolith formation, morphogenesis of the semicircular canals and differentiation of the otic capsule. Here we report initial phenotypic and genetic characterization of 20 of these mutations defining 13

Jarema Malicki; Alexander F. Schier; Lilianna Solnica-Krezel; Derek L. Stemple; Stephan C. F. Neuhauss; Didier Y. R. Stainier; Salim Abdelilah; Zehava Rangini; Fried Zwartkruis; Wolfgang Driever

273

The Croton oil ear test revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

measurement the ear plugs were homogenized in physiological saline containing 0.1% of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide. The post 15,000 g supernatants of the homogenates (which contained more than 95% of the PA) were used for the assay [5]. PA units are expressed as nmoles of tetraguaiacol\\/min at 25~ Results and discussion

A. Tubaro; P. Dri; G. Delbello; C. Zilli; R. Della Loggia

1986-01-01

274

Anatomy of the Rat Middle Ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rat is of value in otological research for many reasons. For instance, the middle ear structures are easily approachable. Recently a couple of studies in the rat have been published concerning the healing pattern of tympanic membrane perforations and mucosal changes following Eustachian tube blockade including the otitis media with effusion. Essential for the evaluation of these studies is

Sten Hellström; Bengt Salén; Lars-Eric Stenfors

1982-01-01

275

Finite element analysis of middle ear mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

An essential component in the process of hearing is the transformation of sound from acoustic to mechanical vibration in the middle ear. In order to study this phenomenon, computational models have been introduced to model the behavior of the tympanic membrane and its interaction with the surrounding acoustical spaces. Using such a computational model, one gains an increased understanding of

James Peter Tuck-Lee

2007-01-01

276

Esteem 2 Middle Ear Implant: Our Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The Esteem is a totally implantable hearing system that uses piezoelectric technology. It is indicated in case of moderate to severe stable sensorineural hearing loss with a minimum discrimination score of 60% and a middle ear which is anatomically and functionally intact. Its two components (sensor and driver) are positioned and fixed in the mastoid cavity and coupled respectively

J. M. Gerard; M. P. Thill; G. Chantrain; M. Gersdorff; N. Deggouj

2012-01-01

277

Keep Your Ear-Lids Open.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article suggests that the development of listening skills should extend to the "soundscape" of nonspeech acoustical information. It presents a model for effective aural processing, identifies categories of information obtained from nonverbal sound, and explores "ear-tuning" or listening exercises that use sound to glean information about…

Ferrington, Gary

1994-01-01

278

Experimental lipidosis of the inner ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Chronic administration of so-called amphiphilic drugs induces an accumulation of lysosomes of different types containing phospholipids in the inner ear. The inclusions are regularly found in the inner hair cells of the organ of Corti, sometimes in supporting cells, whereas the outer hair cells remain almost unchanged. Several nerve fibres in the area of the inner pillar cells and to

E. Bichler; H. Spoendlin

1980-01-01

279

The fungal flora of zoo animals' ears.  

PubMed

The mycotic flora of the ears of zoo animals was investigated in a large zoological garden in Germany. Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated from the following animals: big ant-eater, brown bear, common wombat, Eurasian badger, Indian elephant, Mangaliza pig and wide-mouthed rhinoceros. Aspergillus and Penicillium species, yeasts and zygomycetes were also isolated from some animals. PMID:7935595

Kuttin, E S; Müller, J

280

"Hot Tub Rash" and "Swimmer's Ear" (Pseudomonas)  

MedlinePLUS

... is Pseudomonas and how can it affect me? Pseudomonas (sue-doh-MOH-nass) aeruginosa is a major cause of infections commonly known as “hot tub rash” and “swimmer’s ear.” This germ is ... (Pseudomonas dermatitis) > Itchy spots on the skin that become ...

281

Endovascular management of spinal arteriovenous malformations.  

PubMed

Spinal arteriovenous malformations (sAVMs) are rare vascular lesions whose natural history remains incompletely defined. Several classification schemes for sAVMs have evolved based on an improved understanding of the anatomic characteristics as well as pathophysiologic behavior of these arteriovenous shunts. Advances in endovascular technology have inspired the adoption of interventional techniques both as stand-alone treatment and as part of a multi-modality management paradigm for sAVMs. Further refinements in liquid embolic agents as well as improved microcatheter navigability will contribute to an ever-expanding role for endovascular intervention in the management of these lesions. PMID:22935350

Ducruet, Andrew F; Crowley, R Webster; McDougall, Cameron G; Albuquerque, Felipe C

2012-08-30

282

Congenital malformation associated with intrauterine contraceptive device.  

PubMed Central

Two infants with fibular aplasia and related limb-reduction defects were born to mothers who were using copper-containing intrauterine contraceptive devices. The possibility of a casual association is consistent with the known hazards of intrauterine devices and cannot be excluded on the available experimental evidence. More information is urgently needed, and searches, including radiography of placenta and pelvis, should be made for such devices in mothers who have used them in the past and who give birth to malformed infants. Images FIG 1 FIG 2

Barrie, H

1976-01-01

283

Intracranial arteriovenous malformation presenting with papilloedema.  

PubMed

Intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVM) typically present clinically with haemorrhage, seizures or focal neurological deficit. AVM do not usually have a substantial mass effect or cause raised intracranial pressure. Rarely shunting of arterial blood into the venous system can cause raised venous pressure and consequently raised CSF pressure. The case described here is of a 37 year old man with an AVM who presented with headache and papilloedema secondary to raised CSF pressure. Following partial embolisation, to reduce fistulous flow, and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), to reduce the size of the AVM, both the headache and papilloedema resolved. PMID:24108890

Hayton, Tom; Gan, Peter; Sadalage, Girija; Burdon, Michael

2013-11-01

284

The pediatric Chiari I malformation: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Both the diagnosis and treatment regimens for the Chiari I malformation (CIM) are varied and controversial. The present paper\\u000a analyzes the literature regarding this form of hindbrain herniation in regard to definition, anatomy, pathobiology, symptoms,\\u000a findings, treatment, and outcomes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Discussions  Appropriate literature germane to the CIM is reviewed and discussed. There is variation in the reported anatomy, outcome,\\u000a and treatment for

R. Shane Tubbs; Michael J. Lyerly; Marios Loukas; Mohammadali M. Shoja; W. Jerry Oakes

2007-01-01

285

[Pelvic arteriovenous malformation : a case report].  

PubMed

A 70-year-old male presented with intermittent macroscopic hematuria. There was no history of previous trauma or pelvic operation. At first, we were unable to clarify the origin of the hematuria, but 3D computed tomography revealed an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) consisting of multiple feeding vessels arising from the bilateral, especially right, internal iliac artery. Treatment with transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with a combination of lipiodol and N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate twice was effective. He needs to be followed up carefully for recurrence of AVM. PMID:23945325

Suzuki, Kotaro; Kusuda, Yuji; Yamada, Yuji; Nose, Ryuichiro; Matsui, Takashi; Sanda, Yuki; Mori, Takeki; Sugimoto, Koji

2013-07-01

286

21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is...that is intended for use in an ear, nose, and throat electric...incising or removing bone in the ear, nose, or throat area...notification procedures in subpart E of part 807 of this chapter subject...

2009-04-01

287

21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is...that is intended for use in an ear, nose, and throat electric...incising or removing bone in the ear, nose, or throat area...notification procedures in subpart E of part 807 of this chapter subject...

2010-04-01

288

40 CFR 211.206-1 - Real ear method.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Real ear method. 211.206-1 Section 211...Protective Devices § 211.206-1 Real ear method. (a) The value of sound attenuation...Method for the Measurement of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors...

2013-07-01

289

Factors contributing to bone conduction: The outer ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ear canal sound pressure and the malleus umbo velocity with bone conduction (BC) stimulation were measured in nine ears from five cadaver heads in the frequency range 0.1 to 10 kHz. The measurements were conducted with both open and occluded ear canals, before and after resection of the lower jaw, in a canal with the cartilage and soft tissues

Stefan Stenfelt; Timothy Wild; Naohito Hato; Richard L. Goode

2003-01-01

290

Ear and kidney syndromes: Molecular versus clinical approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ear and kidney syndromes: Molecular versus clinical approach.The association between ear and kidney anomalies is not usually due to an insult to the embryo. In recent years, many essential development control genes that coordinate the assembly and function of kidney and ear have been discovered through the generation of animal mutants and have increased our understanding of the mechanisms of

HASSANE IZZEDINE; FREDERIC TANKERE; VINCENT LAUNAY-VACHER; GILBERT DERAY

2004-01-01

291

21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food and...Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is...

2010-04-01

292

21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food and...Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is...

2009-04-01

293

Sources of Variability in Reflectance Measurements on Normal Cadaver Ears  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The development of acoustic reflectance measurements may lead to noninvasive tests that provide information currently unavailable from standard audiometric testing. One factor limiting the development of these tests is that normal-hear- ing human ears show substantial intersubject vari- ations. This work examines intersubject variability that results from measurement location within the ear canal, estimates of ear-canal area, and varia-

Susan E. Voss; Nicholas J. Horton; Rebecca R. Woodbury; Kathryn N. Sheffield

2008-01-01

294

Connected component based technique for automatic ear detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an efficient technique for automatic ear detection from side face images. The proposed technique detects ear by exploiting its inherent structural details and is rotation, scale and shape invariant. It can detect ear without any training or assuming prior knowledge of the input image. The technique is based on connected component analysis of a graph constructed using

Surya Prakash; Umarani Jayaraman; Phalguni Gupta

2009-01-01

295

15 CFR 734.2 - Important EAR terms and principles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...part. Publicly available technology and software not subject to the EAR are described in...States, or release of technology or software subject to the EAR to a foreign national...encryption source code and object code software subject to the EAR. (2) Export...

2013-01-01

296

On hearing with more than one ear: lessons from evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although ears capable of detecting airborne sound have arisen repeatedly and independently in different species, most animals that are capable of hearing have a pair of ears. We review the advantages that arise from having two ears and discuss recent research on the similarities and differences in the binaural processing strategies adopted by birds and mammals. We also ask how

Catherine E Carr; Jan W H Schnupp

2009-01-01

297

Two Ears are Better Than One: Sound Localization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (9th activity on the page) about hearing demonstrates to learners the importance of having two ears. A blindfolded learner tries to identify the distance of another individual while listening for their name using one or both ears. This activity page includes a link to background information about the ear and hearing.

Chudler, Eric H.

2009-01-01

298

21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. ...for use in an ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill (§ 874.4250) for incising or removing bone...

2013-04-01

299

Identification of direct downstream targets of Dlx5 during early inner ear development  

PubMed Central

Dlx5, a homeobox transcription factor, plays a key role in the development of many organ systems. It is a candidate gene for human split-hand/split-foot type 1 malformation associated with sensorineural hearing loss. A deletion of one of its enhancers has been implicated in human craniofacial defects/hearing loss and it has also been associated with autism. However, little is known of how Dlx5 exerts its regulatory effects. We identified direct targets of Dlx5 in the mouse inner ear by gene expression profiling wild-type and Dlx5 null otic vesicles from embryonic stages E10 and E10.5. Four hundred genes were differentially expressed. We examined the genomic DNA sequences in the promoter regions of these genes for (i) previously described Dlx5 binding sites, (ii) novel 12 bp long motifs with a canonical homeodomain element shared by two or more genes and (iii) 100% conservation of these motifs in promoters of human orthologs. Forty genes passed these filters, 12 of which are expressed in the otic vesicle in domains that overlap with Dlx5. Chromatin immunoprecipitation using a Dlx5 antibody confirmed direct binding of Dlx5 to promoters of seven of these (Atbf1, Bmper, Large, Lrrtm1, Msx1, Ebf1 and Lhx1) in a cell line over-expressing Dlx5. Bmper and Lrrtm1 were up-regulated in this cell line, further supporting their identification as targets of Dlx5 in the inner ear and potentially in other organs. These direct targets support a model in which Bmp signaling is downstream of Dlx5 in the early inner ear and provide new insights into how the Dlx5 regulatory cascade is initiated.

Sajan, Samin A.; Rubenstein, John L.R.; Warchol, Mark E.; Lovett, Michael

2011-01-01

300

Ear piercing affects earprints: the role of ear piercing in human identification.  

PubMed

Previous research conducted into the use of the human ear in the field of forensic identification has focused upon the use of grids and manual methods to measure and catalogue the different anatomical features of the ear. To date, few have considered the importance of the presence of ear piercings and their possible role in human identification. This study aims to highlight the common distribution of piercings of both ears in both genders and to explore the effect of piercings on earprints. The presence of a piercing may, in part, help to explain why partial and not whole earprints are sometimes recovered from a scene of crime (suggesting that the offender's ears may be pierced). The presence of piercings through the tragus and the superior part of the helix are shown to be infrequent and thus may be used to assist the identification of a body, due to its relative rarity with respect to piercings found in other areas of the ear. PMID:15813550

Abbas, Ali; Rutty, Guy N

2005-03-01

301

Ear deformity in children following high ear-piercing: current practice, consent issues and legislation.  

PubMed

In this presentation we examine the practice of high ear-piercing in children, the issue of informed consent and current legislation. We sampled current practice and consent policy by visiting nine establishments in Sheffield providing this service. There were two high street department stores, two fashion accessory outlets and five body-piercing studios. Enquiries were made as to the technique used, knowledge of complications, customer counselling and consent policy. A photograph of an ear with a cosmetic deformity following high ear-piercing was shown and awareness of this possible outcome was noted. Two ear-piercing techniques were identified, either a spring-loaded gun firing a blunt stud or the use of a body-piercing needle. The fashion accessory outlets were prepared to pierce any part of the ear using a spring-loaded gun in children under 16 years of age. There was a general lack of knowledge about possible serious complications. Two of the body piercers would not perform high ear-piercing on clients under the age of 16 years. The body piercers use a disposable needle and were of the opinion that using a spring-loaded gun shatters the cartilage and increases the risk of infection. The best technique is open to debate and it may be that the perceived unsavoury environment of the body-piercing studio represents a safer option than the more respectable or cheaper alternatives. The practice of body piercing in the UK remains uncontrolled. PMID:11485579

Jervis, P N; Clifton, N J; Woolford, T J

2001-07-01

302

Factors contributing to bone conduction: The outer ear  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ear canal sound pressure and the malleus umbo velocity with bone conduction (BC) stimulation were measured in nine ears from five cadaver heads in the frequency range 0.1 to 10 kHz. The measurements were conducted with both open and occluded ear canals, before and after resection of the lower jaw, in a canal with the cartilage and soft tissues removed, and with the tympanic membrane (TM) removed. The sound pressure was about 10 dB greater in an intact ear canal than when the cartilage part of the canal had been removed. The occlusion effect was close to 20 dB for the low frequencies in an intact ear canal; this effect diminished with sectioning of the canal. At higher frequencies, the resonance properties of the ear canal determined the effect of occluding the ear canal. Sectioning of the lower jaw did not significantly alter the sound pressure in the ear canal. The sound radiated from the TM into the ear canal was investigated in four temporal bone specimens; this sound is significantly lower than the sound pressure in an intact ear canal with BC stimulation. The malleus umbo velocity with air conduction stimulation was investigated in nine temporal bone specimens and compared with the umbo velocity obtained with BC stimulation in the cadaver heads. The results show that for a normal open ear canal, the sound pressure in the ear canal with BC stimulation is not significant for BC hearing. At threshold levels and for frequencies below 2 kHz, the sound in the ear canal caused by BC stimulation is about 10 dB lower than air conduction hearing thresholds; this difference increases at higher frequencies. However, with the ear canal occluded, BC hearing is dominated by the sound pressure in the outer ear canal for frequencies between 0.4 and 1.2 kHz.

Stenfelt, Stefan; Wild, Timothy; Hato, Naohito; Goode, Richard L.

2003-02-01

303

Factors contributing to bone conduction: the outer ear.  

PubMed

The ear canal sound pressure and the malleus umbo velocity with bone conduction (BC) stimulation were measured in nine ears from five cadaver heads in the frequency range 0.1 to 10 kHz. The measurements were conducted with both open and occluded ear canals, before and after resection of the lower jaw, in a canal with the cartilage and soft tissues removed, and with the tympanic membrane (TM) removed. The sound pressure was about 10 dB greater in an intact ear canal than when the cartilage part of the canal had been removed. The occlusion effect was close to 20 dB for the low frequencies in an intact ear canal; this effect diminished with sectioning of the canal. At higher frequencies, the resonance properties of the ear canal determined the effect of occluding the ear canal. Sectioning of the lower jaw did not significantly alter the sound pressure in the ear canal. The sound radiated from the TM into the ear canal was investigated in four temporal bone specimens; this sound is significantly lower than the sound pressure in an intact ear canal with BC stimulation. The malleus umbo velocity with air conduction stimulation was investigated in nine temporal bone specimens and compared with the umbo velocity obtained with BC stimulation in the cadaver heads. The results show that for a normal open ear canal, the sound pressure in the ear canal with BC stimulation is not significant for BC hearing. At threshold levels and for frequencies below 2 kHz, the sound in the ear canal caused by BC stimulation is about 10 dB lower than air conduction hearing thresholds; this difference increases at higher frequencies. However, with the ear canal occluded, BC hearing is dominated by the sound pressure in the outer ear canal for frequencies between 0.4 and 1.2 kHz. PMID:12597184

Stenfelt, Stefan; Wild, Timothy; Hato, Naohito; Goode, Richard L

2003-02-01

304

Evolutionary hypothesis for Chiari type I malformation.  

PubMed

Chiari I malformation (CM-I) is classically defined as a cerebellar tonsillar herniation (?5mm) through the foramen magnum. A decreased posterior fossa volume, mainly due to basioccipital hypoplasia and sometimes platybasia, leads to posterior fossa overcrowding and consequently cerebellar herniation. Regardless of radiological findings, embryological genetic hypothesis or any other postulations, the real cause behind this malformation is yet not well-elucidated and remains largely unknown. The aim of this paper is to approach CM-I under a broader and new perspective, conjoining anthropology, genetics and neurosurgery, with special focus on the substantial changes that have occurred in the posterior cranial base through human evolution. Important evolutionary allometric changes occurred during brain expansion and genetics studies of human evolution demonstrated an unexpected high rate of gene flow interchange and possibly interbreeding during this process. Based upon this review we hypothesize that CM-I may be the result of an evolutionary anthropological imprint, caused by evolving species populations that eventually met each other and mingled in the last 1.7million years. PMID:23948602

Fernandes, Yvens Barbosa; Ramina, Ricardo; Campos-Herrera, Cynthia Resende; Borges, Guilherme

2013-08-12

305

Jaw development and malformation in cultured striped trumpeter Latris lineata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensive culture of striped trumpeter (Latris lineata) has resulted in a high incidence of jaw malformation in juveniles. In this study, cranial and jaw development in striped trumpeter was described in cultured larvae reared in greenwater on rotifers and Artemia. Jaw malformation was only evident in post-flexion larvae greater than the standard length of 10 mm and was characterised by

J. M Cobcroft; P. M Pankhurst; J Sadler; P. R Hart

2001-01-01

306

Tumeurs et malformations vasculaires, classification anatomopathologique et imagerie  

Microsoft Academic Search

The understanding of vascular anomalies (vascular tumours and vascular malformations) was obscured, for a long time, by confusion and uncertainties in nosology and terminology. The International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) recently adopted a classification scheme, clearly separating vascular tumours (hemangiomas of different types) which result from active cell proliferation, from vascular malformations, which are inborn defects

M. Wassef; R. Vanwijck; P. Clapuyt; L. Boon; G. Magalon

2006-01-01

307

Microsurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformation management: a Siberian experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebral vascular malformations remain among the most difficult neurosurgical entities to treat. We report a retrospective study of the outcome in 95 consecutive patients with angiographically revealed arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Fifty-four patients underwent microsurgical total AVM removal (group I). Forty-one patients who refused open surgery (group II) were managed either by endovascular embolisation (16 cases), radiosurgery (three) or followed up

Alexei L. Krivoshapkin; Evstafy G. Melidy

2005-01-01

308

Vascular malformations in the uterus: ultrasonographic diagnosis and conservative management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the presence and outcome of uterine vascular malformations in women with abnormal premenopausal bleeding. Study design: In this observational study 265 consecutive patients with abnormal premenopausal bleeding were examined by the same ultrasonographer with transvaginal gray-scale ultrasonography and color Doppler imaging. A final diagnosis of uterine vascular malformation was based on ultrasonographic findings, hysteroscopy or histological findings.

