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1

Hepatic perfusion abnormalities during CT angiography: Detection and interpretation  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-seven perfusion abnormalities were detected in 17 of 50 patients who underwent computed tomographic angiography (CTA) of the liver. All but one of the perfusion abnormalities occurred in patients with primary or metastatic liver tumors. Perfusion abnormalities were lobar in nine cases, segmental in 11, and subsegmental in seven; 14 were hypoperfusion and 13 were hyperperfusion abnormalities. The causes for the abnormalities included nonperfusion of a replaced hepatic artery (n = 11), cirrhosis and nodular regeneration (n = 3), altered hepatic hemodynamics (e.g., siphoning, laminar flow) caused by tumor (n = 7), contrast media washout from a nonperfused vessel (n = 1), compression of adjacent hepatic parenchyma (n = 1), and unknown (n = 4). Differentiation of perfusion abnormalities from tumor usually can be made by comparing the morphology of the known tumor with the suspected perfusion abnormality, changes of each on delayed CTA scans, and review of initial angiograms and other imaging studies.

Freeny, P.C.; Marks, W.M.

1986-06-01

2

SYSTEM FOR DETECTION OF ABNORMALITIES AND FRAUD IN CUSTOMER CONSUMPTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a general methodology to obtain a list of abnormal users using only the general customer databases as input. The abnormalities are oriented to fraud detection, customer consultancy purposes, and error correction (e.g. meter malfunction). This methodology allows the development of a system which can increase the success of the inspection campaigns by means of a systematic guidance

J. R. Galván; A. Elices; Iberdrola Ingeniería; Consultoría S. A. Avda de Burgos; A. Muñoz; T. Czernichow; M. A. Sanz-Bobi

3

Abnormal "Shape Activity" Detection and Tracking Namrata Vaswani  

E-print Network

of activity, e.g. person taller/shorter · Scaled orthographic camera motion ­ Small field of view PTZ camera in traffic ­ Abnormal Human Action detection, e.g. motion disorders · Sequence Id & Tracking ­ Sequence, view invariant approaches, multiple levels of zoom, DBN, co-occurrence statistics Abnormal "Shape

Vaswani, Namrata

4

Antenatally detected urinary tract abnormalities: more detection but less action.  

PubMed

We present the findings of a prospective cohort study of babies born with antenatally detected urinary tract abnormalities (AUTAs) between 1999-2003 and compare the outcomes with those of an earlier cohort born between 1989 and 1993. All infants with a fetal anteroposterior renal pelvic diameter (APRPD) > or =7 mm in the third trimester or other urinary tract abnormality underwent a detailed postnatal ultrasound scan and other investigations as indicated. The incidence of AUTAs was significantly greater in the more recent cohort (7.6/1000 vs. 3/1000 live births; p<0.05). Of the 350 infants on which we had data, 48.6% (170/350) were in the non-specific dilatation (NSD) category, and vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) was detected in 12%. Restricting investigations to those who had an APRPD > or =10 mm at >30 weeks of gestation could have reduced the number with NSD in the more recent cohort (26/115; 25%), but 25% of those with pelviureteric junction hold-up and 50% with VUR would have been missed. Significantly fewer patients in the more recent cohort underwent surgery (7 vs. 21%; p<0.001). There is a trend towards larger APRPDs on third trimester scans being associated with more significant pathology, but there is a lot of clinical overlap. The study highlights the need for cautious antenatal counselling combined with an assurance to prospective parents that postnatal investigations will be performed in a stepwise manner based on the initial postnatal ultrasound scan and clinical findings. PMID:18278521

Mallik, Meeta; Watson, Alan R

2008-06-01

5

Sensor-Based Abnormal Human-Activity Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the availability of affordable sensors and sensor networks, sensor-based human-activity recognition has attracted much attention in artificial intelligence and ubiquitous computing. In this paper, we present a novel two-phase approach for detecting abnormal activities based on wireless sensors attached to a human body. Detecting abnormal activities is a particularly important task in security monitoring and healthcare applications of sensor

Jie Yin; Qiang Yang; Jeffrey Junfeng Pan

2008-01-01

6

Accurate means of detecting and characterizing abnormal patterns of ventricular activation by phase image analysis  

SciTech Connect

The ability of scintigraphic phase image analysis to characterize patterns of abnormal ventricular activation was investigated. The pattern of phase distribution and sequential phase changes over both right and left ventricular regions of interest were evaluated in 16 patients with normal electrical activation and wall motion and compared with those in 8 patients with an artificial pacemaker and 4 patients with sinus rhythm with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and delta waves. Normally, the site of earliest phase angle was seen at the base of the interventricular septum, with sequential change affecting the body of the septum and the cardiac apex and then spreading laterally to involve the body of both ventricles. The site of earliest phase angle was located at the apex of the right ventricle in seven patients with a right ventricular endocardial pacemaker and on the lateral left ventricular wall in one patient with a left ventricular epicardial pacemaker. In each case the site corresponded exactly to the position of the pacing electrode as seen on posteroanterior and left lateral chest X-ray films, and sequential phase changes spread from the initial focus to affect both ventricles. In each of the patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, the site of earliest ventricular phase angle was located, and it corresponded exactly to the site of the bypass tract as determined by endocardial mapping. In this way, four bypass pathways, two posterior left paraseptal, one left lateral and one right lateral, were correctly localized scintigraphically. On the basis of the sequence of mechanical contraction, phase image analysis provides an accurate noninvasive method of detecting abnormal foci of ventricular activation.

Botvinick, E.H.; Frais, M.A.; Shosa, D.W.; O'Connell, J.W.; Pacheco-Alvarez, J.A.; Scheinman, M.; Hattner, R.S.; Morady, F.; Faulkner, D.B.

1982-08-01

7

Feature Quantification and Abnormal Detection on Cervical Squamous Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Feature analysis and classification detection of abnormal cells from images for pathological analysis are an important issue for the realization of computer assisted disease diagnosis. This paper studies a method for cervical squamous epithelial cells. Based on cervical cytological classification standard and expert diagnostic experience, expressive descriptors are extracted according to morphology, color, and texture features of cervical scales epithelial cells. Further, quantificational descriptors related to cytopathology are derived as well, including morphological difference degree, cell hyperkeratosis, and deeply stained degree. The relationship between quantified value and pathological feature can be established by these descriptors. Finally, an effective method is proposed for detecting abnormal cells based on feature quantification. Integrated with clinical experience, the method can realize fast abnormal cell detection and preliminary cell classification.

Zhao, Mingzhu; Bian, Linjie; Yao, Chunyan; Zhang, Jianwei

2015-01-01

8

Using State Estimation Residuals to Detect Abnormal SCADA Data  

SciTech Connect

Detection of abnormal supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) data is critically important for safe and secure operation of modern power systems. In this paper, a methodology of abnormal SCADA data detection based on state estimation residuals is presented. Preceded with a brief overview of outlier detection methods and bad SCADA data detection for state estimation, the framework of the proposed methodology is described. Instead of using original SCADA measurements as the bad data sources, the residuals calculated based on the results of the state estimator are used as the input for the outlier detection algorithm. The BACON algorithm is applied to the outlier detection task. The IEEE 118-bus system is used as a test base to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. The accuracy of the BACON method is compared with that of the 3-? method for the simulated SCADA measurements and residuals.

Ma, Jian; Chen, Yousu; Huang, Zhenyu; Wong, Pak C.

2010-04-30

9

Detecting Abnormal Machine Characteristics in Cloud Infrastructures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the cloud computing environment resources are accessed as services rather than as a product. Monitoring this system for performance is crucial because of typical pay-peruse packages bought by the users for their jobs. With the huge number of machines currently in the cloud system, it is often extremely difficult for system administrators to keep track of all machines using distributed monitoring programs such as Ganglia1 which lacks system health assessment and summarization capabilities. To overcome this problem, we propose a technique for automated anomaly detection using machine performance data in the cloud. Our algorithm is entirely distributed and runs locally on each computing machine on the cloud in order to rank the machines in order of their anomalous behavior for given jobs. There is no need to centralize any of the performance data for the analysis and at the end of the analysis, our algorithm generates error reports, thereby allowing the system administrators to take corrective actions. Experiments performed on real data sets collected for different jobs validate the fact that our algorithm has a low overhead for tracking anomalous machines in a cloud infrastructure.

Bhaduri, Kanishka; Das, Kamalika; Matthews, Bryan L.

2011-01-01

10

DETECTION & MAPPING OF ABNORMAL BRAIN STRUCTURE IN METHAMPHETAMINE USERS  

E-print Network

surface vertex, we fitted a general linear model to assess methamphetamine effects on gray matter density-induced brain injury. Figure 1. Methamphetamine Effects on Brain Structure. ...... #12;DETECTION & MAPPING OF ABNORMAL BRAIN STRUCTURE IN METHAMPHETAMINE USERS 1 P.M. Thompson, 1 K

Thompson, Paul

11

Laser transmission measurements towards the detection of abnormal muscle denervation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic scattering of coherent light by moving particles causes a Doppler shift of the original frequency, depending on the velocity and the scattering angles. This phenomenon was used for the detection of abnormal spontaneous muscle activity caused by the denervation of muscles. Transmission measurements of low frequency modulated laser irradiation have been made in 110 denervated first dorsal interosseous who

Despoina Stambouli; George Filippidis; Theodore G. Papazoglou; Eleftherios Stamboulis; Alexandros Siafakas; Constantinos Fotakis

2003-01-01

12

Methods and systems for detecting abnormal digital traffic  

DOEpatents

Aspects of the present invention encompass methods and systems for detecting abnormal digital traffic by assigning characterizations of network behaviors according to knowledge nodes and calculating a confidence value based on the characterizations from at least one knowledge node and on weighting factors associated with the knowledge nodes. The knowledge nodes include a characterization model based on prior network information. At least one of the knowledge nodes should not be based on fixed thresholds or signatures. The confidence value includes a quantification of the degree of confidence that the network behaviors constitute abnormal network traffic.

Goranson, Craig A [Kennewick, WA; Burnette, John R [Kennewick, WA

2011-03-22

13

Unsupervised abnormal crowd activity detection using interaction power model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abnormal event detection in crowded scenes is one of the most challenging tasks in the video surveillance for the public security control. Different from previous work based on learning. We proposed an unsupervised Interaction Power model with an adaptive threshold strategy to detect abnormal group activity by analyzing the steady state of individuals' behaviors in the crowed scene. Firstly, the optical flow field of the potential pedestrians is only calculated within the extracted foreground to reduce the computational cost. Secondly, each pedestrian can be divided into patches of the same size, and the interaction power of the pedestrians will be represented by the motion particles which describe the motion status at the center pixels of the patches. The motion status of each patch is computed by using the optical flows of the pixels within the patch. For each motion particle, its interaction power, defined as its steady state of the current behavior, is computed among all its neighboring motion particles. Finally, the dense crowds' steady state can be represented as a collection of motion particles' interaction power. Here, an adaptive threshold strategy is proposed to detect abnormal events by examining the frame power field which is a fixed-size random sampling of the interaction power of motion particles. Experimental results on the standard UMN dataset and online videos show that our method could detect the crowd anomalies and achieve a higher accuracy compared to the other competitive methods published recently.

Lin, Shengnan; Zhang, Hong; Cheng, Feiyang; Sun, Mingui; Yuan, Ding

2014-11-01

14

Laser transmission measurements towards the detection of abnormal muscle denervation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic scattering of coherent light by moving particles causes a Doppler shift of the original frequency, depending on the velocity and the scattering angles. This phenomenon was used for the detection of abnormal spontaneous muscle activity caused by the denervation of muscles. Transmission measurements of low frequency modulated laser irradiation have been made in 110 denervated first dorsal interosseous who had previously been imposed to electromyography which detected abnormal activity. Measurements have also been made in 173 normal muscles. The laser used was a diode laser emitting at 830nm and a pulse generator modulated the laser radiation to a low repetition frequency of 84Hz. While passing through the denervated muscles, the incoming laser beam gets a frequency shift due to the contraction of the denervated muscle fibers and mixes with the ballistic part of the beam. To analyze the inherent information the outcoming laser light was transformed into electric current by a photodiode and the signal after being selected by an A/D card was submitted to the Fast Fourrier transformation. The findings of our suggested method have been compared to those of the normal muscles as well as to the electromyographic findings of each denervated muscle.

Stambouli, Despoina; Filippidis, George; Papazoglou, Theodore G.; Stamboulis, Eleftherios; Siafakas, Alexandros; Fotakis, Constantinos

2003-10-01

15

Incidental abnormalities detected during scintigraphy for gastrointestinal bleeding  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe a number of abnormalities that were incidentally found in a series of 132 scintigraphic studies performed for acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage. These incidental abnormalities involved the vascular system, reticuloendothelial system, and soft tissues. Correlative radiographs and computed tomographic scans are presented for some cases. The authors explore the potential impact of these abnormalities on subsequent patient evaluation and care, including radiologic workup.

Zuckier, L.S.; Patel, Y.D. (Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (USA))

1990-05-01

16

Detection of Abnormal Conditions Based on Analysis of Cyclic Movement in Scene Image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automatic detection of abnormal conditions in scene images is an important research theme. This paper proposes a general-purposed method for automatic detection of abnormal conditions based on the analysis of periodicity of movements. In the proposed method, cyclic movements are detected by voting binarized averaged grayscale values into each frequency. The disorder of movements, which represents the occurrence of abnormal situation, can be recognized by monitoring the change of bias conditions in voting. The experimental results showed that the reliable detections for periodicity and the speedy detections of abnormal conditions were realized in the general situations.

Terada, Yoshiki; Saitoh, Fumihiko

17

Novel instrumentation of multispectral imaging technology for detecting tissue abnormity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multispectral imaging is becoming a powerful tool in a wide range of biological and clinical studies by adding spectral, spatial and temporal dimensions to visualize tissue abnormity and the underlying biological processes. A conventional spectral imaging system includes two physically separated major components: a band-passing selection device (such as liquid crystal tunable filter and diffraction grating) and a scientific-grade monochromatic camera, and is expensive and bulky. Recently micro-arrayed narrow-band optical mosaic filter was invented and successfully fabricated to reduce the size and cost of multispectral imaging devices in order to meet the clinical requirement for medical diagnostic imaging applications. However the challenging issue of how to integrate and place the micro filter mosaic chip to the targeting focal plane, i.e., the imaging sensor, of an off-shelf CMOS/CCD camera is not reported anywhere. This paper presents the methods and results of integrating such a miniaturized filter with off-shelf CMOS imaging sensors to produce handheld real-time multispectral imaging devices for the application of early stage pressure ulcer (ESPU) detection. Unlike conventional multispectral imaging devices which are bulky and expensive, the resulting handheld real-time multispectral ESPU detector can produce multiple images at different center wavelengths with a single shot, therefore eliminates the image registration procedure required by traditional multispectral imaging technologies.

Yi, Dingrong; Kong, Linghua

2012-10-01

18

Hunting Nessie Real-Time Abnormality Detection from Webcams Michael D. Breitenstein1  

E-print Network

of a car) can also cause abnormal constellations, which can be found. For example, our system can detect, such as those shown in Fig. 1. In this paper, we first give our definition of unusual scene detection

Grabner, Helmut

19

A robust real-time abnormal region detection framework from capsule endoscopy images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a novel method to detect abnormal regions from capsule endoscopy images. Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) is a recent technology where a capsule with an embedded camera is swallowed by the patient to visualize the gastrointestinal tract. One challenge is one procedure of diagnosis will send out over 50,000 images, making physicians' reviewing process expensive. Physicians' reviewing process involves in identifying images containing abnormal regions (tumor, bleeding, etc) from this large number of image sequence. In this paper we construct a novel framework for robust and real-time abnormal region detection from large amount of capsule endoscopy images. The detected potential abnormal regions can be labeled out automatically to let physicians review further, therefore, reduce the overall reviewing process. In this paper we construct an abnormal region detection framework with the following advantages: 1) Trainable. Users can define and label any type of abnormal region they want to find; The abnormal regions, such as tumor, bleeding, etc., can be pre-defined and labeled using the graphical user interface tool we provided. 2) Efficient. Due to the large number of image data, the detection speed is very important. Our system can detect very efficiently at different scales due to the integral image features we used; 3) Robust. After feature selection we use a cascade of classifiers to further enforce the detection accuracy.

Cheng, Yanfen; Liu, Xu; Li, Huiping

2009-02-01

20

DETECTING ABNORMAL FISH TRAJECTORIES USING CLUSTERED AND LABELED DATA  

E-print Network

on the behavior of fish. On the other hand, in recent years unconstrained underwater studies have become popular. Trajectories are classified into two classes: normal trajectories which contain the usual behavior of fish and abnormal trajectories which indicate the behaviors that are not as common as the normal class. The paper

Fisher, Bob

21

Performance Evaluation of Image Processing Algorithms for Automatic Detection and Quantification of Abnormality in Medical Thermograms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrared Imaging is a totally non-invasive, non-contact, medical imaging procedure for detecting and monitoring various diseases and physical injuries. It diagnoses abnormal areas in the body by measuring heat emitted from the skin surface and expressing the measurements into a thermal map called thermograms. Abnormalities manifest as hot spots in thermograms. Thermologist has to interpret thermograms, identify and quantify the

N. Selvarasu; S. Vivek; N. M. Nandhitha

2007-01-01

22

Using State Estimation Residuals to Detect Abnormal SCADA Data  

SciTech Connect

Detection of manipulated supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) data is critically important for the safe and secure operation of modern power systems. In this paper, a methodology of detecting manipulated SCADA data based on state estimation residuals is presented. A framework of the proposed methodology is described. Instead of using original SCADA measurements as the bad data sources, the residuals calculated based on the results of the state estimator are used as the input for the outlier detection process. The BACON algorithm is applied to detect outliers in the state estimation residuals. The IEEE 118-bus system is used as a test case to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. The accuracy of the BACON method is compared with that of the 3-? method for the simulated SCADA measurements and residuals.

Ma, Jian; Chen, Yousu; Huang, Zhenyu; Wong, Pak C.

2010-06-14

23

Novel Submicroscopic chromosomal abnormalities detected in Autism Spectrum Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background One genetic mechanism known to be associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is chromosomal abnormalities. The identification of copy number variants (CNV) i.e. microdeletions and microduplications that are undetectable at the level of traditional cytogenetic analysis allows the potential association of submicroscopic chromosomal imbalances and human disease. Methods We performed array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) utilizing a 19K whole genome tiling path bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) microarray on 397 unrelated subjects with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Common CNV were excluded using a control group comprised of 372 individuals from the NIMH Genetics Initiative Control samples. Confirmation studies were performed on all remaining CNV using FISH (Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization), microsatellite analysis and/or quantitative PCR analysis. Results A total of 51 CNV were confirmed in 46 ASD subjects. Three maternal interstitial duplications of 15q11-q13 known to be associated with ASD were identified. The other 48 CNV ranged in size from 189 kb to 5.5 Mb and contained from 0 to ~40 RefSeq genes. Seven CNV were de novo and 44 were inherited. Conclusions 51 autism-specific CNV were identified in 46/397 ASD patients using a 19K BAC microarray for an overall rate of 11.6%. These microdeletions and microduplications cause gene dosage imbalance in 272 genes many of which could be considered as candidate genes for autism. PMID:18374305

Christian, Susan L.; Brune, Camille W.; Sudi, Jyotsna; Kumar, Ravinesh A.; Liu, Shaung; KaraMohamed, Samer; Badner, Judith A.; Matsui, Seiichi; Conroy, Jeffrey; McQuaid, Devin; Gergel, James; Hatchwell, Eli; Gilliam, T. Conrad; Gershon, Elliot S.; Nowak, Norma J.; Dobyns, William B.; Cook, Edwin H.

2008-01-01

24

The earliest known reptile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AMNIOTES (reptiles, birds and mammals) are distinguished from non-amniote tetrapods (amphibians) by the presence of complex embryonic membranes. One of these, the amnion, gives its name to the group. Very few skeletal characters distinguish amniotes from amphibians1, making it difficult to recognize early amniotes in the fossil record. The earliest amniote fossil identified so far is Hylonomus from the Westphalian (Upper Carboniferous) of Joggins, Nova Scotia2,3, (~300 Myr). I report here the discovery of a much earlier amniote skeleton from the Brigantian (Lower Carboniferous) of Scotland (~338 Myr) 4, which thus represents the earliest occurrence of amniotes in the fossil record. The specimen was collected from the East Kirkton Limestone, near Bathgate, West Lothian4-8, and is part of a unique terrestrial fauna that includes eurypterids, myriapods, scorpions and the earliest-known harvestman spider7,9, together with the earliest known temno-spondyls, a group that may include the ancestors of all living amphibians10. It will make an important contribution to our knowledge of early amniote morphology and the interrelationships of tetrapods.

Smithson, T. R.

1989-12-01

25

Method of detecting genetic translocations identified with chromosomal abnormalities  

DOEpatents

Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyses. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acid probes are typically of a complexity greater than 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods and reagents are provided for the detection of genetic rearrangements. Probes and test kits are provided for use in detecting genetic rearrangements, particularly for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, specifically cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and for biological dosimetry. Methods and reagents are described for cytogenetic research, for the differentiation of cytogenetically similar but genetically different diseases, and for many prognostic and diagnostic applications.

Gray, Joe W. (Livermore, CA); Pinkel, Daniel (Walnut Creek, CA); Tkachuk, Douglas (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01

26

Method of detecting genetic deletions identified with chromosomal abnormalities  

DOEpatents

Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyzes. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acids probes are typically of a complexity greater tha 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods and reagents are provided for the detection of genetic rearrangements. Probes and test kits are provided for use in detecting genetic rearrangements, particlularly for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, specifically cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and for biological dosimetry. Methods and reagents are described for cytogenetic research, for the differentiation of cytogenetically similar ut genetically different diseases, and for many prognostic and diagnostic applications.

Gray, Joe W; Pinkel, Daniel; Tkachuk, Douglas

2013-11-26

27

Automated Heart Wall Motion Abnormality Detection From Ultrasound Images using Bayesian Networks  

E-print Network

(CHD). CHD (along with Congestive Heart Failure) can be detected by measuring and scoring the regionalAutomated Heart Wall Motion Abnormality Detection From Ultrasound Images using Bayesian Networks± . maleeha.qazi@siemens.com , glenn.fung@siemens.com Abstract Coronary Heart Disease can be diagnosed by mea

Rosales, Rómer E.

28

Aircraft Abnormal Conditions Detection, Identification, and Evaluation Using Innate and Adaptive Immune Systems Interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abnormal flight conditions play a major role in aircraft accidents frequently causing loss of control. To ensure aircraft operation safety in all situations, intelligent system monitoring and adaptation must rely on accurately detecting the presence of abnormal conditions as soon as they take place, identifying their root cause(s), estimating their nature and severity, and predicting their impact on the flight envelope. Due to the complexity and multidimensionality of the aircraft system under abnormal conditions, these requirements are extremely difficult to satisfy using existing analytical and/or statistical approaches. Moreover, current methodologies have addressed only isolated classes of abnormal conditions and a reduced number of aircraft dynamic parameters within a limited region of the flight envelope. This research effort aims at developing an integrated and comprehensive framework for the aircraft abnormal conditions detection, identification, and evaluation based on the artificial immune systems paradigm, which has the capability to address the complexity and multidimensionality issues related to aircraft systems. Within the proposed framework, a novel algorithm was developed for the abnormal conditions detection problem and extended to the abnormal conditions identification and evaluation. The algorithm and its extensions were inspired from the functionality of the biological dendritic cells (an important part of the innate immune system) and their interaction with the different components of the adaptive immune system. Immunity-based methodologies for re-assessing the flight envelope at post-failure and predicting the impact of the abnormal conditions on the performance and handling qualities are also proposed and investigated in this study. The generality of the approach makes it applicable to any system. Data for artificial immune system development were collected from flight tests of a supersonic research aircraft within a motion-based flight simulator. The abnormal conditions considered in this work include locked actuators (stabilator, aileron, rudder, and throttle), structural damage of the wing, horizontal tail, and vertical tail, malfunctioning sensors, and reduced engine effectiveness. The results of applying the proposed approach to this wide range of abnormal conditions show its high capability in detecting the abnormal conditions with zero false alarms and very high detection rates, correctly identifying the failed subsystem and evaluating the type and severity of the failure. The results also reveal that the post-failure flight envelope can be reasonably predicted within this framework.

Al Azzawi, Dia

29

Incidental vesicoureteral reflux in neonates with antenatally detected hydronephrosis and other renal abnormalities.  

PubMed

Postnatal imaging findings were reviewed in 130 neonates and young infants referred for imaging evaluation of antenatally detected renal abnormalities. All children underwent voiding cystourethrography and upper urinary tract imaging with sonography and/or renal scintigraphy. Vesicoureteral reflux was present in 49 patients (38%) and was bilateral in 24. All grades of reflux were observed. Reflux occurred in 41 of 98 neonates (42%) in whom postnatal imaging revealed persistent upper tract abnormalities (eg, hydronephrosis, cysts, renal agenesis) and in eight of 32 (25%) with normal findings at postnatal sonography and/or renal scintigraphy. Reflux was the single most common urologic diagnosis and was the only postnatal abnormality in 12 patients (9%). The authors conclude that neonates with antenatally detected hydronephrosis should be routinely screened for reflux with voiding cystography. Detection and aggressive management of reflux in the asymptomatic neonate in whom renal growth and function are unimpaired theoretically offer the best opportunity for preventing renal injury later in childhood. PMID:8451404

Zerin, J M; Ritchey, M L; Chang, A C

1993-04-01

30

Detection and diagnosis of abnormal transients in nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

This document describes a simulation-based algorithm that combines fuzzy logic with macroscopic conservation equations to diagnose multiple-failure events subject to uncertainties in transient data. Clusters of single-failure data points of similar characteristics are obtained through a pattern recognition algorithm and the cluster centers are combined in the space of macroscopic inventory derivatives to generate multiple-failure cluster centers. A fuzzy membership function is used to represent the likelihood of a data point belonging to a cluster, and failure estimates are obtained through solution of a fuzzy matrix equation. The algorithm has been successful in detecting simulated malfunctions in the pressurizer of a pressurized water reactor. 11 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Lee, J.C.; Rank, P.J.; Hawkes, E.; Wehe, D.K. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Reifman, J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

1991-01-01

31

Multi-complexity measures for early detection and monitoring of neurological abnormalities from gait time series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, we have proposed to use complementary complexity measures discovered by boosting-like ensemble learning for the enhancement of quantitative indicators dealing with necessarily short physiological time series. We have confirmed robustness of such multi-complexity measures for heart rate variability analysis with the emphasis on detection of emerging and intermittent cardiac abnormalities. Here we demonstrate that such ensemble-based approach could be also effective in discovering universal meta-indicators for early detection and convenient monitoring of neurological abnormalities using gait time series.

Gavrishchaka, Valeriy; Davis, Kristina; Senyukova, Olga

2013-10-01

32

Value of human papillomavirus typing for detection of anal cytological abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate anal cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV) typing in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Materials and Methods: Anal samples were collected from 61 patients (44 men and 17 women) and analyzed by PapilloCheck test and conventional cytology. Results: Of all anal samples, 37.7% had cytological abnormalities, 47.54% were negative and 14.75% were unsatisfactory. High-risk HPV, multiple high-risk HPV and HPV 16 infection was detected in 91.13%, 78.26% and 47.82% of the samples with cytological abnormalities and in 47.54%, 6.89% and 3.44% of the negative samples, respectively. High-risk HPV infection was significantly more frequent in anal samples with cytological abnormalities than in negative samples (P = 0.0005, Fisher's test), particularly multiple high-risk HPV infection (P < 0.0001) and HPV 16 infection (P = 0.0002). Conclusions: High-risk HPV, multiple high-risk HPV and HPV 16 infections are significantly associated with anal cytological abnormalities. Furthermore, the frequency of HPV infection in anal cytological samples suggests that high-risk HPV detection has high sensitivity, but low specificity for detection of anal cytological abnormalities, but multiple high-risk HPV typing and HPV 16 typing have a lower sensitivity and high specificity. Results suggest that HPV typing may be useful as an adjunct to cytology to screen patients for high-resolution anoscopy and biopsy. PMID:24339460

Maia, Livia Bravo; Marinho, Larissa Cardoso; Barbosa, Tânia Wanderley Paes; Velasco, Lara Franciele Ribeiro; Costa, Patrícia Godoy Garcia; Carneiro, Fabiana Pirani; de Oliveira, Paulo Gonçalves

2013-01-01

33

Abnormal Image Detection in Endoscopy Videos Using a Filter Bank and Local Binary Patterns.  

PubMed

Finding mucosal abnormalities (e.g., erythema, blood, ulcer, erosion, and polyp) is one of the most essential tasks during endoscopy video review. Since these abnormalities typically appear in a small number of frames (around 5% of the total frame number), automated detection of frames with an abnormality can save physician's time significantly. In this paper, we propose a new multi-texture analysis method that effectively discerns images showing mucosal abnormalities from the ones without any abnormality since most abnormalities in endoscopy images have textures that are clearly distinguishable from normal textures using an advanced image texture analysis method. The method uses a "texton histogram" of an image block as features. The histogram captures the distribution of different "textons" representing various textures in an endoscopy image. The textons are representative response vectors of an application of a combination of Leung and Malik (LM) filter bank (i.e., a set of image filters) and a set of Local Binary Patterns on the image. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed method achieves 92% recall and 91.8% specificity on wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) images and 91% recall and 90.8% specificity on colonoscopy images. PMID:25132723

Nawarathna, Ruwan; Oh, JungHwan; Muthukudage, Jayantha; Tavanapong, Wallapak; Wong, Johnny; de Groen, Piet C; Tang, Shou Jiang

2014-11-20

34

Antibodies Against Abnormal Glycoproteins Identified as Possible Biomarkers for Cancer Detection  

Cancer.gov

Scientists have found that cancer patients produce antibodies that target abnormal glycoproteins (proteins with sugar molecules attached) made by their tumors. The result of this work suggests that antitumor antibodies in the blood may provide a fruitful source of sensitive biomarkers for cancer detection.

35

Digital Image Forgery Forensics by Using Blur Estimation and Abnormal Hue Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A digital image forgery forensics scheme by using blur estimation and abnormal hue is proposed in this paper. For blur operation is a commonly used means to retouch in image forgery, detection of artificial blur is essential to the forensics of image forgery. Moreover, the blur operation also destroys the joint consistency of color channels in the image. Based on

Fei Peng; Xi-lan Wang

2010-01-01

36

Abnormal condition detection in a cement rotary kiln with system identification methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we use system identification methods for abnormal condition detection in a cement rotary kiln. After selecting proper inputs and output, an input–output model is identified for the plant’s normal conditions. A novel approach is used in order to estimate the delays of the input channels of the kiln before identification part. This method eases the identification since

Iman Makaremi; Alireza Fatehi; Babak Nadjar Araabi; Morteza Azizi; Ahmad Cheloeian

2009-01-01

37

Detection of breast abnormality from thermograms using curvelet transform based feature extraction.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is one of the leading causes for high mortality rates among young women, in the developing countries. Currently mammography is used as the gold standard for screening breast cancer. Due to its inherent disadvantages, alternative techniques are being considered for this purpose. Breast thermography is one such imaging modality, which represents the temperature variations of breast in the form of intensity variations on an image. In the last decade, several studies have been made to evaluate the potential of breast thermograms in detecting abnormal breast conditions, from an image processing view point. This paper proposes a curvelet transform based feature extraction method for automatic detection of abnormality in breast thermograms. Statistical and texture features are extracted from thermograms in the curvelet domain, to feed a support vector machine for automatic classification. The classifier detects abnormal thermograms with an accuracy of 90.91 %. The results of the study indicate that texture features have better potential to detect abnormality in breast thermograms, when extracted in the multiresolution curvelet domain. PMID:24659445

Francis, Sheeja V; Sasikala, M; Saranya, S

2014-04-01

38

Performances of diffusion kurtosis imaging and diffusion tensor imaging in detecting white matter abnormality in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) is an extension of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), exhibiting improved sensitivity and specificity in detecting developmental and pathological changes in neural tissues. However, little attention was paid to the performances of DKI and DTI in detecting white matter abnormality in schizophrenia. In this study, DKI and DTI were performed in 94 schizophrenia patients and 91 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. White matter integrity was assessed by fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD), mean kurtosis (MK), axial kurtosis (AK) and radial kurtosis (RK) of DKI and FA, MD, AD and RD of DTI. Group differences in these parameters were compared using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) (P < 0.01, corrected). The sensitivities in detecting white matter abnormality in schizophrenia were MK (34%) > AK (20%) > RK (3%) and RD (37%) > FA (24%) > MD (21%) for DKI, and RD (43%) > FA (30%) > MD (21%) for DTI. DKI-derived diffusion parameters (RD, FA and MD) were sensitive to detect abnormality in white matter regions (the corpus callosum and anterior limb of internal capsule) with coherent fiber arrangement; however, the kurtosis parameters (MK and AK) were sensitive to reveal abnormality in white matter regions (the juxtacortical white matter and corona radiata) with complex fiber arrangement. In schizophrenia, the decreased AK suggests axonal damage; however, the increased RD indicates myelin impairment. These findings suggest that diffusion and kurtosis parameters could provide complementary information and they should be jointly used to reveal pathological changes in schizophrenia. PMID:25610778

Zhu, Jiajia; Zhuo, Chuanjun; Qin, Wen; Wang, Di; Ma, Xiaomei; Zhou, Yujing; Yu, Chunshui

2015-01-01

39

Performances of diffusion kurtosis imaging and diffusion tensor imaging in detecting white matter abnormality in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) is an extension of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), exhibiting improved sensitivity and specificity in detecting developmental and pathological changes in neural tissues. However, little attention was paid to the performances of DKI and DTI in detecting white matter abnormality in schizophrenia. In this study, DKI and DTI were performed in 94 schizophrenia patients and 91 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. White matter integrity was assessed by fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD), mean kurtosis (MK), axial kurtosis (AK) and radial kurtosis (RK) of DKI and FA, MD, AD and RD of DTI. Group differences in these parameters were compared using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) (P < 0.01, corrected). The sensitivities in detecting white matter abnormality in schizophrenia were MK (34%) > AK (20%) > RK (3%) and RD (37%) > FA (24%) > MD (21%) for DKI, and RD (43%) > FA (30%) > MD (21%) for DTI. DKI-derived diffusion parameters (RD, FA and MD) were sensitive to detect abnormality in white matter regions (the corpus callosum and anterior limb of internal capsule) with coherent fiber arrangement; however, the kurtosis parameters (MK and AK) were sensitive to reveal abnormality in white matter regions (the juxtacortical white matter and corona radiata) with complex fiber arrangement. In schizophrenia, the decreased AK suggests axonal damage; however, the increased RD indicates myelin impairment. These findings suggest that diffusion and kurtosis parameters could provide complementary information and they should be jointly used to reveal pathological changes in schizophrenia. PMID:25610778

Zhu, Jiajia; Zhuo, Chuanjun; Qin, Wen; Wang, Di; Ma, Xiaomei; Zhou, Yujing; Yu, Chunshui

2014-01-01

40

Arterial Spin Labeling at 3T in semantic dementia: perfusion abnormalities detection and  

E-print Network

Arterial Spin Labeling at 3T in semantic dementia: perfusion abnormalities detection and comparison shown great diagnosis potential in demen- tia. However, it has never been applied to semantic dementia of ASL to assess perfusion impairments in SD. Keywords: ASL, FDG-PET, MRI, semantic dementia. 1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

41

Molecular Detection of HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis Infections in Brazilian Women with Abnormal Cervical Cytology  

PubMed Central

The question of whether Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is a cofactor for human Papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical carcinogenesis is still controversial. We conducted a molecular detection study of both infections in 622 Brazilian women, including 252 women with different grades of abnormal cervical cytology and cervical cancer (CC; cases) and 370 women with normal cytology (controls). Although Ct infection did not seem related to CC carcinogenicity, women with abnormal cytology had a significant high rate of Ct infection. Therefore, it is important to adopt protocols for diagnosis and treatment of this bacterium in conjunction with screening for CC in this population. PMID:23128289

de Abreu, André L. P.; Nogara, Paula R. B.; Souza, Raquel P.; da Silva, Mariana C.; Uchimura, Nelson S.; Zanko, Rodrigo L.; Ferreira, Érika C.; Tognim, Maria C. B.; Teixeira, Jorge J. V.; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Consolaro, Marcia E. L.

2012-01-01

42

Frequency and patterns of abnormality detected by iodine-123 amine emission CT after cerebral infarction  

SciTech Connect

Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed in 31 patients with cerebral infarction and 13 who had had transient ischemic attacks, using iodine-123-labeled N,N,N'-trimethyl-N'-(2-hydroxyl-3-methyl-5-iodobenzyl)-1,3-propanediamin e (I-123-HIPDM) as the radiopharmaceutical. SPECT scans were compared with computed tomographic (CT) scans. SPECT was as sensitive as CT in detecting cerebral infarction (94% vs. 84%). The abnormalities were larger on the SPECT scans than on the CT scans in 19 cases, equal in seven, and smaller in five (SPECT abnormalities greater than or equal to CT abnormalities in 86% of cases). Fifteen of 30 patients with hemispheric infarction had decreased perfusion (decreased uptake of I-123-HIPDM) to the cerebellar hemisphere contralateral to the cerebral hemisphere involved by the infarction (crossed cerebellar diaschisis). Nine of these 15 patients had major motor deficits, while only one of the 15 without crossed cerebellar diaschisis had a major motor deficit.

Brott, T.G.; Gelfand, M.J.; Williams, C.C.; Spilker, J.A.; Hertzberg, V.S.

1986-03-01

43

Automated CT detection of intestinal abnormalities and ischemia for decision making in emergency medicine  

PubMed Central

Background Evaluation of computed tomography (CT) for the diagnosis of intestinal wall abnormalities and ischemia is important for clinical decision making in patients with acute abdominal pain to which if surgery should be performed in the emergency department. Interpretation of such information on CT is usually based on visual assessment by medical professionals and still remains a challenge in a variety of settings of the medical emergency care. This paper reports a pilot study in the implementation of image processing methods for automated detection of intestinal wall abnormalities and bowel ischemia, which can be of a potential application for CT-based detection of the intestinal disease. Methods CT scans of 3 patients of ischemia, one benign and one control subjects were used in this study. Statistical and geometrical features of the CT scans were extracted for pattern classification using two distance measures and the k-nearest neighbor algorithm. The automated detection of intestinal abnormalities and ischemia was carried out using labeled data from the training process with various proportions of training and testing samples to validate the results. Results Detection rates of intestinal ischemia and abnormalities are promising in terms of sensitivity and specificity, where the sensitivity is higher than the specificity in all test cases. The overall classification accuracy between the diseased and control subjects can be as high as 100% when all CT scans were included for measuring the difference between a cohort of three patients of ischemia and a single control subject. Conclusion The proposed approach can be utilized as a computer-aided tool for decision making in the emergency department, where the availability of expert knowledge of the radiologist and surgeon about this complex bowel disease is limited. PMID:25077973

2014-01-01

44

FREQUENCY OF SCROTAL ABNORMALITIES DETECTED BY ULTRASOUND IN INFERTILE MEN AT KING HUSSEIN MEDICAL CENTER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the frequency of ultrasonographically detected intra-and extra-testicular abnormalities and the significance of oligospermia and azoospermia in men compared with that in normospermic controls. Methods: One hundred fifty six infertile men (117 oligospermia, sperm count <10x 10 6 \\/ml, and 39 azoospermia, study group) aged 23-52 years (mean + SD, 27+7.3), and 100 control group aged 24-56 years

Hasan Y. Malkawi; Hussein S. Qublan; Michel E. Kakish; Sami A. Abu-Khait

45

The earliest pigeon fanciers  

PubMed Central

Feral Pigeons have colonised all corners of the Earth, having developed a close association with humans and their activities. The wild ancestor of the Feral Pigeon, the Rock Dove, is a species of rocky habitats, nesting typically on cliff ledges and at the entrance to large caves. This habit would have brought them into close contact with cave-dwelling humans, a relationship usually linked to the development of dwellings in the Neolithic. We show that the association between humans and Rock Doves is an ancient one with its roots in the Palaeolithic and predates the arrival of modern humans into Europe. At Gorham's Cave, Gibraltar, the Neanderthals exploited Rock Doves for food for a period of over 40 thousand years, the earliest evidence dating to at least 67 thousand years ago. We show that the exploitation was not casual or sporadic, having found repeated evidence of the practice in different, widely spaced, temporal contexts within the cave. Our results point to hitherto unappreciated capacities of the Neanderthals to exploit birds as food resources on a regular basis. More so, they were practising it long before the arrival of modern humans and had therefore invented it independently. PMID:25101932

Blasco, Ruth; Finlayson, Clive; Rosell, Jordi; Marco, Antonio Sánchez; Finlayson, Stewart; Finlayson, Geraldine; Negro, Juan José; Pacheco, Francisco Giles; Vidal, Joaquín Rodríguez

2014-01-01

46

The earliest pigeon fanciers.  

PubMed

Feral Pigeons have colonised all corners of the Earth, having developed a close association with humans and their activities. The wild ancestor of the Feral Pigeon, the Rock Dove, is a species of rocky habitats, nesting typically on cliff ledges and at the entrance to large caves. This habit would have brought them into close contact with cave-dwelling humans, a relationship usually linked to the development of dwellings in the Neolithic. We show that the association between humans and Rock Doves is an ancient one with its roots in the Palaeolithic and predates the arrival of modern humans into Europe. At Gorham's Cave, Gibraltar, the Neanderthals exploited Rock Doves for food for a period of over 40 thousand years, the earliest evidence dating to at least 67 thousand years ago. We show that the exploitation was not casual or sporadic, having found repeated evidence of the practice in different, widely spaced, temporal contexts within the cave. Our results point to hitherto unappreciated capacities of the Neanderthals to exploit birds as food resources on a regular basis. More so, they were practising it long before the arrival of modern humans and had therefore invented it independently. PMID:25101932

Blasco, Ruth; Finlayson, Clive; Rosell, Jordi; Marco, Antonio Sánchez; Finlayson, Stewart; Finlayson, Geraldine; Negro, Juan José; Pacheco, Francisco Giles; Vidal, Joaquín Rodríguez

2014-01-01

47

Detecting Abnormal Vehicular Dynamics at Intersections Based on an Unsupervised Learning Approach and a Stochastic Model  

PubMed Central

This investigation demonstrates an unsupervised approach for modeling traffic flow and detecting abnormal vehicle behaviors at intersections. In the first stage, the approach reveals and records the different states of the system. These states are the result of coding and grouping the historical motion of vehicles as long binary strings. In the second stage, using sequences of the recorded states, a stochastic graph model based on a Markovian approach is built. A behavior is labeled abnormal when current motion pattern cannot be recognized as any state of the system or a particular sequence of states cannot be parsed with the stochastic model. The approach is tested with several sequences of images acquired from a vehicular intersection where the traffic flow and duration used in connection with the traffic lights are continuously changed throughout the day. Finally, the low complexity and the flexibility of the approach make it reliable for use in real time systems. PMID:22163616

Jiménez-Hernández, Hugo; González-Barbosa, Jose-Joel; Garcia-Ramírez, Teresa

2010-01-01

48

CAFE: an R package for the detection of gross chromosomal abnormalities from gene expression microarray data  

PubMed Central

Summary: The current methods available to detect chromosomal abnormalities from DNA microarray expression data are cumbersome and inflexible. CAFE has been developed to alleviate these issues. It is implemented as an R package that analyzes Affymetrix *.CEL files and comes with flexible plotting functions, easing visualization of chromosomal abnormalities. Availability and implementation: CAFE is available from https://bitbucket.org/cob87icW6z/cafe/ as both source and compiled packages for Linux and Windows. It is released under the GPL version 3 license. CAFE will also be freely available from Bioconductor. Contact: sander.h.bollen@gmail.com or nancy.mah@mdc-berlin.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24451624

Bollen, Sander; Mah, Nancy

2014-01-01

49

Genomic Characterization of Prenatally Detected Chromosomal Structural Abnormalities Using Oligonucleotide Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization  

PubMed Central

Detection of chromosomal structural abnormalities using conventional cytogenetic methods poses a challenge for prenatal genetic counseling due to unpredictable clinical outcomes and risk of recurrence. Of the 1,726 prenatal cases in a 3-year period, we performed oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on 11 cases detected with various structural chromosomal abnormalities. In nine cases, genomic aberrations and gene contents involving a 3p distal deletion, a marker chromosome from chromosome 4, a derivative chromosome 5 from a 5p/7q translocation, a de novo distal 6q deletion, a recombinant chromosome 8 comprised of an 8p duplication and an 8q deletion, an extra derivative chromosome 9 from an 8p/9q translocation, mosaicism for chromosome 12q with added material of initially unknown origin, an unbalanced 13q/15q rearrangement, and a distal 18q duplication and deletion were delineated. An absence of pathogenic copy number changes was noted in one case with a de novo 11q/14q translocation and in another with a familial insertion of 21q into a 19q. Genomic characterization of the structural abnormalities aided in the prediction of clinical outcomes. These results demonstrated the value of aCGH analysis in prenatal cases with subtle or complex chromosomal rearrangements. Furthermore, a retrospective analysis of clinical indications of our prenatal cases showed that approximately 20% of them had abnormal ultrasound findings and should be considered as high risk pregnancies for a combined chromosome and aCGH analysis. PMID:21671377

Li, Peining; Pomianowski, Pawel; DiMaio, Miriam S.; Florio, Joanne R.; Rossi, Michael R.; Xiang, Bixia; Xu, Fang; Yang, Hui; Geng, Qian; Xie, Jiansheng; Mahoney, Maurice J.

2013-01-01

50

[Cytogenetic abnormalities of 50 MDS patients by FISH detection and conventional karyotype analysis].  

PubMed

This study was purposed to compare detectable rate of cytogenetic abnormalities including -5/5q-, -7/7q-, 20q-,+8, and -Y in MDS by FISH and metaphase cytogenetics, and to investigate the relationship between cytogenetic abnormalities and progression from MDS to acute leukemia. Metaphase cytogenetics and FISH testing for -5/5q-, -7/7q-, 20q-,+8, and -Y were performed in 50 bone marrow samples obtained from patients with MDS diagnosed according to the WHO criteria (2008). Evolution from MDS to AML was followed up for each patient. The results showed that the cytogenetic abnormalities including -5/5q-, -7/7q-, 20q-,+8, and -Y were identified in 25 (50%) of 50 by metaphase cytogenetics, and in 20 (40%) of 50 by FISH. -5/5q-, 7/7q-, 20q- , +8, or -Y was identified by metaphase cytogenetics in 3 (6%) of 50, 13 (26%) of 50, 6 (12%) of 50, 12 (24%) of 50, and 1 (2%) of 50, respectively, and by FISH in 3 (6%) of 50, 10 (20%) 0f 50, 3 (6%) of 50, 10 (20%) of 50, and 1 of 50 (2%), respectively. The detectable rate ranking was -7/7q- >+8>20q->-5/5q->-Y. 47 patients received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In the IPSS poor prognosis group, 6 (46.2%)of 13 received transplantation before progression to acute leukemia. In the IPSS good prognosis group, 10 (45.5% ) of 22 received transplantation before progression to acute leukemia. In the IPSS intermediate prognosis group, 2 (16.7%) of 12 received trans- plantation before progression to acute leukemia. The rate of progression to acute leukemia was 7.7% (1/13) in the IPSS poor prognosis group, 4.5% (1/22) in the IPSS good prognosis group, and 58.3% (7/12) in the IPSS intermediate prognosis group. The low rate of progression to acute leukemia in the IPSS poor prognosis group might be associated with the high rate of allogeneic hematopoietic stem transplantation. It is concluded that there is higher detectable rate for detecting a certain chromosome by FISH probe than that by metaphase cytogenetics, especially for detecting low clone chromosomal abnormalities and mitotic figures less than 20. There is no difference between IPSS good prognosis group and IPSS poor prognosis group in our study probably because of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:24156432

Gao, Dong-Ge; Li, Bo-Tao; Zhou, Li-Na; Chen, Hu; Zhang, Bin

2013-10-01

51

Noninvasive Detection of Fetal Subchromosome Abnormalities via Deep Sequencing of Maternal Plasma  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine the deep sequencing and analytic conditions needed to detect fetal subchromosome abnormalities across the genome from a maternal blood sample. Cell-free (cf) DNA was isolated from the plasma of 11 pregnant women carrying fetuses with subchromosomal duplications and deletions, translocations, mosaicism, and trisomy 20 diagnosed by metaphase karyotype. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) was performed with 25-mer tags at approximately 109 tags per sample and mapped to reference human genome assembly hg19. Tags were counted and normalized to fixed genome bin sizes of 1 Mb or 100 kb to detect statistically distinct copy-number changes compared to the reference. All seven cases of microdeletions, duplications, translocations, and the trisomy 20 were detected blindly by MPS, including a microdeletion as small as 300 kb. In two of these cases in which the metaphase karyotype showed additional material of unknown origin, MPS identified both the translocation breakpoint and the chromosomal origin of the additional material. In the four mosaic cases, the subchromosomal abnormality was not demonstrated by MPS. This work shows that in nonmosaic cases, it is possible to obtain a fetal molecular karyotype by MPS of maternal plasma cfDNA that is equivalent to a chromosome microarray and in some cases is better than a metaphase karyotype. This approach combines the advantage of enhanced fetal genomic resolution with the improved safety of a noninvasive maternal blood test. PMID:23313373

Srinivasan, Anupama; Bianchi, Diana W.; Huang, Hui; Sehnert, Amy J.; Rava, Richard P.

2013-01-01

52

Detection of abnormal item based on time intervals for recommender systems.  

PubMed

With the rapid development of e-business, personalized recommendation has become core competence for enterprises to gain profits and improve customer satisfaction. Although collaborative filtering is the most successful approach for building a recommender system, it suffers from "shilling" attacks. In recent years, the research on shilling attacks has been greatly improved. However, the approaches suffer from serious problem in attack model dependency and high computational cost. To solve the problem, an approach for the detection of abnormal item is proposed in this paper. In the paper, two common features of all attack models are analyzed at first. A revised bottom-up discretized approach is then proposed based on time intervals and the features for the detection. The distributions of ratings in different time intervals are compared to detect anomaly based on the calculation of chi square distribution (?(2)). We evaluated our approach on four types of items which are defined according to the life cycles of these items. The experimental results show that the proposed approach achieves a high detection rate with low computational cost when the number of attack profiles is more than 15. It improves the efficiency in shilling attacks detection by narrowing down the suspicious users. PMID:24693248

Gao, Min; Yuan, Quan; Ling, Bin; Xiong, Qingyu

2014-01-01

53

Detection of Abnormal Item Based on Time Intervals for Recommender Systems  

PubMed Central

With the rapid development of e-business, personalized recommendation has become core competence for enterprises to gain profits and improve customer satisfaction. Although collaborative filtering is the most successful approach for building a recommender system, it suffers from “shilling” attacks. In recent years, the research on shilling attacks has been greatly improved. However, the approaches suffer from serious problem in attack model dependency and high computational cost. To solve the problem, an approach for the detection of abnormal item is proposed in this paper. In the paper, two common features of all attack models are analyzed at first. A revised bottom-up discretized approach is then proposed based on time intervals and the features for the detection. The distributions of ratings in different time intervals are compared to detect anomaly based on the calculation of chi square distribution (?2). We evaluated our approach on four types of items which are defined according to the life cycles of these items. The experimental results show that the proposed approach achieves a high detection rate with low computational cost when the number of attack profiles is more than 15. It improves the efficiency in shilling attacks detection by narrowing down the suspicious users. PMID:24693248

Yuan, Quan; Ling, Bin; Xiong, Qingyu

2014-01-01

54

The effects of anatomical information and observer expertise on abnormality detection task  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel study investigating the influences of Magnetic Resonance (MR) image anatomical information and observer expertise on an abnormality detection task. MRI is exquisitely sensitive for detecting brain abnormalities, particularly in the evaluation of white matter diseases, e.g. multiple sclerosis (MS). For this reason, MS lesions are simulated as the target stimuli for detection in the present study. Two different image backgrounds are used in the following experiments: a) homogeneous region of white matter tissue, and b) one slice of a healthy brain MR image. One expert radiologist (more than 10 years' experience), three radiologists (less than 5 years' experience) and eight naïve observers (without any prior medical knowledge) have performed these experiments, during which they have been asked different questions dependent upon level of experience; the three radiologists and eight naïve observers were asked if they were aware of any hyper-signal, likely to represent an MS lesion, while the most experienced consultant was asked if a clinically significant sign was present. With the percentages of response "yes" displayed on the y-axis and the lesion intensity contrasts on the x-axis, psychometric function is generated from the observer' responses. Results of psychometric functions and calculated thresholds indicate that radiologists have better hyper-signal detection ability than naïve observers, which is intuitively shown by the lower simple visibility thresholds of radiologists. However, when radiologists perform a task with clinical implications, e.g. to detect a clinically significant sign, their detection thresholds are elevated. Moreover, the study indicates that for the radiologists, the simple visibility thresholds remain the same with and without the anatomical information, which reduces the threshold for the clinically significant sign detection task. Findings provide further insight into human visual system processing for this specific task, and this study provides the foundation for a series of studies investigating numerical observer modeling to be designed, with the ultimate aim of investigating the medical image quality assessment approach by addressing the perspective of radiologist diagnostic performance.

Zhang, L.; Cavaro-Ménard, C.; Le Callet, P.; Cooper, L. H. K.; Hunault, G.; Tanguy, J.-Y.

2011-03-01

55

Abnormal localization of immature precursors (ALIP) detection for early prediction of acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) relapse.  

