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1

Abnormal haemoglobins: detection & characterization  

PubMed Central

Haemoglobin (Hb) abnormalities though quite frequent, are generally detected in populations during surveys and programmes run for prevention of Hb disorders. Several methods are now available for detection of Hb abnormalities. In this review, the following are discussed: (i) the methods used for characterization of haemoglobin disorders; (ii) the problems linked to diagnosis of thalassaemic trait; (iii) the strategy for detection of common Hb variants; and (iv) the difficulties in identification of rare variants. The differences between developing and industrialized countries for the strategies employed in the diagnosis of abnormal haemoglobins are considered. We mention the limits and pitfalls for each approach and the necessity to characterize the abnormalities using at least two different methods. The recommended strategy is to use a combination of cation-exchange high performance chromatography (CE-HPLC), capillary electrophoresis (CE) and when possible isoelectric focusing (IEF). Difficult cases may demand further investigations requiring specialized protein and/or molecular biology techniques. PMID:22089618

Wajcman, Henri; Moradkhani, Kamran

2011-01-01

2

Detection of Abnormal Hemoglobins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An intensive literature survey was performed to review the methods and products used to detect, identify and/or quantitate abnormal or variant hemoglobins in human erythrocytes. The report consists of a bibliography (198 citations, 1968-1979) and a summar...

J. Atwater, B. E. Hindman, K. Joseph

1979-01-01

3

On detecting abnormalities in digital mammography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in many countries all over the world. Early detection of cancer, in either diagnosis or screening programs, decreases the mortality rates. Computer Aided Detection (CAD) is software that aids radiologists in detecting abnormalities in medical images. In this article we present our approach in detecting abnormalities in mammograms using digital mammography. Each mammogram

Waleed A. Yousef; Waleed A. Mustafa; Ali A. Ali; Naglaa A. Abdelrazek; Ahmed M. Farrag

2010-01-01

4

Earliest detection of magma movements by measuring transient streaming potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanic eruptions are generally preceded by magma intrusion. Volcanic forecasting is sure to make considerable progress if we have a practical means to detect magma movements. Electric potential variations have been observed since April 1999 at Miyake Island, a volcanic island in Japan. Measurements have been conducted by a special long vertical antenna using a steel casing pipe and a short horizontal dipole. Beginning about half a day before as well as at the time period of the largest eruption in 2000 of Miyake-jima volcano on August 18, 2000, conspicuous electric field variations were observed on the horizontal and vertical components in the frequency bands of DC, ULF and ELF/VLF. And several types of anomalies were found to occur in association with different stage of volcanic activities. We suggest that transient self-potential variations are induced by confined ground water pressure fluctuations through interaction between intruding magma and hydrothermal circulation through electro-kinetic effect. Subsurface transient self-potential measurement has been suggested to be useful means for monitoring volcanic eruption and to provide an efficient window for looking into modification of hydrothermal circulation induced by the volcanic activity.

Fujinawa, Yukio; Matsumoto, Takumi; Iitaka, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kozo; Nakano, Hiroshi; Doi, Takuya; Saito, Toshiyuki; Kasai, Naoko; Sato, Sohjun

5

Detecting ECG Abnormalities via Transductive Transfer Department of Computer  

E-print Network

Detecting ECG Abnormalities via Transductive Transfer Learning Kang Li Department of Computer@buffalo.edu ABSTRACT Detecting Electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities is the pro- cess of identifying irregular cardiac-physic systems and health infor- matics, embedding the function of ECG abnormality detec- tion to various devices

Buffalo, State University of New York

6

Using state estimation residuals to detect abnormal SCADA data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of abnormal supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) data is critically important for safe and secure operation of modern power systems. In this paper, a methodology of abnormal SCADA data detection based on state estimation residuals is presented. Preceded with a brief overview of outlier detection methods and bad SCADA data detection for state estimation, the framework of the

Jian Ma; Yousu Chen; Zhenyu Huang; Pak Chung Wong

2010-01-01

7

Are columnar cell lesions the earliest histologically detectable non-obligate precursor of breast cancer?  

PubMed

Columnar cell lesions (CCLs) are one of the most common abnormalities in the adult female human breast, characterized by the presence of columnar-shaped epithelial cells lining enlarged terminal-duct lobular units. CCLs are being seen increasingly in core biopsies taken for the non-palpable calcifications. The increased incidence may reflect improved delineation and recognition of CCLs by pathologists or a true increase in incidence related to biological and/or environmental factors. Columnar cell-like lesions have been described under a variety of names such as blunt duct adenosis, flat epithelial atypia, and ductal intraepithelial neoplasia type DIN1a. The current histologic classification used by some pathologists divides them into simple columnar cell change and columnar cell hyperplasia, both of which can occur with or without atypia. Columnar cells lack mature luminal or basal/myoepithelial phenotype markers, but they are usually positive for estrogen receptor-alpha. The cellular origin of CCLs and their possible relationship to either expansion or metaplasia of a preexisting normal cell phenotype remains unclear. CCLs are frequently associated with lobular and ductal in situ tumors and invasive lobular and tubular carcinomas. The relationship and natural history of CCLs to invasive ductal carcinoma is enigmatic, but they may prove of clinical relevance when detected by screening mammography. PMID:18437416

Turashvili, Gulisa; Hayes, Malcolm; Gilks, Blake; Watson, Peter; Aparicio, Samuel

2008-06-01

8

Automated detection and classification of vascular abnormalities in diabetic retinopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetic retinopathy is a progressive ocular disease. The disease may advance from mild to severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy. This paper proposes a method for automated detection and classification of vascular abnormalities in diabetic retinopathy. The vascular abnormalities are detected using scale and orientation selective Gabor filter banks. The proposed method classifies the retinal image as mild or severe case based

Deepika Vallabha; Ramprasath Dorairaj; Kamesh Namuduri; Hilary Thompson

2004-01-01

9

Visual abnormal event detection for prolonged independent living  

E-print Network

apply visual surveillance techniques to in-house abnormal event detection, where (elderly) persons-visual surveillance; independent living; abnormal behavior detection; human tracking; I. INTRODUCTION The elderly part a fixed model of normality based on a set of pre-trained, supervised human body trackers [11], the second

Grabner, Helmut

10

Detection of abnormalities in a human gait using smart shoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Health monitoring systems require a means for detecting and quantifying abnormalities from measured signals. In this paper, a new method for detecting abnormalities in a human gait is proposed for an improved gait monitoring system for patients with walking problems. In the previous work, we introduced a fuzzy logic algorithm for detecting phases in a human gait based on four foot pressure sensors for each of the right and left foot. The fuzzy logic algorithm detects the gait phases smoothly and continuously, and retains all information obtained from sensors. In this paper, a higher level algorithm for detecting abnormalities in the gait phases obtained from the fuzzy logic is discussed. In the proposed algorithm, two major abnormalities are detected 1) when the sensors measure improper foot pressure patterns, and 2) when the human does not follow a natural sequence of gait phases. For mathematical realization of the algorithm, the gait phases are dealt with by a vector analysis method. The proposed detection algorithm is verified by experiments on abnormal gaits as well as normal gaits. The experiment makes use of the Smart Shoes that embeds four bladders filled with air, the pressure changes in which are detected by pressure transducers.

Kong, Kyoungchul; Bae, Joonbum; Tomizuka, Masayoshi

2008-03-01

11

Using State Estimation Residuals to Detect Abnormal SCADA Data  

SciTech Connect

Detection of abnormal supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) data is critically important for safe and secure operation of modern power systems. In this paper, a methodology of abnormal SCADA data detection based on state estimation residuals is presented. Preceded with a brief overview of outlier detection methods and bad SCADA data detection for state estimation, the framework of the proposed methodology is described. Instead of using original SCADA measurements as the bad data sources, the residuals calculated based on the results of the state estimator are used as the input for the outlier detection algorithm. The BACON algorithm is applied to the outlier detection task. The IEEE 118-bus system is used as a test base to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. The accuracy of the BACON method is compared with that of the 3-? method for the simulated SCADA measurements and residuals.

Ma, Jian; Chen, Yousu; Huang, Zhenyu; Wong, Pak C.

2010-04-30

12

Tomosynthesis improves cancer detection and simplifies workup of suspected abnormalities  

E-print Network

Tomosynthesis improves cancer detection and simplifies workup of suspected abnormalities By Melissa tomosynthesis (BT) is a novel technology that has the potential to advance the field of mam- mography in both lesion location have also been reported.1,2 Tomosynthesis also has the potential to improve workflow

Kim, Duck O.

13

Methods and systems for detecting abnormal digital traffic  

SciTech Connect

Aspects of the present invention encompass methods and systems for detecting abnormal digital traffic by assigning characterizations of network behaviors according to knowledge nodes and calculating a confidence value based on the characterizations from at least one knowledge node and on weighting factors associated with the knowledge nodes. The knowledge nodes include a characterization model based on prior network information. At least one of the knowledge nodes should not be based on fixed thresholds or signatures. The confidence value includes a quantification of the degree of confidence that the network behaviors constitute abnormal network traffic.

Goranson, Craig A [Kennewick, WA; Burnette, John R [Kennewick, WA

2011-03-22

14

Detection of structural abnormalities in the first trimester using ultrasound.  

PubMed

During the past 25 years, embryonic and early fetal ultrasound and diagnosis have increasingly gained attention in pregnancy care. Modern high-frequency ultrasound transducers make it possible to obtain detailed images of the early conceptus and its organs, and thus move part of the anatomy and anomaly scan from the second to the first trimester. Today, detection of embryonic and fetal structural abnormalities in the first trimester has frequently been reported. One has to distinguish between diagnosis during the early period until about 10 weeks when the embryo or early fetus is small and transvaginal ultrasound is applied, and diagnosis during the late period at the nuchal translucency screening, usually carried out using transabdominal ultrasound. Early first-trimester abnormalities are often diagnosed by chance on clinical indications, whereas late first-trimester diagnoses are the result of systematic screening using ultrasound markers. PMID:24355991

Blaas, Harm-Gerd Karl

2014-04-01

15

Parental Decisions of Prenatally Detected Sex Chromosome Abnormality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the widespread use of amniocentesis, the prenatal recognition of sex chromosome abnormality (SCA) has become increasingly common. Recent lit- erature provided an insight into the understanding of the natural history and prog- nosis for individuals with SCA. Our study was designed to review the parental decision on pregnancy with SCA. Over the last 10 yr, we diagnosed 38

Jung-Yeol Han; Moon-Young Kim; Jae-Hyug Yang; Kyu-Hong Choi; Young-Mi Kim; Jin-Mee Kim; Hyun-Mee Ryu; Samsung Cheil

16

Detecting cumulative abnormal volume: a comparison of event study methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of research in accounting and finance examines the reaction of trading volume to new information. The typical ‘volume event study’ employs a single-index market model borrowed mutatis mutandis from abnormal returns event studies. In this article, several alternative event study test statistics are compared using Brown and Warner (1985) style simulations, i.e. random samples of securities are

Imre Karafiath

2009-01-01

17

Detection and separation of abnormal milk in automatic milking systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper gives an overview of the work done in WP3 including definitions of normal and abnormal milk, suggestions for reference methods, and tests of AMS models according to these requirements. The general conditions of hygiene in milk production in the EU are defined by the Commission Directive 89\\/362\\/EEC (1989) but not all elements apply to automatic milking. The

Morten Dam Rasmussen

18

A robust real-time abnormal region detection framework from capsule endoscopy images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a novel method to detect abnormal regions from capsule endoscopy images. Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) is a recent technology where a capsule with an embedded camera is swallowed by the patient to visualize the gastrointestinal tract. One challenge is one procedure of diagnosis will send out over 50,000 images, making physicians' reviewing process expensive. Physicians' reviewing process involves in identifying images containing abnormal regions (tumor, bleeding, etc) from this large number of image sequence. In this paper we construct a novel framework for robust and real-time abnormal region detection from large amount of capsule endoscopy images. The detected potential abnormal regions can be labeled out automatically to let physicians review further, therefore, reduce the overall reviewing process. In this paper we construct an abnormal region detection framework with the following advantages: 1) Trainable. Users can define and label any type of abnormal region they want to find; The abnormal regions, such as tumor, bleeding, etc., can be pre-defined and labeled using the graphical user interface tool we provided. 2) Efficient. Due to the large number of image data, the detection speed is very important. Our system can detect very efficiently at different scales due to the integral image features we used; 3) Robust. After feature selection we use a cascade of classifiers to further enforce the detection accuracy.

Cheng, Yanfen; Liu, Xu; Li, Huiping

2009-02-01

19

Martin Heidegger's earliest writings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this dissertation is to provide a historically and philosophically adequate interpretation of the earliest of Martin Heidegger's writings, works spanning his student years of 1910–1919. Heidegger conceived his project during his student years as a vital retrieval of what he understood as a unique medieval spirituality and religiosity integrated both with the conceptual rigor of a truly

Robert Vigliotti

2002-01-01

20

Detection of fetal structural abnormalities with US during early pregnancy.  

PubMed

Ultrasonography (US) is performed during early pregnancy for dating, determination of the number of fetuses, assessment of early complications, and increasingly for evaluation of the fetus, including measurement of the thickness of the nuchal translucency (NT). Measurement of NT thickness between 11 and 14 weeks gestation, combined with maternal age and maternal serum biochemistry, can be an effective method of screening for trisomy 21 and other chromosomal abnormalities. Furthermore, an increased NT thickness in the presence of a normal karyotype is associated with an increased frequency of structural defects and genetic syndromes. Therefore, this finding is an indication for a more detailed anatomic survey of the fetus. Besides nuchal abnormalities, a wide range of other congenital anomalies can be diagnosed with US at 11-14 weeks gestation, including defects of the central nervous system, heart, anterior abdominal wall, urinary tract, and skeleton. The anatomic survey can be performed with a standardized protocol by using transabdominal US and, when necessary, transvaginal US. A thorough knowledge of the US features of normal fetal development is necessary to avoid potential diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:14730044

Fong, Katherine W; Toi, Ants; Salem, Shia; Hornberger, Lisa K; Chitayat, David; Keating, Sarah J; McAuliffe, Fionnuala; Johnson, Jo-Ann

2004-01-01

21

Comparison of Two Statistical Approaches to Detect Abnormal Building Energy Consumption with Simulation Test  

E-print Network

Comparison?of?Two?Statistical?Approaches? to?Detect?Abnormal?Building?Energy? Consumption?with?Simulation?Test 12th International?Conference?for?Enhanced?Building?Operations 23rd ? 26th October?2012? Manchester,?England Guanjing...Comparison?of?Two?Statistical?Approaches? to?Detect?Abnormal?Building?Energy? Consumption?with?Simulation?Test 12th International?Conference?for?Enhanced?Building?Operations 23rd ? 26th October?2012? Manchester,?England Guanjing...

Lin, G.; Claridge, D.

2012-01-01

22

Detect abnormal SCADA data using state estimation residuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of manipulated supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) data is critically important for the safe and secure operation of modern power systems. In this paper, a methodology of detecting manipulated SCADA data based on state estimation residuals is presented. A framework of the proposed methodology is described. Instead of using original SCADA measurements as the bad data sources, the

Jian Ma; Yousu Chen; Zhenyu Huang; Pak Chung Wong

2010-01-01

23

Using State Estimation Residuals to Detect Abnormal SCADA Data  

SciTech Connect

Detection of manipulated supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) data is critically important for the safe and secure operation of modern power systems. In this paper, a methodology of detecting manipulated SCADA data based on state estimation residuals is presented. A framework of the proposed methodology is described. Instead of using original SCADA measurements as the bad data sources, the residuals calculated based on the results of the state estimator are used as the input for the outlier detection process. The BACON algorithm is applied to detect outliers in the state estimation residuals. The IEEE 118-bus system is used as a test case to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. The accuracy of the BACON method is compared with that of the 3-? method for the simulated SCADA measurements and residuals.

Ma, Jian; Chen, Yousu; Huang, Zhenyu; Wong, Pak C.

2010-06-14

24

Method of detecting genetic deletions identified with chromosomal abnormalities  

DOEpatents

Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyzes. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acids probes are typically of a complexity greater tha 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods and reagents are provided for the detection of genetic rearrangements. Probes and test kits are provided for use in detecting genetic rearrangements, particlularly for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, specifically cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and for biological dosimetry. Methods and reagents are described for cytogenetic research, for the differentiation of cytogenetically similar ut genetically different diseases, and for many prognostic and diagnostic applications.

Gray, Joe W; Pinkel, Daniel; Tkachuk, Douglas

2013-11-26

25

Method of detecting genetic translocations identified with chromosomal abnormalities  

DOEpatents

Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyses. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acid probes are typically of a complexity greater than 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods and reagents are provided for the detection of genetic rearrangements. Probes and test kits are provided for use in detecting genetic rearrangements, particularly for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, specifically cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and for biological dosimetry. Methods and reagents are described for cytogenetic research, for the differentiation of cytogenetically similar but genetically different diseases, and for many prognostic and diagnostic applications.

Gray, Joe W. (Livermore, CA); Pinkel, Daniel (Walnut Creek, CA); Tkachuk, Douglas (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01

26

Zone-based analysis for automated detection of abnormalities in chest radiographs  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop an automated method for detection of local texture-based and density-based abnormalities in chest radiographs. Methods: The method was based on profile analysis to detect abnormalities in chest radiographs. In the method, one density-based feature, Density Symmetry Index, and two texture-based features, Roughness Maximum Index and Roughness Symmetry Index, were used to detect abnormalities in the lung fields. In each chest radiograph, the lung fields were divided into four zones initially and then the method was applied to each zone separately. For each zone, Density Symmetry Index was obtained from the projection profile of each zone, and Roughness Maximum Index and Roughness Symmetry Index were obtained by measuring the roughness of the horizontal profiles via moving average technique. Linear discriminant analysis was used to classify normal and abnormal cases based on the three indices. The discriminant performance of the method was evaluated using ROC analysis. Results: The method was evaluated on a database of 250 normal and 250 abnormal chest images. In the optimized conditions, the zone-based performance Az of the method for zones 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 0.917, 0.897, 0.892, and 0.814, respectively, and the case-based performance Az of the method was 0.842. Our previous method for detection of gross abnormalities was also evaluated on the same database. The case-based performance of our previous method was 0.689. Conclusions: In comparing the previous method and the new method proposed in this study, there was a great improvement by the new method for detection of local texture-based and density-based abnormalities. The new method combined with the previous one has potential for screening abnormalities in chest radiographs.

Kao, E-Fong; Kuo, Yu-Ting; Hsu, Jui-Sheng; Chou, Ming-Chung; Liu, Gin-Chung [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. (China); Department of Medical Imaging, Kaohsiung Medical University Chung-Ho Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging, Kaohsiung Medical University Chung-Ho Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

2011-07-15

27

The Earliest Matches  

PubMed Central

Cylindrical objects made usually of fired clay but sometimes of stone were found at the Yarmukian Pottery Neolithic sites of Sha‘ar HaGolan and Munhata (first half of the 8th millennium BP) in the Jordan Valley. Similar objects have been reported from other Near Eastern Pottery Neolithic sites. Most scholars have interpreted them as cultic objects in the shape of phalli, while others have referred to them in more general terms as “clay pestles,” “clay rods,” and “cylindrical clay objects.” Re-examination of these artifacts leads us to present a new interpretation of their function and to suggest a reconstruction of their technology and mode of use. We suggest that these objects were components of fire drills and consider them the earliest evidence of a complex technology of fire ignition, which incorporates the cylindrical objects in the role of matches. PMID:22870306

Goren-Inbar, Naama; Freikman, Michael; Garfinkel, Yosef; Goring-Morris, Nigel A.; Grosman, Leore

2012-01-01

28

Laplacian eigenmap with temporal constraints for local abnormality detection in crowded scenes.  

PubMed

This paper addresses the problem of detecting and localizing abnormal activities in crowded scenes. A spatiotemporal Laplacian eigenmap method is proposed to extract different crowd activities from videos. This is achieved by learning the spatial and temporal variations of local motions in an embedded space. We employ representatives of different activities to construct the model which characterizes the regular behavior of a crowd. This model of regular crowd behavior allows the detection of abnormal crowd activities both in local and global contexts and the localization of regions which show abnormal behavior. Experiments on the recently published data sets show that the proposed method achieves comparable results with the state-of-the-art methods without sacrificing computational simplicity. PMID:23757524

Thida, Myo; Eng, How-Lung; Remagnino, Paolo

2013-12-01

29

Antibodies Against Abnormal Glycoproteins Identified as Possible Biomarkers for Cancer Detection  

Cancer.gov

Scientists have found that cancer patients produce antibodies that target abnormal glycoproteins (proteins with sugar molecules attached) made by their tumors. The result of this work suggests that antitumor antibodies in the blood may provide a fruitful source of sensitive biomarkers for cancer detection.

30

Detecting abnormal operating performance: The empirical power and specification of test statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research evaluates methods used in event studies that employ accounting-based measures of operating performance. We examine the choice of an accounting-based performance measure, a statistical test, and a model of expected operating performance. We document the impact of these choices on the test statistics designed to detect abnormal operating performance. We find that commonly used research designs yield test

Brad M. Barber; John D. Lyon

1996-01-01

31

Cardiac abnormalities detection from compressed ECG in wireless telemonitoring using principal components analysis (PCA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Wireless telecardiology applications ECG signal is compressed before transmission to support faster data delivery and reduce consumption of bandwidth. However, most of the ECG analysis and diagnosis algorithms are based on processing of the original ECG signal. Therefore, compressed ECG data needs to be decompressed first before the existing algorithms and tools can be applied to detect cardiovascular abnormalities.

Ayman Ibaida; Ibrahim Khalil; Fahim Sufi

2009-01-01

32

Detection and classification of abnormal process situations using multidimensional wavelet domain hidden Markov trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the detection of abnormal process situations during plant operation via an effective trending strategy. Wavelet-domain hidden Markov models (HMMs) are exploited as a powerful tool for statistical modeling and processing of wavelet coefficients. We focus on the multivariate problem as many variables contribute to the decision regarding process status. A simulation study illustrates the salient features of

A. Bakhtazad; A. Palazoglu; J. A. Romagnoli

2000-01-01

33

Automated Heart Wall Motion Abnormality Detection From Ultrasound Images using Bayesian Networks  

E-print Network

Automated Heart Wall Motion Abnormality Detection From Ultrasound Images using Bayesian Networks± . maleeha.qazi@siemens.com , glenn.fung@siemens.com Abstract Coronary Heart Disease can be diagnosed by mea- suring and scoring regional motion of the heart wall in ultrasound images of the left ventricle (LV

Rosales, Rómer E.

34

Sensitive and specific detection of mosaic chromosomal abnormalities using the Parent-of-Origin-based Detection (POD) method  

PubMed Central

Background Mosaic somatic alterations are present in all multi-cellular organisms, but the physiological effects of low-level mosaicism are largely unknown. Most mosaic alterations remain undetectable with current analytical approaches, although the presence of such alterations is increasingly implicated as causative for disease. Results Here, we present the Parent-of-Origin-based Detection (POD) method for chromosomal abnormality detection in trio-based SNP microarray data. Our software implementation, triPOD, was benchmarked using a simulated dataset, outperformed comparable software for sensitivity of abnormality detection, and displayed substantial improvement in the detection of low-level mosaicism while maintaining comparable specificity. Examples of low-level mosaic abnormalities from a large autism dataset demonstrate the benefits of the increased sensitivity provided by triPOD. The triPOD analyses showed robustness across multiple types of Illumina microarray chips. Two large, clinically-relevant datasets were characterized and compared. Conclusions Our method and software provide a significant advancement in the ability to detect low-level mosaic abnormalities, thereby opening new avenues for research into the implications of mosaicism in pathogenic and non-pathogenic processes. PMID:23724825

2013-01-01

35

The earliest pigeon fanciers.  

PubMed

Feral Pigeons have colonised all corners of the Earth, having developed a close association with humans and their activities. The wild ancestor of the Feral Pigeon, the Rock Dove, is a species of rocky habitats, nesting typically on cliff ledges and at the entrance to large caves. This habit would have brought them into close contact with cave-dwelling humans, a relationship usually linked to the development of dwellings in the Neolithic. We show that the association between humans and Rock Doves is an ancient one with its roots in the Palaeolithic and predates the arrival of modern humans into Europe. At Gorham's Cave, Gibraltar, the Neanderthals exploited Rock Doves for food for a period of over 40 thousand years, the earliest evidence dating to at least 67 thousand years ago. We show that the exploitation was not casual or sporadic, having found repeated evidence of the practice in different, widely spaced, temporal contexts within the cave. Our results point to hitherto unappreciated capacities of the Neanderthals to exploit birds as food resources on a regular basis. More so, they were practising it long before the arrival of modern humans and had therefore invented it independently. PMID:25101932

Blasco, Ruth; Finlayson, Clive; Rosell, Jordi; Marco, Antonio Sánchez; Finlayson, Stewart; Finlayson, Geraldine; Negro, Juan José; Pacheco, Francisco Giles; Vidal, Joaquín Rodríguez

2014-01-01

36

The earliest pigeon fanciers  

PubMed Central

Feral Pigeons have colonised all corners of the Earth, having developed a close association with humans and their activities. The wild ancestor of the Feral Pigeon, the Rock Dove, is a species of rocky habitats, nesting typically on cliff ledges and at the entrance to large caves. This habit would have brought them into close contact with cave-dwelling humans, a relationship usually linked to the development of dwellings in the Neolithic. We show that the association between humans and Rock Doves is an ancient one with its roots in the Palaeolithic and predates the arrival of modern humans into Europe. At Gorham's Cave, Gibraltar, the Neanderthals exploited Rock Doves for food for a period of over 40 thousand years, the earliest evidence dating to at least 67 thousand years ago. We show that the exploitation was not casual or sporadic, having found repeated evidence of the practice in different, widely spaced, temporal contexts within the cave. Our results point to hitherto unappreciated capacities of the Neanderthals to exploit birds as food resources on a regular basis. More so, they were practising it long before the arrival of modern humans and had therefore invented it independently. PMID:25101932

Blasco, Ruth; Finlayson, Clive; Rosell, Jordi; Marco, Antonio Sanchez; Finlayson, Stewart; Finlayson, Geraldine; Negro, Juan Jose; Pacheco, Francisco Giles; Vidal, Joaquin Rodriguez

2014-01-01

37

Myelodysplastic syndromes: pathogenesis, functional abnormalities, and clinical implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The myelodysplastic syndromes represent a preleukaemic state in which a clonal abnormality of haemopoietic stem cell is characterised by a variety of phenotypic manifestations with varying degrees of ineffective haemopoiesis. This state probably develops as a sequence of events in which the earliest stages may be difficult to detect by conventional pathological techniques. The process is characterised by genetic changes

A Jacobs

1985-01-01

38

Frequency and patterns of abnormality detected by iodine-123 amine emission CT after cerebral infarction  

SciTech Connect

Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed in 31 patients with cerebral infarction and 13 who had had transient ischemic attacks, using iodine-123-labeled N,N,N'-trimethyl-N'-(2-hydroxyl-3-methyl-5-iodobenzyl)-1,3-propanediamin e (I-123-HIPDM) as the radiopharmaceutical. SPECT scans were compared with computed tomographic (CT) scans. SPECT was as sensitive as CT in detecting cerebral infarction (94% vs. 84%). The abnormalities were larger on the SPECT scans than on the CT scans in 19 cases, equal in seven, and smaller in five (SPECT abnormalities greater than or equal to CT abnormalities in 86% of cases). Fifteen of 30 patients with hemispheric infarction had decreased perfusion (decreased uptake of I-123-HIPDM) to the cerebellar hemisphere contralateral to the cerebral hemisphere involved by the infarction (crossed cerebellar diaschisis). Nine of these 15 patients had major motor deficits, while only one of the 15 without crossed cerebellar diaschisis had a major motor deficit.

Brott, T.G.; Gelfand, M.J.; Williams, C.C.; Spilker, J.A.; Hertzberg, V.S.

1986-03-01

39

Global Abnormal Behaviour Detection Using a Network of CCTV Cameras Emanuel E. Zelniker, Shaogang Gong, Tao Xiang  

E-print Network

Global Abnormal Behaviour Detection Using a Network of CCTV Cameras Emanuel E. Zelniker, Shaogang the detection of global abnormal behaviours across a network of CCTV cameras. Although the problem of multiple behaviours of objects monitored by a network of CCTV cameras with disjointed camera views, and no effort has

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

40

Automated CT detection of intestinal abnormalities and ischemia for decision making in emergency medicine  

PubMed Central

Background Evaluation of computed tomography (CT) for the diagnosis of intestinal wall abnormalities and ischemia is important for clinical decision making in patients with acute abdominal pain to which if surgery should be performed in the emergency department. Interpretation of such information on CT is usually based on visual assessment by medical professionals and still remains a challenge in a variety of settings of the medical emergency care. This paper reports a pilot study in the implementation of image processing methods for automated detection of intestinal wall abnormalities and bowel ischemia, which can be of a potential application for CT-based detection of the intestinal disease. Methods CT scans of 3 patients of ischemia, one benign and one control subjects were used in this study. Statistical and geometrical features of the CT scans were extracted for pattern classification using two distance measures and the k-nearest neighbor algorithm. The automated detection of intestinal abnormalities and ischemia was carried out using labeled data from the training process with various proportions of training and testing samples to validate the results. Results Detection rates of intestinal ischemia and abnormalities are promising in terms of sensitivity and specificity, where the sensitivity is higher than the specificity in all test cases. The overall classification accuracy between the diseased and control subjects can be as high as 100% when all CT scans were included for measuring the difference between a cohort of three patients of ischemia and a single control subject. Conclusion The proposed approach can be utilized as a computer-aided tool for decision making in the emergency department, where the availability of expert knowledge of the radiologist and surgeon about this complex bowel disease is limited. PMID:25077973

2014-01-01

41

Abnormal crowd behavior detection using high-frequency and spatio-temporal features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormal crowd behavior detection is an important research issue in computer vision. The traditional methods first extract\\u000a the local spatio-temporal cuboid from video. Then the cuboid is described by optical flow or gradient features, etc. Unfortunately,\\u000a because of the complex environmental conditions, such as severe occlusion, over-crowding, etc., the existing algorithms cannot\\u000a be efficiently applied. In this paper, we derive

Bo Wang; Mao Ye; Xue Li; Fengjuan Zhao; Jian Ding

42

Contralateral subtraction technique for detection of asymmetric abnormalities on whole-body bone scintigrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme for assisting radiologists in the detection of asymmetric abnormalities on a single whole-body bone scintigram by applying a contralateral subtraction (CS) technique. Twenty whole-body bone scans including 107 abnormal lesions in anterior and/or posterior images (the number of lesions per case ranged from 1 to 16, mean 5.4) were used in this study. In our scheme, the original bone scan image was flipped horizontally to provide a mirror image. The mirror image was first rotated and shifted globally to match the original image approximately, and then was nonlinearly warped by use of an elastic matching technique in order to match the original image accurately. We applied a nonlinear lookup table to convert the difference in pixel values between the original and the warped images to new pixel values for a CS image, in order to enhance dark shadows at the locations of abnormal lesions where uptake of radioisotope was asymmetrically high, and to suppress light shadows of the lesions on the contralateral side. In addition, we applied a CAD scheme for the detection of asymmetric abnormalities by use of rule-based tests and sequential application of artificial neural networks with 25 image features extracted from the original and CS images. The performance of the CAD scheme, which was evaluated by a leave-one-case-out method, indicated an average sensitivity of 80.4 % with 3.8 false positives per case. This CAD scheme with the contralateral subtraction technique has the potential to improve radiologists' diagnostic accuracy and could be used for computerized identification of asymmetric abnormalities on whole-body bone scans.

Shiraishi, Junji; Li, Qiang; Appelbaum, Daniel; Pu, Yonglin; Doi, Kunio

2007-03-01

43

Automated contralateral subtraction of dental panoramic radiographs for detecting abnormalities in paranasal sinus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inflammation in the paranasal sinus is often observed in seasonal allergic rhinitis or with colds, but is also an indication for odontogenic tumors, carcinoma of the maxillary sinus or a maxillary cyst. The detection of those findings in dental panoramic radiographs is not difficult for radiologists, but general dentists may miss the findings since they focus on treatments of teeth. The purpose of this work is to develop a contralateral subtraction method for detecting the odontogenic sinusitis region on dental panoramic radiographs. We developed a contralateral subtraction technique in paranasal sinus region, consisting of 1) image filtering of the smoothing and sobel operation for noise reduction and edge extraction, 2) image registration of mirrored image by using mutual information, and 3) image display method of subtracted pixel data. We employed 56 cases (24 normal and 32 abnormal). The abnormal regions and the normal cases were verified by a board-certified radiologist using CT scans. Observer studies with and without subtraction images were performed for 9 readers. The true-positive rate at a 50% confidence level in 7 out of 9 readers was improved, but there was no statistical significance in the difference of area-under-curve (AUC) in each radiologist. In conclusion, the contralateral subtraction images of dental panoramic radiographs may improve the detection rate of abnormal regions in paranasal sinus.

Hara, Takeshi; Mori, Shintaro; Kaneda, Takashi; Hayashi, Tatsuro; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

2011-03-01

44

Detecting Abnormal Vehicular Dynamics at Intersections Based on an Unsupervised Learning Approach and a Stochastic Model  

PubMed Central

This investigation demonstrates an unsupervised approach for modeling traffic flow and detecting abnormal vehicle behaviors at intersections. In the first stage, the approach reveals and records the different states of the system. These states are the result of coding and grouping the historical motion of vehicles as long binary strings. In the second stage, using sequences of the recorded states, a stochastic graph model based on a Markovian approach is built. A behavior is labeled abnormal when current motion pattern cannot be recognized as any state of the system or a particular sequence of states cannot be parsed with the stochastic model. The approach is tested with several sequences of images acquired from a vehicular intersection where the traffic flow and duration used in connection with the traffic lights are continuously changed throughout the day. Finally, the low complexity and the flexibility of the approach make it reliable for use in real time systems. PMID:22163616

Jimenez-Hernandez, Hugo; Gonzalez-Barbosa, Jose-Joel; Garcia-Ramirez, Teresa

2010-01-01

45

Genomic Characterization of Prenatally Detected Chromosomal Structural Abnormalities Using Oligonucleotide Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization  

PubMed Central

Detection of chromosomal structural abnormalities using conventional cytogenetic methods poses a challenge for prenatal genetic counseling due to unpredictable clinical outcomes and risk of recurrence. Of the 1,726 prenatal cases in a 3-year period, we performed oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on 11 cases detected with various structural chromosomal abnormalities. In nine cases, genomic aberrations and gene contents involving a 3p distal deletion, a marker chromosome from chromosome 4, a derivative chromosome 5 from a 5p/7q translocation, a de novo distal 6q deletion, a recombinant chromosome 8 comprised of an 8p duplication and an 8q deletion, an extra derivative chromosome 9 from an 8p/9q translocation, mosaicism for chromosome 12q with added material of initially unknown origin, an unbalanced 13q/15q rearrangement, and a distal 18q duplication and deletion were delineated. An absence of pathogenic copy number changes was noted in one case with a de novo 11q/14q translocation and in another with a familial insertion of 21q into a 19q. Genomic characterization of the structural abnormalities aided in the prediction of clinical outcomes. These results demonstrated the value of aCGH analysis in prenatal cases with subtle or complex chromosomal rearrangements. Furthermore, a retrospective analysis of clinical indications of our prenatal cases showed that approximately 20% of them had abnormal ultrasound findings and should be considered as high risk pregnancies for a combined chromosome and aCGH analysis. PMID:21671377

Li, Peining; Pomianowski, Pawel; DiMaio, Miriam S.; Florio, Joanne R.; Rossi, Michael R.; Xiang, Bixia; Xu, Fang; Yang, Hui; Geng, Qian; Xie, Jiansheng; Mahoney, Maurice J.

2013-01-01

46

Role of HRCT in detection and characterization of pulmonary abnormalities in patients with febrile neutropenia  

PubMed Central

Background: Fever is of grave concern in the management of patients with neutropenia with early detection of a focus of infection being the major goal. As lungs are the most common focus, chest imaging is of vital importance. This Institute Review Board approved prospective study was undertaken to assess the usefulness of high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in early detection and characterization of pulmonary abnormalities in febrile neutropenia. Materials and Methods: A total of 104 consecutive patients (M:F:75:29, age range 11–66 years) with fever of 38.2°C or more with an absolute neutrophil count <500/?l underwent HRCT chest. HRCT diagnosis was compared with final diagnosis based on ancillary investigations. Results: HRCT could detect pulmonary abnormalities in 93 patients (89.4%) with air space consolidation being the predominant finding (n = 57), followed by ground-glass opacities (Ground glass opacity (GGO), n = 49) and nodules (n = 39). HRCT could correctly characterize the infective lesions in 76 patients (81.7%). Presence of random or pleural-based nodules >10 mm with or without surrounding GGO or cavitations was sensitive (95.23%) and specific (96.7%) for fungal infection, while small (1–4 mm) random or centrilobular nodules with tree-in-bud appearance was sensitive (90%) and highly specific (97.02%) for tuberculosis. Diagnosis of pyogenic infection based on presence of air-space consolidation, pleural effusion, GGO or centrilobular nodules showed a sensitivity of 84.78% and specificity of 93.84%, whereas patchy or diffuse GGO, interstitial thickening and/or air-space consolidation showed high sensitivity (86.7%) and specificity (96.8%) for Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia. Conclusion: HRCT chest is an excellent modality in the diagnostic work-up of patients with febrile neutropenia allowing early detection and characterization of pulmonary abnormalities. PMID:23741093

Kang, Mandeep; Deoghuria, Debasis; Varma, Subash; Gupta, Dheeraj; Bhatia, Anmol; Khandelwal, Niranjan

2013-01-01

47

Noninvasive Detection of Fetal Subchromosome Abnormalities via Deep Sequencing of Maternal Plasma  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine the deep sequencing and analytic conditions needed to detect fetal subchromosome abnormalities across the genome from a maternal blood sample. Cell-free (cf) DNA was isolated from the plasma of 11 pregnant women carrying fetuses with subchromosomal duplications and deletions, translocations, mosaicism, and trisomy 20 diagnosed by metaphase karyotype. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) was performed with 25-mer tags at approximately 109 tags per sample and mapped to reference human genome assembly hg19. Tags were counted and normalized to fixed genome bin sizes of 1 Mb or 100 kb to detect statistically distinct copy-number changes compared to the reference. All seven cases of microdeletions, duplications, translocations, and the trisomy 20 were detected blindly by MPS, including a microdeletion as small as 300 kb. In two of these cases in which the metaphase karyotype showed additional material of unknown origin, MPS identified both the translocation breakpoint and the chromosomal origin of the additional material. In the four mosaic cases, the subchromosomal abnormality was not demonstrated by MPS. This work shows that in nonmosaic cases, it is possible to obtain a fetal molecular karyotype by MPS of maternal plasma cfDNA that is equivalent to a chromosome microarray and in some cases is better than a metaphase karyotype. This approach combines the advantage of enhanced fetal genomic resolution with the improved safety of a noninvasive maternal blood test. PMID:23313373

Srinivasan, Anupama; Bianchi, Diana W.; Huang, Hui; Sehnert, Amy J.; Rava, Richard P.

2013-01-01

48

Geological constraints on detecting the earliest life on Earth: a perspective from the Early Archaean (older than 3.7 Gyr) of southwest Greenland  

PubMed Central

At greater than 3.7?Gyr, Earth's oldest known supracrustal rocks, comprised dominantly of mafic igneous with less common sedimentary units including banded iron formation (BIF), are exposed in southwest Greenland. Regionally, they were intruded by younger tonalites, and then both were intensely dynamothermally metamorphosed to granulite facies (the highest pressures and temperatures generally encountered in the Earth's crust during metamorphism) in the Archaean and subsequently at lower grades until about 1500?Myr ago. Claims for the first preserved life on Earth have been based on the occurrence of greater than 3.8?Gyr isotopically light C occurring as graphite inclusions within apatite crystals from a 5?m thick purported BIF on the island of Akilia. Detailed geologic mapping and observations there indicate that the banding, first claimed to be depositional, is clearly deformational in origin. Furthermore, the mineralogy of the supposed BIF, being dominated by pyroxene, amphibole and quartz, is unlike well-known BIF from the Isua Greenstone Belt (IGB), but resembles enclosing mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks modified by metasomatism and repeated metamorphic recrystallization. This scenario parsimoniously links the geology, whole-rock geochemistry, 2.7?Gyr single crystal zircon ages in the unit, an approximately 1500?Myr age for apatites that lack any graphite, non-MIF sulphur isotopes in the unit and an inconclusive Fe isotope signature. Although both putative body fossils and carbon-12 enriched isotopes in graphite described at Isua are better explained by abiotic processes, more fruitful targets for examining the earliest stages in the emergence of life remain within greater than 3.7?Gyr IGB, which preserves BIF and other rocks that unambiguously formed at Earth's surface. PMID:16754603

Fedo, Christopher M; Whitehouse, Martin J; Kamber, Balz S

2006-01-01

49

Automatic Detection of Abnormal Vessel Behaviours Michel MOREL (DCNS), Jean-Pierre GEORGE (IRIT), Anne LITTAYE (ECOMER), Florent  

E-print Network

ScanMaris Automatic Detection of Abnormal Vessel Behaviours Michel MOREL (DCNS), Jean-Pierre GEORGE traffic...) and to automatically detect criminal traffic of illicit products. ScanMaris will use data of investigation organised to detect irregularities like illicit products flows, disasters, regulation violations

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

50

Chromosomal Abnormalities Chromosomal abnormalities  

E-print Network

Lecture 6 Chromosomal Abnormalities #12;Chromosomal abnormalities Numeric Polyploidy- abnormal # of chromosome sets Aneuploidy- abnormal chromosome number Structural Deletion syndromes Duplications Ring chromosomes Centromeric fusions (Robertsonian translocations) Insertion Inversion Paracentric Pericentric

Dellaire, Graham

51

Morphometric analysis for pathological abnormality detection in the skull vaults of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis girls.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present a comprehensive framework to detect morphological changes in skull vaults of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis girls. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to use a combination of medical knowledge, image analysis techniques, statistical learning tools, and scientific visualization methods to detect skull morphological changes. The shape analysis starts from a reliable 3-D segmentation of the skull using thresholding and math-morphological operations. The gradient vector flow is used to model the skull vault surface, which is followed by a spherically uniform sampling. The scale-normalized distances from the shape centroid to sample points are defined as the features. The most discriminative features are selected using recursive feature elimination for support vector machine. The results of this study specify the skull vault surface changes and shed light on building the evidence of bone formation abnormality in AIS girls. PMID:17354888

Shi, Lin; Heng, Pheng Ann; Wong, Tien-Tsin; Chu, Winnie C W; Yeung, Benson H Y; Cheng, Jack C Y

2006-01-01

52

Detection of Abnormal Item Based on Time Intervals for Recommender Systems  

PubMed Central

With the rapid development of e-business, personalized recommendation has become core competence for enterprises to gain profits and improve customer satisfaction. Although collaborative filtering is the most successful approach for building a recommender system, it suffers from “shilling” attacks. In recent years, the research on shilling attacks has been greatly improved. However, the approaches suffer from serious problem in attack model dependency and high computational cost. To solve the problem, an approach for the detection of abnormal item is proposed in this paper. In the paper, two common features of all attack models are analyzed at first. A revised bottom-up discretized approach is then proposed based on time intervals and the features for the detection. The distributions of ratings in different time intervals are compared to detect anomaly based on the calculation of chi square distribution (?2). We evaluated our approach on four types of items which are defined according to the life cycles of these items. The experimental results show that the proposed approach achieves a high detection rate with low computational cost when the number of attack profiles is more than 15. It improves the efficiency in shilling attacks detection by narrowing down the suspicious users. PMID:24693248

Yuan, Quan; Ling, Bin; Xiong, Qingyu

2014-01-01

53

Detecting abnormalities in noncued areas of digitized mammograms: an observer experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To assess the performance levels of a radiologist in detecting non-cued masses and microcalcification clusters depicted on digitized mammograms, 120 mammograms depicting 57 verified masses and 38 microcalcification clusters were selected. During an observer performance study, the images were displayed on a computer monitor. Except for the first mode where no regions were cued, the images were cued in the other four modes using a combination of two cueing sensitivities (90% and 50%) and two false-positive rates (0.5 and 2 per image). One reader ignored all cued regions and identified suspicious regions only in non-cued areas. We examined how the performance of this observer was affected using the different cueing modes. Detection sensitivities of non-cued mammographic abnormalities ranged from 43% to 60%, which were lower (Pdetection sensitivity in the non-cued areas. When using a low performing cueing system, the performance reduction in non-cued areas might offset performance gains in cued areas, resulting in a negative impact on overall performance of the radiologists.

