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Sample records for ear skin temperature

  1. Rabbit and pig ear skin sample cryobanking: effects of storage time and temperature of the whole ear extirpated immediately after death.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, M A; Saeed, A M; Cervera, R P; Escribá, M J; García-Ximénez, F

    2003-03-01

    The post-mortem temporal and thermal limits within which there will be ample guarantees of rescuing living skin cells from dead specimens of two species, rabbit and pig, were studied. Post-mortem extirpated whole ears were stored (in non-aseptic conditions) either at 4 degrees C or at room temperature (from 22 to 25 degrees C) or at 35 degrees C for different time lapses after animal death. In both species, the post-mortem maximum time lapses where cell viability was not significantly reduced were 240, 72, and 24 h post-mortem (hpm) for 4, 22-25 and 35 degrees C, respectively. Once the post-mortem temporal limits for each tested thermal level at which cells from skin samples are able to grow in culture were defined, the survival ability of skin samples submitted to these temporal limits and cryopreserved were tested. In the pig, skin samples stored at the three tested thermal levels survived after vitrification-warming, reaching confluence in culture. In rabbit, only tissue samples from ears stored at 35 degrees C for 24 hpm did not survive after vitrification-warming. In conclusion, we should remark that cell survival rates obtained according to the assayed post-mortem time lapses and thermal levels are sufficient to collect and to cryopreserve skin samples from the majority of dead specimens. PMID:12527093

  2. Evaluation of ear skin temperature as a cow-side test to predict postpartum calcium status in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Venjakob, P L; Borchardt, S; Thiele, G; Heuwieser, W

    2016-08-01

    Subclinical hypocalcemia is considered a gateway disease that increases susceptibility to other metabolic and infectious diseases in transition dairy cows. In the absence of a cow-side test, however, it is difficult to identify hypocalcemic cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate ear skin temperature as a diagnostic predictor of serum calcium concentration. We conducted a cross-sectional study on 7 commercial dairy farms, involving 251 cows 0 to 48h after calving. Skin temperature of the ears (STEar) was scored manually by palpating both ears. An infrared thermometer was used to measure ear temperature, skin temperature on the coxal tuber (STCox), and ambient temperature. Rectal temperature was measured using a digital thermometer. A blood sample was drawn to determine serum calcium concentration. Hypocalcemia was defined as serum calcium below 2.0mmol/L, irrespective of clinical symptoms. Serum calcium concentration <2.0mmol/L in connection with clinical symptoms was defined as clinical milk fever; serum calcium concentration <2.0mmol/L without clinical symptoms was defined as subclinical hypocalcemia. Multivariate analysis using the GENLINMIXED procedure and receiver operating characteristic analysis were performed to evaluate whether serum calcium concentration could be predicted using ear temperature and other temperature estimates. The prevalence of hypocalcemia was 3.3, 27.3, 32.8, and 69.6% for cows in first, second, third, and fourth or greater lactation, respectively. None of the cows in first and second lactation had clinical milk fever. The prevalence of clinical milk fever was 6.0 and 20.3% for cows in their third and fourth or greater lactation, respectively. A decrease in ear temperature of 0.39°C [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.25-0.54] was associated with a decrease of 0.1mmol/L in serum calcium concentration. Ambient temperature, however, was a major confounder for ear temperature. With an increase in ambient temperature of 1°C, STEar

  3. The effect of perfusion on post-operative viability in the replanted rabbit ear: measured by laser Doppler flowmetry and skin temperature.

    PubMed

    Pietilä, J; von Smitten, K; Sundell, B

    1985-01-01

    The effect of perfusion by heparinized Ringer solution on post-operative microcirculation in rabbit ear replants was studied. One ear in each of five rabbits was replanted after perfusion with heparinized Ringer solution and these were compared with five replantations of rabbit ears without perfusion. The ears were studied post-operatively for 2 1/2 days by skin temperature monitoring and Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF). During the first day after replantation the perfused ears had better capillary flow, whereafter no significant differences were noted. LDF was more sensitive to changes in capillary blood flow, and this seems to make the reproducibility of LDF poor. It is, however, a suitable method for continued observation of post-operative viability. PMID:2937141

  4. Rabbit's ear in cold acclimation studied on the change in ear temperature.

    PubMed

    Harada, E; Kanno, T

    1975-03-01

    The role of the rabbit's ear in cold acclimation was studied by varying the temperature of a climatic room in the range from -10 to +30 degrees C; The skin temperature in a nonanesthetized rabbit's ear showed a characteristic response to changes in ambient temperatures; plotting the ear temperature against the ambient temperature yielded an S-shaped curve. The mean ambient temperature corresponding to the inflection point on the S-shaped curve shifted significantly from about 13 degrees C to about 8 degrees C after cold acclimated of a group fed for 7 wk at -10 degrees C. The shift of the S-shaped curve after cold acclimation may not be due to the change in the norepinephrine sensitivity of the vascular beds of the ear: the effect of norepinephrine on the pressure-flow curve in the isolated rabbit's ear was almost unchanged between the control and the cold-acclimated groups. It is proposed that the shift of the inflection point gives a qualitative index of the acclimated state of the rabbit at a particular temperature. PMID:1150550

  5. Predicting skin deficits through surface area measurements in ear reconstruction and adult ear surface area norms.

    PubMed

    Yazar, Memet; Sevim, Kamuran Zeynep; Irmak, Fatih; Yazar, Sevgi Kurt; Yeşilada, Ayşin Karasoy; Karşidağğ, Semra Hacikerim; Tatlidede, Hamit Soner

    2013-07-01

    Ear reconstruction is one of the most challenging procedures in plastic surgery practice. Many studies and techniques have been described in the literature for carving a well-pronounced framework. However, just as important as the cartilage framework is the ample amount of delicate skin coverage of the framework. In this report, we introduce an innovative method of measuring the skin surface area of the auricle from a three-dimensional template created from the healthy ear.The study group consisted of 60 adult Turkish individuals who were randomly selected (30 men and 30 women). The participant ages ranged from 18 to 45 years (mean, 31.5 years), and they had no history of trauma or congenital anomalies. The template is created by dividing the ear into aesthetic subunits and using ImageJ software to estimate the necessary amount of total skin surface area required.Reconstruction of the auricle is a complicated process that requires experience and patience to provide the auricular details. We believe this estimate will shorten the learning curve for residents and surgeons interested in ear reconstruction and will help surgeons obtain adequate skin to drape over the well-sculpted cartilage frameworks by providing a reference list of total ear skin surface area measurements for Turkish men and women. PMID:23851770

  6. Infrared tympanic temperature and ear canal morphology.

    PubMed

    Daanen, H A M

    2006-01-01

    Several publications indicate that the infrared tympanic temperature (IRTT) underestimates the core temperature of the body when the ear canal is long, curvy and narrow. In order to quantify these observations, a study was performed in 10 subjects. The IRTT was determined and compared to the oesophageal temperature (Tes), taken as the reference for core temperature. Also, the oral and rectal temperatures were monitored. A three-dimensional print of the ear canal was made to determine the ear canal morphology. The core temperature of the subjects was increased by at least 1 degrees C during the experiment in order to investigate the dynamics of the core temperature assessment. Two devices were used to determine the IRTT: the Braun Thermoscan PRO 1 and the predecessor of the Braun IRT3020 (code name IRT3000P). Both IRTT-devices underestimated the core temperature, as measured by Tes, by 0.38 degrees C on average. The difference DeltaT between IRTT and Tes was related to ear canal morphology. The circumference of the ear canal at the distal bend in the ear canal and the visibility of the tympanum were the most important parameters. About 22% of the variance in DeltaT was explained by ear canal morphology for the steady state resting period. Wide ear canals and good visibility of the tympanic membrane were related to a smaller DeltaT. A good visibility of the tympanic membrane was generally found in the absence of cerumen. The IRT3000P showed better results than the PRO 1 (DeltaT: -0.31 +/- 0.27 degrees C and -0.44 +/- 0.30 degrees C respectively). Also, the IRT3000P was less dependent on ear canal morphology. The dynamic response of the measured core temperatures was determined by the decrease or rise in core temperature after the heating period was ended. The oesophageal temperature dropped by 0.22 degrees C. The IRTT and oral temperature showed an identical increase of 0.19 degrees C. The slow reacting rectal temperature had an after rise of 0.49 degrees C. PMID

  7. Susceptibility of Pseudomonas isolates from the ears and skin of dogs to enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Wildermuth, Brett Everett; Griffin, Craig E; Rosenkrantz, Wayne S; Boord, Mona J

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare susceptibilities of ear and skin Pseudomonas spp. isolates to enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin. Specimens were obtained from dogs examined in a veterinary dermatology referral hospital. Susceptibilities of ear isolates to enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin were 46.9%, 66.7%, and 75.0%, respectively. Susceptibilities of skin isolates to the same drugs were 76.2%, 81.0%, and 80.0%, respectively. Ear isolates were significantly less susceptible to enrofloxacin than to ciprofloxacin (P=0.021), and ear isolates were significantly less susceptible to enrofloxacin than were skin isolates (P=0.034). When fluoroquinolone resistance was present, ear isolates were significantly less susceptible to enrofloxacin than to ciprofloxacin (P<0.001) and marbofloxacin (P=0.014). PMID:17975216

  8. Biophysical study of porcine ear skin in vitro and its comparison to human skin in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sekkat, N; Kalia, Y N; Guy, R H

    2002-11-01

    The goal of this work was to establish, using biophysical characterization, that porcine ear skin in vitro is a valid model for its human counterpart. Specifically, stratum corneum (SC) barrier function was evaluated during its progressive removal by adhesive tape-stripping using the techniques of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and impedance spectroscopy. TEWL increased slowly at first and then more rapidly with the degree of SC impairment. In contrast, low-frequency skin impedance declined exponentially as a function of progressive SC removal. The methods provide complementary and correlated information about SC barrier function. Biophysical parameters, including the diffusivity and permeability coefficient of water across the SC, and the thickness of the barrier were determined from the TEWL data using Fick's first law of diffusion. Furthermore, an ionic partition coefficient-mobility product was estimated from the skin impedance measurements. Comparison of the results with those previously reported for human skin in vivo strongly supports the validity of the porcine membrane as an in vitro model. PMID:12379922

  9. Technical innovations in ear reconstruction using a skin expander with autogenous cartilage grafts.

    PubMed

    Dashan, Yu; Haiyue, Jiang; Qinghua, Yang; Bo, Pan; Lin, Lin; Tailing, Wang; Yanmei, Wang; Xiao, Qin; Hongxing, Zhuang

    2008-01-01

    Pioneers such as Tanzer and Brent have established the foundations of microtia reconstruction using an autogenous costal cartilage framework. The framework and its skin coverage are the two limiting factors in ear reconstruction. At the present time autogenous rib cartilage and mastoid skin are still first choice materials for most surgeons. They have the combined advantages of well-matched texture and colour. To reconstruct a symmetrical, accurate, prominent auricle and minimise as much as possible the chest wall deformity caused by rib cartilage harvesting, we set out to improve our techniques for cartilaginous framework definition and to use the remnant ear to enhance the projection of the reconstructed ear. Since 2000, 342 cases (366 ears) were treated using our current techniques. Data pertaining to complications were recorded. Final results were assessed a minimum of 1 year postoperatively. The follow-up period ranged from 1 to 6 years. Most of the patients with microtia were satisfied with the results of their ear reconstruction. In conclusion, our techniques help to reduce the quantity of rib cartilage needed to fabricate ear framework and minimise chest wall deformity. The frameworks are accurate, prominent and stable. Reconstructed ears are similar in colour and appearance to the normal side. Our innovations are practical and reliable for microtia reconstruction using skin expanders in combination with a sculpted autogenous rib cartilage framework. PMID:18849209

  10. Treatment of postburn ear defect with expanded upper arm flap and consequent expansion without skin grafting.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jintian; Liu, Tun; Zhou, Xu; Zhang, Yong-Biao; Zhang, Qingguo

    2014-04-01

    Total ear reconstruction in the postburn auricle is one of the most challenging procedures for plastic surgeons. Adverse factors associated with these procedures include reduced or damaged blood supply, poor elasticity of scar tissue, increased risk of infection, and the possible destruction of skin, temporoparietal fascia, or retroauricular fascia. In cases where patients are severely burned, free flaps, such as radial forearm flaps, contralateral temporoparietal fascial flaps, or omental flaps, can be used as framework envelopes. In this work, we introduced a novel method of expanded upper arm flap transfer, followed by an expansion method of total ear reconstruction without skin grafting. PMID:24589517

  11. Occurrence and distribution of Malassezia species on skin and external ear canal of horses.

    PubMed

    Shokri, Hojjatollah

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Malassezia species from the body skin and external ear canal of healthy horses. The samples were obtained by scraping the skin surface from the nose, groin and dorsum and swabbing from the external ear canal of 163 animals, and then incubated on sabouraud dextrose agar and modified Dixon agar. Malassezia species were isolated from 34.9% of horses. The percentages of Malassezia species were 64.3% for Arab, 35.7% for Persian, 35.4% for Thoroughbred and 27.1% for Turkmen breeds. The greatest abundance of Malassezia species was found in the external ear canal (47.7%, representing significant difference with other sites), followed by nose (26.3%), groin (15.8%) and dorsum (10.5%) (P < 0.05). A total of 57 strains from six Malassezia species were detected with a frequency rate as follows: M. pachydermatis (33.3%), M. globosa (26.3%), M. sympodialis (14.1%), M. restricta (10.5%), M. obtusa (8.8%) and M. furfur (7%). The most common age-group affected was 1-3 years (59.4%). This study confirmed that cutaneous Malassezia microbiota in healthy horses varies by body site and age but not by breed and gender, representing M. pachydermatis as the most prevalent species on horse skin. PMID:26549307

  12. Evaluation of the transdermal permeation of different paraben combinations through a pig ear skin model.

    PubMed

    Caon, Thiago; Costa, Ana Carolina Oliveira; de Oliveira, Marcone Augusto Leal; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Simões, Cláudia Maria Oliveira

    2010-05-31

    Although parabens have several features of ideal preservatives, different studies have shown that they may affect human health due to their estrogenic activity. Therefore, various strategies have been applied to reduce their skin penetration. However, the effect of paraben combinations on transdermal permeation has not yet been investigated. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate paraben permeation in pig ear skin using a Franz diffusion cell system with capillary electrophoresis detection, in order to identify which paraben combinations (defined by a factorial design) have the lowest skin permeation. The permeation of isolated parabens was also evaluated and the permeation characteristics, obtained by the Moser model, confirmed that lipophilicity and molecular weight may influence the systemic absorption of these compounds. In previous tests using isolated parabens, methyl and ethyl parabens presented greater retention in the epidermis compared to the dermis, while propyl and butyl parabens had similar retention profiles in these layers. An increase in ethanol concentration and experimental time promoted greater parabens retention in the dermis compared to the epidermis. The binary combinations of methyl and ethyl parabens as well as of methyl and propyl parabens (added to several cosmetic products in order to increase the antimicrobial spectrum) reduced significantly their permeation rates through pig ear skin (with the exception of EP), probably due to the high retention of these parabens in the epidermis and dermis. PMID:20156540

  13. Skin Temperature Recording with Phosphors

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Ray N.; Alt, Leslie L.

    1965-01-01

    New knowledge of temperature irregularities associated with various disease states has resulted in increasing interest in the recording of heat radiation from the human body. Infrared radiation from the skin is a surface phenomenon and the amount of such radiation increases with temperature. Previous recording techniques have been not only crude but difficult and expensive. An unconventional thermal imaging system is described which gives superior temperature patterns and is also simpler and cheaper than any of the other available procedures. This system is based on the employment of thermally sensitive phosphors which glow when exposed to ultraviolet illumination, in inverse proportion to the underlying temperature. The thermal image can be directly observed or more critically analyzed and photographed on a simple closed-circuit television monitor. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:14270208

  14. High temperature skin friction measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tcheng, Ping; Holmes, Harlan K.; Supplee, Frank H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Skin friction measurement in the NASA Langley hypersonic propulsion facility is described. The sensor configuration utilized an existing balance, modified to provide thermal isolation and an increased standoff distance. For test run times of about 20 sec and ambient-air cooling of the test section and balance, the modified balance performed satisfactorily, even when it was subjected to acoustic and structural vibration. The balance is an inertially balanced closed-loop servo system where the current to a moving-coil motor needed to restore or null the output from the position sensor is a measure of the force or skin friction tending to displace the moving element. The accuracy of the sensor is directly affected by the position sensor in the feedback loop, in this case a linear-variable differential transformer which has proven to be influenced by temperature gradients.

  15. Dissecting the frog inner ear with Gaussian noise. II. Temperature dependence of inner ear function.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, P; Wit, H P; Segenhout, J M

    1997-12-01

    The temperature dependence of the response of single primary auditory nerve fibers (n = 31) was investigated in the European edible frog, Rana esculenta (seven ears). Nerve fiber responses were analyzed with Wiener kernel analysis and polynomial correlation. The responses were described with a cascade model, consisting of a linear bandpass filter, a static nonlinearity, and a linear lowpass filter. From the computed Wiener kernels and the polynomial correlation functions, the characteristics of the three model components were obtained. With increasing temperature (1) tuning of the first filter increased in the majority (n = 16) of amphibian papilla fibers (best excitatory frequency, BEF < 1 kHz, n = 21) but remained unchanged in the majority (n = 10) of basilar papilla fibers (BEF > 1 kHz, n = 11), (2) the gain of the first filter remained unchanged, (3) the shape of nonlinear IO function remained unchanged, (4) the combined gain of the static nonlinearity and the second filter usually increased, but displayed considerable scatter across fibers (from -0.7 dB/degrees C to 3 dB/degrees C), and (5) the cutoff frequency of the second lowpass filter increases, with average 0.13 oct/degrees C. The immunity of the shape of the nonlinearity is considered evidence of a temperature independent gating mechanism in the transduction channels. The temperature dependence of the second filter may have resulted from a decrease of the hair cell membrane resistance, but may also reflect changes in subsequent staging of nerve fiber excitation. PMID:9447937

  16. Effect of diving and diving hoods on the bacterial flora of the external ear canal and skin.

    PubMed Central

    Brook, I; Coolbaugh, J C; Williscroft, R G

    1982-01-01

    The bacterial flora of the external ear canals and posterior auricular skin surfaces were investigated in a group of 26 divers after 25 dry-suit dives in harbor water and 20 dry-suit dives in clear test tank test. A control group of 16 divers wore rubber hoods 19 times for a similar period (25 to 30 min) but did not dive. The protective effect of 2% acetic acid was tested by instilling it in the left ear of 14 divers and 8 nondivers. Staphylococcus epidermidis, Propionibacterium acnes, alpha-hemolytic streptococci, and enteric gram-negative rods were the predominant isolates from skin and ear samples. After the divers dove or after they wore hoods without going in the water, there was a substantial increase in the number of these organisms on the skin (46.9%) or in the external ears (43.8%) of the divers. However, an increase in the bacterial counts in the external ear canals occurred in only 13.6% of the individuals treated prophylactically with acetic acid drops. Although no gram-negative rods were recovered from the skin or external ear canals of divers in clear tank water, 23 strains were isolated after the dives in harbor water. Identical gram-negative isolates also were recovered from the harbor water. Gram-negative organisms also were recovered from three newly acquired skin lacerations, where they persisted for at least 24 h. Our data show the acquisition of gram-negative rods when dives were made in polluted water. The data also demonstrate the increase in bacterial counts that occurs when rubber diving rods are worn (in or out of water) and that this increase can be controlled by pretreatment of ears with acetic acid. PMID:7096559

  17. Turbine vane with high temperature capable skins

    DOEpatents

    Morrison, Jay A.

    2012-07-10

    A turbine vane assembly includes an airfoil extending between an inner shroud and an outer shroud. The airfoil can include a substructure having an outer peripheral surface. At least a portion of the outer peripheral surface is covered by an external skin. The external skin can be made of a high temperature capable material, such as oxide dispersion strengthened alloys, intermetallic alloys, ceramic matrix composites or refractory alloys. The external skin can be formed, and the airfoil can be subsequently bi-cast around or onto the skin. The skin and the substructure can be attached by a plurality of attachment members extending between the skin and the substructure. The skin can be spaced from the outer peripheral surface of the substructure such that a cavity is formed therebetween. Coolant can be supplied to the cavity. Skins can also be applied to the gas path faces of the inner and outer shrouds.

  18. Skin Temperature Biofeedback in Children and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suter, Steve; Loughry-Machado, Glenna

    1981-01-01

    Skin temperature biofeedback performance was studied in 38 6- to 10-year-old children and 38 of their parents across two sessions of audio biofeedback segments in which participants alternately attempted hand-warming and hand-cooling. Children were superior to adults in controlling skin temperature in the presence of biofeedback. (Author/DB)

  19. Second harmonic generation imaging of skin wound healing and scarring in a rabbit ear model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yiyan; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Xiong, Shuyuan; Chen, Jianxin

    2012-12-01

    Skin wound healing and scarring in rabbit ears was examined by second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy. Rabbit ear wound model was created by punching from the ventral surface with removal of epidermis, dermis and perichondrium. The samples were collected weekly, and cut into 100 μm thickness sections for SHG imaging. SHG imaging system was operated at 810 nm, producing SHG signals at half the excitation wavelength 405 nm. A Plan-Neofluar objective (x40 and NA=0.75) was employed for focusing the excitation beam into tissue samples and was also used to collect the backscattered intrinsic SHG signals. Our results showed apparent difference in collagen content and microstructure at various wound healing and scarring time points. It suggested that SHG signals from collagen can serve as a good indicator for characterization of wound status. With the advancement on miniaturization, microscopy based on SHG will become a valuable tool for monitoring the wound healing and scarring in vivo, and help to guide the improvement of scar appearance with appropriate and subtle modulation during wound healing based on better understanding of scarring response mechanism.

  20. Low skin temperatures produced by new skin refrigerants.

    PubMed

    Strick, R A; Moy, R L

    1985-12-01

    Temperatures produced by Cryosthesia -30 degrees C, Cryosthesia -60 degrees C, and Frigiderm were measured in minipigs. Cryosthesia -60 degrees C and Cryosthesia -30 degrees C were both found to rapidly lower skin temperatures to levels that have been shown to cause cell injury, necrosis, and loss of melanocytes. Use of these agents requires extreme caution in dermabrasion. PMID:3905895

  1. Skin temperatures generated following plaster splint application.

    PubMed

    Lindeque, Bennie G P; Shuler, Franklin D; Bates, Christopher M

    2013-05-01

    Heat is generated during the exothermic reaction associated with plaster splint application. The amount of heat generated is affected by the plaster thickness, dipping water temperature, and extremity elevation method. The authors assessed the effect of these variables on skin and plaster temperatures. Short-leg posterior splints were applied to noninjured extremities on a volunteer using 2 protocols. Following splint application, the splinted leg was elevated in 4 ways: on plastic-covered urethane pillows in cotton pillowcases, on cotton blankets, on ice packs (short-term cryotherapy) placed on top of cotton blankets, or with heel elevation to promote free air circulation. Skin and plaster temperatures were monitored at 1-minute intervals. The maximum skin temperature generated and the average time that skin temperature was 40 °C or higher were recorded. PMID:23672893

  2. Signal and depth enhancement for in vivo flow cytometer measurement of ear skin by optical clearing agents

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yimin; Wang, Jing; Fan, Zhichao; Wei, Dan; Shi, Rui; Luo, Qingming; Zhu, Dan; Wei, Xunbin

    2013-01-01

    The in vivo flow cytometry (IVFC) has shown a great potential for detecting circulating tumor cells quantitatively in the bloodstream. However, the detection depth suffers from the strong light scattering of tissue. In this study, an innovative ear skin optical clearing agent (ESOCA) is employed to improve the signal quality of the IVFC. Our results show that compared with commonly used glycerol, topical application of ESOCA can enhance the transmittance of rat ear significantly in vivo. The labeled red blood cells can be detected by the IVFC with higher signal quality and greater detection depth. This study is very helpful for potential tumor metastasis studies by the IVFC in deep tissues. PMID:24298412

  3. Breaching the skin barrier through temperature modulations.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Yasser; Louw, Ruaan; Gerber, Minja; du Plessis, Jeanetta

    2015-03-28

    The impermeability of the stratum corneum often hinders the transport of molecules across the skin. Temperature modulations in the skin and the application of local heat both have the potential of circumventing this problem temporarily and reversibly and when applied, may aid in enhancing drug diffusion through the skin. A controlled and precise application of heat has the ability to create a cascade of events in the skin and thus aids in facilitating a faster movement of molecules into and across the skin. Possible mechanisms of enhancing drug permeation include: a) increase in drug diffusivity in the vehicle and/or in the skin, b) increase in partitioning and diffusion, c) disturbance in the lipid structure of the stratum corneum, and d) increased local blood flow. These mechanisms may operate individually or concurrently. The creation of micropores or channels in response to exposure to very high heat energy for a fraction of time is another technique that can facilitate the transport, known as thermal ablation. These micropores then serve as channels from where drug molecules can escape from formulations into the skin at a much faster rate than through passive diffusion. This review, therefore, summarises the effects that temperature modulations may have on the permeability of the skin. Physical techniques of heat induced skin ablation, such as chemical heating, thermoporation, radiofrequency induced thermal ablation, and laser induced thermal ablation are also presented in this review. PMID:25616160

  4. Skin pathology induced by snake venom metalloproteinase: acute damage, revascularization, and re-epithelization in a mouse ear model.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Natalia; Escalante, Teresa; Gutiérrez, José María; Rucavado, Alexandra

    2008-10-01

    Viperid snakebite envenomation induces blistering and dermonecrosis. The pathological alterations induced by a snake venom metalloproteinase in the skin were investigated in a mouse ear model. Metalloproteinase BaP1, from Bothrops asper, induced rapid edema, hemorrhage, and blistering; the latter two effects were abrogated by preincubation with the metalloproteinase inhibitor batimastat. Neutrophils did not play a role in the pathology, as depletion of these cells resulted in a similar histological picture. Blisters are likely to result from the direct proteolytic activity of BaP1 of proteins at the dermal-epidermal junction, probably at the lamina lucida, as revealed by immunostaining for type IV collagen and laminin. Widespread apoptosis of keratinocytes was detected by the TUNEL assay, whereas no apoptosis of capillary endothelial cells was observed. BaP1 induced a drastic reduction in the microvessel density, revealed by immunostaining for the endothelial marker vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2. This was followed by a rapid angiogenic response, leading to a partial revascularization. Skin damage was followed by inflammation and granulation tissue formation. Then, a successful re-epithelization process occurred, and the skin of the ear regained its normal structure by 2 weeks. Venom metalloproteinase-induced skin damage reproduces the pathological changes described in snakebitten patients. PMID:18449209

  5. Ex vivo decrease in uranium diffusion through intact and excoriated pig ear skin by a calixarene nanoemulsion.

    PubMed

    Spagnul, Aurélie; Bouvier-Capely, Céline; Phan, Guillaume; Landon, Géraldine; Tessier, Christine; Suhard, David; Rebière, François; Agarande, Michelle; Fattal, Elias

    2011-10-01

    Cutaneous contamination by radionuclides is a major concern in the nuclear industry. In case of skin exposure to uranium, no efficient emergency treatment is available to remove the actinide from the skin. For this purpose, we developed a nanoemulsion containing calixarene molecules displaying good chelating properties towards uranium. In this paper, we describe the ability of this formulation to trap uranium and limit its transfer from the cutaneous contaminated site into the blood. Uranium percutaneous diffusion kinetics was assessed with Franz cells over 24 h through intact and excoriated pig ear skin biopsies, after or without application of the nanoemulsion. Uranium distribution in the skin layers was analysed by SIMS microscopy. The results showed that prompt application of the calixarene nanoemulsion allows a 94% and 98% reduction of the amount of uranium diffused respectively through intact and excoriated skin. The formulation is still efficient in case of delayed application up to 30 minutes since the 24 h-uranium transfer through excoriated skin is reduced by 71%. Besides, no accumulation of uranium or uranium-calixarene chelate was observed in the different skin layers. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the efficiency of the calixarene nanoemulsion, which can be regarded as a promising treatment for uranium cutaneous contamination. PMID:21620969

  6. Survival rate of salmonella on cooked pig ear pet treats at refrigerated and ambient temperature storage.

    PubMed

    Taormina, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Pet treats, including pig ears, have been implicated as vehicles of human salmonellosis, and Salmonella has been isolated on commercially produced pig ears. Therefore, behavior of the pathogen on this very low water activity (aw) pet treat is of interest. The survival of Salmonella serotypes Newport and Typhimurium DT104 was measured on natural (aw 0.256) and smoked (aw 0.306) pig ear pet treat products inoculated at ca. 6.5 log CFU per sample and stored at 4.4 or 22°C for 365 days. Surviving populations of Salmonella were enumerated periodically, and a modified Weibull model was used to fit the inactivation curves for log populations. After 14 days, the decline of Salmonella was significantly (P < 0.05) greater at 22°C than at 4.4°C. By 365 days of storage at 4.4°C, Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 declined by 2.19 log on smoked pig ears and 1.14 log on natural pig ears, while Salmonella Newport declined by 4.20 log on smoked pig ears and 2.08 log on natural pig ears. Populations of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 on refrigerated natural pig ears rebounded between day 152 (3.21 log CFU per sample) and day 175 (4.79 log CFU per sample) and rose gradually for the duration of the study to 5.28 log CFU per sample. The model fits for survival rate of Salmonella on pig ears at 4.4°C show a rapid initial decline followed by a long tailing effect. Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 on natural pig ears at 4.4°C had the slowest rate of reduction. At 22°C Salmonella declined nonlinearly by >4.5 log for each combination of serotype and pig ear type at 22°C but remained detectable by enrichment. The model parameter for days to first decimal reduction of Salmonella on pig ears was two to three times higher at 4.4°C compared with 22°C, demonstrating that Salmonella slowly declines on very low aw refrigerated pet treats and more rapidly at room temperature. This information may be useful for pet treat safety assessments. PMID:24405998

  7. Histopathological and parasitological investigations of ear healthy skin of dogs naturally and experimentally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Maria Marta; Moura, Eliane Perlatto; Costa, Miriam Maria; Ribeiro, Vitor Marcio; Michalick, Marilene Suzan; Tafuri, Washington Luiz; Tafuri, Wagner Luiz

    2010-07-01

    Although 90% of clinical cases of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) occur in the northeastern region of Brazil, the incidence of cases in recent years has increased in southeastern states such as Minas Gerais (MG), where the disease has been reported in several cities, including Belo Horizonte, the state capital. Some studies have shown a strong correlation between the incidence of AVL and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Belo Horizonte. A study of 108 dogs with parasite Leishmania chagasi detected by immuno-histochemistry in healthy ear skin was obtained from two distinct geographical areas: 55 from a metropolitan area of the municipality (Santa Luzia, MG) and 53 dogs from a central area of Belo Horizonte. In parallel, a group of 10 beagles were experimentally infected with L. chagasi. Considering the clinical aspects of all naturally infected dogs, symptomatic dogs were more frequent than asymptomatic ones, especially animals from the metropolitan area compared with the central area (79.6% and 20.3%, respectively). A chronic exudate was observed in the ear of 51 out of 55 dogs naturally infected from the metropolitan area (92.7%) and 45 out of 53 dogs naturally infected from the central area (84.9%). Importantly, asymptomatic dogs from the central area harbor more parasites in the skin than the asymptomatic ones from the metropolitan area. In addition, a profound difference was noted in the intensity of the inflammatory reaction and parasite load in the skin of experimental infected dogs. PMID:20503176

  8. Control of skin blood flow, sweating, and heart rate - Role of skin vs. core temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyss, C. R.; Brengelmann, G. L.; Johnson, J. M.; Rowell, L. B.; Niederberger, M.

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted to generate quantitative expressions for the influence of core temperature, skin temperature, and the rate of change of skin temperature on sweat rate, skin blood flow, and heart rate. A second goal of the study was to determine whether the use of esophageal temperature rather than the right atrial temperature as a measure of core temperature would lead to different conclusions about the control of measured effector variables.

  9. [The structure of the skin of the ear in domesticated pigs, with special reference to their use for human dermatological research. 2. Specific histology of the integument].

    PubMed

    Meyer, W; Zschemisch, N H; Godynicki, S; Neurand, K

    2001-01-01

    Based on light microscopy, the study describes the specific histology of the ear integument of the white domesticated pig. After careful tissue fixation and embedding, routine histological staining, collagen fibre staining, fat demonstration based on frozen sections, and ink injection of the integumental blood vessel system were applied. A detailed description is presented of the structure of the skin layers (epidermis, dermis, hypodermis), the ear cartilage envelopes (fascia, perichondrium), the plica scaphae, the blood vessel distribution, the architecture of the collagen fibre bundles, as well as the hair follicles and the skin glands (sebaceous glands, apocrine tubular glands). The results are discussed with regard to a direct comparison with the histological structure of the human integument, and the advantages and disadvantages of the use of the porcine ear skin as model system in human dermatological research are emphasized. PMID:11314580

  10. Nerve conduction studies in upper extremities: skin temperature corrections.

    PubMed

    Halar, E M; DeLisa, J A; Soine, T L

    1983-09-01

    The relationship of skin to near nerve (NN) temperature and to nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and distal latency (DL) was studied in 34 normal adult subjects before and after cooling both upper extremities. Median and ulnar motor and sensory NCV, DL, and NN temperature were determined at ambient temperature (mean X skin temp = 33 C) and after cooling, at approximately 26, 28, and 30 C of forearm skin temperature. Skin temperatures on the volar side of the forearm, wrist, palm, and fingers and NN temperature at the forearm, midpalm, and thenar or hypothenar eminence were compared with respective NCV and DL. Results showed a significant linear correlation between skin temperature and NN temperature at corresponding sites (r2 range, 0.4-0.84; p less than 0.005). Furthermore, both skin and NN temperatures correlated significantly with respective NCV and DL. Midline wrist skin temperature showed the best correlation to NCV and DL. Median motor and sensory NCV were altered 1.5 and 1.4m/sec/C degree and their DL 0.2 msec/C degree of wrist skin temperature change, respectively. Ulnar motor and sensory NCV were changed 2.1 and 1.6m/sec/C degree respectively, and 0.2 msec/C degree wrist temperature for motor and sensory DL. Average ambient skin temperature at the wrist (33 C) was used as a standard skin temperature in the temperature correction formula: NCV or DL(temp corrected) = CF(Tst degree - Tm degree) + obtained NCV or DL, where Tst = 33 C for wrist, Tm = the measured skin temperature, and CF = correction factor of tested nerve. Use of temperature correction formula for NCV and DL is suggested in patients with changed wrist skin temperature outside 29.6-36.4C temperature range. PMID:6615178

  11. The ocean skin temperature distribution and the bulk-skin temperature difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jessup, A.; Phadnis, K.; Atmane, M.; Zappa, C.; Loewen, M.; Asher, B.