Dirk Timmerman; Thierry Van den Bosch; Karen Peeraer; Ellen Debrouwere; Dominique Van Schoubroeck; Luc Stockx; Bernard Spitz

2000-01-01

309

Ischio-spinal dysostosis: a previously unrecognised combination of malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Ischial hypoplasia is an extremely rare malformation, both as an isolated anomaly and as a syndromic constituent. Objective. To elucidate the clinical and radiological characteristics in five patients with the combination of ischial hypoplasia and\\u000a spinal malformations. Materials and methods. The clinical records and radiographs of two females and three males, ranging in age from 3 months to 38

Gen Nishimura; Mamori Kimizuka; Ryouji Shiro; Eiji Nii; Masaki Nishiyama; Toshio Kawano; Tetsui Kaku; Yuko Kawada

1999-01-01

310

Sudden death revealing Chiari type 1 malformation in two children  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the first two fatal cases of suddden unprovoked cardiorespiratory arrest in children with previously undiagnosed Arnold-Chiari type 1 malformation. This diagnosis should be considered in children with unexplained cardiorespiratory arrest. The risk of sudden death in Arnold-Chiari type 1 malformation reinforces the indication for early neurosurgical procedure.

A. Martinot; V. Hue; F. Leclerc; L. Vallee; M. Closset; J. P. Pruvo

1993-01-01

311

Cardiovascular malformations in congenital diaphragmatic hernia: Human and experimental studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Purpose: Cardiovascular malformations (CVM) associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) account in part for the high mortality caused by this defect. The aim of this study is to examine the nature of these malformations in a large series of autopsies and to assess if similar defects are also present in rat fetuses with experimental CDH.Methods: The incidence of CVM and

Lucia Migliazza; Christian Otten; Huimin Xia; Jose I. Rodriguez; Juan A. Diez-Pardo; Juan A. Tovar

1999-01-01

312

Bronchogenic Cysts: A Rare Congenital Cystic Malformation of the Lung  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose Bronchogenic cysts are rare congenital cystic malformations of the lung. We retrospectively analyzed ten cases of bronchogenic cyst (BC) to reinforce the importance of recognizing this malformation. Methods Between 1985 and 2000, ten pediatric patients with BC were treated surgically in our department. Their clinical presentation, radiological, operative, and pathological findings were analyzed retrospectively. Results There were five boys

Gülay A. Tireli; Hüseyin Özbey; Abdülkerim Temiz; Tansu Salman; Alaaddin Çelik

2004-01-01

313

Spinal meningeal malformations in children (without meningoceles or meningomyeloceles)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple meningeal malformations are described: anterior or lateral meningoceles, extradural meningeal cysts, and intradural arachnoid cysts. All diverticulae appear to be extensions of the subarachnoid space, producing symptoms early or later. It is impossible to unify all these lesions because they cause multiple pathological conditions, depending upon the anatomical form or level, other systemic malformations, spinal abnormalities, or associated familial

Jacques Richaud

1988-01-01

314

Successful percutaneous coil occlusion of a large pulmonary arteriovenous malformation.  

PubMed

Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation is one of the rarest congenital anomalies of cardiovascular system. We present a case of 30-year-old female with a large pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVM) arising from the right lower pulmonary artery and draining to the left atrium. She underwent successful embolization using three detachable Cook coils. PMID:15530285

Jameel, Al-Ata; Arfi, Amin Muhammed; Ayman, M S; Nasser, Mahdi; Amjad, Kouatli; Iskandar, Al-Githmi

2004-11-01

315

Ear candles: a triumph of ignorance over science.  

PubMed

Ear candles are hollow tubes coated in wax which are inserted into patients' ears and then lit at the far end. The procedure is used as a complementary therapy for a wide range of conditions. A critical assessment of the evidence shows that its mode of action is implausible and demonstrably wrong. There are no data to suggest that it is effective for any condition. Furthermore, ear candles have been associated with ear injuries. The inescapable conclusion is that ear candles do more harm than good. Their use should be discouraged. PMID:14979962

Ernst, E

2004-01-01

316

[Thoracic surgery in neonates and infants with congenital malformations].  

PubMed

Congenital malformations of the lung and diaphragm are a challenge in paediatric surgery. Depending on the malformation they show a broad spectrum of symptoms and a varying age at manifestation. Thus there are many diagnostic and therapeutic options, which require a good knowledge of the pathology. The treatment of these complex cases should lead to early referral to paediatric centres containing an interdisciplinary team with neonatologists, paediatric pulmonologists and cardiologists, ENT surgeons, anaesthesiologists, radiologists and paediatric surgeons. Some malformations are diagnosed prenatally and need intrauterine interventions. Decisive is the early diagnosis and treatment of these malformations. Nowadays the surgical therapy of neonates and infants with malformations of the lung and diaphragm is enriched by a number of endoscopic and endoluminal techniques, which are discussed critically in this article. PMID:20020383

Metzger, R; Till, H

2009-12-17

317

Comment: valproate dose effects differ across congenital malformations.  

PubMed

Fetal valproate exposure has been associated with the highest risk of congenital malformations among antiepileptic drugs.(1) Valproate's effect is dose-dependent(1) and has been associated with multiple specific malformations.(2,3) Vadja et al.(4) examined data from the Australian Pregnancy Registry (1999-2012 data), which included 1,705 pregnancies with 436 valproate exposures.(4) They found that the use and dosages of valproate have fallen over the last 5 years. The rates of spina bifida and hypospadius in those exposed dropped with reducing dosages of valproate, but the rates of other malformations did not. Mean dosages for malformations were higher for spina bifida (2,000 mg/d) and hypospadius (2,417 mg/d) than all other malformations (1,083 mg/d). PMID:23911754

Meador, Kimford J

2013-08-02

318

The study of malformations "by the company they keep".  

PubMed Central

Our study of individuals with thalidomide embryopathy reaffirms many of the principles of clinical teratology concerning sensitivity of developing structures and specificity of action. It also highlights important features of ocular teratology that differ from those of other organ systems. Because malformations of the eye and associated structures do not significantly threaten the survival of the embryo, fetus, or neonate, any variation in prevalence in older individuals is not due to the nature of the ocular malformation but may be significantly modified by "the company they keep," the systemic malformations occurring at the same time as the original insult, whether it be an environmental, a genetic, or a local disturbance. Additionally, the presence of clusters of malformations caused by a teratogen at a specific time supports the concept of a common pathogenic mechanism and provides suggested avenues for further research into the cause of these malformations.

Miller, M T; Stromland, K

1992-01-01

319

Structures that Contribute to Middle-Ear Admittance in Chinchilla  

PubMed Central

We describe measurements of middle-ear input admittance in chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera) before and after various manipulations that define the contributions of different middle-ear components to function. The chinchilla’s middle-ear air spaces have a large effect on the low-frequency compliance of the middle ear, and removing the influences of these spaces reveals a highly admittant tympanic membrane and ossicular chain. Measurements of the admittance of the air spaces reveal that the high-degree of segmentation of these spaces has only a small effect on the admittance. Draining the cochlea further increases the middle-ear admittance at low frequencies and removes a low-frequency (less than 300 Hz) level dependence in the admittance. Spontaneous or sound-driven contractions of the middle-ear muscles in deeply anesthetized animals were associated with significant changes in middle-ear admittance.

Rosowski, John J.; Ravicz, Michael E.; Songer, Jocelyn E.

2009-01-01

320

Analysis of OH Bolted Ear Connection  

SciTech Connect

The D0 endcap calorimeter outer hadronic (OH) modules play a major structural role in the calorimeter assembly. The disrete modules, once connected together, form a ring within which other massive calorimetry will reside. It has been proposed that the connection of the OH at the downstream end be accomplished by extending the downstream endplates in the radial direction to form 'ears', and then through-bolting between adjacent ears as shown in Fig. 1. A single 2 1/4 in. dia. bolt is used, and previous calculations have determined that the design load on this joint should be 130,000 lbs tension. The high load and serious consequences of failure make this a critical component in the calorimeter assembly. The purpose of this analysis is to investigate the stresses in the connection and other mechanical characteristics which determine joint performance.

Wands, Bob; /Fermilab

1987-12-30

321

Emergency pediatric ear, nose, and throat imaging.  

PubMed

Pediatric ear, nose, and throat emergencies broadly comprise infection, trauma, and airway obstruction secondary to a multitude of etiologies. Imaging occupies center stage in the diagnosis of many of these conditions and their complications, making it imperative for radiologists and other physicians covering the pediatric emergency department to familiarize themselves with the imaging appearances of these entities. Toward this goal, this article describes the imaging features of common pediatric ear, nose, and throat emergencies. Differential considerations, potential fallacies, and complications have been discussed when appropriate. Because a sound knowledge of the most relevant, efficient, time, and cost-effective imaging modality is of undisputable value in the acute setting, the preferred modality for each specific condition has been outlined. Finally, in alignment with our commitment to using radiation judiciously, we have suggested using ultrasonography and magnetic resonance instead of computed tomography, where possible, to optimize cost-benefit ratio for our young patients. PMID:22964411

Chess, Mitchell A; Chaturvedi, Apeksha; Stanescu, A Luana; Blickman, Johan G

2012-10-01

322

A Rare Case of Petrified Ear  

PubMed Central

Calcification or ossification of the auricle, also referred to as petrified ear, is a rare diagnosis in dermatology. In medical literature, it has most often been attributed to trauma, hypothermia and frostbite, or hypercalcemia secondary to a metabolic or endocrine disorder, such as Addison's disease. Here, we report the clinical and radiologic findings of a 79-year-old African American male whose unilateral petrified auricle was an incidental finding. He had a preceding history of hyperparathyroidism and subsequent hypercalcemia treated with a subtotal parathyroidectomy three years prior to presentation. In addition to laboratory analysis, a history and physical examination was performed which revealed no other signs of hypercalcemia. Radiologic studies demonstrated partial ossification of the external auricular cartilage on the left side. The patient was diagnosed with the rare occurrence of a petrified ear. In light of this case, we provide a discussion concerning the possible etiologies of this diagnosis including appropriate patient evaluation and possible treatment recommendations.

Buikema, Kathryn E.; Adams, Erin G.

2012-01-01

323

Coryneform bacteria isolated from middle ear fluid.  

PubMed Central

Nineteen strains of facultatively anaerobic gram-positive rods isolated in pure culture from middle ear fluids were identified. All effusions were collected by tympanocentesis in children with acute otitis media. Identification of microorganisms to the genus level was done by studying the cell wall composition. Sixteen strains contain meso-diaminopimelic acid and arabinogalactan polymer but lack mycolic acids; therefore, these strains do not belong to a previously described taxon. Because of similarities with Corynebacterium afermentans (Centers for Disease Control group ANF-1), we temporarily classified these mycolateless strains ANF-1 like. Isolation of these microorganisms in pure culture from middle ear fluids collected by tympanocentesis is a strong argument for their involvement in acute otitis media.

Simonet, M; De Briel, D; Boucot, I; Minck, R; Veron, M

1993-01-01

324

High intensity anthropogenic sound damages fish ears.  

PubMed

Marine petroleum exploration involves the repetitive use of high-energy noise sources, air-guns, that produce a short, sharp, low-frequency sound. Despite reports of behavioral responses of fishes and marine mammals to such noise, it is not known whether exposure to air-guns has the potential to damage the ears of aquatic vertebrates. It is shown here that the ears of fish exposed to an operating air-gun sustained extensive damage to their sensory epithelia that was apparent as ablated hair cells. The damage was regionally severe, with no evidence of repair or replacement of damaged sensory cells up to 58 days after air-gun exposure. PMID:12558299

McCauley, Robert D; Fewtrell, Jane; Popper, Arthur N

2003-01-01

325

Aspect Modification of an EAR Application a  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose aspect modification of compiled Java programs for which source code and documentation are not available. Aspect oriented programming is used to trace the program execution and identify points, in which aspects implementing new functionalities should be applied. A special tool for aspect oriented program tracing was designed and implemented. A modification in an real Enterprise Application Archive (EAR), compiled, without source code and documentation is presented in this paper. Advantages and disadvantages of described concepts are pointed out.

Bluemke, Ilona; Billewicz, Konrad

326

Acute seismic sensitivity in the bullfrog ear.  

PubMed

Single axons in the auditory/vestibular nerve of the American bullfrog exhibit by far the most exquisite sensitivity to substrate-borne vibration yet reported for a quadruped vertebrate. Earlier dye-injection studies revealed that these axons, which are relatively insensitive to airborne sound, originate at the saccular and lagenar maculae of the bullfrog inner ear. The more sensitive axons exhibited clear responses to vibratory sinusoids with peak accelerations as low as 0.005 cm/s2. PMID:6982744

Koyama, H; Lewis, E R; Leverenz, E L; Baird, R A

1982-10-28

327

Scaling of the mammalian middle ear.  

PubMed

This study considers the general question how animal size limits the size and information receiving capacity of sense organs. To clarify this in the case of the mammalian middle ear, I studied 63 mammalian species, ranging from a small bat to the Indian elephant. I determined the skull mass and the masses of the ossicles malleus, incus and stapes (M, I and S), and measured the tympanic membrane area, A1. The ossicular mass (in mg) is generally negatively allometric to skull mass (in g), the regression equation for the whole material (excluding true seals) being y = 1.373 x(0.513). However, for very small mammals the allometry approaches isometry. Within a group of large mammals no distinct allometry can be discerned. The true seals (Phocidae) are exceptional by having massive ossicles. The size relations within the middle ear are generally rather constant. However, the I/M relation is slightly positively allometric, y = 0.554 x(1.162). Two particularly isometric relations were found; the S/(M + I) relation for the ossicles characterized by the regression equation y = 0.054 x(0.993), and the relation between a two-dimensional measure of the ossicles and the tympanic membrane ares, (M + I)2/3 /A1. As in isometric ears the sound energy collected by the tympanic membrane is linearly related to its area, the latter isometry suggests that, regardless of animal size, a given ossicular cross-sectional area is exposed to a similar sound-induced stress. Possible morphological middle ear adaptations to particular acoustic environments are discussed. PMID:7559173

Nummela, S

1995-05-01

328

The glue ear 'epidemic': a historical perspective.  

PubMed

This paper explores the historical context of the dramatic rise in surgery for glue ear in the mid-20th century, and questions the published assertion that this represented a manufactured 'epidemic'. In examining historical sources, the reader's theoretical viewpoint greatly influences their conclusions: the sustained rise in treatment for glue ear may be seen as the advance of science in a golden age or the resistance of insular professionals to reason in the light of new scientific study methods. Current views on the practice of medicine, consumerism, science and standardisation, rationing and the nature of 'truth' all affect the way that we see this period. Technological advances clearly allowed better diagnosis and more effective treatment, but these did not appear to drive an 'epidemic', rather they were developed to meet the pre-existing challenges of otological practice. The proposition that an 'epidemic' was created does not appear to have any solid grounding. Society's perception of what constitutes disease and what needs treatment may have evolved, but the prevalence of other important diseases changed dramatically over this time period, and a real change in the epidemiology of glue ear cannot be dismissed. In defining the case for and against surgical treatment, a solely positivist, quantitative worldview cannot give us a complete picture of benefit and risk to individuals, families and society at large. PMID:21653931

Alderson, David

2011-06-08

329

Epidemiology and aetiology of middle ear cholesteatoma.  

PubMed

A total of 500 patients with cholesteatoma diagnosed and operated during 1982-91 in the region of Tampere University Hospital and Mikkeli Central Hospital in Finland were analysed retrospectively. The mean annual incidence was 9.2 per 100,000 inhabitants (range 3.7-13.9) and during the study period the annual incidence decreased significantly. The incidence was higher among males under the age of 50 years. There was no accumulation of cholesteatoma diseases in lower social groups. The majority (72.4%) of cholesteatoma patients had suffered from otitis media episodes. Tympanostomy was carried out in 10.2% and adenoidectomy or adenotonsillectomy in 15.9% of all cholesteatoma ears prior to cholesteatoma surgery. Cholesteatoma behind an intact tympanic membrane with no history of otitis media was verified in 0.6% of patients and in cleft palate patients in 8%. In this study, 13.2% of patients had ear trauma or ear operation in anamnes. PMID:10478597

Kemppainen, H O; Puhakka, H J; Laippala, P J; Sipilä, M M; Manninen, M P; Karma, P H

1999-01-01

330

Middle-ear velocity transfer function, cochlear input immittance, and middle-ear efficiency in chinchilla.  

PubMed

The transfer function HV between stapes velocity VS and sound pressure near the tympanic membrane PTM is a descriptor of sound transmission through the middle ear (ME). The ME power transmission efficiency (MEE), the ratio of sound power entering the cochlea to power entering the middle ear, was computed from HV measured in seven chinchilla ears and previously reported measurements of ME input admittance YTM and ME pressure gain GMEP [Ravicz and Rosowski, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, 2437-2454 (2012); J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133, 2208-2223 (2013)] in the same ears. The ME was open, and a pressure sensor was inserted into the cochlear vestibule for most measurements. The cochlear input admittance YC computed from HV and GMEP is controlled by a combination of mass and resistance and is consistent with a minimum-phase system up to 27?kHz. The real part Re{YC}, which relates cochlear sound power to inner-ear sound pressure, decreased gradually with frequency up to 25 kHz and more rapidly above that. MEE was about 0.5 between 0.1 and 8?kHz, higher than previous estimates in this species, and decreased sharply at higher frequencies. PMID:24116422

Ravicz, Michael E; Rosowski, John J

2013-10-01

331

A classification for congenital limb malformations.  

PubMed

The classification for congenital limb malformations adopted by the American Society for Surgery of the Hand, the International Federation of Societies for Surgery of the Hand, and the International Society of Prosthetics and Orthotics is presented. This method groups similar patterns of deficiencies according to the parts that have been primarily affected by certain embryological failures, whether the insult involves a total part (skeletal and soft tissue) or only the dermomyofascial structures. The main categories of this classification are (I) failure of formation of parts. (II) failure of differentiation (separation) of parts, (III) duplication, (IV) overgrowth, (V) undergrowth, (VI) congenital constriction band syndrome, and (VII) generalized skeletal abnormalities. The rationale and method of use of the classification are discussed. This method has been tested and used in a variety of centers and has been found to be properly conceived and practical. PMID:1021591

Swanson, A B

1976-07-01

332

Treatment of arteriovenous malformations of the brain.  

PubMed

The treatment of ruptured and unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) is driven by the need to prevent incident or recurrent intracranial hemorrhages. Improving feasibility of the rapidly developing endovascular, neurosurgical, and radiotherapeutic procedures leads to invasive treatment of an increasing number of neurologically intact patients with accidentally diagnosed AVMs. Recent data confirm that the natural history risk of unruptured AVMs is significantly lower than the risk of those presenting with rupture, and the treatment risk of invasive management of unruptured AVMs seems higher than their natural history risk. The treatment decision algorithm for these patients remains unsettled, as no randomized clinical trial data exist on the benefit of invasive AVM treatment for patients with bled or with unbled AVMs. The recently launched study A Randomized Trial of Unruptured Brain AVMs (ARUBA) will be the first trial randomizing patients with nonhemorrhaged AVMs to invasive versus conservative management. PMID:17217851

Hartmann, Andreas; Mast, Henning; Choi, Jae H; Stapf, Christian; Mohr, Jay P

2007-01-01

333

Surgical treatment of intracranial arteriovenous malformation.  