PubMed

Acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) is a relapsing and deadly disease. Thus, it is important to early predict leukemia relapse. Recent studies have demonstrated strong correlations of relapse with abnormal localization of immature precursors (ALIP). However, there is no related research on automated detection of ALIP so far. To this end, we have proposed an ALIP detection method to investigate the relevance with AML relapse. Kernelized fuzzy C-means clustering is applied first to separate the foreground (with cells) and background (without cells). Image repairing is then used to wipe out noises to mark region of interest. Then, image partition is introduced to separate the overlapping cells. After that, a set of features are extracted for the classification. Thereafter, support vector machine is applied to classify precursors. At last, filtering operations are applied to obtain the binary-precursor detection results. Thirty-seven patients with AML are examined. The results show that ALIP is efficiently detected in a high sensitivity and positive predictive value by our proposed method. The investigation also demonstrates the strong correlations of AML relapse with ALIP. PMID:24363095

Huang, Hai-Qing; Fang, Xiang-Zhong; Shi, Jun; Hu, Jie

2014-02-01

56

Detection of abnormalities in febrile AIDS patients with In-111-labeled leukocyte and Ga-67 scintigraphy  

SciTech Connect

Thirty-six patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), who were febrile but without localizing signs, underwent indium-111 leukocyte scintigraphy 24 hours after injection of labeled white blood cells (WBCs) and were restudied 48 hours after injection of gallium-67 citrate. Fifty-six abnormalities were identified as possible sources of the fever; 27 were confirmed with biopsy. Of these 27, 15 were identified only on In-111 WBC scans (including colitis, sinusitis, and focal bacterial pneumonia); six, only on Ga-67 scans (predominantly Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and lymphadenopathy); and six, on both studies (predominantly pulmonary lesions). In-111 WBC scanning revealed 21 of 27 abnormalities (78%) and gallium scanning, 12 of 27 (44%). If only one scintigraphic study has been performed, particularly with Ga-67, a significant number of lesions would not have been detected. The authors believe radionuclide evaluation of the febrile AIDS patient without localizing signs should begin with In-111 WBC scintigraphy. Gallium scanning may be used depending on results of In-111 WBC scans or if there is a high index of suspicion for P carinii pneumonia.

Fineman, D.S.; Palestro, C.J.; Kim, C.K.; Needle, L.B.; Vallabhajosula, S.; Solomon, R.W.; Goldsmith, S.J.

1989-03-01

57

Array-Based Comparative Genomic Hybridization for the Genomewide Detection of Submicroscopic Chromosomal Abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Microdeletions and microduplications, not visible by routine chromosome analysis, are a major cause of human malformation and mental retardation. Novel high-resolution, whole-genome technologies can improve the diagnostic detection rate of these small chromosomal abnormalities. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization allows such a high-resolution screening by hybridizing differentially labeled test and reference DNAs to arrays consisting of thousands of genomic clones. In this study, we tested the diagnostic capacity of this technology using ?3,500 flourescent in situ hybridization–verified clones selected to cover the genome with an average of 1 clone per megabase (Mb). The sensitivity and specificity of the technology were tested in normal-versus-normal control experiments and through the screening of patients with known microdeletion syndromes. Subsequently, a series of 20 cytogenetically normal patients with mental retardation and dysmorphisms suggestive of a chromosomal abnormality were analyzed. In this series, three microdeletions and two microduplications were identified and validated. Two of these genomic changes were identified also in one of the parents, indicating that these are large-scale genomic polymorphisms. Deletions and duplications as small as 1 Mb could be reliably detected by our approach. The percentage of false-positive results was reduced to a minimum by use of a dye-swap-replicate analysis, all but eliminating the need for laborious validation experiments and facilitating implementation in a routine diagnostic setting. This high-resolution assay will facilitate the identification of novel genes involved in human mental retardation and/or malformation syndromes and will provide insight into the flexibility and plasticity of the human genome. PMID:14628292

Vissers, Lisenka E. L. M. ; de Vries, Bert B. A. ; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo ; Janssen, Irene M. ; Feuth, Ton ; Choy, Chik On ; Straatman, Huub ; van der Vliet, Walter ; Huys, Erik H. L. P. G. ; van Rijk, Anke ; Smeets, Dominique ; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M. A. ; Knoers, Nine V. ; van der Burgt, Ineke ; de Jong, Pieter J. ; Brunner, Han G. ; van Kessel, Ad Geurts ; Schoenmakers, Eric F. P. M. ; Veltman, Joris A. 

2003-01-01

58

Geological constraints on detecting the earliest life on Earth: a perspective from the Early Archaean (older than 3.7?Gyr) of southwest Greenland  

PubMed Central

At greater than 3.7?Gyr, Earth's oldest known supracrustal rocks, comprised dominantly of mafic igneous with less common sedimentary units including banded iron formation (BIF), are exposed in southwest Greenland. Regionally, they were intruded by younger tonalites, and then both were intensely dynamothermally metamorphosed to granulite facies (the highest pressures and temperatures generally encountered in the Earth's crust during metamorphism) in the Archaean and subsequently at lower grades until about 1500?Myr ago. Claims for the first preserved life on Earth have been based on the occurrence of greater than 3.8?Gyr isotopically light C occurring as graphite inclusions within apatite crystals from a 5?m thick purported BIF on the island of Akilia. Detailed geologic mapping and observations there indicate that the banding, first claimed to be depositional, is clearly deformational in origin. Furthermore, the mineralogy of the supposed BIF, being dominated by pyroxene, amphibole and quartz, is unlike well-known BIF from the Isua Greenstone Belt (IGB), but resembles enclosing mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks modified by metasomatism and repeated metamorphic recrystallization. This scenario parsimoniously links the geology, whole-rock geochemistry, 2.7?Gyr single crystal zircon ages in the unit, an approximately 1500?Myr age for apatites that lack any graphite, non-MIF sulphur isotopes in the unit and an inconclusive Fe isotope signature. Although both putative body fossils and carbon-12 enriched isotopes in graphite described at Isua are better explained by abiotic processes, more fruitful targets for examining the earliest stages in the emergence of life remain within greater than 3.7?Gyr IGB, which preserves BIF and other rocks that unambiguously formed at Earth's surface. PMID:16754603

Fedo, Christopher M; Whitehouse, Martin J; Kamber, Balz S

2006-01-01

59

Geological constraints on detecting the earliest life on Earth: a perspective from the Early Archaean (older than 3.7 Gyr) of southwest Greenland.  

PubMed

At greater than 3.7 Gyr, Earth's oldest known supracrustal rocks, comprised dominantly of mafic igneous with less common sedimentary units including banded iron formation (BIF), are exposed in southwest Greenland. Regionally, they were intruded by younger tonalites, and then both were intensely dynamothermally metamorphosed to granulite facies (the highest pressures and temperatures generally encountered in the Earth's crust during metamorphism) in the Archaean and subsequently at lower grades until about 1500 Myr ago. Claims for the first preserved life on Earth have been based on the occurrence of greater than 3.8 Gyr isotopically light C occurring as graphite inclusions within apatite crystals from a 5 m thick purported BIF on the island of Akilia. Detailed geologic mapping and observations there indicate that the banding, first claimed to be depositional, is clearly deformational in origin. Furthermore, the mineralogy of the supposed BIF, being dominated by pyroxene, amphibole and quartz, is unlike well-known BIF from the Isua Greenstone Belt (IGB), but resembles enclosing mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks modified by metasomatism and repeated metamorphic recrystallization. This scenario parsimoniously links the geology, whole-rock geochemistry, 2.7 Gyr single crystal zircon ages in the unit, an approximately 1500 Myr age for apatites that lack any graphite, non-MIF sulphur isotopes in the unit and an inconclusive Fe isotope signature. Although both putative body fossils and carbon-12 enriched isotopes in graphite described at Isua are better explained by abiotic processes, more fruitful targets for examining the earliest stages in the emergence of life remain within greater than 3.7 Gyr IGB, which preserves BIF and other rocks that unambiguously formed at Earth's surface. PMID:16754603

Fedo, Christopher M; Whitehouse, Martin J; Kamber, Balz S

2006-06-29

60

Detection of abnormal cardiac activity using principal component analysis--a theoretical study.  

PubMed

Electrogram-guided ablation has been recently developed for allowing better detection and localization of abnormal atrial activity that may be the source of arrhythmogeneity. Nevertheless, no clear indication for the benefit of using electrograms guided ablation over empirical ablation was established thus far, and there is a clear need of improving the localization of cardiac arrhythmogenic targets for ablation. In this paper, we propose a new approach for detection and localization of irregular cardiac activity during ablation procedures that is based on dimension reduction algorithms and principal component analysis (PCA). Using an 8×8 electrode array, our method produces manifolds that allow easy visualization and detection of possible arrhythmogenic ablation targets characterized by irregular conduction. We employ mathematical modeling and computer simulations to demonstrate the feasibility of the new approach for two well established arrhythmogenic sources for irregular conduction--spiral waves and patchy fibrosis. Our results show that the PCA method can differentiate between focal ectopic activity and spiral wave activity, as these two types of activity produce substantially different manifold shapes. Moreover, the technique allows the detection of spiral wave cores and their general meandering and drifting pattern. Fibrotic patches larger than 2 mm(2) could also be visualized using the PCA method, both for quiescent atrial tissue and for tissue exhibiting spiral wave activity. We envision that this method, contingent to further numerical and experimental validation studies in more complex, realistic geometrical configurations and with clinical data, can improve existing atrial ablation mapping capabilities, thus increasing success rates and optimizing arrhythmia management. PMID:25073163

Greisas, Ariel; Zafrir, Zohar; Zlochiver, Sharon

2015-01-01

61

BEYAN, FISHER: DETECTION OF ABNORMAL FISH TRAJECTORIES 1 2013. The copyright of this document resides with its authors.  

E-print Network

the fish trajectories in an aquarium [3], a tank [7] or a cage [8] which makes the analyses simplerBEYAN, FISHER: DETECTION OF ABNORMAL FISH TRAJECTORIES 1 © 2013. The copyright of this document address the analysis of fish trajectories in unconstrained underwater videos to help marine biologist

Fisher, Bob

62

Detection of abnormality in the electrocardiogram without prior knowledge by using the quantisation error of a self-organising map, tested on the European ischaemia database.  

PubMed

Most systems for the automatic detection of abnormalities in the ECG require prior knowledge of normal and abnormal ECG morphology from pre-existing databases. An automated system for abnormality detection has been developed based on learning normal ECG morphology directly from the patient. The quantisation error from a self-organising map 'learns' the form of the patient's ECG and detects any change in its morphology. The system does not require prior knowledge of normal and abnormal morphologies. It was tested on 76 records from the European Society of Cardiology database and detected 90.5% of those first abnormalities declared by the database to be ischaemic. The system also responded to abnormalities arising from ECG axis changes and slow baseline drifts and revealed that ischaemic episodes are often followed by long-term changes in ECG morphology. PMID:11465888

Fernández, E A; Willshaw, P; Perazzo, C A; Presedo, R J; Barro, S

2001-05-01

63

The earliest known sauropod dinosaur.  

PubMed

Sauropods were a very successful group of dinosaurs during the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, but their earlier history is poorly known. Until now, the earliest reported sauropod bones were from the Early Jurassic, and the only tentative evidence of earlier sauropods was in the form of controversial footprints. Here we report the discovery of an incomplete sauropod skeleton from the Late Triassic period of Thailand, which provides the first osteological evidence of pre-Jurassic sauropods. This dinosaur is markedly different from prosauropods and substantiates theoretical predictions that there was a fairly long period of sauropod evolution during the Triassic. PMID:10993074

Buffetaut, E; Suteethorn, V; Cuny, G; Tong, H; Le Loeuff, J; Khansubha, S; Jongautchariyakul, S

2000-09-01

64

In Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV'11), c 2011 IEEE Video Parsing for Abnormality Detection  

E-print Network

, abnormality detection is based on videos from a sta- tionary camera (e.g. surveillance videos) where powerful to visual surveillance. However, while detecting normal objects is already difficult due to a large within

Heermann, Dieter W.

65

Detection of cryptic chromosomal abnormalities in unexplained mental retardation: A general strategy using hypervariable subtelomeric DNA polymorphisms  

SciTech Connect

Given the availability of DNA from both parents, unusual segregation of hypervariable DNA polymorphisms (HVPs) in the offspring may be attributable to deletion, unbalanced chromosomal translocation, or uniparental disomy. The telomeric regions of chromosomes are rich in both genes and hypervariable minisatellite sequences and may also be particularly prone to cryptic breakage events. Here the author describes and analyzes a general approach to the detection of subtelomeric abnormalities and uniparental disomy in patients with unexplained mental retardation. With 29 available polymorphic systems, [approximately]50%-70% of these abnormalities could currently be detected. Development of subtelomeric HVPs physically localized with respect to their telomers should provide a valuable resource in routine diagnostics. 73 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Wilkie, A.O.M.

1993-09-01

66

Multiple model estimator based detection of abnormal cell overheating in a Li-ion battery string with minimum number of temperature sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes modeling of abnormal cell overheating caused by internal short circuit in a cell of a Li-ion battery string by augmenting the cell state space model with unknown input disturbance. Furthermore, with minimum number of temperature sensors, in order to identify which of the cells in the string is experiencing the abnormal overheating, a multiple model estimator (MME) is used. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed MME can detect the abnormally overheating cell as well as quickly detect that an abnormal overheating event occurred in the battery string.

Lystianingrum, Vita; Hredzak, Branislav; Agelidis, Vassilios G.

2015-01-01

67

Identification of FISH biomarkers to detect chromosome abnormalities associated with prostate adenocarcinoma in tumour and field effect environment  

PubMed Central

Background To reduce sampling error associated with cancer detection in prostate needle biopsies, we explored the possibility of using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) to detect chromosomal abnormalities in the histologically benign prostate tissue from patients with adenocarcinoma of prostate. Methods Tumour specimens from 33 radical prostatectomy (RP) cases, histologically benign tissue from 17 of the 33 RP cases, and 26 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) control cases were evaluated with Locus Specific Identifier (LSI) probes MYC (8q24), LPL (8p21.22), and PTEN (10q23), as well as with centromere enumerator probes CEP8, CEP10, and CEP7. A distribution of FISH signals in the tumour and histologically benign adjacent tissue was compared to that in BPH specimens using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results The combination of MYC gain, CEP8 Abnormal, PTEN loss or chromosome 7 aneusomy was positive in the tumour area of all of the 33 specimens from patients with adenocarcinomas, and in 88% of adjacent histologically benign regions (15 out of 17) but in only 15% (4 out of 26) of the benign prostatic hyperplasia control specimens. Conclusions A panel of FISH markers may allow detection of genomic abnormalities that associate with adenocarcinoma in the field adjacent to and surrounding the tumour, and thus could potentially indicate the presence of cancer in the specimen even if the cancer focus itself was missed by biopsy and histology review. PMID:24568597

2014-01-01

68

The earliest known holometabolous insects.  

PubMed

The Eumetabola (Endopterygota (also known as Holometabola) plus Paraneoptera) have the highest number of species of any clade, and greatly contribute to animal species biodiversity. The palaeoecological circumstances that favoured their emergence and success remain an intriguing question. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses have suggested a wide range of dates for the initial appearance of the Holometabola, from the Middle Devonian epoch (391 million years (Myr) ago) to the Late Pennsylvanian epoch (311 Myr ago), and Hemiptera (310 Myr ago). Palaeoenvironments greatly changed over these periods, with global cooling and increasing complexity of green forests. The Pennsylvanian-period crown-eumetabolan fossil record remains notably incomplete, particularly as several fossils have been erroneously considered to be stem Holometabola (Supplementary Information); the earliest definitive beetles are from the start of the Permian period. The emergence of the hymenopterids, sister group to other Holometabola, is dated between 350 and 309 Myr ago, incongruent with their current earliest record (Middle Triassic epoch). Here we describe five fossils--a Gzhelian-age stem coleopterid, a holometabolous larva of uncertain ordinal affinity, a stem hymenopterid, and early Hemiptera and Psocodea, all from the Moscovian age--and reveal a notable penecontemporaneous breadth of early eumetabolan insects. These discoveries are more congruent with current hypotheses of clade divergence. Eumetabola experienced episodes of diversification during the Bashkirian-Moscovian and the Kasimovian-Gzhelian ages. This cladogenetic activity is perhaps related to notable episodes of drying resulting from glaciations, leading to the eventual demise in Euramerica of coal-swamp ecosystems, evidenced by floral turnover during this interval. These ancient species were of very small size, living in the shadow of Palaeozoic-era 'giant' insects. Although these discoveries reveal unexpected Pennsylvanian eumetabolan diversity, the lineage radiated more successfully only after the mass extinctions at the end of the Permian period, giving rise to the familiar crown groups of their respective clades. PMID:24132233

Nel, André; Roques, Patrick; Nel, Patricia; Prokin, Alexander A; Bourgoin, Thierry; Prokop, Jakub; Szwedo, Jacek; Azar, Dany; Desutter-Grandcolas, Laure; Wappler, Torsten; Garrouste, Romain; Coty, David; Huang, Diying; Engel, Michael S; Kirejtshuk, Alexander G

2013-11-14

69

Sonic Hedgehog: A Good Gene Gone Bad? Detection and Treatment of Genetic Abnormalities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a case of a baby born with the genetic condition holoprosencephaly in which students explore the "Sonic hedgehog" gene, signal transduction, and the ethics of body and tissue donation. Presents a two-part assignment that features students writing an informed consent document that explains the science behind this congenital abnormality,…

Yaich, Lauren E.

2001-01-01

70

Performance of the CellaVision® DM96 system for detecting red blood cell morphologic abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Background: Red blood cell (RBC) analysis is a key feature in the evaluation of hematological disorders. The gold standard light microscopy technique has high sensitivity, but is a relativity time-consuming and labor intensive procedure. This study tested the sensitivity and specificity of gold standard light microscopy manual differential to the CellaVision® DM96 (CCS; CellaVision, Lund, Sweden) automated image analysis system, which takes digital images of samples at high magnification and compares these images with an artificial neural network based on a database of cells and preclassified according to RBC morphology. Methods: In this study, 212 abnormal peripheral blood smears within the Calgary Laboratory Services network of hospital laboratories were selected and assessed for 15 different RBC morphologic abnormalities by manual microscopy. The same samples were reassessed as a manual addition from the instrument screen using the CellaVision® DM96 system with 8 microscope high power fields (×100 objective and a 22 mm ocular). The results of the investigation were then used to calculate the sensitivity and specificity of the CellaVision® DM96 system in reference to light microscopy. Results: The sensitivity ranged from a low of 33% (RBC agglutination) to a high of 100% (sickle cells, stomatocytes). The remainder of the RBC abnormalities tested somewhere between these two extremes. The specificity ranged from 84% (schistocytes) to 99.5% (sickle cells, stomatocytes). Conclusions: Our results showed generally high specificities but variable sensitivities for RBC morphologic abnormalities. PMID:25774322

Horn, Christopher L.; Mansoor, Adnan; Wood, Brenda; Nelson, Heather; Higa, Diane; Lee, Lik Hang; Naugler, Christopher

2015-01-01

71

Brain abnormalities in bipolar disorder detected by quantitative T1? mapping.  

PubMed

Abnormal metabolism has been reported in bipolar disorder, however, these studies have been limited to specific regions of the brain. To investigate whole-brain changes potentially associated with these processes, we applied a magnetic resonance imaging technique novel to psychiatric research, quantitative mapping of T1 relaxation in the rotating frame (T1?). This method is sensitive to proton chemical exchange, which is affected by pH, metabolite concentrations and cellular density with high spatial resolution relative to alternative techniques such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy and positron emission tomography. Study participants included 15 patients with bipolar I disorder in the euthymic state and 25 normal controls balanced for age and gender. T1? maps were generated and compared between the bipolar and control groups using voxel-wise and regional analyses. T1? values were found to be elevated in the cerebral white matter and cerebellum in the bipolar group. However, volumes of these areas were normal as measured by high-resolution T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Interestingly, the cerebellar T1? abnormalities were normalized in participants receiving lithium treatment. These findings are consistent with metabolic or microstructural abnormalities in bipolar disorder and draw attention to roles of the cerebral white matter and cerebellum. This study highlights the potential utility of high-resolution T1? mapping in psychiatric research. PMID:25560762

Johnson, C P; Follmer, R L; Oguz, I; Warren, L A; Christensen, G E; Fiedorowicz, J G; Magnotta, V A; Wemmie, J A

2015-02-01

72

Detection of structural and numerical chomosomal abnormalities by ACM-FISH analysis in sperm of oligozoospermic infertility patients  

SciTech Connect

Modern reproductive technologies are enabling the treatment of infertile men with severe disturbances of spermatogenesis. The possibility of elevated frequencies of genetically and chromosomally defective sperm has become an issue of concern with the increased usage of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), which can enable men with severely impaired sperm production to father children. Several papers have been published about aneuploidy in oligozoospermic patients, but relatively little is known about chromosome structural aberrations in the sperm of these patients. We examined sperm from infertile, oligozoospermic individuals for structural and numerical chromosomal abnormalities using a multicolor ACM FISH assay that utilizes DNA probes specific for three regions of chromosome 1 to detect human sperm that carry numerical chromosomal abnormalities plus two categories of structural aberrations: duplications and deletions of 1pter and 1cen, and chromosomal breaks within the 1cen-1q12 region. There was a significant increase in the average frequencies of sperm with duplications and deletions in the infertility patients compared with the healthy concurrent controls. There was also a significantly elevated level of breaks within the 1cen-1q12 region. There was no evidence for an increase in chromosome-1 disomy, or in diploidy. Our data reveal that oligozoospermia is associated with chromosomal structural abnormalities suggesting that, oligozoospermic men carry a higher burden of transmissible, chromosome damage. The findings raise the possibility of elevated levels of transmissible chromosomal defects following ICSI treatment.

Schmid, T E; Brinkworth, M H; Hill, F; Sloter, E; Kamischke, A; Marchetti, F; Nieschlag, E; Wyrobek, A J

2003-11-10

73

Microarray detection of human papilloma virus genotypes among Turkish women with abnormal cytology at a colposcopy unit  

PubMed Central

Objective: There is a well-known association between human papilloma virus (HPV) and cervical neoplasia. The aim of this study was to investigate the types of HPV DNA and to compare the results with colposcopic findings among women with abnormal cytology. Material and Methods: A series of 76 consecutive women attending the clinic with the usual referral indications (ASC-US or higher in Pap) were examined by the conventional diagnostic tools (PAP smear, colposcopy,punch biopsy) and subjected to HPV testing. For HPV genotyping, we used a commercially avaliable HPV DNA chip (Genomica-CLART) which is a PCR based microarray system.The HPV test detected 35types of HPV (HPV-6/-11/-16/-18/-26/-31/-33/-35/-39/-40/-42/-43/-44/-45/-51/-52/-53/-54/-56/-58/-59/-61/-62/-66/-70/-71/-72/-73/-81/-83/84/-85/-89). Results: Overall, 44.7% of all patients were HPV positive. HPV was positive in 35%, 51.9%, 77.7% of the ASCUS, LSIL and HSIL groups respectively and HPV 16 was the most prevalent type in all groups. 6 %of patients had mutiple infections. 57.8% of biopsy proven SIL’s were HPV positive. The most prevalent HPV type was HPV 16 (54.5%).Colposcopic assessment revealed pathologic findings in 94.7% of biopsy proven SIL cases. Conclusion: Although it has been reported that the prevalence of HPV in the general population is lower than Western countries, and the prevalence and distribution of genotypes are smilar in patients with abnormal cytology. Further population based studies are needed to determine the prevalance and type distribution of HPV with normal and abnormal cytology in Turkish women. Despite the new technological progress in HPV virion, colposcopy is still very important diagnostic tool in the management of abnormal smears. PMID:24592066

Uzun Çilingir, I??l; Bengisu, Ergin; A?açfidan, Ali; Koksal, Muammer Osman; Topuz, Samet; Berkman, Sinan; ?yibozkurt, Ahmet Cem

2013-01-01

74

Robust algorithmic detection of the developed cardiac pathologies and emerging or transient abnormalities from short periods of RR data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous research efforts and clinical testing have confirmed validity of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis as one of the cardiac diagnostics modalities. The majority of HRV analysis tools currently used in practice are based on linear indicators. Methods from nonlinear dynamics (NLD) provide more natural modeling framework for adaptive biological systems with multiple feedback loops. Compared to linear indicators, many NLD-based measures are much less sensitive to data artifacts and non-stationarity. However, majority of NLD measures require long time series for stable calculation. Similar restrictions also apply for linear indicators. Such requirements could drastically limit practical usability of HRV analysis in many applications, including express diagnostics, early indication of subtle directional changes during personalization of medical treatment, and robust detection of emerging or transient abnormalities. Recently we have illustrated that these challenges could be overcome by using classification framework based on boosting-like ensemble learning techniques that are capable of discovering robust meta-indicators from existing HRV measures and other incomplete empirical knowledge. In this paper we demonstrate universality of such meta-indicators and discuss operational details of their practical usage. Using such pathology examples as congestive heart failure (CHF) and arrhythmias, we show that classifiers trained on short RR segments (down to several minutes) could achieve reasonable classification accuracy (˜80-85% and higher). These indicators calculated from longer RR segments could be applicable for accurate diagnostics with classification accuracy approaching 100%. In addition, it is feasible to discover single "normal-abnormal" meta-classifier capable of detecting multiple abnormalities.

Gavrishchaka, Valeriy V.; Senyukova, Olga

2011-06-01

75

MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPIC IMAGING DETECTS ABNORMALITIES IN NORMAL-APPEARING FRONTAL LOBE OF PATIENTS WITH STURGE-WEBER SYNDROME  

PubMed Central

Background In Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS), structural MRI abnormalities are most common in the posterior brain regions. Frontal lobe involvement increases the risk of motor impairment. The goal of this study was to determine whether Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging (MRSI) can improve detection of frontal lobe involvement in children with SWS. Methods Sixteen children (age: 0.9–10.4 years) with unilateral SWS underwent MRI with MRSI prospectively. N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) and choline asymmetries in the posterior and frontal regions were measured. Results Eight children presented normal-appearing frontal lobes on conventional MRI, but 7 of them showed abnormal NAA and/or choline content in the frontal lobe of the affected hemisphere. Lower frontal lobe gray matter NAA was associated with earlier onset of seizures (r = 0.76; p = 0.04) and impaired motor function (r =? 0.89, p < 0.001). Frontal NAA asymmetry was an independent predictor of motor function in a regression analysis (p=0.01) Conclusion MRSI is more sensitive than conventional structural MRI for detection of frontal lobe involvement in SWS. Decreased frontal lobe NAA is an excellent predictor of motor functions. Thus, MRSI can provide complementary information for the assessment of normal appearing brain regions, and may assist prognosis evaluation in children with SWS. PMID:18808656

Batista, Carlos E. A.; Chugani, Harry T.; Hu, Jiani; Haacke, E. Mark; Behen, Michael E.; Helder, Emily J.; Juhász, Csaba

2009-01-01

76

A method for determination of optimal image enhancement for the detection of mammographic abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a paradigm for empirical evaluation of digital image enhancement algorithms for mammography that uses psychophysical\\u000a methods for implementation and analysis of a clinically relevant detection task. In the experiment, the observer is asked\\u000a to detect and assign to a quadrant, or indicate the absence of, a simulated mammographic structure characteristic of cancer\\u000a embedded in a background image of

Derek T. Puff; Etta D. Pisano; Keith E. Muller; R. Eugene Johnston; Bradley M. Hemminger; Christina A. Burbeck; Robert McLelland; Stephen M. Pizer

1994-01-01

77

The photodynamic detection of mucosal abnormality in oral cancer patients: a pilot study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Patients who have had one oral cancer are at increased risk of developing a semi-malignant tumour. The detecting of oral cancer is made difficult (and is often delayed) by the unknown appearance of the early oral lesion. A technique that could reliably detect early cancers would be useful to the oral and dental health specialist. One possible technique is the use of a photosensitiser that may be preferentially taken up by cancerous cells. 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) is one such drug that is converted to Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) and fluoresces at 636nm when illuminated with light of wavelength 405nm. It has been hypothesized that cell inclined towards malignant change would have a higher metabolic rate, and thus convert more ALA into its metabolite PpIX. These drugs can then be detected using a technique called Photodynamic detection, through the analysis of their fluorescence spectra. We describe a pilot study that used a compact spectroscopic instrument designed to excite and measure fluorescence in the oral cavity. Some Inter-subject variation in PpIX time course characteristics may be evident in our volunteers, as has been reported by other researchers. The obtained data would suggest that this instrument may be a valuable tool for detecting early oral cancers. However, further studies are required, not least to ensure that these data are due to detection of ALA metabolite in cancer and not some other systemic effect.

O'Dwyer, Martin; Ogden, Graham; McLaren, Stuart; Padgett, Miles

2005-03-01

78

Detection of abnormal extracellular matrix in the interstitium of regenerating renal tubules.  

PubMed

Stem/progenitor cells are promising candidates for the regeneration of parenchyma in acute and chronic renal failure. However, recent data exhibit that survival of stem/progenitor cells after implantation in diseased renal parenchyma is restricted. To elaborate basic parameters improving survival, cell seeding was simulated under advanced in vitro conditions. After isolation, renal stem/progenitor cells were mounted in a polyester interstitium for perfusion culture. During generation of tubules, chemically defined CO2 Independent Medium or Leibovitz's L-15 Medium was applied. Specimens were then fixed for transmission electron microscopy to analyze morphological features in generated tubules. Fixation in conventional glutaraldehyde (GA) solution shows development of tubules each exhibiting a polarized epithelium, an intact basal lamina and an inconspicuous interstitium. In contrast, special fixation of specimens in GA solution containing cupromeronic blue, ruthenium red or tannic acid unveils previously not visible extracellular matrix. Control experiments elucidate that a comparable extracellular matrix is not present in the interstitium of the matured kidney. Thus, generation of renal tubules in combination with advanced fixation of specimens for electron microscopy demonstrates that development of abnormal features in the newly developed interstitium has to be considered, when repair of renal parenchyma is performed by implantation of stem/progenitor cells. PMID:25517030

Minuth, Will W; Denk, Lucia

2014-01-01

79

Detection of liver cancer and abnormal liver tissue by Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, laser induced human serum Raman spectra of liver cancer are measured. The spectra differences in serum from normal people and liver disease patients are analyzed. For the typical spectrum of normal serum, there are three sharp Raman peaks and relative intensity of Raman peaks excited by 514.5nm is higher than that excited by 488.0nm. For the Raman spectrum of liver cancer serum there are no peaks or very weak Raman peaks at the same positions. Results from more than two hundred case measurements show that clinical diagnostic accuracy is 92.86%. And then, the liver fibrosis and liver cirrhosis are studied applying the technology of LIF. To liver cirrhosis, the shape of Raman peak is similar to normal and fluorescence spectrum is similar to that of liver cancer from statistic data. The experiment indicates that there is notable fluorescence difference between the abnormal and normal liver tissue and have blue shift in fluorescence peak. Except for human serum, we use rats serum for researching either. Compared with results of path al examination, we analyze the spectra of normal cases, hepatic fibrosis and hepatocirrhosis respectively in an attempt to find some difference between them. Red shift of fluorescence peak is observed with disease evolution using 514.5nm excitation of an Ar-ion laser. However, no distinct changes happen with 488.0nm excitation. These results have important reference values to explore the method of laser spectrum diagnosis.

Li, Xiaozhou; Ding, Jianhua; Zhang, Xiujun; Lin, Junxiu; Wang, Deli

2005-01-01

80

Detection of Abnormal Extracellular Matrix in the Interstitium of Regenerating Renal Tubules  

PubMed Central

Stem/progenitor cells are promising candidates for the regeneration of parenchyma in acute and chronic renal failure. However, recent data exhibit that survival of stem/progenitor cells after implantation in diseased renal parenchyma is restricted. To elaborate basic parameters improving survival, cell seeding was simulated under advanced in vitro conditions. After isolation, renal stem/progenitor cells were mounted in a polyester interstitium for perfusion culture. During generation of tubules, chemically defined CO2 Independent Medium or Leibovitz’s L-15 Medium was applied. Specimens were then fixed for transmission electron microscopy to analyze morphological features in generated tubules. Fixation in conventional glutaraldehyde (GA) solution shows development of tubules each exhibiting a polarized epithelium, an intact basal lamina and an inconspicuous interstitium. In contrast, special fixation of specimens in GA solution containing cupromeronic blue, ruthenium red or tannic acid unveils previously not visible extracellular matrix. Control experiments elucidate that a comparable extracellular matrix is not present in the interstitium of the matured kidney. Thus, generation of renal tubules in combination with advanced fixation of specimens for electron microscopy demonstrates that development of abnormal features in the newly developed interstitium has to be considered, when repair of renal parenchyma is performed by implantation of stem/progenitor cells. PMID:25517030

Minuth, Will W.; Denk, Lucia

2014-01-01

81

Detection of Abnormal Muscle Activations during Walking Following Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to identify optimal rehabilitation strategies for spinal cord injury (SCI) participants, assessment of impaired walking is required to detect, monitor and quantify movement disorders. In the proposed assessment, ten healthy and seven SCI participants were recruited to perform an over-ground walking test at slow walking speeds. SCI…

Wang, Ping; Low, K. H.; McGregor, Alison H.; Tow, Adela

2013-01-01

82

Event monitoring via local motion abnormality detection in non-linear subspace Ioannis Tziakosa,1  

E-print Network

motion vectors extracted over a Region of Interest (ROI) as features and a non-linear, graph] Probability distribution Adam et al. [1] Frame Object detection Graph co-clustering Zhong et al. [34] PCA + SVM Sudo et al. [26] Object + motion Mixture of Gaussian HMM Andrade et al. [2] Motion vectors

Cavallaro, Andrea

83

Chromosomal microarray analysis as a first-line test in pregnancies with a priori low risk for the detection of submicroscopic chromosomal abnormalities  

PubMed Central

In this study, we aimed to explore the utility of chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) in groups of pregnancies with a priori low risk for detection of submicroscopic chromosome abnormalities, usually not considered an indication for testing, in order to assess whether CMA improves the detection rate of prenatal chromosomal aberrations. A total of 3000 prenatal samples were processed in parallel using both whole-genome CMA and conventional karyotyping. The indications for prenatal testing included: advanced maternal age, maternal serum screening test abnormality, abnormal ultrasound findings, known abnormal fetal karyotype, parental anxiety, family history of a genetic condition and cell culture failure. The use of CMA resulted in an increased detection rate regardless of the indication for analysis. This was evident in high risk groups (abnormal ultrasound findings and abnormal fetal karyotype), in which the percentage of detection was 5.8% (7/120), and also in low risk groups, such as advanced maternal age (6/1118, 0.5%), and parental anxiety (11/1674, 0.7%). A total of 24 (0.8%) fetal conditions would have remained undiagnosed if only a standard karyotype had been performed. Importantly, 17 (0.6%) of such findings would have otherwise been overlooked if CMA was offered only to high risk pregnancies.The results of this study suggest that more widespread CMA testing of fetuses would result in a higher detection of clinically relevant chromosome abnormalities, even in low risk pregnancies. Our findings provide substantial evidence for the introduction of CMA as a first-line diagnostic test for all pregnant women undergoing invasive prenatal testing, regardless of risk factors. PMID:23211699

Fiorentino, Francesco; Napoletano, Stefania; Caiazzo, Fiorina; Sessa, Mariateresa; Bono, Sara; Spizzichino, Letizia; Gordon, Anthony; Nuccitelli, Andrea; Rizzo, Giuseppe; Baldi, Marina

2013-01-01

84

Diffusion MRI abnormalities detection with orientation distribution functions: A multiple sclerosis longitudinal study.  

PubMed

We propose a new algorithm for the voxelwise analysis of orientation distribution functions between one image and a group of reference images. It relies on a generic framework for the comparison of diffusion probabilities on the sphere, sampled from the underlying models. We demonstrate that this method, combined to dimensionality reduction through a principal component analysis, allows for more robust detection of lesions on simulated data when compared to classical tensor-based analysis. We then demonstrate the efficiency of this pipeline on the longitudinal comparison of multiple sclerosis patients at an early stage of the disease: right after their first clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and three months later. We demonstrate the predictive value of ODF-based scores for the early detection of lesions that will appear or heal. PMID:25867549

Commowick, Olivier; Maarouf, Adil; Ferré, Jean-Christophe; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Edan, Gilles; Barillot, Christian

2015-05-01

85

Shape abnormalities of subcortical and ventricular structures in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: detecting, quantifying, and predicting.  

PubMed

This article assesses the feasibility of using shape information to detect and quantify the subcortical and ventricular structural changes in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We first demonstrate structural shape abnormalities in MCI and AD as compared with healthy controls (HC). Exploring the development to AD, we then divide the MCI participants into two subgroups based on longitudinal clinical information: (1) MCI patients who remained stable; (2) MCI patients who converted to AD over time. We focus on seven structures (amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, and lateral ventricles) in 754 MR scans (210 HC, 369 MCI of which 151 converted to AD over time, and 175 AD). The hippocampus and amygdala were further subsegmented based on high field 0.8 mm isotropic 7.0T scans for finer exploration. For MCI and AD, prominent ventricular expansions were detected and we found that these patients had strongest hippocampal atrophy occurring at CA1 and strongest amygdala atrophy at the basolateral complex. Mild atrophy in basal ganglia structures was also detected in MCI and AD. Stronger atrophy in the amygdala and hippocampus, and greater expansion in ventricles was observed in MCI converters, relative to those MCI who remained stable. Furthermore, we performed principal component analysis on a linear shape space of each structure. A subsequent linear discriminant analysis on the principal component values of hippocampus, amygdala, and ventricle leads to correct classification of 88% HC subjects and 86% AD subjects. PMID:24443091

Tang, Xiaoying; Holland, Dominic; Dale, Anders M; Younes, Laurent; Miller, Michael I

2014-08-01

86

Developing and testing a multi-probe resonance electrical impedance spectroscopy system for detecting breast abnormalities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our previous study, we reported on the development and preliminary testing of a prototype resonance electrical impedance spectroscopy (REIS) system with a pair of probes. Although our pilot study on 150 young women ranging from 30 to 50 years old indicated the feasibility of using REIS output sweep signals to classify between the women who had negative examinations and those who would ultimately be recommended for biopsy, the detection sensitivity was relatively low. To improve performance when using REIS technology, we recently developed a new multi-probe based REIS system. The system consists of a sensor module box that can be easily lifted along a vertical support device to fit women of different height. Two user selectable breast placement "cups" with different curvatures are included in the system. Seven probes are mounted on each of the cups on opposing sides of the sensor box. By rotating the sensor box, the technologist can select the detection sensor cup that better fits the breast size of the woman being examined. One probe is mounted in the cup center for direct contact with the nipple and the other six probes are uniformly distributed along an outside circle to enable contact with six points on the outer and inner breast skin surfaces. The outer probes are located at a distance of 60mm away from the center (nipple) probe. The system automatically monitors the quality of the contact between the breast surface and each of the seven probes and data acquisition can only be initiated when adequate contact is confirmed. The measurement time for each breast is approximately 15 seconds during which time the system records 121 REIS signal sweep outputs generated from 200 KHz to 800 KHz at 5 KHz increments for all preselected probe pairs. Currently we are measuring 6 pairs between the center probe and each of six probes located on the outer circle as well as two pairs between probe pairs on the outer circle. This new REIS system has been installed in our clinical breast imaging facility. We are conducting a prospective study to assess performance when using this REIS system under an approved IRB protocol. Over 200 examinations have been conducted to date. Our experience showed that this new REIS system was easy to operate and the REIS examination was fast and considered "comfortable" by examinees since the women presses her breast into the cup herself without any need for forced breast compression, and all but a few highly sensitive women have any sensation of an electrical current during the measurement.

Gur, David; Zheng, Bin; Dhurjaty, Sreeram; Wolfe, Gene; Fradin, Mary; Weil, Richard; Sumkin, Jules; Zuley, Margarita

2009-02-01

87

[Evaluation study of abnormal detectability with Thurstone and Scheffé (Nakaya) of paired comparison method using chest phantom].  

PubMed

Monitors are increasingly being used as diagnostic imaging devices. In this study, using an all-purpose liquid-crystal display (LCD), the rate of detection of abnormalities was investigated using Thurstone's and Scheffé's (Nakaya) paired comparison methods. A chest phantom was prepared as a test sample with acryl and aluminum plates and intensities suggesting small adenocarcinomas. For the acquisition conditions for computed radiography, after setting the baseline at a dose at which the film density of the standard screen-film system at the same as those for the lung, costal bone, and mediastinum, 5 steps of 2-fold serial doses were then set: 1/4, 1/2, 1, 2, and 4. The test sample was observed by 10 students. On the Thurstone scale, detectability decreased with a decrease in the dose in the lung, costal bone, and mediastinum. When the significance of differences between the values at adjacent doses was investigated using the yardstick method, using Scheffé's method revealed a significant difference between the 4- and 2-fold doses and between the 1/2 and 1/4 doses in the pulmonary region. A significant difference was also noted between the baseline and 1/2 doses in the mediastinum. Changes in the order of the scale values may not occur in the intervals in which significant differences were noted using Scheffé's methods. PMID:24464066

Mochizuki, Yasuo

2014-01-01

88

The utility of ultrasound for the detection of fetal limb abnormalities – a 20-year single-center experience  

PubMed Central

Objective The standard obstetric ultrasound examination includes documentation of arms and legs. The purpose of this study is to review the efficacy of ultrasound for the detection of limb anomalies, the type and incidence of associated malformations and pregnancy outcomes. Method All cases of polydactyly (POD), abnormal hand position (AHP), limb reduction defects (LRD) and arthrogryposis (ART) scanned in our Unit between 1990 and 2010 were identified. Cases were categorized as isolated (ISO) or non-isolated (NISO). The accuracy of prenatal diagnosis, type and incidence of associated malformations and aneuploidy and pregnancy outcomes were determined. Results Most cases were NISO. The sensitivity of ultrasound was 19.1% for POD, 76.0% for AHP, 76.0% for LRD involving the long bones and 81.3% for ART. Cardiothoracic and facial defects were the most common accompanying malformations. The risk for aneuploidy ranged from 3.6% for POD to 47.2% for AHP. The live birth rate ranged from 85.5% for POD to 24.5% for AHP. Conclusion While imaging of the arms and legs allows detection of most cases of AHP, LRD involving the limbs and ART, a probable minimum of 20% to 25% of cases will escape prenatal diagnosis. Identification of these defects should prompt an extended anatomic survey and consideration of invasive testing for aneuploidy. © 2014 The Authors. Prenatal Diagnosis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25475832

Dicke, Jeffrey M; Piper, Samantha L; Goldfarb, Charles A

2015-01-01

89

Automated identification of abnormal metaphase chromosome cells for the detection of chronic myeloid leukemia using microscopic images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Karyotyping is an important process to classify chromosomes into standard classes and the results are routinely used by the clinicians to diagnose cancers and genetic diseases. However, visual karyotyping using microscopic images is time-consuming and tedious, which reduces the diagnostic efficiency and accuracy. Although many efforts have been made to develop computerized schemes for automated karyotyping, no schemes can get be performed without substantial human intervention. Instead of developing a method to classify all chromosome classes, we develop an automatic scheme to detect abnormal metaphase cells by identifying a specific class of chromosomes (class 22) and prescreen for suspicious chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The scheme includes three steps: (1) iteratively segment randomly distributed individual chromosomes, (2) process segmented chromosomes and compute image features to identify the candidates, and (3) apply an adaptive matching template to identify chromosomes of class 22. An image data set of 451 metaphase cells extracted from bone marrow specimens of 30 positive and 30 negative cases for CML is selected to test the scheme's performance. The overall case-based classification accuracy is 93.3% (100% sensitivity and 86.7% specificity). The results demonstrate the feasibility of applying an automated scheme to detect or prescreen the suspicious cancer cases.

Wang, Xingwei; Zheng, Bin; Li, Shibo; Mulvihill, John J.; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Hong

2010-07-01

90

Intereye Comparison of Cirrus OCT in Early Glaucoma Diagnosis and Detecting Photographic Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Abnormalities.  

PubMed

Purpose: To compare the ability of various maps constructed using Cirrus optical coherence tomography (OCT), including the "intereye comparison" derived from the temporal-superior-inferior-nasal-temporal (TSNIT) map, in terms of glaucoma diagnosis and detection of RNFL defects identified in red-free fundus photographs. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 131 open-angle glaucoma patients with early-stage visual field defects (mean deviation ? -6.0 dB) and 56 normal controls. Intereye differences were identified on TSNIT maps constructed by comparing the RNFL thickness curves of both eyes of individual patients and a separation of the RNFL thickness curves of either eye (by >50 µm) was defined as an abnormality. Results: Among 131 red-free fundus photographic RNFL defects, 57 (44.0%) in the Clock-hour map, 51 (39.0%) in the Quadrant map, 37 (28%) in the Deviation map, 16 (12%) in the Thickness map, and 3 (2%) in the intereye difference obtained from the TSNIT map were misidentified. The intereye difference derived from the TSNIT map afforded a sensitivity superior to that of all other maps when used to evaluate eyes with glaucoma (98.0%, all P values <0.05), and preperimetric eyes (97.7%, all P values <0.001). Conclusions: Of the various maps constructed by the Cirrus OCT, comparison of the RNFL thickness curves of both eyes of an individual, which was possible using TSNIT map data, afforded the best diagnostic capability in terms of detecting photographic RNFL defects. Intereye comparisons of TSNIT thickness curves may be useful to detect early-stage glaucoma. PMID:25468889

Park, Hae-Young Lopilly; Shin, Hye-Young; Yoon, Jae-Yoon; Jung, Younhea; Park, Chan Kee

2014-12-01

91

Plasma Cell Enrichment Enhances Detection of High-Risk Cytogenomic Abnormalities by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization and Improves Risk Stratification of Patients With Plasma Cell Neoplasms  

PubMed Central

Context Methods for plasma cell enrichment in bone marrow (BM) specimens can increase the sensitivity of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for detecting cytogenomic abnormalities, but there is no published report using these methods to evaluate high-risk cytogenomic abnormalities in patients with treated plasma cell neoplasms (PCN) and clinicopathologic data in follow-up. Objective To evaluate the utility of plasma cell enrichment combined with FISH and follow-up data for high-risk cytogenomic abnormalities in post-therapy PCN patients. Design twenty-eight PCN patients with 22 treated were included in this study. Plasma cells were enriched in BM aspirates using a magnetic cell-sorting procedure to select CD138+ cells. Probes were chosen to assess for del(17p13/TP53), del(13q14/RB1), 1q21/CKS1B gain, IgH/FGFR3 and IgH/MAF. Clinicopathologic data were collected during clinical follow-up after plasma cell enrichment. Results Plasma cells in non-enriched specimens ranged from 1%–28% (median, 8%) compared with 28%–96% (median, 73%) in enriched specimens (p<0.0001). In a subset of treated-patients in clinical remission, FISH detected high-risk cytogenomic abnormalities only in plasma cell enriched samples. This approach also detected abnormalities in cases of solitary plasmacytoma and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. Conclusions Plasma cell enrichment of BM samples increases FISH sensitivity to detect high-risk cytogenomic abnormalities, particularly in treated-patients, and these results, in combination with data from clinical follow-up, can be of value to improve risk stratification and patient management. PMID:23627452

Lu, Gary; Muddasani, Ramya; Orlowski, Robert Z.; Abruzzo, Lynne V.; Qazilbash, Muzaffar H.; You, M. James; Wang, Yaping; Zhao, Ming; Chen, Su; Glitza, Isabella Claudia; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey

2015-01-01

92

Earliest known crown-group salamanders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salamanders are a model system for studying the rates and patterns of the evolution of new anatomical structures. Recent discoveries of abundant Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous salamanders are helping to address these issues. Here we report the discovery of well-preserved Middle Jurassic salamanders from China, which constitutes the earliest known record of crown-group urodeles (living salamanders and their closest

Ke-Qin Gao; Neil H. Shubin

2003-01-01

93

Earliest bird had dino-like feet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A new fossil discovery shows that the earliest birds had feet similar to those of theropod dinosaurs (the group of two-legged, meat-eating dinosaurs that includes T. rex). The new specimen provides important details about the feet and skull of these birds and strengthens the argument -- which many but not all scientists agree on -- that modern birds arose from theropod dinosaurs.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS; )

2005-12-01

94

FISH Analysis for the Detection of Lymphoma-Associated Chromosomal Abnormalities in Routine Paraffin-Embedded Tissue  

PubMed Central

Over the last decade, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has become a firmly established technique in the diagnosis and assessment of lymphoid malignancies. However, this technique is not wide-ly used in the routine diagnostic evaluation of paraffin-embedded biopsies, most likely because of a perception that it is technically more demanding. There are also uncertainties regarding diagnostic thresholds and the way in which results should be interpreted. In this Review, we describe practical strategies for using FISH analysis to detect lymphoma-associated chromosomal abnormalities in routine paraffin-embedded lymphoma biopsies. Furthermore, we provide proposals on how FISH results should be interpreted (including how to calculate cutoff levels for FISH probes), recorded, and reported. An online appendix (available at http://jmd.amjpathol.org) details various simple, yet robust procedures for paraffin FISH analysis; it also provides additional information on the production of FISH probes, evaluating and reporting FISH results, sources for reagents and equipment, and troubleshooting. We hope that these suggestions will make FISH technology for the study of lymphoma biopsies more accessible to routine diagnostic and research laboratories. PMID:16645199

Ventura, Roland A.; Martin-Subero, Jose I.; Jones, Margaret; McParland, Joanna; Gesk, Stefan; Mason, David Y.; Siebert, Reiner

2006-01-01

95

Abnormal cortical sensorimotor activity during “Target” sound detection in subjects with acute acoustic trauma sequelae: an fMRI study  

PubMed Central

The most common consequences of acute acoustic trauma (AAT) are hearing loss at frequencies above 3 kHz and tinnitus. In this study, we have used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to visualize neuronal activation patterns in military adults with AAT and various tinnitus sequelae during an auditory “oddball” attention task. AAT subjects displayed overactivities principally during reflex of target sound detection, in sensorimotor areas and in emotion-related areas such as the insula, anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortex, in premotor area, in cross-modal sensory associative areas, and, interestingly, in a region of the Rolandic operculum that has recently been shown to be involved in tympanic movements due to air pressure. We propose further investigations of this brain area and fine middle ear investigations, because our results might suggest a model in which AAT tinnitus may arise as a proprioceptive illusion caused by abnormal excitability of middle-ear muscle spindles possibly link with the acoustic reflex and associated with emotional and sensorimotor disturbances. PMID:22574285

Job, Agnès; Pons, Yoann; Lamalle, Laurent; Jaillard, Assia; Buck, Karl; Segebarth, Christoph; Delon-Martin, Chantal

2012-01-01

96

[21 years "Austrian Program for Early Detection of Congenital Metabolic Abnormalities." Did the screening programs also contribute scientific knowledge?].  

PubMed

Before the introduction of the programme for the early detection of inborn errors of metabolism the discovery of the biochemical abnormality was merely the proof of a diagnoses based on characteristic features. Neonatal screening inverted the process and the biochemical anomaly became primary marker and symptoms were prevented by treatment. In reality, the subsequent development of symptoms was uncertain. In this way a great number of hitherto unknown metabolic anomalies was discovered. Screening methods for the first time allowed correct determination of the incidence of inherited disorders in different population. Important differences were uncovered intra- and internationally. Screening centres performing psychometry not only in homozygote patients, but also in heterozygote parents found that the heterozygotes for phenylketonuria (PKU) in spite of normal blood phenylalanine levels, are slightly subnormal intellectually. This is true also for early- and satisfactory-treated homozygotes. Increased intracellular phenylalanine concentrations in both could explain this slight intellectual subnormality which is, apparently, independent of the blood level. At least three treatment centres observed a decrease in IQ of 9 to 13 points between 1 and 8 years of age in early- and well-treated PKU patients being mostly still in the normal range. The IQ curves are parallel for these tree centres and independent of the age of diet discontinuation. PMID:3070960

Thalhammer, O

1988-10-01

97

Detection of abnormal resting-state networks in individual patients suffering from focal epilepsy: an initial step toward individual connectivity assessment  

PubMed Central

The spatial coherence of spontaneous slow fluctuations in the blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal at rest is routinely used to characterize the underlying resting-state networks (RSNs). Studies have demonstrated that these patterns are organized in space and highly reproducible from subject to subject. Moreover, RSNs reorganizations have been suggested in pathological conditions. Comparisons of RSNs organization have been performed between groups of subjects but have rarely been applied at the individual level, a step required for clinical application. Defining the notion of modularity as the organization of brain activity in stable networks, we propose Detection of Abnormal Networks in Individuals (DANI) to identify modularity changes at the individual level. The stability of each RSN was estimated using a spatial clustering method: Bootstrap Analysis of Stable Clusters (BASC) (Bellec et al., 2010). Our contributions consisted in (i) providing functional maps of the most stable cores of each networks and (ii) in detectingabnormal” individual changes in networks organization when compared to a population of healthy controls. DANI was first evaluated using realistic simulated data, showing that focussing on a conservative core size (50% most stable regions) improved the sensitivity to detect modularity changes. DANI was then applied to resting state fMRI data of six patients with focal epilepsy who underwent multimodal assessment using simultaneous EEG/fMRI acquisition followed by surgery. Only patient with a seizure free outcome were selected and the resected area was identified using a post-operative MRI. DANI automatically detected abnormal changes in 5 out of 6 patients, with excellent sensitivity, showing for each of them at least one “abnormal” lateralized network closely related to the epileptic focus. For each patient, we also detected some distant networks as abnormal, suggesting some remote reorganization in the epileptic brain. PMID:25565949

Dansereau, Christian L.; Bellec, Pierre; Lee, Kangjoo; Pittau, Francesca; Gotman, Jean; Grova, Christophe

2014-01-01

98

[Detection and typing of human papilloma virus by polymerase chain reaction and hybridization assay in cervical samples with cytological abnormalities].  

