Sample records for earliest detectable abnormality

  1. Combining Registration and Abnormality Detection in Mammography

    E-print Network

    Desolneux, Agnès

    Combining Registration and Abnormality Detection in Mammography Mohamed Hachama, Agn`es Desolneux (e.g. lesions) in mammography are solved separately, although the solutions of these problems 2006 #12;Combining Registration and Abnormality Detection in Mammography 179 The definition

  2. Sonographically detected abnormalities of the umbilical cord

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. D. Shipp; B. Bromley; B. R. Benacerraf

    1995-01-01

    Objectives: This study was undertaken as a retrospective chart review to evaluate the range of umbilical cord abnormalities detected by prenatal sonography, as well as the outcome and pathologic correlation. Methods: We identified 13 cases of umbilical cord abnormalities detected sonographically over a 46-month period. We evaluated the ultrasound appearance, size, location, and color Doppler characteristic in each case. Results:

  3. Unsupervised Abnormality Detection in Video Surveillance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takuya Nanri; Nobuyuki Otsu

    2005-01-01

    The detection of abnormal movements is an important prob- lem in video surveillance applications. We propose an unsupervised method for abnormal movement detection in scenes containing multiple persons. Our method uses cu- bic higher-order local auto-correlation (CHLAC) to extract movement features. We show that the additive property of CHLAC in combination with a linear subspace method is well suited to

  4. Detecting electrocardiogram abnormalities with independent component analysis

    E-print Network

    Noel, Steven

    detection of abnormal conditions in the heart. Unsupervised ICA neural networks can demix the components of measured ECG signals. Such components may correspond to individual heart functions, either normal for diagnosis well in advance of the actual onset of heart attack, in which abnormalities in the original

  5. Hepatic perfusion abnormalities during CT angiography: Detection and interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Freeny, P.C.; Marks, W.M.

    1986-06-01

    Twenty-seven perfusion abnormalities were detected in 17 of 50 patients who underwent computed tomographic angiography (CTA) of the liver. All but one of the perfusion abnormalities occurred in patients with primary or metastatic liver tumors. Perfusion abnormalities were lobar in nine cases, segmental in 11, and subsegmental in seven; 14 were hypoperfusion and 13 were hyperperfusion abnormalities. The causes for the abnormalities included nonperfusion of a replaced hepatic artery (n = 11), cirrhosis and nodular regeneration (n = 3), altered hepatic hemodynamics (e.g., siphoning, laminar flow) caused by tumor (n = 7), contrast media washout from a nonperfused vessel (n = 1), compression of adjacent hepatic parenchyma (n = 1), and unknown (n = 4). Differentiation of perfusion abnormalities from tumor usually can be made by comparing the morphology of the known tumor with the suspected perfusion abnormality, changes of each on delayed CTA scans, and review of initial angiograms and other imaging studies.

  6. Hepatic perfusion abnormalities during CT angiography: detection and interpretation.

    PubMed

    Freeny, P C; Marks, W M

    1986-06-01

    Twenty-seven perfusion abnormalities were detected in 17 of 50 patients who underwent computed tomographic angiography (CTA) of the liver. All but one of the perfusion abnormalities occurred in patients with primary or metastatic liver tumors. Perfusion abnormalities were lobar in nine cases, segmental in 11, and subsegmental in seven; 14 were hypoperfusion and 13 were hyperperfusion abnormalities. The causes for the abnormalities included nonperfusion of a replaced hepatic artery (n = 11), cirrhosis and nodular regeneration (n = 3), altered hepatic hemodynamics (e.g., siphoning, laminar flow) caused by tumor (n = 7), contrast media washout from a nonperfused vessel (n = 1), compression of adjacent hepatic parenchyma (n = 1), and unknown (n = 4). Differentiation of perfusion abnormalities from tumor usually can be made by comparing the morphology of the known tumor with the suspected perfusion abnormality, changes of each on delayed CTA scans, and review of initial angiograms and other imaging studies. PMID:3010374

  7. Sensor-Based Abnormal Human-Activity Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jie Yin; Qiang Yang; Jeffrey Junfeng Pan

    2008-01-01

    With the availability of affordable sensors and sensor networks, sensor-based human-activity recognition has attracted much attention in artificial intelligence and ubiquitous computing. In this paper, we present a novel two-phase approach for detecting abnormal activities based on wireless sensors attached to a human body. Detecting abnormal activities is a particularly important task in security monitoring and healthcare applications of sensor

  8. Detection of abnormalities in a human gait using smart shoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Kyoungchul; Bae, Joonbum; Tomizuka, Masayoshi

    2008-03-01

    Health monitoring systems require a means for detecting and quantifying abnormalities from measured signals. In this paper, a new method for detecting abnormalities in a human gait is proposed for an improved gait monitoring system for patients with walking problems. In the previous work, we introduced a fuzzy logic algorithm for detecting phases in a human gait based on four foot pressure sensors for each of the right and left foot. The fuzzy logic algorithm detects the gait phases smoothly and continuously, and retains all information obtained from sensors. In this paper, a higher level algorithm for detecting abnormalities in the gait phases obtained from the fuzzy logic is discussed. In the proposed algorithm, two major abnormalities are detected 1) when the sensors measure improper foot pressure patterns, and 2) when the human does not follow a natural sequence of gait phases. For mathematical realization of the algorithm, the gait phases are dealt with by a vector analysis method. The proposed detection algorithm is verified by experiments on abnormal gaits as well as normal gaits. The experiment makes use of the Smart Shoes that embeds four bladders filled with air, the pressure changes in which are detected by pressure transducers.

  9. Detection of Abnormal Events via Optical Flow Feature Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tian; Snoussi, Hichem

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel algorithm is proposed to detect abnormal events in video streams. The algorithm is based on the histogram of the optical flow orientation descriptor and the classification method. The details of the histogram of the optical flow orientation descriptor are illustrated for describing movement information of the global video frame or foreground frame. By combining one-class support vector machine and kernel principal component analysis methods, the abnormal events in the current frame can be detected after a learning period characterizing normal behaviors. The difference abnormal detection results are analyzed and explained. The proposed detection method is tested on benchmark datasets, then the experimental results show the effectiveness of the algorithm. PMID:25811227

  10. Detection of Abnormal Sound Using Multistage GMM for Surveillance Microphone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akinori Ito; Akihito Aiba; Masashi Ito; Shozo Makino

    2009-01-01

    We developed a system that detects abnormal sound from sound signal observed by a surveillance microphone. Our system learns the ldquonormal soundrdquo from observation of the microphone, and then detects sounds never observed before as ldquoabnormal sounds.rdquo To this end, we developed a technique that uses multiple GMMs for modeling different levels of sound events efficiently. We also consider how

  11. Feature Quantification and Abnormal Detection on Cervical Squamous Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mingzhu; Bian, Linjie; Yao, Chunyan; Zhang, Jianwei

    2015-01-01

    Feature analysis and classification detection of abnormal cells from images for pathological analysis are an important issue for the realization of computer assisted disease diagnosis. This paper studies a method for cervical squamous epithelial cells. Based on cervical cytological classification standard and expert diagnostic experience, expressive descriptors are extracted according to morphology, color, and texture features of cervical scales epithelial cells. Further, quantificational descriptors related to cytopathology are derived as well, including morphological difference degree, cell hyperkeratosis, and deeply stained degree. The relationship between quantified value and pathological feature can be established by these descriptors. Finally, an effective method is proposed for detecting abnormal cells based on feature quantification. Integrated with clinical experience, the method can realize fast abnormal cell detection and preliminary cell classification. PMID:25873991

  12. Detecting Abnormal Machine Characteristics in Cloud Infrastructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaduri, Kanishka; Das, Kamalika; Matthews, Bryan L.

    2011-01-01

    In the cloud computing environment resources are accessed as services rather than as a product. Monitoring this system for performance is crucial because of typical pay-peruse packages bought by the users for their jobs. With the huge number of machines currently in the cloud system, it is often extremely difficult for system administrators to keep track of all machines using distributed monitoring programs such as Ganglia1 which lacks system health assessment and summarization capabilities. To overcome this problem, we propose a technique for automated anomaly detection using machine performance data in the cloud. Our algorithm is entirely distributed and runs locally on each computing machine on the cloud in order to rank the machines in order of their anomalous behavior for given jobs. There is no need to centralize any of the performance data for the analysis and at the end of the analysis, our algorithm generates error reports, thereby allowing the system administrators to take corrective actions. Experiments performed on real data sets collected for different jobs validate the fact that our algorithm has a low overhead for tracking anomalous machines in a cloud infrastructure.

  13. UNCORRECTEDPROOF 2 Detection and mapping of hippocampal abnormalities in autism

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Paul

    not differ 19 significantly for traditional measures of hippocampal volume. These results suggest that autismUNCORRECTEDPROOF 1 2 Detection and mapping of hippocampal abnormalities in autism 3 Rob Nicolsona in autism have yielded inconsistent results. In this study, a computational mapping 12 strategy was used

  14. A Dynamic Fuzzy Classifier for Detecting Abnormalities in Mammograms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabah Mohammed; Lei Yang; Jinan Fiaidhi

    2004-01-01

    One of the most important steps in digital mammography is an adequate segmentation of possible abnormalities. This obviously minimizes errors in further stages such as in classification. However, several factors affect the proper segmentation of mammograms. Mammograms contain low signal to noise ratio (low contrast) and a complicated structured background.In this article we are describing a generic approach for detecting

  15. DETECTING ABNORMAL FISH TRAJECTORIES USING CLUSTERED AND LABELED DATA

    E-print Network

    Fisher, Bob

    DETECTING ABNORMAL FISH TRAJECTORIES USING CLUSTERED AND LABELED DATA Cigdem Beyan, Robert B We propose an approach for the analysis of fish trajectories in unconstrained underwater videos. Trajectories are classified into two classes: normal trajectories which contain the usual behavior of fish

  16. DETECTION & MAPPING OF ABNORMAL BRAIN STRUCTURE IN METHAMPHETAMINE USERS

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Paul

    DETECTION & MAPPING OF ABNORMAL BRAIN STRUCTURE IN METHAMPHETAMINE USERS 1 P.M. Thompson, 1 K, beginning in their mid-twenties, consuming about 3 g/week of MA. All 43 MRI scans were aligned to ICBM space correspondence, using a covariant fluid PDE model for data alignment on non-flat manifolds. At each aligned

  17. Accuracy of detection of radiographic abnormalities by junior doctors.

    PubMed

    Vincent, C A; Driscoll, P A; Audley, R J; Grant, D S

    1988-06-01

    This study assessed the ability of junior doctors in accident and emergency to detect radiographic abnormalities. Their assessments of 505 radiographs taken at nights and weekends over a period of 8 months and showing abnormalities were examined. Each assessment by a senior house officer (SHO) was compared with the subsequent diagnosis of a radiologist of senior registrar or consultant status. An error rate of 35% was found. For abnormalities with clinically significant consequences the error rate was 39%. Although this error rate appears high the results are consistent with those of earlier studies in that missed positive radiographs constitute 2.8% of the total number of radiographs taken in the period. It is considered that the proportion of missed abnormalities gives a truer index of SHOs' abilities. No improvement in performance was evident over the 6-month period of the SHOs tenure of post. It is argued that it is unrealistic to expect accident and emergency SHOs to acquire this complex skill simply through experience and that more formal training and guidance is needed. PMID:3408527

  18. A multiresolution analysis for detection of abnormal lung sounds

    PubMed Central

    Emmanouilidou, Dimitra; Patil, Kailash; West, James; Elhilali, Mounya

    2014-01-01

    Automated analysis and detection of abnormal lung sound patterns has great potential for improving access to standardized diagnosis of pulmonary diseases, especially in low-resource settings. In the current study, we develop signal processing tools for analysis of paediatric auscultations recorded under non-ideal noisy conditions. The proposed model is based on a biomimetic multi-resolution analysis of the spectro-temporal modulation details in lung sounds. The methodology provides a detailed description of joint spectral and temporal variations in the signal and proves to be more robust than frequency-based techniques in distinguishing crackles and wheezes from normal breathing sounds. PMID:23366591

  19. Parental Decisions of Prenatally Detected Sex Chromosome Abnormality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jung-Yeol Han; Moon-Young Kim; Jae-Hyug Yang; Kyu-Hong Choi; Young-Mi Kim; Jin-Mee Kim; Hyun-Mee Ryu; Samsung Cheil

    Because of the widespread use of amniocentesis, the prenatal recognition of sex chromosome abnormality (SCA) has become increasingly common. Recent lit- erature provided an insight into the understanding of the natural history and prog- nosis for individuals with SCA. Our study was designed to review the parental decision on pregnancy with SCA. Over the last 10 yr, we diagnosed 38

  20. Interphase FISH in plasma cell dyscrasia: increase in abnormality detection with plasma cell enrichment.

    PubMed

    Pozdnyakova, Olga; Crowley-Larsen, Patricia; Zota, Victor; Wang, Sa A; Miron, Patricia M

    2009-03-01

    Historically, cytogenetic studies of plasma cell neoplasms have been hampered by the fact that terminally differentiated plasma cells do not proliferate well in vitro. Although the use of interphase FISH (iFISH) has greatly improved the ability to detect cytogenetic abnormalities, cases with low numbers of neoplastic cells often do not demonstrate abnormalities. Using a four-assay, nine-probe iFISH panel, we compared the abnormality detection rate for overnight unstimulated bone marrow cultures (ONC) to that for plasma-cell enriched fractions obtained with use of CD138-coated immunomagnetic beads (PCE). In the ONC, an abnormality was detected in 11 of 29 cases (38%); in the PCE, an abnormality was detected in 30 of 33 cases (91%). For 28 cases in which iFISH results from ONC were compared directly with PCE samples, the overall abnormality rate was 36% for ONC and 89% for PCE (P < 0.01). The conventional GTG-banded chromosome analysis revealed only 2 of 34 cases with an abnormal karyotype (6%); both cases were hyperdiploid. We conclude that the plasma cell enrichment step for iFISH should be incorporated into the routine cytogenetic work-up for all patients with plasma cell neoplasms. PMID:19215792

  1. Learning a Scene Contextual Model for Tracking and Abnormality Detection Benjamin Yao1

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Song Chun

    Learning a Scene Contextual Model for Tracking and Abnormality Detection Benjamin Yao1 and Liang wangliang@jdl.ac.cn Abstract In this paper we present a novel framework for learn- ing contextual motion to improving the performance of objects tracking and ab- normal event detection. We represent trajectory

  2. Method of detecting genetic deletions identified with chromosomal abnormalities

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Joe W; Pinkel, Daniel; Tkachuk, Douglas

    2013-11-26

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyzes. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acids probes are typically of a complexity greater tha 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods and reagents are provided for the detection of genetic rearrangements. Probes and test kits are provided for use in detecting genetic rearrangements, particlularly for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, specifically cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and for biological dosimetry. Methods and reagents are described for cytogenetic research, for the differentiation of cytogenetically similar ut genetically different diseases, and for many prognostic and diagnostic applications.

  3. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and may develop serious health problems (e.g. Down syndrome ). Single-Gene Abnormalities Sometimes the chromosomes are normal ... Detecting Genetic Abnormalities Prenatal Genetic Counseling Children with Down Syndrome: Health Care Information for Families Last Updated 5/ ...

  4. Multi-complexity measures for early detection and monitoring of neurological abnormalities from gait time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrishchaka, Valeriy; Davis, Kristina; Senyukova, Olga

    2013-10-01

    Recently, we have proposed to use complementary complexity measures discovered by boosting-like ensemble learning for the enhancement of quantitative indicators dealing with necessarily short physiological time series. We have confirmed robustness of such multi-complexity measures for heart rate variability analysis with the emphasis on detection of emerging and intermittent cardiac abnormalities. Here we demonstrate that such ensemble-based approach could be also effective in discovering universal meta-indicators for early detection and convenient monitoring of neurological abnormalities using gait time series.

  5. Detection and diagnosis of abnormal transients in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.C.; Rank, P.J.; Hawkes, E.; Wehe, D.K. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Reifman, J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1991-01-01

    This document describes a simulation-based algorithm that combines fuzzy logic with macroscopic conservation equations to diagnose multiple-failure events subject to uncertainties in transient data. Clusters of single-failure data points of similar characteristics are obtained through a pattern recognition algorithm and the cluster centers are combined in the space of macroscopic inventory derivatives to generate multiple-failure cluster centers. A fuzzy membership function is used to represent the likelihood of a data point belonging to a cluster, and failure estimates are obtained through solution of a fuzzy matrix equation. The algorithm has been successful in detecting simulated malfunctions in the pressurizer of a pressurized water reactor. 11 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Abnormal Contextual Modulation of Visual Contour Detection in Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Schallmo, Michael-Paul; Sponheim, Scott R.; Olman, Cheryl A.

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients demonstrate perceptual deficits consistent with broad dysfunction in visual context processing. These include poor integration of segments forming visual contours, and reduced visual contrast effects (e.g. weaker orientation-dependent surround suppression, ODSS). Background image context can influence contour perception, as stimuli near the contour affect detection accuracy. Because of ODSS, this contextual modulation depends on the relative orientation between the contour and flanking elements, with parallel flankers impairing contour perception. However in schizophrenia, the impact of abnormal ODSS during contour perception is not clear. It is also unknown whether deficient contour perception marks genetic liability for schizophrenia, or is strictly associated with clinical expression of this disorder. We examined contour detection in 25 adults with schizophrenia, 13 unaffected first-degree biological relatives of schizophrenia patients, and 28 healthy controls. Subjects performed a psychophysics experiment designed to quantify the effect of flanker orientation during contour detection. Overall, patients with schizophrenia showed poorer contour detection performance than relatives or controls. Parallel flankers suppressed and orthogonal flankers enhanced contour detection performance for all groups, but parallel suppression was relatively weaker for schizophrenia patients than healthy controls. Relatives of patients showed equivalent performance with controls. Computational modeling suggested that abnormal contextual modulation in schizophrenia may be explained by suppression that is more broadly tuned for orientation. Abnormal flanker suppression in schizophrenia is consistent with weaker ODSS and/or broader orientation tuning. This work provides the first evidence that such perceptual abnormalities may not be associated with a genetic liability for schizophrenia. PMID:23922637

  7. Earliest Math Symbols

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website, maintained by a teacher at Gulf High School in New Port Richey, Fla., reviews the Earliest Uses of Various Mathematical Symbols. Listed here are the names and information for the first individuals to use some common mathematical symbols, including symbols of operation, grouping symbols, symbols of relation, and symbols used in geometry, trigonometry, calculus, probability, number theory, and logic. The main source used for the information provided is a book by Florian Cajori entitled A History of Mathematical Notations. Links to other pages on topics in mathematics history are also provided.

  8. Abnormal Image Detection in Endoscopy Videos Using a Filter Bank and Local Binary Patterns.

    PubMed

    Nawarathna, Ruwan; Oh, JungHwan; Muthukudage, Jayantha; Tavanapong, Wallapak; Wong, Johnny; de Groen, Piet C; Tang, Shou Jiang

    2014-11-20

    Finding mucosal abnormalities (e.g., erythema, blood, ulcer, erosion, and polyp) is one of the most essential tasks during endoscopy video review. Since these abnormalities typically appear in a small number of frames (around 5% of the total frame number), automated detection of frames with an abnormality can save physician's time significantly. In this paper, we propose a new multi-texture analysis method that effectively discerns images showing mucosal abnormalities from the ones without any abnormality since most abnormalities in endoscopy images have textures that are clearly distinguishable from normal textures using an advanced image texture analysis method. The method uses a "texton histogram" of an image block as features. The histogram captures the distribution of different "textons" representing various textures in an endoscopy image. The textons are representative response vectors of an application of a combination of Leung and Malik (LM) filter bank (i.e., a set of image filters) and a set of Local Binary Patterns on the image. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed method achieves 92% recall and 91.8% specificity on wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) images and 91% recall and 90.8% specificity on colonoscopy images. PMID:25132723

  9. Antibodies Against Abnormal Glycoproteins Identified as Possible Biomarkers for Cancer Detection

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists have found that cancer patients produce antibodies that target abnormal glycoproteins (proteins with sugar molecules attached) made by their tumors. The result of this work suggests that antitumor antibodies in the blood may provide a fruitful source of sensitive biomarkers for cancer detection.

  10. Performances of diffusion kurtosis imaging and diffusion tensor imaging in detecting white matter abnormality in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiajia; Zhuo, Chuanjun; Qin, Wen; Wang, Di; Ma, Xiaomei; Zhou, Yujing; Yu, Chunshui

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) is an extension of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), exhibiting improved sensitivity and specificity in detecting developmental and pathological changes in neural tissues. However, little attention was paid to the performances of DKI and DTI in detecting white matter abnormality in schizophrenia. In this study, DKI and DTI were performed in 94 schizophrenia patients and 91 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. White matter integrity was assessed by fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD), mean kurtosis (MK), axial kurtosis (AK) and radial kurtosis (RK) of DKI and FA, MD, AD and RD of DTI. Group differences in these parameters were compared using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) (P < 0.01, corrected). The sensitivities in detecting white matter abnormality in schizophrenia were MK (34%) > AK (20%) > RK (3%) and RD (37%) > FA (24%) > MD (21%) for DKI, and RD (43%) > FA (30%) > MD (21%) for DTI. DKI-derived diffusion parameters (RD, FA and MD) were sensitive to detect abnormality in white matter regions (the corpus callosum and anterior limb of internal capsule) with coherent fiber arrangement; however, the kurtosis parameters (MK and AK) were sensitive to reveal abnormality in white matter regions (the juxtacortical white matter and corona radiata) with complex fiber arrangement. In schizophrenia, the decreased AK suggests axonal damage; however, the increased RD indicates myelin impairment. These findings suggest that diffusion and kurtosis parameters could provide complementary information and they should be jointly used to reveal pathological changes in schizophrenia. PMID:25610778

  11. Detection of breast abnormality from thermograms using curvelet transform based feature extraction.

    PubMed

    Francis, Sheeja V; Sasikala, M; Saranya, S

    2014-04-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes for high mortality rates among young women, in the developing countries. Currently mammography is used as the gold standard for screening breast cancer. Due to its inherent disadvantages, alternative techniques are being considered for this purpose. Breast thermography is one such imaging modality, which represents the temperature variations of breast in the form of intensity variations on an image. In the last decade, several studies have been made to evaluate the potential of breast thermograms in detecting abnormal breast conditions, from an image processing view point. This paper proposes a curvelet transform based feature extraction method for automatic detection of abnormality in breast thermograms. Statistical and texture features are extracted from thermograms in the curvelet domain, to feed a support vector machine for automatic classification. The classifier detects abnormal thermograms with an accuracy of 90.91 %. The results of the study indicate that texture features have better potential to detect abnormality in breast thermograms, when extracted in the multiresolution curvelet domain. PMID:24659445

  12. Abnormality detection in noisy biosignals Emine Merve Kaya and Mounya Elhilali

    E-print Network

    Elhilali, Mounya

    Abnormality detection in noisy biosignals Emine Merve Kaya and Mounya Elhilali Department. While this is an important goal in computational processing of medical signals, studies are generally be examined by a physician or put through further computational processing to determine what it is

  13. Structure Learning in Random Fields for Heart Motion Abnormality Detection Mark Schmidt, Kevin Murphy

    E-print Network

    Murphy, Kevin Patrick

    Structure Learning in Random Fields for Heart Motion Abnormality Detection Mark Schmidt, Kevin Heart Disease can be diagnosed by assessing the regional motion of the heart walls in ultrasound images the different heart re- gions and their overall influence on the clinical condition of the heart need

  14. Sensitive and specific detection of mosaic chromosomal abnormalities using the Parent-of-Origin-based Detection (POD) method

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mosaic somatic alterations are present in all multi-cellular organisms, but the physiological effects of low-level mosaicism are largely unknown. Most mosaic alterations remain undetectable with current analytical approaches, although the presence of such alterations is increasingly implicated as causative for disease. Results Here, we present the Parent-of-Origin-based Detection (POD) method for chromosomal abnormality detection in trio-based SNP microarray data. Our software implementation, triPOD, was benchmarked using a simulated dataset, outperformed comparable software for sensitivity of abnormality detection, and displayed substantial improvement in the detection of low-level mosaicism while maintaining comparable specificity. Examples of low-level mosaic abnormalities from a large autism dataset demonstrate the benefits of the increased sensitivity provided by triPOD. The triPOD analyses showed robustness across multiple types of Illumina microarray chips. Two large, clinically-relevant datasets were characterized and compared. Conclusions Our method and software provide a significant advancement in the ability to detect low-level mosaic abnormalities, thereby opening new avenues for research into the implications of mosaicism in pathogenic and non-pathogenic processes. PMID:23724825

  15. The Earliest Matches

    PubMed Central

    Goren-Inbar, Naama; Freikman, Michael; Garfinkel, Yosef; Goring-Morris, Nigel A.; Grosman, Leore

    2012-01-01

    Cylindrical objects made usually of fired clay but sometimes of stone were found at the Yarmukian Pottery Neolithic sites of Sha‘ar HaGolan and Munhata (first half of the 8th millennium BP) in the Jordan Valley. Similar objects have been reported from other Near Eastern Pottery Neolithic sites. Most scholars have interpreted them as cultic objects in the shape of phalli, while others have referred to them in more general terms as “clay pestles,” “clay rods,” and “cylindrical clay objects.” Re-examination of these artifacts leads us to present a new interpretation of their function and to suggest a reconstruction of their technology and mode of use. We suggest that these objects were components of fire drills and consider them the earliest evidence of a complex technology of fire ignition, which incorporates the cylindrical objects in the role of matches. PMID:22870306

  16. Global Abnormal Behaviour Detection Using a Network of CCTV Cameras Emanuel E. Zelniker, Shaogang Gong, Tao Xiang

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Global Abnormal Behaviour Detection Using a Network of CCTV Cameras Emanuel E. Zelniker, Shaogang the detection of global abnormal behaviours across a network of CCTV cameras. Although the problem of multiple behaviours of objects monitored by a network of CCTV cameras with disjointed camera views, and no effort has

  17. The earliest pigeon fanciers

    PubMed Central

    Blasco, Ruth; Finlayson, Clive; Rosell, Jordi; Marco, Antonio Sánchez; Finlayson, Stewart; Finlayson, Geraldine; Negro, Juan José; Pacheco, Francisco Giles; Vidal, Joaquín Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Feral Pigeons have colonised all corners of the Earth, having developed a close association with humans and their activities. The wild ancestor of the Feral Pigeon, the Rock Dove, is a species of rocky habitats, nesting typically on cliff ledges and at the entrance to large caves. This habit would have brought them into close contact with cave-dwelling humans, a relationship usually linked to the development of dwellings in the Neolithic. We show that the association between humans and Rock Doves is an ancient one with its roots in the Palaeolithic and predates the arrival of modern humans into Europe. At Gorham's Cave, Gibraltar, the Neanderthals exploited Rock Doves for food for a period of over 40 thousand years, the earliest evidence dating to at least 67 thousand years ago. We show that the exploitation was not casual or sporadic, having found repeated evidence of the practice in different, widely spaced, temporal contexts within the cave. Our results point to hitherto unappreciated capacities of the Neanderthals to exploit birds as food resources on a regular basis. More so, they were practising it long before the arrival of modern humans and had therefore invented it independently. PMID:25101932

  18. Detecting abnormality in optic nerve head images using a feature extraction analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Haogang; Poostchi, Ali; Vernon, Stephen A; Crabb, David P

    2014-01-01

    Imaging and evaluation of the optic nerve head (ONH) plays an essential part in the detection and clinical management of glaucoma. The morphological characteristics of ONHs vary greatly from person to person and this variability means it is difficult to quantify them in a standardized way. We developed and evaluated a feature extraction approach using shift-invariant wavelet packet and kernel principal component analysis to quantify the shape features in ONH images acquired by scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph [HRT]). The methods were developed and tested on 1996 eyes from three different clinical centers. A shape abnormality score (SAS) was developed from extracted features using a Gaussian process to identify glaucomatous abnormality. SAS can be used as a diagnostic index to quantify the overall likelihood of ONH abnormality. Maps showing areas of likely abnormality within the ONH were also derived. Diagnostic performance of the technique, as estimated by ROC analysis, was significantly better than the classification tools currently used in the HRT software – the technique offers the additional advantage of working with all images and is fully automated. PMID:25071960

  19. Forty-eight-hour ph monitoring increases sensitivity in detecting abnormal esophageal acid exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Tseng; Adnan Z. Rizvi; M. Brian Fennerty; Blair A. Jobe; Brian S. Diggs; Brett C. Sheppard; Steven C. Gross; Lee L. Swanstrom; Nicole B. White; Ralph W. Aye; John G. Hunter

    2005-01-01

    Ambulatory 24-hour esophageal pH measurement is the standard for detecting abnormal esophageal acid exposure (AEAE), but it\\u000a has a false negative rate of 15% to 30%. Wireless 48-hour pH monitoring (Bravo; Medtronic, Shoreview, MN) may allow more accurate\\u000a detection of AEAE versus 24-hour pH monitoring. Forty-eight-hour wireless data were reviewed from 209 patients at three different\\u000a tertiary care referral centers

  20. Stratum corneum lipid abnormalities in ichthyosis. Detection by a new lipid microanalytical method.

    PubMed

    Brown, B E; Williams, M L; Elias, P M

    1984-02-01

    Although the biochemical diagnosis of the ichthyoses is still in its infancy, the two recessively inherited types, recessive X-linked ichthyosis (RXLI) and nonbullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (CIE), are accompanied by stratum corneum lipid abnormalities. However, in RXLI, cholesterol sulfate accumulates; in CIE, massive quantities of n-alkanes accumulate. The diagnosis of these disorders has required large quantities of scale for sequential, quantitative thin-layer chromatography (TLC). In this study, we sought to confirm the previously described lipid abnormalities with the use of a rapid, recently developed microchromatographic technique that employs silica gel-coated quartz rods and flame ionization detection (Iatroscan). The cholesterol sulfate content of RXLI (n = 5) scale and the n-alkane content of CIE (n = 8) scale were determined by both TLC and the microchromatographic technique. Less than 10 mg of scale and even single punch biopsy specimens sufficed for the microchromatographic technique, whereas more than 50 mg of scale were required for TLC. Since the microchromatographic technique can rapidly detect diagnostic biochemical abnormalities from readily obtainable, small tissue samples, this method could eventually supplant or supplement standard lipid biochemical techniques for the diagnosis of cutaneous lipidoses. PMID:6696472

  1. Detecting Abnormal Vehicular Dynamics at Intersections Based on an Unsupervised Learning Approach and a Stochastic Model

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Hernández, Hugo; González-Barbosa, Jose-Joel; Garcia-Ramírez, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    This investigation demonstrates an unsupervised approach for modeling traffic flow and detecting abnormal vehicle behaviors at intersections. In the first stage, the approach reveals and records the different states of the system. These states are the result of coding and grouping the historical motion of vehicles as long binary strings. In the second stage, using sequences of the recorded states, a stochastic graph model based on a Markovian approach is built. A behavior is labeled abnormal when current motion pattern cannot be recognized as any state of the system or a particular sequence of states cannot be parsed with the stochastic model. The approach is tested with several sequences of images acquired from a vehicular intersection where the traffic flow and duration used in connection with the traffic lights are continuously changed throughout the day. Finally, the low complexity and the flexibility of the approach make it reliable for use in real time systems. PMID:22163616

  2. A new FISH assay to simultaneously detect structural and numerical chromosomal abnormalities in mouse sperm.

    PubMed

    Hill, Francesca S; Marchetti, Francesco; Liechty, Melissa; Bishop, Jack; Hozier, John; Wyrobek, Andrew J

    2003-10-01

    De novo aberrations in chromosome structure represent important categories of paternally transmitted genetic damage. Unlike numerical abnormalities, the majority of de novo structural aberrations among human offspring are of paternal origin. We report the development of a three-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay (CT8) to detect mouse sperm carrying structural and numerical chromosomal abnormalities. The CT8 assay uses DNA probes for the centromeric and telomeric regions of chromosome 2, and a probe for the subcentromeric region of chromosome 8. The CT8 assay was used to measure the frequencies of sperm carrying certain structural aberrations involving chromosome 2 (del2ter, dup2ter, del2cen, dup2cen), disomy 2, disomy 8, and sperm diploidy. Analysis of approximately 80,000 sperm from eight B6C3F1 mice revealed an average baseline frequency of 2.5 per 10,000 sperm carrying partial duplications and deletions of chromosome 2. Extrapolated to the entire haploid genome, approximately 0.4% of mouse sperm are estimated to carry structural chromosomal aberrations, which is more than fivefold lower than the spontaneous frequencies of sperm with chromosome structural aberrations in man. We validated the CT8 assay by comparing the frequencies of abnormal segregants in sperm of T(2;14) translocation carriers detected by this assay against those detected by chromosome painting cytogenetic analysis of meiosis II spermatocytes. The CT8 sperm FISH assay is a promising method for detecting structural chromosome aberrations in mouse sperm with widespread applications in genetics, physiology, and genetic toxicology. PMID:12950105

  3. Spectral Cytopathology of Cervical Samples: Detecting Cellular Abnormalities in Cytologically Normal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Jennifer M.; Bird, Benjamin; Papamarkakis, Kostas; Miljkovi?, Miloš; Bedrossian, Kristi; Laver, Nora; Diem, Max

    2010-01-01

    Aim Spectral Cytopathology (SCP) is a novel spectroscopic method for objective and unsupervised classification of individual exfoliated cells. The limitations of conventional cytopathology are well-recognized within the pathology community. In SCP, cellular differentiation is made by observing molecular changes in the nucleus and the cytoplasm, which may or may not produce morphological changes detectable by conventional cytopathology. This proof of concept study demonstrates SCP’s potential as an enhancing tool for cytopathologists by aiding in the accurate and reproducible diagnosis of cells in all states of disease. Method Infrared spectra are collected from cervical cells deposited onto reflectively coated glass slides. Each cell has a corresponding infrared spectrum that describes its unique biochemical composition. Spectral data are processed and analyzed by an unsupervised chemometric algorithm, Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Results In this blind study, cervical samples are classified by analyzing the spectra of morphologically normal looking squamous cells from normal samples and samples diagnosed by conventional cytopathology with low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL). SCP discriminated cytopathological diagnoses amongst twelve different cervical samples with a high degree of specificity and sensitivity. SCP also correlated two samples with abnormal spectral changes: these samples had a normal cytopathological diagnosis but had a history of abnormal cervical cytology. The spectral changes observed in the morphologically normal looking cells are most likely due to an infection with human papillomavirus, HPV. HPV DNA testing was conducted on five additional samples, and SCP accurately differentiated these samples by their HPV status. Conclusions SCP tracks biochemical variations in cells that are consistent with the onset of disease. HPV has been implicated as the cause of these changes detected spectroscopically. SCP does not depend on identifying the sparse number of morphologically abnormal cells within a large sample in order to make an accurate classification, as does conventional cytopathology. These findings suggest that the detection of cellular biochemical variations by SCP can serve as a new enhancing screening method that can identify earlier stages of disease. PMID:20368702

  4. Noninvasive Detection of Fetal Subchromosome Abnormalities via Deep Sequencing of Maternal Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Anupama; Bianchi, Diana W.; Huang, Hui; Sehnert, Amy J.; Rava, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the deep sequencing and analytic conditions needed to detect fetal subchromosome abnormalities across the genome from a maternal blood sample. Cell-free (cf) DNA was isolated from the plasma of 11 pregnant women carrying fetuses with subchromosomal duplications and deletions, translocations, mosaicism, and trisomy 20 diagnosed by metaphase karyotype. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) was performed with 25-mer tags at approximately 109 tags per sample and mapped to reference human genome assembly hg19. Tags were counted and normalized to fixed genome bin sizes of 1 Mb or 100 kb to detect statistically distinct copy-number changes compared to the reference. All seven cases of microdeletions, duplications, translocations, and the trisomy 20 were detected blindly by MPS, including a microdeletion as small as 300 kb. In two of these cases in which the metaphase karyotype showed additional material of unknown origin, MPS identified both the translocation breakpoint and the chromosomal origin of the additional material. In the four mosaic cases, the subchromosomal abnormality was not demonstrated by MPS. This work shows that in nonmosaic cases, it is possible to obtain a fetal molecular karyotype by MPS of maternal plasma cfDNA that is equivalent to a chromosome microarray and in some cases is better than a metaphase karyotype. This approach combines the advantage of enhanced fetal genomic resolution with the improved safety of a noninvasive maternal blood test. PMID:23313373

  5. BEYAN, FISHER: DETECTION OF ABNORMAL FISH TRAJECTORIES 1 2013. The copyright of this document resides with its authors.

    E-print Network

    Fisher, Bob

    BEYAN, FISHER: DETECTION OF ABNORMAL FISH TRAJECTORIES 1 © 2013. The copyright of this document address the analysis of fish trajectories in unconstrained underwater videos to help marine biologist to detect new/rare fish behaviours and to detect environmental changes which can be observed from

  6. Detection of abnormal living patterns for elderly living alone using support vector data description.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jae Hyuk; Lee, Boreom; Park, Kwang Suk

    2011-05-01

    In this study, we developed an automated behavior analysis system using infrared (IR) motion sensors to assist the independent living of the elderly who live alone and to improve the efficiency of their healthcare. An IR motion-sensor-based activity-monitoring system was installed in the houses of the elderly subjects to collect motion signals and three different feature values, activity level, mobility level, and nonresponse interval (NRI). These factors were calculated from the measured motion signals. The support vector data description (SVDD) method was used to classify normal behavior patterns and to detect abnormal behavioral patterns based on the aforementioned three feature values. The simulation data and real data were used to verify the proposed method in the individual analysis. A robust scheme is presented in this paper for optimally selecting the values of different parameters especially that of the scale parameter of the Gaussian kernel function involving in the training of the SVDD window length, T of the circadian rhythmic approach with the aim of applying the SVDD to the daily behavior patterns calculated over 24 h. Accuracies by positive predictive value (PPV) were 95.8% and 90.5% for the simulation and real data, respectively. The results suggest that the monitoring system utilizing the IR motion sensors and abnormal-behavior-pattern detection with SVDD are effective methods for home healthcare of elderly people living alone. PMID:21317086

  7. Automated Detection of Vessel Abnormalities on Fluorescein Angiogram in Malarial Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yitian; MacCormick, Ian J. C.; Parry, David G.; Beare, Nicholas A. V.; Harding, Simon P.; Zheng, Yalin

    2015-01-01

    The detection and assessment of intravascular filling defects is important, because they may represent a process central to cerebral malaria pathogenesis: neurovascular sequestration. We have developed and validated a framework that can automatically detect intravascular filling defects in fluorescein angiogram images. It first employs a state-of-the-art segmentation approach to extract the vessels from images and then divide them into individual segments by geometrical analysis. A feature vector based on the intensity and shape of saliency maps is generated to represent the level of abnormality of each vessel segment. An AdaBoost classifier with weighted cost coefficient is trained to classify the vessel segments into normal and abnormal categories. To demonstrate its effectiveness, we apply this framework to 6,358 vessel segments in images from 10 patients with malarial retinopathy. The test sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and area under curve (AUC) are 74.7%, 73.5%, 74.1% and 74.2% respectively when compared to the reference standard of human expert manual annotations. This performance is comparable to the agreement that we find between human observers of intravascular filling defects. Our method will be a powerful new tool for studying malarial retinopathy. PMID:26053690

  8. Automated Detection of Vessel Abnormalities on Fluorescein Angiogram in Malarial Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yitian; MacCormick, Ian J C; Parry, David G; Beare, Nicholas A V; Harding, Simon P; Zheng, Yalin

    2015-01-01

    The detection and assessment of intravascular filling defects is important, because they may represent a process central to cerebral malaria pathogenesis: neurovascular sequestration. We have developed and validated a framework that can automatically detect intravascular filling defects in fluorescein angiogram images. It first employs a state-of-the-art segmentation approach to extract the vessels from images and then divide them into individual segments by geometrical analysis. A feature vector based on the intensity and shape of saliency maps is generated to represent the level of abnormality of each vessel segment. An AdaBoost classifier with weighted cost coefficient is trained to classify the vessel segments into normal and abnormal categories. To demonstrate its effectiveness, we apply this framework to 6,358 vessel segments in images from 10 patients with malarial retinopathy. The test sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and area under curve (AUC) are 74.7%, 73.5%, 74.1% and 74.2% respectively when compared to the reference standard of human expert manual annotations. This performance is comparable to the agreement that we find between human observers of intravascular filling defects. Our method will be a powerful new tool for studying malarial retinopathy. PMID:26053690

  9. Automatic computer aided detection of abnormalities in multi-parametric prostate MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litjens, G. J. S.; Vos, P. C.; Barentsz, J. O.; Karssemeijer, N.; Huisman, H. J.

    2011-03-01

    Development of CAD systems for detection of prostate cancer has been a recent topic of research. A multi-stage computer aided detection scheme is proposed to help reduce perception and oversight errors in multi-parametric prostate cancer screening MRI. In addition, important features for development of computer aided detection systems for prostate cancer screening MRI are identified. A fast, robust prostate segmentation routine is used to segment the prostate, based on coupled appearance and anatomy models. Subsequently a voxel classification is performed using a support vector machine to compute an abnormality likelihood map of the prostate. This classification step is based on quantitative voxel features like the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and pharmacokinetic parameters. Local maxima in the likelihood map are found using a local maxima detector, after which regions around the local maxima are segmented. Region features are computed to represent statistical properties of the voxel features within the regions. Region classification is performed using these features, which results in a likelihood of abnormality per region. Performance was validated using a 188 patient dataset in a leave-one-patient-out manner. Ground truth was annotated by two expert radiologists. The results were evaluated using FROC analysis. The FROC curves show that inclusion of ADC and pharmacokinetic parameter features increases the performance of an automatic detection system. In addition it shows the potential of such an automated system in aiding radiologists diagnosing prostate MR, obtaining a sensitivity of respectively 74.7% and 83.4% at 7 and 9 false positives per patient.

  10. Detection of abnormal item based on time intervals for recommender systems.

    PubMed

    Gao, Min; Yuan, Quan; Ling, Bin; Xiong, Qingyu

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of e-business, personalized recommendation has become core competence for enterprises to gain profits and improve customer satisfaction. Although collaborative filtering is the most successful approach for building a recommender system, it suffers from "shilling" attacks. In recent years, the research on shilling attacks has been greatly improved. However, the approaches suffer from serious problem in attack model dependency and high computational cost. To solve the problem, an approach for the detection of abnormal item is proposed in this paper. In the paper, two common features of all attack models are analyzed at first. A revised bottom-up discretized approach is then proposed based on time intervals and the features for the detection. The distributions of ratings in different time intervals are compared to detect anomaly based on the calculation of chi square distribution (?(2)). We evaluated our approach on four types of items which are defined according to the life cycles of these items. The experimental results show that the proposed approach achieves a high detection rate with low computational cost when the number of attack profiles is more than 15. It improves the efficiency in shilling attacks detection by narrowing down the suspicious users. PMID:24693248

  11. The effects of anatomical information and observer expertise on abnormality detection task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Cavaro-Ménard, C.; Le Callet, P.; Cooper, L. H. K.; Hunault, G.; Tanguy, J.-Y.

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a novel study investigating the influences of Magnetic Resonance (MR) image anatomical information and observer expertise on an abnormality detection task. MRI is exquisitely sensitive for detecting brain abnormalities, particularly in the evaluation of white matter diseases, e.g. multiple sclerosis (MS). For this reason, MS lesions are simulated as the target stimuli for detection in the present study. Two different image backgrounds are used in the following experiments: a) homogeneous region of white matter tissue, and b) one slice of a healthy brain MR image. One expert radiologist (more than 10 years' experience), three radiologists (less than 5 years' experience) and eight naïve observers (without any prior medical knowledge) have performed these experiments, during which they have been asked different questions dependent upon level of experience; the three radiologists and eight naïve observers were asked if they were aware of any hyper-signal, likely to represent an MS lesion, while the most experienced consultant was asked if a clinically significant sign was present. With the percentages of response "yes" displayed on the y-axis and the lesion intensity contrasts on the x-axis, psychometric function is generated from the observer' responses. Results of psychometric functions and calculated thresholds indicate that radiologists have better hyper-signal detection ability than naïve observers, which is intuitively shown by the lower simple visibility thresholds of radiologists. However, when radiologists perform a task with clinical implications, e.g. to detect a clinically significant sign, their detection thresholds are elevated. Moreover, the study indicates that for the radiologists, the simple visibility thresholds remain the same with and without the anatomical information, which reduces the threshold for the clinically significant sign detection task. Findings provide further insight into human visual system processing for this specific task, and this study provides the foundation for a series of studies investigating numerical observer modeling to be designed, with the ultimate aim of investigating the medical image quality assessment approach by addressing the perspective of radiologist diagnostic performance.

  12. Geological constraints on detecting the earliest life on Earth: a perspective from the Early Archaean (older than 3.7 Gyr) of southwest Greenland.

    PubMed

    Fedo, Christopher M; Whitehouse, Martin J; Kamber, Balz S

    2006-06-29

    At greater than 3.7 Gyr, Earth's oldest known supracrustal rocks, comprised dominantly of mafic igneous with less common sedimentary units including banded iron formation (BIF), are exposed in southwest Greenland. Regionally, they were intruded by younger tonalites, and then both were intensely dynamothermally metamorphosed to granulite facies (the highest pressures and temperatures generally encountered in the Earth's crust during metamorphism) in the Archaean and subsequently at lower grades until about 1500 Myr ago. Claims for the first preserved life on Earth have been based on the occurrence of greater than 3.8 Gyr isotopically light C occurring as graphite inclusions within apatite crystals from a 5 m thick purported BIF on the island of Akilia. Detailed geologic mapping and observations there indicate that the banding, first claimed to be depositional, is clearly deformational in origin. Furthermore, the mineralogy of the supposed BIF, being dominated by pyroxene, amphibole and quartz, is unlike well-known BIF from the Isua Greenstone Belt (IGB), but resembles enclosing mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks modified by metasomatism and repeated metamorphic recrystallization. This scenario parsimoniously links the geology, whole-rock geochemistry, 2.7 Gyr single crystal zircon ages in the unit, an approximately 1500 Myr age for apatites that lack any graphite, non-MIF sulphur isotopes in the unit and an inconclusive Fe isotope signature. Although both putative body fossils and carbon-12 enriched isotopes in graphite described at Isua are better explained by abiotic processes, more fruitful targets for examining the earliest stages in the emergence of life remain within greater than 3.7 Gyr IGB, which preserves BIF and other rocks that unambiguously formed at Earth's surface. PMID:16754603

  13. Real-Time Plasma Process Condition Sensing and Abnormal Process Detection

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ryan; Chen, Rongshun

    2010-01-01

    The plasma process is often used in the fabrication of semiconductor wafers. However, due to the lack of real-time etching control, this may result in some unacceptable process performances and thus leads to significant waste and lower wafer yield. In order to maximize the product wafer yield, a timely and accurately process fault or abnormal detection in a plasma reactor is needed. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) is one of the most frequently used metrologies in in-situ process monitoring. Even though OES has the advantage of non-invasiveness, it is required to provide a huge amount of information. As a result, the data analysis of OES becomes a big challenge. To accomplish real-time detection, this work employed the sigma matching method technique, which is the time series of OES full spectrum intensity. First, the response model of a healthy plasma spectrum was developed. Then, we defined a matching rate as an indictor for comparing the difference between the tested wafers response and the health sigma model. The experimental results showed that this proposal method can detect process faults in real-time, even in plasma etching tools. PMID:22219683

  14. Look what else we found - clinically significant abnormalities detected during routine ROP screening

    PubMed Central

    Jayadev, Chaitra; Vinekar, Anand; Bauer, Noel; Mangalesh, Shwetha; Mahendradas, Padmamalini; Kemmanu, Vasudha; Mallipatna, Ashwin; Shetty, Bhujang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to report the spectrum of anterior and posterior segment diagnoses in Asian Indian premature infants detected serendipitously during routine retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening during a 1 year period. Methods: A retrospective review of all Retcam (Clarity MSI, USA) imaging sessions during the year 2011 performed on infants born either <2001 g at birth and/or <34.1 weeks of gestation recruited for ROP screening was performed. All infants had a minimum of seven images at each session, which included the dilated anterior segment, disc, and macula center and the four quadrants using the 130° lens. Results: Of the 8954 imaging sessions of 1450 new infants recruited in 2011, there were 111 (7.66%) with a diagnosis other than ROP. Anterior segment diagnoses seen in 31 (27.9%) cases included clinically significant cataract, lid abnormalities, anophthalmos, microphthalmos, and corneal diseases. Posterior segment diagnoses in 80 (72.1%) cases included retinal hemorrhages, cherry red spots, and neonatal uveitis of infective etiologies. Of the 111 cases, 15 (13.5%) underwent surgical procedures and 24 (21.6%) underwent medical procedures; importantly, two eyes with retinoblastoma were detected which were managed timely. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the importance of ocular digital imaging in premature infants. Visually significant, potentially life-threatening, and even treatable conditions were detected serendipitously during routine ROP screening that may be missed or detected late otherwise. This pilot data may be used to advocate for a possible universal infant eye screening program using digital imaging. PMID:26139795

  15. Basic Characteristics of a Macroscopic Measure for Detecting Abnormal Changes in a Multiagent System

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    Multiagent application systems must deal with various changes in both the system and the system environment at runtime. Generally, such changes have undesirable negative effects on the system. To manage and control the system, it is important to observe and detect negative effects using an appropriate observation function of the system’s behavior. This paper focuses on the design of this function and proposes a new macroscopic measure with which to observe behavioral characteristics of a runtime multiagent system. The proposed measure is designed as the variance of fluctuation of a macroscopic activity factor of the whole system, based on theoretical analysis of the macroscopic behavioral model of a multiagent system. Experiments are conducted to investigate basic characteristics of the proposed measure, using a test bed system. The results of experiments show that the proposed measure reacts quickly and increases drastically in response to abnormal changes in the system. Hence, the proposed measure is considered a measure that can be used to detect undesirable changes in a multiagent system. PMID:25897499

  16. Detection of Abnormal Operation Noise Using CHLAC of Sound Spectrograph and Continuous DP Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, Koosuke; Ohmi, Taishi; Taguchi, Ryo; Umezaki, Taizo

    It is a general way that the industrial product is tested by individual inspector. If the product involves sound factors, each inspector will evaluate the test product to sort out a strange engine noise from the natural sound. However, it is hard to cover the consistency in evaluation criteria due to the personal equation referred to the idea that every individual had an inherent bias, plus a physical and mental conditions can be a negative effect on his/her evaluation criteria. It would be ideal if the criteria would not be affected by anyone, anywhere, circumstances; accordingly the quality of products must be equated. In this paper, we propose a noise detection method based on Cubic Higher-order Local Auto-Correlation (CHLAC) scheme and DP Matching provided by Cepstrum Analysis to extract the correct solution. This technique is practically used for detecting any human abnormal movements out of a monitored video clip and identifying individual persons by voice. The study results are shown to be highly effective in our proposed method.

  17. Money laundering and income tax evasion: the determination of optimal audits and inspections to detect abnormal prices in international trade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria E. de Boyrie; Simon J. Pak; John S. Zdanowicz

    2004-01-01

    Presents a statistical auditing system which gives a methodology for statistical analysis of international trade prices. Discusses how this can help governments and international lending agencies, or internationally trading firms, determine the optimal level of audits and physical inspections of cargoes in order to detect abnormally priced imports and exports, using a cost - benefit approach. Applies a computer program

  18. Voxel-based analysis of MRI detects abnormal visual cortex in children and adults with amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Mendola, Janine D; Conner, Ian P; Roy, Anjali; Chan, Suk-Tak; Schwartz, Terry L; Odom, J Vernon; Kwong, Kenneth K

    2005-06-01

    Amblyopia, sometimes called "lazy eye," is a relatively common developmental visual disorder well characterized behaviorally; however, the neural substrates associated with amblyopia in humans remain unclear. We hypothesized that abnormalities in the cerebral cortex of subjects with amblyopia exist, possibly as a result of experience-dependent neuronal plasticity. Anatomic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and psychophysical vision testing was carried out on 74 subjects divided into two age ranges, 7-12 years and 18-35 years, and three diagnoses, strabismic amblyopia, anisometropic amblyopia, and normal vision. We report a behavioral impairment in contrast sensitivity for subjects with amblyopia, consistent with previous reports. When the high-resolution MRI brain images were analyzed quantitatively with optimized voxel-based morphometry, results indicated that adults and children with amblyopia have decreased gray matter volume in visual cortical regions, including the calcarine sulcus, known to contain primary visual cortex. This finding was confirmed with a separate region-of-interest analysis. For the children with amblyopia, additional gray matter reductions in parietal-occipital areas and ventral temporal cortex were detected, consistent with recent reports that amblyopia can result in spatial location and object processing deficits. These data are the first to provide possible neuroanatomic bases for the loss of binocularity and visual sensitivity in children and adults with amblyopia. PMID:15846772

  19. Non-Contact Respiratory Monitoring with a Bioelectric Impedance Technique to Detect Abnormal Respiration during Bathing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Kazuki; Sekine, Katsuhisa; Yamazaki, Katsuya; Sakai, Yasushi; Tampo, Atsushi; Fukunaga, Hiroshi; Yagi, Yasuko; Ishizu, Kyoji; Nakajima, Masanori; Tobe, Kazuyuki; Kobayashi, Masashi; Sasaki, Kazuo

    2009-10-01

    Preliminary theoretical calculations and examinations were carried out to develop a method of non-contact respiratory monitoring during bathing to detect abnormal respiration using the bioelectric impedance (BEI) technique. First, theoretical calculations regarding the frequency-dependence of the impedance amplitude were made using a two-dimensional model consisting of a circular body and bath water surrounding the body. The body consisted of concentric layered circles representing the lung and the body fluid. The calculations showed that increases in chest size due to inspiration cause a decrease in the impedance amplitude in the frequency range from 1 kHz to 100 MHz. Next, BEI measurements were carried out from 4 to 400 kHz with the pair of electrodes placed in the vicinity of the chest at the maximum-end-expiration and maximum-end-inspiration stages. These provided results consistent with those obtained from the theoretical calculations. Third, the time-dependence of the impedance amplitude was measured at 10, 100, and 400 kHz, respectively. At all of these frequencies, the impedance amplitude corresponded well with the respiratory waveform obtained from rubber strain gauge plethysmography, which was used as a reference.

  20. The earliest known sauropod dinosaur.

    PubMed

    Buffetaut, E; Suteethorn, V; Cuny, G; Tong, H; Le Loeuff, J; Khansubha, S; Jongautchariyakul, S

    2000-09-01

    Sauropods were a very successful group of dinosaurs during the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, but their earlier history is poorly known. Until now, the earliest reported sauropod bones were from the Early Jurassic, and the only tentative evidence of earlier sauropods was in the form of controversial footprints. Here we report the discovery of an incomplete sauropod skeleton from the Late Triassic period of Thailand, which provides the first osteological evidence of pre-Jurassic sauropods. This dinosaur is markedly different from prosauropods and substantiates theoretical predictions that there was a fairly long period of sauropod evolution during the Triassic. PMID:10993074

  1. In Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV'11), c 2011 IEEE Video Parsing for Abnormality Detection

    E-print Network

    Heermann, Dieter W.

    , abnormality detection is based on videos from a sta- tionary camera (e.g. surveillance videos) where powerfulIn Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV'11), c 2011 IEEE Video Detecting abnormalities in video is a challenging prob- lem since the class of all irregular objects

  2. HPV is detectable in virtually all abnormal cervical cytology samples after reinvestigation of HPV negatives with multiple alternative PCR tests.

    PubMed

    Evans, Mark Francis; Adamson, Christine Stewart-Crawford; Schned, Laura Meredith; St John, Timothy Louis; Leiman, Gladwyn; Ashikaga, Takamaru; Cooper, Kumarasen

    2010-09-01

    The demonstration of human papillomavirus (HPV) in 99.7% of cervical carcinoma surgical specimens from around the world required investigations by multiple alternative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. A similar approach may therefore be necessary to best characterize HPV prevalence and genotype distribution among cervical cytology samples. In an earlier study, 752 of 799 (94.1%) abnormal and 82 of 300 (27.3%) normal cytology specimens tested HPV positive after PCR using GP5+/6+primers. This study has reinvestigated the "HPV negative" abnormal samples (20 atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, 5 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 14 atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude HSIL, 6 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) and an age-matched cohort of "HPV negative" normal (negative for an intraepithelial lesion or malignancy) samples by PCR using PGMY09/11, FAP59/64, and LCR-E7 primers. PGMY09/11-GP5+/6+ nested PCR was performed on samples that were HPV negative by PGMY09/11 PCR. After the first 3 assays, HPV was detected in 41 of 45 (91.1%) abnormal and in 10 of 47 (21.3%) normal samples (P<0.0001). Eighteen HPV genotypes were detected and in some samples the genotype that was identified differed between the tests. The nondetection of common HPV genotypes (eg, HPVs 6, 11, 16, and 18) was notable. High-grade histopathology was found for 2 patients with HPV52-positive cytopathology. Combined with our earlier study, HPV (40 different genotypes) is shown in 99.5% of abnormal samples (99.8% inclusive of the nested PCR data). These findings show that HPV genotype and prevalence estimates are dependent on the method(s) of detection and indicate that suboptimal analytical sensitivity for one or more of the less common high-risk HPV genotypes could lead to impaired clinical sensitivity. HPV may be causal in almost every instance of abnormal cervical cytology; however, passenger HPV that is incidental to an abnormality may also have been detected. PMID:20736743

  3. Sonic Hedgehog: A Good Gene Gone Bad? Detection and Treatment of Genetic Abnormalities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaich, Lauren E.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a case of a baby born with the genetic condition holoprosencephaly in which students explore the "Sonic hedgehog" gene, signal transduction, and the ethics of body and tissue donation. Presents a two-part assignment that features students writing an informed consent document that explains the science behind this congenital abnormality,…

  4. "Shape activity": a continuous-state HMM for moving/deforming shapes with application to abnormal activity detection.

    PubMed

    Vaswani, Namrata; Roy-Chowdhury, Amit K; Chellappa, Rama

    2005-10-01

    The aim is to model "activity" performed by a group of moving and interacting objects (which can be people, cars, or different rigid components of the human body) and use the models for abnormal activity detection. Previous approaches to modeling group activity include co-occurrence statistics (individual and joint histograms) and dynamic Bayesian networks, neither of which is applicable when the number of interacting objects is large. We treat the objects as point objects (referred to as "landmarks") and propose to model their changing configuration as a moving and deforming "shape" (using Kendall's shape theory for discrete landmarks). A continuous-state hidden Markov model is defined for landmark shape dynamics in an activity. The configuration of landmarks at a given time forms the observation vector, and the corresponding shape and the scaled Euclidean motion parameters form the hidden-state vector. An abnormal activity is then defined as a change in the shape activity model, which could be slow or drastic and whose parameters are unknown. Results are shown on a real abnormal activity-detection problem involving multiple moving objects. PMID:16238065

  5. Detection and quantification of the parenchymal abnormalities in emphysema using pulmo-CT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osman Temizoz; Omer Etlik; Mehmet Emin Sakarya; Kursat Uzun; Halil Arslan; Mustafa Harman; Mustafa Kemal Demir

    2007-01-01

    We aimed to determine the degree and extent of parenchymal abnormalities on pulmo-CT in patients with emphysema. The study group consisted of 29 patients (18 male, 11 female; mean age 57.9±13). The diagnosis was based on clinical symptoms, pulmonary function tests (PFT) values, and chest CT findings. All of the patients CT scans were obtained during suspended deep inspiration from

  6. Brain abnormalities in bipolar disorder detected by quantitative T1? mapping.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C P; Follmer, R L; Oguz, I; Warren, L A; Christensen, G E; Fiedorowicz, J G; Magnotta, V A; Wemmie, J A

    2015-02-01

    Abnormal metabolism has been reported in bipolar disorder, however, these studies have been limited to specific regions of the brain. To investigate whole-brain changes potentially associated with these processes, we applied a magnetic resonance imaging technique novel to psychiatric research, quantitative mapping of T1 relaxation in the rotating frame (T1?). This method is sensitive to proton chemical exchange, which is affected by pH, metabolite concentrations and cellular density with high spatial resolution relative to alternative techniques such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy and positron emission tomography. Study participants included 15 patients with bipolar I disorder in the euthymic state and 25 normal controls balanced for age and gender. T1? maps were generated and compared between the bipolar and control groups using voxel-wise and regional analyses. T1? values were found to be elevated in the cerebral white matter and cerebellum in the bipolar group. However, volumes of these areas were normal as measured by high-resolution T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Interestingly, the cerebellar T1? abnormalities were normalized in participants receiving lithium treatment. These findings are consistent with metabolic or microstructural abnormalities in bipolar disorder and draw attention to roles of the cerebral white matter and cerebellum. This study highlights the potential utility of high-resolution T1? mapping in psychiatric research. PMID:25560762

  7. Microarray detection of human papilloma virus genotypes among Turkish women with abnormal cytology at a colposcopy unit

    PubMed Central

    Uzun Çilingir, I??l; Bengisu, Ergin; A?açfidan, Ali; Koksal, Muammer Osman; Topuz, Samet; Berkman, Sinan; ?yibozkurt, Ahmet Cem

    2013-01-01

    Objective: There is a well-known association between human papilloma virus (HPV) and cervical neoplasia. The aim of this study was to investigate the types of HPV DNA and to compare the results with colposcopic findings among women with abnormal cytology. Material and Methods: A series of 76 consecutive women attending the clinic with the usual referral indications (ASC-US or higher in Pap) were examined by the conventional diagnostic tools (PAP smear, colposcopy,punch biopsy) and subjected to HPV testing. For HPV genotyping, we used a commercially avaliable HPV DNA chip (Genomica-CLART) which is a PCR based microarray system.The HPV test detected 35types of HPV (HPV-6/-11/-16/-18/-26/-31/-33/-35/-39/-40/-42/-43/-44/-45/-51/-52/-53/-54/-56/-58/-59/-61/-62/-66/-70/-71/-72/-73/-81/-83/84/-85/-89). Results: Overall, 44.7% of all patients were HPV positive. HPV was positive in 35%, 51.9%, 77.7% of the ASCUS, LSIL and HSIL groups respectively and HPV 16 was the most prevalent type in all groups. 6 %of patients had mutiple infections. 57.8% of biopsy proven SIL’s were HPV positive. The most prevalent HPV type was HPV 16 (54.5%).Colposcopic assessment revealed pathologic findings in 94.7% of biopsy proven SIL cases. Conclusion: Although it has been reported that the prevalence of HPV in the general population is lower than Western countries, and the prevalence and distribution of genotypes are smilar in patients with abnormal cytology. Further population based studies are needed to determine the prevalance and type distribution of HPV with normal and abnormal cytology in Turkish women. Despite the new technological progress in HPV virion, colposcopy is still very important diagnostic tool in the management of abnormal smears. PMID:24592066

  8. Robust algorithmic detection of the developed cardiac pathologies and emerging or transient abnormalities from short periods of RR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrishchaka, Valeriy V.; Senyukova, Olga

    2011-06-01

    Numerous research efforts and clinical testing have confirmed validity of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis as one of the cardiac diagnostics modalities. The majority of HRV analysis tools currently used in practice are based on linear indicators. Methods from nonlinear dynamics (NLD) provide more natural modeling framework for adaptive biological systems with multiple feedback loops. Compared to linear indicators, many NLD-based measures are much less sensitive to data artifacts and non-stationarity. However, majority of NLD measures require long time series for stable calculation. Similar restrictions also apply for linear indicators. Such requirements could drastically limit practical usability of HRV analysis in many applications, including express diagnostics, early indication of subtle directional changes during personalization of medical treatment, and robust detection of emerging or transient abnormalities. Recently we have illustrated that these challenges could be overcome by using classification framework based on boosting-like ensemble learning techniques that are capable of discovering robust meta-indicators from existing HRV measures and other incomplete empirical knowledge. In this paper we demonstrate universality of such meta-indicators and discuss operational details of their practical usage. Using such pathology examples as congestive heart failure (CHF) and arrhythmias, we show that classifiers trained on short RR segments (down to several minutes) could achieve reasonable classification accuracy (˜80-85% and higher). These indicators calculated from longer RR segments could be applicable for accurate diagnostics with classification accuracy approaching 100%. In addition, it is feasible to discover single "normal-abnormal" meta-classifier capable of detecting multiple abnormalities.