    2008-12-01

    An experiment in a wind-wave flume was conducted to investigate the relationship between the bulk-skin temperature difference (deltaT) and the ocean skin temperature distribution (Tskin PDF). Skin temperature was measured with an infrared radiometer, bulk temperature was measured with a profiler, and the distribution was measured with an infrared camera. The gradient flux technique was used to measure the net heat flux, which was varied by controlling the wind speed, air-water temperature difference, and relative humidity. This data set provides a unique opportunity to compare direct measurements of deltaT to the Tskin PDF. We found that the percentile of the distribution of measured skin temperatures that corresponded to the measured sub-skin bulk temperature was in the 99.8th or higher percentile for 18 out of 21 cases and higher than the 99.9th percentile when deltaT > 0.15 K. This result shows that the bulk temperature corresponds to the maximum value in the Tskin PDF. We found that the analytical expression for fitting the distribution developed by Garbe et al. [JGR, 2004] was successfully only when the distribution was truncated at the 99.9th percentile, removing the warmest temperatures. However, because the measured bulk temperature (Tbulk) was found to correspond to these same warmest temperatures, especially when deltaT > 0.15 K, our results demonstrate that the method of Garbe et al. [2004] underestimates Tbulk and therefore deltaT. This conclusion was supported by comparing deltaT values from the GasEx01 cruise reported by Garbe et al. [2004] with deltaT from concurrent, direct measurements of Tskin and Tbulk The comparison showed that deltaT from the PDF fitting technique consistently underestimated the measured deltaT by an average factor of 5. We have shown that the skin layer is completely renewed by near-surface turbulence, which is a fundamental assumption of surface renewal theory. Paradoxically, we also have shown that a technique based on a

  12. Optical Monitoring of Living Nerve Terminal Labeling in Hair Follicle Lanceolate Endings of the Ex Vivo Mouse Ear Skin.

    PubMed

    Bewick, Guy S; Banks, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    A novel dissection and recording technique is described for optical monitoring staining and de-staining of lanceolate terminals surrounding hair follicles in the skin of the mouse pinna. The preparation is simple and relatively fast, reliably yielding extensive regions of multiple labeled units of living nerve terminals to study uptake and release of styryl pyridinium dyes extensively used in studies of vesicle recycling. Subdividing the preparations before labeling allows test vs. control comparisons in the same ear from a single individual. Helpful tips are given for improving the quality of the preparation, the labeling and the imaging parameters. This new system is suitable for assaying pharmacologically and mechanically-induced uptake and release of these vital dyes in lanceolate terminals in both wild-type and genetically modified animals. Examples of modulatory influences on labeling intensity are given. PMID:27077818

  13. Optical Monitoring of Living Nerve Terminal Labeling in Hair Follicle Lanceolate Endings of the Ex Vivo Mouse Ear Skin

    PubMed Central

    Bewick, Guy S.; Banks, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    A novel dissection and recording technique is described for optical monitoring staining and de-staining of lanceolate terminals surrounding hair follicles in the skin of the mouse pinna. The preparation is simple and relatively fast, reliably yielding extensive regions of multiple labeled units of living nerve terminals to study uptake and release of styryl pyridinium dyes extensively used in studies of vesicle recycling. Subdividing the preparations before labeling allows test vs. control comparisons in the same ear from a single individual. Helpful tips are given for improving the quality of the preparation, the labeling and the imaging parameters. This new system is suitable for assaying pharmacologically and mechanically-induced uptake and release of these vital dyes in lanceolate terminals in both wild-type and genetically modified animals. Examples of modulatory influences on labeling intensity are given. PMID:27077818

  14. Evaluation of Skin Temperatures Retrieved from GOES-8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suggs, Ronnie, J.; Jedlovec, G. J.; Lapenta, W. M.; Haines, S. L.

    2000-01-01

    Skin temperatures derived from geostationary satellites have the potential of providing the temporal and spatial resolution needed for model assimilation. To adequately assess the potential improvements in numerical model forecasts that can be made by assimilating satellite data, an estimate of the accuracy of the skin temperature product is necessary. A particular skin temperature algorithm, the Physical Split Window Technique, that uses the longwave infrared channels of the GOES Imager has shown promise in recent model assimilation studies to provide land surface temperatures with reasonable accuracy. A comparison of retrieved GOES-8 skin temperatures from this algorithm with in situ measurements is presented. Various retrieval algorithm issues are addressed including surface emissivity

  15. Do Haematophagous Bugs Assess Skin Surface Temperature to Detect Blood Vessels?

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Raquel A.; Lazzari, Claudio R.; Lorenzo, Marcelo G.; Pereira, Marcos H.

    2007-01-01

    Background It is known that some blood-sucking insects have the ability to reach vessels under the host skin with their mouthparts to feed blood from inside them. However, the process by which they locate these vessels remains largely unknown. Less than 5% of the skin is occupied by blood vessels and thus, it is not likely that insects rely on a “random search strategy”, since it would increase the probability of being killed by their hosts. Indeed, heterogeneities along the skin surface might offer exploitable information for guiding insect's bites. Methodology/Principal Findings We tested whether the bug Rhodnius prolixus can evaluate temperature discontinuities along the body surface in order to locate vessels before piercing the host skin. When placed over a rabbit ear, the bug's first bites were mostly directed towards the main vessels. When insects were confronted to artificial linear heat sources presenting a temperature gradient against the background, most bites were directly addressed to the warmer linear source, notwithstanding the temperature of both, the source and the background. Finally, tests performed using uni- and bilaterally antennectomized insects revealed that the bilateral integration of thermal inputs from both antennae is necessary for precisely directing bites. Conclusions/Significance R. prolixus may be able to exploit the temperature differences observed over the skin surface to locate blood vessles. Bugs bite the warmest targets regardless of the target/background temperatures, suggesting that they do not bite choosing a preferred temperature, but select temperature discontinuities along the skin. This strategy seems to be an efficient one for finding blood vessels within a wide temperature range, allowing finding them on different hosts, as well as on different areas of the host body. Our study also adds new insight about the use of antennal thermal inputs by blood sucking bugs. PMID:17895973

  16. Infrared skin temperature measurements for monitoring health in pigs: a review.

    PubMed

    Soerensen, Dennis Dam; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2015-01-01

    Infrared temperature measurement equipment (IRTME) is gaining popularity as a diagnostic tool for evaluating human and animal health. It has the prospect of reducing subject stress and disease spread by being implemented as an automatic surveillance system and by a quick assessment of skin temperatures without need for restraint or contact. This review evaluates studies and applications where IRTME has been used on pigs. These include investigations of relationships between skin, ambient and body temperatures and applications for detecting fever, inflammation, lesions, ovulation, and stress as well as for meat quality assessment. The best skin locations for high correlation between skin temperature and rectal temperature are most likely thermal windows such as ear base, eye region and udder. However, this may change with age, stressors, and biological state changes, for example, farrowing. The studies performed on pigs using IRTME have presented somewhat discrepant results, which could be caused by inadequate equipment, varying knowledge about reliable equipment operation, and site-specific factors not included in the assessment. Future focus areas in the field of IRTME are suggested for further development of new application areas and increased diagnostic value in the porcine and animal setting in general. PMID:25644397

  17. Estimation of Thermal Sensation Based on Wrist Skin Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Soo Young; Koh, Myung Jun; Joo, Kwang Min; Noh, Seungwoo; Park, Sangyun; Kim, Youn Ho; Park, Kwang Suk

    2016-01-01

    Thermal comfort is an essential environmental factor related to quality of life and work effectiveness. We assessed the feasibility of wrist skin temperature monitoring for estimating subjective thermal sensation. We invented a wrist band that simultaneously monitors skin temperatures from the wrist (i.e., the radial artery and ulnar artery regions, and upper wrist) and the fingertip. Skin temperatures from eight healthy subjects were acquired while thermal sensation varied. To develop a thermal sensation estimation model, the mean skin temperature, temperature gradient, time differential of the temperatures, and average power of frequency band were calculated. A thermal sensation estimation model using temperatures of the fingertip and wrist showed the highest accuracy (mean root mean square error [RMSE]: 1.26 ± 0.31). An estimation model based on the three wrist skin temperatures showed a slightly better result to the model that used a single fingertip skin temperature (mean RMSE: 1.39 ± 0.18). When a personalized thermal sensation estimation model based on three wrist skin temperatures was used, the mean RMSE was 1.06 ± 0.29, and the correlation coefficient was 0.89. Thermal sensation estimation technology based on wrist skin temperatures, and combined with wearable devices may facilitate intelligent control of one’s thermal environment. PMID:27023538

  18. The effect of body temperature on the hunting response of the middle finger skin temperature.

    PubMed

    Daanen, H A; Van de Linde, F J; Romet, T T; Ducharme, M B

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between body temperature and the hunting response (intermittent supply of warm blood to cold exposed extremities) was quantified for nine subjects by immersing one hand in 8 degree C water while their body was either warm, cool or comfortable. Core and skin temperatures were manipulated by exposing the subjects to different ambient temperatures (30, 22, or 15 degrees C), by adjusting their clothing insulation (moderate, light, or none), and by drinking beverages at different temperatures (43, 37 and 0 degrees C). The middle finger temperature (Tfi) response was recorded, together with ear canal (Tear), rectal (Tre), and mean skin temperature (Tsk). The induced mean Tear changes were -0.34 (0.08) and +0.29 (0.03) degrees C following consumption of the cold and hot beverage, respectively. Tsk ranged from 26.7 to 34.5 degrees C during the tests. In the warm environment after a hot drink, the initial finger temperature (T(fi,base)) was 35.3 (0.4) degrees C, the minimum finger temperature during immersion (T(fi,min)) was 11.3 (0.5) degrees C, and 2.6 (0.4) hunting waves occurred in the 30-min immersion period. In the neutral condition (thermoneutral room and beverage) T(fi,base) was 32.1 (1.0) degrees C, T(fi,min) was 9.6 (0.3) degrees C, and 1.6 (0.2) waves occurred. In the cold environment after a cold drink, these values were 19.3 (0.9) degrees C, 8.7 (0.2) degrees C, and 0.8 (0.2) waves, respectively. A colder body induced a decrease in the magnitude and frequency of the hunting response. The total heat transferred from the hand to the water, as estimated by the area under the middle finger temperature curve, was also dependent upon the induced increase or decrease in Tear and Tsk. We conclude that the characteristics of the hunting temperature response curve of the finger are in part determined by core temperature and Tsk. Both T(fi,min) and the maximal finger temperature during immersion were higher when the core temperature was elevated; Tsk

  19. Keloid above the ear (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Keloids are overgrowths of scar tissue that follow skin injuries. Keloids may appear after such minor trauma as ear piercing. Dark skinned individuals tend to form keloids more readily than lighter skinned individuals.

  20. Treated-skin temperature regularities revealed by IR thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainer, Boris G.

    2001-03-01

    Experimental results disclosing temperature change of human skin affected by various unnatural factors are presented in detail. Thermograms are obtained with the IR thermograph containing high performance InAs CID FPA-based photosensitive unit. Using logarithmic scale of time, evolution of skin temperature after moistening, spirit sponging, and olive oil lubrication is investigated. A comparative analysis of the resulting effects of treatments including alpha-hydroxy acid, cosmetic regenerating cream, spirit, and water, is made. Quantitative distinctions between skin regions characterized by ordinary, and depleted blood supply, including areas located directly above surface main vessels, are revealed. Strongly logarithmic time- dependence of a skin temperature is discovered when the skin is cooled down after its preliminary heating with a hot wax. Non-monotonic change of a local temperature during electrically active procedure is described. Low level light therapy equipment is also applied. A special role of the temperature of nose is discussed.

  1. Satellite Sensed Skin Sea Surface Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donlon, Craig

    1997-01-01

    Quantitative predictions of spatial and temporal changes the global climate rely heavily on the use of computer models. Unfortunately, such models cannot provide the basis for climate prediction because key physical processes are inadequately treated. Consequently, fine tuning procedures are often used to optimize the fit between model output and observational data and the validation of climate models using observations is essential if model based predictions of climate change are to be treated with any degree of confidence. Satellite Sea Surface Temperature (SST) observations provide high spatial and temporal resolution data which is extremely well suited to the initialization, definition of boundary conditions and, validation of climate models. In the case of coupled ocean-atmosphere models, the SST (or more correctly the 'Skin' SST (SSST)) is a fundamental diagnostic variable to consider in the validation process. Daily global SST maps derived from satellite sensors also provide adequate data for the detection of global patterns of change which, unlike any other SST data set, repeatedly extend into the southern hemisphere extra-tropical regions. Such data are essential to the success of the spatial 'fingerprint' technique, which seeks to establish a north-south asymmetry where warming is suppressed in the high latitude Southern Ocean. Some estimates suggest that there is a greater than 80% chance of directly detecting significant change (97.5 % confidence level) after 10-12 years of consistent global observations of mean sea surface temperature. However, these latter statements should be qualified with the assumption that a negligible drift in the observing system exists and that biases between individual instruments required to derive a long term data set are small. Given that current estimates for the magnitude of global warming of 0.015 K yr(sup -1) - 0.025 K yr(sup -1), satellite SST data sets need to be both accurate and stable if such a warming trend is to

  2. Pierced Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Pierced Ears KidsHealth > For Kids > Pierced Ears Print A A ... cool, but infected ears do not! Getting Your Ears Pierced It's important to get your ears pierced ...

  3. Skin and bulk temperature difference at Lake Tahoe: A case study on lake skin effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, R. Chris; Hook, Simon J.; Schneider, Philipp; Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    2013-09-01

    water, infrared radiometers on satellites measure radiation leaving from the surface skin layer and therefore the retrieved temperature is representative of the skin layer. This is slightly different from the bulk layer deeper in the water where various floating thermometers take temperature measurements to validate satellite measurements. The difference between the bulk and skin temperature (skin effect) must be understood to properly validate schemes that use surface skin temperature to infer bulk temperatures. Further skin temperatures retrieved over inland waters may show different patterns to those retrieved over oceans due to differences in conditions such as wind speed, aerosols, and elevation. We have analyzed the differences between the skin and bulk temperatures at four permanent monitoring stations (buoys) located on Lake Tahoe since 1999 and compared the results with similar studies over the ocean typically obtained from boat cruises. Skin effect distributions were found to be consistent across the buoys; however, the diurnal behavior of the skin effect was slightly different and shown to be related to wind speed measured at an individual buoy. When wind speed was less than 2 m s-1, the skin temperature osclillated and greatly increased the uncertainty in the skin effect reported over Lake Tahoe. When downwelling sky radiation was increased from clouds or high humidity, this led to nighttime skin temperatures that were warmer than bulk temperatures by as much as 0.5 K. The size of the warm skin effect is larger than other ocean studies that observed warm nighttime skin values around 0.1 K. The nighttime skin effect was seen to be more consistent with a smaller standard deviation compared to the daytime skin effect. The nighttime skin behavior had a mean and standard deviation that ranged between 0.3 and 0.5 K and between 0.3 and 0.4 K, respectively. In contrast, daytime skin effect was strongly influenced by direct solar illumination and typically had a

  4. Breathable and Stretchable Temperature Sensors Inspired by Skin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Lu, Bingwei; Chen, Yihao; Feng, Xue

    2015-01-01

    Flexible electronics attached to skin for healthcare, such as epidermal electronics, has to struggle with biocompatibility and adapt to specified environment of skin with respect to breath and perspiration. Here, we report a strategy for biocompatible flexible temperature sensors, inspired by skin, possessing the excellent permeability of air and high quality of water-proof by using semipermeable film with porous structures as substrate. We attach such temperature sensors to underarm and forearm to measure the axillary temperature and body surface temperature respectively. The volunteer wears such sensors for 24 hours with two times of shower and the in vitro test shows no sign of maceration or stimulation to the skin. Especially, precise temperature changes on skin surface caused by flowing air and water dropping are also measured to validate the accuracy and dynamical response. The results show that the biocompatible temperature sensor is soft and breathable on the human skin and has the excellent accuracy compared to mercury thermometer. This demonstrates the possibility and feasibility of fully using the sensors in long term body temperature sensing for medical use as well as sensing function of artificial skin for robots or prosthesis. PMID:26095941

  5. Breathable and Stretchable Temperature Sensors Inspired by Skin

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Lu, Bingwei; Chen, Yihao; Feng, Xue

    2015-01-01

    Flexible electronics attached to skin for healthcare, such as epidermal electronics, has to struggle with biocompatibility and adapt to specified environment of skin with respect to breath and perspiration. Here, we report a strategy for biocompatible flexible temperature sensors, inspired by skin, possessing the excellent permeability of air and high quality of water-proof by using semipermeable film with porous structures as substrate. We attach such temperature sensors to underarm and forearm to measure the axillary temperature and body surface temperature respectively. The volunteer wears such sensors for 24 hours with two times of shower and the in vitro test shows no sign of maceration or stimulation to the skin. Especially, precise temperature changes on skin surface caused by flowing air and water dropping are also measured to validate the accuracy and dynamical response. The results show that the biocompatible temperature sensor is soft and breathable on the human skin and has the excellent accuracy compared to mercury thermometer. This demonstrates the possibility and feasibility of fully using the sensors in long term body temperature sensing for medical use as well as sensing function of artificial skin for robots or prosthesis. PMID:26095941

  6. Breathable and Stretchable Temperature Sensors Inspired by Skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Lu, Bingwei; Chen, Yihao; Feng, Xue

    2015-06-01

    Flexible electronics attached to skin for healthcare, such as epidermal electronics, has to struggle with biocompatibility and adapt to specified environment of skin with respect to breath and perspiration. Here, we report a strategy for biocompatible flexible temperature sensors, inspired by skin, possessing the excellent permeability of air and high quality of water-proof by using semipermeable film with porous structures as substrate. We attach such temperature sensors to underarm and forearm to measure the axillary temperature and body surface temperature respectively. The volunteer wears such sensors for 24 hours with two times of shower and the in vitro test shows no sign of maceration or stimulation to the skin. Especially, precise temperature changes on skin surface caused by flowing air and water dropping are also measured to validate the accuracy and dynamical response. The results show that the biocompatible temperature sensor is soft and breathable on the human skin and has the excellent accuracy compared to mercury thermometer. This demonstrates the possibility and feasibility of fully using the sensors in long term body temperature sensing for medical use as well as sensing function of artificial skin for robots or prosthesis.

  7. Skin temperature changes induced by strong static magnetic field exposure.

    PubMed

    Ichioka, Shigeru; Minegishi, Masayuki; Iwasaka, Masakazu; Shibata, Masahiro; Nakatsuka, Takashi; Ando, Joji; Ueno, Shoogo

    2003-09-01

    High intensity static magnetic fields, when applied to the whole body of the anesthetized rat, have previously been reported to decrease skin temperature. The hypothesis of the present study was that in diamagnetic water, molecules in the air play significant roles in the mechanism of skin temperature decrease. We used a horizontal cylindrical superconducting magnet. The magnet produced 8 T at its center. A thermistor probe was inserted in a subcutaneous pocket of the anesthetized rats to measure skin temperature. Animals (n=10) were placed in an open plastic holder in which the ambient air was free to move in any direction (group I). Animals (n=10) were placed in a closed holder in which the air circulation toward the direction of weak magnetic field was restricted (group II). Each holder was connected to a hydrometer to measure humidity around the animal in the holder. The data acquisition phase consisted of a 5 min baseline interval, followed by inserting the animal together with the holder into the center of the magnet bore for a 5 min exposure and a 5 min postexposure period outside the bore. In group I, skin temperature and humidity around the animal significantly decreased during exposure, followed by recovery after exposure. In group II, skin temperature and humidity did not decrease during the measurement. The skin temperature decrease was closely related to the decrease in humidity around the body of the animal in the holder, and the changes were completely blocked by restricting the air circulation in the direction of the bore entrance. Possible mechanisms responsible for the decrease in skin temperature may be associated with magnetically induced movement of water vapor at the skin surface, leading to skin temperature decrease. PMID:12929156

  8. Thermistor holder for skin-temperature measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Williams, B. A.

    1974-01-01

    Sensing head of thermistor probe is supported in center area of plastic ring which has tabs so that it can be anchored in place by rubber bands or adhesive tapes. Device attaches probes to human subjects practically, reliably, and without affecting characteristics of skin segment being measured.

  9. Swimmer's Ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Swimmer's Ear KidsHealth > For Kids > Swimmer's Ear Print A A ... How Do I Know if I Have Swimmer's Ear? Swimmer's ear may start with some itching, but ...

  10. Ear Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Tubes Ear Tubes Patient Health Information News media ... and throat specialist) may be considered. What are ear tubes? Ear tubes are tiny cylinders placed through ...

  11. Ear defects.

    PubMed

    Shonka, David C; Park, Stephen S

    2009-08-01

    The projection and exposure of the auricle make it particularly susceptible to actinic injury and thus to cutaneous malignancies. Auricular reconstruction is challenging because of its unique surface anatomy and undulating topography. This article organizes auricular defects into different categories based on anatomic location and extent of tissue loss, including skin-only defects, small composite defects, full-thickness defects involving or sparing the upper third of the ear, and total auricular loss. The authors share an algorithm for repair of the array of auricular defects. PMID:19698921

  12. NONINVASIVE, CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF RAT TAIL SKIN TEMPERATURE BY RADIOTELEMETRY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tail skin temperature (Tsk) can provide a wealth of information on the thermoregulatory status of the rat. Drug- and toxic-induced changes in body temperature are often mediated by vasodilation or constriction of blood flow to the tail and Tsk can generally be used as an indica...

  13. Limitations of temperature measurement in the aural canal with an ear mould integrated sensor.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, L P J; de Haan, A; de Koning, J J; Clairbois, H E; Daanen, H A M

    2011-09-01

    Aural canal temperature measurement using an ear mould integrated sensor (T(ac)) might be a method suited for continuous non-invasive core temperature estimation in operational settings. We studied the effect of ambient temperature, wind and high intensity exercise on T(ac) and its ability to predict esophageal (T(es)) and rectal temperatures (T(re)). Seven subjects performed a protocol of rest at 21, 10 and 30 °C, followed by exercise and recovery at 30 °C. The subjects performed the protocol twice: with and without face-wind from halfway through the 30 °C rest period. Extra auricle insulation was applied at one side. Ambient temperature changes affected T(ac) significantly, while T(es) and T(re) remained stable. Insulating the auricle reduced but did not abolish this effect. Wind had an immediate cooling effect on T(ac) independent of auricle insulation. During exercise and recovery in 30 °C, T(ac) provided acceptable group predictions of T(re) in trials without wind (bias: -0.66 ± 0.21 °C covered, -1.20 ± 0.15 °C uncovered). Bias was considerably higher with wind, but variability was similar (-1.73 ± 0.11 °C covered, -2.49 ± 0.04 °C uncovered). Individual predictions of T(es) and T(re) showed more variation, especially with wind. We conclude that T(ac) may be used for core temperature assessment of groups in warm and stable conditions. PMID:21788686

  14. Dermal absorption and hydrolysis of methylparaben in different vehicles through intact and damaged skin: using a pig-ear model in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pažoureková, Silvia; Hojerová, Jarmila; Klimová, Zuzana; Lucová, Marianna

    2013-09-01

    Currently, there is a trend to reduce of parabens use due to concern about the safety of their unmetabolised forms. This paper focused on dermal absorption rate and effectiveness of first-pass biotransformation of methylparaben (MP) under in-use conditions of skincare products. 24-h exposure of previously frozen intact and tapestripped (20 strips) pig-ear skin to nine vehicles containing 0.1% MP (AD, applied dose of 10 μg/cm²), resulted in 2.0-5.8%AD and 2.9-7.6%AD of unmetabolised MP, and 37.0-73.0%AD and 56.0-95.0%AD of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, respectively, in the receptor fluid. The absorption rate of MP was higher from emulsions than from hydrogels, from enhancer-containing vehicles than from enhancer-free vehicles, and when skin was damaged. Experiments confirmed that the freezing of pig-ear skin slightly reduces hydrolysis of MP. After 4-h exposure of intact freshly excised and intact frozen stored skin, amount of skin with damaged barrier. PMID:23872132

  15. Skin temperature oscillation model for assessing vasomotion of microcirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yuan-Liang; He, Ying; Shao, Hong-Wei; Mizeva, Irina

    2015-02-01

    It has been proved that there exists a certain correlation between fingertip temperature oscillations and blood flow oscillations. In this work, a porous media model of human hand is presented to investigate how the blood flow oscillation in the endothelial frequency band influences fingertip skin temperature oscillations. The porosity which represents the density of micro vessels is assumed to vary periodically and is a function of the skin temperature. Finite element analysis of skin temperature for a contra lateral hand under a cooling test was conducted. Subsequently, wavelet analysis was carried out to extract the temperature oscillations of the data through the numerical analysis and experimental measurements. Furthermore, the oscillations extracted from both numerical analyses and experiments were statistically analyzed to compare the amplitude. The simulation and experimental results show that for the subjects in cardiovascular health, the skin temperature fluctuations in endothelial frequency decrease during the cooling test and increase gradually after cooling, implying that the assumed porosity variation can represent the vasomotion in the endothelial frequency band.

  16. Fingertip skin-inspired microstructured ferroelectric skins discriminate static/dynamic pressure and temperature stimuli.

    PubMed

    Park, Jonghwa; Kim, Marie; Lee, Youngoh; Lee, Heon Sang; Ko, Hyunhyub

    2015-10-01

    In human fingertips, the fingerprint patterns and interlocked epidermal-dermal microridges play a critical role in amplifying and transferring tactile signals to various mechanoreceptors, enabling spatiotemporal perception of various static and dynamic tactile signals. Inspired by the structure and functions of the human fingertip, we fabricated fingerprint-like patterns and interlocked microstructures in ferroelectric films, which can enhance the piezoelectric, pyroelectric, and piezoresistive sensing of static and dynamic mechanothermal signals. Our flexible and microstructured ferroelectric skins can detect and discriminate between multiple spatiotemporal tactile stimuli including static and dynamic pressure, vibration, and temperature with high sensitivities. As proof-of-concept demonstration, the sensors have been used for the simultaneous monitoring of pulse pressure and temperature of artery vessels, precise detection of acoustic sounds, and discrimination of various surface textures. Our microstructured ferroelectric skins may find applications in robotic skins, wearable sensors, and medical diagnostic devices. PMID:26601303

  17. Modulation of ocean skin temperature by swell waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jessup, A. T.; Hesany, V.

    1996-03-01

    Infrared measurements of sea surface temperature from R/P Flip in the deep ocean show that there is significant modulation of ocean skin temperature by swell waves and that the wind plays a dominant role in the process. The squared coherence and the magnitude of the transfer function between the skin temperature and surface displacement respond to the wind speed, while its phase is determined by the direction of the wind relative to the swell. When the swell and wind are in the same direction, the transfer function phase indicates that the maximum skin temperature occurs on the forward face, which, in this case, is also the downwind side. Remarkably, the phase changes by roughly 180° when the wind direction reverses from going with the swell to going against it, so that the maximum switches to the rear face, which is again downwind. The peak-to-peak modulation T0 is found to be correlated with the bulk-skin temperature difference ΔT. Furthermore, T0 is of the same order as ΔT, suggesting that small-scale wave breaking due to longwave/shortwave interaction may dominate the phenomenon.

  18. Ear Infections

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Ear Infections Overview How does the ear work? A tube called the eustachian (say: "you-stay-shee-an") tube connects the middle ear with the back of the nose. Normally this ...

  19. Cauliflower Ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes What's Cauliflower Ear? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Cauliflower Ear? Print A A A Text Size Have you ever seen someone whose ear looks bumpy and lumpy? The person might have ...

  20. Swimmer's ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) Vinegar (acetic acid) ear drops People with chronic swimmer's ear may ... drop of alcohol with 1 drop of white vinegar and placing the mixture into the ears after ...

  1. Ear Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... ear, where they make your eardrum vibrate. The vibrations are transmitted through three tiny bones, called ossicles, in your middle ear. The vibrations travel to your inner ear, a snail-shaped ...

  2. Evaluation of skin temperature over carotid artery for temperature monitoring in comparison to nasopharyngeal temperature in adults under general anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Selvaraj, Venkatesh; Gnanaprakasam, Pughal Vendan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thermoregulation is markedly affected in patients undergoing surgical procedures under anesthesia. Monitoring of temperature is very important during such conditions. Skin temperature is one of the easy and noninvasive ways of temperature monitoring. Common skin temperature monitoring sites are unreliable and did not correlate to the core temperature measurement. Aim: To compare and study the correlation of skin temperature over carotid artery in the neck to that of simultaneously measured nasopharyngeal temperature in adult patients undergoing surgical procedures under general anesthesia. Settings and Design: Prospective double-blinded study in a Tertiary Care Center. Materials and Methods: Ninety-seven consecutive American Society of Anesthesiologists I–II patients of age 18–40 years posted for elective surgical procedures under general anesthesia were included. Two temperature sites are monitored: The skin temperature over the carotid artery in the neck with a skin temperature probe T (skin-carotid) and the nasopharyngeal temperature T (naso) with another nasopharyngeal probe. The temperature readings are taken at 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 min after induction of general anesthesia. Statistical Analysis: Paired t-test, Pearson correlation and Bland–Altman analysis for the rate of agreement. Results: The skin over the carotid artery in the neck showed statistically significant lower values than simultaneously measured nasopharyngeal temperature. This comparison is done with paired t-test at P< 0.05 significance. Bland–Altman plots showed good agreement between the two sites of temperature measurement. Conclusion: This study has shown that the skin temperature over the carotid artery in the neck was strongly correlated to the nasopharyngeal temperature in adult patients undergoing surgical procedures under general anesthesia. PMID:27212763

  3. Skin temperature reveals the intensity of acute stress.

    PubMed

    Herborn, Katherine A; Graves, James L; Jerem, Paul; Evans, Neil P; Nager, Ruedi; McCafferty, Dominic J; McKeegan, Dorothy E F

    2015-12-01

    Acute stress triggers peripheral vasoconstriction, causing a rapid, short-term drop in skin temperature in homeotherms. We tested, for the first time, whether this response has the potential to quantify stress, by exhibiting proportionality with stressor intensity. We used established behavioural and hormonal markers: activity level and corticosterone level, to validate a mild and more severe form of an acute restraint stressor in hens (Gallus gallus domesticus). We then used infrared thermography (IRT) to non-invasively collect continuous temperature measurements following exposure to these two intensities of acute handling stress. In the comb and wattle, two skin regions with a known thermoregulatory role, stressor intensity predicted the extent of initial skin cooling, and also the occurrence of a more delayed skin warming, providing two opportunities to quantify stress. With the present, cost-effective availability of IRT technology, this non-invasive and continuous method of stress assessment in unrestrained animals has the potential to become common practice in pure and applied research. PMID:26434785

  4. Skin temperature reveals the intensity of acute stress

    PubMed Central

    Herborn, Katherine A.; Graves, James L.; Jerem, Paul; Evans, Neil P.; Nager, Ruedi; McCafferty, Dominic J.; McKeegan, Dorothy E.F.

    2015-01-01

    Acute stress triggers peripheral vasoconstriction, causing a rapid, short-term drop in skin temperature in homeotherms. We tested, for the first time, whether this response has the potential to quantify stress, by exhibiting proportionality with stressor intensity. We used established behavioural and hormonal markers: activity level and corticosterone level, to validate a mild and more severe form of an acute restraint stressor in hens (Gallus gallus domesticus). We then used infrared thermography (IRT) to non-invasively collect continuous temperature measurements following exposure to these two intensities of acute handling stress. In the comb and wattle, two skin regions with a known thermoregulatory role, stressor intensity predicted the extent of initial skin cooling, and also the occurrence of a more delayed skin warming, providing two opportunities to quantify stress. With the present, cost-effective availability of IRT technology, this non-invasive and continuous method of stress assessment in unrestrained animals has the potential to become common practice in pure and applied research. PMID:26434785

  5. Ear Pieces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students make fanciful connections between art and medicine. This project challenges students to interpret "ear idioms" (e.g. "blow it out your ear," "in one ear and out the other") by relying almost entirely on realistic ear drawings, the placement of them, marks, and values. In that…

  6. In-vivo and label-free imaging of cellular and tissue structures in mouse ear skin by using second- and third-harmonic generation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eung Jang; Kim, Boram; Ahn, Hong-Gyu; Park, Seung-Han; Cheong, Eunji; Lee, Sangyoup

    2015-02-01

    A video-rate multimodal microscope, which can obtain second- and third- harmonic generation (SHG and THG) images simultaneously, is developed for investigating cellular and tissue structures in mouse ear skin. By utilizing in-vivo video-rate epi-detected SHG and THG microscopy, we successfully demonstrate that combined images of subcutaneous cellular components and peripheral nerve fibers, together with the collagen fiber, in the mouse ear pinna can be obtained without employing fluorescent probes. We also show that the flow of red blood cells and the diameter change of arteriole-like blood vessels can be visualized with femtosecond laser pulses with a wavelength of 1036 nm. In particular, the epi-THG contrast images of the blood-vessel walls display clearly the difference between the arteriole-like and the venule capillary-like blood-vessel types. We should emphasize that our newly-developed microscope system has a unique feature in that it can produce simultaneous in-vivo label-free SHG and THG images in contrast to the conventional confocal and two-photon microscopes.