PubMed

Certain mucosa-tropic human papillomavirus (HPV) types are associated with carcinoma of the uterine cervix or its precursor lesions. In addition to cytological screening, early diagnosis and treatment of cervical carcinoma rely on sensitive detection and typing of HPV isolates. In this study, HPV detection and typing were performed in the cervical samples of patients with abnormal cytological evaluation. Forty randomly-selected cervical samples that comprise 18 ASC-US (Aypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance), four AG-US (Aypical Glandular cells of Undetermined Significance), one ASC-H (Atypical Squamous Cells-can not exclude HSIL), one HSIL (High-grade Intraepithelial Lesion), 14 LSIL (Low-grade Intraepithelial Lesion), one adenocarcinoma and one squamous cell carcinoma, obtained by a commercial liquid-based cytology system (ThinPrep Pap Smear Method, Cytyc, USA), were included to the study. HPV-DNA detection were accomplished by L1 in-house polymerase chain reaction (PCR) performed using MY09/11 and GP5/6 primers along with a commercial real-time PCR (HeliosisTM HPV LC PCR Kit; Metis Biotechnology, Turkey) that detects HPV infections and HPV-16 via melting curve analysis. A commercial PCR-array hybridization test (Rapid HPV Genotyping MacroArray; HybriBio Inc, Hong Kong) that can identify 21 low and high risk HPV types was employed for typing. Viral DNA was detected in 35% (14/40) and 57.5% (23/40) of the samples by MY09/11 and GP5/6 primers, respectively. All in-house PCR positive samples were also positive in the real-time PCR assay. PCR-array hybridization assay provided typing results in 95.6% (22/23) of the PCR positive samples while one LSIL sample could not be typed by any of the methods used. High risk HPV types 16, 18, 31, 45, 52, 56, 58, 59,68 (65.8%); probable high risk type 53 (13.2%), low risk types 6, 42 and 81 (21%) were identified out of a total of 38 HPV isolates. Multiple infections with more than one HPV type were identified in 45.5% (10/22) of positive samples. High/probable high risk types were detected in all single infections and all low risk isolates were present in multiple infections. HPV-16 was identified in 31.8% (7/22) by real-time PCR and in 45.5% (10/23) of positive samples by PCR-array hybridization assay. HPV-16 was observed to be the most frequently detected type (10/22, 45.5%), followed by types 53 and 81 (5/22, 22.7%); 68 (4/22, 18.2%); type 58 (3/22; 13.6%); types 31, 42 and 59 (2/22; 9.1%) and others (1/22, 4.5%). As a result our data have indicated the abundance of high risk HPV isolates and infections with multiple HPV types in that specific area. PMID:18697425

Ergünay, Koray; Misirlio?lu, Müge; Firat, Pinar; Tuncer, Z Selçuk; Tuncer, Serdar; Yildiz, Isil; Ustaçelebi, Semsettin

2008-04-01

99

Meiotic abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

NONE

1993-12-31

100

88 2012 desert symposium Earliest delivery of sediment from the  

E-print Network

is a regionally extensive, latest Miocene or earliest Pliocene sedimentary sequence along the lower Colorado River by large floods, thus heralding the earliest flows of the Colorado River (House et al., 2005, 2008; Spencer

Dorsey, Becky

101

The grain size distribution and the detection of abnormal grain growth of austenite in an eutectoid steel containing niobium  

SciTech Connect

The abnormal grain growth of austenite was studied in a commercial steel of composition (wt%): 0.70 C, 1.36 Mn, 0.72 Si, 0.015 P, 0.027 S and 0.03 Nb. Specimens were thermocycled at various conditions and then grain size distribution determined. The grain size distribution shape did not change during normal grain growth but this distribution widened and flattened during the abnormal grain growth. The initial smaller mean size of carbonitrides and/or the highest homogeneity of niobium carbonitride size distribution of the samples submitted to thermal cycles, in comparison with the normalized samples, increased the abnormal grain growth temperature from 1,373 K to 1,473 K.

Bruno, J.C. (Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica e de Materiais); Rios, P.R. (Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia dos Materiais e Metalurgia)

1995-02-15

102

SU-E-J-122: Detecting Treatment-Induced Metabolic Abnormalities in Craniopharyngioma Patients Undergoing Surgery and Proton Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To identify treatment-induced defects in the brain of children with craniopharyngioma receiving surgery and proton therapy using fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET). Methods: Forty seven patients were enrolled on a clinical trial for craniopharyngioma with serial imaging and functional evaluations. Proton therapy was delivered using the double-scattered beams with a prescribed dose of 54 Cobalt Gray Equivalent. FDG tracer uptake in each of 63 anatomical regions was computed after warping PET images to a 3D reference template in Talairach coordinates. Regional uptake was deemed significantly low or high if exceeding two standard deviations of normal population from the mean. For establishing the normal ranges, 132 children aged 1–20 years with noncentral nervous system related diseases and normal-appearing cerebral PET scans were analyzed. Age- and gender-dependent regional uptake models were developed by linear regression and confidence intervals were calculated. Results: Most common PET abnormality before proton therapy was significantly low uptake in the frontal lobe, the occipital lobe (particularly in cuneus), the medial and ventral temporal lobe, cingulate gyrus, caudate nuclei, and thalamus. They were related to injury from surgical corridors, tumor mass effect, insertion of a ventricular catheter, and the placement of an Ommaya reservoir. Surprisingly a significantly high uptake was observed in temporal gyri and the parietal lobe. In 13 patients who already completed 18-month PET scans, metabolic abnormalities improved in 11 patients from baseline. One patient had persistent abnormalities. Only one revealed new uptake abnormalities in thalamus, brainstem, cerebellum, and insula. Conclusion: Postoperative FDG PET of craniopharyngioma patients revealed metabolic abnormalities in specific regions of the brain. Proton therapy did not appear to exacerbate these surgery- and tumor-induced defects. In patients with persistent and new abnormalities, continued investigation on clinical symptoms and cognitive outcomes is ongoing to establish the association and predictive values of metabolic imaging.

Hua, C; Shulkin, B; Li, Y; LI, X; Merchant, T [St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Indelicato, D [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Boop, F [Semmes-Murphey Neurologic and Spine Institute, Memphis, TN (United States)

2014-06-01

103

Nail abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

Nail abnormalities are problems with the color, shape, texture, or thickness of the fingernails or toenails. ... Infection: Fungus or yeast cause changes in the color, texture, and shape of the nails. Bacterial infection may cause a ...

104

Chromosomal abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytogenetic studies from the peripheral blood of a patient with malignant lymphoma and rhematoid arthritis who was treated with intra-articular gold Au 198 revealed mosaicism with a normal female metaphase and a 43-chromosome metaphase. The abnormal cell line showed six missing normal chromosomes and three morphologically abnormal chromosomes. The trypsin-digested G-banding metaphases showed that the marker chromosomes were an isochromosome

K. Goh; R. F. Jacox; F. W. Anderson

1980-01-01

105

Fetal Abnormalities Detected by Sonography in Low-Risk Pregnancies: Discrepancies between Pre and Post-Termination Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this geographically based study the findings on 158 abnormal fetuses, primarily diagnosed by routine antenatal ultrasound, are correlated with the results of the examinations subsequently carried out by a fetopathologist and a clinical geneticist. Ninety fetuses (57%) had a single malformation, 66 were polymalformed (42%) and 2 had no malformations. In 90% of all these cases, the prenatally and

C. Julian-Reynier; G. Macquart-Moulin; N. Philip; C. Scheiner; A. Potier; D. Gambarelli; S. Aymé

1994-01-01

106

Vertebral architecture in the earliest stem tetrapods.  

PubMed

The construction of the vertebral column has been used as a key anatomical character in defining and diagnosing early tetrapod groups. Rhachitomous vertebrae--in which there is a dorsally placed neural arch and spine, an anteroventrally placed intercentrum and paired, posterodorsally placed pleurocentra--have long been considered the ancestral morphology for tetrapods. Nonetheless, very little is known about vertebral anatomy in the earliest stem tetrapods, because most specimens remain trapped in surrounding matrix, obscuring important anatomical features. Here we describe the three-dimensional vertebral architecture of the Late Devonian stem tetrapod Ichthyostega using propagation phase-contrast X-ray synchrotron microtomography. Our scans reveal a diverse array of new morphological, and associated developmental and functional, characteristics, including a possible posterior-to-anterior vertebral ossification sequence and the first evolutionary appearance of ossified sternal elements. One of the most intriguing features relates to the positional relationships between the vertebral elements, with the pleurocentra being unexpectedly sutured or fused to the intercentra that directly succeed them, indicating a 'reverse' rhachitomous design. Comparison of Ichthyostega with two other stem tetrapods, Acanthostega and Pederpes, shows that reverse rhachitomous vertebrae may be the ancestral condition for limbed vertebrates. This study fundamentally revises our current understanding of vertebral column evolution in the earliest tetrapods and raises questions about the presumed vertebral architecture of tetrapodomorph fish and later, more crownward, tetrapods. PMID:23334417

Pierce, Stephanie E; Ahlberg, Per E; Hutchinson, John R; Molnar, Julia L; Sanchez, Sophie; Tafforeau, Paul; Clack, Jennifer A

2013-02-14

107

Chromosomal abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

Cytogenetic studies from the peripheral blood of a patient with malignant lymphoma and rhematoid arthritis who was treated with intra-articular gold Au 198 revealed mosaicism with a normal female metaphase and a 43-chromosome metaphase. The abnormal cell line showed six missing normal chromosomes and three morphologically abnormal chromosomes. The trypsin-digested G-banding metaphases showed that the marker chromosomes were an isochromosome of the long arm of chromosome 17, a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 16, and a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 5. It is tempting to conclude that these abnormalities were due to the gold Au 198 treatment, but we cannot exclude other possibilities.

Goh, K.; Jacox, R.F.; Anderson, F.W.

1980-09-01

108

[Argyll-Robertson and other pupillary abnormalities in neurosyphilis--with special reference to the detection of peripheral lesions].  

PubMed

The pupillary disturbances in twenty five neurosyphilitic patients were investigated. Miotic, light-rigid pupils, i.e., Argyll-Robertson pupils were found in only three of these patients. One of three patients showed unilateral Argyll-Robertson pupil. Irregular margins of the iris were associated with these miotic, light-rigid pupils. Abnormal striations of the iris were found in four of eight non-miotic (medium size), light-rigid pupils. Cocaine or ephedrine produced dilatation of two of these pupils, and, following this mydriasis, the pupils were capable of constricting to light. These abnormalities of the iris were not found in slightly light-reactive pupil. The light-rigid pupil induced by long-term administration of neuroleptics and antiparkinson drug in comparison with Argyll-Robertson pupil was also mentioned, and the findings of many authorities who have proposed a peripheral nerve pathogenesis of the Argyll-Robertson syndrome were reviewed. PMID:6137444

Okada, F

1983-05-01

109

Single-subject-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mild traumatic brain injury  

PubMed Central

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of sustained impairment in military and civilian populations. However, mild TBI (mTBI) can be difficult to detect using conventional MRI or CT. Injured brain tissues in mTBI patients generate abnormal slow-waves (1–4 Hz) that can be measured and localized by resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG). In this study, we develop a voxel-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mTBI on a single-subject basis. A normative database of resting-state MEG source magnitude images (1–4 Hz) from 79 healthy control subjects was established for all brain voxels. The high-resolution MEG source magnitude images were obtained by our recent Fast-VESTAL method. In 84 mTBI patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms (36 from blasts, and 48 from non-blast causes), our method detected abnormalities at the positive detection rates of 84.5%, 86.1%, and 83.3% for the combined (blast-induced plus with non-blast causes), blast, and non-blast mTBI groups, respectively. We found that prefrontal, posterior parietal, inferior temporal, hippocampus, and cerebella areas were particularly vulnerable to head trauma. The result also showed that MEG slow-wave generation in prefrontal areas positively correlated with personality change, trouble concentrating, affective lability, and depression symptoms. Discussion is provided regarding the neuronal mechanisms of MEG slow-wave generation due to deafferentation caused by axonal injury and/or blockages/limitations of cholinergic transmission in TBI. This study provides an effective way for using MEG slow-wave source imaging to localize affected areas and supports MEG as a tool for assisting the diagnosis of mTBI. PMID:25009772

Huang, Ming-Xiong; Nichols, Sharon; Baker, Dewleen G.; Robb, Ashley; Angeles, Annemarie; Yurgil, Kate A.; Drake, Angela; Levy, Michael; Song, Tao; McLay, Robert; Theilmann, Rebecca J.; Diwakar, Mithun; Risbrough, Victoria B.; Ji, Zhengwei; Huang, Charles W.; Chang, Douglas G.; Harrington, Deborah L.; Muzzatti, Laura; Canive, Jose M.; Christopher Edgar, J.; Chen, Yu-Han; Lee, Roland R.

2014-01-01

110

Earliest known crown-group salamanders.  

PubMed

Salamanders are a model system for studying the rates and patterns of the evolution of new anatomical structures. Recent discoveries of abundant Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous salamanders are helping to address these issues. Here we report the discovery of well-preserved Middle Jurassic salamanders from China, which constitutes the earliest known record of crown-group urodeles (living salamanders and their closest relatives). The new specimens are from the volcanic deposits of the Jiulongshan Formation (Bathonian), Inner Mongolia, China, and represent basal members of the Cryptobranchidae, a family that includes the endangered Asian giant salamander (Andrias) and the North American hellbender (Cryptobranchus). These fossils document a Mesozoic record of the Cryptobranchidae, predating the previous record of the group by some 100 million years. This discovery provides evidence to support the hypothesis that the divergence of the Cryptobranchidae from the Hynobiidae had taken place in Asia before the Middle Jurassic period. PMID:12660782

Gao, Ke-Qin; Shubin, Neil H

2003-03-27

111

The earliest ion channels in protocellular membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cellular membranes with their hydrophobic interior are virtually impermeable to ions. Bulk of ion transport through them is enabled through ion channels. Ion channels of contemporary cells are complex protein molecules which span the membrane creating a cylindrical pore filled with water. Protocells, which are widely regarded as precursors to modern cells, had similarly impermeable membranes, but the set of proteins in their disposal was much simpler and more limited. We have been, therefore, exploring an idea that the first ion channels in protocellular membranes were formed by much smaller peptide molecules that could spontaneously self-assemble into short-lived cylindrical bundles in a membrane. Earlier studies have shown that a group of peptides known as peptaibols is capable of forming ion channels in lipid bilayers when they are exposed to an electric field. Peptaibols are small, non-genetically encoded peptides produced by some fungi as a part of their system of defense against bacteria. They are usually only 14-20 residues long, which is just enough to span the membrane. Their sequence is characterized by the presence of non-standard amino acids which, interestingly, are also expected to have existed on the early earth. In particular, the presence of 2-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) gives peptaibols strong helix forming propensities. Association of the helices inside membranes leads to the formation of cylindrical bundles, typically containing 4 to 10 monomers. Although peptaibols are excellent candidates for models of the earliest ion channels their struc-tures, which are stabilized only by van der Waals forces and occasional hydrogen bonds between neighboring helices, are not very stable. Although it might properly reflect protobiological real-ity, it is also a major obstacle in studying channel behavior. For this reason we focused on two members of the peptaibol family, trichotoxin and antiamoebin, which are characterized by a single conductance level. This indicates that their structures are unique and stable. In addition, it is also believed that the trichotoxin channel displays some selectivity between potassium and chloride ions. This makes trichotoxin and antiamoebin ideal models of the earliest ion channels that could provide insight into the origins of ion conductance and selectivity. In the absence of crystal structure of the trichotoxin and antiamoebin channels, we propose their molecular models based on experimentally determined number of monomers forming the bundles. We use molecular dynamics simulations to validate the models in terms of their conductance and selectivity. On the basis of our simulations we show that the emergence of channels built of small, ?-helical peptides was protobiologically plausible and did not require highly specific amino acid sequences, which is a convenient evolutionary trait. Despite their simple structure, such channels could possess properties that, at the first sight, appear to require markedly larger complexity. To this end, we will discuss how the amino acid sequence and structure of primitive channels give rise to the phenomena of ionic conductance and selectivity across the earliest cell walls, which were essential functions for the emergence and early evolution of protocells. Furthermore, we will argue that even though architectures of membrane proteins are not nearly as diverse as those of water-soluble proteins, they are sufficiently flexible to adapt readily to the functional demands arising during evolution.

Mijajlovic, Milan; Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael; Wei, Chenyu

112

The Earliest Ion Channels in Protocellular Membranes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cellular membranes with their hydrophobic interior are virtually impermeable to ions. Bulk of ion transport through them is enabled through ion channels. Ion channels of contemporary cells are complex protein molecules which span the membrane creating a cylindrical pore filled with water. Protocells, which are widely regarded as precursors to modern cells, had similarly impermeable membranes, but the set of proteins in their disposal was much simpler and more limited. We have been, therefore, exploring an idea that the first ion channels in protocellular membranes were formed by much smaller peptide molecules that could spontaneously selfassemble into short-lived cylindrical bundles in a membrane. Earlier studies have shown that a group of peptides known as peptaibols is capable of forming ion channels in lipid bilayers when they are exposed to an electric field. Peptaibols are small, non-genetically encoded peptides produced by some fungi as a part of their system of defense against bacteria. They are usually only 14-20 residues long, which is just enough to span the membrane. Their sequence is characterized by the presence of non-standard amino acids which, interestingly, are also expected to have existed on the early earth. In particular, the presence of 2-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) gives peptaibols strong helix forming propensities. Association of the helices inside membranes leads to the formation of cylindrical bundles, typically containing 4 to 10 monomers. Although peptaibols are excellent candidates for models of the earliest ion channels their structures, which are stabilized only by van der Waals forces and occasional hydrogen bonds between neighboring helices, are not very stable. Although it might properly reflect protobiological reality, it is also a major obstacle in studying channel behavior. For this reason we focused on two members of the peptaibol family, trichotoxin and antiamoebin, which are characterized by a single conductance level. This indicates that their structures are unique and stable. In addition, it is also believed that the trichotoxin channel displays some selectivity between potassium and chloride ions. This makes trichotoxin and antiamoebin ideal models of the earliest ion channels that could provide insight into the origins of ion conductance and selectivity. In the absence of crystal structure of the trichotoxin and antiamoebin channels, we propose their molecular models based on experimentally determined number of monomers forming the bundles. We use molecular dynamics simulations to validate the models in terms of their conductance and selectivity. On the basis of our simulations we show that the emergence of channels built of small, alpha-helical peptides was protobiologically plausible and did not require highly specific amino acid sequences, which is a convenient evolutionary trait. Despite their simple structure, such channels could possess properties that, at the first sight, appear to require markedly larger complexity. To this end, we will discuss how the amino acid sequence and structure of primitive channels give rise to the phenomena of ionic conductance and selectivity across the earliest cell walls, which were essential functions for the emergence and early evolution of protocells. Furthermore, we will argue that even though architectures of membrane proteins are not nearly as diverse as those of water-soluble proteins, they are sufficiently flexible to adapt readily to the functional demands arising during evolution.

Mijajlovic, Milan; Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael; Wei, Chenyu

2010-01-01

113

Linear array genotyping and hybrid capture II assay in detecting human papillomavirus genotypes in women referred for colposcopy due to abnormal Papanicolaou smear.  

PubMed

The main objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping in women referred for colposcopy due to abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smear. A series of 248 women referred for colposcopy due to an abnormal Pap smear were analysed with the Roche Linear Array HPV genotyping test detecting 37 most frequent HPV types, and compared with hybrid capture II (HCII) assay for oncogenic (high-risk [HR] HPV) types as well as for p16INK4a expression using immunocytochemistry. All tests were performed in cervical samples collected in PreservCyt liquid media for liquid-based cytology (ThinPrep), and colposcopic biopsy and/or loop electro excision procedure cone biopsy was used as the gold standard. HPV16 was the single most frequent genotype (29/258; 11.7%), followed by HPV51 (4.4%), HPV66 (3.6%), HPV42, 52 and 56 (3.2% for all). Linear array genotyping test significantly predicts both abnormal colposcopy (odds ratio [OR] = 9.0; 3.12-25.93), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (OR = 9.6; 1.26-74.17) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 3+ (OR = 29.3; 3.95-218.06). In detecting CIN3, linear array was equivalent (97.6%) to colposcopy in sensitivity (SE), both being superior to HCII (92.7%). Concordance between linear array and HCII was moderate (Cohen's kappa kappa = 0.547; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.435-659). Specificity (SP) and positive predictive value (PPV) of linear array were significantly improved, if only HPV16 genotype was considered. Performance in the best balance is obtained, when linear array and colposcopy are combined, giving 82.9% SE, 93.9% SP, 73.9% PPV and 96.3% negative predictive value (NPV) as predictor of CIN3+ (OR 74.5; 95% CI: 27.36-202.72). In conclusion, linear array for HR-HPV is a highly sensitive test (97.6%) with high NPV (98.9%) in detecting CIN3+ lesions. HPV16 genotyping alone significantly improves SP and PPV of this test in management of women with abnormal cytology. PMID:18595876

Monsonego, Joseph; Pollini, Giuseppe; Evrard, Marie José; Sednaoui, Patrice; Monfort, Laura; Quinzat, Dominique; Dachez, Roger; Syrjänen, Kari

2008-06-01

114

Noninvasive Skin Fluorescence Spectroscopy is Comparable to Hemoglobin A1c and Fasting Plasma Glucose for Detection of Abnormal Glucose Tolerance  

PubMed Central

Aim: We compare performance of noninvasive skin fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and hemoglobin A1c (A1C) for detection of abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT). Methods: The NSEEDS trial evaluated SFS, FPG, and A1C in an at-risk population of 479 previously undiagnosed subjects from nine US centers, each of whom received a 75 g, 2 h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Skin fluorescence spectra were collected and analyzed with SCOUT DS® devices. Disease truth was AGT, defined as OGTT ?140 mg/dl. Abnormal glucose tolerance sensitivity, false positive rate (FPR), and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were computed for each measurement technique. Skin fluorescence spectroscopy reproducibility was also assessed. Results: The AGT sensitivity of SFS was 68.2%, higher than that of FPG (thresholds of 100 and 110 mg/dl) and A1C (thresholds of 5.7% and 6.0%). The FPR of SFS was 37.7%, comparable to A1C at the 5.7% threshold (30.7%). Partial ROC areas of SFS, FPG, and A1C were similar for FPRs of 20–50% (average sensitivities of 64.0%, 59.0%, and 68.6%, respectively). The interday coefficient of variation for SFS was 7.6%. Conclusions: Skin fluorescence spectroscopy has similar screening performance to FPG and A1C and is a viable approach for detection of AGT. PMID:23911181

Olson, Byron P.; Matter, Nathaniel I.; Ediger, Marwood N.; Hull, Edward L.; Maynard, John D.

2013-01-01

115

Earliest Archaeological Evidence of Persistent Hominin Carnivory  

PubMed Central

The emergence of lithic technology by ?2.6 million years ago (Ma) is often interpreted as a correlate of increasingly recurrent hominin acquisition and consumption of animal remains. Associated faunal evidence, however, is poorly preserved prior to ?1.8 Ma, limiting our understanding of early archaeological (Oldowan) hominin carnivory. Here, we detail three large well-preserved zooarchaeological assemblages from Kanjera South, Kenya. The assemblages date to ?2.0 Ma, pre-dating all previously published archaeofaunas of appreciable size. At Kanjera, there is clear evidence that Oldowan hominins acquired and processed numerous, relatively complete, small ungulate carcasses. Moreover, they had at least occasional access to the fleshed remains of larger, wildebeest-sized animals. The overall record of hominin activities is consistent through the stratified sequence – spanning hundreds to thousands of years – and provides the earliest archaeological evidence of sustained hominin involvement with fleshed animal remains (i.e., persistent carnivory), a foraging adaptation central to many models of hominin evolution. PMID:23637995

Ferraro, Joseph V.; Plummer, Thomas W.; Pobiner, Briana L.; Oliver, James S.; Bishop, Laura C.; Braun, David R.; Ditchfield, Peter W.; Seaman, John W.; Binetti, Katie M.; Seaman, John W.; Hertel, Fritz; Potts, Richard

2013-01-01

116

Oxygen requirements of the earliest animals  

PubMed Central

A rise in the oxygen content of the atmosphere and oceans is one of the most popular explanations for the relatively late and abrupt appearance of animal life on Earth. In this scenario, Earth’s surface environment failed to meet the high oxygen requirements of animals up until the middle to late Neoproterozoic Era (850–542 million years ago), when oxygen concentrations sufficiently rose to permit the existence of animal life for the first time. Although multiple lines of geochemical evidence support an oxygenation of the Ediacaran oceans (635–542 million years ago), roughly corresponding with the first appearance of metazoans in the fossil record, the oxygen requirements of basal animals remain unclear. Here we show that modern demosponges, serving as analogs for early animals, can survive under low-oxygen conditions of 0.5–4.0% present atmospheric levels. Because the last common ancestor of metazoans likely exhibited a physiology and morphology similar to that of a modern sponge, its oxygen demands may have been met well before the enhanced oxygenation of the Ediacaran Period. Therefore, the origin of animals may not have been triggered by a contemporaneous rise in the oxygen content of the atmosphere and oceans. Instead, other ecological and developmental processes are needed to adequately explain the origin and earliest evolution of animal life on Earth. PMID:24550467

Mills, Daniel B.; Ward, Lewis M.; Jones, CarriAyne; Sweeten, Brittany; Forth, Michael; Treusch, Alexander H.; Canfield, Donald E.

2014-01-01

117

CpG Oligonucleotide and Interleukin 2 stimulation enables higher cytogenetic abnormality detection rates than 12-o-tetradecanolyphorbol-13-acetate in Asian patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL).  

PubMed

The present study was designed to compare abnormality detection rates using DSP30 + IL2 and 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in Asian patients with B-CLL. Hematological specimens from 47 patients (29 newly diagnosed, 18 relapsed) were established as 72 h-DSP30 + IL2 and TPA cultures. Standard methods were employed to identify clonal aberrations by conventional cytogenetics (CC). The B-CLL fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) panel comprised ATM, CEP12, D13S25, and TP53 probes. DSP30 + IL2 cultures had a higher chromosomal abnormality detection rate (67 %) compared to TPA (44 %, p < 0.001). The mean number of analyzable metaphases and abnormal metaphases per slide was also higher (p < 0.005, p < 0.001, respectively). Culture success rate, percentage of complex karyotype, and percentage of non-clonal abnormal cell were not significantly different (p > 0.05). Thirteen cases with abnormalities were found exclusively in DSP30 + IL2 cultures compared to one found solely in TPA cultures. DSP30 + IL2 cultures were comparable to the FISH panel in detecting 11q-, +12 and 17p- but not 13q-. It also has a predilection for 11q- bearing leukemic cells compared to TPA. FISH had a higher abnormality detection rate (84.1 %) compared to CC (66.0 %) with borderline significance (p = 0.051), albeit limited by its coverage. In conclusion, DSP30 + IL2 showed a higher abnormality detection rate. However, FISH is indispensable to circumvent low mitotic indices and detect subtle abnormalities. PMID:25301672

Liaw, Fiona Pui San; Lau, Lai Ching; Lim, Alvin Soon Tiong; Lim, Tse Hui; Lee, Geok Yee; Tien, Sim Leng

2014-12-01

118

Multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction screening in acute myeloid leukemia detects cytogenetically unrevealed abnormalities of prognostic significance.  

PubMed

A commercial multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction screening assay, covering 28 leukemic fusion transcripts, was applied in 143 samples obtained from patients with acute myeloid leukemia at primary diagnosis. In five patients, a cytogenetically unrevealed fusion gene of prognostic importance was detected, while the assay failed to detect one case of t(15;17). PMID:15996940

Hutchings Hoffmann, Marianne; Wirenfeldt Klausen, Tobias; Hasle, Henrik; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Brondum-Nielsen, Karen; Johnsen, Hans Erik

2005-07-01

119

Earliest Holozoan expansion of phosphotyrosine signaling.  

PubMed

Phosphotyrosine (pTyr) signaling is involved in development and maintenance of metazoans' multicellular body through cell-to-cell communication. Tyrosine kinases (TKs), tyrosine phosphatases, and other proteins relaying the signal compose the cascade. Domain architectures of the pTyr signaling proteins are diverse in metazoans, reflecting their complex intercellular communication. Previous studies had shown that the metazoan-type TKs, as well as other pTyr signaling proteins, were already diversified in the common ancestor of metazoans, choanoflagellates, and filastereans (which are together included in the clade Holozoa) whereas they are absent in fungi and other nonholozoan lineages. However, the earliest-branching holozoans Ichthyosporea and Corallochytrea, as well as the two fungi-related amoebae Fonticula and Nuclearia, have not been studied. Here, we analyze the complete genome sequences of two ichthyosporeans and Fonticula, and RNAseq data of three additional ichthyosporeans, one corallochytrean, and Nuclearia. Both the ichthyosporean and corallochytrean genomes encode a large variety of receptor TKs (RTKs) and cytoplasmic TKs (CTKs), as well as other pTyr signaling components showing highly complex domain architectures. However, Nuclearia and Fonticula have no TK, and show much less diversity in other pTyr signaling components. The CTK repertoires of both Ichthyosporea and Corallochytrea are similar to those of Metazoa, Choanoflagellida, and Filasterea, but the RTK sets are totally different from each other. The complex pTyr signaling equipped with positive/negative feedback mechanism likely emerged already at an early stage of holozoan evolution, yet keeping a high evolutionary plasticity in extracellular signal reception until the co-option of the system for cell-to-cell communication in metazoans. PMID:24307687

Suga, Hiroshi; Torruella, Guifré; Burger, Gertraud; Brown, Matthew W; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki

2014-03-01

120

Sonographic cutoff values for detection of abnormalities in small, medium and large joints: a comparative study between patients with rheumatoid arthritis and healthy volunteers.  

PubMed

To determine ultrasound measurements indicative of abnormalities in small, medium and large joints, we conducted a cross-sectional study comparing 60 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 78 healthy volunteers. A MyLab 60 ultrasound machine (Esaote) and a linear multifrequency probe were used. Quantitative measurements of synovial recesses and semiquantitative measurements of synovial hyperplasia, power Doppler and bone erosion (scores = 0-3) were performed. The cutoff values for synovial recesses indicating RA (receiver operating characteristic curve, area under the curve >0.800) were found to be (radiocarpal) 3.78 mm and (ulnocarpal) 3.07 mm. Those measurements with the greatest chance of indicating RA (logistic regression analysis expressed as odds ratios [ORs]) were (p < 0.001) measurements of synovial hyperplasia (ulnocarpal, OR = 100, and radiocarpal, OR = 70); synovial power Doppler (radiocarpal, OR = 66); synovial bone erosion (radiocarpal, OR = 324); fifth metatarsophalangeal joint (OR = 100); and second metacarpophalangeal joint (OR = 92). We concluded that for both quantitative and semiquantitative ultrasound measurements, radiocarpal abnormalities increase the chance of detecting RA. PMID:25701521

Machado, Flávia Soares; Furtado, Rita Nely Vilar; Takahashi, Rogerio Diniz; de Buosi, Ana Leticia Pirosi; Natour, Jamil

2015-04-01

121

Diffusion MRI of the Developing Cerebral Cortical Gray Matter can be Used to Detect Abnormalities in Tissue Microstructure Associated with Fetal Ethanol Exposure  

PubMed Central

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) comprise a wide range of neurological deficits that result from fetal exposure to ethanol (EtOH), and are the leading cause of environmentally related birth defects and mental retardation in the western world. One aspect of diagnostic and therapeutic intervention strategies that could substantially improve our ability to combat this significant problem would be to facilitate earlier detection of the disorders within individuals. Light microscopy-based investigations performed by several laboratories have previously shown that morphological development of neurons within the early-developing cerebral cortex is abnormal within the brains of animals exposed to EtOH during fetal development. We and others have recently demonstrated that diffusion MRI can be of utility for detecting abnormal cellular morphological development in the developing cerebral cortex. We therefore assessed whether diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could be used to distinguish the developing cerebral cortices of ex vivo rat pup brains born from dams treated with EtOH (EtOH; 4.5 g/kg, 25%) or calorie-matched quantities of maltose/dextrin (M/D) throughout gestation. Water diffusion and tissue microstructure were investigated using DTI (fractional anisotropy, FA) and histology (anisotropy index, AI), respectively. Both FA and AI decreased with age, and were higher in the EtOH than the M/D group at postnatal ages (P)0, P3, and P6. Additionally, there was a significant correlation between FA and AI measurements. These findings provide evidence that disruptions in cerebral cortical development induced by EtOH exposure can be revealed by water diffusion anisotropy patterns, and that these disruptions are directly related to cerebral cortical differentiation. PMID:23921100

Leigland, Lindsey A.; Budde, Matthew D.; Cornea, Anda; Kroenke, Christopher D.

2013-01-01

122

Diffusion MRI of the developing cerebral cortical gray matter can be used to detect abnormalities in tissue microstructure associated with fetal ethanol exposure.  

PubMed

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) comprise a wide range of neurological deficits that result from fetal exposure to ethanol (EtOH), and are the leading cause of environmentally related birth defects and mental retardation in the western world. One aspect of diagnostic and therapeutic intervention strategies that could substantially improve our ability to combat this significant problem would be to facilitate earlier detection of the disorders within individuals. Light microscopy-based investigations performed by several laboratories have previously shown that morphological development of neurons within the early-developing cerebral cortex is abnormal within the brains of animals exposed to EtOH during fetal development. We and others have recently demonstrated that diffusion MRI can be of utility for detecting abnormal cellular morphological development in the developing cerebral cortex. We therefore assessed whether diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could be used to distinguish the developing cerebral cortices of ex vivo rat pup brains born from dams treated with EtOH (EtOH; 4.5 g/kg, 25%) or calorie-matched quantities of maltose/dextrin (M/D) throughout gestation. Water diffusion and tissue microstructure were investigated using DTI (fractional anisotropy, FA) and histology (anisotropy index, AI), respectively. Both FA and AI decreased with age, and were higher in the EtOH than the M/D group at postnatal ages (P)0, P3, and P6. Additionally, there was a significant correlation between FA and AI measurements. These findings provide evidence that disruptions in cerebral cortical development induced by EtOH exposure can be revealed by water diffusion anisotropy patterns, and that these disruptions are directly related to cerebral cortical differentiation. PMID:23921100

Leigland, Lindsey A; Budde, Matthew D; Cornea, Anda; Kroenke, Christopher D

2013-12-01

123

Significance of sagittal reformations in routine thoracic and abdominal multislice CT studies for detecting osteoporotic fractures and other spine abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose was to assess osteoporotic vertebral fractures and other spinal lesions in sagittal reformations obtained from\\u000a routine multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) studies of the thorax and abdomen, to compare sagittal reformations with\\u000a axial images in detecting these lesions and to investigate how frequently they were missed in the official radiology report.\\u000a Routine abdominal or thoracoabdominal MDCT using a standard

Dirk Müller; Jan S. Bauer; Martin Zeile; Ernst J. Rummeny; Thomas M. Link

2008-01-01

124

Comparing voxel-based iterative sensitivity and voxel-based morphometry to detect abnormalities in T2-weighted MRI.  

PubMed

This study aimed to test the superiority proposed by Abbott et al. (2011) of their Voxel based iterative sensitivity (VBIS) method over Voxel Based Morphometry using T2-weighted images (T2-VBM), in detecting intensity changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A comparison was made first in simulated intensity lesions and then in AD patients. Intensity changes were evaluated in the whole-brain with VBIS and with a simple intensity-based approach and in specific tissue classes with the conventional VBM method of using tissue probability segments. Results showed that VBIS performed well in the simulated environment though it showed no superiority in detecting the lesion compared to the much simpler VBM approach. The VBIS method, however, failed to detect any meaningful signal intensity reduction in AD patient data. Moreover, its whole brain approach was contaminated by the excess cerebrospinal fluid signal (very bright on T2-weighted scans) in areas of maximal measurable atrophy (mesial temporal lobes); this gave rise to spurious signal intensity increases in these regions in AD. The same artefact was observed for both intensity-based methods but not with the conventional VBM approach of performing statistics on grey matter segments. In conclusion, no evidence was found to indicate that VBIS offers benefits over T2-VBM in AD, nor in simulation intensity lesions. The study highlights the necessity of empirically testing voxel-based analysis techniques rather than merely claiming superiority of one method over another on theoretical grounds. PMID:24954279

Diaz-de-Grenu, Lara Z; Acosta-Cabronero, Julio; Williams, Guy B; Nestor, Peter J

2014-10-15

125

SNP Array Karyotyping Allows for the Detection of Uniparental Disomy and Cryptic Chromosomal Abnormalities in MDS/MPD-U and MPD  

PubMed Central

We applied single nucleotide polymorphism arrays (SNP-A) to study karyotypic abnormalities in patients with atypical myeloproliferative syndromes (MPD), including myeloproliferative/myelodysplastic syndrome overlap both positive and negative for the JAK2 V617F mutation and secondary acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In typical MPD cases (N?=?8), which served as a control group, those with a homozygous V617F mutation showed clear uniparental disomy (UPD) of 9p using SNP-A. Consistent with possible genomic instability, in 19/30 MDS/MPD-U patients, we found additional lesions not identified by metaphase cytogenetics. In addition to UPD9p, we also have detected UPD affecting other chromosomes, including 1 (2/30), 11 (4/30), 12 (1/30) and 22 (1/30). Transformation to AML was observed in 8/30 patients. In 5 V617F+ patients who progressed to AML, we show that SNP-A can allow for the detection of two modes of transformation: leukemic blasts evolving from either a wild-type jak2 precursor carrying other acquired chromosomal defects, or from a V617F+ mutant progenitor characterized by UPD9p. SNP-A-based detection of cryptic lesions in MDS/MPD-U may help explain the clinical heterogeneity of this disorder. PMID:18030353

Gondek, Lukasz P.; Dunbar, Andrew J.; Szpurka, Hadrian; McDevitt, Michael A.; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw P.

2007-01-01

126

The 'Meta-Data' of Earliest Christian Manuscripts   

E-print Network

The earliest extant physical artefacts of Christianity are manuscripts, and scholars concerned with the origins of Christianity should feel more obliged to familiarize themselves with these artefacts as a matter of some priority. This obligation...

Hurtado, Larry W

2007-01-01

127

Comparison of RootMUSIC and Discrete Wavelet Transform Analysis of Doppler Ultrasound Blood Flow Waveforms to Detect Microvascular Abnormalities in Type I Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The earliest signs of cardiovascular disease occur in microcirculations. Changes to mechanical and structural prop- erties of these small resistive vessels alter the impedance to flow, subsequent reflected waves, and consequently, flow waveform mor- phology. In this paper, we compare two frequency analysis tech- niques: 1) rootMUSIC and 2) the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) to extract features of flow velocity

Christina Elizabeth Agnew; A. J. McCann; C. J. Lockhart; P. K. Hamilton; G. E. McVeigh; R. C. McGivern

2011-01-01

128

Echocardiographic abnormalities following cardiac radiation  

SciTech Connect

Five years or more after receiving cardiac radiation, 41 patients with Hodgkin's disease and seminoma in remission were subjected to echocardiography. The abnormalities detected included pericardial thickening in 70%, thickening of the aortic and/or mitral valves in 28%, right ventricular dilatation or hypokinesis in 39%, and left ventricular dysfunction in 39%. In the 23 patients treated by an upper mantle technique with shielding, the incidence of right ventricular abnormalities and valvular thickening was significantly lower than in patients treated with modified techniques. Although no symptoms were attributable to the observed abnormalities, longer follow-up time may reveal important functional implications.

Perrault, D.J.; Levy, M.; Herman, J.D.; Burns, R.J.; Bar Shlomo, B.Z.; Druck, M.N.; Wu, W.Q.; McLaughlin, P.R.; Gilbert, B.W.

1985-04-01

129

Classification of grossly detectable abnormalities and conditions seen at postmortem in Canadian poultry abattoirs according to a hazard identification decision tree.  

PubMed

This study was designed to review all grossly detectable abnormalities and conditions (GDACs) encountered in poultry in Canadian abattoirs to determine which have potential to cause adverse health effects for the consumer. Review of the literature and consultation with scientists in the field of microbiology, epidemiology, poultry pathology, chemistry, and meat inspection served to generate an inventory of GDACs, and a decision tree containing algorithms was developed to identify GDACs potentially representing a health hazard to consumers. Through the use of the decision tree, GDACs were classified into different categories with regard to the risk they represent to humans. A number of GDACs were identified as being of potential concern from a food safety perspective, namely Erysipelas, fowl cholera, Campylobacteriosis, clostridial diseases, hepatitis/enteritis associated with Helicobacter, Listeriosis, Salmonella infections (nontyphoid infections, Salmonella arizonae, pullorum disease, and fowl typhoid), Staphylococcosis, and Toxoplasmosis. Further characterization--i.e., hazard characterization, exposure assessment, and risk characterization--is required to quantify or better characterize the probability that products derived from affected carcasses may affect the consumer as well as the resulting consequences. Risk assessment is a dynamic process. Results presented in this paper are based on available information and expert opinion. As new information is obtained, the inventory of GDACs and their classification may be modified. PMID:11770626

Bisaillon, J R; Feltmate, T E; Sheffield, S; Julian, R; Todd, E; Poppe, C; Quessy, S

2001-12-01

130

Skeletal limb abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

Skeletal limb abnormalities may be due to: Cancer Genetic diseases and chromosomal abnormalities, including Marfan syndrome , Down syndrome, Apert syndrome , Basal cell nevus syndrome Improper position ...

131

Multigated equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography: improved detection of left ventricular wall motion abnormalities and aneurysms by the addition of the left lateral view  

SciTech Connect

The usefulness of adding the left lateral (LLAT) view to the standard anterior and left anterior oblique views in multigated equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography was assessed in 50 patients. Contrast ventriculography was used as the standard. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to assess results. Recognition of inferior wall motion abnormality and left ventricular aneurysms was improved significantly by the addition of the LLAT view. Sensitivity was improved for inferior wall motion abnormality and for aneurysms; there was no loss of specificity. There was no improvement in recognition of anterior wall and apical regional abnormalities in the absence of aneurysms.

Kelly, M.J.; Giles, R.W.; Simon, T.R.; Berger, H.J.; Langou, R.A.; Zaret, B.L.; Wackers, F.J.T.

1981-04-01

132

The earliest Metridiochoerus (Artiodactyla: Suidae) from the Usno Formation, Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Metridiochoerus (Artiodactyla: Suidae) is well documented in the African Plio-Pleistocene, but its origins are obscure. We report here on a specimen from the Usno Formation (ca. 3.4 Ma) of Ethiopia that confirms the First Appearance Datum (FAD) for this genus. This earliest known upper third molar is the most primitive example of Metridiochoerus yet documented, and firmly anchors

Tim D. White; F. Clark Howell; Henry Gilbert

2006-01-01

133

Constraints and preadaptations in the earliest stages of language evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

If we accept the view that language first evolved from the conceptual struc- ture of our pre-linguistic ancestors, several questions arise, including: What kind of structure? Concepts about what? Here we review research on the vocal communication and cognition of nonhuman primates, focusing on results that may be relevant to the earliest stages of language evolution. From these data we

Dorothy L. Cheney; Robert M. Seyfarth

2005-01-01

134

Capturing climate variability during our ancestors' earliest days  

E-print Network

is linked to climate-driven ecosystem change. Detailed stratigraphic control is required to understandCapturing climate variability during our ancestors' earliest days Brett J. Tipple1 Department of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 C limate's role in shaping the en- vironmental

Tipple, Brett

135

7. HOSPITAL. ONE OF THE EARLIEST BUILDINGS COMPLETED ON POST. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. HOSPITAL. ONE OF THE EARLIEST BUILDINGS COMPLETED ON POST. THIS STRUCTURE IS EXCLUDED FROM THE DISTRCIT BECAUSE OF ITS ALTERATIONS, BUT IS INCLUDED IN THIS LISTING BECAUSE IT RELATES TO THE DISTRICT HISTORICALLY. - Fort Lawton, Discovery Park, Seattle, King County, WA

136

Is gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer?  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the

Stephen Holt; Robert C. Heading; Thomas V. Taylor; John A. Forrest; Peter Tothill

1986-01-01

137

The earliest record of human activity in northern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The colonization of Eurasia by early humans is a key event after their spread out of Africa, but the nature, timing and ecological context of the earliest human occupation of northwest Europe is uncertain and has been the subject of intense debate. The southern Caucasus was occupied about 1.8 million years (Myr) ago, whereas human remains from Atapuerca-TD6, Spain (more

Simon A. Parfitt; René W. Barendregt; Marzia Breda; Ian Candy; G. Russell Coope; Paul Durbidge; Mike H. Field; Jonathan R. Lee; Adrian M. Lister; Robert Mutch; Kirsty E. H. Penkman; Richard C. Preece; James Rose; Christopher B. Stringer; Robert Symmons; John E. Whittaker; John J. Wymer; Anthony J. Stuart

2005-01-01

138

Chemical and archaeological evidence for the earliest cacao beverages  

PubMed Central

Chemical analyses of residues extracted from pottery vessels from Puerto Escondido in what is now Honduras show that cacao beverages were being made there before 1000 B.C., extending the confirmed use of cacao back at least 500 years. The famous chocolate beverage served on special occasions in later times in Mesoamerica, especially by elites, was made from cacao seeds. The earliest cacao beverages consumed at Puerto Escondido were likely produced by fermenting the sweet pulp surrounding the seeds. PMID:18024588

Henderson, John S.; Joyce, Rosemary A.; Hall, Gretchen R.; Hurst, W. Jeffrey; McGovern, Patrick E.

2007-01-01

139

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding  

MedlinePLUS

... abnormal uterine bleeding is caused by a hormone imbalance. When hormones are the problem, doctors call the ... bleeding, or DUB. Abnormal bleeding caused by hormone imbalance is more common in teenagers or in women ...

140

Abnormal Head Position  

MedlinePLUS

... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

141

The earliest record of human activity in northern Europe.  

PubMed

The colonization of Eurasia by early humans is a key event after their spread out of Africa, but the nature, timing and ecological context of the earliest human occupation of northwest Europe is uncertain and has been the subject of intense debate. The southern Caucasus was occupied about 1.8 million years (Myr) ago, whereas human remains from Atapuerca-TD6, Spain (more than 780 kyr ago) and Ceprano, Italy (about 800 kyr ago) show that early Homo had dispersed to the Mediterranean hinterland before the Brunhes-Matuyama magnetic polarity reversal (780 kyr ago). Until now, the earliest uncontested artefacts from northern Europe were much younger, suggesting that humans were unable to colonize northern latitudes until about 500 kyr ago. Here we report flint artefacts from the Cromer Forest-bed Formation at Pakefield (52 degrees N), Suffolk, UK, from an interglacial sequence yielding a diverse range of plant and animal fossils. Event and lithostratigraphy, palaeomagnetism, amino acid geochronology and biostratigraphy indicate that the artefacts date to the early part of the Brunhes Chron (about 700 kyr ago) and thus represent the earliest unequivocal evidence for human presence north of the Alps. PMID:16355223

Parfitt, Simon A; Barendregt, René W; Breda, Marzia; Candy, Ian; Collins, Matthew J; Coope, G Russell; Durbidge, Paul; Field, Mike H; Lee, Jonathan R; Lister, Adrian M; Mutch, Robert; Penkman, Kirsty E H; Preece, Richard C; Rose, James; Stringer, Christopher B; Symmons, Robert; Whittaker, John E; Wymer, John J; Stuart, Anthony J

2005-12-15

142

Who were the earliest humans?, Chris StringerSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interviewee: Chris Stringer DNAi Location:Applications>Human origins>our family tree>The earliest humans? Human origins expert Chris Stringer talks about the earliest Homo species and his view of their relationships with apes and humans.

2008-10-06

143

Ancients' Criterion of Earliest Visibility of the Lunar Crescent - how Good is it  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earliest visibility of the lunar crescent is an important calendrical element. It was needed in all early calendars and remains in use on some lunar calendars today. An astronomical criterion of earliest lunar visibility was therefore evolved quite early, using observations, right from the Babylonian era. Recently, an improved and comprehensive global criterion of earliest visibility, developed by the author,

M. Ilyas

1987-01-01

144

Parental Decisions Regarding a Prenatally Detected Fetal Chromosomal Abnormality and the Impact of Genetic Counseling: An Analysis of 38 Cases with Aneuploidy in Southeast Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated parental decision-making to terminate or continue a pregnancy after prenatal diagnosis of a chromosomal\\u000a abnormality among a sample of patients in Southeast Turkey. Between 2004 and 2007, 1068 amniocentesis tests were performed\\u000a in the Medical Biology and Genetic Department Laboratory at Dicle University. Aneuploidy was found in 38 cases (3.56%). Genetic\\u000a counseling was provided for the couples

Mahmut Balkan; Sevgi Kalkanli; Halit Akbas; Ahmet Yalinkaya; M. Nail Alp; Turgay Budak

2010-01-01

145

Incidence of Brain Abnormalities Detected on Preoperative Brain MR Imaging and Their Effect on the Outcome of Cochlear Implantation in Children with Sensorineural Hearing Loss  

PubMed Central

The incidence of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) increased gradually in the past decades. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, as an important part of preimplantation evaluation for children with SNHL, could provide the detailed information about the inner ear, the vestibulocochlear nerve, and the brain, so as to select suitable candidate for cochlear implantation (CI). Brain abnormalities were not rare in the brain MR imaging of SNHL children; however, its influence on the effect of CI has not been clarified. After retrospectively analyzing the CT and MR imaging of 157 children with SNHL that accepted preoperative evaluation from June 2011 to February 2013 in our hospital and following them during a period of 14.09 ± 5.08 months, we found that the white matter change, which might be associated with the history of medical condition, was the most common brain abnormality. Usually CI was still beneficial to the children with brain abnormalities, and the short-term hearing improvement could be achieved. Further study with more patients and longer follow-up time was needed to confirm our results. PMID:25685142

Xu, Xiao-Quan; Wu, Fei-Yun; Hu, Hao; Su, Guo-Yi; Shen, Jie

2015-01-01

146

Mapping the lunar shadow - the earliest solar eclipse maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The English astronomer Edmond Halley (1656-1742) is commonly credited as the first to draw and publish maps delineating the paths of totality for solar eclipses. Halley published such maps for the solar eclipses of 3 May 1715 and 22 May 1724, which were both visible from southern England. In this paper, the author presents examples of earlier maps depicting solar eclipse paths from Germany, the Netherlands and France. The earliest eclipse maps of this kind appear to be those showing the path of totality for the solar eclipses of 23 September 1699 and 12 May 1706.

van Gent, Robert H.

147

High Energy Neutrino Emission from the Earliest Gamma-Ray Bursts  

E-print Network

We discuss the high energy neutrino emission from gamma-ray bursts resulting from the earliest generation (`population III') stars forming in the Universe, whose core collapses into a black hole. These gamma-ray bursts are expected to produce a highly relativistic, magnetically dominated jet, where protons can be accelerated to ultra-high energies. These interact with the photons produced by the jet, leading to ultra-high energy photo-meson neutrinos as well as secondary leptons and photons. The photon luminosity and the shock properties, and thus the neutrino spectrum, depend on the mass of the black holes as well as on the density of the surrounding external gas. We calculate the individual source neutrino spectral fluxes and the expected diffuse neutrino flux for various source parameters and evolution scenarios. Both the individual and diffuse signals appear detectable in the 1-300 PeV range with current and planned neutrino detectors such as IceCube and ARIANNA, provided the black hole mass is in excess of 30-100 solar masses. This provides a possible test for the debated mass of the progenitor stellar objects, as well as a probe for the early cosmological environment and the formation rate of the earliest structures.

Shan Gao; Kenji Toma; Peter Meszaros

2011-04-20

148

High energy neutrino emission from the earliest gamma-ray bursts  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the high energy neutrino emission from gamma-ray bursts resulting from the earliest generation (''population III'') stars forming in the Universe, whose core collapses into a black hole. These gamma-ray bursts are expected to produce a highly relativistic, magnetically dominated jet, where protons can be accelerated to ultrahigh energies. These interact with the photons produced by the jet, leading to ultrahigh energy photomeson neutrinos as well as secondary leptons and photons. The photon luminosity and the shock properties, and thus the neutrino spectrum, depend on the mass of the black holes as well as on the density of the surrounding external gas. We calculate the individual source neutrino spectral fluxes and the expected diffuse neutrino flux for various source parameters and evolution scenarios. Both the individual and diffuse signals appear detectable in the 1-300 PeV range with current and planned neutrino detectors such as IceCube and ARIANNA, provided the black hole mass is in excess of 30-100 solar masses. This provides a possible test for the debated mass of the progenitor stellar objects, as well as a probe for the early cosmological environment and the formation rate of the earliest structures.

Gao Shan; Toma, Kenji; Meszaros, Peter [Department of Physics, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Center for Particle Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, 16802 (United States)

2011-05-15

149

Origin of earliest planetary crust - Role of compositional convection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of earliest stable planetary crust poses the following dilemma. All surface crusts formed by direct quenching of planetary-scale magma are mafic and dense, and will founder. All felsic crystals light enough to float will form only after protracted differentiation and will grow too slowly to be separated from their parent magma on the short timescale of near-surface residence. Early crust must be intrinsically stable to accretionary bombardment in order to survive, hence it must float. One solution is to make pop-up felsic crust on a rapid time scale by collecting the lighter evolved liquid, not the crystals. Such a liquid is produced by solute rejection at depth from growing mafic crystals, and it rises by compositional convection. It stirs and cools the magma and reduces the accretionary thermal maximum, perhaps to zero. It has a high viscosity and high barrier to nucleation, hence may coalesce metastably. Near the surface, rapid crystallization will follow spontaneous nucleation. Rafts and rockbergs will coalesce to form the earliest crust. On the moon, this is anorthositic. On the earth, the presence of water enhances the silica content of the network-rich liquid and gives rise to tonalite. Existing ancient tonalites may reflect an original tonalitic crust. Modern oceanic rhyolites and trondhjemites may owe their existence to a similar process of liquid collection, and could therefore serve as a test of the crust-forming hypothesis.