  9. Computer-aided detection of interstitial abnormalities in chest radiographs using a reference standard based on computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Arzhaeva, Yulia; Prokop, Mathias; Tax, David M. J.; De Jong, Pim A.; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia M.; Ginneken, Bram van [Images Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, Meander Medical Center, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Images Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2007-12-15

    A computer-aided detection (CAD) system is presented for the localization of interstitial lesions in chest radiographs. The system analyzes the complete lung fields using a two-class supervised pattern classification approach to distinguish between normal texture and texture affected by interstitial lung disease. Analysis is done pixel-wise and produces a probability map for an image where each pixel in the lung fields is assigned a probability of being abnormal. Interstitial lesions are often subtle and ill defined on x-rays and hence difficult to detect, even for expert radiologists. Therefore a new, semiautomatic method is proposed for setting a reference standard for training and evaluating the CAD system. The proposed method employs the fact that interstitial lesions are more distinct on a computed tomography (CT) scan than on a radiograph. Lesion outlines, manually drawn on coronal slices of a CT scan of the same patient, are automatically transformed to corresponding outlines on the chest x-ray, using manually indicated correspondences for a small set of anatomical landmarks. For the texture analysis, local structures are described by means of the multiscale Gaussian filter bank. The system performance is evaluated with ROC analysis on a database of digital chest radiographs containing 44 abnormal and 8 normal cases. The best performance is achieved for the linear discriminant and support vector machine classifiers, with an area under the ROC curve (A{sub z}) of 0.78. Separate ROC curves are built for classification of abnormalities of different degrees of subtlety versus normal class. Here the best performance in terms of A{sub z} is 0.90 for differentiation between obviously abnormal and normal pixels. The system is compared with two human observers, an expert chest radiologist and a chest radiologist in training, on evaluation of regions. Each lung field is divided in four regions, and the reference standard and the probability maps are converted into region scores. The system performance does not significantly differ from that of the observers, when the perihilar regions are excluded from evaluation, and reaches A{sub z}=0.85 for the system, with A{sub z}=0.88 for both observers.

  10. Detection of liver cancer and abnormal liver tissue by Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaozhou; Ding, Jianhua; Zhang, Xiujun; Lin, Junxiu; Wang, Deli

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, laser induced human serum Raman spectra of liver cancer are measured. The spectra differences in serum from normal people and liver disease patients are analyzed. For the typical spectrum of normal serum, there are three sharp Raman peaks and relative intensity of Raman peaks excited by 514.5nm is higher than that excited by 488.0nm. For the Raman spectrum of liver cancer serum there are no peaks or very weak Raman peaks at the same positions. Results from more than two hundred case measurements show that clinical diagnostic accuracy is 92.86%. And then, the liver fibrosis and liver cirrhosis are studied applying the technology of LIF. To liver cirrhosis, the shape of Raman peak is similar to normal and fluorescence spectrum is similar to that of liver cancer from statistic data. The experiment indicates that there is notable fluorescence difference between the abnormal and normal liver tissue and have blue shift in fluorescence peak. Except for human serum, we use rats serum for researching either. Compared with results of path al examination, we analyze the spectra of normal cases, hepatic fibrosis and hepatocirrhosis respectively in an attempt to find some difference between them. Red shift of fluorescence peak is observed with disease evolution using 514.5nm excitation of an Ar-ion laser. However, no distinct changes happen with 488.0nm excitation. These results have important reference values to explore the method of laser spectrum diagnosis.

  11. Spectroscopic detection of abnormality in chicken liver as an inspection tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Bhabani P.; Chan, Diane E.; Chen, Yud-Ren; Gwozdz, Frank B.

    2004-03-01

    Successful differentiation of normal chicken livers from septicemic chicken livers was demonstrated using visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectral data subjected to principal component analysis and then fed into a feedforward back-propagation neural network. The study used 300 fresh chicken livers, 150 collected from normal chicken carcasses and 150 collected from chicken carcasses diagnosed with the septicemica/toxemia (septox) condition as defined for condemnation under U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) standards for food safety. Using a training set of 200 samples and testing set of 100 samples, the best neural network model demonstrated a classification accuracy of 98% for normal samples and 94% for septicemia/toxemia samples. These results show that Vis/NIR spectral methods have potential for use in chicken liver inspection as part of automated online systems for food safety inspection. Liver abnormalities are identifying characteristics of the septox condition; consequently, liver screening would be extremely useful as part of an automated inspection system to meet USDA food safety requirements for poultry. Automated inspection systems capable of real-time on-line operation are currently being developed, and spectroscopic liver inspection is potential tool that could be implemented as part of such systems to help poultry processors increase production while meeting food safety inspection requirements.

  12. Individualized Gaussian process-based prediction and detection of local and global gray matter abnormalities in elderly subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, G.; Ridgway, G.R.; Dahnke, R.; Gaser, C.

    2014-01-01

    Structural imaging based on MRI is an integral component of the clinical assessment of patients with potential dementia. We here propose an individualized Gaussian process-based inference scheme for clinical decision support in healthy and pathological aging elderly subjects using MRI. The approach aims at quantitative and transparent support for clinicians who aim to detect structural abnormalities in patients at risk of Alzheimer's disease or other types of dementia. Firstly, we introduce a generative model incorporating our knowledge about normative decline of local and global gray matter volume across the brain in elderly. By supposing smooth structural trajectories the models account for the general course of age-related structural decline as well as late-life accelerated loss. Considering healthy subjects' demography and global brain parameters as informative about normal brain aging variability affords individualized predictions in single cases. Using Gaussian process models as a normative reference, we predict new subjects' brain scans and quantify the local gray matter abnormalities in terms of Normative Probability Maps (NPM) and global z-scores. By integrating the observed expectation error and the predictive uncertainty, the local maps and global scores exploit the advantages of Bayesian inference for clinical decisions and provide a valuable extension of diagnostic information about pathological aging. We validate the approach in simulated data and real MRI data. We train the GP framework using 1238 healthy subjects with ages 18–94 years, and predict in 415 independent test subjects diagnosed as healthy controls, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24742919

  13. Study of atrial activities for abnormality detection by phase rectified signal averaging technique.

    PubMed

    Maji, U; Pal, S; Mitra, M

    2015-07-01

    Non-invasive detection of Atrial Fibrillation (AF) and Atrial Flutter (AFL) from ECG at the time of their onset can prevent forthcoming dangers for patients. In most of the previous detection algorithms, one of the steps includes filtering of the signal to remove noise and artefacts present in the signal. In this paper, a method of AF and AFL detection is proposed from ECG without the conventional filtering stage. Here Phase Rectified Signal Average (PRSA) technique is used with a novel optimized windowing method to achieve an averaged signal without quasi-periodicities. Both time domain and statistical features are extracted from a novel SQ concatenated section of the signal for non-linear Support Vector Machine (SVM) based classification. The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested with the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database and good performance parameters are obtained, as indicated in the result section. PMID:26084877

  14. Molecular detection of chromosomal abnormalities in germ and somatic cells of aged male mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, X.; Baulch, J.; Quintana, L.; Ramsey, M.; Breneman, J.; Tucker, J.; Wyrobek, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States); Collins, B.; Allen, J. [EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Holland, N. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Three cytogenetic methods were applied to eight B6C3F1 male mice aged 22.5 - 30.5mo to determine if advanced age was associated with an elevated risk of producing chromosomally defective germinal and somatic cells; sperm aneuploidy analysis by multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization for three chromosomes, spermatid micronucleus analysis with anti-kinetochore antibodies, and translocation analysis of somatic metaphases by {open_quotes}painting{close_quotes} for two chromosomes. Eight mice aged 2.4mo served as controls. Sperm aneuploidy was measured by multi-color fluorescence in situ co-hybridization with DNA probes specific for chromosomes X, Y and 8, scoring 10,000 cells per animal. The aged group showed significant 1.5 - 2.0 fold increases in the hyperhaploidy phenotypes X-X-8, Y-Y-8, 8-8-Y, and 8-8-X with the greater effects appearing in animals aged >29mo. The aged group also showed significantly increased frequencies of micronucleated spermatids (2.0 vs 0.4 per 1000; all were kinetochore negative). Analysis of metaphase chromosomes from blood by {open_quotes}painting{close_quotes} of chromosomes 2 and 8 yielded 4 translocation per 858 cell-equivalents in the aged group which was a non-significant elevation over 0/202 in controls. Although interpretation must be cautious due to the small number of animals analyzed, these findings suggest that advanced paternal age may be a risk factor for chromosomal abnormalities of reproductive and somatic importance.

  15. Detection of Abnormal Muscle Activations during Walking Following Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ping; Low, K. H.; McGregor, Alison H.; Tow, Adela

    2013-01-01

    In order to identify optimal rehabilitation strategies for spinal cord injury (SCI) participants, assessment of impaired walking is required to detect, monitor and quantify movement disorders. In the proposed assessment, ten healthy and seven SCI participants were recruited to perform an over-ground walking test at slow walking speeds. SCI…

  16. Hunting Nessie Real-Time Abnormality Detection from Webcams Michael D. Breitenstein1

    E-print Network

    Grabner, Helmut

    - tion. Furthermore, we use incremental learning techniques to adapt to changes in the data-stream have not been observed in the data-stream before. 1. Introduction Novelty detection is a classical task in computer vision. Unfortunately, most approaches are not suitable for perma- nent, time-lapsed data-streams

  17. Spectral cytopathology of cervical samples: detecting cellular abnormalities in cytologically normal cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer M Schubert; Benjamin Bird; Kostas Papamarkakis; Miloš Miljkovi?; Kristi Bedrossian; Nora Laver; Max Diem

    2010-01-01

    Spectral cytopathology (SCP) is a novel spectroscopic method for objective and unsupervised classification of individual exfoliated cells. The limitations of conventional cytopathology are well recognized within the pathology community. In SCP, cellular differentiation is made by observing molecular changes in the nucleus and the cytoplasm, which may or may not produce morphological changes detectable by conventional cytopathology. This proof of

  18. Detecting mechanical abnormalities in prostate tissue using FE-based image registration.

    PubMed

    Courtis, Patrick; Samani, Abbas

    2007-01-01

    An image registration-based elastography algorithm is presented for assessing the stiffness of tissue regions inside the prostate for the purpose of detecting tumors. A 3D finite-element model of the prostate is built from ultrasound images and used to simulate the deformation of the prostate induced by a TRUS probe. To reconstruct the stiffness of tissues, their Young's moduli are varied using Powell's method so that the mutual information between a simulated and deformed image volume is maximized. The algorithm was validated using a gelatin prostate phantom embedded with a cylindrical inclusion that simulated a tumor. Results from the phantom study showed that the technique could detect the increased stiffness of the simulated tumor with a reasonable accuracy. PMID:18044575

  19. Automated detection of abnormalities in paranasal sinus on dental panoramic radiographs by using contralateral subtraction technique based on mandible contour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Shintaro; Hara, Takeshi; Tagami, Motoki; Muramatsu, Chicako; Kaneda, Takashi; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2013-02-01

    Inflammation in paranasal sinus sometimes becomes chronic to take long terms for the treatment. The finding is important for the early treatment, but general dentists may not recognize the findings because they focus on teeth treatments. The purpose of this study was to develop a computer-aided detection (CAD) system for the inflammation in paranasal sinus on dental panoramic radiographs (DPRs) by using the mandible contour and to demonstrate the potential usefulness of the CAD system by means of receiver operating characteristic analysis. The detection scheme consists of 3 steps: 1) Contour extraction of mandible, 2) Contralateral subtraction, and 3) Automated detection. The Canny operator and active contour model were applied to extract the edge at the first step. At the subtraction step, the right region of the extracted contour image was flipped to compare with the left region. Mutual information between two selected regions was obtained to estimate the shift parameters of image registration. The subtraction images were generated based on the shift parameter. Rectangle regions of left and right paranasal sinus on the subtraction image were determined based on the size of mandible. The abnormal side of the regions was determined by taking the difference between the averages of each region. Thirteen readers were responded to all cases without and with the automated results. The averaged AUC of all readers was increased from 0.69 to 0.73 with statistical significance (p=0.032) when the automated detection results were provided. In conclusion, the automated detection method based on contralateral subtraction technique improves readers' interpretation performance of inflammation in paranasal sinus on DPRs.

  20. Low oxygen levels in earliest Triassic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheldon, Nathan D.; Retallack, Gregory J.

    2002-10-01

    An earliest Triassic methane postapocalyptic greenhouse following the Permian-Triassic (P-T) extinction event was proposed on the basis of evidence of deeply weathered paleosols at high latitudes with features of low-latitude soils, and low stomatal index values of seed fern leaves. Reexamination of distinctive phyllosilicates, unique to a single stratigraphic level, in paleosols located just above the isotopically defined Permian-Triassic boundary in Australia and Antarctica furnishes additional tests of this hypothesis. Illite is the dominant clay mineral in earliest Triassic paleosols from Antarctica, but the paleosols also contain conspicuous green nodules of coarsely crystalline berthierine. Examples from the geologic record and from experimental studies indicate that the formation of berthierine is restricted to reducing conditions. The occurrence of this unusual mineral in soils may indicate soil oxygen consumption by the influx of atmospheric methane to form carbon dioxide, which in turn warmed the earliest Triassic, giving rise to a postapocalyptic greenhouse.

  1. A multiscale decomposition approach to detect abnormal vasculature in the optic disc.

    PubMed

    Agurto, Carla; Yu, Honggang; Murray, Victor; Pattichis, Marios S; Nemeth, Sheila; Barriga, Simon; Soliz, Peter

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a multiscale method to detect neovascularization in the optic disc (NVD) using fundus images. Our method is applied to a manually selected region of interest (ROI) containing the optic disc. All the vessels in the ROI are segmented by adaptively combining contrast enhancement methods with a vessel segmentation technique. Textural features extracted using multiscale amplitude-modulation frequency-modulation, morphological granulometry, and fractal dimension are used. A linear SVM is used to perform the classification, which is tested by means of 10-fold cross-validation. The performance is evaluated using 300 images achieving an AUC of 0.93 with maximum accuracy of 88%. PMID:25698545

  2. Echocardiography and coronary CT angiography imaging of variations in coronary anatomy and coronary abnormalities in athletic children: detection of coronary abnormalities that create a risk for sudden death.

    PubMed

    Attili, Anil; Hensley, Allison K; Jones, Fredrick D; Grabham, Jason; DiSessa, Thomas G

    2013-02-01

    In a recent publication, Maron et al. reported the causes of sudden death in athletes from data collected in the US National Registry of Sudden Death in Athletes at the Minneapolis Heart Institute Registry. It is not surprising that in this study, cardiovascular disease is reported as the most common cause of sudden death in athletes (56%). The most frequently encountered cardiac pathology was hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (36% of the population who died of cardiac disease). Coronary artery anomalies of wrong sinus origin were next in frequency (17%). Less common causes attributed to coronary pathology were Kawasaki disease, origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery, atherosclerotic coronary artery disease, and myocardial bridging of the left anterior descending artery. Echocardiographic imaging along with color and pulsed-wave Doppler has been widely employed to visualize the anatomy and function of the heart and proves to be a valuable instrument in the identification of coronary artery abnormalities. Moreover, coronary CT angiography provides additional confirmatory information. This article will discuss the scope, importance, and implications of echocardiographic and coronary CT angiography imaging of the major coronary anomalies and abnormalities in young athletes who are at risk of sudden death and who otherwise have a structurally normal heart. PMID:23167634

  3. Comparison of nine tractography algorithms for detecting abnormal structural brain networks in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Liang; Zhou, Jiayu; Wang, Yalin; Jin, Yan; Jahanshad, Neda; Prasad, Gautam; Nir, Talia M.; Leonardo, Cassandra D.; Ye, Jieping; Thompson, Paul M.; for the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) involves a gradual breakdown of brain connectivity, and network analyses offer a promising new approach to track and understand disease progression. Even so, our ability to detect degenerative changes in brain networks depends on the methods used. Here we compared several tractography and feature extraction methods to see which ones gave best diagnostic classification for 202 people with AD, mild cognitive impairment or normal cognition, scanned with 41-gradient diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging as part of the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) project. We computed brain networks based on whole brain tractography with nine different methods – four of them tensor-based deterministic (FACT, RK2, SL, and TL), two orientation distribution function (ODF)-based deterministic (FACT, RK2), two ODF-based probabilistic approaches (Hough and PICo), and one “ball-and-stick” approach (Probtrackx). Brain networks derived from different tractography algorithms did not differ in terms of classification performance on ADNI, but performing principal components analysis on networks helped classification in some cases. Small differences may still be detectable in a truly vast cohort, but these experiments help assess the relative advantages of different tractography algorithms, and different post-processing choices, when used for classification. PMID:25926791

  4. Automated identification of abnormal metaphase chromosome cells for the detection of chronic myeloid leukemia using microscopic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingwei; Zheng, Bin; Li, Shibo; Mulvihill, John J.; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Hong

    2010-07-01

    Karyotyping is an important process to classify chromosomes into standard classes and the results are routinely used by the clinicians to diagnose cancers and genetic diseases. However, visual karyotyping using microscopic images is time-consuming and tedious, which reduces the diagnostic efficiency and accuracy. Although many efforts have been made to develop computerized schemes for automated karyotyping, no schemes can get be performed without substantial human intervention. Instead of developing a method to classify all chromosome classes, we develop an automatic scheme to detect abnormal metaphase cells by identifying a specific class of chromosomes (class 22) and prescreen for suspicious chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The scheme includes three steps: (1) iteratively segment randomly distributed individual chromosomes, (2) process segmented chromosomes and compute image features to identify the candidates, and (3) apply an adaptive matching template to identify chromosomes of class 22. An image data set of 451 metaphase cells extracted from bone marrow specimens of 30 positive and 30 negative cases for CML is selected to test the scheme's performance. The overall case-based classification accuracy is 93.3% (100% sensitivity and 86.7% specificity). The results demonstrate the feasibility of applying an automated scheme to detect or prescreen the suspicious cancer cases.

  5. Automated identification of abnormal metaphase chromosome cells for the detection of chronic myeloid leukemia using microscopic images

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xingwei; Zheng, Bin; Li, Shibo; Mulvihill, John J.; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Karyotyping is an important process to classify chromosomes into standard classes and the results are routinely used by the clinicians to diagnose cancers and genetic diseases. However, visual karyotyping using microscopic images is time-consuming and tedious, which reduces the diagnostic efficiency and accuracy. Although many efforts have been made to develop computerized schemes for automated karyotyping, no schemes can get be performed without substantial human intervention. Instead of developing a method to classify all chromosome classes, we develop an automatic scheme to detect abnormal metaphase cells by identifying a specific class of chromosomes (class 22) and prescreen for suspicious chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The scheme includes three steps: (1) iteratively segment randomly distributed individual chromosomes, (2) process segmented chromosomes and compute image features to identify the candidates, and (3) apply an adaptive matching template to identify chromosomes of class 22. An image data set of 451 metaphase cells extracted from bone marrow specimens of 30 positive and 30 negative cases for CML is selected to test the scheme’s performance. The overall case-based classification accuracy is 93.3% (100% sensitivity and 86.7% specificity). The results demonstrate the feasibility of applying an automated scheme to detect or prescreen the suspicious cancer cases. PMID:20799828

  6. Developing and testing a multi-probe resonance electrical impedance spectroscopy system for detecting breast abnormalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gur, David; Zheng, Bin; Dhurjaty, Sreeram; Wolfe, Gene; Fradin, Mary; Weil, Richard; Sumkin, Jules; Zuley, Margarita

    2009-02-01

    In our previous study, we reported on the development and preliminary testing of a prototype resonance electrical impedance spectroscopy (REIS) system with a pair of probes. Although our pilot study on 150 young women ranging from 30 to 50 years old indicated the feasibility of using REIS output sweep signals to classify between the women who had negative examinations and those who would ultimately be recommended for biopsy, the detection sensitivity was relatively low. To improve performance when using REIS technology, we recently developed a new multi-probe based REIS system. The system consists of a sensor module box that can be easily lifted along a vertical support device to fit women of different height. Two user selectable breast placement "cups" with different curvatures are included in the system. Seven probes are mounted on each of the cups on opposing sides of the sensor box. By rotating the sensor box, the technologist can select the detection sensor cup that better fits the breast size of the woman being examined. One probe is mounted in the cup center for direct contact with the nipple and the other six probes are uniformly distributed along an outside circle to enable contact with six points on the outer and inner breast skin surfaces. The outer probes are located at a distance of 60mm away from the center (nipple) probe. The system automatically monitors the quality of the contact between the breast surface and each of the seven probes and data acquisition can only be initiated when adequate contact is confirmed. The measurement time for each breast is approximately 15 seconds during which time the system records 121 REIS signal sweep outputs generated from 200 KHz to 800 KHz at 5 KHz increments for all preselected probe pairs. Currently we are measuring 6 pairs between the center probe and each of six probes located on the outer circle as well as two pairs between probe pairs on the outer circle. This new REIS system has been installed in our clinical breast imaging facility. We are conducting a prospective study to assess performance when using this REIS system under an approved IRB protocol. Over 200 examinations have been conducted to date. Our experience showed that this new REIS system was easy to operate and the REIS examination was fast and considered "comfortable" by examinees since the women presses her breast into the cup herself without any need for forced breast compression, and all but a few highly sensitive women have any sensation of an electrical current during the measurement.

  7. Denoising diffusion tensor images: preprocessing for automated detection of subtle diffusion tensor abnormalities between populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tin Man; Sinha, Usha

    2006-03-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is the only non-invasive imaging modality to visualize fiber tracts. Many disease states, e.g. depression, show subtle changes in diffusion tensor indices, which can only be detected by comparison of population cohorts with high quality images. Further, it is important to reduce noise in the acquired diffusion weighted images to perform accurate fiber tracking. In order to obtain acceptable SNR values for DTI images, a large number of averages is required. For whole brain coverage with isotropic and high-resolution imaging, this leads to unacceptable scan times. In order to obtain high SNR images with smaller number of averages, we propose to combine the strengths of two recently developed methodologies for denoising: total variation and wavelet. Our algorithm, which uses translational invariant BayesShrink wavelet thresholding with total variation regularization, successfully removes image noise and Pseudo-Gibbs phenomena while preserving both texture and edges. We compare our results with other denoising methods proposed for DTI images based on visual and quantitative metrics.

  8. Earliest known crown-group salamanders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ke-Qin Gao; Neil H. Shubin

    2003-01-01

    Salamanders are a model system for studying the rates and patterns of the evolution of new anatomical structures. Recent discoveries of abundant Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous salamanders are helping to address these issues. Here we report the discovery of well-preserved Middle Jurassic salamanders from China, which constitutes the earliest known record of crown-group urodeles (living salamanders and their closest

  9. Earliest bird had dino-like feet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS; )

    2005-12-01

    A new fossil discovery shows that the earliest birds had feet similar to those of theropod dinosaurs (the group of two-legged, meat-eating dinosaurs that includes T. rex). The new specimen provides important details about the feet and skull of these birds and strengthens the argument -- which many but not all scientists agree on -- that modern birds arose from theropod dinosaurs.

  10. White matter microstructural abnormality in children with hydrocephalus detected by probabilistic diffusion tractography

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopal, Akila; Shimony, Joshua S.; McKinstry, Robert C.; Altaye, Mekibib; Maloney, Tom; Mangano, Francesco T.; Limbrick, David D.; Holland, Scott K.; Jones, Blaise V.; Simpson, Sarah; Mercer, Deanna; Yuan, Weihong

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Hydrocephalus is a severe pathologic condition in which WM damage is a major factor associated with poor outcomes. The goal of the study was to investigate tract-based WM connectivity and DTI measurements in children with hydrocephalus using PDT method. Methods Twelve children with hydrocephalus and 16 age matched controls were included in the study. PDT was conducted to generate tract-based connectivity distribution and DTI measures for the gCC and mCST. Tract-based summary measurements, included connectivity index and DTI measures (FA, MD, AD, and RDs) were calculated and compared between the two study groups. Results Tract-based summary measurement showed that there was a higher percentage of voxels with lower normalized CI values in the WM tracts from children with hydrocephalus. In gCC, left mCST and right mCST, the normalized CI value in children with hydrocephalus was found to be significantly lower (p<0.05, corrected). The tract based DTI measures showed that the children with hydrocephalus had significantly higher MD, AD, and RD in gCC, left mCST, and right mCST, and lower FA in gCC (p<0.05, corrected). Conclusions The analysis of WM connectivity showed that PDT method is a sensitive tool to detect the decreased continuity in WM tracts that are under the direct influence of mechanical distortion and increased intracranial pressure in hydrocephalus. This voxel-based connectivity method can provide quantitative information complementary to the standard DTI summary measures. PMID:24072621

  11. Automated Detection of Regional Wall Motion Abnormalities Based on a Statistical Model Applied to Multislice Short-Axis Cardiac MR Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Avan Suinesiaputra; Alejandro F. Frangi; Theodorus A. M. Kaandorp; Hildo J. Lamb; Jeroen J. Bax; Johan H. C. Reiber; Boudewijn P. F. Lelieveldt

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a statistical shape analysis method for myocardial contraction is presented that was built to detect and locate regional wall motion abnormalities (RWMA). For each slice level (base, middle, and apex), 44 short-axis magnetic resonance images were selected from healthy volunteers to train a statistical model of normal myocardial contraction using independent component analysis (ICA). A classification algorithm

  12. Diffuse perfusion abnormality of the liver parenchyma on angiography-assisted helical CT in relation to cirrhosis and previous treatments: a potential diagnostic pitfall for detecting hepatocellular carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osamu Makita; Yasuyuki Yamashita; Akihiko Arakawa; Yoshiharu Nakayama; Katsuhiko Mitsuzaki; Michio Ando; Tomohiro Namimoto; Yoichi Oyama; Mutsumasa Takahashi

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated diffuse perfusion abnormality of the liver parenchyma in relation to cirrhosis and previous treatments and estimated its potential limitation in detecting hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) on CT arterial portography (CTAP) and CT hepatic arteriography (CTHA). Sixty-one patients of liver cirrhosis with or without HCC received both CTAP and CTHA. Irregular defects of enhancement of the liver parenchyma on CTAP

  13. Non-invasive detection of ischemic left ventricular dysfunction using rest gated SPECT: expectation of simultaneous evaluation of both myocardial perfusion and wall motion abnormality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hirofumi Maeba; Kazuya Takehana; Seishi Nakamura; Susumu Yoshida; Takanao Ueyama; Kengo Hatada; Toshiji Iwasaka

    2008-01-01

    Objective  Although the accurate detection of ischemic etiology is important in the management of patients with severe left ventricular\\u000a (LV) dysfunction, it is difficult to determine using a non-invasive strategy. The present study investigates whether perfusion\\u000a and regional functional abnormalities identified by quantitative electrocardiographic gated single-photon emission computed\\u000a tomography (QGS) at rest can detect ischemic LV dysfunction in patients with severe

  14. Detection of abnormal resting-state networks in individual patients suffering from focal epilepsy: an initial step toward individual connectivity assessment

    PubMed Central

    Dansereau, Christian L.; Bellec, Pierre; Lee, Kangjoo; Pittau, Francesca; Gotman, Jean; Grova, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The spatial coherence of spontaneous slow fluctuations in the blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal at rest is routinely used to characterize the underlying resting-state networks (RSNs). Studies have demonstrated that these patterns are organized in space and highly reproducible from subject to subject. Moreover, RSNs reorganizations have been suggested in pathological conditions. Comparisons of RSNs organization have been performed between groups of subjects but have rarely been applied at the individual level, a step required for clinical application. Defining the notion of modularity as the organization of brain activity in stable networks, we propose Detection of Abnormal Networks in Individuals (DANI) to identify modularity changes at the individual level. The stability of each RSN was estimated using a spatial clustering method: Bootstrap Analysis of Stable Clusters (BASC) (Bellec et al., 2010). Our contributions consisted in (i) providing functional maps of the most stable cores of each networks and (ii) in detectingabnormal” individual changes in networks organization when compared to a population of healthy controls. DANI was first evaluated using realistic simulated data, showing that focussing on a conservative core size (50% most stable regions) improved the sensitivity to detect modularity changes. DANI was then applied to resting state fMRI data of six patients with focal epilepsy who underwent multimodal assessment using simultaneous EEG/fMRI acquisition followed by surgery. Only patient with a seizure free outcome were selected and the resected area was identified using a post-operative MRI. DANI automatically detected abnormal changes in 5 out of 6 patients, with excellent sensitivity, showing for each of them at least one “abnormal” lateralized network closely related to the epileptic focus. For each patient, we also detected some distant networks as abnormal, suggesting some remote reorganization in the epileptic brain. PMID:25565949

  15. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... of the nail bed from the nail plate (onycholysis). Severe illness or surgery may cause horizontal depressions ...

  16. Bounded Delay and Concurrency for Earliest Query Answering

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Bounded Delay and Concurrency for Earliest Query Answering Olivier Gauwin123 , Joachim Niehren13) Abstract. Earliest query answering is needed for streaming XML pro- cessing with optimal memory management. We study the feasibility of earliest query answering for node selection queries. Tractable queries

  17. Detection, visualization and animation of abnormal anatomic structure with a deformable probabilistic brain atlas based on random vector field transformations.

    PubMed

    Thompson, P M; Toga, A W

    1997-09-01

    This paper describes the design, implementation and preliminary results of a technique for creating a comprehensive probabilistic atlas of the human brain based on high-dimensional vector field transformations. The goal of the atlas is to detect and quantify distributed patterns of deviation from normal anatomy, in a 3-D brain image from any given subject. The algorithm analyzes a reference population of normal scans and automatically generates color-coded probability maps of the anatomy of new subjects. Given a 3-D brain image of a new subject, the algorithm calculates a set of high-dimensional volumetric maps (with typically 384(2) x 256 x 3 approximately 10(8) degrees of freedom) elastically deforming this scan into structural correspondence with other scans, selected one by one from an anatomic image database. The family of volumetric warps thus constructed encodes statistical properties and directional biases of local anatomical variation throughout the architecture of the brain. A probability space of random transformations, based on the theory of anisotropic Gaussian random fields, is then developed to reflect the observed variability in stereotaxic space of the points whose correspondences are found by the warping algorithm. A complete system of 384(2) x 256 probability density functions is computed, yielding confidence limits in stereotaxic space for the location of every point represented in the 3-D image lattice of the new subject's brain. Color-coded probability maps are generated, densely defined throughout the anatomy of the new subject. These indicate locally the probability of each anatomic point being unusually situated, given the distributions of corresponding points in the scans of normal subjects. 3-D MRI and high-resolution cryosection volumes are analyzed from subjects with metastatic tumors and Alzheimer's disease. Gradual variations and continuous deformations of the underlying anatomy are simulated and their dynamic effects on regional probability maps are animated in video format (on the accompanying CD-ROM). Applications of the deformable probabilistic atlas include the transfer of multi-subject 3-D functional, vascular and histologic maps onto a single anatomic template, the mapping of 3-D atlases onto the scans of new subjects, and the rapid detection, quantification and mapping of local shape changes in 3-D medical images in disease and during normal or abnormal growth and development. PMID:9873911

  18. Potential of iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine single-photon emission tomography to detect abnormal functional status of the pulmonary neuroadrenergic system in irradiated lung

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuyoshi Suga; Norihiko Kume; Kensaku Shimizu; Kazuya Nishigauchi; Akiko Hara; Kazumi Motoyama; Naofumi Matsunaga

    1999-01-01

    .   The potential of iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) to detect functional abnormalities of the pulmonary neuroadrenergic\\u000a system (PNS) in irradiated lung areas (ILAS) was preliminarily explored using single-photon emission tomography (SPET). The\\u000a subjects included five healthy subjects and a total of 31 patients with peripheral-type lung cancer treated by radiation;\\u000a 15 patients (group A) had received a dose of less than

  19. Detection of chromosomal abnormalities in chronic lymphocytic leukemia increased by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization in tetradecanoylphorbol acetate–stimulated peripheral blood cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jana Sánchez; Anna Aventín

    2007-01-01

    Interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization on unstimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (I-FISH-PBMC) is used to detect chromosomal abnormalities such as 11q?, 13q?, 17p?, and trisomy 12 in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). A total of 56 samples from 49 patients with CLL were studied using commercially available probes for chromosome regions 11q22.3 (ATM), 13q14 (13S272), 17p13 (p53) and 12 centromere (D12Z3).

  20. Risk of Newly Detected Infections and Cervical Abnormalities in Women Seropositive for Naturally Acquired Human Papillomavirus Type 16/18 Antibodies: Analysis of the Control Arm of PATRICIA

    PubMed Central

    Castellsagué, Xavier; Naud, Paulo; Chow, Song-Nan; Wheeler, Cosette M.; Germar, Maria Julieta V.; Lehtinen, Matti; Paavonen, Jorma; Jaisamrarn, Unnop; Garland, Suzanne M.; Salmerón, Jorge; Apter, Dan; Kitchener, Henry; Teixeira, Julio C.; Skinner, S. Rachel; Limson, Genara; Szarewski, Anne; Romanowski, Barbara; Aoki, Fred Y.; Schwarz, Tino F.; Poppe, Willy A. J.; Bosch, F. Xavier; de Carvalho, Newton S.; Peters, Klaus; Tjalma, Wiebren A. A.; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Raillard, Alice; Descamps, Dominique; Struyf, Frank; Dubin, Gary; Rosillon, Dominique; Baril, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    Background.?We examined risk of newly detected human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical abnormalities in relation to HPV type 16/18 antibody levels at enrollment in PATRICIA (Papilloma Trial Against Cancer in Young Adults; NCT00122681). Methods.?Using Poisson regression, we compared risk of newly detected infection and cervical abnormalities associated with HPV-16/18 between seronegative vs seropositive women (15–25 years) in the control arm (DNA negative at baseline for the corresponding HPV type [HPV-16: n = 8193; HPV-18: n = 8463]). Results.?High titers of naturally acquired HPV-16 antibodies and/or linear trend for increasing antibody levels were significantly associated with lower risk of incident and persistent infection, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or greater (ASCUS+), and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 1/2 or greater (CIN1+, CIN2+). For HPV-18, although seropositivity was associated with lower risk of ASCUS+ and CIN1+, no association between naturally acquired antibodies and infection was demonstrated. Naturally acquired HPV-16 antibody levels of 371 (95% confidence interval [CI], 242–794), 204 (95% CI, 129–480), and 480 (95% CI, 250–5756) EU/mL were associated with 90% reduction of incident infection, 6-month persistent infection, and ASCUS+, respectively. Conclusions.?Naturally acquired antibodies to HPV-16, and to a lesser extent HPV-18, are associated with some reduced risk of subsequent infection and cervical abnormalities associated with the same HPV type. PMID:24610876

  1. Computer-aided diagnosis in endoscopy: a novel application toward automatic detection of abnormal lesions on magnifying narrow-band imaging endoscopy in the stomach.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tsung-Chun; Lin, Yu-Huei; Uedo, Noriya; Wang, Hsiu-Po; Chang, Hsuan-Ting; Hung, Chung-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the fourth common cancer and the second major cause of cancer death worldwide. Early detection of gastric cancer by endoscopy surveillance is actively investigated to improve patient survival, especially using the newly developed magnifying narrow-band imaging endoscopy in the stomach. However, meticulous examination of the aforementioned images is both time and experience demanding and interpretation could be variable among different doctors, which hindered its widespread application. In this study, we developed a new image analysis system by adopting local binary pattern and vector quantization to perform pattern comparison between known training abnormal images and testing images of magnifying narrow band endoscopy images in the stomach. Our preliminary results demonstrated promising potential for automatically labeled region of interest for endoscopy doctors to focus on abnormal lesions for subsequent targeted biopsy, with the rates of recall 0.46-1.00 and precision 0.39-0.87. PMID:24110716

  2. Earliest known crown-group salamanders.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ke-Qin; Shubin, Neil H

    2003-03-27

    Salamanders are a model system for studying the rates and patterns of the evolution of new anatomical structures. Recent discoveries of abundant Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous salamanders are helping to address these issues. Here we report the discovery of well-preserved Middle Jurassic salamanders from China, which constitutes the earliest known record of crown-group urodeles (living salamanders and their closest relatives). The new specimens are from the volcanic deposits of the Jiulongshan Formation (Bathonian), Inner Mongolia, China, and represent basal members of the Cryptobranchidae, a family that includes the endangered Asian giant salamander (Andrias) and the North American hellbender (Cryptobranchus). These fossils document a Mesozoic record of the Cryptobranchidae, predating the previous record of the group by some 100 million years. This discovery provides evidence to support the hypothesis that the divergence of the Cryptobranchidae from the Hynobiidae had taken place in Asia before the Middle Jurassic period. PMID:12660782

  3. Chromosomal abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Goh, K.; Jacox, R.F.; Anderson, F.W.

    1980-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies from the peripheral blood of a patient with malignant lymphoma and rhematoid arthritis who was treated with intra-articular gold Au 198 revealed mosaicism with a normal female metaphase and a 43-chromosome metaphase. The abnormal cell line showed six missing normal chromosomes and three morphologically abnormal chromosomes. The trypsin-digested G-banding metaphases showed that the marker chromosomes were an isochromosome of the long arm of chromosome 17, a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 16, and a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 5. It is tempting to conclude that these abnormalities were due to the gold Au 198 treatment, but we cannot exclude other possibilities.

  4. Single-subject-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mild traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ming-Xiong; Nichols, Sharon; Baker, Dewleen G.; Robb, Ashley; Angeles, Annemarie; Yurgil, Kate A.; Drake, Angela; Levy, Michael; Song, Tao; McLay, Robert; Theilmann, Rebecca J.; Diwakar, Mithun; Risbrough, Victoria B.; Ji, Zhengwei; Huang, Charles W.; Chang, Douglas G.; Harrington, Deborah L.; Muzzatti, Laura; Canive, Jose M.; Christopher Edgar, J.; Chen, Yu-Han; Lee, Roland R.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of sustained impairment in military and civilian populations. However, mild TBI (mTBI) can be difficult to detect using conventional MRI or CT. Injured brain tissues in mTBI patients generate abnormal slow-waves (1–4 Hz) that can be measured and localized by resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG). In this study, we develop a voxel-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mTBI on a single-subject basis. A normative database of resting-state MEG source magnitude images (1–4 Hz) from 79 healthy control subjects was established for all brain voxels. The high-resolution MEG source magnitude images were obtained by our recent Fast-VESTAL method. In 84 mTBI patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms (36 from blasts, and 48 from non-blast causes), our method detected abnormalities at the positive detection rates of 84.5%, 86.1%, and 83.3% for the combined (blast-induced plus with non-blast causes), blast, and non-blast mTBI groups, respectively. We found that prefrontal, posterior parietal, inferior temporal, hippocampus, and cerebella areas were particularly vulnerable to head trauma. The result also showed that MEG slow-wave generation in prefrontal areas positively correlated with personality change, trouble concentrating, affective lability, and depression symptoms. Discussion is provided regarding the neuronal mechanisms of MEG slow-wave generation due to deafferentation caused by axonal injury and/or blockages/limitations of cholinergic transmission in TBI. This study provides an effective way for using MEG slow-wave source imaging to localize affected areas and supports MEG as a tool for assisting the diagnosis of mTBI. PMID:25009772

  5. Earliest Deadline Scheduling for Real-Time Database Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jayant R. Haritsa; Miron Livny; Michael J. Carey

    1991-01-01

    Earlier studies have observed that in moderately-loaded real-time database systems, using an Earliest Deadline policy to schedule tasks results in the fewest missed deadlines. When the real-time system is overloaded, however, an Earliest Deadline schedule performs worse than most other policies. This is due to Earliest Deadline giving the highest priority to transactions that are close to missing their deadlines.

  6. Observing the Earliest Galaxies: Looking for the Sources of Reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illingworth, Garth

    2015-04-01

    Systematic searches for the earliest galaxies in the reionization epoch finally became possible in 2009 when the Hubble Space Telescope was updated with a powerful new infrared camera during the final Shuttle servicing mission SM4 to Hubble. The reionization epoch represents the last major phase transition of the universe and was a major event in cosmic history. The intense ultraviolet radiation from young star-forming galaxies is increasingly considered to be the source of the photons that reionized intergalactic hydrogen in the period between the ``dark ages'' (the time before the first stars and galaxies at about 100-200 million years after the Big Bang) and the end of reionization around 800-900 million years. Yet finding and measuring the earliest galaxies in this era of cosmic dawn has proven to a challenging task, even with Hubble's new infrared camera. I will discuss the deep imaging undertaken by Hubble and the remarkable insights that have accrued from the imaging datasets taken over the last decade on the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field (HUDF, HUDF09/12) and other regions. The HUDF datasets are central to the story and have been assembled into the eXtreme Deep Field (XDF), the deepest image ever from Hubble data. The XDF, when combined with results from shallower wide-area imaging surveys (e.g., GOODS, CANDELS) and with detections of galaxies from the Frontier Fields, has provided significant insights into the role of galaxies in reionization. Yet many questions remain. The puzzle is far from being fully solved and, while much will done over the next few years, the solution likely awaits the launch of JWST. NASA/STScI Grant HST-GO-11563.

  7. Renal abnormalities in leprosy.

    PubMed

    Kirsztajn, G M; Nishida, S K; Silva, M S; Ajzen, H; Pereira, A B

    1993-01-01

    We have evaluated laboratory and clinical manifestations of renal disease in 96 patients with leprosy, looking for a sensitive and early marker for detection and possibly follow-up of nephropathy in these patients. Microscopic hematuria was observed in 21.9% of the cases (with dysmorphic erythrocytes in 71.4% of them). Abnormal microalbuminuria and urinary beta 2-microglobulin were found in 15.8 and 19.8% of the cases, respectively. We have observed a high frequency of hematuria, abnormal microalbuminuria and elevation of urinary beta 2-microglobulin in these patients still with normal serum creatinine. PMID:8289988

  8. The earliest dromaeosaurid theropod from South America.

    PubMed

    Makovicky, Peter J; Apesteguía, Sebastián; Agnolín, Federico L

    2005-10-13

    The evolutionary history of Maniraptora, the clade of carnivorous dinosaurs that includes birds and the sickle-clawed Dromaeosauridae, has hitherto been largely restricted to Late Jurassic and Cretaceous deposits on northern continents. The stunning Early Cretaceous diversity of maniraptorans from Liaoning, China, coupled with a longevity implied by derived Late Jurassic forms such as Archaeopteryx, pushes the origins of maniraptoran lineages back to Pangaean times and engenders the possibility that such lineages existed in Gondwana. A few intriguing, but incomplete, maniraptoran specimens have been reported from South America, Africa and Madagascar. Their affinities remain contested, however, and they have been interpreted as biogeographic anomalies relative to other faunal components of these land-masses. Here we describe a near-complete, small dromaeosaurid that is both the most complete and the earliest member of the Maniraptora from South America, and which provides new evidence for a unique Gondwanan lineage of Dromaeosauridae with an origin predating the separation between northern and southern landmasses. PMID:16222297

  9. Oxygen requirements of the earliest animals.

    PubMed

    Mills, Daniel B; Ward, Lewis M; Jones, Carriayne; Sweeten, Brittany; Forth, Michael; Treusch, Alexander H; Canfield, Donald E

    2014-03-18

    A rise in the oxygen content of the atmosphere and oceans is one of the most popular explanations for the relatively late and abrupt appearance of animal life on Earth. In this scenario, Earth's surface environment failed to meet the high oxygen requirements of animals up until the middle to late Neoproterozoic Era (850-542 million years ago), when oxygen concentrations sufficiently rose to permit the existence of animal life for the first time. Although multiple lines of geochemical evidence support an oxygenation of the Ediacaran oceans (635-542 million years ago), roughly corresponding with the first appearance of metazoans in the fossil record, the oxygen requirements of basal animals remain unclear. Here we show that modern demosponges, serving as analogs for early animals, can survive under low-oxygen conditions of 0.5-4.0% present atmospheric levels. Because the last common ancestor of metazoans likely exhibited a physiology and morphology similar to that of a modern sponge, its oxygen demands may have been met well before the enhanced oxygenation of the Ediacaran Period. Therefore, the origin of animals may not have been triggered by a contemporaneous rise in the oxygen content of the atmosphere and oceans. Instead, other ecological and developmental processes are needed to adequately explain the origin and earliest evolution of animal life on Earth. PMID:24550467

  10. Earliest Archaeological Evidence of Persistent Hominin Carnivory

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Joseph V.; Plummer, Thomas W.; Pobiner, Briana L.; Oliver, James S.; Bishop, Laura C.; Braun, David R.; Ditchfield, Peter W.; Seaman, John W.; Binetti, Katie M.; Seaman, John W.; Hertel, Fritz; Potts, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of lithic technology by ?2.6 million years ago (Ma) is often interpreted as a correlate of increasingly recurrent hominin acquisition and consumption of animal remains. Associated faunal evidence, however, is poorly preserved prior to ?1.8 Ma, limiting our understanding of early archaeological (Oldowan) hominin carnivory. Here, we detail three large well-preserved zooarchaeological assemblages from Kanjera South, Kenya. The assemblages date to ?2.0 Ma, pre-dating all previously published archaeofaunas of appreciable size. At Kanjera, there is clear evidence that Oldowan hominins acquired and processed numerous, relatively complete, small ungulate carcasses. Moreover, they had at least occasional access to the fleshed remains of larger, wildebeest-sized animals. The overall record of hominin activities is consistent through the stratified sequence – spanning hundreds to thousands of years – and provides the earliest archaeological evidence of sustained hominin involvement with fleshed animal remains (i.e., persistent carnivory), a foraging adaptation central to many models of hominin evolution. PMID:23637995

  11. Earliest Holozoan Expansion of Phosphotyrosine Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Suga, Hiroshi; Torruella, Guifré; Burger, Gertraud; Brown, Matthew W.; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki

    2015-01-01

    Phosphotyrosine (pTyr) signaling is involved in development and maintenance of metazoans’ multicellular body through cell-to-cell communication. Tyrosine kinases (TKs), tyrosine phosphatases, and other proteins relaying the signal compose the cascade. Domain architectures of the pTyr signaling proteins are diverse in metazoans, reflecting their complex intercellular communication. Previous studies had shown that the metazoan-type TKs, as well as other pTyr signaling proteins, were already diversified in the common ancestor of metazoans, choanoflagellates, and filastereans (which are together included in the clade Holozoa) whereas they are absent in fungi and other nonholozoan lineages. However, the earliest-branching holozoans Ichthyosporea and Corallochytrea, as well as the two fungi-related amoebae Fonticula and Nuclearia, have not been studied. Here, we analyze the complete genome sequences of two ichthyosporeans and Fonticula, and RNAseq data of three additional ichthyosporeans, one corallochytrean, and Nuclearia. Both the ichthyosporean and corallochytrean genomes encode a large variety of receptor TKs (RTKs) and cytoplasmic TKs (CTKs), as well as other pTyr signaling components showing highly complex domain architectures. However, Nuclearia and Fonticula have no TK, and show much less diversity in other pTyr signaling components. The CTK repertoires of both Ichthyosporea and Corallochytrea are similar to those of Metazoa, Choanoflagellida, and Filasterea, but the RTK sets are totally different from each other. The complex pTyr signaling equipped with positive/negative feedback mechanism likely emerged already at an early stage of holozoan evolution, yet keeping a high evolutionary plasticity in extracellular signal reception until the co-option of the system for cell-to-cell communication in metazoans. PMID:24307687

  12. Quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy detects abnormalities in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and motor cortex of patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Sanjeev; Wang, Sumei; Moore, Peachie; Woo, John H.; Elman, Lauren; McCluskey, Leo F.; Melhem, Elias R.; Grossman, Murray

    2010-01-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a neurodegenerative disease of the frontal and temporal neocortex. The single most common pathology underlying FTLD is neuronal degeneration with ubiquitin-positive but tau-negative inclusions consisting of Tar DNA binding proteins (TDP-43). Inclusions containing TDP-43 in neurons are also the most common pathology underlying motor neuron disease (MND). The present study tested the hypothesis that abnormal metabolite patterns within the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) as well as the motor cortex (MC) may be observed in FTLD patients without motor disorders, using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS). Twenty-six FTLD patients with cognitive damage and ten controls underwent multivoxel 1H MRS. Absolute concentrations of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr), choline (Cho) and myo-inositol (mI) were measured from the DLPFC, the MC and the parietal cortex (PC, an internal control). Statistical analyses were performed for group differences between FTLD patients and controls. Comparisons were also made across brain regions (PC and DLPFC; PC and MC) within FTLD patients. Significant reductions in NAA and Cr along with increased Cho and mI were observed in the DLPFC of FTLD patients compared to controls. Significantly lower NAA and higher Cho were also observed in the MCs of patients as compared to controls. Within the FTLD patients, both the MC and the DLPFC exhibited significantly decreased NAA and elevated Cho compared to the PC. However, only the DLPFC had significantly lower Cr and higher mI. Abnormal metabolite pattern from the MC supports the hypothesis that FTLD and MND may be closely linked. PMID:19688233

  13. Detection of micronucleus and abnormal nucleus in erythrocytes from the gill and kidney of Labeo bata cultivated in sewage-fed fish farms.

    PubMed

    Talapatra, S N; Banerjee, S K

    2007-02-01

    Determination of genotoxic effect in fish, micronucleus test as well as the study of the abnormal shape of nuclei is a suitable measure, in which the presence or absence of genotoxins can be detected in water. In the present study, micronuclei and abnormal nuclei frequencies were scored in the gill and kidney erythrocytes of the fish Labeo bata grown in the sewage-fed fish farms of East Calcutta wetlands. Three experimental sites were chosen, namely, Bantala, Chowbaga and Chingrihata (basically these sites have sewage-fed fishponds), which were compared with fishponds of no sewage influence as the control area. Highly significant differences (P<0.001) were noticed for micronucleus frequencies in the gill and kidney erythrocytes of experimental fishes, where kidney erythrocytes showed an increased value than gill erythrocytes without any statistical differences. The frequencies of nuclear abnormalities such as necrotic cells, apoptotic cells, notch nucleated cells and binucleated cells were also counted separately for gill and kidney erythrocytes, in which significantly (P<0.001, P<0.01, P<0.05) increased values were obtained in comparison to control populations. These genotoxicity results confirmed that the sewage-fed ponds contain genotoxic metals such as Cr, Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn, Fe through wastewater and sludge because of the direct use of sewage water without pretreatment which may lead to health risks among humans through chronic consumption of fish from these experimental fish ponds. Other vertebrates grown in sewage-fed ponds may also suffer a certain amount of genotoxic substances. PMID:17034922

  14. The Earliest Electrophysiological Correlate of Visual Awareness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koivisto, Mika; Lahteenmaki, Mikko; Sorensen, Thomas Alrik; Vangkilde, Signe; Overgaard, Morten; Revonsuo, Antti

    2008-01-01

    To examine the neural correlates and timing of human visual awareness, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in two experiments while the observers were detecting a grey dot that was presented near subjective threshold. ERPs were averaged for conscious detections of the stimulus (hits) and nondetections (misses) separately. Our results…

  15. Abnormal Supranuclear Eye Movements in the Child

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorraine Cassidy; David Taylor; Christopher Harris

    2000-01-01

    Abnormal eye movements in the infant or young child can be congenital or acquired. They may be a result of abnormal early visual development or a sign of underlying neurologic or neuromuscular disease. It is important to be able to detect these abnormalities and to distinguish them from normal but immature eye movements. The spectrum of disease in children differs

  16. Detection, visualization and animation of abnormal anatomic structure with a deformable probabilistic brain atlas based on random vector field transformations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul M. Thompson; Arthur W. Toga

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the design, implementation and preliminary results of a technique for creat- ing a comprehensive probabilistic atlas of the human brain based on high-dimensional vector field transformations. The goal of the atlas is to detect and quantify distributed patterns of deviation from normal anatomy, in a 3-D brain image from any given subject. The algorithm analyzes a reference

  17. Diffusion MRI of the Developing Cerebral Cortical Gray Matter can be Used to Detect Abnormalities in Tissue Microstructure Associated with Fetal Ethanol Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Leigland, Lindsey A.; Budde, Matthew D.; Cornea, Anda; Kroenke, Christopher D.

    2013-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) comprise a wide range of neurological deficits that result from fetal exposure to ethanol (EtOH), and are the leading cause of environmentally related birth defects and mental retardation in the western world. One aspect of diagnostic and therapeutic intervention strategies that could substantially improve our ability to combat this significant problem would be to facilitate earlier detection of the disorders within individuals. Light microscopy-based investigations performed by several laboratories have previously shown that morphological development of neurons within the early-developing cerebral cortex is abnormal within the brains of animals exposed to EtOH during fetal development. We and others have recently demonstrated that diffusion MRI can be of utility for detecting abnormal cellular morphological development in the developing cerebral cortex. We therefore assessed whether diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could be used to distinguish the developing cerebral cortices of ex vivo rat pup brains born from dams treated with EtOH (EtOH; 4.5 g/kg, 25%) or calorie-matched quantities of maltose/dextrin (M/D) throughout gestation. Water diffusion and tissue microstructure were investigated using DTI (fractional anisotropy, FA) and histology (anisotropy index, AI), respectively. Both FA and AI decreased with age, and were higher in the EtOH than the M/D group at postnatal ages (P)0, P3, and P6. Additionally, there was a significant correlation between FA and AI measurements. These findings provide evidence that disruptions in cerebral cortical development induced by EtOH exposure can be revealed by water diffusion anisotropy patterns, and that these disruptions are directly related to cerebral cortical differentiation. PMID:23921100

  18. DTI detects water diffusion abnormalities in the thalamus that correlate with an extremity pain episode in a patient with multiple sclerosis?

    PubMed Central

    Deppe, Michael; Müller, Dirk; Kugel, Harald; Ruck, Tobias; Wiendl, Heinz; Meuth, Sven G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Various types of multiple sclerosis (MS) related pain have been discussed. One concept is that deafferentation secondary to lesions in the spino-thalamo-cortical network can cause central pain. However, this hypothesis is somehow limited by a lack of a robust association between pain episodes and sites of lesion location. Objective We tested the hypothesis that temporary tissue alterations in the thalamus that are not detectable by conventional magnetic resonance imaging (T1w, FLAIR) can potentially explain a focal, paroxysmal central pain episode of a patient with MS. For microstructural tissue assessment we employed ten longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) examinations. Results We could demonstrate an abnormal, unilateral temporary increase of the fractional anisotropy (FA) in the thalamus contralateral to the affected body side. Before the pain episode and after pain relief the FA reached completely normal values as seen in identically investigated age and gender matched 100 healthy control subjects. Conclusion These findings suggest that: i.) frequently applied and quantitatively evaluated DTI could be used as a sensitive imaging technique for detection of pathological processes associated with MS not detectable with conventional imaging strategies, ii.) temporary pathological processes in the “normal-appearing” thalamus may explain waxing and waning symptoms like episodes of central pain, and iii.) cross-sectional case examinations on (MS) patients with central pain should be performed to investigate how often thalamic alterations occur together with central pain. PMID:24179780

  19. Using tensor-based morphometry to detect structural brain abnormalities in rats with adolescent intermittent alcohol exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paniagua, Beatriz; Ehlers, Cindy; Crews, Fulton; Budin, Francois; Larson, Garrett; Styner, Martin; Oguz, Ipek

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the effects of adolescent binge drinking that persist into adulthood is a crucial public health issue. Adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure (AIE) is an animal model that can be used to investigate these effects in rodents. In this work, we investigate the application of a particular image analysis technique, tensor-based morphometry, for detecting anatomical differences between AIE and control rats using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). Deformation field analysis is a popular method for detecting volumetric changes analyzing Jacobian determinants calculated on deformation fields. Recent studies showed that computing deformation field metrics on the full deformation tensor, often referred to as tensor-based morphometry (TBM), increases the sensitivity to anatomical differences. In this paper we conduct a comprehensive TBM study for precisely locating differences between control and AIE rats. Using a DTI RARE sequence designed for minimal geometric distortion, 12-directional images were acquired postmortem for control and AIE rats (n=9). After preprocessing, average images for the two groups were constructed using an unbiased atlas building approach. We non-rigidly register the two atlases using Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping, and analyze the resulting deformation field using TBM. In particular, we evaluate the tensor determinant, geodesic anisotropy, and deformation direction vector (DDV) on the deformation field to detect structural differences. This yields data on the local amount of growth, shrinkage and the directionality of deformation between the groups. We show that TBM can thus be used to measure group morphological differences between rat populations, demonstrating the potential of the proposed framework.

  20. Diagnostic utility of a multiplex RT-PCR assay in detecting fusion transcripts from recurrent genetic abnormalities of acute leukemia by WHO 2008 classification.

    PubMed

    Song, Min-Jung; Kim, Hee-Jin; Park, Chang-Hun; Kim, Sun-Kyung; Ki, Chang-Seok; Kim, Jong-Won; Kim, Sun-Hee

    2012-03-01

    Fusion transcripts (FT) from chromosomal rearrangements are key culprits in acute leukemia, with genotype-phenotype correlations including prognostic implications. Here, we report our experience of a commercially available platform utilizing multiplex reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), HemaVision, in 309 consecutive patients with acute leukemia. A total of 108 patients (35%) were diagnosed as having acute leukemia with recurrent genetic abnormalities by the World Health Organization 2008 classification. The multiplex RT-PCR platform, detected 12 different FT in 92 (85.2%; 92/108), with a 99% concordance rate with conventional cytogenetics/fluorescence in situ hybridization. Additional information obtained from the multiplex RT-PCR assay included transcript heterogeneity and novel splice variants of FT. In addition, the RT-PCR assay targeting specific FT could be used for monitoring minimal residual disease. HemaVision is a robust diagnostic platform in detecting FT in routine clinical laboratories both at initial diagnosis and for disease monitoring. PMID:22306674

  1. Detection of Myocardial Metabolic Abnormalities by 18F-FDG PET/CT and Corresponding Pathological Changes in Beagles with Local Heart Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Rui; Song, Jianbo; Wu, Zhifang; Guo, Min; Liu, Jianzhong; Li, Jianguo; Hao, Xinzhong

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the efficacy of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) in the detection of radiation-induced myocardial damage in beagles by comparing two pre-scan preparation protocols as well as to determine the correlation between abnormal myocardial FDG uptake and pathological findings. Materials and Methods The anterior myocardium of 12 beagles received radiotherapy locally with a single X-ray dose of 20 Gy. 18F-FDG cardiac PET/CT was performed at baseline and 3 months after radiation. Twelve beagles underwent two protocols before PET/CT: 12 hours of fasting (12H-F), 12H-F followed by a high-fat diet (F-HFD). Regions of interest were drawn on the irradiation and the non-irradiation fields to obtain their maximal standardized uptake values (SUVmax). Then the ratio of the SUV of the irradiation to the non-irradiation fields (INR) was computed. Histopathological changes were identified by light and electron microscopy. Results Using the 12H-F protocol, the average INRs were 1.18 ± 0.10 and 1.41 ± 0.18 before and after irradiation, respectively (p = 0.021). Using the F-HFD protocol, the average INRs were 0.99 ± 0.15 and 2.54 ± 0.43, respectively (p < 0.001). High FDG uptake in irradiation field was detected in 33.3% (4/12) of 12H-F protocol and 83.3% (10/12) of F-HFD protocol in visual analysis, respectively (p = 0.031). The pathology of the irradiated myocardium showed obvious perivascular fibrosis and changes in mitochondrial vacuoles. Conclusion High FDG uptake in an irradiated field may be related with radiation-induced myocardial damage resulting from microvascular damage and mitochondrial injury. An F-HFD preparation protocol used before obtaining PET/CT can improve the sensitivity of the detection of cardiotoxicity associated with radiotherapy. PMID:26175594

  2. Diagnostic accuracy of contrast echocardiography during adenosine stress for detection of abnormal myocardial perfusion: a prospective comparison with technetium-99 m sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Abdelmoneim, Sahar S; Bernier, Mathieu; Dhoble, Abhijeet; Moir, Stuart; Hagen, Mary E; Ness, Sue Ann C; Pellikka, Patricia A; Abdel-Kader, Samir S; Mulvagh, Sharon L

    2010-03-01

    Myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) utilizes compressible microbubbles behaving similarly to red blood cells. Destruction of microbubbles and observation of the gradual refill into the myocardium are key to evaluating perfusion using real-time MCE. We aimed to assess the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of qualitative MCE utilizing a 17-segment model for localization of myocardial perfusion abnormalities compared with simultaneous technetium-99 m sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). From July 2005 through August 2007, 97 patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease underwent simultaneous SPECT and realtime MCE during adenosine stress. Qualitative MCE and tracer uptake were analyzed visually using a 17-segment model in a blinded manner. Diagnostic accuracy and 95% confidence interval (CI) were determined. Myocardial contrast echocardiography was completed in 91 patients (age, mean [SD], 69.3 [10.9] years; body mass index, 30.0 [6.3]; 59 males [65%]). Myocardial contrast echocardiography analysis was feasible in 88 (97%) patients (261 of 264 [99%] territories; 1299 of 1497 [87%] segments). At patient level, MCE sensitivity was 88% (95% CI, 79%-94%); specificity was 85% (77%-90%). For disease detection in individual coronary territories, sensitivity and specificity were 84% (71%-92%) and 79% (72%-84%) for the left anterior descending artery; 62% (38%-80%) and 88% (83%-91%) for the left circumflex artery; and 73% (57%-82%) and 94% (89%-97%) for the right coronary artery. For MCE combined with wall-motion analysis, concordance with SPECT improved from 80% to 86%. Myocardial contrast echocardiography interobserver concordance was 81% (kappa [SE], 0.611 [0.78]). Myocardial contrast echocardiography accuracy was comparable in patients classified in accordance with presence of diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction, hypertension, or percutaneous coronary intervention. Improved MCE specificity in detecting perfusion defects was seen in patients with no history of coronary bypass graft surgery (P = 0.005). Real-time MCE with a 17-segment model for analysis has good feasibility and accuracy in evaluation of myocardial perfusion during adenosine stress. PMID:20339973

  3. The earliest fossil record of the animals and its significance.

    PubMed

    Budd, Graham E

    2008-04-27

    The fossil record of the earliest animals has been enlivened in recent years by a series of spectacular discoveries, including embryos, from the Ediacaran to the Cambrian, but many issues, not least of dating and interpretation, remain controversial. In particular, aspects of taphonomy of the earliest fossils require careful consideration before pronouncements about their affinities. Nevertheless, a reasonable case can now be made for the extension of the fossil record of at least basal animals (sponges and perhaps cnidarians) to a period of time significantly before the beginning of the Cambrian. The Cambrian explosion itself still seems to represent the arrival of the bilaterians, and many new fossils in recent years have added significant data on the origin of the three major bilaterian clades. Why animals appear so late in the fossil record is still unclear, but the recent trend to embrace rising oxygen levels as being the proximate cause remains unproven and may even involve a degree of circularity. PMID:18192192

  4. Aurorae: The earliest datable observation of the aurora borealis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Richard Stephenson; David M. Willis; Thomas J. Hallinan

    2004-01-01

    The Late Babylonian astronomical texts, discovered at the site of Babylon (32.5°N, 44.4°E) more than a century ago, contain what is probably the earliest reliable account of the aurora borealis. A clay tablet recording numerous celestial observations made by the official astronomers during the 37th year of King Nebuchadnezzar II (568\\/567 BC) describes an unusual ``red glow'' in the sky

  5. Chemical and archaeological evidence for the earliest cacao beverages

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, John S.; Joyce, Rosemary A.; Hall, Gretchen R.; Hurst, W. Jeffrey; McGovern, Patrick E.