  7. [Skin temperature and lactate threshold during muscle work in sportsmen].

    PubMed

    Akimov, E B; Son'kin, V D

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the investigation was to estimate change of a thermal condition of an organism during exhausting work (maximal aerobic test) on cycle ergometer on the basis of studying of dynamics of temperature of a forehead skin. Regularly training 20 men have taken part in the research--sportsmen of various specializations (skiers, rock-climbers, boxers, etc.). Temperature of forehead skin was registered by infrared thermovision chamber Nec TH 9100SL. These results compared with the data of measurements of heart rate, gas exchange, the lactate concentration in peripheral blood, and also with anthropometrical characteristics. It was shown that on dynamics of skin temperature at maximal work load it was possible to divide all subjects into 2 unequal groups: 1 (2/3 subjects, the majority of which trains endurance) - after temperature decrease take place its smooth increase up to refusal ofwork; 2 (1/3 subjects, concerning various sports specializations)--from the moment of the beginning of active evaporation of sweat the temperature decreases to the work termination. In group 1 lactate threshold (lactate concentration in blood--4 mm/l) corresponds to the beginning of rise in temperature after its decrease as a result of sweat evaporation. In group 2 lactate threshold was necessary on a phase of decrease in temperature at the moment of active evaporation of sweat. Distinctions between groups in structure of correlation relationship between the measured indicators are revealed, inversion of a sign ofcorrelation quotient in some cases were shown. Thus significant distinctions between groups in the level of the working capacity indicators were not revealed. All it testifies to existence possibility at least two various successful strategy of urgent adaptation of system of thermoregulation to intense muscular work. PMID:22117467

  8. Histologic and temperature alterations induced by skin refrigerants.

    PubMed

    Dzubow, L M

    1985-05-01

    The histologic alterations induced by spray refrigerants independent of and in combination with dermabrasion were studied with the use of the domestic pig as a model. Tissue injury was found to be a function of spray duration and freeze intensity. Both preabrasion freezing and postabrasion refreezing could produce damage additive to that of mechanical planing. Skin surface and intradermal temperature variations during refrigeration were recorded. The possible implications of these findings as they pertain to clinical dermabrasion are discussed. PMID:4008684

  9. In vitro investigation of the follicular penetration of porcine ear skin using a nanoparticle-emulsion containing the antiseptic polihexanide In vitro investigation of the follicular penetration of porcine ear skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulmer, M.; Patzelt, A.; Vergou, T.; Lademann, J.; Richter, H.; Kramer, A.; Müller, G.; Sterry, W.; Lange-Asschenfeldt, B.

    2012-05-01

    Earlier investigations regarding the distribution of the bacterial flora on the human skin demonstrate that the hair follicle acts as a bacterial reservoir, providing a quick source for secondary recontamination. These findings highlight the importance of the hair follicle as a target for modern antiseptics. In the present study, we have assessed the follicular penetration of a curcumin-labeled particle-associated antiseptic into porcine skin by laser scanning microscopy. Therefore, the follicular penetration depth of the curcumin-labeled particle-associated antiseptic was compared to the follicular penetration depth of curcumin-labeled particles without antiseptic. The investigation was performed in vitro using porcine skin biopsies. By superposition of the images acquired in the transmission and the fluorescent modus, it was possible to visualize the distribution of the fluorescent dye inside the hair follicles. Quantitative and qualitative results showed that both dispersions penetrated efficiently into the hair follicles. The average penetration depth of the particles with attached antiseptic polihexanide was significantly higher than that of particles without the attached antiseptic. Also, whilst very little sample preparation was needed, laser scanning microscopy was found to be an efficient tool to visualize the skin relief and in particular the hair follicle shaft and localize fluorescent markers within the skin tissue and hair follicles.

  10. Responses in acral and non-acral skin vasomotion and temperature during lowering of ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Elstad, Maja; Vanggaard, Leif; Lossius, Astrid H; Walløe, Lars; Bergersen, Tone Kristin

    2014-10-01

    Arteriovenous anastomoses (AVA) in acral skin (palms and soles) have a huge capacity to shunt blood directly from the arteries to the superficial venous plexus of the extremities. We hypothesized that acral skin, which supplies blood to the superficial venous plexus, has a stronger influence on blood flow adjustments during cooling in thermoneutral subjects than does non-acral skin. Thirteen healthy subjects were exposed to stepwise cooling from 32 °C to 25 °C and 17 °C in a climate chamber. Laser Doppler flux and skin temperature were measured simultaneously from the left and right third finger pulp and bilateral upper arm skin. Coherence and correlation analyses were performed of short-term fluctuations at each temperature interval. The flux from finger pulps showed the synchronous spontaneous fluctuations characteristic of skin areas containing AVAs. Fluctuation frequency, amplitude and synchronicity were all higher at 25 °C than at 32 °C and 17 °C (p<0.02). Bilateral flux from the upper arm skin showed an irregular, asynchronous vasomotor pattern with small amplitudes which were independent of ambient temperature. At 32 °C, ipsilateral median flux values from the right arm (95% confidence intervals) were 492 arbitrary units (au) (417, 537) in finger pulp and 43 au (35, 60) in upper arm skin. Flux values gradually decreased in finger pulp to 246 au (109, 363) at 25 °C, before an abrupt fall occurred at a median room temperature of 24 °C, resulting in a flux value of 79 au (31, 116) at 17 °C. In the upper arm skin a gradual fall throughout the cooling period to 21 au (13, 27) at 17 °C was observed. The fact that the response of blood flow to ambient cooling is stronger in acral skin than in non-acral skin suggests that AVAs have a greater capacity to adjust blood flow in thermoneutral zone than arterioles in non-acral skin. PMID:25436967

  11. Prediction of Skin Temperature Distribution in Cosmetic Laser Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Kuen; Chen, Kuen-Tasnn; Cheng, Shih-Feng; Lin, Wen-Shiung; Chang, Cheng-Ren

    2008-01-01

    The use of lasers in cosmetic surgery has increased dramatically in the past decade. To achieve minimal damage to tissues, the study of the temperature distribution of skin in laser irradiation is very important. The phenomenon of the thermal wave effect is significant due to the highly focused light energy of lasers in very a short time period. The conventional Pennes equation does not take the thermal wave effect into account, which the thermal relaxation time (τ) is neglected, so it is not sufficient to solve instantaneous heating and cooling problem. The purpose of this study is to solve the thermal wave equation to determine the realistic temperature distribution during laser surgery. The analytic solutions of the thermal wave equation are compared with those of the Pennes equation. Moreover, comparisons are made between the results of the above equations and the results of temperature measurement using an infrared thermal image instrument. The thermal wave equation could likely to predict the skin temperature distribution in cosmetic laser surgery.

  12. The Histopathological Investigation of Red and Blue Light Emitting Diode on Treating Skin Wounds in Japanese Big-Ear White Rabbit.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanhong; Zhang, Jigang; Xu, Yanfeng; Han, Yunlin; Jiang, Binbin; Huang, Lan; Zhu, Hua; Xu, Yuhuan; Yang, Weiling; Qin, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    The biological effects of different wavelengths of light emitting diode (LED) light tend to vary from each other. Research into use of photobiomodulation for treatment of skin wounds and the underlying mechanisms has been largely lacking. We explored the histopathological basis of the therapeutic effect of photobiomodulation and the relation between duration of exposure and photobiomodulation effect of different wavelengths of LED in a Japanese big-ear white rabbit skin-wound model. Skin wound model was established in 16 rabbits (three wounds per rabbit: one served as control, the other two wounds were irradiated by red and blue LED lights, respectively). Rabbits were then divided into 2 equal groups based on the duration of exposure to LED lights (15 and 30 min/exposure). The number of wounds that showed healing and the percentage of healed wound area were recorded. Histopathological examination and skin expression levels of fibroblast growth factor (FGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), endothelial marker (CD31), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (Ki67) and macrophagocyte (CD68) infiltration, and the proliferation of skin collagen fibers was assessed. On days 16 and 17 of irradiation, the healing rates in red (15 min and 30 min) and blue (15 min and 30 min) groups were 50%, 37.5%, 25% and 37.5%, respectively, while the healing rate in the control group was 12.5%. The percentage healed area in the red light groups was significantly higher than those in other groups. Collagen fiber and skin thickness were significantly increased in both red light groups; expression of EGF, FGF, CD31 and Ki67 in the red light groups was significantly higher than those in other groups; the expression of FGF in red (30 min) group was not significantly different from that in the blue light and control groups. The effect of blue light on wound healing was poorer than that of red light. Red light appeared to hasten wound healing by promoting fibrous tissue, epidermal and endothelial cell

  13. The Histopathological Investigation of Red and Blue Light Emitting Diode on Treating Skin Wounds in Japanese Big-Ear White Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yanfeng; Han, Yunlin; Jiang, Binbin; Huang, Lan; Zhu, Hua; Xu, Yuhuan; Yang, Weiling; Qin, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    The biological effects of different wavelengths of light emitting diode (LED) light tend to vary from each other. Research into use of photobiomodulation for treatment of skin wounds and the underlying mechanisms has been largely lacking. We explored the histopathological basis of the therapeutic effect of photobiomodulation and the relation between duration of exposure and photobiomodulation effect of different wavelengths of LED in a Japanese big-ear white rabbit skin-wound model. Skin wound model was established in 16 rabbits (three wounds per rabbit: one served as control, the other two wounds were irradiated by red and blue LED lights, respectively). Rabbits were then divided into 2 equal groups based on the duration of exposure to LED lights (15 and 30 min/exposure). The number of wounds that showed healing and the percentage of healed wound area were recorded. Histopathological examination and skin expression levels of fibroblast growth factor (FGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), endothelial marker (CD31), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (Ki67) and macrophagocyte (CD68) infiltration, and the proliferation of skin collagen fibers was assessed. On days 16 and 17 of irradiation, the healing rates in red (15 min and 30 min) and blue (15 min and 30 min) groups were 50%, 37.5%, 25% and 37.5%, respectively, while the healing rate in the control group was 12.5%. The percentage healed area in the red light groups was significantly higher than those in other groups. Collagen fiber and skin thickness were significantly increased in both red light groups; expression of EGF, FGF, CD31 and Ki67 in the red light groups was significantly higher than those in other groups; the expression of FGF in red (30 min) group was not significantly different from that in the blue light and control groups. The effect of blue light on wound healing was poorer than that of red light. Red light appeared to hasten wound healing by promoting fibrous tissue, epidermal and endothelial cell

  14. Ear examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003340.htm Ear examination To use the sharing features on this page, ... ear References King EF, Couch ME. History, physical examination, and the preoperative evaluation. In: Flint PW, Haughey ...

  15. Ear wax

    MedlinePlus

    ... water to drain. You may need to repeat irrigation several times. To avoid damaging your ear or ... who may remove the wax by: Repeating the irrigation attempts Suctioning the ear canal Using a small ...

  16. Ear wax

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the ear: Baby oil Commercial drops Glycerin Mineral oil Water Another method is to wash out the ... cloth or paper tissue wrapped around your finger. Mineral oil can be used to moisturize the ear and ...

  17. Your Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... Protect your hearing by wearing earplugs at loud music concerts and around noisy machinery, like in wood ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? What Is an Ear Infection? ...

  18. Ear emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... the ear. CUTS ON THE OUTER EAR Apply direct pressure until the bleeding stops. Cover the injury ... Mosby; 2013:chap 143. Thomas SH, Goodloe JM. Foreign bodies. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, ...

  19. How to Use Ear Drops

    MedlinePlus

    How to Use Ear Drops(Having someone else give you the ear drops may make this procedure easier.) Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and ... facecloth and then dry your ear. Warm the drops to near body temperature by holding the container ...

  20. Registered report: measuring unconscious deception detection by skin temperature.

    PubMed

    van ' T Veer, Anna E; Stel, Mariëlle; van Beest, Ilja; Gallucci, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Findings from the deception detection literature suggest that although people are not skilled in consciously detecting a liar, they may intuit that something about the person telling a lie is off. In the current proposal, we argue that observing a liar influences the observer's physiology even though the observer may not be consciously aware of being lied to (i.e., the observers' direct deception judgment does not accurately differentiate between liars and truth-tellers). To test this hypothesis, participants' finger temperature will be measured while they watch videos of persons who are either honest or dishonest about their identity. We hypothesize that skin temperature will be lower when observing a liar than when observing a truth-teller. Additionally, we test whether perceiving a liar influences finger skin temperature differently when an individual is, or is not, alerted to the possibility of deceit. We do this by varying participants' awareness of the fact that they might be lied to. Next to measuring physiological responses to liars and truth-tellers, self-reported direct and indirect veracity judgments (i.e., trustworthiness and liking) of the target persons will be assessed. We hypothesize that indirect veracity judgments will better distinguish between liars and truth-tellers than direct veracity judgments. PMID:24904461

  1. Registered report: measuring unconscious deception detection by skin temperature

    PubMed Central

    van ’ t Veer, Anna E.; Stel, Mariëlle; van Beest, Ilja; Gallucci, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Findings from the deception detection literature suggest that although people are not skilled in consciously detecting a liar, they may intuit that something about the person telling a lie is off. In the current proposal, we argue that observing a liar influences the observer’s physiology even though the observer may not be consciously aware of being lied to (i.e., the observers’ direct deception judgment does not accurately differentiate between liars and truth-tellers). To test this hypothesis, participants’ finger temperature will be measured while they watch videos of persons who are either honest or dishonest about their identity. We hypothesize that skin temperature will be lower when observing a liar than when observing a truth-teller. Additionally, we test whether perceiving a liar influences finger skin temperature differently when an individual is, or is not, alerted to the possibility of deceit. We do this by varying participants’ awareness of the fact that they might be lied to. Next to measuring physiological responses to liars and truth-tellers, self-reported direct and indirect veracity judgments (i.e., trustworthiness and liking) of the target persons will be assessed. We hypothesize that indirect veracity judgments will better distinguish between liars and truth-tellers than direct veracity judgments. PMID:24904461

  2. The non-linear relationship between nerve conduction velocity and skin temperature.

    PubMed Central

    Todnem, K; Knudsen, G; Riise, T; Nyland, H; Aarli, J A

    1989-01-01

    Median motor and sensory nerves were examined in 20 healthy subjects. Superficial stimulating and recording electrodes were used, and the nerves were examined at natural skin temperature, after cooling and after heating of the arm. The conduction velocity for the fastest and slow conducting sensory fibres (temperature range 17-37 degrees C), and for the fastest conducting motor fibres (temperature range 19-38 degrees C) increased non-linearly with increase in skin temperature. Similarly, distal motor latencies increased non-linearly with decrease in skin temperature. The effect of temperature was most pronounced in the low temperature range, and change in conduction velocity per degree centigrade was reduced toward higher skin temperature. Sensory nerve response duration increased linearly with decline in skin temperature. Sensory and motor amplitude did not show any significant relation to skin temperature. PMID:2738592

  3. Ear barotrauma

    MedlinePlus

    Barotitis media; Barotrauma; Ear popping; Pressure-related ear pain; Eustachian tube dysfunction ... The air pressure in the middle ear is most often the same as the air pressure outside of the body. The Eustachian tube is a connection between the middle ...

  4. Ear Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... affects the middle ear and is called otitis media. The tubes inside the ears become clogged with fluid and mucus. This can affect hearing, because sound cannot get through all that fluid. If your child isn't old enough to say "My ear ...

  5. Super Ears.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Stan

    1995-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students design, construct, and test "super ears" to investigate sound and hearing. Students work in groups of three and explore how the outer ear funnels sound waves to the inner ear and how human hearing compares to that of other animals. (NB)

  6. Skin Temperature Over the Carotid Artery, an Accurate Non-invasive Estimation of Near Core Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Imani, Farsad; Karimi Rouzbahani, Hamid Reza; Goudarzi, Mehrdad; Tarrahi, Mohammad Javad; Ebrahim Soltani, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background: During anesthesia, continuous body temperature monitoring is essential, especially in children. Anesthesia can increase the risk of loss of body temperature by three to four times. Hypothermia in children results in increased morbidity and mortality. Since the measurement points of the core body temperature are not easily accessible, near core sites, like rectum, are used. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to measure skin temperature over the carotid artery and compare it with the rectum temperature, in order to propose a model for accurate estimation of near core body temperature. Patients and Methods: Totally, 124 patients within the age range of 2 - 6 years, undergoing elective surgery, were selected. Temperature of rectum and skin over the carotid artery was measured. Then, the patients were randomly divided into two groups (each including 62 subjects), namely modeling (MG) and validation groups (VG). First, in the modeling group, the average temperature of the rectum and skin over the carotid artery were measured separately. The appropriate model was determined, according to the significance of the model’s coefficients. The obtained model was used to predict the rectum temperature in the second group (VG group). Correlation of the predicted values with the real values (the measured rectum temperature) in the second group was investigated. Also, the difference in the average values of these two groups was examined in terms of significance. Results: In the modeling group, the average rectum and carotid temperatures were 36.47 ± 0.54°C and 35.45 ± 0.62°C, respectively. The final model was obtained, as follows: Carotid temperature × 0.561 + 16.583 = Rectum temperature. The predicted value was calculated based on the regression model and then compared with the measured rectum value, which showed no significant difference (P = 0.361). Conclusions: The present study was the first research, in which rectum temperature was compared with that

  7. Skin friction measurements in high temperature high speed flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schetz, J. A.; Diller, Thomas E.; Wicks, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to measure skin friction along the chamber walls of supersonic combustors. A direct force measurement device was used to simultaneously measure an axial and transverse component of the small tangential shear force passing over a non-intrusive floating element. The floating head is mounted to a stiff cantilever beam arrangement with deflection due to the flow on the order of 0.00254 mm (0.0001 in.). This allowed the instrument to be a non-nulling type. A second gauge was designed with active cooling of the floating sensor head to eliminate non-uniform temperature effects between the sensor head and the surrounding wall. Samples of measurements made in combustor test facilities at NASA Langley Research Center and at the General Applied Science Laboratory (GASL) are presented. Skin friction coefficients between 0.001 - 0.005 were measured dependent on the facility and measurement location. Analysis of the measurement uncertainties indicate an accuracy to within +/- 10-15 percent of the streamwise component.

  8. 38 CFR 4.87 - Schedule of ratings-ear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Schedule of ratings-ear...—ear. Diseases of the Ear Rating 6200Chronic suppurative otitis media, mastoiditis, or cholesteatoma... of the substance 10 6208Malignant neoplasm of the ear (other than skin only) 100 Note: A rating...

  9. Ear Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... this condition. Try an over-the-counter decongestant medicine for a few days. Putting a warm heating pad on your ear may help relieve the pain. If the pain is intense or doesn't go away in 1 or 2 days, see your doctor. No 9. Do you have tooth pain on the same side as the ear ...

  10. Elephant ear

    MedlinePlus

    Elephant ear plants are indoor or outdoor plants with very large, arrow-shaped leaves. Poisoning may occur if you ... The harmful substances in elephant ear plants are: Oxalic acid ... plant Note: Leaves and stems are the most dangerous when eaten ...

  11. SU-E-J-273: Skin Temperature Recovery Rate as a Potential Predictor for Radiation-Induced Skin Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Biswal, N C; Wu, Z; Chu, J; Sun, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To assess the potential of dynamic infrared imaging to evaluate early skin reactions during radiation therapy in cancer patients. Methods: Thermal images were captured by our home-built system consisting of two flash lamps and an infrared (IR) camera. The surface temperature of the skin was first raised by ∼ 6 °C from ∼1 ms short flashes; the camera then captured a series of IR images for 10 seconds. For each image series, a basal temperature was recorded for 0.5 seconds before flash was triggered. The temperature gradients (ε) were calculated between a reference point (immediately after the flash) and at a time point of 2sec, 4sec and 9sec after that. A 1.0 cm region of interest (ROI) on the skin was drawn; the mean and standard deviations of the ROIs were calculated. The standard ε values for normal human skins were evaluated by imaging 3 healthy subjects with different skin colors. All of them were imaged on 3 separate days for consistency checks. Results: The temperature gradient, which is the temperature recovery rate, depends on the thermal properties of underlying tissue, i.e. thermal conductivity. The average ε for three volunteers averaged over 3 measurements were 0.64±0.1, 0.72±0.2 and 0.80±0.3 at 2sec, 4sec and 9sec respectively. The standard deviations were within 1.5%–3.2%. One of the volunteers had a prior small skin burn on the left wrist and the ε values for the burned site were around 9% (at 4sec) and 13% (at 9sec) lower than that from the nearby normal skin. Conclusion: The temperature gradients from the healthy subjects were reproducible within 1.5%–3.2 % and that from a burned skin showed a significant difference (9%–13%) from the normal skin. We have an IRB approved protocol to image head and neck patients scheduled for radiation therapy.

  12. Axillary and thoracic skin temperatures poorly comparable to core body temperature circadian rhythm: results from 2 adult populations.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Karen A; Burr, Robert; Wang, Shu-Yuann; Lentz, Martha J; Shaver, Joan

    2004-01-01

    Data from 2 separate studies were used to examine the relationships of axillary or thoracic skin temperature to rectal temperature and to determine the phase relationships of the circadian rhythms of these temperatures. In study 1, axillary skin and rectal temperatures were recorded in 19 healthy women, 21 to 36 years of age. In study 2, thoracic skin and rectal temperatures were recorded in 74 healthy women, 39 to 59 years of age. In both studies, temperatures were recorded continuously for 24 h while subjects carried out normal activities. Axillary and thoracic probes were insulated purposely to prevent ambient effects. Cosinor analysis was employed to estimate circadian rhythm mesor, amplitude, and acrophase. In addition, correlations between temperatures at various measurement sites were calculated and agreement determined. The circadian timing of axillary and skin temperature did not closely approximate that of rectal temperature: the mean acrophase (clock time) for study 1 was 18:57 h for axillary temperature and 16:12 h for rectal; for study 2, it was 03:05 h for thoracic and 15:05 h for rectal. Across individual subjects, the correlations of axillary or thoracic temperatures with rectal temperatures were variable. Results do not support the use of either axillary or skin temperature as a substitute for rectal temperature in circadian rhythm research related to adult women. PMID:14737919

  13. [Comparison of formulas for calculating average skin temperature and their characteristics].

    PubMed

    Mochida, T; Shimakura, K; Yoshida, N

    1994-11-01

    In order to obtain data of skin temperatures experiments were carried out using three healthy young Japanese males. The subjects were exposed to each of the four environments with dry bulb temperatures of 15 degrees C, 19 degrees C, 25 degrees C and 33 degrees C. At each of these air temperatures, relative humidity and air movement were set at 50% and 0.15m/s respectively. The subjects wore only athletic shorts, seated on the meshed chair. Each subject was measured with thermisters continuously for one hour under these conditions to obtain twenty-nine regional skin temperature. The above experiments were made with one subject at a time in the test chamber. The data of skin temperatures observed were substituted into twenty-eight different weighting formulas for comparison. The present analysis revealed that the calculation from the 12-point and the 7-point skin area formulas by Hardy-DuBois showed approximate mean values of the twenty eight. Moreover, the values calculated from the formula by Nadel et al, which was weighted by skin area and thermal sensitivity, are similar to the values calculated by the formula of Mochida, which was weighted by skin area, heat transfer coefficients and thermal sensitivity. Furthermore, the authors verified that the area-mean weighting factor was derived from the Teichner's definition in which a limiting value of arithmetical mean of skin temperatures gave a value of average skin temperature. PMID:7880325

  14. Elephant ear

    MedlinePlus

    The harmful substances in elephant ear plants are: Oxalic acid Asparagine, a protein found in this plant Note: ... days to a week if treated correctly. Rarely, oxalic acid may cause swelling severe enough to block the ...

  15. Swimmer's ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... or a respiratory infection such as a cold. Swimming in unclean water can lead to swimmer's ear. ... very well after it has gotten wet. Avoid swimming in polluted water. Use earplugs when swimming. Try ...

  16. Spatial temperature distribution in human hairy and glabrous skin after infrared CO2 laser radiation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background CO2 lasers have been used for several decades as an experimental non-touching pain stimulator. The laser energy is absorbed by the water content in the most superficial layers of the skin. The deeper located nociceptors are activated by passive conduction of heat from superficial to deeper skin layers. Methods In the current study, a 2D axial finite element model was developed and validated to describe the spatial temperature distribution in the skin after infrared CO2 laser stimulation. The geometry of the model was based on high resolution ultrasound scans. The simulations were compared to the subjective pain intensity ratings from 16 subjects and to the surface skin temperature distributions measured by an infrared camera. Results The stimulations were sensed significantly slower and less intense in glabrous skin than they were in hairy skin (MANOVA, p < 0.001). The model simulations of superficial temperature correlated with the measured skin surface temperature (r > 0.90, p < 0.001). Of the 16 subjects tested; eight subjects reported pricking pain in the hairy skin following a stimulus of 0.6 J/cm2 (5 W, 0.12 s, d1/e2 = 11.4 mm) only two reported pain to glabrous skin stimulation using the same stimulus intensity. The temperature at the epidermal-dermal junction (depth 50 μm in hairy and depth 133 μm in glabrous skin) was estimated to 46°C for hairy skin stimulation and 39°C for glabrous skin stimulation. Conclusions As compared to previous one dimensional heat distribution models, the current two dimensional model provides new possibilities for detailed studies regarding CO2 laser stimulation intensity, temperature levels and nociceptor activation. PMID:21059226

  17. Microarray analysis of microRNA expression in mouse fetus at 13.5 and 14.5 days post-coitum in ear and back skin tissues.

    PubMed

    Torres, Leda; Juárez, Ulises; García, Laura; Miranda-Ríos, Juan; Frias, Sara

    2016-09-01

    There is no information regarding the role of microRNAs in the development of the external ear in mammals. The purpose of this study was to determine the stage-specific expression of microRNA during external ear development in mice under normal conditions. GeneChip miRNA 3.0 arrays by Affymetrix were used to obtain miRNA expression profiles from mice fetal pinnae and back skin tissues at 13.5 days-post-coitum (dpc) and 14.5 dpc. Biological triplicates for each tissue were analyzed; one litter represents one biological replica, each litter had 16 fetuses on average. The results were analyzed with Affymetrix's Transcriptome Analysis Console software to identify differentially expressed miRNAs. The inquiry showed significant differential expression of 25 miRNAs at 13.5 dpc and 31 at 14.5 dpc, some of these miRNAs were predicted to target genes implicated in external ear development. One example is mmu-miR-10a whose low expression in pinnae is known to impact ear development by modulating Hoxa1 mRNA levels Garzon et al. (2006), Gavalas et al. (1998) [1], [2]. Other findings like the upregulation of mmu-miR-200c and mmu-miR-205 in the pinnae tissues of healthy mice are in agreement with what has been reported in human patients with microtia, in which down regulation of both miRNAs has been found Li et al. (2013) [3]. This study uncovered a spatiotemporal pattern of miRNA expression in the external ear, which results from continuous transcriptional changes during normal development of body structures. All microarray data are available at the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) at NCBI under accession number GSE64945. PMID:27408816

  18. Responses in rectal and skin temperatures to centrifugal forces in rats of different ambient temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohara, K.; Sato, H.; Okuda, N.; Makino, Y.; Isobe, Y.

    1982-03-01

    Effects of centrifugation upon rectal (Tre) and tail skin temperatures (Ts) were studied in male Wistar rats at varying ambient temperature (Ta) using a centrifuge which was placed in a climatic chamber. Centrifugal forces of Gz of 3.0 were imposed on rats which were suspended at horizontal body position using a newly developed mesh suits holding method in the animal box placed on the rotating arm of the centrifuge. Headwards or tailwards forces were applied according to the experimental design. No significant difference of the responses was observed between the two force directions. Centrifugations imposed at different Ta of 15, 20, 25, 30 and 32.5‡C resulted in falls in Tre accompanied by rises in tail Ts at the cooler environments, while rises in Tre accompanied by falls in Ts in the warmer environments. The Ta at which the response pattern of Tre and Ts was reversed (critical ambient temperature) was 26.8±2.3 (mean and SE) and 27.9±2.8‡C, respectively. Tolerance to centrifugation was markedly increased in cooler environments than in wanner ones. It was suggested that the increased skin pressure due to centrifugation exerted some inhibitory effects upon central thermoregulatory ability.

  19. Stay tuned: active amplification tunes tree cricket ears to track temperature-dependent song frequency.

    PubMed

    Mhatre, Natasha; Pollack, Gerald; Mason, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Tree cricket males produce tonal songs, used for mate attraction and male-male interactions. Active mechanics tunes hearing to conspecific song frequency. However, tree cricket song frequency increases with temperature, presenting a problem for tuned listeners. We show that the actively amplified frequency increases with temperature, thus shifting mechanical and neuronal auditory tuning to maintain a match with conspecific song frequency. Active auditory processes are known from several taxa, but their adaptive function has rarely been demonstrated. We show that tree crickets harness active processes to ensure that auditory tuning remains matched to conspecific song frequency, despite changing environmental conditions and signal characteristics. Adaptive tuning allows tree crickets to selectively detect potential mates or rivals over large distances and is likely to bestow a strong selective advantage by reducing mate-finding effort and facilitating intermale interactions. PMID:27122007

  20. The use of infrared thermography to detect the skin temperature response to physical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanda, G.

    2015-11-01

    Physical activity has a noticeable effect on skin blood flow and temperature. The thermal regulatory and hemodynamic processes during physical activity are controlled by two conflicting mechanisms: the skin vasoconstriction induced by the blood flow demand to active muscles and the skin vasodilation required by thermoregulation to increase warm blood flow and heat conduction to the skin. The time-evolution of skin temperature during exercise can give useful information about the adaptation of the subject as a function of specific type, intensity and duration of exercise. In this paper, infrared thermography is used to investigate the thermal response of skin temperature during running exercise on treadmill for a group of seven healthy and trained runners. Two different treadmill exercises are considered: a graded load exercise and a constant load exercise; for both exercises the duration was 30 minutes. Within the limits due to the relatively small size of the sample group, results typically indicate a fall in skin temperature during the initial stage of running exercise. As the exercise progresses, the dynamics of the skin temperature response depends on the type of exercise (graded versus constant load) and probably on the level of training of the subject.

  1. Cryotherapy-Induced Persistent Vasoconstriction After Cutaneous Cooling: Hysteresis Between Skin Temperature and Blood Perfusion.

    PubMed

    Khoshnevis, Sepideh; Craik, Natalie K; Matthew Brothers, R; Diller, Kenneth R

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the persistence of cold-induced vasoconstriction following cessation of active skin-surface cooling. This study demonstrates a hysteresis effect that develops between skin temperature and blood perfusion during the cooling and subsequent rewarming period. An Arctic Ice cryotherapy unit (CTU) was applied to the knee region of six healthy subjects for 60 min of active cooling followed by 120 min of passive rewarming. Multiple laser Doppler flowmetry perfusion probes were used to measure skin blood flow (expressed as cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC)). Skin surface cooling produced a significant reduction in CVC (P < 0.001) that persisted throughout the duration of the rewarming period. In addition, there was a hysteresis effect between CVC and skin temperature during the cooling and subsequent rewarming cycle (P < 0.01). Mixed model regression (MMR) showed a significant difference in the slopes of the CVC-skin temperature curves during cooling and rewarming (P < 0.001). Piecewise regression was used to investigate the temperature thresholds for acceleration of CVC during the cooling and rewarming periods. The two thresholds were shown to be significantly different (P = 0.003). The results show that localized cooling causes significant vasoconstriction that continues beyond the active cooling period despite skin temperatures returning toward baseline values. The significant and persistent reduction in skin perfusion may contribute to nonfreezing cold injury (NFCI) associated with cryotherapy. PMID:26632263

  2. Developing an Ear Prosthesis Fabricated in Polyvinylidene Fluoride by a 3D Printer with Sensory Intrinsic Properties of Pressure and Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Suaste-Gómez, Ernesto; Rodríguez-Roldán, Grissel; Reyes-Cruz, Héctor; Terán-Jiménez, Omar

    2016-01-01

    An ear prosthesis was designed in 3D computer graphics software and fabricated using a 3D printing process of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) for use as a hearing aid. In addition, the prosthesis response to pressure and temperature was observed. Pyroelectric and piezoelectric properties of this ear prosthesis were investigated using an astable multivibrator circuit, as changes in PVDF permittivity were observed according to variations of pressure and temperature. The results show that this prosthesis is reliable for use under different conditions of pressure (0 Pa to 16,350 Pa) and temperature (2 °C to 90 °C). The experimental results show an almost linear and inversely proportional behavior between the stimuli of pressure and temperature with the frequency response. This 3D-printed ear prosthesis is a promising tool and has a great potentiality in the biomedical engineering field because of its ability to generate an electrical potential proportional to pressure and temperature, and it is the first time that such a device has been processed by the additive manufacturing process (3D printing). More work needs to be carried out to improve the performance, such as electrical stimulation of the nervous system, thereby extending the purpose of a prosthesis to the area of sensory perception. PMID:26959026

  3. Developing an Ear Prosthesis Fabricated in Polyvinylidene Fluoride by a 3D Printer with Sensory Intrinsic Properties of Pressure and Temperature.