Morse, S. A.

1987-01-01

150

Reduction of net primary productivity in southern China caused by abnormal low-temperature freezing in winter of 2008 detected by a remote sensing-driven ecosystem model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial carbon cycle is an important determinant of global climate change and affected by various factors, including climate, CO2 concentration, atmospheric nitrogen deposition and human activities. Extreme weather events can significantly regulate short-term even long-term carbon exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. During the period from the middle January to the middle February 2008, Southern China was seriously hit by abnormal low-temperature freezing, which caused serous damages to forests and crops. However, the reduction of net primary productivity (NPP) of terrestrial ecosystems caused by this extremely abnormal weather event has not been quantitatively investigated. In this study, the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) model was employed to assess the reduction of NPP in Southern China caused by the abnormal low-temperature freezing. Prior to the regional simulation, the BEPS model was validated using measured NPP in different ecosystems, demonstrating the ability of this model to simulate NPP reliably in China. Then, it was forced using meteorological data interpolated from observations of weather stations and leaf area index inversed from MODIS reflectance data to simulate national wide NPP at a 500 m resolution for the period from 2003 to 2008. The departures of NPP in 2008 from the means during 2003-2007 were used as the indicator of NPP reduction caused by the low-temperature freezing. It was found out that NPP in 2008 decreased significantly in forests of Southern China, especially in Guangdong, Fujian, Zhejiang, Guangxi, Jiangxi, and Hunan Provinces, in which the low-temperature freeing was more serious. The annul reduction of NPP was above 150 g C/m^2/yr in these areas. Key words: Net Primary Productivity, low-temperature freezing, BEPS model, MODIS Correspondence author: Weimin Ju Email:juweimin@nju.edu.cn

Ju, W.; Liu, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, G.

2011-12-01

151

Use of a novel high-resolution magnetic resonance neurography protocol to detect abnormal dorsal root Ganglia in Sjögren patients with neuropathic pain: case series of 10 patients and review of the literature.  

PubMed

The diagnosis and treatment of patients with Sjögren syndrome (SS) with neuropathic pain pose several challenges. Patients with SS may experience unorthodox patterns of burning pain not conforming to a traditional "stocking-and-glove" distribution, which can affect the face, torso, and proximal extremities. This distribution of neuropathic pain may reflect mechanisms targeting the proximal-most element of the peripheral nervous system-the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Skin biopsy can diagnose such a small-fiber neuropathy and is a surrogate marker of DRG neuronal cell loss. However, SS patients have been reported who have similar patterns of proximal neuropathic pain, despite having normal skin biopsy studies. In such cases, DRGs may be targeted by mechanisms not associated with neuronal cell loss. Therefore, alternative approaches are warranted to help characterize abnormal DRGs in SS patients with proximal neuropathic pain.We performed a systematic review of the literature to define the frequency and spectrum of SS peripheral neuropathies, and to better understand the attribution of SS neuropathic pain to peripheral neuropathies. We found that the frequency of SS neuropathic pain exceeded the prevalence of peripheral neuropathies, and that painful peripheral neuropathies occurred less frequently than neuropathies not always associated with pain. We developed a novel magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) protocol to evaluate DRG abnormalities. Ten SS patients with proximal neuropathic pain were evaluated by this MRN protocol, as well as by punch skin biopsies evaluating for intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) of unmyelinated nerves. Five patients had radiographic evidence of DRG abnormalities. Patients with MRN DRG abnormalities had increased IENFD of unmyelinated nerves compared to patients without MRN DRG abnormalities (30.2 [interquartile range, 4.4] fibers/mm vs. 11.0 [4.1] fibers/mm, respectively; p = 0.03). Two of these 5 SS patients whose neuropathic pain resolved with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy had improvement of MRN DRG abnormalities.We have developed a novel MRN protocol that can detect DRG abnormalities in SS patients with neuropathic pain who do not have markers of peripheral neuropathy. We found that SS patients with MRN DRG abnormalities had statistically significant, increased IENFD on skin biopsy studies, which may suggest a relationship between trophic mediators and neuropathic pain. Given that our literature review has demonstrated that many SS neuropathic pain patients do not have a neuropathy, our findings suggest an important niche for this MRN DRG technique in the evaluation of broader subsets of SS neuropathic pain patients who may not have underlying neuropathies. The improvement of MRN DRG abnormalities in patients with IVIg-induced remission of neuropathic pain suggests that our MRN protocol may be capturing reversible, immune-mediated mechanisms targeting the DRG. PMID:24797167

Birnbaum, Julius; Duncan, Trisha; Owoyemi, Kristie; Wang, Kenneth C; Carrino, John; Chhabra, Avneesh

2014-05-01

152

Urine - abnormal color  

MedlinePLUS

The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. ... Abnormal urine color may be caused by infection, disease, medicines, or food you eat. Cloudy or milky urine is a sign ...

153

Four families with immunodeficiency and chromosome abnormalities.  

PubMed Central

Six children, with severe deficiency of some or all of the immunoglobulins and minor somatic abnormalities, had chromosomal abnormalities: (1) 45,XY,t(13q/18q), (2) 46,XY,21ps +, (3) two brothers 46,XY (inv. 7) (4) 45,X,t(11p/10p)/46X,iXq,t(11p/10p) and, (5) in addendum, 45,XX,-18;46,XX, r18. The chromosome abnormalities were detected in B- as well as T-lymphocytes (as evidenced by using both PHA- and PWM-stimulated cultures) in all probands, but one was mosaic in PHA culture, although all his PWM-stimulated cells were abnormal. Chromosomal variants were also detected in relatives of three and immunodeficiency in relatives of two. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:314782

Candy, D C; Hayward, A R; Hughes, D T; Layward, L; Soothill, J F

1979-01-01

154

Laser-Raman imagery of Earth's earliest fossils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unlike the familiar Phanerozoic history of life, evolution during the earlier and much longer Precambrian segment of geological time centred on prokaryotic microbes. Because such microorganisms are minute, are preserved incompletely in geological materials, and have simple morphologies that can be mimicked by nonbiological mineral microstructures, discriminating between true microbial fossils and microscopic pseudofossil `lookalikes' can be difficult. Thus, valid identification of fossil microbes, which is essential to understanding the prokaryote-dominated, Precambrian 85% of life's history, can require more than traditional palaeontology that is focused on morphology. By combining optically discernible morphology with analyses of chemical composition, laser-Raman spectroscopic imagery of individual microscopic fossils provides a means by which to address this need. Here we apply this technique to exceptionally ancient fossil microbe-like objects, including the oldest such specimens reported from the geological record, and show that the results obtained substantiate the biological origin of the earliest cellular fossils known.

Schopf, J. William; Kudryavtsev, Anatoliy B.; Agresti, David G.; Wdowiak, Thomas J.; Czaja, Andrew D.

2002-03-01

155

The earliest fossil evidence for sexual dimorphism in primates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently obtained material of the early Eocene primate Notharctus venticolus, including two partial skulls from a single stratigraphic horizon, provides the geologically earliest evidence of sexual dimorphism in canine size and shape in primates and the only unequivocal evidence for such dimorphism in strepsirhines. By analogy with living platyrrhines, these data suggest that Notharctus venticolus may have lived in polygynous social groups characterized by a relatively high level of intermale competition for mates and other limited resources. The anatomy of the upper incisors and related evidence imply that Notharctus is not as closely related to extant lemuriform primates as has been recently proposed. The early Eocene evidence for canine sexual dimorphism reported here, and its occurrence in a nonanthropoid, indicates that in the order Primates such a condition is either primitive or evolved independently more than once.

Krishtalka, Leonard; Stucky, Richard K.; Beard, K. C.

1990-01-01

156

Testing microstructural adaptation in the earliest dental tools  

PubMed Central

Conodont elements are the earliest vertebrate dental structures. The dental tools on elements responsible for food fracture—cusps and denticles—are usually composed of lamellar crown tissue (a putative enamel homologue) and the enigmatic tissue known as ‘white matter’. White matter is unique to conodonts and has been hypothesized to be a functional adaptation for the use of elements as teeth. We test this quantitatively using finite-element analysis. Our results indicate that white matter allowed cusps and denticles to withstand greater tensile stresses than do cusps comprised solely of lamellar crown tissue. Microstructural variation is demonstrably associated with dietary and loading differences in teeth, so secondary loss of white matter through conodont phylogeny may reflect changes in diet and element occlusal kinematics. The presence, development and distribution of white matter could thus provide constraints on function in the first vertebrate dental structures. PMID:22764115

Jones, David; Evans, Alistair R.; Rayfield, Emily J.; Siu, Karen K. W.; Donoghue, Philip C. J.

2012-01-01

157

The earliest known tyrannosaur from the Lower Cretaceous of Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

THE Tyrannosauridae were the dominant large carnivorous dinosaurs in Asia (excluding India) and western North America during the Late Cretaceous period1-3. Most of them are from the Campanian and Maastrichtian ages, and very little is known about their earlier history, although scanty remains have been reported from the early part of the Upper Cretaceous4-7. We describe a newly discovered incomplete skeleton of a large theropod from the Early Cretaceous Sao Khua Formation of northeastern Thailand as an early and primitive representative of the Tyrannosauridae. This new taxon, which is at least 20 million years older than the earliest previously known tyranno-saurids, suggests that the early evolution of tyrannosaurids may have taken place in Asia.

Buffetaut, Eric; Suteethorn, Varavudh; Tong, Haiyan

1996-06-01

158

Considerations on Terrestrial Iron Depositing Analogs to Earliest Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Iron oxide and hydroxide minerals, including hematite, can mineralize and preservemicrofossils and physical biomarkers (Allen at al., 2004). Preserved remnants of phototrophic microorganisms are recognized as biosignatures of past life on Earth (Schopf, 2006). To date, two types of surface iron depositing environments have been studied as analogs to possible habitable environments on earliest Mars: the highly acidified Rio Tinto River (Iberian Belt, Spain) [Gomez Ortis et al., 2007], and the nearneutral iron depositing Chocolate Pots Hot Spring (Yellowstone National Park, US) [Parenteau at al., 2005]. While phototrophs in the Rio Tinto are only represented by eukaryotic algae (Amaral Zettler et all., 2002), Chocolate Pots is mainly populated with cyanobacteria (Pierson et all., 2000; Brown et all., 2007). Which of these environments is the closer analog to a potentially habitable early Mars? Paleobiological data, combined with recent "tree of life" interpretations, suggest that phototrophic eukaryotes evolved not earlier than 2.5 - 2.8 b.y. after Earth s accretion (4.6 b.y.), while cyanobacteria and /or their iron-tolerant predecessors evolved between 1 - 1.5 b.y. after accretion (Brown et al., 2007). Lindsay and Brasier (2002) postulated that microbial life on Mars surface could have lasted no more than 1-1.5 b.y. after Mars accretion (also 4.6 b.y.). Recent multispectral mapping of Mars suggests that near-neutral wet environments prevailed at approximately this time (Bibring, et al., 2006). Thus, near-neutral iron depositing hot springs such as Chocolate Pots Hot Spring seem to be the more likely habitable analogs for earliest Mars.

Brown, Igor I.; Allen, Carlton C.; Sarkisova, S. A.; Garrison, D. H.; McKay, D. S.

2007-01-01

159

Earliest evidence for commensal processes of cat domestication.  

PubMed

Domestic cats are one of the most popular pets globally, but the process of their domestication is not well understood. Near Eastern wildcats are thought to have been attracted to food sources in early agricultural settlements, following a commensal pathway to domestication. Early evidence for close human-cat relationships comes from a wildcat interred near a human on Cyprus ca. 9,500 y ago, but the earliest domestic cats are known only from Egyptian art dating to 4,000 y ago. Evidence is lacking from the key period of cat domestication 9,500-4,000 y ago. We report on the presence of cats directly dated between 5560-5280 cal B.P. in the early agricultural village of Quanhucun in Shaanxi, China. These cats were outside the wild range of Near Eastern wildcats and biometrically smaller, but within the size-range of domestic cats. The ?(13)C and ?(15)N values of human and animal bone collagen revealed substantial consumption of millet-based foods by humans, rodents, and cats. Ceramic storage containers designed to exclude rodents indicated a threat to stored grain in Yangshao villages. Taken together, isotopic and archaeological data demonstrate that cats were advantageous for ancient farmers. Isotopic data also show that one cat ate less meat and consumed more millet-based foods than expected, indicating that it scavenged among or was fed by people. This study offers fresh perspectives on cat domestication, providing the earliest known evidence for commensal relationships between people and cats. PMID:24344279

Hu, Yaowu; Hu, Songmei; Wang, Weilin; Wu, Xiaohong; Marshall, Fiona B; Chen, Xianglong; Hou, Liangliang; Wang, Changsui

2014-01-01

160

Earliest evidence for commensal processes of cat domestication  

PubMed Central

Domestic cats are one of the most popular pets globally, but the process of their domestication is not well understood. Near Eastern wildcats are thought to have been attracted to food sources in early agricultural settlements, following a commensal pathway to domestication. Early evidence for close human–cat relationships comes from a wildcat interred near a human on Cyprus ca. 9,500 y ago, but the earliest domestic cats are known only from Egyptian art dating to 4,000 y ago. Evidence is lacking from the key period of cat domestication 9,500–4,000 y ago. We report on the presence of cats directly dated between 5560–5280 cal B.P. in the early agricultural village of Quanhucun in Shaanxi, China. These cats were outside the wild range of Near Eastern wildcats and biometrically smaller, but within the size-range of domestic cats. The ?13C and ?15N values of human and animal bone collagen revealed substantial consumption of millet-based foods by humans, rodents, and cats. Ceramic storage containers designed to exclude rodents indicated a threat to stored grain in Yangshao villages. Taken together, isotopic and archaeological data demonstrate that cats were advantageous for ancient farmers. Isotopic data also show that one cat ate less meat and consumed more millet-based foods than expected, indicating that it scavenged among or was fed by people. This study offers fresh perspectives on cat domestication, providing the earliest known evidence for commensal relationships between people and cats. PMID:24344279

Hu, Yaowu; Hu, Songmei; Wang, Weilin; Wu, Xiaohong; Marshall, Fiona B.; Chen, Xianglong; Hou, Liangliang; Wang, Changsui

2014-01-01

161

Developmental potential of the earliest precursor cells from the adult mouse thymus  

PubMed Central

A new, numerically minute population of cells representing the earliest T precursor cells in the adult mouse thymus has recently been isolated. This population has been shown to be similar to bone marrow hemopoietic stem cells in surface antigenic phenotype and to express moderate levels of CD4. We now show, by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and intrathymic transfer to irradiated mice, that this apparently homogeneous population differs from multipotent stem cells in expressing the surface stem cell antigen 2 (Sca-2), that it differs from most early B lineage cells in lacking B220 and class II major histocompatibility complex expression, and that it binds rhodamine 123 like an activated rather than a quiescent cell. Irradiated recipient mice differing at the Ly 5 locus were used to compare the developmental potential of these early intrathymic precursors with bone marrow stem cells. Only T lineage product cells were detected when the intrathymic precursor population was transferred back into an irradiated thymus. However, when the intrathymic precursor population was transferred intravenously, it displayed the capacity to develop into both B and T lymphoid cells in recipient bone marrow, spleen, and lymph nodes, but no donor-derived myeloid cells were detected. The absence of myeloid and erythroid precursor activity was confirmed by showing that the intrathymic precursor population was unable to develop into myeloid or erythroid spleen colonies on intravenous transfer or to form colonies in an agar culture. These findings indicate that this earliest intrathymic precursor population has become restricted (or strongly biased) to lymphoid lineage development, but not exclusively to T lymphocytes. PMID:1683894

1991-01-01

162

Tooth - abnormal shape  

MedlinePLUS

... many different conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth color, time of appearance, or absence of teeth. ... any medical conditions that may cause abnormal tooth shape? At what age ... spacing)? What other symptoms are also present? Fillings, ...

163

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding  

MedlinePLUS

... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

164

Prognostic impact of coronary microcirculation abnormalities in systemic sclerosis: a prospective study to evaluate the role of non-invasive tests  

PubMed Central

Introduction Microcirculation dysfunction is a typical feature of systemic sclerosis (SSc) and represents the earliest abnormality of primary myocardial involvement. We assessed coronary microcirculation status by combining two functional tests in SSc patients and estimating its impact on disease outcome. Methods Forty-one SSc patients, asymptomatic for coronary artery disease, were tested for coronary flow velocity reserve (CFR) by transthoracic-echo-Doppler with adenosine infusion (A-TTE) and for left ventricular wall motion abnormalities (WMA) by dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE). Myocardial multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) enabled the presence of epicardial stenosis, which could interfere with the accuracy of the tests, to be excluded. Patient survival rate was assessed over a 6.7- ± 3.5-year follow-up. Results Nineteen out of 41 (46%) SSc patients had a reduced CFR (?2.5) and in 16/41 (39%) a WMA was observed during DSE. Furthermore, 13/41 (32%) patients showed pathological CFR and WMA. An inverse correlation between wall motion score index (WMSI) during DSE and CFR value (r = -0.57, P <0.0001) was observed; in addition, CFR was significantly reduced (2.21 ± 0.38) in patients with WMA as compared to those without (2.94 ± 0.60) (P <0.0001). In 12 patients with abnormal DSE, MDCT was used to exclude macrovasculopathy. During a 6.7- ± 3.5-year follow-up seven patients with abnormal coronary functional tests died of disease-related causes, compared to only one patient with normal tests. Conclusions A-TTE and DSE tests are useful tools to detect non-invasively pre-clinical microcirculation abnormalities in SSc patients; moreover, abnormal CFR and WMA might be related to a worse disease outcome suggesting a prognostic value of these tests, similar to other myocardial diseases. PMID:23302110

2013-01-01

165

Digging up the Earliest Astronomical Observatory in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the town of Taosi, county of Xiangfen, Shanxi province the earliest (up to date about 4000 years ago) astronomical observatory and sacrificial altar relic was dug up, which consists of an observing site, some tamped soil columniations and slits between those columniations. This construction was used to observe the variations of the sunrise azimuth and determine the tropical year length in order to constitute the calendar. It is indicated from the simulated observations that the two slits located in the southeast and the northwest could be precisely used to determine the dates of the Winter Solstice and the Summer Solstice. Between those two slits there are 10 columniations which could indicate that the visual Sun moving from one columniation to another is a solar term. It implies that in the Emperor Yao time the calendar was the solar calendar in which one year was divided into 20 solar terms. The Yin-Yang five-element calendar, a 10-month calendar, in the very ancient time was based on this calendar.

Li, Wei-Boa; Chen, Jiu-Jin

2007-09-01

166

The earliest Mesopsychidae and revision of the family Mesopanorpodidae (Mecoptera)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The family Mesopanorpodidae is revised. Most taxa referred to this family are not related to the type genus Mesopanorpodes Tillyard, 1918. The type species of the latter, Mesopanorpodes wianamattensis,is closely related to Mesopsyche Tillyard, 1917. Therefore Mesopanorpodes is transferred to Mesopsychidae Tillyard, 1917 (= Mesopanorpodidae Tillyard, 1918, syn. n.).The earliest Mesopsychidae are described from the Upper Permian of European Russia (Severodvinian; Isady locality, Vologda Province): Permopsyche issadensis gen. etsp. n. (type species) and Permopsyche rasnitsyni sp. n. Two species described under Mesopanorpodes from the Upper Permian of Australia are also included into Permopsyche: Permopsyche belmontensis (Riek, 1953), comb. n., Permopsyche robustus (Riek, 1953) comb. n. The first pre-Triassic Mesopsyche, Mesopsyche incompleta sp. n. is described from the uppermost Permian (the town of Vyazniki, Vladimir Province). Bittacopanorpa javorskii Zalessky, 1935 from the uppermost Permian or basal Triassic of Kuznetsk Basin is identified as a hindwing of Mesopsyche: Mesopsyche javorskii (Zalessky, 1935) comb. n. The origin, evolutionary history, and stratigraphic occurrence of Mesopsychidae are discussed. PMID:22259282

Bashkuev, Alexei S.

2011-01-01

167

Fixational Eye Movements in the Earliest Stage of Metazoan Evolution  

PubMed Central

All known photoreceptor cells adapt to constant light stimuli, fading the retinal image when exposed to an immobile visual scene. Counter strategies are therefore necessary to prevent blindness, and in mammals this is accomplished by fixational eye movements. Cubomedusae occupy a key position for understanding the evolution of complex visual systems and their eyes are assumedly subject to the same adaptive problems as the vertebrate eye, but lack motor control of their visual system. The morphology of the visual system of cubomedusae ensures a constant orientation of the eyes and a clear division of the visual field, but thereby also a constant retinal image when exposed to stationary visual scenes. Here we show that bell contractions used for swimming in the medusae refresh the retinal image in the upper lens eye of Tripedalia cystophora. This strongly suggests that strategies comparable to fixational eye movements have evolved at the earliest metazoan stage to compensate for the intrinsic property of the photoreceptors. Since the timing and amplitude of the rhopalial movements concur with the spatial and temporal resolution of the eye it circumvents the need for post processing in the central nervous system to remove image blur. PMID:23776673

Bielecki, Jan; Høeg, Jens T.; Garm, Anders

2013-01-01

168

The earliest pterodactyloid and the origin of the group.  

PubMed

The pterosaurs were a diverse group of Mesozoic flying reptiles that underwent a body plan reorganization, adaptive radiation, and replacement of earlier forms midway through their long history, resulting in the origin of the Pterodactyloidea, a highly specialized clade containing the largest flying organisms. The sudden appearance and large suite of morphological features of this group were suggested to be the result of it originating in terrestrial environments, where the pterosaur fossil record has traditionally been poor [1, 2], and its many features suggested to be adaptations to those environments [1, 2]. However, little evidence has been available to test this hypothesis, and it has not been supported by previous phylogenies or early pterodactyloid discoveries. We report here the earliest pterosaur with the diagnostic elongate metacarpus of the Pterodactyloidea, Kryptodrakon progenitor, gen. et sp. nov., from the terrestrial Middle-Upper Jurassic boundary of Northwest China. Phylogenetic analysis confirms this species as the basalmost pterodactyloid and reconstructs a terrestrial origin and a predominantly terrestrial history for the Pterodactyloidea. Phylogenetic comparative methods support this reconstruction by means of a significant correlation between wing shape and environment also found in modern flying vertebrates, indicating that pterosaurs lived in or were at least adapted to the environments in which they were preserved. PMID:24768054

Andres, Brian; Clark, James; Xu, Xing

2014-05-01

169

A fossil primate of uncertain affinities from the earliest late Eocene of Egypt  

E-print Network

A fossil primate of uncertain affinities from the earliest late Eocene of Egypt Erik R. Seifferta,1- mate from the earliest late Eocene (37 Ma) of northern Egypt, Nos- mipsaenigmaticus, whosephylogenetic of fossil primates from the Eocene of Algeria (1) and Egypt (2­4), Africa's role in the early evolution

Boyer, Doug M.

170

Configurational approach to identifying the earliest hominin butchers  

PubMed Central

The announcement of two approximately 3.4-million-y-old purportedly butchered fossil bones from the Dikika paleoanthropological research area (Lower Awash Valley, Ethiopia) could profoundly alter our understanding of human evolution. Butchering damage on the Dikika bones would imply that tool-assisted meat-eating began approximately 800,000 y before previously thought, based on butchered bones from 2.6- to 2.5-million-y-old sites at the Ethiopian Gona and Bouri localities. Further, the only hominin currently known from Dikika at approximately 3.4 Ma is Australopithecus afarensis, a temporally and geographically widespread species unassociated previously with any archaeological evidence of butchering. Our taphonomic configurational approach to assess the claims of A. afarensis butchery at Dikika suggests the claims of unexpectedly early butchering at the site are not warranted. The Dikika research group focused its analysis on the morphology of the marks in question but failed to demonstrate, through recovery of similarly marked in situ fossils, the exact provenience of the published fossils, and failed to note occurrences of random striae on the cortices of the published fossils (incurred through incidental movement of the defleshed specimens across and/or within their abrasive encasing sediments). The occurrence of such random striae (sometimes called collectively “trampling” damage) on the two fossils provide the configurational context for rejection of the claimed butchery marks. The earliest best evidence for hominin butchery thus remains at 2.6 to 2.5 Ma, presumably associated with more derived species than A. afarensis. PMID:21078985

Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Pickering, Travis Rayne; Bunn, Henry T.

2010-01-01

171

Earliest Example of a Giant Monitor Lizard (Varanus, Varanidae, Squamata)  

PubMed Central

Background Varanidae is a clade of tiny (<20 mm pre-caudal length [PCL]) to giant (>600 mm PCL) lizards first appearing in the Cretaceous. True monitor lizards (Varanus) are known from diagnostic remains beginning in the early Miocene (Varanus rusingensis), although extremely fragmentary remains have been suggested as indicating earlier Varanus. The paleobiogeographic history of Varanus and timing for origin of its gigantism remain uncertain. Methodology/Principal Findings A new Varanus from the Mytilini Formation (Turolian, Miocene) of Samos, Greece is described. The holotype consists of a partial skull roof, right side of a braincase, partial posterior mandible, fragment of clavicle, and parts of six vertebrae. A cladistic analysis including 83 taxa coded for 5733 molecular and 489 morphological characters (71 previously unincluded) demonstrates that the new fossil is a nested member of an otherwise exclusively East Asian Varanus clade. The new species is the earliest-known giant (>600 mm PCL) terrestrial lizard. Importantly, this species co-existed with a diverse continental mammalian fauna. Conclusions/Significance The new monitor is larger (longer) than 99% of known fossil and living lizards. Varanus includes, by far, the largest limbed squamates today. The only extant non-snake squamates that approach monitors in maximum size are the glass-snake Pseudopus and the worm-lizard Amphisbaena. Mosasauroids were larger, but exclusively marine, and occurred only during the Late Cretaceous. Large, extant, non-Varanus, lizards are limbless and/or largely isolated from mammalian competitors. By contrast, our new Varanus achieved gigantism in a continental environment populated by diverse eutherian mammal competitors. PMID:22900001

Conrad, Jack L.; Balcarcel, Ana M.; Mehling, Carl M.

2012-01-01

172

The earliest mantle fabrics formed during subduction zone infancy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Harzburgites obtained from the oldest crust-mantle section in the Philippine Sea plate along the landward slope of the southern Izu-Ogasawara Trench in Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc, that explored by Dive 7K417 of the ROV Kaiko 7000II during R/V Kairei cruise KR08-07, and Dredge 31 of R/V Hakuho-Maru cruise KH07-02, operated by the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology. Harzburgites preserve mantle fabrics formed during the infancy of the subduction zone; that is during the initial stages of Pacific plate subduction beneath the Philippine Sea plate. The main constituent minerals of harzburgites are olivine (15.6%), orthopyroxene (Opx; 13.1%) and spinel (0.5%), along with serpentine (70.8%) as a secondary mineral. Microstructure shows inequigranular interlobate (or protogranular) textures. There is no secondary deformation such as porphyroclastic or fine-grained textures. The secondary serpentine shows undeformed mesh texture in the harzburgites. Harzburgites have crystal preferred orientation patterns in olivine (001)[100] and Opx (100)[001]. The mineral chemistry in harzburgites have high olivine forsterite (90.6-92.1 mol.%) and NiO (~0.4 wt%) contents, low Opx Al2O3 (<~1.5 wt%) and Na2O (<0.03 wt%), and high spinel Cr# (65-67). This has the characteristics of residual peridotites, whereas the dunites, obtained from the same location as the harzburgites, provide evidence for the earliest stages of arc volcanism during the inception of subduction. Therefore, we propose that the (001)[100] olivine patterns began forming in immature fore-arc mantle with an increase in slab-derived hydrous fluids during the initial stages of subduction in in situ oceanic island arc.

Harigane, Y.; Michibayashi, K.; Morishita, T.; Tani, K.; Dick, H. J.; Ishizuka, O.

2013-12-01

173

Abnormal Psychology Psychology 280  

E-print Network

1 Abnormal Psychology Psychology 280 1st Summer Session 2013 May 13June 27, 2013 Tuesday" Kalibatseva, M.A. Office: 127B Psychology Building Email: kalibats@msu.edu Phone Psychology PhD program at Michigan State University. I completed my bachelor's dual degree in psychology

Liu, Taosheng

174

Abnormal Cats' Paws  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABNORMITIES in cats' paws occur rather frequently in Massachusetts. They are called mitten cats, and are much in demand because they are considered to be good mousers. The first I ever saw was a male yellow tiger, whose four paws had two extra toes strongly developed. A little stray female kitten which was brought up at my house had two

H. A. Hagen

1887-01-01

175

Abnormal Morphology Within Individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semen from 15 healthy volunteers was assessed for basic semen measures every 2 weeks over a 6-month period to determine the relative stability of these factors. The parameters were: sperm count, semen volume, sperm motility, and normal morphology, along with the type of abnormal morphologic forms. Basic semen measures were generally more stable than the morphologic forms. Using three samples,

MARILYN L. POLAND; KAMRAN S. MOGHISSI; PAUL T. GIBLIN; JOEL W. AGER; JANE M. OLSON

176

Non-invasive in-situ detection of malignant skin tissue and other abnormalities using portable LIBS system with fiber spectrometer and eye-safe erbium glass laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Portable LIBS, (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) systems are capable of real-time material analysis without sample preparation. LIBS systems focus a high peak power laser pulse onto a targeted material to produce a laser spark or plasma. Elemental line spectra is created, collected and analyzed by a fiber spectrophotometer. The line spectra emission data is quickly displayed on a laptop computer display. "Eye-safe" Class I lasers provide for practical in-situ LIBS applications such as detection of malignant skin tissues without the need for eye-protection goggles. This is due to the fact that Megawatt peak power Q-switched lasers operating at 1.54um in the narrow spectral window between 1.5um and 1.6um are approximately 8000 times more "eye-safe" than other laser devices operating in the visible and near infrared.

Myers, Michael J.; Myers, John D.; Guo, Baoping; Yang, Chengxin; Hardy, Christopher R.; Myers, Jeffrey A.; Myers, Abbey G.; Christian, Sean M.

2008-02-01

177

Dysmorphometrics: the modelling of morphological abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Background The study of typical morphological variations using quantitative, morphometric descriptors has always interested biologists in general. However, unusual examples of form, such as abnormalities are often encountered in biomedical sciences. Despite the long history of morphometrics, the means to identify and quantify such unusual form differences remains limited. Methods A theoretical concept, called dysmorphometrics, is introduced augmenting current geometric morphometrics with a focus on identifying and modelling form abnormalities. Dysmorphometrics applies the paradigm of detecting form differences as outliers compared to an appropriate norm. To achieve this, the likelihood formulation of landmark superimpositions is extended with outlier processes explicitly introducing a latent variable coding for abnormalities. A tractable solution to this augmented superimposition problem is obtained using Expectation-Maximization. The topography of detected abnormalities is encoded in a dysmorphogram. Results We demonstrate the use of dysmorphometrics to measure abrupt changes in time, asymmetry and discordancy in a set of human faces presenting with facial abnormalities. Conclusion The results clearly illustrate the unique power to reveal unusual form differences given only normative data with clear applications in both biomedical practice & research. PMID:22309623

2012-01-01

178

Ichnotaxonomy of the Laetoli trackways: The earliest hominin footprints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At 3.6 Ma, the Laetoli Pliocene hominin trackways are the earliest direct evidence of hominin bipedalism. Three decades since their discovery, not only is the question of their attribution still discussed, but marked differences in interpretation concerning the footprints' qualitative features and the inferred nature of the early hominin foot morphology remain. Here, we establish a novel ichnotaxon, Praehominipes laetoliensis, for these tracks and clarify the distinctions of these footprints from those of later hominins, especially modern humans. We also contrast hominin, human, and ape footprints to establish morphological features of these footprints correlated with a midtarsal break versus a stiff longitudinal arch. Original photos, including stereo photographs, and casts of footprints from the 1978 Laetoli excavation, confirm midtarsal flexibility, and repeatedly indicate an associated midfoot pressure ridge. In contrast, the modern human footprint reflects the derived arched-foot architecture, combined with a stiff-legged striding gait. Fossilized footprints of unshod modern human pedestrians in Hawaii and Nicaragua unambiguously illustrate these contrasts. Some points of comparisons with ape footprints are complicated by a variable hallucal position and the distinct manner of ape facultative bipedalism. In contrast to the comparatively rigid platform of the modern human foot, midtarsal flexibility is present in the chimpanzee foot. In ape locomotion, flexion at the transverse tarsal joint, referred to as the "midtarsal break," uncouples the respective functions of the prehensile forefoot and the propulsive hindfoot during grasp-climbing. At some point after the transition to habitual bipedalism, these grasp-climb adaptations, presumed to be present in the last common ancestor of apes and humans, were initially compromised by the loss of divergence of the hallux. An analogous trajectory is evident along an array of increasingly terrestrial extant ape species. However, a flexible midfoot was retained, presumably to spare lateral toes from bending stresses by concentrating push-off from the forefoot, beneath the metatarsals. Only later did the evolution of the longitudinal arch permit increased mechanical advantage of the plantarflexors for speed and improved economy of endurance distance walking and running.

Meldrum, D. J.; Lockley, Martin G.; Lucas, Spencer G.; Musiba, Charles

2011-04-01

179

Characterising the TP53-deleted subgroup of chronic lymphocytic leukemia: an analysis of additional cytogenetic abnormalities detected by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridisation and array-based comparative genomic hybridisation.  

PubMed

Deletion of the TP53 gene on chromosome 17p13.1 is the prognostic factor associated with the shortest survival in CLL. We used array-based comparative genomic hybridisation (arrayCGH) to identify additional DNA copy number changes in peripheral blood samples from 74 LRF CLL4 trial patients, 37 with >or=5% and 37 without TP53-deleted cells. ArrayCGH reliably detected deletions on 17p, including the TP53 locus, in cases with >or=50%TP53-deleted cells detected by fluorescence in situ hybridisation, plus seven additional cases with deleted regions on 17p excluding TP53. Losses on chromosomal regions 18p and/or 20p were found exclusively in cases with >or=5%TP53-deleted cells (p<0.001), 38% having one or both losses. The incidence of additional cytogenetic abnormalities, reflecting an increased chromosomal instability, was higher in >or=5%TP53-deleted cases (p=0.02). In particular, amplification of 2p and deletion of 6q were both more frequent. Cases with >20%TP53-deleted cells had the worst prognosis in the LRF CLL4 trial. PMID:18949611

Rudenko, Hannah C; Else, Monica; Dearden, Claire; Brito-Babapulle, Vasantha; Jones, Chris; Dexter, Tim; Fenwick, Kerry; Mackay, Alan; Ashworth, Alan; Matutes, Estella; Gonzalez, David; Catovsky, Daniel; Morgan, Gareth J

2008-10-01

180

Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena  

USGS Publications Warehouse

So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

Neuzil, C.E.

1995-01-01

181

[Congenital foot abnormalities].  

PubMed

The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

2015-03-01

182

An Artificial Immune Model for Abnormal Fluctuation of Stock Price  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abnormal fluctuation of stock price is a harmful factor for the stock market, and how to correctly identify the abnormal fluctuation seems to be important. For the prevailing uncertain conditions in the stock market, static method is limited during detecting anomaly. In this paper, artificial immune principle is used to distinguish the \\

Wu Ze-jun; Chen Jia; Yang Huan; Lv Lin; Wang Xin-an

2008-01-01

183

The Earliest Near-infrared Time-series Spectroscopy of a Type Ia Supernova  

E-print Network

We present ten medium-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio near-infrared (NIR) spectra of SN 2011fe from SpeX on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) and Gemini Near-Infrared Spectrograph (GNIRS) on Gemini North, obtained as part of the Carnegie Supernova Project. This data set constitutes the earliest time-series NIR spectroscopy of a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia), with the first spectrum obtained at 2.58 days past the explosion and covering -14.6 to +17.3 days relative to B-band maximum. C I {\\lambda}1.0693 {\\mu}m is detected in SN 2011fe with increasing strength up to maximum light. The delay in the onset of the NIR C I line demonstrates its potential to be an effective tracer of unprocessed material. For the first time in a SN Ia, the early rapid decline of the Mg II {\\lambda}1.0927 {\\mu}m velocity was observed, and the subsequent velocity is remarkably constant. The Mg II velocity during this constant phase locates the inner edge of carbon burning and probes the conditions under which the transition...

Hsiao, E Y; Phillips, M M; Burns, C R; Winge, C; Morrell, N; Contreras, C; Freedman, W L; Kromer, M; Gall, E E E; Gerardy, C L; Hoeflich, P H; Im, M; Jeon, Y; Kirshner, R P; Nugent, P E; Persson, S E; Pignata, G; Roth, M; Stanishev, V; Stritzinger, M; Suntzeff, N B

2013-01-01

184

Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

NONE

1993-12-31

185

Your Earliest Memory May Be Earlier than You Think: Prospective Studies of Children's Dating of Earliest Childhood Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theories of childhood amnesia and autobiographical memory development have been based on the assumption that the age estimates of earliest childhood memories are generally accurate, with an average age of 3.5 years among adults. It is also commonly believed that early memories will by default become inaccessible later on and this eventually…

Wang, Qi; Peterson, Carole

2014-01-01

186

[Dental abnormalities after treatment for childhood cancer].  

PubMed

Childhood cancer therapy often increases the risk of dental complications, such as tooth and roots agenesis, microdontia, abnormal development of tooth enamel, increased risk of cavity and other abnormalities. In a comparison with other late adverse effects of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantion, a relative small number of clinical stud-ies observing patients for more than two years after completion of anticancer treatment was published. In this article, we review the incidence of dental abnormalities caused by commonly used anticancer treatment modalities as well as discuss their risk factors. Early identification of high-risk patients, early detection and management of dental abnormalities and better education of patients or their guardians, may have an impact on quality of life of cancer survivors.Key words: chemotherapy - radiotherapy - late effects - tooth abnormalities - childhood cancer The authors declare they have no potential conflicts of interest concerning drugs, products, or?services used in the study. The Editorial Board declares that the manuscript met the ICMJE "uniform requirements" for biomedical papers.Submitted: 3. 3. 2014Accepted: 4. 12. 2014. PMID:25692751

Mladosievi?ová, B; Jurkovi?, R; Izakovi?ová Hollá, L

2015-01-01

187

Neurodevelopmental Abnormalities in ADHD  

PubMed Central

Structural and functional imaging studies in subjects with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are reviewed with the goal of gleaning information about neurodevelopmental abnormalities characterizing the disorder. Structural imaging studies, particularly those with longitudinal designs, suggest that brain maturation is delayed by a few years in ADHD. However, a maturational delay model alone is incomplete: alternate courses are suggested by differences associated with phenotypic factors, such as symptom remission/persistence and exposure to stimulant treatment. Findings from functional imaging studies point to multiple loci of abnormalities that are not limited to frontal–striatal circuitry, which is important for executive and motivational function, but also include parietal, temporal and motor cortices, and the cerebellum. However, a definitive conclusion about maturational delays or alternate trajectories cannot be drawn from this work as activation patterns are influenced by task-specific factors that may induce variable performance levels and strategies across development. In addition, no studies have implemented cross-sectional or longitudinal designs, without which the developmental origin of differences in activation cannot be inferred. Thus, current task-evoked functional imaging provides information about dynamic or state-dependent differences rather than fixed or trait-related differences. In the future, task-free functional imaging holds promise for revealing neurodevelopmental information that is minimally influenced by performance/strategic differences. Further, studies using longitudinal designs that identify sources of phenotypic heterogeneity in brain maturation and characterize the relationship between brain function and underlying structural properties are needed to provide a comprehensive view of neurodevelopmental abnormalities in ADHD. PMID:21541845

Vaidya, Chandan J.

2012-01-01

188

Spirometric abnormalities among welders  

SciTech Connect

A group of manual welders age group 13-60 years having a mean exposure period of 12.4 {plus minus} 1.12 years were subjected to spirometry to evaluate the prevalence of spirometric abnormalities. The welders showed a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory impairment than that observed among the unexposed controls as a result of exposure to welding gases which comprised fine particles of lead, zinc, chromium, and manganese. This occurred despite the lower concentration of the pollutants at the work place. In the expose group, the smoking welders showed a prevalence of respiratory impairment significantly higher than that observed in the nonsmoking welders. The results of the pulmonary function tests showed a predominantly restrictive type of pulmonary impairment followed by a mixed ventilatory defect among the welders. The effect of age on pulmonary impairment was not discernible. Welders exposed for over 10 years showed a prevalence of respiratory abnormalities significantly higher than those exposed for less than 10 years. Smoking also had a contributory role.

Rastogi, S.K.; Gupta, B.N.; Husain, T.; Mathur, N.; Srivastava, S. (Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow (India))

1991-10-01

189

Epilepsy and chromosomal abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Background Many chromosomal abnormalities are associated with Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations and other neurological alterations, among which seizures and epilepsy. Some of these show a peculiar epileptic and EEG pattern. We describe some epileptic syndromes frequently reported in chromosomal disorders. Methods Detailed clinical assessment, electrophysiological studies, survey of the literature. Results In some of these congenital syndromes the clinical presentation and EEG anomalies seems to be quite typical, in others the manifestations appear aspecific and no strictly linked with the chromosomal imbalance. The onset of seizures is often during the neonatal period of the infancy. Conclusions A better characterization of the electro clinical patterns associated with specific chromosomal aberrations could give us a valuable key in the identification of epilepsy susceptibility of some chromosomal loci, using the new advances in molecular cytogenetics techniques - such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), subtelomeric analysis and CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) microarray. However further studies are needed to understand the mechanism of epilepsy associated with chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:20438626

2010-01-01

190

Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer  

SciTech Connect

To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease.

Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.

1986-07-01

191

Malicious Hubs: Detecting Abnormally Malicious Autonomous Systems  

SciTech Connect

While many attacks are distributed across botnets, investigators and network operators have recently targeted malicious networks through high profile autonomous system (AS) de-peerings and network shut-downs. In this paper, we explore whether some ASes indeed are safe havens for malicious activity. We look for ISPs and ASes that exhibit disproportionately high malicious behavior using 12 popular blacklists. We find that some ASes have over 80% of their routable IP address space blacklisted and others account for large fractions of blacklisted IPs. Overall, we conclude that examining malicious activity at the AS granularity can unearth networks with lax security or those that harbor cybercrime.

Kalafut, Andrew J. [Indiana University; Shue, Craig A [ORNL; Gupta, Prof. Minaxi [Indiana University

2010-01-01

192

A rare stapes abnormality.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50?dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

2015-01-01

193

A Rare Stapes Abnormality  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50?dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

2015-01-01

194

Eye movement abnormalities.  

PubMed

Generation and control of eye movements requires the participation of the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The signals of this complex neural network finally converge on the ocular motoneurons of the brainstem. Infarct or hemorrhage at any level of the oculomotor system (though more frequent in the brain-stem) may give rise to a broad spectrum of eye movement abnormalities (EMAs). Consequently, neurologists and particularly stroke neurologists are routinely confronted with EMAs, some of which may be overlooked in the acute stroke setting and others that, when recognized, may have a high localizing value. The most complex EMAs are due to midbrain stroke. Horizontal gaze disorders, some of them manifesting unusual patterns, may occur in pontine stroke. Distinct varieties of nystagmus occur in cerebellar and medullary stroke. This review summarizes the most representative EMAs from the supratentorial level to the brainstem. PMID:22377853

Moncayo, Jorge; Bogousslavsky, Julien

2012-01-01

195

[Abnormal hemoglobins and thalassemias in Mexico].  

PubMed

The distribution of abnormal hemoglobins in Mexico is derived from surveys and from the study of patients with hemolytic anemia. In aboriginal populations, more than 3,000 individuals have been studied: structural abnormal hemoglobins are virtually absent in Mexican Indians and the sporadic finding of hemoglobin S among them is due to admixture with Africans brought as slaves during the Spanish domination; two new variants of hemoglobin (Mexico and Chiapas) were found in aborigines. The surveys in hybrid groups in selected areas of the country show that in some West and East Coast communities there are different frequencies of Hb S heterozygous, and that a high prevalence of Hb S trait has been found in some communities similar to that in some African areas. In a group of 200 subjects of a town located along the Gulf of Mexico Coast, 6% of Hb S and 15% of thalassemia beta heterozygous is observed. In hospital surveys in two cities (Guadalajara and Puebla) several abnormalities of hemoglobin have been identified (C, SC, Riyadh, Baltimore, Tarrant, Fannin-Lubbock and Mexico). In the study of isolated cases, mainly of patients with hemolytic anemia, hemoglobins I-Philadelphia, G-San Jose and D-Los Angeles are seen. The thalassemias are the more frequent hemoglobin abnormalities in selected populations of our country. In a community of Italian ancestry a frequency of 1.3% of beta thalassemia trait is found. In our laboratory, 76% of the abnormalities are cases of beta thalassemia trait. Patients with Hb H disease, beta thalassemia (homozygous and heterozygous) and combinations of these abnormalities with hemoglobins S, Hb S + hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) and Hb E as well as families with delta-beta thalassemia, HPFH and Hb Lepore-Washington-Boston have been also detected. PMID:9658939

Ruiz-Reyes, G

1998-01-01

196

Postnatal evaluation of infants with an abnormal antenatal renal sonogram  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Antenatally detected renal abnormalities are frequently encountered. Recommended postnatal evaluation of these infants has evolved to minimize invasive testing while maximizing detection of significant abnormalities. Recent findings There is a low rate of detectable renal abnormalities in infants with a normal postnatal sonogram at 4–6 weeks of age. Routine prophylactic antibiotics are not indicated in infants with isolated antenatal hydronephrosis. Infants with a multicystic dysplastic kidney and a normal contralateral kidney on renal ultrasound do not require further evaluation. Parents of these children should be counseled on symptoms of urinary tract infections to allow prompt diagnosis. Summary All infants with abnormalities on antenatal sonogram should undergo postnatal evaluation with a sonogram after birth and at 4–6 weeks of age. Further evaluation can be safely limited when the postnatal sonogram is normal at 6 weeks of age. PMID:19663038

Becker, Amy M.

2009-01-01

197

THE EARLIEST NEAR-INFRARED TIME-SERIES SPECTROSCOPY OF A TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA  

SciTech Connect

We present ten medium-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio near-infrared (NIR) spectra of SN 2011fe from SpeX on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) and Gemini Near-Infrared Spectrograph (GNIRS) on Gemini North, obtained as part of the Carnegie Supernova Project. This data set constitutes the earliest time-series NIR spectroscopy of a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia), with the first spectrum obtained at 2.58 days past the explosion and covering -14.6 to +17.3 days relative to B-band maximum. C I {lambda}1.0693 {mu}m is detected in SN 2011fe with increasing strength up to maximum light. The delay in the onset of the NIR C I line demonstrates its potential to be an effective tracer of unprocessed material. For the first time in a SN Ia, the early rapid decline of the Mg II {lambda}1.0927 {mu}m velocity was observed, and the subsequent velocity is remarkably constant. The Mg II velocity during this constant phase locates the inner edge of carbon burning and probes the conditions under which the transition from deflagration to detonation occurs. We show that the Mg II velocity does not correlate with the optical light-curve decline rate {Delta}m{sub 15}(B). The prominent break at {approx}1.5 {mu}m is the main source of concern for NIR k-correction calculations. We demonstrate here that the feature has a uniform time evolution among SNe Ia, with the flux ratio across the break strongly correlated with {Delta}m{sub 15}(B). The predictability of the strength and the onset of this feature suggests that the associated k-correction uncertainties can be minimized with improved spectral templates.

Hsiao, E. Y.; Phillips, M. M.; Morrell, N.; Contreras, C.; Roth, M. [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 601 (Chile)] [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 601 (Chile); Marion, G. H.; Kirshner, R. P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)] [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Burns, C. R.; Freedman, W. L.; Persson, S. E. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara St, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)] [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara St, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Winge, C. [Gemini South Observatory, c/o AURA Inc., Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile)] [Gemini South Observatory, c/o AURA Inc., Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Kromer, M.; Gall, E. E. E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Gerardy, C. L.; Hoeflich, P. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Im, M.; Jeon, Y. [CEOU/Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [CEOU/Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nugent, P. E. [Computational Cosmology Center, Computational Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road MS 50B-4206, Berkeley, CA 94611 (United States)] [Computational Cosmology Center, Computational Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road MS 50B-4206, Berkeley, CA 94611 (United States); Pignata, G. [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Avda. Republica 252, Santiago (Chile)] [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Avda. Republica 252, Santiago (Chile); Stanishev, V., E-mail: hsiao@lco.cl [CENTRA - Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); and others

2013-04-01

198

The Earliest Stages of Star and Planet Formation: Core Collapse, and the Formation of Disks and Outflows  

E-print Network

(Abridged) In this review we focus on the observations and theory of the formation of early disks and outflows, and their connections with the first phases of planet formation. Large rotationally supported circumstellar disks, although common around more evolved young stellar objects, are rarely detected during the earliest, "Class 0" phase; however, a few excellent candidates have been discovered recently around both low and high mass protostars. In this early phase, prominent outflows are ubiquitously observed; they are expected to be associated with at least small magnetized disks. Disk formation - once thought to be a simple consequence of the conservation of angular momentum during hydrodynamic core collapse - is far more subtle in magnetized gas. In this case, the rotation can be strongly magnetically braked. Indeed, both analytic arguments and numerical simulations have shown that disk formation is suppressed in the strict ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) limit for the observed level of core magnetizati...

Li, Zhi-Yun; Pudritz, Ralph E; Jørgensen, Jes K; Shang, Hsien; Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Maury, Anaëlle

2014-01-01

199

abnormalities in infants and toddlers  

E-print Network

Cerebellar abnormalities in infants and toddlers with Williams syndrome Wendy Jones* PhD, The Salk-mail: jones@crl.ucsd.edu One commonly observed neuroanatomical abnormality in adults with Williams syndrome children with Williams syndrome. Clinical brain MRI was examined in nine young children with Williams

Bellugi, Ursula

200

Chromosomal abnormalities and mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linkage studies of mental illness have provided suggestive evidence of susceptibility loci over many broad chromosomal regions. Pinpointing causative gene mutations by conventional linkage strategies alone is problematic. The breakpoints of chromosomal abnormalities occurring in patients with mental illness may be more direct pointers to the relevant gene locus. Publications that describe patients where chromosomal abnormalities co-exist with mental illness

D J MacIntyre; D H R Blackwood; D J Porteous; B S Pickard; W J Muir

2003-01-01

201

Students' reactions to abnormal psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of some concern about the effect of courses in abnormal psychology on students, a questionnaire was presented to several classes at the close of the course. The majority answering the questionnaire felt the course to be beneficial, giving evidence that the study of abnormal psychology need not be generally harmful, and may have a significant place in

W. S. Taylor

1932-01-01

202

Systemic abnormalities in liver disease  

PubMed Central

Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases. PMID:19554648

Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

2009-01-01

203

Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

1998-01-01

204

EVOLUTION OF THE CODE AND THE EARLIEST PROTEINS. RECONSTRUCTION FROM PRESENT-DAY SEQUENCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

One may expect that in the composition of the ancient proteins the earliest amino acids would dominate. This is confirmed by matching prokaryotic and eukaryotic protein sequences. The glycine content of the matching residues is especially high. The glycine may, then, serve as a measure of the time since the separation of compared species - glycine clock. This approach is

205

THE EARLIEST STAGES OF HIGH MASS STAR FORMATION METHANOL MASER INSIGHTS , P. Andr1  

E-print Network

THE EARLIEST STAGES OF HIGH MASS STAR FORMATION ­ METHANOL MASER INSIGHTS V. Minier1 , P. André1 (>8 M ) star formation using methanol MASERs as astronomical probes. Methanol masers can provide form. Tracers of high mass star-forming complexes in the Galactic plane: The brightest methanol masers

De Buizer, James Michael

206

The Earliest Bronze Age in Southwest Asia (3100-2700 BC) ... Henry Wright  

E-print Network

The Earliest Bronze Age in Southwest Asia (3100-2700 BC) ... Henry Wright I.Introduction: 5000 the Late Bronze Age during the later second millennium BC and termed this the time of the "real First years ago in the Middle East A."The First Internationalism" or the "First Dark Age"? Half a century ago

White, Douglas R.

207

Molecular Hydrogen from Methanol Maser Sources { Out ow from the Earliest Stage of Star Formation?  

E-print Network

Molecular Hydrogen from Methanol Maser Sources { Out ow from the Earliest Stage of Star Formation in its natal molecular cloud. The strong methanol maser transition 5 1 { 6 0 A + at 6.7 GHz has also been that methanol maser emission usually occurs in massive star forming regions but away from the UCHII regions

Burton, Michael

208

The earliest stages of ecosystem succession in high-elevation (5000 metres above  

E-print Network

The earliest stages of ecosystem succession in high-elevation (5000 metres above sea level. The exposure of `new' soil is particularly apparent at high elevations (5000 metres above sea level the biological community structure and ecosystem functioning of the pre-plant stages of primary succession

Cleveland, Cory

209

Earliest date for milk use in the Near East and southeastern Europe linked to cattle herding  

E-print Network

LETTERS Earliest date for milk use in the Near East and southeastern Europe linked to cattle considerable economic and nutritional gains from using these animals for their milk and other products from the late fifth and fourth millennia BC 4,5 . Hence, the timing and region in which milking was first

Cai, Long

210

The earliest modern mongoose (Carnivora, Herpestidae) from Africa (late Miocene of Chad)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the earliest modern mongooses of Africa, from the late Miocene (ca. 7 Ma) of the hominid locality TM 266, Toros-Menalla, Chad. The material is based on fragmentary dentitions of three individuals. The main diagnostic feature of the Chadian species is the great development of the shear in the carnassials, which distinguishes the Chadian specimens from all extant herpestids

Stéphane Peigné; Louis de Bonis; Andossa Likius; Hassane Taïsso Mackaye; Patrick Vignaud; Michel Brunet

2005-01-01

211

Lithium in Jack Hills zircons: Evidence for extensive weathering of Earth's earliest crust Takayuki Ushikubo a,  

E-print Network

Lithium in Jack Hills zircons: Evidence for extensive weathering of Earth's earliest crust Takayuki Hills lithium weathering continental crust Hadean In situ Li analyses of 4348 to 3362 Ma detrital of REEs. The Jack Hills zircons also have fractionated lithium isotope ratios (7 Li=-19 to+13) about five

Mcdonough, William F.