    2007-01-01

    Chemical analyses of residues extracted from pottery vessels from Puerto Escondido in what is now Honduras show that cacao beverages were being made there before 1000 B.C., extending the confirmed use of cacao back at least 500 years. The famous chocolate beverage served on special occasions in later times in Mesoamerica, especially by elites, was made from cacao seeds. The earliest cacao beverages consumed at Puerto Escondido were likely produced by fermenting the sweet pulp surrounding the seeds. PMID:18024588

  6. Chemical and archaeological evidence for the earliest cacao beverages.

    PubMed

    Henderson, John S; Joyce, Rosemary A; Hall, Gretchen R; Hurst, W Jeffrey; McGovern, Patrick E

    2007-11-27

    Chemical analyses of residues extracted from pottery vessels from Puerto Escondido in what is now Honduras show that cacao beverages were being made there before 1000 B.C., extending the confirmed use of cacao back at least 500 years. The famous chocolate beverage served on special occasions in later times in Mesoamerica, especially by elites, was made from cacao seeds. The earliest cacao beverages consumed at Puerto Escondido were likely produced by fermenting the sweet pulp surrounding the seeds. PMID:18024588

  7. The earliest record of human activity in northern Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon A. Parfitt; René W. Barendregt; Marzia Breda; Ian Candy; G. Russell Coope; Paul Durbidge; Mike H. Field; Jonathan R. Lee; Adrian M. Lister; Robert Mutch; Kirsty E. H. Penkman; Richard C. Preece; James Rose; Christopher B. Stringer; Robert Symmons; John E. Whittaker; John J. Wymer; Anthony J. Stuart

    2005-01-01

    The colonization of Eurasia by early humans is a key event after their spread out of Africa, but the nature, timing and ecological context of the earliest human occupation of northwest Europe is uncertain and has been the subject of intense debate. The southern Caucasus was occupied about 1.8 million years (Myr) ago, whereas human remains from Atapuerca-TD6, Spain (more

  8. Who were the earliest humans?, Chris StringerSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-10-06

    Interviewee: Chris Stringer DNAi Location:Applications>Human origins>our family tree>The earliest humans? Human origins expert Chris Stringer talks about the earliest Homo species and his view of their relationships with apes and humans.

  9. Multidetector computed tomography of congenital aortic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Alistair C; Sriharan, Mona; Lazoura, Olga; Padley, Simon P G; Nicol, Edward D; Rubens, Michael B

    2014-04-01

    For many years invasive angiographic techniques have been considered as the gold standard for the assessment of large arterial abnormalities. However, the complexities and complications inherent to invasive imaging have meant that more recently non-invasive techniques such as echocardiography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and multidetector CT (MDCT) have been increasingly used in congenital cardiovascular disorders. In particular, MDCT has emerged as a fundamental tool for the diagnosis and pre-surgical work-up of aortic abnormalities due to its high spatial resolution, large area of coverage, and short scan time, and therefore is now one of the most widely used modalities for the detection of congenital abnormalities of the aorta. The purpose of this pictorial review is to review the spectrum of abnormalities of the aorta than can be reliably detected by MDCT both in infants and in adulthood. Abnormalities of the aortic root, ascending aorta, aortic arch, and descending aorta will be described separately. PMID:24560026

  10. Mapping the lunar shadow - the earliest solar eclipse maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gent, Robert H.

    The English astronomer Edmond Halley (1656-1742) is commonly credited as the first to draw and publish maps delineating the paths of totality for solar eclipses. Halley published such maps for the solar eclipses of 3 May 1715 and 22 May 1724, which were both visible from southern England. In this paper, the author presents examples of earlier maps depicting solar eclipse paths from Germany, the Netherlands and France. The earliest eclipse maps of this kind appear to be those showing the path of totality for the solar eclipses of 23 September 1699 and 12 May 1706.

  11. Infertile mares with chromosome abnormalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. Stewart-Scott

    1988-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities have been detected in five mares identified by their poor reproductive performance. All had small gonads and absent or irregular oestrous cycles. One mare was 65, XXX, two were 64, XY sex-reversal females and two were sex chromosome mosaics with karyotypes of 63, XO\\/64, XX\\/64, XY and 63, XO\\/64, XX respectively. This report supports the suggestion made in

  12. High energy neutrino emission from the earliest gamma-ray bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Shan; Toma, Kenji; Meszaros, Peter [Department of Physics, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Center for Particle Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, 16802 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    We discuss the high energy neutrino emission from gamma-ray bursts resulting from the earliest generation (''population III'') stars forming in the Universe, whose core collapses into a black hole. These gamma-ray bursts are expected to produce a highly relativistic, magnetically dominated jet, where protons can be accelerated to ultrahigh energies. These interact with the photons produced by the jet, leading to ultrahigh energy photomeson neutrinos as well as secondary leptons and photons. The photon luminosity and the shock properties, and thus the neutrino spectrum, depend on the mass of the black holes as well as on the density of the surrounding external gas. We calculate the individual source neutrino spectral fluxes and the expected diffuse neutrino flux for various source parameters and evolution scenarios. Both the individual and diffuse signals appear detectable in the 1-300 PeV range with current and planned neutrino detectors such as IceCube and ARIANNA, provided the black hole mass is in excess of 30-100 solar masses. This provides a possible test for the debated mass of the progenitor stellar objects, as well as a probe for the early cosmological environment and the formation rate of the earliest structures.

  13. High Energy Neutrino Emission from the Earliest Gamma-Ray Bursts

    E-print Network

    Shan Gao; Kenji Toma; Peter Meszaros

    2011-04-20

    We discuss the high energy neutrino emission from gamma-ray bursts resulting from the earliest generation (`population III') stars forming in the Universe, whose core collapses into a black hole. These gamma-ray bursts are expected to produce a highly relativistic, magnetically dominated jet, where protons can be accelerated to ultra-high energies. These interact with the photons produced by the jet, leading to ultra-high energy photo-meson neutrinos as well as secondary leptons and photons. The photon luminosity and the shock properties, and thus the neutrino spectrum, depend on the mass of the black holes as well as on the density of the surrounding external gas. We calculate the individual source neutrino spectral fluxes and the expected diffuse neutrino flux for various source parameters and evolution scenarios. Both the individual and diffuse signals appear detectable in the 1-300 PeV range with current and planned neutrino detectors such as IceCube and ARIANNA, provided the black hole mass is in excess of 30-100 solar masses. This provides a possible test for the debated mass of the progenitor stellar objects, as well as a probe for the early cosmological environment and the formation rate of the earliest structures.

  14. Cattle Management for Dairying in Scandinavia's Earliest Neolithic.

    PubMed

    Gron, Kurt J; Montgomery, Janet; Rowley-Conwy, Peter

    2015-01-01

    New evidence for cattle husbandry practices during the earliest period of the southern Scandinavian Neolithic indicates multiple birth seasons and dairying from its start. Sequential sampling of tooth enamel carbonate carbon and oxygen isotope ratio analyses and strontium isotopic provenancing indicate more than one season of birth in locally reared cattle at the earliest Neolithic Funnel Beaker (EN I TRB, 3950-3500 cal. B.C.) site of Almhov in Scania, Sweden. The main purpose for which cattle are manipulated to give birth in more than one season is to prolong lactation for the production of milk and dairy-based products. As this is a difficult, intensive, and time-consuming strategy, these data demonstrate complex farming practices by early Neolithic farmers. This result offers strong support for immigration-based explanations of agricultural origins in southern Scandinavia on the grounds that such a specialised skill set cannot represent the piecemeal incorporation of agricultural techniques into an existing hunter-gatherer-fisher economy. PMID:26146989

  15. Cattle Management for Dairying in Scandinavia’s Earliest Neolithic

    PubMed Central

    Gron, Kurt J.; Montgomery, Janet; Rowley-Conwy, Peter

    2015-01-01

    New evidence for cattle husbandry practices during the earliest period of the southern Scandinavian Neolithic indicates multiple birth seasons and dairying from its start. Sequential sampling of tooth enamel carbonate carbon and oxygen isotope ratio analyses and strontium isotopic provenancing indicate more than one season of birth in locally reared cattle at the earliest Neolithic Funnel Beaker (EN I TRB, 3950-3500 cal. B.C.) site of Almhov in Scania, Sweden. The main purpose for which cattle are manipulated to give birth in more than one season is to prolong lactation for the production of milk and dairy-based products. As this is a difficult, intensive, and time-consuming strategy, these data demonstrate complex farming practices by early Neolithic farmers. This result offers strong support for immigration-based explanations of agricultural origins in southern Scandinavia on the grounds that such a specialised skill set cannot represent the piecemeal incorporation of agricultural techniques into an existing hunter-gatherer-fisher economy. PMID:26146989

  16. Incidence of Brain Abnormalities Detected on Preoperative Brain MR Imaging and Their Effect on the Outcome of Cochlear Implantation in Children with Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiao-Quan; Wu, Fei-Yun; Hu, Hao; Su, Guo-Yi; Shen, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) increased gradually in the past decades. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, as an important part of preimplantation evaluation for children with SNHL, could provide the detailed information about the inner ear, the vestibulocochlear nerve, and the brain, so as to select suitable candidate for cochlear implantation (CI). Brain abnormalities were not rare in the brain MR imaging of SNHL children; however, its influence on the effect of CI has not been clarified. After retrospectively analyzing the CT and MR imaging of 157 children with SNHL that accepted preoperative evaluation from June 2011 to February 2013 in our hospital and following them during a period of 14.09 ± 5.08 months, we found that the white matter change, which might be associated with the history of medical condition, was the most common brain abnormality. Usually CI was still beneficial to the children with brain abnormalities, and the short-term hearing improvement could be achieved. Further study with more patients and longer follow-up time was needed to confirm our results. PMID:25685142

  17. Incidence of Brain Abnormalities Detected on Preoperative Brain MR Imaging and Their Effect on the Outcome of Cochlear Implantation in Children with Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Quan; Wu, Fei-Yun; Hu, Hao; Su, Guo-Yi; Shen, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) increased gradually in the past decades. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, as an important part of preimplantation evaluation for children with SNHL, could provide the detailed information about the inner ear, the vestibulocochlear nerve, and the brain, so as to select suitable candidate for cochlear implantation (CI). Brain abnormalities were not rare in the brain MR imaging of SNHL children; however, its influence on the effect of CI has not been clarified. After retrospectively analyzing the CT and MR imaging of 157 children with SNHL that accepted preoperative evaluation from June 2011 to February 2013 in our hospital and following them during a period of 14.09 ± 5.08 months, we found that the white matter change, which might be associated with the history of medical condition, was the most common brain abnormality. Usually CI was still beneficial to the children with brain abnormalities, and the short-term hearing improvement could be achieved. Further study with more patients and longer follow-up time was needed to confirm our results. PMID:25685142

  18. Abnormal cold perception in the lower limbs: a sensitive indicator for detection of polyneuropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Hyllienmark, L; Jonsson, B; Ekberg, K; Lindström, P

    2009-09-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy differs in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate how signs and symptoms of neuropathy correlated with defects in motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity (MCV and SCV) and sensory perception thresholds in patients with type 1 diabetes. MCV and SCV in peroneal and sural nerves and vibratory, warm and cold perception thresholds (VPT, WPT, CPT) were evaluated in the lower limbs of 127 patients (42+/-7.9 years old, duration of diabetes, 16+/-11 years and HbA1c, 7.7+/-1.4%). The results were compared with clinical findings (neuropathy impairment assessment, NIA) and sensory symptoms (neurological symptom assessment, NSA). Sensory symptoms were present in 24% of patients, 91% had at least one abnormal finding in the neurological examination and 84% had abnormal nerve conduction. The greatest deviation from normal was observed for CPT on the dorsum of the foot and peroneal MCV. NIA and NSA correlated with all electrophysiological measurements in the foot and big toe. It is concluded that clinical findings correlate well with electrophysiological abnormalities in patients with type 1 diabetic neuropathy. An elevated CPT for the foot was the most pronounced sensory defect. PMID:19604594

  19. High incidence of chromosomal abnormalities at 1p36 and 9p21 in early-stage central type squamous cell carcinoma and squamous dysplasia of bronchus detected by autofluorescence bronchoscopy.

    PubMed

    Shibukawa, Kiyoko; Miyokawa, Naoyuki; Tokusashi, Yoshihiko; Sasaki, Takaaki; Osanai, Shinobu; Ohsaki, Yoshinobu

    2009-07-01

    Heavy smokers with central type squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) frequently have multiple cancerous lesions in the bronchus. Autofluorescence bronchoscopy (AFB) is useful in the detection of early bronchogenic cancer and dysplastic lesions. We investigated the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and microsatellite instability (MSI) and expression of four proteins in 13 early stage SCC (early SCC) and 9 squamous dysplasia detected by AFB and 19 cases of surgically resected invasive SCC (invasive SCC). In early SCC and squamous dysplasia, LOH/MSI of chromosome 1p36 was found in 62 and 33%, respectively, and of 9p21 in 54 and 63%, respectively. TAp73 expression of early SCC and squamous dysplasia was lower than that of normal bronchial epithelium, and p16 expression was not detectable in these lesions. These results suggested that the genetic abnormalities had already developed in the early stage of carcinogenesis of SCC, including squamous dysplasia. The AFB system was able to reveal abnormal autofluorescence in these precancerous lesions, including squamous dysplasia. PMID:19513508

  20. Use of a novel high-resolution magnetic resonance neurography protocol to detect abnormal dorsal root Ganglia in Sjögren patients with neuropathic pain: case series of 10 patients and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Julius; Duncan, Trisha; Owoyemi, Kristie; Wang, Kenneth C; Carrino, John; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2014-05-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of patients with Sjögren syndrome (SS) with neuropathic pain pose several challenges. Patients with SS may experience unorthodox patterns of burning pain not conforming to a traditional "stocking-and-glove" distribution, which can affect the face, torso, and proximal extremities. This distribution of neuropathic pain may reflect mechanisms targeting the proximal-most element of the peripheral nervous system-the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Skin biopsy can diagnose such a small-fiber neuropathy and is a surrogate marker of DRG neuronal cell loss. However, SS patients have been reported who have similar patterns of proximal neuropathic pain, despite having normal skin biopsy studies. In such cases, DRGs may be targeted by mechanisms not associated with neuronal cell loss. Therefore, alternative approaches are warranted to help characterize abnormal DRGs in SS patients with proximal neuropathic pain.We performed a systematic review of the literature to define the frequency and spectrum of SS peripheral neuropathies, and to better understand the attribution of SS neuropathic pain to peripheral neuropathies. We found that the frequency of SS neuropathic pain exceeded the prevalence of peripheral neuropathies, and that painful peripheral neuropathies occurred less frequently than neuropathies not always associated with pain. We developed a novel magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) protocol to evaluate DRG abnormalities. Ten SS patients with proximal neuropathic pain were evaluated by this MRN protocol, as well as by punch skin biopsies evaluating for intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) of unmyelinated nerves. Five patients had radiographic evidence of DRG abnormalities. Patients with MRN DRG abnormalities had increased IENFD of unmyelinated nerves compared to patients without MRN DRG abnormalities (30.2 [interquartile range, 4.4] fibers/mm vs. 11.0 [4.1] fibers/mm, respectively; p = 0.03). Two of these 5 SS patients whose neuropathic pain resolved with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy had improvement of MRN DRG abnormalities.We have developed a novel MRN protocol that can detect DRG abnormalities in SS patients with neuropathic pain who do not have markers of peripheral neuropathy. We found that SS patients with MRN DRG abnormalities had statistically significant, increased IENFD on skin biopsy studies, which may suggest a relationship between trophic mediators and neuropathic pain. Given that our literature review has demonstrated that many SS neuropathic pain patients do not have a neuropathy, our findings suggest an important niche for this MRN DRG technique in the evaluation of broader subsets of SS neuropathic pain patients who may not have underlying neuropathies. The improvement of MRN DRG abnormalities in patients with IVIg-induced remission of neuropathic pain suggests that our MRN protocol may be capturing reversible, immune-mediated mechanisms targeting the DRG. PMID:24797167

  1. Abnormalities of lung function in hay fever.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, E J; Hall, D R

    1976-01-01

    Twenty subjects with symptoms of hay fever were studied to see whether abnormalities could be detected in the function of small airways. The investigations included dynamic compliance at varying respiratory frequencies, closing capacity, residual volume, transfer factor, and maximal expiratory flow-volume curves. The tests were repeated in the winter when symptoms had resolved. Frequency dependence of compliance was found in eight subjects with symptoms (40%), closing capacities being abnormal in only two instances. Conventional pulmonary function tests, including expiratory flow rates at mid vital capacity, were within the predicted range of all subjects. When tests were repeated in the winter, frequency dependence of compliance was no longer present in subjects whose symptoms had resolved. The study suggests that reversible small airway abnormalities are present in a significant proportion of subjects with symptoms of hay fever and that such abnormalities are best detected by the measurement of dynamic compliance at varying respiratory frequencies. PMID:769243

  2. Four families with immunodeficiency and chromosome abnormalities.

    PubMed Central

    Candy, D C; Hayward, A R; Hughes, D T; Layward, L; Soothill, J F

    1979-01-01

    Six children, with severe deficiency of some or all of the immunoglobulins and minor somatic abnormalities, had chromosomal abnormalities: (1) 45,XY,t(13q/18q), (2) 46,XY,21ps +, (3) two brothers 46,XY (inv. 7) (4) 45,X,t(11p/10p)/46X,iXq,t(11p/10p) and, (5) in addendum, 45,XX,-18;46,XX, r18. The chromosome abnormalities were detected in B- as well as T-lymphocytes (as evidenced by using both PHA- and PWM-stimulated cultures) in all probands, but one was mosaic in PHA culture, although all his PWM-stimulated cells were abnormal. Chromosomal variants were also detected in relatives of three and immunodeficiency in relatives of two. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:314782

  3. Testing microstructural adaptation in the earliest dental tools

    PubMed Central

    Jones, David; Evans, Alistair R.; Rayfield, Emily J.; Siu, Karen K. W.; Donoghue, Philip C. J.

    2012-01-01

    Conodont elements are the earliest vertebrate dental structures. The dental tools on elements responsible for food fracture—cusps and denticles—are usually composed of lamellar crown tissue (a putative enamel homologue) and the enigmatic tissue known as ‘white matter’. White matter is unique to conodonts and has been hypothesized to be a functional adaptation for the use of elements as teeth. We test this quantitatively using finite-element analysis. Our results indicate that white matter allowed cusps and denticles to withstand greater tensile stresses than do cusps comprised solely of lamellar crown tissue. Microstructural variation is demonstrably associated with dietary and loading differences in teeth, so secondary loss of white matter through conodont phylogeny may reflect changes in diet and element occlusal kinematics. The presence, development and distribution of white matter could thus provide constraints on function in the first vertebrate dental structures. PMID:22764115

  4. Considerations on Terrestrial Iron Depositing Analogs to Earliest Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Igor I.; Allen, Carlton C.; Sarkisova, S. A.; Garrison, D. H.; McKay, D. S.

    2007-01-01

    Iron oxide and hydroxide minerals, including hematite, can mineralize and preservemicrofossils and physical biomarkers (Allen at al., 2004). Preserved remnants of phototrophic microorganisms are recognized as biosignatures of past life on Earth (Schopf, 2006). To date, two types of surface iron depositing environments have been studied as analogs to possible habitable environments on earliest Mars: the highly acidified Rio Tinto River (Iberian Belt, Spain) [Gomez Ortis et al., 2007], and the nearneutral iron depositing Chocolate Pots Hot Spring (Yellowstone National Park, US) [Parenteau at al., 2005]. While phototrophs in the Rio Tinto are only represented by eukaryotic algae (Amaral Zettler et all., 2002), Chocolate Pots is mainly populated with cyanobacteria (Pierson et all., 2000; Brown et all., 2007). Which of these environments is the closer analog to a potentially habitable early Mars? Paleobiological data, combined with recent "tree of life" interpretations, suggest that phototrophic eukaryotes evolved not earlier than 2.5 - 2.8 b.y. after Earth s accretion (4.6 b.y.), while cyanobacteria and /or their iron-tolerant predecessors evolved between 1 - 1.5 b.y. after accretion (Brown et al., 2007). Lindsay and Brasier (2002) postulated that microbial life on Mars surface could have lasted no more than 1-1.5 b.y. after Mars accretion (also 4.6 b.y.). Recent multispectral mapping of Mars suggests that near-neutral wet environments prevailed at approximately this time (Bibring, et al., 2006). Thus, near-neutral iron depositing hot springs such as Chocolate Pots Hot Spring seem to be the more likely habitable analogs for earliest Mars.

  5. Earliest evidence for commensal processes of cat domestication

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yaowu; Hu, Songmei; Wang, Weilin; Wu, Xiaohong; Marshall, Fiona B.; Chen, Xianglong; Hou, Liangliang; Wang, Changsui

    2014-01-01

    Domestic cats are one of the most popular pets globally, but the process of their domestication is not well understood. Near Eastern wildcats are thought to have been attracted to food sources in early agricultural settlements, following a commensal pathway to domestication. Early evidence for close human–cat relationships comes from a wildcat interred near a human on Cyprus ca. 9,500 y ago, but the earliest domestic cats are known only from Egyptian art dating to 4,000 y ago. Evidence is lacking from the key period of cat domestication 9,500–4,000 y ago. We report on the presence of cats directly dated between 5560–5280 cal B.P. in the early agricultural village of Quanhucun in Shaanxi, China. These cats were outside the wild range of Near Eastern wildcats and biometrically smaller, but within the size-range of domestic cats. The ?13C and ?15N values of human and animal bone collagen revealed substantial consumption of millet-based foods by humans, rodents, and cats. Ceramic storage containers designed to exclude rodents indicated a threat to stored grain in Yangshao villages. Taken together, isotopic and archaeological data demonstrate that cats were advantageous for ancient farmers. Isotopic data also show that one cat ate less meat and consumed more millet-based foods than expected, indicating that it scavenged among or was fed by people. This study offers fresh perspectives on cat domestication, providing the earliest known evidence for commensal relationships between people and cats. PMID:24344279

  6. The first skull of the earliest giant panda

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Changzhu; Ciochon, Russell L.; Dong, Wei; Hunt, Robert M.; Liu, Jinyi; Jaeger, Marc; Zhu, Qizhi

    2007-01-01

    Fossils of the giant panda Ailuropoda (Order Carnivora, Family Ursidae) are largely isolated teeth, mandibles, and a few rare skulls, known from the late Pliocene to late Pleistocene in China and Southeast Asia. Much of this material represents a Pleistocene chronospecies, Ailuropoda baconi, an animal larger than the living giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca. The earliest certain record of Ailuropoda is the late Pliocene chronospecies, Ailuropoda microta, smaller than either A. baconi or A. melanoleuca, and previously known only from teeth and a few mandibles from karst caves in south China. Here, we report the discovery of the first skull of A. microta, establishing its cranial anatomy and demonstrating that the specialized cranial and dental adaptations of Ailuropoda for durophagous feeding behavior centered on bamboo were already evident in this late Pliocene species. The skull from Jinyin cave (Guangxi) and dental remains from other karst localities in southeastern China show that Ailuropoda microta occupied south China from ?2 to 2.4 Myr ago after a marked global climatic deterioration. Dental and basicranial anatomy indicate a less specialized morphology early in the history of the lineage and support derivation of the giant panda from the Miocene Asian ursid Ailurarctos PMID:17578912

  7. Ediacaran matground ecology persisted into the earliest Cambrian.

    PubMed

    Buatois, Luis A; Narbonne, Guy M; Mángano, M Gabriela; Carmona, Noelia B; Myrow, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The beginning of the Cambrian was a time of marked biological and sedimentary changes, including the replacement of Proterozoic-style microbial matgrounds by Phanerozoic-style bioturbated mixgrounds. Here we show that Ediacaran-style matground-based ecology persisted into the earliest Cambrian. Our study in the type section of the basal Cambrian in Fortune Head, Newfoundland, Canada reveals widespread microbially induced sedimentary structures and typical Ediacaran-type matground ichnofossils. Ediacara-type body fossils are present immediately below the top of the Ediacaran but are strikingly absent from the overlying Cambrian succession, despite optimal conditions for their preservation, and instead the microbial surfaces are marked by the appearance of the first abundant arthropod scratch marks in Earth evolution. These features imply that the disappearance of the Ediacara biota represents an abrupt evolutionary event that corresponded with the appearance of novel bilaterian clades, rather than a fading away owing to the gradual elimination of conditions appropriate for Ediacaran preservation. PMID:24675373

  8. Aurorae: The earliest datable observation of the aurora borealis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, F. Richard; Willis, David M.; Hallinan, Thomas J.

    2004-12-01

    The Late Babylonian astronomical texts, discovered at the site of Babylon (32.5°N, 44.4°E) more than a century ago, contain what is probably the earliest reliable account of the aurora borealis. A clay tablet recording numerous celestial observations made by the official astronomers during the 37th year of King Nebuchadnezzar II (568/567 BC) describes an unusual ``red glow'' in the sky at night; the exact date of this observation corresponds to the night of 12/13 March in 567 BC. The most likely interpretation of the phenomenon is an auroral display. This event occurred several centuries before the first clearly identifiable observation of the aurora from elsewhere in the world, namely China in 193 BC. The Babylonian auroral observation is remarkable in the sense that it is one of a series of carefully recorded astronomical observations, for each of which the year, month and day are known precisely. This observation occurred at a time when the geomagnetic (dipole) latitude of Babylon was about 41°N compared with the present value of 27.5°N, suggesting a higher auroral incidence at Babylon in 567 BC than at present.

  9. Computer Modeling of the Earliest Cellular Structures and Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Chipot, Christophe; Schweighofer, Karl

    2000-01-01

    In the absence of extinct or extant record of protocells (the earliest ancestors of contemporary cells). the most direct way to test our understanding of the origin of cellular life is to construct laboratory models of protocells. Such efforts are currently underway in the NASA Astrobiology Program. They are accompanied by computational studies aimed at explaining self-organization of simple molecules into ordered structures and developing designs for molecules that perform proto-cellular functions. Many of these functions, such as import of nutrients, capture and storage of energy. and response to changes in the environment are carried out by proteins bound to membrane< We will discuss a series of large-scale, molecular-level computer simulations which demonstrate (a) how small proteins (peptides) organize themselves into ordered structures at water-membrane interfaces and insert into membranes, (b) how these peptides aggregate to form membrane-spanning structures (eg. channels), and (c) by what mechanisms such aggregates perform essential proto-cellular functions, such as proton transport of protons across cell walls, a key step in cellular bioenergetics. The simulations were performed using the molecular dynamics method, in which Newton's equations of motion for each item in the system are solved iteratively. The problems of interest required simulations on multi-nanosecond time scales, which corresponded to 10(exp 6)-10(exp 8) time steps.

  10. A fossil primate of uncertain affinities from the earliest late Eocene of Egypt

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Doug M.

    A fossil primate of uncertain affinities from the earliest late Eocene of Egypt Erik R. Seifferta,1- mate from the earliest late Eocene (37 Ma) of northern Egypt, Nos- mipsaenigmaticus, whosephylogenetic of fossil primates from the Eocene of Algeria (1) and Egypt (2­4), Africa's role in the early evolution

  11. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification workflow for the detection of submicroscopic chromosomal abnormalities in patients with developmental delay/intellectual disability

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Array based comparative genomic hybridization (arrayCGH) has been increasingly used as the method of choice for diagnosis of patients with unexplained developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID) but is not universally available for the high throughput use in routine practice. The next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques, emerging as a new tool in clinical diagnostics, are at present quite labour-intensive and expensive. Since multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) is relatively fast, easily interpreted and cost-effective, it is still a method of choice for screening large cohorts of patients with DD/ID. Results We prospectively studied a cohort of 150 patients with DD/ID with or without dysmorphic features or additional congenital abnormalities. We used two distinct MLPA kits, SALSA P036 and P070, for subtelomere screening and MLPA kit SALSA P245 for the 21 common microdeletion syndromes. Subtelomere analysis was performed by both kits in all patients. All imbalances were verified by follow-up MLPA kits. The MLPA analysis revealed chromosome aberrations in 21 (14%) cases: 11 subtelomeric rearrangements and 10 microdeletions. Conclusions We have presented the results of the investigation of patients with DD/ID obtained by using a combination of the MLPA sets for subtelomere aberrations and microdeletion syndromes followed by the confirmation of the aberrant results by the region-specific MLPA kits. The use of two subtelomeric kits per patient and investigation of all aberrations by follow-up sets has reduced the rate of false positive and negative results and improved the diagnostic yield. The relatively low cost, simplicity and reliability makes MLPA an effective first-tier cytogenetic diagnostic test for screening large cohorts of DD/ID patients. PMID:23383958

  12. Detecting abnormalities in choroidal vasculature in a mouse model of age-related macular degeneration by time-course indocyanine green angiography.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Berriochoa, Zachary; Jones, Alex D; Fu, Yingbin

    2014-01-01

    Indocyanine Green Angiography (or ICGA) is a technique performed by ophthalmologists to diagnose abnormalities of the choroidal and retinal vasculature of various eye diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). ICGA is especially useful to image the posterior choroidal vasculature of the eye due to its capability of penetrating through the pigmented layer with its infrared spectrum. ICGA time course can be divided into early, middle, and late phases. The three phases provide valuable information on the pathology of eye problems. Although time-course ICGA by intravenous (IV) injection is widely used in the clinic for the diagnosis and management of choroid problems, ICGA by intraperitoneal injection (IP) is commonly used in animal research. Here we demonstrated the technique to obtain high-resolution ICGA time-course images in mice by tail-vein injection and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. We used this technique to image the choroidal lesions in a mouse model of age-related macular degeneration. Although it is much easier to introduce ICG to the mouse vasculature by IP, our data indicate that it is difficult to obtain reproducible ICGA time course images by IP-ICGA. In contrast, ICGA via tail vein injection provides high quality ICGA time-course images comparable to human studies. In addition, we showed that ICGA performed on albino mice gives clearer pictures of choroidal vessels than that performed on pigmented mice. We suggest that time-course IV-ICGA should become a standard practice in AMD research based on animal models. PMID:24637497

  13. Advances in understanding paternally transmitted Chromosomal Abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, F; Sloter, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2001-03-01

    Multicolor FISH has been adapted for detecting the major types of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm including aneuploidies for clinically-relevant chromosomes, chromosomal aberrations including breaks and rearrangements, and other numerical abnormalities. The various sperm FISH assays have been used to evaluate healthy men, men of advanced age, and men who have received mutagenic cancer therapy. The mouse has also been used as a model to investigate the mechanism of paternally transmitted genetic damage. Sperm FISH for the mouse has been used to detect chromosomally abnormal mouse sperm, while the PAINT/DAPI analysis of mouse zygotes has been used to evaluate the types of chromosomal defects that can be paternally transmitted to the embryo and their effects on embryonic development.

  14. Abnormal Psychology Psychology 280

    E-print Network

    Liu, Taosheng

    1 Abnormal Psychology Psychology 280 1st Summer Session 2013 May 13June 27, 2013 Tuesday" Kalibatseva, M.A. Office: 127B Psychology Building Email: kalibats@msu.edu Phone Psychology PhD program at Michigan State University. I completed my bachelor's dual degree in psychology

  15. Record of Earliest West Antarctic Ice Sheet Beneath Ross Sea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, S. M.; Sorlien, C. C.; De Santis, L.; Luyendyk, B. P.; Sauli, C.; Wardell, N.; Bart, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Recent Global Climate Models, utilizing topography restored for rift-related subsidence and glacial erosion, produce a West Antarctic Ice Sheet for earliest Oligocene (~34 Ma) conditions. Additionally, global isotopic records indicate an Antarctic ice sheet larger than today's at ~34 Ma. However, evidence for a pre-30 Ma major glaciation has been lacking in seismic stratigraphic studies of Ross Sea. Utilizing deep scientific core holes and all available seismic reflection profiles, we investigated subsidence, sedimentation, and glacial erosion in the Ross Sea. These data image a smooth, tilted and laterally continuous (>200 km) unconformity interpreted as metamorphic basement eroded by waves and subaerial processes. At ~34 Ma, much of the central proto-Ross Sea's ground surface was composed of this basement. In the western Ross Sea, a pre-30 Ma trough >50 km-wide cuts downward as much as 2 km into acoustically reflective strata. These reflective strata are interpreted to be 80-55 Ma syn-rift sedimentary rocks cut by faults. The trough fill is unfaulted; therefore erosion postdates the rifting. Using the current depth of the top basement and the age of initial aggrading marine strata, post-~30 Ma to post-~25 Ma subsidence rates are easily calculated. Projecting these rates using tilts of 30 Ma and younger strata, Central Trough has subsided 2-3 km since 30 Ma, similar to published values for this trough. The unconformity flooring the trough currently is as deep as 6 km with shallower sills downflow. If backstripping and thermal modeling also indicate a reverse gradient of the trough axis at ~34 Ma and ~55 Ma, the erosion must have been due to ~34 Ma ice. In the event that the trough was eroded soon after cessation of rifting at 55 Ma, then total differential subsidence might explain both the current depth and reverse gradient. Projecting the known rates of sediment deposition between ~25 Ma and ~30 Ma, the trough fill can easily be post-~34 Ma. Therefore, one of the possible explanations is that the erosional trough comprising deep Central Trough may be evidence of the first advance of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. However, since we have not yet done the modeling, we cannot yet rule out the trough being an early Cenozoic river valley or a submarine canyon.

  16. Ichnotaxonomy of the Laetoli trackways: The earliest hominin footprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meldrum, D. J.; Lockley, Martin G.; Lucas, Spencer G.; Musiba, Charles

    2011-04-01

    At 3.6 Ma, the Laetoli Pliocene hominin trackways are the earliest direct evidence of hominin bipedalism. Three decades since their discovery, not only is the question of their attribution still discussed, but marked differences in interpretation concerning the footprints' qualitative features and the inferred nature of the early hominin foot morphology remain. Here, we establish a novel ichnotaxon, Praehominipes laetoliensis, for these tracks and clarify the distinctions of these footprints from those of later hominins, especially modern humans. We also contrast hominin, human, and ape footprints to establish morphological features of these footprints correlated with a midtarsal break versus a stiff longitudinal arch. Original photos, including stereo photographs, and casts of footprints from the 1978 Laetoli excavation, confirm midtarsal flexibility, and repeatedly indicate an associated midfoot pressure ridge. In contrast, the modern human footprint reflects the derived arched-foot architecture, combined with a stiff-legged striding gait. Fossilized footprints of unshod modern human pedestrians in Hawaii and Nicaragua unambiguously illustrate these contrasts. Some points of comparisons with ape footprints are complicated by a variable hallucal position and the distinct manner of ape facultative bipedalism. In contrast to the comparatively rigid platform of the modern human foot, midtarsal flexibility is present in the chimpanzee foot. In ape locomotion, flexion at the transverse tarsal joint, referred to as the "midtarsal break," uncouples the respective functions of the prehensile forefoot and the propulsive hindfoot during grasp-climbing. At some point after the transition to habitual bipedalism, these grasp-climb adaptations, presumed to be present in the last common ancestor of apes and humans, were initially compromised by the loss of divergence of the hallux. An analogous trajectory is evident along an array of increasingly terrestrial extant ape species. However, a flexible midfoot was retained, presumably to spare lateral toes from bending stresses by concentrating push-off from the forefoot, beneath the metatarsals. Only later did the evolution of the longitudinal arch permit increased mechanical advantage of the plantarflexors for speed and improved economy of endurance distance walking and running.

  17. Referenceless stratification of parenchymal lung abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Raghunath, Sushravya; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Karwoski, Ronald A; Bartholmai, Brian J; Robb, Richard A

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces computational tools that could enable personalized, predictive, preemptive, and participatory (P4) Pulmonary medicine. We demonstrate approaches to (a) stratify lungs from different subjects based on the spatial distribution of parenchymal abnormality and (b) visualize the stratification through glyphs that convey both the grouping efficacy and an iconic overview of an individual's lung wellness. Affinity propagation based on regional parenchymal abnormalities is used in the referenceless stratification. Abnormalities are computed using supervised classification based on Earth Mover's distance. Twenty natural clusters were detected from 372 CT lung scans. The computed clusters correlated with clinical consensus of 9 disease types. The quality of inter- and intra-cluster stratification as assessed by ANOSIM R was 0.887 +/- 0.18 (pval < 0.0005). The proposed tools could serve as biomarkers to objectively diagnose pathology, track progression and assess pharmacologic response within and across patients. PMID:22003703

  18. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home About Goals Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  19. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Fetal Calcifications Are Associated with Chromosomal Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Sahlin, Ellika; Sirotkina, Meeli; Marnerides, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Objective The biological importance of calcifications occasionally noted in fetal tissues (mainly liver) at autopsy or ultrasound is largely unexplored. Previous reports hint at an association to infection, circulatory compromise, malformations or chromosomal abnormalities. To identify factors associated with calcifications, we have performed a case-control study on the largest cohort of fetuses with calcifications described thus far. Methods One-hundred and fifty-one fetuses with calcifications and 302 matched controls were selected from the archives of the Department of Pathology, Karolinska University Hospital. Chromosome analysis by karyotyping or quantitative fluorescence-polymerase chain reaction was performed. Autopsy and placenta reports were scrutinized for presence of malformations and signs of infection. Results Calcifications were mainly located in the liver, but also in heart, bowel, and other tissues. Fetuses with calcifications showed a significantly higher proportion of chromosomal abnormalities than controls; 50% vs. 20% (p<0.001). The most frequent aberrations among cases included trisomy 21 (33%), trisomy 18 (22%), and monosomy X (18%). A similar distribution was seen among controls. When comparing cases and controls with chromosomal abnormalities, the cases had a significantly higher prevalence of malformations (95% vs. 77%, p=0.004). Analyzed the other way around, cases with malformations had a significantly higher proportion of chromosomal abnormalities compared with controls, (66% vs. 31%, p<0.001). Conclusion The presence of fetal calcifications is associated with high risk of chromosomal abnormality in combination with malformations. Identification of a calcification together with a malformation at autopsy more than doubles the probability of detecting a chromosomal abnormality, compared with identification of a malformation only. We propose that identification of a fetal tissue calcification at autopsy, and potentially also at ultrasound examination, should infer special attention towards co-existence of malformations, as this would be a strong indicator for a chromosomal abnormality. PMID:25923652

  1. Your Earliest Memory May Be Earlier than You Think: Prospective Studies of Children's Dating of Earliest Childhood Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qi; Peterson, Carole

    2014-01-01

    Theories of childhood amnesia and autobiographical memory development have been based on the assumption that the age estimates of earliest childhood memories are generally accurate, with an average age of 3.5 years among adults. It is also commonly believed that early memories will by default become inaccessible later on and this eventually…

  2. SYSTEMS NEUROSCIENCE The neuroscience of tinnitus: understanding abnormal and

    E-print Network

    Roberts, Larry

    SYSTEMS NEUROSCIENCE The neuroscience of tinnitus: understanding abnormal and normal auditory in tinnitus patients were deemed unlikely (Diesch et al., 2012a). Although cortical map reorganization cannot), mapreorganizationiswidelybelievedtoplayanenablingroleinthe generationof tinnitus.However,Langersetal.(2012)wereunableto detect macroscopic map reorganization

  3. Abnormal ionization in sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; An, Yu

    2015-04-01

    Sonoluminescence is a complex phenomenon, the mechanism of which remains unclear. The present study reveals that an abnormal ionization process is likely to be present in the sonoluminescing bubble. To fit the experimental data of previous studies, we assume that the ionization energies of the molecules and atoms in the bubble decrease as the gas density increases and that the decrease of the ionization energy reaches about 60%–70% as the bubble flashes, which is difficult to explain by using previous models. Project supported by the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120002110031) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11334005).

  4. Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.

    1986-07-01

    To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease.

  5. Abnormalities of the foetal cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Toi, Ants; Chitayat, David; Blaser, Susan

    2009-04-01

    Prenatal ultrasound has concentrated on readily visible cerebral structures including head size, shape, ventricles, CSP (cavum septi pellucidi), cerebellar size/vermian presence and cisterna magna. However, apart from these easily visible structures it is important to evaluate the brain itself. Patients who initially appear to have mild isolated findings such as borderline ventriculomegaly in fact can have many more subtle findings that significantly alter prognosis and management that can be detected on detailed examination of the brain. There has been rapid evolution in imaging these foetuses, especially with neurosonography and MRI, and a revolution in understanding the underlying genetic and biochemical mechanisms. There is increasing emphasis to detect cortical abnormalities as early as possible. This article reviews development of the cerebral cortex, the classification, aetiologies and clinical manifestations of cortical disorders, normal and abnormal appearances at ultrasound and MRI, and approaches to investigation. PMID:19235759

  6. Detection of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Brandriff, B.; Gordon, L.; Ashworth, A.K.; Watchmaker, G.; Carrano, A.V.

    1985-06-19

    A new technology developed by Rudak, et al. for examining the chromosomal constitution of human sperm through fusion with eggs from the Syrian hamster was used to obtain baseline data on the types and frequencies of aberrations in sperm of normal men. The frequency of structural aberrations in 2724 sperm chromosome karyotypes from the 13 healthy non-exposed donors ranged from 2 to 15.8%, demonstrating significant interindividual variability. The most frequently occurring aberrations were chromosome breaks, followed by acentric fragments, chromatid exchanges, chromatid breaks, dicentrics and translocations, chromosome deletions and duplications, inversions, and chromatid deletions. Two donors previously reported had one cell each with multiple chromatid exchanges and breaks. In addition, the oldest donor, AA, had 5 cells out of 124 examined with multiple breaks and rearrangements too extensive to completely identify. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. Age at earliest reported memory: associations with personality traits, behavioral health, and repression.

    PubMed

    Spirrison, C L; McCarley, N G

    2001-09-01

    The present study examined relationships between the age at earliest memory and the personality traits and behavioral health of 107 undergraduates. Participants answered questions on their earliest memory and completed the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and a medical history form. Analyses indicated that continuous scores on two MBTI scales (Sensing-Intuition and Judging-Perceiving) were inversely related to age at earliest memory as were participant's self-reported drug and alcohol problems, emotional and psychological symptoms, accident rates, physical symptoms, and satisfaction with health. Respondents who reported first memories at or after 7 years of age (i.e., approximately 1 SD above the mean age at recalled memory) were classified as repressors. Repressors scored in the Sensing and Judging directions on the MBTI and reported significantly fewer emotional symptoms, accidents, psychological symptoms, and less health satisfaction than nonrepressors. Results are consistent with the age at earliest memory and repression literature and support the use of earliest memory age as an index of repression. PMID:11575624

  8. Neurological abnormalities in young adults born preterm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Allin; M Rooney; T Griffiths; M Cuddy; J Wyatt; L Rifkin; R Murray

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Individuals born before 33 weeks’ gestation (very preterm, VPT) have an increased likelihood of neurological abnormality, impaired cognitive function, and reduced academic performance in childhood. It is currently not known whether neurological signs detected in VPT children persist into adulthood or become attenuated by maturation of the CNS.Method: We assessed 153 VPT individuals and 71 term-born controls at 17–18

  9. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50?dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

  10. The abnormal fontanel.

    PubMed

    Kiesler, Joseph; Ricer, Rick

    2003-06-15

    The diagnosis of an abnormal fontanel requires an understanding of the wide variation of normal. At birth, an infant has six fontanels. The anterior fontanel is the largest and most important for clinical evaluation. The average size of the anterior fontanel is 2.1 cm, and the median time of closure is 13.8 months. The most common causes of a large anterior fontanel or delayed fontanel closure are achondroplasia, hypothyroidism, Down syndrome, increased intracranial pressure, and rickets. A bulging anterior fontanel can be a result of increased intracranial pressure or intracranial and extracranial tumors, and a sunken fontanel usually is a sign of dehydration. A physical examination helps the physician determine which imaging modality, such as plain films, ultrasonography, computed tomographic scan, or magnetic resonance imaging, to use for diagnosis. PMID:12825844

  11. The Earliest Stages of Star and Planet Formation: Core Collapse, and the Formation of Disks and Outflows

    E-print Network

    Li, Zhi-Yun; Pudritz, Ralph E; Jørgensen, Jes K; Shang, Hsien; Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Maury, Anaëlle

    2014-01-01

    (Abridged) In this review we focus on the observations and theory of the formation of early disks and outflows, and their connections with the first phases of planet formation. Large rotationally supported circumstellar disks, although common around more evolved young stellar objects, are rarely detected during the earliest, "Class 0" phase; however, a few excellent candidates have been discovered recently around both low and high mass protostars. In this early phase, prominent outflows are ubiquitously observed; they are expected to be associated with at least small magnetized disks. Disk formation - once thought to be a simple consequence of the conservation of angular momentum during hydrodynamic core collapse - is far more subtle in magnetized gas. In this case, the rotation can be strongly magnetically braked. Indeed, both analytic arguments and numerical simulations have shown that disk formation is suppressed in the strict ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) limit for the observed level of core magnetizati...

  12. A Biologically Inspired Algorithm for Microcalcification Cluster Detection

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    of breast cancer greatly improves prognosis. One of the earliest signs of cancer is the formation screening programs attempt to detect and eradicate cancer at the earliest possible stage to reduce the rate of mortality amongst women. However, detecting the early signs of breast cancer that appear in X- ray

  13. Haem degradation in abnormal haemoglobins.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, S B; Docherty, J C

    1978-01-01

    The coupled oxidation of certain abnormal haemoglobins leads to different bile-pigment isomer distributions from that of normal haemoglobin. The isomer pattern may be correlated with the structure of the abnormal haemoglobin in the neighbourhood of the haem pocket. This is support for haem degradation by an intramolecular reaction. PMID:708385

  14. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  15. Screening for abnormal haemoglobins: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Stuart, J; Schwartz, F C; Little, A J; Raine, D N

    1973-11-01

    A pilot study has been made of the implication of screening for abnormal haemoglobins in immigrant schoolchildren. An abnormality was detected by capillary blood haemoglobin electrophoresis in 8.4% of 6,835 children and a haemoglobinopathy outpatient clinic had to be established to deal with the heavy work load which resulted. The clinic was also used to determine the value of investigating the remaining members of the family once an abnormality had been detected in one child.Healthy siblings with normal haemoglobin electrophoretic patterns and normal iron and folate levels were studied to determine a normal range for haemoglobin in relation to age for adequately nourished immigrant children. The lower limit of the normal range was close to the mean value minus 1(1/2) S.D.; by using this definition 10.3% of 280 children were subsequently found to be anaemic.Population screening of this type is desirable, but further pilot studies of patient education, genetic counselling, organization of specimen collection, data processing, and follow-up health care facilities are required before screening is extended more widely in the United Kingdom. PMID:4753245

  16. Astragalar Morphology of Afradapis, a Large Adapiform Primate From the Earliest Late Eocene of Egypt

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Doug M.

    of Egypt Doug M. Boyer,1 * Erik R. Seiffert,2 and Elwyn L. Simons3 1 Department of Anthropology of Egypt's Fayum Depression, yields evidence for a diverse primate fauna, including the earliest known from the Fayum Depression of northern Egypt have long figured promi- nently in debates surrounding

  17. Laetoli Footprints Preserve Earliest Direct Evidence of HumanLike Bipedal Biomechanics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Raichlen; Adam D. Gordon; William E. H. Harcourt-Smith; Adam D. Foster; Wm. Randall Haas

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundDebates over the evolution of hominin bipedalism, a defining human characteristic, revolve around whether early bipeds walked more like humans, with energetically efficient extended hind limbs, or more like apes with flexed hind limbs. The 3.6 million year old hominin footprints at Laetoli, Tanzania represent the earliest direct evidence of hominin bipedalism. Determining the kinematics of Laetoli hominins will allow

  18. Laetoli Footprints Preserve Earliest Direct Evidence of HumanLike Bipedal Biomechanics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Raichlen; Adam D. Gordon; William E. H. Harcourt-Smith; Adam D. Foster; Wm. Randall Haas

    2010-01-01

    Background: Debates over the evolution of hominin bipedalism, a defining human characteristic, revolve around whether early bipeds walked more like humans, with energetically efficient extended hind limbs, or more like apes with flexed hind limbs. The 3.6 million year old hominin footprints at Laetoli, Tanzania represent the earliest direct evidence of hominin bipedalism. Determining the kinematics of Laetoli hominins will

  19. Maternal Reminiscing Style during Early Childhood Predicts the Age of Adolescents' Earliest Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Fiona; MacDonald, Shelley; Reese, Elaine; Hayne, Harlene

    2009-01-01

    Individual differences in parental reminiscing style are hypothesized to have long-lasting effects on children's autobiographical memory development, including the age of their earliest memories. This study represents the first prospective test of this hypothesis. Conversations about past events between 17 mother-child dyads were recorded on…

  20. Real-Time Queues in Heavy Traffic with Earliest-Deadline-First Queue Discipline

    E-print Network

    Real-Time Queues in Heavy Traffic with Earliest-Deadline-First Queue Discipline length and server utilization, real-time queueing theory focuses on the ability of a queue discipline first (EDF) scheduling policy. This analysis decomposes the behavior of the real-time queue into two

  1. THE EARLIEST STAGES OF HIGH MASS STAR FORMATION METHANOL MASER INSIGHTS , P. Andr1

    E-print Network

    De Buizer, James Michael

    THE EARLIEST STAGES OF HIGH MASS STAR FORMATION ­ METHANOL MASER INSIGHTS V. Minier1 , P. André1 (>8 M ) star formation using methanol MASERs as astronomical probes. Methanol masers can provide form. Tracers of high mass star-forming complexes in the Galactic plane: The brightest methanol masers

  2. Introduction Pulsatile jet propulsion is one of the earliest known forms

    E-print Network

    Dabiri, John O.

    2025 Introduction Pulsatile jet propulsion is one of the earliest known forms of aquatic locomotion et al., 1980)]. In cnidarians such as Aglantha, the jetting strategy is the sole means of propulsion exhibited by animals. Using a simple action­reaction principle, jet-propelled animals move forward

  3. Earliest date for milk use in the Near East and southeastern Europe linked to cattle herding

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    LETTERS Earliest date for milk use in the Near East and southeastern Europe linked to cattle considerable economic and nutritional gains from using these animals for their milk and other products from the late fifth and fourth millennia BC 4,5 . Hence, the timing and region in which milking was first

  4. Oxygen isotope heterogeneities in the earliest protosolar gas recorded in a meteoritic calciumaluminum-rich inclusion

    E-print Network

    Oxygen isotope heterogeneities in the earliest protosolar gas recorded in a meteoritic calcium progressively 16 O-poor ( 17 O0) and Mg-rich towards the interior. In the absence of Mg isotopic fractionation.W. Carlson Available online 12 September 2007 Abstract Combined petrologic, oxygen and magnesium isotopic

  5. Lithium in Jack Hills zircons: Evidence for extensive weathering of Earth's earliest crust Takayuki Ushikubo a,

    E-print Network

    Mcdonough, William F.

    Lithium in Jack Hills zircons: Evidence for extensive weathering of Earth's earliest crust Takayuki 2008 Accepted 28 May 2008 Available online 10 June 2008 Editor: R.W. Carlson Keywords: zircon Jack zircons from the Jack Hills, Western Australia by SIMS reveal that the Li abundances (typically 10 to 60

  6. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  7. Characterizing molecular clouds in the earliest phases of high-mass star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanhueza Nunez, Patricio A.

    High-mass stars play a key role in the energetics and chemical evolution. of molecular clouds and galaxies. However, the mechanisms that allow. the formation of high-mass stars are far less clear than those of. their low-mass. counterparts. Most of the research on high-mass star formation has focused. on regions currently undergoing star formation. In contrast, objects. in the earlier prestellar stage have been more difficult to identify. Recently, it has been. suggested that the cold, massive, and dense Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs) host. the earliest stages of high-mass star formation. The chemistry of IRDCs remains poorly explored. In this dissertation, an. observational program to search for chemical. variations in IRDC clumps as a function of their age is described. An increase in N2H+ and HCO+ abundances. is found from the quiescent, cold phase to the protostellar, warmer phases, reflecting chemical. evolution. For HCO+ abundances, the observed trend is consistent with. theoretical predictions. However, chemical models fail to explain the observed. trend of increasing N2H+ abundances. Pristine high-mass prestellar clumps are ideal for testing and constraining. theories of high-mass star formation because their predictions differ. the most at the early stages of evolution. From the initial IRDC sample, a high-mass clump that is the best candidate to be in the prestellar phase. was selected (IRDC G028.23-00.19 MM1). With a new set of observations, the prestellar nature of the clump is confirmed. High-angular resolution. observations of IRDC G028.23-00.19 suggest that in. order to form high-mass stars, the detected cores have to accrete a large. amount of material, passing through a low- to intermediate-mass phase. before having the necessary mass to form a. high-mass star. The turbulent core accretion model. is inconsistent with this observational result, but on the other hand, the. observations support the competitive accretion model. Embedded cores have. to grow in. mass during the star-formation process itself; the mass is not set at early. times as the turbulent core accretion model predicts. The observed gas velocity dispersion in the cores is transonic and mildly. supersonic, resulting in low virial parameters (neglecting magnetic fields). The turbulent core accretion model assumes highly supersonic linewidths and. virial parameters sim1, inconsistent with the observations, unless. magnetic fields in the cores have strengths of the order of 1 mG.

  8. EPOS -New Herschel results on the Earliest Phases of Star Fomation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Oliver; Henning, Th.; Linz, H.; Stutz, A.; Beuther, H.; et al.

    We present first results of the EPOS Key Program on star formation. EPOS consists of PACS and SPIRE imaging-mode observations of sites of low-to high-mass star formation. The low-mass section of the program will observe Bok Globules to infer their physical conditions, namely the core dust temperature and density structure. The Herschel observations will cover the peak of the cold dust emission for our sources. These targets were selected to be: (I) nearby (d ¡ 600 pc), (II) isolated, (III) of an angular size matching the relatively small PACS maps , (IV) well-characterized in terms of morphology and evolutionary stage, and (V) representative of the three major evolutionary stages in cores: (a) prestellar cores, (b) Class 0 protostellar cores (the youngest protostellar phase), and (c) Class I embedded protostar still with a significant envelope. First science results on CB244 demonstrate the capabilities of Herschel imaging to construct spatially resolved spectral energy distributions of an isolated low-mass star-forming core and to characterize the role of external heating and shielding by the envelopes for its energy balance. The earliest phases of massive star formation are still poorly understood because the objects are very deeply embedded, evolve rapidly and are located at larger distances than the closest regions of low-mass star formation. We carefully selected a sample of about 40 massive and cold cores for observations with Herschel. Multi-wavelength observations of these objects, including millimetre single-dish and interfometry data, are available for the entire sample. Based on this sample, we are using the Herschel PACS and SPIRE instruments to search for the embedded stellar population and to characterize the temperature and density structure of the cores. We will summarize the first results of our observations, especially showing the amazing detection of very young stellar objects deeply embedded in the observed cores. We highlight the implications of the Herschel observations on our understanding of high-mass star formation from case studies of three different objects from our sample.

  9. 42 CFR 137.260 - What is the earliest date on which a reassumption can be effective?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false What is the earliest date on which a reassumption...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE... § 137.260 What is the earliest date on which a...

  10. 42 CFR 137.260 - What is the earliest date on which a reassumption can be effective?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false What is the earliest date on which a reassumption...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE... § 137.260 What is the earliest date on which a...

  11. Emergency and Abnormal Situations Project

    E-print Network

    --------------------------------------------------------Context Dependent Manufacturers Regulatory Agencies Company (Management, Dispatch, Maintenance) Flight and Cabin Crews ATC #12;Economic and Regulatory Pressures Philosophies Emergency and Abnormal Situations Project Taxonomy of the Domain Economic and Regulatory Pressures Pertaining to Dealing with and Training

  12. Using Reduced Interference Distribution to Analyze Abnormal Cardiac Signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousa, Allam; Saleem, Rashid

    2011-05-01

    Due to the non-stationary, multicomponent nature of biomedical signals, the use of time-frequency analysis can be inevitable for these signals. The choice and selection of the proper Time-Frequency Distribution (TFD) that can reveal the exact multicomponent structure of biological signals is vital in many applications, including the diagnosis of medical abnormalities. In this paper, the instantaneous frequency techniques using two distribution functions are applied for analysis of biological signals. These distributions are the Wigner-Ville Distribution and the Bessel Distribution. The simulation performed on normaland abnormal cardiac signals show that the Bessel Distribution can clearly detect the QRS complexes. However, Wigner-Ville Distribution was able to detect the QRS complexes in the normal signa, but fails to detect these complexes in the abnormal cardiac signal.

  13. Neurological abnormalities in young adults born preterm

    PubMed Central

    Allin, M; Rooney, M; Griffiths, T; Cuddy, M; Wyatt, J; Rifkin, L; Murray, R

    2006-01-01

    Objective Individuals born before 33?weeks' gestation (very preterm, VPT) have an increased likelihood of neurological abnormality, impaired cognitive function, and reduced academic performance in childhood. It is currently not known whether neurological signs detected in VPT children persist into adulthood or become attenuated by maturation of the CNS. Method We assessed 153 VPT individuals and 71 term?born controls at 17–18?years old, using a comprehensive neurological examination. This examination divides neurological signs into primary and integrative domains, the former representing the localising signs of classical neurology, and the latter representing signs requiring integration between different neural networks or systems. Integrative signs are sub?divided into three groups: sensory integration, motor confusion, and sequencing. The VPT individuals have been followed up since birth, and neonatal information is available on them, along with the results of neurological assessment at 4 and 8?years of age and neuropsychological assessment at 18?years of age. Results The total neurology score and primary and integrative scores were significantly increased in VPT young adults compared to term?born controls. Within the integrative domain, sensory integration and motor confusion scores were significantly increased in the VPT group, but sequencing was not significantly different between the VPT and term groups. Integrative neurological abnormalities at 18 were strongly associated with reduced IQ but primary abnormalities were not. Conclusions Neurological signs are increased in VPT adults compared to term?born controls, and are strongly associated with reduced neuropsychological function. PMID:16543529

  14. Chromosomal Abnormality in Men with Impaired Spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mierla, Dana; Jardan, Dumitru; Stoian, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletions are regarded as two most frequent genetic causes associated with failure of spermatogenesis in the Caucasian population. Materials and Methods: To investigate the distribution of genetic defects in the Romanian population with azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia, karyotype analysis by G-banding was carried out in 850 idiopathic infertile men and in 49 fertile men with one or more children. Screening for microdeletions in the azoospermia factor (AZF) region of Y chromosome was performed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on a group of 67 patients with no detectable chromosomal abnormality. The results of the two groups were compared by a two-tailed Fisher’s exact test. Results: In our study chromosomal abnormalities were observed in 12.70% and 8.16% of infertile and fertile individuals respectively. Conclusion: Our data suggests that infertile men with severe azoospermia have higher incidences of genetic defects than fertile men and also patients from any other group. Infertile men with normal sperm present a higher rate of polymorphic variants. It is important to know whether there is a genetic cause of male infertility before patients are subjected to intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or testicular sperm extraction (TESE)/ICSI treatment. PMID:24696767

  15. Maxillary tumour as first sign of endocrine abnormality: A report of a rare case

    PubMed Central

    Thankappan, Prasanth; Chundru, Naga Sirisha; Amudala, Rajesh; Kuppusamy, Anitha

    2015-01-01

    Brown tumour is a non-neoplastic giant cell lesion resulting as a complication of hyperparathyroidism (HPT). HPT usually results from increased secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH). We present a rare case of brown tumour of anterior maxilla presenting as a first sign of previously undiagnosed secondary HPT, to emphasise that giant cell lesions of jaw bones should routinely be screened for PTH levels to rule out underlying endocrine abnormalities and oral manifestation is the earliest manifestation of many systemic diseases and careful evaluation of oral cavity by physician gives information to underlying systemic pathology. PMID:25657501

  16. Maxillary tumour as first sign of endocrine abnormality: A report of a rare case.

    PubMed

    Thankappan, Prasanth; Chundru, Naga Sirisha; Amudala, Rajesh; Kuppusamy, Anitha

    2015-01-01

    Brown tumour is a non-neoplastic giant cell lesion resulting as a complication of hyperparathyroidism (HPT). HPT usually results from increased secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH). We present a rare case of brown tumour of anterior maxilla presenting as a first sign of previously undiagnosed secondary HPT, to emphasise that giant cell lesions of jaw bones should routinely be screened for PTH levels to rule out underlying endocrine abnormalities and oral manifestation is the earliest manifestation of many systemic diseases and careful evaluation of oral cavity by physician gives information to underlying systemic pathology. PMID:25657501

  17. The characteristics and chronology of the earliest Acheulean at Konso, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Beyene, Yonas; Katoh, Shigehiro; WoldeGabriel, Giday; Hart, William K.; Uto, Kozo; Sudo, Masafumi; Kondo, Megumi; Hyodo, Masayuki; Renne, Paul R.; Suwa, Gen; Asfaw, Berhane

    2013-01-01

    The Acheulean technological tradition, characterized by a large (>10 cm) flake-based component, represents a significant technological advance over the Oldowan. Although stone tool assemblages attributed to the Acheulean have been reported from as early as circa 1.6–1.75 Ma, the characteristics of these earliest occurrences and comparisons with later assemblages have not been reported in detail. Here, we provide a newly established chronometric calibration for the Acheulean assemblages of the Konso Formation, southern Ethiopia, which span the time period ?1.75 to <1.0 Ma. The earliest Konso Acheulean is chronologically indistinguishable from the assemblage recently published as the world’s earliest with an age of ?1.75 Ma at Kokiselei, west of Lake Turkana, Kenya. This Konso assemblage is characterized by a combination of large picks and crude bifaces/unifaces made predominantly on large flake blanks. An increase in the number of flake scars was observed within the Konso Formation handaxe assemblages through time, but this was less so with picks. The Konso evidence suggests that both picks and handaxes were essential components of the Acheulean from its initial stages and that the two probably differed in function. The temporal refinement seen, especially in the handaxe forms at Konso, implies enhanced function through time, perhaps in processing carcasses with long and stable cutting edges. The documentation of the earliest Acheulean at ?1.75 Ma in both northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia suggests that behavioral novelties were being established in a regional scale at that time, paralleling the emergence of Homo erectus-like hominid morphology. PMID:23359714

  18. Earth’s earliest evolved crust generated in an Iceland-like setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimink, Jesse R.; Chacko, Thomas; Stern, Richard A.; Heaman, Larry M.

    2014-07-01

    It is unclear how the earliest continental crust formed on an Earth that was probably originally surfaced with oceanic crust. Continental crust may have first formed in an ocean island-like setting, where upwelling mantle generates magmas that crystallize to form new crust. Of the oceanic plateaux, Iceland is closest in character to continental crust, because its crust is anomalously thick and contains a relatively high proportion of silica-rich (sialic) rocks. Iceland has therefore been considered a suitable analogue for the generation of Earth’s earliest continental crust. However, the geochemical signature of sialic rocks from Iceland is distinct from the typical 3.9- to 2.5-billion-year-old Archaean rocks discovered so far. Here we report the discovery of an exceptionally well-preserved, 4.02-billion-year-old tonalitic gneiss rock unit within the Acasta Gneiss Complex in Canada. We use geochemical analyses to show that this rock unit is characterized by iron enrichment, negative Europium anomalies, unfractionated rare-earth-element patterns, and magmatic zircons with low oxygen isotope ratios. These geochemical characteristics are unlike typical Archaean igneous rocks, but are strikingly similar to those of the sialic rocks from Iceland and imply that this ancient rock unit was formed by shallow-level magmatic processes that include assimilation of rocks previously altered by surface waters. Our data provide direct evidence that Earth’s earliest continental crust formed in a tectonic setting comparable to modern Iceland.