PubMed

The surgical indication and techniques of intracranial arteriovenous malformations are discussed, on the basis of 203 experiences with AVMs. A special key point in our surgical techniques is described as follows. The feeding arteries of the AVM--or the main artery at the base of the brain, which is the original source of the feeding artery--are identified and prepared, and then temporary clips are placed on these arteries to produce vascular occlusion prior to the dissection of the AVM itself. During these procedures, 20% of mannitol should be administered to prolong the permissible time of cerebral artery occlusion. The administration method of mannitol is described in detail including dose and time schedule. The new prolongation method of temporary occlusion time, for which mannitol with fluorochemicals permits longer occlusion time, is also introduced. PMID:6129587

Suzuki, J; Onuma, T; Kayama, T

1982-01-01

334

Craniofrontonasal dysplasia associated with Chiari malformation.  

PubMed

Craniofrontonasal dysplasia (CFND) is a rare developmental anomaly associated with an X-linked inheritance. It is predominantly expressed in females. A Chiari malformation (CM) has not been reported in such patients earlier. The authors report on a family with 3 female members who have marked and generalized CFND. The generalized bone dysplasia/hypertrophy resulted in reduction in the posterior cranial fossa volume in all 3 patients, and in a CM associated with syringomyelia in 2 of them. One of the 2 affected family members who had a CM and syringomyelia was symptomatic and was treated by foramen magnum decompression surgery. The 3 family members had remarkable similarity in their external facial features and in their radiologically revealed morphological features. A review of the relevant literature, genetic abnormalities, and pattern of inheritance is presented. PMID:20367343

Mahore, Amit; Shah, Abhidha; Nadkarni, Trimurti; Goel, Atul

2010-04-01

335

Familial Dandy-Walker malformation and leukodystrophy.  

PubMed

We report the first familial cases with two different types of posterior fossa cystic malformation and a leukodystrophic-like aspect on cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The girl and her brother had severe encephalopathy, marked hypotonia, absent deep tendon reflexes, macrocrania, gigantism, and dysmorphic face and extremities. The girl had generalized seizures. The boy had unilateral cataract and bilateral optic atrophy. The parents were first cousins, suggesting autosomal recessive transmission. MRI showed Dandy-Walker variant in the girl, with cerebellar vermis hypoplasia and expansion of the cisterna magna, which communicated with the fourth ventricle. Her brother had mega cisterna magna communicating with the fourth ventricle and a normal cerebellum. The 2 children had abnormally high signal in the supratentorial white matter. Visual and auditory evoked potentials revealed prolonged latencies. Motor and sensory conduction velocities were normal. Muscle and nerve biopsies were normal. Metabolic exploration demonstrated no abnormality. PMID:9258968

Humbertclaude, V T; Coubes, P A; Leboucq, N; Echenne, B B

1997-05-01

336

Small Rho-GTPases and cortical malformations  

PubMed Central

Rho-GTPases have been found to be crucial for cytoskeleton remodelling and cell polarity, as well as key players in directed cell migration in various tissues and organs, therefore becoming good candidates for involvement in neuronal migration disorders. We recently found that genetic deletion of the small GTPase RhoA in the developing mouse cerebral cortex results in three distinct cortical malformations: a defect in the proliferation of progenitor cells during development that leads to a bigger cerebral cortex in the adult mouse, a change in the morphology of radial glial cells that results in the formation of a subcortical band heterotopia (SBH, also called Double Cortex) and an increase in the speed of migrating newborn neurons. The latter, together with the aberrant radial glial shape, is likely to be the cause of cobblestone lissencephaly, where neurons protrude beyond layer I at the pial surface of the brain.

2013-01-01

337

Malformations and the Manx Syndrome in Cats  

PubMed Central

Breeding experiments were conducted on cats with congenital taillessness, to test the dissemination pattern of taillessness in their offspring. Clinical evaluation, radiographic analysis of the vertebral column and histological studies of the digestive tract and central nervous tissue were conducted to determine the association of malformations of these systems in cats born with different degrees of taillessness noted in the rumpy and stumpy cats. The mode of transmission of the tailless (Manx) condition assumed to be through an autosomal dominant factor (M) was confirmed by this investigation. It is hypothesized that the problems associated with the tailless condition such as spina bifida, urinary and faecal incontinence and locomotor disturbances of the pelvic limbs may all be related to a disturbance affecting the development of the central nervous system in the early embryonic life. ImagesFigure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.

DeForest, M. E.; Basrur, P. K.

1979-01-01

338

Complications of Embolization for Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations  

PubMed Central

Summary Embolization is recognized as an important adjunct in the treatment of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). We reviewed our results of embolizations for AVMs and discussed procedure-related complications. Eleven complications were recorded in 68 consecutive patients (16%). Of these, four were technical problems including a glued catheter, inability to withdraw the catheter, vessel perforation by the microcatheter, and coil migration. Other complications included three cases of ischemic symptoms due to retrograde thrombosis, two cases of asymptomatic cerebral infarction, one case of asymptomatic small haemorrhage due to venous occlusion, and one case of post-embolization haemorrhage of unknown etiology. Our morbidity rate was 7%, mortality rate was 0%, and asymptomatic complication torospectively. Further improvements to endovascular techniques and devices are required.

Sugiu, K.; Tokunaga, K.; Sasahara, W.; Watanabe, K.; Nishida, A.; Ono, S.; Nishio, S.; Date, I.; Rufenacht, D. A.

2004-01-01

339

Gastrointestinal malformations in Gorgan, North of Iran: epidemiology and associated malformations.  

PubMed

The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the prevalence and pattern of gastrointestinal malformations (GIM) among Iranian newborns in Gorgan, North of Iran. From 1998 through 2003, 37,951 live births in Dezyani hospital in Gorgan, North of Iran, were screened for gastrointestinal malformations. Clinical and demographic factors of diagnosed cases were recorded in a pre-designed questionnaire for analysis; sex, ethnicity, type of GIM and associated anomalies. The overall prevalence rate of gastrointestinal malformations was 10 per 10,000 births. The imperforate anus (5 per 10,000) was the commonest birth defect in gastrointestinal tract. The prevalence rate of GIM was 8.2 per 10,000 in males and 10.7 per 10,000 in females. According to the parental ethnicity, the prevalence rates of GIM were 6.7, 15.8 and 17.6 per 10,000 in Fars, Turkman, and Sistani, respectively. There were eight cases (21%) with associated anomalies. The prevalence rate of GIM in North of Iran is not similar to the previous studies in Iran and Middle East and ethnic background may be a causative factor in the rate of GIM in this area. PMID:17043876

Golalipour, Mohammad Jafar; Mobasheri, Elham; Hoseinpour, Kaniz-Reza; Keshtkar, Abbas Ali

2006-10-17

340

Seizure risk from cavernous or arteriovenous malformations  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To determine the risk of epileptic seizures due to a brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) or cavernous malformation (CM). Methods: In a prospective population-based study of new diagnoses of AVMs (n = 229) or CMs (n = 139) in adults in Scotland in 1999–2003, we used annual medical records surveillance, general practitioner follow-up, and patient questionnaires to quantify the risk of seizures between clinical presentation and AVM/CM treatment, last follow-up, or death. Results: The 5-year risk of first-ever seizure after presentation was higher for AVMs presenting with intracranial hemorrhage or focal neurologic deficit (ICH/FND: n = 119; 23%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 9%–37%) than for incidental AVMs (n = 40; 8%, 95% CI 0%–20%), CMs presenting with ICH/FND (n = 38; 6%, 95% CI 0%–14%), or incidental CMs (n = 57; 4%, 95% CI 0%–10%). For adults who had never experienced ICH/FND, the 5-year risk of epilepsy after first-ever seizure was higher for CMs (n = 23; 94%, 95% CI 84%–100%) than AVMs (n = 37; 58%, 95% CI 40%–76%; p = 0.02). Among adults who never experienced ICH/FND and presented with or developed epilepsy, there was no difference in the proportions achieving 2-year seizure freedom over 5 years between AVMs (n = 43; 45%, 95% CI 20%–70%) and CMs (n = 35; 47%, 95% CI 27%–67%). Conclusions: AVM-related ICH confers a significantly higher risk of a first-ever seizure compared to CMs or incidental AVMs. Adults with a CM have a high risk of epilepsy after a first-ever seizure but achieve seizure freedom as frequently as those with epilepsy due to an AVM.

Josephson, C.B.; Leach, J.-P.; Duncan, R.; Roberts, R.C.; Counsell, C.E.

2011-01-01

341

Contribution of Rare Copy Number Variants to Isolated Human Malformations  

PubMed Central

Background Congenital malformations are present in approximately 2–3% of liveborn babies and 20% of stillborn fetuses. The mechanisms underlying the majority of sporadic and isolated congenital malformations are poorly understood, although it is hypothesized that the accumulation of rare genetic, genomic and epigenetic variants converge to deregulate developmental networks. Methodology/Principal Findings We selected samples from 95 fetuses with congenital malformations not ascribed to a specific syndrome (68 with isolated malformations, 27 with multiple malformations). Karyotyping and Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) discarded recurrent genomic and cytogenetic rearrangements. DNA extracted from the affected tissue (46%) or from lung or liver (54%) was analyzed by molecular karyotyping. Validations and inheritance were obtained by MLPA. We identified 22 rare copy number variants (CNV) [>100 kb, either absent (n?=?7) or very uncommon (n?=?15, <1/2,000) in the control population] in 20/95 fetuses with congenital malformations (21%), including 11 deletions and 11 duplications. One of the 9 tested rearrangements was de novo while the remaining were inherited from a healthy parent. The highest frequency was observed in fetuses with heart hypoplasia (8/17, 62.5%), with two events previously related with the phenotype. Double events hitting candidate genes were detected in two samples with brain malformations. Globally, the burden of deletions was significantly higher in fetuses with malformations compared to controls. Conclusions/Significance Our data reveal a significant contribution of rare deletion-type CNV, mostly inherited but also de novo, to human congenital malformations, especially heart hypoplasia, and reinforce the hypothesis of a multifactorial etiology in most cases.

Serra-Juhe, Clara; Rodriguez-Santiago, Benjamin; Cusco, Ivon; Vendrell, Teresa; Camats, Nuria; Toran, Nuria; Perez-Jurado, Luis A.

2012-01-01

342

Surgical treatment of arteriovenous malformations of the posterior fossa.  

PubMed

Nine cases of arteriovenous malformations of the posterior fossa were operated upon, using microsurgical techniques. The excision was radical in eight patients. Seven of them, as well as the sole patient who had a partial removal of the malformation, returned to their previous occupations without neurological signs. In one case the preoperative deficit was unchanged. Some lesions that appear to penetrate the brain stem actually lie on its surface and can be dissected through an extrapial plane of cleavage. Extension of the malformation into the cerebellar peduncles requires dissection of the tangle and opening of the IVth ventricle. PMID:515935

Viale, G L; Pau, A; Viale, E S

1979-11-01

343

Cerebral arteriovenous malformation in pregnancy: Presentation and neurologic, obstetric, and ethical significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebral arteriovenous malformations infrequently complicate pregnancy. We sought to determine the neurologic, obstetric, and ethical significance of such malformations. We present the clinical course of 2 pregnant women with arteriovenous malformations who experienced cerebral hemorrhage and a loss of capacity for decision making. We also review the neurologic and obstetric significance of arteriovenous malformations in pregnancy. Various treatment options with

James J. Finnerty; Christian A. Chisholm; Helen Chapple; JoAnn V. Pinkerton

1999-01-01

344

Chinchilla middle-ear admittance and sound power: high-frequency estimates and effects of inner-ear modifications.  

PubMed

The middle-ear input admittance relates sound power into the middle ear (ME) and sound pressure at the tympanic membrane (TM). ME input admittance was measured in the chinchilla ear canal as part of a larger study of sound power transmission through the ME into the inner ear. The middle ear was open, and the inner ear was intact or modified with small sensors inserted into the vestibule near the cochlear base. A simple model of the chinchilla ear canal, based on ear canal sound pressure measurements at two points along the canal and an assumption of plane-wave propagation, enables reliable estimates of Y(TM,) the ME input admittance at the TM, from the admittance measured relatively far from the TM. Y(TM) appears valid at frequencies as high as 17 kHz, a much higher frequency than previously reported. The real part of Y(TM) decreases with frequency above 2 kHz. Effects of the inner-ear sensors (necessary for inner ear power computation) were small and generally limited to frequencies below 3 kHz. Computed power reflectance was ~0.1 below 3.5 kHz, lower than with an intact ME below 2.5 kHz, and nearly 1 above 16 kHz. PMID:23039439

Ravicz, Michael E; Rosowski, John J

2012-10-01

345

Gas exchange function through the middle ear mucosa in piglets: comparative study of normal and inflamed ears.  

PubMed

The gas exchange function through the middle ear (ME) mucosa was investigated by comparing normal and inflamed ears in an animal model. Piglets were examined (n = 15) because their tympanic bulla closely resembles the human mastoid air cell system. Four untreated ears served as controls. Eleven ears were injected with glycerin into the tympanic bulla to induce inflammation and were studied as inflamed ears. Two respiratory conditions, spontaneous respiration and hyperventilation by a ventilator, were alternated repeatedly. ME pressure was measured intermittently by a tympanometer and blood gas was measured simultaneously. In all four normal ears, both ME pressure and carbon dioxide (CO2) partial pressure in the blood decreased in parallel following alternation of the respiratory conditions from spontaneous respiration to hyperventilation, while both pressure levels increased in parallel when respiration was changed from hyperventilation to spontaneous respiration. This result indicates that there is a gas exchange between the ME and the blood through the mucosa. However, ME pressure change in inflamed ears was limited, though the change in CO2 partial pressure in the blood was the same as that in normal ears. There was a significant difference in the degree of ME pressure change occurring in normal ears compared to that in inflamed ears, suggesting that inflammation of the mucosa reduced gas exchange function in the ME. PMID:10219389

Yamamoto, Y

1999-01-01

346

Chinchilla middle-ear admittance and sound power: High-frequency estimates and effects of inner-ear modifications  

PubMed Central

The middle-ear input admittance relates sound power into the middle ear (ME) and sound pressure at the tympanic membrane (TM). ME input admittance was measured in the chinchilla ear canal as part of a larger study of sound power transmission through the ME into the inner ear. The middle ear was open, and the inner ear was intact or modified with small sensors inserted into the vestibule near the cochlear base. A simple model of the chinchilla ear canal, based on ear canal sound pressure measurements at two points along the canal and an assumption of plane-wave propagation, enables reliable estimates of YTM, the ME input admittance at the TM, from the admittance measured relatively far from the TM. YTM appears valid at frequencies as high as 17 kHz, a much higher frequency than previously reported. The real part of YTM decreases with frequency above 2 kHz. Effects of the inner-ear sensors (necessary for inner ear power computation) were small and generally limited to frequencies below 3 kHz. Computed power reflectance was ?0.1 below 3.5?kHz, lower than with an intact ME below 2.5?kHz, and nearly 1 above 16?kHz.

Ravicz, Michael E.; Rosowski, John J.

2012-01-01

347

Manual therapy and ear pain: a report of four cases  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To report and discuss four cases of ear pain which were treated successfully with manual therapy. Methods: Report of four cases. Results: Four patients with ear pain were referred for chiropractic consult. They were all treated with a combination of manual therapy and exercise with resolution of their ear symptoms. Conclusions: The mechanism of idiopathic ear pain that may be amenable to manual therapy is not fully known. Further research is needed to investigate the etiology of this disorder and to determine whether manual therapy and exercise are viable options in some patients with idiopathic ear pain. In the meantime, it may be advantageous for otolaryngologists to seek input from physicians skilled in assessment and treatment of the musculoskeletal system in cases ear pain for which an otolarygologic etiology cannot be found.

Murphy, Donald R.; Gay, Charles W.

2011-01-01

348

Ear detection based on improved AdaBoost algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose the ear detection approach under complex background which has two stages: off-line cascaded classifier training and on-line ear detection. In the stage of off-line training, considering the unique contour, the concave and convex of the ear, we apply the extended haar-like features to construct the space of the weak classifiers using the nearest neighbor norms.

Li Yuan; Feng Zhang

2009-01-01

349

Lightning causing inner ear damage and intracranial haematoma.  

PubMed

Lightning can transmit energy by way of the telephone network to the middle and the inner ear and thus cause pronounced injuries. In the patient mentioned here, the middle ear remained intact, while the inner ear was the seat of widespread damage combined with vascular rupture, the latter causing the formation of an intracranial haematoma. This was originally interpreted wrongly as a neoplasm. PMID:3760690

Poulsen, P; Knudstrup, P

1986-09-01

350

Ear Trauma in Orlu, Nigeria: A Five-Year Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

To review the presentation, types and aetiology of ear trauma and various factors affecting ear trauma in our patients over\\u000a a 5 year period. All patients treated for ear trauma over a 5 year period were studied using their clinical records. Data\\u000a extracted were analysed using SPSS version 11 software. The results were presented in simple descriptive and tabular forms.\\u000a Forty-one patients,

A. B. Chukuezi; J. N. Nwosu

351

The Soundry: How We Perceive Sound - The Ear  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page explores the structure of the ear and the way sound is received, transmitted, and understood by the brain. It explains the physical processes by which the outer, middle, and inner ears collect sound and relay it to nerve cells. Java simulations take the user on an interactive journey through the human ear, illustrating each concept being taught. This item is part of a module on the physics of sound for high school and middle school classrooms.

2007-09-17

352

Macrocephaly-capillary malformation presenting with fetal arrhythmia.  

PubMed

Macrocephaly-capillary malformation (OMIM 602501) is a rare overgrowth and asymmetry syndrome. Cardiac arrhythmias were reported to occur in few patients. We present a case in which fetal arrhythmia was the presenting symptom of the syndrome. PMID:22329570

Kuint, Jacob; Globus, Omer; Ben Simon, Guy J; Greenberger, Shoshana

2012-02-13

353

MALLEABLE INSPECTION STATION WHERE WORKERS ELIMINATE MALFORMED CASTINGS AND SEPARATED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MALLEABLE INSPECTION STATION WHERE WORKERS ELIMINATE MALFORMED CASTINGS AND SEPARATED GOOD CASTINGS PRIOR TO ANNEALING. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Malleable Annealing Building, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

354

Malformations among the X-linked intellectual disability syndromes.  

PubMed

Malformations are significant contributions to childhood mortality and disability. Their co-occurrence with intellectual disability may compound the health burden, requiring additional evaluation and management measures. Overall, malformations of greater or lesser severity occur in at least some cases of almost half of the 153 XLID syndromes. Genitourinary abnormalities are most common, but tend to contribute little or no health burden and occur in only a minority of cases of a given XLID syndrome. Some malformations (e.g., lissencephaly, hydranencephaly, long bone deficiency, renal agenesis/dysplasia) are not amenable to medical or surgical intervention; others (e.g., hydrocephaly, facial clefting, cardiac malformations, hypospadias) may be substantially corrected. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24166814

Stevenson, Roger E; Schwartz, Charles E; Rogers, R Curtis

2013-09-24

355

Fly-ear inspired acoustic sensors for gunshot localization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The supersensitive ears of the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea have inspired researchers to develop bio-inspired directional microphone for sound localization. Although the fly ear is optimized for localizing the narrow-band calling song of crickets at 5 kHz, experiments and simulation have shown that it can amplify directional cues for a wide frequency range. In this article, a theoretical investigation is presented to study the use of fly-ear inspired directional microphones for gunshot localization. Using an equivalent 2-DOF model of the fly ear, the time responses of the fly ear structure to a typical shock wave are obtained and the associated time delay is estimated by using cross-correlation. Both near-field and far-field scenarios are considered. The simulation shows that the fly ear can greatly amplify the time delay by ~20 times, which indicates that with an interaural distance of only 1.2 mm the fly ear is able to generate a time delay comparable to that obtained by a conventional microphone pair with a separation as large as 24 mm. Since the parameters of the fly ear structure can also be tuned for muzzle blast and other impulse stimulus, fly-ear inspired acoustic sensors offers great potential for developing portable gunshot localization systems.

Liu, Haijun; Currano, Luke; Gee, Danny; Yang, Benjamin; Yu, Miao

2009-05-01

356

Local drug delivery to the inner ear using biodegradable materials.  