212

EARLIEST KNOWN CARNIVORAN AUDITORY BULLA AND SUPPORT FOR A RECENT ORIGIN OF CROWN-  

E-print Network

EARLIEST KNOWN CARNIVORAN AUDITORY BULLA AND SUPPORT FOR A RECENT ORIGIN OF CROWN- GROUP CARNIVORA the hypothesis that viverravids lie phylogenetically outside crown-group Carnivora and that the last common Carnivora. If viverravids are part of the crown group, then the origin of living Carnivora could be as old

Houde, Peter

213

Astragalar Morphology of Afradapis, a Large Adapiform Primate From the Earliest Late Eocene of Egypt  

E-print Network

of Egypt Doug M. Boyer,1 * Erik R. Seiffert,2 and Elwyn L. Simons3 1 Department of Anthropology of Egypt's Fayum Depression, yields evidence for a diverse primate fauna, including the earliest known from the Fayum Depression of northern Egypt have long figured promi- nently in debates surrounding

Boyer, Doug M.

214

Maternal Reminiscing Style during Early Childhood Predicts the Age of Adolescents' Earliest Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual differences in parental reminiscing style are hypothesized to have long-lasting effects on children's autobiographical memory development, including the age of their earliest memories. This study represents the first prospective test of this hypothesis. Conversations about past events between 17 mother-child dyads were recorded on…

Jack, Fiona; MacDonald, Shelley; Reese, Elaine; Hayne, Harlene

2009-01-01

215

Laetoli Footprints Preserve Earliest Direct Evidence of HumanLike Bipedal Biomechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Debates over the evolution of hominin bipedalism, a defining human characteristic, revolve around whether early bipeds walked more like humans, with energetically efficient extended hind limbs, or more like apes with flexed hind limbs. The 3.6 million year old hominin footprints at Laetoli, Tanzania represent the earliest direct evidence of hominin bipedalism. Determining the kinematics of Laetoli hominins will

David A. Raichlen; Adam D. Gordon; William E. H. Harcourt-Smith; Adam D. Foster; Wm. Randall Haas

2010-01-01

216

Laetoli Footprints Preserve Earliest Direct Evidence of HumanLike Bipedal Biomechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDebates over the evolution of hominin bipedalism, a defining human characteristic, revolve around whether early bipeds walked more like humans, with energetically efficient extended hind limbs, or more like apes with flexed hind limbs. The 3.6 million year old hominin footprints at Laetoli, Tanzania represent the earliest direct evidence of hominin bipedalism. Determining the kinematics of Laetoli hominins will allow

David A. Raichlen; Adam D. Gordon; William E. H. Harcourt-Smith; Adam D. Foster; Wm. Randall Haas

2010-01-01

217

Earliest abort once around time for the first orbital flight test mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The earliest abort once around (AOA) time for the first orbital flight test (OFT-1) mission is determined. The latest estimates of vehicle weights and propulsion for OFT-1 are used. Trade analyses to indicate variations in AOA time for shuttle subsystem changes (such as orbital maneuvering system (OMS) or reaction control system (RCS) propellant loadings) are included. In addition, the effects

A. E. Kuhn

1975-01-01

218

Chromosomal Abnormality in Men with Impaired Spermatogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background: Chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletions are regarded as two most frequent genetic causes associated with failure of spermatogenesis in the Caucasian population. Materials and Methods: To investigate the distribution of genetic defects in the Romanian population with azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia, karyotype analysis by G-banding was carried out in 850 idiopathic infertile men and in 49 fertile men with one or more children. Screening for microdeletions in the azoospermia factor (AZF) region of Y chromosome was performed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on a group of 67 patients with no detectable chromosomal abnormality. The results of the two groups were compared by a two-tailed Fisher’s exact test. Results: In our study chromosomal abnormalities were observed in 12.70% and 8.16% of infertile and fertile individuals respectively. Conclusion: Our data suggests that infertile men with severe azoospermia have higher incidences of genetic defects than fertile men and also patients from any other group. Infertile men with normal sperm present a higher rate of polymorphic variants. It is important to know whether there is a genetic cause of male infertility before patients are subjected to intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or testicular sperm extraction (TESE)/ICSI treatment. PMID:24696767

Mierla, Dana; Jardan, Dumitru; Stoian, Veronica

2014-01-01

219

Reversible intestinal mucosal abnormality in acrodermatitis enteropathica.  

PubMed Central

In 3 cases of acrodermatitis enteropathica duodenal biopsy performed at the outset of treatment showed a similar abnormality of the intestinal mucosa. Further biopsies taken during treatment showed progressive improvement of the intestinal mucosa with subsequent complete restoration of the normal cellular and villous pattern. The initial treatment was with expressed human breast milk and oral di-iodohydroxyquinoline. The latter was continued alone and later replaced by zinc sulphate. Changes in the intestinal epithelial cells and inflammatory cell infiltration of the lamina propria still detectable on di-iodohydroxyquinoline therapy reverted to normal with oral zinc. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:952555

Kelly, R; Davidson, G P; Townley, R R; Campbell, P E

1976-01-01

220

Maxillary tumour as first sign of endocrine abnormality: A report of a rare case.  

PubMed

Brown tumour is a non-neoplastic giant cell lesion resulting as a complication of hyperparathyroidism (HPT). HPT usually results from increased secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH). We present a rare case of brown tumour of anterior maxilla presenting as a first sign of previously undiagnosed secondary HPT, to emphasise that giant cell lesions of jaw bones should routinely be screened for PTH levels to rule out underlying endocrine abnormalities and oral manifestation is the earliest manifestation of many systemic diseases and careful evaluation of oral cavity by physician gives information to underlying systemic pathology. PMID:25657501

Thankappan, Prasanth; Chundru, Naga Sirisha; Amudala, Rajesh; Kuppusamy, Anitha

2015-01-01

221

Final Report for CRADA Agreement , AL-C-2006-01 with Microsens Biotechnologies: Detection of the Abnormal Prion Protein in Blood by Improving the Extraction of this Protein  

SciTech Connect

Several conditions were examined to optimize the extraction protocol using Seprion beads for the abnormal prion protein. Different combinations of water, hexafluro-2-propanol and formic acid were used. The results of these extraction protocols showed that the magnetic beads coated with Seprion reagents were subject to degradation, themselves, when the extraction conditions that would solubilize the abnormal prion protein were used. These compounds caused interference in the immunoassay for the abnormal prion protein and rendered these protocols incompatible with the assay systems. In an attempt to overcome this problem, another approach was then used. The coated beads were used as an integral part of the assay platform. After washing away denaturing agents, the beads with the 'captured' abnormal prion were incubated directly in the immunoassay, followed by analysis by the capillary electrophoresis. When a capillary electrophoresis electro-kinetic separation was attempted, the beads disturbed the analysis making it impossible to interpret. A pressure separation method was then developed for capillary electrophoresis analysis. When 20 samples, 5 of which were positive were analyzed, the assay identified 4 of the 5 positives and had no false positives. When a larger number of samples were analyzed the results were not as good - there were false positives and false negatives. It was then observed that the amount of beads that were loaded was dependent upon how long the beads were allowed to settle before loading them into the capillary. This resulted in unacceptable variations in the results and explained that when large numbers of samples were evaluated the results were not consistent. Because the technical difficulties with using the Seprion beads could not be overcome at this time, another approach is underway that is outside of the scope of this CRADA. No further agreements have been developed. Because the results were not favorable, no manuscripts were written nor intellectual property developed.

Schmerr, Mary Jo

2009-03-31

222

The Earliest Giant Osprioneides Borings from the Sandbian (Late Ordovician) of Estonia  

PubMed Central

The earliest Osprioneides kampto borings were found in bryozoan colonies of Sandbian age from northern Estonia (Baltica). The Ordovician was a time of great increase in the quantities of hard substrate removed by single trace makers. Increased predation pressure was most likely the driving force behind the infaunalization of larger invertebrates such as the Osprioneides trace makers in the Ordovician. It is possible that the Osprioneides borer originated in Baltica or in other paleocontinents outside of North America. PMID:24901511

Vinn, Olev; Wilson, Mark A.; Mõtus, Mari-Ann

2014-01-01

223

The Ceprano Skull and the Earliest Peopling of Europe: Overview and Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the cranial remains belonging to the earliest hominids found in Europe over the past 15 years. Morphological\\u000a and metric traits were scored and compared with the data on the pleistocenic remains found in the Old World. The cladistical\\u000a and multivariate analyses – carried out respectively on the morphological and metric traits – seem to suggest that the

Francesco Mallegni

2006-01-01

224

Fossil Skulls from Dmanisi: A Paleodeme Representing Earliest Homo in Eurasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Plio-Pleistocene site of Dmanisi has yielded much evidence bearing on the morphology and behavior of the earliest hominins\\u000a from western Eurasia. Human remains, animal bones and stone artifacts were deposited at Dmanisi during a brief interval following\\u000a the close of the Olduvai Subchron (1.77 million years ago). The hominin fossils now include an adult braincase (D2280), the\\u000a partial skull

G. Philip Rightmire; David Lordkipanidze

225

Vegetation and climate in the latest Oligocene–earliest Miocene in Jylland, Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two exposures in Jylland, Denmark, encompassing beds of latest Oligocene to earliest Miocene age (latest Chattian–early Aquitanian) yielded well-preserved palynofloras. The assemblages indicate that Jylland was covered by extensive Taxodiaceae swamp forests in the mid-Cenozoic. Besides a Taxodiaceae–Cupressaceae association, which was overwhelmingly dominant, other common plants in this habitat were Alnus, Nyssa, Betula, Salix, Cyrilla and Myrica. Most of the

Linda M. Larsson; Vivi Vajda; Karen Dybkjær

2010-01-01

226

Dietary specializations and diversity in feeding ecology of the earliest stem mammals.  

PubMed

The origin and radiation of mammals are key events in the history of life, with fossils placing the origin at 220 million years ago, in the Late Triassic period. The earliest mammals, representing the first 50 million years of their evolution and including the most basal taxa, are widely considered to be generalized insectivores. This implies that the first phase of the mammalian radiation--associated with the appearance in the fossil record of important innovations such as heterodont dentition, diphyodonty and the dentary-squamosal jaw joint--was decoupled from ecomorphological diversification. Finds of exceptionally complete specimens of later Mesozoic mammals have revealed greater ecomorphological diversity than previously suspected, including adaptations for swimming, burrowing, digging and even gliding, but such well-preserved fossils of earlier mammals do not exist, and robust analysis of their ecomorphological diversity has previously been lacking. Here we present the results of an integrated analysis, using synchrotron X-ray tomography and analyses of biomechanics, finite element models and tooth microwear textures. We find significant differences in function and dietary ecology between two of the earliest mammaliaform taxa, Morganucodon and Kuehneotherium--taxa that are central to the debate on mammalian evolution. Morganucodon possessed comparatively more forceful and robust jaws and consumed 'harder' prey, comparable to extant small-bodied mammals that eat considerable amounts of coleopterans. Kuehneotherium ingested a diet comparable to extant mixed feeders and specialists on 'soft' prey such as lepidopterans. Our results reveal previously hidden trophic specialization at the base of the mammalian radiation; hence even the earliest mammaliaforms were beginning to diversify--morphologically, functionally and ecologically. In contrast to the prevailing view, this pattern suggests that lineage splitting during the earliest stages of mammalian evolution was associated with ecomorphological specialization and niche partitioning. PMID:25143112

Gill, Pamela G; Purnell, Mark A; Crumpton, Nick; Brown, Kate Robson; Gostling, Neil J; Stampanoni, M; Rayfield, Emily J

2014-08-21

227

Earliest magmatism in Ethiopia: Evidence for two mantle plumes in one flood basalt province  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tertiary magmatism in Ethiopia has been linked to the thermal influence of the Afar mantle plume. However, new laser 40Ar\\/39Ar ages for the volcanic succession in southern Ethiopia confirm the presence of two distinct magmatic phases at 45 35 Ma and 19 12 Ma. The earliest phase predates both extension and magmatism in northern Ethiopia by 15 m.y. and cannot

Rhiannon George; Nick Rogers; Simon Kelley

1998-01-01

228

Earth’s earliest evolved crust generated in an Iceland-like setting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is unclear how the earliest continental crust formed on an Earth that was probably originally surfaced with oceanic crust. Continental crust may have first formed in an ocean island-like setting, where upwelling mantle generates magmas that crystallize to form new crust. Of the oceanic plateaux, Iceland is closest in character to continental crust, because its crust is anomalously thick and contains a relatively high proportion of silica-rich (sialic) rocks. Iceland has therefore been considered a suitable analogue for the generation of Earth’s earliest continental crust. However, the geochemical signature of sialic rocks from Iceland is distinct from the typical 3.9- to 2.5-billion-year-old Archaean rocks discovered so far. Here we report the discovery of an exceptionally well-preserved, 4.02-billion-year-old tonalitic gneiss rock unit within the Acasta Gneiss Complex in Canada. We use geochemical analyses to show that this rock unit is characterized by iron enrichment, negative Europium anomalies, unfractionated rare-earth-element patterns, and magmatic zircons with low oxygen isotope ratios. These geochemical characteristics are unlike typical Archaean igneous rocks, but are strikingly similar to those of the sialic rocks from Iceland and imply that this ancient rock unit was formed by shallow-level magmatic processes that include assimilation of rocks previously altered by surface waters. Our data provide direct evidence that Earth’s earliest continental crust formed in a tectonic setting comparable to modern Iceland.

Reimink, Jesse R.; Chacko, Thomas; Stern, Richard A.; Heaman, Larry M.

2014-07-01

229

[Walking abnormalities in children].  

PubMed

Walking is a spontaneous movement termed locomotion that is promoted by activation of antigravity muscles by serotonergic (5HT) neurons. Development of antigravity activity follows 3 developmental epochs of the sleep-wake (S-W) cycle and is modulated by particular 5HT neurons in each epoch. Activation of antigravity activities occurs in the first epoch (around the age of 3 to 4 months) as restriction of atonia in rapid eye movement (REM) stage and development of circadian S-W cycle. These activities strengthen in the second epoch, with modulation of day-time sleep and induction of crawling around the age of 8 months and induction of walking by 1 year. Around the age of 1 year 6 months, absence of guarded walking and interlimb cordination is observed along with modulation of day-time sleep to once in the afternoon. Bipedal walking in upright position occurs in the third epoch, with development of a biphasic S-W cycle by the age of 4-5 years. Patients with infantile autism (IA), Rett syndrome (RTT), or Tourette syndrome (TS) show failure in the development of the first, second, or third epoch, respectively. Patients with IA fail to develop interlimb coordination; those with RTT, crawling and walking; and those with TS, walking in upright posture. Basic pathophysiology underlying these condition is failure in restricting atonia in REM stage; this induces dysfunction of the pedunculopontine nucleus and consequently dys- or hypofunction of the dopamine (DA) neurons. DA hypofunction in the developing brain, associated with compensatory upward regulation of the DA receptors causes psychobehavioral disorders in infancy (IA), failure in synaptogenesis in the frontal cortex and functional development of the motor and associate cortexes in late infancy through the basal ganglia (RTT), and failure in functional development of the prefrontal cortex through the basal ganglia (TS). Further, locomotion failure in early childhood causes failure in development of functional specialization of the cortex through the spinal stepping generator-fastigial nucleus-thalamus-cortex pathway. Early detection of locomotion failure and early adjustment of this condition through environmental factors can prevent the development of higher cortical dysfunction. PMID:21068458

Segawa, Masaya

2010-11-01

230

Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

2002-01-01

231

Emergency and Abnormal Situations Project Emergency and Abnormal Situations  

E-print Network

the landing gear came down... #12;10 Emergency and Abnormal Situations Issues · Checklist and Procedure-board fire and when the aircraft ditches, conducts a forced landing, or crashes is 17 minutes. The Swissair 426768 During approach...the gear failed to come down...after notifying the tower we had a `Gear

232

Chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele.  

PubMed

Fetuses with omphalocele have an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities. The risk varies with maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, association with umbilical cord cysts, complexity of associated anomalies, and the contents of omphalocele. There is considerable evidence that genetics contributes to the etiology of omphalocele. This article provides an overview of chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele and a comprehensive review of associated full aneuploidy such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy, trisomy 21, 45,X, 47,XXY, and 47,XXX, partial aneuploidy such as dup (3q), dup (11p), inv (11), dup (1q), del (1q), dup (4q), dup (5p), dup (6q), del (9p), dup (15q), dup(17q), Pallister-Killian syndrome with mosaic tetrasomy 12p and Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome with deletion of 17p13.3, and uniparental disomy (UPD) such as UPD 11 and UPD 14. Omphalocele is a prominent marker for chromosomal abnormalities. Perinatal identification of omphalocele should alert chromosomal abnormalities and familial unbalanced translocations, and prompt thorough cytogenetic investigations and genetic counseling. PMID:17389182

Chen, Chih-Ping

2007-03-01

233

[A boy with nail abnormalities].  

PubMed

A 12-year-old boy consulted the dermatologist for nail abnormalities. Three weeks earlier, he was treated with doxycycline 100 mg BID for 10 days because of erythema chronicum migrans. Following sun exposure, the patient had developed distal onycholysis surrounded by a hyperpigmented zone. He was diagnosed with doxycycline-induced photo-onycholysis. PMID:23838405

Atiq, Nasirah; van Meurs, Tim

2013-01-01

234

Transcriptional abnormalities in Huntington disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Huntington disease (HD) is caused by a CAG repeat expansion that is translated into an abnormally long polyglutamine (polyQ) tract in the huntingtin protein. The precise mechanisms leading to neurodegeneration in HD have not been fully elucidated, but alterations in gene transcription could well be involved because the activities of several nuclear proteins are compromised by the polyQ mutation. Recent

Katharine L. Sugars; David C. Rubinsztein

2003-01-01

235

Abnormalities of the optic disc  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optic disc represents the anterior end of the optic nerve, the most forward extension of the central nervous system (CNS). The optic disc gives a rare glimpse into the CNS. Hence, diseases of the CNS are often manifested on fundus examination. Abnormalities of the optic disc may reflect eye disease (such as glaucoma), problems in development (as in various

Alfredo A. Sadun; Michelle Y. Wang

2011-01-01

236

Hematologic abnormalities in the small animal cancer patient.  

PubMed

Veterinarians will encounter hematologic abnormalities routinely while treating small animal cancer patients. Some of these abnormalities, such as monoclonal gammopathy, are relatively rare and highly associated with specific neoplasms. Thus, their detection should compel a search for underlying cancer. Other hematologic abnormalities, such as anemia or thrombocytopenia, are very common in cancer patients, and their identification should prompt clinicians to consider the different mechanisms by which they may have arisen and whether further diagnostic tests are needed to fully characterize their etiology. Although cancer-related hematologic abnormalities are frequently described in the veterinary literature, the incidence, prevalence, and clinical significance of these abnormalities are less well-defined. Anemia and coagulopathies are major causes of morbidity and mortality in human cancer patients, and may have a tremendous impact on disease progression and tumor response to antineoplastic therapy. It is plausible that the same is true for veterinary cancer patients, given the pathological and biological similarity between human and small animal tumors. Future studies should address the epidemiology and clinical significance of these, and perhaps other, hematologic abnormalities in order to determine whether therapeutic intervention to correct them may improve patient outcomes. PMID:22285162

Childress, Michael O

2012-01-01

237

Take up the cross (Mark 8 : 34 and par.) : the history and function of the cross saying in earliest Christianity   

E-print Network

The principal contention of this thesis is that the earliest Christians viewed the crucifixion of Jesus as paradigmatic for discipleship, confirmation of which can be found in the history and function of a particular ...

Rumple, John Glenn

238

Support feature machine for classification of abnormal brain activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a novel multidimensional time series classiflca- tion technique, namely support feature machine (SFM), is proposed. SFM is inspired by the optimization model of sup- port vector machine and the nearest neighbor rule to incor- porate both spatial and temporal of the multi-dimensional time series data. This paper also describes an application of SFM for detecting abnormal brain

Wanpracha Art Chaovalitwongse; Ya-ju Fan; Rajesh C. Sachdeo

2007-01-01

239

Symptom Complexes at the Earliest Phases of Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Synthesis of the Qualitative Literature  

PubMed Central

Objective Understanding the features and patterns of symptoms that characterize the earliest stages of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is of considerable importance if patients are to be identified and started on treatment early. However, little is known about the characteristics of symptoms at the onset of a disease that eventually progresses to RA. Methods A systematic review of qualitative peer-reviewed publications was conducted to identify the earliest symptoms associated with the onset of RA. A total of 1,736 abstracts were searched to identify relevant publications. Twenty-six publications were identified, assessed for quality, and subjected to analysis informed by thematic and grounded theory frameworks. Results Several interacting themes describing the early symptoms of RA were identified, including swelling, pain and tenderness, stiffness, fatigue and weakness, and the emotional impact of symptoms. For each symptom, different and evolving intensities were described; in some cases, patterns of symptom onset and symptom complexes at the onset of RA were highlighted. Importantly, this review has emphasized major deficiencies in the literature. None of the studies reviewed originally aimed to explore symptoms at RA onset (often discussions about symptom onset were secondary to the study's primary aim). Also, many of the articles identified sampled people diagnosed with RA many years previously, making their recollection of symptoms at onset less reliable. Conclusion In order for clinicians to fully understand the earliest phases of disease, the nature of symptoms at onset needs to be understood. The current work represents a useful starting point, but this area needs further qualitative investigation, followed by quantitative explorations of symptom clusters and their associated features. PMID:23926091

Stack, Rebecca J; Sahni, Melanie; Mallen, Christian D; Raza, Karim

2013-01-01

240

Structural Pituitary Abnormalities Associated With CHARGE Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Introduction: CHARGE syndrome is a multisystem disorder that, in addition to Kallmann syndrome/isolated hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, has been associated with anterior pituitary hypoplasia (APH). However, structural abnormalities such as an ectopic posterior pituitary (EPP) have not yet been described in such patients. Objective: The aims of the study were: 1) to describe the association between CHARGE syndrome and a structurally abnormal pituitary gland; and 2) to investigate whether CHD7 variants, which are identified in 65% of CHARGE patients, are common in septo-optic dysplasia /hypopituitarism. Methods: We describe 2 patients with features of CHARGE and EPP. CHD7 was sequenced in these and other patients with septo-optic dysplasia/hypopituitarism. Results: EPP, APH, and GH, TSH, and probable LH/FSH deficiency were present in 1 patient, and EPP and APH with GH, TSH, LH/FSH, and ACTH deficiency were present in another patient, both of whom had features of CHARGE syndrome. Both had variations in CHD7 that were novel and undetected in control cohorts or in the international database of CHARGE patients, but were also present in their unaffected mothers. No CHD7 variants were detected in the patients with septo-optic dysplasia/hypopituitarism without additional CHARGE features. Conclusion: We report a novel association between CHARGE syndrome and structural abnormalities of the pituitary gland in 2 patients with variations in CHD7 that are of unknown significance. However, CHD7 mutations are an uncommon cause of septo-optic dysplasia or hypopituitarism. Our data suggest the need for evaluation of pituitary function/anatomy in patients with CHARGE syndrome. PMID:23526466

Gregory, Louise C.; Gevers, Evelien F.; Baker, Joanne; Kasia, Tessa; Chong, Kling; Josifova, Dragana J.; Caimari, Maria; Bilan, Frederic; McCabe, Mark J.

2013-01-01

241

The earliest ostracods from the Ordovician of the Prague Basin, Czech Republic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The earliest ostracods from the Bohemian Massif (Central European Variscides) have been recorded from the Middle Ordovician of the Prague Basin (Barrandian area), in the upper Klabava Formation, and became an abundant component of fossil assemblages in the overlying Šarka Formation. Both early ostracod associations consist of eight species in total, representing mainly eridostracans, palaeocopids, and binodicopids. The revision, description, or redescription of all species and their distribution in the basin is provided. Their diversification patterns and palaeogeographical relationships to ostracod assemblages from other regions are discussed.

Lajblová, Karolína; Kraft, Petr

2014-12-01

242

Road Proximity Increases Risk of Skeletal Abnormalities in Wood Frogs from National Wildlife Refuges in Alaska  

PubMed Central

Background Skeletal and eye abnormalities in amphibians are not well understood, and they appear to be increasing while global populations decline. Here, we present the first study of amphibian abnormalities in Alaska. Objective In this study we investigated the relationship between anthropogenic influences and the probability of skeletal and eye abnormalities in Alaskan wood frogs (Rana sylvatica). Methods From 2000 to 2006, we examined 9,269 metamorphic wood frogs from 86 breeding sites on five National Wildlife Refuges: Arctic, Innoko, Kenai, Tetlin, and Yukon Delta. Using road proximity as a proxy for human development, we tested relationships between skeletal and eye abnormalities and anthropogenic effects. We also examined a subsample of 458 frogs for the trematode parasite Ribeiroia ondatrae, a known cause of amphibian limb abnormalities. Results Prevalence of skeletal and eye abnormalities at Alaskan refuges ranged from 1.5% to 7.9% and were as high as 20% at individual breeding sites. Proximity to roads increased the risk of skeletal abnormalities (p = 0.004) but not eye abnormalities. The only significant predictor of eye abnormalities was year sampled (p = 0.006). R. ondatrae was not detected in any Alaskan wood frogs. Conclusions Abnormality prevalence at road-accessible sites in the Kenai and Tetlin refuges is among the highest reported in the published literature. Proximity to roads is positively correlated with risk of skeletal abnormalities in Alaskan wood frogs. PMID:18709167

Reeves, Mari K.; Dolph, Christine L.; Zimmer, Heidi; Tjeerdema, Ronald S.; Trust, Kimberly A.

2008-01-01

243

The future of prenatal diagnosis: rapid testing or full karyotype? An audit of chromosome abnormalities and pregnancy outcomes for women referred for Down's Syndrome testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

three-month period. Methods Abnormal karyotypes and total number of samples referred for raised maternal age, raised risk of Down's Syndrome following serum screening or maternal anxiety were collected. Abnormal karyotypes detected by molecular trisomy detection were removed, leaving cases with residual abnormal karyotypes. These were assessed for their clinical significance. Pregnancy outcomes were ascertained by reviewing patient notes or by

Caroline Mackie Ogilvie; Alison Lashwood; Lyn Chitty; Jonathan J. Waters; Paul N. Scriven; Frances Flinter

2005-01-01

244

Atlas: Cartilage Abnormalities and Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The following chapter illustrates cartilage abnormalities and provides semiquantitative scores for these lesions. The focus\\u000a of this chapter is on the most frequently used Recht (modified Noyes and Stabler) score [1, 2] and Whole-Organ-MRI-Score (WORMS)\\u000a [3]. These scores have been used in a number of previous studies and have been found helpful in assessing the grade of cartilage\\u000a lesions, in

Hans Liebl; Thomas M. Link

245

Abnormal Canine Bone Development Associated with Hypergravity Exposure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chronic centrifugation of 85- to 92-day-old Beagles at 2.0 x g and 2.6 x g for 26 weeks during the time of active skeletal growth caused skeletal abnormalities in the radius and the ulna of ten of 11 dogs. The pattern of change mimicked that found in naturally occurring and experimentally induced premature distal ulnar physeal closure or delayed growth at this physis. Minimal changes in bone density were detected by sensitive photon absorptiometric techniques. Skeletal abnormalities also were found in five of the six cage-control dogs, although the run-control dogs were radiographically normal.

Morgan, J. P.; Fisher, G. L.; McNeill, K. L.; Oyama, J.

1979-01-01

246

A structural intermediate between triisodontids and mesonychians (Mammalia, Acreodi) from the earliest Eocene of Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new mammal, Mondegodon eutrigonus gen. et sp. nov., is described from the earliest Eocene locality of Silveirinha, Portugal. This species shows dental adaptations indicative of a carnivorous diet. M. eutrigonus is referred to the order Acreodi and considered, along with the early Paleocene North American species Oxyclaenus cuspidatus, as a morphological intermediate between two groups of ungulate-like mammals, namely, the triisodontids and mesonychians. Considering that triisodontids are early to early-late Paleocene North American taxa, Mondegodon probably belongs to a group that migrated from North America towards Europe during the first part of the Paleocene. Mondegodon could represent thus a relict genus, belonging to the ante-Eocene European mammalian fauna. The occurrence of such a taxon in Southern Europe may reflect a period of isolation of this continental area during the Paleocene/Eocene transition. In this context, the non-occurrence of closely allied forms of Mondegodon in the Eocene North European mammalian faunas is significant. This strengthens the hypothesis that the mammalian fauna from Southern Europe is characterized by a certain degree of endemism during the earliest Eocene. Mondegodon also presents some striking similarities with an unnamed genus from the early Eocene of India which could represent the first Asian known transitional form between the triisodontids and mesonychians.

Tabuce, Rodolphe; Clavel, Julien; Antunes, Miguel Telles

2011-02-01

247

The Earliest Type Oe Stars: Shattering the Record for the Be Phenomenon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oe stars are massive and likely evolved stars that may be key to understanding aspects of massive star evolution. These are rapidly rotating stars that may have spun up during main sequence evolution and are believed to have formed decretion disks. A decretion disk forms when stellar material is spun out of a star as it rotates near break-up velocity. Oe stars are extremely rare in the Milky Way (MW), where the earliest known Oe star has a spectral type of O7.5. Because weaker stellar winds prevent O stars from losing angular momentum, this model of Oe disk formation predicts that, in low metallicity environments, the weak winds allow larger numbers and frequencies of early-type Oe stars. We test this scenario in the low-metallicity, Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), where we have identified approximately 30 field Oe stars from RIOTS4, a spatially complete, spectroscopic survey of field OB stars. To date, the earliest reported Oe star in any galaxy is type O7.5. However, here we find seven Oe stars of types O5 to O7, thus yielding much earlier type Oe stars than ever before. Therefore, the increase in the frequency of early-type Oe stars in the SMC compared to the MW supports the decretion disk model because the weaker winds in low-metallicity environments allow earlier type O stars to form decretion disks. Funding for this project was provided by NSF grant AST-0907758.

Golden-Marx, Jesse B.; Oey, M. S.; Lamb, Joel B; Graus, Andrew S

2014-06-01

248

Laetoli Footprints Preserve Earliest Direct Evidence of Human-Like Bipedal Biomechanics  

PubMed Central

Background Debates over the evolution of hominin bipedalism, a defining human characteristic, revolve around whether early bipeds walked more like humans, with energetically efficient extended hind limbs, or more like apes with flexed hind limbs. The 3.6 million year old hominin footprints at Laetoli, Tanzania represent the earliest direct evidence of hominin bipedalism. Determining the kinematics of Laetoli hominins will allow us to understand whether selection acted to decrease energy costs of bipedalism by 3.6 Ma. Methodology/Principal Findings Using an experimental design, we show that the Laetoli hominins walked with weight transfer most similar to the economical extended limb bipedalism of humans. Humans walked through a sand trackway using both extended limb bipedalism, and more flexed limb bipedalism. Footprint morphology from extended limb trials matches weight distribution patterns found in the Laetoli footprints. Conclusions These results provide us with the earliest direct evidence of kinematically human-like bipedalism currently known, and show that extended limb bipedalism evolved long before the appearance of the genus Homo. Since extended-limb bipedalism is more energetically economical than ape-like bipedalism, energy expenditure was likely an important selection pressure on hominin bipeds by 3.6 Ma. PMID:20339543

Raichlen, David A.; Gordon, Adam D.; Harcourt-Smith, William E. H.; Foster, Adam D.; Haas, Wm. Randall

2010-01-01

249

A latest Pliocene age for the earliest and most extensive Cordilleran Ice Sheet in northwestern Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Klondike gravel is a widespread glaciofluvial gravel marking the earliest and most extensive Cordilleran Ice Sheet (CIS) in NW North America. New terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) burial ages indicate this gravel was emplaced 2.64+0.20/-0.18 Ma (1?). Coupled with previously interpreted paleomagnetic stratigraphy, this numerical age constrains the timing of the earliest CIS to the late Gauss Chron and provides a minimum age for the Upper White Channel gravel, a significant placer gold source in the Yukon. This implies the first CIS glacial maximum pre-dates the maximum extent of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, indicating that during the initial stages of northern hemisphere glaciation, the most extensive glaciers were present in the relatively cold and high elevation northern Cordillera. Our results verify the CIS as a likely source of persistent coeval ice-rafted debris in the northern Pacific, and suggest that the first CIS formed as a response to the establishment of the northern Pacific halocline and emergence of the 41 ka obliquity cycle during the Plio-Pliocene transition.

Hidy, Alan J.; Gosse, John C.; Froese, Duane G.; Bond, Jeffrey D.; Rood, Dylan H.

2013-02-01

250

The earliest modern mongoose (Carnivora, Herpestidae) from Africa (late Miocene of Chad)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the earliest modern mongooses of Africa, from the late Miocene (ca. 7 Ma) of the hominid locality TM 266, Toros-Menalla, Chad. The material is based on fragmentary dentitions of three individuals. The main diagnostic feature of the Chadian species is the great development of the shear in the carnassials, which distinguishes the Chadian specimens from all extant herpestids except Herpestes and Galerella. In comparison with most extinct and extant Herpestes, the species from Toros-Menalla differs by a markedly smaller size and, depending on the species, relatively more elongated carnassials, more transversely elongated M1 and more reduced p4. On the basis of a great morphological similarity and the absence of significant differences, we assign our material to Galerella sanguinea; the Chadian finding therefore represents the earliest appearance of an extant species of Herpestidae. This record ties the first appearance of the genus to a minimum age of ca. 7 Ma, which is consistent with the estimated divergence date of 11.4 Ma known from the literature for the species of Galerella.

Peigné, Stéphane; Bonis, Louis; Likius, Andossa; Mackaye, Hassane Taïsso; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

2005-06-01

251

Phylogenomics supports microsporidia as the earliest diverging clade of sequenced fungi  

PubMed Central

Background Microsporidia is one of the taxa that have experienced the most dramatic taxonomic reclassifications. Once thought to be among the earliest diverging eukaryotes, the fungal nature of this group of intracellular pathogens is now widely accepted. However, the specific position of microsporidia within the fungal tree of life is still debated. Due to the presence of accelerated evolutionary rates, phylogenetic analyses involving microsporidia are prone to methodological artifacts, such as long-branch attraction, especially when taxon sampling is limited. Results Here we exploit the recent availability of six complete microsporidian genomes to re-assess the long-standing question of their phylogenetic position. We show that microsporidians have a similar low level of conservation of gene neighborhood with other groups of fungi when controlling for the confounding effects of recent segmental duplications. A combined analysis of thousands of gene trees supports a topology in which microsporidia is a sister group to all other sequenced fungi. Moreover, this topology received increased support when less informative trees were discarded. This position of microsporidia was also strongly supported based on the combined analysis of 53 concatenated genes, and was robust to filters controlling for rate heterogeneity, compositional bias, long branch attraction and heterotachy. Conclusions Altogether, our data strongly support a scenario in which microsporidia is the earliest-diverging clade of sequenced fungi. PMID:22651672

2012-01-01

252

Notes on historical aspects on the earliest known observations of noctilucent clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper considers historical aspects of the earliest known observations of noctilucent clouds (NLCs). The 1884 and 1885 are discussed by considering important historical citations by the pioneers of the earliest known observations of noctilucent clouds. For the first time in NLC studies, we consider seven major volcanic eruptions: Laki in 1783, Mount St. Helens in 1800, Tambora in 1815, Galunggung in 1822, Cosigüina in 1835, Shiveluch in 1854 and Askja in 1875. These all preceded the catastrophic 1883 eruption of Krakatoa, which despite having a lesser magnitude than Tambora in 1815, had pronounced effects on the atmosphere. These eruptions represent possible triggers for the appearance of NLCs. For the first time, we publish an unknown, in English-speaking literature, historical fact on the first determinations of the altitude of noctilucent clouds made by two Russian astronomers V. K. Tseraskii and A. A. Belopolskii on 26 June 1885, who managed to infer the altitude of the clouds in the range of 73-83 km, that is, for the first time, demonstrating the possible existence of the clouds at great altitudes in the Earth's atmosphere. Moreover, V. K. Tseraskii was the first observer to photograph noctilucent clouds in 1885 or 1886, which is 1-2 yr before the German astronomer O. Jesse, who owns the first published images of noctilucent clouds. The photographs made by V. K. Tseraskii, unfortunately, did not reach us.

Dalin, P.; Pertsev, N.; Romejko, V.

2012-03-01

253

CT and ultrasonography of acute renal abnormalities.  

PubMed

Computed tomography and ultrasonography are important in the evaluation of patients with acute renal abnormalities, either as adjuncts or, less commonly, as alternatives to excretory urography. Ultrasonography has become the imaging procedure of choice in evaluation of acute renal failure. Detection of obstructive uropathy by ultrasonography is very accurate, although the potential pitfalls of minimal dilatation obstructive uropathy, false absence of caliectasis in dehydrated patients, and peripelvic cysts simulating hydronephrosis should be considered. Both CT and ultrasonography have improved our ability to define specific causes of intrinsic or extrinsic renal or ureteral obstructing lesions, including tumor, inflammatory masses, and calculi. Renal infections and infarctions also have characteristic appearances on CT and ultrasonography, though ultrasonography is somewhat limited by its inability to reliably demonstrate gas-containing or small abscesses, and its inability to provide functional information about the concentrating capacity of regional areas of the kidney. PMID:6356219

Jeffrey, R B; Federle, M P

1983-09-01

254

"Idiopathic" mental retardation and new chromosomal abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Mental retardation is a heterogeneous condition, affecting 1-3% of general population. In the last few years, several emerging clinical entities have been described, due to the advent of newest genetic techniques, such as array Comparative Genomic Hybridization. The detection of cryptic microdeletion/microduplication abnormalities has allowed genotype-phenotype correlations, delineating recognizable syndromic conditions that are herein reviewed. With the aim to provide to Paediatricians a combined clinical and genetic approach to the child with cognitive impairment, a practical diagnostic algorithm is also illustrated. The use of microarray platforms has further reduced the percentage of "idiopathic" forms of mental retardation, previously accounted for about half of total cases. We discussed the putative pathways at the basis of remaining "pure idiopathic" forms of mental retardation, highlighting possible environmental and epigenetic mechanisms as causes of altered cognition. PMID:20152051

2010-01-01

255

Hyperglycemia-Induced Abnormalities in Rat and Human Corneas: The Potential of Second Harmonic Generation  

E-print Network

Hyperglycemia-Induced Abnormalities in Rat and Human Corneas: The Potential of Second Harmonic detection and characterization of hyperglycemia-induced abnormalities in the Descemet's membrane: Latour G, Kowalczuk L, Savoldelli M, Bourges J-L, Plamann K, et al. (2012) Hyperglycemia

256

Investigating individual differences in brain abnormalities in autism.  

PubMed Central

Autism is a psychiatric syndrome characterized by impairments in three domains: social interaction, communication, and restricted and repetitive behaviours and interests. Recent findings implicate the amygdala in the neurobiology of autism. In this paper, we report the results of a series of novel experimental investigations focusing on the structure and function of the amygdala in a group of children with autism. The first section attempts to determine if abnormality of the amygdala can be identified in an individual using magnetic resonance imaging in vivo. Using single-case voxel-based morphometric analyses, abnormality in the amygdala was detected in half the children with autism. Abnormalities in other regions were also found. In the second section, emotional modulation of the startle response was investigated in the group of autistic children. Surprisingly, there were no significant differences between the patterns of emotional modulation of the startle response in the autistic group compared with the controls. PMID:12639337

Salmond, C H; de Haan, M; Friston, K J; Gadian, D G; Vargha-Khadem, F

2003-01-01

257

Investigating individual differences in brain abnormalities in autism.  

PubMed

Autism is a psychiatric syndrome characterized by impairments in three domains: social interaction, communication, and restricted and repetitive behaviours and interests. Recent findings implicate the amygdala in the neurobiology of autism. In this paper, we report the results of a series of novel experimental investigations focusing on the structure and function of the amygdala in a group of children with autism. The first section attempts to determine if abnormality of the amygdala can be identified in an individual using magnetic resonance imaging in vivo. Using single-case voxel-based morphometric analyses, abnormality in the amygdala was detected in half the children with autism. Abnormalities in other regions were also found. In the second section, emotional modulation of the startle response was investigated in the group of autistic children. Surprisingly, there were no significant differences between the patterns of emotional modulation of the startle response in the autistic group compared with the controls. PMID:12639337

Salmond, C H; de Haan, M; Friston, K J; Gadian, D G; Vargha-Khadem, F

2003-02-28

258

Ultrasound scanning in the detection of hepatic fibrosis and steatosis.  

PubMed

Hepatic steatosis and fibrosis produce abnormal echo patterns on ultrasound scanning, but the potential of ultrasound scanning for diagnosing these conditions in routine clinical practice is uncertain. A prospective comparative study of 85 patients with histologically assessed liver conditions was performed, and specificity was assessed in 76 patients with functional bowel disease who were presumed to have normal livers. Histological examination showed steatosis ranging from mild to severe in 48 patients and fibrosis ranging from increased fibrous tissue to established cirrhosis in 35 patients. Ultrasound scanning accurately identified steatosis, recognising 45 cases (sensitivity 94%) with a specificity of 84%. Fibrosis was less reliably detected (sensitivity 57% and specificity 88%). Of the 50 patients with alcoholic liver disease, 47 (94%) yielded abnormal results on scanning. In the 76 patients with functional bowel disease there was only one false positive result, giving a specificity of 99% in this group. As hepatic steatosis is the earliest change in alcoholic liver disease and seems to be of prognostic importance for the development of cirrhosis, ultrasound scanning provides an effective screening procedure, particularly in the occult alcoholic, who often presents with non-specific gastrointestinal complaints. PMID:3080046

Saverymuttu, S H; Joseph, A E; Maxwell, J D

1986-01-01

259

Diagnostic accuracy of postnatal ultrasound screening for urinary tract abnormalities.  

PubMed

The study was aimed at (1) the determination of the incidence of abnormalities of the urinary tract in newborn infants detected by postnatal ultrasound screening, and (2) the evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of postnatal ultrasound screening for detecting surgical urinary tract abnormalities. The prospective study was of full-term neonates born in the University Hospital of Olomouc in 2005-2008 who underwent renal ultrasound screening after 72 h of life. Significant findings were recorded. Subsequent diagnostic and therapeutic procedures were recorded and evaluated in a group of children with detected renal pelvic dilatation (RPD). (1) A total of 6,088 newborn infants was examined. The absolute and relative RPD incidence rates (anteroposterior diameter, APD) were as follows: 5-7 mm, 146 (2.4%); 7-10 mm, 70 (1.15%); 10-15 mm, 13 (0.21%), and 15 mm or more, 5 (0.08%). Of those, 16 children were operated on for abnormalities of the urinary tract, of which nine (56%) had been detected by prenatal screening. Other findings: six cases of unilateral renal agenesis, four cases of multicystic renal dysplasia, four of renal dystopia, one of polycystic kidney disease and one of renal hypoplasia. (2) A group of 224 children with postnatally detected RPD was examined, of whom 40 (17.9%) underwent voiding cystourethrography and/or scintigraphy and 16 (7.1%) were treated surgically. The receiver operating characteristic curves were analyzed, and the areas under the curves were calculated. Postnatal renal ultrasound screening is probably a suitable test for detecting significant urinary tract abnormalities. PMID:19856001

Hálek, Jan; Flögelová, Hana; Michálková, Kamila; Smakal, Oldrich; Dubrava, Lubomír; Zapletalová, Jana; Janout, Vladimír

2010-02-01

260

Differential light scattering spectroscopy measurements for detecting and imaging cancer  

E-print Network

Optical spectroscopy show great promise for diagnosing the earliest stages of cancer. Light scattering spectroscopy (LSS), the study of single elastic backscattering as a function of wavelength and angle, can detect ...

Lau, Condon

2006-01-01

261

Genetic counseling for fetal abnormalities in a South African community.  

PubMed

Fetal abnormalities are congenital abnormalities identified prenatally. Women who have a fetal abnormality detected often have to make difficult decisions regarding continuation or termination of the pregnancy. The aims of this research project were: to investigate some of the factors that influenced the decision to terminate a pregnancy in which fetal abnormalities were diagnosed; and to determine the implications for genetic counseling practice in South Africa. The study was retrospective and file-based. A total of 171 women counseled for fetal abnormalities, between 2002 and 2006, were identified and relevant data were collected from their records. Altogether 116/170 (68.2%) women were offered termination of pregnancy, and 73/113 (65%) requested the procedure. Early gestation, gestation at the time termination was offered, and ethnicity of the patient, were significantly associated with a termination request. Black patients were less likely to request termination, but more likely to receive a late diagnosis than other patients. Genetic counselors need to adopt an advocacy and educational role to improve this situation. Furthermore, a better understanding of the cultural and ethnicity-related issues is required. PMID:20135211

Todd, Caryn; Haw, Tabitha; Kromberg, Jennifer; Christianson, Arnold

2010-06-01

262

Structural abnormality of the corticospinal tract in major depressive disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Scientists are beginning to document abnormalities in white matter connectivity in major depressive disorder (MDD). Recent developments in diffusion-weighted image analyses, including tractography clustering methods, may yield improved characterization of these white matter abnormalities in MDD. In this study, we acquired diffusion-weighted imaging data from MDD participants and matched healthy controls. We analyzed these data using two tractography clustering methods: automated fiber quantification (AFQ) and the maximum density path (MDP) procedure. We used AFQ to compare fractional anisotropy (FA; an index of water diffusion) in these two groups across major white matter tracts. Subsequently, we used the MDP procedure to compare FA differences in fiber paths related to the abnormalities in major fiber tracts that were identified using AFQ. Results FA was higher in the bilateral corticospinal tracts (CSTs) in MDD (p’s?detected primarily increases in FA in the CST-related fiber paths of the bilateral posterior limbs of the internal capsule, right superior corona radiata, and the left external capsule. Conclusions This is the first study to implicate the CST and several related fiber pathways in MDD. These findings suggest important new hypotheses regarding the role of CST abnormalities in MDD, including in relation to explicating CST-related abnormalities to depressive symptoms and RDoC domains and constructs. PMID:25295159

2014-01-01

263

Foot abnormalities of wild birds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

1962-01-01

264

Eocene fossil is earliest evidence of flower-visiting by birds.  

PubMed

Birds are important pollinators, but the evolutionary history of ornithophily (bird pollination) is poorly known. Here, we report a skeleton of the avian taxon Pumiliornis from the middle Eocene of Messel in Germany with preserved stomach contents containing numerous pollen grains of an eudicotyledonous angiosperm. The skeletal morphology of Pumiliornis is in agreement with this bird having been a, presumably nectarivorous, flower-visitor. It represents the earliest and first direct fossil evidence of flower-visiting by birds and indicates a minimum age of 47 million years for the origin of bird-flower interactions. As Pumiliornis does not belong to any of the modern groups of flower-visiting birds, the origin of ornithophily in some angiosperm lineages may have predated that of their extant avian pollinators. PMID:24872461

Mayr, Gerald; Wilde, Volker

2014-05-01

265

Earliest known coelacanth skull extends the range of anatomically modern coelacanths to the Early Devonian.  

PubMed

Coelacanths are known for their evolutionary conservatism, and the body plan seen in Latimeria can be traced to late Middle Devonian Diplocercides, Holopterygius and presumably Euporosteus. However, the group's early history is unclear because of an incomplete fossil record. Until now, the only Early Devonian coelacanth is an isolated dentary (Eoactinistia) from Australia, whose position within the coelacanths is unknown. Here we report the earliest known coelacanth skull (Euporosteus yunnanensis sp. nov.) from the Early Devonian (late Pragian) of Yunnan, China. Resolved by maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses as crownward of Diplocercides or as its sister taxon, the new form extends the chronological range of anatomically modern coelacanths by about 17?Myr. The finding lends support to the possibility that Eoactinistia is also an anatomically modern coelacanth, and provides a more refined reference point for studying the rapid early diversification and subsequent evolutionary conservatism of the coelacanths. PMID:22491320

Zhu, Min; Yu, Xiaobo; Lu, Jing; Qiao, Tuo; Zhao, Wenjin; Jia, Liantao

2012-01-01

266

The earliest humans?, still image with audioSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

And here, creatures which have been called the earliest humans, Homo rudolfensis and Homo habilis. And certainly in terms of brain size, they are a step up from the australopithicines. But again, looking at them in detail when we have parts of their skeletons, when we look at their teeth and faces, they, for many of us, are not totally convincing as the first humans. Some people still see them as only a halfway house between australopithicines and humans. And some people have argued that actually, the line to the first humans should be drawn somewhere here, and these creatures actually are still more closely related to the australopithicines than they are to later humans.

2008-10-06

267

Functional Capabilities of the Earliest Peptides and the Emergence of Life  

PubMed Central

Considering how biological macromolecules first evolved, probably within a marine environment, it seems likely the very earliest peptides were not encoded by nucleic acids, or at least not via the genetic code as we know it. An objective of the present work is to demonstrate that sequence-independent peptides, or peptides with variable and unreliable lengths and sequences, have the potential to perform a variety of chemically useful functions such as anion and cation binding and membrane and channel formation as well as simple types of catalysis. These functions tend to be performed with the assistance of the main chain CONH atoms rather than the more variable or limited side chain atoms of the peptides presumed to exist then. PMID:24710286

Milner-White, E. James; Russell, Michael J.

2011-01-01

268

Earliest human occupations at Dmanisi (Georgian Caucasus) dated to 1.85–1.78 Ma  

PubMed Central

The early Pleistocene colonization of temperate Eurasia by Homo erectus was not only a significant biogeographic event but also a major evolutionary threshold. Dmanisi's rich collection of hominin fossils, revealing a population that was small-brained with both primitive and derived skeletal traits, has been dated to the earliest Upper Matuyama chron (ca. 1.77 Ma). Here we present archaeological and geologic evidence that push back Dmanisi's first occupations to shortly after 1.85 Ma and document repeated use of the site over the last half of the Olduvai subchron, 1.85–1.78 Ma. These discoveries show that the southern Caucasus was occupied repeatedly before Dmanisi's hominin fossil assemblage accumulated, strengthening the probability that this was part of a core area for the colonization of Eurasia. The secure age for Dmanisi's first occupations reveals that Eurasia was probably occupied before Homo erectus appears in the East African fossil record. PMID:21646521

Ferring, Reid; Oms, Oriol; Agustí, Jordi; Berna, Francesco; Nioradze, Medea; Shelia, Teona; Tappen, Martha; Vekua, Abesalom; Zhvania, David; Lordkipanidze, David

2011-01-01

269

New postcranial elements for the earliest Eocene fossil primate Teilhardina belgica.  

PubMed

Teilhardina belgica is one of the most primitive fossil primates known to date and the earliest haplorhine with associated postcranials, making it relevant to a reconstruction of the ancestral primate morphotype. Here we describe newly discovered postcranial elements of T. belgica. It is a small primate with an estimated body mass between 30 and 60 g, similar to the size of a mouse lemur. Its hindlimb anatomy suggests frequent and forceful leaping with excellent foot mobility and grasping capabilities. It can now be established that this taxon exhibits critical primate postcranial synapomorphies such as a grasping hallux, a tall knee, and nailed digits. This anatomical pattern and behavioral profile is similar to what has been inferred before for other omomyids and adapiforms. The most unusual feature of T. belgica is its elongated middle phalanges (most likely manual phalanges), suggesting that this early primate had very long fingers similar to those of living tarsiers. PMID:22704262

Gebo, Daniel L; Smith, Thierry; Dagosto, Marian

2012-07-01

270

The Earliest Thymic T Cell Progenitors Sustain B Cell and Myeloid Lineage Potentials  

PubMed Central

The stepwise commitment from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow (BM) to T lymphocyte-restricted progenitors in the thymus represents a paradigm for understanding the requirement for distinct extrinsic cues during different stages of lineage restriction from multipotent to lineage restricted progenitors. However, the commitment stage at which progenitors migrate from the BM to the thymus remains unclear. Here we provide functional and molecular evidence at the single cell level that the earliest progenitors in the neonatal thymus possessed combined granulocyte-monocyte, T and B lymphocyte, but not megakaryocyte-erythroid lineage potential. These potentials were identical to those of thymus-seeding progenitors in the BM, which were closely related at the molecular level. These findings establish the distinct lineage-restriction stage at which the T lineage commitment transits from the BM to the remote thymus. PMID:22344248

Luc, Sidinh; Luis, Tiago C.; Boukarabila, Hanane; Macaulay, Iain C.; Buza-Vidas, Natalija; Bouriez-Jones, Tiphaine; Lutteropp, Michael; Woll, Petter S.; Loughran, Stephen J.; Mead, Adam J.; Hultquist, Anne; Brown, John; Mizukami, Takuo; Matsuoka, Sahoko; Ferry, Helen; Anderson, Kristina; Duarte, Sara; Atkinson, Deborah; Soneji, Shamit; Domanski, Aniela; Farley, Alison; Sanjuan-Pla, Alejandra; Carella, Cintia; Patient, Roger; de Bruijn, Marella; Enver, Tariq; Nerlov, Claus; Blackburn, Clare; Godin, Isabelle; Jacobsen, Sten Eirik W.