    PubMed

    Suaste-Gómez, Ernesto; Rodríguez-Roldán, Grissel; Reyes-Cruz, Héctor; Terán-Jiménez, Omar

    2016-01-01

    An ear prosthesis was designed in 3D computer graphics software and fabricated using a 3D printing process of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) for use as a hearing aid. In addition, the prosthesis response to pressure and temperature was observed. Pyroelectric and piezoelectric properties of this ear prosthesis were investigated using an astable multivibrator circuit, as changes in PVDF permittivity were observed according to variations of pressure and temperature. The results show that this prosthesis is reliable for use under different conditions of pressure (0 Pa to 16,350 Pa) and temperature (2 °C to 90 °C). The experimental results show an almost linear and inversely proportional behavior between the stimuli of pressure and temperature with the frequency response. This 3D-printed ear prosthesis is a promising tool and has a great potentiality in the biomedical engineering field because of its ability to generate an electrical potential proportional to pressure and temperature, and it is the first time that such a device has been processed by the additive manufacturing process (3D printing). More work needs to be carried out to improve the performance, such as electrical stimulation of the nervous system, thereby extending the purpose of a prosthesis to the area of sensory perception. PMID:26959026

  4. Comparison of techniques for the measurement of skin temperature during exercise in a hot, humid environment

    PubMed Central

    Venable, AS; Williams, RR; Jackson, AW

    2014-01-01

    Exercising or working in a hot, humid environment can results in the onset of heat-related illness when an individual's temperature is not carefully monitored. The purpose of the present study was to compare three techniques (data loggers, thermal imaging, and wired electrodes) for the measurement of peripheral (bicep) and central (abdominal) skin temperature. Young men and women (N = 30) were recruited to complete the present study. The three skin temperature measurements were made at 0 and every 10-min during 40-min (60% VO2max) of cycling in a hot (39±2°C), humid (45±5% RH) environment. Data was statistically analyzed using the Bland-Altman method and correlation analysis. For abdominal skin temperature, the Bland-Altman limits of agreement indicated that data loggers (1.5) were a better index of wired than was thermal imaging (3.5), For the bicep skin temperature the limits of agreement was similar between data loggers (1.9) and thermal (1.9), suggesting the both were suitable measurements. We also found that when skin temperature exceeded 35°C, we observed progressively better prediction between data loggers, thermal imaging, and wired skin sensors. This report describes the potential for the use of data loggers and thermal imaging to be used as alternative measures of skin temperature in exercising, human subjects. PMID:25729144

  5. Comparison of techniques for the measurement of skin temperature during exercise in a hot, humid environment.

    PubMed

    McFarlin, Bk; Venable, As; Williams, Rr; Jackson, Aw

    2015-03-01

    Exercising or working in a hot, humid environment can results in the onset of heat-related illness when an individual's temperature is not carefully monitored. The purpose of the present study was to compare three techniques (data loggers, thermal imaging, and wired electrodes) for the measurement of peripheral (bicep) and central (abdominal) skin temperature. Young men and women (N = 30) were recruited to complete the present study. The three skin temperature measurements were made at 0 and every 10-min during 40-min (60% VO2max) of cycling in a hot (39±2°C), humid (45±5% RH) environment. Data was statistically analyzed using the Bland-Altman method and correlation analysis. For abdominal skin temperature, the Bland-Altman limits of agreement indicated that data loggers (1.5) were a better index of wired than was thermal imaging (3.5), For the bicep skin temperature the limits of agreement was similar between data loggers (1.9) and thermal (1.9), suggesting the both were suitable measurements. We also found that when skin temperature exceeded 35°C, we observed progressively better prediction between data loggers, thermal imaging, and wired skin sensors. This report describes the potential for the use of data loggers and thermal imaging to be used as alternative measures of skin temperature in exercising, human subjects. PMID:25729144

  6. Effect of skin temperature on cutaneous vasodilator response to the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol

    PubMed Central

    Hodges, Gary J.; Johnson, John M.

    2015-01-01

    The vascular response to local skin cooling is dependent in part on a cold-induced translocation of α2C-receptors and an increased α-adrenoreceptor function. To discover whether β-adrenergic function might contribute, we examined whether β-receptor sensitivity to the β-agonist isoproterenol was affected by local skin temperature. In seven healthy volunteers, skin blood flow was measured from the forearm by laser-Doppler flowmetry and blood pressure was measured by finger photoplethysmography. Data were expressed as cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; laser-Doppler flux/mean arterial blood pressure). Pharmacological agents were administered via intradermal microdialysis. We prepared four skin sites: one site was maintained at a thermoneutral temperature of 34°C (32 ± 10%CVCmax) one site was heated to 39°C (38 ± 11%CVCmax); and two sites were cooled, one to 29°C (22 ± 7%CVCmax) and the other 24°C (16 ± 4%CVCmax). After 20 min at these temperatures to allow stabilization of skin blood flow, isoproterenol was perfused in concentrations of 10, 30, 100, and 300 μM. Each concentration was perfused for 15 min. Relative to the CVC responses to isoproterenol at the thermoneutral skin temperature (34°C) (+21 ± 10%max), low skin temperatures reduced (at 29°C) (+17 ± 6%max) or abolished (at 24°C) (+1 ± 5%max) the vasodilator response, and warm (39°C) skin temperatures enhanced the vasodilator response (+40 ± 9%max) to isoproterenol. These data indicate that β-adrenergic function was influenced by local skin temperature. This finding raises the possibility that a part of the vasoconstrictor response to direct skin cooling could include reduced background β-receptor mediated vasodilation. PMID:25701007

  7. Cosmetic ear surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Otoplasty; Ear pinning; Ear surgery - cosmetic; Ear reshaping; Pinnaplasty ... 31. Thorne CH. Otoplasty. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap ...

  8. Research of temperature field measurement using a flexible temperature sensor array for robot sensing skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ying; Wu, Siyu; Li, Ruiqi; Yang, Qinghua; Zhang, Yugang; Liu, Caixia

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents a novel temperature sensor array by dispensing conductive composites on a flexible printed circuit board which is able to acquire the ambient temperature. The flexible temperature sensor array was fabricated by using carbon fiber-filled silicon rubber based composites on a flexible polyimide circuit board, which can both ensure their high flexibility. It found that CF with 12 wt% could be served as the best conductive filler for higher temperature sensitivity and better stability comparing with some other proportion for dynamic range from 30&° to 90°. The preparation of the temperature sensitive material has also been described in detail. Connecting the flexible sensor array with a data acquisition card and a personal computer (PC), some heat sources with different shapes were loaded on the sensor array; the detected results were shown in the interface by LabVIEW software. The measured temperature contours are in good agreement with the shapes and amplitudes of different heat sources. Furthermore, in consideration of the heat dissipation in the air, the relationship between the resistance and the distance of heat sources with sensor array was also detected to verify the accuracy of the sensor array, which is also a preparation for our future work. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy of the developed flexible sensor array, and it can be used as humanoid artificial skin for sensation system of robots.

  9. Using MODIS Skin Temperature to Assess Urban Heat Island Effect and Biosphere-Atmosphere-Land Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, M. S.; Dickinson, R.; Shepherd, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    Two surface temperatures have been used in global change studies - 2-m surface air temperature (Tair) and skin temperature (Tskin). Skin temperature provides additional new information about the Earth surface because its physical meaning and magnitude differ from Tair. We will present two examples to reveal the advantages of using Tskin in studying land-atmosphere-biosphere interactions: an urban system and a Tibetan system. Ten-years of NASA MODIS skin temperature observations reveal new features related to the urban heat island effect (UHI). For example, the UHI is evident in both daytime and nighttime instead of being a nocturnal phenomenon traditionally referred from Tair. UHI is partially due to both albedo and emissivity reduction and partially due to soil moisture modification by urban surfaces (i.e., a change in Bowen ratio). Furthermore, urban aerosols affect surface insloation, which leads to a reduction in surface skin temperature. In summary, clearly the UHI is a result of land-atmosphere-biosphere interactions. Skin temperatures also provide detailed information for remote regions that are difficult to access, in particular, the Tibetan Plateau. Tskin shows a slight increase during 2000-2010, nevertheless, such an increase is only statistically significant for summer urban regions. Different land covers have varying patterns and seasonality of skin temperature. In particular, skin temperature and vegetation index (NDVI) have close relationships for their extremes. Such extremes are also a function of season and land cover. In conclusion, skin temperature is very useful in our understanding on biosphere-land-and atmosphere interactions. Further work is needed to examine the implications of these finding for scientific research and societal applications.

  10. Cutaneous lesions of the external ear

    PubMed Central

    Sand, Michael; Sand, Daniel; Brors, Dominik; Altmeyer, Peter; Mann, Benno; Bechara, Falk G

    2008-01-01

    Skin diseases on the external aspect of the ear are seen in a variety of medical disciplines. Dermatologists, othorhinolaryngologists, general practitioners, general and plastic surgeons are regularly consulted regarding cutaneous lesions on the ear. This article will focus on those diseases wherefore surgery or laser therapy is considered as a possible treatment option or which are potentially subject to surgical evaluation. PMID:18261212

  11. [Bathing in bed accelerates the recovery of skin temperature after ethanol-loading].

    PubMed

    Okumura, Y; Asakawa, K; Ogasahara, Y; Muramatu, A; Wada, S; Tamaru, S; Nagai, M

    1994-01-01

    Bathing in bed (BB) is an essential nursing technique applied to patients with restricted physical abilities. The aim of this technique is to keep the functions of the skin as an external barrier and to prevent the patients from infection and decubitus. However, the effect of BB on the blood circulation of the skin has not yet been identified, and the data observed are controversial. We have evaluated the effects of BB on the blood circulation of the skin by use of thermography. BB was applied on the right side of the back (RB) in 6 healthy female subjects who exposed both sides of their back (RB and LB) at room temperature. Ethanol was applied on the 5 x 5 cm area of RB and LB after BB, and recovery of the skin temperature was observed. After BB, the average temperature of RB was significantly lower than that of LB. This shows that BB decreases temperature of the skin exposed in the air probably due to the supply of water by washcloth. Recovery of the skin temperature after the ethanol-loading was accelerated on RB. This indicates that BB facilitates the response of the blood vessels in the skin. PMID:8129834

  12. Some Physical and Computational Issues in Land Surface Data Assimilation of Satellite Skin Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackaro, Scott M.; McNider, Richard T.; Biazar, Arastoo Pour

    2012-03-01

    Skin temperatures that reflect the radiating temperature of a surface observed by infrared radiometers are one of the most widely available products from polar orbiting and geostationary satellites and the most commonly used satellite data in land surface assimilation. Past work has indicated that a simple land surface scheme with a few key parameters constrained by observations such as skin temperatures may be preferable to complex land use schemes with many unknown parameters. However, a true radiating skin temperature is sometimes not a prognostic variable in weather forecast models. Additionally, recent research has shown that skin temperatures cannot be directly used in surface similarity forms for inferring fluxes. This paper examines issues encountered in using satellite derived skin temperatures to improve surface flux specifications in weather forecast and air quality models. Attention is given to iterations necessary when attempting to nudge the surface energy budget equation to a desired state. Finally, the issue of mathematical operator splitting is examined in which the surface energy budget calculations are split with the atmospheric vertical diffusion calculations. However, the high level of connectivity between the surface and first atmospheric level means that the operator splitting leads to high frequency oscillations. These oscillations may hinder the assimilation of skin temperature derived moisture fluxes.

  13. Effect of Acupuncture Manipulations at LI4 or LI11 on Blood Flow and Skin Temperature.

    PubMed

    Li, Weihui; Ahn, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Acupuncture induces physiological changes, and patients have reported warm or cool sensations with "Burning Fire" (BF) or "Penetrating Cool" (PC) manipulations. This study aimed to evaluate whether these techniques had distinct effects on skin temperature and blood flow and to examine whether skin temperature correlated with blood flow. The participants were 25 healthy volunteers, each receiving acupuncture manipulations on points LI4 and LI11 bilaterally. Skin temperatures and blood flow were recorded continuously on both arms. The study found that acupuncture significantly increased skin temperature on the needling arm by 0.3514°C on average, but decreased it on the contralateral arm by 0.2201°C on average. Blood flow decreased significantly in both arms during needling (-3.4% and -5.97% for the ipsilateral and the contralateral sides, respectively), but the changes in skin temperature did not correlate with the changes in blood flow. Furthermore, these changes were not significantly different between acupuncture techniques and acupuncture points. In conclusion, acupuncture changes local skin temperature and blood flow independent of the manipulation technique. Moreover, blood flow may not be affected by the increased temperature on the needling arm. These results help to verify traditional Chinese medicine concepts and may help in establishing standards for acupuncture treatments. PMID:27342886

  14. The use of thermal imaging to monitoring skin temperature during cryotherapy: A systematic review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matos, Filipe; Neves, Eduardo Borba; Norte, Marco; Rosa, Claudio; Reis, Victor Machado; Vilaça-Alves, José

    2015-11-01

    Cryotherapy has been applied on clinical injuries and as a method for exercise recovery. It is aimed to reduce edema, nervous conduction velocity, and tissue metabolism, as well as to accelerate the recovery process of the muscle injury induced by exercise. Objective: This review aim to investigate the applicability of thermal imaging as a method for monitoring skin temperature during cryotherapy. Method: Search the Web of Science database using the terms "Cryotherapy", "Thermography", "Thermal Image" and "Cooling". Results: Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria and pass the PEDro scale quality evaluation. Evidence support the use of thermal imaging as a method for monitoring the skin temperature during cryotherapy, and it is superior to other contact methods and subjective methods of assessing skin temperature. Conclusion: Thermography seems to be an efficient, trustworthy and secure method in order to monitoring skin temperature during cryotherapy application. Evidence supports the use of thermography in detriment of contact methods as well as other subjective ones.

  15. Ear Plastic Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Plastic Surgery Ear Plastic Surgery Patient Health Information ... they may improve appearance and self-confidence. Can Ear Deformities Be Corrected? Formation of the ear during ...

  16. Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease Patient Health Information ... with a hearing loss. How Does the Healthy Ear Work? The ear has three main parts: the ...

  17. Better Ear Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Better Ear Health Better Ear Health Patient Health Information News ... often helpful to those with this condition. Swimmer’s Ear An infection of the outer ear structures caused ...

  18. How the Ear Works

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You How the Ear Works How the Ear Works Patient Health Information News media interested in ... public relations staff at newsroom@entnet.org . The ear has three main parts: the outer ear (including ...

  19. Cosmetic ear surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Otoplasty; Ear pinning; Ear surgery - cosmetic; Ear reshaping; Pinnaplasty ... Cosmetic ear surgery may be done in the surgeon's office, an outpatient clinic, or a hospital. It can be performed under ...

  20. Evaluation of insulated miniature thermistors for skin temperature measurement in the rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szlyk, Patricia C.; Sils, Ingrid V.; Ferguson, June D.; Matthew, William T.; Hubbard, Roger W.

    1986-08-01

    A miniature thermistor modified by covering its outer surface with insulating foam was evaluated as a temperature sensor at three skin sites in the adult male laboratory rat. A high precision thermistor was modified by covering the outer epoxy surface with about 1/4 inch of a commercially available insulating foam. Such foam thickness provided sufficient insulation to reduce the influence of ambient temperature on the thermistor reading yet contributed minimal additional probe weight. Results indicate that compared to the insulated thermistor, the uninsulated probe underestimated skin temperature measured at the midscapular region of the back, ventral surface of the foot, and dorsal base of the tail at cool ambient temperature (25c) and overestimated temperature at the back and tail skin sites at high ambient temperature (42c). The differences in temperature measured by the insulated and uninsulated thermistors were greastest at the back skin site, which was the only fur-covered and the least vascularized area of the rat that we studied. Using an insulated miniature thermistor to reduce the influence of environmental temperature on thermistor readings when measuring skin temperature in a furred laboratory animal is recommended.

  1. Skin temperature recording with phosphors: toxicity studies on animals.

    PubMed

    Derse, P H; Alt, L L

    1966-08-20

    In a previous communication in this journal, a method was described for converting invisible thermal patterns of the human skin into a detailed visible picture. At that time, the question of possible toxicity of the thermographic phosphor was raised. Toxicity studies conducted on laboratory animals indicate that the probability of toxic side reactions resulting from the use of zinc-cadmium sulfide phosphor spray is very low. PMID:5943198

  2. Effects of wall temperature on skin-friction measurements by oil-film interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottini, H.; Kurita, M.; Iijima, H.; Fukagata, K.

    2015-10-01

    Wind-tunnel skin-friction measurements with thin-oil-film interferometry have been taken on an aluminum sample to investigate the effects of wall temperature on the accuracy of the technique. The sample has been flush-mounted onto a flat plate with an electric heater at its bottom and mirror-smooth temperature-sensitive paint sprayed on its top. The heater has varied the sample temperature from ambient to 328 K, and the paint has permitted wall temperature measurements on the same area of the skin-friction measurements and during the same test. The measured wall temperatures have been used to calculate the correct oil viscosities, and these viscosities and the constant nominal viscosity at 298 K have been used to calculate two different sets of skin-friction coefficients. These sets have been compared to each other and with theoretical values. This comparison shows that the effects of wall temperature on the accuracy of skin-friction measurements are sensible, and more so as wall temperature differs from 298 K. Nonetheless, they are effectively neutralized by the use of wall temperature measurements in combination with the correct oil viscosity-temperature law. In this regard, the special temperature-sensitive paint developed for this study shows advantages with respect to more traditional wall temperature measurement techniques.

  3. Are infrared and thermistor thermometers interchangeable for measuring localized skin temperature?

    PubMed

    Kelechi, Teresa J; Michel, Yvonne; Wiseman, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Localized skin temperature must be measured by accurate and reliable thermometers to effectively evaluate treatment outcomes, monitor changes, and predict potential complications. This study compared localized skin temperature measurements with a contact thermistor thermometer used as a reference standard and a noncontact infrared (IR) skin thermometer to determine their interchangeability with calculated Bland-Altman limits of agreement. Fifty-five adults ages 50 to 89 participated in the study in which data were collected in a climate-controlled room over 3 measurement periods, 1 week apart. The thermistor and IR thermometers were interchangeable with a limit of agreement of +/- 1.5 degrees C. This limit of agreement is acceptable as a reference standard for IR thermometers to measure localized skin temperature in clinical settings. PMID:16764175

  4. Validation of the thermophysiological model by Fiala for prediction of local skin temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Natividad; Psikuta, Agnes; Kuklane, Kalev; Quesada, José Ignacio Priego; de Anda, Rosa María Cibrián Ortiz; Soriano, Pedro Pérez; Palmer, Rosario Salvador; Corberán, José Miguel; Rossi, René Michel; Annaheim, Simon

    2016-05-01

    The most complete and realistic physiological data are derived from direct measurements during human experiments; however, they present some limitations such as ethical concerns, time and cost burden. Thermophysiological models are able to predict human thermal response in a wide range of environmental conditions, but their use is limited due to lack of validation. The aim of this work was to validate the thermophysiological model by Fiala for prediction of local skin temperatures against a dedicated database containing 43 different human experiments representing a wide range of conditions. The validation was conducted based on root-mean-square deviation (rmsd) and bias. The thermophysiological model by Fiala showed a good precision when predicting core and mean skin temperature (rmsd 0.26 and 0.92 °C, respectively) and also local skin temperatures for most body sites (average rmsd for local skin temperatures 1.32 °C). However, an increased deviation of the predictions was observed for the forehead skin temperature (rmsd of 1.63 °C) and for the thigh during exercising exposures (rmsd of 1.41 °C). Possible reasons for the observed deviations are lack of information on measurement circumstances (hair, head coverage interference) or an overestimation of the sweat evaporative cooling capacity for the head and thigh, respectively. This work has highlighted the importance of collecting details about the clothing worn and how and where the sensors were attached to the skin for achieving more precise results in the simulations.

  5. Epidermal photonic devices for quantitative imaging of temperature and thermal transport characteristics of the skin.

    PubMed

    Gao, Li; Zhang, Yihui; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Jia, Lin; Jang, Kyung-In; Webb, R Chad; Fu, Haoran; Shi, Yan; Zhou, Guoyan; Shi, Luke; Shah, Deesha; Huang, Xian; Xu, Baoxing; Yu, Cunjiang; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2014-01-01

    Characterization of temperature and thermal transport properties of the skin can yield important information of relevance to both clinical medicine and basic research in skin physiology. Here we introduce an ultrathin, compliant skin-like, or 'epidermal', photonic device that combines colorimetric temperature indicators with wireless stretchable electronics for thermal measurements when softly laminated on the skin surface. The sensors exploit thermochromic liquid crystals patterned into large-scale, pixelated arrays on thin elastomeric substrates; the electronics provide means for controlled, local heating by radio frequency signals. Algorithms for extracting patterns of colour recorded from these devices with a digital camera and computational tools for relating the results to underlying thermal processes near the skin surface lend quantitative value to the resulting data. Application examples include non-invasive spatial mapping of skin temperature with milli-Kelvin precision (±50 mK) and sub-millimetre spatial resolution. Demonstrations in reactive hyperaemia assessments of blood flow and hydration analysis establish relevance to cardiovascular health and skin care, respectively. PMID:25234839

  6. Epidermal photonic devices for quantitative imaging of temperature and thermal transport characteristics of the skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Li; Zhang, Yihui; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Jia, Lin; Jang, Kyung-In; Chad Webb, R.; Fu, Haoran; Shi, Yan; Zhou, Guoyan; Shi, Luke; Shah, Deesha; Huang, Xian; Xu, Baoxing; Yu, Cunjiang; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.

    2014-09-01

    Characterization of temperature and thermal transport properties of the skin can yield important information of relevance to both clinical medicine and basic research in skin physiology. Here we introduce an ultrathin, compliant skin-like, or ‘epidermal’, photonic device that combines colorimetric temperature indicators with wireless stretchable electronics for thermal measurements when softly laminated on the skin surface. The sensors exploit thermochromic liquid crystals patterned into large-scale, pixelated arrays on thin elastomeric substrates; the electronics provide means for controlled, local heating by radio frequency signals. Algorithms for extracting patterns of colour recorded from these devices with a digital camera and computational tools for relating the results to underlying thermal processes near the skin surface lend quantitative value to the resulting data. Application examples include non-invasive spatial mapping of skin temperature with milli-Kelvin precision (±50 mK) and sub-millimetre spatial resolution. Demonstrations in reactive hyperaemia assessments of blood flow and hydration analysis establish relevance to cardiovascular health and skin care, respectively.

  7. Improving the Accuracy of Satellite Sea Surface Temperature Measurements by Explicitly Accounting for the Bulk-Skin Temperature Difference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, Sandra L.; Emery, William J.

    2002-01-01

    The focus of this research was to determine whether the accuracy of satellite measurements of sea surface temperature (SST) could be improved by explicitly accounting for the complex temperature gradients at the surface of the ocean associated with the cool skin and diurnal warm layers. To achieve this goal, work centered on the development and deployment of low-cost infrared radiometers to enable the direct validation of satellite measurements of skin temperature. During this one year grant, design and construction of an improved infrared radiometer was completed and testing was initiated. In addition, development of an improved parametric model for the bulk-skin temperature difference was completed using data from the previous version of the radiometer. This model will comprise a key component of an improved procedure for estimating the bulk SST from satellites. The results comprised a significant portion of the Ph.D. thesis completed by one graduate student and they are currently being converted into a journal publication.

  8. Calculations of atmospheric transmittance in the 11 micrometer window for estimating skin temperature from VISSR infrared brightness temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesters, D.

    1984-05-01

    An algorithm for calculating the atmospheric transmittance in the 10 to 20 micro m spectral band from a known temperature and dewpoint profile, and then using this transmittance to estimate the surface (skin) temperature from a VISSR observation in the 11 micro m window is presented. Parameterizations are drawn from the literature for computing the molecular absorption due to the water vapor continuum, water vapor lines, and carbon dioxide lines. The FORTRAN code is documented for this application, and the sensitivity of the derived skin temperature to variations in the model's parameters is calculated. The VISSR calibration uncertainties are identified as the largest potential source of error.

  9. Calculations of atmospheric transmittance in the 11 micrometer window for estimating skin temperature from VISSR infrared brightness temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesters, D.

    1984-01-01

    An algorithm for calculating the atmospheric transmittance in the 10 to 20 micro m spectral band from a known temperature and dewpoint profile, and then using this transmittance to estimate the surface (skin) temperature from a VISSR observation in the 11 micro m window is presented. Parameterizations are drawn from the literature for computing the molecular absorption due to the water vapor continuum, water vapor lines, and carbon dioxide lines. The FORTRAN code is documented for this application, and the sensitivity of the derived skin temperature to variations in the model's parameters is calculated. The VISSR calibration uncertainties are identified as the largest potential source of error.

  10. Assessment of model land skin temperature and surface-atmosphere coupling using remotely sensed estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo, Isabel; Boussetta, Souhail; Balsamo, Gianpaolo; Viterbo, Pedro; Beljaars, Anton; Sandu, Irina

    2016-04-01

    The coupling between land surface and the atmosphere is a key feature in Earth System Modelling for exploiting the predictability of slowly evolving geophysical variables (e.g., soil moisture or vegetation state), and for correctly representing rapid variations within the diurnal cycle, particularly relevant in data assimilation applications. Land Surface Temperature (LST) routinely estimated from Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) by the LandSAF is used to assess the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) skin temperature. LST can be interpreted as a radiative temperature of the model surface, which is close to the ECMWF modelled skin temperature. It is shown that the model tends to slightly overestimate skin temperature during night-time and underestimate daytime values. Such underestimation of daily amplitudes is particularly pronounced in (semi-)arid regions, suggesting a misrepresentation of surface energy fluxes in those areas. The LST estimated from MSG is used to evaluate the impact of changes in some of the ECMWF model surface parameters. The introduction of more realistic model vegetation is shown to have a positive, but limited impact on skin temperature: long integration leads to an equilibrium state where changes in the latent heat flux and soil moisture availability compensate each other. Revised surface roughness lengths for heat and momentum, however, lead to overall positive impact on daytime skin temperature, mostly due to a reduction of sensible heat flux. This is particularly relevant in non-vegetated areas, unaffected by model vegetation. The reduction of skin conductivity, a parameter which controls the heat transfer to ground by diffusion, is shown to further improve the model skin temperature. A revision of the vertical soil discretization is also expected to improve the match to the LST, particularly over sparsely vegetated areas. The impact of a finer discretization (10-layer soil) is currently ongoing; preliminary

  11. Skin sites to predict deep-body temperature while wearing firefighters' personal protective equipment during periodical changes in air temperature.

    PubMed

    Kim, Siyeon; Lee, Joo-Young

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate stable and valid measurement sites of skin temperatures as a non-invasive variable to predict deep-body temperature while wearing firefighters' personal protective equipment (PPE) during air temperature changes. Eight male firefighters participated in an experiment which consisted of 60-min exercise and 10-min recovery while wearing PPE without self-contained breathing apparatus (7.75 kg in total PPE mass). Air temperature was periodically fluctuated from 29.5 to 35.5 °C with an amplitude of 6 °C. Rectal temperature was chosen as a deep-body temperature, and 12 skin temperatures were recorded. The results showed that the forehead and chest were identified as the most valid sites to predict rectal temperature (R(2) = 0.826 and 0.824, respectively) in an environment with periodically fluctuated air temperatures. This study suggests that particular skin temperatures are valid as a non-invasive variable when predicting rectal temperature of an individual wearing PPE in changing ambient temperatures. Practitioner Summary: This study should offer assistance for developing a more reliable indirect indicating system of individual heat strain for firefighters in real time, which can be used practically as a precaution of firefighters' heat-related illness and utilised along with physiological monitoring. PMID:26214379

  12. [Measuring skin temperature in premature infants. Comparison of infrared telethermography and electric contact thermometry].

    PubMed

    Hanssler, L; Breukmann, H

    1992-01-01

    In a group of 6 premature infants, mean weight 1776 g, we measured skin surface temperatures, comparing infrared telethermography (San-ei Thermo-Tracer 6T62) and conventional skin thermometry (Eidatherm). Surface temperatures were measured at 10 different sites, with the infants nursed in an incubator. The same methods were used to compare temperatures on the lower arm of an adult. The results of the two different techniques showed only minor differences of approximately 0,2 degrees C. These discrepancies could be explained by problems of either method. They could also be attributed to the fact, that the emissivity of human skin is not exactly identical with the emissivity of a perfect black body. In clinical practice, infrared thermography and conductive thermometry can be used for determinations of body surface temperature of premature infants, also under the condition of high temperatures and high humidity within an incubator. PMID:1405422

  13. The effects of sodium oxybate on core body and skin temperature regulation in narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    van der Heide, Astrid; Donjacour, Claire E H M; Pijl, Hanno; Reijntjes, Robert H A M; Overeem, Sebastiaan; Lammers, Gert J; Van Someren, Eus J W; Fronczek, Rolf

    2015-10-01

    Patients suffering from narcolepsy type 1 show altered skin temperatures, resembling the profile that is related to sleep onset in healthy controls. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of sodium oxybate, a widely used drug to treat narcolepsy, on the 24-h profiles of temperature and sleep-wakefulness in patients with narcolepsy and controls. Eight hypocretin-deficient male narcolepsy type 1 patients and eight healthy matched controls underwent temperature measurement of core body and proximal and distal skin twice, and the sleep-wake state for 24 h. After the baseline assessment, 2 × 3 g of sodium oxybate was administered for 5 nights, immediately followed by the second assessment. At baseline, daytime core body temperature and proximal skin temperature were significantly lower in patients with narcolepsy (core: 36.8 ± 0.05 °C versus 37.0 ± 0.05 °C, F = 8.31, P = 0.01; proximal: 33.4 ± 0.26 °C versus 34.3 ± 0.26 °C, F = 5.66, P = 0.03). In patients, sodium oxybate administration increased proximal skin temperature during the day (F = 6.46, P = 0.04) to a level similar as in controls, but did not affect core body temperature, distal temperature or distal-proximal temperature gradient. Sodium oxybate administration normalised the predictive value of distal skin temperature and distal-proximal temperature gradient for the onset of daytime naps (P < 0.01). In conclusion, sodium oxybate administration resulted in a partial normalisation of the skin temperature profile, by increasing daytime proximal skin temperature, and by strengthening the known relationship between skin temperature and daytime sleep propensity. These changes seem to be related to the clinical improvement induced by sodium oxybate treatment. A causal relationship is not proven. PMID:25913575

  14. A comparison of urban heat islands mapped using skin temperature, air temperature, and apparent temperature (Humidex), for the greater Vancouver area.

    PubMed

    Ho, Hung Chak; Knudby, Anders; Xu, Yongming; Hodul, Matus; Aminipouri, Mehdi

    2016-02-15

    Apparent temperature is more closely related to mortality during extreme heat events than other temperature variables, yet spatial epidemiology studies typically use skin temperature (also known as land surface temperature) to quantify heat exposure because it is relatively easy to map from satellite data. An empirical approach to map apparent temperature at the neighborhood scale, which relies on publicly available weather station observations and spatial data layers combined in a random forest regression model, was demonstrated for greater Vancouver, Canada. Model errors were acceptable (cross-validated RMSE=2.04 °C) and the resulting map of apparent temperature, calibrated for a typical hot summer day, corresponded well with past temperature research in the area. A comparison with field measurements as well as similar maps of skin temperature and air temperature revealed that skin temperature was poorly correlated with both air temperature (R(2)=0.38) and apparent temperature (R(2)=0.39). While the latter two were more similar (R(2)=0.87), apparent temperature was predicted to exceed air temperature by more than 5 °C in several urban areas as well as around the confluence of the Pitt and Fraser rivers. We conclude that skin temperature is not a suitable proxy for human heat exposure, and that spatial epidemiology studies could benefit from mapping apparent temperature, using an approach similar to the one reported here, to better quantify differences in heat exposure that exist across an urban landscape. PMID:26706765

  15. Changes of skin temperature of parts of the body and serum asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in type-2 diabetes mellitus Indian patients.

    PubMed

    Anburajan, M; Sivanandam, S; Bidyarasmi, S; Venkatraman, B; Menaka, M; Raj, Baldev

    2011-01-01

    In India, number of people with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) would be 87 million by the year 2030. DM disturbs autonomic regulation of skin micro-circulation, and causes decrease in resting blood flows through the skin. The skin blood flow has a major effect on its temperature. The aim of the study was to evaluate changes of skin temperature of all parts of the body and serum asymmetric dimethylarginine, ADMA (μmol/L) in type-2 DM Indian patients. Group-I: Normal (n = 17; M/F: 10/15, mean ± SD = 43.2 ± 9.4 years); Group-II: Type-2 DM without cardiovascular (CV) complications (n = 15; M/F: 10/7, mean ± SD = 46.3 ± 14.0 years); Thermograms of all parts of the body were acquired using a non-contact infrared (IR) thermography camera (ThermaCAM T400, FLIR Systems, Sweden). Blood parameters and thyroid hormone were measured biochemically. Indian diabetic risk score (IDRS) was calculated for each subject. In type-2 DM patients without CV group (n = 15), there was a statistically significant (p = 0.01) negative correlations between HbA(1c) and skin temperature of eye and nose (r = -0.57 and r = -0.55 respectively). ADMA was correlated significantly (p = 0.01) with HbA(1c) (r = 0.65) and estimated average glucose, eAG (r = 0.63). In normal subjects, mean minimum and maximum values of skin temperatures were observed at posterior side of sole (26.89 °C) and ear (36.85 °C) respectively. In type-2 DM without CV, mean values of skin temperature in different parts of the body from head to toe were lesser than those values in control group; but this decreases were statistically significant in nose (32.66 Vs 33.99 °C, p = 0.024) as well as in tibia (32.78 Vs 33.13 °C, p = 0.036) regions. PMID:22255768

  16. Ear tag

    MedlinePlus

    ... are: An inherited tendency to have this facial feature A genetic syndrome that includes having these pits or tags A sinus tract problem (an abnormal connection between the skin and tissue underneath) When to Contact a Medical Professional Your provider will usually find the skin tag ...