  19. Kidney transplantation in abnormal bladder

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shashi K.; Muthu, V.; Rajapurkar, Mohan M.; Desai, Mahesh R.

    2007-01-01

    Structural urologic abnormalities resulting in dysfunctional lower urinary tract leading to end stage renal disease may constitute 15% patients in the adult population and up to 20-30% in the pediatric population. A patient with an abnormal bladder, who is approaching end stage renal disease, needs careful evaluation of the lower urinary tract to plan the most satisfactory technical approach to the transplant procedure. Past experience of different authors can give an insight into the management and outcome of these patients. This review revisits the current literature available on transplantation in abnormal bladder and summarizes the clinical approach towards handling this group of difficult transplant patients. We add on our experience as we discuss the various issues. The outcome of renal transplant in abnormal bladder is not adversely affected when done in a reconstructed bladder. Correct preoperative evaluation, certain technical modification during transplant and postoperative care is mandatory to avoid complications. Knowledge of the abnormal bladder should allow successful transplantation with good outcome. PMID:19718334

  20. Altered resting state functional connectivity of anterior cingulate cortex in drug naïve adolescents at the earliest stages of anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Gaudio, Santino; Piervincenzi, Claudia; Beomonte Zobel, Bruno; Romana Montecchi, Francesca; Riva, Giuseppe; Carducci, Filippo; Cosimo Quattrocchi, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Previous Resting-State Functional Connectivity (RSFC) studies have shown several functional alterations in adults with or recovered from long Anorexia Nervosa (AN). The aim of this paper was to investigate whole brain RSFC in adolescents with AN in the earliest stages, less than 6 months, of the disorder. Sixteen drug-naïve outpatient female adolescents with AN-restrictive type (AN-r) (mean age: 15,8; SD 1,7) were compared to 16 age-matched healthy female (mean age: 16,3; SD 1,4). Relevant resting state networks (RSNs) were identified using independent component analysis (ICA) from functional magnetic resonance imaging data; a dual regression technique was used to detect between-group differences in the RSNs. Between-group differences of the functional connectivity maps were found in the executive control network (ECN). Particularly, decreased temporal correlation was observed in AN-r patients relative to healthy controls between the ECN functional connectivity maps and the anterior cingulate cortex (p?

  1. Altered resting state functional connectivity of anterior cingulate cortex in drug naïve adolescents at the earliest stages of anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Gaudio, Santino; Piervincenzi, Claudia; Beomonte Zobel, Bruno; Romana Montecchi, Francesca; Riva, Giuseppe; Carducci, Filippo; Cosimo Quattrocchi, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Previous Resting-State Functional Connectivity (RSFC) studies have shown several functional alterations in adults with or recovered from long Anorexia Nervosa (AN). The aim of this paper was to investigate whole brain RSFC in adolescents with AN in the earliest stages, less than 6 months, of the disorder. Sixteen drug-naïve outpatient female adolescents with AN-restrictive type (AN-r) (mean age: 15,8; SD 1,7) were compared to 16 age-matched healthy female (mean age: 16,3; SD 1,4). Relevant resting state networks (RSNs) were identified using independent component analysis (ICA) from functional magnetic resonance imaging data; a dual regression technique was used to detect between-group differences in the RSNs. Between-group differences of the functional connectivity maps were found in the executive control network (ECN). Particularly, decreased temporal correlation was observed in AN-r patients relative to healthy controls between the ECN functional connectivity maps and the anterior cingulate cortex (p?

  2. Postural Abnormalities: An Individualized Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vodola, Thomas M.

    As one of the components of the Project ACTIVE (All Children Totally Involved Exercising) Teacher Training Model Kit, the manual is designed to enable the educator to organize, conduct, and evaluate individualized-personalized programs for children in grades 4 through 12 with postural abnormalities. An introductory chapter covers definitions and…

  3. [A boy with nail abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Atiq, Nasirah; van Meurs, Tim

    2013-01-01

    A 12-year-old boy consulted the dermatologist for nail abnormalities. Three weeks earlier, he was treated with doxycycline 100 mg BID for 10 days because of erythema chronicum migrans. Following sun exposure, the patient had developed distal onycholysis surrounded by a hyperpigmented zone. He was diagnosed with doxycycline-induced photo-onycholysis. PMID:23838405

  4. Steganography with Least Histogram Abnormality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xinpeng Zhang; Shuozhong Wang; Kaiwen Zhang

    2003-01-01

    A novel steganographic scheme is proposed which avoids asymmetry inherent in conventional LSB embedding techniques so that abnormality in the image histogram is kept minimum. The proposed technique is capable of re- sisting the ?2 test and RS analysis, as well as a new steganalytic method named GPC analysis as introduced in this paper. In the described steganographic tech- nique,

  5. Distress Associated with Prenatal Screening for Fetal Abnormality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marci Lobel; Lynette Dias; Bruce A. Meyer

    2005-01-01

    A theoretically-based, multivariate approach was used to identify factors associated with emotional distress for pregnant women undergoing maternal serum alpha fetoprotein (MSAFP or AFP) testing, used to detect abnormalities of the fetal brain and spinal cord. Participants were those who received normal results (N = 87). Study results supported the hypothesis that different factors would predict distress before and after

  6. Symptom Complexes at the Earliest Phases of Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Synthesis of the Qualitative Literature

    PubMed Central

    Stack, Rebecca J; Sahni, Melanie; Mallen, Christian D; Raza, Karim

    2013-01-01

    Objective Understanding the features and patterns of symptoms that characterize the earliest stages of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is of considerable importance if patients are to be identified and started on treatment early. However, little is known about the characteristics of symptoms at the onset of a disease that eventually progresses to RA. Methods A systematic review of qualitative peer-reviewed publications was conducted to identify the earliest symptoms associated with the onset of RA. A total of 1,736 abstracts were searched to identify relevant publications. Twenty-six publications were identified, assessed for quality, and subjected to analysis informed by thematic and grounded theory frameworks. Results Several interacting themes describing the early symptoms of RA were identified, including swelling, pain and tenderness, stiffness, fatigue and weakness, and the emotional impact of symptoms. For each symptom, different and evolving intensities were described; in some cases, patterns of symptom onset and symptom complexes at the onset of RA were highlighted. Importantly, this review has emphasized major deficiencies in the literature. None of the studies reviewed originally aimed to explore symptoms at RA onset (often discussions about symptom onset were secondary to the study's primary aim). Also, many of the articles identified sampled people diagnosed with RA many years previously, making their recollection of symptoms at onset less reliable. Conclusion In order for clinicians to fully understand the earliest phases of disease, the nature of symptoms at onset needs to be understood. The current work represents a useful starting point, but this area needs further qualitative investigation, followed by quantitative explorations of symptom clusters and their associated features. PMID:23926091

  7. In multiple myeloma, bone-marrow lymphocytes harboring the same chromosomal abnormalities as autologous plasma cells predict poor survival

    PubMed Central

    Marun, Carina S Debes; Belch, Andrew R; Pilarski, Linda M

    2012-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities in plasma cells (PCs) from multiple myeloma (MM) provide a clonal signature to identify malignant cells. BM-lymphocytes from MM aspirates, defined by stringent criteria, were screened for the same chromosomal abnormalities as autologous PCs, including translocations, deletions, and amplifications. For 200 MM patients, we evaluated BM mononuclear cells to identify lymphocytes and autologous PCs on the same slide, followed by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization to characterize their chromosomal abnormalities. Of all patients having a given chromosomal abnormality(s) in PCs, 45% showed that same abnormality(s) in 2–37% (median = 5%) of BM-lymphocytes. Most translocations, amplifications, and deletions found in MM PCs were also detected in lymphocytes, above the healthy-donor “cut-off.” In patients having chromosomally abnormal CD20? PCs, chromosomally abnormal lymphocytes were found among CD20+ cells confirming them as B cells. Exceptions were amplification of 1q21 or p53 deletion, which characterize PCs but were undetectable in BM-lymphocytes, suggesting that processes leading to these abnormalities may be exclusive to PCs. For a set of 75 patients whose BM-lymphocytes and PCs were analyzed by all six probe sets, 58% of those with abnormal PC also had abnormal BM-lymphocytes harboring from one to five different abnormalities. Confirming the clinical significance of chromosomally abnormal BM-lymphocytes, MM patients having abnormalities in both lymphocytes and PC had significantly worse survival than those with abnormalities only in PC (HR = 2.68). The presence of at least one chromosomal abnormality in BM-lymphocytes appears to have greater clinical significance than particular abnormalities. Chromosomally abnormal BM-lymphocytes correlate with poor outcome and by extrapolation with more aggressive disease. PMID:22495885

  8. Functional neuroimaging abnormalities in idiopathic generalized epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    McGill, Megan L.; Devinsky, Orrin; Wang, Xiuyuan; Quinn, Brian T.; Pardoe, Heath; Carlson, Chad; Butler, Tracy; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Thesen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have been used to quantitatively assess focal and network abnormalities. Idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) is characterized by bilateral synchronous spike–wave discharges on electroencephalography (EEG) but normal clinical MRI. Dysfunctions involving the neocortex, particularly the prefrontal cortex, and thalamus likely contribute to seizure activity. To identify possible morphometric and functional differences in the brains of IGE patients and normal controls, we employed measures of thalamic volumes, cortical thickness, gray–white blurring, fractional anisotropy (FA) measures from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF) in thalamic subregions from resting state functional MRI. Data from 27 patients with IGE and 27 age- and sex-matched controls showed similar thalamic volumes, cortical thickness and gray–white contrast. There were no differences in FA values on DTI in tracts connecting the thalamus and prefrontal cortex. Functional analysis revealed decreased fALFF in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) subregion of the thalamus in patients with IGE. We provide minimum detectable effect sizes for each measure used in the study. Our analysis indicates that fMRI-based methods are more sensitive than quantitative structural techniques for characterizing brain abnormalities in IGE. PMID:25383319

  9. Abnormal pupillary light reflex with chromatic pupillometry in Gaucher disease.

    PubMed

    Narita, Aya; Shirai, Kentarou; Kubota, Norika; Takayama, Rumiko; Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Onuki, Takanori; Numakura, Chikahiko; Kato, Mitsuhiro; Hamada, Yusuke; Sakai, Norio; Ohno, Atsuko; Asami, Maya; Matsushita, Shoko; Hayashi, Anri; Kumada, Tomohiro; Fujii, Tatsuya; Horino, Asako; Inoue, Takeshi; Kuki, Ichiro; Asakawa, Ken; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Ohno, Koyo; Nishimura, Yoko; Tamasaki, Akiko; Maegaki, Yoshihiro; Ohno, Kousaku

    2014-02-01

    The hallmark of neuronopathic Gaucher disease (GD) is oculomotor abnormalities, but ophthalmological assessment is difficult in uncooperative patients. Chromatic pupillometry is a quantitative method to assess the pupillary light reflex (PLR) with minimal patient cooperation. Thus, we investigated whether chromatic pupillometry could be useful for neurological evaluations in GD. In our neuronopathic GD patients, red light-induced PLR was markedly impaired, whereas blue light-induced PLR was relatively spared. In addition, patients with non-neuronopathic GD showed no abnormalities. These novel findings show that chromatic pupillometry is a convenient method to detect neurological signs and monitor the course of disease in neuronopathic GD. PMID:25356393

  10. Equatorial Precession Drove Mid-Latitude Changes in ENSO-Scale Variation in the Earliest Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, B.; D'Andrea, W. J.; Lee, D. E.; Wilson, G. S.

    2014-12-01

    Foulden Maar is an annually laminated lacustrine diatomite deposit from the South Island of New Zealand. The deposit was laid down over ~100 kyr of the latest Oligocene and earliest Miocene, during the peak and deglaciation phase of the Mi-1 Antarctic glaciation event. At this time, New Zealand was located at approximately the same latitude as today (~45°S). Evidence from organic geochemical proxies (?D, ?13C) and physical properties (density, colour) indicates the presence of an 11-kyr cycle at the site. Although it is known that 11-kyr insolation (half-precession) cycles occur between the Tropics, this cycle is rarely seen in sedimentary archives deposited outside the immediate vicinity of the Equator. Records from Foulden Maar correlate well with the amplitude and phase of the modelled equatorial half-precession cycle for the earliest Miocene. High-resolution (50 µm) colour intensity measurements and lamina thickness measurements both indicate the presence of significant ENSO-like (2-8 year) variation in the Foulden Maar sediments. Early results from targeted lamina thickness measurements suggest that ENSO-band variation is modulated by the 11-kyr cycle, with power in the ENSO band increasing during periods of increased insolation at the Equator. This implies that equatorial half-precession had a significant effect on ENSO-like variation in the early Miocene, and that this effect was felt as far afield as the mid-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere.

  11. Spiral laminar flow, the earliest predictor for maturation of arteriovenous fistula for hemodialysis access

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Aneesh; Mittal, Varun; Lal, Hira; Javali, Tarun; Patidar, Nitesh; Sureka, Sanjoy; Aggarwal, Shikhar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is the gold standard vascular access for hemodialysis (HD). A thrill or murmur immediately after creation of AVF is considered a predictive sign of success. However, this does not ensure final maturation for successful HD. Our objective was to determine different clinical and duplex parameters within AVF to predict maturation and subsequent successful HD. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted on 187 patients who had AVF formation from July 2012 to May 2013. Following surgery, all patients had Doppler ultrasound (DU) on Days 0 and 7. Doppler parameters noted in the outflow vein were: Thrill, broadening of spectral waveform with increased peak systolic velocity (PSV) and spiral laminar flow (SLF). Patients with at least one positive parameter at Day 0 were followed-up serially and underwent repeat Doppler imaging on Day 7. Patients with the absence of all three parameters on Day 0 were excluded from the study. Endpoint was maturation of AVF, i.e. successful HD. Statistical analysis was performed with binary logistic regression, to find out the strongest and earliest predictor for maturation of AVF using SPSS version 20. Results: SLF and broadening of spectral waveform with increased PSV were found to have a significant association with maturation (P = 0.0001). Presence of SLF on Day 0 most strongly predicted maturation. Presence of thrill or murmur could not predict the maturation. Conclusions: SLF pattern in AVF is the most important and the earliest predictor of maturation.

  12. Excessive centrosome abnormalities without ongoing numerical chromosome instability in a Burkitt's lymphoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Duensing; Benjamin H Lee; Paola Dal Cin; Karl Münger

    2003-01-01

    Numerical and structural centrosome abnormalities are detected in various human malignancies and have been implicated in the formation of multipolar mitoses, chromosome missegregation, and chromosomal instability. Despite this association between centrosome abnormalities and cancerous growth, a causative role of centrosome aberrations in generating chromosomal instability and aneuploidy has not been universally established. We report here excessive numerical and structural centrosome

  13. Mastoid abnormalities in down syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. J. Glass; D. K. Yousefzadeh; N. J. Roizen

    1989-01-01

    Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected\\u000a children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality\\u000a may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child’s hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors\\u000a which are important

  14. Atlas: Cartilage Abnormalities and Scores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Liebl; Thomas M. Link

    \\u000a The following chapter illustrates cartilage abnormalities and provides semiquantitative scores for these lesions. The focus\\u000a of this chapter is on the most frequently used Recht (modified Noyes and Stabler) score [1, 2] and Whole-Organ-MRI-Score (WORMS)\\u000a [3]. These scores have been used in a number of previous studies and have been found helpful in assessing the grade of cartilage\\u000a lesions, in

  15. Ovarian Steroidogenic Abnormalities in PCOS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica K. Wickenheisser; Jan M. McAllister

    Androgen excess, theca, granulosa, polycystic ovary syndrome, steroidogenesis, folliculogenesis, estrogen, insulin sensitivity,\\u000a signaling defect. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common, clinically heterogeneous disorder that affects approximately\\u000a 6–10% of premenopausal women [1, 2]. Hyperandrogenemia is the biochemical hallmark of PCOS. Reproductive and endocrine abnormalities\\u000a include disordered gonadotropin secretion, oligomenorrhea and anovulatory infertility, and endometrial hyperplasia. Obesity,\\u000a hirsutism, acne, and alopecia

  16. Mixed pattern matching-based traffic abnormal behavior recognition.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Cui, Zhiming; Sheng, Victor S; Shi, Yujie; Zhao, Pengpeng

    2014-01-01

    A motion trajectory is an intuitive representation form in time-space domain for a micromotion behavior of moving target. Trajectory analysis is an important approach to recognize abnormal behaviors of moving targets. Against the complexity of vehicle trajectories, this paper first proposed a trajectory pattern learning method based on dynamic time warping (DTW) and spectral clustering. It introduced the DTW distance to measure the distances between vehicle trajectories and determined the number of clusters automatically by a spectral clustering algorithm based on the distance matrix. Then, it clusters sample data points into different clusters. After the spatial patterns and direction patterns learned from the clusters, a recognition method for detecting vehicle abnormal behaviors based on mixed pattern matching was proposed. The experimental results show that the proposed technical scheme can recognize main types of traffic abnormal behaviors effectively and has good robustness. The real-world application verified its feasibility and the validity. PMID:24605045

  17. Characterizing the range of simulated prostate abnormalities palpable by digital rectal examination

    PubMed Central

    Baumgart, Leigh A.; Gerling, Gregory J.; Bass, Ellen J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Although the digital rectal exam (DRE) is a common method of screening for prostate cancer and other abnormalities, the limits of ability to perform this hands-on exam are unknown. Perceptible limits are a function of the size, depth, and hardness of abnormalities within a given prostate stiffness. Methods To better understand the perceptible limits of the DRE, we conducted a psychophysical study with 18 participants using a custom-built apparatus to simulate prostate tissue and abnormalities of varying size, depth, and hardness. Utilizing a modified version of the psychophysical method of constant stimuli, we uncovered thresholds of absolute detection and variance in ability between examiners. Results Within silicone-elastomers that mimic normal prostate tissue (21 kPa), abnormalities of 4 mm diameter (20 mm3 volume) and greater were consistently detectable (above 75% of the time) but only at a depth of 5 mm. Abnormalities located in simulated tissue of greater stiffness (82 kPa) had to be twice that volume (5 mm diameter,40 mm3 volume) to be detectable at the same rate. Conclusions This study finds that the size and depth of abnormalities most influence detectability, while the relative stiffness between abnormalities and substrate also affects detectability for some size/depth combinations. While limits identified here are obtained for idealized substrates, this work is useful for informing the development of training and allowing clinicians to set expectations on performance. PMID:20061202

  18. Structural abnormality of the corticospinal tract in major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Scientists are beginning to document abnormalities in white matter connectivity in major depressive disorder (MDD). Recent developments in diffusion-weighted image analyses, including tractography clustering methods, may yield improved characterization of these white matter abnormalities in MDD. In this study, we acquired diffusion-weighted imaging data from MDD participants and matched healthy controls. We analyzed these data using two tractography clustering methods: automated fiber quantification (AFQ) and the maximum density path (MDP) procedure. We used AFQ to compare fractional anisotropy (FA; an index of water diffusion) in these two groups across major white matter tracts. Subsequently, we used the MDP procedure to compare FA differences in fiber paths related to the abnormalities in major fiber tracts that were identified using AFQ. Results FA was higher in the bilateral corticospinal tracts (CSTs) in MDD (p’s?detected primarily increases in FA in the CST-related fiber paths of the bilateral posterior limbs of the internal capsule, right superior corona radiata, and the left external capsule. Conclusions This is the first study to implicate the CST and several related fiber pathways in MDD. These findings suggest important new hypotheses regarding the role of CST abnormalities in MDD, including in relation to explicating CST-related abnormalities to depressive symptoms and RDoC domains and constructs. PMID:25295159

  19. Functional capabilities of the earliest peptides and the emergence of life.

    PubMed

    Milner-White, E James; Russell, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Considering how biological macromolecules first evolved, probably within a marine environment, it seems likely the very earliest peptides were not encoded by nucleic acids, or at least not via the genetic code as we know it. An objective of the present work is to demonstrate that sequence-independent peptides, or peptides with variable and unreliable lengths and sequences, have the potential to perform a variety of chemically useful functions such as anion and cation binding and membrane and channel formation as well as simple types of catalysis. These functions tend to be performed with the assistance of the main chain CONH atoms rather than the more variable or limited side chain atoms of the peptides presumed to exist then. PMID:24710286

  20. Earliest human occupations at Dmanisi (Georgian Caucasus) dated to 1.85–1.78 Ma

    PubMed Central

    Ferring, Reid; Oms, Oriol; Agustí, Jordi; Berna, Francesco; Nioradze, Medea; Shelia, Teona; Tappen, Martha; Vekua, Abesalom; Zhvania, David; Lordkipanidze, David

    2011-01-01

    The early Pleistocene colonization of temperate Eurasia by Homo erectus was not only a significant biogeographic event but also a major evolutionary threshold. Dmanisi's rich collection of hominin fossils, revealing a population that was small-brained with both primitive and derived skeletal traits, has been dated to the earliest Upper Matuyama chron (ca. 1.77 Ma). Here we present archaeological and geologic evidence that push back Dmanisi's first occupations to shortly after 1.85 Ma and document repeated use of the site over the last half of the Olduvai subchron, 1.85–1.78 Ma. These discoveries show that the southern Caucasus was occupied repeatedly before Dmanisi's hominin fossil assemblage accumulated, strengthening the probability that this was part of a core area for the colonization of Eurasia. The secure age for Dmanisi's first occupations reveals that Eurasia was probably occupied before Homo erectus appears in the East African fossil record. PMID:21646521

  1. Earliest human occupations at Dmanisi (Georgian Caucasus) dated to 1.85-1.78 Ma.

    PubMed

    Ferring, Reid; Oms, Oriol; Agustí, Jordi; Berna, Francesco; Nioradze, Medea; Shelia, Teona; Tappen, Martha; Vekua, Abesalom; Zhvania, David; Lordkipanidze, David

    2011-06-28

    The early Pleistocene colonization of temperate Eurasia by Homo erectus was not only a significant biogeographic event but also a major evolutionary threshold. Dmanisi's rich collection of hominin fossils, revealing a population that was small-brained with both primitive and derived skeletal traits, has been dated to the earliest Upper Matuyama chron (ca. 1.77 Ma). Here we present archaeological and geologic evidence that push back Dmanisi's first occupations to shortly after 1.85 Ma and document repeated use of the site over the last half of the Olduvai subchron, 1.85-1.78 Ma. These discoveries show that the southern Caucasus was occupied repeatedly before Dmanisi's hominin fossil assemblage accumulated, strengthening the probability that this was part of a core area for the colonization of Eurasia. The secure age for Dmanisi's first occupations reveals that Eurasia was probably occupied before Homo erectus appears in the East African fossil record. PMID:21646521

  2. Earliest record of the invasive Foraminifera Trochammina hadai in San Francisco Bay, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGann, Mary L.

    2014-01-01

    In 1995, Trochammina hadai, a benthic Foraminifera prevalent in Japanese estuaries, was found in San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Subsequent field investigations determined that the species was also present in nearly all of the major ports and estuaries along the western United States. Because of its widespread colonization, it is of interest to determine when T. hadai first appeared as an invasive in the coastal regions of the North Pacific. In San Francisco Bay, the species was not found in 404 surface samples collected between 1930 and 1981. In 1983, however, a grab sediment sample from one of four sites in the southern portion of the bay contained T. hadai. This site was the most northern of the four and contained 12 specimens of the invasive, comprising 1.5% of the assemblage. This is the earliest appearance on record of T. hadai in San Francisco Bay.

  3. Sequencing the Earliest Stages of Active Galactic Nuclei Development Using The Youngest Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Jordan; Filipovic, Miroslav; Norris, Ray; Chow, Kate; Huynh, Minh; Banfield, Julie; Tothill, Nick; Sirothia, Sandeep Kumar; Shabala, Stanislav

    2014-04-01

    This proposal is a continuation of an extensive project (the core of Collier's PhD) to explore the earliest stages of AGN formation, using Gigahertz-Peaked Spectrum (GPS) and Compact Steep Spectrum (CSS) sources. Both are widely believed to represent the earliest stages of radio-loud AGN evolution, with GPS sources preceding CSS sources. In this project, we plan to (a) test this hypothesis, (b) place GPS and CSS sources into an evolutionary sequence with a number of other young AGN candidates, and (c) search for evidence of the evolving accretion mode. We will do this using high-resolution radio observations, with a number of other multiwavelength age indicators, of a carefully selected complete faint sample of 80 GPS/CSS sources. Analysis of the C2730 ELAIS-S1 data shows that we have so far met our goals, resolving the jets of 10/49 sources, and measuring accurate spectral indices from 0.843-10 GHz. This particular proposal is to almost triple the sample size by observing an additional 80 GPS/CSS sources in the Chandra Deep Field South (arguably the best-studied field) and allow a turnover frequency - linear size relation to be derived at >10-sigma. Sources found to be unresolved in our final sample will subsequently be observed with VLBI. Comparing those sources resolved with ATCA to the more compact sources resolved with VLBI will give a distribution of source sizes, helping to answer the question of whether all GPS/CSS sources grow to larger sizes.

  4. Nonosseous abnormalities on bone scans.

    PubMed

    Loutfi, Issa; Collier, B David; Mohammed, Ahmed M

    2003-09-01

    Although bone scanning is a test primarily concerned with skeletal abnormalities, important nonosseous findings are occasionally present on the images. To gauge the significance of such nonosseous uptake and, in particular, to determine whether these findings contain useful diagnostic information, the technical and medical staff in nuclear medicine must recognize the various patterns of nonbony uptake and understand their causes. The objectives of this article are to demonstrate the appearances of nonosseous uptake on bone scans, to categorize the forms of soft-tissue uptake, to emphasize technical artifacts leading to soft-tissue uptake, and to highlight the clinical significance of pathologic soft-tissue uptake. PMID:12968045

  5. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  6. Abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Patrick G

    2013-12-01

    Primary abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane are characterized by clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity. Among this group, hereditary spherocytosis patients are more likely to experience symptomatic anemia. Treatment of hereditary spherocytosis with splenectomy is curative in most patients. Growing recognition of the long-term risks of splenectomy has led to re-evaluation of the role of splenectomy. Management guidelines acknowledge these considerations and recommend discussion between health care providers, patient, and family. The hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes are the most common primary disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins. However, most elliptocytosis patients are asymptomatic and do not require therapy. PMID:24237975

  7. Pathology Case Study: Sensory Abnormalities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Duggal, Neil

    The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This particular case focuses on a 30-year-old man with a history of focal numbness, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and progressive sensory abnormalities. The patientâ??s history, images from an MRI, microscopic images of a specimen collected during his laminectomy, and final diagnosis are provided in this case for your review. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

  8. Retrospective analysis of genetic abnormalities and survival in 131 patients with multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    LIU, NIAN; ZHOU, HEBING; YANG, GUANGZHONG; GENG, CHUANYING; JIAN, YUAN; GUO, HUAN; CHEN, WENMING

    2015-01-01

    Genetic abnormalities in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) are important risk factors in terms of prognosis. In the present study, the prognostic value of several common MM genetic abnormalities was investigated. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH) was used to detect genetic abnormalities, including 1q21 gain, t(4;14), t(11;14), t(14;16) and 17p13 deletion in 131 patients. A total of 46.6% patients were detected with one or more abnormalities using iFISH analysis. The 1q21 gain, t(4;14), t(11;14), t(14;16) and 17p13 deletion abnormalities were detected in 42.5, 6.9, 17.5, 0.8 and 10.7% of patients, respectively. Patients with t(4;14) commonly exhibited lower levels of albumin and hemoglobin. The progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival times of iFISH-positive patients (particularly patients with two or more iFISH abnormalities) were significantly shorter than those of the patients without detectable abnormalities. The 1q21 gain and 17p13 deletion were also adverse prognostic factors for MM. Bortezomib-based therapies improved the PFS times in the patients with unfavorable iFISH abnormalities. These findings demonstrate that patients with two or more iFISH abnormalities, a gain of the 1q21 region or a 17p13 deletion were more likely to have a poor prognosis; however, bortezomib treatment improved the outcome for MM patients with unfavorable iFISH abnormalities. PMID:25624913

  9. Investigation of the effects of experimental autolysis on the detection of abnormal prion protein in lymphoid and central nervous system tissues from elk and sheep using the Western blotting method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease CWD is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervid ruminants, including white tailed deer, mule deer, black tailed deer, moose, and elk. The disease is related to the scrapie of sheep. In both diseases, diagnosis is typically made by detection of the disease associa...

  10. Epithelial cadherin distribution in abnormal human pre-implantation embryos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mina Alikani

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: E(epithelial)-cadherin is a vital cell adhesion protein that plays a critical role in morphogenesis. Previous studies of E-cadherin distribution in human embryos have produced equivocal results. METHODS: Immuno- cytochemistry in conjunction with laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to detect E-cadherin in 97 human cleavage stage embryos and 35 blastocysts from normal and abnormal fertilization. An antibody against human

  11. Anterior and posterior hypopituitarism with pituitary stalk abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Carlier, R; Monnet, O; Idir, A B; Halimi, P; Simon, P; Bouchard, P; Schaison, G; Doyon, D

    1991-01-01

    Hypopituitarism and diabetes insipidus are often idiopathic conditions. A retrospective study of 6 cases of diabetes insipidus and 8 cases of partial or global idiopathic anterior hypopituitarism has shown that MRI is of considerable value to detect abnormalities of the pituitary stalk or hypothalamo-pituitary "relay". On the basis of MRI findings, some cases of idiopathic hypopituitarism can now be grouped together in a new entity which may be called hypopituitarism due to neonatal transection of the pituitary stalk. PMID:1880561

  12. Fetal Facial Defects: Associated Malformations and Chromosomal Abnormalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. H. Nicolaides; D. R. Salvesen; R. J. M. Snijders; C. M. Gosden

    1993-01-01

    During an 8-year period, facial defects were observed in 146 (7%) of the 2,086 fetuses that underwent karyotyping in our unit because of fetal malformations and\\/or growth retardation. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 37 of 56 (66%) fetuses with micrognathia, in 10 of 13 (77%) with macroglossia, in 31 of 64 (48 %) with cleft lip and palate, in 5

  13. Congenital Abnormalities and Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is a strong maternal parent-of-origin effect in determining susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS). One hypothesis is that an abnormal intrauterine milieu leading to impaired fetal development could plausibly also result in increased susceptibility to MS. A possible marker for this intrauterine insult is the presence of a non-fatal congenital anomaly. Methods We investigated whether or not congenital anomalies are associated with MS in a population-based cohort. We identified 7063 MS index cases and 2655 spousal controls with congenital anomaly information from the Canadian Collaborative Project on Genetic Susceptibility to MS (CCPGSMS). Results The frequency of congential anomalies were compared between index cases and controls. No significant differences were found. Conclusions Congenital anomalies thus do not appear to be associated with MS. However, we did not have complete data on types and severity of congenital anomalies or on maternal birth history and thus this study should be regarded as preliminary. PMID:21080921

  14. [Phenomenology of abnormal body perceptions].

    PubMed

    Schäfer, M L

    1983-01-01

    The present paper deals with the problematic nature of the phenomenological grasping of the consciousness of the body and its pathological modifications. The reasoning is oriented by the doctrine of Husserl of the so-called sentiments as the fundamentals of the experience of the own body. This basic approach does not only seem to be basically for a psychology of the consciousness of the body, but also to give the theoretical-conceptual structure for a great number of psychopathological modifications. Subsequent to a criticism of the conventional use of the term 'hallucination of the body' we attempt to chart elements of a scheme of the abnormal consciousness of the body. PMID:6647887

  15. Precise U-Pb Zircon Constraints on the Earliest Magmatic History of the Carolina Terrane.

    PubMed

    Wortman; Samson; Hibbard

    2000-05-01

    The early magmatic and tectonic history of the Carolina terrane and its possible affinities with other Neoproterozoic circum-Atlantic arc terranes have been poorly understood, in large part because of a lack of reliable geochronological data. Precise U-Pb zircon dates for the Virgilina sequence, the oldest exposed part, constrain the timing of the earliest known stage of magmatism in the terrane and of the Virgilina orogeny. A flow-banded rhyolite sampled from a metavolcanic sequence near Chapel Hill, North Carolina, yielded a U-Pb zircon date of 632.9 +2.6/-1.9 Ma. A granitic unit of the Chapel Hill pluton, which intrudes the metavolcanic sequence, yielded a nearly identical U-Pb zircon date of 633 +2/-1.5 Ma, interpreted as its crystallization age. A felsic gneiss and a dacitic tuff from the Hyco Formation yielded U-Pb zircon dates of 619.9 +4.5/-3 Ma and 615.7 +3.7/-1.9 Ma, respectively. Diorite and granite of the Flat River complex have indistinguishable U-Pb upper-intercept dates of 613.9 +1.6/-1.5 Ma and 613.4 +2.8/-2 Ma. The Osmond biotite-granite gneiss, which intruded the Hyco Formation before the Virgilina orogeny, crystallized at 612.4 +5.2/-1.7 Ma. Granite of the Roxboro pluton, an intrusion that postdated the Virgilina orogeny, yielded a U-Pb upper intercept date of 546.5 +3.0/-2.4 Ma, interpreted as the time of its crystallization. These new dates both provide the first reliable estimates of the age of the Virgilina sequence and document that the earliest known stage of magmatism in the Carolina terrane had begun by 633 +2/-1.5 Ma and continued at least until 612.4 +5.2/-1.7 Ma, an interval of approximately 25 m.yr. Timing of the Virgilina orogeny is bracketed between 612.4 +5.2/-1.7 Ma and 586+/-10 Ma (reported age of the upper Uwharrie Formation). The U-Pb systematics of all units studied in the Virgilina sequence are simple and lack any evidence of an older xenocrystic zircon component, which would indicate the presence of a continental-type basement. This observation, together with the juvenile Nd isotopic character of the Virgilina volcanic arc sequence, suggests that the oldest part of the Carolina terrane was built on oceanic crust away from a continental crustal influence. PMID:10769159

  16. Revised Timeline and Distribution of the Earliest Diverged Human Maternal Lineages in Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Eva K. F.; Hardie, Rae-Anne; Petersen, Desiree C.; Beeson, Karen; Bornman, Riana M. S.; Smith, Andrew B.; Hayes, Vanessa M.

    2015-01-01

    The oldest extant human maternal lineages include mitochondrial haplogroups L0d and L0k found in the southern African click-speaking forager peoples broadly classified as Khoesan. Profiling these early mitochondrial lineages allows for better understanding of modern human evolution. In this study, we profile 77 new early-diverged complete mitochondrial genomes and sub-classify another 105 L0d/L0k individuals from southern Africa. We use this data to refine basal phylogenetic divergence, coalescence times and Khoesan prehistory. Our results confirm L0d as the earliest diverged lineage (?172 kya, 95%CI: 149–199 kya), followed by L0k (?159 kya, 95%CI: 136–183 kya) and a new lineage we name L0g (?94 kya, 95%CI: 72–116 kya). We identify two new L0d1 subclades we name L0d1d and L0d1c4/L0d1e, and estimate L0d2 and L0d1 divergence at ?93 kya (95%CI:76–112 kya). We concur the earliest emerging L0d1’2 sublineage L0d1b (?49 kya, 95%CI:37–58 kya) is widely distributed across southern Africa. Concomitantly, we find the most recent sublineage L0d2a (?17 kya, 95%CI:10–27 kya) to be equally common. While we agree that lineages L0d1c and L0k1a are restricted to contemporary inland Khoesan populations, our observed predominance of L0d2a and L0d1a in non-Khoesan populations suggests a once independent coastal Khoesan prehistory. The distribution of early-diverged human maternal lineages within contemporary southern Africans suggests a rich history of human existence prior to any archaeological evidence of migration into the region. For the first time, we provide a genetic-based evidence for significant modern human evolution in southern Africa at the time of the Last Glacial Maximum at between ?21–17 kya, coinciding with the emergence of major lineages L0d1a, L0d2b, L0d2d and L0d2a. PMID:25807545

  17. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 25 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO2170 Earth's earliest evolved crust generated in an

    E-print Network

    Machel, Hans

    that this rock unit is characterized by iron enrichment, negative Europium anomalies, unfractionated rare-earth-element/Y, strong depletions in the heavy rare-earth elements (HREEs), and minor or absent Eu anomalies11LETTERS PUBLISHED ONLINE: 25 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO2170 Earth's earliest evolved crust

  18. Abnormalities in amphibian populations inhabiting agroecosystems in Northeastern Buenos Aires Province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Agostini, M G; Kacoliris, F; Demetrio, P; Natale, G S; Bonetto, C; Ronco, A E

    2013-05-27

    The occurrence of abnormalities in amphibians has been reported in many populations, and its increase could be related to environmental pollution and habitat degradation. We evaluated the type and prevalence of abnormalities in 5 amphibian populations from agroecosystems with different degrees of agricultural disturbance (cultivated and reference areas). We detected 9 types of abnormalities, of which the most frequent were those occurring in limbs. The observed prevalence of abnormality in assessed populations from cultivated and reference areas was as follows: Rhinella fernandezae (37.1 and 10.2%, respectively), Leptodactylus latrans adults (28.1 and 9.2%) and juveniles (32.9 and 15.3%), and Hypsiboas pulchellus (11.6 and 2.8%). Scinax granulatus populations did not show abnormalities. Pseudis minuta, which was only detected in the reference area, exhibited a prevalence of 13.3%. For R. fernandezae, L. latrans, and H. pulchellus, generalized linear mixed models showed that prevalence of abnormalities was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in cultivated than in reference areas. L. latrans juveniles were more vulnerable to abnormalities than adults (p < 0.05). The presence of abnormalities in some species inhabiting different agroecosystems suggests that environmental stress factors might be responsible for their occurrence. While we detected pesticides (endosulfan, cypermethrin, and chlorpyrifos) and lower dissolved oxygen levels in ponds of the cultivated area, no data are currently available on how other factors, such as injuries from predators and parasite infections, vary by land use. Further research will be necessary to evaluate possible causes of abnormalities detected in the present study mainly in the context of factor interactions. PMID:23709469

  19. Abnormal fat distribution in PMM2-CDG.

    PubMed

    Wolthuis, D F G J; van Asbeck, E V; Kozicz, T; Morava, E

    2013-11-01

    We hypothesize that abnormal fat distribution, a common feature of PMM2-CDG, is associated with abnormal perinatal hormone regulation. We assessed 32 cases with PMM2-CDG, for the comorbidity of hypoglycemia/hyperinsulinism and fat pads. Ninety percent of patients with hypoketotic hypoglycemia and/or hyperinsulinism had abnormal fat distribution, while normoglycemic patients showed this feature in 50% of the cases. This statistically significant difference suggests an etiological role of the insulin receptor in developing abnormal fat distribution in PMM2-CDG. PMID:24063868

  20. Crystals stirred up: 2. Numerical insights into the formation of the earliest crust on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suckale, Jenny; Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.; Sethian, James A.

    2012-08-01

    This is the second paper in a two-part series examining the fluid dynamics of crystal settling and flotation in the lunar magma ocean. In the first paper, we develop a direct numerical method for resolving the hydrodynamic interactions between crystals and their feedback on the flow field in magmatic liquid. In this paper, we use this computational technique to test the leading model for the formation of the earliest crust on the Moon. The anorthositic lithology of the lunar crust is thought to have been formed by the flotation of buoyant plagioclase crystals at a time when the lunar mantle was still wholly or largely molten. This model is appealing from an observational point of view, but its fluid dynamical validity is not obvious, because (1) plagioclase probably started crystallizing very late (i.e., when the magma ocean was already 80% solidified) and (2) a significant portion of the shallow lunar crust consists of almost pure plagioclase (>90 vol. %), requiring very efficient plagioclase segregation. The goal of this study is to better understand the fluid dynamical conditions that hinder or facilitate crystal settling or flotation. Our approach complements earlier studies by explicitly linking the petrological and fluid dynamical evolution and by focusing on the effect of increasing crystal fraction. We find that crystal settling was probably possible throughout the entire solidification history of the lunar magma ocean as long as crystal sizes were sufficiently large (r > 1 mm) and crystal fraction sufficiently low (? < 13%).

  1. Changes of lysosomes in the earliest stages of the development of atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Bobryshev, Yuri V; Shchelkunova, Tatyana A; Morozov, Ivan A; Rubtsov, Petr M; Sobenin, Igor A; Orekhov, Alexander N; Smirnov, Alexander N

    2013-01-01

    One of hypotheses of atherosclerosis is based on a presumption that the zones prone to the development of atherosclerosis contain lysosomes which are characterized by enzyme deficiency and thus, are unable to dispose of lipoproteins. The present study was undertaken to investigate the characteristics and changes of lysosomes in the earliest stages of the development of atherosclerosis. Electron microscopic immunocytochemistry revealed that there were certain changes in the distribution of CD68 antigen in lysosomes along the ‘normal intima-initial lesion-fatty streak’ sequence. There were no significant changes found in the key mRNAs encoding for the components of endosome/lysosome compartment in initial atherosclerotic lesions, but in fatty streaks, the contents of EEA1 and Rab5a mRNAs were found to be diminished while the contents of CD68 and p62 mRNAs were increased, compared with the intact tissue. The study reinforces a view that changes occurring in lysosomes play a role in atherogenesis from the very earlier stages of the disease. PMID:23490339

  2. The earliest fossil record of Panorpidae (Mecoptera) from the Middle Jurassic of China

    PubMed Central

    Ding, He; Shih, Chungkun; Bashkuev, Alexei; Zhao, Yunyun; Ren, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The early history of Panorpidae (Mecoptera) is poorly known due to sparse fossil records. Up to date, only nine fossil species have been described, all from the Paleogene, except the Early Cretaceous Solusipanorpa gibbidorsa Lin, 1980. However, we suggest S. gibbidorsa is too incompletely preserved to permit even family classification. A new genus with two new species, Jurassipanorpa impunctata gen. et sp. n. and Jurassipanorpa sticta sp. n., are described based on four well-preserved specimens from the late Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China. These two new species are the earliest fossil records of Panorpidae. The new genus is erected based on a combination of forewing characters: both R1 and Rs1 with two branches, 1A reaching posterior margin of wing distad of the forking of Rs from R1, and no crossveins or only one crossvein between veins of 1A and 2A. In all four specimens, long and robust setae ranging from 0.09 to 0.38 mm in length and pointing anteriorly, are present on anal veins of forewings. The function of these setae is enigmatic. PMID:25152669

  3. Ancestral feeding state of ruminants reconsidered: earliest grazing adaptation claims a mixed condition for Cervidae

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Specialised leaf-eating is almost universally regarded as the ancestral state of all ruminants, yet little evidence can be cited in support of this assumption, apart from the fact that all early ruminants had low crowned cheek teeth. Instead, recent years have seen the emergence evidence contradicting the conventional view that low tooth crowns always indicate leaf-eating and high tooth crowns grass-eating. Results Here we report the results of two independent palaeodietary reconstructions for one of the earliest deer, Procervulus ginsburgi from the Early Miocene of Spain, suggesting that despite having lower tooth crowns than any living ruminant, this species included a significant proportion of grass in its diet. Conclusion The phylogenetic distribution of feeding styles strongly supports that leaf-grass mixed feeding was the original feeding style of deer, and that later dietary specialization on leaves or grass occurred independently in several lineages. Evidence for other ruminant clades suggests that facultative mixed feeding may in fact have been the primitive dietary state of the Ruminantia, which would have been morphologically expressed only under specific environmental factors. PMID:18205907

  4. The hexagram "Feng" in "the book of changes" as the earliest written record of sunspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhen-tao

    1980-12-01

    The hexagram "Feng" of the "Book of Changes" (completed before 800 B.C.) contains the statements "a dou is seen in the Sun" and "a mei is seen in the Sun". The character dou (bushel) is generally understood to refer to an obscured region in this context. As to the character mei, a passage in the "Biography of Wang Mang" in "The History of the Later Han Dynasty" written in 450 A.D. shoes that it is synonymous with the character xing (star), and according to "Kaiyuan Treatise on Prognostication" written in 729 A.D., both dou and xing in this context refer to an obscuration. Lastly, in the years 1626, 1643 and 1684, years of relatively high solar activities over the period 1610-1700 (Eddy, Science192 (1976) 1189), when sunspots were seen in telescopes in Europe (cf. Bray and Loughhead, "Sunspots" 1964, Plate 1.1), these two very same statements are found in some Local Gazettes of China (Xu Zhen-tao and Jiang Yao-tiao, Annals of Nanjing University, (Natural Sciences Series), No. 2, 1979). Thus, the earliest written record of a sunspot is found in China, in this book which was completed before 800 B.C.

  5. Earliest evidence of dental caries manipulation in the Late Upper Palaeolithic.

    PubMed

    Oxilia, Gregorio; Peresani, Marco; Romandini, Matteo; Matteucci, Chiara; Spiteri, Cynthianne Debono; Henry, Amanda G; Schulz, Dieter; Archer, Will; Crezzini, Jacopo; Boschin, Francesco; Boscato, Paolo; Jaouen, Klervia; Dogandzic, Tamara; Broglio, Alberto; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Fiorenza, Luca; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Kullmer, Ottmar; Benazzi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Prehistoric dental treatments were extremely rare, and the few documented cases are known from the Neolithic, when the adoption of early farming culture caused an increase of carious lesions. Here we report the earliest evidence of dental caries intervention on a Late Upper Palaeolithic modern human specimen (Villabruna) from a burial in Northern Italy. Using Scanning Electron Microscopy we show the presence of striations deriving from the manipulation of a large occlusal carious cavity of the lower right third molar. The striations have a "V"-shaped transverse section and several parallel micro-scratches at their base, as typically displayed by cutmarks on teeth. Based on in vitro experimental replication and a complete functional reconstruction of the Villabruna dental arches, we confirm that the identified striations and the associated extensive enamel chipping on the mesial wall of the cavity were produced ante-mortem by pointed flint tools during scratching and levering activities. The Villabruna specimen is therefore the oldest known evidence of dental caries intervention, suggesting at least some knowledge of disease treatment well before the Neolithic. This study suggests that primitive forms of carious treatment in human evolution entail an adaptation of the well-known toothpicking for levering and scratching rather than drilling practices. PMID:26179739

  6. Earliest and first Northern Hemispheric hoatzin fossils substantiate Old World origin of a "Neotropic endemic"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayr, Gerald; De Pietri, Vanesa L.

    2014-02-01

    The recent identification of hoatzins (Opisthocomiformes) in the Miocene of Africa showed part of the evolution of these birds, which are now only found in South America, to have taken place outside the Neotropic region. Here, we describe a new fossil species from the late Eocene of France, which constitutes the earliest fossil record of hoatzins and the first one from the Northern Hemisphere. Protoazin parisiensis gen. et sp. nov. is more closely related to South American Opisthocomiformes than the African taxon Namibiavis and substantiates an Old World origin of hoatzins, as well as a relictual distribution of the single extant species. Although recognition of hoatzins in Europe may challenge their presumed transatlantic dispersal, there are still no North American fossils in support of an alternative, Northern Hemispheric, dispersal route. In addition to Opisthocomiformes, other avian taxa are known from the Cenozoic of Europe, the extant representatives of which are only found in South America. Recognition of hoatzins in the early Cenozoic of Europe is of particular significance because Opisthocomiformes have a fossil record in sub-Saharan Africa, which supports the hypothesis that extinction of at least some of these "South American" groups outside the Neotropic region was not primarily due to climatic factors.

  7. A SWIFT LOOK AT SN 2011fe: THE EARLIEST ULTRAVIOLET OBSERVATIONS OF A TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Peter J.; Dawson, Kyle S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 South 1400 East 201, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); De Pasquale, Massimiliano [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 4505 S. Maryland Parkway, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Gronwall, Caryl; Siegel, Michael [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Holland, Stephen [Space Telescope Science Center, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Immler, Stefan [Astrophysics Science Division, Code 660.1, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard Space Flight Centre, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kuin, Paul; Oates, Samantha [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Mazzali, Paolo [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Milne, Peter, E-mail: pbrown@physics.tamu.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    We present the earliest ultraviolet (UV) observations of the bright Type Ia supernova SN 2011fe/PTF11kly in the nearby galaxy M101 at a distance of only 6.4 Mpc. It was discovered shortly after explosion by the Palomar Transient Factory and first observed by Swift/UVOT about a day after explosion. The early UV light is well defined, with {approx}20 data points per filter in the five days after explosion. These early and well-sampled UV observations form new template light curves for comparison with observations of other SNe Ia at low and high redshift. We report fits from semiempirical models of the explosion and find the time evolution of the early UV flux to be well fitted by the superposition of two parabolic curves. Finally, we use the early UV flux measurements to examine a possible shock interaction with a non-degenerate companion. From models predicting the measurable shock emission, we find that even a solar mass companion at a distance of a few solar radii is unlikely at more than 95% confidence.

  8. The earliest mollusc dominated seep fauna from the Early Jurassic of Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaim, Andrzej; Jenkins, Robert; Parent, Horacio; Garrido, Alberto; Moriya, Kazuhiro

    2015-04-01

    The earliest mollusc dominated seep fauna from the Early Jurassic of Argentina Andrzej Kaim, Robert G. Jenkins, Horacio Parent, Alberto C. Garrido The hydrocarbon seep deposits are known from Early Jurassic of Argentina since the report of Gomez-Perez (2003). The latter author identified very negative ?13C values (down to -33) and several fabrics typical for seep carbonates. Nevertheless she identified no macrofaunal assemblages apart from worm tubes. We re-visited the locality of Gomez-Perez (named here La Elina) and we were able to collect several molluscs associated with the seep carbonate. The most common and diversified are molluscs and worm tubes. We identified at least three species of gastropods, including the oldest-known species of neomphalids, lucinid and protobranch bivalves and numerous ammonoids. Unlike another known Early Jurassic seep from Oregon and the only Late Triassic seep (also from Oregon) there are no brachiopods associated with this seep. Therefore we consider the seep at La Elina as the oldest seep of modern aspect where the fauna is dominated by molluscs and not brachiopods.

  9. Earliest evidence of dental caries manipulation in the Late Upper Palaeolithic

    PubMed Central

    Oxilia, Gregorio; Peresani, Marco; Romandini, Matteo; Matteucci, Chiara; Spiteri, Cynthianne Debono; Henry, Amanda G.; Schulz, Dieter; Archer, Will; Crezzini, Jacopo; Boschin, Francesco; Boscato, Paolo; Jaouen, Klervia; Dogandzic, Tamara; Broglio, Alberto; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Fiorenza, Luca; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Kullmer, Ottmar; Benazzi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Prehistoric dental treatments were extremely rare, and the few documented cases are known from the Neolithic, when the adoption of early farming culture caused an increase of carious lesions. Here we report the earliest evidence of dental caries intervention on a Late Upper Palaeolithic modern human specimen (Villabruna) from a burial in Northern Italy. Using Scanning Electron Microscopy we show the presence of striations deriving from the manipulation of a large occlusal carious cavity of the lower right third molar. The striations have a “V”-shaped transverse section and several parallel micro-scratches at their base, as typically displayed by cutmarks on teeth. Based on in vitro experimental replication and a complete functional reconstruction of the Villabruna dental arches, we confirm that the identified striations and the associated extensive enamel chipping on the mesial wall of the cavity were produced ante-mortem by pointed flint tools during scratching and levering activities. The Villabruna specimen is therefore the oldest known evidence of dental caries intervention, suggesting at least some knowledge of disease treatment well before the Neolithic. This study suggests that primitive forms of carious treatment in human evolution entail an adaptation of the well-known toothpicking for levering and scratching rather than drilling practices. PMID:26179739

  10. Histopathological outcomes of women with abnormal cervical cytology: a review of literature in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kietpeerakool, Chumnan; Tangjitgamol, Siriwan; Srisomboon, Jatupol

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cytology remains the principal screening method to detect pre-invasive and invasive cervical lesions. Management of abnormal cervical cytology depends on the risk of encountering a significant cervical lesion or high-grade cervical disease. These risks may vary in different areas across the country. Thus, determining the rate of significant cervical lesion associated with each type of abnormal cervical cytology in each area is of critical importance for designing area-specific management approach. This review was conducted to evaluate the rate of high-grade cervical disease among Thai women with abnormal cervical cytology. A relatively high incidence of underlying significant lesions including invasive disease was demonstrated even in those having only minimal smear abnormality. This baseline information is crucial and must be taken into consideration in management of women with abnormal cytological screening to achieve the goals of comprehensive cervical cancer control in Thailand. PMID:25169475

  11. 25 CFR 900.251 - What is the earliest date on which the contract will be rescinded in a non-emergency reassumption?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false What is the earliest date on which the contract will be rescinded...HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTS UNDER THE INDIAN...Procedures § 900.251 What is the earliest date on which the contract will be...

  12. 25 CFR 900.251 - What is the earliest date on which the contract will be rescinded in a non-emergency reassumption?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false What is the earliest date on which the contract will be rescinded...HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTS UNDER THE INDIAN...Procedures § 900.251 What is the earliest date on which the contract will be...

  13. Semen abnormalities with SSRI antidepressants.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of widespread use, the adverse effect profile of "selective" serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants has still not been fully elucidated. Studies in male animals have shown delayed sexual development and reduced fertility. Three prospective cohort studies conducted in over one hundred patients exposed to an SSRI for periods ranging from 5 weeks to 24 months found altered semen param-eters after as little as 3 months of exposure: reduced sperm concentration, reduced sperm motility, a higher percentage of abnormal spermatozoa, and increased levels of sperm DNA fragmentation. One clinical trial showed growth retardation in children considered depressed who were exposed to SSRls. SSRls may have endocrine disrupting properties. Dapoxetine is a short-acting serotonin reuptake inhibitor that is chemically related to fluoxetine and marketed in the European Union for men complaining of premature ejaculation. But the corresponding European summary of product characteristics does not mention any effects on fertility. In practice, based on the data available as of mid-2014, the effects of SSRI exposure on male fertility are unclear. However, it is a risk that should be taken into account and pointed out to male patients who would like to father a child or who are experiencing fertility problems. PMID:25729824

  14. Biochemical abnormalities in Pearson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crippa, Beatrice Letizia; Leon, Eyby; Calhoun, Amy; Lowichik, Amy; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola

    2015-03-01

    Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a multisystem mitochondrial disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and pancreatic insufficiency. Children who survive the severe bone marrow dysfunction in childhood develop Kearns-Sayre syndrome later in life. Here we report on four new cases with this condition and define their biochemical abnormalities. Three out of four patients presented with failure to thrive, with most of them having normal development and head size. All patients had evidence of bone marrow involvement that spontaneously improved in three out of four patients. Unique findings in our patients were acute pancreatitis (one out of four), renal Fanconi syndrome (present in all patients, but symptomatic only in one), and an unusual organic aciduria with 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria in one patient. Biochemical analysis indicated low levels of plasma citrulline and arginine, despite low-normal ammonia levels. Regression analysis indicated a significant correlation between each intermediate of the urea cycle and the next, except between ornithine and citrulline. This suggested that the reaction catalyzed by ornithine transcarbamylase (that converts ornithine to citrulline) might not be very efficient in patients with Pearson syndrome. In view of low-normal ammonia levels, we hypothesize that ammonia and carbamylphosphate could be diverted from the urea cycle to the synthesis of nucleotides in patients with Pearson syndrome and possibly other mitochondrial disorders. PMID:25691415

  15. Abnormal Web Usage Control by Proxy Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Hsiang-Fu; Tseng, Li-Ming

    2002-01-01

    Approaches to designing a proxy server with Web usage control and to making the proxy server effective on local area networks are proposed to prevent abnormal Web access and to prioritize Web usage. A system is implemented to demonstrate the approaches. The implementation reveals that the proposed approaches are effective, such that the abnormal

  16. Immune Abnormalities in Patients with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Reed P.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study of 31 autistic patients (3-28 years old) has revealed several immune-system abnormalities, including decreased numbers of T lymphocytes and an altered ratio of helper-to-suppressor T cells. Immune-system abnormalities may be directly related to underlying biologic processes of autism or an indirect reflection of the actual pathologic…

  17. Renal abnormalities and their developmental origin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Schedl

    2007-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) occur in 1 out of 500 newborns, and constitute approximately 20–30% of all anomalies identified in the prenatal period. CAKUT has a major role in renal failure, and there is increasing evidence that certain abnormalities predispose to the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in adult life. Moreover, defects in nephron

  18. Pathophysiology of Cancer: Hormonal and Metabolic Abnormalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Heber; N. S. Tchekmedyian

    1992-01-01

    Despite the development of advanced nutritional support technology, malnutrition remains a significant morbid and mortal complication of cancer. A number of metabolic abnormalities have been demonstrated in malnourished cancer patients, including increased protein breakdown, increased glucose production, increased lipolysis, hypogonadism in male patients, and insulin resistance. Previous studies conducted under metabolic ward conditions have demonstrated that metabolic abnormalities interfere with

  19. Dark Immunofluorescence: Correlation with Serum Immunoglobulin Abnormalities?

    PubMed Central

    List, J.; Buckland, M. S.; Thobhani, B.; Sheed, C. J.; Mann, J. C.; Claxton, M.; Heelan, B.

    2006-01-01

    Occasional serum samples (<0.5%) tested by indirect immunofluorescence showed less fluorescence than did negative-control serum. A retrospective review of these patients' serum immunoglobulins revealed a high percentage of abnormalities (71%, versus 22% of controls). We suggest that this observation should be reported when seen and that the clinician should be alerted to an association with immunoglobulin abnormalities. PMID:16971516

  20. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  1. Retinal Circulatory Abnormalities in Type 1 Diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilbert T. Feke; Sheldon M. Buzney; Hironobu Ogasawara; Naoki Fujio; Douglas G. Goger; Norman P. Spack; Kenneth H. GabbayX

    Purpose. To quantify retinal circulatory abnormalities in patients with type 1 diabetes; to compare blood speed and blood flow in major temporal retinal arteries as well as total retinal arterial cross-section measured in patients to that measured in controls without diabetes; to determine which factors are related to the measured abnormalities within the patient group. Methods. The laser Doppler technique

  2. Multiparametric tissue abnormality characterization using manifold regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batmanghelich, Kayhan; Wu, Xiaoying; Zacharaki, Evangelia; Markowitz, Clyde E.; Davatzikos, Christos; Verma, Ragini

    2008-03-01

    Tissue abnormality characterization is a generalized segmentation problem which aims at determining a continuous score that can be assigned to the tissue which characterizes the extent of tissue deterioration, with completely healthy tissue being one end of the spectrum and fully abnormal tissue such as lesions, being on the other end. Our method is based on the assumptions that there is some tissue that is neither fully healthy or nor completely abnormal but lies in between the two in terms of abnormality; and that the voxel-wise score of tissue abnormality lies on a spatially and temporally smooth manifold of abnormality. Unlike in a pure classification problem which associates an independent label with each voxel without considering correlation with neighbors, or an absolute clustering problem which does not consider a priori knowledge of tissue type, we assume that diseased and healthy tissue lie on a manifold that encompasses the healthy tissue and diseased tissue, stretching from one to the other. We propose a semi-supervised method for determining such as abnormality manifold, using multi-parametric features incorporated into a support vector machine framework in combination with manifold regularization. We apply the framework towards the characterization of tissue abnormality to brains of multiple sclerosis patients.

  3. Ovarian dysgenesis in individuals with chromosomal abnormalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Cunniff; Kenneth Lyons Jones; Kurt Benirschke

    1991-01-01

    To understand better the pathogenesis of ovarian dysgenesis in individuals with abnormalities such as 45,X Turner syndrome, trisomy 13, and trisomy 18, we have examined microscopically the ovaries of 36 infants with a number of chromosomal abnormalities confirmed by karyotype analysis. All infants with trisomy 13, trisomy 18, triploidy, and 45,X were found to have severe ovarian dysgenesis characterized by

  4. Non-invasive prenatal testing for sex chromosome abnormalities: a source of confusion.

    PubMed

    Kalafat, Erkan; Seval, Mehmet Murat; Turgay, Batuhan; Koç, Acar

    2015-01-01

    Cell-free fetal DNA has received significant attention for the purposes of prenatal genetic testing in the past decade. Fetal DNA testing is a new method and promising for many applications such as aneuploidy screening, prenatal diagnosis, prediction of preeclampsia and more. A 37-year-old primigravida, with a pregnancy conceived by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), was offered non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) due to advanced maternal age. NIPT performed at 23?weeks' gestation reported a diagnosis of monosomy X. She was offered an amniocentesis, which revealed a euploid fetus with no sex chromosome abnormalities. Even with single nucleotide polymorphism-based NIPT, positive predictive value for detection of sex chromosome abnormalities is around 50%. Positive results of NIPT should be heeded with caution and an invasive diagnostic procedure should be performed, especially for rare chromosomal abnormalities and sex chromosome abnormalities where NIPT performs subpar compared to its performance for detection of trisomy 21. PMID:25631759

  5. SPECT, CT, and MRI in head injury: acute abnormalities followed up at six months.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchener, A; Wyper, D J; Patterson, J; Hadley, D M; Wilson, J T; Scott, L C; Jones, M; Teasdale, G M

    1997-01-01

    Neuroimaging with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using the cerebral blood flow tracer 99Tc(m)-HMPAO has been used to study acute functional alterations after head injury and residual abnormalities at six month follow up in 32 patients. Comparison has been made with anatomical abnormalities defined acutely with CT and on follow up with MRI. SPECT showed slightly more abnormalities than CT in the acute phase (49 regions of abnormally low tracer uptake on SPECT and 45 lesions on CT). Twenty two of the acute SPECT abnormalities were in normal regions on CT. At follow up MRI showed more abnormalities than SPECT (30 on SPECT and 48 on MRI). Ten of the SPECT deficits were in regions with normal MRI. Comparison of the intensity of late and early SPECT deficits showed that only four early deficits deteriorated whereas 28 improved. Only five of 27 lesions seen on both acute SPECT and CT resolved compared with 16 of 22 lesions seen on SPECT but not on CT. Regions of abnormally high tracer uptake were detected in the acute stage in five of the patients. No high focal uptake was evident on follow up. Ten patients with a residual SPECT abnormality and eight with residual MRI lesions were graded clinically in the upper band of good recovery. Images PMID:9219753

  6. Late Paleocene fossils from the Cerrejón Formation, Colombia, are the earliest record of Neotropical rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Scott L.; Herrera, Fabiany; Jaramillo, Carlos A.; Gómez-Navarro, Carolina; Wilf, Peter; Labandeira, Conrad C.