Poller, William R.; Zheng, Bin; Sumkin, Jules H.; Gur, David

2002-04-01

54

Array comparative genomic hybridization detects chromosomal abnormalities in hematological cancers that are not detected by conventional cytogenetics.  

PubMed

Application of array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) has allowed an unprecedented high-resolution analysis of cancer genomes. We developed a custom genome-wide oligonucleotide microarray interrogating 493 genes involved in hematological disorders. We analyzed 55 patients with hematological neoplasms by using this microarray. In 33 patients with apparent normal conventional cytogenetic analysis, aneuploidy or isochromosomes were detected in 12% (4 of 33) of the patients by aCGH. The chromosomal changes included trisomy of chromosomes 10, 14, and 15, tetrasomy 11, and isochromosome 17q. In 17 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia who were initially investigated by using a panel of standard fluorescence in situ hybridization probes, additional copy number changes that were not interrogated by the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) panel were detected in 47% (8 of 17) of the patients by aCGH. Important copy number changes included gain on 2p16 involving REL and BCL11A genes, rearrangements of chromosomes 8 and 15, and trisomy of chromosomes 19 and 22. In five patients with known abnormal karyotypes, aCGH identified the origin of two marker chromosomes and detected microdeletions at five breakpoints involved in three apparent balanced translocations. Our results suggest that a subset of potentially significant genomic alterations is missed by the currently available cytogenetic techniques. This pilot study clearly demonstrates high sensitivity of oligonucleotide aCGH for potential use in diagnosis and follow-up in patients with hematological neoplasms. PMID:20724749

Shao, Lina; Kang, Sung-Hae L; Li, Jian; Hixson, Patricia; Taylor, Jesalyn; Yatsenko, Svetlana A; Shaw, Chad A; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Chang, Chung-Che; Cheung, Sau Wai; Patel, Ankita

2010-09-01

55

The earliest known sauropod dinosaur.  

PubMed

Sauropods were a very successful group of dinosaurs during the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, but their earlier history is poorly known. Until now, the earliest reported sauropod bones were from the Early Jurassic, and the only tentative evidence of earlier sauropods was in the form of controversial footprints. Here we report the discovery of an incomplete sauropod skeleton from the Late Triassic period of Thailand, which provides the first osteological evidence of pre-Jurassic sauropods. This dinosaur is markedly different from prosauropods and substantiates theoretical predictions that there was a fairly long period of sauropod evolution during the Triassic. PMID:10993074

Buffetaut, E; Suteethorn, V; Cuny, G; Tong, H; Le Loeuff, J; Khansubha, S; Jongautchariyakul, S

2000-09-01

56

Multidimensional morphometric 3D MRI analyses for detecting brain abnormalities in children: impact of control population.  

PubMed

Automated morphometric approaches are used to detect epileptogenic structural abnormalities in 3D MR images in adults, using the variance of a control population to obtain z-score maps in an individual patient. Due to the substantial changes the developing human brain undergoes, performing such analyses in children is challenging. This study investigated six features derived from high-resolution T1 datasets in four groups: normal children (1.5T or 3T data), normal clinical scans (3T data), and patients with structural brain lesions (3T data), with each n = 10. Normative control data were obtained from the NIH study on normal brain development (n = 401). We show that control group size substantially influences the captured variance, directly impacting the patient's z-scores. Interestingly, matching on gender does not seem to be beneficial, which was unexpected. Using data obtained at higher field scanners produces slightly different base rates of suprathreshold voxels, as does using clinically derived normal studies, suggesting a subtle but systematic effect of both factors. Two approaches for controlling suprathreshold voxels in a multidimensional approach (combining features and requiring a minimum cluster size) were shown to be substantial and effective in reducing this number. Finally, specific strengths and limitations of such an approach could be demonstrated in individual cases. PMID:25050423

Wilke, Marko; Rose, Douglas F; Holland, Scott K; Leach, James L

2014-07-01

57

Diffusion tensor imaging detects white matter abnormalities and associated cognitive deficits in chronic adolescent TBI  

PubMed Central

Primary objective This study examined long-term alterations in white matter microstructure following TBI in adolescence using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). It was hypothesized that white matter integrity would be compromised in adolescents with TBI and would correlate with measures of executive functioning and cognitive abilities. Research design This study employed whole-brain, voxel-wise, statistical comparison of DTI indices in youth of 12–17 years old (mean = 15.06) with TBI vs an age- and gender-matched cohort (mean age = 15.37). Methods and procedures This study scanned 17 adolescents with complicated-mild-to-severe TBI, 1–3 years after injury, and 13 healthy adolescents. Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) was employed for DTI analysis. Main outcomes and results Overall diffusivity elevations were found in the TBI group with increases in axial diffusivity in the right hemisphere. White matter integrity was associated with word reading, planning and processing times in the TBI group, but not healthy controls. Conclusions The detected abnormalities in axial diffusivity may reflect neuronal regeneration and cerebral reorganization after injury. These findings provide tentative evidence of persistent white matter alteration following TBI in adolescence. Associations of DTI indices with cognitive performance following TBI provide tentative support for links between white matter integrity and performance post-TBI. PMID:23472581

ADAMSON, CHRIS; YUAN, WEIHONG; BABCOCK, LYNN; LEACH, JAMES L.; SEAL, MARC L.; HOLLAND, SCOTT K.; WADE, SHARI L.

2014-01-01

58

Detection of the Fingerprint of the Electrophysiological Abnormalities that Increase Vulnerability to Life-Threatening Ventricular Arrhythmias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduction of sudden death requires accurate identification of patients at risk for ventricular tachycardia (VT) and effective therapies. The Multicenter Unsustained Tachycardia Trial and Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trials demonstrate that the implantable cardioverter defibrillator impacts favorably on the incidence of VT in patients with myocardial infarction, underscoring the need to detect the electrophysiologic abnormalities required for the development of

Michael E. Cain; R. Martin Arthur; Jason W. Trobaugh

2003-01-01

59

Neural-based human's abnormal gait detection using Force Sensitive Resistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormal gait leads to falling which can cause of human's injury. Normally human has resembled gait cycle between walking. But if human has falling or abnormal walking that gait cycle is not resemble the normal walking. The walking gait can calculate the locus of the Zero Moment Point (ZMP) and the ZMP can be estimated by the signal from low-cost

J. Pawin; T. Khaorapapong; S. Chawalit

2011-01-01

60

[Detection of abnormal plasma cells in bone marrow contributes to the diagnosis of primary systemic light chain amyloidosis-review].  

PubMed

Primary systemic light chain amyloidosis or immunoglobulin light-chain amyloidosis (AL) is the most common type of systemic amyloidosis.AL is a proteotoxic clonal plasma cell disease, a hematological malignancy, characterised by overproduction of immunoglobulin light chains that form characteristic abnormally folded and aggregated, insoluble fibrillar deposits in various organs, including kidneys, heart, liver, and autonomic and peripheral nerves, etc, these processes lead to organ dysfunction and death. Systemic amyloidosis have various types with different causes, thereby its clinical diagnosis and treatment are more difficult. Recent developments on studies that have significantly aided the management of patients with AL include diagnostic techniques for definitive typing of amyloid deposits by using flow cytometry and immunophenotype analysis. These methods can detect abnormalities of bone marrow plasma cell clones, such as CD38(+), CD138(+), CD56(+), CD19(-) in AL patients. The monitoring abnormal plasma cells with immunoglobulin light chain restriction and abnormal plasma cell phenotypic characteristics contributes to the early diagnosis of AL and detection of minimal residual disease after treatment, which greatly improved AL treatment and prognosis. In this review the diagnosis and typing, clinical characteristics, flow cytometry, immunophenotyping of bone marrow cells, immunoglobulin light chain restriction and phenotypic characteristics of abnormal plasma cells of AL are briefly summarized. PMID:23114159

Hu, Yang; Zhu, Ping

2012-10-01

61

The earliest known holometabolous insects.  

PubMed

The Eumetabola (Endopterygota (also known as Holometabola) plus Paraneoptera) have the highest number of species of any clade, and greatly contribute to animal species biodiversity. The palaeoecological circumstances that favoured their emergence and success remain an intriguing question. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses have suggested a wide range of dates for the initial appearance of the Holometabola, from the Middle Devonian epoch (391 million years (Myr) ago) to the Late Pennsylvanian epoch (311 Myr ago), and Hemiptera (310 Myr ago). Palaeoenvironments greatly changed over these periods, with global cooling and increasing complexity of green forests. The Pennsylvanian-period crown-eumetabolan fossil record remains notably incomplete, particularly as several fossils have been erroneously considered to be stem Holometabola (Supplementary Information); the earliest definitive beetles are from the start of the Permian period. The emergence of the hymenopterids, sister group to other Holometabola, is dated between 350 and 309 Myr ago, incongruent with their current earliest record (Middle Triassic epoch). Here we describe five fossils--a Gzhelian-age stem coleopterid, a holometabolous larva of uncertain ordinal affinity, a stem hymenopterid, and early Hemiptera and Psocodea, all from the Moscovian age--and reveal a notable penecontemporaneous breadth of early eumetabolan insects. These discoveries are more congruent with current hypotheses of clade divergence. Eumetabola experienced episodes of diversification during the Bashkirian-Moscovian and the Kasimovian-Gzhelian ages. This cladogenetic activity is perhaps related to notable episodes of drying resulting from glaciations, leading to the eventual demise in Euramerica of coal-swamp ecosystems, evidenced by floral turnover during this interval. These ancient species were of very small size, living in the shadow of Palaeozoic-era 'giant' insects. Although these discoveries reveal unexpected Pennsylvanian eumetabolan diversity, the lineage radiated more successfully only after the mass extinctions at the end of the Permian period, giving rise to the familiar crown groups of their respective clades. PMID:24132233

Nel, André; Roques, Patrick; Nel, Patricia; Prokin, Alexander A; Bourgoin, Thierry; Prokop, Jakub; Szwedo, Jacek; Azar, Dany; Desutter-Grandcolas, Laure; Wappler, Torsten; Garrouste, Romain; Coty, David; Huang, Diying; Engel, Michael S; Kirejtshuk, Alexander G

2013-11-14

62

Abnormal response to mental stress in patients with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy detected by gated single photon emission computed tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Persistent abnormalities are usually not detected in patients with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC). Since sympathetically mediated\\u000a myocardial damage has been proposed as a causative mechanism of TTC, we explored whether mental stress could evoke abnormalities\\u000a in these patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  One month after an acute event, 22 patients fulfilling all TTC diagnostic criteria and 11 controls underwent resting and mental\\u000a stress gated single

Roberto Sciagrà; Guido Parodi; Stefano Del Pace; Sabrina Genovese; Linda Zampini; Benedetta Bellandi; Gian Franco Gensini; Alberto Pupi; David Antoniucci

2010-01-01

63

Occurrence of maxillary sinus abnormalities detected by cone beam CT in asymptomatic patients  

PubMed Central

Background Although cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of the maxillofacial region allow the inspection of the entire volume of the maxillary sinus (MS), identifying anatomic variations and abnormalities in the image volume, this is frequently neglected by oral radiologists when interpreting images of areas at a distance from the dentoalveolar region, such as the full anatomical aspect of the MS. The aim of this study was to investigate maxillary sinus abnormalities in asymptomatic patients by using CBCT. Methods 1113 CBCT were evaluated by two examiners and identification of abnormalities, the presence of periapical lesions and proximity to the lower sinus wall were recorded. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-square tests and Kappa statistics. Results Abnormalities were diagnosed in 68.2% of cases (kappa = 0.83). There was a significant difference between genders (p < 0.001) and there was no difference in age groups. Mucosal thickening was the most prevalent abnormality (66%), followed by retention cysts (10.1%) and opacification (7.8%). No association was observed between the proximity of periapical lesions and the presence and type of inflammatory abnormalities (p = 0.124). Conclusions Abnormalities in maxillary sinus emphasizes how important it is for the dentomaxillofacial radiologist to undertake an interpretation of the whole volume of CBCT images. PMID:22883529

2012-01-01

64

Myelodysplastic syndromes: pathogenesis, functional abnormalities, and clinical implications.  

PubMed Central

The myelodysplastic syndromes represent a preleukaemic state in which a clonal abnormality of haemopoietic stem cell is characterised by a variety of phenotypic manifestations with varying degrees of ineffective haemopoiesis. This state probably develops as a sequence of events in which the earliest stages may be difficult to detect by conventional pathological techniques. The process is characterised by genetic changes leading to abnormal control of cell proliferation and differentiation. Expansion of an abnormal clone may be related to independence from normal growth factors, insensitivity to normal inhibitory factors, suppression of normal clonal growth, or changes in the immunological or nutritional condition of the host. The haematological picture is of peripheral blood cytopenias: a cellular bone marrow, and functional abnormalities of erythroid, myeloid, and megakaryocytic cells. In most cases marrow cells have an abnormal DNA content, often with disturbances of the cell cycle: an abnormal karyotype is common in premalignant clones. Growth abnormalities of erythroid or granulocyte-macrophage progenitors are common in marrow cultures, and lineage specific surface membrane markers indicate aberrations of differentiation. Progression of the disorder may occur through clonal expansion or through clonal evolution with a greater degree of malignancy. Current attempts to influence abnormal growth and differentiation have had only limited success. Clinical recognition of the syndrome depends on an acute awareness of the signs combined with the identification of clonal and functional abnormalities. PMID:2999194

Jacobs, A

1985-01-01

65

The earliest signs of Alzheimer's Disease  

E-print Network

The earliest signs of Alzheimer's Disease Sterling Johnson, PhD Professor Wisconsin Alzheimers Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center (GRECC) Wisconsin Alzheimer's Institute #12;Institute "Earliest Signs of Alzheimer's Disease" · FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE: NONE · UNLABELED/UNAPPROVED USES DISCLOSURE

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

66

Identification of FISH biomarkers to detect chromosome abnormalities associated with prostate adenocarcinoma in tumour and field effect environment  

PubMed Central

Background To reduce sampling error associated with cancer detection in prostate needle biopsies, we explored the possibility of using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) to detect chromosomal abnormalities in the histologically benign prostate tissue from patients with adenocarcinoma of prostate. Methods Tumour specimens from 33 radical prostatectomy (RP) cases, histologically benign tissue from 17 of the 33 RP cases, and 26 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) control cases were evaluated with Locus Specific Identifier (LSI) probes MYC (8q24), LPL (8p21.22), and PTEN (10q23), as well as with centromere enumerator probes CEP8, CEP10, and CEP7. A distribution of FISH signals in the tumour and histologically benign adjacent tissue was compared to that in BPH specimens using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results The combination of MYC gain, CEP8 Abnormal, PTEN loss or chromosome 7 aneusomy was positive in the tumour area of all of the 33 specimens from patients with adenocarcinomas, and in 88% of adjacent histologically benign regions (15 out of 17) but in only 15% (4 out of 26) of the benign prostatic hyperplasia control specimens. Conclusions A panel of FISH markers may allow detection of genomic abnormalities that associate with adenocarcinoma in the field adjacent to and surrounding the tumour, and thus could potentially indicate the presence of cancer in the specimen even if the cancer focus itself was missed by biopsy and histology review. PMID:24568597

2014-01-01

67

Evaluation of Seven Procedures for Detection of Abnormal Milk Due to Mastitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five screening tests (California ~as- titis Test, Catalase Test, Milk Quality Test, Modified Whiteside Test, and Wis- consin Mastitis Test) and two confirmatory procedures (Direct Microscopic Somatic Cell Count and Electronic Somatic Cell Count) for testing for abnormal milk due to mastitis were evaluated for relative precision when used to test 48-hr bulk- tank milk within 6 hr after pickup,

R. B. READ; A. L. REYES; J. G. BRADSHAW; J. T. PEELER

1968-01-01

68

Method to Detect Cardiac Abnormalities Based on Electrocardiography and Sinoatrial Pacemaker Model  

E-print Network

in the developed countries. Early diagnosis and medical treatment of heart diseases can prevent the sudden death, and Irisawa) model to analyze the pole-zero characteristics of the phase error between abnormal cardiac devices for medical treatment of heart diseases such as pacemakers are susceptible

Wu, Mingshen

69

CT of the chest can hinder the management of seminoma of the testis; it detects irrelevant abnormalities  

PubMed Central

To evaluate the role of chest CT in the initial staging of testicular seminomatous germ cell tumours. All patients referred to Addenbrooke's Hospital with testicular seminoma from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2005 were included and case notes retrospectively reviewed. One hundred and eighty-two patients with testicular seminoma were identified, with a median age of 37 years (range 19–74). Most patients had stage I disease (86%). Twenty-four patients had abnormal abdominal CT findings. One hundred and fifty-eight had normal abdominal CT findings but, on initial staging, chest CT reported abnormalities in 13 patients, which, on further follow-up CT were deemed to be irrelevant to the diagnosis of seminoma. There was a further patient with a normal CT abdomen in whom chest CT detected obvious metastatic disease, which was seen on chest x-ray. Overall 18 cases required additional investigations and follow-up for abnormalities subsequently found to be benign. There was a false-positive rate of 10% for initial staging with chest CT. This is the largest reported series of staging CT chest in testicular seminoma. In all patients with normal abdominal CT, normal chest x-ray and abnormal chest CT, subsequent follow-up investigations demonstrated that the lung lesions were incidental findings. PMID:17375035

Horan, G; Rafique, A; Robson, J; Dixon, A K; Williams, M V

2007-01-01

70

Measuring Abnormal Bond Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the empirical power and specification of test statistics designed to detect abnormal bond returns in corporate event studies, using monthly and daily data. We find that test statistics based on frequently used methods of calculating abnormal monthly bond returns are biased. Most methods implemented in monthly data also lack power to detect abnormal returns. We also consider unique

Hendrik Bessembinder; Kathleen M. Kahle; William F. Maxwell; Danielle Xu

2009-01-01

71

Patient-specific detection of perfusion abnormalities combining within-subject and between-subject variances in Arterial Spin Labeling.  

PubMed

In this paper, patient-specific perfusion abnormalities in Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) were identified by comparing a single patient to a group of healthy controls using a mixed-effect hierarchical General Linear Model (GLM). Two approaches are currently in use to solve hierarchical GLMs: (1) the homoscedastic approach assumes homogeneous variances across subjects and (2) the heteroscedastic approach is theoretically more efficient in the presence of heterogeneous variances but algorithmically more demanding. In practice, in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, the superiority of the heteroscedastic approach is still under debate. Due to the low signal-to-noise ratio of ASL sequences, within-subject variances have a significant impact on the estimated perfusion maps and the heteroscedastic model might be better suited in this context. In this paper we studied how the homoscedastic and heteroscedastic approaches behave in terms of specificity and sensitivity in the detection of patient-specific ASL perfusion abnormalities. Validation was undertaken on a dataset of 25 patients diagnosed with brain tumors and 36 healthy volunteers. We showed evidence of heterogeneous within-subject variances in ASL and pointed out an increased false positive rate of the homoscedastic model. In the detection of patient-specific brain perfusion abnormalities with ASL, modeling heterogeneous variances increases the sensitivity at the same specificity level. PMID:23668968

Maumet, Camille; Maurel, Pierre; Ferré, Jean-Christophe; Carsin, Béatrice; Barillot, Christian

2013-11-01

72

Malaria detection with the Sysmex XE2100 hematology analyzer using pseudoeosinophilia and abnormal WBC scattergram  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent investigation using the Sysmex XE-2100 hematology analyzer (Sysmex Corporation, Japan) has demonstrated erroneously\\u000a high eosinophil counts and abnormal white blood cell (WBC) scattergrams in malaria cases. This study was conducted to assess\\u000a the diagnostic efficiency of the Sysmex XE-2100 analyzer for malaria. One hundred forty-four patients initially diagnosed\\u000a with Plasmodium vivax infection, 319 patients with febrile illness, and 24

Hee Jin Huh; Gwi Young Oh; Jung Won Huh; Seok Lae Chae

2008-01-01

73

Wavelet analysis applied to the detection of abnormal ICE exhaust noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The "Rasping Noise" is an abnormal exhaust noise that occurs in small cars equipped with two boxes exhaust systems. It is an intermittent metallic noise that irritates the ear because of its high frequency components. It occurs during rapid acceleration or deceleration in cold conditions. Pressure signals are picked up in a critical exhaust line at Rasping conditions. Order and wavelet analysis are found to be efficient and completing tools in studying an eventual occurrence of discontinuities or shock waves in such a critical exhaust line.

Ayadi, M.; Frikha, S.; Hennion, P. Y.

2000-07-01

74

Detection of structural and numerical chomosomal abnormalities by ACM-FISH analysis in sperm of oligozoospermic infertility patients  

SciTech Connect

Modern reproductive technologies are enabling the treatment of infertile men with severe disturbances of spermatogenesis. The possibility of elevated frequencies of genetically and chromosomally defective sperm has become an issue of concern with the increased usage of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), which can enable men with severely impaired sperm production to father children. Several papers have been published about aneuploidy in oligozoospermic patients, but relatively little is known about chromosome structural aberrations in the sperm of these patients. We examined sperm from infertile, oligozoospermic individuals for structural and numerical chromosomal abnormalities using a multicolor ACM FISH assay that utilizes DNA probes specific for three regions of chromosome 1 to detect human sperm that carry numerical chromosomal abnormalities plus two categories of structural aberrations: duplications and deletions of 1pter and 1cen, and chromosomal breaks within the 1cen-1q12 region. There was a significant increase in the average frequencies of sperm with duplications and deletions in the infertility patients compared with the healthy concurrent controls. There was also a significantly elevated level of breaks within the 1cen-1q12 region. There was no evidence for an increase in chromosome-1 disomy, or in diploidy. Our data reveal that oligozoospermia is associated with chromosomal structural abnormalities suggesting that, oligozoospermic men carry a higher burden of transmissible, chromosome damage. The findings raise the possibility of elevated levels of transmissible chromosomal defects following ICSI treatment.

Schmid, T E; Brinkworth, M H; Hill, F; Sloter, E; Kamischke, A; Marchetti, F; Nieschlag, E; Wyrobek, A J

2003-11-10

75

Microarray detection of human papilloma virus genotypes among Turkish women with abnormal cytology at a colposcopy unit  

PubMed Central

Objective: There is a well-known association between human papilloma virus (HPV) and cervical neoplasia. The aim of this study was to investigate the types of HPV DNA and to compare the results with colposcopic findings among women with abnormal cytology. Material and Methods: A series of 76 consecutive women attending the clinic with the usual referral indications (ASC-US or higher in Pap) were examined by the conventional diagnostic tools (PAP smear, colposcopy,punch biopsy) and subjected to HPV testing. For HPV genotyping, we used a commercially avaliable HPV DNA chip (Genomica-CLART) which is a PCR based microarray system.The HPV test detected 35types of HPV (HPV-6/-11/-16/-18/-26/-31/-33/-35/-39/-40/-42/-43/-44/-45/-51/-52/-53/-54/-56/-58/-59/-61/-62/-66/-70/-71/-72/-73/-81/-83/84/-85/-89). Results: Overall, 44.7% of all patients were HPV positive. HPV was positive in 35%, 51.9%, 77.7% of the ASCUS, LSIL and HSIL groups respectively and HPV 16 was the most prevalent type in all groups. 6 %of patients had mutiple infections. 57.8% of biopsy proven SIL’s were HPV positive. The most prevalent HPV type was HPV 16 (54.5%).Colposcopic assessment revealed pathologic findings in 94.7% of biopsy proven SIL cases. Conclusion: Although it has been reported that the prevalence of HPV in the general population is lower than Western countries, and the prevalence and distribution of genotypes are smilar in patients with abnormal cytology. Further population based studies are needed to determine the prevalance and type distribution of HPV with normal and abnormal cytology in Turkish women. Despite the new technological progress in HPV virion, colposcopy is still very important diagnostic tool in the management of abnormal smears. PMID:24592066

Uzun Cilingir, Is?l; Bengisu, Ergin; Agacfidan, Ali; Koksal, Muammer Osman; Topuz, Samet; Berkman, Sinan; Iyibozkurt, Ahmet Cem

2013-01-01

76

The photodynamic detection of mucosal abnormality in oral cancer patients: a pilot study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Patients who have had one oral cancer are at increased risk of developing a semi-malignant tumour. The detecting of oral cancer is made difficult (and is often delayed) by the unknown appearance of the early oral lesion. A technique that could reliably detect early cancers would be useful to the oral and dental health specialist. One possible technique is the use of a photosensitiser that may be preferentially taken up by cancerous cells. 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) is one such drug that is converted to Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) and fluoresces at 636nm when illuminated with light of wavelength 405nm. It has been hypothesized that cell inclined towards malignant change would have a higher metabolic rate, and thus convert more ALA into its metabolite PpIX. These drugs can then be detected using a technique called Photodynamic detection, through the analysis of their fluorescence spectra. We describe a pilot study that used a compact spectroscopic instrument designed to excite and measure fluorescence in the oral cavity. Some Inter-subject variation in PpIX time course characteristics may be evident in our volunteers, as has been reported by other researchers. The obtained data would suggest that this instrument may be a valuable tool for detecting early oral cancers. However, further studies are required, not least to ensure that these data are due to detection of ALA metabolite in cancer and not some other systemic effect.

O'Dwyer, Martin; Ogden, Graham; McLaren, Stuart; Padgett, Miles

2005-03-01

77

Abnormal pattern detection in Wireless Capsule Endoscopy images using nonlinear analysis in RGB color space.  

PubMed

In recent years, an innovative method has been developed for the non-invasive observation of the gastrointestinal tract (GT), namely Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE). WCE especially enables a detailed inspection of the entire small bowel and identification of its clinical lesions. However, the foremost disadvantage of this technological breakthrough is the time consuming task of reviewing the vast amount of images produced. To address this, a novel technique for distinguishing pathogenic endoscopic images related to ulcer, the most common disease of GT, is presented here. Towards this direction, the Bidimensional Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition was applied to RGB color images of the small bowel acquired by a WCE system in order to extract their Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs). The IMFs reveal differences in structure from their finest to their coarsest scale, providing a new analysis domain. Additionally, lacunarity analysis was employed as a method to quantify and extract the texture patterns of the ulcer regions and the normal mucosa, respectively, in order to discriminate the abnormal from the normal images. Experimental results demonstrated promising classification accuracy (>95%), exhibiting a high potential towards WCE-based analysis. PMID:21097046

Charisis, Vasileios; Hadjileontiadis, Leontios J; Liatsos, Christos N; Mavrogiannis, Christos C; Sergiadis, George D

2010-01-01

78

Abnormal Detection Using Interaction Energy Potentials Xinyi Cui, Qingshan Liu, Mingchen Gao, Dimitris N. Metaxas  

E-print Network

activities. This approach effectively models group activities based on social behavior analysis. Differ- ent cases [7], abandoned objects [22], group activ- ity detection [31, 17], social network modeling[29], mon from previous work that uses independent local features, our method explores the relationships between

Chen, Kuang-Yu

79

Preponderant mitotic activity of nonleukemic cells plays an important role in failures to detect abnormal clone in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.  

PubMed

At diagnosis, clonal chromosomal abnormalities are found in the bone marrow blasts in more than two thirds of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Practically, however, failure to detect these abnormalities is frequent and usually attributed to poor marrow sampling, inadequate metaphases, and/or a preponderant mitotic activity among nonleukemic cells. The authors applied fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques to re-examine 30 cases of karyotypically "normal" childhood ALL to explore the role of preponderant mitotic activities of nonleukemic cells in failures to detect clonal abnormalities. The FISH test were performed using TEL/AML1 fusion gene probe and the centromere probes for chromosome 8 and 10 to detect the t(12;21) translocation and/or hyperdiploidy. Half of the karyotypically "normal" ALL cases examined have been found to have abnormal clones with t(12;21) rearrangement and/or hyperdiploidy by this specially designed FISH assay. Contrary to expectation, the authors found a higher incidence (52%) of clonal abnormalities in cases where over 20 metaphases had been examined than in cases (44%) where fewer than 20 metaphases had been analyzed. These findings suggest that a preponderant mitotic activity of nonleukemic cells plays an important role in failures to detect an abnormal clone by conventional cytogenetic studies. Therefore, karyotypically "normal" childhood ALL patients should undergo FISH studies to rule out the presence of t(12;21) and/or hyperdiploid clone. PMID:12847317

Wu, Shi Qi; Weinberg, Kenneth I; Joo, Wan Jong; Quinn, John J; Franklin, Janet; Siegel, Stuart E; Gaynon, Paul S

2003-07-01

80

Architecture design of the multi-functional wavelet-based ECG microprocessor for realtime detection of abnormal cardiac events.  

PubMed

Most of the abnormal cardiac events such as myocardial ischemia, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and fatal arrhythmia can be diagnosed through continuous electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis. According to recent clinical research, early detection and alarming of such cardiac events can reduce the time delay to the hospital, and the clinical outcomes of these individuals can be greatly improved. Therefore, it would be helpful if there is a long-term ECG monitoring system with the ability to identify abnormal cardiac events and provide realtime warning for the users. The combination of the wireless body area sensor network (BASN) and the on-sensor ECG processor is a possible solution for this application. In this paper, we aim to design and implement a digital signal processor that is suitable for continuous ECG monitoring and alarming based on the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) through the proposed architectures--using both programmable RISC processor and application specific integrated circuits (ASIC) for performance optimization. According to the implementation results, the power consumption of the proposed processor integrated with an ASIC for CWT computation is only 79.4 mW. Compared with the single-RISC processor, about 91.6% of the power reduction is achieved. PMID:23366919

Cheng, Li-Fang; Chen, Tung-Chien; Chen, Liang-Gee

2012-01-01

81

Individualized Gaussian process-based prediction and detection of local and global gray matter abnormalities in elderly subjects.  

PubMed

Structural imaging based on MRI is an integral component of the clinical assessment of patients with potential dementia. We here propose an individualized Gaussian process-based inference scheme for clinical decision support in healthy and pathological aging elderly subjects using MRI. The approach aims at quantitative and transparent support for clinicians who aim to detect structural abnormalities in patients at risk of Alzheimer's disease or other types of dementia. Firstly, we introduce a generative model incorporating our knowledge about normative decline of local and global gray matter volume across the brain in elderly. By supposing smooth structural trajectories the models account for the general course of age-related structural decline as well as late-life accelerated loss. Considering healthy subjects' demography and global brain parameters as informative about normal brain aging variability affords individualized predictions in single cases. Using Gaussian process models as a normative reference, we predict new subjects' brain scans and quantify the local gray matter abnormalities in terms of Normative Probability Maps (NPM) and global z-scores. By integrating the observed expectation error and the predictive uncertainty, the local maps and global scores exploit the advantages of Bayesian inference for clinical decisions and provide a valuable extension of diagnostic information about pathological aging. We validate the approach in simulated data and real MRI data. We train the GP framework using 1238 healthy subjects with ages 18-94 years, and predict in 415 independent test subjects diagnosed as healthy controls, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24742919

Ziegler, G; Ridgway, G R; Dahnke, R; Gaser, C

2014-08-15

82

Fragments of the earliest land plants.  

PubMed

The earliest fossil evidence for land plants comes from microscopic dispersed spores. These microfossils are abundant and widely distributed in sediments, and the earliest generally accepted reports are from rocks of mid-Ordovician age (Llanvirn, 475 million years ago). Although distribution, morphology and ultrastructure of the spores indicate that they are derived from terrestrial plants, possibly early relatives of the bryophytes, this interpretation remains controversial as there is little in the way of direct evidence for the parent plants. An additional complicating factor is that there is a significant hiatus between the appearance of the first dispersed spores and fossils of relatively complete land plants (megafossils): spores predate the earliest megafossils (Late Silurian, 425 million year ago) by some 50 million years. Here we report the description of spore-containing plant fragments from Ordovician rocks of Oman. These fossils provide direct evidence for the nature of the spore-producing plants. They confirm that the earliest spores developed in large numbers within sporangia, providing strong evidence that they are the fossilized remains of bona fide land plants. Furthermore, analysis of spore wall ultrastructure supports liverwort affinities. PMID:13679913

Wellman, Charles H; Osterloff, Peter L; Mohiuddin, Uzma

2003-09-18

83

Earliest bird had dino-like feet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A new fossil discovery shows that the earliest birds had feet similar to those of theropod dinosaurs (the group of two-legged, meat-eating dinosaurs that includes T. rex). The new specimen provides important details about the feet and skull of these birds and strengthens the argument -- which many but not all scientists agree on -- that modern birds arose from theropod dinosaurs.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2005-12-01

84

Earliest known crown-group salamanders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salamanders are a model system for studying the rates and patterns of the evolution of new anatomical structures. Recent discoveries of abundant Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous salamanders are helping to address these issues. Here we report the discovery of well-preserved Middle Jurassic salamanders from China, which constitutes the earliest known record of crown-group urodeles (living salamanders and their closest

Ke-Qin Gao; Neil H. Shubin

2003-01-01

85

Detection of abnormal peripheral blood mononuclear cell cytokine networks in human IgA nephropathy.  

PubMed

Dysregulated cytokine expression has been implicated in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy, but the mechanisms and selectivity of this response are poorly understood. In this study we have examined the expression of a range of immunoregulatory cytokine mRNAs by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) from 45 patients with IgA nephropathy stratified empirically according to urinary red cell excretion: 10 in remission, and 35 with active disease (21 mild, 14 moderate), and 17 normal, and 15 disease, controls. We used a semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. None of the patients had experienced recent episodes of macroscopic hematuria. Simultaneous analysis of monocyte class II antigen (DR) expression was also performed by two-color immunoflow cytometry. TGF-beta 1 mRNA was detected in 68% (24 of 35) of patients with active, and 70% (7 of 10) inactive IgA nephropathy, but in only 18% (3 of 17) normal (P < 0.005), and 27% (4 of 15) disease controls. IL-6 transcripts were identified in 37% (13 of 35) of patients with active IgA nephropathy, compared with 6% (1 of 17) normal controls (P = 0.015), with no significant increase in IgA remission, or disease control groups. TNF-alpha mRNA was detected in 29% (5 of 17) of normal and 53% (8 of 15) disease controls, but in only 7% (3 of 35) of patients with IgA nephropathy (P = 0.015). There was no significant change in TGF-beta 2, gamma-IFN, IL-2, IL-4, IL-1 alpha or IL-1 beta detection between groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8301931

de Caestecker, M P; Bottomley, M; Telfer, B A; Hutchinson, I V; Vose, B M; Ballardie, F W

1993-12-01

86

Creatinine-Based Glomerular Filtration Rates and Microalbuminuria for Detecting Metabolic Abnormalities in US Adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Guidelines suggest searching for metabolic complications of chronic kidney disease when glomerular filtration rates (GFR) or urinary albumin tests are abnormal. This study aimed to quantify diagnostic test characteristics of these measures for detecting metabolic abnormalities. Methods: Subjects were participants aged ?20 years (n = 7,778) in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2004. Low GFR was

Robert N. Foley; Changchun Wang; Areef Ishani; Hassan N. Ibrahim; Allan J. Collins

2008-01-01

87

Shape abnormalities of subcortical and ventricular structures in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: detecting, quantifying, and predicting.  

PubMed

This article assesses the feasibility of using shape information to detect and quantify the subcortical and ventricular structural changes in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We first demonstrate structural shape abnormalities in MCI and AD as compared with healthy controls (HC). Exploring the development to AD, we then divide the MCI participants into two subgroups based on longitudinal clinical information: (1) MCI patients who remained stable; (2) MCI patients who converted to AD over time. We focus on seven structures (amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, and lateral ventricles) in 754 MR scans (210 HC, 369 MCI of which 151 converted to AD over time, and 175 AD). The hippocampus and amygdala were further subsegmented based on high field 0.8 mm isotropic 7.0T scans for finer exploration. For MCI and AD, prominent ventricular expansions were detected and we found that these patients had strongest hippocampal atrophy occurring at CA1 and strongest amygdala atrophy at the basolateral complex. Mild atrophy in basal ganglia structures was also detected in MCI and AD. Stronger atrophy in the amygdala and hippocampus, and greater expansion in ventricles was observed in MCI converters, relative to those MCI who remained stable. Furthermore, we performed principal component analysis on a linear shape space of each structure. A subsequent linear discriminant analysis on the principal component values of hippocampus, amygdala, and ventricle leads to correct classification of 88% HC subjects and 86% AD subjects. PMID:24443091

Tang, Xiaoying; Holland, Dominic; Dale, Anders M; Younes, Laurent; Miller, Michael I

2014-08-01

88

Automated detection of abnormalities in paranasal sinus on dental panoramic radiographs by using contralateral subtraction technique based on mandible contour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inflammation in paranasal sinus sometimes becomes chronic to take long terms for the treatment. The finding is important for the early treatment, but general dentists may not recognize the findings because they focus on teeth treatments. The purpose of this study was to develop a computer-aided detection (CAD) system for the inflammation in paranasal sinus on dental panoramic radiographs (DPRs) by using the mandible contour and to demonstrate the potential usefulness of the CAD system by means of receiver operating characteristic analysis. The detection scheme consists of 3 steps: 1) Contour extraction of mandible, 2) Contralateral subtraction, and 3) Automated detection. The Canny operator and active contour model were applied to extract the edge at the first step. At the subtraction step, the right region of the extracted contour image was flipped to compare with the left region. Mutual information between two selected regions was obtained to estimate the shift parameters of image registration. The subtraction images were generated based on the shift parameter. Rectangle regions of left and right paranasal sinus on the subtraction image were determined based on the size of mandible. The abnormal side of the regions was determined by taking the difference between the averages of each region. Thirteen readers were responded to all cases without and with the automated results. The averaged AUC of all readers was increased from 0.69 to 0.73 with statistical significance (p=0.032) when the automated detection results were provided. In conclusion, the automated detection method based on contralateral subtraction technique improves readers' interpretation performance of inflammation in paranasal sinus on DPRs.

Mori, Shintaro; Hara, Takeshi; Tagami, Motoki; Muramatsu, Chicako; Kaneda, Takashi; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

2013-02-01

89

Chromosomal microarray analysis as a first-line test in pregnancies with a priori low risk for the detection of submicroscopic chromosomal abnormalities  

PubMed Central

In this study, we aimed to explore the utility of chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) in groups of pregnancies with a priori low risk for detection of submicroscopic chromosome abnormalities, usually not considered an indication for testing, in order to assess whether CMA improves the detection rate of prenatal chromosomal aberrations. A total of 3000 prenatal samples were processed in parallel using both whole-genome CMA and conventional karyotyping. The indications for prenatal testing included: advanced maternal age, maternal serum screening test abnormality, abnormal ultrasound findings, known abnormal fetal karyotype, parental anxiety, family history of a genetic condition and cell culture failure. The use of CMA resulted in an increased detection rate regardless of the indication for analysis. This was evident in high risk groups (abnormal ultrasound findings and abnormal fetal karyotype), in which the percentage of detection was 5.8% (7/120), and also in low risk groups, such as advanced maternal age (6/1118, 0.5%), and parental anxiety (11/1674, 0.7%). A total of 24 (0.8%) fetal conditions would have remained undiagnosed if only a standard karyotype had been performed. Importantly, 17 (0.6%) of such findings would have otherwise been overlooked if CMA was offered only to high risk pregnancies.The results of this study suggest that more widespread CMA testing of fetuses would result in a higher detection of clinically relevant chromosome abnormalities, even in low risk pregnancies. Our findings provide substantial evidence for the introduction of CMA as a first-line diagnostic test for all pregnant women undergoing invasive prenatal testing, regardless of risk factors. PMID:23211699

Fiorentino, Francesco; Napoletano, Stefania; Caiazzo, Fiorina; Sessa, Mariateresa; Bono, Sara; Spizzichino, Letizia; Gordon, Anthony; Nuccitelli, Andrea; Rizzo, Giuseppe; Baldi, Marina

2013-01-01

90

Automated identification of abnormal metaphase chromosome cells for the detection of chronic myeloid leukemia using microscopic images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Karyotyping is an important process to classify chromosomes into standard classes and the results are routinely used by the clinicians to diagnose cancers and genetic diseases. However, visual karyotyping using microscopic images is time-consuming and tedious, which reduces the diagnostic efficiency and accuracy. Although many efforts have been made to develop computerized schemes for automated karyotyping, no schemes can get be performed without substantial human intervention. Instead of developing a method to classify all chromosome classes, we develop an automatic scheme to detect abnormal metaphase cells by identifying a specific class of chromosomes (class 22) and prescreen for suspicious chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The scheme includes three steps: (1) iteratively segment randomly distributed individual chromosomes, (2) process segmented chromosomes and compute image features to identify the candidates, and (3) apply an adaptive matching template to identify chromosomes of class 22. An image data set of 451 metaphase cells extracted from bone marrow specimens of 30 positive and 30 negative cases for CML is selected to test the scheme's performance. The overall case-based classification accuracy is 93.3% (100% sensitivity and 86.7% specificity). The results demonstrate the feasibility of applying an automated scheme to detect or prescreen the suspicious cancer cases.

Wang, Xingwei; Zheng, Bin; Li, Shibo; Mulvihill, John J.; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Hong

2010-07-01

91

The clinical utility of conventional karyotyping in the detection of cytogenetic abnormalities in soft tissue tumours: an Asian institutional experience.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES. To assess the clinical utility of conventional karyotyping as a diagnostic tool in soft tissue tumours amidst the increasing use of molecular cytogenetics. DESIGN. Case series. SETTING. Singapore General Hospital, an Asian institution. PARTICIPANTS. A total of 35 participants (18 male and 17 female) aged 15 to 81 years were included in this study. Conventional karyotyping of 35 consecutive fresh soft tissue tumour specimens was performed over 4 years and the results were analysed. RESULTS. Of the 35 cases of soft tissue tumours reviewed, chromosome abnormalities were detected in 22 (63%) cases, 11 (31%) showed a normal karyotype, and 2 (6%) had culture failure. Of the 22 cases with abnormal karyotype, nine (41%) cases showed recurring aberrations: Ewing's sarcomas (n=2), desmoplastic small round cell tumour (n=1), synovial sarcomas (n=3), myxoid liposarcomas (n=2), and lipoma (n=1). One lipoma case had a t(2;12)(q23;q15) in which 2q23 breakpoint was not reported before. Chromosomal aberration involving 12q15 breakpoint has been shown in a previous study to be indicative of a lipoma-like liposarcoma. Another lipoma case had addition of 5q15 and 9p13 together with a balanced aberration of t(12;13) (q13;q12) which were novel aberrations. One synovial sarcoma case showed t(3;7)(q21;p13) which was an uncharacteristic aberration. CONCLUSION. Conventional karyotyping demonstrated utility as a genome-wide screening tool for soft tissue tumours and an adjunct diagnostic tool in the event histopathology results were doubtful. With the more widespread use of karyotyping, novel recurring chromosomal aberrations may be discovered. PMID:24762332

Tien, J Dy; Lau, L C; Tien, S L; Tan, M H

2014-10-01

92

Towards functional repertoire of the earliest proteins.  