PubMed

The lack of an effective method of drug delivery has been a considerable obstacle in the development of novel therapeutics for inner ear diseases. However, several strategies have been investigated to achieve drug delivery to the inner ear, particularly for local application. Here, we review recent advances in the development of inner ear drug-delivery systems, focusing on biodegradable materials. Both synthetic and natural biodegradable materials have shown efficacy for inner ear drug delivery, resulting in an attenuation of hearing loss in animal models. We expect the further development of such drug-delivery systems to help translate the findings of experimental studies to clinical applications. PMID:22822510

Nakagawa, Takayuki; Ito, Juichi

2011-06-01

357

Alternative ear-canal measures related to absorbance.  

PubMed

Several alternative ear-canal measures are similar to absorbance in their requirement for prior determination of a Thévenin-equivalent sound source. Examples are (1) sound intensity level, (2) forward pressure level, (3) time-domain ear-canal reflectance, and (4) cochlear reflectance. These four related measures are similar to absorbance in their utilization of wideband stimuli and their focus on recording ear-canal sound pressure. The related measures differ from absorbance in how the ear-canal pressure is analyzed and in the type of information that is extracted from the recorded response. Sound intensity level and forward pressure level have both been shown to be better as measures of sound level in the ear canal compared with sound pressure level because they reduced calibration errors due to standing waves in studies of behavioral thresholds and otoacoustic emissions. Time-domain ear-canal reflectance may be used to estimate ear-canal geometry and may have the potential to assess middle ear pathology. Cochlear reflectance reveals information about the inner ear that is similar to what is provided by other types of otoacoustic emissions, and may have theoretical advantages that strengthen its interpretation. PMID:23900185

Neely, Stephen T; Stenfelt, Stefan; Schairer, Kim S

2013-07-01

358

Oxygen diving-induced middle ear under-aeration.  

PubMed

Middle ear negative pressure and effusions have been described after oxygen diving. The prevalence, dynamics and pathophysiology of this phenomenon are not clear, and were hence investigated in the present study. Thirty-four oxygen divers with normal otoscopic and tympanometric evaluation participated in the study. The subjects' symptoms were documented, and pneumatic otoscopy and tympanometry were repeated immediately after the completion of a 3 h, 15 feet oxygen dive, and 7 h later on awakening from the night's sleep. Most divers had positive otoscopic findings the morning after the dive, all of which cleared within 4 h of rising. A significant decrease was observed in average middle ear compliance (p = 0.0463, one way ANOVA), and an increase was found in the number of ears with tympanic compliance less than 0.3 ml (p = 0.0001, Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric ANOVA). In addition, 14.7% of the ears had type C, and 27.9% type B tympanograms the morning after the dive (p = 0.0001 chi2). The generalized nature of oxygen-induced middle ear under-aeration, combined with the dynamics of the symptoms and signs observed, make middle ear barotrauma, tympanic cavity oxygen absorption, and middle ear epithelial oxygen toxicity all unlikely explanations. The observed phenomenon and its dynamics might stem from a reversible derangement in a middle ear chemoreceptor reflex arch, which has recently been suggested as regulating middle ear aeration. PMID:7653265

Shupak, A; Attias, J; Aviv, J; Melamed, Y

1995-05-01

359

The risks of ear piercing in children.  

PubMed

Body piercing, and particularly ear piercing is becoming increasingly common in young children who may not be capable of properly caring for the pierced site. This may result in infection at the site and embedding of the earring. Infection and the subsequent necessity of removal of such earrings can cause considerable pain and distress. There is also a proven risk of inducing nickel allergy in these children which can be a problem in later life. The potential for serious infection such as Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and HIV is not appreciated by the parents of these children. PMID:11310362

Macgregor, D M

2001-02-01

360

Local anaesthesia for middle ear surgery.  

PubMed

Thirty-two consecutive patients undergoing middle ear surgery using local anaesthesia were assessed on the adequacy of anaesthesia for their surgery, both by the patients themselves, and by the surgeon. A method of local anaesthesia is described which includes the possibility of inducing an iatrogenic transient homolateral facial weakness in order to simplify the technique of administration of anaesthesia. Both the surgeon and the patients were happy with the quality of the anaesthesia, and no adverse effects occurred either as a consequence of the local anaesthesia itself, or of the transient facial weakness. PMID:3243013

Lancer, J M; Fisch, U

1988-10-01

361

Pediatric ear, nose, and throat emergencies.  

PubMed

Acute otitis media is the most common infection for which antibiotics are prescribed in children, resulting in more than 20 million antibiotic prescriptions annually. New practice guidelines published by the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Academy of Family Physicians call for the judicious use of antibiotics in view of increasing antibiotic resistance and the unclear necessity of the use of antibiotics in children with uncomplicated acute otitis media. This article reviews those guidelines, several other common ear, nose, and throat entities, including sinusitis and dental emergencies, and current strategies in diagnosis and treatment. PMID:16574522

Bernius, Morgen; Perlin, Donna

2006-04-01

362

Histopathological study of congenital aortic valve malformations in 32 children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The histopathological characteristics of congenital aortic valve malformations in children were investigated. All the native\\u000a surgically excised aortic valves from 32 pediatric patients suffering from symptomatic aortic valve dysfunction due to congenital\\u000a aortic valve malformations between January 2003 and December 2005 were studied macroscopically and microscopically. The patients’\\u000a medical records were reviewed and the clinical information was extracted. The diagnosis

Ping Huang; Hongwei Wang; Yanping Li; Peixuan Cheng; Qingjun Liu; Zhenlu Zhang; Jianying Liu

2007-01-01

363

Post-mortem examination of prenatally diagnosed fatal renal malformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Renal malformations can be associated with genetic syndromes and chromosomal disorders. Fetal autopsy including histopathological examination of kidney is important to arrive at definite diagnosis. The objective was to assess importance of fetal autopsy and histopathology.Study Design:Retrospective analysis of cases with fetal renal malformations was done. All fetuses terminated were examined with whole body radiograph, external and internal examination and

N Kumari; M Pradhan; V H Shankar; N Krishnani; S R Phadke

2008-01-01

364

Contemporary Themes: Congenital Malformations and the Problem of their Control*  

PubMed Central

The possibility of preventing or reducing the prevalence of human congenital malformations is discussed in the light of current knowledge about their aetiology. The original data presented are derived from an epidemiological study of all the infants (92,982) born in the three years 1964-6 to women resident in a defined area of South Wales and all the congenital malformations (3,242) discovered in those infants by the second anniversary of their birth.

Lowe, C. R.

1972-01-01

365

Macrocephaly-Cutis Marmorata Telangiectatica Congenita (Macrocephaly-Capillary Malformation)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This recently recognised entity (OMIM # 602501) (OMIM 2006) is characterised by the association of macrocephaly (megalencephaly),\\u000a capillary malformation of the cutis marmorata telangectatica congenita type, cavernous haemangioma, asymmetric growth pattern,\\u000a central nervous system malformations, and neurological abnormalities (Clayton-Smith et al. 1997, Gerritsen et al. 2000, Moore et al. 1997, Lapunzina et al. 2004). Despite extensive investigation of many of

Pablo Lapunzina; Jill Clayton-Smith

366

Dandy-Walker malformation: analysis of 38 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-eight cases of Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) are presented. A female predominance of 3:1 was found. Thirty-two cases (84%) were diagnosed within the 1st year of life. Of these, 17 cases (44.7%) were diagnosed at birth. Ten (26%) were delivered by cesarean section. Thirteen infants (34%) had a birth weight below 3000 g. Several associated malformations were observed, the most frequent

I. Pascual-Castroviejo; A. Velez; S. I. Pascual-Pascual; M. C. Roche; F. Villarejo

1991-01-01

367

MRI characteristics and classification of peripheral vascular malformations and tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular malformations and tumors comprise a broad spectrum of lesions that can cause significant morbidity and even mortality\\u000a in children and adults. Classification of vascular malformations into high flow and low flow has significant impact on management\\u000a since the main treatment of the former is transarterial embolization and the later percutaneous sclerotherapy. Magnetic resonance\\u000a imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive effective

Hicham Moukaddam; Jeffrey Pollak; Andrew H. Haims

2009-01-01

368

Vein of Galen malformations: epidemiology, clinical presentations, management.  

PubMed

The vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation is a congenital vascular malformation that comprises 30% of the pediatric vascular and 1% of all pediatric congenital anomalies. Treatment is dependent on the timing of presentation and clinical manifestations. With the development of endovascular techniques, treatment paradigms have changed and clinical outcomes have significantly improved. In this article, the developmental embryology, clinical features and pathophysiology, diagnostic workup, and management strategies are reviewed. PMID:22107867

Recinos, Pablo F; Rahmathulla, Gazanfar; Pearl, Monica; Recinos, Violette Renard; Jallo, George I; Gailloud, Philippe; Ahn, Edward S

2012-01-01

369

Multiple medullary venous malformations decreasing cerebral blood flow: Case report  

SciTech Connect

A rare case of multiple medullary venous malformations in the right cerebral hemisphere is reported. The literature review yielded only one case of multiple medullary venous malformations. Computed tomography scan showed multiple calcified lesions with linear contrast enhancement representing abnormal dilated vessels and mild atrophic change of the right cerebral hemisphere. Single-photon emission computed tomography using N-isopropyl-p-({sup 123}I) iodoamphetamine demonstrated decreased cerebral blood flow in the right cerebral hemisphere.

Tomura, N.; Inugami, A.; Uemura, K.; Hadeishi, H.; Yasui, N. (Research Institute for Brain and Blood Vessels, Akita (Japan))

1991-02-01

370

Occupational exposure to glycol ethers and human congenital malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThis commentary reviews toxicological information and critically evaluates epidemiological information on the relationship between glycol ethers and congenital malformations.MethodsThe authors identified and assessed toxicological and epidemiological research on glycol ethers used in occupational settings and congenital malformations. Sensitivity analyses evaluated the possible role of methodological problems in explaining the findings of the epidemiological studies.ResultsExposure to certain glycol ethers, including ethylene

George Maldonado; Elizabeth Delzell; Rochelle W. Tyl; Lowell E. Sever

2003-01-01

371

Capillary-venous malformation in the lower limb.  

PubMed

Regional capillary malformation of a lower extremity is associated with the overgrowth of bone or soft tissue in several disorders, most commonly Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome and Parkes Weber syndrome. We have observed a subset of patients with a capillary malformation of the leg, minor growth disturbance, and prominent veins. The objective of the current study is to describe a series of patients with regional capillary malformation of the lower extremity in association with phlebectasia. This is a retrospective series of 17 patients diagnosed with capillary-venous malformation of the lower extremity. We excluded patients with clinical or radiographic evidence of lymphatic or arteriovenous malformation. Age, presentation, associated features, radiographic findings, and management were documented. In most patients the capillary malformation covered a large area without sharply demarcated borders. Four patients had one or more discrete, well-defined capillary stains involving less than 5% of the total surface area of the affected lower limb. Prominent veins were most common in the popliteal fossa and on the knee and dorsal foot. Approximately two-thirds of patients had a leg length discrepancy, with the affected leg being longer (n = 6) or shorter (n = 4); in many the affected leg was also slightly larger (n = 8) or smaller (n = 4) in girth. Radiographic imaging showed dilatation of superficial (n = 16), muscular (n = 9), and deep veins (n = 6). We characterize a subset of patients with regional capillary-venous malformation of the lower extremity with prominent veins and minor hypotrophy/hypertrophy that differs from Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome (capillary-lymphatic-venous malformation) but belongs at the minor end of the spectrum of vascular disorders with overgrowth. PMID:23829172

Uihlein, Lily C; Liang, Marilyn G; Fishman, Steven J; Alomari, Ahmad I; Mulliken, John B

2013-07-07

372

Magnetically driven middle ear ossicles for optical measurement of vibrations in an ear with opened eardrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibrations of the middle ear ossicles are easily measured by means of laser vibrometry. However, exposing the ossicles requires the removal of the eardrum, with the result that the ossicles can no longer be stimulated acoustically. To overcome this we devised a new set up in which the ossicles can be driven magnetically. After measuring the response of the eardrum to an acoustic signal, we then remove the eardrum and attach a small magnet to the exposed manubrium (the part of the first auditory ossicle, the malleus, which is normally attached to the eardrum). An electromagnetic excitation coil is then used to drive the magnet, and the output to the coil adjusted until the vibration of the manubrium, as measured by the vibrometer, matches that measured in response to the acoustic signal. Such a set-up has uses in research on middle ear mechanics, such as the measurement of non-linearities in their response, as well as applications in the diagnosis of middle ear conditions such as the fixation of the ossicles by otosclerosis, or in chronic otitis media. We describe our set up in which the vibrometer unit is attached to a surgical microscope, offering accurate positioning of the laser beam. We discuss the viability of our method and its future potential by presenting some measurements on artificially fixated ears.

Peacock, John; Unge, Magnus Von; Dirckx, Joris

2012-06-01

373

Fgf3 is required for dorsal patterning and morphogenesis of the inner ear epithelium.  

PubMed

The inner ear, which contains sensory organs specialized for hearing and balance, develops from an ectodermal placode that invaginates lateral to hindbrain rhombomeres (r) 5-6 to form the otic vesicle. Under the influence of signals from intra- and extraotic sources, the vesicle is molecularly patterned and undergoes morphogenesis and cell-type differentiation to acquire its distinct functional compartments. We show in mouse that Fgf3, which is expressed in the hindbrain from otic induction through endolymphatic duct outgrowth, and in the prospective neurosensory domain of the otic epithelium as morphogenesis initiates, is required for both auditory and vestibular function. We provide new morphologic data on otic dysmorphogenesis in Fgf3 mutants, which show a range of malformations similar to those of Mafb (Kreisler), Hoxa1 and Gbx2 mutants, the most common phenotype being failure of endolymphatic duct and common crus formation, accompanied by epithelial dilatation and reduced cochlear coiling. The malformations have close parallels with those seen in hearing-impaired patients. The morphologic data, together with an analysis of changes in the molecular patterning of Fgf3 mutant otic vesicles, and comparisons with other mutations affecting otic morphogenesis, allow placement of Fgf3 between hindbrain-expressed Hoxa1 and Mafb, and otic vesicle-expressed Gbx2, in the genetic cascade initiated by WNT signaling that leads to dorsal otic patterning and endolymphatic duct formation. Finally, we show that Fgf3 prevents ventral expansion of r5-6 neurectodermal Wnt3a, serving to focus inductive WNT signals on the dorsal otic vesicle and highlighting a new example of cross-talk between the two signaling systems. PMID:17855431

Hatch, Ekaterina P; Noyes, C Albert; Wang, Xiaofen; Wright, Tracy J; Mansour, Suzanne L

2007-09-12

374

Ethical Aspects of Prenatal Diagnosis of Fetal Malformations  

PubMed Central

Fetal malformations complicate approximately 3% of all pregnancies. Many of these are minor or can be corrected after birth, but there are certain malformations that are lethal and others that are severe and others, that, even if corrected lead to permanent disability. Advances in prenatal diagnosis made possible the diagnosis of many fetal malformations. This led to the concept of the fetus a patient, independent of the pregnant woman, even though the moral status of the fetus is in dispute. Many of the lethal malformations are untreatable. However, for some, innovative in utero treatments, both medical and surgical, became possible. These interventions should be evaluated for the relative benefit and risk for both the fetus and the mother, because any such treatment has to involve the integrity of her body. This raises the ethical question of beneficence (to the fetus) versus the autonomy of the pregnant woman. The process of resolving this issue will be discussed, especially how to obtain a truly informed consent. For the lethal malformations or for those severe or multiple malformations whose treatment is theoretically possible but the results of such treatment are unpredictable or may lead to life long disabilities and serious burdens for the infant or child and the family, prenatal counseling should include “prenatal advance directive” and a plan for palliative care, the components of which will be described.

Fadel, Hossam E.

2012-01-01

375

Giant Cystic Cerebral Cavernous Malformation with Multiple Calcification - Case Report  

PubMed Central

Cerebral cavernous malformation with giant cysts is rare and literature descriptions of its clinical features are few. In this case study, the authors describe the clinical symptoms, radiological findings, and pathological diagnosis of cerebral cavernous malformations with giant cysts, reviewing the relevant literature to clearly differentiate this from other disease entities. The authors present a case of a 19-year-old male with a giant cystic cavernous malformation, who was referred to the division of neurosurgery due to right sided motor weakness (grade II/II). Imaging revealed a large homogenous cystic mass, 7.2×4.6×6 cm in size, in the left fronto-parietal lobe and basal ganglia. The mass had an intra-cystic lesion, abutting the basal portion of the mass. The initial diagnosis considered this mass a glioma or infection. A left frontal craniotomy was performed, followed by a transcortical approach to resect the mass. Total removal was accomplished without post-operative complications. An open biopsy and a histopathological exam diagnosed the mass as a giant cystic cavernous malformation. Imaging appearances of giant cavernous malformations may vary. The clinical features, radiological features, and management of giant cavernous malformations are described based on pertinent literature review.

Kim, Il-Chun; Rhee, Jong-Joo; Lee, Jong-Won; Hur, Jin-Woo; Lee, Hyun-Koo

2013-01-01

376

Giant cystic cerebral cavernous malformation with multiple calcification - case report.  

PubMed

Cerebral cavernous malformation with giant cysts is rare and literature descriptions of its clinical features are few. In this case study, the authors describe the clinical symptoms, radiological findings, and pathological diagnosis of cerebral cavernous malformations with giant cysts, reviewing the relevant literature to clearly differentiate this from other disease entities. The authors present a case of a 19-year-old male with a giant cystic cavernous malformation, who was referred to the division of neurosurgery due to right sided motor weakness (grade II/II). Imaging revealed a large homogenous cystic mass, 7.2×4.6×6 cm in size, in the left fronto-parietal lobe and basal ganglia. The mass had an intra-cystic lesion, abutting the basal portion of the mass. The initial diagnosis considered this mass a glioma or infection. A left frontal craniotomy was performed, followed by a transcortical approach to resect the mass. Total removal was accomplished without post-operative complications. An open biopsy and a histopathological exam diagnosed the mass as a giant cystic cavernous malformation. Imaging appearances of giant cavernous malformations may vary. The clinical features, radiological features, and management of giant cavernous malformations are described based on pertinent literature review. PMID:24167810

Kim, Il-Chun; Kwon, Ki-Young; Rhee, Jong-Joo; Lee, Jong-Won; Hur, Jin-Woo; Lee, Hyun-Koo

2013-09-30

377

Limb malformations and abnormal sex hormone concentrations in frogs.  

PubMed Central

Declines in amphibian populations, and amphibians with gross malformations, have prompted concern regarding the biological status of many anuran species. A survey of bullfrogs, Rana catesbeiana, and green frogs, Rana clamitans, conducted in central and southern New Hampshire showed malformed frogs at 81% of the sites sampled (13 of 16 sites). Brain gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and the synthesis of androgens and estradiol, hormones essential to reproductive processes, were measured from limb-malformed and normal (no limb malformation) frogs. Normal frogs had significantly higher concentrations (nearly 3-fold) of in vitro produced androgens and of brain GnRH than malformed frogs. Because most malformations are thought to occur during development, we propose that environmental factors or endocrine-disrupting chemicals that may cause developmental abnormalities also act during early development to ultimately cause abnormally reduced GnRH and androgen production in adult frogs. The consequences of reduced GnRH and androgens on anuran reproductive behavior and population dynamics are unknown but certainly may be profound and warrant further research.

Sower, S A; Reed, K L; Babbitt, K J

2000-01-01

378

Syndromes associated with vascular tumors and malformations: a pictorial review.  