2012-01-01

271

Biotic Response in Aquatic Reptiles (Testudines) during Earliest Eocene Climatic Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The earliest Eocene is marked by significant events of global warming: the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) at ~55.8 Ma and two short-lived events (ETM2 or Elmo and H2) approximately 2 Ma later. These environmental changes induced strong responses in the continental biota. Noteworthy changes in North American mid-latitude faunas and floras that are temporally correlated with earliest Eocene warming events include: increased diversity; turnover; and significant range changes, comprising both northward shifts in ranges of North American taxa as well as intercontinental dispersal across Holarctica. Evidence for these biotic changes comes directly from the fossil record and indirectly from phylogeographic analyses of molecular phylogenies of extant biota. To date, the stratigraphic record of biotic change has only been examined for the flora and terrestrial mammals. Data on reptiles and for continental aquatic systems are particularly lacking. In order to assess the impact of climate-mediated faunal change in aquatic systems during early Paleogene warming, we have focused on developing a detailed record of fossil turtles (Testudines) from the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming, where these records can be directly compared to similarly studied mammalian and floral data and to isotopic studies that provide independent proxies of climate change. Using genus-level occurrence data from more than 450 stratigraphically-constrained localities spanning ~2.5 Ma, we calculated first and last appearances, taxonomic richness, and relative abundance as measured by presence-absence (site occupancy). Among turtles, taxonomic richness increased episodically through the earliest Eocene with two new taxa appearing at the PETM, two immediately following it, and two at Biohorizon B, an interval associated with the younger hyperthermals. These new, immigrant taxa eventually comprised 40% of known generic richness. Phylogenetically, the inferred biogeographic source regions are southern North America and Asia, with an equal number of taxa originating in each area. Although immigrant taxa comprised less than half of the known earliest Eocene diversity, their relative dominance in these assemblages varied markedly. Within the PETM interval, immigrant taxa comprise nearly 70% of occurrences. Post-PETM, as temperatures cooled, immigrant taxa and taxa persisting from the Paleocene showed greater evenness, but immigrant taxa again became dominant with renewed warming. Among immigrant taxa, intercontinental dispersers are much more common than those that that dispersed from southern North America. These data are consistent with and stratigraphically correlative with significant changes in the mammalian fauna and flora of the Bighorn Basin and underline the importance of climatic change as a driver in these events. However, the magnitude and relative importance of intra- vs. intercontinental dispersal has not yet been fully examined in other taxonomic groups. The asymmetry of response following immigration that we observe in turtles may be taxon-specific, unique to aquatic systems, or may illustrate a more general pattern of how biotas respond to significant climate change.

Holroyd, P. A.; Hutchison, J. H.

2010-12-01

272

Maternal reminiscing style during early childhood predicts the age of adolescents' earliest memories.  

PubMed

Individual differences in parental reminiscing style are hypothesized to have long-lasting effects on children's autobiographical memory development, including the age of their earliest memories. This study represents the first prospective test of this hypothesis. Conversations about past events between 17 mother-child dyads were recorded on multiple occasions between the children's 2nd and 4th birthdays. When these children were aged 12-13 years, they were interviewed about their early memories. Adolescents whose mothers used a greater ratio of elaborations to repetitions during the early childhood conversations had earlier memories than adolescents whose mothers used a smaller ratio of elaborations to repetitions. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that past-event conversations during early childhood have long-lasting effects on autobiographical memory. PMID:19467006

Jack, Fiona; MacDonald, Shelley; Reese, Elaine; Hayne, Harlene

2009-01-01

273

Characteristics of the earliest cross-neutralizing antibody response to HIV-1.  

PubMed

Recent cross-sectional analyses of HIV-1+ plasmas have indicated that broadly cross-reactive neutralizing antibody responses are developed by 10%-30% of HIV-1+ subjects. The timing of the initial development of such anti-viral responses is unknown. It is also unknown whether the emergence of these responses coincides with the appearance of antibody specificities to a single or multiple regions of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env). Here we analyzed the cross-neutralizing antibody responses in longitudinal plasmas collected soon after and up to seven years after HIV-1 infection. We find that anti-HIV-1 cross-neutralizing antibody responses first become evident on average at 2.5 years and, in rare cases, as early as 1 year following infection. If cross-neutralizing antibody responses do not develop during the first 2-3 years of infection, they most likely will not do so subsequently. Our results indicate a potential link between the development of cross-neutralizing antibody responses and specific activation markers on T cells, and with plasma viremia levels. The earliest cross-neutralizing antibody response targets a limited number of Env regions, primarily the CD4-binding site and epitopes that are not present on monomeric Env, but on the virion-associated trimeric Env form. In contrast, the neutralizing activities of plasmas from subjects that did not develop cross-neutralizing antibody responses target epitopes on monomeric gp120 other than the CD4-BS. Our study provides information that is not only relevant to better understanding the interaction of the human immune system with HIV but may guide the development of effective immunization protocols. Since antibodies to complex epitopes that are present on the virion-associated envelope spike appear to be key components of earliest cross-neutralizing activities of HIV-1+ plasmas, then emphasis should be made to elicit similar antibodies by vaccination. PMID:21249232

Mikell, Iliyana; Sather, D Noah; Kalams, Spyros A; Altfeld, Marcus; Alter, Galit; Stamatatos, Leonidas

2011-01-01

274

Disorders caused by chromosome abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Many human genetic disorders result from unbalanced chromosome abnormalities, in which there is a net gain or loss of genetic material. Such imbalances often disrupt large numbers of dosage-sensitive, developmentally important genes and result in specific and complex phenotypes. Alternately, some chromosomal syndromes may be caused by a deletion or duplication of a single gene with pleiotropic effects. Traditionally, chromosome abnormalities were identified by visual inspection of the chromosomes under a microscope. The use of molecular cytogenetic technologies, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization and microarrays, has allowed for the identification of cryptic or submicroscopic imbalances, which are not visible under the light microscope. Microarrays have allowed for the identification of numerous new syndromes through a genotype-first approach in which patients with the same or overlapping genomic alterations are identified and then the phenotypes are described. Because many chromosomal alterations are large and encompass numerous genes, the ascertainment of individuals with overlapping deletions and varying clinical features may allow researchers to narrow the region in which to search for candidate genes. PMID:23776360

Theisen, Aaron; Shaffer, Lisa G

2010-01-01

275

Investigation of the effects of experimental autolysis on the detection of abnormal prion protein in lymphoid and central nervous system tissues from elk and sheep using the Western blotting method  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chronic wasting disease CWD is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervid ruminants, including white tailed deer, mule deer, black tailed deer, moose, and elk. The disease is related to the scrapie of sheep. In both diseases, diagnosis is typically made by detection of the disease associa...

276

Abnormal superior temporal connectivity during fear perception in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Patients with schizophrenia have difficulty in decoding facial affect. A study using event-related functional neuroimaging indicated that errors in fear detection in schizophrenia are associated with paradoxically higher activation in the amygdala and an associated network implicated in threat detection. Furthermore, this exaggerated activation to fearful faces correlated with severity of flat affect. These findings suggest that abnormal threat detection processing may reflect disruptions between nodes that comprise the affective appraisal circuit. Here we examined connectivity within this network by determining the pattern of intercorrelations among brain regions (regions of interest) significantly activated during fear identification in both healthy controls and patients using a novel procedure CORANOVA. This analysis tests differences in the interregional correlation strength between schizophrenia and healthy controls. Healthy subjects' task activation was principally characterized by robust correlations between medial structures like thalamus (THA) and amygdala (AMY) and middle frontal (MF), inferior frontal (IF), and prefrontal cortical (PFC) regions. In contrast, schizophrenia patients displayed no significant correlations between the medial regions and either MF or IF. Further, patients had significantly higher correlations between occipital lingual gyrus and superior temporal gyrus than healthy subjects. These between-group connectivity differences suggest that schizophrenia threat detection impairment may stem from abnormal stimulus integration. Such abnormal integration may disrupt the evaluation of threat within fronto-cortical regions. PMID:18550592

Leitman, David I; Loughead, James; Wolf, Daniel H; Ruparel, Kosha; Kohler, Christian G; Elliott, Mark A; Bilker, Warren B; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C

2008-07-01

277

Retrospective analysis of genetic abnormalities and survival in 131 patients with multiple myeloma  

PubMed Central

Genetic abnormalities in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) are important risk factors in terms of prognosis. In the present study, the prognostic value of several common MM genetic abnormalities was investigated. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH) was used to detect genetic abnormalities, including 1q21 gain, t(4;14), t(11;14), t(14;16) and 17p13 deletion in 131 patients. A total of 46.6% patients were detected with one or more abnormalities using iFISH analysis. The 1q21 gain, t(4;14), t(11;14), t(14;16) and 17p13 deletion abnormalities were detected in 42.5, 6.9, 17.5, 0.8 and 10.7% of patients, respectively. Patients with t(4;14) commonly exhibited lower levels of albumin and hemoglobin. The progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival times of iFISH-positive patients (particularly patients with two or more iFISH abnormalities) were significantly shorter than those of the patients without detectable abnormalities. The 1q21 gain and 17p13 deletion were also adverse prognostic factors for MM. Bortezomib-based therapies improved the PFS times in the patients with unfavorable iFISH abnormalities. These findings demonstrate that patients with two or more iFISH abnormalities, a gain of the 1q21 region or a 17p13 deletion were more likely to have a poor prognosis; however, bortezomib treatment improved the outcome for MM patients with unfavorable iFISH abnormalities. PMID:25624913

LIU, NIAN; ZHOU, HEBING; YANG, GUANGZHONG; GENG, CHUANYING; JIAN, YUAN; GUO, HUAN; CHEN, WENMING

2015-01-01

278

US of liver transplants: normal and abnormal.  

PubMed

Whole-liver transplantation is an accepted and successful method of treating end-stage liver disease. As a result of the shortage of cadaveric livers, split-liver transplantation and living donor liver transplantation are becoming more commonplace. Ultrasonography (US) is the initial imaging modality of choice for detection and follow-up of early and delayed complications from all types of liver transplantation. Vascular complications include thrombosis and stenosis of the hepatic artery, portal vein, or inferior vena cava, as well as hepatic artery pseudoaneurysms and celiac artery stenosis. Biliary complications include leaks, strictures, stones or sludge, dysfunction of the sphincter of Oddi, and recurrent disease. Neoplastic disease in the transplanted liver may represent recurrent neoplasia or posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder. Parenchymal disease may take the form of a focal mass or a diffuse parenchymal abnormality. Perihepatic fluid collections and ascites are common after liver transplantation. Knowledge of the surgical technique of liver transplantation and awareness of the normal US appearance of the transplanted liver permit early detection of complications and prevent misdiagnosis. PMID:12975502

Crossin, Jane D; Muradali, Derek; Wilson, Stephanie R

2003-01-01

279

Biological assessment of abnormal genitalia.  

PubMed

Biological assessment of abnormal genitalia is based on an ordered sequence of endocrine and genetic investigations that are predicated on knowledge obtained from a suitable history and detailed examination of the external genital anatomy. Investigations are particularly relevant in 46,XY DSD where the diagnostic yield is less successful than in the 46,XX counterpart. Advantage should be taken of spontaneous activity of the pituitary-gonadal axis in early infancy rendering measurements of gonadotrophins and sex steroids by sensitive, validated assays key to assessing testicular function. Allied measurement of serum anti-Müllerian hormone completes a comprehensive testis profile of Leydig and Sertoli cell function. Genetic assessment is dominated by analysis of a plethora of genes that attempts to delineate a cause for gonadal dysgenesis. In essence, this is successful in up to 20% of cases from analysis of SRY and SF1 (NR5A1) genes. In contrast, gene mutation analysis is highly successful in 46,XY DSD due to defects in androgen synthesis or action. The era of next generation sequencing is increasingly being applied to investigate complex medical conditions of unknown cause, including DSD. The challenge for health professionals will lie in integrating vast amounts of genetic information with phenotypes and counselling families appropriately. How tissues respond to hormones is apposite to assessing the range of genital phenotypes that characterise DSD, particularly for syndromes associated with androgen resistance. In vitro methods are available to undertake quantitative and qualitative analysis of hormone action. The in vivo equivalent is some assessment of the degree of under-masculinisation in the male, such as an external masculinisation score, and measurement of the ano-genital distance. This anthropometric marker is effectively a postnatal readout of the effects of prenatal androgens acting during the masculinisation programming window. For investigation of the newborn with abnormal genitalia, a pragmatic approach can be taken to guide the clinician using appropriate algorithms. PMID:23168057

Hughes, I A; Morel, Y; McElreavey, K; Rogol, A

2012-12-01

280

Olsen, P. E., 1986, Discoveryof earliest Jurassic reptile assemblage from Nova Scotia impliescatastrophicend to Triassic: Lamont (Newsletter),v. 12,p. 1-3. Discovery of Earliest Jurassic Reptile Assemblages from Nova Scotia  

E-print Network

Olsen, P. E., 1986, Discoveryof earliest Jurassic reptile assemblage from Nova Scotia from Nova Scotia: Imply Catastrophic End to the Triassic LateTriassic and EarlyJurassic sediments, tilted, and deeply eroded remnantsare expose6from Nova Scotiato South Carolina and are termed the Newark

Olsen, Paul E.

281

Investigation of frog abnormalities on national wildlife refuges in the Northeast U.S.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To address concerns about frog abnormalities, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service examined over 3,643 frogs and toads on National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) in the Northeast U.S. The objectives were to: 1) determine if certain refuges had sites where abnormalities were frequently observed; 2) evaluate if the prevalence of abnormalities at a site was consistent within a season and among years; and 3) investigate possible causes. Sampling was conducted from 1999 through 2001. A complete sample from a site consisted of ???50 metamorphs of one species. The prevalence of abnormalities ranged from 0 to 15% and fluctuated within season and among years. The most common external abnormalities were truncated limbs, and missing limbs, feet, and digits. Frogs with duplication of limb segments were rare (6). Based on radiographical examinations of 89 abnormal frogs, 55 had abnormalities due to trauma, 22 due to malformations, and 12 could not be classified. Metacercariae of the trematode Ribeiroia were detected in substantial numbers in two species from Iroquois NWR, with one specimen having supernumerary hindlimbs. We recommend continued sampling and integrated, causal evaluations on NWRs where the prevalence of abnormalities exceeds 5% or where the types of abnormalities warrant further study.

Eaton-Poole, L.; Pinkney, A.E.; Green, D.E.; Sutherland, D.R.; Babbitt, K.J.

2003-01-01

282

THE CORRELATION BETWEEN HPV POSITIVITY AND ABNORMAL CERVICAL CYTOLOGY DIFFERS BY AGE AMONG PERIMENOPAUSAL WOMEN  

PubMed Central

Objectives We explored the age-stratified correlates and correlations between HR-HPV infection and cervical abnormalities in perimenopausal women. Materials and methods HPV testing and Pap smear screening were performed at baseline on 841 routinely screened women age 35–60 years in the HPV in Perimenopause (HIP) cohort. Demographic, behavioral and medical information was collected through telephone administered questionnaires. Descriptive analyses were used to examine the correlation between HR-HPV infection and cervical abnormalities by age. Logistic regression was used to determine correlates of HPV and abnormalities in women under and over 45 years of age. Results The prevalence of HPV, HR-HPV and cervical abnormalities decreased significantly with increasing age, as did the correlation between HR-HPV and cervical abnormalities. The prevalence of HR-HPV was 50% among younger women with abnormalities but this decreased steadily to 20% HR-HPV detection among 50–54 year old, and no abnormalities were detected in 55–60 year old women. Different correlates of HR-HPV infection and abnormalities were observed in women ?45 years, a pattern not seen in the younger women. Conclusions Although the relative proportion of low and high-grade abnormalities did not change with age, we saw a loss of concordance between HR-HPV detection and cytological abnormalities with increasing age. Current guidelines for cervical cancer screening group together all women age 30 and above. Our data raise important questions about the interpretation of HPV and Pap test results in this age group and suggest that ongoing surveillance of HPV and cytology in cervical cancer screening programs consider a third age stratification among older women. PMID:22885643

Rositch, Anne F.; Silver, Michelle I.; Burke, Anne; Viscidi, Raphael; Chang, Kathryn; Duke, Cindy M. P.; Shen, Wen; Gravitt, Patti E.

2012-01-01

283

Revised Timeline and Distribution of the Earliest Diverged Human Maternal Lineages in Southern Africa  

PubMed Central

The oldest extant human maternal lineages include mitochondrial haplogroups L0d and L0k found in the southern African click-speaking forager peoples broadly classified as Khoesan. Profiling these early mitochondrial lineages allows for better understanding of modern human evolution. In this study, we profile 77 new early-diverged complete mitochondrial genomes and sub-classify another 105 L0d/L0k individuals from southern Africa. We use this data to refine basal phylogenetic divergence, coalescence times and Khoesan prehistory. Our results confirm L0d as the earliest diverged lineage (?172 kya, 95%CI: 149–199 kya), followed by L0k (?159 kya, 95%CI: 136–183 kya) and a new lineage we name L0g (?94 kya, 95%CI: 72–116 kya). We identify two new L0d1 subclades we name L0d1d and L0d1c4/L0d1e, and estimate L0d2 and L0d1 divergence at ?93 kya (95%CI:76–112 kya). We concur the earliest emerging L0d1’2 sublineage L0d1b (?49 kya, 95%CI:37–58 kya) is widely distributed across southern Africa. Concomitantly, we find the most recent sublineage L0d2a (?17 kya, 95%CI:10–27 kya) to be equally common. While we agree that lineages L0d1c and L0k1a are restricted to contemporary inland Khoesan populations, our observed predominance of L0d2a and L0d1a in non-Khoesan populations suggests a once independent coastal Khoesan prehistory. The distribution of early-diverged human maternal lineages within contemporary southern Africans suggests a rich history of human existence prior to any archaeological evidence of migration into the region. For the first time, we provide a genetic-based evidence for significant modern human evolution in southern Africa at the time of the Last Glacial Maximum at between ?21–17 kya, coinciding with the emergence of major lineages L0d1a, L0d2b, L0d2d and L0d2a. PMID:25807545

Chan, Eva K. F.; Hardie, Rae-Anne; Petersen, Desiree C.; Beeson, Karen; Bornman, Riana M. S.; Smith, Andrew B.; Hayes, Vanessa M.

2015-01-01

284

Precise U-Pb Zircon Constraints on the Earliest Magmatic History of the Carolina Terrane.  

PubMed

The early magmatic and tectonic history of the Carolina terrane and its possible affinities with other Neoproterozoic circum-Atlantic arc terranes have been poorly understood, in large part because of a lack of reliable geochronological data. Precise U-Pb zircon dates for the Virgilina sequence, the oldest exposed part, constrain the timing of the earliest known stage of magmatism in the terrane and of the Virgilina orogeny. A flow-banded rhyolite sampled from a metavolcanic sequence near Chapel Hill, North Carolina, yielded a U-Pb zircon date of 632.9 +2.6/-1.9 Ma. A granitic unit of the Chapel Hill pluton, which intrudes the metavolcanic sequence, yielded a nearly identical U-Pb zircon date of 633 +2/-1.5 Ma, interpreted as its crystallization age. A felsic gneiss and a dacitic tuff from the Hyco Formation yielded U-Pb zircon dates of 619.9 +4.5/-3 Ma and 615.7 +3.7/-1.9 Ma, respectively. Diorite and granite of the Flat River complex have indistinguishable U-Pb upper-intercept dates of 613.9 +1.6/-1.5 Ma and 613.4 +2.8/-2 Ma. The Osmond biotite-granite gneiss, which intruded the Hyco Formation before the Virgilina orogeny, crystallized at 612.4 +5.2/-1.7 Ma. Granite of the Roxboro pluton, an intrusion that postdated the Virgilina orogeny, yielded a U-Pb upper intercept date of 546.5 +3.0/-2.4 Ma, interpreted as the time of its crystallization. These new dates both provide the first reliable estimates of the age of the Virgilina sequence and document that the earliest known stage of magmatism in the Carolina terrane had begun by 633 +2/-1.5 Ma and continued at least until 612.4 +5.2/-1.7 Ma, an interval of approximately 25 m.yr. Timing of the Virgilina orogeny is bracketed between 612.4 +5.2/-1.7 Ma and 586+/-10 Ma (reported age of the upper Uwharrie Formation). The U-Pb systematics of all units studied in the Virgilina sequence are simple and lack any evidence of an older xenocrystic zircon component, which would indicate the presence of a continental-type basement. This observation, together with the juvenile Nd isotopic character of the Virgilina volcanic arc sequence, suggests that the oldest part of the Carolina terrane was built on oceanic crust away from a continental crustal influence. PMID:10769159

Wortman; Samson; Hibbard

2000-05-01

285

A Swift Look at SN 2011fe: The Earliest Ultraviolet Observations of a Type Ia Supernova  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the earliest ultraviolet (UV) observations of the bright Type Ia supernova SN 2011fe/PTF11kly in the nearby galaxy M101 at a distance of only 6.4 Mpc. It was discovered shortly after explosion by the Palomar Transient Factory and first observed by Swift/UVOT about a day after explosion. The early UV light is well-defined, with approx. 20 data points per filter in the 5 days after explosion. With these early UV observations, we extend the near-UV template of SNe Ia to earlier times for comparison with observations at low and high redshift and report fits from semiempirical models of the explosion. We find the early UV count rates to be well fit by the superposition of two parabolic curves. Finally, we use the early UV flux measurements to examine a possible shock interaction with a non-degenerate companion. We find that even a solar mass companion at a distance of a few solar radii is unlikely at more than 95% confidence.

Oates, Samantha; Holland, Stephen; Immler, Stefan; Brown, Peter J.; Dawson, Kyle S.; DePasquale, Massimiliano; Gronwall, Caryl; Kuin, Paul; Mazzali, Paolo; Miline, Peter; Siegel, Michael

2012-01-01

286

Ancestral feeding state of ruminants reconsidered: earliest grazing adaptation claims a mixed condition for Cervidae  

PubMed Central

Background Specialised leaf-eating is almost universally regarded as the ancestral state of all ruminants, yet little evidence can be cited in support of this assumption, apart from the fact that all early ruminants had low crowned cheek teeth. Instead, recent years have seen the emergence evidence contradicting the conventional view that low tooth crowns always indicate leaf-eating and high tooth crowns grass-eating. Results Here we report the results of two independent palaeodietary reconstructions for one of the earliest deer, Procervulus ginsburgi from the Early Miocene of Spain, suggesting that despite having lower tooth crowns than any living ruminant, this species included a significant proportion of grass in its diet. Conclusion The phylogenetic distribution of feeding styles strongly supports that leaf-grass mixed feeding was the original feeding style of deer, and that later dietary specialization on leaves or grass occurred independently in several lineages. Evidence for other ruminant clades suggests that facultative mixed feeding may in fact have been the primitive dietary state of the Ruminantia, which would have been morphologically expressed only under specific environmental factors. PMID:18205907

2008-01-01

287

Earliest magmatism in Ethiopia: Evidence for two mantle plumes in one flood basalt province  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tertiary magmatism in Ethiopia has been linked to the thermal influence of the Afar mantle plume. However, new laser 40Ar/39Ar ages for the volcanic succession in southern Ethiopia confirm the presence of two distinct magmatic phases at 45 35 Ma and 19 12 Ma. The earliest phase predates both extension and magmatism in northern Ethiopia by 15 m.y. and cannot be related to any simple model of melting in response to extension over a single mantle plume. We propose a model in which the Ethiopian province was initially related to the thermal influence of the Kenyan, and subsequently, the Afar mantle plume during northward movement of the African plate in the Tertiary. Support for this model comes from paleogeographic evidence that places southern Ethiopia ˜1000 km farther south than its current position during the early melting event at 45 Ma. Moreover, the rate of migration of the onset of magmatism from southern Ethiopia to Tanzania is similar to the rate of migration of the African plate over the same period. Comparable eruption rates in southern Ethiopia and Kenya further strengthen this link. In the light of this evidence, eruption rates ascribed to melting of the Afar mantle plume may be overestimated, which calls into question the potential for the Afar mantle plume to have had a significant effect on the biosphere.

George, Rhiannon; Rogers, Nick; Kelley, Simon

1998-10-01

288

Earliest and first Northern Hemispheric hoatzin fossils substantiate Old World origin of a "Neotropic endemic"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent identification of hoatzins (Opisthocomiformes) in the Miocene of Africa showed part of the evolution of these birds, which are now only found in South America, to have taken place outside the Neotropic region. Here, we describe a new fossil species from the late Eocene of France, which constitutes the earliest fossil record of hoatzins and the first one from the Northern Hemisphere. Protoazin parisiensis gen. et sp. nov. is more closely related to South American Opisthocomiformes than the African taxon Namibiavis and substantiates an Old World origin of hoatzins, as well as a relictual distribution of the single extant species. Although recognition of hoatzins in Europe may challenge their presumed transatlantic dispersal, there are still no North American fossils in support of an alternative, Northern Hemispheric, dispersal route. In addition to Opisthocomiformes, other avian taxa are known from the Cenozoic of Europe, the extant representatives of which are only found in South America. Recognition of hoatzins in the early Cenozoic of Europe is of particular significance because Opisthocomiformes have a fossil record in sub-Saharan Africa, which supports the hypothesis that extinction of at least some of these "South American" groups outside the Neotropic region was not primarily due to climatic factors.

Mayr, Gerald; De Pietri, Vanesa L.

2014-02-01

289

Crystals stirred up: 2. Numerical insights into the formation of the earliest crust on the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the second paper in a two-part series examining the fluid dynamics of crystal settling and flotation in the lunar magma ocean. In the first paper, we develop a direct numerical method for resolving the hydrodynamic interactions between crystals and their feedback on the flow field in magmatic liquid. In this paper, we use this computational technique to test the leading model for the formation of the earliest crust on the Moon. The anorthositic lithology of the lunar crust is thought to have been formed by the flotation of buoyant plagioclase crystals at a time when the lunar mantle was still wholly or largely molten. This model is appealing from an observational point of view, but its fluid dynamical validity is not obvious, because (1) plagioclase probably started crystallizing very late (i.e., when the magma ocean was already 80% solidified) and (2) a significant portion of the shallow lunar crust consists of almost pure plagioclase (>90 vol. %), requiring very efficient plagioclase segregation. The goal of this study is to better understand the fluid dynamical conditions that hinder or facilitate crystal settling or flotation. Our approach complements earlier studies by explicitly linking the petrological and fluid dynamical evolution and by focusing on the effect of increasing crystal fraction. We find that crystal settling was probably possible throughout the entire solidification history of the lunar magma ocean as long as crystal sizes were sufficiently large (r > 1 mm) and crystal fraction sufficiently low (? < 13%).

Suckale, Jenny; Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.; Sethian, James A.

2012-08-01

290

Swift-UVOT captures the earliest ultraviolet spectrum of a Gamma Ray Burst  

E-print Network

We present the earliest ever ultraviolet spectrum of a gamma-ray burst (GRB) as observed with the Swift-UVOT. The GRB 081203A spectrum was observed for 50 seconds with the UV grism starting 251 seconds after the Swift-BAT trigger when the GRB was of u ~13.4 mag and still rising to its peak optical brightness. The UV grism spectrum shows a damped Ly-alpha line, Ly-beta, and the Lyman continuum break at a redshift z = 2.05 +/- 0.01. A model fit to the Lyman absorption implies log N(HI) = 22.0 +/- 0.2 cm-2, which is typical for GRB host galaxies with damped Ly-alpha absorbers. This observation of GRB 081203A demonstrates that for GRBs brighter than v ~14 mag and with 0.5 < z < 3.5 the UVOT will be able to provide redshifts, and probe for damped Ly-alpha absorbers within 4-6 minutes from the time of the Swift-BAT trigger.

N. P. M. Kuin; W. B. Landsman; M. J. Page; P. Schady; M. Still; A. A. Breeveld; M. De Pasquale; P. J. Brown; M. Carter; C. James; P. A. Curran; A. Cucciara; C. Gronwall; S. T. Holland; E. A. Hoversten; S. Hunsberger; T. Kennedy; S. Koch; H. Lamoureux; F. E. Marshall; S. R. Oates; A. Parsons; D. Palmer; P. Roming; P. J. Smith

2009-01-28

291

A SWIFT LOOK AT SN 2011fe: THE EARLIEST ULTRAVIOLET OBSERVATIONS OF A TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA  

SciTech Connect

We present the earliest ultraviolet (UV) observations of the bright Type Ia supernova SN 2011fe/PTF11kly in the nearby galaxy M101 at a distance of only 6.4 Mpc. It was discovered shortly after explosion by the Palomar Transient Factory and first observed by Swift/UVOT about a day after explosion. The early UV light is well defined, with {approx}20 data points per filter in the five days after explosion. These early and well-sampled UV observations form new template light curves for comparison with observations of other SNe Ia at low and high redshift. We report fits from semiempirical models of the explosion and find the time evolution of the early UV flux to be well fitted by the superposition of two parabolic curves. Finally, we use the early UV flux measurements to examine a possible shock interaction with a non-degenerate companion. From models predicting the measurable shock emission, we find that even a solar mass companion at a distance of a few solar radii is unlikely at more than 95% confidence.

Brown, Peter J.; Dawson, Kyle S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 South 1400 East 201, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); De Pasquale, Massimiliano [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 4505 S. Maryland Parkway, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Gronwall, Caryl; Siegel, Michael [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Holland, Stephen [Space Telescope Science Center, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Immler, Stefan [Astrophysics Science Division, Code 660.1, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard Space Flight Centre, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kuin, Paul; Oates, Samantha [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Mazzali, Paolo [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Milne, Peter, E-mail: pbrown@physics.tamu.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

2012-07-01

292

Basal tissue structure in the earliest euconodonts: Testing hypotheses of developmental plasticity in euconodont phylogeny  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The hypothesis that conodonts are vertebrates rests solely on evidence of soft tissue anatomy. This has been corroborated by microstructural, topological and developmental evidence of homology between conodont and vertebrate hard tissues. However, these conclusions have been reached on the basis of evidence from highly derived euconodont taxa and the degree to which they are representative of plesiomorphic euconodonts remains an open question. Furthermore, the range of variation in tissue types comprising the euconodont basal body has been used to establish a hypothesis of developmental plasticity early in the phylogeny of the clade, and a model of diminishing potentiality in the evolution of development systems. The microstructural fabrics of the basal tissues of the earliest euconodonts (presumed to be the most plesiomorphic) are examined to test these two hypotheses. It is found that the range of microstructural variation observed hitherto was already apparent among plesiomorphic euconodonts. Thus, established histological data are representative of the most plesiomorphic euconodonts. However, although there is evidence of a range in microstructural fabrics, these are compatible with the dentine tissue system alone, and the degree of variation is compatible with that seen in clades of comparable diversity. ?? The Palaeontological Association.

Dong, X.-P.; Donoghue, P.C.J.; Repetski, J.E.

2005-01-01

293

Earliest Carboniferous tetrapod and arthropod faunas from Scotland populate Romer's Gap  

PubMed Central

Devonian tetrapods (limbed vertebrates), known from an increasingly large number of localities, have been shown to be mainly aquatic with many primitive features. In contrast, the post-Devonian record is marked by an Early Mississippian temporal gap ranging from the earliest Carboniferous (Tournaisian and early Viséan) to the mid-Viséan. By the mid-Viséan, tetrapods had become effectively terrestrial as attested by the presence of stem amniotes, developed an essentially modern aspect, and given rise to the crown group. Up to now, only two localities have yielded tetrapod specimens from the Tournaisian stage: one in Scotland with a single articulated skeleton and one in Nova Scotia with isolated bones, many of uncertain identity. We announce a series of discoveries of Tournaisian-age localities in Scotland that have yielded a wealth of new tetrapod and arthropod fossils. These include both terrestrial and aquatic forms and new taxa. We conclude that the gap in the fossil record has been an artifact of collection failure. PMID:22393016

Smithson, Timothy R.; Wood, Stanley P.; Marshall, John E. A.; Clack, Jennifer A.

2012-01-01

294

The earliest fossil record of Panorpidae (Mecoptera) from the Middle Jurassic of China  

PubMed Central

Abstract The early history of Panorpidae (Mecoptera) is poorly known due to sparse fossil records. Up to date, only nine fossil species have been described, all from the Paleogene, except the Early Cretaceous Solusipanorpa gibbidorsa Lin, 1980. However, we suggest S. gibbidorsa is too incompletely preserved to permit even family classification. A new genus with two new species, Jurassipanorpa impunctata gen. et sp. n. and Jurassipanorpa sticta sp. n., are described based on four well-preserved specimens from the late Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China. These two new species are the earliest fossil records of Panorpidae. The new genus is erected based on a combination of forewing characters: both R1 and Rs1 with two branches, 1A reaching posterior margin of wing distad of the forking of Rs from R1, and no crossveins or only one crossvein between veins of 1A and 2A. In all four specimens, long and robust setae ranging from 0.09 to 0.38 mm in length and pointing anteriorly, are present on anal veins of forewings. The function of these setae is enigmatic. PMID:25152669

Ding, He; Shih, Chungkun; Bashkuev, Alexei; Zhao, Yunyun; Ren, Dong

2014-01-01

295

Earliest foraminifera and radiolaria from North America: evolutionary and geological implications  

SciTech Connect

Foraminifera and radiolaria were found in lower and middle Cambrian rocks in the western US. They occur in clastic rocks associated with archaeocyathid bioherms and shales in SE California, SW Nevada, W Utah and Idaho. The foraminifera are agglutinated tubes, straight or coiled; the radiolaria are spherical or flattened wit robust lattices. They occur together with some of the earliest shelled metazoa. Their widespread occurrence indicates that protozoa were important elements of the first animal-dominated communities. Their presence suggests a complex trophic structure involving secondary consumers that utilized small autotrophs, carnivores, and detritus. Ordovician and Silurian foraminifera and radiolaria, also found in the US and USSR, show that the subsequent radiation of heterotrophic protists follows a pattern similar to that of metazoans. These fossil protozoa indicate that the skeletonization of early organisms was controlled by factors not related solely to a multicellular grade of organization. Hypotheses requiring the attainment of atmospheric oxygen levels high enough for metazoan skeletonization processes to operate, seawater chemistry allowing the use of specific skeletal materials, attainment of large size, evolution of regulatory genes, and similar ideas can be eliminated or modified. The fossils also indicate that the advent of skeletonized metazoa and protists, and their subsequent radiation were probably related to the proliferation of trophic interactions within those early communities.

Lipps, J.H.

1985-01-01

296

The Problem of the Age of the Universe and the Earliest Galaxies  

E-print Network

A number of years ago the estimates of astronomers and astrophysicists were that the earliest galaxies took about 2.5 to 3 billion years to form, that is, that they did not appear until 2.5 to 3 billion years after the Big Bang. Those estimates were based on analysis of the processes involved in star formation and in the aggregation and "clumping" of matter in the early universe. Since then improved equipment and techniques, e.g. Keck and Hubble telescopes and gravitational lensing, have resulted in reports of observation of early galaxies having stars that formed as early as 300 million years after the Big Bang. Such new data has led to the abandonment of the several billion years estimates of the time required for star and galaxy formation; however, an alternative response to the data would be to re-examine the Hubble theory from which the age of the universe and the distance to high redshift objects is determined.

Roger Ellman

2012-11-21

297

Earliest and first Northern Hemispheric hoatzin fossils substantiate Old World origin of a "Neotropic endemic".  

PubMed

The recent identification of hoatzins (Opisthocomiformes) in the Miocene of Africa showed part of the evolution of these birds, which are now only found in South America, to have taken place outside the Neotropic region. Here, we describe a new fossil species from the late Eocene of France, which constitutes the earliest fossil record of hoatzins and the first one from the Northern Hemisphere. Protoazin parisiensis gen. et sp. nov. is more closely related to South American Opisthocomiformes than the African taxon Namibiavis and substantiates an Old World origin of hoatzins, as well as a relictual distribution of the single extant species. Although recognition of hoatzins in Europe may challenge their presumed transatlantic dispersal, there are still no North American fossils in support of an alternative, Northern Hemispheric, dispersal route. In addition to Opisthocomiformes, other avian taxa are known from the Cenozoic of Europe, the extant representatives of which are only found in South America. Recognition of hoatzins in the early Cenozoic of Europe is of particular significance because Opisthocomiformes have a fossil record in sub-Saharan Africa, which supports the hypothesis that extinction of at least some of these "South American" groups outside the Neotropic region was not primarily due to climatic factors. PMID:24441712

Mayr, Gerald; De Pietri, Vanesa L

2014-02-01

298

The Earliest Post-Paleozoic Freshwater Bivalves Preserved in Coprolites from the Karoo Basin, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Several clades of bivalve molluscs have invaded freshwaters at various times throughout Phanerozoic history. The most successful freshwater clade in the modern world is the Unionoida. Unionoids arose in the Triassic Period, sometime after the major extinction event at the End-Permian boundary and are now widely distributed across all continents except Antarctica. Until now, no freshwater bivalves of any kind were known to exist in the Early Triassic. Principal Findings Here we report on a faunule of two small freshwater bivalve species preserved in vertebrate coprolites from the Olenekian (Lower Triassic) of the Burgersdorp Formation of the Karoo Basin, South Africa. Positive identification of these bivalves is not possible due to the limited material. Nevertheless they do show similarities with Unionoida although they fall below the size range of extant unionoids. Phylogenetic analysis is not possible with such limited material and consequently the assignment remains somewhat speculative. Conclusions Bivalve molluscs re-invaded freshwaters soon after the End-Permian extinction event, during the earliest part of the recovery phase during the Olenekian Stage of the Early Triassic. If the specimens do represent unionoids then these Early Triassic examples may be an example of the Lilliput effect. Since the oldest incontrovertible freshwater unionoids are also from sub-Saharan Africa, it is possible that this subcontinent hosted the initial freshwater radiation of the Unionoida. This find also demonstrates the importance of coprolites as microenvironments of exceptional preservation that contain fossils of organisms that would otherwise have left no trace. PMID:22319562

Yates, Adam M.; Neumann, Frank H.; Hancox, P. John

2012-01-01

299

Semen abnormalities with SSRI antidepressants.  

PubMed

Despite decades of widespread use, the adverse effect profile of "selective" serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants has still not been fully elucidated. Studies in male animals have shown delayed sexual development and reduced fertility. Three prospective cohort studies conducted in over one hundred patients exposed to an SSRI for periods ranging from 5 weeks to 24 months found altered semen param-eters after as little as 3 months of exposure: reduced sperm concentration, reduced sperm motility, a higher percentage of abnormal spermatozoa, and increased levels of sperm DNA fragmentation. One clinical trial showed growth retardation in children considered depressed who were exposed to SSRls. SSRls may have endocrine disrupting properties. Dapoxetine is a short-acting serotonin reuptake inhibitor that is chemically related to fluoxetine and marketed in the European Union for men complaining of premature ejaculation. But the corresponding European summary of product characteristics does not mention any effects on fertility. In practice, based on the data available as of mid-2014, the effects of SSRI exposure on male fertility are unclear. However, it is a risk that should be taken into account and pointed out to male patients who would like to father a child or who are experiencing fertility problems. PMID:25729824

2015-01-01

300

Biochemical abnormalities in Pearson syndrome.  

PubMed

Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a multisystem mitochondrial disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and pancreatic insufficiency. Children who survive the severe bone marrow dysfunction in childhood develop Kearns-Sayre syndrome later in life. Here we report on four new cases with this condition and define their biochemical abnormalities. Three out of four patients presented with failure to thrive, with most of them having normal development and head size. All patients had evidence of bone marrow involvement that spontaneously improved in three out of four patients. Unique findings in our patients were acute pancreatitis (one out of four), renal Fanconi syndrome (present in all patients, but symptomatic only in one), and an unusual organic aciduria with 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria in one patient. Biochemical analysis indicated low levels of plasma citrulline and arginine, despite low-normal ammonia levels. Regression analysis indicated a significant correlation between each intermediate of the urea cycle and the next, except between ornithine and citrulline. This suggested that the reaction catalyzed by ornithine transcarbamylase (that converts ornithine to citrulline) might not be very efficient in patients with Pearson syndrome. In view of low-normal ammonia levels, we hypothesize that ammonia and carbamylphosphate could be diverted from the urea cycle to the synthesis of nucleotides in patients with Pearson syndrome and possibly other mitochondrial disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25691415

Crippa, Beatrice Letizia; Leon, Eyby; Calhoun, Amy; Lowichik, Amy; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola

2015-03-01

301

Ultrastructurally abnormal mitochondria in the pituitary oncocytoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A pituitary adenoma in a 67-year-old man was characterized by abundant mitochondria and identified as an oncocytoma, which clinically and histologically appeared as a chromophobe adenoma. In addition to the numerous mitochondria within the neoplastic cells, structurally abnormal mitochondria were also present. Compared with other pituitary oncocytomas reported in the literature, abnormally structured mitochondria appear rare among the mitochondrial

H. H. Goebel; F. Schulz; B. Rama

1980-01-01

302

COURSE SYLLABUS Psychology 350: Abnormal Psychology  

E-print Network

1&2 plus lecture notes Feb 2 Major Mental Disorders Ch 11 Feb 9 Anxiety Disorders Ch 7 Feb 16: Abnormal Psychology by Susan Holen-Hoeksema 4th edition This course covers the history, theories, assessment, and treatments of Abnormal Behavior Final grades are based exclusively on total points. All

Gallo, Linda C.

303

Lipid abnormalities in uremia, dialysis, and transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The institution of renal replacement therapy has sustained the lives of many patients with end-stage renal failure and has made it possible to study in depth the metabolic abnormalities associated with the uremic state. An important consequence of chronic uremia is the development of lipid abnormalities [1, 2], which continue to affect many patients on dialysis [1, 3, 4] and

Man Kam Chan; Zachariah Varghese; John F Moorhead

1981-01-01

304

Retinal Circulatory Abnormalities in Type 1 Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. To quantify retinal circulatory abnormalities in patients with type 1 diabetes; to compare blood speed and blood flow in major temporal retinal arteries as well as total retinal arterial cross-section measured in patients to that measured in controls without diabetes; to determine which factors are related to the measured abnormalities within the patient group. Methods. The laser Doppler technique

Gilbert T. Feke; Sheldon M. Buzney; Hironobu Ogasawara; Naoki Fujio; Douglas G. Goger; Norman P. Spack; Kenneth H. GabbayX

305

Challenges in Emergency and Abnormal Checklist Design  

E-print Network

Challenges in Emergency and Abnormal Checklist Design Barbara Burian, Ph.D. San Jose State is funded through the NASA Aviation Safety and Security Program. #12;Emergency and Abnormal Situations Systems Training Human Performance under Stress Checklists and Procedures #12;Challenges in Emergency

306

Multiparametric tissue abnormality characterization using manifold regularization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tissue abnormality characterization is a generalized segmentation problem which aims at determining a continuous score that can be assigned to the tissue which characterizes the extent of tissue deterioration, with completely healthy tissue being one end of the spectrum and fully abnormal tissue such as lesions, being on the other end. Our method is based on the assumptions that there is some tissue that is neither fully healthy or nor completely abnormal but lies in between the two in terms of abnormality; and that the voxel-wise score of tissue abnormality lies on a spatially and temporally smooth manifold of abnormality. Unlike in a pure classification problem which associates an independent label with each voxel without considering correlation with neighbors, or an absolute clustering problem which does not consider a priori knowledge of tissue type, we assume that diseased and healthy tissue lie on a manifold that encompasses the healthy tissue and diseased tissue, stretching from one to the other. We propose a semi-supervised method for determining such as abnormality manifold, using multi-parametric features incorporated into a support vector machine framework in combination with manifold regularization. We apply the framework towards the characterization of tissue abnormality to brains of multiple sclerosis patients.

Batmanghelich, Kayhan; Wu, Xiaoying; Zacharaki, Evangelia; Markowitz, Clyde E.; Davatzikos, Christos; Verma, Ragini

2008-03-01

307

Immune Abnormalities in Patients with Autism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 31 autistic patients (3-28 years old) has revealed several immune-system abnormalities, including decreased numbers of T lymphocytes and an altered ratio of helper-to-suppressor T cells. Immune-system abnormalities may be directly related to underlying biologic processes of autism or an indirect reflection of the actual pathologic…

Warren, Reed P.; And Others

1986-01-01

308

Renal abnormalities and their developmental origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) occur in 1 out of 500 newborns, and constitute approximately 20–30% of all anomalies identified in the prenatal period. CAKUT has a major role in renal failure, and there is increasing evidence that certain abnormalities predispose to the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in adult life. Moreover, defects in nephron

Andreas Schedl

2007-01-01

309

Abnormal Electrical Brain Responses to Pitch in  

E-print Network

Abnormal Electrical Brain Responses to Pitch in Congenital Amusia Isabelle Peretz, PhD,1 Elvira- sults suggest that this disorder is critically dependent on fine-grained pitch discrimination. Here, we2-P3 response elicited by pitch changes. This abnormal brain response begins as early as 200

310

Severely Symptomatic Craniovertebral Junction Abnormalities in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The treatment of symptomatic cranio-vertebral junction (CVJ) instability in children affected by CVJ abnormalities is a challenge. A series of severely symptomatic children has been reviewed to understand the controversial long-term effectiveness of the aggressive management of CVJ abnormalities, in terms of clinical improvement, spinal stability and growth. Methods: Three Down syndrome patients, 1 with mucopolysaccharidosis and 1 with

Carlo Giussani; Franck-Emmanuel Roux; Paolo Guerra; David Pirillo; Marco Grimaldi; Giuseppe Citerio; Erik P. Sganzerla

2009-01-01

311

The Earliest Stages of Star and Planet Formation: Core Collapse, and the Formation of Disks and Outflows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of stars and planets are connected through disks. Our theoretical understanding of disk formation has undergone drastic changes in recent years, and we are on the brink of a revolution in disk observation enabled by the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). Large rotationally supported circumstellar disks, although common around more evolved young stellar objects (YSOs), are rarely detected during the earliest, "class 0" phase; however, a few excellent candidates have been discovered recently around both low- and high-mass protostars. In this early phase, prominent outflows are ubiquitously observed; they are expected to be associated with at least small magnetized disks. Whether the paucity of large Keplerian disks is due to observational challenges or intrinsically different properties of the youngest disks is unclear. In this review, we focus on the observations and theory of the formation of early disks and outflows and their connections with the first phases of planet formation. Disk formation — once thought to be a simple consequence of the conservation of angular momentum during hydrodynamic core collapse — is far more subtle in magnetized gas. In this case, the rotation can be strongly magnetically braked. Indeed, both analytic arguments and numerical simulations have shown that disk formation is suppressed in the strict ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) limit for the observed level of core magnetization. We review what is known about this "magnetic braking catastrophe," possible ways to resolve it, and the current status of early disk observations. Possible resolutions include non-ideal MHD effects (ambipolar diffusion, Ohmic dissipation, and the Hall effect), magnetic interchange instability in the inner part of protostellar accretion flow, turbulence, misalignment between the magnetic field and rotation axis, and depletion of the slowly rotating envelope by outflow stripping or accretion. Outflows are also intimately linked to disk formation; they are a natural product of magnetic fields and rotation and are important signposts of star formation. We review new developments on early outflow generation since Protostars and Planets V (Reipurth et al., 2007). The properties of early disks and outflows are a key component of planet formation in its early stages and we review these major connections.

Li, Z.-Y.; Banerjee, R.; Pudritz, R. E.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Shang, H.; Krasnopolsky, R.; Maury, A.

312

Prenatal Ultrasound Screening for External Ear Abnormality in the Fetuses  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To investigate the best time of examination and section chosen of routine prenatal ultrasound screening for external ear abnormalities and evaluate the feasibility of examining the fetal external ear with ultrasonography. Methods. From July 2010 until August 2011, 42118 pregnant women with single fetus during 16–40 weeks of pregnancy were enrolled in the study. Fetal auricles and external auditory canal in the second trimester of pregnancy were evaluated by routine color Doppler ultrasound screening and systematic screening. Ultrasound images of fetal external ears were obtained on transverse-incline view at cervical vertebra level and mandible level and on parasagittal view and coronal view at external ear level. Results. Five fetuses had anomalous ears including bilateral malformed auricles with malformed external auditory canal, unilateral deformed external ear, and unilateral microtia. The detection rate of both auricles was negatively correlated with gestational age. Of the 5843 fetuses undergoing a routine ultrasound screening, 5797 (99.21%) had bilateral auricles. Of the 4955 fetuses following systematic screening, all fetuses (100%) had bilateral auricles. The best time for fetal auricles observation with ultrasonography is 20–24 weeks of pregnancy. Conclusions. Detection of external ear abnormalities may assist in the diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:25050343

Wei, Jun; Ran, Suzhen; Yang, Zhengchun; Lin, Yun; Tang, Jing

2014-01-01

313

Non-invasive prenatal testing for sex chromosome abnormalities: a source of confusion.  

PubMed

Cell-free fetal DNA has received significant attention for the purposes of prenatal genetic testing in the past decade. Fetal DNA testing is a new method and promising for many applications such as aneuploidy screening, prenatal diagnosis, prediction of preeclampsia and more. A 37-year-old primigravida, with a pregnancy conceived by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), was offered non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) due to advanced maternal age. NIPT performed at 23?weeks' gestation reported a diagnosis of monosomy X. She was offered an amniocentesis, which revealed a euploid fetus with no sex chromosome abnormalities. Even with single nucleotide polymorphism-based NIPT, positive predictive value for detection of sex chromosome abnormalities is around 50%. Positive results of NIPT should be heeded with caution and an invasive diagnostic procedure should be performed, especially for rare chromosomal abnormalities and sex chromosome abnormalities where NIPT performs subpar compared to its performance for detection of trisomy 21. PMID:25631759

Kalafat, Erkan; Seval, Mehmet Murat; Turgay, Batuhan; Koç, Acar

2015-01-01

314

Simulating Metal-Poor and Metal-Free Star Formation in the Earliest Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The end of the cosmic dark ages was brought about by the formation of the first stars and galaxies. Since this epoch is currently outside of observational reach, numerical studies are key in understanding this uncharted cosmic epoch. In this dissertation talk, I will describe my work using high-resolution, zoom-in simulations to understand the formation of these earliest stellar associations in a cosmological setting. The overarching focus will be on the fragmentation of collapsing gas and how this process is moderated by the gas chemistry, radiation fields, and realistic cosmological initial conditions. A key aspect of this work has been the development of sophisticated physics modules for the hydrodynamics code FLASH, including non-equilibrium chemistry, radiative transfer schemes, and sink particles. I will begin by describing how more moderate mass Population III stars ended their lives with a relatively quick heavy-element enrichment of their host dark matter halos, resulting in prompt Population II star formation. The introduction of metals from the first supernovae is believed to induce a star formation mode transition from high to low characteristic mass. I will show how the fragmentation of such metal enriched gas depends strongly on the metallicity, with fragmentation setting in when gas hits the CMB temperature floor. If present, an H2 photo-dissociating Lyman-Werner radiation background can delay the formation of the first stars and potentially result in clustered metal-free star formation in more massive, self-shielding halos at lower redshift. I will present results from recent simulations that follow the collapse and fragmentation of the first dust enriched gas to high densities (n ~ 10^14 cm^-3), analyzing the interplay of dust cooling with a CMB temperature floor and gauging the effect that dust heating from protostellar feedback has on the outcome of star formation. Finally, I will discuss this work’s implications for next-generation observatories, in particular the James Webb Space Telescope.

Safranek-Shrader, Chalence

2014-01-01

315

Driving the growth of the earliest supermassive black holes with major mergers of host galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation mechanism of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in general, and of ˜ {{10}9} {{m}? } SMBHs observed as luminous quasars at redshifts z\\gt 6 in particular, remains an open fundamental question. The presence of such massive BHs at such early times, when the Universe was less than a billion years old, implies that they grew via either super-Eddington accretion, or nearly uninterrupted gas accretion near the Eddington limit; the latter, at first glance, is at odds with empirical trends at lower redshifts, where quasar episodes associated with rapid BH growth are rare and brief. In this work, I examine whether and to what extent the growth of the z\\gt 6 quasar SMBHs can be explained within the standard quasar paradigm, in which major mergers of host galaxies trigger episodes of rapid gas accretion below or near the Eddington limit. Using a suite of Monte Carlo merger tree simulations of the assembly histories of 40 likely z\\gt 6 quasar host halos, I investigate (i) their growth and major merger rates out to z˜ 40, and (ii) how long the feeding episodes induced by host mergers must last in order to explain the observed z? 6 quasar population without super-Eddington accretion. The halo major merger rate scales roughly as \\propto {{(1+z)}5/2}, consistent with cosmological simulations at lower redshifts, with quasar hosts typically experiencing ? 10 major mergers between 15\\gt z\\gt 6 (? 650 Myr), compared to ˜1 for typical massive galaxies at 3\\gt z\\gt 0 (? 11 Gyr). The high rate of major mergers allows for nearly continuous SMBH growth if (for example) a merger triggers feeding for a duration comparable to the halo dynamical time. These findings suggest that the growth mechanisms of the earliest quasar SMBHs need not have been drastically different from their counterparts at lower redshifts.

Tanaka, Takamitsu L.

2014-12-01

316

Toros-Menalla (Chad, 7 Ma), the earliest hominin-bearing area: How many mammal paleocommunities?  