  17. Case study of skin temperature and thermal perception in a hot outdoor environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantavou, Katerina; Chatzi, Evriklia; Theoharatos, George

    2014-08-01

    Focusing on the understanding and the estimation of the biometeorological conditions during summer in outdoor places, a field study was conducted in July 2010 in Athens, Greece over 6 days at three different sites: Syntagma Square, Ermou Street and Flisvos coast. Thermo-physiological measurements of five subjects were carried out from morning to evening for each site, simultaneously with meteorological measurements and subjective assessments of thermal sensation reported by questionnaires. The thermo-physiological variables measured were skin temperature, heat flux and metabolic heat production, while meteorological measurements included air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, globe temperature, ground surface temperature and global radiation. The possible relation of skin temperature with the meteorological parameters was examined. Theoretical values of mean skin temperature and mean radiant temperature were estimated applying the MENEX model and were compared with the measured values. Two biometeorological indices, thermal sensation (TS) and heat load (HL)—were calculated in order to compare the predicted thermal sensation with the actual thermal vote. The theoretically estimated values of skin temperature were underestimated in relation to the measured values, while the theoretical model of mean radiant temperature was more sensitive to variations of solar radiation compared to the experimental values. TS index underestimated the thermal sensation of the five subjects when their thermal vote was `hot' or `very hot' and overestimated thermal sensation in the case of `neutral'. The HL index predicted with greater accuracy thermal sensation tending to overestimate the thermal sensation of the subjects.

  18. Implementation of Coupled Skin Temperature Analysis and Bias Correction in a Global Atmospheric Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radakovich, Jon; Bosilovich, M.; Chern, Jiun-dar; daSilva, Arlindo

    2004-01-01

    The NASA/NCAR Finite Volume GCM (fvGCM) with the NCAR CLM (Community Land Model) version 2.0 was integrated into the NASA/GMAO Finite Volume Data Assimilation System (fvDAS). A new method was developed for coupled skin temperature assimilation and bias correction where the analysis increment and bias correction term is passed into the CLM2 and considered a forcing term in the solution to the energy balance. For our purposes, the fvDAS CLM2 was run at 1 deg. x 1.25 deg. horizontal resolution with 55 vertical levels. We assimilate the ISCCP-DX (30 km resolution) surface temperature product. The atmospheric analysis was performed 6-hourly, while the skin temperature analysis was performed 3-hourly. The bias correction term, which was updated at the analysis times, was added to the skin temperature tendency equation at every timestep. In this presentation, we focus on the validation of the surface energy budget at the in situ reference sites for the Coordinated Enhanced Observation Period (CEOP). We will concentrate on sites that include independent skin temperature measurements and complete energy budget observations for the month of July 2001. In addition, MODIS skin temperature will be used for validation. Several assimilations were conducted and preliminary results will be presented.

  19. Time required to document temperature by electronic skin thermometer in a healthy neonate.

    PubMed

    Roy, Ananada Shankar; Chowdhury, T; Bandhopadhya, D; Ghosh, Gautam

    2009-12-01

    We studied the actual time taken to document temperature in a stable neonate by an electronic digital skin thermometer with automatic time beeper. We studied 100 neonates after initial stabilization. The mean time required for documenting the temperature by a electronic thermometer in axilla was 56.34+/-1.54 secs for term neonates (>2500g) and 54.87+/-1.23 secs for low birth weight (<2500g). The skin temperature measured simultaneously by the ordinary mercury thermometer kept for traditional 3 minutes supported the electronic measurement (P < 0.01). PMID:20061590

  20. Skin temperature profiles on the human chest and in the wrist area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissila, Seppo M.; Ahola, Onni; Heikkilae, Ilkka; Ruha, Antti; Kopola, Harri K.

    1996-01-01

    Skin temperatures on the chest and in the wrist area are interesting for continuous monitoring because they can be easily instrumented using an elastic belt or wristband which do not hamper movement in sports, for example. An infrared thermograph camera and NTC thermistors were used to take temperature profiles at these sensing points with a resolution of 0.1 degrees Celsius, and colored thermograms were used to analyze and compare the results. The effect of environmental changes on the skin temperature in the wrist area was studied by cooling and heating the fingers in water at 10 degrees Celsius and 40 degrees Celsius, and the effects of a loading situation on the chest area and wrist area were tested by means of a 30 min bicycle ergometer exercise. NTC thermistors were also used to measure wrist and chest temperatures in two environmental tests at minus 10 degrees Celsius and plus 60 degrees Celsius. Cooling of the fingers naturally reduces the skin temperature in the wrist area and heating increases it due to the venous circulation. The area of the radial artery in the wrist seems to be the most stable temperature point, altering by only about 2 degrees Celsius, whereas the temperature change at other points is up to 4 degrees Celsius. The bicycle ergometer exercise caused a decrease in skin temperature on the chest because of sweating. At the same time the skin temperature on the wrist decreased by about 1.5 degrees Celsius after the first 20 minutes and then returned to its previous level. The area of the radial artery in the wrist seems to be an attractive point for continuous temperature monitoring, especially under normal conditions, and also seems to reflect body temperature quite well upon loading and under different environmental conditions.

  1. Skin temperature, thermal comfort, sweating, clothing and activity of men sledging in Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Budd, G. M.

    1966-01-01

    1. Three men were studied while dog-sledging 320 km in 12 days in Antarctica. Conventional Antarctic clothing (`sweaters and windproofs') was worn. Four hundred observations were made of medial thigh skin temperature, thermal comfort, sweating, clothing, activity and environmental conditions. 2. Work occupied an average of 11·0 hr/day and sleep 7·5 hr. Estimated daily energy expenditure averaged 5100 kcal (range 2740-6660 kcal). 3. Skin temperature fell on exposure to cold despite the clothing worn, but was not changed by the level of activity. Sweating, and thermal comfort, were directly related to both skin temperature and activity. 4. Inside the tent, the modal value of skin temperature was 33° C (range 27-36° C) and the men were comfortable in 94% of observations. 5. During the 9·2 hr/day spent outdoors the modal value of skin temperature was 27° C (range 18-33° C) and the men felt too cold (but did not shiver) in 11% (range 7-20%) of observations, suggesting that cold stress was not negligible. However, they also felt too hot in 20% of observations and were sweating in 23%. PMID:5914254

  2. Relationship between skin temperature and muscle activation during incremental cycle exercise.

    PubMed

    Priego Quesada, Jose I; Carpes, Felipe P; Bini, Rodrigo R; Salvador Palmer, Rosario; Pérez-Soriano, Pedro; Cibrián Ortiz de Anda, Rosa M

    2015-02-01

    While different studies showed that better fitness level adds to the efficiency of the thermoregulatory system, the relationship between muscular effort and skin temperature is still unknown. Therefore, the present study assessed the relationship between neuromuscular activation and skin temperature during cycle exercise. Ten physically active participants performed an incremental workload cycling test to exhaustion while neuromuscular activations were recorded (via surface electromyography - EMG) from rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and gastrocnemius medialis. Thermographic images were recorded before, immediately after and 10 min after finishing the cycling test, at four body regions of interest corresponding to the muscles where neuromuscular activations were monitored. Frequency band analysis was conducted to assess spectral properties of EMG signals in order to infer on priority in recruitment of motor units. Significant inverse relationship between changes in skin temperature and changes in overall neuromuscular activation for vastus lateralis was observed (r<-0.5 and p<0.04). Significant positive relationship was observed between skin temperature and low frequency components of neuromuscular activation from vastus lateralis (r>0.7 and p<0.01). Participants with larger overall activation and reduced low frequency component for vastus lateralis activation presented a better adaptive response of their thermoregulatory system by showing fewer changes in skin temperature after incremental cycling test. PMID:25660627

  3. The effect of skin temperature on performance during a 7.5-km cycling time trial.

    PubMed

    Levels, Koen; de Koning, Jos J; Foster, Carl; Daanen, Hein A M

    2012-09-01

    Aerobic exercise performance is seriously compromised in the heat. Possibly, a high skin temperature causes a rating of perceived exertion (RPE)-mediated decrease in exercise intensity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of skin temperature on power output during a 7.5-km cycling time trial. Thirteen well-trained male subjects performed a 7.5-km cycling time trial at 15°C and 50% relative humidity (CONTROL), with radiative heat stress during the time trial, and with (PRECOOL) or without (HEAT) precooling. Heat stress was applied by infrared heaters positioned in front of the cycle ergometer between 1.5 and 6.0 km. Skin, rectal, and pill temperature, power output, heart rate, and RPE were measured during the trial. Despite the lower mean skin temperature at the start of the time trial for PRECOOL compared to HEAT (-2.1 ± 0.7°C; P < 0.01) and CONTROL (-1.8 ± 0.6°C; P < 0.05), and a greater increase in mean skin temperature during the heat stress period for PRECOOL (4.5 ± 1.0°C) and HEAT (3.9 ± 0.8°C) than for CONTROL (-0.3 ± 0.6°C; P < 0.01), no differences in power output were found between HEAT (273 ± 45 W) and CONTROL (284 ± 43 W; P = 0.11) and between HEAT and PRECOOL (266 ± 50 W; P = 0.47). Power output during the time trial was greater for CONTROL than for PRECOOL (P < 0.05). Additionally, no differences were observed in core temperature measures, HR, and RPE. Skin temperature does not affect the selection and modulation of exercise intensity in a 7.5-km cycling time trial. PMID:22270485

  4. Elevated local skin temperature impairs cutaneous vasoconstrictor responses to a simulated haemorrhagic challenge while heat stressed

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, J.; Lucas, R. A. I.; Crandall, C. G.

    2016-01-01

    During a simulated haemorrhagic challenge, syncopal symptoms develop sooner when individuals are hyperthermic relative to normothermic. This is due, in part, to a large displacement of blood to the cutaneous circulation during hyperthermia, coupled with inadequate cutaneous vasoconstriction during the hypotensive challenge. The influence of local skin temperature on these cutaneous vasoconstrictor responses is unclear. This project tested the hypothesis that local skin temperature modulates cutaneous vasoconstriction during simulated haemorrhage in hyperthermic humans. Eight healthy participants (four men and four women; 32 ± 7 years old; 75.2 ± 10.8 kg) underwent lower-body negative pressure to presyncope while heat stressed via a water-perfused suit sufficiently to increase core temperature by 1.2 ± 0.2°C. At forearm skin sites distal to the water-perfused suit, local skin temperature was either 35.2 ± 0.6 (mild heating) or 38.2 ± 0.2°C (moderate heating) throughout heat stress and lower-body negative pressure, and remained at these temperatures until presyncope. The reduction in cutaneous vascular conductance during the final 90 s of lower-body negative pressure, relative to heat-stress baseline, was greatest at the mildly heated site (−10 ± 15% reduction) relative to the moderately heated site (−2 ± 12%; P = 0.05 for the magnitude of the reduction in cutaneous vascular conductance between sites), because vasoconstriction at the moderately heated site was either absent or negligible. In hyperthermic individuals, the extent of cutaneous vasoconstriction during a simulated haemorrhage can be modulated by local skin temperature. In situations where skin temperature is at least 38°C, as is the case in soldiers operating in warm climatic conditions, a haemorrhagic insult is unlikely to be accompanied by cutaneous vasoconstriction. PMID:22903981

  5. Effects of skin blood flow and temperature on skin--electrode impedance and offset potential: measurements at low alternating current density.

    PubMed

    Smith, D C

    1992-01-01

    Skin--electrode impedance was determined at 100 Hz and 1 kHz between two disposable electrodes, 5 cm apart, at current densities < 65 microA.cm-2. Measurements were made on the volar skin of the forearm during cooling on cardiopulmonary bypass, and on the dorsum of the foot in the absence of skin blood flow during aortic aneurysm repair. Both the resistive and reactive components of the skin-electrode impedence showed an inverse linear relationship to temperature between 26 and 36 degrees C. The magnitude of the impedance change was different for each patient studied; resistance changes ranged from 0.03 to 23.2 k omega. Degrees C-1 at 100 Hz and from 0.03 to 2.7 k omega. Degrees C-1 at 1 kHz, while reactance changes ranged from 0.4 to 2.1 k omega. Degrees C-1 at 100 Hz and from 0.04 to 0.18 k omega. Degrees C-1 at 1 kHz. Changes in skin-electrode impedance were not due to changes in skin blood flow. There was no consistent change in offset potential with temperature. Although the skin-electrode impedance increases as temperature falls, it is concluded that temperature effects at the skin-electrode interface are not responsible for the observed failure of evoked electromyography during clinical monitoring of neuromuscular function. PMID:1404312

  6. Effects of peripheral sympathectomy on thermoregulatory vascular control in the rabbit ear.

    PubMed

    Smith, T L; Koman, L A; Gordon, E S; Holden, M B; Smith, B P

    1998-01-01

    A rabbit ear model of the human digit was utilized to determine the vascular response to peripheral sympathectomy. Vascular responses were evaluated by subjecting chronically instrumented rabbits to a cold stress before and after sympathectomy surgery. The typical response to cold stress is for ear temperatures and auricular cutaneous perfusion to decrease during the cooling phase of the test and to increase toward baseline levels during the rewarming phase after cold exposure. Following peripheral sympathectomy, ear temperatures were significantly increased during both the cooling and rewarming phase of the cold stress test although overall ear perfusion and skin perfusion were not different from sham-operated rabbits. The responses observed in the rabbit ear following peripheral sympathectomy appear to mimic those noted in patients receiving digital peripheral sympathectomies for the treatment of refractory pain and ulceration. Peripheral sympathectomy may result in clinical improvements in patients because it improves both total digital and nutritional cutaneous blood flow. Peripheral sympathectomy in normal rabbit ears does not result in altered perfusion patterns with cold exposure although ear temperature is significantly higher. This pattern of changes suggests that the distribution of extremity perfusion is altered even though overall extremity perfusion and cutaneous perfusion per se are not significantly different from sham-operated controls. Complete sympathectomy was accompanied by a persistent increase in ear temperature and a dissociation between conductance and microvascular perfusion. Auricular conductance was transiently increased and then decreased to levels below preoperative control values. Microvascular perfusion is decreased immediately following amputation/replantation and thereafter increases. PMID:9674929

  7. The effect of environmental humidity and temperature on skin barrier function and dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Engebretsen, K A; Johansen, J D; Kezic, S; Linneberg, A; Thyssen, J P

    2016-02-01

    Physicians are aware that climatic conditions negatively affect the skin. In particular, people living in equator far countries such as the Northern parts of Europe and North America are exposed to harsh weather during the winter and may experience dry and itchy skin, or deterioration of already existing dermatoses. We searched the literature for studies that evaluated the mechanisms behind this phenomenon. Commonly used meteorological terms such as absolute humidity, relative humidity and dew point are explained. Furthermore, we review the negative effect of low humidity, low temperatures and different seasons on the skin barrier and on the risk of dermatitis. We conclude that low humidity and low temperatures lead to a general decrease in skin barrier function and increased susceptible towards mechanical stress. Since pro-inflammatory cytokines and cortisol are released by keratinocytes, and the number of dermal mast cells increases, the skin also becomes more reactive towards skin irritants and allergens. Collectively, published data show that cold and dry weather increase the prevalence and risk of flares in patients with atopic dermatitis. PMID:26449379

  8. The simulation of skin temperature distributions by means of a relaxation method.

    PubMed

    Vermey, G F

    1975-05-01

    To solve the differential equation for the heat in a two-layer, rectangular piece of skin tissue, a relaxation method, based on a finite difference technique, is used. The temperature distributions on the skin surface are calculated. The results are used to derive a criterion for the resolution for an infrared thermograph in a specific situation. A major limitation on the resolution in medical thermography is given. As an example of the power of the model, the sensitivity of the temperature profiles for variations of the layer thickness is determined. PMID:1187763

  9. Effects of Gloves, Temperature and Their Interaction on Finger, Hand, and Arm Blood Flow and Skin Temperature: A Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallbech, M. Susan

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of cold only, commercially available gloves only, and the combination of gloves and cold on the blood flow and surface (skin) temperature of the medial and proximal phalanxes of digit 3, the metacarpal region of the hand, and the forearm.

  10. Ears and Altitude

    MedlinePlus

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ears and Altitude Ears and Altitude Patient Health Information ... uncomfortable feeling of fullness or pressure. Why do ears pop? Normally, swallowing causes a little click or ...

  11. Ear tube insertion

    MedlinePlus

    Myringotomy; Tympanostomy; Ear tube surgery; Pressure equalization tubes; Ventilating tubes; Ear infection - tubes; Otitis - tubes ... trapped fluid can flow out of the middle ear. This prevents hearing loss and reduces the risk ...

  12. Ear tube insertion - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100045.htm Ear tube insertion - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... 4 Overview The eardrum (tympanic membrane) separates the ear canal from the middle ear. Update Date 8/ ...

  13. Evaluation of wireless determination of skin temperature using iButtons.

    PubMed

    van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D; Daanen, Hein A M; Wouters, Loek; Fronczek, Rolf; Raymann, Roy J E M; Severens, Natascha M W; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2006-07-30

    Measurements of skin temperatures are often complicated because of the use of wired sensors. This is so in field studies, but also holds for many laboratory conditions. This article describes a wireless temperature system for human skin temperature measurements, i.e. the Thermochron iButton DS1291H. The study deals with validation of the iButton and its application on the human skin, and describes clinical and field measurements. The validation study shows that iButtons have a mean accuracy of -0.09 degrees C (-0.4 degrees C at most) with a precision of 0.05 degrees C (0.09 degrees C at most). These properties can be improved by using calibration. Due to the size of the device the response time is longer than that of conventional sensors, with a tau in water of 19 s. On the human skin under transient conditions the response time is significantly longer, revealing momentary deviations with a magnitude of 1 degrees C. The use of iButtons has been described in studies on circadian rhythms, sleep and cardiac surgery. With respect to circadian rhythm and sleep research, skin temperature assessment by iButtons is of significant value in laboratory, clinical and home situations. We demonstrate that differences in laboratory and field measurements add to our understanding of thermophysiology under natural living conditions. The advantage of iButtons in surgery research is that they are easy to sterilize and wireless so that they do not hinder the surgical procedure. In conclusion, the application of iButtons is advantageous for measuring skin temperatures in those situations in which wired instruments are unpractical and fast responses are not required. PMID:16797616

  14. The influence of different acupuncture manipulations on the skin temperature of an acupoint.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao; Huang, Xin; Zhang, Weibo; Jia, Shuyong; Cheng, Xinnong; Litscher, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to observe the influence of sham and different verum acupuncture manipulations on skin temperature of the stimulated acupoint in healthy volunteers. Thirty-seven healthy volunteers with a mean age of 25.4 ± 2.2 years were enrolled in the study. All volunteers had experienced acupuncture before. They received sham acupuncture and two different kinds of verum acupuncture stimulation (lifting-thrusting and twisting-rotating) on Zusanli (ST36). The skin temperature of ST36 was measured before acupuncture, after needle insertion, after needle manipulation, immediately after removal of the needle, and as further control 5 minutes after removal of the needle using a FLIR i7 infrared thermal camera. During the measurement, the needling sensations of volunteers were enquired and recorded. During the sham acupuncture stimulation, the skin temperature of ST36 decreased in the first 5 minutes, when the point was exposed, and then increased gradually. During verum acupuncture stimulations, the skin temperature increased continually and then decreased in the last phase. The increase in temperature caused by lifting-thrusting stimulation was significantly higher than that of twisting-rotating manipulation, which may be related to the stimulation intensity. PMID:23476709

  15. Measurement of flexible temperature-pressure distribution for robot sensing skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qinghua; Huang, Ying; Wu, Siyu; Miao, Wei; Liu, Xiumei

    2013-01-01

    The design of flexible pressure and temperature sensor array, which will serve as the artificial skin for robot applications, is presented. Different conductive rubber,which has different kinds of conductive filler, is employed as the pressure and temperature sensing material. The pressure sensing material is carbon black (CB)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTS)/silicon rubber, the proportion of CB and CNTS is 6% and 4%, respectively. The temperature sensing material is carbon fiber/silicon rubber; the proportion of carbon fiber (CF) is 12%. Both of the materials are flexible enough to use as artificial skin. Small disks of pressure and temperature conductive rubber are bonded on predefined flexible interdigital copper array. The pressure and temperature sensitive properties of the sensor array are measured. The structure of the sensor array make the temperature sensing material doesn't take any interference of pressure. The separate collection of pressure and temperature signals with the scanning circuits can effectively reduce the crosstalk between each sensing element. With this integrated sensor array, the images of pressure and temperature distribution have been successfully shown by LabVIEW. This flexible sensor array can be bended without any influence of performance, so the sensor array is flexible and sensitive enough to be used as robot skin.

  16. Effect of saddle height on skin temperature measured in different days of cycling.

    PubMed

    Priego Quesada, Jose Ignacio; Carpes, Felipe P; Salvador Palmer, Rosario; Pérez-Soriano, Pedro; Cibrián Ortiz de Anda, Rosa M

    2016-01-01

    Infrared thermography can be useful to explore the effects of exercise on neuromuscular function. During cycling, it could be used to investigate the effects of saddle height on thermoregulation. The aim of this study was to examine whether different cycling postures, elicited by different knee flexion angles, could influence skin temperature. Furthermore, we also determined whether the reproducibility of thermal measurements in response to cycling differed in the body regions affected or not affected by saddle height. Sixteen cyclists participated in three tests of 45 min of cycling at their individual 50 % peak power output. Each test was performed in a different knee flexion position on the bicycle (20°, 30°, 40° knee flexion when the pedal crank was at 180°). Different knee angles were obtained by changing saddle height. Skin temperatures were determined by infrared thermography before, immediately after and 10 min after the cycling test, in 16 different regions of interest (ROI) in the trunk and lower limbs. Changes in saddle height did not result in changes in skin temperature in the ROI. However, lower knee flexion elicited higher temperature in popliteus after cycling than higher flexion (p = 0.008 and ES = 0.8), and higher knee flexion elicited lower temperature variation in the tibialis anterior than intermediate knee flexion (p = 0.004 and ES = 0.8). Absolute temperatures obtained good and very good intraday reproducibility in the different measurements (ICCs between 0.44 and 0.85), but temperature variations showed lower reproducibility (ICCs between 0.11 and 0.74). Different postures assumed by the cyclist due to different saddle height did not influence temperature measurements. Skin temperature can be measured on different days with good repeatability, but temperature variations can be more sensitive to the effects of an intervention. PMID:27026901

  17. Fingertip skin–inspired microstructured ferroelectric skins discriminate static/dynamic pressure and temperature stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jonghwa; Kim, Marie; Lee, Youngoh; Lee, Heon Sang; Ko, Hyunhyub

    2015-01-01

    In human fingertips, the fingerprint patterns and interlocked epidermal-dermal microridges play a critical role in amplifying and transferring tactile signals to various mechanoreceptors, enabling spatiotemporal perception of various static and dynamic tactile signals. Inspired by the structure and functions of the human fingertip, we fabricated fingerprint-like patterns and interlocked microstructures in ferroelectric films, which can enhance the piezoelectric, pyroelectric, and piezoresistive sensing of static and dynamic mechanothermal signals. Our flexible and microstructured ferroelectric skins can detect and discriminate between multiple spatiotemporal tactile stimuli including static and dynamic pressure, vibration, and temperature with high sensitivities. As proof-of-concept demonstration, the sensors have been used for the simultaneous monitoring of pulse pressure and temperature of artery vessels, precise detection of acoustic sounds, and discrimination of various surface textures. Our microstructured ferroelectric skins may find applications in robotic skins, wearable sensors, and medical diagnostic devices. PMID:26601303

  18. Distributed landsurface skin temperature sensing in Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Giesen, N.; Baerenbold, F.; Nadeau, D. F.; Pardyjak, E.; Parlange, M. B.

    2010-12-01

    The ZyTemp TN9 is a mass-produced thermal infrared (TIR) sensor that is normally used to build handheld non-contact thermometers. The measurement principle of the TN9 is similar to that of very costly meteorological pyrgeometers. The costs of the TN9 are less than 10. The output of the TN9 consists of observed thermal radiation, the temperature of the measurement instrument, and the emissivity used. The output is provided through a Serial Peripheral Interface protocol. The TN9 was combined with an Arduino board that registered data onto a USB memory stick. A solar cell, lead acid battery, housing and stand completed the meausrement set up. Total costs per set was in the order of 200 Land surface atmosphere interactions in mountainous areas, such as the Swiss Alps, are spatially heterogeneous. Shading, multi-layer cloud formation, and up- and downdrafts make for a very dynamic exchange of mass and energy along and across slopes. In order to better understand these exchanges, the Swiss Slope Experiment at La Fouly (SELF) has built a distributed sensing network consisting of eight micro-met stations and two flux towers in the "La Fouly" watershed in the upper Alps. To obtain a better handle on surface temperature, fifteen TIR sensing stations were installed that made observations during the 2010 Summer. Methods and results will be presented. Overview La Fouly watershed (source: http://eflum.epfl.ch/research/images/fouly_2.jpg)

  19. Stress Evaluation while Prolonged Driving Operation Using the Facial Skin Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Hirotoshi; Muto, Takumi; Ide, Hideto

    There is a relation to the accident of a car and the physiological and psychological state of a driver. The stress may lead to the fall of a fatigue or attentiveness. Therefore, it is an important subject from viewpoint such as accident prevention to evaluate the mental state of a driver. The study aimed at the development of a quantitative instrumentation technology of the stress when a subject is driving for a long time. First of all, we measured the physiological and psychological stress of a driver. The facial skin temperature and ventricular rate that was driver's physiological amount were measured and compared it with visual analog scale of the subjective amount. It was able to be obtaining of the high correlation in facial skin temperature and visual analog scale from the outcome of the experiment. Therefore, the possibility of appreciable of driver's stress at a facial skin temperature was shown. As a result of the experiment, we showed a possibility that facial skin temperature could evaluate long driving stress.

  20. Light and temperature effects on phenolics in dark-skinned grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the past decade we refined our understanding of the effects of solar radiation and temperature on the accumulation of phenolic compounds in grapes in the field, particularly dark-skinned cultivars used for red wine. The work was precipitated by nearly universal prescriptive advice a decade pr...

  1. Near-surface air temperature and snow skin temperature comparison from CREST-SAFE station data with MODIS land surface temperature data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Díaz, C. L.; Lakhankar, T.; Romanov, P.; Muñoz, J.; Khanbilvardi, R.; Yu, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a key variable (commonly studied to understand the hydrological cycle) that helps drive the energy balance and water exchange between the Earth's surface and its atmosphere. One observable constituent of much importance in the land surface water balance model is snow. Snow cover plays a critical role in the regional to global scale hydrological cycle because rain-on-snow with warm air temperatures accelerates rapid snow-melt, which is responsible for the majority of the spring floods. Accurate information on near-surface air temperature (T-air) and snow skin temperature (T-skin) helps us comprehend the energy and water balances in the Earth's hydrological cycle. T-skin is critical in estimating latent and sensible heat fluxes over snow covered areas because incoming and outgoing radiation fluxes from the snow mass and the air temperature above make it different from the average snowpack temperature. This study investigates the correlation between MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST data and observed T-air and T-skin data from NOAA-CREST-Snow Analysis and Field Experiment (CREST-SAFE) for the winters of 2013 and 2014. LST satellite validation is imperative because high-latitude regions are significantly affected by climate warming and there is a need to aid existing meteorological station networks with the spatially continuous measurements provided by satellites. Results indicate that near-surface air temperature correlates better than snow skin temperature with MODIS LST data. Additional findings show that there is a negative trend demonstrating that the air minus snow skin temperature difference is inversely proportional to cloud cover. To a lesser extent, it will be examined whether the surface properties at the site are representative for the LST properties within the instrument field of view.

  2. Effects of different sitting positions on skin temperature of the lower extremity

    PubMed Central

    Namkoong, Seung; Shim, JeMyung; Kim, SungJoong; Shim, JungMyo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of different sitting positions on the skin temperature of the lower extremity. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 23 healthy university students (8 males, 15 females). [Methods] Normal sitting (NS), upper leg cross (ULC) and ankle on knee (AOK) positions were conducted to measure the changes in skin temperature using digital infrared thermographic imaging (DITI). [Results] ULC upper ankle, NS upper shin, ULC upper shin and NS lower shin showed significant declines in temperature with time. [Conclusion] These finding suggest that the ULC and NS sitting positions cause decline of blood flow volume to the lower extremity resulting in decrease of temperature of the lower extremity. Especially, sitting with the legs crossed interferes with the circulation of blood flowing volume much more than just sitting in a chair. PMID:26355265

  3. Procedure of rectal temperature measurement affects brain, muscle, skin and body temperatures and modulates the effects of intravenous cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Bae, David D.; Brown, P. Leon; Kiyatkin, Eugene A.

    2007-01-01

    Rectal probe thermometry is commonly used to measure body core temperature in rodents because of its ease of use. Although previous studies suggest that rectal measurement is stressful and results in long-lasting elevations in body temperatures, we evaluated how this procedure affects brain, muscle, skin and core temperatures measured with chronically implanted thermocouple electrodes in rats. Our data suggest that the procedure of rectal measurement results in powerful locomotor activation, rapid and strong increases in brain, muscle, and deep body temperatures, as well as a biphasic, down-up fluctuation in skin temperature, matching the response pattern observed during tail-pinch, a representative stressful procedure. This response, moreover, did not habituate after repeated day-to-day testing. Repeated rectal probe insertions also modified temperature responses induced by intravenous cocaine. Under quiet resting conditions, cocaine moderately increased brain, muscle and deep body temperatures. However, during repeated rectal measurements, which increased temperatures, cocaine induced both hyperthermic and hypothermic responses. Direct comparisons revealed that body temperatures measured by a rectal probe are typically lower (∼0.6°C) and more variable than body temperatures recorded by chronically implanted electrodes; the difference is smaller at low and greater at high basal temperatures. Because of this difference and temperature increases induced by the rectal probe per se, cocaine had no significant effect on rectal temperatures compared to control animals exposed to repeated rectal probes. Therefore, although rectal temperature measurements provide a decent correlation with directly measured deep body temperatures, the arousing influence of this procedure may drastically modulate the effects of other arousing stimuli and drugs. PMID:17466279

  4. The effect of repeated laser stimuli to ink-marked skin on skin temperature-recommendations for a safe experimental protocol in humans.

    PubMed

    Madden, Victoria J; Catley, Mark J; Grabherr, Luzia; Mazzola, Francesca; Shohag, Mohammad; Moseley, G Lorimer

    2016-01-01

    Background. Nd:YAP laser is widely used to investigate the nociceptive and pain systems, generating perpetual and laser-evoked neurophysiological responses. A major procedural concern for the use of Nd:YAP laser stimuli in experimental research is the risk of skin damage. The absorption of Nd:YAP laser stimuli is greater in darker skin, or in pale skin that has been darkened with ink, prompting some ethics boards to refuse approval to experimenters wishing to track stimulus location by marking the skin with ink. Some research questions, however, require laser stimuli to be delivered at particular locations or within particular zones, a requirement that is very difficult to achieve if marking the skin is not possible. We thoroughly searched the literature for experimental evidence and protocol recommendations for safe delivery of Nd:YAP laser stimuli over marked skin, but found nothing. Methods. We designed an experimental protocol to define safe parameters for the use of Nd:YAP laser stimuli over skin that has been marked with black dots, and used thermal imaging to assess the safety of the procedure at the forearm and the back. Results. Using thermal imaging and repeated laser stimulation to ink-marked skin, we demonstrated that skin temperature did not increase progressively across the course of the experiment, and that the small change in temperature seen at the forearm was reversed during the rest periods between blocks. Furthermore, no participant experienced skin damage due to the procedure. Conclusion. This protocol offers parameters for safe, confident and effective experimentation using repeated Nd:YAP laser on skin marked with ink, thus paving the way for investigations that depend on it. PMID:26793428

  5. Aerobic bacteria from mucous membranes, ear canals, and skin wounds of feral cats in Grenada, and the antimicrobial drug susceptibility of major isolates.