PubMed

Use of the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) classification system has been strongly recommended in recent years because of the need for separate therapeutic measures for patients with vascular tumors and malformations. In the ISSVA classification system, vascular tumors, which are neoplastic, are distinguished from vascular malformations, which are caused by vascular structural anomalies and are not neoplastic, on the basis of the presence or absence of neoplastic proliferation of vascular endothelial cells. It is important that radiologists be familiar with the development, diagnosis, and treatment of vascular tumors and malformations, especially the imaging features of low- and high-flow vascular malformations. Some vascular tumors and malformations develop in isolation, whereas others develop within the phenotype of a syndrome. Syndromes that are associated with vascular tumors include PHACE syndrome. Syndromes that are associated with vascular malformations include Sturge-Weber, Klippel-Trénaunay, Proteus, blue rubber bleb nevus, Maffucci, and Gorham-Stout syndromes, all of which demonstrate low flow, and Rendu-Osler-Weber, Cobb, Wyburn-Mason, and Parkes Weber syndromes, all of which demonstrate high flow. Because imaging findings may help identify such syndromes as systemic, it is important that radiologists familiarize themselves with these conditions. PMID:23322836

Nozaki, Taiki; Nosaka, Shunsuke; Miyazaki, Osamu; Makidono, Akari; Yamamoto, Asako; Niwa, Tetsu; Tsutsumi, Yoshiyuki; Aida, Noriko; Masaki, Hidekazu; Saida, Yukihisa

379

Partial "targeted" embolisation of brain arteriovenous malformations  

PubMed Central

The treatment of pial arteriovenous brain malformations is controversial. Little is yet known about their natural history, their pathomechanisms and the efficacy and risks of respective proposed treatments. It is known that only complete occlusion of the AVM can exclude future risk of haemorrhage and that the rates of curative embolisation of AVMs with an acceptable periprocedural risk are around 20 to 50%. As outlined in the present article, however, partial, targeted embolisation also plays a role. In acutely ruptured AVMs where the source of bleeding can be identified, targeted embolisation of this compartment may be able to secure the AVM prior to definitive treatment. In unruptured symptomatic AVMs targeted treatment may be employed if a defined pathomechanism can be identified that is related to the clinical symptoms and that can be cured with an acceptable risk via an endovascular approach depending on the individual AVM angioarchitecture. This review article gives examples of pathomechanisms and angioarchitectures that are amenable to this kind of treatment strategy.

Hans, Franz-Josef; Geibprasert, Sasikhan; Terbrugge, Karel

2010-01-01

380

Partial tetrasomy 14 associated with multiple malformations.  

PubMed

We report on an 8-year-old female patient with multiple malformations including bilateral cleft lip and palate, coloboma, and craniosynostosis. She presented with severe intellectual disability, seizures, and gastrointestinal dysfunction. Mitochondrial investigations in a muscle biopsy revealed reduced activity in complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Chromosome analysis and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) studies showed an isodicentric marker chromosome 14 that was identified in all cells analyzed in peripheral blood lymphocytes and cultured fibroblasts. Parental chromosome studies were normal. To further characterize the marker chromosome and determine its origin, we performed array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and polymorphic marker analysis with quantitative fluorescent PCR (QF-PCR). The combined results from cytogenetic and array-CGH analyses showed tetrasomy 14p13q13.1 and results from the QF-PCR point to formation of the marker chromosome in the maternal meiosis. Isodicentric chromosomes involving partial 14q have previously been reported in four cases; however, this is the first patient with tetrasomy 14p13q13.1 in non-mosaic form surviving beyond infancy. PMID:23613323

Winberg, Johanna; Lagerstedt Robinson, Kristina; Naess, Karin; Lesko, Nicole; Wibom, Rolf; Liedén, Agne; Anderlid, Britt-Marie; Graff, Caroline; Nordenskjöld, Agneta; Nordgren, Ann; Gustavsson, Peter

2013-04-23

381

Hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for large arteriovenous malformations  

PubMed Central

Cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are abnormal connections between the arteries and veins, with possible serious consequences of intracranial hemorrhage. The curative treatment for AVMs includes microsurgery and radiosurgery, sometimes with embolization as an adjunct. However, controversies exist with the treatment options available for large to giant AVMs. Hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HSRT) is one treatment option for such difficult lesions. We aim to review recent literature, looking at the treatment outcome of HSRT in terms of AVM obliteration rate and complications. The rate of AVM obliteration utilizing HSRT as a primary treatment was comparable with that of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). For those not totally obliterated, HSRT makes them smaller and turns some lesions manageable by single-dose SRS or microsurgery. Higher doses per fraction seemed to exhibit better response. However, patients receiving higher total dose may be at risk for higher rates of complications. Fractionated regimens of 7 Gy × 4 and 6–6.5 Gy × 5 may be accepted compromises between obliteration and complication. Embolization may not be beneficial prior to HSRT in terms of obliteration rate or the volume reduction. Future work should aim on a prospectively designed study for larger patient groups and long-term follow-up results.

Wang, Huan-Chih; Chang, Rachel J.; Xiao, Furen

2012-01-01

382

Probing the Xenopus laevis inner ear transcriptome for biological function  

PubMed Central

Background The senses of hearing and balance depend upon mechanoreception, a process that originates in the inner ear and shares features across species. Amphibians have been widely used for physiological studies of mechanotransduction by sensory hair cells. In contrast, much less is known of the genetic basis of auditory and vestibular function in this class of animals. Among amphibians, the genus Xenopus is a well-characterized genetic and developmental model that offers unique opportunities for inner ear research because of the amphibian capacity for tissue and organ regeneration. For these reasons, we implemented a functional genomics approach as a means to undertake a large-scale analysis of the Xenopus laevis inner ear transcriptome through microarray analysis. Results Microarray analysis uncovered genes within the X. laevis inner ear transcriptome associated with inner ear function and impairment in other organisms, thereby supporting the inclusion of Xenopus in cross-species genetic studies of the inner ear. The use of gene categories (inner ear tissue; deafness; ion channels; ion transporters; transcription factors) facilitated the assignment of functional significance to probe set identifiers. We enhanced the biological relevance of our microarray data by using a variety of curation approaches to increase the annotation of the Affymetrix GeneChip® Xenopus laevis Genome array. In addition, annotation analysis revealed the prevalence of inner ear transcripts represented by probe set identifiers that lack functional characterization. Conclusions We identified an abundance of targets for genetic analysis of auditory and vestibular function. The orthologues to human genes with known inner ear function and the highly expressed transcripts that lack annotation are particularly interesting candidates for future analyses. We used informatics approaches to impart biologically relevant information to the Xenopus inner ear transcriptome, thereby addressing the impediment imposed by insufficient gene annotation. These findings heighten the relevance of Xenopus as a model organism for genetic investigations of inner ear organogenesis, morphogenesis, and regeneration.

2012-01-01

383

Evaluation of fungal flora in normal and diseased canine ears.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to characterize otic fungal flora encountered in normal dogs, atopic dogs with no clinical or cytological evidence of otitis and dogs with otitis externa. Forty-two normal dogs, 23 atopic dogs and 32 dogs with otitis were included in the study. Samples for otic fungal culture and cytology were obtained from all animals, for a total of 194 ears. Sixty-seven ear samples (34%) were culture positive for saprophytic fungal organisms, as follows: 43 (64%) Penicillium species, 13 (19%) Aspergillus species and the remaining 17% comprised of various other saprophytic fungal organisms. Cytological evidence of saprophytic fungal colonization or infection was not found in any animal. There was no relationship between positive saprophytic fungal culture and any study group. Thirty-three ear samples (17%) were positive for Malassezia pachydermatis. Cytological findings of Malassezia were significantly associated with positive culture for Malassezia (P = 0.006 left ear; P = 0.019 right ear). Furthermore, increased numbers of Malassezia led to a higher chance of positive culture (P = 0.003 left ear; P = 0.008 right ear; McNemar's test). Malassezia pachydermatis was more likely to be cultured from ears with increased cerumen. Ear type (erect or pendulous) was not significantly associated with positive culture for Malassezia or saprophytic fungal organisms. There was no relationship between positive Malassezia culture and any study group; however, Malassezia was more likely to be cultured from individual dogs in the atopic or otitis groups that also had other dermatological signs consistent with allergic dermatitis and/or pyoderma (P = 0.031 left ear; P = 0.005 right ear). PMID:20868397

Campbell, Jacquelyn J; Coyner, Kimberly S; Rankin, Shelley C; Lewis, Thomas P; Schick, Anthea E; Shumaker, Amy K

2010-09-24

384

21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. 874.4350 Section...Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification...ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier is an...

2010-04-01

385

21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. 874.4350 Section...Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification...ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier is an...

2009-04-01

386

21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and...

2013-04-01

387

21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or...

2010-04-01

388

21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug...

2010-04-01

389

21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug...

2009-04-01

390

21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4500 Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon...

2010-04-01

391

21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic...

2009-04-01

392

Anatomy of the Human Ear/Questions to Ask your Hearing Professional  

MedlinePLUS

... Section: Focus on Communication Anatomy of the Human Ear/ Questions to Ask your Hearing Professional Past Issues / ... A feeling of fullness or fluid in the ear Ringing in your ears (called tinnitus) Causes Aging ...

393

21 CFR 874.3620 - Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3620 Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material. (a) Identification. Ear,...

2013-04-01

394

21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4500 Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical...microsurgical carbon dioxide laser is a device intended for the surgical excision of tissue from the ear, nose, and throat...

2013-04-01

395

21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument. 874.4420 Section 874...DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4420 Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument. (a) Identification...

2013-04-01

396

Representation of the Ear in Human Primary Somatosensory Cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied 13 healthy subjects with a multichannel magnetoencephalography (MEG) system to investigate the somatotopic representation of the ear in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI). We stimulated three parts of the left ear: the helix, the lobulus, and the tragus. The somatosensory-evoked magnetic fields (SEFs) were successfully measured in 7 of 13 subjects. Short-latency responses were analyzed using both single

T. Nihashi; R. Kakigi; O. Kawakami; M. Hoshiyama; K. Itomi; H. Nakanishi; Y. Kajita; S. Inao; J. Yoshida

2001-01-01

397

21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12...OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 344.12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient...

2013-04-01

398

Formation of the Outer and Middle Ear, Molecular Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The outer and middle ears collect, transmit, and amplify sound waves from the environment to stimulate sensory receptors located in the inner ear. Over the last decade enormous advances have been made in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling the development of these areas. Molecular controls are set at different levels, including the production and differentiation of neural crest

Moisés Mallo

2003-01-01

399

Tetrapod-like middle ear architecture in a Devonian fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few fossils show the incipient stages of complex morphological transformations. For example, the earliest stages in the remodelling of the spiracular tract and suspensorium (jaw suspension) of osteolepiform fishes into the middle ear of tetrapods have remained elusive. The most primitive known tetrapods show a middle ear architecture that is very different from osteolepiforms such as Eusthenopteron, with little indication

Martin D. Brazeau; Per E. Ahlberg

2006-01-01

400

Influences on clinical practice: the case of glue ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case study of clinical practice in children with glue ear is presented. The case is part of a larger project, funded by the North Thames Research and Development Programme, that sought to explore the part played by clinicians in the implementation of research and development into practice in two areas: adult asthma and glue ear in children. What is

S. Dopson; R. Miller; S. Dawson; K. Sutherland

1999-01-01

401

OTOTOXIC EFFECTS OF MIDDLE EAR GENTAMICIN INSTILLATION IN THE CHINCHILLA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gentamicin sulphate is used clinically to produce vestibular organ damage in patients with intractable vertigo. The drug is given locally by middle ear instillation. In humans, gentamicin appears to have a more toxic effect on the vestibular parts of the inner ear than on the cochlea. However, cochlear effects are not insignificant and to further explore the utility of monitoring

R. V. Harrison; J. Chen; R. J. Mount; H. Hirakawa; A. Kakigi; N. Harel

402

Can you hear me now? Understanding vertebrate middle ear development  

PubMed Central

The middle ear is a composite organ formed from all three germ layers and the neural crest. It provides the link between the outside world and the inner ear, where sound is transduced and routed to the brain for processing. Extensive classical and modern studies have described the complex morphology and origin of the middle ear. Non-mammalian vertebrates have a single ossicle, the columella. Mammals have three functionally equivalent ossicles, designated the malleus, incus and stapes. In this review, I focus on the role of genes known to function in the middle ear. Genetic studies are beginning to unravel the induction and patterning of the multiple middle ear elements including the tympanum, skeletal elements, the air-filled cavity, and the insertion point into the inner ear oval window. Future studies that elucidate the integrated spatio-temporal signaling mechanisms required to pattern the middle ear organ system are needed. The longer-term translational benefits of understanding normal and abnormal ear development will have a direct impact on human health outcomes.

Chapman, Susan Caroline

2010-01-01

403

The correlation of middle ear aeration with mastoid pneumatization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atelectatic ears, which by definition are poorly aerated, are also usually associated with poor mastoid pneumatization. On the other hand, otosclerotic patients, whose middle ears are usually exceptionally well aerated, also have excellent mastoid pneumatization. Three unusual cases are presented, in which partial atelectasis developed in stapedectomized patients. In each case the mastoid was later found to be nonpneumatized, and

J. Sadé

1992-01-01

404

CT of adenomas of the middle ear and mastoid cavity  

SciTech Connect

A case of mixed type adenoma of the middle ear and mastoid is presented in which CT showed complete opacification of the middle ear and mastoid air cells with bulging of the tympanic membrane but without ossicular or bony destruction. 7 refs., 1 figs.

Van Thong Ho [McGuire Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Richmond, VA (United States); Rao, V.J.; Mikaelian, D.O. [Thomas Jefferson Univ. Hospital and Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

1996-03-01

405

Differential Intensity Sensitivity of the Ear for Pure Tones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ratio of the minimum perceptible increment in sound intensity to the total intensity, DeltaEE, which is called the differential sensitivity of the ear, was measured as a function of frequency and intensity. Measurements were made over practically the entire range of frequencies and intensities for which the ear is capable of sensation. The method used was that of beating

R. R. Riesz

1928-01-01

406

Infrared fiber interferometer for microvibration measurements in the inner ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigation of the inner ear is still subject of basic research. Due to the small structures of the inner ear every suggested measurement technique, which includes loading of moving parts, will not be able to detect the oscillations correctly. Therefore an optical approach detecting microvibrations in the cochlea will be discussed. In heterodyne interferometry as compared to classical interferometry two

Edgar Fischer; R. Link; E. Dalhoff; S. Heim; Hans J. Tiziani; Hans-Peter Zenner; Anthony W. Gummer

1995-01-01

407

Finite-Element Model for Evaluation of Middle Ear Mechanics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A computer model of the middle ear, ossicular chain and eardrum was established using the finite-element method. A preliminary comparison of the model with measurements made in human-cadaver ears shows that the model is in approximate agreement with the f...

E. W. Abel R. M. Lord

2001-01-01

408

Preventing Cauliflower Ear with a Modified Tie-Through Technique.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a quick, simple tie-through suture technique (in which a collodion packing is secured to the auricle with two buttons) for preventing cauliflower ear following external ear trauma in wrestlers and boxers. The technique ensures constant compression; multiple treatments for fluid reaccumulation are rarely necessary. (SM)|

Dimeff, Robert J.; Hough, David O.

1989-01-01

409

Cadherin expression in the inner ear of developing zebrafish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadherins are cell adhesion molecules that have been implicated in development of a variety of organs including the ear. In this study we analyzed expression patterns of three zebrafish cadherins (Cadherin-2, -4, and -11) in the embryonic and larval zebrafish inner ear using both in situ hybridization and immunocytochemical methods. All three Cadherins exhibit distinct spatiotemporal patterns of expression during

Z. M. Novince; E. Azodi; J. A. Marrs; P. A. Raymond; Q. Liu

2003-01-01

410

Chronic discharging ear in a child: are we missing something?  

PubMed

Chronic discharging ear, mostly due to middle or external ear infection, is one of the leading causes for seeking healthcare among the paediatric population in a developing country. However, a long-standing forgotten middle ear foreign body forms a rare cause for such presentation demanding a high index of suspicion from the clinicians. Most of them are iatrogenic or accidental, and are removed by conventional permeatal approach; need for tympanotomy is rarely documented in the recent literature. We report the first case where a large stone was introduced into the middle ear through a pre-existing tympanic membrane perforation by the child himself, and only the second documentation of removal of a middle ear foreign body by tympanotomy in a child. PMID:24145273

Mainak, D; Soumya, G; Gautam, B

2013-08-01

411

Microvascular salvage of a thrombosed total ear replant.  

PubMed

Microvascular replantation, when possible, is the treatment of choice for total ear amputations. Both arterial and venous reconstruction should be attempted. The present case report describes a successful total ear replantation in a 45-year-old woman whose ear was amputated due to a horse accident. Venous thrombosis subsequently occurred and was managed with anticoagulation and leech therapy. Eighty hours after the replantation, arterial thrombosis took place. The posterior auricular artery thrombosed anastomosis was resected and reconstructed with an interposition vein graft. This report illustrates the feasibility of the successful microvascular salvage of a thrombosed total ear replant. It suggests the need for close clinical monitoring of the replanted ear and prompt microvascular reexploration in an event of the loss of arterial flow. PMID:23640855

Senchenkov, Alex; Jacobson, Steven R

2013-05-02

412

Language lateralisation and early right ear deafness: was Wernicke right?  

PubMed

The effects of early right ear deafness on lateralisation of auditory language functions are not fully known. A 36 year old right handed man, with a history of perinatal right ear deafness and undergoing evaluation for surgical treatment of seizures that began at age 10 years was studied. Language lateralisation testing by intracarotid sodium amobarbital injection showed receptive and expressive language functions to be strongly lateralised to the left hemisphere. Results with intracarotid sodium amobarbital injection further suggested that transmission of auditory input to the patient's left hemisphere was partially dependent on ipsilateral left ear pathways. Cortical language mapping through implanted subdural electrodes localised auditory language functions to traditional left posterior perisylvian language areas. These results suggest that early right ear deafness does not impede left hemisphere lateralisation and localisation of auditory language functions. Moreover, transmission of auditory information to the patient's left hemisphere seems to be accomplished, in part, by recruitment of ipsilateral left ear pathways. PMID:10990521

Boatman, D; Krauss, G

2000-10-01

413

Multistaged volumetric management of large arteriovenous malformations.  

PubMed

We sought to define the long-term outcomes and risks of arteriovenous malformation (AVM) management using 2 or more stages of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for symptomatic large-volume AVMs unsuitable for surgery. Two decades ago, we prospectively began to stage anatomical components in order to deliver higher single doses to AVMs>10 cm3 in volume. Forty-seven patients with large AVMs underwent volume-staged SRS. The median interval between the two SRS procedures was 4.9 months (range, 3-14 months). The median nidus volume was 11.5 cm3 (range, 4.0-26 cm3) in the first stage of SRS and 9.5 cm3 in the second. The median margin dose was 16 Gy (range, 13-18 Gy) for both SRS stages. The actuarial rates of total obliteration after 2-staged SRS were 7, 20, 28 and 36% at 3, 4, 5 and 10 years, respectively. Sixteen patients needed additional SRS at a median interval of 61 months (range, 33-113 months) after the 2-staged SRS. After repeat procedure(s), the eventual obliteration rate was 66% at 10 years. The cumulative rates of AVM hemorrhage after SRS were 4.3, 8.6, 13.5 and 36.0% at 1, 2, 5 and 10 years, respectively. Symptomatic adverse radiation effects were detected in 13% of patients. Successful prospective volume-staged SRS for large AVMs unsuitable for surgery requires 2 or more procedures to complete the obliteration process. Patients remain at risk for hemorrhage if the AVM persists. PMID:23258511

Kano, Hideyuki; Kondziolka, Douglas; Flickinger, John C; Park, Kyung-Jae; Parry, Phillip V; Yang, Huai-che; Sirin, Sait; Niranjan, Ajay; Novotny, Josef; Lunsford, L Dade

2012-12-11

414

Epidemiology and natural history of arteriovenous malformations.  