PubMed

The fossiliferous area of Toros-Menalla (TM) (Djurab Desert, northern Chad) has yielded one of the richest African mammal faunas of the late Miocene. It is also the place where the earliest known hominin, Sahelanthropus tchadensis, was found. Although more than 300 localities are recorded in that area, previous paleoecological studies focused only on the largest and richest one. The integration of the material from other TM localities, and thus of a significant number of mammal taxa, is crucial to improve the corresponding paleoenvironmental reconstructions. Before such inferences can be drawn, it is necessary to test for the ecological integrity of these mammal assemblages: how many paleocommunities do they represent? The faunal structures of several assemblages selected for their apparent resilience to sampling biases are compared here. The criteria used in the inter-assemblage comparison are ecological diversity, taxonomic structure (taxonomic rank of abundance) and taxonomic composition. Based on multivariate analyses, two groups of TM assemblages can be distinguished. One of them contains the hominin-bearing assemblages. It is taxonomically richer and shows a wider ecological spectrum than its counterpart. The degree of taphonomic alteration undergone by the TM assemblages, as well as the distribution of amphibious mammals among them, suggest different depositional settings for these two groups of assemblages, the richest of which was probably associated with lower hydraulic energy. Overall, it seems that the TM assemblages recorded the same mammal paleocommunity preserved in two contrasted depositional settings. Moreover, the spatial overlap of these assemblages provides further evidence for the mosaic character of the landscape associated with S. tchadensis. PMID:24636371

Le Fur, Soizic; Fara, Emmanuel; Mackaye, Hassane Taïsso; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

2014-04-01

317

Late Paleocene fossils from the Cerrejón Formation, Colombia, are the earliest record of Neotropical rainforest  

PubMed Central

Neotropical rainforests have a very poor fossil record, making hypotheses concerning their origins difficult to evaluate. Nevertheless, some of their most important characteristics can be preserved in the fossil record: high plant diversity, dominance by a distinctive combination of angiosperm families, a preponderance of plant species with large, smooth-margined leaves, and evidence for a high diversity of herbivorous insects. Here, we report on an ?58-my-old flora from the Cerrejón Formation of Colombia (paleolatitude ?5 °N) that is the earliest megafossil record of Neotropical rainforest. The flora has abundant, diverse palms and legumes and similar family composition to extant Neotropical rainforest. Three-quarters of the leaf types are large and entire-margined, indicating rainfall >2,500 mm/year and mean annual temperature >25 °C. Despite modern family composition and tropical paleoclimate, the diversity of fossil pollen and leaf samples is 60–80% that of comparable samples from extant and Quaternary Neotropical rainforest from similar climates. Insect feeding damage on Cerrejón fossil leaves, representing primary consumers, is abundant, but also of low diversity, and overwhelmingly made by generalist feeders rather than specialized herbivores. Cerrejón megafossils provide strong evidence that the same Neotropical rainforest families have characterized the biome since the Paleocene, maintaining their importance through climatic phases warmer and cooler than present. The low diversity of both plants and herbivorous insects in this Paleocene Neotropical rainforest may reflect an early stage in the diversification of the lineages that inhabit this biome, and/or a long recovery period from the terminal Cretaceous extinction. PMID:19833876

Wing, Scott L.; Herrera, Fabiany; Jaramillo, Carlos A.; Gómez-Navarro, Carolina; Wilf, Peter; Labandeira, Conrad C.

2009-01-01

318

Origin and age of the earliest Martian crust from meteorite NWA?7533.  

PubMed

The ancient cratered terrain of the southern highlands of Mars is thought to hold clues to the planet's early differentiation, but until now no meteoritic regolith breccias have been recovered from Mars. Here we show that the meteorite Northwest Africa (NWA)?7533 (paired with meteorite NWA?7034) is a polymict breccia consisting of a fine-grained interclast matrix containing clasts of igneous-textured rocks and fine-grained clast-laden impact melt rocks. High abundances of meteoritic siderophiles (for example nickel and iridium) found throughout the rock reach a level in the fine-grained portions equivalent to 5 per cent CI chondritic input, which is comparable to the highest levels found in lunar breccias. Furthermore, analyses of three leucocratic monzonite clasts show a correlation between nickel, iridium and magnesium consistent with differentiation from impact melts. Compositionally, all the fine-grained material is alkalic basalt, chemically identical (except for sulphur, chlorine and zinc) to soils from Gusev crater. Thus, we propose that NWA?7533 is a Martian regolith breccia. It contains zircons for which we measured an age of 4,428?±?25 million years, which were later disturbed 1,712?±?85 million years ago. This evidence for early crustal differentiation implies that the Martian crust, and its volatile inventory, formed in about the first 100 million years of Martian history, coeval with earliest crust formation on the Moon and the Earth. In addition, incompatible element abundances in clast-laden impact melt rocks and interclast matrix provide a geochemical estimate of the average thickness of the Martian crust (50 kilometres) comparable to that estimated geophysically. PMID:24256724

Humayun, M; Nemchin, A; Zanda, B; Hewins, R H; Grange, M; Kennedy, A; Lorand, J-P; Göpel, C; Fieni, C; Pont, S; Deldicque, D

2013-11-28

319

Earliest evidence for cheese making in the sixth millennium BC in northern Europe.  

PubMed

The introduction of dairying was a critical step in early agriculture, with milk products being rapidly adopted as a major component of the diets of prehistoric farmers and pottery-using late hunter-gatherers. The processing of milk, particularly the production of cheese, would have been a critical development because it not only allowed the preservation of milk products in a non-perishable and transportable form, but also it made milk a more digestible commodity for early prehistoric farmers. The finding of abundant milk residues in pottery vessels from seventh millennium sites from north-western Anatolia provided the earliest evidence of milk processing, although the exact practice could not be explicitly defined. Notably, the discovery of potsherds pierced with small holes appear at early Neolithic sites in temperate Europe in the sixth millennium BC and have been interpreted typologically as 'cheese-strainers', although a direct association with milk processing has not yet been demonstrated. Organic residues preserved in pottery vessels have provided direct evidence for early milk use in the Neolithic period in the Near East and south-eastern Europe, north Africa, Denmark and the British Isles, based on the ?(13)C and ?(13)C values of the major fatty acids in milk. Here we apply the same approach to investigate the function of sieves/strainer vessels, providing direct chemical evidence for their use in milk processing. The presence of abundant milk fat in these specialized vessels, comparable in form to modern cheese strainers, provides compelling evidence for the vessels having being used to separate fat-rich milk curds from the lactose-containing whey. This new evidence emphasizes the importance of pottery vessels in processing dairy products, particularly in the manufacture of reduced-lactose milk products among lactose-intolerant prehistoric farming communities. PMID:23235824

Salque, Mélanie; Bogucki, Peter I; Pyzel, Joanna; Sobkowiak-Tabaka, Iwona; Grygiel, Ryszard; Szmyt, Marzena; Evershed, Richard P

2013-01-24

320

Frequency and the Type of Chromosomal Abnormalities in Patients with Primary Amenorrhea in Northeast of Iran  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): Primary and secondary amenorrhea are different from each other in that the former refers to a physiological failure in the onset of spontaneous menarche during the time when it is expected. whereas the latter involves the cessation of normal menstruation any time prior to menopause. In this study we aimed to investigate chromosomal abnormalities in patients with Primary Amenorrhea in Northeast of Iran by employing GTG banding. Materials and Methods: Chromosomal analysis was carried out on 180 cases that were referred from different clinics in eastern cities of Iran to our laboratory from 2004 to 2009. We implemented the suggested protocol regarding peripheral blood lymphocyte culture for metaphase chromosome preparation as well as conventional analysis for G-banded chromosome. Results: The karyotype results revealed that 75.55% (n=136) had normal chromosome composition and 24.45% (n=44) showed chromosomal abnormalities. Among the patients with abnormal chromosome constituents 86.36% exhibit numerical aberration and 13.63% showed structural abnormalities. The most frequent abnormality detected was X chromosome monosomy, homogeneous (21 cases –11.66%) or mosaic (8 cases – 4.44%). The other 6 cases (3.33%) had X chromosome structural imbalanced abnormalities (homogeneous or in mosaic). Discussion: As expected, this study confirmed previously reported cytogentic abnormalities in patients with amenorrhea. Although there are percentage differences between these studies and also verities in chromosomal abnormalities, they have still demonstrated the importance of cytogenetic investigations in the etiological diagnosis of amenorrhea. PMID:24250941

Mohajertehran, Farnaz; Ghodsi, Kazem; Hafizi, Leili; Rezaee, Ameneh

2013-01-01

321

Frequency and the Type of Chromosomal Abnormalities in Patients with Primary Amenorrhea in Northeast of Iran  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): Primary and secondary amenorrhea are different from each other in that the former refers to a physiological failure in the onset of spontaneous menarche during the time when it is expected. whereas the latter involves the cessation of normal menstruation any time prior to menopause. In this study we aimed to investigate chromosomal abnormalities in patients with Primary Amenorrhea in Northeast of Iran by employing GTG banding. Materials and Methods: Chromosomal analysis was carried out on 180 cases that were referred from different clinics in eastern cities of Iran to our laboratory from 2004 to 2009. We implemented the suggested protocol regarding peripheral blood lymphocyte culture for metaphase chromosome preparation as well as conventional analysis for G-banded chromosome. Results: The karyotype results revealed that 75.55% (n=136) had normal chromosome composition and 24.45% (n=44) showed chromosomal abnormalities. Among the patients with abnormal chromosome constituents 86.36% exhibit numerical aberration and 13.63% showed structural abnormalities. The most frequent abnormality detected was X chromosome monosomy, homogeneous (21 cases –11.66%) or mosaic (8 cases – 4.44%). The other 6 cases (3.33%) had X chromosome structural imbalanced abnormalities (homogeneous or in mosaic). Discussion: As expected, this study confirmed previously reported cytogentic abnormalities in patients with amenorrhea. Although there are percentage differences between these studies and also verities in chromosomal abnormalities, they have still demonstrated the importance of cytogenetic investigations in the etiological diagnosis of amenorrhea. PMID:24250944

Mohajertehran, Farnaz; Ghodsi, Kazem; Hafizi, Leili; Rezaee, Ameneh

2013-01-01

322

A Case of Habitual Neck Compression Induced Electroencephalogram Abnormalities: Differentiating from Epileptic Seizures Using a Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT.  

PubMed

Self-induced hypoxia has been reported particularly in adolescents, and it can result in neurological injury. Here, we present a case of electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities induced by habitual neck compression differentiated from epileptic seizures by Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT. A 19-year-old male was admitted for evaluation of recurrent generalized tonic-clonic seizures. No interictal EEG abnormality was detected; however, abnormal slow delta waves were found immediately after habitual right neck compression. To differentiate EEG abnormalities due to a hemodynamic deficit induced by habitual neck compression from an epileptic seizure, Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT was performed immediately after right carotid artery compression. Abnormal delta waves were triggered, and cerebral hypoperfusion in the right internal carotid artery territory was detected on Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT. The slow delta wave detected on the EEG resulted from the cerebral hypoperfusion because of the habitual neck compression. PMID:24900157

Choi, Hongyoon; Seo, Min-Seok; Lee, Ho-Young; Kim, Young-Soo; Yun, Chang-Ho; Kim, Sang Eun; Park, Sung-Ho

2014-06-01

323

Impact of abnormal uptakes in bone scan on the prognosis of patients with lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of bone metastases is important in the management of patients with lung cancer because bone metastasis has a major impact on the prognosis and choice of treatment modality. Bone scan has been widely used for early detection of bone metastases but its low specificity complicates confirmation of bone scan findings. To evaluate the effects of abnormal bone scan

Jae Yong Park; Kwan Young Kim; Jaetae Lee; Sin Kam; Ji Woong Son; Chang Ho Kim; Tae Hoon Jung

2000-01-01

324

Genetic aspects of human male infertility: the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletions in severe male factor infertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The main purpose of this study is to detect the frequency and type of both chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletions in patients with severe male factor infertility and fertile control subjects. The association between the genetic abnormality and clinical parameters was also evaluated. Methods: This study was carried out in 208 infertile and 20 fertile men. Results of

Arzu Vicdan; Kubilay Vicdan; Serdar Günalp; Aykut Kence; Cem Akarsu; Ahmet Zeki I??k; Eran Sözen

2004-01-01

325

Long-term follow-up of pediatric sickle cell disease patients with abnormal high velocities on transcranial Doppler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebral arteriopathy can be detected in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) by transcranial Doppler (TCD). Abnormally high velocities are predictive of high stroke risk, which can be reduced by transfusion therapy. We report the results of the screening of 291 SCD children followed in our center, including the clinical and imaging follow-up of 35 children with abnormal TCDs who

Françoise Bernaudin; Suzanne Verlhac; Lena Coïc; Emmanuelle Lesprit; Pierre Brugières; Philippe Reinert

2005-01-01

326

Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

NONE

1993-12-31

327

Earliest Triassic microbialites in the South China block and other areas: controls on their growth and distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earliest Triassic microbialites (ETMs) and inorganic carbonate crystal fans formed after the end-Permian mass extinction (ca.\\u000a 251.4 Ma) within the basal Triassic Hindeodus parvus conodont zone. ETMs are distinguished from rarer, and more regional, subsequent Triassic microbialites. Large differences\\u000a in ETMs between northern and southern areas of the South China block suggest geographic provinces, and ETMs are most abundant\\u000a throughout the

Steve Kershaw; Yue Li; Sylvie Crasquin-Soleau; Qinglai Feng; Xinan Mu; Pierre-Yves Collin; Alan Reynolds; Li Guo

2007-01-01

328

Guidelines to identify abnormalities after childhood urinary tract infections: a prospective audit  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the childhood urinary tract infection (UTI) guidelines from the Royal College of Physicians (RCP) in 1991 and from National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) (CG54) in 2007 by measuring their efficiency at detecting urinary tract abnormalities. Design Children with UTIs within the Newcastle Primary Care Trust (population 70?800 children) were referred and imaged according to the RCP guidelines during 2008, and these were compared to the activity that would have been undertaken if we had implemented the CG54 guidelines, including following them through 2011 to identify those with recurrent UTIs. Main outcome measures The numbers of children imaged, the imaging burden and efficiency, and urinary tract abnormalities detected by each guideline. Results Fewer children would have been imaged by CG54 than RCP (150 vs 427), but its sensitivity was lower, at 44% for detecting scarring, 10% for identifying vesicoureteric reflux and 40% for other abnormalities. Overall, it would have only detected one-quarter of the abnormal cases (8 vs 32) and would have missed five of nine children with scarring, including three with multiple lesions and one with renal impairment. Imposing an age restriction of <8?years to the RCP guidelines would reduce its screening rate by 20% and still detect 90% of the abnormalities. Interpretation The CG54 guidelines do not alter the imaging efficiency compared to the RCP guidelines, but they are considerably less sensitive. PMID:24436366

Coulthard, Malcolm G; Lambert, Heather J; Vernon, Susan J; Hunter, Elizabeth W; Keir, Michael J

2014-01-01

329

Chromosomal abnormalities and hormonal disorders of primary amenorrhea patients in Egypt  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Primary amenorrhea is defined as the absence of menstruation and secondary sexual characteristics in phenotypic women aged 14 years or older. Hormonal disorders are main causes of primary amenorrhea. Common hormonal cause of primary amenorrhea includes pituitary dysfunction and absent ovarian function. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and types of chromosomal abnormalities in patients with primary amenorrhea in Egypt. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chromosomal analysis and hormonal assay were carried out on 223 patients with primary amenorrhea that were referred from different parts of Egypt to Cytogenetic laboratory of Genetic Unit, Children Hospital Mansoura University, from July 2008 to December 2010. FISH technique was carried out in some of cases to more evaluation. RESULTS: The frequency of chromosomal abnormalities was 46 (20.63%) in primary amenorrhea patients. The chromosomal abnormalities can be classified into four main types. (1) The numerical abnormalities of the X?chromosome were detected in 23 (50 %). (2) Structural abnormalities of the X chromosome were detected in 11 (23.91%). (3) Mosaicism of X chromosome was found in 10 (21.74%). (4) Male karyotype 46, XY was presented in 2 (4.35%). CONCLUSION: The present study showed that karyotype and FISH are necessary to detect the causes of primary amenorrhea. This study also revealed the incidence of chromosomal abnormalities in women with primary amenorrhea in Egypt is similar to that reported in previous literatures. PMID:23162293

El-Dahtory, Faeza

2012-01-01

330

Abnormal Selective Attention Normalizes P3 Amplitudes in PDD  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studied whether abnormal P3 amplitudes in PDD are a corollary of abnormalities in ERP components related to selective attention in visual and auditory tasks. Furthermore, this study sought to clarify possible age differences in such abnormalities. Children with PDD showed smaller P3 amplitudes than controls, but no abnormalities in selective attention. Adolescents with PDD showed abnormal selective attention,

Marco Rudolf Hoeksma; Chantal Kemner; J. Leon Kenemans; Herman van Engeland

2006-01-01

331

Paleointensity obtained from late Cretaceous and earliest Paleogene basalts drilled from Louisville seamount trail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

IODP Expedition 330 occupied six sites on five seamounts along the northwestern part of the Louisville seamount trail. The ages of the seamounts range between 50 and 74 Ma. Fresh basalts were recovered by drilling despite the old ages. From onboard examination of the rocks, it is considered that part of basalts erupted in subaerial or shallow submarine conditions and probably suffered high-temperature oxidation, in particular at Sites U1372 and U1373, suggesting that they may be suitable for absolute paleointensity estimation. We conducted paleointensity measurements using the Tsunakawa-Shaw method with low-temperature demagnetization (LTD) and double heating (DHT). First, thermomagnetic curves were measured for all samples with a Curie balance at the Center for Advanced Marine Core Research, Kochi University. Samples that showed evidence for being suffered low-temperature oxidation were excluded. Then, samples from which characteristic magnetization component was isolated by stepwise alternating-field demagnetization were subjected to the paleointensity experiments; samples with MAD of larger than 10° were excluded. Paleointensity of 23.6×8.9 mirco T was obtained at Site U1372 on the Canopus Seamount, the oldest seamount drilled (˜74 Ma), as the mean of 15 lithological units (lava flows) that passed the selection criteria of Yamamoto and Tsunakawa (2005). Sites U1373 and U1374 on the Rigil Seamount (˜70 Ma) yielded paleointensity of 22.2 ×8.5 micro T (n=18), and Site U1376 on the Burton Seamount (˜64 Ma) resulted 21.6 ×6.8 micro T (n=10). The mean paleointensities are converted to virtual axial dipole moment (VADM) of approximately 3.7 x1022 Am2 based on a paleolatitude of ˜43° to ˜50°S of the Louisville hotspot between 50 and 74 Ma from onboard paleomagnetic results. The results of this study suggests that paleointensity of latest Cretaceous to earliest Paleogene was about a half of the present field intensity and similar to the mean of the last 5 Ma by Yamamoto and Tsunakawa (2005).

Yamazaki, T.; Yamamoto, Y.

2013-12-01

332

High-resolution stable carbon isotope record of the Permian to earliest Triassic from East Greenland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Late Permian and Early Triassic organic carbon isotope records show global major excursions probably triggered by episodic volcanic degasing of the Siberian Large Igneous Province. Important and rapid fluctuations of the global carbon cycle are also reflected in the biosphere. The geological record seems to comprise several major floral and marine faunal turnovers indicating short-lived biotic recoveries. In northwest Pangea, the active Early Triassic Greenland - Norway rifting system led to the accommodation of thick sedimentary sequences. This basin has a great potential for detailed studies of regional and global biotic and climatic changes with high temporal resolution during this critical interval in Earth's history. The western part of this basin is exposed in north-eastern Greenland and is represented by a succession of deltaic sediments organized in a general regressive trend ranging throughout the Griesbachian and the onset of the Dienerian. On the eastern side of the basin the succession has been drilled off the Norwegian coast. On Hold with Hope (East Greenland, 74°N) up to ca. 800m thick sections of the ammonoid-bearing Early Triassic Wordie Creek Formation have been logged and sampled. Here we present a high-resolution organic carbon isotope record and preliminary palynofacies data of a 500m thick composite section ranging from the Permian into the earliest Triassic. The organic carbon isotope record is closely comparable to the coeval section from the Trøndelag platform in Mid-Norway. The two records show a first major negative shift (ca. -6‰) representing the unconformity between the Ravnefjeld and the Wordie Creek formations, regionally known as the lithological Permian-Triassic boundary. Higher up, a second negative shift of ca. -4‰ correlates with the carbon shift associated with the GSSP Permian-Triassic boundary as defined at Meishan (China), represented by carbon isotope values around -30‰. This negative shift is followed by a steady positive trend, which is interrupted by two striking events, (a) a positive shift reaching values of ca. -22‰, comparable to the values of the Permian Ravnefjeld Formation, and (b) another negative shift of ca. -7‰ bringing the carbon record back to values around -31‰. Our data from north-eastern Greenland indicate multiple and major events recorded by the carbon cycle within less than a million years at the onset of the Triassic.

Sanson Barrera, Anna; Hochuli, Peter A.; Bucher, Hugo; Meier, Maximiliano; Schneebeli Hermann, Elke; Weissert, Helmut; Bernasconi, Stefano M.

2013-04-01

333

Abnormal Position and Presentation of the Fetus  

MedlinePLUS

... Sections Symptoms Multimedia Table Index In This Topic Women's Health Issues Complications of Labor and Delivery Abnormal Position ... Older People's Health Issues Skin Disorders Special Subjects Women's Health Issues Chapters in Women's Health Issues Biology of ...

334

ICSN Data - Abnormal Result Technologies and Procedures  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Breast Cancer (Archived Tables): Home Abnormal

335

Limiting Abnormal Mold Growth in Buildings  

E-print Network

. Unfortunately, we are learning from studies of contemporary buildings that abnormal amounts of certain molds inside our buildings can adversely affect the health of humans and animals. The same conditions that support mold growth also support fungal decay...

Graham, C. W.

2002-01-01

336

Pinna abnormalities and low-set ears  

MedlinePLUS

... because they do not affect hearing. However, sometimes cosmetic surgery is recommended. Skin tags may be tied off, ... 5 years old. More severe abnormalities may require surgery for cosmetic reasons as well as for function. Surgery to ...

337

[The occurrence of congenital abnormalities in children under 2 years of age in Zielona Gora province between 1987-1992].  

PubMed

The analysis encompassed 1278 children under 2 years of age with congenital abnormalities from a group of 60, 815 live-born neonates in Zielona Góra province between 1987-1992. The population prevalence of congenital abnormalities was 2.10% on average. Cardiovascular system abnormalities were the most frequent, making up 40.53% of all detected abnormalities and 0.85% of the analyzed population. The successive positions were abnormalities of: the limbs (15.41% of all detected abnormalities and 0.31% of the analyzed population), genitourinary system (9.08% and 0.19% respectively), central nervous system (7.51% i 0.16%) and digestive system (6.57% and 0.14). There were no statistically significant differences between sexes, towns and villages, jobs of mothers and months of birth. Congenital abnormalities were twice as frequent (4.83%) in low-birth-weight neonates. Deaths caused by congenital abnormalities made 30.9% of total infantile mortality. 66% of children with congenital abnormalities (mainly heart defects) died in first month of life. PMID:7624167

Krawczy?ski, M; Rejman, J; Kostrzewska, W; Smykowa, I

1995-01-01

338

Detecting ECG Abnormalities via Transductive Transfer Department of Computer  

E-print Network

Science and Engineering SUNY at Buffalo Buffalo, 14260, U.S.A. kli22@buffalo.edu Nan Du Department of Computer Science and Engineering SUNY at Buffalo Buffalo, 14260, U.S.A. nandu@buffalo.edu Aidong Zhang Department of Computer Science and Engineering SUNY at Buffalo Buffalo, 14260, U.S.A. azhang@buffalo

Buffalo, State University of New York

339

Detecting Kidney and Urinary Tract Abnormalities Before Birth  

MedlinePLUS

... Rate Your Risk Quiz Featured Story African Americans & Kidney Disease Did you know that African Americans are ... KEEP Healthy - Free Kidney Health checks Featured Story Kidney Walk The Kidney Walk is the nation's largest ...

340

Detecting corpus callosum abnormalities in autism based on anatomical landmarks  

PubMed Central

Autism is a severe developmental disorder whose neurological basis is largely unknown. Autism is a subtype of autism that displays more homogeneous features within group. The aim of this study was to identify the shape differences of the corpus callosum between patients with autism and the controls. Anatomical landmarks were collected from mid-sagittal MRI of 25 patients and 18 controls. Euclidean distance matrix analysis and thin-plate spline were used to analyze the landmark forms. Point-by-point shape comparison was performed both globally and locally. A new local shape comparison scheme was proposed which compared each part of the shape in its local coordinate system. Point correspondence was established among individual shapes based on the inherent landmark correspondence. No significant difference was found in the landmark form between patients and controls, but the distance between interior genu and posterior most was found significantly shorter in patients. Thin-plate spline analysis showed significant group difference between the landmark configurations in terms of the deformation from the overall mean configuration. Significant global shape differences were found in the anterior lower body and posterior bottom, and local shape difference existed in the anterior bottom. This study can serve as both clinical reference and a detailed procedure guideline for similar studies in the future. PMID:20620032

He, Qing; Duan, Ye; Karsch, Kevin; Miles, Judith

2010-01-01

341

Analytical cytology applied to detection of induced cytogenetic abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

Radiation-induced biological damage results in formation of a broad spectrum of cytogenetic changes such as translocations, dicentrics, ring chromosomes, and acentric fragments. A battery of analytical cytologic techniques are now emerging that promise to significantly improve the precision and ease with which these radiation induced cytogenetic changes can be quantified. This report summarizes techniques to facilitate analysis of the frequency of occurrence of structural and numerical aberrations in control and irradiated human cells. 14 refs., 2 figs.

Gray, J.W.; Lucas, J.; Straume, T.; Pinkel, D.

1987-08-06

342

A Comparison of Techniques for Detecting Abnormal Change in Blogs  

SciTech Connect

Distributed collections are made of metadata entries that contain references to artifacts not controlled by the collection curators. These collections often have limited forms of change; for digital distributed collections, primarily creation and deletion of additional resources. However, there exists a class of digital collection that undergoes additional kinds of change. These collections consist of resources that are distributed across the Internet and brought together via hyperlinking. Resources in these collections can be expected to change as time goes on. Part of the difficulty in maintaining these collections is determining if a changed page is still a valid member of the collection. Others have tried to address this by defining a maximum allowed threshold of change, however, these methods treat change as a potential problem and treat web content as static despite its intrinsic dynamicism. Instead we acknowledge change on the web as a normal part of a web document and determine the difference between what a maintainer expects a page to do and what it actually does. In this work we evaluate options for extractors and analyzers from a suite of techniques against a human-generated ground-truth set of blog changes. The results of this work show a statistically significant improvement over traditional threshold techniques for our collection.

Furuta, Dr. Richard Keith [Texas A& M University] [Texas A& M University; ShipmanIII, Dr. Frank Major [Texas A& M University] [Texas A& M University; Bogen, Paul Logasa [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-01-01

343

42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other...abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other...

2013-10-01

344

42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other...abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other...

2014-10-01

345

Corticospinal Tract Abnormalities Are Associated with Weakness in Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose To assess the relationship between muscle strength in multiple sclerosis (MS) and corticospinal tract (CST) abnormalities detected with multimodality magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Methods In 47 individuals with MS, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 3T was used to reconstruct the intracranial CSTs. Tract profiles depicted the variation in T2 relaxation time, magnetization transfer ratio, and DTI-derived indices (fractional anisotropy and diffusivity) as a function of normalized position along the tract. Brain parenchymal fraction was calculated as a normalized measure of brain volume. Stepwise linear regression modeling was used to determine the MRI indices most closely related to ankle dorsiflexion and hip flexion strength assessed with quantitative dynamometry. Results Individuals with MS were significantly weak: average ankle strength fell 1.7 standard deviations below the age-, handedness-, and sex-corrected healthy mean. Brain parenchymal fraction was not associated with weakness. A parsimonious model that includes magnetization transfer ratio in the brainstem and MS clinical subtype explained 30% to 45% of the variance in ankle and hip strength. The model was successfully applied to scans and strength data from the same individuals at an earlier time point. Conclusion MRI abnormalities specific to the motor tract are associated with clinical dysfunction related to that tract. The relevant abnormalities are found in the brainstem, distant from the periventricular inflammatory lesions that are common in MS. This suggests that neurodegeneration, rather than primary inflammation, at least partially explains the findings. PMID:17974617

Reich, Daniel S.; Zackowski, Kathleen M.; Gordon-Lipkin, Eliza M.; Smith, Seth A.; Chodkowski, BettyAnn A.; Cutter, Gary R.; Calabresi, Peter A.

2009-01-01

346

Abnormal thalamocortical structural and functional connectivity in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is the most common idiopathic generalized epilepsy, characterized by frequent myoclonic jerks, generalized tonic-clonic seizures and, less commonly, absences. Neuropsychological and, less consistently, anatomical studies have indicated frontal lobe dysfunction in the disease. Given its presumed thalamo–cortical basis, we investigated thalamo–cortical structural connectivity, as measured by diffusion tensor imaging, in a cohort of 28 participants with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and detected changes in an anterior thalamo–cortical bundle compared with healthy control subjects. We then investigated task-modulated functional connectivity from the anterior thalamic region identified using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a task consistently shown to be impaired in this group, phonemic verbal fluency. We demonstrate an alteration in task-modulated connectivity in a region of frontal cortex directly connected to the thalamus via the same anatomical bundle, and overlapping with the supplementary motor area. Further, we show that the degree of abnormal connectivity is related to disease severity in those with active seizures. By integrating methods examining structural and effective interregional connectivity, these results provide convincing evidence for abnormalities in a specific thalamo–cortical circuit, with reduced structural and task-induced functional connectivity, which may underlie the functional abnormalities in this idiopathic epilepsy. PMID:23250883

O’Muircheartaigh, Jonathan; Vollmar, Christian; Barker, Gareth J.; Kumari, Veena; Symms, Mark R.; Thompson, Pam; Duncan, John S.; Koepp, Matthias J.

2012-01-01

347

Detector for flow abnormalities in gaseous diffusion plant compressors  

DOEpatents

A detector detects a flow abnormality in a plant compressor which outputs a motor current signal. The detector includes a demodulator/lowpass filter demodulating and filtering the motor current signal producing a demodulated signal, and first, second, third and fourth bandpass filters connected to the demodulator/lowpass filter, and filtering the demodulated signal in accordance with first, second, third and fourth bandpass frequencies generating first, second, third and fourth filtered signals having first, second, third and fourth amplitudes. The detector also includes first, second, third and fourth amplitude detectors connected to the first, second, third and fourth bandpass filters respectively, and detecting the first, second, third and fourth amplitudes, and first and second adders connected to the first and fourth amplitude detectors and the second and third amplitude detectors respectively, and adding the first and fourth amplitudes and the second and third amplitudes respectively generating first and second added signals. Finally, the detector includes a comparator, connected to the first and second adders, and comparing the first and second added signals and detecting the abnormal condition in the plant compressor when the second added signal exceeds the first added signal by a predetermined value.

Smith, Stephen F. (Loudon, TN); Castleberry, Kim N. (Harriman, TN)

1998-01-01

348

Detector for flow abnormalities in gaseous diffusion plant compressors  

DOEpatents

A detector detects a flow abnormality in a plant compressor which outputs a motor current signal. The detector includes a demodulator/lowpass filter demodulating and filtering the motor current signal producing a demodulated signal, and first, second, third and fourth bandpass filters connected to the demodulator/lowpass filter, and filtering the demodulated signal in accordance with first, second, third and fourth bandpass frequencies generating first, second, third and fourth filtered signals having first, second, third and fourth amplitudes. The detector also includes first, second, third and fourth amplitude detectors connected to the first, second, third and fourth bandpass filters respectively, and detecting the first, second, third and fourth amplitudes, and first and second adders connected to the first and fourth amplitude detectors and the second and third amplitude detectors respectively, and adding the first and fourth amplitudes and the second and third amplitudes respectively generating first and second added signals. Finally, the detector includes a comparator, connected to the first and second adders, and comparing the first and second added signals and detecting the abnormal condition in the plant compressor when the second added signal exceeds the first added signal by a predetermined value. 6 figs.

Smith, S.F.; Castleberry, K.N.

1998-06-16

349

Changing pattern of epithelial cell abnormalities using revised Bethesda system  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): In developing countries and worldwide cervical cancer is an important cause of female mortality. Reports describing the frequency and pattern of abnormal Pap smears in Saudi Arabia, using the revised Bethesda system (RBS) are very few. The current study was conducted to explore the changing pattern of epithelial cell abnormalities (ECA) detected in Pap smears (PS) in females of the Western region of Saudi Arabia at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah using the RBS. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was designed to review all the PSs from the archives of Cytopathology Department at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, starting from January 2000 to October 2012 using RBS. Cytological aspects of PSs were reviewed with age distribution. Results: Of the 15805 PS, 84 (0.53%) unsatisfactory smears were excluded. There were 2295 cases (14.52%) with ECA. In the abnormal squamous cell category the distribution of lesions was as follows: Atypical squamous cells of indeterminate significance (ASC-US) were 7.1%; atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude high squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H) were 1.08%; low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) including human papillomavirus was 2.2%, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) was 0.8% and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion with suspicious invasion was 0.06% smears. The mean age (MA) incidence was 39,43,45,46 and 45 years respectively. Conclusion: The percentage of abnormal PS is increasing (14.52%) over the last decade. This increase is evident by different studies conducted across Saudi Arabia. Under present circumstances the need for mass screening. PMID:25729547

Mufti, Shagufta T.; Altaf, Fadwa J

2014-01-01

350

New insights into the earliest Quaternary environments in the Central North Sea from 3D seismic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past the transition between an unconformable surface in the south to a conformable horizon towards the north has made identification and mapping the base-Quaternary in the central North Sea difficult (Sejrup et al 1991; Gatliff et al 1994). However recent integration of biostratigraphy, pollen analysis, paleomagnetism and amino acid analysis in the Dutch and Danish sectors (Rasmussen et al 2005; Kuhlmann et al 2006) has allowed greater confidence in the correlation to the region 3D seismic datasets and thus has allowed the base-Quaternary to be mapped across the entire basin. The base-Quaternary has been mapped using the PGS MegaSurvey dataset from wells in the Danish Sector along the initially unconformable horizon and down the delta front into the more conformable basin giving a high degree of confidence in the horizon pick. The revised base-Quaternary surface reaches a depth of 1248 ms TWT with an elongate basin shape which is significantly deeper than the traditionally mapped surface. Using RMS amplitudes and other seismic attributes the revised base-Quaternary has been investigated along the horizon and in time slice to interpret the environments of the earliest Quaternary prior to the onset of glaciation. Combined with analysis of aligned elongate furrows over 10 km long, 100 m wide and 100 m deep suggest a deep marine environment in an almost enclosed basin with persistent strong NW-SE bottom currents in the deepest parts. Pockmarks were formed by the escape of shallow gas on the sides of a small delta in the eastern part of the basin. The progradation of large deltas from both the north and south into the basin make up the majority of the deposition of sediment into the basin. Key Words: base-Quaternary; seismic interpretation; paleoenvironments References: Gatliff, R.W, Richards, P.C, Smith, K, Graham, C.C, McCormac, M, Smith, N.J.P, Long, D, Cameron, T.D.J, Evans, D, Stevenson, A.G, Bulat, J, Ritchie, J.D, (1994) 'United Kingdom offshore regional report: the geology of the central North Sea.' London: HMSO for the British Geological Survey Kuhlmann, G., Langereis C.G., Munsterman, D., van Leeuwen, R.-J., Verreussel, R., Meulenkamp, J.E., Wong, Th.E., 2006 'Intergrated chronostratigraphy of the Pliocene-Pliestocene interval and its relation to the regional stratigraphical stages in the Southern North Sea region' Netherlands Journal of Geosciences 85(1), 29-45 Rasmussen, E.A., Vejb?k O.V., Bidstrup, T., Piasecki, S., Dybkj?r, K., 2005 'Late Cenozoic depositional history of the Danish North Sea Basin: implications for the petroleum systems in the Kraka, Halfdan, Siri and Nini fields', Petroleum Geology Conference series 6, 1347-1358 Sejrup, H.P., Aareseth, I., Haflidason, H., 1991 'The Quaternary succession in the northern North Sea' Marine Geology 101 103-111

Lamb, Rachel; Huuse, Mads; Stewart, Margaret; Brocklehurst, Simon H.

2014-05-01

351

The Earliest Fossil Evidence for Life on Land and the Freshwater Origin of Algae?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some 150 years ago, in 1859, Charles Darwin was greatly puzzled by a seeming absence of fossils in rocks older than the Cambrian period. He drew attention to a veritable Lost World that it is now known to have spanned more than 80 per cent of Earth History. And he made a prediction that we here bring again into focus: 'The presence of phosphate nodules and bituminous matter in some of the lowest azoic rocks probably indicates the former existence of life at these periods (Darwin 1859, p.307). His prediction came to fruition in 1899, when Sir Archibald Geikie announced to the world the first discovery of genuine microfossils in Precambrian phosphatic rocks, made by Jephro Teall, Ben Peach and John Horne within the Torridonian rocks of Scotland. The Torridonian phosphate of NW Scotland has, however, been rather little studied until recently. It is remarkable for its fidelity of fossil preservation, and also for its non-marine depositional setting. Dating to the end of the Mesoproterozoic Era around 1Ga ago, thick packages of fluvial sandstones are found to serve the remains of very ancient intermontane lake ecosystems. Fossil assemblages from terrestrial settings are rarely seen before the Devonian ~ 350 Ma ago. Evidence for freshwater and terrestrial life in the Precambrian has therefore been circumstantial rather than detailed and none has yet come from freshwater phosphate. We here demonstrate that phosphate from ~ 1200-1000 Ma Mesoproterozoic lake sediments of the Torridon Group preserve a remarkable suite of organisms forming a freshwater, terrestrial, phototrophic ecosystem. Ephemeral lakes and streams developed in intermontane basins within the interior of the supercontinent of Rodinia and periodically experienced prolonged desiccation allowing phosphate precipitation. The microbiology of these lake sediments is being studied in detail, where they are yielding - with the aid of Automontage - fresh evidence for the earliest known terrestrial ecology and lagerstatte. Delicate cellular structures, and even sub-cellular structures, can be preserved with high fidelity in the phosphate. These cells show evidence for life cycles that ranged from resting cysts - sometimes sculptured - to colonial vegetative stages and thence to single celled dispersal stages. Cyanobacteria, eukaryotic protists and algae are all present. The ecological structure and responses of these Torridon lake communities can be compared with those of modern, mainly acidiphilic, lakes. Together with sedimentary structures and wrinkle mats of demonstrably microbial origin, we can point to the variable development of seasonal eutrophication and stagnation in the photic zone of these ancient lakes. Population statistics of the various morphotypes reveal differences between the assemblages collected from older and younger units of the Torridon Group, attributable to differing lacustrine ecologies. Such exceptional preservation in the Proterozoic is part of an emerging picture of evolving taphonomic styles through time, in which better preservation of cells is found as we go further back into the fossil record. We attribute this remarkable preservation in the Proterozoic to very early diagenesis in a world before the evolution of a sediment Mixed Layer during the Cambrian explosion of the Metazoa. This evidence suggests that Earth's terrestrial biota and its associated phosphorus cycle were well established on land by ~1000 Ma ago. It also suggests that many algal groups, which today are obligate freshwater denizens, may have originated in freshwater lakes over a billion years ago.

Battison, L.; Brasier, M. D.; Antcliffe, J. B.

2009-04-01

352

Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet --> singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature.

Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

2015-03-01

353

Abnormal hepatocellular mitochondria in methylmalonic acidemia.  

PubMed

Methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) is one of the most frequently encountered forms of branched-chain organic acidemias. Biochemical abnormalities seen in some MMA patients, such as lactic acidemia and increased tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate excretion, suggest mitochondrial dysfunction. In order to investigate the possibility of mitochondrial involvement in MMA, we examined liver tissue for evidence of mitochondrial ultrastructural abnormalities. Five explanted livers obtained from MMA mut(0) patients undergoing liver transplantation were biopsied. All patients had previous episodes of metabolic acidosis, lactic acidemia, ketonuria, and hyperammonemia. All biopsies revealed a striking mitochondriopathy by electron microscopy. Mitochondria were markedly variable in size, shape, and conformation of cristae. The inner matrix appeared to be greatly expanded and the cristae were diminutive and disconnected. No crystalloid inclusions were noted. This series clearly documents extensive mitochondrial ultrastructure abnormalities in liver samples from MMA patients undergoing transplantation, providing pathological evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathophysiology of MMA mut(0). Considering the trend to abnormally large mitochondria, the metabolic effects of MMA may restrict mitochondrial fission or promote fusion. The correlation between mitochondrial dysfunction and morphological abnormalities in MMA may provide insights for better understanding and monitoring of optimized or novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:24933007

Wilnai, Yael; Enns, Gregory M; Niemi, Anna-Kaisa; Higgins, John; Vogel, Hannes

2014-10-01

354

Abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence.  

PubMed

We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)3(3+) … TPrA(•)] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet ? singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)3(3+) … TPrA(•)] complexes in solution at room temperature. PMID:25772580

Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

2015-01-01

355

Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence  

PubMed Central

We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet ? singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature. PMID:25772580

Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

2015-01-01

356

Impact of Genetic Abnormalities on the Prognoses and Clinical Parameters of Patients with Multiple Myeloma  

PubMed Central

Background We reviewed patients with multiple myeloma (MM) in order to assess the incidence of genetic abnormalities and their associations with clinical parameters, risk groups, and prognosis. Methods A total of 130 patients with MM were enrolled. The incidences of genetic abnormalities were determined in all patients. The relationships of the genetic abnormalities and clinical parameters were investigated. In addition, a survival analysis was performed. Results Abnormal karyotypes were detected in 42.3% (N=55) of the patients, and this was increased to 63.1% (N=82) after including the results determined with interphase FISH. Hypodiploidy was observed in 7.7% (N=10) of the patients, and all were included in the group with complex karyotypes (30.8%, N=40). The 14q32 rearrangements were detected in 29.2% (N=38) of the patients, and these most commonly included t(11;14), which was followed by t(4;14) and t(14;16) (16.2%, 11.5%, and 0.8%, respectively). Abnormal karyotypes and complex karyotypes were associated with disease progression markers, including low hemoglobin levels, low platelet counts, high plasma cell burden, high ?2-microglobulin, and high international staging system stages. A high free light chain (FLC) ratio and FLC difference were associated with abnormal karyotypes, complex karyotypes, and higher plasma cell burden. Hypodiploidy and low platelet counts were significant independent prognostic factors and were more important in patient outcome than any single abnormality. Conclusions Genetic abnormalities were associated with disease progression markers and prognosis of MM patients. PMID:23826560

Jekarl, Dong Wook; Min, Chang-Ki; Kwon, Ahlm; Kim, Hyunjung; Chae, Hyojin; Lim, Jihyang; Kim, Yonggoo; Han, Kyungja

2013-01-01

357

Localized hotspots drive continental geography of abnormal amphibians on U.S. wildlife refuges.  

PubMed

Amphibians with missing, misshapen, and extra limbs have garnered public and scientific attention for two decades, yet the extent of the phenomenon remains poorly understood. Despite progress in identifying the causes of abnormalities in some regions, a lack of knowledge about their broader spatial distribution and temporal dynamics has hindered efforts to understand their implications for amphibian population declines and environmental quality. To address this data gap, we conducted a nationwide, 10-year assessment of 62,947 amphibians on U.S. National Wildlife Refuges. Analysis of a core dataset of 48,081 individuals revealed that consistent with expected background frequencies, an average of 2% were abnormal, but abnormalities exhibited marked spatial variation with a maximum prevalence of 40%. Variance partitioning analysis demonstrated that factors associated with space (rather than species or year sampled) captured 97% of the variation in abnormalities, and the amount of partitioned variance decreased with increasing spatial scale (from site to refuge to region). Consistent with this, abnormalities occurred in local to regional hotspots, clustering at scales of tens to hundreds of kilometers. We detected such hotspot clusters of high-abnormality sites in the Mississippi River Valley, California, and Alaska. Abnormality frequency was more variable within than outside of hotspot clusters. This is consistent with dynamic phenomena such as disturbance or natural enemies (pathogens or predators), whereas similarity of abnormality frequencies at scales of tens to hundreds of kilometers suggests involvement of factors that are spatially consistent at a regional scale. Our characterization of the spatial and temporal variation inherent in continent-wide amphibian abnormalities demonstrates the disproportionate contribution of local factors in predicting hotspots, and the episodic nature of their occurrence. PMID:24260103

Reeves, Mari K; Medley, Kimberly A; Pinkney, Alfred E; Holyoak, Marcel; Johnson, Pieter T J; Lannoo, Michael J

2013-01-01

358

Localized Hotspots Drive Continental Geography of Abnormal Amphibians on U.S. Wildlife Refuges  

PubMed Central

Amphibians with missing, misshapen, and extra limbs have garnered public and scientific attention for two decades, yet the extent of the phenomenon remains poorly understood. Despite progress in identifying the causes of abnormalities in some regions, a lack of knowledge about their broader spatial distribution and temporal dynamics has hindered efforts to understand their implications for amphibian population declines and environmental quality. To address this data gap, we conducted a nationwide, 10-year assessment of 62,947 amphibians on U.S. National Wildlife Refuges. Analysis of a core dataset of 48,081 individuals revealed that consistent with expected background frequencies, an average of 2% were abnormal, but abnormalities exhibited marked spatial variation with a maximum prevalence of 40%. Variance partitioning analysis demonstrated that factors associated with space (rather than species or year sampled) captured 97% of the variation in abnormalities, and the amount of partitioned variance decreased with increasing spatial scale (from site to refuge to region). Consistent with this, abnormalities occurred in local to regional hotspots, clustering at scales of tens to hundreds of kilometers. We detected such hotspot clusters of high-abnormality sites in the Mississippi River Valley, California, and Alaska. Abnormality frequency was more variable within than outside of hotspot clusters. This is consistent with dynamic phenomena such as disturbance or natural enemies (pathogens or predators), whereas similarity of abnormality frequencies at scales of tens to hundreds of kilometers suggests involvement of factors that are spatially consistent at a regional scale. Our characterization of the spatial and temporal variation inherent in continent-wide amphibian abnormalities demonstrates the disproportionate contribution of local factors in predicting hotspots, and the episodic nature of their occurrence. PMID:24260103

Reeves, Mari K.; Medley, Kimberly A.; Pinkney, Alfred E.; Holyoak, Marcel; Johnson, Pieter T. J.; Lannoo, Michael J.

2013-01-01

359

Unsupervised Pattern Classifier for Abnormality-Scaling of Vibration Features for Helicopter Gearbox Fault Diagnosis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new unsupervised pattern classifier is introduced for on-line detection of abnormality in features of vibration that are used for fault diagnosis of helicopter gearboxes. This classifier compares vibration features with their respective normal values and assigns them a value in (0, 1) to reflect their degree of abnormality. Therefore, the salient feature of this classifier is that it does not require feature values associated with faulty cases to identify abnormality. In order to cope with noise and changes in the operating conditions, an adaptation algorithm is incorporated that continually updates the normal values of the features. The proposed classifier is tested using experimental vibration features obtained from an OH-58A main rotor gearbox. The overall performance of this classifier is then evaluated by integrating the abnormality-scaled features for detection of faults. The fault detection results indicate that the performance of this classifier is comparable to the leading unsupervised neural networks: Kohonen's Feature Mapping and Adaptive Resonance Theory (AR72). This is significant considering that the independence of this classifier from fault-related features makes it uniquely suited to abnormality-scaling of vibration features for fault diagnosis.

Jammu, Vinay B.; Danai, Kourosh; Lewicki, David G.

1996-01-01

360

Normal and abnormal human vestibular ocular function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major motivation of this research is to understand the role the vestibular system plays in sensorimotor interactions which result in spatial disorientation and motion sickness. A second goal was to explore the range of abnormality as it is reflected in quantitative measures of vestibular reflex responses. The results of a study of vestibular reflex measurements in normal subjects and preliminary results in abnormal subjects are presented in this report. Statistical methods were used to define the range of normal responses, and determine age related changes in function.

Peterka, R. J.; Black, F. O.

1986-01-01

361

Electrocardiographic abnormalities associated with raised intracranial pressure.  

PubMed Central

Serial electrocardiographic (E.C.G.) recordings were taken in seven patients suffering from intracranial conditions, for which their intracranial pressure was directly and continuously monitored with a Konigsberg extradural transducer. The E.C.G. changes observed in patients with raised intracranial pressure were prominent U waves, ST-T segment changes, notched T waves, and shortening and prolongation of Q-T intervals. Two patients with normal intracranial pressure showed no E.C.G. abnormalities but also establish a relationship between E.C.G. abnormalities and changing intracranial pressure. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:1111762

Jachuck, S J; Ramani, P S; Clark, F; Kalbag, R M

1975-01-01

362

Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

2014-05-01

363

Temporal abnormalities in children with developmental dyscalculia.  

PubMed

Recent imaging studies have associated Developmental dyscalculia (DD) to structural and functional alterations corresponding Parietal and the Prefrontal cortex (PFC). Since these areas were shown also to be involved in timing abilities, we hypothesized that time processing is abnormal in DD. We compared time processing abilities between 10 children with pure DD (8 years old) and 11 age-matched healthy children. Results show that the DD group underestimated duration of a sub-second scale when asked to perform a time comparison task. The timing abnormality observed in our DD participants is consistent with evidence of a shared fronto-parietal neural network for representing time and quantity. PMID:23066940

Vicario, Carmelo Mario; Rappo, Gaetano; Pepi, Annamaria; Pavan, Andrea; Martino, Davide

2012-01-01

364

[Research progress on hereditary fibrinogen abnormalities].  

PubMed

As the most abundant component of coagulation system, fibrinogen not only takes part in clotting, but also works as one of acute phase proteins, which participates in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. Studies of fibrinogen abnormalities contribute to understand the molecular basis of disorders of fibrinogen protein function and metabolism, caused mainly by gene mutation, commonly associated with bleeding, thrombophilia, or both. Diseases affecting fibrinogen could be classified to the acquired or inherited disease. In this review, the research progress on the molecular basis, possible action mechanism of the hereditary fibrinogen abnormalities and its clinical research are summarized. PMID:25130854

Ou, Ning-Jiang; Tang, Min-Zhong

2014-08-01

365

Identification of intestinal wall abnormalities and ischemia by modeling spatial uncertainty in computed tomography imaging findings.  

PubMed

Intestinal abnormalities and ischemia are medical conditions in which inflammation and injury of the intestine are caused by inadequate blood supply. Acute ischemia of the small bowel can be life-threatening. Computed tomography (CT) is currently a gold standard for the diagnosis of acute intestinal ischemia in the emergency department. However, the assessment of the diagnostic performance of CT findings in the detection of intestinal abnormalities and ischemia has been a difficult task for both radiologists and surgeons. Little effort has been found in developing computerized systems for the automated identification of these types of complex gastrointestinal disorders. In this paper, a geostatistical mapping of spatial uncertainty in CT scans is introduced for medical image feature extraction, which can be effectively applied for diagnostic detection of intestinal abnormalities and ischemia from control patterns. Experimental results obtained from the analysis of clinical data suggest the usefulness of the proposed uncertainty mapping model. PMID:24938748

Tsunoyama, Taichiro; Pham, Tuan D; Fujita, Takashi; Sakamoto, Tetsuya

2014-10-01

366

Hybrid origins and the earliest stages of diploidization in the highly successful recent polyploid Capsella bursa-pastoris.  

PubMed

Whole-genome duplication (WGD) events have occurred repeatedly during flowering plant evolution, and there is growing evidence for predictable patterns of gene retention and loss following polyploidization. Despite these important insights, the rate and processes governing the earliest stages of diploidization remain poorly understood, and the relative importance of genetic drift, positive selection, and relaxed purifying selection in the process of gene degeneration and loss is unclear. Here, we conduct whole-genome resequencing in Capsella bursa-pastoris, a recently formed tetraploid with one of the most widespread species distributions of any angiosperm. Whole-genome data provide strong support for recent hybrid origins of the tetraploid species within the past 100,000-300,000 y from two diploid progenitors in the Capsella genus. Major-effect inactivating mutations are frequent, but many were inherited from the parental species and show no evidence of being fixed by positive selection. Despite a lack of large-scale gene loss, we observe a decrease in the efficacy of natural selection genome-wide due to the combined effects of demography, selfing, and genome redundancy from WGD. Our results suggest that the earliest stages of diploidization are associated with quantitative genome-wide decreases in the strength and efficacy of selection rather than rapid gene loss, and that nonfunctionalization can receive a "head start" through a legacy of deleterious variants and differential expression originating in parental diploid populations. PMID:25691747

Douglas, Gavin M; Gos, Gesseca; Steige, Kim A; Salcedo, Adriana; Holm, Karl; Josephs, Emily B; Arunkumar, Ramesh; Ågren, J Arvid; Hazzouri, Khaled M; Wang, Wei; Platts, Adrian E; Williamson, Robert J; Neuffer, Barbara; Lascoux, Martin; Slotte, Tanja; Wright, Stephen I

2015-03-01

367

Earliest stages of crystal growth in a silicate glass containing titanium and zirconium as nucleating elements — HRTEM and XAS study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The earliest stages of crystallization have been studied for a SiO 2-Al 2O 3-Li 2O glass-ceramics containing a few percent of titanium and zirconium as nucleating elements. After heat treatments at temperatures ranging between T=750°C and T=860°C, the growth process has been studied by combining HRTEM (high resolution transmission electron microscopy) and XAS (X-ray absorption spectrometry). A fine phase separation has been found in the parent glass (? 7 nm in size) independent of the presence of the nucleating elements. From HRTEM, the earliest crystalline phase has been definitely stated as being TiZrO 4. The incorporation of titanium atoms into TiZrO 4 crystals is correlated with a change of their coordinance from 4 to 6, directly evidenced in XAS spectra by the "prepeak" analysis at titanium K-edge. The crystallization of the aluminosilicate occurs after full precipitation of TiZrO 4. In glass ceramics, the number of aluminosilicate and TiZrO 4 crystals per unit volume are nearly equal, in good agreement with heterogeneous nucleation of the silicate solid solution on TiZrO 4 crystals. For samples heat treated at 750°C and 780°C, the number of TiZrO 4 crystallites is constant for a given temperature. These crystallites grow until the matrix becomes free of zirconium atoms. Their growth activation energy has been found to be 400±50 kJ/mol.

Ramos, A.; Gandais, M.

1990-03-01

368

Size matters: MEG empirical and simulation study on source localization of the earliest visual activity in the occipital cortex.  