    2009-01-01

    Neotropical rainforests have a very poor fossil record, making hypotheses concerning their origins difficult to evaluate. Nevertheless, some of their most important characteristics can be preserved in the fossil record: high plant diversity, dominance by a distinctive combination of angiosperm families, a preponderance of plant species with large, smooth-margined leaves, and evidence for a high diversity of herbivorous insects. Here, we report on an ?58-my-old flora from the Cerrejón Formation of Colombia (paleolatitude ?5 °N) that is the earliest megafossil record of Neotropical rainforest. The flora has abundant, diverse palms and legumes and similar family composition to extant Neotropical rainforest. Three-quarters of the leaf types are large and entire-margined, indicating rainfall >2,500 mm/year and mean annual temperature >25 °C. Despite modern family composition and tropical paleoclimate, the diversity of fossil pollen and leaf samples is 60–80% that of comparable samples from extant and Quaternary Neotropical rainforest from similar climates. Insect feeding damage on Cerrejón fossil leaves, representing primary consumers, is abundant, but also of low diversity, and overwhelmingly made by generalist feeders rather than specialized herbivores. Cerrejón megafossils provide strong evidence that the same Neotropical rainforest families have characterized the biome since the Paleocene, maintaining their importance through climatic phases warmer and cooler than present. The low diversity of both plants and herbivorous insects in this Paleocene Neotropical rainforest may reflect an early stage in the diversification of the lineages that inhabit this biome, and/or a long recovery period from the terminal Cretaceous extinction. PMID:19833876

  7. Late Paleocene fossils from the Cerrejon Formation, Colombia, are the earliest record of Neotropical rainforest.

    PubMed

    Wing, Scott L; Herrera, Fabiany; Jaramillo, Carlos A; Gómez-Navarro, Carolina; Wilf, Peter; Labandeira, Conrad C

    2009-11-01

    Neotropical rainforests have a very poor fossil record, making hypotheses concerning their origins difficult to evaluate. Nevertheless, some of their most important characteristics can be preserved in the fossil record: high plant diversity, dominance by a distinctive combination of angiosperm families, a preponderance of plant species with large, smooth-margined leaves, and evidence for a high diversity of herbivorous insects. Here, we report on an approximately 58-my-old flora from the Cerrejón Formation of Colombia (paleolatitude approximately 5 degrees N) that is the earliest megafossil record of Neotropical rainforest. The flora has abundant, diverse palms and legumes and similar family composition to extant Neotropical rainforest. Three-quarters of the leaf types are large and entire-margined, indicating rainfall >2,500 mm/year and mean annual temperature >25 degrees C. Despite modern family composition and tropical paleoclimate, the diversity of fossil pollen and leaf samples is 60-80% that of comparable samples from extant and Quaternary Neotropical rainforest from similar climates. Insect feeding damage on Cerrejón fossil leaves, representing primary consumers, is abundant, but also of low diversity, and overwhelmingly made by generalist feeders rather than specialized herbivores. Cerrejón megafossils provide strong evidence that the same Neotropical rainforest families have characterized the biome since the Paleocene, maintaining their importance through climatic phases warmer and cooler than present. The low diversity of both plants and herbivorous insects in this Paleocene Neotropical rainforest may reflect an early stage in the diversification of the lineages that inhabit this biome, and/or a long recovery period from the terminal Cretaceous extinction. PMID:19833876

  8. The earliest evidence for the use of human bone as a tool.

    PubMed

    Verna, C; d'Errico, F

    2011-02-01

    We report on the analysis of three human cranial fragments from a Mousterian context at the site of La Quina (France), which show anthropogenic surface modifications. Macroscopic and microscopic analyses, including SEM observation, demonstrate that the modifications visible on one of these fragments are similar to those produced on bone fragments used experimentally to retouch flakes. The microscopic analysis also identified ancient scraping marks, possibly resulting from the cleaning of the skull prior to its breakage and utilisation of a resulting fragment as a tool. The traces of utilisation and the dimensions of this object are compared to those on a sample of 67 bone retouchers found in the same excavation area and layer. Results show that the tool size, as well as the dimensions and location of the utilised area, fall well within the range of variation observed on faunal shaft fragments from La Quina that were used as retouchers. This skull fragment represents the earliest known use of human bone as a raw material and the first reported use of human bone for this purpose by hominins other than modern humans. The two other skull fragments, which probably come from the same individual, also bear anthropogenic surface modifications in the form of percussion, cut, and scraping marks. The deliberate versus unintentional hypotheses for the unusual choice of the bone are presented in light of contextual information, modifications identified on the two skull fragments not used as tools, and data on bone retouchers from the same layer, the same site, and other Mousterian sites. PMID:21131024

  9. Multigene phylogeny of land plants with special reference to bryophytes and the earliest land plants.

    PubMed

    Nickrent, D L; Parkinson, C L; Palmer, J D; Duff, R J

    2000-12-01

    A widely held view of land plant relationships places liverworts as the first branch of the land plant tree, whereas some molecular analyses and a cladistic study of morphological characters indicate that hornworts are the earliest land plants. To help resolve this conflict, we used parsimony and likelihood methods to analyze a 6, 095-character data set composed of four genes (chloroplast rbcL and small-subunit rDNA from all three plant genomes) from all major land plant lineages. In all analyses, significant support was obtained for the monophyly of vascular plants, lycophytes, ferns (including PSILOTUM: and EQUISETUM:), seed plants, and angiosperms. Relationships among the three bryophyte lineages were unresolved in parsimony analyses in which all positions were included and weighted equally. However, in parsimony and likelihood analyses in which rbcL third-codon-position transitions were either excluded or downweighted (due to apparent saturation), hornworts were placed as sister to all other land plants, with mosses and liverworts jointly forming the second deepest lineage. Decay analyses and Kishino-Hasegawa tests of the third-position-excluded data set showed significant support for the hornwort-basal topology over several alternative topologies, including the commonly cited liverwort-basal topology. Among the four genes used, mitochondrial small-subunit rDNA showed the lowest homoplasy and alone recovered essentially the same topology as the multigene tree. This molecular phylogeny presents new opportunities to assess paleontological evidence and morphological innovations that occurred during the early evolution of terrestrial plants. PMID:11110905

  10. Abnormal erythropoiesis and the pathophysiology of chronic anemia.

    PubMed

    Koury, Mark J

    2014-03-01

    Erythropoiesis, the bone marrow production of erythrocytes by the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells, replaces the daily loss of 1% of circulating erythrocytes that are senescent. This daily output increases dramatically with hemolysis or hemorrhage. When erythrocyte production rate of erythrocytes is less than the rate of loss, chronic anemia develops. Normal erythropoiesis and specific abnormalities of erythropoiesis that cause chronic anemia are considered during three periods of differentiation: a) multilineage and pre-erythropoietin-dependent hematopoietic progenitors, b) erythropoietin-dependent progenitor cells, and c) terminally differentiating erythroblasts. These erythropoietic abnormalities are discussed in terms of their pathophysiological effects on the bone marrow cells and the resultant changes that can be detected in the peripheral blood using a clinical laboratory test, the complete blood count. PMID:24560123

  11. Long-term follow-up of pediatric sickle cell disease patients with abnormal high velocities on transcranial Doppler

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Françoise Bernaudin; Suzanne Verlhac; Lena Coïc; Emmanuelle Lesprit; Pierre Brugières; Philippe Reinert

    2005-01-01

    Cerebral arteriopathy can be detected in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) by transcranial Doppler (TCD). Abnormally high velocities are predictive of high stroke risk, which can be reduced by transfusion therapy. We report the results of the screening of 291 SCD children followed in our center, including the clinical and imaging follow-up of 35 children with abnormal TCDs who

  12. Culture effects on adults' earliest childhood recollection and self-description: implications for the relation between memory and the self.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q

    2001-08-01

    American and Chinese college students (N = 256) reported their earliest childhood memory on a memory questionnaire and provided self-descriptions on a shortened 20 Statements Test (M. H. Kuhn & T. S. McPartland, 1954). The average age at earliest memory of Americans was almost 6 months earlier than that of Chinese. Americans reported lengthy, specific, self-focused, and emotionally elaborate memories; they also placed emphasis on individual attributes in describing themselves. Chinese provided brief accounts of childhood memories centering on collective activities, general routines, and emotionally neutral events; they also included a great number of social roles in their self-descriptions. Across the entire sample, individuals who described themselves in more self-focused and positive terms provided more specific and self-focused memories. Findings are discussed in light of the interactive relation between autobiographical memory and cultural self-construal. PMID:11519928

  13. Cone Photoreceptor Abnormalities Correlate with Vision Loss in Patients with Stargardt Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yingming; Ratnam, Kavitha; Sundquist, Sanna M.; Lujan, Brandon; Ayyagari, Radha; Gudiseva, V. Harini; Roorda, Austin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To study the relationship between macular cone structure, fundus autofluorescence (AF), and visual function in patients with Stargardt disease (STGD). Methods. High-resolution images of the macula were obtained with adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) and spectral domain optical coherence tomography in 12 patients with STGD and 27 age-matched healthy subjects. Measures of retinal structure and AF were correlated with visual function, including best-corrected visual acuity, color vision, kinetic and static perimetry, fundus-guided microperimetry, and full-field electroretinography. Mutation analysis of the ABCA4 gene was completed in all patients. Results. Patients were 15 to 55 years old, and visual acuity ranged from 20/25–20/320. Central scotomas were present in all patients, although the fovea was spared in three patients. The earliest cone spacing abnormalities were observed in regions of homogeneous AF, normal visual function, and normal outer retinal structure. Outer retinal structure and AF were most normal near the optic disc. Longitudinal studies showed progressive increases in AF followed by reduced AF associated with losses of visual sensitivity, outer retinal layers, and cones. At least one disease-causing mutation in the ABCA4 gene was identified in 11 of 12 patients studied; 1 of 12 patients showed no disease-causing ABCA4 mutations. Conclusions. AOSLO imaging demonstrated abnormal cone spacing in regions of abnormal fundus AF and reduced visual function. These findings provide support for a model of disease progression in which lipofuscin accumulation results in homogeneously increased AF with cone spacing abnormalities, followed by heterogeneously increased AF with cone loss, then reduced AF with cone and RPE cell death. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00254605.) PMID:21296825

  14. Rare Cytogenetic Abnormalities in Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Bacher, Ulrike; Schanz, Julie; Braulke, Friederike; Haase, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    The karyotype represents one of the main cornerstones for the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) and the revised IPSS-R (IPSS-R) that are most widely used for prognostication in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). The most frequent cytogenetic abnormalities in MDS, i.e. del(5q), -7/del(7q), +8, complex karyotypes, or ?Y have been extensively explored for their prognostic impact. The IPSS-R also considers some less frequent abnormalities such as del(11q), isochromosome 17, +19, or 3q abnormalities. However, more than 600 different cytogenetic categories had been identified in a previous MDS study. This review aims to focus interest on selected rare cytogenetic abnormalities in patients with MDS. Examples are numerical gains of the chromosomes 11 (indicating rapid progression), of chromosome 14 or 14q (prognostically intermediate to favorable), -X (in females, with an intermediate prognosis), or numerical abnormalities of chromosome 21. Structural abnormalities are also considered, e.g. del(13q) that is associated with bone marrow failure syndromes and favorable response to immunosuppressive therapy. These and other rare cytogenetic abnormalities should be integrated into existing prognostication systems such as the IPSS-R. However, due to the very low number of cases, this is clearly dependent on international collaboration. Hopefully, this article will help to inaugurate this process. PMID:25960862

  15. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. A novel cerebello-ocular syndrome with abnormal glycosylation due to abnormalities in dolichol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Morava, Eva; Wevers, Ron A; Cantagrel, Vincent; Hoefsloot, Lies H; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Schoots, Jeroen; van Rooij, Arno; Huijben, Karin; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Connie M A; Jongmans, Marjolein C J; Sykut-Cegielska, Jolanta; Hoffmann, Georg F; Bluemel, Peter; Adamowicz, Maciej; van Reeuwijk, Jeroen; Ng, Bobby G; Bergman, Jorieke E H; van Bokhoven, Hans; Körner, Christian; Babovic-Vuksanovic, Dusica; Willemsen, Michel A; Gleeson, Joseph G; Lehle, Ludwig; de Brouwer, Arjan P M; Lefeber, Dirk J

    2010-11-01

    Cerebellar hypoplasia and slowly progressive ophthalmological symptoms are common features in patients with congenital disorders of glycosylation type I. In a group of patients with congenital disorders of glycosylation type I with unknown aetiology, we have previously described a distinct phenotype with severe, early visual impairment and variable eye malformations, including optic nerve hypoplasia, retinal coloboma, congenital cataract and glaucoma. Some of the symptoms overlapped with the phenotype in other congenital disorders of glycosylation type I subtypes, such as vermis hypoplasia, anaemia, ichtyosiform dermatitis, liver dysfunction and coagulation abnormalities. We recently identified pathogenic mutations in the SRD5A3 gene, encoding steroid 5?-reductase type 3, in a group of patients who presented with this particular phenotype and a common metabolic pattern. Here, we report on the clinical, genetic and metabolic features of 12 patients from nine families with cerebellar ataxia and congenital eye malformations diagnosed with SRD5A3-congenital disorders of glycosylation due to steroid 5?-reductase type 3 defect. This enzyme is necessary for the reduction of polyprenol to dolichol, the lipid anchor for N-glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum. Dolichol synthesis is an essential metabolic step in protein glycosylation. The current defect leads to a severely abnormal glycosylation state already in the early phase of the N-glycan biosynthesis pathway in the endoplasmic reticulum. We detected high expression of SRD5A3 in foetal brain tissue, especially in the cerebellum, consistent with the finding of the congenital cerebellar malformations. Based on the overlapping clinical, biochemical and genetic data in this large group of patients with congenital disorders of glycosylation, we define a novel syndrome of cerebellar ataxia associated with congenital eye malformations due to a defect in dolichol metabolism. PMID:20852264

  17. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    MedlinePLUS

    ... freeze abnormal cervical tissue, which then sloughs off. • Laser therapy—A focused beam of light is used ... tissue is removed from the cervix. Cryotherapy: A freezing technique used to destroy diseased tissue; also known ...

  18. Pinna abnormalities and low-set ears

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Common abnormalities include cysts in the pinna or skin tags . Many children are born with ears that stick ... affect hearing. However, sometimes cosmetic surgery is recommended. Skin tags may be tied off, unless there is cartilage ...

  19. T cell immune abnormalities in immune thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xuebin; Zhang, Liping; Peng, Jun; Hou, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia is an autoimmune disease with abnormal T cell immunity. Cytotoxic T cells, abnormal T regulatory cells, helper T cell imbalance, megakaryocyte maturation abnormalities and abnormal T cell anergy are involved in the pathogenesis of this condition. The loss of T cell-mediated immune tolerance to platelet auto-antigens plays a crucial role in immune thrombocytopenia. The induction of T cell tolerance is an important mechanism by which the pathogenesis and treatment of immune thrombocytopenia can be studied. Studies regarding the roles of the new inducible costimulator signal transduction pathway, the ubiquitin proteasome pathway, and the nuclear factor kappa B signal transduction pathway in the induction of T cell tolerance can help improve our understanding of immune theory and may provide a new theoretical basis for studying the pathogenesis and treatment of immune thrombocytopenia. PMID:25274611

  20. ICSN Data - Abnormal Result Technologies and Procedures

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Breast Cancer (Archived Tables): Home Abnormal

  1. Normal and Abnormal Behavior in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Spinner, Miriam R.

    1981-01-01

    Evaluation of normal and abnormal behavior in the period to three years of age involves many variables. Parental attitudes, determined by many factors such as previous childrearing experience, the bonding process, parental psychological status and parental temperament, often influence the labeling of behavior as normal or abnormal. This article describes the forms of crying, sleep and wakefulness, and affective responses from infancy to three years of age. PMID:21289833

  2. 21 CFR 864.7415 - Abnormal hemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Abnormal hemoglobin assay. 864.7415 Section 864.7415 Food...Packages § 864.7415 Abnormal hemoglobin assay. (a) Identification. An abnormal hemoglobin assay is a device consisting of the...

  3. Striatal Abnormalities and Spontaneous Dyskinesias in Non-Clinical Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Vijay A.; Orr, Joseph M.; Turner, Jessica A.; Pelletier, Andrea L.; Dean, Derek J.; Lunsford-Avery, Jessica; Gupta, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence suggests that individuals experiencing non-clinical psychosis (NCP) represent a critical group for improving understanding of etiological factors underlying the broader psychosis continuum. Although a wealth of evidence supports widespread neural dysfunction in formal psychosis, there has been little empirical evidence to support our understanding of putative vulnerability markers or brain structure in NCP. In this study, we examined the neural correlates of spontaneous movement abnormalities, a neural biomarker previously detected in NCP that is linked to abnormalities in the striatal dopamine. Methods We screened a total of 1,285 adolescents/young adults, and those scoring in the upper 15 percentile on a NCP scale were invited to participate; 20 of those invited agreed and these individuals were matched with healthy controls. Participants were administered a structural scan, clinical interviews, and an instrumental motor assessment. Results The NCP group showed elevated force variability, smaller putamen (but not caudate), and there was a significant relationship between motor dysfunction and striatal abnormalities for the sample. Elevated force variability was associated with both higher positive and negative symptoms, and there was a strong trend (p=.06) to suggest that smaller left putamen volumes were associated with elevated positive symptoms. Conclusions The results are among the first to suggest an association between neural structure and a risk marker in NCP. Findings indicate that vulnerabilities seen in schizophrenia also characterize the lower end of the psychosis spectrum. PMID:24156901

  4. Abnormal Bursting as a Pathophysiological Mechanism in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lobb, CJ

    2014-01-01

    Despite remarkable advances in Parkinson's disease (PD) research, the pathophysiological mechanisms causing motor dysfunction remain unclear, possibly delaying the advent of new and improved therapies. Several such mechanisms have been proposed including changes in neuronal firing rates, the emergence of pathological oscillatory activity, increased neural synchronization, and abnormal bursting. This review focuses specifically on the role of abnormal bursting of basal ganglia neurons in PD, where a burst is a physiologically-relevant, transient increase in neuronal firing over some reference period or activity. After reviewing current methods for how bursts are detected and what the functional role of bursts may be under normal conditions, existing studies are reviewed that suggest that bursting is abnormally increased in PD and that this increases with worsening disease. Finally, the influence of therapeutic approaches for PD such as dopamine-replacement therapy with levodopa or dopamine agonists, lesions, or deep brain stimulation on bursting is discussed. Although there is insufficient evidence to conclude that increased bursting causes motor dysfunction in PD, current evidence suggests that targeted investigations into the role of bursting in PD may be warranted. PMID:24729952

  5. Detector for flow abnormalities in gaseous diffusion plant compressors

    DOEpatents

    Smith, S.F.; Castleberry, K.N.

    1998-06-16

    A detector detects a flow abnormality in a plant compressor which outputs a motor current signal. The detector includes a demodulator/lowpass filter demodulating and filtering the motor current signal producing a demodulated signal, and first, second, third and fourth bandpass filters connected to the demodulator/lowpass filter, and filtering the demodulated signal in accordance with first, second, third and fourth bandpass frequencies generating first, second, third and fourth filtered signals having first, second, third and fourth amplitudes. The detector also includes first, second, third and fourth amplitude detectors connected to the first, second, third and fourth bandpass filters respectively, and detecting the first, second, third and fourth amplitudes, and first and second adders connected to the first and fourth amplitude detectors and the second and third amplitude detectors respectively, and adding the first and fourth amplitudes and the second and third amplitudes respectively generating first and second added signals. Finally, the detector includes a comparator, connected to the first and second adders, and comparing the first and second added signals and detecting the abnormal condition in the plant compressor when the second added signal exceeds the first added signal by a predetermined value. 6 figs.

  6. Anatomical Abnormalities in Gray and White Matter of the Cortical Surface in Persons with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Colibazzi, Tiziano; Wexler, Bruce E.; Bansal, Ravi; Hao, Xuejun; Liu, Jun; Sanchez-Peña, Juan; Corcoran, Cheryl; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although schizophrenia has been associated with abnormalities in brain anatomy, imaging studies have not fully determined the nature and relative contributions of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) disturbances underlying these findings. We sought to determine the pattern and distribution of these GM and WM abnormalities. Furthermore, we aimed to clarify the contribution of abnormalities in cortical thickness and cortical surface area to the reduced GM volumes reported in schizophrenia. Methods We recruited 76 persons with schizophrenia and 57 healthy controls from the community and obtained measures of cortical and WM surface areas, of local volumes along the brain and WM surfaces, and of cortical thickness. Results We detected reduced local volumes in patients along corresponding locations of the brain and WM surfaces in addition to bilateral greater thickness of perisylvian cortices and thinner cortex in the superior frontal and cingulate gyri. Total cortical and WM surface areas were reduced. Patients with worse performance on the serial-position task, a measure of working memory, had a higher burden of WM abnormalities. Conclusions Reduced local volumes along the surface of the brain mirrored the locations of abnormalities along the surface of the underlying WM, rather than of abnormalities of cortical thickness. Moreover, anatomical features of white matter, but not cortical thickness, correlated with measures of working memory. We propose that reductions in WM and smaller total cortical surface area could be central anatomical abnormalities in schizophrenia, driving, at least partially, the reduced regional GM volumes often observed in this illness. PMID:23418459

  7. 21 CFR 864.7415 - Abnormal hemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...a) Identification. An abnormal hemoglobin assay is a device consisting of the reagents, apparatus, instrumentation, and controls necessary to isolate and identify abnormal genetically determined hemoglobin types. (b)...

  8. 21 CFR 864.7415 - Abnormal hemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...a) Identification. An abnormal hemoglobin assay is a device consisting of the reagents, apparatus, instrumentation, and controls necessary to isolate and identify abnormal genetically determined hemoglobin types. (b)...

  9. New insights into the earliest Quaternary environments in the Central North Sea from 3D seismic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Rachel; Huuse, Mads; Stewart, Margaret; Brocklehurst, Simon H.

    2014-05-01

    In the past the transition between an unconformable surface in the south to a conformable horizon towards the north has made identification and mapping the base-Quaternary in the central North Sea difficult (Sejrup et al 1991; Gatliff et al 1994). However recent integration of biostratigraphy, pollen analysis, paleomagnetism and amino acid analysis in the Dutch and Danish sectors (Rasmussen et al 2005; Kuhlmann et al 2006) has allowed greater confidence in the correlation to the region 3D seismic datasets and thus has allowed the base-Quaternary to be mapped across the entire basin. The base-Quaternary has been mapped using the PGS MegaSurvey dataset from wells in the Danish Sector along the initially unconformable horizon and down the delta front into the more conformable basin giving a high degree of confidence in the horizon pick. The revised base-Quaternary surface reaches a depth of 1248 ms TWT with an elongate basin shape which is significantly deeper than the traditionally mapped surface. Using RMS amplitudes and other seismic attributes the revised base-Quaternary has been investigated along the horizon and in time slice to interpret the environments of the earliest Quaternary prior to the onset of glaciation. Combined with analysis of aligned elongate furrows over 10 km long, 100 m wide and 100 m deep suggest a deep marine environment in an almost enclosed basin with persistent strong NW-SE bottom currents in the deepest parts. Pockmarks were formed by the escape of shallow gas on the sides of a small delta in the eastern part of the basin. The progradation of large deltas from both the north and south into the basin make up the majority of the deposition of sediment into the basin. Key Words: base-Quaternary; seismic interpretation; paleoenvironments References: Gatliff, R.W, Richards, P.C, Smith, K, Graham, C.C, McCormac, M, Smith, N.J.P, Long, D, Cameron, T.D.J, Evans, D, Stevenson, A.G, Bulat, J, Ritchie, J.D, (1994) 'United Kingdom offshore regional report: the geology of the central North Sea.' London: HMSO for the British Geological Survey Kuhlmann, G., Langereis C.G., Munsterman, D., van Leeuwen, R.-J., Verreussel, R., Meulenkamp, J.E., Wong, Th.E., 2006 'Intergrated chronostratigraphy of the Pliocene-Pliestocene interval and its relation to the regional stratigraphical stages in the Southern North Sea region' Netherlands Journal of Geosciences 85(1), 29-45 Rasmussen, E.A., Vejb?k O.V., Bidstrup, T., Piasecki, S., Dybkj?r, K., 2005 'Late Cenozoic depositional history of the Danish North Sea Basin: implications for the petroleum systems in the Kraka, Halfdan, Siri and Nini fields', Petroleum Geology Conference series 6, 1347-1358 Sejrup, H.P., Aareseth, I., Haflidason, H., 1991 'The Quaternary succession in the northern North Sea' Marine Geology 101 103-111

  10. The earliest phases of high-mass star formation: the NGC 6334-NGC 6357 complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russeil, D.; Zavagno, A.; Motte, F.; Schneider, N.; Bontemps, S.; Walsh, A. J.

    2010-06-01

    Context. Our knowledge of high-mass star formation has been mainly based on follow-up studies of bright sources found by IRAS, and has thus been incomplete for its earliest phases, which are inconspicuous at infrared wavelengths. With a new generation of powerful bolometer arrays, unbiased large-scale surveys of nearby high-mass star-forming complexes now search for the high-mass analog of low-mass cores and class 0 protostars. Aims: Following the pioneering study of Cygnus X, we investigate the star-forming region NGC 6334-NGC 6357 (~1.7 kpc). Methods: We study the complex NGC 6334-NGC 6357 in an homogeneous way following the previous work of Motte and collaborators. We used the same method to extract the densest cores which are the most likely sites for high-mass star formation. We analyzed the SIMBA/SEST 1.2 mm data presented in Munoz and coworkers, which covers all high-column density areas (A v ? 15 mag) of the NGC 6334-NGC 6357 complex and extracted dense cores following the method used for Cygnus X. We constrain the properties of the most massive dense cores (M > 100 M_?) using new molecular line observations (as SiO, N2H+,H13CO+, HCO+ (1-0) and CH3CN) with Mopra and a complete cross-correlation with infrared databases (MSX, GLIMPSE, MIPSGAL) and literature. Results: We extracted 163 massive dense cores of which 16 are more massive than 200 M_?. These high-mass dense cores have a typical FWHM size of 0.37 pc, an average mass of M ~ 600 M_?, and a volume-averaged density of ~ 1.5 × 105 cm-3. Among these massive dense cores, 6 are good candidates for hosting high-mass infrared-quiet protostars, 9 cores are classified as high-luminosity infrared protostars, and we find only one high-mass starless clump (~0.3 pc, ~ 4 × 104 cm-3) that is gravitationally bound. Conclusions: Since our sample is derived from a single molecular complex and covers every embedded phase of high-mass star formation, it provides a statistical estimate of the lifetime of massive stars. In contrast to what is found for low-mass class 0 and class I phases, the infrared-quiet protostellar phase of high-mass stars may last as long as their more well known high-luminosity infrared phase. As in Cygnus X, the statistical lifetime of high-mass protostars is shorter than found for nearby, low-mass star-forming regions which implies that high-mass pre-stellar and protostellar cores are in a dynamic state, as expected in a molecular cloud where turbulent and/or dynamical processes dominate. Based on observations made with Mopra telescope. The Mopra telescope is part of the Australia Telescope which is funded by the Commonwealth of Australia for operation as a National Facility managed by CSIRO.Table 1 and Appendix are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgProfiles as FITS files are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/515/A55

  11. Evaluating the earliest traces of Archean sub-seafloor life by NanoSIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcloughlin, N.; Grosch, E. G.; Kilburn, M.; Wacey, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Paleoarchean sub-seafloor has been proposed as an environment for the emergence of life with titanite microtextures in pillow lavas argued to be the earliest traces of microbial micro-tunneling (Furnes et al. 2004). Here we use a nano-scale ion microprobe (NanoSIMS) to evaluate possible geochemical traces of life in 3.45 Ga pillow lavas of the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. We investigated both surface and drill core samples from the original "Biomarker" outcrop in the Hooggenoeg Fm. Pillow lava metavolcanic glass contain clusters of segmented microcrystalline titanite filaments, ~4?m across and <200?m in length. Their size, shape and distribution have been directly compared to those found in recent oceanic crust. Thus it has been argued that they are the mineralized remains of tunnels formed by microbes that etched volcanic glass in the Archean sub-seafloor (Furnes et al 2004; Banerjee et al. 2006). Elemental mapping by NanoSIMS was undertaken to investigate reports of enrichments in carbon (possibly also nitrogen) along the margins of the microtextures previously interpreted as decayed cellular remains. We mapped for 12C-, 26CN-, 32S- along with 16O-, 28Si-, 24Mg+,27Al+, 40Ca+, 48Ti+ and 56Fe+ in chlorite and quartz hosted examples. The 12C- or 26CN- linings were not found along the margins of the microtextures in neither the original, nor the drill core samples, despite NanoSIMS being a more sensitive and higher-spatial-resolution technique than earlier microprobe X-ray maps. The absence of organic linings in these samples excludes a key line of evidence previously used to support the biogenicity of the microtextures. Sulfur isotopes 32S and 34S were measured by NanoSIMS on two types of sulfide: i) small sulfides (1-15?m) intimately associated with the microtextures and; ii) larger sulfides (10-60?m) that cross-cut the microtextures and are disseminated near a quartz-carbonate vein. The sulfide inclusions in the microtextures have strongly depleted ?34SVCDT values of -39.8 to +3.2‰ (n= 32). The magnitude, range and spatial heterogeneity of these ?34S values are consistent with an early microbial origin (McLoughlin et al. 2012). In contrast, sulfides cross-cutting the microtextures related to later veining have positive ?34S of +6.7 to +18.0‰ (n=20). These data can be compared to magmatic sulfides (?34S = +3±3‰), Archean seawater (?34S ca. +5‰) and Archean sedimentary sulfides (?34S = +8 to -23‰). We propose that the Hooggenoeg sulfides probably formed during early fluid-rock-microbe interaction involving sulfate-reducing microbes (c.f. Rouxel et al. 2008). The pillow lavas were then metamorphosed, the glass transformed to a greenschist facies assemblage and titanite growth encapsulated the microbial sulfides. In summary, the extreme sulfur isotope fractionations reported here independently point towards the potential involvement of microbes in the alteration of Archean volcanic glass. In situ sulfur isotope analysis of basalt-hosted sulfides may provide an alternative approach to investigating the existence of an Archean sub-seafloor biosphere that does not require the mineralization of early microbial microborings with organic linings.

  12. Contemporary issues in the management of abnormal placentation during pregnancy in developing nations: An Indian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bajwa, Sukhwinder Kaur; Singh, Anita; Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh

    2013-01-01

    The gap between the developed and developing nations with regards to maternal mortality and morbidity may have narrowed but still a lot of dedicated work is required to bridge these differences. Obstetrical haemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal deaths in these developing nations especially in India. The most common causes of this fatal haemorrhage are the placental abnormalities which rarely get detected before delivery. Numerous factors have been incremental in the causation of this abnormal placental implantation with resultant complications. The present article is an attempt to review possible predictors of abnormal placental implantation. Also, a genuine attempt has been made to enumerate possible measures to identify the predictors of abnormal placentation during early pregnancy and their suitable prevention and management. PMID:24404455

  13. Carotid ultrasonography for detection of vascular abnormalities in hypertensive children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan M. Sorof; Andrei V. Alexandrov; Zsolt Garami; Jennifer L. Turner; Robert E. Grafe; Dejian Lai; Ronald J. Portman

    2003-01-01

    To determine whether hypertension and overweight status are associated with increased carotid intimal-medial thickness (cIMT) in children, vascular ultrasonography was performed in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients ( n=53) and normotensive controls ( n=33). Hypertensive subjects were identified either by referral or by systematic school-based hypertension screening. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure above the 95th percentile based on current Task

  14. Analytical cytology applied to detection of induced cytogenetic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, J.W.; Lucas, J.; Straume, T.; Pinkel, D.

    1987-08-06

    Radiation-induced biological damage results in formation of a broad spectrum of cytogenetic changes such as translocations, dicentrics, ring chromosomes, and acentric fragments. A battery of analytical cytologic techniques are now emerging that promise to significantly improve the precision and ease with which these radiation induced cytogenetic changes can be quantified. This report summarizes techniques to facilitate analysis of the frequency of occurrence of structural and numerical aberrations in control and irradiated human cells. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  15. A new method to detect abnormal IP address on DHCP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiang-Whai Dai; Ling-Feng Chiang

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic host configuration protocol (DHCP) provides a means of allocating and managing IP addresses dynamically over a network. One of important characteristics of DHCP server is that same IP address is not allowed to be simultaneously used among different hosts or network cards in DHCP mechanism. However, anyone can guest the corresponding parameters such as IP address, subnet mask, and

  16. A New Method to Detect Abnormal IP Address on DHCP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ling-Feng Chiang; Jiang-Whai Dai

    2009-01-01

    Abstract—Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) provides a means of allocating and managing IP addresses dynamically over a network. An important characteristic of the DHCP server is that different hosts or network cards are not allowed to simultaneously use the same IP address in the DHCP mechanism. However, anyone can guest corresponding parameters such as IP address, subnet mask, and default

  17. Genetic abnormalities detected in ependymomas by comparative genomic hybridisation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Carter; J Nicholson; F Ross; J Crolla; R Allibone; V Balaji; R Perry; D Walker; R Gilbertson; D Ellison

    2002-01-01

    Using comparative genomic hybridisation, we have analysed genetic imbalance in a series of 86 ependymomas from children and adults. Tumours were derived from intracranial and spinal sites, and classified histologically as classic, anaplastic or myxopapillary. Ependymomas showing a balanced profile were significantly (P<0.0005) more frequent in children than adults. Profiles suggesting intermediate ploidy were common (44% of all tumours), and

  18. A Comparison of Techniques for Detecting Abnormal Change in Blogs

    SciTech Connect

    Furuta, Dr. Richard Keith [Texas A& M University] [Texas A& M University; ShipmanIII, Dr. Frank Major [Texas A& M University] [Texas A& M University; Bogen, Paul Logasa [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Distributed collections are made of metadata entries that contain references to artifacts not controlled by the collection curators. These collections often have limited forms of change; for digital distributed collections, primarily creation and deletion of additional resources. However, there exists a class of digital collection that undergoes additional kinds of change. These collections consist of resources that are distributed across the Internet and brought together via hyperlinking. Resources in these collections can be expected to change as time goes on. Part of the difficulty in maintaining these collections is determining if a changed page is still a valid member of the collection. Others have tried to address this by defining a maximum allowed threshold of change, however, these methods treat change as a potential problem and treat web content as static despite its intrinsic dynamicism. Instead we acknowledge change on the web as a normal part of a web document and determine the difference between what a maintainer expects a page to do and what it actually does. In this work we evaluate options for extractors and analyzers from a suite of techniques against a human-generated ground-truth set of blog changes. The results of this work show a statistically significant improvement over traditional threshold techniques for our collection.

  19. Abnormal hepatocellular mitochondria in methylmalonic acidemia.

    PubMed

    Wilnai, Yael; Enns, Gregory M; Niemi, Anna-Kaisa; Higgins, John; Vogel, Hannes

    2014-10-01

    Methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) is one of the most frequently encountered forms of branched-chain organic acidemias. Biochemical abnormalities seen in some MMA patients, such as lactic acidemia and increased tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate excretion, suggest mitochondrial dysfunction. In order to investigate the possibility of mitochondrial involvement in MMA, we examined liver tissue for evidence of mitochondrial ultrastructural abnormalities. Five explanted livers obtained from MMA mut(0) patients undergoing liver transplantation were biopsied. All patients had previous episodes of metabolic acidosis, lactic acidemia, ketonuria, and hyperammonemia. All biopsies revealed a striking mitochondriopathy by electron microscopy. Mitochondria were markedly variable in size, shape, and conformation of cristae. The inner matrix appeared to be greatly expanded and the cristae were diminutive and disconnected. No crystalloid inclusions were noted. This series clearly documents extensive mitochondrial ultrastructure abnormalities in liver samples from MMA patients undergoing transplantation, providing pathological evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathophysiology of MMA mut(0). Considering the trend to abnormally large mitochondria, the metabolic effects of MMA may restrict mitochondrial fission or promote fusion. The correlation between mitochondrial dysfunction and morphological abnormalities in MMA may provide insights for better understanding and monitoring of optimized or novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:24933007

  20. Electroencephalographic abnormalities in patients with snake bites.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, S; Ganaikabahu, B; Pushparajan, K; Wijesekera, J

    1995-01-01

    Electroencephalograms (EEGs) were obtained for 26 patients with snake bite to observe the cerebral impact of snake venom. All snakes were identified; 19 (73%) were Russell's vipers, one (4%) was a common cobra, five (19%) were hump-nosed vipers, and one (4%) was a dog-faced fresh water snake. The EEG was abnormal in 25 patients (96%) and these results included all the snake species identified. The EEG abnormalities observed were reduced alpha activity, increased theta/beta activity or sharp waves (grade 1), sharp waves or spikes and slow waves (grade 2), or diffuse delta activity (grade 3). Grade 1 changes occurred in 16 patients (62%), grade 11 in eight patients (31%), and grade 111 in one patient (4%). Thus, grade 2 and 3 changes, which were moderately severe to severe abnormalities, occurred in nine patients (35%). One patient had acute renal failure and two others had mild jaundice and hyponatremia. These three patients had EEG abnormalities that were similar to those observed in the remaining 22 patients. The altered EEG, suggestive of an encephalopathy, appeared within hours of the bite and persisted for several days without clinical neurologic effects. The changes were seen mainly in the temporal lobe. Similar changes occurred in both patients with and without antivenom therapy. It appeared that the EEG abnormalities are a consequence of the effects of venom from the bites of a variety of snakes. PMID:7856822

  1. Eye movement abnormalities as a predictor of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome dementia complex.

    PubMed

    Currie, J; Benson, E; Ramsden, B; Perdices, M; Cooper, D

    1988-09-01

    Using infrared oculography, we recorded the eye movements in a group of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), with or without the AIDS dementia complex (ADC). Our aim was to determine whether the severity of dementia could be correlated with abnormalities of eye movement and whether eye movement abnormalities could be detected prior to the onset of clinical dementia. Abnormalities of eye movement were present in seven of seven patients with mild, moderate, or severe ADC and in six of seven AIDS or asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive patients without clinical dementia, but at risk for ADC. The eye movement abnormalities detected included disturbances of both saccadic and smooth-pursuit function, and their severity correlated strongly with the severity of dementia. The abnormalities were qualitatively similar to those that occur in Alzheimer's disease but quantitatively less severe. Recording of eye movements may be a valuable, noninvasive technique for the early detection of neurologic dysfunction in asymptomatic patients who are seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus or in patients with AIDS, even prior to other clinical evidence of ADC. In particular, it may be of use in selecting high-risk patients requiring antiviral therapy and in monitoring the neurologic response to such treatment. PMID:3415526

  2. Ultrasound screening for hip abnormalities: preliminary findings in 1001 neonates.

    PubMed Central

    Berman, L; Klenerman, L

    1986-01-01

    Several studies have documented the failure of neonatal clinical screening to reduce the incidence of hip dislocation later in infancy. In addition, the practice of splinting unstable hips is said to result in the treatment of many infants who would have developed normally if left unsplinted. Ultrasound provides a detailed image of the bony and cartilaginous neonatal hip. The results of conventional testing for hip instability were compared with ultrasound screening in 1001 neonates. As a result of the ultrasonic image 14 of 17 infants with hip instability were not splinted and developed normally. Two babies without detectable clinical signs were shown to have severe hip abnormalities. It is suggested that clinically normal but dysplastic hips do exist and that ultrasound will detect them. In addition, the overtreatment that is current practice might be avoided. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 FIG 4 FIG 5 FIG 6 PMID:3094625

  3. Ocular motor abnormalities in neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Antoniades, C A; Kennard, C

    2015-02-01

    Eye movements are a source of valuable information to both clinicians and scientists as abnormalities of them frequently act as clues to the localization of a disease process. Classically, they are divided into two main types: those that hold the gaze, keeping images steady on the retina (vestibulo-ocular and optokinetic reflexes) and those that shift gaze and redirect the line of sight to a new object of interest (saccades, vergence, and smooth pursuit). Here we will review some of the major ocular motor abnormalities present in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25412716

  4. Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

    2014-05-01

    Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

  5. Photosensitivity, abnormal porphyrin profile, and sideroblastic anemia.

    PubMed

    Lim, H W; Cooper, D; Sassa, S; Dosik, H; Buchness, M R; Soter, N A

    1992-08-01

    Cutaneous photosensitivity in a 43-year-old man with idiopathic sideroblastic anemia associated with an abnormal porphyrin profile is reported. This condition was associated with elevated free erythrocyte porphyrin, plasma protoporphyrin, urine porphyrins (predominantly coproporphyrin), stool porphyrins (predominantly protoporphyrin), decreased ferrochelatase activity, and deletion of portions of the long arms of chromosomes 18 and 20. Five other patients with sideroblastic anemia and abnormal porphyrin profiles have been described; all but one of these patients had photosensitivity. The porphyrin profile of this patient is similar to that of three other previously described patients. PMID:1517489

  6. Hybrid origins and the earliest stages of diploidization in the highly successful recent polyploid Capsella bursa-pastoris.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Gavin M; Gos, Gesseca; Steige, Kim A; Salcedo, Adriana; Holm, Karl; Josephs, Emily B; Arunkumar, Ramesh; Ågren, J Arvid; Hazzouri, Khaled M; Wang, Wei; Platts, Adrian E; Williamson, Robert J; Neuffer, Barbara; Lascoux, Martin; Slotte, Tanja; Wright, Stephen I

    2015-03-01

    Whole-genome duplication (WGD) events have occurred repeatedly during flowering plant evolution, and there is growing evidence for predictable patterns of gene retention and loss following polyploidization. Despite these important insights, the rate and processes governing the earliest stages of diploidization remain poorly understood, and the relative importance of genetic drift, positive selection, and relaxed purifying selection in the process of gene degeneration and loss is unclear. Here, we conduct whole-genome resequencing in Capsella bursa-pastoris, a recently formed tetraploid with one of the most widespread species distributions of any angiosperm. Whole-genome data provide strong support for recent hybrid origins of the tetraploid species within the past 100,000-300,000 y from two diploid progenitors in the Capsella genus. Major-effect inactivating mutations are frequent, but many were inherited from the parental species and show no evidence of being fixed by positive selection. Despite a lack of large-scale gene loss, we observe a decrease in the efficacy of natural selection genome-wide due to the combined effects of demography, selfing, and genome redundancy from WGD. Our results suggest that the earliest stages of diploidization are associated with quantitative genome-wide decreases in the strength and efficacy of selection rather than rapid gene loss, and that nonfunctionalization can receive a "head start" through a legacy of deleterious variants and differential expression originating in parental diploid populations. PMID:25691747

  7. Alterations in Myocardial Cardiolipin Content and Composition Occur at the Very Earliest Stages of Diabetes: A Shotgun Lipidomics Study

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xianlin; Yang, Jingyue; Yang, Kui; Zhao, Zhongdan,; Abendschein, Dana R.; Gross, Richard W.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, we have identified the dramatic depletion of cardiolipin (CL) in diabetic myocardium 6 weeks after streptozotocin (STZ) injection that was accompanied by increases in triacylglycerol content and multiple changes in polar lipid molecular species. However, after 6 weeks in the diabetic state, the predominant lipid hallmarks of diabetic cardiomyopathy were each present concomitantly, and thus, it was impossible to identify the temporal course of lipid alterations in diabetic myocardium. Using the newly developed enhanced shotgun lipidomics approach, we demonstrated the dramatic loss of abundant CL molecular species in STZ-treated hearts at the very earliest stages of diabetes accompanied by a profound remodeling of the remaining CL molecular species including a 16-fold increase in the content of 18:2?22:6?22:6?22:6 CL. These alterations in CL metabolism occur within days after the induction of the diabetic state and precede the triacylglycerol accumulation manifest in diabetic myocardium. Similarly, in ob/ob mice, a dramatic and progressive redistribution from 18:2 FA-containing CL molecular species to 22:6 FA-containing CL molecular species was also identified. Collectively, these results demonstrate alterations in CL hydrolysis and remodeling at the earliest stages of diabetes and are consistent with a role for alterations in CL content in precipitating mitochondrial dysfunction in diabetic cardiomyopathy. PMID:17487985

  8. The earliest record of major anthropogenic deforestation in the Ghab Valley, northwest Syria: a palynological study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshinori Yasuda; Hiroyuki Kitagawa; Takeshi Nakagawa

    2000-01-01

    Pollen analytical studies on the sediment core from the Ghab Valley in Northwest Syria detected a large-scale anthropogenic deforestation of deciduous oak forest as early as 9000 14C yr BP. Following the lateglacial climatic amelioration, deciduous oak forest gradually expanded at the foot of Mt. Ansarie since 14,500 14C yr BP. Then this forest was cleared by Pre-Pottery Neolithic B

  9. Sensory Abnormalities in Autism: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klintwall Lars; Holm, Anette; Eriksson, Mats; Carlsson, Lotta Hoglund; Olsson, Martina Barnevik; Hedvall, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Sensory abnormalities were assessed in a population-based group of 208 20-54-month-old children, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and referred to a specialized habilitation centre for early intervention. The children were subgrouped based upon degree of autistic symptoms and cognitive level by a research team at the centre. Parents…

  10. Kidney Transplantation: The Use of Abnormal Kidneys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lauro Branding; Antonio Marcos Arnulf Fraga; Mauro Roberto Rufino Bergonse; Carl Kjellstrand; Anuar Michel Matni; Gilson Lacerda; Pedro Alejandro Gordan; Altair Jacob Mocelin

    1983-01-01

    We transplanted 6 anatomically abnormal kidneys: a horseshoe kidney that after division was transplanted into 2 recipients; 1 kidney with ureteral stones and hydronephrosis; 1 ectopic and 1 hydronephrotic kidney; 2 kidneys with extensive ureteric lesions, donated as free organs. All these kidneys ultimately had normal function in the recipients, long-term in 4. 2 patients died but in neither was

  11. Brain Stem MRI Signal Abnormalities in CADASIL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Chabriat; R. Mrissa; C. Levy; K. Vahedi; H. Taillia; M. T. Iba-Zizen; A. Joutel; E. Tournier-Lasserve; M.-G. Bousser

    Background—We recently showed that the severity of MRI signal abnormalities increases with age in CADASIL, an arteriopathy due to mutations of notch 3 gene on chromosome 19. Previous results also suggest that the various hemispheric subcortical areas have a different vulnerability to ischemia in this disease. The distribution of the lesions at the brain stem level has not yet been

  12. Chromosome abnormalities in Japanese quail embryos

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Chromosome abnormalities in Japanese quail embryos CA de la Sena NS Fechheimer KE Nestor The Ohio-Auzeville, 10-13 July 1990) Japanese quail / embryos / heteroploidy / chromosomes INTRODUCTION Embryos zygotes and the etiology of heteroploid zygotes and embryos (Fechheimer, 1981, 1990). The Japanese quail

  13. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  14. Some pathological abnormalities of New Zealand fishes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. K. Diggles

    2003-01-01

    A number of pathological abnormalities previously unrecorded in New Zealand fishes are described. A silver trevally (Pseudocaranx dentex) captured from the Bay of Islands exhibited swim bladder ectasia. Black oreo (Allocyttus niger) and smooth oreo (Pseudocyttus maculatus) had cysts of unknown aetiology (CUEs) in the gills at prevalences up to 76% and 81%, respectively, in some fishing areas. The CUEs

  15. Emergency Abnormal Conditions 1. Bomb Threat

    E-print Network

    Davis, Lloyd M.

    1 Emergency Abnormal Conditions 1. Bomb Threat a. Bomb threats usually occur by telephone. b. Try OR PACKAGE OR MOVE IT IN ANY WAY! #12;UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE SPACE INSTITUTE BOMB THREAT CALL FORM: ___________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ QUESTIONS TO ASK THE CALLER CONCERNING THE BOMB Who are you

  16. Abnormally high formation pressures, Potwar Plateau, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Shah, S.H.A.; Malik, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormally high formation pressures in the Potwar Plateau of north-central Pakistan are major obstacles to oil and gas exploration. Severe drilling problems associated with high pressures have, in some cases, prevented adequate evaluation of reservoirs and significantly increased drilling costs. Previous investigations of abnormal pressure in the Potwar Plateau have only identified abnormal pressures in Neogene rocks. We have identified two distinct pressure regimes in this Himalayan foreland fold and thrust belt basin: one in Neogene rocks and another in pre-Neogene rocks. Pore pressures in Neogene rocks are as high as lithostatic and are interpreted to be due to tectonic compression and compaction disequilibrium associated with high rates of sedimentation. Pore pressure gradients in pre-Neogene rocks are generally less than those in Neogene rocks, commonly ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 psi/ft (11.3 to 15.8 kPa/m) and are most likely due to a combination of tectonic compression and hydrocarbon generation. The top of abnormally high pressure is highly variable and doesn't appear to be related to any specific lithologic seal. Consequently, attempts to predict the depth to the top of overpressure prior to drilling are precluded.

  17. Renal abnormalities in sickle cell disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phuong-Thu T Pham; Phuong-Chi T Pham; Alan H Wilkinson; Susie Q Lew

    2000-01-01

    Renal abnormalities in sickle cell disease. Sickle cell nephropathy is indicated by sickled erythrocytes, with the consequent effects of decreased medullary blood flow, ischemia, microinfarct and papillary necrosis. Impaired urinary concentrating ability, renal acidification, hematuria, and potassium secretion are also found. There may be a causal relationship between an increase in nitric oxide synthesis and experimental sickle cell nephropathy, and

  18. On (ab)normality: Einstein's fusiform gyrus.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Kevin S

    2015-03-01

    Recently, Hines (2014) wrote an evocative paper challenging findings from both histological and morphological studies of Einstein's brain. In this discussion paper, I extend Hines' theoretical point and further discuss how best to determine 'abnormal' morphology. To do so, I assess the sulcal patterning of Einstein's fusiform gyrus (FG) for the first time. The sulcal patterning of the FG was unconsidered in prior studies because the morphological features of the mid-fusiform sulcus have only been clarified recently. On the one hand, the sulcal patterning of Einstein's FG is abnormal relative to averages of 'normal' brains generated from two independent datasets (N = 39 and N = 15, respectively). On the other hand, within the 108 hemispheres used to make these average brains, it is not impossible to find FG sulcal patterns that resemble those of Einstein. Thus, concluding whether a morphological pattern is normal or abnormal heavily depends on the chosen analysis method (e.g. group average vs. individual). Such findings question the functional meaning of morphological 'abnormalities' when determined by comparing an individual to an average brain or average frequency characteristics. These observations are not only important for analyzing a rare brain such as that of Einstein, but also for comparing macroanatomical features between typical and atypical populations. PMID:25562419

  19. Systematic review of accuracy of prenatal diagnosis for abnormal chromosome diseases by microarray technology.

    PubMed

    Xu, H B; Yang, H; Liu, G; Chen, H

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy of prenatal diagnosis for abnormal chromosome diseases by chromosome microarray technology and karyotyping were compared. A literature search was carried out in the MEDLINE database with the keywords "chromosome" and "karyotype" and "genetic testing" and "prenatal diagnosis" and "oligonucleotide array sequence". The studies obtained were filtered by using the QUADAS tool, and studies conforming to the quality standard were fully analyzed. There was one paper conforming to the QUADAS standards including 4406 gravidas with adaptability syndromes of prenatal diagnosis including elderly parturient women, abnormal structure by type-B ultrasound, and other abnormalities. Microarray technology yielded successful diagnoses in 4340 cases (98.8%), and there was no need for tissue culture in 87.9% of the samples. All aneuploids and non-parallel translocations in 4282 cases of non-chimera identified by karyotyping could be detected using microarray analysis technology, whereas parallel translocations and fetal triploids could not be detected by microarray analysis technology. In the samples with normal karyotyping results, type-B ultrasound showed that 6% of chromosomal deficiencies or chromosome duplications could be detected by microarray technology, and the same abnormal chromosomes were detected in 1.7% of elderly parturient women and samples with positive serology screening results. In the prenatal diagnosis test, compared with karyotyping, microarray technology could identify the extra cell genetic information with clinical significance, aneuploids, and non-parallel translocations; however, its disadvantage is that it could not identify parallel translocations and triploids. PMID:25366803

  20. Parietal Lipoma Associated with Cortical Dysplasia and Abnormal Vasculature: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isil Saatci; Cengiz Aslan; Yavuz Renda; Aytekin Besim

    Summary: We present the case of an unusually located in- tracranial lipoma in a 17-year-old patient with partial ep- ilepsy who was being controlled with medication. The li- poma was located deep in the left sylvian fissure, in the inferior parietal lobule, associated with cortical dysplasia of the surrounding supramarginal gyrus. Abnormal vas- culature was detected adjacent to and within

  1. Clinical Implications of Abnormalities of Chromosomes 1 and 13 in Multiple Myeloma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasunori Nakagawa; Masakazu Sawanobori; Hiroshi Amaya; Isao Matsuda; Yasuyuki Inoue; Kenshi Suzuki; Sachiko Hashimoto; Keiko Kanno

    2003-01-01

    Stratification of patients with multiple myeloma according to clinical severity was attempted by chromosomal analysis of 180 bone marrow specimens from 79 patients. The 79 patients were hospitalized and treated between 1994 and 1999. Abnormalities of chromosome 1 were detected at the initial medical examination in 8 (10%) of the 79 patients and were found during follow-up in additional 3

  2. Instability of a 550Base Pair DNA Segment and Abnormal Methylation in Fragile X Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Oberle; F. Rousseau; D. Heitz; C. Kretz; D. Devys; A. Hanauer; J. Boue; M. F. Bertheas; J. L. Mandel

    1991-01-01

    The fragile X syndrome, a common cause of inherited mental retardation, is characterized by an unusual mode of inheritance. Phenotypic expression has been linked to abnormal cytosine methylation of a single CpG island, at or very near the fragile site. Probes adjacent to this island detected very localized DNA rearrangements that consti- tuted the fragile X mutations, and whose target

  3. Herbicide effects on freshwater benthic diatoms: Induction of nucleus alterations and silica cell wall abnormalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Debenest; J. Silvestre; M. Coste; F. Delmas; E. Pinelli

    2008-01-01

    Benthic diatoms are well known bio-indicators of river pollution by nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus). Biological indexes, based on diatom sensitivity for non-toxic pollution, have been developed to assess the water quality. Nevertheless, they are not reliable tools to detect pollution by pesticides. Many authors have suggested that toxic agents, like pesticides, induce abnormalities of the diatom cell wall (frustule). High

  4. Unveiling the earliest stage of star formation: the H3+ deuteration tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vastel, Charlotte

    2007-07-01

    Deuterium enhancement of monodeuterated species has been recognized for more than 30 years as a result of the chemical fractionation that results from the difference in zero point energies of deuterated and hydrogenated molecules. The key reaction is the deuteron exchange in the reaction between HD, the reservoir of deuterium in dark interstellar clouds, and the H3+ molecular ion, leading to the production of the H2D+ molecule, and the low temperature in dark interstellar clouds favors this production. Furthermore, the presence of multiply deuterated species have incited us (Phillips & Vastel 2003) to proceed further and consider the subsequent reaction of H2D+ with HD, leading to D2H+ (first detected by Vastel et al. 2004), which can further react with HD to produce D3+. In prestellar cores, where CO was found to be depleted (Bacmann et al. 2003), this production should be increased, as CO would normally destroy H3+. The first model including D2}H+ and D3}+ (Roberts, Herbst & Millar 2003) predicted that these molecules should be as abundant as H2D+. The first detection of the D2H+ was made possible by the recent laboratory measurement by Hirao & Amano (2003) for the frequency of the fundamental line of the para-D2H+. In this paper I present observations of H3D+ and D2H+ towards a sample of dark clouds and prestellar cores and show how the distribution of ortho-H2}D+ (11,0}-B11}) can trace the deuterium factory in prestellar cores. I will also present how future instrumentation will improve our knowledge concerning the deuterium enhancement of H3+.

  5. Abnormal metabolism of valproic acid in fatal hepatic failure.

    PubMed

    Kochen, W; Schneider, A; Ritz, A

    1983-10-01

    A 7-year-old boy developed a severe unilateral grand mal seizure at the age of 5 years (phenobarbitone therapy); 1.5 years later valproate (2-propylpentanoic acid, VPA) was added to the therapy. After a seizure-free period of 3 months the patient died from hepatic failure resembling Reye syndrome. Several plasma and urine samples from the final stage before and during peritoneal dialysis were analyzed by GC/MS. The predominant feature was the abnormally increased formation of both 3 mono- and 4 double unsaturated metabolites of VPA amounting in plasma to 58%-71% of the sum of VPA plus all analyzed metabolites (controls maximal 15%) and in urine to 34%-61% (controls maximal 10%). The beta-oxidation pathway of VPA was shown to be suppressed (lack of 3-keto-VPA), whereas metabolites from the omega-oxidation pathway could still be measured (urinary 5-OH-VPA plus 2-propylglutaric acid ca. 1.6%, controls more than 10%). 4-en-VPA (2-propyl-4-pentenoic acid) (5%-21% in plasma) and 4,4'-dien-VPA (2(2-propenyl)-4-pentenoic acid) (4%-7%) have been found as abnormal unsaturated metabolites not detectable in controls. Additional typical findings were the high excretion of adipic acid, suberic acid, and 4-octen-1,8-dicarboxylic acid demonstrating the enhanced capacity of omega-oxidation in fatty acid oxidation. PMID:6416845

  6. Earliest domestication of common millet (Panicum miliaceum) in East Asia extended to 10,000 years ago.

    PubMed

    Lu, Houyuan; Zhang, Jianping; Liu, Kam-biu; Wu, Naiqin; Li, Yumei; Zhou, Kunshu; Ye, Maolin; Zhang, Tianyu; Zhang, Haijiang; Yang, Xiaoyan; Shen, Licheng; Xu, Deke; Li, Quan

    2009-05-01

    The origin of millet from Neolithic China has generally been accepted, but it remains unknown whether common millet (Panicum miliaceum) or foxtail millet (Setaria italica) was the first species domesticated. Nor do we know the timing of their domestication and their routes of dispersal. Here, we report the discovery of husk phytoliths and biomolecular components identifiable solely as common millet from newly excavated storage pits at the Neolithic Cishan site, China, dated to between ca. 10,300 and ca. 8,700 calibrated years before present (cal yr BP). After ca. 8,700 cal yr BP, the grain crops began to contain a small quantity of foxtail millet. Our research reveals that the common millet was the earliest dry farming crop in East Asia, which is probably attributed to its excellent resistance to drought. PMID:19383791

  7. Earliest domestication of common millet (Panicum miliaceum) in East Asia extended to 10,000 years ago

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Houyuan; Zhang, Jianping; Liu, Kam-biu; Wu, Naiqin; Li, Yumei; Zhou, Kunshu; Ye, Maolin; Zhang, Tianyu; Zhang, Haijiang; Yang, Xiaoyan; Shen, Licheng; Xu, Deke; Li, Quan

    2009-01-01

    The origin of millet from Neolithic China has generally been accepted, but it remains unknown whether common millet (Panicum miliaceum) or foxtail millet (Setaria italica) was the first species domesticated. Nor do we know the timing of their domestication and their routes of dispersal. Here, we report the discovery of husk phytoliths and biomolecular components identifiable solely as common millet from newly excavated storage pits at the Neolithic Cishan site, China, dated to between ca. 10,300 and ca. 8,700 calibrated years before present (cal yr BP). After ca. 8,700 cal yr BP, the grain crops began to contain a small quantity of foxtail millet. Our research reveals that the common millet was the earliest dry farming crop in East Asia, which is probably attributed to its excellent resistance to drought. PMID:19383791

  8. Scientists find that chromosomal abnormalities are associated with aging and cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Two new studies have found that large structural abnormalities in chromosomes, some of which have been associated with increased risk of cancer, can be detected in a small fraction of people without a prior history of cancer. The studies found that these alterations in chromosomes appear to increase with age, particularly after the age of 50, and may be associated with an increased risk for cancer. Mosaicism, the type of structural abnormality in chromosomes that is described in these studies, results from a DNA alteration that is present in some of the body's cells but not in others. A person with mosaicism has a mixture of normal and mutated cells.

  9. Opportunistic Feeding Strategy for the Earliest Old World Hypsodont Equids: Evidence from Stable Isotope and Dental Wear Proxies

    PubMed Central

    Tütken, Thomas; Kaiser, Thomas M.; Vennemann, Torsten; Merceron, Gildas

    2013-01-01

    Background The equid Hippotherium primigenium, with moderately hypsodont cheek teeth, rapidly dispersed through Eurasia in the early late Miocene. This dispersal of hipparions into the Old World represents a major faunal event during the Neogene. The reasons for this fast dispersal of H. primigenium within Europe are still unclear. Based on its hypsodonty, a high specialization in grazing is assumed although the feeding ecology of the earliest European hipparionines within a pure C3 plant ecosystem remains to be investigated. Methodology/Principal Findings A multi-proxy approach, combining carbon and oxygen isotopes from enamel as well as dental meso- and microwear analyses of cheek teeth, was used to characterize the diet of the earliest European H. primigenium populations from four early Late Miocene localities in Germany (Eppelsheim, Höwenegg), Switzerland (Charmoille), and France (Soblay). Enamel ?13C values indicate a pure C3 plant diet with small (<1.4‰) seasonal variations for all four H. primigenium populations. Dental wear and carbon isotope compositions are compatible with dietary differences. Except for the Höwenegg hipparionines, dental microwear data indicate a browse-dominated diet. By contrast, the tooth mesowear patterns of all populations range from low to high abrasion suggesting a wide spectrum of food resources. Conclusions/Significance Combined dental wear and stable isotope analysis enables refined palaeodietary reconstructions in C3 ecosystems. Different H. primigenium populations in Europe had a large spectrum of feeding habits with a high browsing component. The combination of specialized phenotypes such as hypsodont cheek teeth with a wide spectrum of diet illustrates a new example of the Liem’s paradox. This dietary flexibility associated with the capability to exploit abrasive food such as grasses probably contributed to the rapid dispersal of hipparionines from North America into Eurasia and the fast replacement of the brachydont equid Anchitherium by the hypsodont H. primigenium in Europe. PMID:24040254

  10. Temperate carbonate debrites and short-lived earliest Miocene yo-yo tectonics, eastern Taranaki Basin margin, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, Steven D.; Nelson, Campbell S.

    2012-03-01

    This study examines two unconformity-bound earliest Miocene temperate shallow-marine limestones at remote Gibson Beach, western North Island, on the eastern margin of Taranaki Basin, New Zealand's only producing hydrocarbon province. The local geology comprises an upper limestone of up to 6 m of spectacular conglomeratic limestone (rudstone; Papakura Limestone) whose pebble- to boulder-sized clasts were derived from cannibalisation of the lower skeletal limestone (bryomol grainstone; Otorohanga Limestone). Multiple lines of evidence require the Otorohanga Limestone to have been well indurated before erosion and clast generation. Cementation occurred from pressure dissolution of calcitic skeletons at burial depths of probably 400 m or more. Subsequent uplift led to local subaerial exposure and karstification of a fault-block cliffed coastline where physical erosion sourced talus limestone debris onto adjacent high-energy pocket beaches. Storm and/or seismic events periodically triggered mass flows of the limestone clasts offshore onto the contemporary mixed siliciclastic-carbonate shelf as channelised carbonate debrites. Lithification of these Papakura Limestone debrites occurred via pressure dissolution, and required a second burial episode. Karst pinnacles preserved on the eroded upper surface of the Papakura Limestone demand uplift again and erosion in a subaerial setting, before subsequent deep burial by Early Miocene siliciclastic shelf sand and turbidite deposits. Strontium isotope dating of brachiopod fossils suggests the two postulated burial-uplift cycles, involving movements up to 400 ± 100 m, occurred very rapidly within several 100 kyr. Speculative drivers of the yo-yo tectonic events are earliest Miocene movements on the nearby major Taranaki Fault thrust in association with regional changes in subduction tectonics at the Australian-Pacific plate boundary, along with pulsed emplacement of obducted gravity slide deposits (Northland Allochthon) onto northern North Island. The two limestones record a previously undocumented degree of eastern Taranaki Basin margin tectonic mobility relevant to a fuller appreciation of petroleum system development in that basin.