    PubMed

    Hariharan, Harry; Matthew, Vanessa; Fountain, Jacqueline; Snell, Alicia; Doherty, Devin; King, Brittany; Shemer, Eran; Oliveira, Simone; Sharma, Ravindra N

    2011-03-01

    In a 2-year period 54 feral cats were captured in Grenada, West Indies, and a total of 383 samples consisting of swabs from rectum, vagina, ears, eyes, mouth, nose and wounds/abscesses, were cultured for aerobic bacteria and campylobacters. A total of 251 bacterial isolates were obtained, of which 205 were identified to species level and 46 to genus level. A commercial bacterial identification system (API/Biomerieux), was used for this purpose. The most common species was Escherichia coli (N=60), followed by Staphylococcus felis/simulans (40), S. hominis (16), S. haemolyticus (12), Streptococcus canis (9), Proteus mirabilis (8), Pasteurella multocida (7), Streptococcus mitis (7), Staphylococcus xylosus (7), S. capitis (6), S. chromogenes (4), S. sciuri (3), S. auricularis (2), S. lentus (2), S. hyicus (2), Streptococcus suis (2) and Pseudomonas argentinensis (2). Sixteen other isolates were identified to species level. A molecular method using 16S rRNA sequencing was used to confirm/identify 22 isolates. Salmonella or campylobacters were not isolated from rectal swabs. E. coli and S. felis/simulans together constituted 50% of isolates from vagina. S. felis/simulans was the most common species from culture positive ear and eye samples. P. multocida was isolated from 15% of mouth samples. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most common isolates from nose and wound swabs. Staphylococcus aureus, or S. intemedius/S. pseudintermedius were not isolated from any sample. Antimicrobial drug resistance was minimal, most isolates being susceptible to all drugs tested against, including tetracycline. PMID:20627391

  6. PERSPECTIVE Working towards a community-wide understanding of satellite skin temperature observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shreve, Cheney

    2010-12-01

    With more than sixty free and publicly available high-quality datasets, including ecosystem variables, radiation budget variables, and land cover products, the MODIS instrument and the MODIS scientific team have contributed significantly to scientific investigations of ecosystems across the globe. The MODIS instrument, launched in December 1999, has 36 spectral bands, a viewing swath of 2330 km, and acquires data at 250 m, 500 m, and 1000 m spatial resolution every one to two days. Radiation budget variables include surface reflectance, skin temperature, emissivity, and albedo, to list a few. Ecosystem variables include several vegetation indices and productivity measures. Land cover characteristics encompass land cover classifications as well as model parameters and vegetation classifications. Many of these products are instrumental in constraining global climate models and climate change studies, as well as monitoring events such as the recent flooding in Pakistan, the unprecedented oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, or phytoplankton bloom in the Barents Sea. While product validation efforts by the MODIS scientific team are both vigorous and continually improving, validation is unquestionably one of the most difficult tasks when dealing with remotely derived datasets, especially at the global scale. The quality and availability of MODIS data have led to widespread usage in the scientific community that has further contributed to validation and development of the MODIS products. In their recent paper entitled 'Land surface skin temperature climatology: benefitting from the strengths of satellite observations', Jin and Dickinson review the scientific theory behind, and demonstrate application of, a MODIS temperature product: surface skin temperature. Utilizing datasets from the Global Historical Climatological Network (GHCN), daily skin and air temperature from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program, and MODIS products (skin temperature, albedo, land

  7. Wavelet-analysis of skin temperature oscillations during local heating for revealing endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Podtaev, Sergey; Stepanov, Rodion; Smirnova, Elena; Loran, Evgenia

    2015-01-01

    Skin microvessels have proven to be a model to investigate the mechanisms of vascular disease; in particular, endothelial dysfunction. To analyze skin blood flow, high-resolution thermometry can be used because low-amplitude skin temperature oscillations are caused by changes in the tone of skin vessels. The aim of our study was to test the possibilities of wavelet analysis of skin temperature (WAST) for the diagnosis of impaired regulation of microvascular tone in patients with type 2 diabetes. A local heating functional test was used for the assessment of microvascular tone regulation. A control group consisted of healthy male and female volunteers (n=5 each), aged 39.1±5.3years. A group of patients with type 2 diabetes comprised thirteen people, seven men and six women, aged 36 to 51years old (43.2±3.4years). The diagnosis of diabetes was made according to the criteria of the World Health Organization (WHO). The mean disease duration was 7.36±0.88years. Skin temperature oscillations, reflecting intrinsic myogenic activity (0.05-0.14Hz), neurogenic factors (0.02-0.05Hz) and endothelial activity (0.0095-0.02Hz) increase greatly during local heating for healthy subjects. In the group of patients with type 2 diabetes, no statistically significant differences in the amplitudes in the endothelial range were observed. Relative changes in the oscillation amplitudes in patients with type 2 diabetes were markedly lower compared to the control group. The latter indicates that the WAST method enables assessment of the state of vascular tone and the effects of mechanisms responsible for regulation of blood flow in the microvasculature. PMID:25446367

  8. Simultaneous measurements of skin sea surface temperature and sea surface emissivity from a single thermal imagery.

    PubMed

    Yoshimori, Kyu; Tamba, Sumio; Yokoyama, Ryuzo

    2002-08-20

    A novel method, to our knowledge, to measure simultaneously the thermal emissivity and skin temperature of a sea surface has been developed. The proposed method uses an infrared image that includes a sea surface and a reference object located near the surface. By combining this image with sky radiation temperature, we retrieve both skin sea surface temperature and sea surface emissivity from the single infrared image. Because the method requires no knowledge of thermal radiative properties of actual sea surfaces, it can be used even for a contaminated sea surface whose emissivity is hard to determine theoretically, e.g., oil slicks or slicks produced by biological wastes. Experimental results demonstrate that the estimated emissivity agrees with the theoretical prediction and, also, the recovered temperature distribution of skin sea surface has no appreciable high-temperature area that is due to reflection of the reference object. The method allows the acquisition of match-up data of radiometric sea surface temperatures that precisely correspond to the satellite observable data. PMID:12206200

  9. The amphisbaenian ear: Blanus cinereus and Diplometopon zarudnyi.

    PubMed

    Gans, C; Wever, E G

    1975-04-01

    Observations on the structure and function of the ear in amphisbaenians have been extended to two new species: to Blanus cinereus of the family Amphisbaenidae and Diplometopon zarudnyi of the family Trogonophidae. Blanus, considered one of the most primitive of this group of reptiles, shows a distinctive form of sound-receptive mechanism. The usual extracolumella is lacking, and the columella attaches to a cartilaginous plate beneath the skin posterior to the facial area. Diplometopon zarudnyi, a highly modified trogonophid, shows a columella and extracolumella of massive dimensions, with considerable calcification of the latter process. Cochlear potential measurements revealed the levels of auditory sensitivity in these species. A peculiar feature is the degree of stability of the ear's responses in the presence of large variations in body temperature. PMID:1055420

  10. Estimating the time and temperature relationship for causation of deep-partial thickness skin burns.

    PubMed

    Abraham, John P; Plourde, Brian; Vallez, Lauren; Stark, John; Diller, Kenneth R

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to develop and present a simple procedure for evaluating the temperature and exposure-time conditions that lead to causation of a deep-partial thickness burn and the effect that the immediate post-burn thermal environment can have on the process. A computational model has been designed and applied to predict the time required for skin burns to reach a deep-partial thickness level of injury. The model includes multiple tissue layers including the epidermis, dermis, hypodermis, and subcutaneous tissue. Simulated exposure temperatures ranged from 62.8 to 87.8°C (145-190°F). Two scenarios were investigated. The first and worst case scenario was a direct exposure to water (characterized by a large convection coefficient) with the clothing left on the skin following the exposure. A second case consisted of a scald insult followed immediately by the skin being washed with cool water (20°C). For both cases, an Arrhenius injury model was applied whereby the extent and depth of injury were calculated and compared for the different post-burn treatments. In addition, injury values were compared with experiment data from the literature to assess verification of the numerical methodology. It was found that the clinical observations of injury extent agreed with the calculated values. Furthermore, inundation with cool water decreased skin temperatures more quickly than the clothing insulating case and led to a modest decrease in the burn extent. PMID:26188899

  11. INFLUENCE OF BLOOD FLOW AND MILLIMETER WAVE EXPOSURE ON SKIN TEMPERATURE IN DIFFERENT THERMAL MODELS

    PubMed Central

    Alekseev, S.I.; Ziskin, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Recently we showed that the Pennes bioheat transfer equation was not adequate to quantify mm wave heating of the skin at high blood flow rates. To do so, it is necessary to incorporate an “effective” thermal conductivity to obtain a hybrid bioheat equation (HBHE). The main aim of this study was to determine the relationship between non-specific tissue blood flow in a homogeneous unilayer model and dermal blood flow in multilayer models providing that the skin surface temperatures before and following mm wave exposure were the same. This knowledge could be used to develop multilayer models based on the fitting parameters obtained with the homogeneous tissue models. We tested four tissue models consisting of 1 to 4 layers and applied the one-dimensional steady-state HBHE. To understand the role of the epidermis in skin models we added to the one- and three-layer models an external thin epidermal layer with no blood flow. Only the combination of models containing the epidermal layer was appropriate for determination of the relationship between non-specific tissue and dermal blood flows giving the same skin surface temperatures. In this case we obtained a linear relationship between non-specific tissue and dermal blood flows. The presence of the fat layer resulted in the appearance of a significant temperature gradient between the dermis and muscle layer which increased with the fat layer thickness. PMID:18780297

  12. Measurement of the thermal inertia of the skin using successive thermograms taken at a stepwise change in ambient radiation temperature.

    PubMed

    Huang, J; Togawa, T

    1995-11-01

    Skin thermal properties are difficult to measure in vivo in the steady state because there is a constant temperature gradient across the skin surface. However, measurement of skin thermal properties is postulated in quantitative evaluation for thermographic observation. In this study, imaging of the thermal inertia of the skin was attempted by thermographic measurements at a stepwise change in ambient radiation temperature achieved by quickly switching two hoods maintained at different temperatures. Using this technique, a total of 65 thermograms were sequentially recorded at intervals of 0.5 s beginning 2 s before the stepwise change. The image of skin thermal inertia was estimated by applying statistical curve fitting at each pixel of the thermograms. In addition, the emissivity and true temperature of the skin were also determined, together with thermal inertia, in a single measurement. Measurements were made at different sites on 10 subjects. The average values of thermal inertia of normal skin were scattered throughout a range from 1.4 x 10(3) to 2.1 x 10(3) W s1/2 m-2 K-1. Investigations of the relationship between skin blood flow and thermal inertia were also made by imaging thermal inertia when skin blood flow was changed by applying a vasodilator or vasoconstrictor on the skin surface. In a comparison with the data measured by laser Doppler flowmetry, the average slope of skin blood flow versus thermal inertia was 2.88 x 10(-4) V per W s1/2 m-2 K-1, and the thermal inertia of the skin with no blood flow was 1.03 x 10(3) W s1/2 m-2 K-1. The results also show an almost linear correlation between skin blood flow and thermal inertia in each individual, but inter-individual differences were also observed. The results suggest that skin blood flow distribution can be estimated by non-contact imaging of thermal inertia. PMID:8599689

  13. Considerations for the measurement of core, skin and mean body temperatures.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nigel A S; Tipton, Michael J; Kenny, Glen P

    2014-12-01

    Despite previous reviews and commentaries, significant misconceptions remain concerning deep-body (core) and skin temperature measurement in humans. Therefore, the authors have assembled the pertinent Laws of Thermodynamics and other first principles that govern physical and physiological heat exchanges. The resulting review is aimed at providing theoretical and empirical justifications for collecting and interpreting these data. The primary emphasis is upon deep-body temperatures, with discussions of intramuscular, subcutaneous, transcutaneous and skin temperatures included. These are all turnover indices resulting from variations in local metabolism, tissue conduction and blood flow. Consequently, inter-site differences and similarities may have no mechanistic relationship unless those sites have similar metabolic rates, are in close proximity and are perfused by the same blood vessels. Therefore, it is proposed that a gold standard deep-body temperature does not exist. Instead, the validity of each measurement must be evaluated relative to one's research objectives, whilst satisfying equilibration and positioning requirements. When using thermometric computations of heat storage, the establishment of steady-state conditions is essential, but for clinically relevant states, targeted temperature monitoring becomes paramount. However, when investigating temperature regulation, the response characteristics of each temperature measurement must match the forcing function applied during experimentation. Thus, during dynamic phases, deep-body temperatures must be measured from sites that track temperature changes in the central blood volume. PMID:25455943

  14. The effect of using different regions of interest on local and mean skin temperature.

    PubMed

    Maniar, Nirav; Bach, Aaron J E; Stewart, Ian B; Costello, Joseph T

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic nature of tissue temperature and the subcutaneous properties, such as blood flow, fatness, and metabolic rate, leads to variation in local skin temperature. Therefore, we investigated the effects of using multiple regions of interest when calculating weighted mean skin temperature from four local sites. Twenty-six healthy males completed a single trial in a thermonetural laboratory (mean ± SD): 24.0 (1.2)°C; 56 (8%) relative humidity; <0.1 m/s air speed). Mean skin temperature was calculated from four local sites (neck, scapula, hand and shin) in accordance with International Standards using digital infrared thermography. A 50 mm × 50 mm, defined by strips of aluminium tape, created six unique regions of interest, top left quadrant, top right quadrant, bottom left quadrant, bottom right quadrant, centre quadrant and the entire region of interest, at each of the local sites. The largest potential error in weighted mean skin temperature was calculated using a combination of a) the coolest and b) the warmest regions of interest at each of the local sites. Significant differences between the six regions interest were observed at the neck (P<0.01), scapula (P<0.001) and shin (P<0.05); but not at the hand (P = 0.482). The largest difference (± SEM) at each site was as follows: neck 0.2 (0.1)°C; scapula 0.2 (0.0)°C; shin 0.1 (0.0)°C and hand 0.1 (0.1)°C. The largest potential error (mean ± SD) in weighted mean skin temperature was 0.4 (0.1)°C (P<0.001) and the associated 95% limits of agreement for these differences was 0.2-0.5 °C. Although we observed differences in local and mean skin temperature based on the region of interest employed, these differences were minimal and are not considered physiologically meaningful. PMID:25774024

  15. Galectin expression in healing wounded skin treated with low-temperature plasma: Comparison with treatment by electronical coagulation.

    PubMed

    Akimoto, Yoshihiro; Ikehara, Sanae; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Kim, Jaeho; Kawakami, Hayato; Shimizu, Nobuyuki; Hori, Masaru; Sakakita, Hajime; Ikehara, Yuzuru

    2016-09-01

    Low-temperature plasma is useful for the care of wounded skin. It accelerates wound healing. However, the mechanism of this effect has not been fully elucidated yet. Galectin-1 is reported to accelerate wound healing via the Smad signaling pathway. In the present study to clarify whether or not galectins were expressed during the process of wound healing in the plasma-treated skin, we examined the effect of low-temperature plasma on galectin expression in the healing skin. We compared the effects of low-temperature plasma on the expression of galectin-1, -2, and -3 in the healing skin with those of electrocoagulation conducted with a high-frequency electrical coagulator. Immediately after the start of low-temperature plasma treatment following the incision made in the skin, a membrane-like structure was formed on the surface of the wound. Immunoelectron microscopy showed that these galectins were localized in the membrane-like structure of the plasma-treated skin. The expressions of these galectins were increased by the low-temperature plasma treatment, whereas they were inhibited by the electrocoagulation. These results suggest that galectins were involved in the wound healing of low-temperature plasma-treated skin. Galectins will thus be good markers for further examination of the effects of low-temperature plasma on the healing of wounded skin. PMID:26827730

  16. Immediate Tight Sealing of Skin Incisions Using an Innovative Temperature-controlled Laser Soldering Device

    PubMed Central

    Simhon, David; Halpern, Marisa; Brosh, Tamar; Vasilyev, Tamar; Ravid, Avi; Tennenbaum, Tamar; Nevo, Zvi; Katzir, Abraham

    2007-01-01

    Background: A feedback temperature-controlled laser soldering system (TCLS) was used for bonding skin incisions on the backs of pigs. The study was aimed: 1) to characterize the optimal soldering parameters, and 2) to compare the immediate and long-term wound healing outcomes with other wound closure modalities. Materials and Methods: A TCLS was used to bond the approximated wound margins of skin incisions on porcine backs. The reparative outcomes were evaluated macroscopically, microscopically, and immunohistochemically. Results: The optimal soldering temperature was found to be 65°C and the operating time was significantly shorter than with suturing. The immediate tight sealing of the wound by the TCLS contributed to rapid, high quality wound healing in comparison to Dermabond or Histoacryl cyanoacrylate glues or standard suturing. Conclusions: TCLS of incisions in porcine skin has numerous advantages, including rapid procedure and high quality reparative outcomes, over the common standard wound closure procedures. Further studies with a variety of skin lesions are needed before advocating this technique for clinical use. PMID:17245173

  17. Improvement of Surface skin temperature simulation over the Tibetan Plateau from an energy balance perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, Haifeng

    2015-04-01

    There has a big cold bias of temperature about reanalysis and simulations over Tibetan Plateau comparing with observations. In order to solve this problem, for the land -- atmosphere interaction in arid and semi-arid region is mainly dominated by heat transfer process, a latest revision of surface sensible heat parameterization introduced by Zeng et al is then used for bare soil in WRFV3 (CLM4) model. Results show that the annual surface skin temperature has approximately up to 2.0 degree improvement on average over Tibetan Plateau. Firstly, the revised scheme changes the energy balance over and around Tibetan Plateau. It significantly reduces the overestimate of surface sensible heat and improves the surface skin temperature simulation, which tends more close to the observation. Secondly, the revised scheme weakens the sensible heat air pump effect of Tibetan Plateau. The diabatic heating reduce and the updraft airflow weaken especially over the southern slope of plateau, meanwhile the clouds thin, the incident solar radiation increases, eventually led to the increase of surface skin temperature in North India in dry season.

  18. Using skin temperature variability to quantify surface and subsurface estuarine processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumer, S. E.; Zappa, C. J.; Anderson, S. P.; Dugan, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    IR imagery is a unique tool to study nearshore processes. It not only provides a measure for surface skin temperature, but also permits the determination of surface currents. Variations in the skin temperature arise from disruption and renewal of the thermal boundary layer (TBL) as a result of wind forcing at the air-water interface, or due to turbulent eddies generated from below. The TBL plays a critical role in nearshore processes, in particular air-water heat and gas exchanges. It is essential to characterize the spatio-temporal scales of the disruption of the TBL and the extent to which it is renewed, as well as to understand how environmental factors relate to skin temperature variability. Furthermore, it is necessary to evaluate the ability not only to derive surface currents, but also to infer subsurface properties and processes from IR images. Estuarine and inlet environments such as the Hudson River are more complex, with multitude of additional processes at play, compared to the open ocean. For instance, the atmospheric boundary layer is complicated by the fact that that air is moving over both land and water, flow is fetch limited and there is orographic steering of winds. In addition, the subsurface turbulence is enhanced due to the bottom boundary layer. Here, high resolution IR imagery was collected from a ship stationed roughly 12 miles upstream of the New York Harbor in November 2010. On a nearby piling, several in situ instruments were mounted both above and below water, measuring environmental parameters such as wind speed, heat fluxes, air and water temperature, humidity as well as subsurface currents, turbulence, temperature and salinity. An IR imager installed on the cliff overlooking the river provided a complete view of the experiment area, with both the ship and the steel piling in its field of view. This study aims not only to characterize the skin temperature variability, but also to assess the validity of the various models for surface

  19. UVA-induced erythema, pigmentation, and skin surface temperature changes are irradiance dependent

    SciTech Connect

    Kagetsu, N.; Gange, R.W.; Parrish, J.A.

    1985-11-01

    Human cutaneous erythemogenic and melanogenic responses to long-wave (UVA) ultraviolet radiation were investigated using irradiances ranging from 5-50 mW/cm2. Skin surface temperature changes resulting from the different irradiances were also compared. In general, threshold doses for erythema and pigmentation were higher when UVA was administered at the lowest irradiance (5 mW/cm2) than at the highest (50 mW/cm2). Erythema was maximal immediately after exposure to UVA. The most intense responses (erythema with edema, or intense pigmentation) were induced more frequently by the highest irradiance. Components of both the erythema and the pigment response to UVA are therefore irradiance-dependent. The greatest increase in skin surface temperature was observed after exposure to the highest irradiance.

  20. Altered Impedance of Ear Acupuncture Point MT2 in Breast Cancer Patients: A Preliminary Observation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yine; Yang, Huayuan; Wang, Pin; Liu, Tangyi; Tang, Wenchao

    2015-01-01

    Skin impedance at acupuncture points (APs) has been used as a diagnostic aid for more than 50 years. In this study, we have a diagnostic tool (JXT-2008) to measure the skin impedance of ear APs of 30 breast cancer patients and the corresponding skin impedance of ear APs of 30 healthy humans, and then we compared these changes in ear AP impedance in breast cancer patients and healthy individuals. PMID:26504483

  1. Arterio-venous anastomoses in the human skin and their role in temperature control.

    PubMed

    Walløe, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Arterio-venous anastomoses (AVAs) are direct connections between small arteries and small veins. In humans they are numerous in the glabrous skin of the hands and feet. The AVAs are short vessel segments with a large inner diameter and a very thick muscular wall. They are densely innervated by adrenergic axons. When they are open, they provide a low-resistance connection between arteries and veins, shunting blood directly into the venous plexuses of the limbs. The AVAs play an important role in temperature regulation in humans in their thermoneutral zone, which for a naked resting human is about 26°C to 36°C, but lower when active and clothed. From the temperature control center in the hypothalamus, bursts of nerve impulses are sent simultaneously to all AVAs. The AVAs are all closed near the lower end and all open near the upper end of the thermoneutral zone. The small veins in the skin of the arms and legs are also contracted near the lower end of the thermoneutral zone and relax to a wider cross section as the ambient temperature rises. At the cold end of the thermoneutral range, the blood returns to the heart through the deep veins and cools the arterial blood through a countercurrent mechanism. As the ambient temperature rises, more blood is returned through the superficial venous plexuses and veins and heats the skin surface of the full length of the 4 limbs. This skin surface is responsible for a large part of the loss of heat from the body toward the upper end of the thermoneutral zone. PMID:27227081

  2. Arterio-venous anastomoses in the human skin and their role in temperature control

    PubMed Central

    Walløe, Lars

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Arterio-venous anastomoses (AVAs) are direct connections between small arteries and small veins. In humans they are numerous in the glabrous skin of the hands and feet. The AVAs are short vessel segments with a large inner diameter and a very thick muscular wall. They are densely innervated by adrenergic axons. When they are open, they provide a low-resistance connection between arteries and veins, shunting blood directly into the venous plexuses of the limbs. The AVAs play an important role in temperature regulation in humans in their thermoneutral zone, which for a naked resting human is about 26°C to 36°C, but lower when active and clothed. From the temperature control center in the hypothalamus, bursts of nerve impulses are sent simultaneously to all AVAs. The AVAs are all closed near the lower end and all open near the upper end of the thermoneutral zone. The small veins in the skin of the arms and legs are also contracted near the lower end of the thermoneutral zone and relax to a wider cross section as the ambient temperature rises. At the cold end of the thermoneutral range, the blood returns to the heart through the deep veins and cools the arterial blood through a countercurrent mechanism. As the ambient temperature rises, more blood is returned through the superficial venous plexuses and veins and heats the skin surface of the full length of the 4 limbs. This skin surface is responsible for a large part of the loss of heat from the body toward the upper end of the thermoneutral zone. PMID:27227081

  3. Effects of gestational and postnatal age on body temperature, oxygen consumption, and activity during early skin-to-skin contact between preterm infants of 25-30-week gestation and their mothers.

    PubMed

    Bauer, K; Pyper, A; Sperling, P; Uhrig, C; Versmold, H

    1998-08-01

    Temporary skin-to-skin contact between preterm infant and the mother is increasingly used in neonatal medicine to promote bonding. It is not known at which gestational age (GA) and postnatal age skin-to-skin contact outside the incubator is a sufficiently warm environment and is tolerated by preterm infants without a decrease in body temperature, oxygen consumption (VO2) increase, or unrest. We conducted a prospective clinical study of 27 spontaneously breathing preterm infants of 25-30-wk GA. Rectal temperature (Trecta), VO2 (indirect calorimetry), and activity were continuously measured in the incubator (60 min), during skin-to-skin contact (60 min), and back in the incubator (60 min) in wk 1 and 2 of life. In wk 1 the change in Trectal during skin-to-skin contact was related to GA (r=0.585, p=0.0027): infants of 25-27-wk GA lost heat during skin-to-skin contact, whereas infants of 28-30 wk gained heat and their mean Trectal during skin-to-skin contact was 0.3 degrees C higher than before (p < 0.01). No significant changes of VO2 or activity occurred. In wk 2 the infants' VO2 was higher than in wk 1, but VO2 during skin-to-skin contact was the same as in the incubator. Only small fluctuations in Trectal occurred. In wk 2 all infants slept more during skin-to-skin contact than in the incubator (p < 0.02). We conclude that, for preterm infants of 28-30-wk GA, skin-to-skin contact was a sufficiently warm environment as early as postnatal wk 1. For infants of 25-27-wk GA skin-to-skin contact should be postponed until wk 2 of life, when their body temperature remains stable and they are more quiet during skin-to-skin contact than in the incubator. PMID:9702922

  4. Peripheral Skin Temperature and Circadian Biological Clock in Shift Nurses after a Day off.

    PubMed

    Bracci, Massimo; Ciarapica, Veronica; Copertaro, Alfredo; Barbaresi, Mariella; Manzella, Nicola; Tomasetti, Marco; Gaetani, Simona; Monaco, Federica; Amati, Monica; Valentino, Matteo; Rapisarda, Venerando; Santarelli, Lory

    2016-01-01

    The circadian biological clock is essentially based on the light/dark cycle. Some people working with shift schedules cannot adjust their sleep/wake cycle to the light/dark cycle, and this may result in alterations of the circadian biological clock. This study explored the circadian biological clock of shift and daytime nurses using non-invasive methods. Peripheral skin temperature, cortisol and melatonin levels in saliva, and Per2 expression in pubic hair follicle cells were investigated for 24 h after a day off. Significant differences were observed in peripheral skin temperature and cortisol levels between shift and daytime nurses. No differences in melatonin levels were obtained. Per2 maximum values were significantly different between the two groups. Shift nurses exhibited lower circadian variations compared to daytime nurses, and this may indicate an adjustment of the circadian biological clock to continuous shift schedules. Non-invasive procedures, such as peripheral skin temperature measurement, determination of cortisol and melatonin in saliva, and analysis of clock genes in hair follicle cells, may be effective approaches to extensively study the circadian clock in shift workers. PMID:27128899

  5. Peripheral Skin Temperature and Circadian Biological Clock in Shift Nurses after a Day off

    PubMed Central

    Bracci, Massimo; Ciarapica, Veronica; Copertaro, Alfredo; Barbaresi, Mariella; Manzella, Nicola; Tomasetti, Marco; Gaetani, Simona; Monaco, Federica; Amati, Monica; Valentino, Matteo; Rapisarda, Venerando; Santarelli, Lory

    2016-01-01

    The circadian biological clock is essentially based on the light/dark cycle. Some people working with shift schedules cannot adjust their sleep/wake cycle to the light/dark cycle, and this may result in alterations of the circadian biological clock. This study explored the circadian biological clock of shift and daytime nurses using non-invasive methods. Peripheral skin temperature, cortisol and melatonin levels in saliva, and Per2 expression in pubic hair follicle cells were investigated for 24 h after a day off. Significant differences were observed in peripheral skin temperature and cortisol levels between shift and daytime nurses. No differences in melatonin levels were obtained. Per2 maximum values were significantly different between the two groups. Shift nurses exhibited lower circadian variations compared to daytime nurses, and this may indicate an adjustment of the circadian biological clock to continuous shift schedules. Non-invasive procedures, such as peripheral skin temperature measurement, determination of cortisol and melatonin in saliva, and analysis of clock genes in hair follicle cells, may be effective approaches to extensively study the circadian clock in shift workers. PMID:27128899

  6. Low-temperature atmospheric plasma increases the expression of anti-aging genes of skin cells without causing cellular damages.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeong-Hae; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Jae-Koo; Hong, Jin-woo; Kim, Gyoo-cheon

    2013-03-01

    Efforts to employ various types of plasma in the field of skin care have increased consistently because it can regulate many biochemical reactions that are normally unaffected by light-based therapy. One method for skin rejuvenation adopted a high-temperature plasma generator to remove skin epithelial cells. In this case, the catalyzing effects of the plasma were rarely used due to the high temperature. Hence, the benefits of the plasma were not magnified. Recently, many types of low-temperature plasma devices have been developed for medical applications but their detailed functions and working mechanisms are unclear. The present study examined the effect of low-temperature microwave plasma on skin cells. Treatment with low-temperature plasma increased the expression of anti-aging genes in skin cells, including collagen, fibronectin and vascular endothelial growth factor. Furthermore, the plasma treatment did not cause cell death, but only induced slight cell growth arrest at the G2 phase. Although the cells treated with low-temperature plasma showed moderate growth arrest, there were no signs of thermal or genetic damage of skin cells. Overall, this low-temperature microwave plasma device induces the expressions of some anti-aging-related genes in skin cells without causing damage. PMID:22773133

  7. Temperature effects on surface pressure-induced changes in rat skin perfusion: implications in pressure ulcer development.

    PubMed

    Patel, S; Knapp, C F; Donofrio, J C; Salcido, R

    1999-07-01

    The effect of varying local skin temperature on surface pressure-induced changes in skin perfusion and deformation was determined in hairless fuzzy rats (13.5+/-3 mo, 474+/-25 g). Skin surface pressure was applied by a computer-controlled plunger with corresponding skin deformation measured by a linear variable differential transformer while a laser Doppler flowmeter measured skin perfusion. In Protocol I, skin surface perfusion was measured without heating (control, T=28 degrees C), with heating (T=36 degrees C), for control (probe just touching skin, 3.7 mmHg), and at two different skin surface pressures, 18 mmHg and 73 mmHg. Heating caused perfusion to increase at control and 18 mmHg pressure, but not at 73 mmHg. In Protocol II, skin perfusion was measured with and without heating as in Protocol I, but this time skin surface pressure was increased from 3.7 to 62 mmHg in increments of 3.7 mmHg. For unheated skin, perfusion increased as skin surface pressure increased from 3.7 to 18 mmHg. Further increases in surface pressure caused a decrease in perfusion until zero perfusion was reached for pressures over 55 mmHg. Heating increased skin perfusion for surface pressures from 3.7 to 18 mmHg, but not for pressures greater than 18 mmHg. After the release of surface pressure, the reactive hyperemia peak of perfusion increased with heating. In Protocol III, where skin deformation (creep and relaxation) was measured during the application of 3.7 and 18 mmHg, heating caused the tissue to be stiffer, allowing less deformation. It was found that for surface pressures below 18 mmHg, increasing skin temperature significantly increased skin perfusion and tissue stiffness. The clinical significance of these findings may have relevance in evaluating temperature and pressure effects on skin blood flow and deformation as well as the efficacy of using temperature as a therapeutic modality in the treatment of pressure ulcers. PMID:10659802

  8. Correlation Study Of Diffenrential Skin Temperatures (DST) For Ovulation Detection Using Infra-Red Thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, K. H. S.; Shah, A. v.; Ruedi, B.

    1982-11-01

    The importance of ovulation time detection in the Practice of Natural Birth Control (NBC) as a contraceptive tool, and for natural/artificial insemination among women having the problem of in-fertility, is well known. The simple Basal Body Temperature (BBT) method of ovulation detection is so far unreliable. A newly proposed Differential Skin Temperature (DST) method may help minimize disturbing physiological effects and improve reliability. This paper explains preliminary results of a detailed correlative study on the DST method, using Infra-Red Thermography (IRT) imaging, and computer analysis techniques. Results obtained with five healthy, normally menstruating women volunteers will be given.

  9. Hand and finger skin temperatures in convective and contact cold exposure.

    PubMed

    Chen, F; Liu, Z Y; Holmér, I

    1996-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the spatial variability of skin temperature (Tsk) measured at various points on the hand during convective and cold contact exposure. A group of 8 subjects participated in a study of convective cooling of the hand (60 min) and 20 subjects to contact cooling of the finger pad (5 min). Experiments were carried out in a small climatic chamber into which the hand was inserted. For convective cold exposure, Tsk was measured at seven points on the palmer surface of the fingers of the left hand, one on the palmar surface and one on the dorsal surface of the hand. The air temperature inside the mini-chamber was 0, 4, 10 and 16 degrees C. With the contact cold exposure, the subjects touched at constant pressures an aluminum cube cooled to temperatures of -7, 0 and 7 degrees C in the same mini-chamber. Contact Tsk was measured on the finger pad of the index finger of the left hand. The Tsk of the proximal phalanx of the index finger (on both palm and back sides), and of the middle phalanx of the little finger was also measured. The variation of Tsk between the proximal and the distal phalanx of the index finger was between 1.5 to 10 degrees C during the convective cold exposure to an air temperature of 0 degree C. Considerable gradients persisted between the hand and fingers (from 2 to 17 degrees C at 0 degree C air temperature) and between the phalanges of the finger (from 0.5 to 11.4 degrees C at 0 degree C air temperature). The onset of cold induced vasodilatation (CIVD) on different fingers varied from about 5 to 15 min and it did not always appear in every finger. For contact cold exposure, when Tsk on the contact skin cooled down to nearly 0 degree C, the temperature at the area close to the contact skin could still be 30 degrees C. Some cases of CIVD were observed in the contact skin area, but not on other measuring points of the same finger. These results indicated that local thermal stimuli were the temperature may require

  10. Transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (nitroglycerin) in healthy persons: acute effects on skin temperature and hemodynamic orthostatic response.