PubMed

While the relationship between sensory stimulation and tasks and the size of the cortical activations is generally unknown, the visual modality offers a unique possibility of an experimental manipulation of stimulus size-related increases of the spatial extent of cortical activation even during the earliest activity in the retinotopically organized primary visual cortex. We used magnetoecephalography (MEG), visual stimuli of increasing size, and numerical simulations on realistic cortical surfaces to explore the effects of increasing spatial extent of the activated cortical sources on the neuromagnetic fields, location estimation biases, and source resolution. Source localization was performed assuming multiple dipoles in a sphere model using an efficient, automatically restarted multi-start simplex minimizer within the Calibrated Start Spatio-Temporal (CSST) algorithm. We found size-related effects on amplitude and latencies and differences in relative locations of the earliest occipital sources evoked by stimuli of increasing size presented at the same eccentricity. This finding was confirmed by single patch simulations. Additionally, simulations of multiple extended sources demonstrated size-related increase in limits in source resolution for bilaterally simulated sources, biases in location estimates for a given separation of sources, and limits in source resolution due to source multiplicity within a hemisphere. PMID:21476049

Golubic, Sanja Josef; Susac, Ana; Grilj, Veljko; Ranken, Douglas; Huonker, Ralph; Haueisen, Jens; Supek, Selma

2011-05-01

369

Automatic Fault Characterization via Abnormality-Enhanced Classification  

SciTech Connect

Enterprise and high-performance computing systems are growing extremely large and complex, employing hundreds to hundreds of thousands of processors and software/hardware stacks built by many people across many organizations. As the growing scale of these machines increases the frequency of faults, system complexity makes these faults difficult to detect and to diagnose. Current system management techniques, which focus primarily on efficient data access and query mechanisms, require system administrators to examine the behavior of various system services manually. Growing system complexity is making this manual process unmanageable: administrators require more effective management tools that can detect faults and help to identify their root causes. System administrators need timely notification when a fault is manifested that includes the type of fault, the time period in which it occurred and the processor on which it originated. Statistical modeling approaches can accurately characterize system behavior. However, the complex effects of system faults make these tools difficult to apply effectively. This paper investigates the application of classification and clustering algorithms to fault detection and characterization. We show experimentally that naively applying these methods achieves poor accuracy. Further, we design novel techniques that combine classification algorithms with information on the abnormality of application behavior to improve detection and characterization accuracy. Our experiments demonstrate that these techniques can detect and characterize faults with 65% accuracy, compared to just 5% accuracy for naive approaches.

Bronevetsky, G; Laguna, I; de Supinski, B R

2010-12-20

370

NEW RESEARCH Abnormal Amygdalar Activation and  

E-print Network

of the most disabling symptoms associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We aimedNEW RESEARCH Abnormal Amygdalar Activation and Connectivity in Adolescents With Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Words: ADHD, amygdala, effective connectivity, fear, stimulant medication A lthough attention-deficit/hyperactivity

371

Abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in male psychopathic offenders  

PubMed Central

Background Psychopathic offenders inevitably violate interpersonal norms and frequently resort to aggressive and criminal behaviour. The affective and cognitive deficits underlying these behaviours have been linked to abnormalities in functional interhemispheric connectivity. However, direct neurophysiological evidence for dysfunctional connectivity in psychopathic offenders is lacking. Methods We used transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography to examine interhemispheric connectivity in the dorsolateral and motor cortex in a sample of psychopathic offenders and healthy controls. We also measured intracortical inhibition and facilitation over the left and right motor cortex to investigate the effects of local cortical processes on interhemispheric connectivity. Results We enrolled 17 psychopathic offenders and 14 controls in our study. Global abnormalities in right to left functional connectivity were observed in psychopathic offenders compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, psychopathic offenders showed increased intracortical inhibition in the right, but not the left, hemisphere. Limitations The relatively small sample size limited the sensitivity to show that the abnormalities in interhemispheric connectivity were specifically related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in psychopathic offenders. Conclusion To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiological evidence for abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in psychopathic offenders and may further our understanding of the disruptive antisocial behaviour of these offenders. PMID:23937798

Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S.; De Jesus, Danilo R.; Sun, Yinming; Stirpe, Tania; Hofman, Dennis; McMaster, Jeff; Hughes, Ginny; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Schutter, Dennis J.L.G.

2014-01-01

372

Emergency Abnormal Conditions Animals on Campus  

E-print Network

, but they are best left alone for your and their protection. In general, a healthy "wild" animal will make every1 Emergency Abnormal Conditions Animals on Campus a. Domestic Animals on Campus. For reasons of safety, health and sanitation, domestic animals (pets) are not allowed inside Institute buildings

Davis, Lloyd M.

373

Abnormal visual phenomena in posterior cortical atrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) report a host of unusual and poorly explained visual disturbances. This preliminary report describes a single patient (CRO), and documents and investigates abnormally prolonged colour afterimages (concurrent and prolonged perception of colours complimentary to the colour of an observed stimulus), perceived motion of static stimuli, and better reading of small than large letters. We

Sebastian J. Crutch; Manja Lehmann; Nikos Gorgoraptis; Diego Kaski; Natalie Ryan; Masud Husain; Elizabeth K. Warrington

2011-01-01

374

Abnormalities of cingulate gyrus neuroanatomy in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective and methodsAbnormalities of the neuroanatomy of the gray matter of the cingulate gyrus, especially its anterior segment, have been suggested to be an important characteristic of schizophrenia. In this study, T1-weighted magnetic resonance scans were collected in 53 individuals with schizophrenia and 68 comparison subjects matched for age, gender, race and parental socioeconomic status. We applied Labeled Cortical Mantle

Lei Wang; Malini Hosakere; Joshua C. L. Trein; Alex Miller; J. Tilak Ratnanather; Deanna M. Barch; Paul A. Thompson; Anqi Qiu; Mokhtar H. Gado; Michael I. Miller; John G. Csernansky

2007-01-01

375

ADEPT - Abnormal Doppler Enteral Prescription Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Pregnancies complicated by abnormal umbilical artery Doppler blood flow patterns often result in the baby being born both preterm and growth-restricted. These babies are at high risk of milk intolerance and necrotising enterocolitis, as well as post-natal growth failure, and there is no clinical consensus about how best to feed them. Policies of both early milk feeding and late

Alison Leaf; Jon Dorling; Steve Kempley; Kenny McCormick; Paul Mannix; Peter Brocklehurst

2009-01-01

376

PSY 350 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2008  

E-print Network

disorders, dissociative and somatoform disorders, mood disorders, substance abuse and dependence, eating of major behavior disorders. A sampling of the specific topics will include: stress and health, #12;anxiety disorders, gender and sexuality, psychotic disorders, personality disorders, abnormal behavior in childhood

Gallo, Linda C.

377

Motor Control Abnormalities in Parkinson's Disease  

E-print Network

Motor Control Abnormalities in Parkinson's Disease Pietro Mazzoni, Britne Shabbott, and Juan Camilo York 10032 Correspondence: pm125@columbia.edu The primary manifestations of Parkinson's disease control processes. In the case of Parkinson's disease, movement slowness, for example, would be explained

378

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Prevalence of Specific Gait Abnormalities  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Prevalence of Specific Gait Abnormalities in Children With Cerebral Palsy Influence of Cerebral Palsy Subtype, Age, and Previous Surgery Tishya A. L. Wren, PhD,* Susan Rethlefsen, PT. These findings provide important information for counsel- ing ambulatory children with cerebral palsy

Valero-Cuevas, Francisco

379

Craniofacial abnormalities among patients with Edwards Syndrome  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency and types of craniofacial abnormalities observed in patients with trisomy 18 or Edwards syndrome (ES). METHODS This descriptive and retrospective study of a case series included all patients diagnosed with ES in a Clinical Genetics Service of a reference hospital in Southern Brazil from 1975 to 2008. The results of the karyotypic analysis, along with clinical data, were collected from medical records. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 50 patients, of which 66% were female. The median age at first evaluation was 14 days. Regarding the karyotypes, full trisomy of chromosome 18 was the main alteration (90%). Mosaicism was observed in 10%. The main craniofacial abnormalities were: microretrognathia (76%), abnormalities of the ear helix/dysplastic ears (70%), prominent occiput (52%), posteriorly rotated (46%) and low set ears (44%), and short palpebral fissures/blepharophimosis (46%). Other uncommon - but relevant - abnormalities included: microtia (18%), orofacial clefts (12%), preauricular tags (10%), facial palsy (4%), encephalocele (4%), absence of external auditory canal (2%) and asymmetric face (2%). One patient had an initial suspicion of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS) or Goldenhar syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the literature description of a characteristic clinical presentation for ES, craniofacial alterations may be variable among these patients. The OAVS findings in this sample are noteworthy. The association of ES with OAVS has been reported once in the literature. PMID:24142310

Rosa, Rafael Fabiano M.; Rosa, Rosana Cardoso M.; Lorenzen, Marina Boff; Zen, Paulo Ricardo G.; Graziadio, Carla; Paskulin, Giorgio Adriano

2013-01-01

380

Neuropsychological Abnormalities in Schizophrenia and Major Mood  

E-print Network

Neuropsychological Abnormalities in Schizophrenia and Major Mood Disorders: Similarities in schizophrenia. This work has led to an increased emphasis on identifying and evaluating treatments that enhance cognition in schizophrenia, with the hope that this would translate into a better quality of life

381

Renal Abnormalities in Psoriatic Patients: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous systemic diseases affect both skin and kidneys: autoimmune diseases (e.g. lupus, vasculitis), hematologic abnormalities, genetic disorders and others have been described (table 1). Although psoriasis is considered an immunomediated disease, it is assumed to affect the skin and joints exclusively. Psoriasis [1] is a common chronic inflammatory disorder of the skin, which affects more than 2% of people with

J. Heuvels; A. Maximus; J. L. Bosmans; J. Lambert; M. E. De Broe

1999-01-01

382

Abnormal vasculature in intestinal neuronal dysplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intestinal neuronal dysplasia (IND) is an intestinal motility disorder, which clinically resembles Hirschsprung's disease (HD). Adventitial fibromuscular dysplasia (AFMD) consists of proliferation of smooth muscle cells and collagen fibers in the adventitia of blood vessels. The purpose of this study was to investigate vascular abnormalities in large bowel biopsies from patients with isolated HD, IND associated with HD and isolated

Udo Rolle; Anna Piaseczna Piotrowska; Prem Puri

2003-01-01

383

Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

Rapport, Zachary

2011-01-01

384

On (ab)normality: Einstein's fusiform gyrus.  

PubMed

Recently, Hines (2014) wrote an evocative paper challenging findings from both histological and morphological studies of Einstein's brain. In this discussion paper, I extend Hines' theoretical point and further discuss how best to determine 'abnormal' morphology. To do so, I assess the sulcal patterning of Einstein's fusiform gyrus (FG) for the first time. The sulcal patterning of the FG was unconsidered in prior studies because the morphological features of the mid-fusiform sulcus have only been clarified recently. On the one hand, the sulcal patterning of Einstein's FG is abnormal relative to averages of 'normal' brains generated from two independent datasets (N=39 and N=15, respectively). On the other hand, within the 108 hemispheres used to make these average brains, it is not impossible to find FG sulcal patterns that resemble those of Einstein. Thus, concluding whether a morphological pattern is normal or abnormal heavily depends on the chosen analysis method (e.g. group average vs. individual). Such findings question the functional meaning of morphological 'abnormalities' when determined by comparing an individual to an average brain or average frequency characteristics. These observations are not only important for analyzing a rare brain such as that of Einstein, but also for comparing macroanatomical features between typical and atypical populations. PMID:25562419

Weiner, Kevin S

2015-03-01

385

Renal abnormalities in sickle cell disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renal abnormalities in sickle cell disease. Sickle cell nephropathy is indicated by sickled erythrocytes, with the consequent effects of decreased medullary blood flow, ischemia, microinfarct and papillary necrosis. Impaired urinary concentrating ability, renal acidification, hematuria, and potassium secretion are also found. There may be a causal relationship between an increase in nitric oxide synthesis and experimental sickle cell nephropathy, and

Phuong-Thu T Pham; Phuong-Chi T Pham; Alan H Wilkinson; Susie Q Lew

2000-01-01

386

Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results  

MedlinePLUS

... LEEP) —A thin wire loop that carries an electric current is used to remove abnormal areas of the ... the cervix using a thin wire loop and electric energy. Pap Test: A test in ... document sets forth current information and opinions related to women’s health. The ...

387

Abnormally high formation pressures, Potwar Plateau, Pakistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Abnormally high formation pressures in the Potwar Plateau of north-central Pakistan are major obstacles to oil and gas exploration. Severe drilling problems associated with high pressures have, in some cases, prevented adequate evaluation of reservoirs and significantly increased drilling costs. Previous investigations of abnormal pressure in the Potwar Plateau have only identified abnormal pressures in Neogene rocks. We have identified two distinct pressure regimes in this Himalayan foreland fold and thrust belt basin: one in Neogene rocks and another in pre-Neogene rocks. Pore pressures in Neogene rocks are as high as lithostatic and are interpreted to be due to tectonic compression and compaction disequilibrium associated with high rates of sedimentation. Pore pressure gradients in pre-Neogene rocks are generally less than those in Neogene rocks, commonly ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 psi/ft (11.3 to 15.8 kPa/m) and are most likely due to a combination of tectonic compression and hydrocarbon generation. The top of abnormally high pressure is highly variable and doesn't appear to be related to any specific lithologic seal. Consequently, attempts to predict the depth to the top of overpressure prior to drilling are precluded.

Law, B.E.; Shah, S.H.A.; Malik, M.A.

1998-01-01

388

Emergency Abnormal Conditions 1. Bomb Threat  

E-print Network

1 Emergency Abnormal Conditions 1. Bomb Threat a. Bomb threats usually occur by telephone. b. Try OR PACKAGE OR MOVE IT IN ANY WAY! #12;UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE SPACE INSTITUTE BOMB THREAT CALL FORM: ___________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ QUESTIONS TO ASK THE CALLER CONCERNING THE BOMB Who are you

Davis, Lloyd M.

389

Computer-Aided Detection  

Cancer.gov

New development in computer hardware and software, informatics, methodology and technology can assist physicians in early detection, interpretation of laboratory tests, automation of laboratory tests, and estimating prognosis and staging of cancer. Virtual colonoscopy, for example, can provide a three-dimensional image of colon, help surgeons pinpoint abnormality for surgical removal, and enhance the detection ability of colonoscopy.

390

Ethical considerations regarding parental decisions for termination following prenatal diagnosis of sex chromosome abnormalities.  

PubMed

Termination rates following prenatal diagnosis of sex chromosome abnormalities have been reported to be in a very wide spectrum (12.7-86.5%) in various studies. The different attitudes in management of prenatal diagnosed sex chromosome abnormalities may depend on several factors as the type of the abnormality, the indication for prenatal testing, the number of previous healthy children and whether the pregnancy was assisted or spontaneous. In the current study, we look at prenatal diagnostic procedures carried out in our department over a period of 5 years (2002-2007). We did not detect sex chromosome abnormalities in the 43 cordocenteses and the 26 chorionic villus samples. Among the 1130 amniocentesis patients, 12 cases (1.06%) were diagnosed as having sex chromosome abnormalities. Five (41.67%) of 12 pregnancies with sex chromosome abnormalities were terminated (one case with 47,XXY, one case with 46,X,del(X), and three cases with 45,X karyotype); whereas seven pregnancies (58.33%) continued. Among the factors influencing parents' decision-making, the attitude of the health-care professional giving the post-diagnosis counseling seems to be the most important, next to the socio-economic and educational status of the parents. PMID:18990991

Yilmaz, Z; Sahin, F I; Bulakbasi, T; Yüregir, O O; Tarim, E; Yanik, F

2008-01-01

391

Magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow. Part II: Abnormalities of the ligaments, tendons, and nerves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part II of this comprehensive review on magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow discusses the role of magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating patients with abnormalities of the ligaments, tendons, and nerves of the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging can yield high-quality multiplanar images which are useful in evaluating the soft tissue structures of the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect tears

Richard Kijowski; Michael Tuite; Matthew Sanford

2005-01-01

392

An internet routing forensics framework for discovering rules of abnormal BGP events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormal BGP events such as attacks, misconfigurations, electricity failures, can cause anomalous or pathological routing behavior at either global level or prefix level, and thus must be detected in their early stages. Instead of using ad hoc methods to analyze BGP data, in this paper we introduce an Internet Routing Forensics framework to systematically process BGP routing data, discover rules

Jun Li; Dejing Dou; Zhen Wu; Shiwoong Kim; Vikash Agarwal

2005-01-01

393

Assessment of musculoskeletal abnormalities in children with mucopolysaccharidoses using pGALS  

PubMed Central

Background Children with mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) often have musculoskeletal (MSK) abnormalities. Paediatric Gait, Arms, Legs, and Spine (pGALS), is a simple MSK assessment validated in school-age children to detect abnormal joints. We aimed to identify MSK abnormalities in children with MPS performing pGALS. Methods Videos of children with a spectrum of MPS performing pGALS were analysed. A piloted proforma to record abnormalities for each pGALS manoeuvre observed in the videos (scored as normal/abnormal/not assessable) was used by three observers blinded to MPS subtype. Videos were scored independently and rescored for intra- and inter-observer consistency. Data were pooled and analysed. Results Eighteen videos of children [12 boys, 6 girls, median age 11 years (4–19)] with MPS (13 type I [5 Hurler, 8 attenuated type I]; 4 type II; 1 mannosidosis) were assessed. The most common abnormalities detected using pGALS were restrictions of the shoulder, elbow, wrist, jaw (>75% cases), and fingers (2/3 cases). Mean intra-observer ? 0.74 (range 0.65–0.88) and inter-observer ? 0.62 (range 0.51–0.77). Hip manoeuvres were not clearly demonstrated in the videos. Conclusions In this observational study, pGALS identifies MSK abnormalities in children with MPS. Restricted joint movement (especially upper limb) was a consistent finding. Future work includes pGALS assessment of the hip and testing pGALS in further children with attenuated MPS type I. The use of pGALS and awareness of patterns of joint involvement may be a useful adjunct to facilitate earlier recognition of these rare conditions and ultimately access to specialist care. PMID:25110468

2014-01-01

394

Congenital abnormalities of the vertebral column in ferrets.  

PubMed

Vertebral column pathologies requiring surgical intervention have been described in pet ferrets, however little information is available on the normal vertebral formula and congenital variants in this species. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe vertebral formulas and prevalence of congenital vertebral anomalies in a sample of pet ferrets. Radiographs of 172 pet ferrets (96 males and 76 females) were included in this retrospective study. In 143 ferrets (83.14%), five different formulas of the vertebral column were recorded with normal morphology of vertebrae (rib attachment included) but with a variable number of thoracic (Th), lumbar (L), and sacral (S) vertebrae. The number of cervical (C) vertebrae was constant in all examined animals. Observed vertebral formulas were C7/Th14/L6/S3 (51.74%), C7/Th14/L6/S4 (22.10%), C7/Th14/L7/S3 (6.98%), C7/Th15/L6/S3 (1.74%), and C7/Th15/L6/S4 (0.58%). Formula C7/Th14/L6/S4 was significantly more common in males than in females (P < 0.05). Congenital spinal abnormalities were found in 29 ferrets (16.86%), mostly localized in the thoracolumbar and lumbosacral regions. The cervical region was affected in only one case. Transitional vertebrae represented the most common congenital abnormalities (26 ferrets) in the thoracolumbar (13 ferrets) and lumbosacral regions (10 ferrets) or simultaneously in both regions (three ferrets). Other vertebral anomalies included block (two ferrets) and wedge vertebra (one ferret). Spina bifida was not detected. Findings from the current study indicated that vertebral formulas may vary in ferrets and congenital abnormalities are common. This should be taken into consideration for surgical planning. PMID:25124147

Proks, Pavel; Stehlik, Ladislav; Paninarova, Michaela; Irova, Katarina; Hauptman, Karel; Jekl, Vladimir

2015-03-01

395

The use of a novel combination of diagnostic molecular and cytogenetic approaches in horses with sexual karyotype abnormalities: a rare case with an abnormal cellular chimerism.  

PubMed

Sex chromosome aberrations are known to cause congenital abnormalities and unexplained infertility in horses. Most of these anomalies remain undiagnosed because of the complexity of the horse karyotype and the lack of specialized laboratories that can perform such diagnoses. On the other hand, the utilization of microsatellite markers is a technique widely spread in horse breeding, mostly because of their usage in parentage tests. We studied the usage of a novel combination of diagnostic approaches in the evaluation of a very uncommon case of chromosomal abnormalities in a Spanish purebred colt, primarily detected using a commercial panel of short tandem repeat (STR) makers. Based on these results, we performed a full cytogenetic analysis using conventional and fluorescent in situ hybridization techniques with individual Equus caballus chromosome X and Equus caballus chromosome Y painting probes. We also tested the presence of two genes associated with the sexual development in horses and an extra novel panel of eight microsatellite markers specifically located in the sex chromosome pair. This is the first case report of a leukocyte chimerism between chromosomally normal (64,XY) and abnormal (63,X0) cell lines in horses. Our results indicate that the use of the short tandem repeat markers as a screening technique and as a confirmation utilizing cytogenetic techniques can be used as a very interesting, easy, and nonexpensive diagnostic approach to detect chromosomal abnormalities in the domestic horse. PMID:24612694

Demyda-Peyrás, S; Anaya, G; Bugno-Poniewierska, M; Pawlina, K; Membrillo, A; Valera, M; Moreno-Millán, M

2014-05-01

396

Dipolar distribution generated by laser-induced plasma (LIP) in air in earliest instants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an experimental investigation of the electric field potential and magnetic field generated by a laser-induced plasma in air, for time delays 0 ? t ? 50 ns. The laser used is a Nd?:?YAG, ? = 1064 nm, 10 ns at FWHM, and the irradiance applied is I = (1011-1012) W cm-2. We find that the collective effect of the charges in the plasma form a dynamic dipole distribution aligned with the laser beam axis. This experimental result is explained based on the mobility of the electric charges detected by mapping near the plasma with a coaxial cable probe. Shadowgraphy and fast photography techniques show that the plasma ionization front advances asymmetrically and mostly toward the lens. The intrinsic dipole moment is estimated by applying an external electric field. The magnetic diagnostic shows the presence of a current aligned with the laser beam that gives rise to an azimuthal magnetic field, corroborating the observed dipolar configuration.

Paulin Fuentes, J. Mauricio; Sánchez-Aké, C.; Bredice, Fausto O.; Villagrán-Muniz, Mayo

2013-12-01

397

Spondylodiscitis after Cervical Nucleoplasty without Any Abnormal Laboratory Findings  

PubMed Central

Infective spondylodiscitis is a rare complication that can occur after interventional spinal procedures, of which symptoms are usually back pain and fever. Early diagnosis of infective spondylodiscitis is critical to start antibiotics and to improve prognosis. Laboratory examinations including complet blood cell count (CBC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) are conventional tools for the early detection of infectious spondylitis. However, we experienced infective spondylodiscitis after cervical nucleoplasty which did not display any laboratory abnormalities, but was diagnosed through an MRI. A patient with cervical disc herniation received nucleoplasty at C5/6 and C6/7. One month later, the patient complained of aggravated pain. There were neither signs of chill nor fever, and the laboratory results appeared normal. However, the MRI findings were compatible with infectious spondylodiscitis at the nucleoplasty site. In conclusion, infectious spondylodiscitis can develop after cervical nucleoplasty without any laboratory abnormalities. Therefore, an MRI should be taken when there is a clinical suspicion for infection in order to not miss complications after interventional procedures, even if the laboratory findings are normal. PMID:23614083

Lee, Seung Jun; Choi, Eun Joo

2013-01-01

398

Anatomical brain networks on the prediction of abnormal brain states.  

PubMed

Graph-based brain anatomical network analysis models the brain as a graph whose nodes represent structural/functional regions, whereas the links between them represent nervous fiber connections. Initial studies of brain anatomical networks using this approach were devoted to describe the key organizational principles of the normal brain, while current trends seem to be more focused on detecting network alterations associated to specific brain disorders. Anatomical networks reconstructed using diffusion-weighed magnetic resonance-imaging techniques can be particularly useful in predicting abnormal brain states in which the white matter structure and, subsequently, the interconnections between gray matter regions are altered (e.g., due to the presence of diseases such as schizophrenia, stroke, multiple sclerosis, and dementia). This article offers an overview from early gross connectional anatomy explorations until more recent advances on anatomical brain network reconstruction approaches, with a specific focus on how the latter move toward the prediction of abnormal brain states. While anatomical graph-based predictor approaches are still at an early stage, they bear promising implications for individualized clinical diagnosis of neurological and psychiatric disorders, as well as for neurodevelopmental evaluations and subsequent assisted creation of educational strategies related to specific cognitive disorders. PMID:23249224

Iturria-Medina, Yasser

2013-01-01

399

Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia and Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Abnormalities  

PubMed Central

A 15-yr-old male patient with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) was referred to our department with a one year history of gradual worsening of tremors. He was diagnosed with salt-wasting 21-hydroxylase deficiency CAH at 40 d old and was started on hydrocortisone, fludrocortisone and salt. He was found to have hypertension at 8 yr of age. Detailed investigations failed to detect any cause for secondary hypertension. Physical findings on the current hospitalization objectified obesity, blood pressure of 150/80 mmHg, postural and action tremor, left cerebellar syndrome, reflex tetra pyramidal syndrome and mental decline. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed bilateral periventricular white matter hyperintensity that was more pronounced in the posterior regions and associated with cortico-subcortical atrophy and complete agenesis of the corpus callosum. All investigations for leukoencephalopathy were negative. A diagnosis of brain MRI abnormalities related to CAH was made, and the patient received symptomatic treatment of tremors. Our case report provides evidence of an increased frequency of brain MRI abnormalities in CAH. The literature suggests hormonal imbalance and exposure to excess exogenous glucocorticoids as main probable mechanisms. Thus, in clinical practice, CAH should be considered as one of the possible causes of brain white matter involvement associated with or without cerebral atrophy. PMID:23926386

Samia, Younes-Mhenni; Mahdi, Kamoun; Baha, Zantour; Saida, Jerbi-Ommezine; Tahar, Sfar Mohamed; Habib, Sfar Mohamed

2010-01-01

400

Quantification and discrimination of abnormal sulcal patterns in polymicrogyria.  

PubMed

Polymicrogyria (PMG) is a malformation of cortical development characterized by an irregular gyral pattern and its diagnosis and severity have been qualitatively judged by visual inspection of imaging features. We aimed to provide a quantitative description of abnormal sulcal patterns for individual PMG brains using our sulcal graph-based analysis and examined the association with language impairment. The sulcal graphs were constructed from magnetic resonance images in 26 typical developing and 18 PMG subjects and the similarity between sulcal graphs was computed by using their geometric and topological features. The similarities between typical and PMG groups were significantly lower than the similarities measured within the typical group. Furthermore, more lobar regions were determined to be abnormal in most patients when compared with the visual diagnosis of PMG involvement, suggesting that PMG may have more global effects on cortical folding than previously expected. Among the PMG, the group with intact language development showed sulcal patterns more closely matched with the typical than the impaired group in the left parietal lobe. Our approach shows the potential to provide a quantitative means for detecting the severity and extent of involvement of cortical malformation and a greater understanding of genotype-phenotype and clinical-imaging features correlations. PMID:22989584

Im, Kiho; Pienaar, Rudolph; Paldino, Michael J; Gaab, Nadine; Galaburda, Albert M; Grant, P Ellen

2013-12-01

401

An abnormal pattern of multiple platelet function abnormalities and increased thromboxane generation in patients with primary thrombocytosis and thrombotic complications.  

PubMed

Platelet aggregation (PA) induced by ADP, collagen and epinephrine, plasma levels of beta-thromboglobulin (beta TG) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and serum TXB2 generation were studied in 11 patients with primary thrombocytosis (7 with essential thrombocythaemia and 4 with polycythaemia vera) and compared with 16 healthy subjects. 5 patients suffered from peripheral vascular ischaemia and another 3 had venous thrombosis, but none had bleeding complications. The patients showed an abnormal pattern of platelet function and of thromboxane generation distinct from the healthy subjects in three aspects. a) Shape change was 5-26 times greater, the lag-time of collagen PA was 2.3-2.9 times longer and the extent of epinephrine PA was nil or very low. ADP- or collagen-induced PA was also reduced (p less than 0.02). b) Plasma TXB2 generation (corrected to a normal platelet concentration) stimulated by the three PA inducers was within the range of the healthy subjects in spite of the reduced extent of PA. c) Plasma beta TG level and serum TXB2 generation (both corrected to a normal platelet concentration) were 2.9-7.1 times higher (p less than 0.001) indicating enhanced in vivo platelet activation and possibly increased thrombin generation. These abnormalities were not detected in another 4 patients with secondary thrombocytosis. The abnormal pattern of platelet function and thromboxane generation can be a useful laboratory method in the evaluation of patients with primary thrombocytosis. It might also explain the thrombotic complications which occurred in 8 of the patients in a manner such that increased or normal TXB2 generation overcomes the reduced extent of PA. In this respect, the pronounced serum TXB2 synthesis might be a marker of intravascular thrombosis. PMID:1836999

Zahavi, J; Zahavi, M; Firsteter, E; Frish, B; Turleanu, R; Rachmani, R

1991-11-01

402

Selective mutism and abnormal electroencephalography (EEG) tracings.  

PubMed

Epileptic discharges are not considered a part of the clinical picture of selective mutism, and electroencephalography is generally not recommended in its work-up. This report describes 6 children with selective mutism who were found to have a history of epilepsy and abnormal interictal or subclinical electroencephalography recordings. Two of them had benign epilepsy of childhood with centro-temporal spikes. The mutism was not related in time to the presence of active seizures. While seizures could be controlled in all children by medications, the mutism resolved only in 1. Although the discharges could be coincidental, they might represent a co-morbidity of selective mutism or even play a role in its pathogenesis. Selective mutism should be listed among the psychiatric disorders that may be associated with electroencephalographic abnormalities. It can probably be regarded as a symptom of a more complicated organic brain disorder. PMID:21596703

Politi, Keren; Kivity, Sara; Goldberg-Stern, Hadassa; Halevi, Ayelet; Shuper, Avinoam

2011-11-01

403

Chromosomal abnormalities in a psychiatric population  

SciTech Connect

Over a 3.5 year period of time, 345 patients hospitalized for psychiatric problems were evaluated cytogenetically. The patient population included 76% males and 94% children with a mean age of 12 years. The criteria for testing was an undiagnosed etiology for mental retardation and/or autism. Cytogenetic studies identified 11, or 3%, with abnormal karyotypes, including 4 fragile X positive individuals (2 males, 2 females), and 8 with chromosomal aneuploidy, rearrangements, or deletions. While individuals with chromosomal abnormalities do not demonstrate specific behavioral, psychiatric, or developmental problems relative to other psychiatric patients, our results demonstrate the need for an increased awareness to order chromosomal analysis and fragile X testing in those individuals who have combinations of behavioral/psychiatric, learning, communication, or cognitive disturbance. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Lewis, K.E.; Lubetsky, M.J.; Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W. [Univ. of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA (United States)

1995-02-27

404

[Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis in congenital abnormalities of the kidneys and efferent urinary tract from the pediatric nephrology viewpoint].  

PubMed

Antenatal foetal abnormalities are found in 0.5% of all pregnancies. 30-50% of these abnormalities are related to the urinary tract. Although congenital abnormalities of the urinary tract can be detected as early as in the 15th-18th weeks of gestation, most abnormalities are detected between the 28th-30th weeks of gestation. At this time irreversible damage of the kidneys has taken place and the foetus will not benefit from antenatal therapy. On the other hand, a foetus with late onset of obstruction will benefit from antenatal intervention. Repeated ultrasonography is crucial for initiating further invasive diagnostic procedures, antenatal therapy and for planning the time of labour. There is a great risk of overdiagnosis and inadequate therapy because 25% of all antenatally diagnosed dilatations of the urinary tract could not be confirmed postnatally. PMID:8023123

Lettgen, B; Meyer-Schwickerath, M; Bedow, W

1994-04-01

405

The earliest archaeological maize (Zea mays L.) from highland Mexico: new accelerator mass spectrometry dates and their implications.  

PubMed

Accelerator mass spectrometry age determinations of maize cobs (Zea mays L.) from Guilá Naquitz Cave in Oaxaca, Mexico, produced dates of 5,400 carbon-14 years before the present (about 6,250 calendar years ago), making those cobs the oldest in the Americas. Macrofossils and phytoliths characteristic of wild and domesticated Zea fruits are absent from older strata from the site, although Zea pollen has previously been identified from those levels. These results, together with the modern geographical distribution of wild Zea mays, suggest that the cultural practices that led to Zea domestication probably occurred elsewhere in Mexico. Guilá Naquitz Cave has now yielded the earliest macrofossil evidence for the domestication of two major American crop plants, squash (Cucurbita pepo) and maize. PMID:11172082

Piperno, D R; Flannery, K V

2001-02-13

406

High-resolution ?13Ccarb chemostratigraphy from latest Guadalupian through earliest Triassic in South China and Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large carbon cycle perturbations are associated with the end-Permian mass extinction and subsequent recovery, but Late Permian (Lopingian) carbon cycle dynamics prior to the mass extinction event remain poorly documented. Here we present a high-resolution ?13Ccarb chemostratigraphic framework from latest Guadalupian to earliest Triassic time, calibrated with high-resolution conodont biostratigraphy and high-precision geochronology. We observe two large negative excursions in ?13Ccarb, the first in uppermost Guadalupian strata and the second at the end of the Changhsingian stage, and between these events distinctive excursions from the middle Wuchiapingian to the early Changhsingian. The end-Changhsingian excursion represents a major reorganization of the global carbon cycle associated with the end-Permian mass extinction. However, the extent to which the end-Guadalupian and Wuchiapingian/Changhsingian boundary excursions result from local versus global controls remains unresolved. Regardless of their underlying causes, these three excursions provide chemostratigraphic markers for global correlation of Lopingian strata.

Shen, Shu-zhong; Cao, Chang-qun; Zhang, Hua; Bowring, Samuel A.; Henderson, Charles M.; Payne, Jonathan L.; Davydov, Vladimir I.; Chen, Bo; Yuan, Dong-xun; Zhang, Yi-chun; Wang, Wei; Zheng, Quan-feng

2013-08-01

407

Earliest domestication of common millet (Panicum miliaceum) in East Asia extended to 10,000 years ago.  

PubMed

The origin of millet from Neolithic China has generally been accepted, but it remains unknown whether common millet (Panicum miliaceum) or foxtail millet (Setaria italica) was the first species domesticated. Nor do we know the timing of their domestication and their routes of dispersal. Here, we report the discovery of husk phytoliths and biomolecular components identifiable solely as common millet from newly excavated storage pits at the Neolithic Cishan site, China, dated to between ca. 10,300 and ca. 8,700 calibrated years before present (cal yr BP). After ca. 8,700 cal yr BP, the grain crops began to contain a small quantity of foxtail millet. Our research reveals that the common millet was the earliest dry farming crop in East Asia, which is probably attributed to its excellent resistance to drought. PMID:19383791

Lu, Houyuan; Zhang, Jianping; Liu, Kam-biu; Wu, Naiqin; Li, Yumei; Zhou, Kunshu; Ye, Maolin; Zhang, Tianyu; Zhang, Haijiang; Yang, Xiaoyan; Shen, Licheng; Xu, Deke; Li, Quan

2009-05-01

408

Sonic Hedgehog Genetic Abnormalities and Tissue Donations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this case study about a baby born with the genetic condition holoprosencephaly, students explore the “Sonic hedgehog” gene, signal transduction, and the ethics of body and tissue donation. The assignment involves students writing an informed consent document that explains the science behind this congenital abnormality. Designed for an upper-level undergraduate biology course, the case could also be used in a cell biology, developmental biology, neurobiology, or other related upper-level course.

Lauren E. Yaich

2001-01-01

409

Esophageal motility abnormalities in gastroesophageal reflux disease  

PubMed Central

Esophageal motility abnormalities are among the main factors implicated in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The recent introduction in clinical and research practice of novel esophageal testing has markedly improved our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease, allowing a better management of patients with this disorder. In this context, the present article intends to provide an overview of the current literature about esophageal motility dysfunctions in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal manometry, by recording intraluminal pressure, represents the gold standard to diagnose esophageal motility abnormalities. In particular, using novel techniques, such as high resolution manometry with or without concurrent intraluminal impedance monitoring, transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations, hypotensive LES, ineffective esophageal peristalsis and bolus transit abnormalities have been better defined and strongly implicated in gastroesophageal reflux disease development. Overall, recent findings suggest that esophageal motility abnormalities are increasingly prevalent with increasing severity of reflux disease, from non-erosive reflux disease to erosive reflux disease and Barrett’s esophagus. Characterizing esophageal dysmotility among different subgroups of patients with reflux disease may represent a fundamental approach to properly diagnose these patients and, thus, to set up the best therapeutic management. Currently, surgery represents the only reliable way to restore the esophagogastric junction integrity and to reduce transient LES relaxations that are considered to be the predominant mechanism by which gastric contents can enter the esophagus. On that ground, more in depth future studies assessing the pathogenetic role of dysmotility in patients with reflux disease are warranted. PMID:24868489

Martinucci, Irene; de Bortoli, Nicola; Giacchino, Maria; Bodini, Giorgia; Marabotto, Elisa; Marchi, Santino; Savarino, Vincenzo; Savarino, Edoardo

2014-01-01

410

Vestibular and Saccadic Abnormalities in Gaucher's Disease.  

PubMed

Gaucher's disease (GD) is a hereditary lysosomal storage disease characterized by abnormal deposition of glucocerebroside due to the enzyme glucocerebrosidase deficiency, resulting in multi-organ pathology. GD type III has a progressive neurological involvement. We studied the vestibular and saccadic abnormalities in GD type III to determine if these parameters may be useful for assessing neurological involvement. We evaluated the vestibular and saccadic responses of two siblings with genetically identified GD type III on enzyme replacement therapy. Vestibular functions were assessed with the head impulse test (HIT), vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs), and electrical vestibular stimulation (EVS). Saccadic functions were investigated with volitional horizontal and vertical saccades to ±20°. Three-dimensional head and eye movements were recorded with dual-search coils and VEMP with surface electrodes. HIT showed impaired individual semicircular canal function with halved angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gains and absent horizontal refixation saccade. Ocular and cervical VEMPs to air-conducted clicks were absent in the older sibling, and only cervical VEMP was present in the younger sibling indicating otolithic dysfunction. EVS showed prolonged onset latency and attenuated tonic and phasic responses suggesting impaired neural conduction and vestibular function. Horizontal saccadic velocity was miniscule (<30°/s) and multiple back-to-back saccades with saccade-vergence interaction were utilized to minimize eye position error in the older sibling. Vertical saccades were slightly abnormal, but vergence and smooth pursuit were normal in both siblings. Our findings suggest that GD affected the vestibular nuclei in addition to the paramedian pontine reticular formation. These vestibular and saccadic abnormalities may be useful biomarkers to monitor neurological deterioration. PMID:24142279

Chen, Luke; Halmagyi, G Michael; Todd, Michael J; Aw, Swee T

2014-01-01

411

Central pain in multiple sclerosis - sensory abnormalities.  

PubMed

Many patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) develop central neuropathic pain (CP). In the present study somatosensory abnormalities have been analysed in detail in 62 patients with MS and CP (42 women, 20 men; mean age 52 years) and in a control group of 10 women and 6 men (mean age 47 years) with MS and sensory symptoms, but without pain. Assessment included clinical testing and quantitative methods (QST) for the measurement of perception thresholds for touch, vibration, and temperatures. All CP patients except two (97%) had abnormal thresholds for innoxious and/or noxious temperatures, compared to 81% in the control group (p<0.05). There was a tendency towards the opposite regarding sensibility to touch, which was decreased in 66% vs. 87% (n.s.), vibration (55% vs. 81%; n.s.) and to joint movement (32% vs. 62%; p<0.04). Comparisons between painful and non-painful regions showed both the absolute threshold values and the index values to be significantly more abnormal, in the CP regions, for warmth (p<0.001), cold (p<0.05), difference limen (innoxious warmth and cold, p<0.01), cold pain (p<0.01) and heat pain/cold pain combined (p<0.001). Also the comparisons between regions with central pain and regions with sensory symptoms in the controls showed significantly more abnormal thresholds in the CP patients for warmth (p<0.05), cold (p<0.01), difference limen (innoxious warmth and cold, p<0.01) and heat pain/cold pain combined (p<0.001). The results support the general hypothesis that only patients who have lesions affecting the spinothalamo-cortical pathways run the risk of developing central pain. PMID:19359204

Osterberg, A; Boivie, J

2010-01-01

412

Surgical management of complete ureteric duplication abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2 decades (1974–1993), the senior author (S.A.) managed 148 patients with various abnormalities associated with complete\\u000a ureteric duplication. Included were 72 patients with primary vesicoureteric reflux, 50 with ureteroceles, and 26 with upper-pole\\u000a ectopic ureters. The majority of the patients were female, and the common clinical presentations included urinary tract infection\\u000a (UTI), UTI with septicemia, and urinary incontinence. Ten

S. Sen; S. Ahmed; M. Borghol

1997-01-01

413

Glucocorticoids, cytokines and brain abnormalities in depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major depression (MD) is a common psychiatric disorder with a complex and multifactor aetiology. Potential mechanisms associated with the pathogenesis of this disorder include monoamine deficits, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunctions, inflammatory and\\/or neurodegenerative alterations. An increased secretion and reactivity of cortisol together with an altered feedback inhibition are the most widely observed HPA abnormalities in MD patients. Glucocorticoids, such as

Patricia A. Zunszain; Christoph Anacker; Annamaria Cattaneo; Livia A. Carvalho; Carmine M. Pariante

2011-01-01

414

The Classification of Abnormal Behavior: An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tremendous progress in classifying abnormal behavior has been made in the past 25 years. With the advent of DSM-III and its\\u000a multiaxial system, along with the purging of psychodynamic theory from classification in favor of operational definitions,\\u000a we now have a much improved classification scheme. Nonetheless, there is still room for improvement within that system, including\\u000a a more open-minded evaluation

Henry E. Adams; Kristen A. Luscher; Jeffrey A. Bernat

415

Temperate carbonate debrites and short-lived earliest Miocene yo-yo tectonics, eastern Taranaki Basin margin, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines two unconformity-bound earliest Miocene temperate shallow-marine limestones at remote Gibson Beach, western North Island, on the eastern margin of Taranaki Basin, New Zealand's only producing hydrocarbon province. The local geology comprises an upper limestone of up to 6 m of spectacular conglomeratic limestone (rudstone; Papakura Limestone) whose pebble- to boulder-sized clasts were derived from cannibalisation of the lower skeletal limestone (bryomol grainstone; Otorohanga Limestone). Multiple lines of evidence require the Otorohanga Limestone to have been well indurated before erosion and clast generation. Cementation occurred from pressure dissolution of calcitic skeletons at burial depths of probably 400 m or more. Subsequent uplift led to local subaerial exposure and karstification of a fault-block cliffed coastline where physical erosion sourced talus limestone debris onto adjacent high-energy pocket beaches. Storm and/or seismic events periodically triggered mass flows of the limestone clasts offshore onto the contemporary mixed siliciclastic-carbonate shelf as channelised carbonate debrites. Lithification of these Papakura Limestone debrites occurred via pressure dissolution, and required a second burial episode. Karst pinnacles preserved on the eroded upper surface of the Papakura Limestone demand uplift again and erosion in a subaerial setting, before subsequent deep burial by Early Miocene siliciclastic shelf sand and turbidite deposits. Strontium isotope dating of brachiopod fossils suggests the two postulated burial-uplift cycles, involving movements up to 400 ± 100 m, occurred very rapidly within several 100 kyr. Speculative drivers of the yo-yo tectonic events are earliest Miocene movements on the nearby major Taranaki Fault thrust in association with regional changes in subduction tectonics at the Australian-Pacific plate boundary, along with pulsed emplacement of obducted gravity slide deposits (Northland Allochthon) onto northern North Island. The two limestones record a previously undocumented degree of eastern Taranaki Basin margin tectonic mobility relevant to a fuller appreciation of petroleum system development in that basin.

Hood, Steven D.; Nelson, Campbell S.

2012-03-01

416

Opportunistic Feeding Strategy for the Earliest Old World Hypsodont Equids: Evidence from Stable Isotope and Dental Wear Proxies  

PubMed Central

Background The equid Hippotherium primigenium, with moderately hypsodont cheek teeth, rapidly dispersed through Eurasia in the early late Miocene. This dispersal of hipparions into the Old World represents a major faunal event during the Neogene. The reasons for this fast dispersal of H. primigenium within Europe are still unclear. Based on its hypsodonty, a high specialization in grazing is assumed although the feeding ecology of the earliest European hipparionines within a pure C3 plant ecosystem remains to be investigated. Methodology/Principal Findings A multi-proxy approach, combining carbon and oxygen isotopes from enamel as well as dental meso- and microwear analyses of cheek teeth, was used to characterize the diet of the earliest European H. primigenium populations from four early Late Miocene localities in Germany (Eppelsheim, Höwenegg), Switzerland (Charmoille), and France (Soblay). Enamel ?13C values indicate a pure C3 plant diet with small (<1.4‰) seasonal variations for all four H. primigenium populations. Dental wear and carbon isotope compositions are compatible with dietary differences. Except for the Höwenegg hipparionines, dental microwear data indicate a browse-dominated diet. By contrast, the tooth mesowear patterns of all populations range from low to high abrasion suggesting a wide spectrum of food resources. Conclusions/Significance Combined dental wear and stable isotope analysis enables refined palaeodietary reconstructions in C3 ecosystems. Different H. primigenium populations in Europe had a large spectrum of feeding habits with a high browsing component. The combination of specialized phenotypes such as hypsodont cheek teeth with a wide spectrum of diet illustrates a new example of the Liem’s paradox. This dietary flexibility associated with the capability to exploit abrasive food such as grasses probably contributed to the rapid dispersal of hipparionines from North America into Eurasia and the fast replacement of the brachydont equid Anchitherium by the hypsodont H. primigenium in Europe. PMID:24040254

Tütken, Thomas; Kaiser, Thomas M.; Vennemann, Torsten; Merceron, Gildas

2013-01-01

417

Abnormal functional connectivity density in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

The pathology of Parkinson's disease (PD) is not confined to the nigrostriatal pathway, but also involves widespread cerebral cortical areas. Using seed-based resting state functional connectivity, many previous studies have demonstrated that PD patients have abnormal functional integration. However, this technique strongly relies on a priori selection of the seed regions and may miss important unpredictable findings. Using an ultrafast voxel-wise functional connectivity density approach, this study performed a whole brain functional connectivity analysis to investigate the abnormal resting-state functional activities in PD patients. Compared with healthy controls, PD patients exhibited decreased short-range functional connectivity densities in regions that were mainly located in the ventral visual pathway and decreased long-range functional connectivity densities in the right middle and superior frontal gyrus, which have been speculated to be associated with visual hallucinations and cognitive dysfunction, respectively. PD patients also exhibited increased short- and long-range functional connectivity densities in the bilateral precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex, which may represent a compensatory process for maintaining normal brain function. The observed functional connectivity density alterations might be related to the disturbed structural connectivity of PD patients, leading to abnormal functional integration. Our results suggest that functional connectivity density mapping may provide a useful means to assess PD-related neurodegeneration and to study the pathophysiology of PD. PMID:25496782

Zhang, Jiuquan; Bi, Wenwei; Zhang, Yuling; Zhu, Maohu; Zhang, Yanling; Feng, Hua; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Yuanchao; Jiang, Tianzi

2015-03-01

418

Abnormal Asymmetry of Brain Connectivity in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Recently, a growing body of data has revealed that beyond a dysfunction of connectivity among different brain areas in schizophrenia patients (SCZ), there is also an abnormal asymmetry of functional connectivity compared with healthy subjects. The loss of the cerebral torque and the abnormalities of gyrification, with an increased or more complex cortical folding in the right hemisphere may provide an anatomical basis for such aberrant connectivity in SCZ. Furthermore, diffusion tensor imaging studies have shown a significant reduction of leftward asymmetry in some key white-matter tracts in SCZ. In this paper, we review the studies that investigated both structural brain asymmetry and asymmetry of functional connectivity in healthy subjects and SCZ. From an analysis of the existing literature on this topic, we can hypothesize an overall generally attenuated asymmetry of functional connectivity in SCZ compared to healthy controls. Such attenuated asymmetry increases with the duration of the disease and correlates with psychotic symptoms. Finally, we hypothesize that structural deficits across the corpus callosum may contribute to the abnormal asymmetry of intra-hemispheric connectivity in schizophrenia. PMID:25566030

Ribolsi, Michele; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Siracusano, Alberto; Koch, Giacomo

2014-01-01

419

Discovering Potential Precursors of Mammography Abnormalities based on Textual Features, Frequencies, and Sequences  

SciTech Connect

Diagnosingbreastcancerfrommammographyreportsisheav- ily dependant on the time sequences of the patient visits. In the work described, we take a longitudinal view of the text of a patient s mam- mogram reports to explore the existence of certain phrase patterns that indicate future abnormalities may exist for the patient. Our approach uses various text analysis techniques combined with Haar wavelets for the discovery and analysis of such precursor phrase patterns. We believe the results show significant promise for the early detection of breast can- cer and other breast abnormalities.

Patton, Robert M [ORNL] [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01

420

Scientists find that chromosomal abnormalities are associated with aging and cancer  

Cancer.gov

Two new studies have found that large structural abnormalities in chromosomes, some of which have been associated with increased risk of cancer, can be detected in a small fraction of people without a prior history of cancer. The studies found that these alterations in chromosomes appear to increase with age, particularly after the age of 50, and may be associated with an increased risk for cancer. Mosaicism, the type of structural abnormality in chromosomes that is described in these studies, results from a DNA alteration that is present in some of the body's cells but not in others. A person with mosaicism has a mixture of normal and mutated cells.

421

Traumatic atypical tetraplegia without radiologic abnormalities including magnetic resonance imaging in an adult: a case report.  

PubMed

Although spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality (SCIWORA) literally refers to the specific type of spinal cord injury, however, some extents of spinal cord injuries can be detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in most of cases. We introduce an atypical case of spinal cord injury without radiologic abnormality. A 42-year-old male tetraplegic patient underwent MRI and computed tomography, and no specific lesions were found in any segments of the spinal cord. Moreover, the tetraplegic patient showed normal urodynamic function despite severe paralysis and absent somatosensory evoked potentials from the lower limbs. PMID:25750886

Park, Ji Woong; Lee, Yang Gyun; Choi, Yoon-Hee; Seo, Joon Won; Lee, Seok Min; Kim, Jin Il; Ko, Yong Jae

2015-02-01

422

Abnormal thallium 201 scintigraphy during low-dose vasopressin infusions  

SciTech Connect

Thallium 201 (/sup 201/Tl) myocardial scans were obtained in 16 patients just prior to the discontinuation of a vasopressin infusion (.1 to .2 units/min) administered for the treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Repeat scintigraphy was performed two to three hours after the vasopressin was stopped. Eleven of the 16 patients (69 percent) demonstrated areas of decreased myocardial /sup 201/Tl uptake that resolved after the infusion was stopped. Heart rate-blood pressure product was significantly lower at the time of the second scan. Autopsies were secured in three of 11 scan-positive patients: one had severe coronary artery obstruction, one nonsignificant disease, and another had normal coronary arteries. Vasopressin, even at low doses, can induce abnormalities in myocardial perfusion that are probably mediated by a direct effect on the coronary circulation. They are usually not detectable by routine monitoring techniques and conceivably form the basis for the cardiovascular morbidity associated with the use of this agent.

Davison, R.; Kaplan, K.; Bines, A.; Spies, S.; Reed, M.T.; Lesch, M.

1986-12-01

423

Abnormal oculocardiac reflex in two patients with Marcus Gunn syndrome.  

PubMed

Marcus Gunn phenomenon is seen in 4 to 6% of congenital ptosis patients. We report two cases of abnormal oculocardiac reflex during ptosis correction surgery. Marcus Gunn syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition with incomplete penetrance. It is believed to be a neural misdirection syndrome in which fibres of the motor division of the trigeminal nerve are congenitally misdirected into the superior pterygoid and the levator muscles. Anesthetic considerations include taking a detailed history about any previous anaesthetic exposure and any reaction to it as this syndrome has a high probability of being associated with malignant hyperthermia. It is also postulated that an atypical oculocardiac reflex might be initiated in these patients as seen in our patients, so precautions must be taken for its prevention and early detection. PMID:21897519

Pandey, Maitree; Baduni, Neha; Jain, Aruna; Sanwal, Manoj Kumar; Vajifdar, Homay

2011-07-01

424

Down's Syndrome and Leukemia: Mechanism of Additional Chromosomal Abnormalities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chromosomal abnormalities, some appearing in a stepwise clonal evoluation, were found in five Down's syndrome patients (35 weeks to 12 years old), four with acute leukemia and one with abnormal regulation of leukopoiesis. (Author/SBH)

And Others; Goh, Kong-oo

1978-01-01

425

NEW FRONTIER IN UNDERSTANDING THE MECHANISMS OF DEVELOPMENTAL ABNORMALITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent advancements in molecular developmental biology afford an opportunity to apply newly developed tools for understanding the mechanisms of both normal and abnormal development. lthough a number of agents have been identified as causing developmental abnormalities, knowledge ...

426

Extensive enteric nervous system abnormalities in mice transgenic for artificial chromosomes containing Parkinson disease-associated ?-synuclein gene mutations precede central nervous system changes  

PubMed Central

Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease with motor as well as non-motor signs in the gastrointestinal tract that include dysphagia, gastroparesis, prolonged gastrointestinal transit time, constipation and difficulty with defecation. The gastrointestinal dysfunction commonly precedes the motor symptoms by decades. Most PD is sporadic and of unknown etiology, but a fraction is familial. Among familial forms of PD, a small fraction is caused by missense (A53T, A30P and E46K) and copy number mutations in SNCA which encodes ?-synuclein, a primary protein constituent of Lewy bodies, the pathognomonic protein aggregates found in neurons in PD. We set out to develop transgenic mice expressing