  11. Mitochondrial DNA Mutations and Mitochondrial Abnormalities in Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Arbustini, Eloisa; Diegoli, Marta; Fasani, Roberta; Grasso, Maurizia; Morbini, Patrizia; Banchieri, Nadia; Bellini, Ornella; Dal Bello, Barbara; Pilotto, Andrea; Magrini, Giulia; Campana, Carlo; Fortina, Paolo; Gavazzi, Antonello; Narula, Jagat; Viganò, Mario

    1998-01-01

    Mitochondrial (mt)DNA defects, both deletions and tRNA point mutations, have been associated with cardiomyopathies. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of pathological mtDNA mutations and to assess associated defects of mitochondrial enzyme activity in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) patients with ultrastructural abnormalities of cardiac mitochondria. In a large cohort of 601 DCM patients we performed conventional light and electron microscopy on endomyocardial biopsy samples. Cases with giant organelles, angulated, tubular, and concentric cristae, and crystalloid or osmiophilic inclusion bodies were selected for mtDNA analysis. Mutation screening techniques, automated DNA sequencing, restriction enzyme digestion, and densitometric assays were performed to identify mtDNA mutations, assess heteroplasmy, and quantify the amount of mutant in myocardial and blood DNA. Of 601 patients (16 to 63 years; mean, 43.5 ± 12.7 years), 85 had ultrastructural evidence of giant organelles, with abnormal cristae and inclusion bodies; 19 of 85 (22.35%) had heteroplasmic mtDNA mutations (9 tRNA, 5 rRNA, and 4 missense, one in two patients) that were not found in 111 normal controls and in 32 DCM patients without the above ultrastructural mitochondrial abnormalities. In all cases, the amount of mutant was higher in heart than in blood. In hearts of patients that later underwent transplantation, cytochrome c oxidase (Cox) activity was significantly lower in cases with mutations than in those without or controls (P = 0.0008). NADH dehydrogenase activity was only slightly reduced in cases with mutations (P = 0.0388), whereas succinic dehydrogenase activity did not significantly differ between DCM patients with mtDNA mutations and those without or controls. The present study represents the first attempt to detect a morphological, easily identifiable marker to guide mtDNA mutation screening. Pathological mtDNA mutations are associated with ultrastructurally abnormal mitochondria, and reduced Cox activity in a small subgroup of non-otherwise-defined, idiopathic DCMs, in which mtDNA defects may constitute the basis for, or contribute to, the development of congestive heart failure. PMID:9811342

  12. Behavioral correlates of epileptiform abnormalities in autism.

    PubMed

    Trauner, Doris A

    2014-11-01

    There is a high incidence of epileptiform abnormalities in children with autism even in the absence of clinical seizures. These findings are most prominent during sleep recordings. The significance of these abnormalities is unclear. Although studies do not all agree, there may be some association between cognitive function, behavior, and the presence or absence of epileptiform discharges. Small studies of anticonvulsant treatment mostly suggest an improvement in certain aspects of cognitive or behavioral functioning in these children, but larger and more comprehensive studies are needed to determine the potential relationship between epileptiform discharges on EEG, cognitive and behavioral functioning, and treatment effects in the population with autism. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Autism and Epilepsy". PMID:25453621

  13. Developmental pragmatics in normal and abnormal children.

    PubMed

    Bara, B G; Bosco, F M; Bucciarelli, M

    1999-07-01

    We propose a critical review of current theories of developmental pragmatics. The underlying assumption is that such a theory ought to account for both normal and abnormal development. From a clinical point of view, we are concerned with the effects of brain damage on the emergence of pragmatic competence. In particular, the paper deals with direct speech acts, indirect speech acts, irony, and deceit in children with head injury, closed head injury, hydrocephalus, focal brain damage, and autism. Since no single theory covers systematically the emergence of pragmatic capacity in normal children, it is not surprising that we have not found a systematic account of deficits in the communicative performance of brain injured children. In our view, the challenge for a pragmatic theory is the determination of the normal developmental pattern within which different pragmatic phenomena may find a precise role. Such a framework of normal behavior would then permit the systematic study of abnormal pragmatic development. PMID:10441191

  14. Abnormalities in signaling pathways in diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Brosius, Frank C; Khoury, Charbel C; Buller, Carolyn L; Chen, Sheldon

    2010-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is characterized by a plethora of signaling abnormalities that together ultimately result in the clinical and pathologic hallmarks of DN, namely progressive albuminuria followed by a gradual decline in glomerular filtration rate leading to kidney failure, and accompanied by podocyte loss, progressive glomerular sclerosis and, ultimately, progressive tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Over the past few years, the general understanding of the abnormalities in signaling pathways that lead to DN has expanded considerably. In this review, some of the important pathways that appear to be involved in driving this process are discussed, with special emphasis on newer findings and insights. Newer concepts regarding signaling changes in bradykinin, mTOR, JAK/STAT, MCP-1, VEGF, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, activated protein C and other pathways are discussed. PMID:20224802

  15. Chromosomal abnormalities in a psychiatric population

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, K.E.; Lubetsky, M.J.; Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W. [Univ. of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA (United States)

    1995-02-27

    Over a 3.5 year period of time, 345 patients hospitalized for psychiatric problems were evaluated cytogenetically. The patient population included 76% males and 94% children with a mean age of 12 years. The criteria for testing was an undiagnosed etiology for mental retardation and/or autism. Cytogenetic studies identified 11, or 3%, with abnormal karyotypes, including 4 fragile X positive individuals (2 males, 2 females), and 8 with chromosomal aneuploidy, rearrangements, or deletions. While individuals with chromosomal abnormalities do not demonstrate specific behavioral, psychiatric, or developmental problems relative to other psychiatric patients, our results demonstrate the need for an increased awareness to order chromosomal analysis and fragile X testing in those individuals who have combinations of behavioral/psychiatric, learning, communication, or cognitive disturbance. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  16. Vestibular and Saccadic Abnormalities in Gaucher's Disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Luke; Halmagyi, G Michael; Todd, Michael J; Aw, Swee T

    2014-01-01

    Gaucher's disease (GD) is a hereditary lysosomal storage disease characterized by abnormal deposition of glucocerebroside due to the enzyme glucocerebrosidase deficiency, resulting in multi-organ pathology. GD type III has a progressive neurological involvement. We studied the vestibular and saccadic abnormalities in GD type III to determine if these parameters may be useful for assessing neurological involvement. We evaluated the vestibular and saccadic responses of two siblings with genetically identified GD type III on enzyme replacement therapy. Vestibular functions were assessed with the head impulse test (HIT), vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs), and electrical vestibular stimulation (EVS). Saccadic functions were investigated with volitional horizontal and vertical saccades to ±20°. Three-dimensional head and eye movements were recorded with dual-search coils and VEMP with surface electrodes. HIT showed impaired individual semicircular canal function with halved angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gains and absent horizontal refixation saccade. Ocular and cervical VEMPs to air-conducted clicks were absent in the older sibling, and only cervical VEMP was present in the younger sibling indicating otolithic dysfunction. EVS showed prolonged onset latency and attenuated tonic and phasic responses suggesting impaired neural conduction and vestibular function. Horizontal saccadic velocity was miniscule (<30°/s) and multiple back-to-back saccades with saccade-vergence interaction were utilized to minimize eye position error in the older sibling. Vertical saccades were slightly abnormal, but vergence and smooth pursuit were normal in both siblings. Our findings suggest that GD affected the vestibular nuclei in addition to the paramedian pontine reticular formation. These vestibular and saccadic abnormalities may be useful biomarkers to monitor neurological deterioration. PMID:24142279

  17. Esophageal motility abnormalities in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    PubMed Central

    Martinucci, Irene; de Bortoli, Nicola; Giacchino, Maria; Bodini, Giorgia; Marabotto, Elisa; Marchi, Santino; Savarino, Vincenzo; Savarino, Edoardo

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal motility abnormalities are among the main factors implicated in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The recent introduction in clinical and research practice of novel esophageal testing has markedly improved our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease, allowing a better management of patients with this disorder. In this context, the present article intends to provide an overview of the current literature about esophageal motility dysfunctions in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal manometry, by recording intraluminal pressure, represents the gold standard to diagnose esophageal motility abnormalities. In particular, using novel techniques, such as high resolution manometry with or without concurrent intraluminal impedance monitoring, transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations, hypotensive LES, ineffective esophageal peristalsis and bolus transit abnormalities have been better defined and strongly implicated in gastroesophageal reflux disease development. Overall, recent findings suggest that esophageal motility abnormalities are increasingly prevalent with increasing severity of reflux disease, from non-erosive reflux disease to erosive reflux disease and Barrett’s esophagus. Characterizing esophageal dysmotility among different subgroups of patients with reflux disease may represent a fundamental approach to properly diagnose these patients and, thus, to set up the best therapeutic management. Currently, surgery represents the only reliable way to restore the esophagogastric junction integrity and to reduce transient LES relaxations that are considered to be the predominant mechanism by which gastric contents can enter the esophagus. On that ground, more in depth future studies assessing the pathogenetic role of dysmotility in patients with reflux disease are warranted. PMID:24868489

  18. Ophthalmoscopic abnormalities in adults with falciparum malaria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. K. KOCHAR; B. L. K UMAWAT; A. JOSHI; S. P. VYAS

    1998-01-01

    from admission to discharge, and weekly thereafter in those with persistent changes. All patients were severe anaemia ( p<0.001), as compared to uncom- plicated malaria ( p<0.01). The association of papil- treated by a protocol based on WHO guidelines. Ophthalmoscopic abnormalities were: retinal haem- loedema and cerebral malaria was highly significant compared to severe non-cerebral malaria ( p< orrhages, 40

  19. The handicap of abnormal colour vision.

    PubMed

    Cole, Barry L

    2004-07-01

    All people with abnormal colour vision, except for a few mildly affected deuteranomals, report that they experience problems with colour in everyday life and at work. Contemporary society presents them with increasing problems because colour is now so widely used in printed materials and in computer displays. Equal opportunity law gives them protection against unfair discrimination in employment, so a decision to exclude a person from employment on the grounds of abnormal colour vision must now be well supported by good evidence and sound argument. This paper reviews the investigations that have contributed to understanding the nature and consequences of the problems they have. All those with abnormal colour vision are at a disadvantage with comparative colour tasks that involve precise matching of colours or discrimination of fine colour differences either because of their loss of colour discrimination or anomalous perception of metamers. The majority have problems when colour is used to code information, in man-made colour codes and in naturally occurring colour codes that signal ripeness of fruit, freshness of meat or illness. They can be denied the benefit of colour to mark out objects and organise complex visual displays. They may be unreliable when a colour name is used as an identifier. They are slower and less successful in search when colour is an attribute of the target object or is used to organise the visual display. Because those with the more severe forms of abnormal colour vision perceive a very limited gamut of colours, they are at a disadvantage in the pursuit and appreciation of those forms of art that use colour. PMID:15312030

  20. Abnormal calcium homeostasis in peripheral neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Fernyhough, Paul; Calcutt, Nigel A.

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal neuronal calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis has been implicated in numerous diseases of the nervous system. The pathogenesis of two increasingly common disorders of the peripheral nervous system, namely neuropathic pain and diabetic polyneuropathy, has been associated with aberrant Ca2+ channel expression and function. Here we review the current state of knowledge regarding the role of Ca2+ dyshomeostasis and associated mitochondrial dysfunction in painful and diabetic neuropathies. The central impact of both alterations of Ca2+ signalling at the plasma membrane and also intracellular Ca2+ handling on sensory neuron function is discussed and related to abnormal endoplasmic reticulum performance. We also present new data highlighting sub-optimal axonal Ca 2+ signalling in diabetic neuropathy and discuss the putative role for this abnormality in the induction of axonal degeneration in peripheral neuropathies. The accumulating evidence implicating Ca2+ dysregulation with both painful and degenerative neuropathies, along with recent advances in understanding of regional variations in Ca2+ channel and pump structures, makes modulation of neuronal Ca2+ handling an increasingly viable approach for therapeutic interventions against the painful and degenerative aspects of many peripheral neuropathies. PMID:20034667

  1. Trading networks, abnormal motifs and stock manipulation

    E-print Network

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Xiong, Xiong; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yong-Jie; Zhou, W -X

    2013-01-01

    We study trade-based manipulation of stock prices from the perspective of complex trading networks constructed by using detailed information of trades. A stock trading network consists of nodes and directed links, where every trader is a node and a link is formed from one trader to the other if the former sells shares to the latter. Specifically, three abnormal network motifs are investigated, which are found to be formed by a few traders, implying potential intention of price manipulation. We further investigate the dynamics of volatility, trading volume, average trade size and turnover around the transactions associated with the abnormal motifs for large, medium and small trades. It is found that these variables peak at the abnormal events and exhibit a power-law accumulation in the pre-event time period and a power-law relaxation in the post-event period. We also find that the cumulative excess returns are significantly positive after buyer-initiated suspicious trades and exhibit a mild price reversal afte...

  2. Abnormal dynamics of language in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Stephane, Massoud; Kuskowski, Michael; Gundel, Jeanette

    2014-05-30

    Language could be conceptualized as a dynamic system that includes multiple interactive levels (sub-lexical, lexical, sentence, and discourse) and components (phonology, semantics, and syntax). In schizophrenia, abnormalities are observed at all language elements (levels and components) but the dynamic between these elements remains unclear. We hypothesize that the dynamics between language elements in schizophrenia is abnormal and explore how this dynamic is altered. We, first, investigated language elements with comparable procedures in patients and healthy controls. Second, using measures of reaction time, we performed multiple linear regression analyses to evaluate the inter-relationships among language elements and the effect of group on these relationships. Patients significantly differed from controls with respect to sub-lexical/lexical, lexical/sentence, and sentence/discourse regression coefficients. The intercepts of the regression slopes increased in the same order above (from lower to higher levels) in patients but not in controls. Regression coefficients between syntax and both sentence level and discourse level semantics did not differentiate patients from controls. This study indicates that the dynamics between language elements is abnormal in schizophrenia. In patients, top-down flow of linguistic information might be reduced, and the relationship between phonology and semantics but not between syntax and semantics appears to be altered. PMID:24629711

  3. Abnormal functional connectivity density in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiuquan; Bi, Wenwei; Zhang, Yuling; Zhu, Maohu; Zhang, Yanling; Feng, Hua; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Yuanchao; Jiang, Tianzi

    2015-03-01

    The pathology of Parkinson's disease (PD) is not confined to the nigrostriatal pathway, but also involves widespread cerebral cortical areas. Using seed-based resting state functional connectivity, many previous studies have demonstrated that PD patients have abnormal functional integration. However, this technique strongly relies on a priori selection of the seed regions and may miss important unpredictable findings. Using an ultrafast voxel-wise functional connectivity density approach, this study performed a whole brain functional connectivity analysis to investigate the abnormal resting-state functional activities in PD patients. Compared with healthy controls, PD patients exhibited decreased short-range functional connectivity densities in regions that were mainly located in the ventral visual pathway and decreased long-range functional connectivity densities in the right middle and superior frontal gyrus, which have been speculated to be associated with visual hallucinations and cognitive dysfunction, respectively. PD patients also exhibited increased short- and long-range functional connectivity densities in the bilateral precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex, which may represent a compensatory process for maintaining normal brain function. The observed functional connectivity density alterations might be related to the disturbed structural connectivity of PD patients, leading to abnormal functional integration. Our results suggest that functional connectivity density mapping may provide a useful means to assess PD-related neurodegeneration and to study the pathophysiology of PD. PMID:25496782

  4. Major soluble proteome changes in Deinococcus deserti over the earliest stages following gamma-ray irradiation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Deinococcus deserti VCD115 has been isolated from Sahara surface sand. This radiotolerant bacterium represents an experimental model of choice to understand adaptation to harsh conditions encountered in hot arid deserts. We analysed the soluble proteome dynamics in this environmentally relevant model after exposure to 3 kGy gamma radiation, a non-lethal dose that generates massive DNA damages. For this, cells were harvested at different time lapses after irradiation and their soluble proteome contents have been analysed by 2-DE and mass spectrometry. Results In the first stage of the time course we observed accumulation of DNA damage response protein DdrB (that shows the highest fold change ~11), SSB, and two different RecA proteins (RecAP and RecAC). Induction of DNA repair protein PprA, DNA damage response protein DdrD and the two gyrase subunits (GyrA and GyrB) was also detected. A response regulator of the SarP family, a type II site-specific deoxyribonuclease and a putative N-acetyltransferase are three new proteins found to be induced. In a more delayed stage, we observed accumulation of several proteins related to central metabolism and protein turn-over, as well as helicase UvrD and novel forms of both gyrase subunits differing in terms of isoelectric point and molecular weight. Conclusions Post-translational modifications of GyrA (N-terminal methionine removal and acetylation) have been evidenced and their significance discussed. We found that the Deide_02842 restriction enzyme, which is specifically found in D. deserti, is a new potential member of the radiation/desiccation response regulon, highlighting the specificities of D. deserti compared to the D. radiodurans model. PMID:23320389

  5. Down's Syndrome and Leukemia: Mechanism of Additional Chromosomal Abnormalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Goh, Kong-oo

    1978-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities, some appearing in a stepwise clonal evoluation, were found in five Down's syndrome patients (35 weeks to 12 years old), four with acute leukemia and one with abnormal regulation of leukopoiesis. (Author/SBH)

  6. How to Assess Changes in Feet: Normal or Abnormal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in Feet: Normal or Abnormal How to Assess Changes in Feet: Normal or Abnormal Page Content The ... this extensive repetitive use leads to several normal changes associated with aging: The foot becomes wider and ...

  7. Fetal loss from umbilical cord abnormalities--a difficult case for prevention.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, A; Woo, J S; MacHenry, C; Wan, C W; O'Hoy, K M; Ma, H K

    1984-11-01

    The summaries of 12 pregnancies in which fetal distress and death were thought to be the result of umbilical cord abnormalities are presented. These included six cases of stricture and torsion of the cord, one case of umbilical vein aneurysm, one case of perivascular haemorrhage near the fetal end of the cord, one case of umbilical vein thrombosis, two cases of true knot of the cord and one case of very short cord. The perinatal mortality was 75% in the whole group (9 out of 12 fetuses), there being eight stillbirths and one neonatal death. Of the 12 fetuses, only three were small for dates at delivery. Nine patients volunteered the history of a decrease in fetal movements, and non-stress cardiotocography (NST) was abnormal in eight patients. It was noted, however, that fetal death tended to occur rapidly after an abnormal test. Observations in our series indicated that antepartum fetal deaths due to umbilical cord abnormalities are still difficult to prevent, as it is often impossible to detect fetal distress in time for appropriate intervention. Prompt action to deliver the baby after an abnormal NST appears to be a necessary step to prevent antepartum deaths due to such causes. PMID:6519342

  8. Reversibility of pulmonary abnormalities by conditional replacement of surfactant protein D (SP-D) in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liqian; Ikegami, Machiko; Dey, Chitta R; Korfhagen, Thomas R; Whitsett, Jeffrey A

    2002-10-11

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) gene-targeted mice develop severe pulmonary disease associated with emphysema, pulmonary lipidosis, and foamy macrophage infiltrations. To determine the potential reversibility of these abnormalities, transgenic mice were developed in which SP-D was conditionally replaced in the respiratory epithelium of SP-D(-/-) mice. SP-D was not detected in the absence of doxycycline. Treatment with doxycycline after birth restored pulmonary SP-D concentrations and corrected pulmonary pathology at adulthood. When SP-D was replaced in adult SP-D(-/-) mice, alveolar SP-D was restored within 3 days, pulmonary lipid abnormalities were corrected, but emphysema persisted. In corrected adult SP-D(-/-) mice, loss of SP-D caused focal emphysema and pulmonary inflammation but did not cause phospholipid abnormalities characteristic of SP-D(-/-) mice. Thus, abnormalities in surfactant phospholipid homeostasis and alveolar macrophage abnormalities were readily corrected by restoration of SP-D. However, once established, emphysema was not reversed by SP-D. SP-D-dependent processes regulating surfactant lipid homeostasis were disassociated from those mediating emphysema. PMID:12163500

  9. Risk Factors for Abnormal Anal Cytology over Time in HIV-infected Women

    PubMed Central

    BARANOSKI, Amy S; TANDON, Richa; WEINBERG, Janice; HUANG, Faye; STIER, Elizabeth A

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To assess incidence of, and risk factors for abnormal anal cytology and anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) 2–3 in HIV-infected women. Study Design This prospective study assessed 100 HIV-infected women with anal and cervical specimens for cytology and high risk HPV testing over three semi-annual visits. Results Thirty-three women were diagnosed with an anal cytologic abnormality at least once. Anal cytology abnormality was associated with current CD4 count <200 cells/mm3, anal HPV infection and history of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Twelve subjects were diagnosed with AIN2-3: four after AIN1 diagnosis and four after ?1 negative anal cytology. AIN2-3 trended towards an association with history of cervical cytologic abnormality and history of STI. Conclusions Repeated annual anal cytology screening for HIV-infected women, particularly for those with increased immunosuppression, anal and/or cervical HPV, history of other STIs, or abnormal cervical cytology, will increase the likelihood of detecting AIN2-3. PMID:22520651

  10. Abnormal uterine cavity: differential diagnosis with MR imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Izumi Imaoka; Kazuro Sugimura; Takayuki Masui; Yasuo Takehara; Katsutoshi Ichijo; Masaaki Naito

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the usefulness of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in distinguishing malignant from benign conditions in patients with an abnormal uterine cavity. Fifty-four patients that were suspected of having abnormal uterine cavities were retrospectively evaluated by using MR imaging. The diagnosis of an abnormal uterine cavity included a thickened endometrium, and\\/or a endometrial mass,

  11. Computed tomography and pulmonary function abnormalities in sickle cell disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. P. Sylvester; S. R. Desai; A. U. Wells; D. M. Hansell; M. Awogbade; S. L. Thein; A. Greenough

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) in steady state had pulmonary abnormalities seen on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and whether any abnormalities correlated with contemporaneously diagnosed lung function abnormalities. A subsidiary question was whether the results of a noninvasive measure of haemolysis (end-tidal carbon monoxide (ETCO) levels) correlated with pulmonary function

  12. Pulmonary function abnormalities in children with sickle cell disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K P Sylvester; R A Patey; P Milligan; M Dick; G F Rafferty; D Rees; S L Thein; A Greenough

    2004-01-01

    Background: Adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) have restrictive lung function abnormalities which are thought to result from repeated lung damage caused by episodes of pulmonary vaso-occlusion; such episodes start in childhood. A study was therefore undertaken to determine whether children with SCD have restrictive lung function abnormalities and whether the severity of such abnormalities increases with age.Methods: Sixty four

  13. Illness representations and emotion in people with abnormal screening results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin S. Hagger; Sheina Orbell

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship of cognitive and emotional representations of illness specified by self-regulation theory on emotional responses of patients with abnormal screening results. Participants were 660 women who received an abnormal cervical smear and 701 men and women who received an abnormal colorectal cancer screening result. Participants completed postal questionnaires containing measures of illness representations and specific

  14. A method of ROC analysis by applying item response theory (IRT) to results of 1/0 judgments on the presence or absence of abnormal findings in CT image readings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Toru; Furukawa, Akira; Nisizawa, Kanae; Murao, Kohei; Hanai, Kozo; Yamamoto, Shinji; Wada, Shinichi; Sone, Shusuke

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a method of ROC analysis to evaluate both the ability of individual readers to detect abnormal findings and the detectability of abnormal findings in individual cases by applying item response theory to the results of 1/0 judgments on presence of abnormal findings in CT image readings. The validity of the method was verified by the following data and methods. Twenty-four readers searched for abnormal findings in 25 cases for which there were chest CT images with defined abnormal findings. From the 1/0 judgment data for the 25 cases with CT images (column) read by the 24 readers (row), each reader's potential ability to detect the abnormal findings (?), the rate of "1" judgment by each reader, i.e. confidence level for TP and FP, P(?), and the individual image response characteristic curves with the image as the item were calculated, from which ROC curves that represent the ability of each reader to detect abnormal findings were created. In addition, from the 1/0 judgment data for the 25 cases with CT images (row) read by the 24 readers (column), the potential detectability of abnormal findings for each CT image (?) and the rate of "1" judgment for the image by readers, i.e. confidence level for TP and FP, P(?), were calculated, from which ROC curves that represent the detectability of the abnormal finding in each case were created.

  15. Abnormal amygdala function in Parkinson's disease patients and its relationship to depression.

    PubMed

    Huang, Peiyu; Xuan, Min; Gu, Quanquan; Yu, Xinfeng; Xu, Xiaojun; Luo, Wei; Zhang, Minming

    2015-09-01

    Depression is a common occurrence in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Thus, there may be a common neural mechanism underlying the two diseases. Lewy body accumulation in specific brain areas of PD patients may damage emotion-related functions, leading to depression. Among these areas, the amygdala may present with the earliest to be damaged in PD. However, it is still unclear whether amygdala structural and functional changes are related to depression in PD. We enrolled 19 depressed PD patients, 19 non-depressed PD patients, and 28 normal control subjects. Clinical assessment, including the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and the Mini-Mental State Examination, was carried out on all the patients. Structural and resting-state functional brain images were also acquired to assess volumetric and functional changes of the amygdala in the patients. Results showed that although there is no significant volume change, left amygdala activity increased in the PD group compared with the normal control group, and it correlated with Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression scores. Furthermore, functional connectivity between the right amygdala and fronto-parietal areas was found to be decreased in the depressed PD patients compared with non-depressed PD patients. These results suggest that abnormal amygdala function may underlie the occurrence of depression in PD. PMID:26042728

  16. Multiple exostosis: a short study of abnormalities near the growth plate.

    PubMed

    Mansoor, Atiya; Beals, Rodney K

    2007-09-01

    The pathogenesis of multiple exostosis has been controversial with many theories put forward including the structural/mechanical theory, which emphasizes that the osteochondroma arises in the displaced growth plate cartilage penetrating a defective periosteum. Recently, molecular genetics has offered the neoplastic model with tumor suppressor genes implicated in the development and pathogenesis of exostosis. In this study, we demonstrated the spectrum of histological abnormalities in the developing exostosis present on the surface of the bone at the physis. Seven skeletally immature patients with multiple exostoses were used in this study. The patients' families were advised of and consented to the proposed study. Coincident with removal of symptomatic exostoses that was adjacent to the physis, a thin strip of bone with overlying periosteum was removed to include the edge of the physis. This was followed by formalin fixation and routine paraffin embedding. We demonstrated the earliest lesion as a microchondroma within the periosteum adjacent to the normal physis (also called the 'groove of Ranvier'). More mature progressively larger lesions showing enchondral ossification were seen distally. The periosteum and the perichondrium were intact with normal physis. Our observations give support to the fact that precursor cells in the periosteum adjacent to the physis (also called the 'groove of Ranvier') gives rise to the chondrocytes that clonally expands and develops into exostosis. PMID:17762677

  17. Nail abnormalities associated with systemic pathologies.

    PubMed

    Zaiac, Martin N; Walker, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Nail abnormalities can arise in conjunction with or as a result of systematic pathologies. These pathologies include single-organ diseases, multisystemic diseases, and drug-induced insults. Clinical signs associated with these conditions include dyschromias, vascular alterations, periungual tissue changes, textural dystrophies, contour alterations, and growth-rate alterations. The associated systemic pathologies may affect any part of the nail apparatus, including the nail matrix, the nail plate, the nail bed, the underlying vasculature, and the periungual tissues. The anatomical location and extent of damage determine the clinically manifested anomaly. PMID:24079592

  18. Consequences of chromosomal abnormalities in tumor development.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-García, I

    1997-01-01

    This article highlights recent advances in the molecular structure and function of proteins that are activated or created by chromosomal abnormalities and discusses their possible role in tumor development. The molecular characterization of these proteins has revealed that tumor-specific fusion proteins are the consequence of most chromosome translocations associated with leukemias and solid tumors. An emerging common theme is that creation of these proteins disrupts the normal development of tumor-specific target cells by blocking apoptosis. These insights identify these chromosomal translocation-associated genes as potential targets for improved cancer therapies. PMID:9442903

  19. Age and origin of earliest adakitic-like magmatism in Panama: Implications for the tectonic evolution of the Panamanian magmatic arc system

    E-print Network

    Bermingham, Eldredge

    Age and origin of earliest adakitic-like magmatism in Panama: Implications for the tectonic Institute, Apartado Postal 0843-03092, Balboa, Ancon, Panama c Corporación Geológica Ares, Calle 44a #53 October 2011 Accepted 27 February 2012 Available online 22 March 2012 Keywords: Panama Panamanian magmatic

  20. The Earliest Reference to ADHD in the Medical Literature? Melchior Adam Weikard's Description in 1775 of "Attention Deficit" (Mangel der Aufmerksamkeit, Attentio Volubilis)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Russell A.; Peters, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present article reports on the discovery and translation of a chapter in a 1775 medical textbook by the German physician, Melchior Adam Weikard, which describes attention disorders. This article is believed to be the earliest reference to the syndrome that today is known as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD. Method:…

  1. By Sarah O'Donnell, edmontonjournal.com June 28, 2012 http://www.edmontonjournal.com/technology/researchers+find+earliest+evidence+mobile+life/6855596/story.html

    E-print Network

    Machel, Hans

    that creatures like sponges appeared about 700 million years ago. By comparison, the earliest dinosaurs it appears the rice grainsized slug would abruptly leave. They speculate that it was surfacing from forms, starting with bacteria, began to appear about 3.5 billion years ago. Other studies have shown

  2. Earliest Mexican Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in the Maya Region: Implications for Pre-Hispanic Animal Trade and the Timing of Turkey Domestication

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Erin Kennedy; Emery, Kitty F.; Steadman, David W.; Speller, Camilla; Matheny, Ray; Yang, Dongya

    2012-01-01

    Late Preclassic (300 BC–AD 100) turkey remains identified at the archaeological site of El Mirador (Petén, Guatemala) represent the earliest evidence of the Mexican turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) in the ancient Maya world. Archaeological, zooarchaeological, and ancient DNA evidence combine to confirm the identification and context. The natural pre-Hispanic range of the Mexican turkey does not extend south of central Mexico, making the species non-local to the Maya area where another species, the ocellated turkey (Meleagris ocellata), is indigenous. Prior to this discovery, the earliest evidence of M. gallopavo in the Maya area dated to approximately one thousand years later. The El Mirador specimens therefore represent previously unrecorded Preclassic exchange of animals from northern Mesoamerica to the Maya cultural region. As the earliest evidence of M. gallopavo found outside its natural geographic range, the El Mirador turkeys also represent the earliest indirect evidence for Mesoamerican turkey rearing or domestication. The presence of male, female and sub-adult turkeys, and reduced flight morphology further suggests that the El Mirador turkeys were raised in captivity. This supports an argument for the origins of turkey husbandry or at least captive rearing in the Preclassic. PMID:22905156

  3. Reconsiderations about the abnormalities of somatosensory evoked potentials in motor neuron disease.

    PubMed

    Zakrzewska-Pniewska, B; Gasik, R; Kostera-Pruszczyk, A; Emeryk-Szajewska, B

    1999-03-01

    The frequency of involvement of sensory pathways in motor neuron disease (MND) remains the matter of controversy. For this reason the purpose of the present work was to test how often sensory system involvement might be detected by somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) studies and then to verify the presence of alteration of the sensory conduction and to detect the frequency of abnormalities of somatosensory peripheral, spinal, subcortical and cortical potentials in MND. SEP were tested after median nerve stimulation at the wrist, recorded from Erb's point, Ce2, Ce7 and scalp. Pearson's correlation coefficients test and Wilcoxon rank-sum test were used for statistical analysis. 74 patients (22 women and 52 men) were examined. Mean age of patients was 54.07 +/- 11.24 years; mean duration of the disease -19.25 +/- 15.87 months. SEP were abnormal in 39 of 74 patients (about 53%) whereas the sensory NCV in median nerve was abnormal in 14 of 74 patients (19%). The most frequent pattern of abnormalities consisted of the absence or delay of cortical responses. The mean values of SEP latencies (N9, N11, N13, N20 and P25) were significantly increased in MND patients (p < 0.05) as compared with controls. The N9 and N11 latencies correlated with the duration of the disease. The results of our study (concerning a large group of MND patients) suggest that the involvement of sensory pathways is not rare in MND. PMID:10207680

  4. [Classification and genetic abnormalities of multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Hanamura, Ichiro; Iida, Shinsuke

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy of plasma cells which develops through genetic aberrations, epigenetic changes and the bone marrow microenvironment interaction. Despite recent tremendous progress in treatments for MM, a complete cure remains elusive. Further development of more effective therapeutic strategies is needed. The International Staging System (ISS) reported in 2005 has been used widely as the most simple and powerful prognostic classification in MM, but genetic abnormalities affecting prognosis were not considered in this model. In the past decade, non-random chromosomal aberrations such as t(4;14), t(14;16), t(14;20), amp1q21 and del17p have shown to be poor prognostic value, and moreover, recent progress in genome-wide deep sequencing studies has revealed novel mutations and intra-tumor subclonal heterogeneity which may explain clinical phenotype and therapeutic resistance. Here we review the current understanding of genetic abnormalities in MM for developing better prognostic classification and molecular targeted therapies leading to the stratified or personalized medicine. PMID:25626298

  5. Native fluorescence characterization of human liver abnormalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, Singaravelu; Madhuri, S.; Aruna, Prakasa R.; Suchitra, S.; Srinivasan, T. G.

    1999-05-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy of intrinsic biomolecules has been extensively used in biology and medicine for the past several decades. In the present study, we report the native fluorescence characteristics of blood plasma from normal human subjects and patients with different liver abnormalities such as hepatitis, leptospirosis, jaundice, cirrhosis and liver cell failure. Native fluorescence spectra of blood plasma -- acetone extract were measured at 405 nm excitation. The average spectrum of normal blood plasma has a prominent emission peak around 464 nm whereas in the case of liver diseased subjects, the primary peak is red shifted with respect to normal. In addition, liver diseased cases show distinct secondary emission peak around 615 nm, which may be attributed to the presence of endogenous porphyrins. The red shift of the prominent emission peak with respect to normal is found to be maximum for hepatitis and minimum for cirrhosis whereas the secondary emission peak around 615 nm was found to be more prominent in the case of cirrhosis than the rest. The ratio parameter I465/I615 is found to be statistically significant (p less than 0.001) in discriminating liver abnormalities from normal.

  6. Control of Abnormal Synchronization in Neurological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Popovych, Oleksandr V.; Tass, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    In the nervous system, synchronization processes play an important role, e.g., in the context of information processing and motor control. However, pathological, excessive synchronization may strongly impair brain function and is a hallmark of several neurological disorders. This focused review addresses the question of how an abnormal neuronal synchronization can specifically be counteracted by invasive and non-invasive brain stimulation as, for instance, by deep brain stimulation for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, or by acoustic stimulation for the treatment of tinnitus. On the example of coordinated reset (CR) neuromodulation, we illustrate how insights into the dynamics of complex systems contribute to successful model-based approaches, which use methods from synergetics, non-linear dynamics, and statistical physics, for the development of novel therapies for normalization of brain function and synaptic connectivity. Based on the intrinsic multistability of the neuronal populations induced by spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP), CR neuromodulation utilizes the mutual interdependence between synaptic connectivity and dynamics of the neuronal networks in order to restore more physiological patterns of connectivity via desynchronization of neuronal activity. The very goal is to shift the neuronal population by stimulation from an abnormally coupled and synchronized state to a desynchronized regime with normalized synaptic connectivity, which significantly outlasts the stimulation cessation, so that long-lasting therapeutic effects can be achieved. PMID:25566174

  7. Brain Abnormalities in Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woojun; Kim, Su-Hyun; Huh, So-Young; Kim, Ho Jin

    2012-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an idiopathic inflammatory syndrome of the central nervous system that is characterized by severe attacks of optic neuritis (ON) and myelitis. Until recently, NMO was considered a disease without brain involvement. However, since the discovery of NMO-IgG/antiaqaporin-4 antibody, the concept of NMO was broadened to NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD), and brain lesions are commonly recognized. Furthermore, some patients present with brain symptoms as their first manifestation and develop recurrent brain symptoms without ON or myelitis. Brain lesions with characteristic locations and configurations can be helpful in the diagnosis of NMOSD. Due to the growing recognition of brain abnormalities in NMOSD, these have been included in the NMO and NMOSD diagnostic criteria or guidelines. Recent technical developments such as diffusion tensor imaging, MR spectroscopy, and voxel-based morphometry reveal new findings related to brain abnormalities in NMOSD that were not identified using conventional MRI. This paper focuses on the incidence and characteristics of the brain lesions found in NMOSD and the symptoms that they cause. Recent studies using advanced imaging techniques are also introduced. PMID:23259063

  8. Abnormal Reward System Activation in Mania

    PubMed Central

    Abler, Birgit; Greenhouse, Ian; Ongur, Dost; Walter, Henrik; Heckers, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    Transmission of reward signals is a function of dopamine, a neurotransmitter known to be involved in the mechanism of psychosis. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated how expectation and receipt of monetary rewards modulate brain activation in patients with bipolar mania and schizophrenia. We studied 12 acutely manic patients with a history of bipolar disorder, 12 patients with a current episode of schizoaffective disorder or schizophrenia and 12 healthy subjects. All patients were treated with dopamine antagonists at the time of the study. Subjects performed a delayed incentive paradigm with monetary reward in the scanner that allowed for investigating effects of expectation, receipt, and omission of rewards. Patients with schizophrenia and healthy control subjects showed the expected activation of dopaminergic brain areas, that is, ventral tegmentum activation upon expectation of monetary rewards and nucleus accumbens activation during receipt vs omission of rewards. In manic patients, however, we did not find a similar pattern of brain activation and the differential signal in the nucleus accumbens upon receipt vs omission of rewards was significantly lower compared to the healthy control subjects. Our findings provide evidence for abnormal function of the dopamine system during receipt or omission of expected rewards in bipolar disorder. These deficits in prediction error processing in acute mania may help to explain symptoms of disinhibition and abnormal goal pursuit regulation. PMID:17987058

  9. [Value of the handgrip apex cardiography test for detection of early diastolic ventricular dysfunction in patients with angina pectoris].

    PubMed

    Manolas, J

    1990-12-01

    Left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction is the earliest manifestation of myocardial ischemia. There are no simple stress tests for detecting ischemia by assessing abnormal changes of early (relaxation) and late (end-diastolic compliance) LV diastolic function. This study attempts to establish the diagnostic accuracy of the handgrip-apexcardiographic test (HAT) for detecting exercise-ischemia-induced diastolic dysfunction. Apex- and phonocardiogram were obtained during a 2-min handgrip (40% of maximal voluntary contraction using a balloon dynamometer). Indices of LV diastolic function were provided by relative A-wave to total height (A/H) of ACG, total apexcardiographic relaxation time (TART), TART corrected for heart rate (TARTI), and diastolic amplitude time index (DATI). HAT was performed in 63 patients with typical stable angina pectoris and 202 healthy volunteers. Positivity of HAT is defined by the presence of at least one of the following new criteria: 1) A/H during or after handgrip greater than 21% (= largest individual value in controls), 2) TART during greater than TART before handgrip greater than 143 ms or TARTI during handgrip less than 0.14 (= lowest individual value in controls), and 3) DATI during handgrip less than 0.27. According to this definition, all controls showed a negative HAT (specificity: 100%). By contrast, HAT was positive in 54 out of the 63 angina patients (sensitivity: 86%). These results demonstrate that HAT is a highly sensitive stress test for identifying patients with angina pectoris by assessing LV diastolic abnormalities. Thus, this quick and simple exercise method represents a new aspect in the clinical evaluation of angina patients for the practicing physician. PMID:2087862

  10. New dinosaur (Theropoda, stem-Averostra) from the earliest Jurassic of the La Quinta formation, Venezuelan Andes

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Max C.; Rincón, Ascanio D.; Ramezani, Jahandar; Solórzano, Andrés; Rauhut, Oliver W. M.

    2014-01-01

    Dinosaur skeletal remains are almost unknown from northern South America. One of the few exceptions comes from a small outcrop in the northernmost extension of the Andes, along the western border of Venezuela, where strata of the La Quinta Formation have yielded the ornithischian Laquintasaura venezuelae and other dinosaur remains. Here, we report isolated bones (ischium and tibia) of a small new theropod, Tachiraptor admirabilis gen. et sp. nov., which differs from all previously known members of the group by an unique suite of features of its tibial articulations. Comparative/phylogenetic studies place the new form as the sister taxon to Averostra, a theropod group that is known primarily from the Middle Jurassic onwards. A new U–Pb zircon date (isotope dilution thermal-ionization mass spectrometry; ID-TIMS method) from the bone bed matrix suggests an earliest Jurassic maximum age for the La Quinta Formation. A dispersal–vicariance analysis suggests that such a stratigraphic gap is more likely to be filled by new records from north and central Pangaea than from southern areas. Indeed, our data show that the sampled summer-wet equatorial belt, which yielded the new taxon, played a pivotal role in theropod evolution across the Triassic–Jurassic boundary.

  11. Changing the picture of Earth's earliest fossils (3.5–1.9 Ga) with new approaches and new discoveries

    PubMed Central

    Brasier, Martin D.; Antcliffe, Jonathan; Saunders, Martin; Wacey, David

    2015-01-01

    New analytical approaches and discoveries are demanding fresh thinking about the early fossil record. The 1.88-Ga Gunflint chert provides an important benchmark for the analysis of early fossil preservation. High-resolution analysis of Gunflintia shows that microtaphonomy can help to resolve long-standing paleobiological questions. Novel 3D nanoscale reconstructions of the most ancient complex fossil Eosphaera reveal features hitherto unmatched in any crown-group microbe. While Eosphaera may preserve a symbiotic consortium, a stronger conclusion is that multicellular morphospace was differently occupied in the Paleoproterozoic. The 3.46-Ga Apex chert provides a test bed for claims of biogenicity of cell-like structures. Mapping plus focused ion beam milling combined with transmission electron microscopy data demonstrate that microfossil-like taxa, including species of Archaeoscillatoriopsis and Primaevifilum, are pseudofossils formed from vermiform phyllosilicate grains during hydrothermal alteration events. The 3.43-Ga Strelley Pool Formation shows that plausible early fossil candidates are turning up in unexpected environmental settings. Our data reveal how cellular clusters of unexpectedly large coccoids and tubular sheath-like envelopes were trapped between sand grains and entombed within coatings of dripstone beach-rock silica cement. These fossils come from Earth’s earliest known intertidal to supratidal shoreline deposit, accumulated under aerated but oxygen poor conditions. PMID:25901305

  12. Iapetonudus (N. gen.) and Iapetognathus Landing, unusual Earliest Ordovician multielement conodont taxa and their utility for biostratigraphy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicoll, R.S.; Miller, J.F.; Nowlan, G.S.; Repetski, J.E.; Ethington, Raymond L.

    1999-01-01

    The Early Ordovician (Tremadocian) multielement conodont genus Iapetognathus is one of the oldest denticulate euconodont genera known. The ramiform-ramiform apparatus structure of Iapetognathus is not similar morphologically to other Late Cambrian to Earliest Ordovician denticulate multielement taxa, such as Eodentatus or Cordyloduts, because the major denticulate process has a lateral rather than a posterior orientation as it is in the other two examples. For this reason the genus is believed to have developed from the coniform-coniform apparatus Iapetonudus ibexensis (N.gen., n.sp.) through the development of the denticulate lateral processes. The two genera have a number of morphologic features in common and appear in stratigraphic succession. Iapetognathus aengensis (Lindstro??m) is redefined as a multielement taxon using topotype material and Ig. preaengensis Landing is placed in synonymy with it. Iapetognathus sprakersi, recently described by Landing in Landing and others (1996), is recognized as a multielement species and the new multielement species, Ig. fluctivagus, Ig. jilinensis and Ig. landingi n. spp. are described herein, based on type specimens from Utah (U.S.A.), Jilin (China) and Colorado (U.S.A.) respectively. Iapetonudus and Iapetognathus are important genera in defining the level of the Cambrian-Ordovician boundary. Iapetonudus is currently recognized only from Utah, Texas and Oklahoma, but Iapetognathus is cosmopolitan in its distribution.

  13. New dinosaur (Theropoda, stem-Averostra) from the earliest Jurassic of the La Quinta formation, Venezuelan Andes.

    PubMed

    Langer, Max C; Rincón, Ascanio D; Ramezani, Jahandar; Solórzano, Andrés; Rauhut, Oliver W M

    2014-10-01

    Dinosaur skeletal remains are almost unknown from northern South America. One of the few exceptions comes from a small outcrop in the northernmost extension of the Andes, along the western border of Venezuela, where strata of the La Quinta Formation have yielded the ornithischian Laquintasaura venezuelae and other dinosaur remains. Here, we report isolated bones (ischium and tibia) of a small new theropod, Tachiraptor admirabilis gen. et sp. nov., which differs from all previously known members of the group by an unique suite of features of its tibial articulations. Comparative/phylogenetic studies place the new form as the sister taxon to Averostra, a theropod group that is known primarily from the Middle Jurassic onwards. A new U-Pb zircon date (isotope dilution thermal-ionization mass spectrometry; ID-TIMS method) from the bone bed matrix suggests an earliest Jurassic maximum age for the La Quinta Formation. A dispersal-vicariance analysis suggests that such a stratigraphic gap is more likely to be filled by new records from north and central Pangaea than from southern areas. Indeed, our data show that the sampled summer-wet equatorial belt, which yielded the new taxon, played a pivotal role in theropod evolution across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. PMID:26064540

  14. Paratingia wudensis sp. nov., a whole noeggerathialean plant preserved in an earliest Permian air fall tuff in Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Pfefferkorn, Hermann W; Bek, Jirí

    2009-09-01

    Noeggerathiales are a little known group of Carboniferous and Permian plants of uncertain systematic position that have been variously considered to be ferns, sphenopsids, progymnosperms, or a separate group. These heterosporous plants carry adaxial sporangia on leaf-like or disk-shaped sporophylls that form cones. Leaves are pinnate with a rather stiff appearance, and pinnules can be attached in either two or four rows. In the present report, we present the top of a noeggerathialean plant with leaves and strobili attached, Paratingia wudensis Wang, Pfefferkorn et Bek sp. nov., from an earliest Permian volcanic ash fall tuff in Inner Mongolia. The excellent preservation allows the reconstruction of the whole plant, the complex three-dimensional leaves with anisophyllous pinnules, the heterosporous strobili, and the spores in situ. The homology of leaves and strobili can be elucidated and contributes to an understanding of the debated taxonomic position of Noeggerathiales. The "anisophyllous" leaves carry pinnules arranged in four rows. The strobili are bisporangiate and have disk-shaped sporophylls, each with one ring of 10-14 adaxial sporangia around the strobilus axis. Megaspores have an equatorial bulge. This new species expands the known diversity of Noeggerathiales. It grew in a peat-forming forest, thus changing earlier interpretations of the growth of noeggerathialean plants with anisophyllous pinnules. PMID:21622354

  15. Cone photoreceptor abnormalities correlate with vision loss in a case of acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy.

    PubMed

    Hong, In Hwan; Park, Sung Pyo; Chen, Ching Lung; Kim, Hyoung Kyun; Tsang, Stephen H; Chang, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    The authors report adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO) findings in a case of acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy. The right eye showed an island of coarse, hyperreflective speckles surrounded by a dark annulus lacking cone cells, which were associated with reduced MP1 sensitivity and abnormal findings in other imaging modalities. Although dark lesions were also detected in the left eye, the correlated spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images were normal. AO-SLO allowed for the direct observation of retinal disruptions and the ability of this technology to detect abnormalities in the left eye demonstrates a superior ability for in-depth retinal imaging. PMID:24392917

  16. Directly transmitted unbalanced chromosome abnormalities and euchromatic variants

    PubMed Central

    Barber, J

    2005-01-01

    In total, 200 families were reviewed with directly transmitted, cytogenetically visible unbalanced chromosome abnormalities (UBCAs) or euchromatic variants (EVs). Both the 130 UBCA and 70 EV families were divided into three groups depending on the presence or absence of an abnormal phenotype in parents and offspring. No detectable phenotypic effect was evident in 23/130 (18%) UBCA families ascertained mostly through prenatal diagnosis (group 1). In 30/130 (23%) families, the affected proband had the same UBCA as other phenotypically normal family members (group 2). In the remaining 77/130 (59%) families, UBCAs had consistently mild consequences (group 3). In the 70 families with established EVs of 8p23.1, 9p12, 9q12, 15q11.2, and 16p11.2, no phenotypic effect was apparent in 38/70 (54%). The same EV was found in affected probands and phenotypically normal family members in 30/70 families (43%) (group 2), and an EV co-segregated with mild phenotypic anomalies in only 2/70 (3%) families (group 3). Recent evidence indicates that EVs involve copy number variation of common paralogous gene and pseudogene sequences that are polymorphic in the normal population and only become visible at the cytogenetic level when copy number is high. The average size of the deletions and duplications in all three groups of UBCAs was close to 10 Mb, and these UBCAs and EVs form the "Chromosome Anomaly Collection" at http://www.ngrl.org.uk/Wessex/collection. The continuum of severity associated with UBCAs and the variability of the genome at the sub-cytogenetic level make further close collaboration between medical and laboratory staff essential to distinguish clinically silent variation from pathogenic rearrangement. PMID:16061560

  17. Molecular cytogenetic studies in structural abnormalities of chromosome 13

    SciTech Connect

    Lozzio, C.B.; Bamberger, E.; Anderson, I. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    A partial trisomy 13 was detected prenatally in an amniocentesis performed due to the following ultrasound abnormalities: open sacral neural tube defect (NTD), a flattened cerebellum, and lumbar/thoracic hemivertebrae. Elevated AFP and positive acetylcholinesterase in amniotic fluid confirmed the open NTD. Chromosome analysis showed an extra acrocentric chromosome marker. FISH analysis with the painting probe 13 showed that most of the marker was derived from this chromosome. Chromosomes on the parents revealed that the mother had a balanced reciprocal translocation t(2;13)(q23;q21). Dual labeling with painting chromosomes 2 and 13 on cells from the mother and from the amniotic fluid identified the marker as a der(13)t(2;13)(p23;q21). Thus, the fetus had a partial trisomy 13 and a small partial trisomy 2p. The maternal grandfather was found to be a carrier for this translocation. Fetal demise occurred a 29 weeks of gestation. The fetus had open lumbar NTD and showed dysmorphic features, overlapping fingers and imperforate anus. This woman had a subsequent pregnancy and chorionic villi sample showed that this fetus was normal. Another case with an abnormal chromosome 13 was a newborn with partial monosomy 13 due to the presence of a ring chromosome 13. This infant had severe intrauterine growth retardation, oligohydramnios, dysmorphic features and multiple congenital microphthalmia, congenital heart disease, absent thumbs and toes and cervical vertebral anomalies. Chromosome studies in blood and skin fibroblast cultures showed that one chromosome 3 was replaced by a ring chromosome of various sizes. This ring was confirmed to be derived from chromosome 13 using the centromeric 21/13 probe.

  18. Vehicle Detection and Compass Applications using AMR Magnetic Sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Caruso; Lucky S. Withanawasam

    The earliest magnetic field detectors allowed navigation over trackless oceans by sensing the earth's magnetic poles. Magnetic field sensing has vastly expanded as industry has adapted a variety of magnetic sensors to detect the presence, strength, or direction of magnetic fields not only from the earth, but also from permanent magnets, magnetized soft magnets, vehicle distur- bances, brain wave activity,

  19. Interlochen: The Earliest Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Theron

    1997-01-01

    Provides a personal reminiscence of the first two years (1928-29) of the now famous Interlochen Arts Camp. Profiles the camp's two founders, Joseph E. Maddy and Thaddeus P. Giddings. Early participants performed carpentry and landscaping duties and learned a classical music repertoire. Includes photographs of Maddy and Giddings. (MJP)

  20. Earth's Earliest Atmospheres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Zahnle; Laura Schaefer; Bruce Fegley

    2010-01-01

    Earth is the one known example of an inhabited planet and to current knowledge the likeliest site of the one known origin of life. Here we discuss the origin of Earth's atmosphere and ocean and some of the environmental conditions of the early Earth as they may relate to the origin of life. A key punctuating event in the narrative

  1. Abnormal intracellular ca(2+)homeostasis and disease.

    PubMed

    Missiaen, L; Robberecht, W; van den Bosch, L; Callewaert, G; Parys, J B; Wuytack, F; Raeymaekers, L; Nilius, B; Eggermont, J; De Smedt, H

    2000-07-01

    A whole range of cell functions are regulated by the free cytosolic Ca(2+)concentration. Activator Ca(2+)from the extracellular space enters the cell through various types of Ca(2+)channels and sometimes the Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchanger, and is actively extruded from the cell by Ca(2+)pumps and Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchangers. Activator Ca(2+)can also be released from internal Ca(2+)stores through inositol trisphosphate or ryanodine receptors and is taken up into these organelles by means of Ca(2+)pumps. The resulting Ca(2+)signal is highly organized in space, frequency and amplitude because the localization and the integrated free cytosolic Ca(2+)concentration over time contain specific information. Mutations or functional abnormalities in the various Ca(2+)transporters, which in vitro seem to induce trivial functional alterations, therefore, often lead to a plethora of diseases. Skeletal-muscle pathology can be caused by mutations in ryanodine receptors (malignant hyperthermia, porcine stress syndrome, central-core disease), dihydropyridine receptors (familial hypokalemic periodic paralysis, malignant hyperthermia, muscular dysgenesis) or Ca(2+)pumps (Brody disease). Ca(2+)-pump mutations in cutaneous epidermal keratinocytes and cochlear hair cells lead to, skin diseases (Darier and Hailey-Hailey) and hearing/vestibular problems respectively. Mutated Ca(2+)channels in the photoreceptor plasma membrane cause vision problems. Hemiplegic migraine, spinocerebellar ataxia type-6, one form of episodic ataxia and some forms of epilepsy can be due to mutations in plasma-membrane Ca(2+)channels, while antibodies against these channels play a pathogenic role in all patients with the Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome and may be of significance in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Brain inositol trisphosphate receptors have been hypothesized to contribute to the pathology in opisthotonos mice, manic-depressive illness and perhaps Alzheimer's disease. Various abnormalities in Ca(2+)-handling proteins have been described in heart during aging, hypertrophy, heart failure and during treatment with immunosuppressive drugs and in diabetes mellitus. In some instances, disease-causing mutations or abnormalities provide us with new insights into the cell biology of the various Ca(2+)transporters. PMID:10942700

  2. The Study of an Intrusion Detection Algorithm Model Based on Normal Distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Kang-Rong; Miao Fang

    2008-01-01

    The paper puts forward the basic theory and concept of intrusion detection and discusses the essential principle of intrusion detection technology, especially discusses the technology based on statistic model. At the same time, a basic structure of abnormal intrusion detection system has been designed in the paper. According to the probability theory, a new abnormal intrusion detection algorithm model based

  3. Abnormal Rheological Behavior of Linear Low Density Polyethylene Melts at High Shear Rate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaewhan Kim; Dong Hak Kim; Younggon Son

    2008-01-01

    Abnormal rheological behavior is observed during capillary extrusion with a linear low density polyethylene\\u000a (LLDPE). The nominal viscosity in the stick-slip flow regime and the gross melt fracture regime increase\\u000a with a rise in temperature. This is attributed to slippage of the polymer melts. It is generally accepted\\u000a that the occurrence of slippage can be detected by a Mooney analysis.

  4. Retinoid Pathway and Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia: Hypothesis from the Analysis of Chromosomal Abnormalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carole Goumy; Laetitia Gouas; Geoffroy Marceau; Karen Coste; Lauren Veronese; Denis Gallot; Vincent Sapin; Philippe Vago; Andrei Tchirkov

    2010-01-01

    Background\\/Objectives: Although there is strong evidence implicating genetic factors in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) pathogenesis, few causal genes have been identified. Many studies suggest that early disruption of the retinoid signaling pathway during gestation may contribute to CDH etiology. Chromosome abnormalities are detected in 10–20% of CDH cases. Chromosomal regions that are involved in balanced translocations or are recurrently deleted

  5. Anomaly detection for diagnosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy A. Maxion

    1990-01-01

    The author presents a method for detecting anomalous events in communication networks and other similarly characterized environments in which performance anomalies are indicative of failure. The methodology, based on automatically learning the difference between normal and abnormal behavior, has been implemented as part of an automated diagnosis system from which performance results are drawn and presented. The dynamic nature of

  6. Abnormal migration of T lymphocyte clones.

    PubMed

    Dailey, M O; Fathman, C G; Butcher, E C; Pillemer, E; Weissman, I

    1982-05-01

    Several in vitro T cell clones were markedly deficient in their ability to home to peripheral lymphoid tissue. This was found for an alloreactive noncytolytic clone, a soluble antigen- (KLH)specific line, and cytotoxic clones specific for allogeneic cells and for Abelson virus-induced lymphoma cells. This abnormal circulation pattern was probably caused by the lack of the receptors of the lymphocytes for high endothelial venules (HEV), as implied by the lack of binding of these T cells to HEV in frozen sections of mouse lymph node and Peyer's patches. The loss of surface receptors that are necessary for normal lymphocyte migration may thereby alter the in vivo function of adoptively transferred T cells. PMID:6460817

  7. Cardiac abnormalities and sudden infant death syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sweeting, Joanna; Semsarian, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    Many factors have been implicated in SIDS cases including environmental influences such as sleeping arrangements and smoking. Most recently, cardiac abnormalities have been hypothesised to play a role in some cases, particularly the primary genetic arrhythmogenic disorders such as familial long QT syndrome (LQTS). Both post-mortem and clinical studies of SIDS cases have provided supporting evidence for the involvement of cardiac genetic disorders in SIDS. This review provides a summary of this evidence focussing particularly on the primary hypothesis related to underlying familial LQTS. In addition, the current literature relating to other cardiac genetic conditions such as Brugada syndrome (BrS) and structural heart diseases such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is briefly presented. Finally, the implications of a possible cardiac genetic cause of SIDS is discussed with reference to the need for genetic testing in SIDS cases and subsequent clinical and genetic testing in family members. PMID:25301030

  8. Computed tomography of the abnormal thymus

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, R.L.; Lee, J.K.T.; Sagel, S.S.; Levitt, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) should be the imaging method of choice following plain chest radiographs when a suspected thymic abnormality requires further evaluation. Based upon a six-year experience, including the evaluation of 25 patients with thymic pathology, CT was found useful in suggesting or excluding a diagnosis of thymoma and in distinguishing thymic hyperplasis from thymoma in patients with myasthenia gravis. The thickness of the thymic lobes determined by CT was found to be a more accurate indicator of infiltrative disease (thymic hyperplasia and lymphoma) than the width. CT was helpful in differentiating benign thymic cysts from solid tumors, and in defining the extent of a thymic neoplasms. On occasion, CT may suggest the specific histologic nature of a thymic lesion.

  9. Liver abnormalities in drug and substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Pateria, Puraskar; de Boer, Bastiaan; MacQuillan, Gerry

    2013-08-01

    Drug and substance abuse remains a major medical problem. Alcohol use, abuse and dependence are highly prevalent conditions. Alcohol related liver disease can present as simple steatosis, steatohepatitis, alcoholic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis. Paracetamol hepatotoxicity secondary to accidental or deliberate overdose is another common problem. While the adverse cardiovascular, neurological, renal and psychiatric consequences of various illicit substance abuses are widely studied and publicized, less attention has been directed towards possible hepatotoxic effects. Illicit drug abuse can cause a range of liver abnormalities ranging from asymptomatic derangement of liver function tests to fulminant hepatic failure. This article reviews the epidemiology, risk factors, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, investigations, management and prognostic factors of alcohol related liver disease and paracetamol hepatotoxicity as well as the current knowledge pertaining to hepatotoxicity of the more commonly used illicit substances including cannabis, amphetamine type stimulants, cocaine, khat chewing and complementary and alternate medicine. PMID:24090944

  10. Dysmorphic syndromes with demonstrable biochemical abnormalities.

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, P T; Thompson, E

    1988-01-01

    Many inborn errors of metabolism are associated with dysmorphic manifestations. In this review, we have attempted to correlate the dysmorphic features with the underlying metabolic defect or its consequences. Most of the defects which we have discussed affect the synthesis or degradation of macromolecules (for example, collagen, elastin, bone mineral, proteoglycans, glycoproteins, and triglycerides). Such defects may affect either a single enzyme or multiple enzymes in specific organelles, such as lysosomes or peroxisomes, or they may affect hormonal control of synthesis and degradation. Examples are also included of defects affecting the catabolism of simple molecules when accumulating metabolites have a secondary effect on macromolecules, as in homocystinuria. In a number of instances, however, the correlation between the biochemical abnormality and the dysmorphic features are not understood. Ultimately, all dysmorphic syndromes will be attributable to a biochemical defect or its effects. The aim of this overview is to provide an insight into the relationship between the two at the present time. Images PMID:3050094

  11. Abnormal right ventricular relaxation in pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    La Gerche, Andre; Roberts, Timothy J.; Prior, David L.; MacIsaac, Andrew I.; Burns, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is a well-described complication of systemic hypertension. However, less is known regarding the effect of chronic pressure overload on right ventricular (RV) diastolic function. We hypothesized that pulmonary hypertension (PHT) is associated with abnormal RV early relaxation and that this would be best shown by invasive pressure measurement. Twenty-five patients undergoing right heart catheterization for investigation of breathlessness and/or suspected PHT were studied. In addition to standard measurements, RV pressure was sampled with a high-fidelity micromanometer, and RV pressure/time curves were analyzed. Patients were divided into a PHT group and a non-PHT group on the basis of a derived mean pulmonary artery systolic pressure of 25 mmHg. Eleven patients were classified to the PHT group. This group had significantly higher RV minimum diastolic pressure ( vs. mmHg, ) and RV end-diastolic pressure (RVEDP; vs. mmHg, ), and RV ? was significantly prolonged ( vs. ms, ). There were strong correlations between RV ? and RV minimum diastolic pressure (, ) and between RV ? and RVEDP (, ). There was a trend toward increased RV contractility (end-systolic elastance) in the PHT group ( vs. mmHg/mL, ) and a correlation between RV systolic pressure and first derivative of maximum pressure change (, ). Stroke volumes were similar. Invasive measures of RV early relaxation are abnormal in patients with PHT, whereas measured contractility is static or increasing, which suggests that diastolic dysfunction may precede systolic dysfunction. Furthermore, there is a strong association between measures of RV relaxation and RV filling pressures. PMID:26064464

  12. Dividing without centrioles: innovative plant microtubule organizing centres organize mitotic spindles in bryophytes, the earliest extant lineages of land plants

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Roy C.; Lemmon, Betty E.