PubMed

The conserved protein sequence motifs present in all prokaryotic proteomes, "omnipresent motifs," presumably, correspond to the earliest proteins of the Last Universal Cellular Ancestor, from which all the proteomes have descended. Fifteen proteomes, each representing one of the total 15 diverse phyla of 131 Eubacteria and Archea, from which the omnipresent elements have been originally derived, are exhaustively screened. All those proteins which harbor the omnipresent motifs are identified. Six "omnipresent" protein types are revealed which are located in all 15 proteomes: ABC cassettes, FtsH proteases, translation initiation factors, translation elongation factors, isoleucyl-tRNA synthases, and RNA polymerases ?'. In addition to the omnipresent motifs, these proteins also contain other highly conserved motifs, standing for additional modules of the proteins. Remarkably, the identified tentative earliest proteins are responsible for only three basic functions: supply of monomers (ABC transporters and proteases), protein synthesis (initiation and elongation factors, aminoacyl-tRNA synthases), and RNA synthesis (polymerases). No enzymes involved in metabolic activities are present in the list of the earliest proteins derived by this approach. Some of the omnipresent sequence motifs are found, indeed, in the metabolic enzymes (e.g. NTP binding motifs), but these enzymes do not make a sequence matching collection of 15 sequences, i.e. they are not omnipresent. Future analysis of less conserved sequence motifs may reveal at what degree of conservation (stage of evolution) the metabolic enzymes could have entered the scene. PMID:23140233

Sobolevsky, Y; Guimarães, R C; Trifonov, E N

2013-01-01

93

Enhanced detection of chromosomal abnormalities in chronic lymphocytic leukemia by conventional cytogenetics using CpG oligonucleotide in combination with pokeweed mitogen and phorbol myristate acetate.  

PubMed

Reproducible cytogenetic analysis in CLL has been limited by the inability to obtain reliable metaphase cells for analysis. CpG oligonucleotide and cytokine stimulation have been shown to improve metaphase analysis of CLL cytogenetic abnormalities, but is limited by variability in the cytokine receptor levels, stability and biological activity of the cytokine in culture conditions and high costs associated with these reagents. We report here use of a novel, stable CpG, GNKG168 along with pokeweed mitogen (PWM) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) for conventional cytogenetic assessment in CLL. We demonstrate that the combined use of GNKG168+PWM/PMA increased the sensitivity of detection of chromosomal abnormalities compared to PWM/PMA (n=207, odds ratio=2.2, p=0.0002) and GNKG168 (n=219, odds ratio=1.5, p=0.0452). Further, a significant increase in sensitivity to detect complexity ?3 with GNKG168+PWM/PMA compared to GNKG168 alone (odds ratio 8.0, p=0.0022) or PWM/PMA alone (odds ratio 9.6, p=0.0007) was observed. The trend toward detection of higher complexity was significantly greater with GNKG168+PWM/PMA compared to GNKG168 alone (p=0.0412). The increased sensitivity was mainly attributed to the addition of PWM/PMA with GNKG168 because GNKG168 alone showed no difference in sensitivity for detection of complex abnormalities (p=0.17). Comparison of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) results with karyotypic results showed a high degree of consistency, although some complex karyotypes were present in cases with no adverse FISH abnormality. These studies provide evidence for potential use of GNKG168 in combination with PWM and PMA in karyotypic analysis of CLL patient samples to better identify chromosomal abnormalities for risk stratification. PMID:21494579

Muthusamy, Natarajan; Breidenbach, Heather; Andritsos, Leslie; Flynn, Joseph; Jones, Jeffrey; Ramanunni, Asha; Mo, Xiaokui; Jarjoura, David; Byrd, John C; Heerema, Nyla A

2011-02-01

94

Earliest known crown-group salamanders.  

PubMed

Salamanders are a model system for studying the rates and patterns of the evolution of new anatomical structures. Recent discoveries of abundant Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous salamanders are helping to address these issues. Here we report the discovery of well-preserved Middle Jurassic salamanders from China, which constitutes the earliest known record of crown-group urodeles (living salamanders and their closest relatives). The new specimens are from the volcanic deposits of the Jiulongshan Formation (Bathonian), Inner Mongolia, China, and represent basal members of the Cryptobranchidae, a family that includes the endangered Asian giant salamander (Andrias) and the North American hellbender (Cryptobranchus). These fossils document a Mesozoic record of the Cryptobranchidae, predating the previous record of the group by some 100 million years. This discovery provides evidence to support the hypothesis that the divergence of the Cryptobranchidae from the Hynobiidae had taken place in Asia before the Middle Jurassic period. PMID:12660782

Gao, Ke-Qin; Shubin, Neil H

2003-03-27

95

Meiotic abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

NONE

1993-12-31

96

Novel Application of a Multiscale Entropy Index as a Sensitive Tool for Detecting Subtle Vascular Abnormalities in the Aged and Diabetic  

PubMed Central

Although previous studies have shown the successful use of pressure-induced reactive hyperemia as a tool for the assessment of endothelial function, its sensitivity remains questionable. This study aims to investigate the feasibility and sensitivity of a novel multiscale entropy index (MEI) in detecting subtle vascular abnormalities in healthy and diabetic subjects. Basic anthropometric and hemodynamic parameters, serum lipid profiles, and glycosylated hemoglobin levels were recorded. Arterial pulse wave signals were acquired from the wrist with an air pressure sensing system (APSS), followed by MEI and dilatation index (DI) analyses. MEI succeeded in detecting significant differences among the four groups of subjects: healthy young individuals, healthy middle-aged or elderly individuals, well-controlled diabetic individuals, and poorly controlled diabetic individuals. A reduction in multiscale entropy reflected age- and diabetes-related vascular changes and may serve as a more sensitive indicator of subtle vascular abnormalities compared with DI in the setting of diabetes. PMID:23509600

Wu, Hsien-Tsai; Lo, Men-Tzung; Chen, Guan-Hong; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Chen, Jian-Jung

2013-01-01

97

Oxygen requirements of the earliest animals  

PubMed Central

A rise in the oxygen content of the atmosphere and oceans is one of the most popular explanations for the relatively late and abrupt appearance of animal life on Earth. In this scenario, Earth’s surface environment failed to meet the high oxygen requirements of animals up until the middle to late Neoproterozoic Era (850–542 million years ago), when oxygen concentrations sufficiently rose to permit the existence of animal life for the first time. Although multiple lines of geochemical evidence support an oxygenation of the Ediacaran oceans (635–542 million years ago), roughly corresponding with the first appearance of metazoans in the fossil record, the oxygen requirements of basal animals remain unclear. Here we show that modern demosponges, serving as analogs for early animals, can survive under low-oxygen conditions of 0.5–4.0% present atmospheric levels. Because the last common ancestor of metazoans likely exhibited a physiology and morphology similar to that of a modern sponge, its oxygen demands may have been met well before the enhanced oxygenation of the Ediacaran Period. Therefore, the origin of animals may not have been triggered by a contemporaneous rise in the oxygen content of the atmosphere and oceans. Instead, other ecological and developmental processes are needed to adequately explain the origin and earliest evolution of animal life on Earth. PMID:24550467

Mills, Daniel B.; Ward, Lewis M.; Jones, CarriAyne; Sweeten, Brittany; Forth, Michael; Treusch, Alexander H.; Canfield, Donald E.

2014-01-01

98

The earliest history of diaphragm physiology.  

PubMed

The diaphragm was recognized as a distinct anatomical structure in the earliest Greek writings. However, the precise description of wounds suffered by warriors during the Trojan war by Homer was not tied to any particular function. The diaphragm was assimilated to the region that harbours thought. The first physiologic explanations of respiration by Empedocles in the 5th century BC and the concepts introduced by Plato and Hippocrates did not include a significant participation of the diaphragm. Aristole was the first to link respiration to a particular organ and a specific movement of the thorax. However, he considered that it was the heart which caused the lungs to expand by heating them, and the lungs in turn forced the thorax to dilate, a concept which was to survive until the 17th century. As in Aristole's theory the diaphragm played no role in respiration and was just a fence separating the thorax from the abdomen. A major break through occurred in Alexandria in the 4th and 3rd century BC: Herophilus was the first to recognize that muscles were the agents of movement and Erasistratus performed animal experiments which showed that the respiratory muscles were the agents of respiratory movements, thus opening the way to the later discoveries of Galen. PMID:7713209

Derenne, J P; Debru, A; Grassino, A E; Whitelaw, W A

1994-12-01

99

Earliest archaeological evidence of persistent hominin carnivory.  

PubMed

The emergence of lithic technology by ? 2.6 million years ago (Ma) is often interpreted as a correlate of increasingly recurrent hominin acquisition and consumption of animal remains. Associated faunal evidence, however, is poorly preserved prior to ? 1.8 Ma, limiting our understanding of early archaeological (Oldowan) hominin carnivory. Here, we detail three large well-preserved zooarchaeological assemblages from Kanjera South, Kenya. The assemblages date to 2.0 Ma, pre-dating all previously published archaeofaunas of appreciable size. At Kanjera, there is clear evidence that Oldowan hominins acquired and processed numerous, relatively complete, small ungulate carcasses. Moreover, they had at least occasional access to the fleshed remains of larger, wildebeest-sized animals. The overall record of hominin activities is consistent through the stratified sequence - spanning hundreds to thousands of years - and provides the earliest archaeological evidence of sustained hominin involvement with fleshed animal remains (i.e., persistent carnivory), a foraging adaptation central to many models of hominin evolution. PMID:23637995

Ferraro, Joseph V; Plummer, Thomas W; Pobiner, Briana L; Oliver, James S; Bishop, Laura C; Braun, David R; Ditchfield, Peter W; Seaman, John W; Binetti, Katie M; Seaman, John W; Hertel, Fritz; Potts, Richard

2013-01-01

100

The earliest telescope preserved in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the antique telescope owned by one of Japan's major feudal warlords, Tokugawa Yoshinao. As he died in 1650, this means that this telescope was produced in or before that year. Our recent investigation of the telescope revealed that it is of Schyrlean type, consisting of four convex lenses, so that it gives erect images with a measured magnifying power of 3.9 (± 0.2-0.3). This also implies that Yoshinao's telescope could be one of the earliest Schyrlean telescopes ever. The design, fabrication technique, and the surface decoration of the telescopic tube and caps all suggest that it is not a Western make at all, but was produced probably under the guidance of a Chinese Jesuit missionary or by the Chinese, in Suzhou or Hangzhou in Zhejiang province, China, or in Nagasaki. Following descriptions in the Japanese and Chinese historical literature, we also discuss the possibility that production of Schyrlean-type telescopes started independently in the Far East nearly simultaneously with the publication of Oculus Enoch et Eliae by Anton Maria Schyrle in 1645.

Nakamura, Tsuko

2008-11-01

101

Oxygen requirements of the earliest animals.  

PubMed

A rise in the oxygen content of the atmosphere and oceans is one of the most popular explanations for the relatively late and abrupt appearance of animal life on Earth. In this scenario, Earth's surface environment failed to meet the high oxygen requirements of animals up until the middle to late Neoproterozoic Era (850-542 million years ago), when oxygen concentrations sufficiently rose to permit the existence of animal life for the first time. Although multiple lines of geochemical evidence support an oxygenation of the Ediacaran oceans (635-542 million years ago), roughly corresponding with the first appearance of metazoans in the fossil record, the oxygen requirements of basal animals remain unclear. Here we show that modern demosponges, serving as analogs for early animals, can survive under low-oxygen conditions of 0.5-4.0% present atmospheric levels. Because the last common ancestor of metazoans likely exhibited a physiology and morphology similar to that of a modern sponge, its oxygen demands may have been met well before the enhanced oxygenation of the Ediacaran Period. Therefore, the origin of animals may not have been triggered by a contemporaneous rise in the oxygen content of the atmosphere and oceans. Instead, other ecological and developmental processes are needed to adequately explain the origin and earliest evolution of animal life on Earth. PMID:24550467

Mills, Daniel B; Ward, Lewis M; Jones, Carriayne; Sweeten, Brittany; Forth, Michael; Treusch, Alexander H; Canfield, Donald E

2014-03-18

102

Persistent homological sparse network approach to detecting white matter abnormality in maltreated children: MRI and DTI multimodal study.  

PubMed

We present a novel persistent homological sparse network analysis framework for characterizing white matter abnormalities in tensor-based morphometry (TBM) in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Traditionally TBM is used in quantifying tissue volume change in each voxel in a massive univariate fashion. However, this obvious approach cannot be used in testing, for instance, if the change in one voxel is related to other voxels. To address this limitation of univariate-TBM, we propose a new persistent homological approach to testing more complex relational hypotheses across brain regions. The proposed methods are applied to characterize abnormal white matter in maltreated children. The results are further validated using fractional anisotropy (FA) values in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). PMID:24505679

Chung, Moo K; Hanson, Jamie L; Lee, Hyekyoung; Adluru, Nagesh; Alexander, Andrew L; Davidson, Richard J; Pollak, Seth D

2013-01-01

103

Persistent Homological Sparse Network Approach to Detecting White Matter Abnormality in Maltreated Children: MRI and DTI Multimodal Study  

PubMed Central

We present a novel persistent homological sparse network analysis framework for characterizing white matter abnormalities in tensor-based morphometry (TBM) in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Traditionally TBM is used in quantifying tissue volume change in each voxel in a massive univariate fashion. However, this obvious approach cannot be used in testing, for instance, if the change in one voxel is related to other voxels. To address this limitation of univariate-TBM, we propose a new persistent homological approach to testing more complex relational hypotheses across brain regions. The proposed methods are applied to characterize abnormal white matter in maltreated children. The results are further validated using fractional anisotropy (FA) values in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). PMID:24505679

Chung, Moo K.; Hanson, Jamie L.; Lee, Hyekyoung; Adluru, Nagesh; Alexander, Andrew L.; Davidson, Richard J.; Pollak, Seth D.

2014-01-01

104

Single-subject-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mild traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of sustained impairment in military and civilian populations. However, mild TBI (mTBI) can be difficult to detect using conventional MRI or CT. Injured brain tissues in mTBI patients generate abnormal slow-waves (1-4 Hz) that can be measured and localized by resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG). In this study, we develop a voxel-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mTBI on a single-subject basis. A normative database of resting-state MEG source magnitude images (1-4 Hz) from 79 healthy control subjects was established for all brain voxels. The high-resolution MEG source magnitude images were obtained by our recent Fast-VESTAL method. In 84 mTBI patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms (36 from blasts, and 48 from non-blast causes), our method detected abnormalities at the positive detection rates of 84.5%, 86.1%, and 83.3% for the combined (blast-induced plus with non-blast causes), blast, and non-blast mTBI groups, respectively. We found that prefrontal, posterior parietal, inferior temporal, hippocampus, and cerebella areas were particularly vulnerable to head trauma. The result also showed that MEG slow-wave generation in prefrontal areas positively correlated with personality change, trouble concentrating, affective lability, and depression symptoms. Discussion is provided regarding the neuronal mechanisms of MEG slow-wave generation due to deafferentation caused by axonal injury and/or blockages/limitations of cholinergic transmission in TBI. This study provides an effective way for using MEG slow-wave source imaging to localize affected areas and supports MEG as a tool for assisting the diagnosis of mTBI. PMID:25009772

Huang, Ming-Xiong; Nichols, Sharon; Baker, Dewleen G; Robb, Ashley; Angeles, Annemarie; Yurgil, Kate A; Drake, Angela; Levy, Michael; Song, Tao; McLay, Robert; Theilmann, Rebecca J; Diwakar, Mithun; Risbrough, Victoria B; Ji, Zhengwei; Huang, Charles W; Chang, Douglas G; Harrington, Deborah L; Muzzatti, Laura; Canive, Jose M; Christopher Edgar, J; Chen, Yu-Han; Lee, Roland R

2014-01-01

105

Chromosomal abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

Cytogenetic studies from the peripheral blood of a patient with malignant lymphoma and rhematoid arthritis who was treated with intra-articular gold Au 198 revealed mosaicism with a normal female metaphase and a 43-chromosome metaphase. The abnormal cell line showed six missing normal chromosomes and three morphologically abnormal chromosomes. The trypsin-digested G-banding metaphases showed that the marker chromosomes were an isochromosome of the long arm of chromosome 17, a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 16, and a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 5. It is tempting to conclude that these abnormalities were due to the gold Au 198 treatment, but we cannot exclude other possibilities.

Goh, K.; Jacox, R.F.; Anderson, F.W.

1980-09-01

106

Detection of myocardial perfusion abnormalities: standard dual-source coronary computed tomography angiography versus rest/stress technetium-99m single-photo emission CT  

PubMed Central

We compared coronary dual-source computed tomography angiography (corDSCTA) with technetium-99m single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for the detection of myocardial perfusion abnormalities. Fifty-five consecutive patients underwent both gated myocardial perfusion SPECT and corDSCTA, the latter during a single arterial-phase injection of contrast agent. The perfusion defects visualised by corDSCTA correlated with the findings of rest/stress SPECT. Abnormal findings on stress SPECT, which were due to either ischaemia or infarct, were found in 24 patients. In comparison to SPECT at rest, corDSCTA detected perfusion defects with a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 78%, respectively. Compared to SPECT at stress, the sensitivity and specificity values of corDSCTA were 83.3% and 90.3%, respectively. On corDSCTA , the average attenuation values of perfusion defects that corresponded to chronic infarcts (?8.5±22.2 HU) were significantly lower (p = 0.002) than those of non-infarct-related perfusion defects (43.1±17.5 HU). Using rest/stress SPECT is the gold standard for the diagnosis of myocardial ischaemia, corDSCTA was able to diagnose ischaemic disease (defined as the presence of high-grade stenotic CAD (?50% luminal narrowing)) with a sensitivity and specificity of 59% and 89%, respectively, in patients with no known history of myocardial infarction (n = 4). Thus, corDSCTA may serve as a diagnostic tool for the detection of perfusion abnormalities (first) visualised by SPECT. There appears to be a limited correlation between coronary stenotic disease and SPECT findings. PMID:20413446

Cheng, W; Zeng, M; Arellano, C; Mafori, W; Goldin, J; Krishnam, M; Ruehm, S G

2010-01-01

107

Comparative genomic hybridization on microarray (a-CGH) in constitutional and acquired mosaicism may detect as low as 8% abnormal cells  

PubMed Central

Background The results of cytogenetic investigations on unbalanced chromosome anomalies, both constitutional and acquired, were largely improved by comparative genomic hybridization on microarray (a-CGH), but in mosaicism the ability of a-CGH to reliably detect imbalances is not yet well established. This problem of sensitivity is even more relevant in acquired mosaicism in neoplastic diseases, where cells carrying acquired imbalances coexist with normal cells, in particular when the proportion of abnormal cells may be low. We constructed a synthetic mosaicism by mixing the DNA of three patients carrying altogether seven chromosome imbalances with normal sex-matched DNA. Dilutions were prepared mimicking 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 10% and 15% levels of mosaicism. Oligomer-based a-CGH (244 K whole-genome system) was applied on the patients' DNA and customized slides designed around the regions of imbalance were used for the synthetic mosaics. Results and conclusions The a-CGH on the synthetic mosaics proved to be able to detect as low as 8% abnormal cells in the tissue examined. Although in our experiment some regions of imbalances escaped to be revealed at this level, and were detected only at 10-15% level, it should be remarked that these ones were the smallest analyzed, and that the imbalances recurrent as clonal anomalies in cancer and leukaemia are similar in size to those revealed at 8% level. PMID:21554683

2011-01-01

108

Abnormal myocardial fatty acid metabolism in dilated cardiomyopathy detected by iodine-123 phenylpentadecanoic acid and tomographic imaging  

SciTech Connect

The radioidinated synthetic fatty acid iodine-123 phenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) has proven useful in the identification of regional abnormalities of cardiac metabolism in patients with myocardial ischemia. The present study was performed to test the hypothesis that the myocardial distribution and turnover of fatty acids, assessed noninvasively with IPPA, are altered in patients with cardiomyopathy. Nine normal volunteers and 19 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy of various etiologies underwent cardiac imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) after intravenous injection of IPPA. Apical short-axis and basal short-axis sections were reconstructed and quantitatively analyzed for relative IPPA activity distribution and washout. Patients with congestive cardiomyopathy demonstrated significantly greater heterogeneity of IPPA uptake than normal subjects (maximal percent variation of activity 27 +/- 11 vs 18 +/- 4, p less than 0.01). They also demonstrated a more rapid percent washout rate than control subjects (24 +/- 8 vs 17 +/- 6 for the apical short-axis section, p less than 0.05; 26 +/- 7 vs 18 +/- 5 for the basal short-axis section, p less than 0.01). These abnormalities of fatty acid distribution and turnover were independent of the etiology of the cardiomyopathy. The degree of heterogeneity of IPPA uptake was significantly related to the patients' New York Heart Association functional class (r = 0.64, p less than 0.01). Thus, compared with normal myocardium, the myocardium of patients with congestive cardiomyopathy demonstrates a more heterogeneous distribution of fatty acid uptake, which parallels the clinical severity of the disease. Furthermore, patients with congestive cardiomyopathy demonstrate a more rapid myocardial clearance of the labeled fatty acid, as assessed with SPECT imaging.

Ugolini, V.; Hansen, C.L.; Kulkarni, P.V.; Jansen, D.E.; Akers, M.S.; Corbett, J.R.

1988-11-01

109

A model of abnormal gastric electrical activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model of abnormal gastric electrical activity is presented and used to investigate the accuracy of surface EGGs in the detection of gastric electrical abnormalities. The results show that current surface electrode configurations, cannot detect abnormalities that are not widespread. Substantial improvements can be obtained by using electrode arrays. Surface maps of the slow waves and the signal-to-noise ratio

B. O. Familoni; T. L. Abell; R. Praturu; S. Katragadda; P. Sabourin

1989-01-01

110

Detection of DNA Abnormalities by Arbitrarily Primed PCR Fingerprinting: Allelic Losses in Chromosome 10q in Lung Cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA fingerprinting using arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR) is useful for detecting cancer-specific DNA aberrations without targeting any particular genes or knowing any nucleotide sequences in advance. AP-PCR fingerprinting is an efficient method for finding loss of anonymous chromosomal regions in cancers. We analyzed DNA from 44 human non-small cell lung cancers by fingerprinting using a single primer and found a

Keita Kawakami; Jun Yasuda; Masahiko Shiraishi; Takamasa Kayama; Katsuhiko Doi; Manuel Perucho; Takao Sekiya

1998-01-01

111

Using tensor-based morphometry to detect structural brain abnormalities in rats with adolescent intermittent alcohol exposure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the effects of adolescent binge drinking that persist into adulthood is a crucial public health issue. Adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure (AIE) is an animal model that can be used to investigate these effects in rodents. In this work, we investigate the application of a particular image analysis technique, tensor-based morphometry, for detecting anatomical differences between AIE and control rats using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). Deformation field analysis is a popular method for detecting volumetric changes analyzing Jacobian determinants calculated on deformation fields. Recent studies showed that computing deformation field metrics on the full deformation tensor, often referred to as tensor-based morphometry (TBM), increases the sensitivity to anatomical differences. In this paper we conduct a comprehensive TBM study for precisely locating differences between control and AIE rats. Using a DTI RARE sequence designed for minimal geometric distortion, 12-directional images were acquired postmortem for control and AIE rats (n=9). After preprocessing, average images for the two groups were constructed using an unbiased atlas building approach. We non-rigidly register the two atlases using Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping, and analyze the resulting deformation field using TBM. In particular, we evaluate the tensor determinant, geodesic anisotropy, and deformation direction vector (DDV) on the deformation field to detect structural differences. This yields data on the local amount of growth, shrinkage and the directionality of deformation between the groups. We show that TBM can thus be used to measure group morphological differences between rat populations, demonstrating the potential of the proposed framework.

Paniagua, Beatriz; Ehlers, Cindy; Crews, Fulton; Budin, Francois; Larson, Garrett; Styner, Martin; Oguz, Ipek

2011-03-01

112

SNP Array Karyotyping Allows for the Detection of Uniparental Disomy and Cryptic Chromosomal Abnormalities in MDS/MPD-U and MPD  

PubMed Central

We applied single nucleotide polymorphism arrays (SNP-A) to study karyotypic abnormalities in patients with atypical myeloproliferative syndromes (MPD), including myeloproliferative/myelodysplastic syndrome overlap both positive and negative for the JAK2 V617F mutation and secondary acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In typical MPD cases (N?=?8), which served as a control group, those with a homozygous V617F mutation showed clear uniparental disomy (UPD) of 9p using SNP-A. Consistent with possible genomic instability, in 19/30 MDS/MPD-U patients, we found additional lesions not identified by metaphase cytogenetics. In addition to UPD9p, we also have detected UPD affecting other chromosomes, including 1 (2/30), 11 (4/30), 12 (1/30) and 22 (1/30). Transformation to AML was observed in 8/30 patients. In 5 V617F+ patients who progressed to AML, we show that SNP-A can allow for the detection of two modes of transformation: leukemic blasts evolving from either a wild-type jak2 precursor carrying other acquired chromosomal defects, or from a V617F+ mutant progenitor characterized by UPD9p. SNP-A-based detection of cryptic lesions in MDS/MPD-U may help explain the clinical heterogeneity of this disorder. PMID:18030353

Gondek, Lukasz P.; Dunbar, Andrew J.; Szpurka, Hadrian; McDevitt, Michael A.; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw P.

2007-01-01

113

Attention modulates earliest responses in the primary auditory and visual cortices.  

PubMed

A fundamental question about the neural correlates of attention concerns the earliest sensory processing stage that it can affect. We addressed this issue by recording magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals while subjects performed detection tasks, which required employment of spatial or nonspatial attention, in auditory or visual modality. Using distributed source analysis of MEG signals, we found that, contrary to previous studies that used equivalent current dipole (ECD) analysis, spatial attention enhanced the initial feedforward response in the primary visual cortex (V1) at 55-90 ms. We also found attentional modulation of the putative primary auditory cortex (A1) activity at 30-50 ms. Furthermore, we reproduced our findings using ECD modeling guided by the results of distributed source analysis and suggest a reason why earlier studies using ECD analysis failed to identify the modulation of earliest V1 activity. PMID:18549790

Poghosyan, Vahe; Ioannides, Andreas A

2008-06-12

114

Detection of whole-brain abnormalities in temporal lobe epilepsy using tensor-based morphometry with DARTEL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tensor-based morphometry (TBM) is an automated technique for detecting the anatomical differences between populations by examining the gradients of the deformation fields used to nonlinearly warp MR images. The purpose of this study was to investigate the whole-brain volume changes between the patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and the controls using TBM with DARTEL, which could achieve more accurate inter-subject registration of brain images. T1-weighted images were acquired from 21 left-TLE patients, 21 right-TLE patients and 21 healthy controls, which were matched in age and gender. The determinants of the gradient of deformation fields at voxel level were obtained to quantify the expansion or contraction for individual images relative to the template, and then logarithmical transformation was applied on it. A whole brain analysis was performed using general lineal model (GLM), and the multiple comparison was corrected by false discovery rate (FDR) with p<0.05. For left-TLE patients, significant volume reductions were found in hippocampus, cingulate gyrus, precentral gyrus, right temporal lobe and cerebellum. These results potentially support the utility of TBM with DARTEL to study the structural changes between groups.

Li, Wenjing; He, Huiguang; Lu, Jingjing; Lv, Bin; Li, Meng; Jin, Zhengyu

2009-10-01

115

Detection of glycemic abnormalities in adolescents with beta thalassemia using continuous glucose monitoring and oral glucose tolerance in adolescents and young adults with ?-thalassemia major: Pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background: Both insulin deficiency and resistance are reported in patients with ?-thalassemia major (BTM). The use of continuous blood glucose monitoring (CGM), among the different methods for early detection of glycemic abnormalities, has not been studied thoroughly in these adolescents. Materials and Methods: To assess the oralglucose tolerance (OGT) and 72-h continuous glucose concentration by the continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) and calculate homeostatic model assessment (HOMA), and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) was conducted in 16 adolescents with BTM who were receiving regular blood transfusions every 2-4 weeks and iron-chelation therapy since early childhood. Results: Sixteen adolescents with BTM (age: 19.75 ± 3 years) were investigated. Using OGTT, (25%) had impaired fasting blood (plasma) glucose concentration (BG) (>5.6 mmol/L). 2-h after the glucose load, one of them had BG = 16.2 mmol/L (diabetic) and two had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) (BG > 7.8 and <11.1 mmol/L). Monitoring the maximum (postprandial) BG using CGMS,4 adolescents were diagnosed with diabetes (25%) (BG >11.1 mmol/L) and 9 with IGT (56%). HOMA and QUICKI revealed levels <2.6 (1.6 ± 0.8) and >0.33 (0.36 ± 0.03), respectively, ruling out significant insulin resistance in these adolescents. There was a significant negative correlation between the ?-cell function (B%) on one hand and the fasting and the 2-h BG (r=?0.6, and ? 0.48, P < 0.01, respectively) on the other hand. Neither fasting serum insulin nor c-peptide concentrations were correlated with fasting BG or ferritin levels. The average and maximum blood glucose levels during CGM were significantly correlated with the fasting BG (r = 0.68 and 0.39, respectively, with P < 0.01) and with the BG at 2-hour after oral glucose intake (r = 0.87 and 0.86 respectively, with P < 0.001). Ferritin concentrations were correlated with the fasting BG and the 2-h blood glucose levels in the OGTT (r = 0.52, and r = 0.43, respectively, P < 0.01) as well as with the average BG recorded by CGM (r = 0.75, P < 0.01). Conclusion: CGM has proven to be superior to OGTT for the diagnosis of glycemic abnormalities in adolescents with BTM. Defective ?-cell function rather than insulin resistance appeared to be the cause for these abnormalities. PMID:23869308

Soliman, Ashraf T.; Yasin, Mohamed; El-Awwa, Ahmed; De Sanctis, Vincenzo

2013-01-01

116

THE EARLIEST KNOWN FOSSIL ANT (FIRST SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE MESOZOIC RECORD)  

E-print Network

THE EARLIEST KNOWN FOSSIL ANT (FIRST SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE MESOZOIC RECORD) (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE are scarce in Cretaceous deposits. Sphecomyrma freyi Wilson & Brown (1967) was the first fossil ant assigned.S.A. (Magothy Formation). This formation was at the time referred to the lower part of the Upper Cretaceous

Villemant, Claire

117

Constraints and preadaptations in the earliest stages of language evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

If we accept the view that language first evolved from the conceptual struc- ture of our pre-linguistic ancestors, several questions arise, including: What kind of structure? Concepts about what? Here we review research on the vocal communication and cognition of nonhuman primates, focusing on results that may be relevant to the earliest stages of language evolution. From these data we

Dorothy L. Cheney; Robert M. Seyfarth

2005-01-01

118

Improved detection rate of cytogenetic abnormalities in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other mature B-cell neoplasms with use of CpG-oligonucleotide DSP30 and interleukin 2 stimulation.  

PubMed

Detection of cytogenetic abnormalities requires successful culture of the clonal population to obtain metaphase chromosomes for study, and as such, has been hampered by low mitotic indices of mature B cells in culture. Our study presents data on the improved abnormality detection rate with the use of a CpG-oligonucleotide/interleukin 2 (OL/IL-2) culture protocol for mature B-cell neoplasms, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and non-CLL specimens. The increased detection rate of abnormalities, compared with unstimulated culture and traditional pokeweed mitogen culture, was statistically significant for both CLL and non-CLL neoplasms. For CLL specimens, our data also showed that for cytogenetically visible aberrations, OL/IL-2 was as, if not more, sensitive than detection with interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH). Use of OL/IL-2 allowed a number of abnormalities to be detected, which were not covered by specific iFISH panels, especially balanced translocations. Therefore, OL/IL-2 stimulation improves diagnostic sensitivity and increases discovery rate of novel prognostic findings. PMID:23596118

Shi, Min; Cipollini, Matthew J; Crowley-Bish, Patricia A; Higgins, Anne W; Yu, Hongbo; Miron, Patricia M

2013-05-01

119

Abnormality Detection in Retinal Images  

E-print Network

The implementation of data mining techniques in the medical area has generated great interest because of its potential for more efficient, economic and robust performance when compared to physicians. In this paper, we focus ...

Yu, Xiaoxue

120

The earliest fossil record of the animals and its significance.  

PubMed

The fossil record of the earliest animals has been enlivened in recent years by a series of spectacular discoveries, including embryos, from the Ediacaran to the Cambrian, but many issues, not least of dating and interpretation, remain controversial. In particular, aspects of taphonomy of the earliest fossils require careful consideration before pronouncements about their affinities. Nevertheless, a reasonable case can now be made for the extension of the fossil record of at least basal animals (sponges and perhaps cnidarians) to a period of time significantly before the beginning of the Cambrian. The Cambrian explosion itself still seems to represent the arrival of the bilaterians, and many new fossils in recent years have added significant data on the origin of the three major bilaterian clades. Why animals appear so late in the fossil record is still unclear, but the recent trend to embrace rising oxygen levels as being the proximate cause remains unproven and may even involve a degree of circularity. PMID:18192192

Budd, Graham E

2008-04-27

121

The earliest record of human activity in northern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The colonization of Eurasia by early humans is a key event after their spread out of Africa, but the nature, timing and ecological context of the earliest human occupation of northwest Europe is uncertain and has been the subject of intense debate. The southern Caucasus was occupied about 1.8 million years (Myr) ago, whereas human remains from Atapuerca-TD6, Spain (more

Simon A. Parfitt; René W. Barendregt; Marzia Breda; Ian Candy; G. Russell Coope; Paul Durbidge; Mike H. Field; Jonathan R. Lee; Adrian M. Lister; Robert Mutch; Kirsty E. H. Penkman; Richard C. Preece; James Rose; Christopher B. Stringer; Robert Symmons; John E. Whittaker; John J. Wymer; Anthony J. Stuart

2005-01-01

122

The earliest record of human activity in northern Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The colonization of Eurasia by early humans is a key event after their spread out of Africa, but the nature, timing and ecological context of the earliest human occupation of northwest Europe is uncertain and has been the subject of intense debate. The southern Caucasus was occupied about 1.8 million years (Myr) ago, whereas human remains from Atapuerca-TD6, Spain (more than 780kyr ago) and Ceprano, Italy (about 800kyr ago) show that early Homo had dispersed to the Mediterranean hinterland before the Brunhes-Matuyama magnetic polarity reversal (780kyr ago). Until now, the earliest uncontested artefacts from northern Europe were much younger, suggesting that humans were unable to colonize northern latitudes until about 500kyr ago. Here we report flint artefacts from the Cromer Forest-bed Formation at Pakefield (52°N), Suffolk, UK, from an interglacial sequence yielding a diverse range of plant and animal fossils. Event and lithostratigraphy, palaeomagnetism, amino acid geochronology and biostratigraphy indicate that the artefacts date to the early part of the Brunhes Chron (about 700kyr ago) and thus represent the earliest unequivocal evidence for human presence north of the Alps.

Parfitt, Simon A.; Barendregt, René W.; Breda, Marzia; Candy, Ian; Collins, Matthew J.; Coope, G. Russell; Durbidge, Paul; Field, Mike H.; Lee, Jonathan R.; Lister, Adrian M.; Mutch, Robert; Penkman, Kirsty E. H.; Preece, Richard C.; Rose, James; Stringer, Christopher B.; Symmons, Robert; Whittaker, John E.; Wymer, John J.; Stuart, Anthony J.

2005-12-01

123

New tools in detecting early cartilage breakdown before morphologic changes.  

PubMed

Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allow detection of changes in molecular matrix of cartilage and thus allow the earliest detection of its breakdown. These MRI techniques are collectively referred to as "cartilage mapping," which attempts to designate a qualitative assessment of cartilage at each given location on the cartilage surface. These qualitative abnormalities can occur even in the setting of normal cartilage thickness and morphology. This article introduces the molecular biology behind this new technique, discusses some potential clinical applications, and discusses value added over traditional MRI cartilage evaluation. PMID:25153816

Pomeranz, Stephen J; Ugorji, Joseph O

2014-01-01

124

Who were the earliest humans?, Chris StringerSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interviewee: Chris Stringer DNAi Location:Applications>Human origins>our family tree>The earliest humans? Human origins expert Chris Stringer talks about the earliest Homo species and his view of their relationships with apes and humans.

2008-10-06

125

Journal of Abnormal Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is reprinted from the Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1965, 70, 1. The Journal of Abnormal Psychology will give priority to articles on problems related to abnormal behavior, broadly defined. The Journal's interests thus include the following: (a) psychopathology--its development or acquisition, its treatment or remission, and its symptomatology and course; (b) normal processes in abnormal individuals; (c) pathological

Howard F. Hunt; William N. Thetford

1965-01-01

126

The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in northwestern Europe.  

PubMed

The earliest anatomically modern humans in Europe are thought to have appeared around 43,000-42,000 calendar years before present (43-42 kyr cal BP), by association with Aurignacian sites and lithic assemblages assumed to have been made by modern humans rather than by Neanderthals. However, the actual physical evidence for modern humans is extremely rare, and direct dates reach no farther back than about 41-39 kyr cal BP, leaving a gap. Here we show, using stratigraphic, chronological and archaeological data, that a fragment of human maxilla from the Kent's Cavern site, UK, dates to the earlier period. The maxilla (KC4), which was excavated in 1927, was initially diagnosed as Upper Palaeolithic modern human. In 1989, it was directly radiocarbon dated by accelerator mass spectrometry to 36.4-34.7 kyr cal BP. Using a Bayesian analysis of new ultrafiltered bone collagen dates in an ordered stratigraphic sequence at the site, we show that this date is a considerable underestimate. Instead, KC4 dates to 44.2-41.5 kyr cal BP. This makes it older than any other equivalently dated modern human specimen and directly contemporary with the latest European Neanderthals, thus making its taxonomic attribution crucial. We also show that in 13 dental traits KC4 possesses modern human rather than Neanderthal characteristics; three other traits show Neanderthal affinities and a further seven are ambiguous. KC4 therefore represents the oldest known anatomically modern human fossil in northwestern Europe, fills a key gap between the earliest dated Aurignacian remains and the earliest human skeletal remains, and demonstrates the wide and rapid dispersal of early modern humans across Europe more than 40 kyr ago. PMID:22048314

Higham, Tom; Compton, Tim; Stringer, Chris; Jacobi, Roger; Shapiro, Beth; Trinkaus, Erik; Chandler, Barry; Gröning, Flora; Collins, Chris; Hillson, Simon; O'Higgins, Paul; FitzGerald, Charles; Fagan, Michael

2011-11-24

127

Presence of the earliest vertebrate hard tissue in conodonts.  

PubMed

From histological investigations into the microstructure of conodont elements, a number of tissue types characteristic of the phosphatic skeleton of vertebrates have been identified. These include cellular bone, two forms of hypermineralized enamel homologs, and globular calcified cartilage. The presence of cellular bone in conodont elements provides unequivocal evidence for their vertebrate affinities. Furthermore, the identification of vertebrate hard tissues in the oral elements of conodonts extends the earliest occurrence of vertebrate hard tissues back by around 40 million years, from the Middle Ordovician (475 million years ago) to the Late Cambrian (515 million years ago). PMID:1598573

Sansom, I J; Smith, M P; Armstrong, H A; Smith, M M

1992-05-29

128

Mapping the lunar shadow - the earliest solar eclipse maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The English astronomer Edmond Halley (1656-1742) is commonly credited as the first to draw and publish maps delineating the paths of totality for solar eclipses. Halley published such maps for the solar eclipses of 3 May 1715 and 22 May 1724, which were both visible from southern England. In this paper, the author presents examples of earlier maps depicting solar eclipse paths from Germany, the Netherlands and France. The earliest eclipse maps of this kind appear to be those showing the path of totality for the solar eclipses of 23 September 1699 and 12 May 1706.

van Gent, Robert H.

129

The Earliest Epoch of Reionisation in the Standard $?$CDM Model  

E-print Network

We show that the earliest possible reionisation of the Universe is approximately at $z\\simeq 13.5$ and the optical depth is $\\tau\\simeq 0.17$ in the conventionally accepted $\\Lambda$ cold dark matter ($\\Lambda$CDM) model with adiabatic fluctuations of a flat spectrum normalised to the cosmic microwave background. This is consistent with the reionisation found by WMAP (the apparently earlier reionisation epoch of the WMAP is ascribed to the adoption of the instantaneous reionisation approximation), i.e., the WMAP result is realised only if reionisation of the universe takes place nearly at the maximal efficiency in the $\\Lambda$CDM model.

M. Fukugita; M. Kawasaki

2003-03-06

130

Origin of earliest planetary crust - Role of compositional convection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of earliest stable planetary crust poses the following dilemma. All surface crusts formed by direct quenching of planetary-scale magma are mafic and dense, and will founder. All felsic crystals light enough to float will form only after protracted differentiation and will grow too slowly to be separated from their parent magma on the short timescale of near-surface residence. Early crust must be intrinsically stable to accretionary bombardment in order to survive, hence it must float. One solution is to make pop-up felsic crust on a rapid time scale by collecting the lighter evolved liquid, not the crystals. Such a liquid is produced by solute rejection at depth from growing mafic crystals, and it rises by compositional convection. It stirs and cools the magma and reduces the accretionary thermal maximum, perhaps to zero. It has a high viscosity and high barrier to nucleation, hence may coalesce metastably. Near the surface, rapid crystallization will follow spontaneous nucleation. Rafts and rockbergs will coalesce to form the earliest crust. On the moon, this is anorthositic. On the earth, the presence of water enhances the silica content of the network-rich liquid and gives rise to tonalite. Existing ancient tonalites may reflect an original tonalitic crust. Modern oceanic rhyolites and trondhjemites may owe their existence to a similar process of liquid collection, and could therefore serve as a test of the crust-forming hypothesis.

Morse, S. A.

1987-01-01

131

High energy neutrino emission from the earliest gamma-ray bursts  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the high energy neutrino emission from gamma-ray bursts resulting from the earliest generation (''population III'') stars forming in the Universe, whose core collapses into a black hole. These gamma-ray bursts are expected to produce a highly relativistic, magnetically dominated jet, where protons can be accelerated to ultrahigh energies. These interact with the photons produced by the jet, leading to ultrahigh energy photomeson neutrinos as well as secondary leptons and photons. The photon luminosity and the shock properties, and thus the neutrino spectrum, depend on the mass of the black holes as well as on the density of the surrounding external gas. We calculate the individual source neutrino spectral fluxes and the expected diffuse neutrino flux for various source parameters and evolution scenarios. Both the individual and diffuse signals appear detectable in the 1-300 PeV range with current and planned neutrino detectors such as IceCube and ARIANNA, provided the black hole mass is in excess of 30-100 solar masses. This provides a possible test for the debated mass of the progenitor stellar objects, as well as a probe for the early cosmological environment and the formation rate of the earliest structures.

Gao Shan; Toma, Kenji; Meszaros, Peter [Department of Physics, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Center for Particle Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, 16802 (United States)

2011-05-15

132

High Energy Neutrino Emission from the Earliest Gamma-Ray Bursts  

E-print Network

We discuss the high energy neutrino emission from gamma-ray bursts resulting from the earliest generation (`population III') stars forming in the Universe, whose core collapses into a black hole. These gamma-ray bursts are expected to produce a highly relativistic, magnetically dominated jet, where protons can be accelerated to ultra-high energies. These interact with the photons produced by the jet, leading to ultra-high energy photo-meson neutrinos as well as secondary leptons and photons. The photon luminosity and the shock properties, and thus the neutrino spectrum, depend on the mass of the black holes as well as on the density of the surrounding external gas. We calculate the individual source neutrino spectral fluxes and the expected diffuse neutrino flux for various source parameters and evolution scenarios. Both the individual and diffuse signals appear detectable in the 1-300 PeV range with current and planned neutrino detectors such as IceCube and ARIANNA, provided the black hole mass is in excess of 30-100 solar masses. This provides a possible test for the debated mass of the progenitor stellar objects, as well as a probe for the early cosmological environment and the formation rate of the earliest structures.

Shan Gao; Kenji Toma; Peter Meszaros

2011-03-28

133

Skeletal limb abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

Skeletal limb abnormalities may be due to: Cancer Genetic diseases and chromosomal abnormalities, including Marfan syndrome , Down syndrome, Apert syndrome , Basal cell nevus syndrome Improper position in the womb Infections during pregnancy ...

134

Congenital and Developmental Abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital and developmental abnormalities influencing life are rare. They mainly consist of pectus deformities, sternal fusion\\u000a abnormalities and clavicular pseudoarthrosis. The most life-threatening abnormality is cleft sternum which may leave the heart\\u000a and great vessels unprotected.