    PubMed

    Haebisch, E M

    1995-01-01

    In order to find an explanation for individual reactions to transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) we studied the skin temperature and hemodynamic reactions in 63 healthy persons. The data were obtained before and after the application of GTN and Glycerin (GL) placebo patches, during one hour. The skin temperature was measured on both forearms, the local (left sided) and systemic (right sided) reaction on GTN was related to the skin fold and the calculated body fat content. The bilateral rise of skin temperature and its duration was higher and longer in obese than in lean persons mainly in obese women. The UV induced thermo and the later photothermoreaction (Erythema) was reduced on the left forearm after the application of GTN and GL patches. The observed hemodynamic GTN effect confirmed known postural reactions, such as decreased arterial pressure (delta mAP = -2.9%), increased heart rate (delta HR = +7.4%) and QTc prolongation (delta QTc = +4.9%) in upright position. An adverse drug effect with increased mean blood pressure (delta mAP = +12%) and increased heart rate (delta HR = +10.4%) mainly in supine position was observed in 11% of the participants, but only in men. Such a reaction was already described by Murell, 1879. Individual GTN effects were analyzed and related to habits and family history. In male smokers and in persons with hypertensive and diabetic close relatives, the hypotensive GTN effect was accentuated in supine position. In the upright position the group with hypertensives in the family presented a moderate hypotensive reaction without secondary tachycardia and the smokers presented only a slightly increased heart rate. Our observations suggest that individual reactions to transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) with its active component nitric oxide (NO) depends on physiological conditions, related to endogenous vasoactive substances, mainly the interaction with EDRF (the endogenous NO) and the activity of the Renin-Angiotensin System. PMID

  11. Impact of skin temperature and hydration on plasma volume responses during exercise.

    PubMed

    Kenefick, Robert W; Sollanek, Kurt J; Charkoudian, Nisha; Sawka, Michael N

    2014-08-15

    Heat stress and hydration may both alter plasma volume (PV) responses during acute exercise; potential interactions have not been fully studied. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of graded elevations in skin temperature (Tsk) on PV changes during steady-state exercise under conditions of euhydration (EU) and hypohydration (HYPO, -4% of body mass). Thirty-two men (22 ± 4 yr) were divided into four cohorts (n = 8 each) and completed EU and HYPO trials in one environment [ambient temperature (Ta) 10, 20, 30, and 40°C]. Thirty minutes of cycle ergometry (50% V̇o2peak) was performed. Core (Tre) and mean skin (Tsk) temperatures were measured; changes in PV, total circulating protein (TCP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were calculated; and skin blood flow (SkBF) was estimated. Hypohydration decreased (P < 0.05) PV by 200 ml (-5.7%) but did not alter TCP. Plasma loss was not different between EU and HYPO during exercise at any Ta. Plasma losses were greater (P < 0.05) with elevated Ta with an average -130, -174, -294, and -445 ml losses during the 10, 20, 30, and 40°C trials, respectively. Significant (P < 0.05) correlations (r = 0.50 to 0.84) were found between ΔTCP and ΔPV during exercise when Tsk was cool/warm (<33°C; Ta 10, 20, and 30°C), but not at 40°C (high Tsk). We conclude that 1) graded skin warming proportionally accentuated plasma loss; 2) plasma loss was associated with plasma protein efflux at lower Tsk and SkBF; 3) at high Tsk, additional plasma loss likely results from increased net filtration at the capillaries; and 4) HYPO did not alter vascular fluid loss during exercise in any environment. PMID:24994888

  12. PREDICTIVE MODEL FOR SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM DT104 ON CHICKEN SKIN DURING TEMPERATURE ABUSE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To better predict risk of Salmonella infection from chicken subjected to temperature abuse, a study was undertaken to develop a predictive model for survival and growth of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 on chicken skin with native micro flora. For model development, chicken skin portions were inocula...

  13. [Evaluation of postoperative mucosa and skin temperature after surgery for impacted third molar].

    PubMed

    Sortino, F; Messina, G; Pulvirenti, G

    2003-01-01

    Surgery for impacted third molar is often characterized, in the postoperative period, by pain, trismus and swelling. The study evaluates temperature variations of mucosa and skin after application of ice packs, in three different modalities, to the region overlying the surgical site. The goal was to identify any correlation between variations of temperature and postoperative clinical symptoms. For this purpose we selected 54 patients programmed for impacted third molar surgery. The patients were divided into three groups of 18. Time and frequency of application of the ice pack varied in the three groups; 5'/30' (group 1); 10'/60' (group 2); 20'/60' (group 3). During the four hours following surgery, temperatures of mucosa and of skin at the surgical site were measured with high-precision thermocouples, maximum response 5". The results indicate that application of an ice pack for 5'/30' or for 10'/60' controls the temperature of the mucosa post-surgery more effectively, and that the duration of surgery appears not to influence temperature variations. In the postoperative phase we recommend a rational application of ice packs appropriate to the constitution of each patient. PMID:14608260

  14. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  15. Ear Infections in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... shaped organ that converts sound vibrations from the middle ear into electrical signals. The auditory nerve carries these signals from the cochlea to the brain. Other nearby parts of the ear also can be involved in ...

  16. Ear infection - chronic

    MedlinePlus

    ... or wearing away of the bones of the middle ear, which help with hearing Paralysis of the face Inflammation around the brain ( epidural abscess ) or in the brain Damage to the part of the ear that helps with balance Hearing ...

  17. Ear surgery - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100016.htm Ear surgery - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... Overview This image demonstrates normal appearance of the ears in relation to the face. Update Date 10/ ...

  18. Middle ear infection (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A middle ear infection is also known as otitis media. It is one of the most common of childhood infections. With this illness, the middle ear becomes red, swollen, and inflamed because of bacteria ...

  19. Ear drainage culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... needed. Your health care provider will use a cotton swab to collect the sample from inside the ... Using a cotton swab to take a sample of drainage from the outer ear is not painful. However, ear pain may ...

  20. Ear infection - chronic

    MedlinePlus

    Middle ear infection - chronic; Otitis media - chronic; Chronic otitis media; Chronic ear infection ... Chole RA. Chronic otitis media, mastoiditis, and petrositis. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. ...

  1. Ear infection - acute

    MedlinePlus

    Otitis media - acute; Infection - inner ear; Middle ear infection - acute ... Casselbrandt ML, Mandel EM. Acute otitis media and otitis media with effusion. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. ...

  2. Mathematical modeling of temperature mapping over skin surface and its implementation in thermal disease diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhong-Shan; Liu, Jing

    2004-09-01

    In non-invasive thermal diagnostics, accurate correlations between the thermal image on skin surface and interior human pathophysiology are often desired, which require general solutions for the bioheat equation. In this study, the Monte Carlo method was implemented to solve the transient three-dimensional bio-heat transfer problem with non-linear boundary conditions (simultaneously with convection, radiation and evaporation) and space-dependent thermal physiological parameters. Detailed computations indicated that the thermal states of biological bodies, reflecting physiological conditions, could be correlated to the temperature or heat flux mapping recorded at the skin surface. The effect of the skin emissivity and humidity, the convective heat transfer coefficient, the relative humidity and temperature of the surrounding air, the metabolic rate and blood perfusion rate in the tumor, and the tumor size and number on the sensitivity of thermography are comprehensively investigated. Moreover, several thermal criteria for disease diagnostic were proposed based on statistical principles. Implementations of this study for the clinical thermal diagnostics are discussed. PMID:15265721

  3. A comprehensive comparison between satellite-measured skin and multichannel sea surface temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wick, Gary A.; Emery, William J.; Schluessel, Peter

    1992-01-01

    Three algorithms for computing sea-surface temperature (SST) from AVHRR channel-4 and -5 brightness temperatures were compared using 1-week blocks of global-area-coverage (GAC) data archived at NCAR. These are the multichannel SST (MCSST), the cross-product SST (CPSST), and the AVHRR-only satellite-measured ocean-surface skin temperature (SMSST). Maps of each SST product were produced and were compared for various time periods. The difference between the algorithms range from +1.6 to -1.2 K, resulting from the different forms of both the algorithms and the ground truth from which the algorithms were derived. It is concluded that, for the study of relative SST patterns, any of the algorithms can be used. However, for applications requiring accurate absolute temperature measurements, the differences are significant and the derivation of the algorithm must be considered when an algorithm is selected.

  4. Fusion of the ear bones

    MedlinePlus

    Fusion of the ear bones is the joining of the bones of the inner ear. These are the incus, malleus, and stapes bones. Related topics include: Chronic ear infection Otosclerosis Middle ear malformations

  5. Importance of a suitable working protocol for tape stripping experiments on porcine ear skin: Influence of lipophilic formulations and strip adhesion impairment.

    PubMed

    Nagelreiter, C; Mahrhauser, D; Wiatschka, K; Skipiol, S; Valenta, C

    2015-08-01

    The tape stripping method is a very important tool for dermopharmacokinetic experiments in vitro and the accurate measurement of the removed corneocytes is key for a reliable calculation of a drug's skin penetration behavior. Therefore, various methods to quantify the amount of corneocytes removed with each tape strip have been employed, ranging from gravimetric approaches to protein assays and recently near infrared densitometry (NIR) has become very widely used. As this method is based on a reduction of light intensity, interference of formulation components seems conceivable, as they could scatter light and change the results. In this study, NIR measurements were compared to a protein assay and in addition, the influence of highly lipophilic formulations on the results of tape stripping experiments was investigated as impairment of the adherence of strips has been reported. To this end, different tape stripping protocols were employed. The obtained results ensure suitability of the NIR method and moreover suggest a more pronounced influence on adherence with increasing lipophilicity in applied formulations. The results show that adaptation of the tape stripping protocol to the specifications of envisioned experiments is important for reliable results. Two protocols were found favorable and are presented in this work. PMID:26117191

  6. Comparison of model land skin temperature with remotely sensed estimates and assessment of surface-atmosphere coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo, I. F.; Boussetta, S.; Viterbo, P.; Balsamo, G.; Beljaars, A.; Sandu, I.

    2015-12-01

    The coupling between land surface and the atmosphere is a key feature in Earth System Modeling for exploiting the predictability of slowly evolving geophysical variables (e.g., soil moisture or vegetation state), and for correctly representing rapid variations within the diurnal cycle, particularly relevant in data assimilation applications. In this study, land surface temperature (LST) estimated from Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) is used to assess the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) skin temperature, which can be interpreted as a radiative temperature of the model surface. It is shown that the ECMWF model tends to slightly overestimate skin temperature during nighttime and underestimate daytime values. Such underestimation of daily amplitudes is particularly pronounced in (semiarid) arid regions, suggesting a misrepresentation of surface energy fluxes in those areas. The LST estimated from MSG is used to evaluate the impact of changes in some of the ECMWF model surface parameters. The introduction of more realistic model vegetation is shown to have a positive but limited impact on skin temperature: long integration leads to an equilibrium state where changes in the latent heat flux and soil moisture availability compensate each other. Revised surface roughness lengths for heat and momentum, however, lead to overall positive impact on daytime skin temperature, mostly due to a reduction of sensible heat flux. This is particularly relevant in nonvegetated areas, unaffected by model vegetation. The reduction of skin conductivity, a parameter which controls the heat transfer to ground by diffusion, is shown to further improve the model skin temperature.

  7. Mild cold effects on hunger, food intake, satiety and skin temperature in humans

    PubMed Central

    Langeveld, M; Tan, C Y; Virtue, S; Ambler, G K; Watson, L P E; Murgatroyd, P R; Chatterjee, V K; Vidal-Puig, A

    2016-01-01

    Background Mild cold exposure increases energy expenditure and can influence energy balance, but at the same time it does not increase appetite and energy intake. Objective To quantify dermal insulative cold response, we assessed thermal comfort and skin temperatures changes by infrared thermography. Methods We exposed healthy volunteers to either a single episode of environmental mild cold or thermoneutrality. We measured hunger sensation and actual free food intake. After a thermoneutral overnight stay, five males and five females were exposed to either 18°C (mild cold) or 24°C (thermoneutrality) for 2.5 h. Metabolic rate, vital signs, skin temperature, blood biochemistry, cold and hunger scores were measured at baseline and for every 30 min during the temperature intervention. This was followed by an ad libitum meal to obtain the actual desired energy intake after cold exposure. Results We could replicate the cold-induced increase in REE. But no differences were detected in hunger, food intake, or satiety after mild cold exposure compared with thermoneutrality. After long-term cold exposure, high cold sensation scores were reported, which were negatively correlated with thermogenesis. Skin temperature in the sternal area was tightly correlated with the increase in energy expenditure. Conclusions It is concluded that short-term mild cold exposure increases energy expenditure without changes in food intake. Mild cold exposure resulted in significant thermal discomfort, which was negatively correlated with the increase in energy expenditure. Moreover, there is a great between-subject variability in cold response. These data provide further insights on cold exposure as an anti-obesity measure. PMID:26864459

  8. Prolonged physical inactivity leads to a drop in toe skin temperature during local cold stress.

    PubMed

    Keramidas, Michail E; Kölegård, Roger; Eiken, Ola; Mekjavic, Igor B

    2014-03-01

    The purpose was to examine the effects of a prolonged period of recumbency on the toe temperature responses during cold-water foot immersion. Ten healthy males underwent 35 days of horizontal bed rest. The right foot of the subjects was assigned as the experimental (EXP) foot. To prevent bed rest-induced vascular deconditioning in the left control foot (CON), a sub-atmospheric vascular pressure countermeasure regimen was applied on the left lower leg for 4 × 10 min every second day. On the first (BR-1) and the last (BR-35) day of the bed rest, subjects performed two 30 min foot immersion tests in 8 °C water, one with the EXP foot and the other with the CON foot. The tests were conducted in counter-balanced order and separated by at least a 15 min interval. At BR-35, the average skin temperature of the EXP foot was lower than at BR-1 (-0.8 °C; P = 0.05), a drop that was especially pronounced in the big toe (-1.6 °C; P = 0.05). In the CON foot, the average skin temperature decreased by 0.6 °C in BR-35, albeit the reduction was not statistically significant (P = 0.16). Moreover, the pressure countermeasure regimen ameliorated immersion-induced thermal discomfort for the CON foot (P = 0.05). Present findings suggest that severe physical inactivity exaggerates the drop in toe skin temperature during local cold stress, and thus might constitute a potential risk factor for local cold injury. PMID:24552380

  9. Land surface skin temperatures from a combined analysis of microwave and infrared satellite observations for an all-weather evaluation of the differences between air and skin temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prigent, Catherine; Aires, Filipe; Rossow, William B.

    2003-05-01

    A neural network inversion scheme including first guess information has been developed to retrieve surface temperature Ts, along with atmospheric water vapor, cloud liquid water, and surface emissivities over land from a combined analysis of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) data. In the absence of routine in situ surface skin measurements, retrieved Ts values are evaluated by comparison to the surface air temperature Tair measured by the meteorological station network. The Ts - Tair difference shows all the expected variations with solar flux, soil characteristics, and cloudiness. During daytime the Ts - Tair difference is driven by the solar insulation, with positive differences that increase with increasing solar flux. With decreasing soil and vegetation moisture the evaporation rate decreases, increasing the sensible heat flux, thus requiring larger Ts - Tair differences. Nighttime Ts - Tair differences are governed by the longwave radiation balance, with Ts usually closer or lower than Tair. The presence of clouds dampens all the difference. After suppression of the variability associated to the diurnal solar flux variations, the Ts and Tair data sets show very good agreement in their synoptic variations, even for cloudy cases, with no bias and a global rms difference of ˜2.9 K. This value is an upper limit of the retrieval rms because it includes errors in the in situ data as well as errors related to imperfect time and space collocations between the satellite and in situ measurements.

  10. No effect of skin temperature on human ventilation response to hypercapnia during light exercise with a normothermic core temperature.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Jesse G; Clegg, Miriam E; Walsh, Michael L; White, Matthew D

    2010-05-01

    Hyperthermia potentiates the influence of CO(2) on pulmonary ventilation (.V(E)). It remains to be resolved how skin and core temperatures contribute to the elevated exercise ventilation response to CO(2). This study was conducted to assess the influences of mean skin temperature (_T(SK)) and end-tidal PCO(2) (P(ET)CO(2)) on .V(E) during submaximal exercise with a normothermic esophageal temperature (T(ES)). Five males and three females who were 1.76 +/- 0.11 m tall (mean +/- SD), 75.8 +/- 15.6 kg in weight and 22.0 +/- 2.2 years of age performed three 1 h exercise trials in a climatic chamber with the relative humidity (RH) held at 31.5 +/- 9.5% and the ambient temperature (T (AMB)) maintained at one of 25, 30, or 35 degrees C. In each trial, the volunteer breathed eucapnic air for 5 min during a rest period and subsequently cycle ergometer exercised at 50 W until T (ES) stabilized at approximately 37.1 +/- 0.4 degrees C. Once T (ES) stabilized in each trial, the volunteer breathed hypercapnic air twice for approximately 5 min with P(ET)CO(2) elevated by approximately +4 or +7.5 mmHg. The significantly (P < 0.05) different increases of P(ET)CO(2) of +4.20 +/- 0.49 and +7.40 +/- 0.51 mmHg gave proportionately larger increases in .V(E) of 10.9 +/- 3.6 and 15.2 +/- 3.6 L min(-1) (P = 0.001). This hypercapnia-induced hyperventilation was uninfluenced by varying the _T(SK) to three significantly different levels (P < 0.001) of 33.2 +/- 1.2 degrees C, to 34.5 +/- 0.8 degrees C to 36.4 +/- 0.5 degrees C. In conclusion, the results support that skin temperature between approximately 33 and approximately 36 degrees C has neither effect on pulmonary ventilation nor on hypercapnia-induced hyperventilation during a light exercise with a normothermic core temperature. PMID:20087599

  11. Spatial Mathematical Model of Heat Transfer in Human Skin Influenced by Heated up to High Temperatures Particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranovskiy, Nikolay V.; Solodkin, Andrey S.; Stuparenko, Alexandr A.

    2016-02-01

    Numerical research results of heat transfer in system "air-heated particle-skin layer" presented. Skin was influenced by heated up to high temperatures particle. The problem is solved in tree-dimensional statement in Cartesian system of coordinates. The typical range of influence parameters of heated particle considered. Temperature distributions in different moments of time obtained. Condition of burn occurrence by heated particle is under consideration in this research.

  12. Reliability of an infrared forehead skin thermometer for core temperature measurements.

    PubMed

    Kistemaker, J A; Den Hartog, E A; Daanen, H A M

    2006-01-01

    The SensorTouch thermometer performs an infrared measurement of the skin temperature above the Superficial Temporal Artery (STA). This study evaluates the validity and the accuracy of the SensorTouch thermometer. Two experiments were performed in which the body temperature was measured with a rectal sensor, with an oesophageal sensor and with the SensorTouch. After entering a warm chamber the SensorTouch underestimated the core temperature during the first 10 minutes. After that, the SensorTouch was not significantly different from the core temperature, with an average difference of 0.5 degrees C (SD 0.5 degrees C) in the first study and 0.3 degrees C (SD 0.2 degrees C) in the second study. The largest differences between the SensorTouch and the core temperature existed 15 minutes after the start of the exercise. During this period the SensorTouch was significantly higher than the core temperature. The SensorTouch did not provide reliable values of the body temperature during periods of increasing body temperature, but the SensorTouch might work under stable conditions. PMID:16864237

  13. Investigating the roles of core and local temperature on forearm skin blood flow.

    PubMed

    Mallette, Matthew M; Hodges, Gary J; McGarr, Gregory W; Gabriel, David A; Cheung, Stephen S

    2016-07-01

    We sought to isolate the contributions of core and local temperature on forearm skin blood flow (SkBF), and to examine the interaction between local- and reflexive-mechanisms of SkBF control. Forearm SkBF was assessed using laser-Doppler flowmetry in eight males and eight females during normothermia and hyperthermia (+1.2°C rectal temperature). Mean experimental forearm temperature was manipulated in four, 5min blocks between neutral (A: 33.0°C) and warm (B: 38.5°C) in an A-B-A-B fashion during normothermia, and B-A-B-A during hyperthermia. Mean control forearm skin temperature was maintained at ~33°C. Finally, local heating to 44°C was performed on both forearms to elicit maximal SkBF. Data are presented as a percentage of maximal cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC), calculated as laser-Doppler flux divided by mean arterial pressure. No sex differences were observed in any CVC measures (P>0.05). During normothermia, increasing experimental forearm temperature to 38.5°C elevated CVC by 42±8%max (d=3.1, P<0.001). Subsequently decreasing experimental forearm temperature back down to 33.0°C reduced CVC by 36±7%max (d=2.5, P<0.001). Finally, the second increase in experimental forearm temperature to 38.5°C increased CVC by 25±6%max (d=1.9, P<0.0001). During hyperthermia, decreasing experimental forearm temperature to 33.0°C reduced CVC by 6±1%max (d=0.5, P<0.001). Increasing experimental forearm temperature to 38.5°C increased CVC by 4±2%max (d=0.4, P<0.001). Finally, decreasing experimental forearm temperature to 33.0°C reduced CVC by 8±2%max (d=0.7, P<0.001). Compared to normothermia, CVC responses to local temperature changes during hyperthermia were almost abolished (normothermia: d=1.9-3.1; hyperthermia: d=0.4-0.7). These data indicate that local temperature drives SkBF during normothermia, while reflexive mechanisms regulate SkBF during hyperthermia. PMID:27072118

  14. Thermographical measuring of the skin temperature using laser needle acupuncture in preterm neonates.

    PubMed

    Raith, Wolfgang; Litscher, Gerhard; Sapetschnig, Iris; Bauchinger, Sebastian; Ziehenberger, Evelyne; Müller, Wilhelm; Urlesberger, Berndt

    2012-01-01

    In children, laser acupuncture is used more often than needle acupuncture in Western countries, due to their aversion to needles. When applying laser acupuncture to premature babies and neonates, firstly the degree of the thermal increase to the skin has to be evaluated so as to guarantee safe application. The patients were premature neonates before their discharge from hospital. The measurements were carried out by means of a polygraphy while they were asleep shortly. The large intestine 4 acupoint (LI4, Hegu) was stimulated by a microlaser needle (10 mW, 685 nm) twice (5 and 10 min). Local thermographic pictures were taken with a thermal camera (Flir i5, Flir Systems Inc., Portland, USA), and the warmest point was determined and subsequently compared. The study included 10 premature neonates (7 male, 3 female). The measurements were carried out on the 33rd day of life (weight 2030 g, gestational age 36 + 3 weeks of pregnancy). In comparison to the initial temperature (32.9°C), after 5 minutes of stimulation (33.9°C) (P = 0.025) and also after 10 minutes of stimulation (34.0°C) (P = 0.01), there was found to be a significant increase in the skin temperature. The singular maximum value of 37.9°C bears a potential danger; however, compared to the local temperatures reached in transcutaneous blood gas measurements it appears not to entail any risks. PMID:22666295

  15. Effects of temperature, surfactants and skin location on the dermal penetration of haloacetonitriles and chloral hydrate.

    PubMed

    Trabaris, Maria; Laskin, Jeffrey D; Weisel, Clifford P

    2012-07-01

    Dermal exposure has been recognized as an important contributor to the total internal dose to disinfection-by-products (DBPs) in water. However, the effect of the use of surfactants, water temperature and area of the body exposed to DBPs on their dermal flux has not been characterized and was the focus of the present study using an in-vitro system. The dermal flux of mg/l concentrations of haloacetonitriles and chloral hydrate (CH), important cytotoxic DBPs, increased by approximately 50% to 170% with increasing temperature from 25 °C to 40 °C. The fluxes for the torso and dorsum of the hand were much higher than that of palm and scalp skin. An increase in flux was observed for chloroacetonitrite and dichloroacetonitrile, two less lipophilic HANs, but not for trichloroacetonitrile or CH, with the addition of 2% sodium lauryl sulfate or 2% sodium laureth sulfate, two surfactants commonly used in soaps and shampoos used in showering and bathing. Thus, factors such as temperature, surfactants and skin location affect dermal penetration and should be considered when evaluating dermal absorption. PMID:22549718

  16. Riverine skin temperature response to subsurface processes in low wind speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumer, Sophia E.; Zappa, Christopher J.; Anderson, Steven P.; Dugan, John P.

    2016-03-01

    Both surface and subsurface processes modulate the surface thermal skin and as such the skin temperature may serve as an indicator for coastal, estuarine, and alluvial processes. Infrared (IR) imagery offers the unique tool to survey such systems, allowing not only to assess temperature variability of the thermal boundary layer, but also to derive surface flow fields through digital particle image velocimetry, optical flow techniques, or spectral methods. In this study, IR time-series imagery taken from a boat moored in the Hudson River estuary is used to determine surface flow, turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate, and characteristic temperature and velocity length scales. These are linked to subsurface measurements provided by in situ instruments. Under the low wind conditions and weak stratification, surface currents and dissipation rate are found to reflect subsurface mean flow (r2 = 0.89) and turbulence (r2 = 0.75). For relatively low dissipation rates, better correlations are obtained by computing dissipation rates directly from wavenumber spectra rather than when having to assume the validity of the Taylor hypothesis. Furthermore, the subsurface dissipation rate scales with the surface length scales (L) and mean flow (U) using ɛ ∝ U3/L (r2 = 0.9). The surface length scale derived from the thermal fields is found to have a strong linear relationship (r2 = 0.88) to water depth (D) with (D/L) ˜ 13. Such a relation may prove useful for remote bathymetric surveys when no waves are present.

  17. Conductive and evaporative precooling lowers mean skin temperature and improves time trial performance in the heat.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, S H; Hupperets, M; Hodder, S G; Havenith, G

    2015-06-01

    Self-paced endurance performance is compromised by moderate-to-high ambient temperatures that are evident in many competitive settings. It has become common place to implement precooling prior to competition in an attempt to alleviate perceived thermal load and performance decline. The present study aimed to investigate precooling incorporating different cooling avenues via either evaporative cooling alone or in combination with conductive cooling on cycling time trial performance. Ten trained male cyclists completed a time trial on three occasions in hot (35 °C) ambient conditions with the cooling garment prepared by (a) immersion in water (COOL, evaporative); (b) immersion in water and frozen (COLD, evaporative and conductive); or (c) no precooling (CONT). COLD improved time trial performance by 5.8% and 2.6% vs CONT and COOL, respectively (both P < 0.05). Power output was 4.5% higher for COLD vs CONT (P < 0.05). Mean skin temperature was lower at the onset of the time trial following COLD compared with COOL and CONT (both P < 0.05) and lasted for the first 20% of the time trial. Thermal sensation was perceived cooler following COOL and COLD. The combination of evaporative and conductive cooling (COLD) had the greatest benefit to performance, which is suggested to be driven by reduced skin temperature following cooling. PMID:25943669

  18. High-temperature gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for skin surface lipids profiling[S

    PubMed Central

    Michael-Jubeli, Rime; Bleton, Jean; Baillet-Guffroy, Arlette

    2011-01-01

    Skin surface lipids (SSLs) arising from both sebaceous glands and skin removal form a complex lipid mixture composed of free fatty acids and neutral lipids. High-temperature gas chromatography coupled with electron impact or chemical ionization mass spectrometry was used to achieve a simple analytical protocol, without prior separation in classes and without prior cleavage of lipid molecules, in order to obtain simultaneously i) a qualitative characterization of the individual SSLs and ii) a quantitative evaluation of lipid classes. The method was first optimized with SSLs collected from the forehead of a volunteer. More than 200 compounds were identified in the same run. These compounds have been classified in five lipid classes: free fatty acids, hydrocarbons, waxes, sterols, and glycerides. The advantage to this method was it provided structural information on intact compounds, which is new for cholesteryl esters and glycerides, and to obtain detailed fingerprints of the major SSLs. These fingerprints were used to compare the SSL compositions from different body areas. The squalene/cholesterol ratio was used to determine the balance between sebaceous secretion and skin removal. This method could be of general interest in fields where complex lipid mixtures are involved. PMID:20952798

  19. Dynamics of thermographic skin temperature response during squat exercise at two different speeds.

    PubMed

    Formenti, Damiano; Ludwig, Nicola; Trecroci, Athos; Gargano, Marco; Michielon, Giovanni; Caumo, Andrea; Alberti, Giampietro

    2016-07-01

    Low intensity resistance training with slow movement and tonic force generation has been shown to create blood flow restriction within muscles that may affect thermoregulation through the skin. We aimed to investigate the influence of two speeds of exercise execution on skin temperature dynamics using infrared thermography. Thirteen active males performed randomly two sessions of squat exercise (normal speed, 1s eccentric/1s concentric phase, 1s; slow speed, 5s eccentric/5s concentric phase, 5s), using ~50% of 1 maximal repetition. Thermal images of ST above muscles quadriceps were recorded at a rate of 0.05Hz before the exercise (to determine basal ST) and for 480s following the initiation of the exercise (to determine the nonsteady-state time course of ST). Results showed that ST changed more slowly during the 5s exercise (p=0.002), whereas the delta (with respect to basal) excursions were similar for the two exercises (p>0.05). In summary, our data provided a detailed nonsteady-state portrait of ST changes following squat exercises executed at two different speeds. These results lay the basis for further investigations entailing the joint use of infrared thermography and Doppler flowmetry to study the events taking place both at the skin and the muscle level during exercises executed at slow speed. PMID:27264889

  20. A coupling system to predict the core and skin temperatures of human wearing protective clothing in hot environments.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Weng, Wenguo; Fu, Ming

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to predict the core and skin temperatures of human wearing protective clothing in hot environments using the coupling system. The coupling system consisted of a sweating manikin Newton controlled by a multi-node human thermal model, and responded dynamically to the thermal environment as human body. Validation of the coupling system results was conducted by comparison with the subject tests. Five healthy men wearing protective clothing were exposed to the thermal neutral and high temperature environments. The skin temperatures of seven body segments and the rectal temperatures were recorded continuously. The predictions of core temperatures made by the coupling system showed good agreement with the experimental data, with maximum difference of 0.19 °C and RMSD of 0.12 °C. The predicted mean skin temperatures fell outside of the 95% CI for most points, whereas the difference between the simulated results and measured data was no more than 1 °C which is acceptable. The coupling system predicted the local skin temperatures reasonably with the maximum local skin temperature of 1.30 °C. The coupling system has been validated and exhibited reasonable accuracy compared with the experimental results. PMID:26154234

  1. HMM-based estimation of menstrual cycle from skin temperature during sleep.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenxi; Kitazawa, Masumi; Togawa, Tatsuo

    2008-01-01

    An HMM-based method is proposed to estimate biphasic property in female menstrual cycle. A tiny device is developed to measure skin temperature change during sleep. Data are collected from 30 female participants for 6 months. Raw data are preprocessed to remove obvious outliers and clamped between 34 and 42 degree Celsius. A two hidden states HMM-based algorithm was applied to estimate the biphasic property in menstrual cycle. The results showed that the number of correctly detected menstrual cycle is 159 among 173 in 30 participants during 6 months. Overall sensitivity reaches 92.0%. PMID:19162990

  2. Does the technique employed for skin temperature assessment alter outcomes? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bach, Aaron J E; Stewart, Ian B; Minett, Geoffrey M; Costello, Joseph T

    2015-09-01

    Skin temperature is an important physiological measure that can reflect the presence of illness and injury as well as provide insight into the localised interactions between the body and the environment. The aim of this systematic review was to analyse the agreement between conductive and infrared means of assessing skin temperature which are commonly employed in in clinical, occupational, sports medicine, public health and research settings.Full-text eligibility was determined independently by two reviewers. Studies meeting the following criteria were included in the review: (1) the literature was written in English, (2) participants were human (in vivo), (3) skin surface temperature was assessed at the same site, (4) with at least two commercially available devices employed-one conductive and one infrared-and (5) had skin temperature data reported in the study.A computerised search of four electronic databases, using a combination of 21 keywords, and citation tracking was performed in January 2015. A total of 8,602 were returned.Methodology quality was assessed by two authors independently, using the Cochrane risk of bias tool.A total of 16 articles (n = 245) met the inclusion criteria.Devices are classified to be in agreement if they met the clinically meaningful recommendations of mean differences within  ±0.5 °C and limits of agreement of  ±1.0 °C.Twelve of the included studies found mean differences greater than  ±0.5 °C between conductive and infrared devices. In the presence of external stimulus (e.g. exercise and/or heat) five studies found exacerbated measurement differences between conductive and infrared devices.This is the first review that has attempted to investigate presence of any systemic bias between infrared and conductive measures by collectively evaluating the current evidence base. There was also a consistently high risk of bias across the studies, in terms of sample size, random sequence generation, allocation

  3. A dynamic model of circadian rhythms in rodent tail skin temperature for comparison of drug effects

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Menopause-associated thermoregulatory dysfunction can lead to symptoms such as hot flushes severely impairing quality of life of affected women. Treatment effects are often assessed by the ovariectomized rat model providing time series of tail skin temperature measurements in which circadian rhythms are a fundamental ingredient. In this work, a new statistical strategy is presented for analyzing such stochastic-dynamic data with the aim of detecting successful drugs in hot flush treatment. The circadian component is represented by a nonlinear dynamical system which is defined by the van der Pol equation and provides well-interpretable model parameters. Results regarding the statistical evaluation of these parameters are presented. PMID:22221596

  4. Influence trend of temperature distribution in skin tissue generated by different exposure dose pulse laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Ning; Wang, Zhijing; Liu, Xia

    2014-11-01

    Laser is widely applied in military and medicine fields because of its excellent capability. In order to effectively defend excess damage by laser, the thermal processing theory of skin tissue generated by laser should be carried out. The heating rate and thermal damage area should be studied. The mathematics model of bio-tissue heat transfer that is irradiated by laser is analyzed. And boundary conditions of bio-tissue are discussed. Three layer FEM grid model of bio-tissue is established. The temperature rising inducing by pulse laser in the tissue is modeled numerically by adopting ANSYS software. The changing trend of temperature in the tissue is imitated and studied under the conditions of different exposure dose pulse laser. The results show that temperature rising in the tissue depends on the parameters of pulse laser largely. In the same conditions, the pulse width of laser is smaller and its instant power is higher. And temperature rising effect in the tissue is very clear. On the contrary, temperature rising effect in the tissue is lower. The cooling time inducing by temperature rising effect in the tissue is longer along with pulse separation of laser is bigger. And the temperature difference is bigger in the pulse period.