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims As remnants of the earliest land plants, the bryophytes (liverworts, mosses and hornworts) are important in understanding microtubule organization in plant cells. Land plants have an anastral mitotic spindle that forms in the absence of centrosomes, and a cytokinetic apparatus comprised of a predictive preprophase band (PPB) before mitosis and a phragmoplast after mitosis. These microtubule arrays have no counterpart in animal cells and the nature of the plant microtubule organizing centre (MTOC) remained an enigma for many years until antibodies to ?-tubulin, an essential component of the MTOC in all eukaryotes, became available for tracing the origin of microtubule arrays. Methodology We used immunofluorescence techniques to colocalize ?-tubulin, microtubules and chromosomes in mitotic cells of a representative liverwort, moss and hornwort to study the organization of microtubules during mitotic cell division. Principal results The future division site is marked by a PPB in all taxa but the MTOCs initially generating the half spindles differ: polar organizers in the liverwort, plastid MTOCs in the hornwort, and nuclear envelope-associated MTOCs in the moss. By mid-prophase, the forming spindles become more similar as ?-tubulin begins to spread around the polar regions of the nuclear envelope. Conclusions Regardless of origin, mature metaphase spindles are identical and indistinguishable from the typical anastral spindle of higher plants with broad polar regions consisting of numerous subsets of converging microtubules. A curious phenomenon of plant spindles, true of bryophytes as well as higher plants, is the movement of ?-tubulin into the metaphase spindle itself. The bipolar arrays of phragmoplast microtubules are organized by diffuse ?-tubulin located at proximal surfaces of reforming nuclear envelopes. Phragmoplast development appears similar in the three taxa and to vascular plants as well. PMID:22476498

  13. Abnormal somatosensory evoked potentials in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Dasheiff, R M; Drake, M E; Brendle, A; Erwin, C W

    1985-04-01

    A patient with typical clinical and electromyographic features of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) was found to have abnormal somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs). Evoked responses are generally considered to be normal in ALS despite occasional pathological and clinical evidence of sensory involvement. Thus, abnormal SEPs are considered to argue against a diagnosis of ALS. Based on the present case and a review of the literature, we suggest that abnormal SEPs need not exclude a diagnosis of ALS. PMID:2579797

  14. Telomere length abnormalities and telomerase RNA component expression in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Sung; Lee, Hye Seung; Nam, Kyung Han; Choi, Jiwoon; Kim, Woo Ho

    2015-06-01

    Telomere lengths in normal human cells are tightly regulated within a narrow range. Telomere length abnormalities are prevalent genetic alterations in malignant transformation. We studied telomere length abnormalities, telomerase RNA component (TERC) expression, alpha-thalassemia X-linked mental retardation (ATRX) expression, and death domain-associated protein (DAXX) expression in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs). We used tissue microarrays to perform telomere fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and TERC in situ hybridization in 327 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues of GEP-NETs. Telomere length abnormalities were detected in 35% of 253 informative cases by using telomere FISH. Ten cases had altered lengthening of telomeres (ALT), an ALT-positive phenotype (4%), and 79 cases had telomere shortening (31%). The ALT-positive phenotype was significantly associated with tumors of pancreatic origin (7/10) and loss of ATRX or DAXX protein (8/10). Telomere shortening was significantly associated with low TERC expression. In the survival analysis, loss of ATRX or DAXX protein was associated with a decreased overall survival. Multivariate regression analysis showed that lymph node metastasis and high TERC expression were independent prognostic factors of reduced overall survival (OS) for patients with GEP-NETs. Our results showed that telomere lengthening (the ALT-positive phenotype) and telomere shortening accompanied by low TERC levels are two types of clinically significant telomere abnormalities in GEP-NETs. PMID:26026117

  15. Amplitude of Low Frequency Fluctuation Abnormalities in Adolescents with Online Gaming Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ping; Yang, Xuejuan; Dong, Tao; Bi, Yanzhi; Xing, Lihong; von Deneen, Karen M.; Yu, Dahua; Liu, Junyu; Liang, Jun; Cheng, Tingting; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie

    2013-01-01

    The majority of previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated both structural and task-related functional abnormalities in adolescents with online gaming addiction (OGA). However, few functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies focused on the regional intensity of spontaneous fluctuations in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) during the resting state and fewer studies investigated the relationship between the abnormal resting-state properties and the impaired cognitive control ability. In the present study, we employed the amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) method to explore the local features of spontaneous brain activity in adolescents with OGA and healthy controls during resting-state. Eighteen adolescents with OGA and 18 age-, education- and gender-matched healthy volunteers participated in this study. Compared with healthy controls, adolescents with OGA showed a significant increase in ALFF values in the left medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), the left precuneus, the left supplementary motor area (SMA), the right parahippocampal gyrus (PHG) and the bilateral middle cingulate cortex (MCC). The abnormalities of these regions were also detected in previous addiction studies. More importantly, we found that ALFF values of the left medial OFC and left precuneus were positively correlated with the duration of OGA in adolescents with OGA. The ALFF values of the left medial OFC were also correlated with the color-word Stroop test performance. Our results suggested that the abnormal spontaneous neuronal activity of these regions may be implicated in the underlying pathophysiology of OGA. PMID:24223843

  16. Correlation between Abnormal Pap Smear Finding and Brachial-ankle Pulse Wave Velocity in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yon-Chul; Kang, Hee-Cheol; Lee, Duk-Chul; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Jong-Koo

    2013-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is caused by chronic human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. Pap smear is very efficient examination for early detecting cervical cancer. Inflammation reaction due to chronic infection is one of the major causes of atherosclerosis. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is commonly used in predicting subclinical atherosclerosis. But no study was done about correlation between cervical cancer and PWV. Methods: The research population, 1,779 people, had been chosen from the patients from Jan. 1st, 2008 to December 31st, 2010, visited health exam center who had done both PWV test and pap smear without any medical history of obstetrics and gynecological disease. The group was divided into two respective groups, 45 people with abnormal finding and 228 people with normal finding. The correlation was analyzed between risk factor of cervical cancer and brachial-ankle PWV. Multiple regression analysis was performed with associated variables. Results: Average PWV of normal group was 1,313.06 ± 264.19 and 1,497.15 ± 359.58 was for abnormal. The PWV of abnormal group was statistically significant (p = 0.0006) with association between risk factors of cervical cancer and PWV, age, height, weight, income, gravidity. Multiple regression was done with correcting these variables. PWV was associated with abnormal Pap smear but result, were not found to be significant (p = 0.054). Conclusion: The result was not statistically confident but more mass studies are needed to correcting those limitation.

  17. An Enhanced Spatial Reasoning Ontology for Maritime Anomaly Detection

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    An Enhanced Spatial Reasoning Ontology for Maritime Anomaly Detection Arnaud Vandecasteele MINES system driven by an ontology. The system enables experts in the maritime domain to characterise abnormal capable of detecting abnormal ship behaviour. We first describe the domain of ontologies

  18. MR Identification of White Matter Abnormalities in Multiple Sclerosis: A Comparison between 1.5 T and 4 T

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D. Keiper; Robert I. Grossman; Joshua A. Hirsch; Lizann Bolinger; Ingrid L. Ott; Lois J. Mannon; Curtis P. Langlotz; Dennis L. Kolson

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although MR spectroscopy and functional MR imaging of the brain have been successful at 4 T, conventional fast spin-echo imaging of the brain at 4 T has not been adequately evaluated. The purpose of this study was to compare the detection of white matter abnormalities in multiple sclerosis (MS) at 1.5 T and 4 T. METHODS: Fifteen

  19. The Chachil Limestone (Pliensbachian-earliest Toarcian) Neuquén Basin, Argentina: U-Pb age calibration and its significance on the Early Jurassic evolution of southwestern Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leanza, H. A.; Mazzini, A.; Corfu, F.; Llambías, E. J.; Svensen, H.; Planke, S.; Galland, O.

    2013-03-01

    New radiometric U-Pb ages obtained on zircon crystals from Early Jurassic ash layers found within beds of the Chachil Limestone at its type locality in the Chachil depocentre (southern Neuquén Basin) confirm a Pliensbachian age (186.0 ± 0.4 Ma). Additionally, two ash layers found in limestone beds in Chacay Melehue at the Cordillera del Viento depocentre (central Neuquén Basin) gave Early Pliensbachian (185.7 ± 0.4 Ma) and earliest Toarcian (182.3 ± 0.4 Ma) U-Pb zircon ages. Based on these new datings and regional geological observations, we propose that the limestones cropping out at Chacay Melehue are correlatable with the Chachil Limestone. Recent data by other authors from limestones at Serrucho creek in the upper Puesto Araya Formation (Valenciana depocentre, southern Mendoza) reveal ages of 182.16 ± 0.6 Ma. Based on these new evidences, we consider the Chachil Limestone an important Early Jurassic stratigraphic marker, representing an almost instantaneous widespread flooding episode in western Gondwana. The unit marks the initiation in the Neuquén Basin of the Cuyo Group, followed by widespread black shale deposition. Accordingly, these limestones can be regarded as the natural seal of the Late Triassic -earliest Jurassic Precuyano Cycle, which represents the infill of halfgrabens and/or grabens related to a strong extensional regime. Paleontological evidence supports that during Pliensbachian-earliest Toarcian times these limestones were deposited in western Gondwana in marine warm water environments.

  20. Interbasinal correlation between Jameson Land and Hold-with-Hope (Northeast Greenland) organic carbon isotope records during the latest Permian-earliest Triassic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanson Barrera, Anna; Meier, Maximiliano; Hochuli, Peter A.; Bucher, Hugo; Weissert, Helmut; Bernasconi, Stefano M.

    2015-04-01

    Latest Permian-earliest Triassic sequences in Northeast Greenland were deposited during the main rift phase between the two margins of the Greenland-Norway Basin, and were influenced by several relative sea-level fluctuations. The associated crustal extension created several sub-basins that led to marked lateral thicknesses between the latest Permian and earliest Triassic formations. These formations outcrop along the Northeast Greenland coast and can be followed from Jameson Land around 71°N up to Wollaston Forland around 74.5°N. Due to a latest Permian relative sea-level fall, northern sub-basins show a sedimentary gap close to the Permian-Triassic boundary, while southern sub-basins show continuous sedimentation across the Permian-Triassic transition. Earlier studies focused just on the Permian-Triassic boundary from continuous sections from Jameson Land. This study presents the correlation between two new sections from Jameson Land, and one section of a northern sub-basin (Hold-with-Hope) merging terrestrial and marine geochemical and paleontological data. The combination of organic carbon isotopes, palynofacies and palynology analyses, few ammonoids belonging to the Ophiceratidae family found in the sections, and sedimentological observations provides a robust correlation between both sub-basins, and the first interbasinal organic carbon isotope correlation for Northeast Greenland during the latest Permian-earliest Triassic.

  1. Liver abnormalities in connective tissue diseases.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Maria; Crotti, Chiara; Selmi, Carlo

    2013-08-01

    The liver is a lymphoid organ involved in the immune response and in the maintenance of tolerance to self molecules, but it is also a target of autoimmune reactions, as observed in primary liver autoimmune diseases (AILD) such as autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, and primary sclerosing cholangitis. Further, the liver is frequently involved in connective tissue diseases (CTD), most commonly in the form of liver function test biochemical changes with predominant cholestatic or hepatocellular patterns. CTD commonly affecting the liver include systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholypid syndrome, primary Sjögren's syndrome, systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis, polimyositis, and anti-synthetase syndrome, while overlap syndromes between AILD and CTD may also be diagnosed. Although liver cirrhosis and failure are extremely rare in patients with CTD, unusual liver conditions such as nodular regenerative hyperplasia or Budd-Chiari syndrome have been reported with increasing frequency in patients with CTD. Acute or progressing liver involvement is generally related to viral hepatitis reactivation or to a concomitant AILD, so it appears to be fundamental to screen patients for HBV and HCV infection, in order to provide the ideal therapeutic regimen and avoid life-threatening reactivations. Finally, it is important to remember that the main cause of biochemical liver abnormalities in patients with CTD is a drug-induced alteration or coexisting viral hepatitis. The present article will provide a general overview of the liver involvement in CTD to allow rheumatologists to discriminate the most common clinical scenarios. PMID:24090941

  2. Sleep abnormality in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yijun; Pan, Liping; Fu, Ying; Sun, Na; Li, Yu-Jing; Cai, Hao; Su, Lei; Shen, Yi; Cui, Linyang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We investigated the sleep structure of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and the association of abnormalities with brain lesions. Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study. Thirty-three patients with NMOSD and 20 matched healthy individuals were enrolled. Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients were collected. Questionnaires were used to assess quality of sleep, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and depression. Nocturnal polysomnography was performed. Results: Compared with healthy controls, patients with NMOSD had decreases in sleep efficiency (7%; p = 0.0341), non-REM sleep N3 (12%; p < 0.0001), and arousal index (6; p = 0.0138). REM sleep increased by 4% (p = 0.0423). There were correlations between arousal index and REM% or Epworth Sleepiness Scale (r = ?0.0145; p = 0.0386, respectively). Six patients with NMOSD (18%, 5 without infratentorial lesions and 1 with infratentorial lesions) had a hypopnea index >5, and all of those with sleep apnea had predominantly the peripheral type. The periodic leg movement (PLM) index was higher in patients with NMOSD than in healthy controls (20 vs 2, p = 0.0457). Surprisingly, 77% of the patients with PLM manifested infratentorial lesions. Conclusions: Sleep architecture was markedly disrupted in patients with NMOSD. Surveillance of nocturnal symptoms and adequate symptomatic control are expected to improve the quality of life of patients with NMOSD. PMID:25918736

  3. Thyroid abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, S.L.; McDougall, I.R. [Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)] [Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Constine, L.S. [Strong Memorial Hospital, Rochester, NY (United States)] [Strong Memorial Hospital, Rochester, NY (United States)

    1995-03-30

    The thyroid gland is the largest pure endocrine gland in the body and one of the organs most likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation. Radiation doses to the thyroid that exceed approximately 26 Gy frequently produce hypothyroidism, which may be clinically overt or subclinical, as manifested by increased serum thyrotropin and normal serum-free thyroxine concentrations. Pituitary or hypothalamic hypothyroidism may arise when the pituitary region receives doses exceeding 50 Gy with conventional, 1.8-2 Gy fractionation. Direct irradiation of the thyroid may increase the risk of Graves` disease or euthyroid Graves` ophthalmopathy. Silent thyroiditis, cystic degeneration, benign adenoma, and thyroid cancer have been observed after therapeutically relevant doses of external radiation. Direct or incidental thyroid irradiation increases the risk for well-differentiated, papillary, and follicular thyroid cancer from 15- to 53-fold. Thyroid cancer risk is highest following radiation at a young age, decreases with increasing age at treatment, and increases with follow-up duration. The potentially prolonged latent period between radiation exposure and the development of thyroid dysfunction, thyroid nodularity, and thyroid cancer means that individuals who have received neck or pituitary irradiation require careful, periodic clinical and laboratory evaluation to avoid excess morbidity. 39 refs.

  4. Abnormal Elastic and Vibrational Behaviors of Magnetite at High Pressures

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jung-Fu; Wu, Junjie; Zhu, Jie; Mao, Zhu; Said, Ayman H.; Leu, Bogdan M.; Cheng, Jinguang; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Jin, Changqing; Zhou, Jianshi

    2014-01-01

    Magnetite exhibits unique electronic, magnetic, and structural properties in extreme conditions that are of great research interest. Previous studies have suggested a number of transitional models, although the nature of magnetite at high pressure remains elusive. We have studied a highly stoichiometric magnetite using inelastic X-ray scattering, X-ray diffraction and emission, and Raman spectroscopies in diamond anvil cells up to ~20?GPa, while complementary electrical conductivity measurements were conducted in a cubic anvil cell up to 8.5?GPa. We have observed an elastic softening in the diagonal elastic constants (C11 and C44) and a hardening in the off-diagonal constant (C12) at ~8?GPa where significant elastic anisotropies in longitudinal and transverse acoustic waves occur, especially along the [110] direction. An additional vibrational Raman band between the A1g and T2g modes was also detected at the transition pressure. These abnormal elastic and vibrational behaviors of magnetite are attributed to the occurrence of the octahedrally-coordinated Fe2+-Fe3+-Fe2+ ions charge-ordering along the [110] direction in the inverse spinel structure. We propose a new phase diagram of magnetite in which the temperature for the metal-insulator and distorted structural transitions decreases with increasing pressure while the charge-ordering transition occurs at ~8?GPa and room temperature. PMID:25186916

  5. Neonatal imaging evaluation of common prenatally diagnosed genitourinary abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Epelman, Monica; Daneman, Alan; Donnelly, Lane F; Averill, Lauren W; Chauvin, Nancy A

    2014-12-01

    With the implementation of prenatal screening with ultrasound (US) and, more recently, fetal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, patterns of referral have changed. US remains the first-line imaging modality for evaluating the genitourinary system during the neonatal period and may be enhanced with the use of focused, high-resolution linear images of the pyramids. US has been successful because of its dynamic nature, the excellent morphologic visualization provided in neonates, lack of ionizing radiation, low cost, and lack of need for sedation to acquire the images. US is frequently coupled with mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG-3) scanning, providing a powerful combination for morphologic and functional assessment. MR imaging, specifically functional MR urography, has been increasingly used because of its excellent delineation of anatomy achieved without ionizing radiation. MR urography is regarded as a "one-stop-shop examination," as it can provide both anatomical and functional information. It also plays an important role in the evaluation of ureteral ectopia and genital anomalies. Review of available antenatal studies provides invaluable information that may have prognostic significance or may obviate the need for additional examinations or both. Fluoroscopy is typically reserved for assessing vesicoureteral reflux or for detecting urethral abnormalities. In this review, an update on the imaging strategies for common genitourinary anomalies in neonates is presented and illustrated. PMID:25454051

  6. 3D transvaginal ultrasound imaging for identification of endometrial abnormality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olstad, Bjoern; Berg, Sevald; Torp, Anders H.; Schipper, Klaus P.; Eik-Nes, Sturla H.

    1995-05-01

    A multi-center study has previously evaluated the use of 2-dimensional transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) to measure the thickness of the endometrium as a risk indicator for endometrial abnormality in women with postmenopausal bleeding. In this paper we present methods using 3-dimensional TVS in order to improve the measurement, shape analysis and visualization of the endometrium. Active contour techniques are applied to identify the endometrium in a 3D dataset. The shape of the endometrium is then visualized and utilized to do quantitative measurements of the thickness. The voxels inside the endometrium are volume rendered in order to emphasize inhomogeneities. Since these inhomogeneities can exist both on the outside and the inside of the endometrium, the rendering algorithm has a controllable opacity function. A 3-dimensional distance transform is performed on the data volume measuring the shortest distance to the detected endometrium border for each voxel. This distance is used as a basis for opacity computations which allows the user to emphasize different regions of the endometrium. In particular, the opacity function can be computed such that regions that violate the risk indicator for the endometrium thickness are highlighted.

  7. Cardiac repolarization abnormalities and increased sympathetic activity in scleroderma.

    PubMed Central

    Ciftci, Orcun; Onat, Ahmet Mesut; Yavuz, Bunyamin; Akdogan, Ali; Aytemir, Kudret; Tokgozoglu, Lale; Sahiner, Levent; Deniz, Ali; Ureten, Kemal; Kizilca, Guler; Calguneri, Meral; Oto, Ali

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiac involvement in scleroderma is a poor prognostic sign and is usually underdiagnosed, particularly in asymptomatic patient. This paper focuses on QT dynamicity and heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with scleroderma and controls in an attempt to investigate the cardiac autonomic system and ventricular repolarization. METHODS: Sixty patients with scleroderma and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls who had no cardiovascular risk factors were included in this study. All patients and the controls underwent a 24-hour holter recording as well as a transthoracic echocardiography. HRV and QT dynamicity parameters were calculated. RESULTS: In HRV analysis, autonomic balance was changed in favor of the sympathetic system in patients with diffuse scleroderma. In QT dynamicity analysis, QT/RR slopes were significantly steeper in patients with diffuse scleroderma compared to patients with limited scleroderma and controls (QTapex/RR: 0.24 +/- 0.16, 0.15 +/- 0.03, 0.14 +/- 0.03 respectively p < 0.001; QTend/RR: 0.26 +/- 0.17, 0.14 +/- 0.04, 0.13 +/- 0.05, respectively p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with diffuse scleroderma may have asymptomatic cardiac repolarization abnormalities and autonomic dysfunction. Our results may indicate that QT dynamicity and HRV can be useful noninvasive methods that may detect impaired state of autonomic balance and cardiac repolarization in patients with diffuse scleroderma. PMID:17393947

  8. Chromosomal abnormalities, meiotic behavior and fertility in domestic animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. F. Villagómez; A. Pinton

    2008-01-01

    Since the advent of the surface microspreading technique for synaptonemal complex analysis, increasing interest in describing the synapsis patterns of chromosome abnormalities associated with fertility of domestic animals has been noticed during the past three decades. In spite of the number of scientific reports describing the occurrence of structural chromosome abnormalities, their meiotic behavior and gametic products, little is known

  9. Discovering and Explaining Abnormal Nodes in Semantic Graphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shou-de Lin; Hans Chalupsky

    2008-01-01

    An important problem in the area of homeland security is to identify abnormal or suspicious entities in large data sets. Although there are methods from data mining and social network analysis focusing on finding patterns or central nodes from networks or numerical data sets, there has been little work aimed at discovering abnormal instances in large complex semantic graphs, whose

  10. A Case of ADHD and a Major Y Chromosome Abnormality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Aisling; Gill, Michael; Fitzgerald, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background: ADHD is a common, heritable disorder of childhood. Sex chromosome abnormalities are relatively rare conditions that are sometimes associated with behavioral disorders. Method: The authors present a male child with ADHD and a major de-novo Y chromosome abnormality consisting of deletion of the long arm and duplication of the short arm.…

  11. Relationship of Gene Expression and Chromosomal Abnormalities in Colorectal Cancer

    E-print Network

    Stengel, Robert F.

    Relationship of Gene Expression and Chromosomal Abnormalities in Colorectal Cancer Dafna Tsafrir, 1; Departments of 3 Pathology and 4 Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York; 5 chromosomal abnormalities in colon cancer. However, the relationships between DNA copy number and gene

  12. Trisomy 13: A New Recurring Chromosome Abnormality in Acute Leukemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hartmut Dohner; Diane C. Arthur; Edward D. Ball; Robert E. Sobol; Frederick R. Davey; David Lawrence; Lawrence Gordon; Shivanand R. Patil; Rawatmal B. Surana; Joseph R. Testa; Ram S. Verma; Charles A. Schiffer; Doris H. Wurster-Hill; Clara D. Bloomfield

    1990-01-01

    A new recurring chromosome abnormality was identified in 8 of 621 consecutive successfully karyotyped adults with de novo acute leukemia. These eight patients had trisomy 13 as the sole cytogenetic abnormality. On central morpho- logic review, five cases were classified as subtypes of acute myeloid leukemia, one as acute mixed lymphoid and my- eloid leukemia, one as acute lymphoid leukemia,

  13. Freud Was Right. . . about the Origins of Abnormal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muris, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Freud's psychodynamic theory is predominantly based on case histories of patients who displayed abnormal behavior. From a scientific point of view, Freud's analyses of these cases are unacceptable because the key concepts of his theory cannot be tested empirically. However, in one respect, Freud was totally right: most forms of abnormal behavior…

  14. Skeletal abnormalities in Refsum's disease (heredopathia atactica polyneuritiformis).

    PubMed

    Plant, G R; Hansell, D M; Gibberd, F B; Sidey, M C

    1990-07-01

    Refsum's disease is a rare inborn error of phytanic acid metabolism in which skeletal abnormalities are part of the clinical syndrome. The reported incidence of bone changes in patients with Refsum's disease varies widely and reflects the small series published to date. An analysis of the skeletal abnormalities of the largest series of patients in the world is presented. PMID:1697202

  15. Parental decisions following the prenatal diagnosis of sex chromosome abnormalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanan A Hamamy; Sophie Dahoun

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To report parental decisions regarding pregnancy termination following the prenatal diagnosis of a sex chromosome abnormality (SCA) in the fetus. Methods: Retrospective collection of data from records of 61 families receiving genetic counseling after prenatal diagnosis of a sex chromosome abnormality in the fetus in the Division of Medical Genetics, University Hospital of Geneva during the time period 1980–2001.

  16. Women’s experiences receiving abnormal prenatal chromosomal microarray testing results

    PubMed Central

    Bernhardt, Barbara A.; Soucier, Danielle; Hanson, Karen; Savage, Melissa S.; Jackson, Laird; Wapner, Ronald J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Genomic microarrays can detect copy number variants not detectable by conventional cytogenetics. This technology is diffusing rapidly into prenatal settings even though the clinical implications of many copy number variants are currently unknown. We conducted a qualitative pilot study to explore the experiences of women receiving abnormal results from prenatal microarray testing performed in a research setting. Methods Participants were a subset of women participating in a multicenter prospective study “Prenatal Cytogenetic Diagnosis by Array-based Copy Number Analysis”. Telephone interviews were conducted with 23 women receiving abnormal prenatal microarray results. Results We found that five key elements dominated the experiences of women who had received abnormal prenatal microarray results: an offer too good to pass up, blindsided by the results, uncertainty and unquantifiable risks, need for support, and toxic knowledge. Conclusion As prenatal microarray testing is increasingly utilized, uncertain findings will be common resulting in greater need for careful pre and post test counseling, and more education of, and resources for providers so they can adequately support the women who are undergoing testing. PMID:22955112

  17. A clinical algorithm for the management of abnormal mammograms. A community hospital's experience.

    PubMed Central

    Gist, D; Llorente, J; Mayer, J

    1997-01-01

    Mammography is an important tool in the early detection of breast cancer, but its use has been criticized for stimulating the performance of unnecessary breast biopsies. We retrospectively reviewed the results of breast biopsies preceded by abnormal mammograms at a community hospital for three 5-month periods--baseline, postintervention, and follow-up--to determine the effectiveness of algorithm-based care for patients with an abnormal mammogram. Cases in which there was a definite or implied recommendation for biopsy by a radiologist revealed a baseline positive predictive value of 4% (2/45), a postintervention positive predictive value of 21% (9/42), and a follow-up phase positive predictive value of 18% (5/28). A Fisher's exact test of the preintervention and postintervention positive predictive values after an abnormal mammogram with a "recommendation for biopsy" was significant (n = 87, P = .023). A Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance to determine if there had been an increase in the mean lesion size of breast cancers detected over the 3 study periods was not significant. The results of this study suggest that developing a clinical algorithm under the leadership of an opinion leader combined with continuing medical education efforts may be efficacious in reducing the incidence of unnecessary surgical procedures. PMID:9074335

  18. Abnormal Radial Deformation Hyperacuity in Children with Strabismic Amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Vidhya; Morale, Sarah E.; Wang, Yi-Zhong; Birch, Eileen E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. In infants and toddlers, letter acuity is not a useful option, and grating acuity may underestimate the depth of strabismic amblyopia. Here, as a first step to establish the effectiveness of the paradigm as a clinical test, we assessed if radial deformation hyperacuity, known to be severely disrupted in adults with strabismic amblyopia, could be a potential test to detect and monitor strabismic amblyopia in young children. Methods. Fifty-one strabismic children and 130 normal controls ages 3 to 17 years participated. Radial deformation hyperacuity with three different radial frequency (RF) patterns (1° radius 8 RF, 0.5° radius 8 RF, and 1° radius 16 RF), optotype acuity, and grating acuity were measured. For strabismic children, hyperacuity and grating acuity were identified as normal/amblyopic based on age-matched norms. The normal/abnormal classification was compared with amblyopia diagnosis by gold standard early treatment diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS) optotype visual acuity. Results. The 0.5° radius 8 RF pattern had 83% sensitivity and 71% positive predictive value (PPV) for strabismic amblyopia. In comparison, the 1° radius 8 RF and 1° radius 16 RF patterns had poorer sensitivity (27%–12%) and PPV (57%–50%) for amblyopia, similar to grating acuity (sensitivity = 38%, PPV = 31%). Amblyopic deficits using the 0.5° radius 8 RF pattern were directly proportional to optotype visual acuity deficits. Conclusions. The demonstrated feasibility of radial deformation stimuli for forced-choice preferential looking testing and the sensitivity and specificity of the small radius radial deformation hyperacuity stimulus for amblyopia support the potential to utilize this test to detect and monitor amblyopia in infants and preschool children. PMID:22531696

  19. Using K-Nearest Neighbor Classification to Diagnose Abnormal Lung Sounds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-Hsing; Huang, Wen-Tzeng; Tan, Tan-Hsu; Chang, Cheng-Chun; Chang, Yuan-Jen

    2015-01-01

    A reported 30% of people worldwide have abnormal lung sounds, including crackles, rhonchi, and wheezes. To date, the traditional stethoscope remains the most popular tool used by physicians to diagnose such abnormal lung sounds, however, many problems arise with the use of a stethoscope, including the effects of environmental noise, the inability to record and store lung sounds for follow-up or tracking, and the physician's subjective diagnostic experience. This study has developed a digital stethoscope to help physicians overcome these problems when diagnosing abnormal lung sounds. In this digital system, mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) were used to extract the features of lung sounds, and then the K-means algorithm was used for feature clustering, to reduce the amount of data for computation. Finally, the K-nearest neighbor method was used to classify the lung sounds. The proposed system can also be used for home care: if the percentage of abnormal lung sound frames is > 30% of the whole test signal, the system can automatically warn the user to visit a physician for diagnosis. We also used bend sensors together with an amplification circuit, Bluetooth, and a microcontroller to implement a respiration detector. The respiratory signal extracted by the bend sensors can be transmitted to the computer via Bluetooth to calculate the respiratory cycle, for real-time assessment. If an abnormal status is detected, the device will warn the user automatically. Experimental results indicated that the error in respiratory cycles between measured and actual values was only 6.8%, illustrating the potential of our detector for home care applications. PMID:26053756

  20. Using K-Nearest Neighbor Classification to Diagnose Abnormal Lung Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chin-Hsing; Huang, Wen-Tzeng; Tan, Tan-Hsu; Chang, Cheng-Chun; Chang, Yuan-Jen

    2015-01-01

    A reported 30% of people worldwide have abnormal lung sounds, including crackles, rhonchi, and wheezes. To date, the traditional stethoscope remains the most popular tool used by physicians to diagnose such abnormal lung sounds, however, many problems arise with the use of a stethoscope, including the effects of environmental noise, the inability to record and store lung sounds for follow-up or tracking, and the physician’s subjective diagnostic experience. This study has developed a digital stethoscope to help physicians overcome these problems when diagnosing abnormal lung sounds. In this digital system, mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) were used to extract the features of lung sounds, and then the K-means algorithm was used for feature clustering, to reduce the amount of data for computation. Finally, the K-nearest neighbor method was used to classify the lung sounds. The proposed system can also be used for home care: if the percentage of abnormal lung sound frames is > 30% of the whole test signal, the system can automatically warn the user to visit a physician for diagnosis. We also used bend sensors together with an amplification circuit, Bluetooth, and a microcontroller to implement a respiration detector. The respiratory signal extracted by the bend sensors can be transmitted to the computer via Bluetooth to calculate the respiratory cycle, for real-time assessment. If an abnormal status is detected, the device will warn the user automatically. Experimental results indicated that the error in respiratory cycles between measured and actual values was only 6.8%, illustrating the potential of our detector for home care applications. PMID:26053756

  1. Radiographic abnormalities and the risk of lung cancer among workers exposed to silica dust in Ontario.

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, M M

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether workers in Ontario who had been exposed to silica dust and who have radiographic abnormalities are at increased risk of lung cancer. DESIGN: Cohort and case-control studies of rates of death from lung cancer and cancer incidence rates; data were obtained from the Ontario Silicosis Surveillance Registry. Follow-up was through linkage to the Ontario mortality and cancer registries. SETTING: Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 523 workers with radiographic abnormalities and 1568 control subjects with normal radiographic findings who had been exposed to silica dust. Matching criteria were year of birth and the requirement that the control subject have a normal radiographic finding either later than or in the same year that the radiographic abnormality was identified in the silicosis subject. OUTCOME MEASURES: Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs), standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and odds ratios for lung cancer. RESULTS: In the cohort analysis, with the Ontario population rates as reference, the all-cause SMR was 0.96 among the workers with radiographic abnormalities and 0.51 among the control subjects. The corresponding SIRs for lung cancer were 2.49 and 0.87 (p < 0.001). In the case-control analysis the workers with silicosis were more likely than the control subjects to have been smokers, but this difference likely accounted for only a small part of the difference in the incidence of lung cancer. The relative risk of lung cancer was elevated among the workers with silicosis from the foundry, mining and nonmetallic-minerals industries; however, the number of subjects was too small for a significant difference to be detected. Among the miners exposure to radon daughters did not affect the risk of lung cancer attributable to radiographic abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: Radiographic abnormalities suggestive of exposure to silica dust are markers for increased risk of lung cancer. Physicians might thus wish to warn their patients with silica-associated radiographic abnormalities about the increased risk and to counsel those who smoke to stop. PMID:7804920

  2. Dysphagia as the primary clinical abnormality in two dogs with inflammatory myopathy.

    PubMed

    Ryckman, L Rachael; Krahwinkel, Dennis J; Sims, Michael H; Donnell, Robert L; Moore, Peter F; Shelton, G Diane

    2005-05-01

    Two adult Boxers were evaluated because of chronic dysphagia of several years' duration. Serum creatine kinase activity was high in both dogs, but other hematologic or serum biochemical abnormalities were not detected. Esophagraphy revealed abnormalities of the cricopharyngeal phase of swallowing in both dogs, and electromyography of the pharyngeal and laryngeal muscles revealed complex repetitive discharges, positive sharp waves, and fibrillation potentials characteristic of primary myopathy or neuropathy. Because of the severity of their condition, both dogs were euthanatized. Histologically, mixed-cell infiltrates were seen in sections of the masseter and thyropharyngeal muscles. Results of indirect immunofluorescence staining for proteins associated with dystrophic myopathy were unremarkable, except for decreased staining for integrin alpha7. A diagnosis of chronic inflammatory myopathy was made. The clinical importance of reduced staining for integrin alpha7 could not be determined but was considered to be a result of the myopathy. PMID:15882004

  3. Ciliary dysfunction in developmental abnormalities and diseases.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Neeraj; Berbari, Nicolas F; Yoder, Bradley K

    2008-01-01

    Cilia are small microtubule-based cellular appendages that are broadly classified as being either motile or immotile (primary cilia). Since their initial discovery several centuries ago, motile cilia have been of general interest to basic scientists and others who study the dynamics and physiological relevance of their motility. More recent discoveries have found that motile and immotile cilia, the later of which are present on nearly all cells in the mammalian body, also have major roles during development and in postnatal life. Dysfunction of the cilium is the basis for multiple human genetic disorders that have collectively been called the ciliopathies. The phenotypes associated with cilia dysfunction in mammals are diverse and include randomization of the left-right body axis, abnormalities in neural tube closure and patterning, skeletal defects such as polydactyly, cystic kidney, liver, and pancreatic diseases, blindness and anosmia, behavioral and cognitive defects, and obesity. The connection between disease and developmental defects due to the loss of ciliary function has brought the efforts of the biomedical research establishment to bear on this underappreciated and long overlooked organelle. Several groups have applied en silico, genetic, and biochemical approaches to identify the components of the cilia proteome. The resulting datasets have contributed to a remarkable increase in the rate at which human ciliopathy disease loci are being identified. This intense basic and clinical research interest has revealed that the cilium is a very complex sensory machine involved in transducing extracellular stimuli involved in many different signaling pathways into cellular responses. Although major advances have been made in understanding the importance of the cilium, it remains enigmatic how the cilium functions to coordinate signaling pathways and how loss of this organelle results in the severe defects observed in human ciliopathies. PMID:19147012

  4. [Developmental abnormalities and nevi of the scalp].

    PubMed

    Behle, V; Hamm, H

    2014-12-01

    Unusual congenital or early-onset skin lesions on the scalp often pose a diagnostic challenge particularly as the clinical evaluation may be hampered by dense hair growth. Thus, this paper provides a concise review on developmental abnormalities and nevi with exclusive or predominant scalp localization. Aplasia cutis congenita occurs as an isolated finding, in association with genetic syndromes, nevi and anomalies or as a consequence of intrauterine trauma and teratogens. A hairless area with a narrow surrounding rim of hypertrichosis (hair collar sign) may point to occult cranial dysraphism, especially if accompanied by further suggestive signs as port-wine stains, large hemangiomas, dimples, congenital dermoid cysts, and sinuses. Many diverse entities may hide behind cutis verticis gyrata with the primary essential form being rare and representing a diagnosis of exclusion. In contrast to former belief, benign adnexal tumors arise in a nevus sebaceus considerably more often than basal cell carcinomas and other malignant epithelial tumors. Provided that tumor development is not suspected, excision of a nevus sebaceus nevus is indicated primarily for aesthetic-psychosocial reasons. However, surgical treatment is considerably easier in small children. Nevus sebaceus may be a cutaneous marker for several complex syndromes whereas nevus psiloliparus presents almost always in connection with encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis. Congenital melanocytic nevi of the scalp tend toward clinical regression, so that surgical intervention in large lesions should be carefully considered. In contrast, the threshold for excision of blue nevi and other conspicuous melanocytic nevi on the scalp should be low, especially since they are difficult to monitor. PMID:25298254

  5. Epidemiology of cervical spine abnormalities in asymptomatic adult professional rugby union players using static and dynamic MRI protocols: 2002 to 2006

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B H Castinel; P Adam; P D Milburn; A Castinel; K L Quarrie; J-C Peyrin; J D Yeo

    2010-01-01

    ObjectiveIn this study, the prevalence of abnormalities in the cervical spine of asymptomatic professional rugby players using both static and dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to improve the detection of abnormalities and prevention of related injuries was investigated.DesignProspective observational study.SettingFrench professional rugby union clubs, between 2002 and 2006.Participants206 elite male adult players.InterventionStatic sagittal T2 and axial T2* fast

  6. Fault detection methods: A literature survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dubravko Miljkovic

    2011-01-01

    Fault detection plays an important role in high- cost and safety-critical processes. Early detection of process faults can help avoid abnormal event progression. Fault detection can be accomplished through various means. This paper presents the literature survey of major methods and current state of research in the field with a selection of important practical applications. I. INTRODUCTION Increasing demands on

  7. An Intrusion-Detection Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorothy E. Denning

    1986-01-01

    A model of a real-time intrusion-detection expert system capable of detecting break-ins, penetrations, and other forms of computer abuse is described. The model is based on the hypothesis that security violations can be detected by monitoring a system's audit records for abnormal patterns of system usage. The model includes profiles for representing the behavior of subjects with respect to objects

  8. Classification of breast abnormalities using artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman, Nur Atiqah Kamarul; Rahman, Wan Eny Zarina Wan Abdul; Jumaat, Abdul Kadir; Yasiran, Siti Salmah

    2015-05-01

    Classification is the process of recognition, differentiation and categorizing objects into groups. Breast abnormalities are calcifications which are tumor markers that indicate the presence of cancer in the breast. The aims of this research are to classify the types of breast abnormalities using artificial neural network (ANN) classifier and to evaluate the accuracy performance using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve. The methods used in this research are ANN for breast abnormalities classifications and Canny edge detector as a feature extraction method. Previously the ANN classifier provides only the number of benign and malignant cases without providing information for specific cases. However in this research, the type of abnormality for each image can be obtained. The existing MIAS MiniMammographic database classified the mammogram images into three features only namely characteristic of background tissues, class of abnormality and radius of abnormality. However, in this research three other features are added-in. These three features are number of spots, area and shape of abnormalities. Lastly the performance of the ANN classifier is evaluated using ROC curve. It is found that ANN has an accuracy of 97.9% which is considered acceptable.

  9. Radiographic abnormalities among construction workers exposed to quartz containing dust

    PubMed Central

    Tjoe, N; Burdorf, A; Parker, J; Attfield, M; van Duivenbooden, C; Heederik, D

    2003-01-01

    Background: Construction workers are exposed to quartz containing respirable dust, at levels that may cause fibrosis in the lungs. Studies so far have not established a dose-response relation for radiographic abnormalities for this occupational group. Aims: To measure the extent of radiographic abnormalities among construction workers primarily exposed to quartz containing respirable dust. Methods: A cross sectional study on radiographic abnormalities indicative of pneumoconiosis was conducted among 1339 construction workers mainly involved in grinding, (jack)-hammering, drilling, cutting, sawing, and polishing. Radiological abnormalities were determined by median results of the 1980 International Labour Organisation system of three certified "B" readers. Questionnaires were used for assessment of occupational history, presence of respiratory diseases, and symptoms and smoking habits. Results: An abnormality of ILO profusion category 1/0 and greater was observed on 10.2% of the chest radiographs, and profusion category of 1/1 or greater on 2.9% of the radiographs. The average duration of exposure of this group was 19 years and the average age was 42. The predominant type of small opacities (irregularly shaped) is presumably indicative of mixed dust pneumoconiosis. The prevalence of early signs of nodular silicosis (small rounded opacities of category 1/0 or greater) was low (0.8%). Conclusions: The study suggests an elevated risk of radiographic abnormalities among these workers with expected high exposure. An association between radiographic abnormalities and cumulative exposure to quartz containing dust from construction sites was observed, after correction for potentially confounding variables. PMID:12771392

  10. Abdominal Problems in Children with Congenital Cardiovascular Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Güney, Lütfi Hakan; Araz, Co?kun; Beyazp?nar, Deniz Sarp; Arda, ?rfan Serdar; Arslan, Esra Elif; Hiçsönmez, Akgün

    2015-01-01

    Background: Congenital cardiovascular abnormality is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood. Both the type of congenital cardiovascular abnormality and cardiopulmonary bypass are responsible for gastrointestinal system problems. Aims: Intra-abdominal problems, such as paralytic ileus, necrotizing enterocolitis, and intestinal perforation, are common in patients who have been operated or who are being followed for congenital cardiovascular abnormalities. Besides the primary congenital cardiovascular abnormalities, ischemia secondary to cardiac catheterization or surgery contributes to the incidence of these problems. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: In this study, we aimed to screen the intra-abdominal problems seen in patients with congenital cardiovascular abnormalities who had undergone surgical or angiographical intervention(s). Patients with congenital cardiovascular abnormalities who had been treated medically or surgically between 2000 and 2014 were analyzed retrospectively in terms of intra-abdominal problems. The patients’ demographic data, type of congenital cardiovascular abnormalities, the intervention applied (surgical, angiographic), the incidence of intra-abdominal problem(s), the interventions applied for the intra-abdominal problems, and the results were evaluated. Results: Fourteen (Group I) of the 76 patients with congenital cardiovascular abnormalities diagnosis were operated due to intra-abdominal problems, and 62 (Group II) were followed-up clinically for intra-abdominal problems. In Group I (10 boys and 4 girls), 11 patients were aged between 0 and 12 months, and three patients were older than 12 months. Group II included 52 patients aged between 0 and 12 months and 10 patients older than 12 months. Cardiovascular surgical interventions had been applied to six patients in Group I and 40 patients in Group II. The most frequent intra-abdominal problems were necrotizing enterocolitis and intestinal perforation in Group I, and paralytic ileus in Group II. Seven of the Group I patients and 22 of the Group II patients died. The patients who died in both groups had more than three congenital cardiovascular abnormalities in the same patient, and 80% of these patients had been operated for congenital cardiovascular abnormalities. Conclusion: The gastrointestinal system is involved in important complications experienced by patients with congenital cardiovascular abnormalities. The mortality rate was higher in operated patients due to gastrointestinal complications. Gastrointestinal complications are more frequent in patients with cyanotic anomalies. The presence of more than one congenital cardiovascular abnormality in a patient increased the mortality rate. PMID:26185717

  11. The Value of Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Diagnostics and Prediction of Morbidity in Cases of Placenta Previa with Abnormal Placentation

    PubMed Central

    Algebally, Ahmed M.; Yousef, Reda Ramadan Hussein; Badr, Sanaa Sayed Hussein; Al Obeidly, Amal; Szmigielski, Wojciech; Al Ibrahim, Abdullah A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background The purpose of the study was to evaluate the role of ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnostics and management of abnormal placentation in women with placenta previa and to compare the morbidity associated with that to placenta previa alone. Material/Methods The study includes 100 pregnant women with placenta previa with and without abnormal placentation. The results of MRI and US in abnormal placentation were compared with post-operative data. The patients’ files were reviewed for assessment of operative and post-operative morbidity. The results of our statistical analysis were compared with data from the literature. Results US and MRI showed no significant difference in sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing abnormal placentation (97–100% and 94–100%, respectively). MRI was more sensitive than US for the detection of myometrial invasion and the type of abnormal placentation (73.5% and 47%, respectively). The difference between pre- and post-operative hemoglobin values and estimated blood loss were the most significant risk factors for abnormal placentation, added to risk factors known for placenta previa. Post-partum surgical complications and prolonged hospital stay were more common in the cases of placenta previa with abnormal placentation, however statistically insignificant. Conclusions US and MRI are accurate imaging modalities for diagnosing abnormal placentation. MRI was more sensitive for the detection of the degree of placental invasion. The patient’s morbidity increased in cases with abnormal placentation. There was no significant difference in post operative-complications and hospitalization time due to pre-operative planning when the diagnosis was established with US and MRI. PMID:25411586

  12. Abnormal mitochondrial transport and morphology are common pathological denominators in SOD1 and TDP43 ALS mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Magrané, Jordi; Cortez, Czrina; Gan, Wen-Biao; Manfredi, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal mitochondrial morphology abnormalities occur in models of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) associated with SOD1 and TDP43 mutations. These abnormalities have been linked to mitochondrial axonal transport defects, but the temporal and spatial relationship between mitochondrial morphology and transport alterations in these two distinct genetic forms of ALS has not been investigated in vivo. To address this question, we crossed SOD1 (wild-type SOD1WT and mutant SOD1G93A) or TDP43 (mutant TDP43A315T) transgenic mice with mice expressing the fluorescent protein Dendra targeted to mitochondria in neurons (mitoDendra). At different time points during the disease course, we studied mitochondrial transport in the intact sciatic nerve of living mice and analyzed axonal mitochondrial morphology at multiple sites, spanning from the spinal cord to the motor terminals. Defects of retrograde mitochondrial transport were detected at 45 days of age, before the onset of symptoms, in SOD1G93A and TDP43A315T mice, but not in SOD1WT. At later disease stages, also anterograde mitochondrial transport was affected in both mutant mouse lines. In SOD1G93A mice, mitochondrial morphological abnormalities were apparent at 15 days of age, thus preceding transport abnormalities. Conversely, in TDP43A315T mice, morphological abnormalities appeared after the onset of transport defects. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that neuronal mitochondrial transport and morphology abnormalities occur in vivo and that they are common denominators of different genetic forms of the ALS. At the same time, differences in the temporal and spatial manifestation of mitochondrial abnormalities between the two mouse models of familial ALS imply that different molecular mechanisms may be involved. PMID:24154542

  13. Anal cytological abnormalities and anal HPV infection in men with Centers for Disease Control group IV HIV disease.

    PubMed Central

    Palefsky, J M; Holly, E A; Ralston, M L; Arthur, S P; Hogeboom, C J; Darragh, T M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterise risk factors for abnormal and cytology and anal human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in homosexual/bisexual men with advanced HIV related immunosuppression. DESIGN: Cross sectional study of men with Centers for Disease Control group IV HIV disease. SETTING: The University of California San Francisco, AIDS Clinic. PATIENTS: 129 homosexual or bisexual men with group IV HIV disease. METHODS: A questionnaire was administered detailing tobacco, alcohol and recreational drug use, medical history, and sexual practices. Anal swabs for cytology and HPV studies were obtained, as was blood for CD4 levels. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Abnormal anal cytology and anal HPV infection. RESULTS: Abnormal anal cytology was detected in 39% of subjects and anal HPV infection in 93% as measured by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Risk factors for abnormal cytology in multivariate analysis included HPV 16/18 infection (measured by PCR, RR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.2-3.5) and intravenous drug use (RR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.2-2.7). Infection with HPV 6/11 also had significantly elevated RRs in a separate model. Cigarette smoking, alcohol use, recreational drug use, and low CD4 level were associated with abnormal anal cytology in univariate analysis, as was infection with multiple HPV types and high levels of hybrid capture group B viral DNA. CONCLUSIONS: Anal cytological abnormalities and HPV infection are common among homosexual/bisexual men with group IV HIV disease. In this study population, the main risk factors for abnormal cytology were HPV infection and intravenous drug use. Images PMID:9306896

  14. Abrupt shift toward cooler condition in the earliest 20th century detected in a 165 year coral record from Ishigaki Island, southwestern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishima, Mari; Suzuki, Atsushi; Nagao, Masayuki; Ishimura, Toyoho; Inoue, Mayuri; Kawahata, Hodaka

    2010-08-01

    We analyzed a 165 year ?18O coral record from Ishigaki Island, southwestern Japan, and compared our results with observed sea surface temperatures, as well as with the East Asian winter monsoon and El Niño Southern Oscillation. Coral skeletal ?18O fluctuations were consistent with other available SST information since the 1890s. The coral ?18O data indicated abrupt shift toward cooler condition during 1900-1905, consistent with the extremely cold winter air temperatures observed in Japan in 1902. The cold event was also supported by coral Sr/Ca data. Development of the Siberian High may have intensified the EAWM at this time, in association with active heat convection in the tropics and weak westerlies. This cooling may also have been related to surface ocean freshening in the Ogasawara Islands in the early 20th century. Thus, several phenomena were uniquely coupled during the first few years of the 20th century in the northwestern subtropical Pacific.

  15. Doxorubicin cardiotoxicity: response of left ventricular ejection fraction to exercise and incidence of regional wall motion abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Bae, J H; Schwaiger, M; Mandelkern, M; Lin, A; Schelbert, H R

    Gated radionuclide ventriculograms were performed to evaluate cardiac function in 53 patients who received doxorubicin treatment for various malignancies (mean dose: 449 +/- 128 mg/m2 BSA). In fourteen patients (Group I) function was evaluated before and after treatment; there was a significant decrease of resting left ventricular ejection fraction after therapy (p less than 0.001). Twenty-two patients (Group II) had serial studies during treatment which also showed a significant fall of resting left ventricular ejection fraction (p less than 0.001). Eighteen patients in Groups I and II had supine exercise studies. A normal exercise response was maintained in the majority of patients. Exercise testing added little to the diagnostic performance when compared to serial resting studies. We found regional wall motion abnormalities (mild apical hypokinesis) at rest by visual inspection in 33 of 36 Group I and Group II patients who had received doxorubicin. In the baseline or initial study, only 4 of these patients demonstrated WMA. In 18 Group I and II patients who were exercised, 3 had wall motion abnormalities during the initial study. All of these patients demonstrated wall motion abnormalities at rest after the second study, however only 7 of 18 demonstrated abnormalities during the exercise study. The results indicate that resting left ventricular ejection fraction declines after doxorubicin treatment. Exercise radionuclide angiography may not increase diagnostic accuracy for the detection of doxorubicin related cardiotoxicity. Regional wall motion abnormalities occur with a relatively high incidence following doxorubicin therapy, more readily detectable at rest. However, the exercise study can distinguish doxorubicin related wall motion abnormalities from those due to coronary artery disease. PMID:3074127

  16. Changes in and Efficacies of Indications for Invasive Prenatal Diagnosis of Cytogenomic Abnormalities: 13 Years of Experience in a Single Center.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jinlai; Matarese, Chelsea; Crivello, Julianna; Wilcox, Katherine; Wang, Dongmei; DiAdamo, Autumn; Xu, Fang; Li, Peining

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Because the future application of cell-free fetal DNA screening is expected to dramatically improve the diagnostic yield and reduce unnecessary invasive procedures, it is time to summarize the indications of invasive prenatal diagnosis. This retrospective study was performed to evaluate the changes and efficacies of indications of invasive procedures for detecting cytogenomic abnormalities from 2000 to 2012. MATERIAL AND METHODS From our regional obstetric unit, 7818 invasive procedures were referred by indications of advance maternal age (AMA), abnormal ultrasound findings (aUS), abnormal maternal serum screening (aMSS), and family history (FH). Chromosome, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analyses were performed on chorionic villus sampling (CVS) and amniotic fluid (AF) specimens at the Yale Cytogenetics Laboratory. The abnormal findings from single or combined indications were compared to evaluate the diagnostic yield. RESULTS The annual caseload declined by 57.2% but the diagnostic yield increased from 7.2% to 13.4%. Chromosomal and genomic abnormalities were detected in 752 cases (9.6%, 752/7818) and 12 cases (4%, 12/303), respectively. Significantly decreased AMA referrals and increased aUS and aMSS referrals were noted. The top 3 indications by diagnostic yield were AMA/aUS (51.4% for CVS, 24.2% for AF), aUS (34.7% for CVS, 14.5% for AF), and AMA/aMSS (17.8% for CVS, 9.9% for AF). CONCLUSIONS Over a period of 13 years, the indication of aMSS and aUS were increasing while AMA was decreasing for prenatal diagnosis of cytogenomic abnormalities, and there was a continuous trend of reduced invasive procedures. Prenatal evaluation using AMA/aUS was the most effective in detecting chromosomal abnormalities, but better indications for genomic abnormalities are needed. PMID:26143093

  17. Gross Motor Development, Movement Abnormalities, and Early Identification of Autism

    PubMed Central

    Young, Gregory S.; Goldring, Stacy; Greiss-Hess, Laura; Herrera, Adriana M.; Steele, Joel; Macari, Suzanne; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.

    2015-01-01

    Gross motor development (supine, prone, rolling, sitting, crawling, walking) and movement abnormalities were examined in the home videos of infants later diagnosed with autism (regression and no regression subgroups), developmental delays (DD), or typical development. Group differences in maturity were found for walking, prone, and supine, with the DD and Autism-No Regression groups both showing later developing motor maturity than typical children. The only statistically significant differences in movement abnormalities were in the DD group; the two autism groups did not differ from the typical group in rates of movement abnormalities or lack of protective responses. These findings do not replicate previous investigations suggesting that early motor abnormalities seen on home video can assist in early identification of autism. PMID:17805956

  18. Role of scintigraphy in focally abnormal sonograms of fatty livers

    SciTech Connect

    Lisbona, R.; Mishkin, S.; Derbekyan, V.; Novales-Diaz, J.A.; Roy, A.; Sanders, L.

    1988-06-01

    Fatty infiltration of the liver may cause a range of focal abnormalities on hepatic sonography which may simulate hepatic nodular lesions. Discrete deposits of fat or islands of normal tissue which are uninvolved by fatty infiltration may stand out as potential space-occupying lesions on the sonograms. Twelve patients with such focally abnormal ultrasound images were referred for liver scintigraphy with /sup 133/Xe and /sup 99m/Tc colloidal SPECT studies to clarify the issue. These examinations helped identify, in nine of 12 patients, the innocent nature of the sonographic abnormalities which were simply related to the fat deposition process. Further, (/sup 99m/Tc)RBC scans defined the additional pathologic process in three patients in whom actual space-occupying lesions were indeed present in the liver. Scintigraphy has an important role to play in the understanding of focal hepatic ultrasound abnormalities particularly in unsuspected hepatic steatosis.

  19. 42 CFR 37.53 - Notification of abnormal roentgenographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...or findings suggesting, enlarged heart, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other...was interpreted to show enlarged heart, tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other...

  20. Identification of abnormal operating conditions and intelligent decision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiuliang; Jiang, Junjie; Su, Hongye; Chu, Jian

    2011-12-01

    In earth pressure balance (EPB) shield construction, the "plastic flow state" is difficult to form using the soil dug in the capsule because it can cause three abnormal operating conditions, including occlusion, caking in the capsule, and spewing at the outlet of the dump device. These abnormal operating conditions can, in turn, trigger failure in tunneling, cutter-device damage, and even catastrophic incidents, such as ground settlement. This present paper effectively integrates the mechanism of abnormal operating conditions and knowledge of soil conditioning, and establishes a uniform model of identifying abnormal conditions and intelligent decision support system based on the belief rule-base system. The model maximizes knowledge in improving the soil, construction experience, and data to optimize the model online. Finally, a numerical simulation with specific construction data is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  1. Appearing and disappearing CT scan abnormalities and seizures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P K Sethi; B R Kumar; V S Madan; V Mohan

    1985-01-01

    A group of patients presenting with seizures (focal or generalised) and abnormal CT scans who, on follow up, showed complete resolution of the CT scan changes, without any treatment other than anticonvulsants, are described.

  2. Hysterosalpingographic features of cervical abnormalities: acquired structural anomalies.

    PubMed

    Zafarani, F; Ahmadi, F; Shahrzad, G

    2015-08-01

    Cervical abnormalities may be congenital or acquired. Congenital cervical structural anomalies are relatively uncommon, whereas acquired cervical abnormalities are commonly seen in gynaecology clinics. Acquired abnormalities of the cervix can cause cervical factor infertility and recurrent spontaneous abortion. Various imaging tools have been used for evaluation of the uterine cavity and fallopian tubes. Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is a quick and minimally invasive tool for evaluation of infertility that facilitates visualization of the inner surfaces of the uterine cavity and fallopian tubes, as well as the cervical canal and isthmus. The lesions of the uterine cervix show various imaging manifestations on HSG such as narrowing, dilatation, filling defects, irregularities and diverticular projections. This pictorial review describes and illustrates the hysterosalpingographic appearances of normal variants and acquired structural abnormalities of the cervix. Accurate diagnosis of such cases is considered essential for optimal treatment. The pathological findings and radiopathological correlation will be briefly discussed. PMID:26111269

  3. If I Had - Abnormal Cholesterol on Routine Blood Work

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... to have abnormal cholesterol on a routine blood test. Dr. Mosca is Professor of Medicine and the ... unaware of. Your doctor might recommend a stress test or other types of technology that we have ...

  4. Cytogenetic abnormalities in Tunisian women with premature ovarian failure.

    PubMed

    Ayed, Wiem; Amouri, Ahlem; Hammami, Wajih; Kilani, Olfa; Turki, Zinet; Harzallah, Fatma; Bouayed-Abdelmoula, Nouha; Chemkhi, Imen; Zhioua, Fethi; Slama, Claude Ben

    2014-12-01

    To identify the distribution of chromosome abnormalities among Tunisian women with premature ovarian failure (POF) referred to the department of Cytogenetic at the Pasteur Institute of Tunis (Tunisia), standard cytogenetic analysis was carried out in a total of 100 women younger than 40 affected with premature ovarian failure. We identified 18 chromosomal abnormalities, including seven X-numerical anomalies in mosaic and non-mosaic state (45,X; 47,XXX), four sex reversal, three X-structural abnormalities (terminal deletion and isochromosomes), one autosomal translocation and one supernumerary marker. The overall prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities was 18% in our cohort. X chromosome aneuploidy was the most frequent aberration. This finding confirms the essential role of X chromosome in ovarian function and underlies the importance of cytogenetic investigations in the routine management of POF. PMID:25433561

  5. Factors that influence follow-up after an abnormal mammogram 

    E-print Network

    Copeland, Valerie Anne

    2009-05-15

    The focus of this study was to explore women’s experiences with follow-up after an abnormal mammogram, and factors that influence follow-up. Factors, including health status, found in the cancer screening and treatment ...

  6. Beitrag zur Frage abnormer Caninusbildung bei Hippopotamus amphibius

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Friedrich Tischendorf

    1948-01-01

    Ausgehend von der Untersuchung eines Hippopotamus-Schädels mit abnormer Caninusbildung wird der Versuch unternommen, die grundlegenden Gesichtspunkte herauszuarbeiten für das Verständnis der morphologischen und funktionellen Genese normaler und pathologischer Verhältnisse bei Zähnen mit regulativ begrenztem Dauerwachstum.

  7. 21 CFR 864.7415 - Abnormal hemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7415 Abnormal hemoglobin assay. (a) Identification. An...

  8. 21 CFR 864.7415 - Abnormal hemoglobin assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7415 Abnormal hemoglobin assay. (a) Identification. An...

  9. Dynorphin Promotes Abnormal Pain and Spinal Opioid Antinociceptive Tolerance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd W. Vanderah; Luis R. Gardell; Shannon E. Burgess; Mohab Ibrahim; Ahmet Dogrul; Cheng-Min Zhong; En-Tan Zhang; T. Philip; Michael H. Ossipov; Josephine Lai; Frank Porreca

    2000-01-01

    The nonopioid actions of spinal dynorphin may promote aspects of abnormal pain after nerve injury. Mechanistic similarities have been suggested between opioid tolerance and neuropathic pain. Here, the hypothesis that spinal dynorphin might mediate effects of sustained spinal opioids was explored. Possible abnormal pain and spinal antinociceptive tolerance were evaluated after intrathecal administration of (D-Ala 2, N-Me-Phe 4, Gly-ol 5)enke

  10. Distribution of ? 1 -(PI) phenotypes in chromosome abnormalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John C. Mulley; Grant R. Sutherland

    1981-01-01

    PI phenotypes (including subtypes) were determined for 168 individuals with chromosomal abnormalities ascertained in Adelaide. These included patients with mosaicism, trisomy 21, trisomy 13, trisomy 18, and various sex chromosome aberrations (45,X, 47,XXX, 47,XXY, 47,XYY, and 48,XXXY). Data did not support an existing proposition that mildly deficient PI phenotypes predispose to abnormal chromosome segregation during mitosis or meiosis. Phenotypic distributions

  11. Exome sequencing improves genetic diagnosis of structural fetal abnormalities revealed by ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Carss, Keren J.; Hillman, Sarah C.; Parthiban, Vijaya; McMullan, Dominic J.; Maher, Eamonn R.; Kilby, Mark D.; Hurles, Matthew E.