Anne Grethe Jurik

135

Immune abnormalities in myelodysplastic syndromes.  

PubMed Central

The immune states of 52 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes classified according to the FAB criteria were studied. Serum electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis, direct Coombs test, and tests for organ and non-organ specific antibodies were performed. Twenty six patients had immunoglobulin abnormalities: six (11.5%) had monoclonal gammopathy; 17 (32.6%) had polyclonal increases in serum immunoglobulin; while in three (5.8%) immunoglobulin concentrations were decreased. The distribution of immunoglobulin abnormalities among the five myelodysplastic syndrome subtypes was fairly uniform. Results of direct Coombs test were negative in all cases. Organ specific antibodies were not detected in any of the patients tested, although two patients were found positive for antinuclear antibodies. The presence of immunoglobulin abnormalities indicates an involvement of the lymphoplasmatic system in myelodysplastic syndromes. PMID:3928701

Economopoulos, T; Economidou, J; Giannopoulos, G; Terzoglou, C; Papageorgiou, E; Dervenoulas, J; Arseni, P; Hadjioannou, J; Raptis, S

1985-01-01

136

Laser-Raman imagery of Earth's earliest fossils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unlike the familiar Phanerozoic history of life, evolution during the earlier and much longer Precambrian segment of geological time centred on prokaryotic microbes. Because such microorganisms are minute, are preserved incompletely in geological materials, and have simple morphologies that can be mimicked by nonbiological mineral microstructures, discriminating between true microbial fossils and microscopic pseudofossil `lookalikes' can be difficult. Thus, valid identification of fossil microbes, which is essential to understanding the prokaryote-dominated, Precambrian 85% of life's history, can require more than traditional palaeontology that is focused on morphology. By combining optically discernible morphology with analyses of chemical composition, laser-Raman spectroscopic imagery of individual microscopic fossils provides a means by which to address this need. Here we apply this technique to exceptionally ancient fossil microbe-like objects, including the oldest such specimens reported from the geological record, and show that the results obtained substantiate the biological origin of the earliest cellular fossils known.

Schopf, J. William; Kudryavtsev, Anatoliy B.; Agresti, David G.; Wdowiak, Thomas J.; Czaja, Andrew D.

2002-03-01

137

Laser--Raman imagery of Earth's earliest fossils.  

PubMed

Unlike the familiar Phanerozoic history of life, evolution during the earlier and much longer Precambrian segment of geological time centred on prokaryotic microbes. Because such microorganisms are minute, are preserved incompletely in geological materials, and have simple morphologies that can be mimicked by nonbiological mineral microstructures, discriminating between true microbial fossils and microscopic pseudofossil 'lookalikes' can be difficult. Thus, valid identification of fossil microbes, which is essential to understanding the prokaryote-dominated, Precambrian 85% of life's history, can require more than traditional palaeontology that is focused on morphology. By combining optically discernible morphology with analyses of chemical composition, laser--Raman spectroscopic imagery of individual microscopic fossils provides a means by which to address this need. Here we apply this technique to exceptionally ancient fossil microbe-like objects, including the oldest such specimens reported from the geological record, and show that the results obtained substantiate the biological origin of the earliest cellular fossils known. PMID:11882894

Schopf, J William; Kudryavtsev, Anatoliy B; Agresti, David G; Wdowiak, Thomas J; Czaja, Andrew D

2002-03-01

138

Origin and radiation of the earliest vascular land plants.  

PubMed

Colonization of the land by plants most likely occurred in a stepwise fashion starting in the Mid-Ordovician. The earliest flora of bryophyte-like plants appears to have been cosmopolitan and dominated the planet, relatively unchanged, for some 30 million years. It is represented by fossilized dispersed cryptospores and fragmentary plant remains. In the Early Silurian, cryptospore abundance and diversity diminished abruptly as trilete spores appeared, became abundant, and underwent rapid diversification. This change coincides approximately with the appearance of vascular plant megafossils and probably represents the origin and adaptive radiation of vascular plants. We have obtained a diverse trilete spore occurrence from the Late Ordovician that suggests that vascular plants originated and diversified earlier than previously hypothesized, in Gondwana, before migrating elsewhere and secondarily diversifying. PMID:19372423

Steemans, Philippe; Hérissé, Alain Le; Melvin, John; Miller, Merrell A; Paris, Florentin; Verniers, Jacques; Wellman, Charles H

2009-04-17

139

Plated Cambrian Bilaterians Reveal the Earliest Stages of Echinoderm Evolution  

PubMed Central

Echinoderms are unique in being pentaradiate, having diverged from the ancestral bilaterian body plan more radically than any other animal phylum. This transformation arises during ontogeny, as echinoderm larvae are initially bilateral, then pass through an asymmetric phase, before giving rise to the pentaradiate adult. Many fossil echinoderms are radial and a few are asymmetric, but until now none have been described that show the original bilaterian stage in echinoderm evolution. Here we report new fossils from the early middle Cambrian of southern Europe that are the first echinoderms with a fully bilaterian body plan as adults. Morphologically they are intermediate between two of the most basal classes, the Ctenocystoidea and Cincta. This provides a root for all echinoderms and confirms that the earliest members were deposit feeders not suspension feeders. PMID:22701623

Zamora, Samuel; Rahman, Imran A.; Smith, Andrew B.

2012-01-01

140

Testing microstructural adaptation in the earliest dental tools  

PubMed Central

Conodont elements are the earliest vertebrate dental structures. The dental tools on elements responsible for food fracture—cusps and denticles—are usually composed of lamellar crown tissue (a putative enamel homologue) and the enigmatic tissue known as ‘white matter’. White matter is unique to conodonts and has been hypothesized to be a functional adaptation for the use of elements as teeth. We test this quantitatively using finite-element analysis. Our results indicate that white matter allowed cusps and denticles to withstand greater tensile stresses than do cusps comprised solely of lamellar crown tissue. Microstructural variation is demonstrably associated with dietary and loading differences in teeth, so secondary loss of white matter through conodont phylogeny may reflect changes in diet and element occlusal kinematics. The presence, development and distribution of white matter could thus provide constraints on function in the first vertebrate dental structures. PMID:22764115

Jones, David; Evans, Alistair R.; Rayfield, Emily J.; Siu, Karen K. W.; Donoghue, Philip C. J.

2012-01-01

141

Histology and affinity of the earliest armoured vertebrate  

PubMed Central

Arandaspids are the earliest skeletonizing vertebrates known from articulated remains. Despite a wealth of data, their affinity remains questionable because they exhibit a random mixture of primitive and derived characteristics. We constrain the affinity of arandaspids by providing the first detailed characterization of their dermoskeleton which is revealed to be three-layered, composed of a basal laminated, cancellous middle and tubercular superficial layers. All three layers are composed of acellular bone but the superficial layer also includes dentine and enameloid, comprising the tubercles. As such, the composition of the arandaspid dermoskeleton is common to heterostracans and astraspids, supporting existing hypotheses of early vertebrate phylogeny. This emphasizes the peculiarity of existing interpretations of aranadaspid anatomy and there is need for a complete reappraisal of the existing anatomical data. PMID:17148229

Sansom, Ivan J; Donoghue, Philip C.J; Albanesi, Guillermo

2005-01-01

142

Origin and earliest state of the earth's hydrosphere  

SciTech Connect

The origin and earliest history of the earth's hydrosphere, the inventory of excess volatiles defined by Rubey in 1951, can be constrained within wide but useful limits by a consideration of empirical and theoretical evidence from astrophysics and geology. Models for the evolution of the solar system from the protoplanetary nebula and for the growth of the earth to its present dimensions suggest quite strongly that the hydrosphere came into being during accretion. Its format, with H/sub 2/O mostly in the oceans, CO/sub 2/ mostly in sediments, and a residual atmosphere dominated by N/sub 2/, CO/sub 2/, and H/sub 2/O was established at a very early data and has persisted without large, destabilizing climatic excursions until the present day. Alternative accounts of early history, in which the earth either loses a massive primordial atmosphere or acquires its secondary atmosphere by gradual degassing, seem improbable on the basis of a series of circumstantial but cumulatively persuasive arguments. The difficulty of dissipating a massive atmosphere of solar composition in reasonable times, the likelihood that accretion was a highly energetic process and that it triggered early segregation of the core, and the tendency of the planet to accumulate volatiles preferentially in the later stages of accretion are examples of arguments favoring an early origin for the hydrosphere. Several geological isotope systems which can be sampled today require early separation of the atmosphere and probably the hydrosphere ass a whole; these systems recorrd radiogenic enrichment patterns in the noble gases and stable isotope fractionations which suggest an early origin of the biosphere. Certain geological indicators of atmsopheric composition. and the broadly equable character of the rock record, are also consistent with a hydrosphere established in the earliest stages of history and having an initial neutral or weakly reduced composition.

Cogley, J.G.; Henderson-Sellers, A.

1984-05-01

143

Earliest evidence for commensal processes of cat domestication.  

PubMed

Domestic cats are one of the most popular pets globally, but the process of their domestication is not well understood. Near Eastern wildcats are thought to have been attracted to food sources in early agricultural settlements, following a commensal pathway to domestication. Early evidence for close human-cat relationships comes from a wildcat interred near a human on Cyprus ca. 9,500 y ago, but the earliest domestic cats are known only from Egyptian art dating to 4,000 y ago. Evidence is lacking from the key period of cat domestication 9,500-4,000 y ago. We report on the presence of cats directly dated between 5560-5280 cal B.P. in the early agricultural village of Quanhucun in Shaanxi, China. These cats were outside the wild range of Near Eastern wildcats and biometrically smaller, but within the size-range of domestic cats. The ?(13)C and ?(15)N values of human and animal bone collagen revealed substantial consumption of millet-based foods by humans, rodents, and cats. Ceramic storage containers designed to exclude rodents indicated a threat to stored grain in Yangshao villages. Taken together, isotopic and archaeological data demonstrate that cats were advantageous for ancient farmers. Isotopic data also show that one cat ate less meat and consumed more millet-based foods than expected, indicating that it scavenged among or was fed by people. This study offers fresh perspectives on cat domestication, providing the earliest known evidence for commensal relationships between people and cats. PMID:24344279

Hu, Yaowu; Hu, Songmei; Wang, Weilin; Wu, Xiaohong; Marshall, Fiona B; Chen, Xianglong; Hou, Liangliang; Wang, Changsui

2014-01-01

144

Earliest evidence for commensal processes of cat domestication  

PubMed Central

Domestic cats are one of the most popular pets globally, but the process of their domestication is not well understood. Near Eastern wildcats are thought to have been attracted to food sources in early agricultural settlements, following a commensal pathway to domestication. Early evidence for close human–cat relationships comes from a wildcat interred near a human on Cyprus ca. 9,500 y ago, but the earliest domestic cats are known only from Egyptian art dating to 4,000 y ago. Evidence is lacking from the key period of cat domestication 9,500–4,000 y ago. We report on the presence of cats directly dated between 5560–5280 cal B.P. in the early agricultural village of Quanhucun in Shaanxi, China. These cats were outside the wild range of Near Eastern wildcats and biometrically smaller, but within the size-range of domestic cats. The ?13C and ?15N values of human and animal bone collagen revealed substantial consumption of millet-based foods by humans, rodents, and cats. Ceramic storage containers designed to exclude rodents indicated a threat to stored grain in Yangshao villages. Taken together, isotopic and archaeological data demonstrate that cats were advantageous for ancient farmers. Isotopic data also show that one cat ate less meat and consumed more millet-based foods than expected, indicating that it scavenged among or was fed by people. This study offers fresh perspectives on cat domestication, providing the earliest known evidence for commensal relationships between people and cats. PMID:24344279

Hu, Yaowu; Hu, Songmei; Wang, Weilin; Wu, Xiaohong; Marshall, Fiona B.; Chen, Xianglong; Hou, Liangliang; Wang, Changsui

2014-01-01

145

Considerations on Terrestrial Iron Depositing Analogs to Earliest Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Iron oxide and hydroxide minerals, including hematite, can mineralize and preservemicrofossils and physical biomarkers (Allen at al., 2004). Preserved remnants of phototrophic microorganisms are recognized as biosignatures of past life on Earth (Schopf, 2006). To date, two types of surface iron depositing environments have been studied as analogs to possible habitable environments on earliest Mars: the highly acidified Rio Tinto River (Iberian Belt, Spain) [Gomez Ortis et al., 2007], and the nearneutral iron depositing Chocolate Pots Hot Spring (Yellowstone National Park, US) [Parenteau at al., 2005]. While phototrophs in the Rio Tinto are only represented by eukaryotic algae (Amaral Zettler et all., 2002), Chocolate Pots is mainly populated with cyanobacteria (Pierson et all., 2000; Brown et all., 2007). Which of these environments is the closer analog to a potentially habitable early Mars? Paleobiological data, combined with recent "tree of life" interpretations, suggest that phototrophic eukaryotes evolved not earlier than 2.5 - 2.8 b.y. after Earth s accretion (4.6 b.y.), while cyanobacteria and /or their iron-tolerant predecessors evolved between 1 - 1.5 b.y. after accretion (Brown et al., 2007). Lindsay and Brasier (2002) postulated that microbial life on Mars surface could have lasted no more than 1-1.5 b.y. after Mars accretion (also 4.6 b.y.). Recent multispectral mapping of Mars suggests that near-neutral wet environments prevailed at approximately this time (Bibring, et al., 2006). Thus, near-neutral iron depositing hot springs such as Chocolate Pots Hot Spring seem to be the more likely habitable analogs for earliest Mars.

Brown, Igor I.; Allen, Carlton C.; Sarkisova, S. A.; Garrison, D. H.; McKay, D. S.

2007-01-01

146

Parental Decisions Regarding a Prenatally Detected Fetal Chromosomal Abnormality and the Impact of Genetic Counseling: An Analysis of 38 Cases with Aneuploidy in Southeast Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated parental decision-making to terminate or continue a pregnancy after prenatal diagnosis of a chromosomal\\u000a abnormality among a sample of patients in Southeast Turkey. Between 2004 and 2007, 1068 amniocentesis tests were performed\\u000a in the Medical Biology and Genetic Department Laboratory at Dicle University. Aneuploidy was found in 38 cases (3.56%). Genetic\\u000a counseling was provided for the couples

Mahmut Balkan; Sevgi Kalkanli; Halit Akbas; Ahmet Yalinkaya; M. Nail Alp; Turgay Budak

2010-01-01

147

Elevations in IL-10, TNF-?, and IFN-? from the Earliest Point of HIV Type 1 Infection  

PubMed Central

Perturbations of plasma IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, TNF-?, and IFN-? were measured longitudinally in HIV-1 se-roconverting plasma donors and were compared to subjects with symptomatic primary HIV-1 infection. Control groups included uninfected patients with symptoms and risks for primary HIV-1, healthy controls, and asymptomatic plasma donors with primary HCV. IL-10, TNF-?, and IFN-? rapidly rose in acute HIV-1 infection, while IL-13 predominated in acute HCV. Subjects with symptomatic primary HIV-1 had higher cytokine levels than asymptomatic subjects, statistically significant for TNF-?. Cytokine alterations occurred within 7 days of detectable HIV-1 viremia, emphasizing the need to study the earliest events of infection. PMID:16910831

NORRIS, PHILIP J.; PAPPALARDO, BRANDEE L.; CUSTER, BRIAN; SPOTTS, GERALD; HECHT, FREDERICK M.; BUSCH, MICHAEL P.

2008-01-01

148

Earliest record of rhinocerotoids (Mammalia: Perissodactyla) from Switzerland: systematics and biostratigraphy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earliest rhinocerotoids from Switzerland are reviewed on the basis of dental remains from the earliest Oligocene north-central\\u000a Jura Molasse localities of Bressaucourt (MP21\\/22) and Kleinblauen (top MP22). The record in Bressaucourt is restricted to\\u000a Ronzotherium and Cadurcotherium, representing Switzerland’s oldest, well-dated post-“Grande Coupure” large mammal association, the only occurrence of Cadurcotherium, and the earliest occurrence of rhinocerotoids in Switzerland. The

Damien Becker

2009-01-01

149

Researchers Find Abnormal Cells in the Blood Years before Leukemia is Diagnosed  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have shown that abnormal white blood cells can be present in patients' blood more than six years prior to the diagnosis of a chronic form of lymphocytic leukemia. This finding may lead to a better understanding of the cellular changes that characterize the earliest stages of the disease and how it progresses.

150

Use of a novel high-resolution magnetic resonance neurography protocol to detect abnormal dorsal root Ganglia in Sjögren patients with neuropathic pain: case series of 10 patients and review of the literature.  

PubMed

The diagnosis and treatment of patients with Sjögren syndrome (SS) with neuropathic pain pose several challenges. Patients with SS may experience unorthodox patterns of burning pain not conforming to a traditional "stocking-and-glove" distribution, which can affect the face, torso, and proximal extremities. This distribution of neuropathic pain may reflect mechanisms targeting the proximal-most element of the peripheral nervous system-the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Skin biopsy can diagnose such a small-fiber neuropathy and is a surrogate marker of DRG neuronal cell loss. However, SS patients have been reported who have similar patterns of proximal neuropathic pain, despite having normal skin biopsy studies. In such cases, DRGs may be targeted by mechanisms not associated with neuronal cell loss. Therefore, alternative approaches are warranted to help characterize abnormal DRGs in SS patients with proximal neuropathic pain.We performed a systematic review of the literature to define the frequency and spectrum of SS peripheral neuropathies, and to better understand the attribution of SS neuropathic pain to peripheral neuropathies. We found that the frequency of SS neuropathic pain exceeded the prevalence of peripheral neuropathies, and that painful peripheral neuropathies occurred less frequently than neuropathies not always associated with pain. We developed a novel magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) protocol to evaluate DRG abnormalities. Ten SS patients with proximal neuropathic pain were evaluated by this MRN protocol, as well as by punch skin biopsies evaluating for intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) of unmyelinated nerves. Five patients had radiographic evidence of DRG abnormalities. Patients with MRN DRG abnormalities had increased IENFD of unmyelinated nerves compared to patients without MRN DRG abnormalities (30.2 [interquartile range, 4.4] fibers/mm vs. 11.0 [4.1] fibers/mm, respectively; p = 0.03). Two of these 5 SS patients whose neuropathic pain resolved with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy had improvement of MRN DRG abnormalities.We have developed a novel MRN protocol that can detect DRG abnormalities in SS patients with neuropathic pain who do not have markers of peripheral neuropathy. We found that SS patients with MRN DRG abnormalities had statistically significant, increased IENFD on skin biopsy studies, which may suggest a relationship between trophic mediators and neuropathic pain. Given that our literature review has demonstrated that many SS neuropathic pain patients do not have a neuropathy, our findings suggest an important niche for this MRN DRG technique in the evaluation of broader subsets of SS neuropathic pain patients who may not have underlying neuropathies. The improvement of MRN DRG abnormalities in patients with IVIg-induced remission of neuropathic pain suggests that our MRN protocol may be capturing reversible, immune-mediated mechanisms targeting the DRG. PMID:24797167

Birnbaum, Julius; Duncan, Trisha; Owoyemi, Kristie; Wang, Kenneth C; Carrino, John; Chhabra, Avneesh

2014-05-01

151

Technological variation in the earliest Oldowan from Gona, Afar, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Inter-site technological variation in the archaeological record is one of the richest potential sources of information about Plio-Pleistocene hominid behavior and evolution. However, appropriate methods for describing and comparing Oldowan assemblages have yet to be agreed upon, and interpretation of the early record remains highly controversial. Particularly salient is disagreement over whether the Oldowan is a single technological phenomenon or is more accurately divided into multiple regional and/or chronological traditions, perhaps including a less developed Pre-Oldowan phase in the late Pliocene. Some of this disagreement reflects theoretical and methodological differences between research traditions and some is more directly evidential. Here we present a framework for describing and interpreting Oldowan variation and apply it to three Pliocene assemblages (EG-10, EG-12, and OGS-7) from Gona, all dated to c. 2.6 million years (Ma). Results indicate proficient knapping and a full range of Oldowan reduction strategies in these earliest known occurrences, consistent with the idea of an Oldowan "technological stasis" from 2.6-1.6 Ma. Patterns of variation in raw material selection and predominant reduction strategy at each site clearly indicate the importance of cultural transmission in the Oldowan, but confounding ecological and economic variation continue to render interpretation in terms of multiple tool making traditions or species inappropriate. We propose that cultural transmission and ecological adaptation should be recognized as complementary, rather than mutually exclusive, mechanisms in future attempts to explain Oldowan technological variation. PMID:20430417

Stout, Dietrich; Semaw, Sileshi; Rogers, Michael J; Cauche, Dominique

2010-06-01

152

The Earliest Comet Photographs: Usherwood and Bond for Donati 1858  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first known photographs of a comet were taken in 1858. The earliest astronomical telescopic photographs, daguerreotypes from 1850-51, had been made only when the violet focus of telescopes was found. Tracking remained a problem preventing astronomical objects from being photographed. When the Harvard refractor's tracking was improved in 1858, it was used by the Bonds and colleagues to photograph Comet Donati on a collodion plate. The plate remains in the archives of the Harvard College Observatory, though the image shows only very faintly and no tail can be seen. Bond was scooped the previous night by the commercial English photographer W. Usherwood, who used a portrait camera at a much lower focal ratio to capture the comet's tail. The plate was seen and evaluated by W.C. Bond. No further comet photography took place until 1881, when P.J.C. Janssen and J.W. Draper took the first generally recognized photographs of a comet, followed by D. Gill's photographs of the Great September comet of 1882. This work was sponsored by two Senior Research Grants from the Getty Grant Program.

Pasachoff, J. M.; Olson, R. J. M.

1995-12-01

153

Fixational Eye Movements in the Earliest Stage of Metazoan Evolution  

PubMed Central

All known photoreceptor cells adapt to constant light stimuli, fading the retinal image when exposed to an immobile visual scene. Counter strategies are therefore necessary to prevent blindness, and in mammals this is accomplished by fixational eye movements. Cubomedusae occupy a key position for understanding the evolution of complex visual systems and their eyes are assumedly subject to the same adaptive problems as the vertebrate eye, but lack motor control of their visual system. The morphology of the visual system of cubomedusae ensures a constant orientation of the eyes and a clear division of the visual field, but thereby also a constant retinal image when exposed to stationary visual scenes. Here we show that bell contractions used for swimming in the medusae refresh the retinal image in the upper lens eye of Tripedalia cystophora. This strongly suggests that strategies comparable to fixational eye movements have evolved at the earliest metazoan stage to compensate for the intrinsic property of the photoreceptors. Since the timing and amplitude of the rhopalial movements concur with the spatial and temporal resolution of the eye it circumvents the need for post processing in the central nervous system to remove image blur. PMID:23776673

Bielecki, Jan; H?eg, Jens T.; Garm, Anders

2013-01-01

154

The earliest Mesopsychidae and revision of the family Mesopanorpodidae (Mecoptera)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The family Mesopanorpodidae is revised. Most taxa referred to this family are not related to the type genus Mesopanorpodes Tillyard, 1918. The type species of the latter, Mesopanorpodes wianamattensis,is closely related to Mesopsyche Tillyard, 1917. Therefore Mesopanorpodes is transferred to Mesopsychidae Tillyard, 1917 (= Mesopanorpodidae Tillyard, 1918, syn. n.).The earliest Mesopsychidae are described from the Upper Permian of European Russia (Severodvinian; Isady locality, Vologda Province): Permopsyche issadensis gen. etsp. n. (type species) and Permopsyche rasnitsyni sp. n. Two species described under Mesopanorpodes from the Upper Permian of Australia are also included into Permopsyche: Permopsyche belmontensis (Riek, 1953), comb. n., Permopsyche robustus (Riek, 1953) comb. n. The first pre-Triassic Mesopsyche, Mesopsyche incompleta sp. n. is described from the uppermost Permian (the town of Vyazniki, Vladimir Province). Bittacopanorpa javorskii Zalessky, 1935 from the uppermost Permian or basal Triassic of Kuznetsk Basin is identified as a hindwing of Mesopsyche: Mesopsyche javorskii (Zalessky, 1935) comb. n. The origin, evolutionary history, and stratigraphic occurrence of Mesopsychidae are discussed. PMID:22259282

Bashkuev, Alexei S.

2011-01-01

155

The earliest pterodactyloid and the origin of the group.  

PubMed

The pterosaurs were a diverse group of Mesozoic flying reptiles that underwent a body plan reorganization, adaptive radiation, and replacement of earlier forms midway through their long history, resulting in the origin of the Pterodactyloidea, a highly specialized clade containing the largest flying organisms. The sudden appearance and large suite of morphological features of this group were suggested to be the result of it originating in terrestrial environments, where the pterosaur fossil record has traditionally been poor [1, 2], and its many features suggested to be adaptations to those environments [1, 2]. However, little evidence has been available to test this hypothesis, and it has not been supported by previous phylogenies or early pterodactyloid discoveries. We report here the earliest pterosaur with the diagnostic elongate metacarpus of the Pterodactyloidea, Kryptodrakon progenitor, gen. et sp. nov., from the terrestrial Middle-Upper Jurassic boundary of Northwest China. Phylogenetic analysis confirms this species as the basalmost pterodactyloid and reconstructs a terrestrial origin and a predominantly terrestrial history for the Pterodactyloidea. Phylogenetic comparative methods support this reconstruction by means of a significant correlation between wing shape and environment also found in modern flying vertebrates, indicating that pterosaurs lived in or were at least adapted to the environments in which they were preserved. PMID:24768054

Andres, Brian; Clark, James; Xu, Xing

2014-05-01

156

A Jurassic mammaliaform and the earliest mammalian evolutionary adaptations.  

PubMed

The earliest evolution of mammals and origins of mammalian features can be traced to the mammaliaforms of the Triassic and Jurassic periods that are extinct relatives to living mammals. Here we describe a new fossil from the Middle Jurassic that has a mandibular middle ear, a gradational transition of thoracolumbar vertebrae and primitive ankle features, but highly derived molars with a high crown and multiple roots that are partially fused. The upper molars have longitudinal cusp rows that occlude alternately with those of the lower molars. This specialization for masticating plants indicates that herbivory evolved among mammaliaforms, before the rise of crown mammals. The new species shares the distinctive dental features of the eleutherodontid clade, previously represented only by isolated teeth despite its extensive geographic distribution during the Jurassic. This eleutherodontid was terrestrial and had ambulatory gaits, analogous to extant terrestrial mammals such as armadillos or rock hyrax. Its fur corroborates that mammalian integument had originated well before the common ancestor of living mammals. PMID:23925238

Zhou, Chang-Fu; Wu, Shaoyuan; Martin, Thomas; Luo, Zhe-Xi

2013-08-01

157

Abnormal microheterogeneity detected in one commercial alpha 1-acid glycoprotein preparation using chromatography on immobilized metal affinity adsorbent and on hydroxyapatite.  

PubMed

The study of one commercial preparation of human alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) by isoelectric focusing and by different chromatographic methods, previously developed to purify and fractionate the genetic variants of AAG, revealed an abnormal heterogeneity for this preparation. In addition to the three main variants (F1, S and A) of AAG normally present, this preparation contained five other AAG variants (called here sigma, alpha, beta, delta and gamma), accounting for ca. 40% of the total. As it is very unlikely that the latter variants are rare AAG variants, the abnormal heterogeneity of this AAG preparation is most probably due to structural alterations occurring during the large scale isolation. The alpha and the sigma, beta, delta and gamma variants could correspond to altered forms of the A and the F1 and S variants, respectively, because of their similar retention behaviour on immobilized copper(II) ions and their similar drug binding properties. However, the elution of the variants from the immobilized metal affinity column suggested that sigma, alpha, beta, delta and gamma were desialylated. Chromatography on hydroxyapatite enabled the separation of the F1, S and A variants from the sigma, alpha, beta, delta and gamma variants. The inability of the latter variants to bind to hydroxyapatite suggests that the structural alterations might involve acidic amino acid residues. This proposal agreed with the isoelectric focusing study of variants sigma, alpha, beta, delta and gamma. Since the different separation methods used were able to resolve the variants of this AAG, this protocol could be used for characterization of commercial AAG proteins. PMID:9029311

Hervé, F; Fouache, F; Marché, C; Tillement, J P

1997-01-10

158

Deletion of Rbpj from postnatal endothelium leads to abnormal arteriovenous shunting in mice.  

PubMed

Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are tortuous vessels characterized by arteriovenous (AV) shunts, which displace capillaries and shunt blood directly from artery to vein. Notch signaling regulates embryonic AV specification by promoting arterial, as opposed to venous, endothelial cell (EC) fate. To understand the essential role of endothelial Notch signaling in postnatal AV organization, we used inducible Cre-loxP recombination to delete Rbpj, a mediator of canonical Notch signaling, from postnatal ECs in mice. Deletion of endothelial Rbpj from birth resulted in features of AVMs by P14, including abnormal AV shunting and tortuous vessels in the brain, intestine and heart. We further analyzed brain AVMs, as they pose particular health risks. Consistent with AVM pathology, we found cerebral hemorrhage, hypoxia and necrosis, and neurological deficits. AV shunts originated from capillaries (and possibly venules), with the earliest detectable morphological abnormalities in AV connections by P8. Prior to AV shunt formation, alterations in EC gene expression were detected, including decreased Efnb2 and increased Pai1, which encodes a downstream effector of TGF? signaling. After AV shunts had formed, whole-mount immunostaining showed decreased Efnb2 and increased Ephb4 expression within AV shunts, suggesting that ECs were reprogrammed from arterial to venous identity. Deletion of Rbpj from adult ECs led to tortuosities in gastrointestinal, uterine and skin vascular beds, but had mild effects in the brain. Our results demonstrate a temporal requirement for Rbpj in postnatal ECs to maintain proper artery, capillary and vein organization and to prevent abnormal AV shunting and AVM pathogenesis. PMID:25209249

Nielsen, Corinne M; Cuervo, Henar; Ding, Vivianne W; Kong, Yupeng; Huang, Eric J; Wang, Rong A

2014-10-01

159

Project EARTH-11-CMN3: The Earliest records of the Earth's magnetic field a combined  

E-print Network

Project EARTH-11-CMN3: The Earliest records of the Earth's magnetic field ­ a combined that of the Earth, cooled to a point where vigorous convection and the production of a magnetic field could of their initial atmospheres. The earliest evidence for a magnetic field on Earth is from 3.4 billion year old

Henderson, Gideon

160

Earliest Example of a Giant Monitor Lizard (Varanus, Varanidae, Squamata)  

PubMed Central

Background Varanidae is a clade of tiny (<20 mm pre-caudal length [PCL]) to giant (>600 mm PCL) lizards first appearing in the Cretaceous. True monitor lizards (Varanus) are known from diagnostic remains beginning in the early Miocene (Varanus rusingensis), although extremely fragmentary remains have been suggested as indicating earlier Varanus. The paleobiogeographic history of Varanus and timing for origin of its gigantism remain uncertain. Methodology/Principal Findings A new Varanus from the Mytilini Formation (Turolian, Miocene) of Samos, Greece is described. The holotype consists of a partial skull roof, right side of a braincase, partial posterior mandible, fragment of clavicle, and parts of six vertebrae. A cladistic analysis including 83 taxa coded for 5733 molecular and 489 morphological characters (71 previously unincluded) demonstrates that the new fossil is a nested member of an otherwise exclusively East Asian Varanus clade. The new species is the earliest-known giant (>600 mm PCL) terrestrial lizard. Importantly, this species co-existed with a diverse continental mammalian fauna. Conclusions/Significance The new monitor is larger (longer) than 99% of known fossil and living lizards. Varanus includes, by far, the largest limbed squamates today. The only extant non-snake squamates that approach monitors in maximum size are the glass-snake Pseudopus and the worm-lizard Amphisbaena. Mosasauroids were larger, but exclusively marine, and occurred only during the Late Cretaceous. Large, extant, non-Varanus, lizards are limbless and/or largely isolated from mammalian competitors. By contrast, our new Varanus achieved gigantism in a continental environment populated by diverse eutherian mammal competitors. PMID:22900001

Conrad, Jack L.; Balcarcel, Ana M.; Mehling, Carl M.

2012-01-01

161

A novel pathogenic pathway of immune activation detectable before clinical onset in Huntington's disease  

PubMed Central

Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by both neurological and systemic abnormalities. We examined the peripheral immune system and found widespread evidence of innate immune activation detectable in plasma throughout the course of HD. Interleukin 6 levels were increased in HD gene carriers with a mean of 16 years before the predicted onset of clinical symptoms. To our knowledge, this is the earliest plasma abnormality identified in HD. Monocytes from HD subjects expressed mutant huntingtin and were pathologically hyperactive in response to stimulation, suggesting that the mutant protein triggers a cell-autonomous immune activation. A similar pattern was seen in macrophages and microglia from HD mouse models, and the cerebrospinal fluid and striatum of HD patients exhibited abnormal immune activation, suggesting that immune dysfunction plays a role in brain pathology. Collectively, our data suggest parallel central nervous system and peripheral pathogenic pathways of immune activation in HD. PMID:18625748

Bjorkqvist, Maria; Wild, Edward J.; Thiele, Jenny; Silvestroni, Aurelio; Andre, Ralph; Lahiri, Nayana; Raibon, Elsa; Lee, Richard V.; Benn, Caroline L.; Soulet, Denis; Magnusson, Anna; Woodman, Ben; Landles, Christian; Pouladi, Mahmoud A.; Hayden, Michael R.; Khalili-Shirazi, Azadeh; Lowdell, Mark W.; Brundin, Patrik; Bates, Gillian P.; Leavitt, Blair R.; Moller, Thomas; Tabrizi, Sarah J.

2008-01-01

162

Ichnotaxonomy of the Laetoli trackways: The earliest hominin footprints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At 3.6 Ma, the Laetoli Pliocene hominin trackways are the earliest direct evidence of hominin bipedalism. Three decades since their discovery, not only is the question of their attribution still discussed, but marked differences in interpretation concerning the footprints' qualitative features and the inferred nature of the early hominin foot morphology remain. Here, we establish a novel ichnotaxon, Praehominipes laetoliensis, for these tracks and clarify the distinctions of these footprints from those of later hominins, especially modern humans. We also contrast hominin, human, and ape footprints to establish morphological features of these footprints correlated with a midtarsal break versus a stiff longitudinal arch. Original photos, including stereo photographs, and casts of footprints from the 1978 Laetoli excavation, confirm midtarsal flexibility, and repeatedly indicate an associated midfoot pressure ridge. In contrast, the modern human footprint reflects the derived arched-foot architecture, combined with a stiff-legged striding gait. Fossilized footprints of unshod modern human pedestrians in Hawaii and Nicaragua unambiguously illustrate these contrasts. Some points of comparisons with ape footprints are complicated by a variable hallucal position and the distinct manner of ape facultative bipedalism. In contrast to the comparatively rigid platform of the modern human foot, midtarsal flexibility is present in the chimpanzee foot. In ape locomotion, flexion at the transverse tarsal joint, referred to as the "midtarsal break," uncouples the respective functions of the prehensile forefoot and the propulsive hindfoot during grasp-climbing. At some point after the transition to habitual bipedalism, these grasp-climb adaptations, presumed to be present in the last common ancestor of apes and humans, were initially compromised by the loss of divergence of the hallux. An analogous trajectory is evident along an array of increasingly terrestrial extant ape species. However, a flexible midfoot was retained, presumably to spare lateral toes from bending stresses by concentrating push-off from the forefoot, beneath the metatarsals. Only later did the evolution of the longitudinal arch permit increased mechanical advantage of the plantarflexors for speed and improved economy of endurance distance walking and running.

Meldrum, D. J.; Lockley, Martin G.; Lucas, Spencer G.; Musiba, Charles

2011-04-01

163

Tooth - abnormal colors  

MedlinePLUS

... Questions may involve: When the abnormal coloration began Foods you have been eating Medications you are taking Personal and family health history Exposure to fluoride Oral care habits Other symptoms ...

164

"Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

Keutzer, Carolin S.

1993-01-01

165

EmergencyEmergency and Abnormal Situationsand Abnormal Situations  

E-print Network

SituationsAbnormal Situations Neil Johnston Aerospace Psychology Research Group Trinity College DublinEmergencyEmergency and Abnormal Situationsand Abnormal Situations in Aviation Symposiumin Aviation Symposium Santa Clara, June 2003 #12;Responding toResponding to Emergencies andEmergencies and Abnormal

166

Models of Abnormal Scarring  

PubMed Central

Keloids and hypertrophic scars are thick, raised dermal scars, caused by derailing of the normal scarring process. Extensive research on such abnormal scarring has been done; however, these being refractory disorders specific to humans, it has been difficult to establish a universal animal model. A wide variety of animal models have been used. These include the athymic mouse, rats, rabbits, and pigs. Although these models have provided valuable insight into abnormal scarring, there is currently still no ideal model. This paper reviews the models that have been developed. PMID:24078916

Seo, Bommie F.; Lee, Jun Yong; Jung, Sung-No

2013-01-01

167

Abnormal Psychology Psychology 280  

E-print Network

psychopathology perspective to understand: 2.1. risk and protective factors influencing the etiology abnormal behavior in everyday life and we need to gain a better understanding of the etiology, social worker, therapist, etc.) directly rely on having extensive knowledge of psychopathology. #12

Liu, Taosheng

168

Adequately address abnormal operations  

SciTech Connect

Abnormal situation management (ASM) is a safety issue, and safety long has been a top priority for companies in the chemical process industries (CPI). To investigate and identify root causes of abnormal operations and to pinpoint best practices for preventing these situations or at least handling them most effectively, the author formed a team and conducted surveys around the world, including the US, Canada, the United Kingdom, Europe, and Japan. The author visited a variety of facilities, including gas processing plants, oil refineries, a coker, ethylene plant, polyethylene units, steam-generating stations, as well as transportation and storage facilities. The team identified eight key issues: lack of management leadership; the significant role of human errors; inadequate design of the work environment; absence of procedures for dealing with abnormal operations (as opposed to emergencies); loss of valuable information from earlier minor incidents; the potential economic return; transferability of good ASM performance to other plants; and the importance of teamwork and job design. The paper looks at each of these in more detail, as well as what`s involved in assessing the ASM at a site.

Nimmo, I. [Honeywell Industrial Automation and Control, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

1995-09-01

169

THE EARLIEST NEAR-INFRARED TIME-SERIES SPECTROSCOPY OF A TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA  

SciTech Connect

We present ten medium-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio near-infrared (NIR) spectra of SN 2011fe from SpeX on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) and Gemini Near-Infrared Spectrograph (GNIRS) on Gemini North, obtained as part of the Carnegie Supernova Project. This data set constitutes the earliest time-series NIR spectroscopy of a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia), with the first spectrum obtained at 2.58 days past the explosion and covering -14.6 to +17.3 days relative to B-band maximum. C I {lambda}1.0693 {mu}m is detected in SN 2011fe with increasing strength up to maximum light. The delay in the onset of the NIR C I line demonstrates its potential to be an effective tracer of unprocessed material. For the first time in a SN Ia, the early rapid decline of the Mg II {lambda}1.0927 {mu}m velocity was observed, and the subsequent velocity is remarkably constant. The Mg II velocity during this constant phase locates the inner edge of carbon burning and probes the conditions under which the transition from deflagration to detonation occurs. We show that the Mg II velocity does not correlate with the optical light-curve decline rate {Delta}m{sub 15}(B). The prominent break at {approx}1.5 {mu}m is the main source of concern for NIR k-correction calculations. We demonstrate here that the feature has a uniform time evolution among SNe Ia, with the flux ratio across the break strongly correlated with {Delta}m{sub 15}(B). The predictability of the strength and the onset of this feature suggests that the associated k-correction uncertainties can be minimized with improved spectral templates.

Hsiao, E. Y.; Phillips, M. M.; Morrell, N.; Contreras, C.; Roth, M. [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 601 (Chile)] [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 601 (Chile); Marion, G. H.; Kirshner, R. P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)] [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Burns, C. R.; Freedman, W. L.; Persson, S. E. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara St, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)] [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara St, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Winge, C. [Gemini South Observatory, c/o AURA Inc., Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile)] [Gemini South Observatory, c/o AURA Inc., Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Kromer, M.; Gall, E. E. E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Gerardy, C. L.; Hoeflich, P. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Im, M.; Jeon, Y. [CEOU/Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [CEOU/Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nugent, P. E. [Computational Cosmology Center, Computational Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road MS 50B-4206, Berkeley, CA 94611 (United States)] [Computational Cosmology Center, Computational Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road MS 50B-4206, Berkeley, CA 94611 (United States); Pignata, G. [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Avda. Republica 252, Santiago (Chile)] [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Avda. Republica 252, Santiago (Chile); Stanishev, V., E-mail: hsiao@lco.cl [CENTRA - Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); and others

2013-04-01

170

Malicious Hubs: Detecting Abnormally Malicious Autonomous Systems  

SciTech Connect

While many attacks are distributed across botnets, investigators and network operators have recently targeted malicious networks through high profile autonomous system (AS) de-peerings and network shut-downs. In this paper, we explore whether some ASes indeed are safe havens for malicious activity. We look for ISPs and ASes that exhibit disproportionately high malicious behavior using 12 popular blacklists. We find that some ASes have over 80% of their routable IP address space blacklisted and others account for large fractions of blacklisted IPs. Overall, we conclude that examining malicious activity at the AS granularity can unearth networks with lax security or those that harbor cybercrime.

Kalafut, Andrew J. [Indiana University; Shue, Craig A [ORNL; Gupta, Prof. Minaxi [Indiana University

2010-01-01

171

Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

Fernald, Charles D.

1980-01-01

172

The formation and growth of the earliest supermassive black holes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A crucial challenge in astrophysics over the coming decades will be to understand the origins of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) that lie at the centres of most, if not all, galaxies. The processes responsible for the initial formation of these SMBHs and their early growth via accretion - when they are seen as Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) - remain unknown. To address this challenge, we must identify low luminosity and obscured z>6 AGNs, which represent the bulk of early SMBH growth. Sensitive X-ray observations are a unique signpost of accretion activity, uncontaminated by star formation processes, which prevent reliable AGN identification at other wavelengths (e.g. optical, infrared). The Athena+ Wide Field Imager will enable X-ray surveys to be carried out two orders of magnitude faster than with Chandra or XMM-Newton, opening a new discovery space and identifying over 400 z>6 AGN, including obscured sources. Athena+ will also play a fundamental role to enhance the scientific return of future multiwavelength facilities that will probe the physical conditions within the host galaxies of early SMBHs, which is vital for understanding how SMBHs form, what fuels their subsequent growth, and to assess their impact on the early Universe. Follow-up of samples of z>6 galaxies with the Athena+ X-ray Integral Field Unit could also reveal the presence of highly obscured AGNs, thanks to the detection of strong iron lines. Thus, Athena+ will enable the first quantitative measurements of the extent and distribution of SMBH accretion in the early Universe.

Cappelluti, Nico; Comastri, Andrea; Aird, James

173

The Earliest Stages of Star and Planet Formation: Core Collapse, and the Formation of Disks and Outflows  

E-print Network

(Abridged) In this review we focus on the observations and theory of the formation of early disks and outflows, and their connections with the first phases of planet formation. Large rotationally supported circumstellar disks, although common around more evolved young stellar objects, are rarely detected during the earliest, "Class 0" phase; however, a few excellent candidates have been discovered recently around both low and high mass protostars. In this early phase, prominent outflows are ubiquitously observed; they are expected to be associated with at least small magnetized disks. Disk formation - once thought to be a simple consequence of the conservation of angular momentum during hydrodynamic core collapse - is far more subtle in magnetized gas. In this case, the rotation can be strongly magnetically braked. Indeed, both analytic arguments and numerical simulations have shown that disk formation is suppressed in the strict ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) limit for the observed level of core magnetizati...

Li, Zhi-Yun; Pudritz, Ralph E; Jørgensen, Jes K; Shang, Hsien; Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Maury, Anaëlle

2014-01-01

174

Roentgenologic Abnormalities in Down's Syndrome.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Roentgenograms of 28 patients with Down's syndrome were reviewed with emphasis on all previously reported abnormalities and any possible additional ones. Most of the abnormalities occurred with the same frequency as previously reported, but some less freq...