PubMed

The epidemiology and natural history of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) remains incompletely elucidated. Several factors are responsible. With regard to the incidence and prevalence of AVMs, the results of prior studies have suffered because of the retrospective design, the use of nonspecific ICD-9 codes, and a focus on small genetically isolated populations. Recent data from the New York Islands AVM Hemorrhage Study, an ongoing, prospective, population-based survey determining the incidence of AVM-related hemorrhage and the associated rates of morbidity and mortality in a zip code-defined population of 10 million people, suggests that the AVM detection rate is 1.21/100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.42) and the incidence of AVM-hemorrhage is 0.42/100,000 person-years (95% CI 0.32-0.55). Contemporaneous data from the Northern Manhattan Stroke Study, a prospective, longitudinal population-based study of nearly 150,000 patients in which the focus is to define the incidence of stroke, suggest the crude incidence for first-ever AVM-related hemorrhage to be 0.55/100,000 person-years (95% CI 0.11-1.61). Efforts are ongoing to study the natural history of both ruptured and unruptured AVMs in these datasets to examine the relevance of prior studies of patients selected for conservative follow up in Finland. In addition, data are being gathered to determine whether risk factors for future hemorrhage, which have previously been established in small case series, are valid when applied to whole populations. Together, these data should help inform therapeutic decisionmaking. PMID:16466233

Stapf, C; Mohr, J P; Pile-Spellman, J; Solomon, R A; Sacco, R L; Connolly, E S

2001-11-15

415

[Direct hearing aid provision by ENT specialists: Recommendations for prevention and treatment of complications after taking ear impressions].  

PubMed

In times of budgeting, rising costs and monetary losses, an increasing number of ENT specialists considers the hearing system sector due to the distinct undersupply and the expected demographic development to be a market of the future and appropriate to enlarge their field of competence. Exact prevalence of direct hearing aid provision by German otorhinolaryngologists as well as its complication rate are not well-known. Retrospectively, all patients were evaluated who presented at our department with complications in the context of outpatient direct hearing aid supply within the last 3 years. Inappropriate fitting contains the danger of malformed or displaced ear impressions with various injury patterns comprising the external auditory canal, tympanic membrane and ossicular chain. Practical advices for prevention of complications include the accurate modeling and placement of sufficient impression pads behind the second bend of the auditory canal, using an adequate type of impression material as well as performing the correct application procedures. Recommendations for diagnostic patterns and treatment of complications after taking ear impressions are presented, the differences between German "traditional" and "direct" hearing aid provision are critically discussed. PMID:19579285

Caffier, Ph P; Sedlmaier, B; Hölzl, M

2009-07-01

416

Pinnaplasty: reshaping ears to improve hearing aid retention.  

PubMed

The hearing aid is extremely important to the deaf. A small number have difficulty in retaining the device because the ear is prominent or cup-shaped. This report describes 11 children whose ear shape was modified to improve hearing aid retention and one adult in whom an over set back ear was released to allow fitment of a postaural device. In eight of the 11 children treated, conservative measures such as double-sided tape and retention bands (Huggies) had been tried previously without success. The creation of an antihelical fold in a misshapen ear lacking such a fold provides a reinforcing strut which is useful to support a hearing aid. In patients whose ear had been excessively tethered by previous surgery, projection was restored by inserting a cartilage block behind the ear. In one child with ears tethered by previous surgery, costal cartilage was used not only to release both ears, but also to reconstruct a new helical rim on one side. Surgery enabled a normal postaural hearing aid to be worn in 17 of the 19 ears treated. The two failures deserve special mention. In one patient with a unilateral deformity and severe mental retardation, the dressings were pulled off immediately after surgery. In another patient with a bilateral problem, the appearance and hearing aid retention was improved, but there was not enough room in the postauricular sulcus on one side for the battery component to fit comfortably and an in-the-ear device is now used on that side. Pinnaplasty is a helpful strategy to improve hearing aid retention. Care must be taken not to overdo the set back so that enough room is left to retain the hearing device. PMID:17466611

Gault, David; Grob, Marion; Odili, Joy

2007-04-26

417

Wideband acoustic transfer functions predict middle-ear effusion  

PubMed Central

Objectives/Hypothesis Compare the accuracy of wideband acoustic transfer functions (WATFs) measured in the ear canal at ambient pressure to methods currently recommended by clinical guidelines for predicting middle-ear effusion (MEE). Study Design Cross-sectional validating diagnostic study among young children with and without MEE to investigate the ability of WATFs to predict MEE. Methods WATF measures were obtained in a MEE group of 44 children (53 ears, mean age 1.9 years) scheduled for middle-ear ventilation tube placement and a normal age-matched control group of 44 children (59 ears, mean age 1.8 years) with normal pneumatic otoscopic findings and no history of ear disease or middle-ear surgery. An otolaryngologist judged whether MEE was present or absent and rated tympanic-membrane (TM) mobility via pneumatic otoscopy. A likelihood-ratio classifier reduced WATF data (absorbance, admittance magnitude and phase) from 0.25 to 8 kHz to a single predictor of MEE status. Absorbance was compared to pneumatic otoscopy classifications of tympanic membrane (TM) mobility. Results Absorbance was reduced in ears with MEE compared to ears from the control group. Absorbance and admittance magnitude were the best single WATF predictors of MEE, but a predictor combining absorbance, admittance magnitude and phase was the most accurate. Absorbance varied systematically with TM mobility based on data from pneumatic otoscopy. Conclusions Results showed that absorbance is sensitive to middle-ear stiffness and MEE, and WATF predictions of MEE in young children are as accurate as that reported for methods recommended by the clinical guidelines.

Ellison, John C.; Gorga, Michael; Cohn, Edward; Fitzpatrick, Denis; Sanford, Chris A.; Keefe, Douglas H.

2012-01-01

418

Ear nurse specialists: New Zealand's unique answer for the treatment of otitis media with effusion, “Glue Ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The Ear Nurse Specialist (ENS) service, started in 1975 as a primary health initiative, now extends to include outpatient clinics in hospitals. There are 27 nurses employed in the ENS role. ENSs mostly work in community settings, operating mobile ear clinics equipped to deliver otoscopic expertise to the wider community and to families who have difficulty with transport. Mobile

B. Middleton; M. Couillault; C. Lloyd

2003-01-01

419

Self-amputation of the ear: three men amputate four ears within five months.  

PubMed

Four instances are presented of self-amputation of the pinna of the external ear carried out by three right-handed, white males between January 1993 and May 1993. The common characteristics of these subjects--two men with personality disorder and one with schizophrenia--are discussed and compared with other examples of self-mutilation involving the face and ears, including that of van Gogh. A survey of Australian and New Zealand prisons was conducted to determine the frequency of this form of self-mutilation within the last five years, and yielded only one other case. Connections exist between the amputees supporting the notion that self-mutilation is "contagious"; the relevance of this to issues of management is considered. PMID:8573057

Alroe, C J; Gunda, V

1995-09-01

420

Mechanics of the exceptional anuran ear  

PubMed Central

The anuran ear is frequently used for studying fundamental properties of vertebrate auditory systems. This is due to its unique anatomical features, most prominently the lack of a basilar membrane and the presence of two dedicated acoustic end organs, the basilar papilla and the amphibian papilla. Our current anatomical and functional knowledge implies that three distinct regions can be identified within these two organs. The basilar papilla functions as a single auditory filter. The low-frequency portion of the amphibian papilla is an electrically tuned, tonotopically organized auditory end organ. The high-frequency portion of the amphibian papilla is mechanically tuned and tonotopically organized, and it emits spontaneous otoacoustic emissions. This high-frequency portion of the amphibian papilla shows a remarkable, functional resemblance to the mammalian cochlea.

Segenhout, Johannes M.; van Dijk, Pim

2008-01-01

421

Recurrent syncope and chronic ear pain  

PubMed Central

An elderly gentleman presented to hospital with recurrent blackout episodes consistent with syncope and a 3-month history of right ear pain. Significant postural hypotension was recorded. White cell count and C reactive protein were elevated. MRI of the head and neck revealed a soft tissue abnormality in the right nasopharynx and base of skull. Tissue biopsies were obtained and microbiology specimens revealed a mixed growth of pseudomonas and diphtheroids. There was no histological evidence of malignancy. A diagnosis of skull base infection was made. Infective involvement of the carotid sinus was considered to be the cause of the recurrent syncope and postural hypotension. The patient responded well to a 12-week course of intravenous meropenem. Inflammatory markers returned to normal and a repeat MRI after 3 months of treatment showed significant resolution of infection. The syncopal episodes and orthostatic hypotension resolved in parallel with treatment of infection.

Clegg, Andrew; Daverede, Luis; Wong, Winson; Loney, Elizabeth; Young, John

2010-01-01

422

3D visualization of middle ear structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The achievement of volume geometry data from middle ear structures and surrounding components performs a necessary supposition for the finite element simulation of the vibrational and transfer characteristics of the ossicular chain. So far those models base on generalized figures and size data from anatomy textbooks or particular manual and one- or two-dimensional distance measurements of single ossicles, mostly obtained by light microscopy, respectively. Therefore the goal of this study is to create a procedure for complete three-dimensional imaging of real middle ear structures (tympanic membrane, ossicles, ligaments) in vitro or even in vivo. The main problems are their microscopic size with relevant structures from 10 micrometer to 5 mm, representing various tissue properties (bone, soft tissue). Additionally, these structures are surrounded by the temporal bone, the most solid bone of the human body. Generally there exist several established diagnostic tools for medical imaging that could be used for geometry data acquisition, e.g., X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Basically they image different tissue parameters, either bony structures (ossicles), or soft tissue (tympanic membrane, ligaments). But considering this application those standard techniques allow low spatial resolution only, usually in the 0.5 - 1mm range, at least in one spatial direction. Thus particular structures of the middle ear region could even be missed completely because of their spatial location. In vitro there is a way out by collecting three complete data sets, each distinguished by 90 degree rotation of a cube-shaped temporal bone specimen. That allows high-resolution imaging in three orthogonal planes, which essentially supports the three-dimensional interpolation of the unknown elements, starting from the regularly set elements of the cubic grid with an edge extension given by the original two-dimensional matrix. A different approach represents the application of a micro- tomographic imaging device. Therefore an X-ray beam focused down to few microns passes the object in a tomographic arrangement. Subsequently the slices become reconstructed. Generally spatial resolution down to 10 micrometer may be obtained by using this procedure. But there exist few devices only, it is not available as standard equipment. The best results concerning spatial resolution should be achieved by applying conventional histologic sectioning techniques. Of course the target will become destroyed during the procedure. It is cut into sections (e.g., 10 micrometer thick), every layer is stained, and the image acquired and stored by a digital still-camera with appropriate resolution (e.g., 2024 X 3036). Three-dimensional reconstruction is done with the computer. The staining allows visual selection of bones and soft tissues, resolutions down to 10 micrometer are possible without target segmentation. But there arise some practical problems. Mainly the geometric context of the layers is affected by the cutting procedure, especially if cutting bone. Another problem performs the adjustment of the -- possibly distorted -- slices to each other. Artificial markers are necessary, which could allow automatic adjustment too. But the introduction and imaging of the markers is difficult inside the temporal bone specimen, that is interspersed by several cavities. Of course the internal target structures must not be destroyed by the marker introduction. Furthermore the embedding compound could disturb the image acquisition, e.g., by optical scattering of paraffin. A related alternative is given by layered ablation/grinding and imaging of the top layer. This saves the geometric consistency, but requires very tricky and time-consuming embedding procedures. Both approaches require considerable expenditures. The possible approaches are evaluated in detail and first results are compared. So far none of the above-mentioned procedures has been established as a standard tool for three-dimensional geometry data acquisition of the middle ear. Otherwise the establi

Vogel, Uwe; Schmitt, Thomas

1998-06-01

423

Modes of stimulation of the teleost ear.  

PubMed

Microphonic potentials were recorded from the inner ears of a catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and an African mouthbreeder (Tilapia macrocephala) in response to underwater sound stimulation and direct vibration of the head. The shape of the vibratory isopotential functions of frequency was similar in both species up to 600 HZ. Above 600 HZ, the sensitivity of Ictalurus continued to increase to 4000 HZ while the sensitivity of Tilapia declined. Deflation of the swim bladder did not affect the response to vibration in either species, the response of Tilapia to the underwater sound stimulus being minimal and unaffected by removal of the swim bladder. Ictalurus was pressure-sensitive to above 4000 HZ, ther being a significant dedline in the response with deflation of the swimbladder. PMID:1206339

Fay, R R; Popper, A N

1975-04-01

424

Analysis of Earing in Deep Drawn Cups  

SciTech Connect

The cup-drawing of a strongly anisotropic sheet metal is simulated using a commercial finite element software along with a user material subroutine. In order to accurately describe the plastic anisotropy of the material the well-known recent yield function 'Yld2004-18p' is extended. Regarding the experimental characterization of the considered material the occurrence of dynamic strain aging lead to an oscillating signal of the width change of the tensile samples, which prevented a reliable determination of plastic strain ratios (r-values). Thus, an improved measurement concept was developed that leads to a very robust and reproducible determination of r-values. Furthermore, a novel plane-strain tensile test sample is presented which is used for the characterization of the plastic anisotropy in biaxial loading states. A quantitative comparison with measured earing profiles of deep drawn cups illustrates the predictive capabilities of the numerical simulation.

Aretz, Holger; Aegerter, Johannes; Engler, Olaf [Hydro Aluminium Deutschland GmbH, Research and Development, Georg-von-Boeselager-Str. 21, D-53117 Bonn (Germany)

2010-06-15

425

Altered Intrinsic Properties of Neuronal Subtypes in Malformed Epileptogenic Cortex  

PubMed Central

Neuronal intrinsic properties control action potential firing rates and serve to define particular neuronal subtypes. Changes in intrinsic properties have previously been shown to contribute to hyperexcitability in a number of epilepsy models. Here we examined whether a developmental insult producing the cortical malformation of microgyria altered the identity or firing properties of layer V pyramidal neurons and two interneuron subtypes. Trains of action potentials were elicited with a series of current injection steps during whole cell patch clamp recordings. Cells in malformed cortex identified as having an apical dendrite had firing patterns similar to control pyramidal neurons. The duration of the second action potential in the train was increased in paramicrogyral (PMG) pyramidal cells, suggesting that these cells may be in an immature state, as was previously found for layer II/III pyramidal neurons. Based on stereotypical firing patterns and other intrinsic properties, fast-spiking (FS) and low threshold-spiking (LTS) interneuron subpopulations were clearly identified in both control and malformed cortex. Most intrinsic properties measured in malformed cortex were unchanged, suggesting that subtype identity is maintained. However, LTS interneurons in lesioned cortex had increased maximum firing frequency, decreased initial afterhyperpolarization duration, and increased total adaptation ratio compared to control LTS cells. FS interneurons demonstrated decreased maximum firing frequencies in malformed cortex compared to control FS cells. These changes may increase the efficacy of LTS while decreasing the effectiveness of FS interneurons. These data indicate that differential alterations of individual neuronal subpopulations may endow them with specific characteristics that promote epileptogenesis.

George, Amanda L.; Jacobs, Kimberle M.

2011-01-01

426

Neuroimaging of dandy-walker malformation: new concepts.  

PubMed

Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) is the most common human cerebellar malformation, characterized by hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis, cystic dilation of the fourth ventricle, and an enlarged posterior fossa with upward displacement of the lateral sinuses, tentorium, and torcular. Although its pathogenesis is not completely understood, there are several genetic loci related to DWM as well as syndromic malformations and congenital infections. Dandy-Walker malformation is associated with other central nervous system abnormalities, including dysgenesis of corpus callosum, ectopic brain tissue, holoprosencephaly, and neural tube defects. Hydrocephalus plays an important role in the development of symptoms and neurological outcome in patients with DWM, and the aim of surgical treatment is usually the control of hydrocephalus and the posterior fossa cyst. Imaging modalities, especially magnetic resonance imaging, are crucial for the diagnosis of DWM and distinguishing this disorder from other cystic posterior fossa lesions. Persistent Blake's cyst is seen as a retrocerebellar fluid collection with cerebrospinal fluid signal intensity and a median line communication with the fourth ventricle, commonly associated with hydrocephalus. Mega cisterna magna presents as an extraaxial fluid collection posteroinferior to an intact cerebellum. Retrocerebellar arachnoid cysts frequently compress the cerebellar hemispheres and the fourth ventricle. Patients with DWM show an enlarged posterior fossa filled with a cystic structure that communicates freely with the fourth ventricle and hypoplastic vermis. Comprehension of hindbrain embryology is of utmost importance for understanding the cerebellar malformations, including DWM, and other related entities. PMID:24132069

Correa, Gustavo Gumz; Amaral, Lázaro Faria; Vedolin, Leonardo Modesti

2011-12-01

427

Passage of albumin from the middle ear to the inner ear in otitis media in the chinchilla  

SciTech Connect

A study of the permeability of the middle ear-inner ear interface for macromolecules was carried out in chinchillas with open and obstructed eustachian tubes utilizing tritiated human serum albumin and immunoelectrophoresis. Tritiated albumin was placed in the round window niche area or normal animals and animals in which the eustachian tubes had been obstructed for 24 hours or 14 days. The tritiated albumin was allowed to remain in the middle ear cavity for 24 hours, Samples of middle ear effusion, perilymph, blood and cerebrospinal fluid were collected and measured for radioactivity. Radioactivity was demonstrated in the perilymph. Samples of middle ear effusions and perilymph were also studied by immunoelectrophoresis with goat antihuman albumin. Albumin placed in the round window niche of an experimental animal could be recovered unchanged in the perilymph. The results suggest a pathophysiologic explanation for the association of otitis media and sensorineural hearing loss or endolymphatic hydrops.

Goldberg, B.; Goycoolea, M.V.; Schleivert, P.M.; Shea, D.; Schachern, P.; Paparella, M.M.; Carpenter, A.M.

1981-08-01

428

Cranial malformations in related white lions (Panthera leo krugeri).  

PubMed

White lions (Panthera leo krugeri) have never been common in the wild, and at present, the greatest population is kept in zoos where they are bred for biological and biodiversity conservation. During the years 2003 to 2008 in a zoological garden in northern Italy, 19 white lions were born to the same parents, who were in turn paternally consanguineous. Out of the 19 lions, 4 (21%) were stillborn, 13 (69%) died within 1 month, and 1 (5%) was euthanatized after 6 months because of difficulty with prehension of food. Six lions (32%) showed malformations involving the head (jaw, tongue, throat, teeth, and cranial bones). One lion (5%) still alive at 30 months revealed an Arnold-Chiari malformation upon submission for neurological evaluation of postural and gait abnormalities. Paternal consanguinity of the parents, along with inbreeding among white lions in general, could account for the high incidence of congenital malformations of the head in this pride of white lions. PMID:20826844

Scaglione, F E; Schröder, C; Degiorgi, G; Zeira, O; Bollo, E

2010-09-08

429

Fatal Cardiovascular Collapse During Ethanol Sclerotherapy of a Venous Malformation  

PubMed Central

Summary We report a case of fatal cardiovascular collapse that occurred during Ethanol sclerotherapy of a venous malformation in a 21-year-old woman. The malformation was located on the anterior part of the thigh. Fifty ml of a mixture of Ethanol, Ethibloc and Lipiodol containing 35 ml of Ethanol (0.52 ml / kg) were injected under fluoroscopy. A major drop in arterial pressure was recorded after release of the tourniquet placed at the thigh root. The patient died after four hours of intensive cardiac reanimation. Her blood alcohol level was 0.4 g/l one hour after the end of the intervention. The cardiac toxicity of ethanol depends more on the potential acute venous contamination than on the blood alcohol concentration. The currently admitted “safety limit” of 1 ml/kg of bodyweight for ethanol sclerotherapy of venous malformations is certainly unsafe and must be redefined.

Chapot, R.; Laurent, A.; Enjolras, O.; Payen, D.; Houdart, E.

2002-01-01

430

Chiari-I malformation associated with asymmetric sensorineural hearing loss.  

PubMed

Chiari-I malformation is a deformity of the structures of the posterior fossa in which there is inferior herniation of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum without significant caudal dislocation of the brainstem. Patients are usually asymptomatic until adulthood, when they commonly present with recurrent headaches, weakness, vertigo and/or imbalance, nystagmus and hearing loss. A review of 226 consecutive patients evaluated for asymmetric sensorineural hearing loss revealed 32 patients with retrocochlear pathology. Three of these patients were discovered to have a Chiari-I malformation by magnetic resonance imaging as their only pathology. We suggest a possible association between a Chiari-I malformation and isolated asymmetric sensorineural hearing loss secondary to long-standing traction on the eighth cranial nerve. PMID:1583702

Hendrix, R A; Bacon, C K; Sclafani, A P

1992-04-01

431

Basic genetic principles applied to posterior fossa malformations.  