    2014-01-01

    The genetic etiology of non-aneuploid fetal structural abnormalities is typically investigated by karyotyping and array-based detection of microscopically detectable rearrangements, and submicroscopic copy-number variants (CNVs), which collectively yield a pathogenic finding in up to 10% of cases. We propose that exome sequencing may substantially increase the identification of underlying etiologies. We performed exome sequencing on a cohort of 30 non-aneuploid fetuses and neonates (along with their parents) with diverse structural abnormalities first identified by prenatal ultrasound. We identified candidate pathogenic variants with a range of inheritance models, and evaluated these in the context of detailed phenotypic information. We identified 35 de novo single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), small indels, deletions or duplications, of which three (accounting for 10% of the cohort) are highly likely to be causative. These are de novo missense variants in FGFR3 and COL2A1, and a de novo 16.8 kb deletion that includes most of OFD1. In five further cases (17%) we identified de novo or inherited recessive or X-linked variants in plausible candidate genes, which require additional validation to determine pathogenicity. Our diagnostic yield of 10% is comparable to, and supplementary to, the diagnostic yield of existing microarray testing for large chromosomal rearrangements and targeted CNV detection. The de novo nature of these events could enable couples to be counseled as to their low recurrence risk. This study outlines the way for a substantial improvement in the diagnostic yield of prenatal genetic abnormalities through the application of next-generation sequencing. PMID:24476948

  12. Combined Use of Cytogenetic and Molecular Methods in Prenatal Diagnostics of Chromosomal Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Stomornjak-Vukadin, Meliha; Kurtovic-Basic, Ilvana; Mehinovic, Lejla; Konjhodzic, Rijad

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of prenatal diagnostics is to provide information of the genetic abnormalities of the fetus early enough for the termination of pregnancy to be possible. Chromosomal abnormalities can be detected in an unborn child through the use of cytogenetic, molecular- cytogenetic and molecular methods. In between them, central spot is still occupied by cytogenetic methods. In cases where use of such methods is not informative enough, one or more molecular cytogenetic methods can be used for further clarification. Combined use of the mentioned methods improves the quality of the final findings in the diagnostics of chromosomal abnormalities, with classical cytogenetic methods still occupying the central spot. Material and methods: Conducted research represent retrospective-prospective study of a four year period, from 2008 through 2011. In the period stated, 1319 karyotyping from amniotic fluid were conducted, along with 146 FISH analysis. Results: Karyotyping had detected 20 numerical and 18 structural aberrations in that period. Most common observed numerical aberration were Down syndrome (75%), Klinefelter syndrome (10%), Edwards syndrome, double Y syndrome and triploidy (5% each). Within observed structural aberrations more common were balanced chromosomal aberrations then non balanced ones. Most common balanced structural aberrations were as follows: reciprocal translocations (60%), Robertson translocations (13.3%), chromosomal inversions, duplications and balanced de novo chromosomal rearrangements (6.6% each). Conclusion: With non- balanced aberrations observed in the samples of amniotic fluid, non- balanced translocations, deletions and derived chromosomes were equally represented. Number of detected aneuploidies with FISH, prior to obtaining results with karyotyping, were 6. PMID:26005269

  13. Phenotyping structural abnormalities in mouse embryos using high-resolution episcopic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Weninger, Wolfgang J.; Geyer, Stefan H.; Martineau, Alexandrine; Galli, Antonella; Adams, David J.; Wilson, Robert; Mohun, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    The arrival of simple and reliable methods for 3D imaging of mouse embryos has opened the possibility of analysing normal and abnormal development in a far more systematic and comprehensive manner than has hitherto been possible. This will not only help to extend our understanding of normal tissue and organ development but, by applying the same approach to embryos from genetically modified mouse lines, such imaging studies could also transform our knowledge of gene function in embryogenesis and the aetiology of developmental disorders. The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium is coordinating efforts to phenotype single gene knockouts covering the entire mouse genome, including characterising developmental defects for those knockout lines that prove to be embryonic lethal. Here, we present a pilot study of 34 such lines, utilising high-resolution episcopic microscopy (HREM) for comprehensive 2D and 3D imaging of homozygous null embryos and their wild-type littermates. We present a simple phenotyping protocol that has been developed to take advantage of the high-resolution images obtained by HREM and that can be used to score tissue and organ abnormalities in a reliable manner. Using this approach with embryos at embryonic day 14.5, we show the wide range of structural abnormalities that are likely to be detected in such studies and the variability in phenotypes between sibling homozygous null embryos. PMID:25256713

  14. Similar biological characteristics of human embryonic stem cell lines with normal and abnormal karyotypes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaofang; Long, Xiaolin; Yin, Yifei; Jiang, Yonghua; Chen, Xinjie; Liu, Weiqiang; Zhang, Wenhong; Du, Hongzi; Li, Shaoying; Zheng, Yuhong; Kong, Shu; Pang, Qianying; Shi, Yu; Huang, Yulin; Huang, Shengchan; Liao, Baoping; Xiao, Guohong; Wang, Weihua

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines derived from poor quality embryos usually have either normal or abnormal karyotypes. However, it is still unclear whether their biological characteristics are similar. METHODS Seven new hESC lines were established using discarded embryos. Five cell lines had normal karyotype, one was with an unbalanced Robertsonian translocation and one had a triploid karyotype. Their biological characteristics, short tandem repeat loci, HLA typing, differentiation capability and imprinted gene, DNA methylation and X chromosome inactivation status were compared between different cell lines. RESULTS All seven hESC lines had similar biological characteristics regardless of karyotype (five normal and two abnormal), such as expression of stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA)-4, tumor-rejection antigen (TRA)-1-81 and TRA-1-60 proteins, transcription factor octamer binding protein 4 mRNA, no detectable expression of SSEA-1 protein and high levels of alkaline phosphatase activity. All cell lines were able to undergo differentiation. Imprinted gene expression and DNA methylation were also similar among these cell lines. Non-random X chromosome inactivation patterns were found in XX cell lines. CONCLUSIONS The present results suggest that hESC lines with abnormal karyotype are also useful experimental materials for cell therapy, developmental biology and genetic research. PMID:18611919

  15. Mutation screening of HOXA7 and HOXA9 genes in Chinese women with Müllerian duct abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinxia; Mu, Yulan; Li, Chunyan; Li, Guangyu; Zhao, Hui; Qin, Yingying; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2014-11-01

    HOXA genes in groups 7-13 have been proven to play a role in determining positional identity along the genitalia axis. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between HOXA7 and HOXA9 mutations and Müllerian duct abnormalities (MDA). One hundred and ninety-two Chinese patients with MDA abnormalities and 192 healthy controls were recruited. All coding regions of HOXA7 and HOXA9 were amplified and sequenced directly. Rs2301721 and rs2301720 in HOXA7, rs35355140 and rs7810502 in HOXA9 were identified in patients with MDA and controls. One rare single nucleotide polymorphism rs189587233 in 3' UTR of HOXA9 gene was detected in one patient with didelphic uterus and absent in the 192 controls. This polymorphism, however, is known to exist in the normal Chinese population. Our results indicated that variants in the HOXA7 and HOXA9 genes were not common in Chinese women with Müllerian duct abnormalities. PMID:25246116

  16. Prospective study of change in patellar tendon abnormality on imaging and pain over a volleyball season

    PubMed Central

    Malliaras, P; Cook, J; Ptasznik, R; Thomas, S

    2006-01-01

    Objective Patellar tendon injury, defined by tendon abnormality (TA) on imaging and by pain, is common among volleyball players, but little is known about change in this injury over a volleyball season. Increased activity in the season compared with the off season may result in the development of TA and/or pain. This study investigated the behaviour of TA and pain over a competitive volleyball season. Methods Tendon abnormality and pain were measured in 101 volleyball players at the beginning and end of a season. Pain was measured with the single leg decline squat test, which loads the patellar tendon, and TA was detected with ultrasound imaging. Hours of weekly activity were measured and compared during the season and the off season. The proportion of tendons that underwent development and resolution in TA and/or pain over the season was investigated. Results Hours of weekly activity was greater during the season than in the off season. Most of the tendons investigated (66.3%) did not undergo a change in TA or pain over the season. Tendon abnormality and/or pain developed in 16.6% of tendons and resolved in 11.2%. Conclusions The tendons of volleyball players respond variably to the increased load over the season. Change in TA and pain does not appear to be entirely dependent upon load. PMID:16505088

  17. Expression of MsLEC1 transgenes in alfalfa plants causes symbiotic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Brill, Laurence M; Fujishige, Nancy A; Hackworth, Cheryl A; Hirsch, Ann M

    2004-01-01

    Legume lectins have been proposed to have important symbiotic roles during Rhizobium-legume symbioses. To test this hypothesis, the symbiotic responses of transgenic alfalfa plants that express a portion of the putative alfalfa lectin gene MsLEC1 or MsLEC2 in either the antisense or sense orientation were analyzed following inoculation with wild-type Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021. MsLEC1-antisense (LEC1AS) plants were stunted, exhibited hypernodulation, and developed not only abnormally large nodules but also numerous small nodules, both of which senesced prematurely. MsLEC2-antisense plants were intermediate in growth and nodule number compared with LEC1AS and vector control plants. The symbiotic abnormalities of MsLEC1-sense transgene plants were similar to but milder than the responses shown by the LEC1AS plants, whereas MsLEC2-sense transgene plants exhibited symbiotic responses that were identical to those of vector and nontransgenic control plants. MsLEC1 mRNA accumulation was not detected in nodule RNA by Northern blot analysis but was localized to alfalfa nodule meristems and the adjacent cells of the invasion zone by in situ hybridization; transcripts were also detected in root meristems. A similar spatial pattern of MsLEC2 expression was found by using a whole-mount in situ hybridization procedure. Moreover, mRNAs for an orthologous lectin gene (MaLEC) were detected in white sweetclover (Melilotus alba) nodules and root tips. PMID:14714864

  18. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Type Distribution in Females with Abnormal Cervical Cytology. A Correlation with Histological Study

    PubMed Central

    Cobo, Fernando; Concha, Ángel; Ortiz, Marta

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine human papillomavirus (HPV) types distribution in cervical preneoplasic lesions in a Southern Spanish population and their relationship between HPV type and grade of histopathological abnormality. Finally, 232 cervical samples from 135 women with previous cytological abnormalities were included in this study. Colposcopy studies and biopsies were performed. Haematoxylin-eosin stained slides were observed and detection of HPV DNA in cervical swabs was carried out with use of a polymerase chain reaction and microarrays technology. The relationship between the presence of HPV infection and diagnostic variables was evaluated. HPV 16 was the most common type followed by HPV 58, 51, 33 and 31. However, the two HPV types targeted in the prophylactic vaccines such as HPV type 16 and 18 were detected in only 37 (21.2%) and 2 (1.1%) cases respectively. Thirty-three (18.9%) of samples were infected with multiple types, the majority of them with two types. In addition, during the follow-up of patients many changes in type distribution were observed. Several studies will be necessary in order to evaluate the HPV type distribution for therapeutically and prophylactic purposes such as vaccine treatment. Also, because of the differences obtained depending of use of various DNA technologies, the performance of some comparative studies of the different methods from detection of HPV would be advisable in a high population of patients and with the most homogeneous conditions possible. PMID:19750125

  19. Abnormal Bleeding During Menopause Hormone Therapy: Insights for Clinical Management

    PubMed Central

    de Medeiros, Sebastião Freitas; Yamamoto, Márcia Marly Winck; Barbosa, Jacklyne Silva

    2013-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to review the involved mechanisms and propose actions for controlling/treating abnormal uterine bleeding during climacteric hormone therapy. Methods A systemic search of the databases SciELO, MEDLINE, and Pubmed was performed for identifying relevant publications on normal endometrial bleeding, abnormal uterine bleeding, and hormone therapy bleeding. Results Before starting hormone therapy, it is essential to exclude any abnormal organic condition, identify women at higher risk for bleeding, and adapt the regimen to suit eachwoman’s characteristics. Abnormal bleeding with progesterone/progestogen only, combined sequential, or combined continuous regimens may be corrected by changing the progestogen, adjusting the progestogen or estrogen/progestogen doses, or even switching the initial regimen to other formulation. Conclusion To diminish the occurrence of abnormal bleeding during hormone therapy (HT), it is important to tailor the regimen to the needs of individual women and identify those with higher risk of bleeding. The use of new agents as adjuvant therapies for decreasing abnormal bleeding in women on HT awaits future studies. PMID:24665210

  20. Brain abnormality segmentation based on l1-norm minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Ke; Erus, Guray; Tanwar, Manoj; Davatzikos, Christos

    2014-03-01

    We present a method that uses sparse representations to model the inter-individual variability of healthy anatomy from a limited number of normal medical images. Abnormalities in MR images are then defined as deviations from the normal variation. More precisely, we model an abnormal (pathological) signal y as the superposition of a normal part ~y that can be sparsely represented under an example-based dictionary, and an abnormal part r. Motivated by a dense error correction scheme recently proposed for sparse signal recovery, we use l1- norm minimization to separate ~y and r. We extend the existing framework, which was mainly used on robust face recognition in a discriminative setting, to address challenges of brain image analysis, particularly the high dimensionality and low sample size problem. The dictionary is constructed from local image patches extracted from training images aligned using smooth transformations, together with minor perturbations of those patches. A multi-scale sliding-window scheme is applied to capture anatomical variations ranging from fine and localized to coarser and more global. The statistical significance of the abnormality term r is obtained by comparison to its empirical distribution through cross-validation, and is used to assign an abnormality score to each voxel. In our validation experiments the method is applied for segmenting abnormalities on 2-D slices of FLAIR images, and we obtain segmentation results consistent with the expert-defined masks.

  1. Differential fractional anisotropy abnormalities in adolescents with ADHD or schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, Nicholas D.; Karatekin, Canan; White, Tonya; Lim, Kelvin O.

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia and ADHD are associated with similar deficits in working memory, attention, and inhibition. Both disorders also involve abnormalities of white matter integrity, possibly reflecting neural communication disruptions. There are likely some regional white matter abnormalities that underlie the common cognitive impairment, though also some regional abnormalities unique to each disorder. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to compare white matter integrity, as indicated by fractional anisotropy (FA), in adolescents with schizophrenia (n=15) or ADHD (n=14) and healthy controls (n=26). Schizophrenia patients had uniquely low FA, relative to the other two groups, in bilateral cerebral peduncles, anterior and posterior corpus callosum, right anterior corona radiata, and right superior longitudinal fasciculus. ADHD patients had uniquely high FA in left inferior and right superior frontal regions. Both clinical groups had lower FA than controls in left posterior fornix. The two disorders generally demonstrated distinct patterns of abnormal connectivity suggesting that common cognitive and behavioral deficits derive from distinct sources, though the posterior fornix may be involved in both disorders. Schizophrenia was associated with abnormally low FA in widespread circuitry indicative of general connectivity disruptions, whereas ADHD was associated with abnormally high FA in frontal networks that may indicate impaired branching of fibers. PMID:20153608

  2. Phenomenology and anatomy of abnormal behaviours in primary progressive aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Warren, Jason D.

    2010-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a group of disorders with progressive language impairment. Abnormal behaviour may develop in PPA as the disease evolves, but the clinical features and brain basis of behavioural change in PPA have not been fully defined. 33 PPA patients (9 semantic dementia, SD, 14 progressive nonfluent aphasia, PNFA, 7 logopenic/phonological aphasia, LPA and 3 patients with a PPA syndrome in association with progranulin mutations, GRN-PPA) were assessed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory to record behavioural changes, as well as volumetric MR imaging. The most common abnormal behaviours in SD were irritability, disinhibition, depression and abnormal appetite, in PNFA apathy, agitation and depression, in LPA anxiety, irritability, agitation and apathy, and in GRN-PPA apathy and irritability. Voxel-based morphometry analysis revealed greater atrophy of right lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in PPA patients with anxiety, apathy, irritability/lability and abnormal appetite/eating disorders, and greater atrophy of left OFC in those with disinhibition. Areas involved beyond OFC included right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (apathy), right cingulate (irritability/lability) and left anterior superior and medial temporal lobe (disinhibition). Behavioural abnormalities may be clinically significant in PPA, and these abnormalities are underpinned by atrophy of overlapping frontotemporal networks centred on OFC. PMID:20400120

  3. Dissociated vertical deviation: evidence of abnormal visual pathway projection.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, B. A.; Billson, F. A.

    1984-01-01

    Abnormalities in visually evoked responses have been used to demonstrate abnormal optic nerve fibre projections in human albinos, who have anomalous nystagmoid movements. Using visually evoked potentials we tested the hypothesis that patients with dissociated vertical deviation (another group with anomalous nystagmoid movements) may have abnormal visual evoked responses similar to those of albinos. Patients with dissociated vertical deviation (both unilateral and alternating), patients with congenital esotropia without dissociated vertical deviation, and normal subjects were investigated. The results showed a very high incidence of abnormal visual evoked responses in patients with dissociated vertical deviation, while recordings from the other groups were normal. As well as suggesting the possibility of abnormalities of optic nerve fibre projections, the visual evoked responses showed a marked increase in latency in all patients with dissociated vertical deviation. These results occurred regardless of the visual acuity or amblyopia of the eyes tested. The possible existence of abnormal pathway projection in the presence of dissociated vertical deviation is discussed. PMID:6498135

  4. The nature of white matter abnormalities in blast-related mild traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Jasmeet P.; Miller, Danielle R.; Lafleche, Ginette; Salat, David H.; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    Blast-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been a common injury among returning troops due to the widespread use of improvised explosive devices in the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars. As most of the TBIs sustained are in the mild range, brain changes may not be detected by standard clinical imaging techniques such as CT. Furthermore, the functional significance of these types of injuries is currently being debated. However, accumulating evidence suggests that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is sensitive to subtle white matter abnormalities and may be especially useful in detecting mild TBI (mTBI). The primary aim of this study was to use DTI to characterize the nature of white matter abnormalities following blast-related mTBI, and in particular, examine the extent to which mTBI-related white matter abnormalities are region-specific or spatially heterogeneous. In addition, we examined whether mTBI with loss of consciousness (LOC) was associated with more extensive white matter abnormality than mTBI without LOC, as well as the potential moderating effect of number of blast exposures. A second aim was to examine the relationship between white matter integrity and neurocognitive function. Finally, a third aim was to examine the contribution of PTSD symptom severity to observed white matter alterations. One hundred fourteen OEF/OIF veterans underwent DTI and neuropsychological examination and were divided into three groups including a control group, blast-related mTBI without LOC (mTBI - LOC) group, and blast-related mTBI with LOC (mTBI + LOC) group. Hierarchical regression models were used to examine the extent to which mTBI and PTSD predicted white matter abnormalities using two approaches: 1) a region-specific analysis and 2) a measure of spatial heterogeneity. Neurocognitive composite scores were calculated for executive functions, attention, memory, and psychomotor speed. Results showed that blast-related mTBI + LOC was associated with greater odds of having spatially heterogeneous white matter abnormalities. Region-specific reduction in fractional anisotropy (FA) in the left retrolenticular part of the internal capsule was observed in the mTBI + LOC group as the number of blast exposures increased. A mediation analysis revealed that mTBI + LOC indirectly influenced verbal memory performance through its effect on white matter integrity. PTSD was not associated with spatially heterogeneous white matter abnormalities. However, there was a suggestion that at higher levels of PTSD symptom severity, LOC was associated with reduced FA in the left retrolenticular part of the internal capsule. These results support postmortem reports of diffuse axonal injury following mTBI and suggest that injuries with LOC involvement may be particularly detrimental to white matter integrity. Furthermore, these results suggest that LOC-associated white matter abnormalities in turn influence neurocognitive function.

  5. Dental and maxillofacial abnormalities in long-term survivors of childhood cancer: effects of treatment with chemotherapy and radiation to the head and neck

    SciTech Connect

    Jaffe, N.; Toth, B.B.; Hoar, R.E.; Ried, H.L.; Sullivan, M.P.; McNeese, M.D.

    1984-06-01

    Sixty-eight long-term survivors of childhood cancer were evaluated for dental and maxillofacial abnormalities. Forty-five patients had received maxillofacial radiation for lymphoma, leukemia, rhabdomyosarcoma, and miscellaneous tumors. Forty-three of the 45 patients and the remaining 23 who had not received maxillofacial radiation also received chemotherapy. Dental and maxillofacial abnormalities were detected in 37 of the 45 (82%) radiated patients. Dental abnormalities comprised foreshortening and blunting of roots, incomplete calcification, premature closure of apices, delayed or arrested tooth development, and caries. Maxillofacial abnormalities comprised trismus, abnormal occlusal relationships, and facial deformities. The abnormalities were more severe in those patients who received radiation at an earlier age and at higher dosages. Possible chemotherapeutic effects in five of 23 patients who received treatment for tumors located outside the head and neck region comprised acquired amelogenesis imperfecta, microdontia of bicuspid teeth, and a tendency toward thinning of roots with an enlarged pulp chamber. Dental and maxillofacial abnormalities should be recognized as a major consequence of maxillofacial radiation in long-term survivors of childhood cancer, and attempts to minimize or eliminate such sequelae should involve an effective interaction between radiation therapists, and medical and dental oncologists.

  6. 3D and 4D sonography and magnetic resonance in the assessment of normal and abnormal CNS development: alternative or complementary.

    PubMed

    Pooh, Ritsuko K; Kurjak, Asim

    2011-01-01

    Advanced transvaginal neurosonography has revealed normal and abnormal intracranial morphology. Transvaginal three-dimensional (3D) sonography demonstrates bony structure, multiplanar analysis of inside detailed morphology, tomographic ultrasound imaging in any cutting sections, 3D sonoangiography and volume calculation of ventricles and/or intracranial lesions. Longitudinal assessment of normal and abnormal central nervous system (CNS) development is done by serial scanning. However, the transvaginal high-frequency approach has several limitations due to lack of penetration and cranial bone ossification with advanced gestational age. Magnetic resonance neuroimaging enabled observation of the whole intracranial cavity, brainstem and cortical gyral/sulcal development. On the other hand, neuro-sonography has advantages in detecting intracranial calcification, vascular abnormalities, intratumoral vascularity and bone dysplasia. Moreover, 3D ultrasound demonstrates extra CNS abnormalities, strongly associated with CNS abnormalities. Any less-invasive modalities can be used for a CNS anomaly screening scan and ultrasound is no doubt the first choice. Once CNS abnormality is suspected, it is suggested to use the different technologies according to what is looked for in each abnormal CNS case. Of course, MR and 3D ultrasound imaging should be complementary as well as alternative. PMID:20979445

  7. Characterization and differentiation of normal and abnormal spermatozoa via micro-Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Z. F.; Chen, X. W.; Chen, G. N.; Chen, J. H.; Wang, J.; Lin, J. Q.; Zeng, H. S.; Chen, R.

    2013-03-01

    Growth in the percentage of spermatozoa with aberrant sperm head morphologies has been correlated with a rise in male infertility. In our study, micro-Raman spectroscopy using a new substrate was utilized to characterize and differentiate the morphologically normal and abnormal human sperm cells based on their different biochemical components by showing their different specific Raman spectra. A detailed classification based on the PCA–LDA method was performed showing a diagnostic sensitivity of 76% and specificity of 91%, with 80% classification accuracy. Our results suggest that micro-Raman spectroscopy can serve as a reliable and non-invasive tool for detection and differentiation of human spermatozoa.

  8. Testing for abnormal security-price performance under conditions of event-period uncertainty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles J. Corrado

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines an event study test procedure based on cumulative average residuals (CARs) and a boundary-crossing probability\\u000a for Brownian motion. The boundary-crossing test procedure is designed to detect abnormal security-price performance under\\u000a conditions of event-period uncertainty. Simulations with daily security-return data show that the boundary-crossing test is\\u000a well specified under the null hypothesis and has good power properties under

  9. Structural brain abnormalities in cervical dystonia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Idiopathic cervical dystonia is characterized by involuntary spasms, tremors or jerks. It is not restricted to a disturbance in the basal ganglia system because non-conventional voxel-based MRI morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have detected numerous regional changes in the brains of patients. In this study scans of 24 patients with cervical dystonia and 24 age-and sex-matched controls were analysed using VBM, DTI and magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) using a voxel-based approach and a region-of-interest analysis. Results were correlated with UDRS, TWSTRS and disease duration. Results We found structural alterations in the basal ganglia; thalamus; motor cortex; premotor cortex; frontal, temporal and parietal cortices; visual system; cerebellum and brainstem of the patients with dystonia. Conclusions Cervical dystonia is a multisystem disease involving several networks such as the motor, sensory and visual systems. PMID:24131497

  10. Earliest floral grave lining from 13,700–11,700-y-old Natufian burials at Raqefet Cave, Mt. Carmel, Israel

    PubMed Central

    Nadel, Dani; Danin, Avinoam; Power, Robert C.; Rosen, Arlene M.; Bocquentin, Fanny; Tsatskin, Alexander; Rosenberg, Danny; Yeshurun, Reuven; Weissbrod, Lior; Rebollo, Noemi R.; Barzilai, Omry; Boaretto, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    Flowering plants possess mechanisms that stimulate positive emotional and social responses in humans. It is difficult to establish when people started to use flowers in public and ceremonial events because of the scarcity of relevant evidence in the archaeological record. We report on uniquely preserved 13,700–11,700-y-old grave linings made of flowers, suggesting that such use began much earlier than previously thought. The only potentially older instance is the questionable use of flowers in the Shanidar IV Neanderthal grave. The earliest cemeteries (ca. 15,000–11,500 y ago) in the Levant are known from Natufian sites in northern Israel, where dozens of burials reflect a wide range of inhumation practices. The newly discovered flower linings were found in four Natufian graves at the burial site of Raqefet Cave, Mt. Carmel, Israel. Large identified plant impressions in the graves include stems of sage and other Lamiaceae (Labiatae; mint family) or Scrophulariaceae (figwort family) species; accompanied by a plethora of phytoliths, they provide the earliest direct evidence now known for such preparation and decoration of graves. Some of the plant species attest to spring burials with a strong emphasis on colorful and aromatic flowers. Cave floor chiseling to accommodate the desired grave location and depth is also evident at the site. Thus, grave preparation was a sophisticated planned process, embedded with social and spiritual meanings reflecting a complex preagricultural society undergoing profound changes at the end of the Pleistocene. PMID:23818584

  11. Automatic classification of squamosal abnormality in micro-CT images for the evaluation of rabbit fetal skull defects using active shape models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Antong; Dogdas, Belma; Mehta, Saurin; Bagchi, Ansuman; Wise, L. David; Winkelmann, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    High-throughput micro-CT imaging has been used in our laboratory to evaluate fetal skeletal morphology in developmental toxicology studies. Currently, the volume-rendered skeletal images are visually inspected and observed abnormalities are reported for compounds in development. To improve the efficiency and reduce human error of the evaluation, we implemented a framework to automate the evaluation process. The framework starts by dividing the skull into regions of interest and then measuring various geometrical characteristics. Normal/abnormal classification on the bone segments is performed based on identifying statistical outliers. In pilot experiments using rabbit fetal skulls, the majority of the skeletal abnormalities can be detected successfully in this manner. However, there are shape-based abnormalities that are relatively subtle and thereby difficult to identify using the geometrical features. To address this problem, we introduced a model-based approach and applied this strategy on the squamosal bone. We will provide details on this active shape model (ASM) strategy for the identification of squamosal abnormalities and show that this method improved the sensitivity of detecting squamosal-related abnormalities from 0.48 to 0.92.

  12. Transmission of clonal chromosomal abnormalities in human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells surviving radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Daniela; Ritter, Sylvia; Durante, Marco; Seifried, Erhard; Fournier, Claudia; Tonn, Torsten

    2015-07-01

    In radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia (rAML), clonal chromosomal abnormalities are often observed in bone marrow cells of patients, suggesting that their formation is crucial in the development of the disease. Since rAML is considered to originate from hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC), we investigated the frequency and spectrum of radiation-induced chromosomal abnormalities in human CD34(+) cells. We then measured stable chromosomal abnormalities, a possible biomarker of leukemia risk, in clonally expanded cell populations which were grown for 14 days in a 3D-matrix (CFU-assay). We compared two radiation qualities used in radiotherapy, sparsely ionizing X-rays and densely ionizing carbon ions (29 and 60-85keV/?m, doses between 0.5 and 4Gy). Only a negligible number of de novo arising, unstable aberrations (?0.05 aberrations/cell, 97% breaks) were measured in the descendants of irradiated HSPC. However, stable aberrations were detected in colonies formed by irradiated HSPC. All cells of the affected colonies exhibited one or more identical aberrations, indicating their clonal origin. The majority of the clonal rearrangements (92%) were simple exchanges such as translocations (77%) and pericentric inversions (15%), which are known to contribute to the development of rAML. Carbon ions were more efficient in inducing cell killing (maximum of ?30-35% apoptotic cells for 2Gy carbon ions compared to ?25% for X-rays) and chromosomal aberrations in the first cell-cycle after exposure (?70% and ?40% for 1Gy of carbon ions and X-rays, respectively), with a higher fraction of non-transmissible aberrations. In contrast, for both radiation qualities the percentage of clones with chromosomal abnormalities was similar (40%). Using the frequency of colonies with clonal aberrations as a surrogate marker for the leukemia risk following radiotherapy of solid tumors, charged particle therapy is not expected to lead to an increased risk of leukemia in patients. PMID:25938904

  13. Cerebrovascular risk factors and brain microstructural abnormalities on diffusion tensor images in HIV-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Beau K; Jahanshad, Neda; McMurtray, Aaron; Kallianpur, Kalpana J; Chow, Dominic C; Valcour, Victor G; Paul, Robert H; Marotz, Liron; Thompson, Paul M; Shikuma, Cecilia M

    2012-08-01

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder remains prevalent in HIV-infected individuals despite effective antiretroviral therapy. As these individuals age, comorbid cerebrovascular disease will likely impact cognitive function. Effective tools to study this impact are needed. This study used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to characterize brain microstructural changes in HIV-infected individuals with and without cerebrovascular risk factors. Diffusion-weighted MRIs were obtained in 22 HIV-infected subjects aged 50 years or older (mean age?=?58 years, standard deviation?=?6 years; 19 males, three females). Tensors were calculated to obtain fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) maps. Statistical comparisons accounting for multiple comparisons were made between groups with and without cerebrovascular risk factors. Abnormal glucose metabolism (i.e., impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or diabetes mellitus) was associated with significantly higher MD (false discovery rate (FDR) critical p value?=?0.008) and lower FA (FDR critical p value?=?0.002) in the caudate and lower FA in the hippocampus (FDR critical p value?=?0.004). Pearson correlations were performed between DTI measures in the caudate and hippocampus and age- and education-adjusted composite scores of global cognitive function, memory, and psychomotor speed. There were no detectable correlations between the neuroimaging measures and measures of cognition. In summary, we demonstrate that brain microstructural abnormalities are associated with abnormal glucose metabolism in the caudate and hippocampus of HIV-infected individuals. Deep gray matter structures and the hippocampus may be vulnerable in subjects with comorbid abnormal glucose metabolism, but our results should be confirmed in further studies. PMID:22585287

  14. Cerebrovascular risk factors and brain microstructural abnormalities on diffusion tensor images in HIV-infected individuals

    PubMed Central

    Jahanshad, Neda; McMurtray, Aaron; Kallianpur, Kalpana J.; Chow, Dominic C.; Valcour, Victor G.; Paul, Robert H.; Marotz, Liron; Thompson, Paul M.; Shikuma, Cecilia M.

    2012-01-01

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder remains prevalent in HIV-infected individuals despite effective antiretroviral therapy. As these individuals age, comorbid cerebrovascular disease will likely impact cognitive function. Effective tools to study this impact are needed. This study used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to characterize brain microstructural changes in HIV-infected individuals with and without cerebrovascular risk factors. Diffusion-weighted MRIs were obtained in 22 HIV-infected subjects aged 50 years or older (mean age = 58 years, standard deviation = 6 years; 19 males, three females). Tensors were calculated to obtain fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) maps. Statistical comparisons accounting for multiple comparisons were made between groups with and without cerebrovascular risk factors. Abnormal glucose metabolism (i.e., impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or diabetes mellitus) was associated with significantly higher MD (false discovery rate (FDR) critical p value = 0.008) and lower FA FDR critical p value = 0.002) in the caudate and lower FA in the hippocampus (FDR critical p value = 0.004). Pearson correlations were performed between DTI measures in the caudate and hippocampus and age- and education-adjusted composite scores of global cognitive function, memory, and psychomotor speed. There were no detectable correlations between the neuroimaging measures and measures of cognition. In summary, we demonstrate that brain microstructural abnormalities are associated with abnormal glucose metabolism in the caudate and hippocampus of HIV-infected individuals. Deep gray matter structures and the hippocampus may be vulnerable in subjects with comorbid abnormal glucose metabolism, but our results should be confirmed in further studies. PMID:22585287

  15. Rapid Point-Of-Care Breath Test for Biomarkers of Breast Cancer and Abnormal Mammograms

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Michael; Beatty, J. David; Cataneo, Renee N.; Huston, Jan; Kaplan, Peter D.; Lalisang, Roy I.; Lambin, Philippe; Lobbes, Marc B. I.; Mundada, Mayur; Pappas, Nadine; Patel, Urvish

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have reported volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath as biomarkers of breast cancer and abnormal mammograms, apparently resulting from increased oxidative stress and cytochrome p450 induction. We evaluated a six-minute point-of-care breath test for VOC biomarkers in women screened for breast cancer at centers in the USA and the Netherlands. Methods 244 women had a screening mammogram (93/37 normal/abnormal) or a breast biopsy (cancer/no cancer 35/79). A mobile point-of-care system collected and concentrated breath and air VOCs for analysis with gas chromatography and surface acoustic wave detection. Chromatograms were segmented into a time series of alveolar gradients (breath minus room air). Segmental alveolar gradients were ranked as candidate biomarkers by C-statistic value (area under curve [AUC] of receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve). Multivariate predictive algorithms were constructed employing significant biomarkers identified with multiple Monte Carlo simulations and cross validated with a leave-one-out (LOO) procedure. Results Performance of breath biomarker algorithms was determined in three groups: breast cancer on biopsy versus normal screening mammograms (81.8% sensitivity, 70.0% specificity, accuracy 79% (73% on LOO) [C-statistic value], negative predictive value 99.9%); normal versus abnormal screening mammograms (86.5% sensitivity, 66.7% specificity, accuracy 83%, 62% on LOO); and cancer versus no cancer on breast biopsy (75.8% sensitivity, 74.0% specificity, accuracy 78%, 67% on LOO). Conclusions A pilot study of a six-minute point-of-care breath test for volatile biomarkers accurately identified women with breast cancer and with abnormal mammograms. Breath testing could potentially reduce the number of needless mammograms without loss of diagnostic sensitivity. PMID:24599224

  16. In vivo Detection and Imaging of Phosphatidylserine Expression during Programmed Cell Death

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francis Blankenberg; Peter D. Katsikis; Johathan F. Tait; R. Eric Davis; Louis Naumovski; Katsuichi Ohtsuki; Susan Kopiwoda; Michael J. Abrams; Marilyan Darkes; Robert C. Robbins; Holden T. Maecker; H. W. Strauss

    1998-01-01

    One of the earliest events in programmed cell death is the externalization of phosphatidylserine, a membrane phospholipid normally restricted to the inner leaflet of the lipid bilayer. Annexin V, an endogenous human protein with a high affinity for membrane, bound phosphatidylserine, can be used in vitro to detect apoptosis before other well described morphologic or nuclear changes associated with programmed

  17. Convergent evidence for abnormal striatal synaptic plasticity in dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, David A.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Poizner, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Dystonia is a functionally disabling movement disorder characterized by abnormal movements and postures. Although substantial recent progress has been made in identifying genetic factors, the pathophysiology of the disease remains a mystery. A provocative suggestion gaining broader acceptance is that some aspect of neural plasticity may be abnormal. There is also evidence that, at least in some forms of dystonia, sensorimotor “use” may be a contributing factor. Most empirical evidence of abnormal plasticity in dystonia comes from measures of sensorimotor cortical organization and physiology. However, the basal ganglia also play a critical role in sensorimotor function. Furthermore, the basal ganglia are prominently implicated in traditional models of dystonia, are the primary targets of stereotactic neurosurgical interventions, and provide a neural substrate for sensorimotor learning influenced by neuromodulators. Our working hypothesis is that abnormal plasticity in the basal ganglia is a critical link between the etiology and pathophysiology of dystonia. In this review we set up the background for this hypothesis by integrating a large body of disparate indirect evidence that dystonia may involve abnormalities in synaptic plasticity in the striatum. After reviewing evidence implicating the striatum in dystonia, we focus on the influence of two neuromodulatory systems: dopamine and acetylcholine. For both of these neuromodulators, we first describe the evidence for abnormalities in dystonia and then the means by which it may influence striatal synaptic plasticity. Collectively, the evidence suggests that many different forms of dystonia may involve abnormal plasticity in the striatum. An improved understanding of these altered plastic processes would help inform our understanding of the pathophysiology of dystonia, and, given the role of the striatum in sensorimotor learning, provide a principled basis for designing therapies aimed at the dynamic processes linking etiology to pathophysiology of the disease. PMID:20005952

  18. Insular and caudate lesions release abnormal yawning in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Krestel, Heinz; Weisstanner, Christian; Hess, Christian W; Bassetti, Claudio L; Nirkko, Arto; Wiest, Roland

    2015-03-01

    Abnormal yawning is an underappreciated phenomenon in patients with ischemic stroke. We aimed at identifying frequently affected core regions in the supratentorial brain of stroke patients with abnormal yawning and contributing to the anatomical network concept of yawning control. Ten patients with acute anterior circulation stroke and ?3 yawns/15 min without obvious cause were analyzed. The NIH stroke scale (NIHSS), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), symptom onset, period with abnormal yawning, blood oxygen saturation, glucose, body temperature, blood pressure, heart rate, and modified Rankin scale (mRS) were assessed for all patients. MRI lesion maps were segmented on diffusion-weighted images, spatially normalized, and the extent of overlap between the different stroke patterns was determined. Correlations between the period with abnormal yawning and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in the overlapping regions, total stroke volume, NIHSS and mRS were performed. Periods in which patients presented with episodes of abnormal yawning lasted on average for 58 h. Average GCS, NIHSS, and mRS scores were 12.6, 11.6, and 3.5, respectively. Clinical parameters were within normal limits. Ischemic brain lesions overlapped in nine out of ten patients: in seven patients in the insula and in seven in the caudate nucleus. The decrease of the ADC within the lesions correlated with the period with abnormal yawing (r = -0.76, Bonferroni-corrected p = 0.02). The stroke lesion intensity of the common overlapping regions in the insula and the caudate nucleus correlates with the period with abnormal yawning. The insula might be the long sought-after brain region for serotonin-mediated yawning. PMID:24337237

  19. Multimodal noninvasive and invasive imaging of extracranial venous abnormalities indicative of CCSVI: Results of the PREMiSe pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is no established noninvasive or invasive diagnostic imaging modality at present that can serve as a ‘gold standard’ or “benchmark” for the detection of the venous anomalies, indicative of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI). We investigated the sensitivity and specificity of 2 invasive vs. 2 noninvasive imaging techniques for the detection of extracranial venous anomalies in the internal jugular veins (IJVs) and azygos vein/vertebral veins (VVs) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods The data for this multimodal imaging comparison pilot study was collected in phase 2 of the “Prospective Randomized Endovascular therapy in Multiple Sclerosis” (PREMiSe) study using standardized imaging techniques. Thirty MS subjects were screened initially with Doppler sonography (DS), out of which 10 did not fulfill noninvasive screening procedure requirements on DS that consisted of ?2 venous hemodynamic extracranial criteria. Accordingly, 20 MS patients with relapsing MS were enrolled into the multimodal diagnostic imaging study. For magnetic resonance venography (MRV), IJVs abnormal findings were considered absent or pinpoint flow, whereas abnormal VVs flow was classified as absent. Abnormalities of the VVs were determined only using non-invasive testing. Catheter venography (CV) was considered abnormal when ?50% lumen restriction was detected, while intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) was considered abnormal when ?50% restriction of the lumen or intra-luminal defects or reduced pulsatility was found. Non-invasive and invasive imaging modality comparisons between left, right and total IJVs and between the VVs and azygos vein were performed. Because there is no reliable way of non-invasively assessing the azygos vein, the VVs abnormalities detected by the non-invasive testing were compared to the azygos abnormalities detected by the invasive testing. All image modalities were analyzed in a blinded manner by more than one viewer, upon which consensus was reached. The sensitivity and specificity were calculated using contingency tables denoting the presence or absence of vein-specific abnormality findings between all imaging modalities used individually as the benchmark. Results The sensitivity of CV?+?IVUS was 68.4% for the right and 90% for the left IJV and 85.7% for the azygos vein/VVs, compared to venous anomalies detected on DS. Compared to the venous anomalies detected on MRV, the sensitivity of CV?+?IVUS was 71.4% in right and 100% in left IJVs and 100% in the azygos vein/VVs; however, the specificity was 38.5%, 38.9% and 11.8%, respectively. The sensitivity between the two invasive imaging techniques, used as benchmarks, ranged from 72.7% for the right IJV to 90% for the azygos vein but the IVUS showed a higher rate of venous anomalies than the CV. There was excellent correspondence between identifying collateral veins on MRV and CV. Conclusions Noninvasive DS screening for the detection of venous anomalies indicative of CCSVI may be a reliable approach for identifying patients eligible for further multimodal invasive imaging testing of the IJVs. However, the noninvasive screening methods were inadequate to depict the total amount of azygos vein/VVs anomalies identified with invasive testing. This pilot study, with limited sample size, shows that both a non-invasive and invasive multimodal imaging diagnostic approach should be recommended to depict a range of extracranial venous anomalies indicative of CCSVI. However, lack of invasive testing on the study subjects whose results were negative on the DS screening and of healthy controls, limits further generalizibility of our findings. In addition, the findings from the 2 invasive techniques confirmed the existence of severe extracranial venous anomalies that significantly impaired normal blood outflow from the brain in this group of MS patients. PMID:24139135

  20. Spectral Karyotyping to Study Chromosome Abnormalities in Humans and Mice with Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    AbouAlaiwi, Wissam A.; Rodriguez, Ingrid; Nauli, Surya M.

    2012-01-01

    Conventional method to identify and classify individual chromosomes depends on the unique banding pattern of each chromosome in a specific species being analyzed 1, 2. This classical banding technique, however, is not reliable in identifying complex chromosomal aberrations such as those associated with cancer. To overcome the limitations of the banding technique, Spectral Karyotyping (SKY) is introduced to provide much reliable information on chromosome abnormalities. SKY is a multicolor fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) technique to detect metaphase chromosomes with spectral microscope 3, 4. SKY has been proven to be a valuable tool for the cytogenetic analysis of a broad range of chromosome abnormalities associated with a large number of genetic diseases and malignancies 5, 6. SKY involves the use of multicolor fluorescently-labelled DNA probes prepared from the degenerate oligonucleotide primers by PCR. Thus, every chromosome has a unique spectral color after in-situ hybridization with probes, which are differentially labelled with a mixture of fluorescent dyes (Rhodamine, Texas Red, Cy5, FITC and Cy5.5). The probes used for SKY consist of up to 55 chromosome specific probes 7-10. The procedure for SKY involves several steps (Figure 1). SKY requires the availability of cells with high mitotic index from normal or diseased tissue or blood. The chromosomes of a single cell from either a freshly isolated primary cell or a cell line are spread on a glass slide. This chromosome spread is labeled with a different combination of fluorescent dyes specific for each chromosome. For probe detection and image acquisition,the spectral imaging system consists of sagnac interferometer and a CCD camera. This allows measurement of the visible light spectrum emitted from the sample and to acquire a spectral image from individual chromosomes. HiSKY, the software used to analyze the results of the captured images, provides an easy identification of chromosome anomalies. The end result is a metaphase and a karyotype classification image, in which each pair of chromosomes has a distinct color (Figure 2). This allows easy identification of chromosome identities and translocations. For more details, please visit Applied Spectral Imaging website (http://www.spectral-imaging.com/). SKY was recently used for an identification of chromosome segregation defects and chromosome abnormalities in humans and mice with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD), a genetic disease characterized by dysfunction in primary cilia 11-13. Using this technique, we demonstrated the presence of abnormal chromosome segregation and chromosomal defects in ADPKD patients and mouse models 14. Further analyses using SKY not only allowed us to identify chromosomal number and identity, but also to accurately detect very complex chromosomal aberrations such as chromosome deletions and translocations (Figure 2). PMID:22330078

  1. Abnormal Initiation and Conduction of Slow-Wave Activity in Gastroparesis, Defined by High-Resolution Electrical Mapping

    PubMed Central

    O’Grady, Gregory; Angeli, Timothy R.; Du, Peng; Lahr, Chris; Lammers, Wim JEP; Windsor, John A.; Abell, Thomas L.; Farrugia, Gianrico; Pullan, Andrew J.; Cheng, Leo K.

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) generate slow waves. Disrupted ICC networks and gastric dysrhythmias are each associated with gastroparesis. However, there are no data on the initiation and propagation of slow waves in gastroparesis, because research tools have lacked spatial resolution. We applied high-resolution electrical mapping to quantify and classify gastroparesis slow-wave abnormalities in spatiotemporal detail. Methods Serosal HR mapping was performed, using flexible arrays (256 electrodes; 36 cm2), at stimulator implantation in 12 patients with diabetic or idiopathic gastroparesis. Data were analyzed by isochronal mapping, velocity and amplitude field mapping, and propagation animation. ICC numbers were determined from gastric biopsies. Results Mean ICC counts were reduced in patients with gastroparesis (2.3 vs 5.4 bodies/field; P<.001). Slow-wave abnormalities were detected by HR mapping in 11/12 patients. Several new patterns were observed and classified as ‘abnormal initiation’ (10/12; stable ectopic pacemakers or diffuse focal events; median 3.3 c/min, range 2.1-5.7), or ‘abnormal conduction’ (7/10; reduced velocities or conduction blocks; median 2.9 c/min; range 2.1-3.6). Circumferential conduction emerged during aberrant initiation or incomplete block and was associated with velocity elevation (7.3 vs 2.9 mm s?1; P=.002) and increased amplitudes beyond a low base value (415 vs 170 ?V; P=.002). Conclusions HR mapping revealed new categories of abnormal human slow-wave activity. Abnormalities of slow-wave initiation and conduction occur in gastroparesis, often at normal frequency, which could be missed by tests that lack spatial resolution. Irregular initiation, aberrant conduction, and low amplitude activity could contribute to the pathogenesis of gastroparesis. PMID:22643349

  2. Detection of Epileptogenic Cortical Malformations with Surface-Based MRI Morphometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Thesen; Brian T. Quinn; Chad Carlson; Orrin Devinsky; Jonathan Dubois; Carrie R. McDonald; Jacqueline French; Richard Leventer; Olga Felsovalyi; Xiuyuan Wang; Eric Halgren; Ruben Kuzniecky; Mel Feany

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging has revolutionized the detection of structural abnormalities in patients with epilepsy. However, many focal abnormalities remain undetected in routine visual inspection. Here we use an automated, surface-based method for quantifying morphometric features related to epileptogenic cortical malformations to detect abnormal cortical thickness and blurred gray-white matter boundaries. Using MRI morphometry at 3T with surface-based spherical averaging techniques

  3. ?-Globin chain abnormalities with coexisting ?-thalassemia mutations

    PubMed Central

    Canataroglu, Abdullah; Unsal, Cagatay; Yildiz, Sule Menziletoglu; Turhan, Ferda Tekin; Bozdogan, Sevcan Tug; Dincer, Suleyman; Erkman, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The frequency of hemoglobinopathies is still high in Adana, the biggest city of the Cukurova Region that is located in the southern part of Turkey. Our aim was to identify the concomitant mutations in ?- and ?-globin genes which lead to complex hemoglobinopathies and to establish an appropriate plan of action for each subject, particularly when prenatal diagnosis is necessary. Material and methods We studied the association between the ?-globin gene and ?-thalassemia genotypes. The reverse hybridization technique was employed to perform molecular analysis, and the results were confirmed by amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) or restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique. Results We evaluated 36 adult subjects (28 female and 8 male; age range: 18-52 years) with concomitant mutations in their ?- and ?-globin genes. The –?3.7/?? deletion was the commonest defect in the ?-chain as expected, followed by ?3.7/–?3.7 deletion. Twenty-five of 36 cases were sickle cell trait with coexisting ?-thalassemia, while seven Hb S/S patients had concurrent mutations in their ?-genes. The coexistence of ?PolyA-2?/?? with Hb A/D and with Hb S/D, which is very uncommon, was also detected. There was a subject with compound heterozygosity for ?-globin chain (–?3.7/?? with IVSI.110/S), and also a case who had –?3.7/?? deletion with IVSI.110/A. Conclusions Although limited, our data suggest that it would be valuable to study coexisting ?-globin mutations in subjects with sickle cell disease or ?-thalassemia trait during the screening programs for premarital couples, especially in populations with a high frequency of hemoglobinopathies. PMID:23056075

  4. Mechanisms and consequences of paternally transmitted chromosomal abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, F; Wyrobek, A J

    2005-04-05

    Paternally transmitted chromosomal damage has been associated with pregnancy loss, developmental and morphological defects, infant mortality, infertility, and genetic diseases in the offspring including cancer. There is epidemiological evidence linking paternal exposure to occupational or environmental agents with an increased risk of abnormal reproductive outcomes. There is also a large body of literature on germ cell mutagenesis in rodents showing that treatment of male germ cells with mutagens has dramatic consequences on reproduction producing effects such as those observed in human epidemiological studies. However, we know very little about the etiology, transmission and early embryonic consequences of paternally-derived chromosomal abnormalities. The available evidence suggests that: (1) there are distinct patterns of germ cell-stage differences in the sensitivity of induction of transmissible genetic damage with male postmeiotic cells being the most sensitive; (2) cytogenetic abnormalities at first metaphase after fertilization are critical intermediates between paternal exposure and abnormal reproductive outcomes; and, (3) there are maternally susceptibility factors that may have profound effects on the amount of sperm DNA damage that is converted into chromosomal aberrations in the zygote and directly affect the risk for abnormal reproductive outcomes.

  5. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, July-September 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from July 1 to September 30, 1987. The report states that for this reporting period, there were two abnormal occurrences at the nuclear power plants licensed to operate. The first involved a significant degradation of plant safety at Oyster Creek; and the second involved a steam generator tube rupture at North Anna Unit 1. There were four abnormal occurrences at the other NRC licensees. The first involved a therapeutic medical misadministration; the second involved a failure to report diagnostic medical misadministrations; the third involved the suspension of a well logging company's license; and the fourth involved the suspension of an industrial radiography company's license. There were two abnormal occurrences reported by an Agreement State (New York). The first involved a hospital contamination incident and the second involved therapeutic medical misadministrations. The report also contains information updating some previously reported abnormal occurrences.

  6. Fibrillin abnormalities and prognosis in Marfan syndrome and related disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Aoyama, T.; Furthmayr, H.; Francke, U.; Gasner, C. [Stanford Univ. Medical Center, CA (United States)

    1995-08-28

    Marfan syndrome (MFS), a multisystem autosomal-dominant disorder, is characterized by mutations of the fibrillin-1 (FBN1) gene and by abnormal patterns of synthesis, secretion, and matrix deposition of the fibrillin protein. To determine the sensitivity and specificity of fibrillin protein abnormalities in the diagnosis of MFS, we studied dermal fibroblasts from 57 patients with classical MFS, 15 with equivocal MFS, 8 with single-organ manifestations, and 16 with other connective tissue disorders including homocystinuria and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Abnormal fibrillin metabolism was identified in 70 samples that were classified into four different groups based on quantitation of fibrillin synthesis and matrix deposition. Significant correlations were found for phenotypic features including arachnodactyly, striae distensae, cardiovascular manifestations, and fibrillin groups II and IV, which included 70% of the MFS patients. In addition, these two groups were associated with shortened {open_quotes}event-free{close_quotes} survival and more severe cardiovascular complications than groups I and III. The latter included most of the equivocal MFS/single manifestation patients with fibrillin abnormalities. Our results indicate that fibrillin defects at the protein level per se are not specific for MFS, but that the drastically reduced fibrillin deposition, caused by a dominant-negative effect of abnormal fibrillin molecules in individuals defined as groups II and IV, is of prognostic and possibly diagnostic significance. 25 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Abnormal folate metabolism in foetuses affected by neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Dunlevy, Louisa P E; Chitty, Lyn S; Burren, Katie A; Doudney, Kit; Stojilkovic-Mikic, Taita; Stanier, Philip; Scott, Rosemary; Copp, Andrew J; Greene, Nicholas D E

    2007-04-01

    Folic acid supplementation can prevent many cases of neural tube defects (NTDs), whereas suboptimal maternal folate status is a risk factor, suggesting that folate metabolism is a key determinant of susceptibility to NTDs. Despite extensive genetic analysis of folate cycle enzymes, and quantification of metabolites in maternal blood, neither the protective mechanism nor the relationship between maternal folate status and susceptibility are understood in most cases. In order to investigate potential abnormalities in folate metabolism in the embryo itself, we derived primary fibroblastic cell lines from foetuses affected by NTDs and subjected them to the dU suppression test, a sensitive metabolic test of folate metabolism. Significantly, a subset of NTD cases exhibited low scores in this test, indicative of abnormalities in folate cycling that may be causally linked to the defect. Susceptibility to NTDs may be increased by suppression of the methylation cycle, which is interlinked with the folate cycle. However, reduced efficacy in the dU suppression test was not associated with altered abundance of the methylation cycle intermediates, s-adenosylmethionine and s-adenosylhomocysteine, suggesting that a methylation cycle defect is unlikely to be responsible for the observed abnormality of folate metabolism. Genotyping of samples for known polymorphisms in genes encoding folate-associated enzymes did not reveal any correlation between specific genotypes and the observed abnormalities in folate metabolism. These data suggest that as yet unrecognized genetic variants result in embryonic abnormalities of folate cycling that may be causally related to NTDs. PMID:17438019

  8. Unusual ciliary abnormalities in three 9/11 response workers.

    PubMed

    McMahon, James T; Aslam, Rizwan; Schell, Stephen E

    2011-01-01

    After the 9/11 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York in 2001, thousands of response workers were exposed to complex mixtures of toxins, pollutants, and carcinogens. Many developed illnesses involving the respiratory tract. We report unusual ultrastructural ciliary abnormalities in 3 response workers that corresponded to their respiratory and ciliary functional abnormalities. Each patient had respiratory cilia biopsies that were evaluated for motility and ultrastructural changes. Impaired ciliary motility was seen in 2 of the 3 patients. Each of the patients showed monomorphic ultrastructural abnormalities. Two of the patients showed identical triangular disarray of axonemal microtubules with peripheral doublets 1,4, and 7 forming the corners of the triangle and doublet 9 always more medially displaced than doublets 2, 3, 5, 6, and 8. Two workers had cilia in which axonemes were replaced by homogeneously dense cores. One of these also had cilia with triangular axonemes as previously described. The other had cilia with a geometric triangular to pentagonal shape. The ciliary abnormalities described here may represent a new class of primary ciliary dyskinesia in which abnormalities may have a genetic basis and a phenotypic expression that is prompted at the cellular level by local environmental conditions. PMID:21370679

  9. Cerebellar abnormalities in Huntington's disease: a role in motor and psychiatric impairment?

    PubMed

    Rees, Elin M; Farmer, Ruth; Cole, James H; Haider, Salman; Durr, Alexandra; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Scahill, Rachael I; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Hobbs, Nicola Z

    2014-11-01

    The cerebellum has received limited attention in Huntington's disease (HD), despite signs of possible cerebellar dysfunction, including motor incoordination and impaired gait, which are currently attributed to basal ganglia atrophy and disrupted fronto-striatal circuits. This study is the first to investigate a potential contribution of macro- and microstructural cerebellar damage to clinical manifestations of HD. T1- and diffusion-weighted 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were obtained from 12 controls and 22 early-stage HD participants. Manual delineation and voxel-based morphometry were used to assess between-group differences in cerebellar volume, and diffusion metrics were compared between groups within the cerebellar gray and white matter. Associations between these imaging measures and clinical scores were examined within the HD group. Reduced paravermal volume was detected in HD compared with controls using voxel-based morphometry (P?abnormalities were detected in both cerebellar gray matter and white matter. Smaller cerebellar volumes, although not significantly reduced, were significantly associated with impaired gait and psychiatric morbidity and of borderline significance with pronate/supinate-hand task performance. Abnormal cerebellar diffusion was associated with increased total motor score, impaired saccade initiation, tandem walking, and timed finger tapping. In conclusion, atrophy of the paravermis, possibly encompassing the cerebellar nuclei, and microstructural abnormalities within the cerebellum may contribute to HD neuropathology. Aberrant cerebellar diffusion and reduced cerebellar volume together associate with impaired motor function and increased psychiatric symptoms in stage I HD, potentially implicating the cerebellum more centrally in HD presentation than previously recognized. PMID:25123926

  10. The Evolutionary State of Anemic Circumstellar Disks in IC 348: Transitions Disks, The Earliest Debris Disks, and Terrestrial Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Thayne M.

    2008-05-01

    I investigate the evolution of 3 Myr-old MIPS-detected circumstellar disks in IC 348 that may be in an intermediate stage between primordial, optically-thick disks of gas/dust and debris disks characteristic of the final stages of planet formation. I demonstrate that these anemic disks are not a homogenous class of objects corresponding to a unique evolutionary state. Analysis of their mid-IR colors, accretion signatures (or lack thereof), and SED modeling suggest that such disks around early spectral type stars are most likely warm debris disks indicative of terrestrial planet formation: perhaps the youngest yet known. MIPS-detected anemic disks around later (M) stars are likely evolved primordial disks such as transition disks. Anemic disks surrounding G and K stars contain both populations. IC 348 also contains a small number of non-accreting sources with weak 24 micron emission characteristic of cold debris disks. The difference in evolutionary states between anemic disks surrounding early type vs. late-type stars is consistent with a mass-dependent evolution of circumstellar disks from the primordial disk phase through the debris disk phase similar to that found for 5 Myr-old Upper Scorpius.

  11. Pancreatic secretory abnormalities precede appearance of tumors of the pancreas in hamsters treated with bis-(2-oxopropyl)- N -nitrosamine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Rinderknecht; G. Haberfelde; R. Maset; K. Collias; C. Carmack

    1983-01-01

    The possibility that pancreatic secretory abnormalities might precede the appearance of pancreatic neoplasms and thus provide clues to early detection of this malignancy has been investigated in an animal model. Syrian golden hamsters were treated with bis-(2-oxopropyl)-N-nitrosamine on two successive weeks (2 mg\\/100 g body weight\\/week). Pancreatic secretions from treated and untreated control animals were studied at approximately monthly intervals.

  12. Hormone Profiling by LC-QToF-MS\\/MS in Dormant Macadamia integrifolia : Correlations with Abnormal Vertical Growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew T. Fletcher; Johanna C. Mader

    2007-01-01

    A method for analyzing multiple plant hormone groups in small samples with a complex matrix was developed to initiate a study\\u000a of the physiology of abnormal vertical growth (AVG) in Macadamia\\u000a integrifolia (cv. HAES344). Cytokinins (CKs), gibberellins (GAs), abscisic acid (ABA), and auxins were detected in xylem sap and apical\\u000a and lateral buds using high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem

  13. The correction of abnormalities in the functioning of some organ systems in the case of metabolic syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. V. Lyutova; A. A. Ershov; V. M. Panchenko; G. S. Zimovchenko; V. A. Isaev

    2009-01-01

    We studied a group of workers from one of the aircraft factories in Moscow. All of them were given a diagnosis of metabolic\\u000a syndrome. We detected the abnormalities in lipidic and carbohydrate metabolisms, essential hypertension, abdominal obesity,\\u000a and changes in hemostasis and fibrinolysis systems, as well as anomalies in some biochemical blood values. The patients were\\u000a given the therapy of

  14. Genotype distribution of human papillomaviruses in Japanese women with abnormal cervical cytology.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Kazunari; Uenoyama, Asami; Kitagawa, Ryo; Tsunoda, Hajime; Kusumoto-Matsuo, Rika; Mori, Seiichiro; Ishii, Yoshiyuki; Takeuchi, Takamasa; Kanda, Tadahito; Kukimoto, Iwao

    2012-01-01

    We report the prevalence and genotype distribution of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) among Japanese women with abnormal cervical cytology using the PGMY-CHUV assay, one of PGMY-PCR-based lineblot assays that was validated and shown to be suitable for the detection of multiple HPV types in a specimen with minimum bias. Total DNA was extracted from cervical exfoliated cells collected from 326 outpatients with abnormal Pap smears. Overall, 307 specimens (94%) were HPV-positive, 30% of which contained multiple genotypes. The prevalence of HPV DNA was 83% (49/59 samples) in atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US); 91% (20/22 samples) in atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H); 97% (130/134 samples) in low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL); and 99% (85/86 samples) in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). Three most frequent HPV types detected in HSIL were HPV16 (36%), HPV52 (24%), and HPV58 (14%). Our results suggest that multiple HPV infections are more prevalent in Japanese women than previously reported, and confirm that HPV52 and 58 are more dominant in their cervical precancerous lesions when compared to those reported in Western countries. PMID:23341864

  15. Association of SLC38A4 and system A with abnormal fetal birth weight

    PubMed Central

    LI, ZHEN; LAI, GUANGRUI; DENG, LIJUN; HAN, YUE; ZHENG, DANFENG; SONG, WEIWEI

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to explore the correlation between solute carrier family 38 member 4 (SLC38A4) and system A activity in human placentas from pregnancies with abnormal fetal birth weight. We collected placentas from consenting women immediately after their full-term babies were born, with normal, low birth weight or macrosomia, and used real-time PCR and Western blot analysis to detect the levels of SLC38A4 mRNA and protein [also known as sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transport protein 4 (SNAT4)]. Isotope incorporation assay was applied to measure system A activity in the placentas. Compared to the normal birth weight (NBW) group, placentas from the fetal macrosomia (FM) group had significantly increased levels of SLC38A4 mRNA and SNAT4 (both were increased by almost 2-fold; P<0.05), while no significant changes were detected in the placentas from the low birth weight (LBW) group. In addition, system A activity in the placentas from the FM and LBW groups was significantly different from that in the NBW group (1.2±0.20, 0.6±0.14 vs. 1.0±0.18, P<0.05). The data suggest that SNAT4 and system A have a strong association with abnormal fetal birth weight and that they may play a crucial role in fetal growth and development. PMID:22969887

  16. Radiologic and hormonal evaluation of pituitary abnormalities in patients with Bardet-Biedl syndrome.

    PubMed

    Guran, Tulay; Ekinci, Gazanfer; Atay, Zeynep; Turan, Serap; Akcay, Teoman; Bereket, Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    To describe the structural changes in the pituitary gland and accompanying pituitary hormonal problems in patients with Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS), 11 patients with BBS (median age: 12.8 years, range: 2.5-17.8 years; four boys and seven girls) have been examined for the anomalies of the pituitary region detected by MRI. Accompanying clinical, biochemical, and hormonal profiles concerning the pituitary function of the patients have also been investigated. We have found a high incidence of pituitary anomalies on MRI (63%) and a considerable percentage of hormonal derangements (45%) accompanying these. Among the structural pituitary abnormalities, tumoral changes (n=2), hypoplastic hypophysis, and/or sella (n=4) and rathke cleft cyst (n=2) were detected, whereas disturbances of the pituitary hormones such as growth hormone deficiency, hyperprolactinemia, hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, and central precocious puberty accompanied the pituitary anomalies in these patients. Pituitary abnormalities and pituitary hormonal dysfunction are common findings and, therefore, should be included in the diagnostic criteria of BBS. PMID:20966747

  17. Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yali; Bailey, Steven T; Hwang, Thomas S; McClintic, Scott M; Gao, Simon S; Pennesi, Mark E; Flaxel, Christina J; Lauer, Andreas K; Wilson, David J; Hornegger, Joachim; Fujimoto, James G; Huang, David

    2015-05-01

    Retinal vascular diseases are important causes of vision loss. A detailed evaluation of the vascular abnormalities facilitates diagnosis and treatment in these diseases. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography using the highly efficient split-spectrum amplitude decorrelation angiography algorithm offers an alternative to conventional dye-based retinal angiography. OCT angiography has several advantages, including 3D visualization of retinal and choroidal circulations (including the choriocapillaris) and avoidance of dye injection-related complications. Results from six illustrative cases are reported. In diabetic retinopathy, OCT angiography can detect neovascularization and quantify ischemia. In age-related macular degeneration, choroidal neovascularization can be observed without the obscuration of details caused by dye leakage in conventional angiography. Choriocapillaris dysfunction can be detected in the nonneovascular form of the disease, furthering our understanding of pathogenesis. In choroideremia, OCT's ability to show choroidal and retinal vascular dysfunction separately may be valuable in predicting progression and assessing treatment response. OCT angiography shows promise as a noninvasive alternative to dye-based angiography for highly detailed, in vivo, 3D, quantitative evaluation of retinal vascular abnormalities. PMID:25897021

  18. Advances in molecular detection of Aspergillus : an update

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Z. Abdin; Malik M. Ahmad; Saleem Javed

    2010-01-01

    Filamentous cosmopolitan fungi of the genus Aspergillus can be harmful in two ways, directly they can be opportunistic pathogens causing aspergillosis and indirectly due to aflatoxin\\u000a production on food products which can lead to aflatoxicosis. Therefore, a number of methods have been proposed so far for\\u000a detection of the fungi with lowest possible concentration at the earliest. Molecular methods such

  19. Abnormalities of the retinal cone system in retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Hood, D C; Birch, D G

    1996-06-01

    Patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) show delayed inner retinal responses as measured by the cone ERG response to a 30 Hz stimulus. To determine the extent to which this delay results from abnormalities of cone phototransduction, cone ERGs to single flashes were obtained from 21 patients with RP and a model of cone phototransduction was fitted to the leading edge of the a-waves of these ERGs. Nearly all patients showed an abnormally low sensitivity of cone phototransduction consistent with a reduction in the amplification of transduction. This abnormality can account for part of the delayed 30 Hz response. Analysis of post-receptoral potentials indicated that RP also slows the responses of the inner retina. A combination of these two factors, a sensitivity change at the receptor and a delay in the response of the inner retina, produces the delayed response of the cone flicker ERG in patients with RP. PMID:8759470

  20. Myocardial perfusion abnormalities in asymptomatic patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    SciTech Connect

    Hosenpud, J.D.; Montanaro, A.; Hart, M.V.; Haines, J.E.; Specht, H.D.; Bennett, R.M.; Kloster, F.E.

    1984-08-01

    Accelerated coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction in young patients with systemic lupus erythematosus is well documented; however, the prevalence of coronary involvement is unknown. Accordingly, 26 patients with systemic lupus were selected irrespective of previous cardiac history to undergo exercise thallium-201 cardiac scintigraphy. Segmental perfusion abnormalities were present in 10 of the 26 studies (38.5 percent). Five patients had reversible defects suggesting ischemia, four patients had persistent defects consistent with scar, and one patient had both reversible and persistent defects in two areas. There was no correlation between positive thallium results and duration of disease, amount of corticosteroid treatment, major organ system involvement or age. Only a history of pericarditis appeared to be associated with positive thallium-201 results (p less than 0.05). It is concluded that segmental myocardial perfusion abnormalities are common in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Whether this reflects large-vessel coronary disease or small-vessel abnormalities remains to be determined.