T. Higuchi, W. J. Russell, M. Komatsuda, S. Neriishi

1968-01-01

175

Epilepsy and chromosomal abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Many chromosomal abnormalities are associated with Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations and other neurological alterations,\\u000a among which seizures and epilepsy. Some of these show a peculiar epileptic and EEG pattern. We describe some epileptic syndromes\\u000a frequently reported in chromosomal disorders.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Detailed clinical assessment, electrophysiological studies, survey of the literature.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  In some of these congenital syndromes the clinical presentation and EEG

Giovanni Sorge; Anna Sorge

2010-01-01

176

Spirometric abnormalities among welders  

SciTech Connect

A group of manual welders age group 13-60 years having a mean exposure period of 12.4 {plus minus} 1.12 years were subjected to spirometry to evaluate the prevalence of spirometric abnormalities. The welders showed a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory impairment than that observed among the unexposed controls as a result of exposure to welding gases which comprised fine particles of lead, zinc, chromium, and manganese. This occurred despite the lower concentration of the pollutants at the work place. In the expose group, the smoking welders showed a prevalence of respiratory impairment significantly higher than that observed in the nonsmoking welders. The results of the pulmonary function tests showed a predominantly restrictive type of pulmonary impairment followed by a mixed ventilatory defect among the welders. The effect of age on pulmonary impairment was not discernible. Welders exposed for over 10 years showed a prevalence of respiratory abnormalities significantly higher than those exposed for less than 10 years. Smoking also had a contributory role.

Rastogi, S.K.; Gupta, B.N.; Husain, T.; Mathur, N.; Srivastava, S. (Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow (India))

1991-10-01

177

Spitzer and HHT observations of the earliest stages of star formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use Spitzer Space Telescope and Heinrich Hertz Telescope (HHT) observations to study the earliest stages of low-mass star formation. Using spatially resolved absorption features, termed shadows, we study the cold cloud cores where stars form. We study Barnard 335, a prototypical isolated Bok globule with an embedded Class 0 protostar. We discover an 8 mm shadow in the inner regions of the core; using this feature we measure the dense core structure and mass. Using HHT observations we detect a rotating structure, a flattened molecular core, with a diameter ~10,000 AU. The flattened molecular core is likely to be the same structure as that generating the 8 mm shadow, and is expected from theoretical simulations. This structure has not been robustly detected in previous observations although there have been some prior indications of its presence. We study dense starless core structure through longer wavelength observations of shadows; we present Spitzer observations of 8 mm, 24 mm, and 70 mm shadows of 14 cores in total. Combined with HHT observations of 12 CO 2-1 and 13 CO2- 1, we derive core sizes, masses, study core structure, and investigate the collapse status of each core. Our study of starless core CB190 reveals that the core is likely to be stable against collapse if magnetic pressure is present at a reasonable level in the core. Our study of the 70 mm shadow associated with the starless core L429 reveals that this object is very likely to be collapsing. Finally, we study a sample of 12 starless cores selected to have prominent 24 mm shadows. We find that about 2/3 of these sources are likely to be collapsing. Additionally, we find indications that 1/2 of the cores revealed to be collapse candidates show indications of having 70 mm shadows. We conclude that all cores dense enough to produce 70 mm shadows are collapse candidates, and that the presence of a shadow at 24 mm is an indicator that the core is likely ([Special characters omitted.] 60% probability) to be collapsing.

Stutz, Amelia M.

178

The power of visual memory: the earliest remembered drawing of Alberto Giacometti, Snow White in Her Coffin.  

PubMed

Since the time of Freud, many psychoanalysts have seen screen memories and earliest memories as reflecting underlying dynamics. I propose that an earliest remembered artwork is a highly condensed construction similar to a screen memory. Alberto Giacometti's earliest remembered drawing, of Snow White in Her Coffin, contains clues to the artist's personality and references to childhood experience. Giacometti's memory of the drawing done in childhood is a striking condensation of significant biographical events and psychodynamic conflicts, as well as a marker of important unconscious fantasies. The artist's postwar sculptural style, utilizing gaunt figures, epitomizes the final transformation of the psychological meaning of his earliest remembered drawing. PMID:18512362

Wilson, Laurie

2008-04-01

179

New fossil gall midges from the earliest Eocene French amber (Insecta, Diptera, Cecidomyiidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new genera and five new species of Cecidomyiidae are described from the earliest Eocene amber of Oise (France). The new taxa belong to the Lestremiinae, the oldest representatives of the genus Lestremia (Lestremiini), L. eocenica n. sp. and L. deploegi n. sp., Neurolyga magnifica n. sp. (Micromyini), Proacoenonia olgae n. gen., n. sp. (Acoenoniini), and to the Porricondylinae Winnertziini,

André NEL; Jakub PROKOP

180

Coelacanths from the Middle Triassic Luoping Biota, Yunnan, South China, with the earliest evidence of  

E-print Network

Rhabdoderma and Undina, and the extant genus Latimeria. Our new find extends the evidence for ovoviviparity, with the earliest evidence of ovoviviparity. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 58 (1): 175­193. The fossil record of coelacanths is patchy, with very few taxa known from the Triassic of Asia. We report here two new genera

Benton, Michael

181

Lithium in Jack Hills zircons: Evidence for extensive weathering of Earth's earliest crust Takayuki Ushikubo a,  

E-print Network

Lithium in Jack Hills zircons: Evidence for extensive weathering of Earth's earliest crust Takayuki Hills lithium weathering continental crust Hadean In situ Li analyses of 4348 to 3362 Ma detrital of REEs. The Jack Hills zircons also have fractionated lithium isotope ratios (7 Li=-19 to+13) about five

Mcdonough, William F.

182

Infantile Amnesia across the Years: A 2-Year Follow-Up of Children's Earliest Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although infantile amnesia has been investigated for many years in adults, only recently has it been investigated in children. This study was a 2-year follow-up and extension of an earlier study. Children (4-13 years old) were asked initially and 2 years later for their earliest 3 memories. At follow-up, their age at the time of these memories…

Peterson, Carole; Warren, Kelly L.; Short, Megan M.

2011-01-01

183

Religiosity and the Earliest Stages of Adolescent Drug Involvement in Seven Countries of Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the role of religiosity in the earliest stages of drug involvement, the authors studied recent-onset occurrence of first chances to try a drug and first actual drug use, expressed as a function of religious practice behaviors, levels of religious devotion, and religious affiliation. Based upon standardized questionnaire assessments of nationally representative samples of school-attending youths drawn in Panama,

Chuan-Yu Chen; Catherine M. Dormitzer; J. Bejarano; James C. Anthony

2004-01-01

184

Draft Genome Sequence of the Earliest Cronobacter sakazakii Sequence Type 4 Strain, NCIMB 8272  

PubMed Central

The Cronobacter sakazakii clonal lineage defined as sequence type 4 (ST4) is associated with severe cases of neonatal meningitis and persistence in powdered infant formula. For genome sequencing of the earliest deposited culture collection strain of Cronobacter sakazakii ST4, we used the strain NCIMB 8272, originally isolated from milk powder in 1950. PMID:24072871

Masood, Naqash; Moore, Karen; Farbos, Audrey; Hariri, Sumyya; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Dickins, Ben; McNally, Alan

2013-01-01

185

Draft Genome Sequence of the Earliest Cronobacter sakazakii Sequence Type 4 Strain, NCIMB 8272.  

PubMed

The Cronobacter sakazakii clonal lineage defined as sequence type 4 (ST4) is associated with severe cases of neonatal meningitis and persistence in powdered infant formula. For genome sequencing of the earliest deposited culture collection strain of Cronobacter sakazakii ST4, we used the strain NCIMB 8272, originally isolated from milk powder in 1950. PMID:24072871

Masood, Naqash; Moore, Karen; Farbos, Audrey; Hariri, Sumyya; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Dickins, Ben; McNally, Alan; Forsythe, Stephen

2013-01-01

186

POTENTIAL EARLIEST RECORD OF PODOCNEMIDOID TURTLES, FROM THE EARLY CRETACEOUS (VALANGINIAN) OF COLOMBIA  

E-print Network

the Early Cretaceous (Valanginian, ca. 135 Ma) Rosablanca Formation, Zapatoca town, Colombia are described. These specimens represent the earliest record of podocnemidoid turtles. Evolutionary and paleogeographical and the extant and fossil members of Podocnemididae plus Brasilemys josai Lapparent de Broin, (2000), and Hamada

Bermingham, Eldredge

187

Earliest date for milk use in the Near East and southeastern Europe linked to cattle herding  

E-print Network

LETTERS Earliest date for milk use in the Near East and southeastern Europe linked to cattle considerable economic and nutritional gains from using these animals for their milk and other products from the late fifth and fourth millennia BC 4,5 . Hence, the timing and region in which milking was first

Cai, Long

188

Oldest rocks, earliest life, heaviest impacts, and the HadeanArchaean transition  

E-print Network

Oldest rocks, earliest life, heaviest impacts, and the Hadean­Archaean transition Stephen Moorbath. That has been re- ferred to as the Hadean­Archaean transition, often de- fined by arbitrary time boundaries, roughly 3.8­4.0 billion years ago, is called both the Hadean era and Priscoan eon of Earth. The term

Reiners, Peter W.

189

Birth to Three Matters: A Framework to Support Children in Their Earliest Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Government commitment to the care and education of children from birth to three years in England led to the commissioning in 2001 of "a framework of best practice" (DfEE, 2001:24) to support children in their earliest years. The resulting framework of "effective" practice, together with supporting materials, was developed by a team based at…

Abbott, Lesley; Langston, Ann

2005-01-01

190

Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer  

SciTech Connect

To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease.

Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.

1986-07-01

191

Olsen, P. E., 1986, Discoveryof earliest Jurassic reptile assemblage from Nova Scotia impliescatastrophicend to Triassic: Lamont (Newsletter),v. 12,p. 1-3. Discovery of Earliest Jurassic Reptile Assemblages from Nova Scotia  

E-print Network

Olsen, P. E., 1986, Discoveryof earliest Jurassic reptile assemblage from Nova Scotia impliescatastrophicend to Triassic: Lamont (Newsletter),v. 12,p. 1-3. Discovery of Earliest Jurassic Reptile Assemblages from Nova Scotia: Imply Catastrophic End to the Triassic LateTriassic and EarlyJurassic sediments

Olsen, Paul E.

192

Urinary abnormalities in non gonococcal urethritis.  

PubMed Central

The association between urinary abnormalities detected by the two-glass urine test and objective urethritis was investigated in a study of 221 male patients with non-gonococcal urethritis. A strong correlation existed between urinary threads and urethritis, but use of the test for diagnosis and in the assessment of cure is limited by its poor predictive value in both treated and untreated patients. PMID:7326552

Munday, P E; Altman, D G; Taylor-Robinson, D

1981-01-01

193

AMS 14C age of the earliest pottery from the Russian Far East: 1996–2002 results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new results of AMS 14C dating of the earliest pottery from the Russian Far East, Osipovka, Gromatukha and Novopetrovka cultural complexes (Amur River basin), are presented. Pottery temper (represented by sedge grass) was chosen for dating; pottery-associated charcoal was also dated. The earliest pottery from the Amur River basin nowadays may be dated to ca. 13000 BP (ca. 16000

A. P. Derevianko; Y. V. Kuzmin; G. S. Burr; A. J. T. Jull; J. C. Kim

2004-01-01

194

Project EARTH-13-CMN3: The Earliest records of the Earth's magnetic field a combined Iron-isotope & Palaeomagnetic analysis  

E-print Network

Project EARTH-13-CMN3: The Earliest records of the Earth's magnetic field ­ a combined Iron subsequently lost most of their initial atmospheres. The earliest evidence for a magnetic field on Earth of the Earth's magnetic field. Finally we will analyse samples from the 3.7 to 3.8Ga Isua Belt in Greenland

Henderson, Gideon

195

Raw material selectivity of the earliest stone toolmakers at Gona, Afar, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Published evidence of Oldowan stone exploitation generally supports the conclusion that patterns of raw material use were determined by local availability. This is contradicted by the results of systematic studies of raw material availability and use among the earliest known archaeological sites from Gona, Afar, Ethiopia. Artifact assemblages from six Pliocene archaeological sites were compared with six random cobble samples taken from associated conglomerates that record pene-contemporaneous raw material availability. Artifacts and cobbles were evaluated according to four variables intended to capture major elements of material quality: rock type, phenocryst percentage, average phenocryst size, and groundmass texture. Analyses of these variables provide evidence of hominid selectivity for raw material quality. These results demonstrate that raw material selectivity was a potential component of Oldowan technological organization from its earliest appearance and document a level of technological sophistication that is not always attributed to Pliocene hominids. PMID:15788183

Stout, Dietrich; Quade, Jay; Semaw, Sileshi; Rogers, Michael J; Levin, Naomi E

2005-04-01

196

Dietary specializations and diversity in feeding ecology of the earliest stem mammals.  

PubMed

The origin and radiation of mammals are key events in the history of life, with fossils placing the origin at 220 million years ago, in the Late Triassic period. The earliest mammals, representing the first 50 million years of their evolution and including the most basal taxa, are widely considered to be generalized insectivores. This implies that the first phase of the mammalian radiation--associated with the appearance in the fossil record of important innovations such as heterodont dentition, diphyodonty and the dentary-squamosal jaw joint--was decoupled from ecomorphological diversification. Finds of exceptionally complete specimens of later Mesozoic mammals have revealed greater ecomorphological diversity than previously suspected, including adaptations for swimming, burrowing, digging and even gliding, but such well-preserved fossils of earlier mammals do not exist, and robust analysis of their ecomorphological diversity has previously been lacking. Here we present the results of an integrated analysis, using synchrotron X-ray tomography and analyses of biomechanics, finite element models and tooth microwear textures. We find significant differences in function and dietary ecology between two of the earliest mammaliaform taxa, Morganucodon and Kuehneotherium--taxa that are central to the debate on mammalian evolution. Morganucodon possessed comparatively more forceful and robust jaws and consumed 'harder' prey, comparable to extant small-bodied mammals that eat considerable amounts of coleopterans. Kuehneotherium ingested a diet comparable to extant mixed feeders and specialists on 'soft' prey such as lepidopterans. Our results reveal previously hidden trophic specialization at the base of the mammalian radiation; hence even the earliest mammaliaforms were beginning to diversify--morphologically, functionally and ecologically. In contrast to the prevailing view, this pattern suggests that lineage splitting during the earliest stages of mammalian evolution was associated with ecomorphological specialization and niche partitioning. PMID:25143112

Gill, Pamela G; Purnell, Mark A; Crumpton, Nick; Brown, Kate Robson; Gostling, Neil J; Stampanoni, M; Rayfield, Emily J

2014-08-21

197

The characteristics and chronology of the earliest Acheulean at Konso, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

The Acheulean technological tradition, characterized by a large (>10 cm) flake-based component, represents a significant technological advance over the Oldowan. Although stone tool assemblages attributed to the Acheulean have been reported from as early as circa 1.6–1.75 Ma, the characteristics of these earliest occurrences and comparisons with later assemblages have not been reported in detail. Here, we provide a newly established chronometric calibration for the Acheulean assemblages of the Konso Formation, southern Ethiopia, which span the time period ?1.75 to <1.0 Ma. The earliest Konso Acheulean is chronologically indistinguishable from the assemblage recently published as the world’s earliest with an age of ?1.75 Ma at Kokiselei, west of Lake Turkana, Kenya. This Konso assemblage is characterized by a combination of large picks and crude bifaces/unifaces made predominantly on large flake blanks. An increase in the number of flake scars was observed within the Konso Formation handaxe assemblages through time, but this was less so with picks. The Konso evidence suggests that both picks and handaxes were essential components of the Acheulean from its initial stages and that the two probably differed in function. The temporal refinement seen, especially in the handaxe forms at Konso, implies enhanced function through time, perhaps in processing carcasses with long and stable cutting edges. The documentation of the earliest Acheulean at ?1.75 Ma in both northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia suggests that behavioral novelties were being established in a regional scale at that time, paralleling the emergence of Homo erectus-like hominid morphology. PMID:23359714

Beyene, Yonas; Katoh, Shigehiro; WoldeGabriel, Giday; Hart, William K.; Uto, Kozo; Sudo, Masafumi; Kondo, Megumi; Hyodo, Masayuki; Renne, Paul R.; Suwa, Gen; Asfaw, Berhane

2013-01-01

198

Systemic abnormalities in liver disease  

PubMed Central

Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases. PMID:19554648

Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

2009-01-01

199

TMI abnormal waste project plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report discusses plans for the TMI Abnormal Waste Project, which is part of the EPICOR and Waste Research and Disposition Program and funded by the US Department of Energy. The sequence proposed for disposition of Three Mile Island (TMI) abnormal wastes includes: (a) packaging at TMI, (b) shipment to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), (c) storage at INEL

Ayers; A. L. Jr

1984-01-01

200

Students' reactions to abnormal psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of some concern about the effect of courses in abnormal psychology on students, a questionnaire was presented to several classes at the close of the course. The majority answering the questionnaire felt the course to be beneficial, giving evidence that the study of abnormal psychology need not be generally harmful, and may have a significant place in

W. S. Taylor

1932-01-01

201

abnormalities in infants and toddlers  

E-print Network

, Akshoomoff 2000). Similarly, patients with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) have decreased cerebellar volumesCerebellar abnormalities in infants and toddlers with Williams syndrome Wendy Jones* PhD, The Salk-mail: jones@crl.ucsd.edu One commonly observed neuroanatomical abnormality in adults with Williams syndrome

Bellugi, Ursula

202

Earth’s earliest evolved crust generated in an Iceland-like setting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is unclear how the earliest continental crust formed on an Earth that was probably originally surfaced with oceanic crust. Continental crust may have first formed in an ocean island-like setting, where upwelling mantle generates magmas that crystallize to form new crust. Of the oceanic plateaux, Iceland is closest in character to continental crust, because its crust is anomalously thick and contains a relatively high proportion of silica-rich (sialic) rocks. Iceland has therefore been considered a suitable analogue for the generation of Earth’s earliest continental crust. However, the geochemical signature of sialic rocks from Iceland is distinct from the typical 3.9- to 2.5-billion-year-old Archaean rocks discovered so far. Here we report the discovery of an exceptionally well-preserved, 4.02-billion-year-old tonalitic gneiss rock unit within the Acasta Gneiss Complex in Canada. We use geochemical analyses to show that this rock unit is characterized by iron enrichment, negative Europium anomalies, unfractionated rare-earth-element patterns, and magmatic zircons with low oxygen isotope ratios. These geochemical characteristics are unlike typical Archaean igneous rocks, but are strikingly similar to those of the sialic rocks from Iceland and imply that this ancient rock unit was formed by shallow-level magmatic processes that include assimilation of rocks previously altered by surface waters. Our data provide direct evidence that Earth’s earliest continental crust formed in a tectonic setting comparable to modern Iceland.

Reimink, Jesse R.; Chacko, Thomas; Stern, Richard A.; Heaman, Larry M.

2014-07-01

203

Chromosome abnormalities in Indonesian patients with short stature  

PubMed Central

Background Short stature is associated with several disorders including wide variations of chromosomal disorders and single gene disorders. The objective of this report is to present the cytogenetic findings in Indonesian patients with short stature. Methods G-banding and interphase/metaphase FISH were performed on short stature patients with and without other clinical features who were referred by clinicians all over Indonesia to our laboratory during the year 2003–2009. Results The results of chromosomal analysis of ninety seven patients (mean age: 10.7 years old) were collected. The group of patients with other clinical features showed sex chromosome abnormalities in 45% (18/40) and autosomal abnormalities in 10% (4/40), whereas those with short stature only, 42.1% (24/57) had sex chromosome abnormalities and 1.75% (1/57) had autosomal abnormalities. The autosomal chromosomal abnormalities involved mostly subtelomeric regions. Results discrepancies between karyotype and FISH were found in 10 patients, including detection of low-level monosomy X mosaicism in 6 patients with normal karyotype, and detection of mosaic aneuploidy chromosome 18 in 1 patient with 45,XX,rob(13;14)(q10;q10). Statistical analysis showed no significant association between the groups and the type of chromosomal abnormalities. Conclusion Chromosome abnormalities account for about 50% of the short stature patients. Wide variations of both sex and autosomal chromosomes abnormalities were detected in the study. Since three out of five patients had autosomal structural abnormalities involving the subtelomeric regions, thus in the future, subtelomeric FISH or even a more sensitive method such as genomic/SNP microarray is needed to confirm deletions of subtelomeric regions of chromosome 9, 11 and 18. Low-level mosaicism in normal karyotype patients indicates interphase FISH need to be routinely carried out in short stature patients as an adjunct to karyotyping. PMID:22863325

2012-01-01

204

Alcohol and abnormal outcomes of pregnancy.  

PubMed Central

Heavy alcohol consumption by the mother during pregnancy has long been suspected of being a risk factor for abnormalities in the fetus or infant. Only during the last decade have these assumptions been supported by scientific studies. A clustering of fetal defects observed in some cases has been labelled the fetal alcohol syndrome. The syndrome involves prenatal and postnatal growth retardation, central nervous system involvement and craniofacial abnormalities, some of which are characteristic of the syndrome. Fetal alcohol syndrome is relatively rare, affecting from 1 in 300 to 1 in 2000 infants; approximately 450 cases have been reported since the syndrome was identified. Despite this rarity, however, heavy alcohol consumption is an important risk factor during pregnancy. A review of the current literature indicates that in animals alcohol in high doses is embryotoxic and teratogenic, the heavy drinking is not uncommon before and during pregnancy and that the fetal alcohol syndrome and other effects on the fetus associated with alcohol abuse appear with significant frequency among mothers who drink heavily. Heavy alcohol consumption is a perinatal risk factor that not only can be detected by the physician, but also can be reduced in concerned, cooperative patients. Thus, awareness of this problem gives health care personnel an opportunity to help in the prevention of abnormal outcomes of pregnancy. Images FIG. 1 PMID:7023637

Sokol, R. J.

1981-01-01

205

Neurological abnormalities in young adults born preterm  

PubMed Central

Objective Individuals born before 33?weeks' gestation (very preterm, VPT) have an increased likelihood of neurological abnormality, impaired cognitive function, and reduced academic performance in childhood. It is currently not known whether neurological signs detected in VPT children persist into adulthood or become attenuated by maturation of the CNS. Method We assessed 153 VPT individuals and 71 term?born controls at 17–18?years old, using a comprehensive neurological examination. This examination divides neurological signs into primary and integrative domains, the former representing the localising signs of classical neurology, and the latter representing signs requiring integration between different neural networks or systems. Integrative signs are sub?divided into three groups: sensory integration, motor confusion, and sequencing. The VPT individuals have been followed up since birth, and neonatal information is available on them, along with the results of neurological assessment at 4 and 8?years of age and neuropsychological assessment at 18?years of age. Results The total neurology score and primary and integrative scores were significantly increased in VPT young adults compared to term?born controls. Within the integrative domain, sensory integration and motor confusion scores were significantly increased in the VPT group, but sequencing was not significantly different between the VPT and term groups. Integrative neurological abnormalities at 18 were strongly associated with reduced IQ but primary abnormalities were not. Conclusions Neurological signs are increased in VPT adults compared to term?born controls, and are strongly associated with reduced neuropsychological function. PMID:16543529

Allin, M; Rooney, M; Griffiths, T; Cuddy, M; Wyatt, J; Rifkin, L; Murray, R

2006-01-01

206

Chromosomal Abnormality in Men with Impaired Spermatogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background: Chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletions are regarded as two most frequent genetic causes associated with failure of spermatogenesis in the Caucasian population. Materials and Methods: To investigate the distribution of genetic defects in the Romanian population with azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia, karyotype analysis by G-banding was carried out in 850 idiopathic infertile men and in 49 fertile men with one or more children. Screening for microdeletions in the azoospermia factor (AZF) region of Y chromosome was performed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on a group of 67 patients with no detectable chromosomal abnormality. The results of the two groups were compared by a two-tailed Fisher’s exact test. Results: In our study chromosomal abnormalities were observed in 12.70% and 8.16% of infertile and fertile individuals respectively. Conclusion: Our data suggests that infertile men with severe azoospermia have higher incidences of genetic defects than fertile men and also patients from any other group. Infertile men with normal sperm present a higher rate of polymorphic variants. It is important to know whether there is a genetic cause of male infertility before patients are subjected to intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or testicular sperm extraction (TESE)/ICSI treatment. PMID:24696767

Mierla, Dana; Jardan, Dumitru; Stoian, Veronica

2014-01-01

207

[Walking abnormalities in children].  

PubMed

Walking is a spontaneous movement termed locomotion that is promoted by activation of antigravity muscles by serotonergic (5HT) neurons. Development of antigravity activity follows 3 developmental epochs of the sleep-wake (S-W) cycle and is modulated by particular 5HT neurons in each epoch. Activation of antigravity activities occurs in the first epoch (around the age of 3 to 4 months) as restriction of atonia in rapid eye movement (REM) stage and development of circadian S-W cycle. These activities strengthen in the second epoch, with modulation of day-time sleep and induction of crawling around the age of 8 months and induction of walking by 1 year. Around the age of 1 year 6 months, absence of guarded walking and interlimb cordination is observed along with modulation of day-time sleep to once in the afternoon. Bipedal walking in upright position occurs in the third epoch, with development of a biphasic S-W cycle by the age of 4-5 years. Patients with infantile autism (IA), Rett syndrome (RTT), or Tourette syndrome (TS) show failure in the development of the first, second, or third epoch, respectively. Patients with IA fail to develop interlimb coordination; those with RTT, crawling and walking; and those with TS, walking in upright posture. Basic pathophysiology underlying these condition is failure in restricting atonia in REM stage; this induces dysfunction of the pedunculopontine nucleus and consequently dys- or hypofunction of the dopamine (DA) neurons. DA hypofunction in the developing brain, associated with compensatory upward regulation of the DA receptors causes psychobehavioral disorders in infancy (IA), failure in synaptogenesis in the frontal cortex and functional development of the motor and associate cortexes in late infancy through the basal ganglia (RTT), and failure in functional development of the prefrontal cortex through the basal ganglia (TS). Further, locomotion failure in early childhood causes failure in development of functional specialization of the cortex through the spinal stepping generator-fastigial nucleus-thalamus-cortex pathway. Early detection of locomotion failure and early adjustment of this condition through environmental factors can prevent the development of higher cortical dysfunction. PMID:21068458

Segawa, Masaya

2010-11-01

208

Using Reduced Interference Distribution to Analyze Abnormal Cardiac Signal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the non-stationary, multicomponent nature of biomedical signals, the use of time-frequency analysis can be inevitable for these signals. The choice and selection of the proper Time-Frequency Distribution (TFD) that can reveal the exact multicomponent structure of biological signals is vital in many applications, including the diagnosis of medical abnormalities. In this paper, the instantaneous frequency techniques using two distribution functions are applied for analysis of biological signals. These distributions are the Wigner-Ville Distribution and the Bessel Distribution. The simulation performed on normaland abnormal cardiac signals show that the Bessel Distribution can clearly detect the QRS complexes. However, Wigner-Ville Distribution was able to detect the QRS complexes in the normal signa, but fails to detect these complexes in the abnormal cardiac signal.

Mousa, Allam; Saleem, Rashid

2011-05-01

209

Identification of the earliest prethymic T-cell progenitors in murine fetal blood.  

PubMed

During murine fetal development, hemato-poietic progenitors start to colonize the thymic anlage at day 11 of gestation via blood stream. The present study aims at identifying the earliest prethymic progenitors in circulation. Here, we show that the interleukin-7 receptor-positive (IL-7R+) cells in Lin- c-kit+ population are circulating exclusively between days 11 and 14 of fetal age. Clonal analysis revealed that these IL-7R+ cells mostly contain T-cell lineage-restricted progenitors (p-Ts). The proportion of circulating p-Ts reaches 30% of the total p-Ts during these fetal ages, whereas virtually all B-cell lineage-restricted progenitors stay in the fetal liver, suggesting that the p-Ts are selectively released to the circulation. The circulating p-Ts retain the potential to generate natural killer cells and dendritic cells and exhibit extensive proliferation before the occurrence of T-cell receptor beta (TCRbeta) chain gene rearrangement. We propose that the wave of p-Ts in fetal blood disclosed by this study represents the ontogenically earliest thymic immigrants. PMID:14512296

Ikawa, Tomokatsu; Masuda, Kyoko; Lu, Min; Minato, Nagahiro; Katsura, Yoshimoto; Kawamoto, Hiroshi

2004-01-15

210

The earliest transcribed zygotic genes are short, newly evolved, and different across species.  

PubMed

The transition from maternal to zygotic control is fundamental to the life cycle of all multicellular organisms. It is widely believed that genomes are transcriptionally inactive from fertilization until zygotic genome activation (ZGA). Thus, the earliest genes expressed probably support the rapid cell divisions that precede morphogenesis and, if so, might be evolutionarily conserved. Here, we identify the earliest zygotic transcripts in the zebrafish, Danio rerio, through metabolic labeling and purification of RNA from staged embryos. Surprisingly, the mitochondrial genome was highly active from the one-cell stage onwards, showing that significant transcriptional activity exists at fertilization. We show that 592 nuclear genes become active when cell cycles are still only 15 min long, confining expression to relatively short genes. Furthermore, these zygotic genes are evolutionarily younger than those expressed at other developmental stages. Comparison of fish, fly, and mouse data revealed different sets of genes expressed at ZGA. This species specificity uncovers an evolutionary plasticity in early embryogenesis that probably confers substantial adaptive potential. PMID:24440719

Heyn, Patricia; Kircher, Martin; Dahl, Andreas; Kelso, Janet; Tomancak, Pavel; Kalinka, Alex T; Neugebauer, Karla M

2014-01-30

211

Notes on historical aspects on the earliest known observations of noctilucent clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper considers historical aspects of the earliest known observations of noctilucent clouds (NLCs). The 1884 and 1885 are discussed by considering important historical citations by the pioneers of the earliest known observations of noctilucent clouds. For the first time in NLC studies, we consider seven major volcanic eruptions: Laki in 1783, Mount St. Helens in 1800, Tambora in 1815, Galunggung in 1822, Cosigüina in 1835, Shiveluch in 1854 and Askja in 1875. These all preceded the catastrophic 1883 eruption of Krakatoa, which despite having a lesser magnitude than Tambora in 1815, had pronounced effects on the atmosphere. These eruptions represent possible triggers for the appearance of NLCs. For the first time, we publish an unknown, in English-speaking literature, historical fact on the first determinations of the altitude of noctilucent clouds made by two Russian astronomers V. K. Tseraskii and A. A. Belopolskii on 26 June 1885, who managed to infer the altitude of the clouds in the range of 73-83 km, that is, for the first time, demonstrating the possible existence of the clouds at great altitudes in the Earth's atmosphere. Moreover, V. K. Tseraskii was the first observer to photograph noctilucent clouds in 1885 or 1886, which is 1-2 yr before the German astronomer O. Jesse, who owns the first published images of noctilucent clouds. The photographs made by V. K. Tseraskii, unfortunately, did not reach us.

Dalin, P.; Pertsev, N.; Romejko, V.

2012-03-01

212

Granulocyte, monocyte and blast immunophenotype abnormalities in acute myeloid leukemia with myelodysplasia-related changes.  

PubMed

Little literature exists regarding granulocyte and monocyte immunophenotype abnormalities in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). We hypothesized that granulocyte and monocyte immunophenotype abnormalities are common in AML, and especially in AML with myelodysplasia-related changes (AMLMRC). Bone marrow or peripheral blood specimens from 48 cases of AML and 22 cases of control specimens were analyzed by flow cytometric immunophenotyping. Granulocyte, monocyte, and blast immunophenotype abnormalities were compared between cases of AML versus controls and AMLMRC versus AML without myelodysplasia. The results revealed that granulocyte, monocyte, and blast abnormalities were more common in AMLMRC than in AML without myelodysplasia or control cases. The difference reached statistical significance for abnormalities of granulocytes and abnormalities in all cells of interest. From the numerous individual abnormalities, only CD25 expression in blasts was significantly more prevalent in AMLMRC in this study. We conclude that detection of granulocyte, monocyte, and blast immunophenotype abnormalities can contribute to the diagnosis of AMLMRC. PMID:24695467

Ayar, Sonali P; Ravula, Sreelakshmi; Polski, Jacek M

2014-01-01

213

Abnormal waves during Hurricane Camille  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reanalysis is reported of the wave time series recorded during Hurricane Camille having as objective the identification of individual waves that satisfy current criteria defining abnormal or freak waves. It is shown that during the hurricane development, a very nonstationary situation has occurred during which the second-order sea state parameters changed significantly with time. The parameters of the largest individual waves in sea states which identify abnormal waves did not show any clear trend, and such waves occurred during the development stage and not when the significant wave height was the largest. It is argued that the present criteria of identification of abnormal waves are not satisfactory, as they do not take into account the nature of the sea states in which the waves occur.

Guedes Soares, C.; Cherneva, Z.; AntãO, E. M.

2004-08-01

214

Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical ``heartprints'' which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing ~105 heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

2002-09-01

215

Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

2002-01-01

216

The earliest settlers' antiquity and evolutionary history of Indian populations: evidence from M2 mtDNA lineage  

PubMed Central

Background The "out of Africa" model postulating single "southern route" dispersal posits arrival of "Anatomically Modern Human" to Indian subcontinent around 66–70 thousand years before present (kyBP). However the contributions and legacy of these earliest settlers in contemporary Indian populations, owing to the complex past population dynamics and later migrations has been an issue of controversy. The high frequency of mitochondrial lineage "M2" consistent with its greater age and distribution suggests that it may represent the phylogenetic signature of earliest settlers. Accordingly, we attempted to re-evaluate the impact and contribution of earliest settlers in shaping the genetic diversity and structure of contemporary Indian populations; using our newly sequenced 72 and 4 published complete mitochondrial genomes of this lineage. Results The M2 lineage, harbouring two deep rooting subclades M2a and M2b encompasses approximately one tenth of the mtDNA pool of studied tribes. The phylogeographic spread and diversity indices of M2 and its subclades among the tribes of different geographic regions and linguistic phyla were investigated in detail. Further the reconstructed demographic history of M2 lineage as a surrogate of earliest settlers' component revealed that the demographic events with pronounced regional variations had played pivotal role in shaping the complex net of populations phylogenetic relationship in Indian subcontinent. Conclusion Our results suggest that tribes of southern and eastern region along with Dravidian and Austro-Asiatic speakers of central India are the modern representatives of earliest settlers of subcontinent. The Last Glacial Maximum aridity and post LGM population growth mechanised some sort of homogeneity and redistribution of earliest settlers' component in India. The demic diffusion of agriculture and associated technologies around 3 kyBP, which might have marginalized hunter-gatherer, is coincidental with the decline of earliest settlers' population during this period. PMID:18691441

2008-01-01

217

[Hematological abnormalities in rheumatic diseases].  

PubMed

Haematological abnormalities are present in 25-50% patients with rheumatic diseases. The most common finding is anaemia of chronic disease which is driven by inflammatory cytokines. Hepcidin plays key role in iron homeostasis. It reduces iron absorption from duodenum and iron release from reticuloendothelial cells. Anaemia of chronic disease could be successfully treated by recombinant erythropoietin in combination with iron supplementation. Various abnormalities can be observed in the leukocyte and platelets counts. Other haematological disturbances are considered as part of autoimmune disease. Prolonged antigen stimulation can induce lymphomagenesis and lymphoma incidence in patients with rheumatic diseases is 5 to 6-fold increased compared to normal population. PMID:17580549

Radman, Ivo

2006-01-01

218

Abnormal Psychology, Spring 2008 1 Psychology 350  

E-print Network

Abnormal Psychology, Spring 2008 1 Psychology 350 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2008 N-101 Tuesdays 4 psychology. By the end of the semester, students will be able to: · Discuss extant models of abnormal in Foundation II.B., Social and Behavioral Sciences required." #12;Abnormal Psychology, Spring 2008 2 Course

Gallo, Linda C.

219

Abnormalities of human sex determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Cytogenetic and molecular studies in patients with abnormalities of sex determination have been the key to the isolation and investigation of candidates for the primary testis determining factor (TDF). A gene, SRY, isolated from the sex determining region of the Y chromosome within 5 kilobases of the pairing segment boundary, has been characterized recently which fulfils the expectations of

M. A. Ferguson-Smith

1992-01-01

220

Steganography with Least Histogram Abnormality  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel steganographic scheme is proposed which avoids asymmetry inherent in conventional LSB embedding techniques so that abnormality in the image histogram is kept minimum. The proposed technique is capable of re- sisting the ?2 test and RS analysis, as well as a new steganalytic method named GPC analysis as introduced in this paper. In the described steganographic tech- nique,

Xinpeng Zhang; Shuozhong Wang; Kaiwen Zhang

2003-01-01

221

Extracellular Matrix Abnormalities in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Emerging evidence points to the involvement of the brain extracellular matrix (ECM) in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ). Abnormalities affecting several ECM components, including Reelin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), have been described in subjects with this disease. Solid evidence supports the involvement of Reelin, an ECM glycoprotein involved in corticogenesis, synaptic functions and glutamate NMDA receptor regulation, expressed prevalently in distinct populations of GABAergic neurons, which secrete it into the ECM. Marked changes of Reelin expression in SZ have typically been reported in association with GABA-related abnormalities in subjects with SZ and bipolar disorder. Recent findings from our group point to substantial abnormalities affecting CSPGs, a main ECM component, in the amygdala and entorhinal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia, but not bipolar disorder. Striking increases of glial cells expressing CSPGs were accompanied by reductions of perineuronal nets, CSPG- and Reelin-enriched ECM aggregates enveloping distinct neuronal populations. CSPGs developmental and adult functions, including neuronal migration, axon guidance, synaptic and neurotransmission regulation are highly relevant to the pathophysiology of SZ. Together with reports of anomalies affecting several other ECM components, these findings point to the ECM as a key component of the pathology of SZ. We propose that ECM abnormalities may contribute to several aspects of the pathophysiology of this disease, including disrupted connectivity and neuronal migration, synaptic anomalies and altered GABAergic, glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission. PMID:21856318

Berretta, Sabina

2011-01-01

222

Biotic Response in Aquatic Reptiles (Testudines) during Earliest Eocene Climatic Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The earliest Eocene is marked by significant events of global warming: the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) at ~55.8 Ma and two short-lived events (ETM2 or Elmo and H2) approximately 2 Ma later. These environmental changes induced strong responses in the continental biota. Noteworthy changes in North American mid-latitude faunas and floras that are temporally correlated with earliest Eocene warming events include: increased diversity; turnover; and significant range changes, comprising both northward shifts in ranges of North American taxa as well as intercontinental dispersal across Holarctica. Evidence for these biotic changes comes directly from the fossil record and indirectly from phylogeographic analyses of molecular phylogenies of extant biota. To date, the stratigraphic record of biotic change has only been examined for the flora and terrestrial mammals. Data on reptiles and for continental aquatic systems are particularly lacking. In order to assess the impact of climate-mediated faunal change in aquatic systems during early Paleogene warming, we have focused on developing a detailed record of fossil turtles (Testudines) from the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming, where these records can be directly compared to similarly studied mammalian and floral data and to isotopic studies that provide independent proxies of climate change. Using genus-level occurrence data from more than 450 stratigraphically-constrained localities spanning ~2.5 Ma, we calculated first and last appearances, taxonomic richness, and relative abundance as measured by presence-absence (site occupancy). Among turtles, taxonomic richness increased episodically through the earliest Eocene with two new taxa appearing at the PETM, two immediately following it, and two at Biohorizon B, an interval associated with the younger hyperthermals. These new, immigrant taxa eventually comprised 40% of known generic richness. Phylogenetically, the inferred biogeographic source regions are southern North America and Asia, with an equal number of taxa originating in each area. Although immigrant taxa comprised less than half of the known earliest Eocene diversity, their relative dominance in these assemblages varied markedly. Within the PETM interval, immigrant taxa comprise nearly 70% of occurrences. Post-PETM, as temperatures cooled, immigrant taxa and taxa persisting from the Paleocene showed greater evenness, but immigrant taxa again became dominant with renewed warming. Among immigrant taxa, intercontinental dispersers are much more common than those that that dispersed from southern North America. These data are consistent with and stratigraphically correlative with significant changes in the mammalian fauna and flora of the Bighorn Basin and underline the importance of climatic change as a driver in these events. However, the magnitude and relative importance of intra- vs. intercontinental dispersal has not yet been fully examined in other taxonomic groups. The asymmetry of response following immigration that we observe in turtles may be taxon-specific, unique to aquatic systems, or may illustrate a more general pattern of how biotas respond to significant climate change.

Holroyd, P. A.; Hutchison, J. H.

2010-12-01

223

Earliest crinoids: New evidence for the origin of the dominant Paleozoic echinoderms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oldest crinoids have been discovered in Early Ordovician strata of the western United States. A set of emergent crinoid traits based on these and other early crinoids enables reinterpretation of crinoid origins and early history. The new fossils retain primitive echinoderm characteristics, including ambulacral floor plates and largely unorganized cup plating, a first for crinoids. They lack shared derived characteristics linking them to other stalked echinoderms, including blastozoans. Contrary to current widespread opinion, crinoids originated as an independent group during the Cambrian, apparently from an edrioasteroid ancestor. All four major Paleozoic crinoid clades had evolved by the early Ibexian (Tremadocian), and this initial diversification slightly preceded those of most other Paleozoic evolutionary fauna components. These earliest crinoids attached to carbonate hardgrounds developed on sponge-algal mounds, intraformational conglomerates, and grainstones.

Guensburg, Thomas E.; Sprinkle, James

2001-02-01

224

Morphologic and radiological observations on the earliest bone marrow formation in human embryos and fetuses.  

PubMed

Morphologic and radiologic studies were undertaken on 26 human embryos and fetuses to determine the stage and site of the earliest bone marrow formation. Up to the 10th week of gestation, primary bone marrow is not present anywhere although the intramembranous ossification occurs in the maxilla and mandible and also in the middle portion of the clavicle. At the 11th week of gestation, X-ray examination showed in two fetuses the bone formation in the clavicle, scapula, maxilla, mandible, and the diaphysis of the long bones. Serial sections of these fetuses revealed that the primary bone marrow occurs first in the middle portion of the clavicle. From a series of our embryological studies, the concept of the mononuclear phagocyte system which involves the bone-marrow-derived monocytic origin of tissue macrophages, is not accepted, at least, on the origin of Kupffer cells in human fetal livers. PMID:6624441

Enzan, H; Hara, H; Izumi, T; Ohkita, T

1983-05-01

225

The Earliest Thymic T Cell Progenitors Sustain B Cell and Myeloid Lineage Potentials  

PubMed Central

The stepwise commitment from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow (BM) to T lymphocyte-restricted progenitors in the thymus represents a paradigm for understanding the requirement for distinct extrinsic cues during different stages of lineage restriction from multipotent to lineage restricted progenitors. However, the commitment stage at which progenitors migrate from the BM to the thymus remains unclear. Here we provide functional and molecular evidence at the single cell level that the earliest progenitors in the neonatal thymus possessed combined granulocyte-monocyte, T and B lymphocyte, but not megakaryocyte-erythroid lineage potential. These potentials were identical to those of thymus-seeding progenitors in the BM, which were closely related at the molecular level. These findings establish the distinct lineage-restriction stage at which the T lineage commitment transits from the BM to the remote thymus. PMID:22344248

Luc, Sidinh; Luis, Tiago C.; Boukarabila, Hanane; Macaulay, Iain C.; Buza-Vidas, Natalija; Bouriez-Jones, Tiphaine; Lutteropp, Michael; Woll, Petter S.; Loughran, Stephen J.; Mead, Adam J.; Hultquist, Anne; Brown, John; Mizukami, Takuo; Matsuoka, Sahoko; Ferry, Helen; Anderson, Kristina; Duarte, Sara; Atkinson, Deborah; Soneji, Shamit; Domanski, Aniela; Farley, Alison; Sanjuan-Pla, Alejandra; Carella, Cintia; Patient, Roger; de Bruijn, Marella; Enver, Tariq; Nerlov, Claus; Blackburn, Clare; Godin, Isabelle; Jacobsen, Sten Eirik W.