PubMed

Recent advances in neuroimaging techniques turned possible for neuroradiologists to be frequently the first one to detect possible brain structural anomalies. However, with all the recent advances in genetics and embryology, understanding posterior fossa malformation's principles is being hardest to be achieved than previously. Studies in vertebrate models provide a developmental framework in which to categorize human hindbrain malformations and serve to inform our thinking regarding candidate genes involved in disrupted developmental processes. The main focus of this review was to survey the basic principles of the rhombomere division, anteroposterior and dorsoventral patterning, alar and basal zone concept, and axonal path finding to integrate the knowledge of human hindbrain malformations for better understanding the genetic basis of hindbrain development. PMID:24132065

Nunes, Renato Hoffmann; Littig, Ingrid Aguiar; da Rocha, Antonio Jose; Vedolin, Leonardo

2011-12-01

432

Combined effect of fluid and pressure on middle ear function.  

PubMed

In our previous studies, the effects of effusion and pressure on sound transmission were investigated separately. The aim of this study is to investigate the combined effect of fluid and pressure on middle ear function. An otitis media with effusion model was created by injecting saline solution and air pressure simultaneously into the middle ear of human temporal bones. Tympanic membrane displacement in response to 90 dB SPL sound input was measured by a laser vibrometer and the compliance of the middle ear was measured by a tympanometer. The movement of the tympanic membrane at the umbo was reduced up to 17 dB by the combination of fluid and pressure in the middle ear over the auditory frequency range. The fluid and pressure effects on the umbo movement in the fluid-pressure combination are not additive. The combined effect of fluid and pressure on the umbo movement is different compared with that of only fluid or pressure change in the middle ear. Negative pressure in fluid-pressure combination had more effect on middle ear function than positive pressure. Tympanometry can detect the middle ear pressure of the fluid-pressure combination. This study provides quantitative information for analysis of the combined effect of fluid and pressure on tympanic membrane movement. PMID:18162348

Dai, Chenkai; Wood, Mark W; Gan, Rong Z

2007-11-24

433

Combined Effect of Fluid and Pressure on Middle Ear Function  

PubMed Central

In our previous studies, the effects of effusion and pressure on sound transmission were investigated separately. The aim of this study is to investigate the combined effect of fluid and pressure on middle ear function. An otitis media with effusion model was created by injecting saline solution and air pressure simultaneously into the middle ear of human temporal bones. Tympanic membrane displacement in response to 90 dB SPL sound input was measured by a laser vibrometer and the compliance of the middle ear was measured by a tympanometer. The movement of the tympanic membrane at the umbo was reduced up to 17 dB by the combination of fluid and pressure in the middle ear over the auditory frequency range. The fluid and pressure effects on the umbo movement in the fluid-pressure combination are not additive. The combined effect of fluid and pressure on the umbo movement is different compared with that of only fluid or pressure change in the middle ear. Negative pressure in fluid-pressure combination had more effect on middle ear function than positive pressure. Tympanometry can detect the middle ear pressure of the fluid-pressure combination. This study provides quantitative information for analysis of the combined effect of fluid and pressure on tympanic membrane movement.

Dai, Chenkai; Wood, Mark W.; Gan, Rong Z.

2008-01-01

434

Middle ear transmission in the grass frog, Rana temporaria.  

PubMed

The anuran middle ear serves to transmit eardrum vibrations to the inner ear. In order to do this efficiently, the eardrum and middle ear must operate as an impedance transformer matching the low impedance of air to the higher impedance of the fluid-filled inner ear. In amniotes, one of the mechanisms used to achieve impedance transformation is to have the middle ear work as a force-amplifying lever system. Here, we present evidence that the grass frog middle ear also implements a lever system. The columellar footplate, which sits in the oval window, is firmly connected to the otic capsule along its ventral edge. Therefore, simple in-out movement of the columella is prevented while a rotational movement around the footplate's ventral edge is possible. The latter movement pattern was confirmed by laser vibrometry measurements of eardrum and footplate vibrations. The results showed that the footplate vibrations were 20-30 dB weaker than those of the eardrum and that the two structures vibrated 180 degrees out of phase (at low frequencies). The lever ratio was approximately 6, i.e. somewhat higher than lever ratios reported for amniotes. Hence, the middle ear lever probably makes a significant contribution to impedance matching in frogs. PMID:9447714

Jørgensen, M B; Kanneworff, M

1998-01-01

435

Why do patients with fibromyalgia complain of ear-related symptoms? Ear-related symptoms and otological findings in patients with fibromyalgia.  

PubMed

While fibromyalgia is frequently associated with ear-related symptoms such as feeling of ear fullness, earache, and tinnitus, the pathogenesis of these ear-related symptoms in fibromyalgia patients is unknown. Here, we focused on clarifying the pathogenesis of ear fullness, a particularly common symptom observed in fibromyalgia patients. Twenty patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia on outpatient psychosomatic treatment complaining of ear-related symptoms answered our questionnaire and underwent neurotological examination, including pure tone audiometry and Eustachian tube function testing. While ear-related symptoms were significantly exacerbated after onset of fibromyalgia, we noted no correlation between the presence or absence of feeling of ear fullness and abnormal findings on neurotological examination. Given our findings, we suspect that onset of ear fullness may be associated not with abnormal findings in the middle and inner ear function tests but with other causes, such as central desensitization. PMID:23700040

Iikuni, Fusako; Nomura, Yasuyuki; Goto, Fumiyuki; Murakami, Masato; Shigihara, Shuntaro; Ikeda, Minoru

2013-05-23

436

Neurosurgical vascular malformations in children under 1 year of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  This study aims to analyze the clinical and radiological findings, timing and type of treatment, and outcome in children under\\u000a 1 year of age that presented with neurosurgical vascular malformations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A retrospective review of 23 children under 1 year of age with neurosurgical vascular malformations was performed at a single\\u000a institution between 1999 and 2009.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  The lesions found in this age group

Graciela Zuccaro; Romina Argañaraz; Francisco Villasante; Alejandro Ceciliano

2010-01-01

437

Uncommon cavernous malformation of the optic chiasm: a case report.  

PubMed

Cavernous malformation (CM) is a vascular malformation disorder characterized by a berry-like mass of expanded blood vessels. CM, originating from the optic chiasm. usually leads to chiasma syndrome presenting with bitemporal hemianopsia. We report a 28-year-old male presenting with left homonymous hemianopsia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an occupied lesion located in the right side of the optic chiasm, and a clinical diagnosis of chiasmal CM was made. Microsurgical excision was performed via anterolateral pterional craniotomy. The patient showed good recovery with slight improvement of the visual field deficits after the operation. No CM recurrence was discovered during the follow-up MRI scans. PMID:22892383

Ning, Xianbin; Xu, Kan; Luo, Qi; Qu, Limei; Yu, Jinlu

2012-08-14

438

Hydrosalpinx in a patient with complex genitourinary malformation.  

PubMed

We describe an adolescent female patient born with a complex genitourinary malformation including bilateral duplex system and duplication of the müllerian structures (bicornuate uterus and septate vagina). She presented with a symptomatic hydrosalpinx. The typical imaging of this condition is described along with the issues associated with the differential diagnosis in this complex scenario. The diagnosis of hydrosaplinx should be suspected in patients with complex genitourinary malformations and a pelvic fluid collection. Associated genital and renal anomalies are noted in 30% of cases. PMID:21034959

Zhapa, Evisa; Rigamonti, Waifro; Castagnetti, Marco

2010-11-01

439

Renal-hepatic-pancreatic dysplasia: an autosomal recessive malformation.  

PubMed Central

We report two brothers with a cystic malformation of the kidneys, liver, and pancreas. In both cases the malformation was fatal and the children died shortly after birth. The pathological findings, consisting of multicystic dysplastic kidneys, dilated and dysgenetic bile ducts, dilated pancreatic ducts, and polysplenia, correspond to those reported by Ivemark as renal-hepatic-pancreatic dysplasia. Many polymalformation syndromes include cystic affectation of these three organs, so this syndrome could be an isolated entity or a final common pathway of response of these organs to a variety of developmental disturbances, which could also include splenic abnormalities. We propose an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance for renal-hepatic-pancreatic dysplasia. Images

Torra, R; Alos, L; Ramos, J; Estivill, X

1996-01-01

440

Diffusion tensor imaging and fiber tractography in brain malformations.  

PubMed

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an advanced MR technique that provides qualitative and quantitative information about the micro-architecture of white matter. DTI and its post-processing tool fiber tractography (FT) have been increasingly used in the last decade to investigate the microstructural neuroarchitecture of brain malformations. This article aims to review the use of DTI and FT in the evaluation of a variety of common, well-described brain malformations, in particular by pointing out the additional information that DTI and FT renders compared with conventional MR sequences. In addition, the relevant existing literature is summarized. PMID:23288476

Poretti, Andrea; Meoded, Avner; Rossi, Andrea; Raybaud, Charles; Huisman, Thierry A G M

2013-01-04

441

Uncommon cavernous malformation of the optic chiasm: a case report  

PubMed Central

Cavernous malformation (CM) is a vascular malformation disorder characterized by a berry-like mass of expanded blood vessels. CM, originating from the optic chiasm. usually leads to chiasma syndrome presenting with bitemporal hemianopsia. We report a 28-year-old male presenting with left homonymous hemianopsia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an occupied lesion located in the right side of the optic chiasm, and a clinical diagnosis of chiasmal CM was made. Microsurgical excision was performed via anterolateral pterional craniotomy. The patient showed good recovery with slight improvement of the visual field deficits after the operation. No CM recurrence was discovered during the follow-up MRI scans.

2012-01-01

442

Parry-Romberg syndrome associated with intracranial vascular malformations.  

PubMed

We describe a 23-year-old woman with iridocyclitis, enophthalmos, facial hemiatrophy, and transient numbness of her contralateral upper and lower extremities. The patient was found to have white matter densities in the right hemisphere in magnetic resonance T2-weighted images and vascular malformations involving right vertebral, right carotid, and right anterior cerebral arteries. Histopathologic evaluation of a biopsy specimen of anterior orbital fat and lacrimal gland revealed fibrosis and chronic inflammation. These findings were consistent with the diagnosis of progressive facial hemiatrophy (Parry-Romberg syndrome) in association with iridocyclitis and intracranial vascular malformations. PMID:9747688

Miedziak, A I; Stefanyszyn, M; Flanagan, J; Eagle, R C

1998-09-01

443

Multiple spinal cavernous malformations in Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome.  

PubMed

Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome (KTWS) is a rare, congenital vascular disorder characterized by cutaneous haemangiomas, venous varicosities, and hypertrophy of the osseous and soft tissue. Various vascular anomalies of the central nervous system have been described in this syndrome. Two previous associations between KTWS and spinal cord cavernous malformations have been reported in the English literature. In this report, we present a patient in whom multiple cavernous malformations located in the conus medullaris region and cauda equina were associated with KTWS. General physical examination as well as neuroradiological and operative findings are described. PMID:23161195

Göksu, Ethem; Alpsoy, Erkan; Uçar, Tanju; Tuncer, Recai

444

Acute effects of irradiation on middle ear mucosa  

SciTech Connect

Single field, fixed irradiation of bilateral tympanic cavities using 200-kV x-rays was administered to five guinea pigs. The irradiation dose was 30 Gy. They were killed immediately after irradiation, and bilateral middle ear mucosa was examined for ciliary activity and epithelial structure. Significant deterioration of the ciliary activity in the middle ear mucosa was observed, proximal as well as distal to the eustachian tube. Electron microscopy showed various changes in the irradiated middle ear mucosa. The most conspicuous findings were hyperreactivity in secretion, vacuolation of ciliated cells, and stomal edema.

Ohashi, Y.; Nakai, Y.; Esaki, Y.; Ikeoka, H.; Koshimo, H.; Onoyama, Y.

1988-03-01

445

[Introduction to the surgery of the middle ear: general principles].  

PubMed

We study the basic guidelines of the middle ear surgery, having as target the recuperation of the anatomic functional integrity of ear. There are different important elements in the quality/quantity of the functional results as follows: The surgery technical method used. The actual pathology in the middle ear. The quality of eustachian tube function. The surgeon's experience and ability and several factors. We review the concept introduced by Wullstein called it tympanoplasty from 1952 till nowadays. Finally, we described the most frequent surgery procedures used in the daily practice. PMID:8129965

Babighian, G; Domínguez, M J

446

[Polysplenia syndrome: two cases in adults revealed by biliary and pancreatic malformations].  

PubMed

Polysplenia Syndrome (PS) associates multiple spleens with other malformations usually cardiac, vascular, visceral and biliary. The diversity of these malformations and their embryological mechanisms are described in relation to two cases of PS that were diagnosed in adults. PMID:18166868

Puche, Pierre; Jacquet, Eric; Godlewski, Guilhem; Carabalona, Jean-Pierre; Domergue, Jacques; Navarro, Francis; Prudhomme, Michel

2007-10-01

447

Diagnosis and management of extensive vascular malformations of the lower limb: part I. Clinical diagnosis.  

PubMed

There is significant confusion in the literature when describing vascular anomalies, and vascular malformations are often misnamed or incorrectly classified. Part I of this two-part series on the diagnosis and management of extensive vascular malformations of the lower limbs will discuss the dermatologist's role in the diagnosis of these lesions. At least nine types of vascular malformations with specific clinical and radiologic characteristics must be distinguished in the lower limbs: Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome, port-wine stain with or without hypertrophy, cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita, macrocephaly-capillary malformation, Parkes Weber syndrome, Stewart-Bluefarb syndrome, venous malformation, glomuvenous malformation, and lymphatic malformation. This article highlights the differences in clinical appearance and discusses the differential diagnosis of extensive vascular malformations in an attempt to ensure earlier diagnosis and better outcomes for these patients. PMID:22000870

Redondo, Pedro; Aguado, Leyre; Martínez-Cuesta, Antonio

2011-11-01

448

Notch-1 Signalling Is Activated in Brain Arteriovenous Malformations in Humans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A role for the Notch signalling pathway in the formation of arteriovenous malformations during development has been suggested. However, whether Notch signalling is involved in brain arteriovenous malformations in humans remains unclear. Here, we performed immunohistochemistry on surgically resected brain arteriovenous malformations and found…

ZhuGe, Qichuan; Zhong, Ming; Zheng, WeiMing; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Mao, XiaoOu; Xie, Lin; Chen, Gourong; Chen, Yongmei; Lawton, Michael T.; Young, William L.; Greenberg, David A.; Jin, Kunlin

2009-01-01

449

Changing role for preoperative embolisation in the management of arteriovenous malformations of the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aim of this study was to analyse the results of the use of preoperative embolisation in the management of arteriovenous malformations of the brain at one institution between 1989 and 1999.Methods : Two hundred and fifty consecutive cases of angiographically confirmed arteriovenous malformations underwent surgery by one surgeon. Cases of dural or spinal arteriovenous malformations have been excluded.

M. K. Morgan; A. A. R. Zurin; T. Harrington; N. Little

2000-01-01

450

Manufacturing and in vivo inner ear visualization of MRI traceable liposome nanoparticles encapsulating gadolinium  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Treatment of inner ear diseases remains a problem because of limited passage through the blood-inner ear barriers and lack of control with the delivery of treatment agents by intravenous or oral administration. As a minimally-invasive approach, intratympanic delivery of multifunctional nanoparticles (MFNPs) carrying genes or drugs to the inner ear is a future therapy for treating inner ear diseases,

Jing Zou; Rohit Sood; Sanjeev Ranjan; Dennis Poe; Usama A Ramadan; Paavo KJ Kinnunen; Ilmari Pyykkö

2010-01-01

451

Ear segmentation using histogram based K-means clustering and Hough transformation under CVL dataset  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under CVL dataset, we provide an image segmentation approach based on adaptive histogram based K-means clustering and fast Hough transformation. This work firstly analyzes the characteristics of ear images in CVL face dataset. According to the analysis, we then use adaptive histogram based K-means clustering method to threshold ear images and then roughly segment the ear parts. After ear contour

Heng Liu; Dekai Liu

2009-01-01

452

Potassium Ion Movement in the Inner Ear: Insights from Genetic Disease and Mouse Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ear detects sound waves, which are pressure varia- tions in air (FIGURE 1). Sound enters the outer ear and sets the tympanic membrane in motion. Motions are conducted by middle ear bones to the oval window, from where they enter the fluid-filled cochlea of the inner ear. These \\

Anselm A. Zdebik; Philine Wangemann; Thomas J. Jentsch

2009-01-01

453

Scientific Investigations on the Red-Eared Turtle, 'Trachemys scripta elegans'. Long Term Resource Monitoring Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Melanism in the Red-eared Slider (Trachemys scripta elegans); Salvage of Eggs from Road-killd Red-eared Sliders, Trachemys scripta elegans; Unusual Coloration in a Red-eared Slider, Trachemys scripta elegans; Fences and Nesting Red-eared Sliders...

J. K. Tucker F. A. Cronin B. J. Kerans N. I. Filoramo F. J. Janzen G. L. Paukstis C. H. Theiling D. Moll R. J. Maher

1997-01-01

454

An Improved Model of Mechanical Neural Transduction in the Cochlea, the Robinson Ear Model 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Robinson Ear Model 2, an improved version of the original Robinson ear model, is presented. The Robinson ear model is based on the anatomy of the cochlea and the theory that sound induced neural firings are stimulated by the interaction of two waves, a pressure wave moving through the fluid of the inner ear at the speed of sound

Raymond Melvin Warner Jr.

1990-01-01

455

Building and Testing a Statistical Shape Model of the Human Ear Canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today the design of custom in-the-ear hearing aids is based on personal experience and skills and not on a systematic description of the variation of the shape of the ear canal. In this paper it is described how a dense surface point distribution model of the human ear canal is built based on a training set of laser scanned ear

Rasmus Paulsen; Rasmus Larsen; Claus Nielsen; Søren Laugesen; Bjarne K. Ersbøll

2002-01-01

456

Summary From the Ear, Nose, And Throat Devices Panel ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Implantable Middle Ear Hearing Devices (IMEHD). ... For adults (>=18 yrs) with moderate to severe Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) desiring an ... More results from www.fda.gov/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials/medicaldevices

457

Ensemble training to improve recognition using 2D ear  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ear has gained popularity as a biometric feature due to the robustness of the shape over time and across emotional expression. Popular methods of ear biometrics analyze the ear as a whole, leaving these methods vulnerable to error due to occlusion. Many researchers explore ear recognition using an ensemble, but none present a method for designing the individual parts that comprise the ensemble. In this work, we introduce a method of modifying the ensemble shapes to improve performance. We determine how different properties of an ensemble training system can affect overall performance. We show that ensembles built from small parts will outperform ensembles built with larger parts, and that incorporating a large number of parts improves the performance of the ensemble.

Middendorff, Christopher; Bowyer, Kevin W.

2009-05-01

458

Making an Effort to Listen: Mechanical Amplification in the Ear  

PubMed Central

The inner ear’s performance is greatly enhanced by an active process defined by four features: amplification, frequency selectivity, compressive nonlinearity, and spontaneous otoacoustic emission. These characteristics emerge naturally if the mechanoelectrical transduction process operates near a dynamical instability, the Hopf bifurcation, whose mathematical properties account for specific aspects of our hearing. The active process of non-mammalian tetrapods depends upon active hair-bundle motility, which emerges from the interaction of negative hair-bundle stiffness and myosin-based adaptation motors. Taken together, these phenomena explain the four characteristics of the ear’s active process. In the high-frequency region of the mammalian cochlea, the active process is dominated instead by the phenomenon of electromotility, in which the cell bodies of outer hair cells extend and contract as the protein prestin alters its membrane surface area in response to changes in membrane potential.

Hudspeth, A. J.

2009-01-01

459

Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work - Ear Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... has and if antibiotics would help. Acute otitis media The type of ear infection that is usually ... for AOM, but are not always necessary. Otitis media with effusion Otitis media with effusion (uh-FEW- ...