  5. Improving the Accuracy of Satellite Sea Surface Temperature Measurements by Explicitly Accounting for the Bulk-Skin Temperature Difference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wick, Gary A.; Emery, William J.; Castro, Sandra L.; Lindstrom, Eric (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The focus of this research was to determine whether the accuracy of satellite measurements of sea surface temperature (SST) could be improved by explicitly accounting for the complex temperature gradients at the surface of the ocean associated with the cool skin and diurnal warm layers. To achieve this goal, work was performed in two different major areas. The first centered on the development and deployment of low-cost infrared radiometers to enable the direct validation of satellite measurements of skin temperature. The second involved a modeling and data analysis effort whereby modeled near-surface temperature profiles were integrated into the retrieval of bulk SST estimates from existing satellite data. Under the first work area, two different seagoing infrared radiometers were designed and fabricated and the first of these was deployed on research ships during two major experiments. Analyses of these data contributed significantly to the Ph.D. thesis of one graduate student and these results are currently being converted into a journal publication. The results of the second portion of work demonstrated that, with presently available models and heat flux estimates, accuracy improvements in SST retrievals associated with better physical treatment of the near-surface layer were partially balanced by uncertainties in the models and extra required input data. While no significant accuracy improvement was observed in this experiment, the results are very encouraging for future applications where improved models and coincident environmental data will be available. These results are included in a manuscript undergoing final review with the Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology.

  6. Plant Canopy Temperature and Heat Flux Profiles: What Difference Does an Isothermal Skin Make?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crago, R. D.; Qualls, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Land surface temperature Ts plays a vital role in the determination of sensible (H) and latent heat flux, upwelling long-wave radiation, and ground heat flux. While it is widely recognized that there is a range of skin temperatures represented in even a homogeneous canopy, it is often necessary or convenient to treat the surface as isothermal. This study investigates, at the sub-canopy scale, the implications of assuming that a canopy is isothermal. The focus is on profiles within the canopy of air, foliage, and soil surface temperature, and of sensible and latent heat flux source strength. Data from a dense grassland at the Southern Great Plains experiment in 1997 (SGP97) were used to assess the ability of a multi-layer canopy model to match measured sensible and latent heat fluxes along with radiometric surface temperatures. In its standard mode, the model solves the energy balance for each canopy layer and uses Localized Near Field (LNF) theory to model the turbulent transport. The results suggest the model captures the most important features of canopy flux generation and transport, and support its use to investigate scalar profiles within canopies. For 112 data points at SGP97, the model produced realistic temperature and sensible heat flux source profiles. In addition, it was run in a mode that seeks the isothermal (soil and foliage) skin temperature (Ti) that provides the same Hproduced by the model in its standard mode. This produces profiles of air and foliage temperature and of sensible heat source strength that differ significantly from profiles from the standard mode. Based on these simulations, realistic canopies may have a mixture of positive and negative sensible heat flux sources at various heights, typically with large contributions from the soil surface. There is frequently a discontinuity between foliage temperatures near the soil and the actual soil surface temperature. For isothermal canopies, heat sources at all levels had the same sign and

  7. A reduced core to skin temperature gradient, not a critical core temperature, affects aerobic capacity in the heat.

    PubMed

    Cuddy, John S; Hailes, Walter S; Ruby, Brent C

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of the core to skin temperature gradient during incremental running to volitional fatigue across varying environmental conditions. A secondary aim was to determine if a "critical" core temperature would dictate volitional fatigue during running in the heat. 60 participants (n=49 male, n=11 female; 24±5 yrs, 177±11 cm, 75±13 kg) completed the study. Participants were uniformly stratified into a specific exercise temperature group (18 °C, 26 °C, 34 °C, or 42 °C) based on a 3-mile run performance. Participants were equipped with core and chest skin temperature sensors and a heart rate monitor, entered an environmental chamber (18 °C, 26 °C, 34 °C, or 42 °C), and rested in the seated position for 10 min before performing a walk/run to volitional exhaustion. Initial treadmill speed was 3.2 km h(-1) with a 0% grade. Every 3 min, starting with speed, speed and grade increased in an alternating pattern (speed increased by 0.805 km h(-1), grade increased by 0.5%). Time to volitional fatigue was longer for the 18 °C and 26 °C group compared to the 42 °C group, (58.1±9.3 and 62.6±6.5 min vs. 51.3±8.3 min, respectively, p<0.05). At the half-way point and finish, the core to skin gradient for the 18 °C and 26 °C groups was larger compared to 42 °C group (halfway: 2.6±0.7 and 2.0±0.6 vs. 1.3±0.5 for the 18 °C, 26 °C and 42 °C groups, respectively; finish: 3.3±0.7 and 3.5±1.1 vs. 2.1±0.9 for the 26 °C, 34 °C, and 42 °C groups, respectively, p<0.05). Sweat rate was lower in the 18 °C group compared to the 26 °C, 34 °C, and 42 °C groups, 3.6±1.3 vs. 7.2±3.0, 7.1±2.0, and 7.6±1.7 g m(-2) min(-1), respectively, p<0.05. There were no group differences in core temperature and heart rate response during the exercise trials. The current data demonstrate a 13% and 22% longer run time to exhaustion for the 18 °C and 26 °C group, respectively, compared to the 42 °C group despite no differences

  8. Assessment of pepper spray product potency in Asian and Caucasian forearm skin using transepidermal water loss, skin temperature and reflectance colorimetry.

    PubMed

    Pershing, Lynn K; Reilly, Christopher A; Corlett, Judy L; Crouch, Dennis J

    2006-01-01

    Historically, pepper spray product potency has been established using a taste test evaluation. A taste test is subjective and may not be appropriate for assessing pepper potency in skin. The current study evaluated chemically diverse pepper sprays in human forearm skin using three objective, noninvasive parameters: transepidermal water loss, skin surface temperature and erythema, as a means for assessing dermal pharmacology, toxicology and product potency. Five commercial pepper spray products containing various capsaicinoid analogs at various concentrations were evaluated in duplicate on volar forearms of six Caucasians and six Asians using a 10 min exposure. Mean surface skin temperature, transepidermal water loss results were highly variable and therefore did not demonstrate dose responsive behavior to increasing capsaicinoid concentrations. Erythema, as measured by increases in a* (reflected light in the red-to-green color spectrum) of the L*a*b* uniform color scale, was superior among parameters evaluated in discriminating pepper spray potency and correlated well with the relative and total capsaicinoid concentration in the products. Products containing greater than 16 mg ml(-1) capsaicinoid concentration produced greater erythema responses in Caucasians than Asians. Asians responded greater to the synthetic analog, nonivamide, than to mixtures of capsaicinoids, while Caucasians responded equally to both capsaicinoid analogs. Thus, pepper spray product potency in human skin reflects the total capsaicinoid concentration, the specific capsaicin analog(s) present, and the race of the individual exposed. The finding that the reflectance colorimeter a* scale can differentiate these parameters in skin will have a significant impact on evaluating the use and efficacy of pepper spray products in humans. PMID:16220469

  9. Temporal and spatial temperature distributions on glabrous skin irradiated by a 1940 nm continuous-wave laser stimulator.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ji-Chun; Dong, Xiao-Xi; Mu, Zhi-Ming; Jin, Wen-Dong; Huang, He; Lu, Yu; Chen, Zhu-Ying; Li, Ying-Xin

    2015-04-01

    For predicting pain stimulation effects and avoiding damage in 1940nm laser evoked potentials (LEPs) experiments, a 2-layer finite element model (FEM-2) was constructed. A series of experiments were conducted on ex-vivo pig skin pieces to verify temperature distribution predicted by this model. Various laser powers and beam radii were employed. Experimental data of time-dependent temperature responses in different sub-skin depths and space-dependent surface temperature was recorded by thermocouple instrument. By comparing with the experimental data and model results, FEM-2 model was proved to predict temperature distributions accurately. A logarithmic relationship between laser power density and temperature increment was revealed by the results. It is concluded that power density is an effective parameter to estimate pain and damage effect. The obtained results also indicated that the proposed FEM-2 model can be extended to predict pain and damage thresholds of human skin samples and thus contribute to LEPs study. PMID:25909027

  10. Temporal and spatial temperature distributions on glabrous skin irradiated by a 1940 nm continuous-wave laser stimulator

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ji-chun; Dong, Xiao-xi; Mu, Zhi-ming; Jin, Wen-dong; Huang, He; Lu, Yu; Chen, Zhu-ying; Li, Ying-xin

    2015-01-01

    For predicting pain stimulation effects and avoiding damage in 1940nm laser evoked potentials (LEPs) experiments, a 2-layer finite element model (FEM-2) was constructed. A series of experiments were conducted on ex-vivo pig skin pieces to verify temperature distribution predicted by this model. Various laser powers and beam radii were employed. Experimental data of time-dependent temperature responses in different sub-skin depths and space-dependent surface temperature was recorded by thermocouple instrument. By comparing with the experimental data and model results, FEM-2 model was proved to predict temperature distributions accurately. A logarithmic relationship between laser power density and temperature increment was revealed by the results. It is concluded that power density is an effective parameter to estimate pain and damage effect. The obtained results also indicated that the proposed FEM-2 model can be extended to predict pain and damage thresholds of human skin samples and thus contribute to LEPs study. PMID:25909027

  11. Pathogenesis of Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto-Fukuda, Tomomi; Hishikawa, Yoshitaka; Shibata, Yasuaki; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu; Takahashi, Haruo; Koji, Takehiko

    2010-01-01

    Middle ear cholesteatoma is characterized by enhanced proliferation of epithelial cells with aberrant morphological characteristics. To investigate the origin of the cholesteatoma cells, we analyzed spontaneously occurring cholesteatomas associated with a new transplantation model in Mongolian gerbils (gerbils). Cholesteatomas were induced in gerbils with a transplanted tympanic membrane by using the external auditory canal (EAC) ligation method. After the pars flaccida of the tympanic membranes were completely removed from male gerbils, corresponding portions of tympanic membranes of female gerbils were transplanted to the area of defect, and then we ligated the EAC (hybrid-model group). As a control group, the EAC of normal male and female gerbils was ligated without myringoplasty. In all ears of each group, the induced cholesteatomas were seen. In situ PCR was then performed to detect the mouse X chromosome-linked phosphoglycerate kinase-1 (pgk-1) gene on the paraffin sections. One pgk-1 spot in the epithelial nuclei was detected in male cholesteatoma, and two pgk-1 spots were detected in female cholesteatoma, respectively. On the other hand, in the hybrid-model group, we detected not only one but also two pgk-1 spots in the epithelial nuclei of cholesteatoma. These results strengthened the evidence that the origin of epithelial cells in cholesteatoma is the tympanic membrane in this model, but not the residential middle ear epithelial cells or the skin of the EAC. PMID:20413684

  12. Regional Skin Temperature Response to Moderate Aerobic Exercise Measured by Infrared Thermography

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Alex de Andrade; Amorim, Paulo Roberto dos Santos; Brito, Ciro José; Sillero-Quintana, Manuel; Bouzas Marins, João Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infrared thermography (IRT) does not require contact with the skin, and it is a convenient, reliable and non-invasive technique that can be used for monitoring the skin temperature (TSK). Objectives: The aim of this study was to monitor the variations in the regional TSK during exercise on 28 regions of interest (ROIs) (forehead, face, chest, abdomen, back, lumbar, anterior and posterior neck, and posterior and anterior views of the right and left hands, forearms, upper arms, thighs, and legs) with IRT. Patients and Methods: 12 physically active young males were monitored with IRT during the following three phases: a) 30 minutes before exercise b) while performing one hour of moderate intensity exercise on a treadmill at 60% of the VO2max, and c) 60 minutes after exercise. Results: During pre-exercise, all TSK reached a steady-state (P ≤ 0.05), which ensured adequate thermal stabilisation. At the beginning of exercise, there was a significant reduction in the TSK in most ROIs after 10 minutes of activity, except for the lower limbs (legs and thighs). After one hour of recovery, in the anterior view of the hands and thighs and in the posterior view of the legs, there were significant increases in the TSK compared to pre-exercise. Conclusions: There were significant distinctions in the skin temperature distribution during exercise according to the activity of the area under consideration during exercise, which may be important in the development of physiological models and heat flux analyses for different purposes. PMID:27217931

  13. Frequency and temperature dependence of skin bioimpedance during a contralateral cold test.

    PubMed

    Podtaev, S; Nikolaev, D; Samartsev, V; Gavrilov, V; Tsiberkin, K

    2015-03-01

    A study of the α- and β-dispersion of skin bioimpedance dependence on temperature and micro-hemodynamics is presented. The vascular tone changes during the cold test are verified by the wavelet-analysis of skin temperature signals obtained simultaneously with impedance measurements. Thirty three normal healthy subjects of 28  ±  7 years old were entered into the study. The tetra-polar electrode system was used to record the resistance and reactance; measurements were carried out at 67 frequencies, in a frequency range from 2 Hz to 50 kHz. It has been found that the impedance decreases with vasodilation and increases with vasoconstriction. The high values of correlation among thermal oscillation amplitudes and Nyquist diagram parameters prove the impedance dependence on blood flow in three frequency bands corresponding to the myogenic, neurogenic and endothelial vascular tone regulation mechanisms. Using an equivalent RC circuit, we obtained the changes in the Nyquist diagram matching the experimental data. The proposed descriptive α-dispersion model can be used to study mechanisms responsible for intercellular interaction. PMID:25690397

  14. Effect of local cooling on skin temperature and blood flow of men in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidu, M.; Sachdeva, U.

    1993-12-01

    Alterations to the finger skin temperature (Tsk) and blood flow (FBF) before and after cold immersion on exposure to an Antarctic environment for 8 weeks were studied in 64 subjects. There was a significant fall in Tsk and increase in finger blood flow after 1 week of Antarctic exposure. The Tsk did not further change even after 8 weeks of stay in Antarctica but a significant increase in FBF was obtained after 8 weeks. The cold immersion test was performed at non-Antarctic and Antarctic conditions by immersing the hand for 2 min in 0 4° C cold water. In the non-Antarctic environment the Tsk and FBF dropped significantly ( P < 0.001) indicating a vasoconstriction response. Interestingly after 8 weeks of stay in Antarctic conditions, the skin temperature dropped ( P < 0.001) but the cold induced fall in FBF was inhibited. Based on these observations it may be hypothesized that continuous cold exposure in Antarctica results in vasodilatation, which overrides the stronger vasoactive response of acute cold exposure and thus prevents cold injuries.

  15. Changes of locoregional skin temperature in neonates undergoing laser needle acupuncture at the acupuncture point large intestine 4.

    PubMed

    Kurath-Koller, Stefan; Litscher, Gerhard; Gross, Anna; Freidl, Thomas; Koestenberger, Martin; Urlesberger, Berndt; Raith, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Laser acupuncture bears a potential risk for the skin surface, especially in neonates whose skin has histological and physiological peculiarities. We evaluated thermal changes of skin temperature in neonates during laser acupuncture by using a thermal camera (Flir i5, Flir Systems Inc., Portland, USA). Laserneedles (Laserneedle GmbH, Glienicke/Nordbahn, Germany) were fixed to the skin at Large Intestine 4 (LI 4, Hegu), bilaterally. Before application of laser acupuncture (685 nm, 15 mW, 500 μm), as well as after 1, 5, and 10 min, thermographic pictures of both hands were taken. The measuring was carried out on the 23rd day after birth (20 neonates, mean postmenstrual gestational age 38 + 2, mean weight 2604 g). Compared to the initial temperature of 34.2°C on the right hand, the skin temperature had increased to 35.3°C (P < 0.05) after 5 min and up to 36.1°C (P < 0.05) after 10 min of stimulation. Equally, on the left hand, an increase of the skin temperature from 34.5°C to 35.9°C (P < 0.05) and 35.9°C (P < 0.05) was measured. The highest measured skin temperature after 10 min of stimulation amounted to 38.7°C, without any clinically visible changes on the skin surface. PMID:25922612

  16. Changes of Locoregional Skin Temperature in Neonates Undergoing Laser Needle Acupuncture at the Acupuncture Point Large Intestine 4

    PubMed Central

    Kurath-Koller, Stefan; Gross, Anna; Freidl, Thomas; Urlesberger, Berndt; Raith, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Laser acupuncture bears a potential risk for the skin surface, especially in neonates whose skin has histological and physiological peculiarities. We evaluated thermal changes of skin temperature in neonates during laser acupuncture by using a thermal camera (Flir i5, Flir Systems Inc., Portland, USA). Laserneedles (Laserneedle GmbH, Glienicke/Nordbahn, Germany) were fixed to the skin at Large Intestine 4 (LI 4, Hegu), bilaterally. Before application of laser acupuncture (685 nm, 15 mW, 500 μm), as well as after 1, 5, and 10 min, thermographic pictures of both hands were taken. The measuring was carried out on the 23rd day after birth (20 neonates, mean postmenstrual gestational age 38 + 2, mean weight 2604 g). Compared to the initial temperature of 34.2°C on the right hand, the skin temperature had increased to 35.3°C (P < 0.05) after 5 min and up to 36.1°C (P < 0.05) after 10 min of stimulation. Equally, on the left hand, an increase of the skin temperature from 34.5°C to 35.9°C (P < 0.05) and 35.9°C (P < 0.05) was measured. The highest measured skin temperature after 10 min of stimulation amounted to 38.7°C, without any clinically visible changes on the skin surface. PMID:25922612

  17. Relationships of skin depths and temperatures when varying pulse repetition frequencies from 2.0-μm laser light incident on pig skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaaf, David; Johnson, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    Human perception of 2.0-μm infrared laser irradiation has become significant in such disparate fields as law enforcement, neuroscience, and pain research. Several recent studies have found damage thresholds for single-pulse and continuous wave irradiations at this wavelength. However, the only publication using multiple-pulse irradiations was investigating the cornea rather than skin. Literature has claimed that the 2.0-μm light characteristic thermal diffusion time was as long as 300-ms. Irradiating the skin with 2.0-μm lasers to produce sensation should follow published recommendations to use pulses on the order of 10 to 100 ms, which approach the theoretical thermal diffusion time. Therefore, investigation of the heating of skin for a variety of laser pulse combinations was undertaken. Temperatures of ex vivo pig skin were measured at the surface and at three depths from pulse sequences of six different duty factors. Differences were found in temperature rise per unit exposure that did not follow a linear relation to duty factor. The differences can be explained by significant heat conduction during the pulses. Therefore, the common heat modeling assumption of thermal confinement during a pulse may need to be experimentally verified if the pulse approaches the theoretical thermal confinement time.

  18. Middle Ear Infections and Ear Tube Surgery (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Zika & Pregnancy Middle Ear Infections and Ear Tube Surgery KidsHealth > For Parents > Middle Ear Infections and Ear ... medio y colocación de tubos de ventilación Why Surgery? Many kids get middle ear infections (known as ...

  19. Myofibrillar ATPase activity in skinned human skeletal muscle fibres: fibre type and temperature dependence.

    PubMed Central

    Stienen, G J; Kiers, J L; Bottinelli, R; Reggiani, C

    1996-01-01

    1. Myofibrillar ATP consumption and isometric tension (P0) were determined in chemically skinned skeletal muscle fibres from human rectus abdominis and vastus lateralis muscle. Fibres were classified in four groups (I, IIA, IIB, IIA/B or mixed) based on myosin heavy chain composition. 2. ATP consumption (+/- S.E.M.) at 20 degrees C varied from 0.41 +/- 0.06 mmol l-1 s-1 in type IIB fibres (n = 5) to 0.10 +/- 0.01 mmol l-1 s-1 in type I fibres (n = 13). 3. The ratio between ATPase activity and P0 (tension cost) differed significantly between fast type II and slow type I fibres. At 12 degrees C tension cost was lower than the values found previously in corresponding fibre types in the rat. 4. The relative increase in ATPase activity for a 10 degrees C temperature change (Q10), determined in the range from 12 to 30 degrees C, was temperature independent and amounted to 2.60 +/- 0.06. The increase in P0 with temperature was smaller and declined when the temperature increased. 5. From these measurements, estimates were obtained for the maximum rate of isometric ATP consumption and force development at muscle temperature in vivo (35 degrees C). Images Figure 1 PMID:8782097

  20. Effects of incubation temperatures and trace mineral sources on chicken live performance and footpad skin development.

    PubMed

    Da Costa, M J; Oviedo-Rondón, E O; Wineland, M J; Claassen, K; Osborne, J

    2016-04-01

    One experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of two incubation temperature profiles (TEM) and two trace mineral (TM) sources with their inclusion levels on performance and footpad skin development of Ross 708 chickens. A total of 1,000 eggs from 29-wk-old breeders were incubated following two TEM profiles: a standard (S) eggshell temperature (37.8±0.2°C) for 21 d of incubation and an early-low late-high (LH) TEM. The second profile had low (37.2±0.2°C) temperature for the first 3 d, and S until the last 3 d when eggshell temperature was 39.2±0.2°C. At hatch, 15 male and 15 female chicks from each TEM were selected, and footpads sampled. Additionally, 168 males per TEM were placed in 24 battery cages with 7 chickens each. The 48 cages were assigned to two TM dietary treatments: one with inorganic (ITM) sources of Zn (120 ppm), Cu (10 ppm), and Mn (120 ppm) and the other with chelated (CTM) mineral sources using lower inclusion levels of Zn (32 ppm), Cu (8 ppm), and Mn (32 ppm). At 7 and 21 d, BW gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained and chicks sampled for footpads. Histological analysis assessed thickness and area ofstratus corneum(SC), epidermis, and dermis. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized block design in a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments with TEM and sex as main factors for hatch data and TEM and TM diets for 7 and 21 d data. The LH chicks were heavier than S chicks at hatch, but had more residual yolk. However, S TEM male chickens were heavier at 7 and 21 d. The S TEM had better FCR than LH TEM.Papillaedermis parameters at hatch were higher in the S TEM. At 7 d, SC height and area were increased by the S TEM. At 21 d CTM increased dermis height and area. In conclusion, TEM affected footpad skin development and broiler performance. Replacing ITM with reduced levels of CTM increased dermis development without affecting live performance or other skin layers. PMID:26908890

  1. Pathology of the Ear

    PubMed Central

    Orengo, Ida; Robbins, Kerri; Marsch, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    The external ear is exposed to weathering and trauma; it also has sparse vascularity, making it prone to infection and disease. The external location of the cutaneous ear makes it easily visible for diagnosis and accessible for treatment. In this article, the authors focus on diseases of the ear that are most commonly encountered and may be subject to surgical and medical evaluation and/or treatment. Epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical course, and treatment for each disease entity are discussed. PMID:23115534

  2. All-weather land surface skin temperatures from a combined analysis of microwave and infrared satellite observations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The surface skin temperature (Ts) is a key parameter at the land-atmosphere interface. Upwelling longwave radiation directly epends upon Ts. Energy exchanges at the land-surface boundary are largely controlled by the difference between Ts and the surface air temperature, the air and the surface reac...

  3. Tribute to R. G. Boutilier: skin colour and body temperature changes in basking Bokermannohyla alvarengai (Bokermann 1956).

    PubMed

    Tattersall, Glenn J; Eterovick, Paula C; de Andrade, Denis V

    2006-04-01

    In amphibians solar basking far from water sources is relatively uncommon since the highly permeable amphibian skin does not represent a significant barrier to the accompanying risk of losing water by evaporation. A South American frog, Bokermannohyla alvarengai (Bokermann 1956), however, spends a significant amount of the day exposed to full sun and relatively high temperatures. The means by which this frog copes with potentially high rates of evaporative water loss and high body temperatures are unknown. Thus, in this study, skin colour changes, body surface temperature, and evaporative water loss rates were examined under a mixture of field and laboratory conditions to ascertain whether changes in skin reflectivity play an important role in this animal's thermal and hydric balance. Field data demonstrated a tight correlation between the lightness of skin colour and frog temperature, with lighter frogs being captured possessing higher body temperatures. Laboratory experiments supported this relationship, revealing that frogs kept in the dark or at lower temperatures (20 degrees C) had darker skin colours, whereas frogs kept in the light or higher temperatures (30 degrees C) had skin colours of a lighter hue. Light exhibited a stronger influence on skin colour than temperature alone, suggesting that colour change is triggered by the increase in incident solar energy and in anticipation of changes in body temperature. This conclusion is corroborated by the observation that cold, darkly coloured frogs placed in the sun rapidly became lighter in colour during the initial warming up period (over the first 5 min), after which they warmed up more slowly and underwent a further, albeit slower, lightening of skin colour. Surprisingly, despite its natural disposition to bask in the sun, this species does not possess a ;waterproof' skin, since its rates of evaporative water loss were not dissimilar from many hylid species that live in arboreal or semi-aquatic environments

  4. Thermographic evaluation of hind paw skin temperature and functional recovery of locomotion after sciatic nerve crush in rats

    PubMed Central

    Z. Sacharuk, Viviane; A. Lovatel, Gisele; Ilha, Jocemar; Marcuzzo, Simone; Severo do Pinho, Alexandre; L. Xavier, Léder; A. Zaro, Milton; Achaval, Matilde

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Peripheral nerves are often damaged by direct mechanical injury, diseases, and tumors. The peripheral nerve injuries that result from these conditions can lead to a partial or complete loss of motor, sensory, and autonomic functions, which in turn are related to changes in skin temperature, in the involved segments of the body. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in hind paw skin temperature after sciatic nerve crush in rats in an attempt to determine whether changes in skin temperature correlate with the functional recovery of locomotion. METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (n = 7), sham (n = 25), and crush (n = 25). All groups were subjected to thermographic, functional, and histological assessments. RESULTS: ΔT in the crush group was different from the control and sham groups at the 1st, 3rd and 7rd postoperative days (p<0.05). The functional recovery from the crush group returned to normal values between the 3rd and 4th week post-injury, and morphological analysis of the nerve revealed incomplete regeneration at the 4th week after injury. DISCUSSION: This study is the first demonstration that sciatic nerve crush in rats induces an increase in hind paw skin temperature and that skin temperature changes do not correlate closely with functional recovery PMID:21876984

  5. The porcine ear skin as a model system for the human integument: influence of storage conditions on basic features of epidermis structure and function--a histological and histochemical study.

    PubMed

    Meyer, W; Zschemisch, N H; Godynicki, S

    2003-01-01

    Based on careful tissue processing, detailed structural analysis, and histochemical as well as cytophotometrical evaluation of the epidermis, the study presents data with respect to changes of tissue integrity during two storing modes (room temperature and 4 degrees C) and various storage times of the porcine auricle. Structural degeneration was first noted in the barrier region of the epidermis from where such changes spread, independent of storage conditions, from small horizontal necrotic islands and continuously with increasing storage time. The histochemical results corroborated these observations, emphasizing, however, that the lower epidermal layers seemed intact for a longer time period than the upper layers. Cytophotometrical evaluation of histochemical stainings showed, with regard to the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase, that oxidative metabolism was negatively affected in the early stages of storage, whereas epidermal lipids (neutral fats, glycolipids) remained relatively stable, even during storage at room temperature. In conclusion, it was obvious that the barrier region is the most sensitive element of the porcine ear epidermis. Taking into consideration that this part of the epidermis is most important for permeation studies, it seems reasonable to avoid any storage of porcine auricles at room temperature, and to use only auricles that have been stored at 4 degrees C for not more than 4 to 6 hours, immediately after delivery from the slaughter-house. In this way better tissue preservation can be achieved, whereby the use of shinkage-free water-soluble plastic embedding would generally improve the histological control of structural integrity, and the application of an easy to handle enzyme histochemical procedure (e.g. succinate dehydrogenase demonstration) to unfixed fresh-frozen sections would help to control basic aspects of tissue functions. The results are discussed in relation to the use of porcine integument as a model in human dermatological

  6. Aspirin and Clopidogrel Alter Core Temperature and Skin Blood Flow during Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Bruning, Rebecca S.; Dahmus, Jessica D.; Kenney, W. Larry; Holowatz, Lacy A.

    2012-01-01

    Antithrombotic therapy with oral aspirin or clopidogrel (PlavixR) is associated with an attenuated skin vasodilator response and a greater rate of rise in core temperature in healthy, middle-aged individuals during passive heating in a water perfused suit. Purpose The present double-blind, crossover study examined the functional consequences of 7 days of low-dose aspirin (ASA, 81 mg/day) vs. clopidogrel (CLO, 75 mg/day) treatment in 14 healthy, middle-aged (50–65 yrs) men and women during passive heating in air (40 min at 30°C, 40% rh) followed by exercise (60% V̇O2peak). Methods Oral temperature (Tor) was measured in the antechamber (23.0 ± 0.1°C) before entering a warm environmental chamber. After 40 minutes of rest subjects cycled on a recumbent cycle ergometer for up to 120 minutes. Esophageal temperature (Tes) and laser Doppler flux were measured continuously, and the latter was normalized to maximal cutaneous vascular conductance (%CVCmax). Results Prior to entry into the environmental chamber there were no differences in Tor among treatments; however, after 40 minutes of rest in the heat, Tes was significantly higher for ASA and CLO vs. placebo (37.2±0.1°C, 37.3±0.1°C, vs. 37.0±0.1°C, both P<0.001), a difference that persisted throughout exercise (P<0.001 vs. placebo). The mean body temperature thresholds for the onset of cutaneous vasodilation were shifted to the right for both ASA and CLO during exercise (P<0.05). Conclusion ASA and CLO resulted in elevated core temperatures during passive heat stress and shifted the onset of peripheral thermoeffector mechanisms toward higher body temperatures during exercise heat stress. PMID:23135368

  7. Improvement of imaging of skin thermal properties by successive thermographic measurements at a stepwise change in ambient radiation temperature.

    PubMed

    Huang, J; Togawa, T

    1995-11-01

    Imaging of skin thermal properties was attempted by successive thermographic measurements of the skin surface with a stepwise change in ambient radiation temperature. In order to produce the stepwise change in ambient radiation temperature, two hoods maintained at different temperatures, 20 degrees C and 60 degrees C, were mechanically switched. A total of 65 thermograms were taken from 2 s before to 32 s seconds after the hood switching. Images of skin emissivity, emissivity-corrected skin temperature and thermal inertia were obtained by least-squares fitting at each pixel of 64 thermograms. Measurements were performed on the forehead, cheek, forearm, palm and back of the hand of 10 healthy male subjects. Differences in emissivity between sites and subjects were insignificant. Significant differences were observed in thermal inertia values between sites. Great improvements in the imaging of thermal inertia have been achieved by applying least-squares fitting to 64 thermograms instead of by computations from only two thermograms as in the previous study. Non-contact measurement and visualization of skin thermal properties are significant advantages of this method. PMID:8599696

  8. Numerical modelling of salt diapirism and the surrounding temperature field during thin-skinned extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieulot, Cedric; Harms, Guido

    2016-04-01

    The occurrence of salt diapirs is strongly associated with potential geothermal and hydrocarbon energy sources. Many numerical modelling studies of diapirism have been done in the past, though very few of these in fact use geologically realistic settings and materials. Besides, only analogue and structural studies have been done on full scale diapirism during thin-skinned extension. Two-dimensional numerical modelling of this problem using a Finite Element code aims at addressing the following questions: which geometrical or material parameters affect the growth rate and shape of the diapir and how? what is the effect of this diapirism on the temperature field and surface heat flux? How does the inclusion of simple surface processes influence these observations to first order ? Our results show that, in compliance with both analogue modelling and structural geological studies, a diapir formed during thin-skinned extension undergoes three phases: reactional piercement, active piercement and passive piercement. Extension rates directly influence the total time required for the diapir to reach the surface, as well as how long the system remains in a state of reactional diapirism, which both affect the shape of the resulting diapir. Erosion efficiency is found to affect the growth rate of the diapir during its active stage and the total rising time, which affects in turn its the shape. The density contrast between the salt and the sediments also influences the growth rate during active and passive piercement. Finally, the temperature surrounding a rising diapir (especially in the region above it) is found to be heightened by a few dozens of degrees.

  9. Ear - blocked at high altitudes

    MedlinePlus

    ... ears; Flying and blocked ears; Eustachian tube dysfunction - high altitude ... the middle ear and the back of the nose and upper throat. ... down from high altitudes. Chewing gum the entire time you are ...

  10. Effects of season on sleep and skin temperature in the elderly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto-Mizuno, Kazue; Tsuzuki, Kazuyo

    2010-07-01

    The effects of season on sleep and skin temperature (Tsk) in 19 healthy, elderly volunteers were investigated. Measurements were obtained in summer, winter, and fall, and activity levels were monitored using a wrist actigraph system for five consecutive days. The temperature and humidity of the bedrooms of the subjects’ homes were measured continuously for five days. During actigraphic measurement, Tsk during sleep was measured for two nights. The bedroom temperature and humidity significantly increased in summer compared to winter and fall. In summer, the total sleep time decreased (mean ± SE min; summer, 350.8 ± 15.7; winter, 426.5 ± 14.2; fall, 403.2 ± 16.4) and wakefulness increased ( P < 0.003) compared to those in fall or winter. The sleep efficiency index that was derived from wrist actigraphy was significantly decreased ( P < 0.001) in summer (81.4 ± 2.9%) compared with winter (91.6 ± 1.3%) or fall (90.2 ± 1.2%). The forehead Tsk significantly increased, while the chest and thigh Tsks were decreased in summer compared to those in fall or winter. These results suggest that, in the elderly, sleep is disturbed in summer more than in other seasons, and that this disturbance is related to fluctuations in Tsk.