2012-01-01

226

The earliest humans?, still image with audioSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

And here, creatures which have been called the earliest humans, Homo rudolfensis and Homo habilis. And certainly in terms of brain size, they are a step up from the australopithicines. But again, looking at them in detail when we have parts of their skeletons, when we look at their teeth and faces, they, for many of us, are not totally convincing as the first humans. Some people still see them as only a halfway house between australopithicines and humans. And some people have argued that actually, the line to the first humans should be drawn somewhere here, and these creatures actually are still more closely related to the australopithicines than they are to later humans.

2008-10-06

227

Functional capabilities of the earliest peptides and the emergence of life.  

PubMed

Considering how biological macromolecules first evolved, probably within a marine environment, it seems likely the very earliest peptides were not encoded by nucleic acids, or at least not via the genetic code as we know it. An objective of the present work is to demonstrate that sequence-independent peptides, or peptides with variable and unreliable lengths and sequences, have the potential to perform a variety of chemically useful functions such as anion and cation binding and membrane and channel formation as well as simple types of catalysis. These functions tend to be performed with the assistance of the main chain CONH atoms rather than the more variable or limited side chain atoms of the peptides presumed to exist then. PMID:24710286

Milner-White, E James; Russell, Michael J

2011-01-01

228

Functional Capabilities of the Earliest Peptides and the Emergence of Life  

PubMed Central

Considering how biological macromolecules first evolved, probably within a marine environment, it seems likely the very earliest peptides were not encoded by nucleic acids, or at least not via the genetic code as we know it. An objective of the present work is to demonstrate that sequence-independent peptides, or peptides with variable and unreliable lengths and sequences, have the potential to perform a variety of chemically useful functions such as anion and cation binding and membrane and channel formation as well as simple types of catalysis. These functions tend to be performed with the assistance of the main chain CONH atoms rather than the more variable or limited side chain atoms of the peptides presumed to exist then. PMID:24710286

Milner-White, E. James; Russell, Michael J.

2011-01-01

229

Bivalves from the latest Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous hydrocarbon seep carbonates from central Spitsbergen, Svalbard.  

PubMed

The bivalve fauna from the latest Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous hydrocarbon seep deposits from central Spitsbergen, Svalbard comprises at least 17 species, four of which belong to chemosymbiotic taxa often found at seeps. These are the solemyid Solemya (Petrasma) cf. woodwardiana; Nucinella svalbardensis sp. nov., which belongs to a group of large Nucinella species known from seeps and deep water environments; the lucinid bivalve, Tehamatea rasmusseni sp. nov., included in a genus widely distributed in other Jurassic-Cretaceous seeps; and Cretaxinus hurumi gen. et sp. nov., which is the oldest known thyasirid and is discussed in relation to other large seep-restricted genera in this family. The remaining species in the fauna belong to 'background' genera known from coeval normal marine sediments, mostly from the Boreal area. These include the nuculid Dacromya chetaensis, two new malletiids (Mesosaccella rogovi sp. nov. and M. toddi sp. nov.), the oxytomiid Oxytoma octavia, at least three Buchia species, at least two pectinids, including Camptonectes (Costicamptonectes) aff. milnelandensis and Camptonectes (Camptochlamys) clatrathus, the limid Pseudolimea arctica, the arcticid Pseudotrapezium aff. groenlandicum, and the pholadomyid Goniomya literata. The large number of 'background' species in the bivalve fauna is probably a reflection of the shallow-water setting of the Svalbard seeps. This might also explain the lack of the seep-restricted modiomorphid bivalve Caspiconcha from the fauna. With solemyids, Nucinella, lucinids and thyasirids, the latest Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous bivalve seep fauna of Svalbard contains typical representatives of the Mesozoic bivalve seep faunas, both long established and young evolutionary colonists. PMID:25283172

Hryniewicz, Krzysztof; Little, Crispin T S; Nakrem, Hans Arne

2014-01-01

230

Structural Pituitary Abnormalities Associated With CHARGE Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Introduction: CHARGE syndrome is a multisystem disorder that, in addition to Kallmann syndrome/isolated hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, has been associated with anterior pituitary hypoplasia (APH). However, structural abnormalities such as an ectopic posterior pituitary (EPP) have not yet been described in such patients. Objective: The aims of the study were: 1) to describe the association between CHARGE syndrome and a structurally abnormal pituitary gland; and 2) to investigate whether CHD7 variants, which are identified in 65% of CHARGE patients, are common in septo-optic dysplasia /hypopituitarism. Methods: We describe 2 patients with features of CHARGE and EPP. CHD7 was sequenced in these and other patients with septo-optic dysplasia/hypopituitarism. Results: EPP, APH, and GH, TSH, and probable LH/FSH deficiency were present in 1 patient, and EPP and APH with GH, TSH, LH/FSH, and ACTH deficiency were present in another patient, both of whom had features of CHARGE syndrome. Both had variations in CHD7 that were novel and undetected in control cohorts or in the international database of CHARGE patients, but were also present in their unaffected mothers. No CHD7 variants were detected in the patients with septo-optic dysplasia/hypopituitarism without additional CHARGE features. Conclusion: We report a novel association between CHARGE syndrome and structural abnormalities of the pituitary gland in 2 patients with variations in CHD7 that are of unknown significance. However, CHD7 mutations are an uncommon cause of septo-optic dysplasia or hypopituitarism. Our data suggest the need for evaluation of pituitary function/anatomy in patients with CHARGE syndrome. PMID:23526466

Gregory, Louise C.; Gevers, Evelien F.; Baker, Joanne; Kasia, Tessa; Chong, Kling; Josifova, Dragana J.; Caimari, Maria; Bilan, Frederic; McCabe, Mark J.

2013-01-01

231

AMS 14C age of the earliest pottery from the Russian Far East: 1996-2002 results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new results of AMS 14C dating of the earliest pottery from the Russian Far East, Osipovka, Gromatukha and Novopetrovka cultural complexes (Amur River basin), are presented. Pottery temper (represented by sedge grass) was chosen for dating; pottery-associated charcoal was also dated. The earliest pottery from the Amur River basin nowadays may be dated to ca. 13 000 BP (ca. 16 000 cal BP), and this is one of the oldest potteries in East Asia, and in Old World in general.

Derevianko, A. P.; Kuzmin, Y. V.; Burr, G. S.; Jull, A. J. T.; Kim, J. C.

2004-08-01

232

Differential light scattering spectroscopy measurements for detecting and imaging cancer  

E-print Network

Optical spectroscopy show great promise for diagnosing the earliest stages of cancer. Light scattering spectroscopy (LSS), the study of single elastic backscattering as a function of wavelength and angle, can detect ...

Lau, Condon

2006-01-01

233

Functional neuroimaging abnormalities in idiopathic generalized epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have been used to quantitatively assess focal and network abnormalities. Idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) is characterized by bilateral synchronous spike–wave discharges on electroencephalography (EEG) but normal clinical MRI. Dysfunctions involving the neocortex, particularly the prefrontal cortex, and thalamus likely contribute to seizure activity. To identify possible morphometric and functional differences in the brains of IGE patients and normal controls, we employed measures of thalamic volumes, cortical thickness, gray–white blurring, fractional anisotropy (FA) measures from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF) in thalamic subregions from resting state functional MRI. Data from 27 patients with IGE and 27 age- and sex-matched controls showed similar thalamic volumes, cortical thickness and gray–white contrast. There were no differences in FA values on DTI in tracts connecting the thalamus and prefrontal cortex. Functional analysis revealed decreased fALFF in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) subregion of the thalamus in patients with IGE. We provide minimum detectable effect sizes for each measure used in the study. Our analysis indicates that fMRI-based methods are more sensitive than quantitative structural techniques for characterizing brain abnormalities in IGE. PMID:25383319

McGill, Megan L.; Devinsky, Orrin; Wang, Xiuyuan; Quinn, Brian T.; Pardoe, Heath; Carlson, Chad; Butler, Tracy; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Thesen, Thomas

2014-01-01

234

[A case presented mediastinal abnormal shadow].  

PubMed

A 29-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital because of further examination of his mediastinal abnormal shadow on the chest roentogenogram detected in an annual medical examination. He was asymptomatic and had no abnormal findings on physical examination. A CT scan of the chest demonstrated a well marginated large tumor, 8 x 6 cm in size, in the anterior mediastinum. Non-invasive thymoma, malignant lymphoma (Hodgkin's disease, T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma, mediastinal large cell lymphoma with sclerosis etc) or germ cell tumor were considered for differential diagnosis and diagnostic procedures were taken. Results of venous blood examination were normal except for high titer of beta-HCG (20.4 mIU/ml). With a transcutaneous biopsy of the mediastinal tumor, it was diagnosed mediastinal seminoma. A three weeks-interval chemotherapy composed of cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin was performed. After four cycles of this chemotherapy the residual mass was resected and no viable tumor cells were shown in the specimen. Germ cell tumor is usually treated with combination of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgical resection. However, mediastinal germ call tumor is not a common disease and it remains to be clarified which treatment modalities are adequate. But it is obvious that surgical resection should not be the initial choice of treatment. Medical oncologists must carefully perform the most appropriate modality at an optimal timing. PMID:9474935

Andoh, M; Narabayashi, M

1998-01-01

235

Precise U-Pb Zircon Constraints on the Earliest Magmatic History of the Carolina Terrane.  

PubMed

The early magmatic and tectonic history of the Carolina terrane and its possible affinities with other Neoproterozoic circum-Atlantic arc terranes have been poorly understood, in large part because of a lack of reliable geochronological data. Precise U-Pb zircon dates for the Virgilina sequence, the oldest exposed part, constrain the timing of the earliest known stage of magmatism in the terrane and of the Virgilina orogeny. A flow-banded rhyolite sampled from a metavolcanic sequence near Chapel Hill, North Carolina, yielded a U-Pb zircon date of 632.9 +2.6/-1.9 Ma. A granitic unit of the Chapel Hill pluton, which intrudes the metavolcanic sequence, yielded a nearly identical U-Pb zircon date of 633 +2/-1.5 Ma, interpreted as its crystallization age. A felsic gneiss and a dacitic tuff from the Hyco Formation yielded U-Pb zircon dates of 619.9 +4.5/-3 Ma and 615.7 +3.7/-1.9 Ma, respectively. Diorite and granite of the Flat River complex have indistinguishable U-Pb upper-intercept dates of 613.9 +1.6/-1.5 Ma and 613.4 +2.8/-2 Ma. The Osmond biotite-granite gneiss, which intruded the Hyco Formation before the Virgilina orogeny, crystallized at 612.4 +5.2/-1.7 Ma. Granite of the Roxboro pluton, an intrusion that postdated the Virgilina orogeny, yielded a U-Pb upper intercept date of 546.5 +3.0/-2.4 Ma, interpreted as the time of its crystallization. These new dates both provide the first reliable estimates of the age of the Virgilina sequence and document that the earliest known stage of magmatism in the Carolina terrane had begun by 633 +2/-1.5 Ma and continued at least until 612.4 +5.2/-1.7 Ma, an interval of approximately 25 m.yr. Timing of the Virgilina orogeny is bracketed between 612.4 +5.2/-1.7 Ma and 586+/-10 Ma (reported age of the upper Uwharrie Formation). The U-Pb systematics of all units studied in the Virgilina sequence are simple and lack any evidence of an older xenocrystic zircon component, which would indicate the presence of a continental-type basement. This observation, together with the juvenile Nd isotopic character of the Virgilina volcanic arc sequence, suggests that the oldest part of the Carolina terrane was built on oceanic crust away from a continental crustal influence. PMID:10769159

Wortman; Samson; Hibbard

2000-05-01

236

Abnormal pupillary light reflex with chromatic pupillometry in Gaucher disease  

PubMed Central

The hallmark of neuronopathic Gaucher disease (GD) is oculomotor abnormalities, but ophthalmological assessment is difficult in uncooperative patients. Chromatic pupillometry is a quantitative method to assess the pupillary light reflex (PLR) with minimal patient cooperation. Thus, we investigated whether chromatic pupillometry could be useful for neurological evaluations in GD. In our neuronopathic GD patients, red light-induced PLR was markedly impaired, whereas blue light-induced PLR was relatively spared. In addition, patients with non-neuronopathic GD showed no abnormalities. These novel findings show that chromatic pupillometry is a convenient method to detect neurological signs and monitor the course of disease in neuronopathic GD. PMID:25356393

Narita, Aya; Shirai, Kentarou; Kubota, Norika; Takayama, Rumiko; Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Onuki, Takanori; Numakura, Chikahiko; Kato, Mitsuhiro; Hamada, Yusuke; Sakai, Norio; Ohno, Atsuko; Asami, Maya; Matsushita, Shoko; Hayashi, Anri; Kumada, Tomohiro; Fujii, Tatsuya; Horino, Asako; Inoue, Takeshi; Kuki, Ichiro; Asakawa, Ken; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Ohno, Koyo; Nishimura, Yoko; Tamasaki, Akiko; Maegaki, Yoshihiro; Ohno, Kousaku

2014-01-01

237

Abnormal pupillary light reflex with chromatic pupillometry in Gaucher disease.  

PubMed

The hallmark of neuronopathic Gaucher disease (GD) is oculomotor abnormalities, but ophthalmological assessment is difficult in uncooperative patients. Chromatic pupillometry is a quantitative method to assess the pupillary light reflex (PLR) with minimal patient cooperation. Thus, we investigated whether chromatic pupillometry could be useful for neurological evaluations in GD. In our neuronopathic GD patients, red light-induced PLR was markedly impaired, whereas blue light-induced PLR was relatively spared. In addition, patients with non-neuronopathic GD showed no abnormalities. These novel findings show that chromatic pupillometry is a convenient method to detect neurological signs and monitor the course of disease in neuronopathic GD. PMID:25356393

Narita, Aya; Shirai, Kentarou; Kubota, Norika; Takayama, Rumiko; Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Onuki, Takanori; Numakura, Chikahiko; Kato, Mitsuhiro; Hamada, Yusuke; Sakai, Norio; Ohno, Atsuko; Asami, Maya; Matsushita, Shoko; Hayashi, Anri; Kumada, Tomohiro; Fujii, Tatsuya; Horino, Asako; Inoue, Takeshi; Kuki, Ichiro; Asakawa, Ken; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Ohno, Koyo; Nishimura, Yoko; Tamasaki, Akiko; Maegaki, Yoshihiro; Ohno, Kousaku

2014-02-01

238

Abnormal Canine Bone Development Associated with Hypergravity Exposure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chronic centrifugation of 85- to 92-day-old Beagles at 2.0 x g and 2.6 x g for 26 weeks during the time of active skeletal growth caused skeletal abnormalities in the radius and the ulna of ten of 11 dogs. The pattern of change mimicked that found in naturally occurring and experimentally induced premature distal ulnar physeal closure or delayed growth at this physis. Minimal changes in bone density were detected by sensitive photon absorptiometric techniques. Skeletal abnormalities also were found in five of the six cage-control dogs, although the run-control dogs were radiographically normal.

Morgan, J. P.; Fisher, G. L.; McNeill, K. L.; Oyama, J.

1979-01-01

239

Possible REE constraints on the depositional and diagenetic environment of Doushantuo Formation phosphorites containing the earliest metazoan fauna  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Neoproterozoic Doushantuo Formation, South China, preserves a unique assemblage of what are probably the earliest metazoan fossils (sponges, cnidarians, and bilaterians) in the world that could contribute to a better understanding of early faunal evolution on Earth. The formation spans an interval of dramatic biological, chemical, and climatic change. In Weng'an mine in southwest China, extensive paleontological investigations show

Duo Fu Chen; Wei Quan Dong; Liang Qi; Guang Qian Chen; Xian Pei Chen

2003-01-01

240

Earliest domestication of common millet (Panicum miliaceum) in East Asia extended to 10,000 years ago  

E-print Network

Earliest domestication of common millet (Panicum miliaceum) in East Asia extended to 10,000 years Cishan Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) and common millet (or broom- corn millet; Panicum miliaceum) were generally been accepted, but it remains unknown whether common millet (Pani- cum miliaceum) or foxtail

Liu, Kam-biu

241

Road Proximity Increases Risk of Skeletal Abnormalities in Wood Frogs from National Wildlife Refuges in Alaska  

PubMed Central

Background Skeletal and eye abnormalities in amphibians are not well understood, and they appear to be increasing while global populations decline. Here, we present the first study of amphibian abnormalities in Alaska. Objective In this study we investigated the relationship between anthropogenic influences and the probability of skeletal and eye abnormalities in Alaskan wood frogs (Rana sylvatica). Methods From 2000 to 2006, we examined 9,269 metamorphic wood frogs from 86 breeding sites on five National Wildlife Refuges: Arctic, Innoko, Kenai, Tetlin, and Yukon Delta. Using road proximity as a proxy for human development, we tested relationships between skeletal and eye abnormalities and anthropogenic effects. We also examined a subsample of 458 frogs for the trematode parasite Ribeiroia ondatrae, a known cause of amphibian limb abnormalities. Results Prevalence of skeletal and eye abnormalities at Alaskan refuges ranged from 1.5% to 7.9% and were as high as 20% at individual breeding sites. Proximity to roads increased the risk of skeletal abnormalities (p = 0.004) but not eye abnormalities. The only significant predictor of eye abnormalities was year sampled (p = 0.006). R. ondatrae was not detected in any Alaskan wood frogs. Conclusions Abnormality prevalence at road-accessible sites in the Kenai and Tetlin refuges is among the highest reported in the published literature. Proximity to roads is positively correlated with risk of skeletal abnormalities in Alaskan wood frogs. PMID:18709167

Reeves, Mari K.; Dolph, Christine L.; Zimmer, Heidi; Tjeerdema, Ronald S.; Trust, Kimberly A.

2008-01-01

242

Symphalangism with metacarpophalangeal fusions and elbow abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three generations of a family manifest similar skeletal abnormalities: proximal symphalangism with several unusual features, metacarpophalangeal synostoses, massive tarsal and carpal fusions and abnormalities of the elbows (radial head dislocation, radiohumetal synosfosis).

E. G. Kassner; I. Katz; Q. H. Qazi

1976-01-01

243

The earliest fossil record of Panorpidae (Mecoptera) from the Middle Jurassic of China  

PubMed Central

Abstract The early history of Panorpidae (Mecoptera) is poorly known due to sparse fossil records. Up to date, only nine fossil species have been described, all from the Paleogene, except the Early Cretaceous Solusipanorpa gibbidorsa Lin, 1980. However, we suggest S. gibbidorsa is too incompletely preserved to permit even family classification. A new genus with two new species, Jurassipanorpa impunctata gen. et sp. n. and Jurassipanorpa sticta sp. n., are described based on four well-preserved specimens from the late Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China. These two new species are the earliest fossil records of Panorpidae. The new genus is erected based on a combination of forewing characters: both R1 and Rs1 with two branches, 1A reaching posterior margin of wing distad of the forking of Rs from R1, and no crossveins or only one crossvein between veins of 1A and 2A. In all four specimens, long and robust setae ranging from 0.09 to 0.38 mm in length and pointing anteriorly, are present on anal veins of forewings. The function of these setae is enigmatic. PMID:25152669

Ding, He; Shih, Chungkun; Bashkuev, Alexei; Zhao, Yunyun; Ren, Dong

2014-01-01

244

Earliest Carboniferous tetrapod and arthropod faunas from Scotland populate Romer's Gap  

PubMed Central

Devonian tetrapods (limbed vertebrates), known from an increasingly large number of localities, have been shown to be mainly aquatic with many primitive features. In contrast, the post-Devonian record is marked by an Early Mississippian temporal gap ranging from the earliest Carboniferous (Tournaisian and early Viséan) to the mid-Viséan. By the mid-Viséan, tetrapods had become effectively terrestrial as attested by the presence of stem amniotes, developed an essentially modern aspect, and given rise to the crown group. Up to now, only two localities have yielded tetrapod specimens from the Tournaisian stage: one in Scotland with a single articulated skeleton and one in Nova Scotia with isolated bones, many of uncertain identity. We announce a series of discoveries of Tournaisian-age localities in Scotland that have yielded a wealth of new tetrapod and arthropod fossils. These include both terrestrial and aquatic forms and new taxa. We conclude that the gap in the fossil record has been an artifact of collection failure. PMID:22393016

Smithson, Timothy R.; Wood, Stanley P.; Marshall, John E. A.; Clack, Jennifer A.

2012-01-01

245

Rise of the Earliest Tetrapods: An Early Devonian Origin from Marine Environment  

PubMed Central

Tetrapod fossil tracks are known from the Middle Devonian (Eifelian at ca. 397 million years ago - MYA), and their earliest bony remains from the Upper Devonian (Frasnian at 375–385 MYA). Tetrapods are now generally considered to have colonized land during the Carboniferous (i.e., after 359 MYA), which is considered to be one of the major events in the history of life. Our analysis on tetrapod evolution was performed using molecular data consisting of 13 proteins from 17 species and different paleontological data. The analysis on the molecular data was performed with the program TreeSAAP and the results were analyzed to see if they had implications on the paleontological data collected. The results have shown that tetrapods evolved from marine environments during times of higher oxygen levels. The change in environmental conditions played a major role in their evolution. According to our analysis this evolution occurred at about 397–416 MYA during the Early Devonian unlike previously thought. This idea is supported by various environmental factors such as sea levels and oxygen rate, and biotic factors such as biodiversity of arthropods and coral reefs. The molecular data also strongly supports lungfish as tetrapod's closest living relative. PMID:21779385

George, David; Blieck, Alain

2011-01-01

246

Earliest foraminifera and radiolaria from North America: evolutionary and geological implications  

SciTech Connect

Foraminifera and radiolaria were found in lower and middle Cambrian rocks in the western US. They occur in clastic rocks associated with archaeocyathid bioherms and shales in SE California, SW Nevada, W Utah and Idaho. The foraminifera are agglutinated tubes, straight or coiled; the radiolaria are spherical or flattened wit robust lattices. They occur together with some of the earliest shelled metazoa. Their widespread occurrence indicates that protozoa were important elements of the first animal-dominated communities. Their presence suggests a complex trophic structure involving secondary consumers that utilized small autotrophs, carnivores, and detritus. Ordovician and Silurian foraminifera and radiolaria, also found in the US and USSR, show that the subsequent radiation of heterotrophic protists follows a pattern similar to that of metazoans. These fossil protozoa indicate that the skeletonization of early organisms was controlled by factors not related solely to a multicellular grade of organization. Hypotheses requiring the attainment of atmospheric oxygen levels high enough for metazoan skeletonization processes to operate, seawater chemistry allowing the use of specific skeletal materials, attainment of large size, evolution of regulatory genes, and similar ideas can be eliminated or modified. The fossils also indicate that the advent of skeletonized metazoa and protists, and their subsequent radiation were probably related to the proliferation of trophic interactions within those early communities.

Lipps, J.H.

1985-01-01

247

A SWIFT LOOK AT SN 2011fe: THE EARLIEST ULTRAVIOLET OBSERVATIONS OF A TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA  

SciTech Connect

We present the earliest ultraviolet (UV) observations of the bright Type Ia supernova SN 2011fe/PTF11kly in the nearby galaxy M101 at a distance of only 6.4 Mpc. It was discovered shortly after explosion by the Palomar Transient Factory and first observed by Swift/UVOT about a day after explosion. The early UV light is well defined, with {approx}20 data points per filter in the five days after explosion. These early and well-sampled UV observations form new template light curves for comparison with observations of other SNe Ia at low and high redshift. We report fits from semiempirical models of the explosion and find the time evolution of the early UV flux to be well fitted by the superposition of two parabolic curves. Finally, we use the early UV flux measurements to examine a possible shock interaction with a non-degenerate companion. From models predicting the measurable shock emission, we find that even a solar mass companion at a distance of a few solar radii is unlikely at more than 95% confidence.

Brown, Peter J.; Dawson, Kyle S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 South 1400 East 201, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); De Pasquale, Massimiliano [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 4505 S. Maryland Parkway, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Gronwall, Caryl; Siegel, Michael [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Holland, Stephen [Space Telescope Science Center, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Immler, Stefan [Astrophysics Science Division, Code 660.1, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard Space Flight Centre, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kuin, Paul; Oates, Samantha [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Mazzali, Paolo [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Milne, Peter, E-mail: pbrown@physics.tamu.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

2012-07-01

248

Earliest and first Northern Hemispheric hoatzin fossils substantiate Old World origin of a "Neotropic endemic".  

PubMed

The recent identification of hoatzins (Opisthocomiformes) in the Miocene of Africa showed part of the evolution of these birds, which are now only found in South America, to have taken place outside the Neotropic region. Here, we describe a new fossil species from the late Eocene of France, which constitutes the earliest fossil record of hoatzins and the first one from the Northern Hemisphere. Protoazin parisiensis gen. et sp. nov. is more closely related to South American Opisthocomiformes than the African taxon Namibiavis and substantiates an Old World origin of hoatzins, as well as a relictual distribution of the single extant species. Although recognition of hoatzins in Europe may challenge their presumed transatlantic dispersal, there are still no North American fossils in support of an alternative, Northern Hemispheric, dispersal route. In addition to Opisthocomiformes, other avian taxa are known from the Cenozoic of Europe, the extant representatives of which are only found in South America. Recognition of hoatzins in the early Cenozoic of Europe is of particular significance because Opisthocomiformes have a fossil record in sub-Saharan Africa, which supports the hypothesis that extinction of at least some of these "South American" groups outside the Neotropic region was not primarily due to climatic factors. PMID:24441712

Mayr, Gerald; De Pietri, Vanesa L

2014-02-01

249

The Earliest Post-Paleozoic Freshwater Bivalves Preserved in Coprolites from the Karoo Basin, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Several clades of bivalve molluscs have invaded freshwaters at various times throughout Phanerozoic history. The most successful freshwater clade in the modern world is the Unionoida. Unionoids arose in the Triassic Period, sometime after the major extinction event at the End-Permian boundary and are now widely distributed across all continents except Antarctica. Until now, no freshwater bivalves of any kind were known to exist in the Early Triassic. Principal Findings Here we report on a faunule of two small freshwater bivalve species preserved in vertebrate coprolites from the Olenekian (Lower Triassic) of the Burgersdorp Formation of the Karoo Basin, South Africa. Positive identification of these bivalves is not possible due to the limited material. Nevertheless they do show similarities with Unionoida although they fall below the size range of extant unionoids. Phylogenetic analysis is not possible with such limited material and consequently the assignment remains somewhat speculative. Conclusions Bivalve molluscs re-invaded freshwaters soon after the End-Permian extinction event, during the earliest part of the recovery phase during the Olenekian Stage of the Early Triassic. If the specimens do represent unionoids then these Early Triassic examples may be an example of the Lilliput effect. Since the oldest incontrovertible freshwater unionoids are also from sub-Saharan Africa, it is possible that this subcontinent hosted the initial freshwater radiation of the Unionoida. This find also demonstrates the importance of coprolites as microenvironments of exceptional preservation that contain fossils of organisms that would otherwise have left no trace. PMID:22319562

Yates, Adam M.; Neumann, Frank H.; Hancox, P. John

2012-01-01

250

Earliest Holocene south Greenland ice sheet retreat within its late Holocene extent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Holocene summer warmth drove dramatic Greenland ice sheet (GIS) retreat. Subsequent insolation-driven cooling caused GIS margin readvance to late Holocene maxima, from which ice margins are now retreating. We use 10Be surface exposure ages from four locations between 69.4°N and 61.2°N to date when in the early Holocene south to west GIS margins retreated to within these late Holocene maximum extents. We find that this occurred at 11.1 ± 0.2 ka to 10.6 ± 0.5 ka in south Greenland, significantly earlier than previous estimates, and 6.8 ± 0.1 ka to 7.9 ± 0.1 ka in southwest to west Greenland, consistent with existing 10Be ages. At least in south Greenland, these 10Be ages likely provide a minimum constraint for when on a multicentury timescale summer temperatures after the last deglaciation warmed above late Holocene temperatures in the early Holocene. Current south Greenland ice margin retreat suggests that south Greenland may have now warmed to or above earliest Holocene summer temperatures.

Carlson, Anders E.; Winsor, Kelsey; Ullman, David J.; Brook, Edward J.; Rood, Dylan H.; Axford, Yarrow; LeGrande, Allegra N.; Anslow, Faron S.; Sinclair, Gaylen

2014-08-01

251

The hexagram "Feng" in "the book of changes" as the earliest written record of sunspot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hexagram "Feng" of the "Book of Changes" (completed before 800 B.C.) contains the statements "a dou is seen in the Sun" and "a mei is seen in the Sun". The character dou (bushel) is generally understood to refer to an obscured region in this context. As to the character mei, a passage in the "Biography of Wang Mang" in "The History of the Later Han Dynasty" written in 450 A.D. shoes that it is synonymous with the character xing (star), and according to "Kaiyuan Treatise on Prognostication" written in 729 A.D., both dou and xing in this context refer to an obscuration. Lastly, in the years 1626, 1643 and 1684, years of relatively high solar activities over the period 1610-1700 (Eddy, Science192 (1976) 1189), when sunspots were seen in telescopes in Europe (cf. Bray and Loughhead, "Sunspots" 1964, Plate 1.1), these two very same statements are found in some Local Gazettes of China (Xu Zhen-tao and Jiang Yao-tiao, Annals of Nanjing University, (Natural Sciences Series), No. 2, 1979). Thus, the earliest written record of a sunspot is found in China, in this book which was completed before 800 B.C.

Xu, Zhen-tao

1980-12-01

252

Ancestral feeding state of ruminants reconsidered: earliest grazing adaptation claims a mixed condition for Cervidae  

PubMed Central

Background Specialised leaf-eating is almost universally regarded as the ancestral state of all ruminants, yet little evidence can be cited in support of this assumption, apart from the fact that all early ruminants had low crowned cheek teeth. Instead, recent years have seen the emergence evidence contradicting the conventional view that low tooth crowns always indicate leaf-eating and high tooth crowns grass-eating. Results Here we report the results of two independent palaeodietary reconstructions for one of the earliest deer, Procervulus ginsburgi from the Early Miocene of Spain, suggesting that despite having lower tooth crowns than any living ruminant, this species included a significant proportion of grass in its diet. Conclusion The phylogenetic distribution of feeding styles strongly supports that leaf-grass mixed feeding was the original feeding style of deer, and that later dietary specialization on leaves or grass occurred independently in several lineages. Evidence for other ruminant clades suggests that facultative mixed feeding may in fact have been the primitive dietary state of the Ruminantia, which would have been morphologically expressed only under specific environmental factors. PMID:18205907

2008-01-01

253

GRB 081203A: Swift UVOT captures the earliest ultraviolet spectrum of a gamma-ray burst  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the earliest ultraviolet (UV) spectrum of a gamma-ray burst (GRB) as observed with the Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope (UVOT). The GRB 081203A spectrum was observed for 50 s with the UV-grism starting 251 s after the Swift-Burst-Alert-Telescope (BAT) trigger. During this time, the GRB was ~13.4 mag (u filter) and was still rising to its peak optical brightness. In the UV-grism spectrum, we find a damped Ly? line, Ly? and the Lyman continuum break at a redshift z = 2.05 +/- 0.01. A model fit to the Lyman absorption implies a gas column density of log NHI = 22.0 +/- 0.1cm-2, which is typical of GRB host galaxies with damped Ly? absorbers. This observation of GRB 081203A demonstrates that for brighter GRBs (v ~ 14 mag) with moderate redshift (0.5 < z < 3.5) the UVOT is able to provide redshifts, and probe for damped Ly? absorbers within 4-6 min from the time of the Swift-BAT trigger.

Kuin, N. P. M.; Landsman, W.; Page, M. J.; Schady, P.; Still, M.; Breeveld, A. A.; de Pasquale, M.; Roming, P. W. A.; Brown, P. J.; Carter, M.; James, C.; Curran, P. A.; Cucchiara, A.; Gronwall, C.; Holland, S. T.; Hoversten, E. A.; Hunsberger, S.; Kennedy, T.; Koch, S.; Lamoureux, H.; Marshall, F. E.; Oates, S. R.; Parsons, A.; Palmer, D. M.; Smith, P. J.

2009-05-01

254

The earliest fossil record of Panorpidae (Mecoptera) from the Middle Jurassic of China.  

PubMed

The early history of Panorpidae (Mecoptera) is poorly known due to sparse fossil records. Up to date, only nine fossil species have been described, all from the Paleogene, except the Early Cretaceous Solusipanorpa gibbidorsa Lin, 1980. However, we suggest S. gibbidorsa is too incompletely preserved to permit even family classification. A new genus with two new species, Jurassipanorpa impunctata gen. et sp. n. and Jurassipanorpa sticta sp. n., are described based on four well-preserved specimens from the late Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China. These two new species are the earliest fossil records of Panorpidae. The new genus is erected based on a combination of forewing characters: both R1 and Rs1 with two branches, 1A reaching posterior margin of wing distad of the forking of Rs from R1, and no crossveins or only one crossvein between veins of 1A and 2A. In all four specimens, long and robust setae ranging from 0.09 to 0.38 mm in length and pointing anteriorly, are present on anal veins of forewings. The function of these setae is enigmatic. PMID:25152669

Ding, He; Shih, Chungkun; Bashkuev, Alexei; Zhao, Yunyun; Ren, Dong

2014-01-01

255

A Swift Look at SN 2011fe: The Earliest Ultraviolet Observations of a Type Ia Supernova  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the earliest ultraviolet (UV) observations of the bright Type Ia supernova SN 2011fe/PTF11kly in the nearby galaxy M101 at a distance of only 6.4 Mpc. It was discovered shortly after explosion by the Palomar Transient Factory and first observed by Swift/UVOT about a day after explosion. The early UV light is well-defined, with approx. 20 data points per filter in the 5 days after explosion. With these early UV observations, we extend the near-UV template of SNe Ia to earlier times for comparison with observations at low and high redshift and report fits from semiempirical models of the explosion. We find the early UV count rates to be well fit by the superposition of two parabolic curves. Finally, we use the early UV flux measurements to examine a possible shock interaction with a non-degenerate companion. We find that even a solar mass companion at a distance of a few solar radii is unlikely at more than 95% confidence.

Oates, Samantha; Holland, Stephen; Immler, Stefan; Brown, Peter J.; Dawson, Kyle S.; DePasquale, Massimiliano; Gronwall, Caryl; Kuin, Paul; Mazzali, Paolo; Miline, Peter; Siegel, Michael

2012-01-01

256

Foot abnormalities of wild birds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

1962-01-01

257

The future of prenatal diagnosis: rapid testing or full karyotype? An audit of chromosome abnormalities and pregnancy outcomes for women referred for Down's Syndrome testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

three-month period. Methods Abnormal karyotypes and total number of samples referred for raised maternal age, raised risk of Down's Syndrome following serum screening or maternal anxiety were collected. Abnormal karyotypes detected by molecular trisomy detection were removed, leaving cases with residual abnormal karyotypes. These were assessed for their clinical significance. Pregnancy outcomes were ascertained by reviewing patient notes or by

Caroline Mackie Ogilvie; Alison Lashwood; Lyn Chitty; Jonathan J. Waters; Paul N. Scriven; Frances Flinter

2005-01-01

258

The profile of body abnormalities of bodybuilders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Situational abnormalities usually occur due to the non-standard use of body which leads in the deformity of body and has lost of side effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the type and incidence of skeletal abnormalities in bodybuilders. Situational abnormality of 118 bodybuilders were assessed via posture screen and inserted in examination form. ?2 Test was used

Mahdi Rostami Haji-Abadi; Nader Rahnama

2010-01-01

259

Comparison of the Digene Hybrid Capture 2 Assay and Roche AMPLICOR and LINEAR ARRAY Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Tests in Detecting High-Risk HPV Genotypes in Specimens from Women with Previous Abnormal Pap Smear Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of cervical cancer is strongly associated with the presence of persistent high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Recently, the commercially manufactured PCR-based Roche AMPLICOR (AMP) and LINEAR ARRAY (LA) HPV tests have become available for HPV detection. However, knowledge of their clinical performance compared to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) assay is limited.

Matthew P. Stevens; Suzanne M. Garland; Elice Rudland; Jeffrey Tan; Michael A. Quinn; Sepehr N. Tabrizi

2007-01-01

260

Second-opinion magnetic resonance imaging for suspected fetal central nervous system abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of magnetic resonance imaging and gestational age in the setting of fetuses with suspected abnormalities of the central nervous system that were detected by ultrasound scanning. Study design: Multiplanar magnetic resonance studies were performed in fetuses with suspected central nervous system abnormalities on ultrasound scanning. Magnetic resonance imaging was

Diane M. Twickler; Kevin P. Magee; Jacqueline Caire; Michael Zaretsky; James L. Fleckenstein; Ronald M. Ramus

2003-01-01

261

Abnormal glycosylation of ? 2 -macroglobulin, a non-acute-phase protein, in patients with autoimmune diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies from this and other laboratories have shown that abnormal glycosylation of several acute-phase proteins can be detected in various pathological conditions including autoimmune diseases. In the present study, we have investigated if abnormal glycosylation is limited to acute-phase proteins. We used the concanavalin A (Con A) blots in conjunction with the peptide mapping techniques to analyze serum samples

Luciano Saso; Bruno Silvestrini; Angelo Guglielmotti; Robert Lahita; C. Yan Cheng

1993-01-01

262

High frequency of EEG and MRI brain abnormalities in panic disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency and quality of brain abnormalities in panic disorder (PD) were assessed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The use of electroencephalography (EEG) to detect PD patients with a high probability of morphologic brain abnormalities was also explored. Consecutive PD patients (n = 120) were screened with routine EEG examinations and were divided into the following subgroups on the basis

Karl Dantendorfer; Daniela Prayer; Josef Kramer; Michaela Amering; Wolfgang Baischer; Peter Berger; Maria Schoder; Karl Steinberger; Johann Windhaber; Herwig Imhof; Heinz Katschnig

1996-01-01

263

Volume estimation of brain abnormalities in MRI data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abnormality of brain tissue always becomes a crucial issue in medical field. This medical condition can be recognized through segmentation of certain region from medical images obtained from MRI dataset. Image processing is one of computational methods which very helpful to analyze the MRI data. In this study, combination of segmentation and rendering image were used to isolate tumor and stroke. Two methods of thresholding were employed to segment the abnormality occurrence, followed by filtering to reduce non-abnormality area. Each MRI image is labeled and then used for volume estimations of tumor and stroke-attacked area. The algorithms are shown to be successful in isolating tumor and stroke in MRI images, based on thresholding parameter and stated detection accuracy.

Suprijadi, Pratama, S. H.; Haryanto, F.

2014-02-01

264

In multiple myeloma, bone-marrow lymphocytes harboring the same chromosomal abnormalities as autologous plasma cells predict poor survival.  

PubMed

Chromosomal abnormalities in plasma cells (PCs) from multiple myeloma (MM) provide a clonal signature to identify malignant cells. BM-lymphocytes from MM aspirates, defined by stringent criteria, were screened for the same chromosomal abnormalities as autologous PCs, including translocations, deletions, and amplifications. For 200 MM patients, we evaluated BM mononuclear cells to identify lymphocytes and autologous PCs on the same slide, followed by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization to characterize their chromosomal abnormalities. Of all patients having a given chromosomal abnormality(s) in PCs, 45% showed that same abnormality(s) in 2-37% (median = 5%) of BM-lymphocytes. Most translocations, amplifications, and deletions found in MM PCs were also detected in lymphocytes, above the healthy-donor "cut-off." In patients having chromosomally abnormal CD20(-) PCs, chromosomally abnormal lymphocytes were found among CD20+ cells confirming them as B cells. Exceptions were amplification of 1q21 or p53 deletion, which characterize PCs but were undetectable in BM-lymphocytes, suggesting that processes leading to these abnormalities may be exclusive to PCs. For a set of 75 patients whose BM-lymphocytes and PCs were analyzed by all six probe sets, 58% of those with abnormal PC also had abnormal BM-lymphocytes harboring from one to five different abnormalities. Confirming the clinical significance of chromosomally abnormal BM-lymphocytes, MM patients having abnormalities in both lymphocytes and PC had significantly worse survival than those with abnormalities only in PC (HR = 2.68). The presence of at least one chromosomal abnormality in BM-lymphocytes appears to have greater clinical significance than particular abnormalities. Chromosomally abnormal BM-lymphocytes correlate with poor outcome and by extrapolation with more aggressive disease. PMID:22495885

Debes Marun, Carina S; Belch, Andrew R; Pilarski, Linda M

2012-06-01

265

In multiple myeloma, bone-marrow lymphocytes harboring the same chromosomal abnormalities as autologous plasma cells predict poor survival  

PubMed Central

Chromosomal abnormalities in plasma cells (PCs) from multiple myeloma (MM) provide a clonal signature to identify malignant cells. BM-lymphocytes from MM aspirates, defined by stringent criteria, were screened for the same chromosomal abnormalities as autologous PCs, including translocations, deletions, and amplifications. For 200 MM patients, we evaluated BM mononuclear cells to identify lymphocytes and autologous PCs on the same slide, followed by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization to characterize their chromosomal abnormalities. Of all patients having a given chromosomal abnormality(s) in PCs, 45% showed that same abnormality(s) in 2–37% (median = 5%) of BM-lymphocytes. Most translocations, amplifications, and deletions found in MM PCs were also detected in lymphocytes, above the healthy-donor “cut-off.” In patients having chromosomally abnormal CD20? PCs, chromosomally abnormal lymphocytes were found among CD20+ cells confirming them as B cells. Exceptions were amplification of 1q21 or p53 deletion, which characterize PCs but were undetectable in BM-lymphocytes, suggesting that processes leading to these abnormalities may be exclusive to PCs. For a set of 75 patients whose BM-lymphocytes and PCs were analyzed by all six probe sets, 58% of those with abnormal PC also had abnormal BM-lymphocytes harboring from one to five different abnormalities. Confirming the clinical significance of chromosomally abnormal BM-lymphocytes, MM patients having abnormalities in both lymphocytes and PC had significantly worse survival than those with abnormalities only in PC (HR = 2.68). The presence of at least one chromosomal abnormality in BM-lymphocytes appears to have greater clinical significance than particular abnormalities. Chromosomally abnormal BM-lymphocytes correlate with poor outcome and by extrapolation with more aggressive disease. PMID:22495885

Marun, Carina S Debes; Belch, Andrew R; Pilarski, Linda M

2012-01-01

266

Disorders caused by chromosome abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Many human genetic disorders result from unbalanced chromosome abnormalities, in which there is a net gain or loss of genetic material. Such imbalances often disrupt large numbers of dosage-sensitive, developmentally important genes and result in specific and complex phenotypes. Alternately, some chromosomal syndromes may be caused by a deletion or duplication of a single gene with pleiotropic effects. Traditionally, chromosome abnormalities were identified by visual inspection of the chromosomes under a microscope. The use of molecular cytogenetic technologies, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization and microarrays, has allowed for the identification of cryptic or submicroscopic imbalances, which are not visible under the light microscope. Microarrays have allowed for the identification of numerous new syndromes through a genotype-first approach in which patients with the same or overlapping genomic alterations are identified and then the phenotypes are described. Because many chromosomal alterations are large and encompass numerous genes, the ascertainment of individuals with overlapping deletions and varying clinical features may allow researchers to narrow the region in which to search for candidate genes. PMID:23776360

Theisen, Aaron; Shaffer, Lisa G

2010-01-01

267

Abnormality on Liver Function Test  

PubMed Central

Children with abnormal liver function can often be seen in outpatient clinics or inpatients wards. Most of them have respiratory disease, or gastroenteritis by virus infection, accompanying fever. Occasionally, hepatitis by the viruses causing systemic infection may occur, and screening tests are required. In patients with jaundice, the tests for differential diagnosis and appropriate treatment are important. In the case of a child with hepatitis B virus infection vertically from a hepatitis B surface antigen positive mother, the importance of the recognition of immune clearance can't be overstressed, for the decision of time to begin treatment. Early diagnosis changes the fate of a child with Wilson disease. So, screening test for the disease should not be omitted. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is mainly discovered in obese children, is a new strong candidate triggering abnormal liver function. Muscular dystrophy is a representative disease mimicking liver dysfunction. Although muscular dystrophy is a progressive disorder, and early diagnosis can't change the fate of patients, it will be better to avoid parent's blame for delayed diagnosis. PMID:24511518

2013-01-01

268

Clinical implications of chromosomal abnormalities in multiple myeloma.  