460

FDA Questions for the Ear, Nose, and Throat Devices Advisory ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionDraft FDA Questions for the Ear, Nose, and Throat Devices Advisory Panel December 18, 2009 P090018 Esteem® Totally Implantable Hearing ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

461

How minute sooglossid frogs hear without a middle ear.  

PubMed

Acoustic communication is widespread in animals. According to the sensory drive hypothesis [Endler JA (1993) Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 340(1292):215-225], communication signals and perceptual systems have coevolved. A clear illustration of this is the evolution of the tetrapod middle ear, adapted to life on land. Here we report the discovery of a bone conduction-mediated stimulation of the ear by wave propagation in Sechellophryne gardineri, one of the world's smallest terrestrial tetrapods, which lacks a middle ear yet produces acoustic signals. Based on X-ray synchrotron holotomography, we measured the biomechanical properties of the otic tissues and modeled the acoustic propagation. Our models show how bone conduction enhanced by the resonating role of the mouth allows these seemingly deaf frogs to communicate effectively without a middle ear. PMID:24003145

Boistel, Renaud; Aubin, Thierry; Cloetens, Peter; Peyrin, Françoise; Scotti, Thierry; Herzog, Philippe; Gerlach, Justin; Pollet, Nicolas; Aubry, Jean-François

2013-09-03

462

Transitional mammalian middle ear from a new Cretaceous Jehol eutriconodont.  

PubMed

The transference of post-dentary jaw elements to the cranium of mammals as auditory ossicles is one of the central topics in evolutionary biology of vertebrates. Homologies of these bones among jawed vertebrates have long been demonstrated by developmental studies; but fossils illuminating this critical transference are sparse and often ambiguous. Here we report the first unambiguous ectotympanic (angular), malleus (articular and prearticular) and incus (quadrate) of an Early Cretaceous eutriconodont mammal from the Jehol Biota, Liaoning, China. The ectotympanic and malleus have lost their direct contact with the dentary bone but still connect the ossified Meckel's cartilage (OMC); we hypothesize that the OMC serves as a stabilizing mechanism bridging the dentary and the detached ossicles during mammalian evolution. This transitional mammalian middle ear narrows the morphological gap between the mandibular middle ear in basal mammaliaforms and the definitive mammalian middle ear (DMME) of extant mammals; it reveals complex changes contributing to the detachment of ear ossicles during mammalian evolution. PMID:21490668

Meng, Jin; Wang, Yuanqing; Li, Chuankui

2011-04-14

463

A Study of Evoked Potentials From Ear-EEG.  

PubMed

A method for brain monitoring based on measuring the electroencephalogram (EEG) from electrodes placed in-the-ear (ear-EEG) was recently proposed. The objective of this study is to further characterize the ear-EEG and perform a rigorous comparison against conventional on-scalp EEG. This is achieved for both auditory and visual evoked responses, over steady-state and transient paradigms, and across a population of subjects. The respective steady-state responses are evaluated in terms of signal-to-noise ratio and statistical significance, while the qualitative analysis of the transient responses is performed by considering grand averaged event-related potential (ERP) waveforms. The outcomes of this study demonstrate conclusively that the ear-EEG signals, in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio, are on par with conventional EEG recorded from electrodes placed over the temporal region. PMID:23722447

Kidmose, Preben; Looney, David; Ungstrup, Michael; Rank, Mike Lind; Mandic, Danilo P

2013-05-29

464

The Acoustic Impedance of the Ear - Summary by the Moderator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The absolute impednace can be measured at the eardrum under normal conditions, with a pressure differential across the eardrum, or with contracted middle ear muscles. It is also possible to use impedance changes due to muscle reflexes or pressure changes ...

J. Zwislocki

1965-01-01

465

Groovy flow patterns in the fish ear  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dense, bony otoliths contained in the fish ear oscillate with respect to their surrounding tissue and endolymph in the presence of sound waves. How an otolith actually transduces this acoustically induced fluid motion into the hair cell displacements that the fish ``hears'' is not fully understood, however. The fluid flow created by the oscillation of the irregularly shaped otolith has both steady and unsteady components. Since most of the hair cells are next to a grooved area on the otolith, the sulcus, the otolith was modeled as a grooved spheroid oscillating in a quiescent Newtonian fluid. Particle-image velocimetry and pathline visualizations for the steady streaming flows within the groove are presented for oscillation at 0 --90 with respect to the body axis of symmetry Re=2?f,^2/?=O(10-10^2), and ?=s/L 0.025-0.05. Here, ? is the fluid kinematic viscosity, L is a typical length based on the spheroid, and f and s are the oscillation frequency and amplitude, respectively. Results for bodies oscillated by multiple frequencies f1 and f2 along the same direction imply that the velocity fields are the superposition of those due to the component frequencies for small values of ?.

Kotas, Charlotte W.; Rogers, Peter H.; Yoda, Minami

2007-11-01

466

Experimental evidence against middle ear oxygen absorption.  

PubMed

The present theory of eustachian tube (ET) function and middle ear (ME) ventilation posits that oxygen absorbed by the ME mucosa causes negative ME pressure which is relieved by periodic opening of the ET during swallowing and yawning. After developing a method to cannulate the ET of mongrel dogs we connected the cannulas hermetically to manometers. This system excluded ET function and tested the oxygen absorption capacity of the ME. When we controlled respiration and maintained blood gas PO2 and PCO2 at normal levels, we were unable to find any manometric evidence of negative pressure of gas absorption in the dog ME. Lowering the PCO2 and raising the PO2 of the blood by hyperventilation caused negative ME pressure which could be measured manometrically. We confirmed these findings with the tympanometer. Raising the PCO2 and lowering the PO2 by hypoventilation caused positive pressure in the ME. There is no evidence in these experiments that O2 absorption occurs or causes negative ME pressure in the dog. To the contrary there is evidence that elevated blood levels of the more diffusible CO2 cause an increase in the ME pressure and lowered CO2 level causes a negative ME pressure. PMID:3920459

Buckingham, R A; Stuart, D R; Geick, M R; Girgis, S J; McGee, T J

1985-04-01

467

Penetration of ceftibuten into middle ear fluid.  

PubMed Central

The penetration of ceftibuten, an extended-spectrum oral cephalosporin, into middle ear fluid (MEF) was evaluated in pediatric patients during a course of daily oral doses of 9 mg/kg of body weight for 10 days. Plasma and MEF collected at 2, 4, 6, or 12 h after at least 3 days of dosing were analyzed for ceftibuten by a high-pressure liquid chromatography method, and the data were used to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters. Plasma and MEF had almost identical maximum concentrations (Cmax) of ceftibuten (14 micrograms/ml). These Cmax values in MEF during acute otitis media were well in excess of the MIC for 90% of the isolates of each of four major pathogens in this disease. The time to Cmax was longer in MEF (4 h) than in plasma (2 h). Excellent penetration (71%) of ceftibuten into MEF was observed on the basis of the area under the curve ratio (MEF/plasma). These data clearly indicate that ceftibuten penetrated well into the MEF to yield clinically effective concentrations.

Lin, C; Kumari, P; Perrotta, R J; Reidenberg, B E

1996-01-01

468

Blackbody for metrological control of ear thermometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Body temperature is an important parameter in medical practice, and most of health diagnoses are made based upon measured temperature values. Non-contact measurements are attractive to both patients and physicians, and ear thermometers (ET) are part of the set of infrared thermometers for medical applications. ETs sense the tympanic membrane temperature which best represents body temperature. They take advantage of the natural high effective emissivity cavity that is formed as radiation source. To calibrate or to check the performance of ETs, we designed a high-emissivity spherical cavity as a blackbody source which can be placed in a dry block oven. Although the blackbody cavity can have any shape, we decided to build it spherical because its effective emissivity can be easily calculated in a closed form. The cavity is made of Aluminum to take advantage of its high thermal conductivity while its inner side is covered with a black paint to increase the cavity effective emissivity. Based on paint emissivity measurements and the geometrical shape, we calculated that the cavity has an effective emissivity higher than 0.999. Blackbody temperature is measured with a calibrated contact thermometer placed inside the bottom wall of the cavity. We present the design of the cavity, the experimental setup, and results of three commercial ETs compared with this cavity.

Cárdenas-García, D.; Méndez-Lango, E.

2013-09-01

469

Correction of Prominent Ears with a New Splinting Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Correction of prominent ears represents one of the main applications in plastic surgery. Apart from its cosmetic nature, this\\u000a operation is important because of the psychological distress that the deformity causes patients. In this study, 40 patients\\u000a who underwent treatment for prominent ears in our department were evaluated. The classical surgical technique described by\\u000a Chongchet followed by a new splinting

Giuseppe A. Ferraro; Fernando Rossano; Francesco D’Andrea

2006-01-01

470

The herring ear has a unique receptor pattern  

Microsoft Academic Search

HERRINGS and their relatives in the teleost order Clupeiformes, including sardines and anchovies, have an unusual connection between the gas bladder and the inner ears1,3 that may indicate an auditory mechanism involving the utricle, a part of the ear generally considered to be a gravistatic organ in all other vertebrates4,5. In herring, two slim ducts extend forward from the gas

Arthur N. Popper

1979-01-01

471

Surgery for glue ear: the English epidemic wanes  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES--To describe the progress of the epidemic of surgery for glue ear since 1983 and trends in the use of different operative procedures. DESIGN--Analysis of routine hospital data. SETTING--Thirteen health districts in the Oxford and East Anglian regions. MAIN MEASURES--Annual rates of surgery in children under 10 years of age. RESULTS--The rate of surgery for glue ear reached a peak

N Black

1995-01-01

472

Results of bone conduction following surgery for chronic ear disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preoperative and postoperative bone conduction thresholds were compared in 181 chronic ears operated on over a 5-year period between 1990 to 1994. In the majority (92%) of cases the bone conduction thresholds remained unchanged (± 10 dB). Nine ears (5%) showed better thresholds after surgery, with improvements ranging from 11 dB to 25 dB. This improvement was especially noted in

E. Vartiainen; J. Seppä

1997-01-01

473

Intratympanic Steroids for Inner Ear Disorders: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aim: The use of intratympanic steroids (ITS) has proliferated over the past 10–15 years to include treatments for inner ear disorders, like Ménière’s Disease (MD) and sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL). The aim of this study was to review the clinical trials of ITS for inner ear disorders. Methods: PubMed and Ovid Medline databases were searched from 1966 to present

Amanda Hu; Lorne S. Parnes

2009-01-01

474

A review of common dermatologic disorders of the external ear.  

PubMed

Skin disorders of the external ear are common. Although audiologists will not necessarily treat these conditions, it is important for them to be aware of these disorders and refer patients to a specialist in some instances. This report summarizes eight of the most commonly encountered skin conditions with an emphasis on recognition and appropriate referral. The cutaneous disorders of the external ear discussed in the article are divided into benign, premalignant, and malignant groups. PMID:18672650

Garvey, Christopher; Garvey, Kathleen; Hendi, Ali

2008-03-01

475

Can We Make a Silk Purse from a Sow's Ear?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Reverend Jonathan Swift (1801) is widely credited with coining the phrase “you can't make a silk purse out of a sow's\\u000a ear” (p. 357), although Stephen Gosson appears to have made a similar statement centuries earlier in Ephemerides of Phialo in 1579: “seekinge … too make a silke purse of a Sowes eare” (Shapiro, 2006, pp. 619, #272). Regardless

Daniel J. Mundfrom

476

Inner Ear Defects Induced by Null Mutationof the isk Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isk gene is expressed in many tissues. Pharmacological evidence from the inner ear suggests that Isk mediates potassium secretion into the endolymph. To examine the consequences of IsK null mutation on inner ear function, and to produce a system useful for examining the role(s) IsK plays elsewhere, we have produced a mouse strain that carries a disrupted isk locus.

Douglas E. Vetter; Jeffrey R. Mann; Philine Wangemann; Jianzhong Liu; K. John McLaughlin; Florian Lesage; Daniel C. Marcus; Michel Lazdunski; Stephen F. Heinemann; Jacques Barhanin

1996-01-01

477

Comparative anatomy and function of the leptaucheniine oreodont middle ear  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leptaucheniine oreodonts (Merycoidodontidae, Leptaucheniinae) have extremely well-inflated auditory bullae—apparently the largest, relative to body size, among artiodactyls. Leptaucheniines have middle ear volumes (ranging from about 4.0 to 8.5 cc) several times those of extant bovids and cervids of comparable body size. A well-developed, smooth-walled, and laterally-elongate epitympanic sinus, underlies the leptaucheniine mastoid region and comprises 14–21% of total middle ear

R. M. Joeckel

1992-01-01

478

Study on Clinical Presentation of Ear and Nose Foreign Bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ear and nose foreign bodies are common problems affecting the children but adults are not an exception. A prospective study\\u000a involving 87 patients is undertaken concentrating on presentation of patients with various types of ear or nasal foreign bodies.\\u000a In the present study common presenting complaints and uncommon presentation scenarios encountered by us like a nasal foreign\\u000a body with intra

Prayaga N. Srinivas Moorthy; Madhira Srivalli; Goli V. S. Rau; Codadu Prasanth

479

Efficiency of ear protectors in laboratory and real life tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of ten different ear-protectors (6 types of earmuffs and 4 types of earplugs) has been tested under laboratory conditions and in the real occupational environment. Three methods were used: (1) physical, utilizing a dummy head; (2) subjective, real-ear, executed on trained human subjects; (3) subjective, measuring TTS2 resulting from occupational, one-workday exposure. It could be shown that the

K. Pawlas; J. Grzesik

1990-01-01

480

Fly-ear inspired acoustic sensors for gunshot localization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supersensitive ears of the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea have inspired researchers to develop bio-inspired directional microphone for sound localization. Although the fly ear is optimized for localizing the narrow-band calling song of crickets at 5 kHz, experiments and simulation have shown that it can amplify directional cues for a wide frequency range. In this article, a theoretical investigation is

Haijun Liu; Luke Currano; Danny Gee; Benjamin Yang; Miao Yu

2009-01-01

481

Surgical Management of Chiari Malformation: Analysis of 128 Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: A variety of surgical interventions have been recommended for patients with Chiari malformations (CMs). In this study, we have evaluated the intraoperative findings and clinical outcome in different-aged patients with CMs undergoing posterior fossa decompression. Methods: Sixteen pediatric and 112 adult cases with CMs underwent suboccipital craniectomy and wide duraplasty as well as autogenous bone grafting in selected cases.

Fuyou Guo; Meiyun Wang; Jiang Long; Huaili Wang; Hongwei Sun; Bo Yang; Laijun Song

2007-01-01

482

Clinical implications of uterine malformations and hysteroscopic treatment results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uterine malformations consist of a group of miscellaneous congenital anomalies of the female genital system. Their mean prevalence in the general population and in the population of fertile women is ~4.3%, in infertile patients ~3.5% and in patients with recurrent pregnancy losses ~13%. Septate uterus is the commonest uterine anomaly with a mean incidence of ~35% followed by bicornuate uterus

Grigoris F. Grimbizis; Michel Camus; Basil C. Tarlatzis; John N. Bontis; Paul Devroey

483

Spinal vascular malformations--typical and atypical findings.  

PubMed

Vascular malformations of the spinal cord and its meninges are rare diseases which comprise true inborn cavernomas and arteriovenous malformations (AVM), including perimedullary fistulae, glomerular and juvenile AVMs, and presumably acquired dural arteriovenous fistulae. This article gives an overview of the imaging features on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and digital subtraction angiography of both typical and atypical findings to describe the wide variety of possible pathological entities encountered. Clinical differential diagnoses, the neurological symptomatology and potential therapeutic approaches of these diseases, which may vary depending on the underlying pathology, are given. Although MRI constitutes the first choice diagnostic modality for suspected spinal vascular malformations, we conclude that the definite diagnosis of the disease and thus the choice of the appropriate therapeutic approach rests on selective spinal angiography which should be performed at a specialized center. Treatment in symptomatic patients offers an improvement in prognosis. Microsurgical treatment is recommended for symptomatic spinal cord cavernomas. Dural arteriovenous shunts can either be treated by microsurgical or endovascular approaches, the former being a simple, quick and secure approach to obliterate the fistula while the latter is technically demanding. In spinal arteriovenous malformations of both the fistulous and the glomerular type, the endovascular approach is the method of first choice; in selected cases, surgery or a combined therapy may be necessary. PMID:17966075

Bostroem, A; Thron, A; Hans, F J; Krings, T

2007-10-26

484

Thalidomide-induced limb malformations — a prosthetic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The embryopathy-producing drug 'thalidomide' resulted in an estimated 349 babies born in the UKwith congenital malformations during the period 1959-62. All known affected babies were registered, and a 'Thalidomide Society and Trust' was formed to administer the financial settlements offered by the manufacturers of the drug and the British Government. Individual prosthetic centres found great difficulty at the time in

Nabil M Mustapha

1990-01-01

485

Mathematical Models for Tubular Malformations during Virus Assembly of Papovaviridae  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important stage of the viral life cycle is the formation of a protein shell, called the viral capsid, that protects the viral genome. While the viral capsids of infectious virus particles correspond to closed shells, there also occur tubular open structures during assembly as non-infectious malformations. In (1, 2) viral tiling theory (VT-theory) has been introduced as a new

REIDUN TWAROCK

486

Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Children with Cerebellar Malformations: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Cerebellar malformations are increasingly diagnosed in the fetal period. Consequently, their consideration requires stressful and often critical decisions from both clinicians and families. This has resulted in an emergent need to understand better the impact of these early life lesions on child development. We performed a comprehensive…

Bolduc, Marie-Eve; Limperopoulos, Catherine

2009-01-01

487

Proximity to pollution sources and risk of amphibian limb malformation.  

PubMed

The cause of limb deformities in wild amphibian populations remains unclear, even though the apparent increase in prevalence of this condition may have implications for human health. Few studies have simultaneously assessed the effect of multiple exposures on the risk of limb deformities. In a cross-sectional survey of 5,264 hylid and ranid metamorphs in 42 Vermont wetlands, we assessed independent risk factors for nontraumatic limb malformation. The rate of nontraumatic limb malformation varied by location from 0 to 10.2%. Analysis of a subsample did not demonstrate any evidence of infection with the parasite Ribeiroia. We used geographic information system (GIS) land-use/land-cover data to validate field observations of land use in the proximity of study wetlands. In a multiple logistic regression model that included land use as well as developmental stage, genus, and water-quality measures, proximity to agricultural land use was associated with an increased risk of limb malformation (odds ratio = 2.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.42-3.58; p < 0.001). The overall discriminant power of the statistical model was high (C = 0.79). These findings from one of the largest systematic surveys to date provide support for the role of chemical toxicants in the development of amphibian limb malformation and demonstrate the value of an epidemiologic approach to this problem. PMID:16263502

Taylor, Brynn; Skelly, David; Demarchis, Livia K; Slade, Martin D; Galusha, Deron; Rabinowitz, Peter M

2005-11-01

488

The tethered spinal cord in patients with anorectal malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study were to find the prevalence of tethered cord in patients with anorectal malformations; to determine if the presence of tethered cord relates to the severity of the anorectal defect, and to certain symptoms, signs, radiologic findings, and associated anomalies; and finally to determine whether tethered cord impacted on a patient's functional prognosis and whether surgical

Marc A Levitt; Mahendra Patel; George Rodriguez; Daniel S Gaylin; Alberto Peña

1997-01-01

489

Clival dysgenesis associated with Chiari Type 1 malformation and syringomyelia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an 11-year-old boy with dysgenesis of the clivus. The boy presented complaining of progressive difficulty in walking. The clival anomaly was associated with severe basilar invagination, Chiari Type 1 malformation and syringomyelia. Our literature search did not reveal any previous reports of this combination of conditions. The patient obtained relief from his symptoms following a foramen magnum decompression.

Abhidha Shah; Atul Goel

2010-01-01

490

Presentation and Management of Chiari I Malformation in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the efficacy of operative treatment for children with Chiari I malformation, the medical records and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of 68 consecutive patients cared for at The Children’s Hospital, Boston, Mass., USA, from December, 1988 to November, 1996 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent subocci