PubMed

The adverse prognostic role of cytogenetic abnormalities has recently been established in plasma cell dyscrasias. Modern techniques such as fluorescence in situ hybridization and comparative genomic hybridization have revealed a higher incidence of cytogenetic abnormalities in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) compared to conventional cytogenetics. Hypodiploidy and chromosome 13 abnormalities are found in more than 50% of myeloma patients, representing well known factors with adverse prognosis. Rearrangements involving the switch regions of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene at 14q32 with various partner genes represent the most common structural abnormalities, having an incidence of 70% in MM. Structural abnormalities of chromosomes 17 and 8 involving the p53 and c-myc genes are considered to be less frequent events, but carry a poor prognosis. New therapeutic approaches such as non-myeloablative allotransplantation and modern therapeutic agents (thalidomide, lenalidomide, and bortezomib) and their combinations give promise for an improved therapeutic management of patients with MM. The detection of t(4;14), t(14;16), deletion of chromosome 13 on metaphase analysis, or deletion of p53 by FISH will define high-risk prognostic groups that are not generally controlled with high-dose melphalan and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT), and should therefore be treated with more investigational therapies. Alternatively, eligible patients who do not have these poor risk factors are more likely to benefit from a high-dose, melphalan-based, regimen followed by ASCT. PMID:16753864

Terpos, Evangelos; Eleutherakis-Papaiakovou, Vangelis; Dimopoulos, Meletios-Athanassios

2006-05-01

269

Structural abnormality of the corticospinal tract in major depressive disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Scientists are beginning to document abnormalities in white matter connectivity in major depressive disorder (MDD). Recent developments in diffusion-weighted image analyses, including tractography clustering methods, may yield improved characterization of these white matter abnormalities in MDD. In this study, we acquired diffusion-weighted imaging data from MDD participants and matched healthy controls. We analyzed these data using two tractography clustering methods: automated fiber quantification (AFQ) and the maximum density path (MDP) procedure. We used AFQ to compare fractional anisotropy (FA; an index of water diffusion) in these two groups across major white matter tracts. Subsequently, we used the MDP procedure to compare FA differences in fiber paths related to the abnormalities in major fiber tracts that were identified using AFQ. Results FA was higher in the bilateral corticospinal tracts (CSTs) in MDD (p’s?detected primarily increases in FA in the CST-related fiber paths of the bilateral posterior limbs of the internal capsule, right superior corona radiata, and the left external capsule. Conclusions This is the first study to implicate the CST and several related fiber pathways in MDD. These findings suggest important new hypotheses regarding the role of CST abnormalities in MDD, including in relation to explicating CST-related abnormalities to depressive symptoms and RDoC domains and constructs.

2014-01-01

270

Simulating Metal-Poor and Metal-Free Star Formation in the Earliest Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The end of the cosmic dark ages was brought about by the formation of the first stars and galaxies. Since this epoch is currently outside of observational reach, numerical studies are key in understanding this uncharted cosmic epoch. In this dissertation talk, I will describe my work using high-resolution, zoom-in simulations to understand the formation of these earliest stellar associations in a cosmological setting. The overarching focus will be on the fragmentation of collapsing gas and how this process is moderated by the gas chemistry, radiation fields, and realistic cosmological initial conditions. A key aspect of this work has been the development of sophisticated physics modules for the hydrodynamics code FLASH, including non-equilibrium chemistry, radiative transfer schemes, and sink particles. I will begin by describing how more moderate mass Population III stars ended their lives with a relatively quick heavy-element enrichment of their host dark matter halos, resulting in prompt Population II star formation. The introduction of metals from the first supernovae is believed to induce a star formation mode transition from high to low characteristic mass. I will show how the fragmentation of such metal enriched gas depends strongly on the metallicity, with fragmentation setting in when gas hits the CMB temperature floor. If present, an H2 photo-dissociating Lyman-Werner radiation background can delay the formation of the first stars and potentially result in clustered metal-free star formation in more massive, self-shielding halos at lower redshift. I will present results from recent simulations that follow the collapse and fragmentation of the first dust enriched gas to high densities (n ~ 10^14 cm^-3), analyzing the interplay of dust cooling with a CMB temperature floor and gauging the effect that dust heating from protostellar feedback has on the outcome of star formation. Finally, I will discuss this work’s implications for next-generation observatories, in particular the James Webb Space Telescope.

Safranek-Shrader, Chalence

2014-01-01

271

Earliest ciliary swimming effects vertical transport of planktonic embryos in turbulence and shear flow.  

PubMed

Eggs released by broadcast-spawning marine invertebrates are often negatively buoyant. Blastulae and gastrulae of these species are commonly motile, with passive stability that leads to upward swimming in still water. The earliest occurrence of swimming in developing embryos of diverse invertebrates may therefore permit vertical migration in nature. I used turbulent and laminar shear flows to investigate: (1) the speed and direction of transport of non-motile and newly swimming stages of the echinoids Dendraster excentricus and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus in turbulence, and (2) the limit of stable vertical orientation in swimming blastulae of D. excentricus. Swimming contributed significantly to the rate of upward transport of D. excentricus in turbulence experiments where the kinetic energy dissipation rate (?) was ?10(-2) cm(2) s(-3). However, swimming significantly reduced the rate of upward transport of S. purpuratus blastulae in turbulence, suggesting that passively stable swimmers of this species were turned from the vertical, crossed flow-lines, and migrated into downwelling. Observations of swimming in laminar shear indicate that D. excentricus swimming blastulae maintain a vertical orientation until shear approaches 0.26 s(-1), equivalent to sub-microscale shear in turbulence where ? is ?10(-3) cm(2) s(-3). Swimming speeds of D. excentricus showed an unexpected dependence on shear, indicating that greater shear (within limits) can enhance speed of ciliary swimming. In D. excentricus, swimming by newly hatched blastulae should support upward migration in turbulence characteristic of coastal surface waters, whereas species differences in passive stability and swimming responses to shear may lead to differences in vertical transport and subsequent dispersal. PMID:22162862

McDonald, Kathryn A

2012-01-01

272

Origin and age of the earliest Martian crust from meteorite NWA 7533  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ancient cratered terrain of the southern highlands of Mars is thought to hold clues to the planet's early differentiation, but until now no meteoritic regolith breccias have been recovered from Mars. Here we show that the meteorite Northwest Africa (NWA) 7533 (paired with meteorite NWA 7034) is a polymict breccia consisting of a fine-grained interclast matrix containing clasts of igneous-textured rocks and fine-grained clast-laden impact melt rocks. High abundances of meteoritic siderophiles (for example nickel and iridium) found throughout the rock reach a level in the fine-grained portions equivalent to 5 per cent CI chondritic input, which is comparable to the highest levels found in lunar breccias. Furthermore, analyses of three leucocratic monzonite clasts show a correlation between nickel, iridium and magnesium consistent with differentiation from impact melts. Compositionally, all the fine-grained material is alkalic basalt, chemically identical (except for sulphur, chlorine and zinc) to soils from Gusev crater. Thus, we propose that NWA 7533 is a Martian regolith breccia. It contains zircons for which we measured an age of 4,428 +/- 25 million years, which were later disturbed 1,712 +/- 85 million years ago. This evidence for early crustal differentiation implies that the Martian crust, and its volatile inventory, formed in about the first 100 million years of Martian history, coeval with earliest crust formation on the Moon and the Earth. In addition, incompatible element abundances in clast-laden impact melt rocks and interclast matrix provide a geochemical estimate of the average thickness of the Martian crust (50 kilometres) comparable to that estimated geophysically.

Humayun, M.; Nemchin, A.; Zanda, B.; Hewins, R. H.; Grange, M.; Kennedy, A.; Lorand, J.-P.; Göpel, C.; Fieni, C.; Pont, S.; Deldicque, D.

2013-11-01

273

Origin and age of the earliest Martian crust from meteorite NWA?7533.  

PubMed

The ancient cratered terrain of the southern highlands of Mars is thought to hold clues to the planet's early differentiation, but until now no meteoritic regolith breccias have been recovered from Mars. Here we show that the meteorite Northwest Africa (NWA)?7533 (paired with meteorite NWA?7034) is a polymict breccia consisting of a fine-grained interclast matrix containing clasts of igneous-textured rocks and fine-grained clast-laden impact melt rocks. High abundances of meteoritic siderophiles (for example nickel and iridium) found throughout the rock reach a level in the fine-grained portions equivalent to 5 per cent CI chondritic input, which is comparable to the highest levels found in lunar breccias. Furthermore, analyses of three leucocratic monzonite clasts show a correlation between nickel, iridium and magnesium consistent with differentiation from impact melts. Compositionally, all the fine-grained material is alkalic basalt, chemically identical (except for sulphur, chlorine and zinc) to soils from Gusev crater. Thus, we propose that NWA?7533 is a Martian regolith breccia. It contains zircons for which we measured an age of 4,428?±?25 million years, which were later disturbed 1,712?±?85 million years ago. This evidence for early crustal differentiation implies that the Martian crust, and its volatile inventory, formed in about the first 100 million years of Martian history, coeval with earliest crust formation on the Moon and the Earth. In addition, incompatible element abundances in clast-laden impact melt rocks and interclast matrix provide a geochemical estimate of the average thickness of the Martian crust (50 kilometres) comparable to that estimated geophysically. PMID:24256724

Humayun, M; Nemchin, A; Zanda, B; Hewins, R H; Grange, M; Kennedy, A; Lorand, J-P; Göpel, C; Fieni, C; Pont, S; Deldicque, D

2013-11-28

274

Abnormal iron homeostasis and neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Abnormal iron metabolism is observed in many neurodegenerative diseases, however, only two have shown dysregulation of brain iron homeostasis as the primary cause of neurodegeneration. Herein, we review one of these - hereditary ferritinopathy (HF) or neuroferritinopathy, which is an autosomal dominant, adult onset degenerative disease caused by mutations in the ferritin light chain (FTL) gene. HF has a clinical phenotype characterized by a progressive movement disorder, behavioral disturbances, and cognitive impairment. The main pathologic findings are cystic cavitation of the basal ganglia, the presence of ferritin inclusion bodies (IBs), and substantial iron deposition. Mutant FTL subunits have altered sequence and length but assemble into soluble 24-mers that are ultrastructurally indistinguishable from those of the wild type. Crystallography shows substantial localized disruption of the normally tiny 4-fold pores between the ferritin subunits because of unraveling of the C-termini into multiple polypeptide conformations. This structural alteration causes attenuated net iron incorporation leading to cellular iron mishandling, ferritin aggregation, and oxidative damage at physiological concentrations of iron and ascorbate. A transgenic murine model parallels several features of HF, including a progressive neurological phenotype, ferritin IB formation, and misregulation of iron metabolism. These studies provide a working hypothesis for the pathogenesis of HF by implicating (1) a loss of normal ferritin function that triggers iron accumulation and overproduction of ferritin polypeptides, and (2) a gain of toxic function through radical production, ferritin aggregation, and oxidative stress. Importantly, the finding that ferritin aggregation can be reversed by iron chelators and oxidative damage can be inhibited by radical trapping may be used for clinical investigation. This work provides new insights into the role of abnormal iron metabolism in neurodegeneration. PMID:23908629

Muhoberac, Barry B.; Vidal, Ruben

2013-01-01

275

The Earliest Deadline First Scheduling with Active Buffer Management for Real-Time Traffic in the Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the problem of QoS guarantee for differentiated services. A two-level hierarchical scheduling framework was deployed to separate QoS metrics. Due to its desirable property of minimizing the maximum packet lateness, the Earliest Deadline First (EDF) scheduling was adopted to provide the in-class scheduling for the time- sensitive traffic. We employed an EDF scheduler combined with an active buffer

Xiaojun Hei; Danny H. K. Tsang

2001-01-01

276

The evolution of the Milky Way from its earliest phases : constraints on stellar nucleosynthesis  

E-print Network

We computed the evolution of the abundances of O, Mg, Si, Ca, K, Ti, Sc, Ni, Mn, Co, Fe and Zn in the Milky Way. We made use of the most widely adopted nucleosynthesis calculations and compared the model results with observational data with the aim of imposing constraints upon stellar yields. In order to fit at best the data in the solar neighborhood, when adopting the Woosley and Weaver (1995) yields for massive stars and the Iwamoto et al. (1999) ones for type Ia SNe, it is required that: i) the Mg yields should be increased in stars with masses from 11 to 20 M_sun and decreased in masses larger than 20 M_sun. The Mg yield should be also increased in SNe Ia. ii) The Si yields should be slightly increased in stars above 40 M_sun, whereas those of Ti should be increased between 11 and 20 M_sun and above 30 M_sun. iii) The Cr and Mn yields should be increased in stars with masses in the range 11-20 M_sun, iv) the Co yields in SNe Ia should be larger and smaller in stars in the range 11-20 M_sun, v) the Ni yield from type Ia SNe should be decreased, vi) the Zn yield from type Ia SNe should be increased. vii) The yields of O (metallicity dependent SN models), Ca, Fe, Ni, and Zn (the solar abundance case) in massive stars from Woosley and Weaver (1995) are the best to fit the abundance patterns of these elements since they do not need any change. We adopted also the yields by Nomoto et al. (1997) and Limongi and Chieffi (2003) for massive stars and discussed the corrections required in these yields in order to fit the observations. Finally, the small spread in the [el/Fe] ratios in the metallicity range from [Fe/H]=-4.0 up to -3.0 dex (Cayrel et al. 2003) is a clear sign that the halo of the Milky Way was well mixed even in the earliest phases of its evolution.

Patrick Francois; Francesca Matteucci; Roger Cayrel; Monique Spite; Francois Spite; Cristina Chiappini

2004-01-23

277

Swellings over the Limbs as the Earliest Feature in a Patient with Osteogenesis Imperfecta Type V  

PubMed Central

Swellings over the upper and lower limbs were encountered in a one-year-old child. Skeletal survey showed a constellation of distinctive radiographic abnormalities of osteoporosis, hyperplastic callus and ossification of the interosseous membrane of the forearm, femora, and to lesser extent the tibiae. Neither wormian bones of the skull nor dentinogenesis imperfecta was present. Genetic tests revealed absence of mutation in COL1A1 or COL1A2 genes, respectively. The overall phenotypic features were consistent with the diagnosis of osteogenesis imperfecta type V (OI-V). The aim of this paper is to distinguish between swellings because of intrinsic bone disorders and these due to child physical abuse. PMID:24772361

Ganger, Rudolf; Klaushofer, Klaus; Grill, Franz

2014-01-01

278

Prenatal-postnatal correlations of brain abnormalities: how lesions and diagnoses change over time  

PubMed Central

A combination of prenatal ultrasound and MRI can be used to detect and characterize many primary and secondary CNS abnormalities in the developing fetus. While this information is useful in prenatal patient counseling, it is important to understand the factors that can influence change in diagnosis and prognosis over time. The etiology of the abnormality, the conspicuity of associated findings, the change in appearance over time, and the opinion of subspecialty experts all can influence the diagnosis. Additionally, technical factors of imaging acquisition may allow the detection of an abnormality in the postnatal period and not prenatally. Having an understanding of the normal fetal central nervous system anatomy at varying gestational ages will aid in the imaging detection and interpretation of CNS pathology. Understanding how these appearances and diagnoses can change over time will aid in the discussion of prognosis with expectant parents, which is crucial in fetal CNS abnormalities. PMID:24078783

Senapati, Gunjan; Levine, Deborah

2013-01-01

279

Metabolic Abnormalities in Abstinent Methamphetamine Dependent Subjects  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Chronic methamphetamine use results in persistent neuropsychological deficits in abstinent methamphetamine dependent (AMD) subjects. We examined the hypothesis that elevated concentration of cerebral glutamate (Glu), an excitatory neurotransmitter and neurotoxin, occurs in human AMD. Materials and Methods: We examined 40 subjects, 18 of whom were AMD, abstinent more than 3 weeks and 22 were age matched controls. A Structured Clinical Interview was applied to exclude AMD with comorbid depression. We used TE-Averaged technique of MRS to uniquely identify and quantify the glutamate resonance at 2.35 ppm on a 3T clinical MR scanner. Statistics, including Bonferroni correction for multiple MRS variables were applied. Results: Glu was significantly higher in frontal white matter of AMD (+19%, P = 0.01) and N-acetylaspartate (NAA), an axonal marker, was lower (?14%, P = 0.004). No significant MRS abnormalities were detected in posterior gray matter. Significant correlations were observed between NAA and Glu (P = 0.002 for AMD and P = 0.06 for controls in the posterior gray matter and P = 0.01 for controls and not significant for AMD in the frontal white matter). Conclusion: Our results demonstrate a significant excess of glutamate in frontal white matter of AMD subjects and offer support for the hypothesis that methamphetamine abuse may exert its long-term neuro-toxicity via glutamate. PMID:20485533

Sailasuta, Napapon; Abulseoud, Osama; Hernandez, Martha; Haghani, Poone; Ross, Brian D

2010-01-01

280

The earliest phases of high-mass star formation: the NGC 6334-NGC 6357 complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Our knowledge of high-mass star formation has been mainly based on follow-up studies of bright sources found by IRAS, and has thus been incomplete for its earliest phases, which are inconspicuous at infrared wavelengths. With a new generation of powerful bolometer arrays, unbiased large-scale surveys of nearby high-mass star-forming complexes now search for the high-mass analog of low-mass cores and class 0 protostars. Aims: Following the pioneering study of Cygnus X, we investigate the star-forming region NGC 6334-NGC 6357 (~1.7 kpc). Methods: We study the complex NGC 6334-NGC 6357 in an homogeneous way following the previous work of Motte and collaborators. We used the same method to extract the densest cores which are the most likely sites for high-mass star formation. We analyzed the SIMBA/SEST 1.2 mm data presented in Munoz and coworkers, which covers all high-column density areas (A v ? 15 mag) of the NGC 6334-NGC 6357 complex and extracted dense cores following the method used for Cygnus X. We constrain the properties of the most massive dense cores (M > 100 M_?) using new molecular line observations (as SiO, N2H+,H13CO+, HCO+ (1-0) and CH3CN) with Mopra and a complete cross-correlation with infrared databases (MSX, GLIMPSE, MIPSGAL) and literature. Results: We extracted 163 massive dense cores of which 16 are more massive than 200 M_?. These high-mass dense cores have a typical FWHM size of 0.37 pc, an average mass of M ~ 600 M_?, and a volume-averaged density of ~ 1.5 × 105 cm-3. Among these massive dense cores, 6 are good candidates for hosting high-mass infrared-quiet protostars, 9 cores are classified as high-luminosity infrared protostars, and we find only one high-mass starless clump (~0.3 pc, ~ 4 × 104 cm-3) that is gravitationally bound. Conclusions: Since our sample is derived from a single molecular complex and covers every embedded phase of high-mass star formation, it provides a statistical estimate of the lifetime of massive stars. In contrast to what is found for low-mass class 0 and class I phases, the infrared-quiet protostellar phase of high-mass stars may last as long as their more well known high-luminosity infrared phase. As in Cygnus X, the statistical lifetime of high-mass protostars is shorter than found for nearby, low-mass star-forming regions which implies that high-mass pre-stellar and protostellar cores are in a dynamic state, as expected in a molecular cloud where turbulent and/or dynamical processes dominate. Based on observations made with Mopra telescope. The Mopra telescope is part of the Australia Telescope which is funded by the Commonwealth of Australia for operation as a National Facility managed by CSIRO.Table 1 and Appendix are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgProfiles as FITS files are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/515/A55

Russeil, D.; Zavagno, A.; Motte, F.; Schneider, N.; Bontemps, S.; Walsh, A. J.

2010-06-01

281

Renal abnormalities and their developmental origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) occur in 1 out of 500 newborns, and constitute approximately 20–30% of all anomalies identified in the prenatal period. CAKUT has a major role in renal failure, and there is increasing evidence that certain abnormalities predispose to the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in adult life. Moreover, defects in nephron

Andreas Schedl

2007-01-01

282

Dark Immunofluorescence: Correlation with Serum Immunoglobulin Abnormalities?  

PubMed Central

Occasional serum samples (<0.5%) tested by indirect immunofluorescence showed less fluorescence than did negative-control serum. A retrospective review of these patients' serum immunoglobulins revealed a high percentage of abnormalities (71%, versus 22% of controls). We suggest that this observation should be reported when seen and that the clinician should be alerted to an association with immunoglobulin abnormalities. PMID:16971516

List, J.; Buckland, M. S.; Thobhani, B.; Sheed, C. J.; Mann, J. C.; Claxton, M.; Heelan, B.

2006-01-01

283

Immune Abnormalities in Patients with Autism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 31 autistic patients (3-28 years old) has revealed several immune-system abnormalities, including decreased numbers of T lymphocytes and an altered ratio of helper-to-suppressor T cells. Immune-system abnormalities may be directly related to underlying biologic processes of autism or an indirect reflection of the actual pathologic…

Warren, Reed P.; And Others

1986-01-01

284

Multiparametric tissue abnormality characterization using manifold regularization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tissue abnormality characterization is a generalized segmentation problem which aims at determining a continuous score that can be assigned to the tissue which characterizes the extent of tissue deterioration, with completely healthy tissue being one end of the spectrum and fully abnormal tissue such as lesions, being on the other end. Our method is based on the assumptions that there is some tissue that is neither fully healthy or nor completely abnormal but lies in between the two in terms of abnormality; and that the voxel-wise score of tissue abnormality lies on a spatially and temporally smooth manifold of abnormality. Unlike in a pure classification problem which associates an independent label with each voxel without considering correlation with neighbors, or an absolute clustering problem which does not consider a priori knowledge of tissue type, we assume that diseased and healthy tissue lie on a manifold that encompasses the healthy tissue and diseased tissue, stretching from one to the other. We propose a semi-supervised method for determining such as abnormality manifold, using multi-parametric features incorporated into a support vector machine framework in combination with manifold regularization. We apply the framework towards the characterization of tissue abnormality to brains of multiple sclerosis patients.

Batmanghelich, Kayhan; Wu, Xiaoying; Zacharaki, Evangelia; Markowitz, Clyde E.; Davatzikos, Christos; Verma, Ragini

2008-03-01

285

Predicting Abnormal Returns Using Debt Ratios  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the ability of the company capital structures to be used as a predictor for abnormal returns in the US stock market in the long run. The relationship between debt level and abnormal return over a three-year holding period is investigated. Robustness tests are carried out to determine the predictive ability of debt ratios when controlling for size

Brian Baturevich; Gulnur Muradoglu

286

Research Report: Students' knowledge of abnormal psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aims to compare whether final year psychology students (n = 26) could answer more items on a multiple choice questionnaire (MCQ) correctly on abnormal psychology than prospective psychology candidates (n = 77) and final year engineering students (n = 26). The three groups of students completed MCQs in five different fields of abnormal psychology namely; eating disorders,

Adrian Furnham; Bahman Baluch; Fiona Starr

2003-01-01

287

COURSE SYLLABUS Psychology 350: Abnormal Psychology  

E-print Network

COURSE SYLLABUS Psychology 350: Abnormal Psychology Spring 2011 Instructor: Dennis P. Saccuzzo, Ph: Abnormal Psychology by Susan Holen-Hoeksema 4th edition This course covers the history, theories.D., J.D. Meeting Times: Wednesday:-6:40pm Professor of Psychology E-Mail: dsaccuzz

Gallo, Linda C.

288

The present status of abnormal psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical analysis of the content of fifteen representative textbooks in abnormal psychology and seven textbooks in psychiatry. It is found that abnormal psychology is a dumping ground for miscellaneous topics left over from general psychology, including sleep, dreams, suggestion, etc. The most conspicuous defect is the lack of experimental material, of which there is only .8%. Another is the

W. A. Hunt; C. Landis

1935-01-01

289

An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

White, Geoffry D.

1977-01-01

290

Prenatal Ultrasound Screening for External Ear Abnormality in the Fetuses  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To investigate the best time of examination and section chosen of routine prenatal ultrasound screening for external ear abnormalities and evaluate the feasibility of examining the fetal external ear with ultrasonography. Methods. From July 2010 until August 2011, 42118 pregnant women with single fetus during 16–40 weeks of pregnancy were enrolled in the study. Fetal auricles and external auditory canal in the second trimester of pregnancy were evaluated by routine color Doppler ultrasound screening and systematic screening. Ultrasound images of fetal external ears were obtained on transverse-incline view at cervical vertebra level and mandible level and on parasagittal view and coronal view at external ear level. Results. Five fetuses had anomalous ears including bilateral malformed auricles with malformed external auditory canal, unilateral deformed external ear, and unilateral microtia. The detection rate of both auricles was negatively correlated with gestational age. Of the 5843 fetuses undergoing a routine ultrasound screening, 5797 (99.21%) had bilateral auricles. Of the 4955 fetuses following systematic screening, all fetuses (100%) had bilateral auricles. The best time for fetal auricles observation with ultrasonography is 20–24 weeks of pregnancy. Conclusions. Detection of external ear abnormalities may assist in the diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:25050343

Wei, Jun; Ran, Suzhen; Yang, Zhengchun; Lin, Yun; Tang, Jing

2014-01-01

291

A Comparison of Techniques for Detecting Abnormal Change in Blogs  

SciTech Connect

Distributed collections are made of metadata entries that contain references to artifacts not controlled by the collection curators. These collections often have limited forms of change; for digital distributed collections, primarily creation and deletion of additional resources. However, there exists a class of digital collection that undergoes additional kinds of change. These collections consist of resources that are distributed across the Internet and brought together via hyperlinking. Resources in these collections can be expected to change as time goes on. Part of the difficulty in maintaining these collections is determining if a changed page is still a valid member of the collection. Others have tried to address this by defining a maximum allowed threshold of change, however, these methods treat change as a potential problem and treat web content as static despite its intrinsic dynamicism. Instead we acknowledge change on the web as a normal part of a web document and determine the difference between what a maintainer expects a page to do and what it actually does. In this work we evaluate options for extractors and analyzers from a suite of techniques against a human-generated ground-truth set of blog changes. The results of this work show a statistically significant improvement over traditional threshold techniques for our collection.

Furuta, Dr. Richard Keith [Texas A& M University] [Texas A& M University; ShipmanIII, Dr. Frank Major [Texas A& M University] [Texas A& M University; Bogen, Paul Logasa [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-01-01

292

DETECTION OF ABNORMAL SITUATIONS IN AN INDUSTRIAL STYRENE POLYMERIZATION REACTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proper operation of the industrial polymerization reactor is a challenging problem and a significant business opportunity for Process System Engineering application, which is in a broad sense, commonly called Polymerization Reactor Engineering. The technical challenges are specific to the particular case, but they are mainly due to some general characteristics such as their complex nonlinear, multivariable and interactive dynamic

Oscar A. Z. Sotomayor; Darci Odloak; Reinaldo Giudici; Edwin Dextre Jara

293

Detecting Kidney and Urinary Tract Abnormalities Before Birth  

MedlinePLUS

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294

Abnormal erythropoiesis and the pathophysiology of chronic anemia.  

PubMed

Erythropoiesis, the bone marrow production of erythrocytes by the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells, replaces the daily loss of 1% of circulating erythrocytes that are senescent. This daily output increases dramatically with hemolysis or hemorrhage. When erythrocyte production rate of erythrocytes is less than the rate of loss, chronic anemia develops. Normal erythropoiesis and specific abnormalities of erythropoiesis that cause chronic anemia are considered during three periods of differentiation: a) multilineage and pre-erythropoietin-dependent hematopoietic progenitors, b) erythropoietin-dependent progenitor cells, and c) terminally differentiating erythroblasts. These erythropoietic abnormalities are discussed in terms of their pathophysiological effects on the bone marrow cells and the resultant changes that can be detected in the peripheral blood using a clinical laboratory test, the complete blood count. PMID:24560123

Koury, Mark J

2014-03-01

295

Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

NONE

1993-12-31

296

Abnormalities of urine urobilinogen and urine bilirubin assays and their relation to abnormal results of serum liver function tests.  

PubMed

A prospective observational study of 324 cases was conducted in a busy ambulatory care setting to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and accuracy of spot urine urobilinogen and urine bilirubin assays as screening tests for serum liver function test (LFT) abnormalities. High positive predictive values (88% for at least one abnormal LFT) make the evaluation of positive urine screens detected during routine health care maintenance examinations imperative. Because extraneous factors may influence both urine and serum test results, however, urine assays obtained as a screening parameter in clinical presentations (abdominal pain, jaundice, constitutional symptoms, etc) have only limited clinical utility. The high proportion of false-negative results for both urine assays renders their statistical properties unacceptable as screens in these clinical situations. PMID:3175729

Binder, L; Smith, D; Kupka, T; Nelson, B; Glass, B; Wainscott, M; Haynes, J

1988-10-01

297

Earliest stages of crystal growth in a silicate glass containing titanium and zirconium as nucleating elements — HRTEM and XAS study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The earliest stages of crystallization have been studied for a SiO 2-Al 2O 3-Li 2O glass-ceramics containing a few percent of titanium and zirconium as nucleating elements. After heat treatments at temperatures ranging between T=750°C and T=860°C, the growth process has been studied by combining HRTEM (high resolution transmission electron microscopy) and XAS (X-ray absorption spectrometry). A fine phase separation has been found in the parent glass (? 7 nm in size) independent of the presence of the nucleating elements. From HRTEM, the earliest crystalline phase has been definitely stated as being TiZrO 4. The incorporation of titanium atoms into TiZrO 4 crystals is correlated with a change of their coordinance from 4 to 6, directly evidenced in XAS spectra by the "prepeak" analysis at titanium K-edge. The crystallization of the aluminosilicate occurs after full precipitation of TiZrO 4. In glass ceramics, the number of aluminosilicate and TiZrO 4 crystals per unit volume are nearly equal, in good agreement with heterogeneous nucleation of the silicate solid solution on TiZrO 4 crystals. For samples heat treated at 750°C and 780°C, the number of TiZrO 4 crystallites is constant for a given temperature. These crystallites grow until the matrix becomes free of zirconium atoms. Their growth activation energy has been found to be 400±50 kJ/mol.

Ramos, A.; Gandais, M.

1990-03-01

298

ECG abnormalities and stroke incidence.  

PubMed

In this review, the authors discuss the role of ECG in prediction of stroke. ECG plays an important role in detection of several stroke risk factors/predictors including atrial fibrillation and left ventricular hypertrophy; both are components of the Framingham Stroke Risk Score. Multiple other ECG traits have also emerged as potential predictors of stroke, namely cardiac electrical/structural remodeling--Q wave, QRS/QT duration, bundle blocks, P wave duration/amplitude/dispersion, other waveform angles and slopes; higher automaticity--ectopic beats; and re-entry--atrial tachyarrhythmia; and higher vulnerability to arrhythmia--heart rate and its variability. Most of these predictors are not ready for prime time yet; however, further research focusing on their role in risk stratification and prevention of stroke may be useful. In this article, the authors discuss the prevalence, mechanisms and clinical applications of traditional and novel ECG markers in the prevention and treatment of stroke. PMID:23895029

Agarwal, Sunil K; Soliman, Elsayed Z

2013-07-01

299

Hereditary abnormalities in pigs L. OLLIVIER  

E-print Network

to a single autosomal recessive gene,5to one autosomal dominant gene and I to a sexlinked recessive gene in production traits compensating for the disadvantages due to the abnormality itself; this is for instance

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

300

Pinna abnormalities and low-set ears  

MedlinePLUS

... because they do not affect hearing. However, sometimes cosmetic surgery is recommended. Skin tags may be tied off, ... 5 years old. More severe abnormalities may require surgery for cosmetic reasons as well as for function. Surgery to ...

301

Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences  

SciTech Connect

Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identified an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from October 1 through December 31, 1990. The report discusses five abnormal occurrences, none of which involved a nuclear power plant. Two involved significant overexposures to the hands of two radiographers, two involved medical therapy misadministrations, and one involved a medical diagnostic misadministration. No abnormal occurrences were reported by the Agreement States. The report also contains information that updates a previously reported abnormal occurrence. 8 refs.

Not Available

1991-03-01

302

Abnormal Glucose Levels Found in Transportation Accidents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Federal Aviation Administration's Office of Aviation Medicine (OAM) is responsible for the certification of pilots with diabetic conditions. Therefore, it is essential for OAM to monitor pilots involved in fatal accidents for abnormal glucose levels, ...

D. V. Canfield, A. K. Chaturvedi, H. K. Boren, S. J. H. Veronneau, V. L. White

2000-01-01

303

Guidelines to identify abnormalities after childhood urinary tract infections: a prospective audit  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the childhood urinary tract infection (UTI) guidelines from the Royal College of Physicians (RCP) in 1991 and from National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) (CG54) in 2007 by measuring their efficiency at detecting urinary tract abnormalities. Design Children with UTIs within the Newcastle Primary Care Trust (population 70?800 children) were referred and imaged according to the RCP guidelines during 2008, and these were compared to the activity that would have been undertaken if we had implemented the CG54 guidelines, including following them through 2011 to identify those with recurrent UTIs. Main outcome measures The numbers of children imaged, the imaging burden and efficiency, and urinary tract abnormalities detected by each guideline. Results Fewer children would have been imaged by CG54 than RCP (150 vs 427), but its sensitivity was lower, at 44% for detecting scarring, 10% for identifying vesicoureteric reflux and 40% for other abnormalities. Overall, it would have only detected one-quarter of the abnormal cases (8 vs 32) and would have missed five of nine children with scarring, including three with multiple lesions and one with renal impairment. Imposing an age restriction of <8?years to the RCP guidelines would reduce its screening rate by 20% and still detect 90% of the abnormalities. Interpretation The CG54 guidelines do not alter the imaging efficiency compared to the RCP guidelines, but they are considerably less sensitive. PMID:24436366

Coulthard, Malcolm G; Lambert, Heather J; Vernon, Susan J; Hunter, Elizabeth W; Keir, Michael J

2014-01-01

304

Structural abnormality of the carburized layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The tendency toward abnormality is characterized by the rate of decomposition of austentite into ferrite at definite temperatures.2.The horophilic elements (AI, V, W, Mn) increase the tendency toward abnormality; the horophobic substances (Mn, Cr, Ni) are conducive to the formation of a normal structure.3.By selecting the chemical composition it is possible in the process of melting to control the degree

B. S. Natapov

1962-01-01

305

Mitochondrial abnormalities in myofibrillar myopathies.  

PubMed

Histological mitochondrial changes are generally found to be associated with late onset myofibrillar myopathies (MFMs). How these changes contribute to the pathogenesis of MFMs is unknown. Mitochondrial changes, including COX-deficient fibers (n = 8), biochemical activities of respiratory chain complexes (n = 7), and multiple mtDNA deletions by long-range PCR (n = 9) were examined in patients with genetically confirmed MFMs [MYOT (n = 2), DES (n = 1), ZASP (n = 2), FLNC (n = 4)] and compared with age and sex matched normal controls (n = 27) and patients with a mitochondrial disorder with multiple mtDNA deletions due to nuclear genetic defects (n = 8). In 2 MFM patients, micro dissected fibers were analyzed for multiple mtDNA deletions by nested long-range PCR. The COX-deficient fibers only partly corresponded with fibers containing myofibrillar accumulations. In total, there was no difference in the percentage of COX-deficient fibers in MFM patients and normal controls. However, the percentage of COX-deficient fibers was significantly higher in 3 MFM patients. Two MFM patients but none of the controls had multiple mtDNA deletions. Nested long-range PCR detected multiple mtDNA deletions only in COX-deficient fibers. Citrate synthase activities in MFM patients were 1.5-fold increased by compared to those in controls, suggesting initiation of mitochondrial alterations. However, it is unclear whether this is a direct consequence of MFM pathology. *both authors contributed equally to the manuscript. PMID:24361111

Joshi, Pushpa R; Hauburger, Anja; Kley, Rudolf; Claeys, Kristl G; Schneider, Ilka; Kress, Wolfram; Stoltenburg, Gisela; Weis, Joachim; Vorgerd, Matthias; Deschauer, Marcus; Hanisch, Frank

2014-01-01

306

BRAIN ABNORMALITIES IN YOUNG ADULTS AT GENETIC RISK FOR AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY  

PubMed Central

Summary Background We previously detected functional brain imaging abnormalities in young adults at genetic risk for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here, we sought to characterize structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and plasma biomarker abnormalities in young adults at risk for autosomal dominant early-onset AD. Biomarker measurements were characterized and compared in presenilin 1 (PSEN1) E280A mutation carriers and non-carriers from the world’s largest known autosomal dominant early-onset AD kindred, more than two decades before the carriers’ estimated median age of 44 at the onset of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and before their estimated age of 28 at the onset of amyloid-? (A?) plaque deposition. Methods Biomarker data for this cross-sectional study were acquired in Antioquia, Colombia between July and August, 2010. Forty-four participants from the Colombian Alzheimer’s Prevention Initiative (API) Registry had structural MRIs, functional MRIs during associative memory encoding/novel viewing and control tasks, and cognitive assessments. They included 20 mutation carriers and 24 non-carriers, who were cognitively normal, 18-26 years old and matched for their gender, age, and educational level. Twenty of the participants, including 10 mutation carriers and 10 non-carriers, had lumbar punctures and venipunctures. Primary outcome measures included task-dependent hippocampal/parahippocampal activations and precuneus/posterior cingulate deactivations, regional gray matter reductions, CSF A?1-42, total tau and phospho-tau181 levels, and plasma A?1-42 levels and A?1-42/A?1-40 ratios. Structural and functional MRI data were compared using automated brain mapping algorithms and AD-related search regions. Cognitive and fluid biomarkers were compared using Mann-Whitney tests. Findings The mutation carrier and non-carrier groups did not differ significantly in their dementia ratings, neuropsychological test scores, or proportion of apolipoprotein E (APOE) ?4 carriers. Compared to the non-carriers, carriers had higher CSF A?1-42 levels (p=0·008), plasma A?1-42 levels (p=0·01), and plasma A?1-42/A?1-40 ratios (p=0·001), consistent with A?1-42 overproduction. They also had greater hippocampal/parahippocampal activations (as low as p=0·008, after correction for multiple comparisons), less precuneus/posterior cingulate deactivations (as low as p=0·001, after correction), less gray matter in several regions (p-values <0·005, uncorrected, and corrected p=0·008 in the parietal search region), similar to findings in the later preclinical and clinical stages of autosomal dominant and late-onset AD. Interpretation Young adults at genetic risk for autosomal dominant AD have functional and structural MRI abnormalities, along with CSF and plasma biomarker findings consistent with A?1-42 over-production. While the extent to which the underlying brain changes are progressive or developmental remain to be determined, this study demonstrates the earliest known biomarker changes in cognitively normal people at genetic risk for autosomal dominant AD. Funding Banner Alzheimer’s Foundation, Nomis Foundation, Anonymous Foundation, Forget Me Not Initiative, Boston University Department of Psychology, Colciencias (1115-408-20512, 1115-545-31651), National Institute on Aging (R01 AG031581, P30 AG19610, UO1 AG024904, RO1 AG025526, RF1AG041705), National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (F31-NS078786) and state of Arizona. PMID:23137948

Reiman, Eric M.; Quiroz, Yakeel T.; Fleisher, Adam S.; Chen, Kewei; Velez-Pardo, Carlos; Jimenez-Del-Rio, Marlene; Fagan, Anne M.; Shah, Aarti R.; Alvarez, Sergio; Arbelaez, Andres; Giraldo, Margarita; Acosta-Baena, Natalia; Sperling, Reisa A.; Dickerson, Brad; Stern, Chantal E.; Tirado, Victoria; Munoz, Claudia; Reiman, Rebecca A.; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Alexander, Gene E.; Langbaum, Jessica B.S.; Kosik, Kenneth S.; Tariot, Pierre N.; Lopera, Francisco

2013-01-01

307

Detector for flow abnormalities in gaseous diffusion plant compressors  

DOEpatents

A detector detects a flow abnormality in a plant compressor which outputs a motor current signal. The detector includes a demodulator/lowpass filter demodulating and filtering the motor current signal producing a demodulated signal, and first, second, third and fourth bandpass filters connected to the demodulator/lowpass filter, and filtering the demodulated signal in accordance with first, second, third and fourth bandpass frequencies generating first, second, third and fourth filtered signals having first, second, third and fourth amplitudes. The detector also includes first, second, third and fourth amplitude detectors connected to the first, second, third and fourth bandpass filters respectively, and detecting the first, second, third and fourth amplitudes, and first and second adders connected to the first and fourth amplitude detectors and the second and third amplitude detectors respectively, and adding the first and fourth amplitudes and the second and third amplitudes respectively generating first and second added signals. Finally, the detector includes a comparator, connected to the first and second adders, and comparing the first and second added signals and detecting the abnormal condition in the plant compressor when the second added signal exceeds the first added signal by a predetermined value. 6 figs.

Smith, S.F.; Castleberry, K.N.

1998-06-16

308

Detector for flow abnormalities in gaseous diffusion plant compressors  

DOEpatents

A detector detects a flow abnormality in a plant compressor which outputs a motor current signal. The detector includes a demodulator/lowpass filter demodulating and filtering the motor current signal producing a demodulated signal, and first, second, third and fourth bandpass filters connected to the demodulator/lowpass filter, and filtering the demodulated signal in accordance with first, second, third and fourth bandpass frequencies generating first, second, third and fourth filtered signals having first, second, third and fourth amplitudes. The detector also includes first, second, third and fourth amplitude detectors connected to the first, second, third and fourth bandpass filters respectively, and detecting the first, second, third and fourth amplitudes, and first and second adders connected to the first and fourth amplitude detectors and the second and third amplitude detectors respectively, and adding the first and fourth amplitudes and the second and third amplitudes respectively generating first and second added signals. Finally, the detector includes a comparator, connected to the first and second adders, and comparing the first and second added signals and detecting the abnormal condition in the plant compressor when the second added signal exceeds the first added signal by a predetermined value.

Smith, Stephen F. (Loudon, TN); Castleberry, Kim N. (Harriman, TN)

1998-01-01

309

Corticospinal Tract Abnormalities Are Associated with Weakness in Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose To assess the relationship between muscle strength in multiple sclerosis (MS) and corticospinal tract (CST) abnormalities detected with multimodality magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Methods In 47 individuals with MS, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 3T was used to reconstruct the intracranial CSTs. Tract profiles depicted the variation in T2 relaxation time, magnetization transfer ratio, and DTI-derived indices (fractional anisotropy and diffusivity) as a function of normalized position along the tract. Brain parenchymal fraction was calculated as a normalized measure of brain volume. Stepwise linear regression modeling was used to determine the MRI indices most closely related to ankle dorsiflexion and hip flexion strength assessed with quantitative dynamometry. Results Individuals with MS were significantly weak: average ankle strength fell 1.7 standard deviations below the age-, handedness-, and sex-corrected healthy mean. Brain parenchymal fraction was not associated with weakness. A parsimonious model that includes magnetization transfer ratio in the brainstem and MS clinical subtype explained 30% to 45% of the variance in ankle and hip strength. The model was successfully applied to scans and strength data from the same individuals at an earlier time point. Conclusion MRI abnormalities specific to the motor tract are associated with clinical dysfunction related to that tract. The relevant abnormalities are found in the brainstem, distant from the periventricular inflammatory lesions that are common in MS. This suggests that neurodegeneration, rather than primary inflammation, at least partially explains the findings. PMID:17974617

Reich, Daniel S.; Zackowski, Kathleen M.; Gordon-Lipkin, Eliza M.; Smith, Seth A.; Chodkowski, BettyAnn A.; Cutter, Gary R.; Calabresi, Peter A.

2009-01-01

310

Abnormal center-periphery gradient in spatial attention in simultanagnosia.  

PubMed

Patients suffering from simultanagnosia cannot perceive more than one object at a time. The underlying mechanism is incompletely understood. One hypothesis is that simultanagnosia reflects "tunnel vision," a constricted attention window around gaze, which precludes the grouping of individual objects. Although this idea has a long history in neuropsychology, the question whether the patients indeed have an abnormal attention gradient around the gaze has so far not been addressed. Here we tested this hypothesis in two simultanagnosia patients with bilateral parieto-occipital lesions and two control groups, with and without brain damage. We assessed the participants' ability to discriminate letters presented briefly at fixation with and without a peripheral distractor or in the visual periphery, with or without a foveal distractor. A constricted span of attention around gaze would predict an increased susceptibility to foveated versus peripheral distractors. Contrary to this prediction and unlike both control groups, the patients' ability to discriminate the target decreased more in the presence of peripheral compared with foveated distractors. Thus, the attentional spotlight in simultanagnosia does not fall on foveated objects as previously assumed, but rather abnormally highlights the periphery. Furthermore, we found the same center-periphery gradient in the patients' ability to recognize multiple objects. They detected multiple, but not single objects more accurately in the periphery than at fixation. These results suggest that an abnormal allocation of attention around the gaze can disrupt the grouping of individual objects into an integrated visual scene. PMID:24893736

Balslev, Daniela; Odoj, Bartholomaeus; Rennig, Johannes; Karnath, Hans-Otto

2014-12-01

311

42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other...abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other...

2013-10-01

312

Dipolar distribution generated by laser-induced plasma (LIP) in air in earliest instants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an experimental investigation of the electric field potential and magnetic field generated by a laser-induced plasma in air, for time delays 0 ? t ? 50 ns. The laser used is a Nd?:?YAG, ? = 1064 nm, 10 ns at FWHM, and the irradiance applied is I = (1011-1012) W cm-2. We find that the collective effect of the charges in the plasma form a dynamic dipole distribution aligned with the laser beam axis. This experimental result is explained based on the mobility of the electric charges detected by mapping near the plasma with a coaxial cable probe. Shadowgraphy and fast photography techniques show that the plasma ionization front advances asymmetrically and mostly toward the lens. The intrinsic dipole moment is estimated by applying an external electric field. The magnetic diagnostic shows the presence of a current aligned with the laser beam that gives rise to an azimuthal magnetic field, corroborating the observed dipolar configuration.

Paulin Fuentes, J. Mauricio; Sánchez-Aké, C.; Bredice, Fausto O.; Villagrán-Muniz, Mayo

2013-12-01

313

Evaluation of retinal vessel segmentation methods for microaneurysms detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microaneurysms (MAs) are the earliest sign of diabetic retinopathy and manifest as small reddish spots on the retina. Generally, algorithm design for MAs detection starts by separating the vascular system from the background for a posterior analysis of candidate MAs presence. Following this approach, this paper assesses three different methods for vessel segmentation and how they affect posterior MAs detection.

Charles Iury Oliveira Martins; Fátima Nelsizeuma Sombra de Medeiros; Rodrigo M. S. Veras; Francisco Nivando Bezerra; Roberto Marcondes Cesar Junior

2009-01-01

314

What is the clinical and ethical importance of incidental abnormalities found by knee MRI?  

PubMed Central

Introduction Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly used to examine joints for research purposes. It may detect both suspected and unsuspected abnormalities. This raises both clinical and ethical issues, especially when incidental abnormalities are detected. The prevalence of incidental, potentially clinically significant abnormalities identified by MRI and their clinical significance in a population undergoing knee MRI in research studies are unknown. Methods We examined the prevalence of such lesions in healthy asymptomatic adults and those with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) undergoing knee MRI with limited sequences for the purpose of research. The MRI findings in 601 asymptomatic subjects and 132 with knee OA who underwent at least one limited knee MRI scan for cartilage volume measurement were examined by an MRI radiologist for the presence of potentially clinically significant abnormalities. Results These were present in 2.3% of healthy and 2.3% of OA subjects. All required further investigation to exclude non-benign disease, including four with bone marrow expansion (0.7%), requiring further investigation and management. A single potentially life-threatening lesion, a myeloma lesion, was identified in a subject with symptomatic knee OA on their second MRI scan in a longitudinal study. Conclusion As musculoskeletal MRI is increasingly used clinically and for research purposes, the potential for detecting unsuspected abnormalities that require further investigation should be recognized. Incorporating a system to detect these, to characterize unexpected findings, and to facilitate appropriate medical follow-up when designing studies using this technology should be considered ethical research practice. PMID:18252003

Grainger, Rebecca; Stuckey, Stephen; O'Sullivan, Richard; Davis, Susan R; Ebeling, Peter R; Wluka, Anita E

2008-01-01

315

Earliest domestication of common millet (Panicum miliaceum) in East Asia extended to 10,000 years ago.  

PubMed

The origin of millet from Neolithic China has generally been accepted, but it remains unknown whether common millet (Panicum miliaceum) or foxtail millet (Setaria italica) was the first species domesticated. Nor do we know the timing of their domestication and their routes of dispersal. Here, we report the discovery of husk phytoliths and biomolecular components identifiable solely as common millet from newly excavated storage pits at the Neolithic Cishan site, China, dated to between ca. 10,300 and ca. 8,700 calibrated years before present (cal yr BP). After ca. 8,700 cal yr BP, the grain crops began to contain a small quantity of foxtail millet. Our research reveals that the common millet was the earliest dry farming crop in East Asia, which is probably attributed to its excellent resistance to drought. PMID:19383791

Lu, Houyuan; Zhang, Jianping; Liu, Kam-biu; Wu, Naiqin; Li, Yumei; Zhou, Kunshu; Ye, Maolin; Zhang, Tianyu; Zhang, Haijiang; Yang, Xiaoyan; Shen, Licheng; Xu, Deke; Li, Quan

2009-05-01

316

Keep up the pace: Declines in simple repetitive timing differentiate healthy aging from the earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

The current study examined whether healthy older adults (OA) and individuals at the earliest stages of dementia of the Alzheimer’s type (DAT) differ from younger adults (YA) and from each other on a simple, extended continuous tapping task using intervals (500 ms, 1000 ms, and 1500 ms) thought to differentially engage attention control systems. OA groups sped up their tapping at the slowest target rate compared to the YA; this pattern was magnified in the early stage DAT groups. Performance variability appeared especially sensitive to DAT-related changes, as reliable differences between healthy OA and very mild DAT individuals emerged for multiple tap rates. These differences are proposed to result from breakdowns in attentional control that disrupt error-correction processes and the ability to resolve discrepancies between internally-generated temporal expectancies and the external temporal demands of the repetitive timing task. PMID:22929329

Bangert, Ashley S.; Balota, David A.

2012-01-01

317

Temperate carbonate debrites and short-lived earliest Miocene yo-yo tectonics, eastern Taranaki Basin margin, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines two unconformity-bound earliest Miocene temperate shallow-marine limestones at remote Gibson Beach, western North Island, on the eastern margin of Taranaki Basin, New Zealand's only producing hydrocarbon province. The local geology comprises an upper limestone of up to 6 m of spectacular conglomeratic limestone (rudstone; Papakura Limestone) whose pebble- to boulder-sized clasts were derived from cannibalisation of the lower skeletal limestone (bryomol grainstone; Otorohanga Limestone). Multiple lines of evidence require the Otorohanga Limestone to have been well indurated before erosion and clast generation. Cementation occurred from pressure dissolution of calcitic skeletons at burial depths of probably 400 m or more. Subsequent uplift led to local subaerial exposure and karstification of a fault-block cliffed coastline where physical erosion sourced talus limestone debris onto adjacent high-energy pocket beaches. Storm and/or seismic events periodically triggered mass flows of the limestone clasts offshore onto the contemporary mixed siliciclastic-carbonate shelf as channelised carbonate debrites. Lithification of these Papakura Limestone debrites occurred via pressure dissolution, and required a second burial episode. Karst pinnacles preserved on the eroded upper surface of the Papakura Limestone demand uplift again and erosion in a subaerial setting, before subsequent deep burial by Early Miocene siliciclastic shelf sand and turbidite deposits. Strontium isotope dating of brachiopod fossils suggests the two postulated burial-uplift cycles, involving movements up to 400 ± 100 m, occurred very rapidly within several 100 kyr. Speculative drivers of the yo-yo tectonic events are earliest Miocene movements on the nearby major Taranaki Fault thrust in association with regional changes in subduction tectonics at the Australian-Pacific plate boundary, along with pulsed emplacement of obducted gravity slide deposits (Northland Allochthon) onto northern North Island. The two limestones record a previously undocumented degree of eastern Taranaki Basin margin tectonic mobility relevant to a fuller appreciation of petroleum system development in that basin.

Hood, Steven D.; Nelson, Campbell S.

2012-03-01

318

Opportunistic Feeding Strategy for the Earliest Old World Hypsodont Equids: Evidence from Stable Isotope and Dental Wear Proxies  

PubMed Central

Background The equid Hippotherium primigenium, with moderately hypsodont cheek teeth, rapidly dispersed through Eurasia in the early late Miocene. This dispersal of hipparions into the Old World represents a major faunal event during the Neogene. The reasons for this fast dispersal of H. primigenium within Europe are still unclear. Based on its hypsodonty, a high specialization in grazing is assumed although the feeding ecology of the earliest European hipparionines within a pure C3 plant ecosystem remains to be investigated. Methodology/Principal Findings A multi-proxy approach, combining carbon and oxygen isotopes from enamel as well as dental meso- and microwear analyses of cheek teeth, was used to characterize the diet of the earliest European H. primigenium populations from four early Late Miocene localities in Germany (Eppelsheim, Höwenegg), Switzerland (Charmoille), and France (Soblay). Enamel ?13C values indicate a pure C3 plant diet with small (<1.4‰) seasonal variations for all four H. primigenium populations. Dental wear and carbon isotope compositions are compatible with dietary differences. Except for the Höwenegg hipparionines, dental microwear data indicate a browse-dominated diet. By contrast, the tooth mesowear patterns of all populations range from low to high abrasion suggesting a wide spectrum of food resources. Conclusions/Significance Combined dental wear and stable isotope analysis enables refined palaeodietary reconstructions in C3 ecosystems. Different H. primigenium populations in Europe had a large spectrum of feeding habits with a high browsing component. The combination of specialized phenotypes such as hypsodont cheek teeth with a wide spectrum of diet illustrates a new example of the Liem’s paradox. This dietary flexibility associated with the capability to exploit abrasive food such as grasses probably contributed to the rapid dispersal of hipparionines from North America into Eurasia and the fast replacement of the brachydont equid Anchitherium by the hypsodont H. primigenium in Europe. PMID:24040254

Tutken, Thomas; Kaiser, Thomas M.; Vennemann, Torsten; Merceron, Gildas

2013-01-01

319

AGN in deep radio/X-ray surveys: hunting the earliest massive galaxies  

E-print Network

Despite the plethora of deep (sub-mJy) radio surveys there remains considerable doubt as to the exact nature of the galaxies contributing to the source counts. Current evidence suggests that starformation in moderately luminous 'normal' galaxies is responsible for the bulk of the emission below 1mJy. However given the sensitivities of these surveys we would expect a fraction of these sources to be distant radio galaxies. Using deep VLA and GMRT data we have found ~20 high-z candidate radio galaxies in two fields using the classical ultra-steep radio spectrum technique (De Breuck et al., 2000) and selecting galaxies with faint (i'>25) optical counterparts. Several of these sources have X-ray detections in our deep XMM/Chandra observations and have fluxes high enough to put them in the quasar regime if they lie above redshift 3. Recently performed Spitzer GTO observations and upcoming near-infrared observations will help reveal the nature of these sources.

Nick Seymour; Derek Moss; Ian McHardy; Katherine Gunn; Mat Page; Nic Loaring; Tom Dwelly

2005-08-12

320

A comparison of multifocal ERG and frequency domain OCT changes in patients with abnormalities of the retina  

PubMed Central

To compare the ability of the multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) and frequency domain optical coherence tomography (fdOCT) to detect retinal abnormalities. A total of 198 eyes (100 patients) were referred by neuro-ophthalmologists to rule out a retinal etiology of visual impairment. All patients were evaluated with static automated perimetry (SAP) (Humphrey Visual Field Analyzer; Zeiss Meditec), mfERG (Veris, EDI) and fdOCT (3D-OCT 1000, Topcon). The mfERG was performed with 103 scaled hexagons and procedures conforming to ISCEV standards (Hood DC et al. (2008) Doc Ophthalmol 116(1):1–11). The fdOCT imaging included horizontal and vertical line scans through the fovea. Local mfERG and fdOCT abnormalities were compared to local regions of visual field sensitivity loss measured with SAP and categorized as normal/inconclusive or abnormal. 146 eyes were categorized as normal retina on both fdOCT and mfERG. The retina of 52 eyes (36 patients) was categorized as abnormal based upon mfERG and/or fdOCT. Of this group, 25 eyes (20 patients) were abnormal on both tests. However, 20 eyes (13 patients) were abnormal on mfERG, while the fdOCT was normal/inconclusive; and 7 eyes (7 patients) had normal or inconclusive mfERG, but abnormal fdOCT. Considerable disagreement exists between these two methods for detection of retinal abnormalities. The mfERG tends to miss small local abnormalities that are detectable on the fdOCT. On the other hand, the fdOCT can appear normal in the face of clearly abnormal mfERG and SAP results. While improved imaging and analysis may show fdOCT abnormalities in some cases, in others early damage may not appear on structural tests. PMID:20043188

Dale, Elizabeth A.; Greenstein, Vivienne C.; Odel, Jeffrey G.

2010-01-01

321

Fibrinogen Cleveland II AN ABNORMAL FIBRINOGEN WITH DEFECTIVE RELEASE OF FIBRINOPEPTIDE A  

PubMed Central

An abnormal fibrinogen (fibrinogen Cleveland II) was detected in the plasma of a 23-yr-old white man with a mild bleeding diathesis. The one-stage prothrombin time, thrombin time, and Reptilase time were all prolonged. 16 of 24 tested relatives had the defect, which appeared to be transmitted as an autosomal dominant characteristic. The thrombin time of normal plasma was slightly inhibited by the proband's plasma. The abnormally long thrombin time of fibrinogen Cleveland II was partially corrected by addition of calcium ions. Fibrinogen Cleveland II was indistinguishable from normal fibrinogen by immunoelectrophoresis, DEAE-cellulose column chromatography, or polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of reduced fibrinogen in sodium dodecyl sulfate. The major defect detected appeared to be impaired release of fibrinopeptide A when fibrinogen Cleveland II was incubated with thrombin. This defect was localized to the NH2-terminal disulfide knot portion of the molecule. An abnormality of polymerization of fibrin monomers was also present, but the abnormal fibrin demonstrated relatively normal crosslinking. Despite these defects, fibrinogen Cleveland II achieved a degree of coagulability similar to normal fibrinogen and appeared to incorporate some molecules of fibrin with intact fibrinopeptide A into the clot. The fibrin clot that was formed appeared to be abnormal by electron microscopy. These functional defects and other descriptive characteristics appear to distinguish fibrinogen Cleveland II from other inherited abnormal fibrinogens. Images PMID:4856883

Crum, Edward D.; Shainoff, John R.; Graham, Richard C.; Ratnoff, Oscar D.

1974-01-01

322

Automated microaneurysm detection using local contrast normalization and local vessel detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screening programs using retinal photography for the detection of diabetic eye disease are being introduced in the U.K. and elsewhere. Automatic grading of the images is being considered by health boards so that the human grading task is reduced. Microaneurysms (MAs) are the earliest sign of this disease and so are very important for classifying whether images show signs of

Alan D. Fleming; Sam Philip; Keith A. Goatman; John A. Olson; Peter F. Sharp

2006-01-01

323

Schizophrenia and abnormal brain network hubs  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder of unknown cause or characteristic pathology. Clinical neuroscientists increasingly postulate that schizophrenia is a disorder of brain network organization. In this article we discuss the conceptual framework of this dysconnection hypothesis, describe the predominant methodological paradigm for testing this hypothesis, and review recent evidence for disruption of central/hub brain regions, as a promising example of this hypothesis. We summarize studies of brain hubs in large-scale structural and functional brain networks and find strong evidence for network abnormalities of prefrontal hubs, and moderate evidence for network abnormalities of limbic, temporal, and parietal hubs. Future studies are needed to differentiate network dysfunction from previously observed gray- and white-matter abnormalities of these hubs, and to link endogenous network dysfunction phenotypes with perceptual, behavioral, and cognitive clinical phenotypes of schizophrenia. PMID:24174905

Rubinov, Mikail; Bullmore, Ed.

2013-01-01

324

The Earliest Luminous Sources and the Damping Wing of the Gunn-Peterson Trough  

E-print Network

Recent observations of high-redshift galaxies and quasars indicate that the hydrogen component of the intergalactic medium (IGM) must have been reionized at some redshift z>6. Prior to complete reionization, sources of ultraviolet radiation will be seen behind intervening gas that is still neutral, and their spectra should show the red damping wing of the Gunn-Peterson trough. While this characteristic feature may, in principle, totally suppress the Lyman-alphaa emission line in the spectra of the first generation of objects in the universe, we show here that the IGM in the vicinity of luminous quasars will be highly photoionized on several Mpc scales due to the source emission of Lyman-continuum photons. If the quasar lifetime is shorter than the expansion and gas recombination timescales, the volume ionized will be proportional to the total number of photons produced above 13.6 eV: the effect of this local photoionization is to greatly reduce the scattering opacity between the redshift of the quasar and the boundary of its HII region. We find that the transmission on the red side of the Lyman-alpha resonance is always greater than 50% for sources radiating a total of 1e69.5 ionizing photons into the IGM. The detection of a strong Lyman-alpha emission line in the spectra of bright QSOs shining for >1e7 yr cannot then be used, by itself, as a constraint on the reionization epoch. The first signs of an object radiating prior to the transition from a neutral to an ionized universe may be best searched for in the spectra of luminous sources with a small escape fraction of Lyman-continuum photons into the IGM, or sources with a short duty cycle.

Piero Madau; Martin J. Rees

2000-06-20

325

Major soluble proteome changes in Deinococcus deserti over the earliest stages following gamma-ray irradiation  

PubMed Central

Background Deinococcus deserti VCD115 has been isolated from Sahara surface sand. This radiotolerant bacterium represents an experimental model of choice to understand adaptation to harsh conditions encountered in hot arid deserts. We analysed the soluble proteome dynamics in this environmentally relevant model after exposure to 3 kGy gamma radiation, a non-lethal dose that generates massive DNA damages. For this, cells were harvested at different time lapses after irradiation and their soluble proteome contents have been analysed by 2-DE and mass spectrometry. Results In the first stage of the time course we observed accumulation of DNA damage response protein DdrB (that shows the highest fold change ~11), SSB, and two different RecA proteins (RecAP and RecAC). Induction of DNA repair protein PprA, DNA damage response protein DdrD and the two gyrase subunits (GyrA and GyrB) was also detected. A response regulator of the SarP family, a type II site-specific deoxyribonuclease and a putative N-acetyltransferase are three new proteins found to be induced. In a more delayed stage, we observed accumulation of several proteins related to central metabolism and protein turn-over, as well as helicase UvrD and novel forms of both gyrase subunits differing in terms of isoelectric point and molecular weight. Conclusions Post-translational modifications of GyrA (N-terminal methionine removal and acetylation) have been evidenced and their significance discussed. We found that the Deide_02842 restriction enzyme, which is specifically found in D. deserti, is a new potential member of the radiation/desiccation response regulon, highlighting the specificities of D. deserti compared to the D. radiodurans model. PMID:23320389

2013-01-01

326

Exploring the utility of axial lumbar MRI for automatic diagnosis of intervertebral disc abnormalities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we explore the importance of axial lumbar MRI slices for automatic detection of abnormalities. In the past, only the sagittal views were taken into account for lumbar CAD systems, ignoring the fact that a radiologist scans through the axial slices as well, to confirm the diagnosis and quantify various abnormalities like herniation and stenosis. Hence, we present an automatic diagnosis system from axial slices using CNN(Convolutional Neural Network) for dynamic feature extraction and classification of normal and abnormal lumbar discs. We show 80:81% accuracy (with a specificity of 85:29% and sensitivity of 75:56%) on 86 cases (391 discs) using only an axial slice for each disc, which implies the usefulness of axial views for automatic lumbar abnormality diagnosis in conjunction with sagittal views.

Ghosh, Subarna; Chaudhary, Vipin; Dhillon, Gurmeet

2013-03-01

327

Familial congenital symmastia: ultrastructurally abnormal breast tissue.  

PubMed

Reports about congenital symmastia and its surgical treatment are few. We report two patients - a mother and daughter - with congenital symmastia in whom breast and fatty tissue was found to be mobile adhering poorly to the chest wall. Although histological examination showed no abnormality of the tissue bridge between the breasts, ultrastructural investigation of breast tissue (including Cooper's ligaments) showed an abnormal arrangement of collagen fibres. Satisfying aesthetic results were achieved by resection of excess soft tissue in the cleavage area through a submammary incision and fixation of the skin with subcutaneous interrupted sutures to the sternal periosteum. PMID:19995254

Piza-Katzer, Hildegunde; Engelhardt, Timm Oliver; Steiner, Hans-Jörg; Zelger, Bettina

2009-01-01

328

Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

2014-05-01

329

Normal and abnormal human vestibular ocular function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major motivation of this research is to understand the role the vestibular system plays in sensorimotor interactions which result in spatial disorientation and motion sickness. A second goal was to explore the range of abnormality as it is reflected in quantitative measures of vestibular reflex responses. The results of a study of vestibular reflex measurements in normal subjects and preliminary results in abnormal subjects are presented in this report. Statistical methods were used to define the range of normal responses, and determine age related changes in function.

Peterka, R. J.; Black, F. O.

1986-01-01

330

Computer-Aided Detection  

Cancer.gov

New development in computer hardware and software, informatics, methodology and technology can assist physicians in early detection, interpretation of laboratory tests, automation of laboratory tests, and estimating prognosis and staging of cancer. Virtual colonoscopy, for example, can provide a three-dimensional image of colon, help surgeons pinpoint abnormality for surgical removal, and enhance the detection ability of colonoscopy.

331

Localized hotspots drive continental geography of abnormal amphibians on U.S. wildlife refuges.  

PubMed

Amphibians with missing, misshapen, and extra limbs have garnered public and scientific attention for two decades, yet the extent of the phenomenon remains poorly understood. Despite progress in identifying the causes of abnormalities in some regions, a lack of knowledge about their broader spatial distribution and temporal dynamics has hindered efforts to understand their implications for amphibian population declines and environmental quality. To address this data gap, we conducted a nationwide, 10-year assessment of 62,947 amphibians on U.S. National Wildlife Refuges. Analysis of a core dataset of 48,081 individuals revealed that consistent with expected background frequencies, an average of 2% were abnormal, but abnormalities exhibited marked spatial variation with a maximum prevalence of 40%. Variance partitioning analysis demonstrated that factors associated with space (rather than species or year sampled) captured 97% of the variation in abnormalities, and the amount of partitioned variance decreased with increasing spatial scale (from site to refuge to region). Consistent with this, abnormalities occurred in local to regional hotspots, clustering at scales of tens to hundreds of kilometers. We detected such hotspot clusters of high-abnormality sites in the Mississippi River Valley, California, and Alaska. Abnormality frequency was more variable within than outside of hotspot clusters. This is consistent with dynamic phenomena such as disturbance or natural enemies (pathogens or predators), whereas similarity of abnormality frequencies at scales of tens to hundreds of kilometers suggests involvement of factors that are spatially consistent at a regional scale. Our characterization of the spatial and temporal variation inherent in continent-wide amphibian abnormalities demonstrates the disproportionate contribution of local factors in predicting hotspots, and the episodic nature of their occurrence. PMID:24260103

Reeves, Mari K; Medley, Kimberly A; Pinkney, Alfred E; Holyoak, Marcel; Johnson, Pieter T J; Lannoo, Michael J

2013-01-01

332

Unsupervised Pattern Classifier for Abnormality-Scaling of Vibration Features for Helicopter Gearbox Fault Diagnosis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new unsupervised pattern classifier is introduced for on-line detection of abnormality in features of vibration that are used for fault diagnosis of helicopter gearboxes. This classifier compares vibration features with their respective normal values and assigns them a value in (0, 1) to reflect their degree of abnormality. Therefore, the salient feature of this classifier is that it does not require feature values associated with faulty cases to identify abnormality. In order to cope with noise and changes in the operating conditions, an adaptation algorithm is incorporated that continually updates the normal values of the features. The proposed classifier is tested using experimental vibration features obtained from an OH-58A main rotor gearbox. The overall performance of this classifier is then evaluated by integrating the abnormality-scaled features for detection of faults. The fault detection results indicate that the performance of this classifier is comparable to the leading unsupervised neural networks: Kohonen's Feature Mapping and Adaptive Resonance Theory (AR72). This is significant considering that the independence of this classifier from fault-related features makes it uniquely suited to abnormality-scaling of vibration features for fault diagnosis.

Jammu, Vinay B.; Danai, Kourosh; Lewicki, David G.

1996-01-01

333

Spectrum of lithium induced thyroid abnormalities: a current perspective  

PubMed Central

Background Lithium is an integral drug used in the management of acute mania, unipolar and bipolar depression and prophylaxis of bipolar disorders. Thyroid abnormalities associated with treatment with lithium have been widely reported in medical literature to date. These include goitre, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis. This current review explores the varied thyroid abnormalities frequently encountered among patients on lithium therapy and their management, since lithium is still a fundamental and widely drug used in psychiatry and Internal Medicine. Methods PubMed database and Google scholar were used to search for relevant English language articles relating to lithium therapy and thyroid abnormalities up to December 2012. The search terms used were lithium treatment, thyroid abnormalities, thyroid dysfunction, goitre, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, thyrotoxicosis, autoimmune thyroiditis, lithium toxicity, treatment of affective disorders and depression and side effects of antipsychotic drugs. Reference lists of the identified articles were further used to identify other studies. Results Lithium affects normal thyroid functioning through multiple mechanisms. At the cellular level, it decreases thyroid hormone synthesis and release. It also decreases peripheral deiodination of tetraiodothyronine (T4) or thyroxine by decreasing the activity of type I 5’ de-iodinase enzyme. Hypothyroidism and goitre (clinically and/ultrasonographically detected) are the most prevalent thyroid abnormalities among patients on long term lithium therapy. Lithium induced hyperthyroidism is very infrequent. Lithium increases the propensity to thyroid autoimmunity in susceptible individuals due to its effect of augmenting the activity of B lymphocytes and reducing the ratio of circulating suppressor to cytotoxic T cells. Conclusions Thyroid function tests (serum thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroid hormones-T4 and triiodothyronine [T3] concentrations and thyroid auto-antibodies) and assessment of thyroid size clinically and by thyroid ultrasonography ought to be performed among patients initiating lithium therapy at baseline and later annually. More frequent assessment of thyroid function status and size during the course of therapy is recommended among middle aged females (?50 years), patients with a family history of thyroid disease and those positive for thyroid auto-antibodies (anti-thyroid peroxidase and TSH receptor antibodies). PMID:23391071

2013-01-01

334

Common procedural execution failure modes during abnormal situations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Abnormal Situation Management® Consortium11This research study was sponsored by the Abnormal Situation Management® (ASM®) Consortium. ASM and Abnormal Situation Management are registered trademarks of Honeywell International, Inc. funded a study to investigate procedural execution failures during abnormal situations. The study team analyzed 20 publically available and 12 corporate confidential incident reports using the TapRoot® methodology to identify root causes

Peter T. Bullemer; Liana Kiff; Anand Tharanathan

2011-01-01

335

Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

Rapport, Zachary

2011-01-01

336

ADEPT - Abnormal Doppler Enteral Prescription Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Pregnancies complicated by abnormal umbilical artery Doppler blood flow patterns often result in the baby being born both preterm and growth-restricted. These babies are at high risk of milk intolerance and necrotising enterocolitis, as well as post-natal growth failure, and there is no clinical consensus about how best to feed them. Policies of both early milk feeding and late

Alison Leaf; Jon Dorling; Steve Kempley; Kenny McCormick; Paul Mannix; Peter Brocklehurst

2009-01-01

337

Motor Control Abnormalities in Parkinson's Disease  

E-print Network

Motor Control Abnormalities in Parkinson's Disease Pietro Mazzoni, Britne Shabbott, and Juan Camilo York 10032 Correspondence: pm125@columbia.edu The primary manifestations of Parkinson's disease control processes. In the case of Parkinson's disease, movement slowness, for example, would be explained

338

Emergency Abnormal Conditions 1. Bomb Threat  

E-print Network

1 Emergency Abnormal Conditions 1. Bomb Threat a. Bomb threats usually occur by telephone. b. Try OR PACKAGE OR MOVE IT IN ANY WAY! #12;UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE SPACE INSTITUTE BOMB THREAT CALL FORM: ___________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ QUESTIONS TO ASK THE CALLER CONCERNING THE BOMB Who are you

Davis, Lloyd M.

339

Imaging management of palpable breast abnormalities.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. Women commonly present to imaging departments with a palpable breast abnormality. However, widespread confusion remains regarding the most appropriate sequence and extent of imaging required. The purpose of this article is to discuss the evidence informing current management guidelines for the care of patients with palpable breast abnormalities. CONCLUSION. Ultrasound is a highly effective imaging tool for guiding effective evaluation of women with palpable breast abnormalities and should be used for all women with suspicious findings at clinical breast examination. The exception is cases in which mammography shows a clearly benign correlate or a normal, fatty area of breast tissue in the location of the palpable finding. Breast ultrasound should be the primary imaging tool for women with palpable lumps who are pregnant, lactating, or younger than 30 years. For women 40 years old and older, mammography, followed in most cases by ultrasound, is recommended. For women 30-39 years old, ultrasound or mammography may be performed first at the discretion of the radiologist or referring provider. There is little to no role for breast MRI or other advanced imaging technologies in the routine diagnostic evaluation of palpable breast abnormalities. PMID:25341156

Lehman, Constance D; Lee, Amie Y; Lee, Christoph I

2014-11-01

340

Emergency Abnormal Conditions Injury and Illness  

E-print Network

1 Emergency Abnormal Conditions Injury and Illness a. If you become aware of a seriously ill with the person until the police or emergency medical personnel arrive. (5) If the injured person is an employee immediately and contact the HR Office at 393-7226 before seeking medical treatment. c. The `Accident Report

Davis, Lloyd M.

341

NEW RESEARCH Abnormal Amygdalar Activation and  

E-print Network

of the most disabling symptoms associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We aimedNEW RESEARCH Abnormal Amygdalar Activation and Connectivity in Adolescents With Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Words: ADHD, amygdala, effective connectivity, fear, stimulant medication A lthough attention-deficit/hyperactivity

342

Challenges in Emergency and Abnormal Checklist Design  

E-print Network

and Abnormal Checklist Design Smoke, Fire, and Fumes Checklists and Procedures #12;Smoke, Fire, and Fumes of fires are ignited, fed, and spread · Regulations, Advisory Circulars, etc. #12;Smoke, Fire, and Fumes Checklists and Procedures Ambiguity of cues / level of certainty about situation Conflicting warnings / cues

343

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Clinical characterization of cardiovascular abnormalities  

E-print Network

: As affected animals increased in age, more cardiac abnormalities were found with increasing severity not recognized. MPS I and MPS VI cats have similar cardiovascular findings to those seen in children and constitute important models for testing new MPS therapies. Abbreviations 2D two-dimensional ECG

Ponder, Katherine P.

344

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Prevalence of Specific Gait Abnormalities  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Prevalence of Specific Gait Abnormalities in Children With Cerebral Palsy Influence of Cerebral Palsy Subtype, Age, and Previous Surgery Tishya A. L. Wren, PhD,* Susan Rethlefsen, PT. These findings provide important information for counsel- ing ambulatory children with cerebral palsy

Valero-Cuevas, Francisco

345

Neuropsychological Abnormalities in Schizophrenia and Major Mood  

E-print Network

Neuropsychological Abnormalities in Schizophrenia and Major Mood Disorders: Similarities in schizophrenia. This work has led to an increased emphasis on identifying and evaluating treatments that enhance cognition in schizophrenia, with the hope that this would translate into a better quality of life

346

Motor Control Abnormalities in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

The primary manifestations of Parkinson’s disease are abnormalities of movement, including movement slowness, difficulties with gait and balance, and tremor. We know a considerable amount about the abnormalities of neuronal and muscle activity that correlate with these symptoms. Motor symptoms can also be described in terms of motor control, a level of description that explains how movement variables, such as a limb’s position and speed, are controlled and coordinated. Understanding motor symptoms as motor control abnormalities means to identify how the disease disrupts normal control processes. In the case of Parkinson’s disease, movement slowness, for example, would be explained by a disruption of the control processes that determine normal movement speed. Two long-term benefits of understanding the motor control basis of motor symptoms include the future design of neural prostheses to replace the function of damaged basal ganglia circuits, and the rational design of rehabilitation strategies. This type of understanding, however, remains limited, partly because of limitations in our knowledge of normal motor control. In this article, we review the concept of motor control and describe a few motor symptoms that illustrate the challenges in understanding such symptoms as motor control abnormalities. PMID:22675667

Mazzoni, Pietro; Shabbott, Britne; Cortes, Juan Camilo

2012-01-01

347

William McDougall and abnormal psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In William McDougall psychology had a staunch systematist able to integrate the abnormal and the normal within a single conceptual whole. He was not greatly interested in the classification of mental diseases, except as he found it necessary to consider \\

J. Q. Holsopple

1939-01-01

348

Esophageal motility abnormalities in gastroesophageal reflux disease.  

PubMed

Esophageal motility abnormalities are among the main factors implicated in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The recent introduction in clinical and research practice of novel esophageal testing has markedly improved our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease, allowing a better management of patients with this disorder. In this context, the present article intends to provide an overview of the current literature about esophageal motility dysfunctions in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal manometry, by recording intraluminal pressure, represents the gold standard to diagnose esophageal motility abnormalities. In particular, using novel techniques, such as high resolution manometry with or without concurrent intraluminal impedance monitoring, transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations, hypotensive LES, ineffective esophageal peristalsis and bolus transit abnormalities have been better defined and strongly implicated in gastroesophageal reflux disease development. Overall, recent findings suggest that esophageal motility abnormalities are increasingly prevalent with increasing severity of reflux disease, from non-erosive reflux disease to erosive reflux disease and Barrett's esophagus. Characterizing esophageal dysmotility among different subgroups of patients with reflux disease may represent a fundamental approach to properly diagnose these patients and, thus, to set up the best therapeutic management. Currently, surgery represents the only reliable way to restore the esophagogastric junction integrity and to reduce transient LES relaxations that are considered to be the predominant mechanism by which gastric contents can enter the esophagus. On that ground, more in depth future studies assessing the pathogenetic role of dysmotility in patients with reflux disease are warranted. PMID:24868489

Martinucci, Irene; de Bortoli, Nicola; Giacchino, Maria; Bodini, Giorgia; Marabotto, Elisa; Marchi, Santino; Savarino, Vincenzo; Savarino, Edoardo

2014-05-01

349

Craniofacial abnormalities among patients with Edwards Syndrome  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency and types of craniofacial abnormalities observed in patients with trisomy 18 or Edwards syndrome (ES). METHODS This descriptive and retrospective study of a case series included all patients diagnosed with ES in a Clinical Genetics Service of a reference hospital in Southern Brazil from 1975 to 2008. The results of the karyotypic analysis, along with clinical data, were collected from medical records. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 50 patients, of which 66% were female. The median age at first evaluation was 14 days. Regarding the karyotypes, full trisomy of chromosome 18 was the main alteration (90%). Mosaicism was observed in 10%. The main craniofacial abnormalities were: microretrognathia (76%), abnormalities of the ear helix/dysplastic ears (70%), prominent occiput (52%), posteriorly rotated (46%) and low set ears (44%), and short palpebral fissures/blepharophimosis (46%). Other uncommon - but relevant - abnormalities included: microtia (18%), orofacial clefts (12%), preauricular tags (10%), facial palsy (4%), encephalocele (4%), absence of external auditory canal (2%) and asymmetric face (2%). One patient had an initial suspicion of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS) or Goldenhar syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the literature description of a characteristic clinical presentation for ES, craniofacial alterations may be variable among these patients. The OAVS findings in this sample are noteworthy. The association of ES with OAVS has been reported once in the literature. PMID:24142310

Rosa, Rafael Fabiano M.; Rosa, Rosana Cardoso M.; Lorenzen, Marina Boff; Zen, Paulo Ricardo G.; Graziadio, Carla; Paskulin, Giorgio Adriano

2013-01-01

350

Schizophrenogenic Parenting in Abnormal Psychology Textbooks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the treatment of family causation of schizophrenia in undergraduate abnormal psychology textbooks. Reviews texts published only after 1986. Points out a number of implications for psychologists which arise from the inclusion in these texts of the idea that parents cause schizophrenia, not the least of which is the potential for…

Wahl, Otto F.

1989-01-01

351

Teaching Abnormal Psychology in a Multimedia Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the techniques used in teaching an abnormal psychology class in a multimedia environment with two computers and a variety of audiovisual equipment. Students respond anonymously to various questions via keypads mounted on their desks, then immediately view and discuss summaries of their responses. (MJP)

Brewster, JoAnne

1996-01-01

352

Automatic Fault Characterization via Abnormality-Enhanced Classification  

SciTech Connect

Enterprise and high-performance computing systems are growing extremely large and complex, employing hundreds to hundreds of thousands of processors and software/hardware stacks built by many people across many organizations. As the growing scale of these machines increases the frequency of faults, system complexity makes these faults difficult to detect and to diagnose. Current system management techniques, which focus primarily on efficient data access and query mechanisms, require system administrators to examine the behavior of various system services manually. Growing system complexity is making this manual process unmanageable: administrators require more effective management tools that can detect faults and help to identify their root causes. System administrators need timely notification when a fault is manifested that includes the type of fault, the time period in which it occurred and the processor on which it originated. Statistical modeling approaches can accurately characterize system behavior. However, the complex effects of system faults make these tools difficult to apply effectively. This paper investigates the application of classification and clustering algorithms to fault detection and characterization. We show experimentally that naively applying these methods achieves poor accuracy. Further, we design novel techniques that combine classification algorithms with information on the abnormality of application behavior to improve detection and characterization accuracy. Our experiments demonstrate that these techniques can detect and characterize faults with 65% accuracy, compared to just 5% accuracy for naive approaches.

Bronevetsky, G; Laguna, I; de Supinski, B R

2010-12-20

353

Edge-directed inference for microaneurysms detection in digital fundus images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microaneurysms (MAs) detection is a critical step in diabetic retinopathy screening, since MAs are the earliest visible warning of potential future problems. A variety of algorithms have been proposed for MAs detection in mass screening. Different methods have been proposed for MAs detection. The core technology for most of existing methods is based on a directional mathematical morphological operation called

Ke Huang; Michelle Yan; Selin Aviyente

2007-01-01

354

Reports on freeze tolerant frogs in the historical literature. Following are 3 early accounts of freezing survival by frogs. The earliest is from  

E-print Network

Reports on freeze tolerant frogs in the historical literature. Following are 3 early accounts of freezing survival by frogs. The earliest is from the 1746-1747 voyage of the ship California commanded survival of frogs, probably a species of European pond frog. #12;1. Francis Smith's voyage in search

Storey, Kenneth B.

355

Earliest Mexican Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in the Maya Region: implications for pre-Hispanic animal trade and the timing of turkey domestication.  

PubMed

Late Preclassic (300 BC-AD 100) turkey remains identified at the archaeological site of El Mirador (Petén, Guatemala) represent the earliest evidence of the Mexican turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) in the ancient Maya world. Archaeological, zooarchaeological, and ancient DNA evidence combine to confirm the identification and context. The natural pre-Hispanic range of the Mexican turkey does not extend south of central Mexico, making the species non-local to the Maya area where another species, the ocellated turkey (Meleagris ocellata), is indigenous. Prior to this discovery, the earliest evidence of M. gallopavo in the Maya area dated to approximately one thousand years later. The El Mirador specimens therefore represent previously unrecorded Preclassic exchange of animals from northern Mesoamerica to the Maya cultural region. As the earliest evidence of M. gallopavo found outside its natural geographic range, the El Mirador turkeys also represent the earliest indirect evidence for Mesoamerican turkey rearing or domestication. The presence of male, female and sub-adult turkeys, and reduced flight morphology further suggests that the El Mirador turkeys were raised in captivity. This supports an argument for the origins of turkey husbandry or at least captive rearing in the Preclassic. PMID:22905156

Thornton, Erin Kennedy; Emery, Kitty F; Steadman, David W; Speller, Camilla; Matheny, Ray; Yang, Dongya

2012-01-01

356

The early Middle Pleistocene archeopaleontological site of Wadi Sarrat (Tunisia) and the earliest record of Bos primigenius  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we describe the new, rich lacustrine paleontological and archeological site of Wadi Sarrat (Le Kef, northeastern Tunisia), dated to the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene, ˜0.7 Ma, by a combination of paleomagnetism and biochronology. This locality preserves the earliest record of auroch, Bos primigenius, the ancestor of the worldwide extant domestic cattle species Bos taurus, which is represented by a nearly complete, giant-sized cranium (specimen OS1). Both the cranial anatomy and the size of this specimen reflect the phylogenetic legacy inherited from its ancestor, the late Early Pleistocene African Bos buiaensis, recorded in the eastern African paleoanthropological site of Buia, Eritrea (1.0 Ma). Given that the latter species is an evolved form of the classical Early Pleistocene African buffalo Pelorovis oldowayensis, the finding of B. primigenius at Wadi Sarrat shows that the genus Bos evolved in Africa and dispersed into Eurasia at the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene, which coincides with the spread of the Acheulian technocomplex in northern Africa and Europe. Therefore, the lineage of Pelorovis-Bos has been part of the human ecological landscape since the appearance of the genus Homo in the African Early Pleistocene.

Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido; Karoui-Yaakoub, Narjess; Oms, Oriol; Amri, Lamjed; López-García, Juan Manuel; Zerai, Kamel; Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Mtimet, Moncef-Saïd; Espigares, María-Patrocinio; Ben Haj Ali, Nebiha; Ros-Montoya, Sergio; Boughdiri, Mabrouk; Agustí, Jordi; Khayati-Ammar, Hayet; Maalaoui, Kamel; El Khir, Maahmoudi Om; Sala, Robert; Othmani, Abdelhak; Hawas, Ramla; Gómez-Merino, Gala; Solè, Àlex; Carbonell, Eudald; Palmqvist, Paul

2014-04-01

357

Iapetonudus (N. gen.) and Iapetognathus Landing, unusual Earliest Ordovician multielement conodont taxa and their utility for biostratigraphy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Early Ordovician (Tremadocian) multielement conodont genus Iapetognathus is one of the oldest denticulate euconodont genera known. The ramiform-ramiform apparatus structure of Iapetognathus is not similar morphologically to other Late Cambrian to Earliest Ordovician denticulate multielement taxa, such as Eodentatus or Cordyloduts, because the major denticulate process has a lateral rather than a posterior orientation as it is in the other two examples. For this reason the genus is believed to have developed from the coniform-coniform apparatus Iapetonudus ibexensis (N.gen., n.sp.) through the development of the denticulate lateral processes. The two genera have a number of morphologic features in common and appear in stratigraphic succession. Iapetognathus aengensis (Lindstro??m) is redefined as a multielement taxon using topotype material and Ig. preaengensis Landing is placed in synonymy with it. Iapetognathus sprakersi, recently described by Landing in Landing and others (1996), is recognized as a multielement species and the new multielement species, Ig. fluctivagus, Ig. jilinensis and Ig. landingi n. spp. are described herein, based on type specimens from Utah (U.S.A.), Jilin (China) and Colorado (U.S.A.) respectively. Iapetonudus and Iapetognathus are important genera in defining the level of the Cambrian-Ordovician boundary. Iapetonudus is currently recognized only from Utah, Texas and Oklahoma, but Iapetognathus is cosmopolitan in its distribution.

Nicoll, R. S.; Miller, J. F.; Nowlan, G. S.; Repetski, J. E.; Ethington, R. L.

1999-01-01

358

Systematic review of accuracy of prenatal diagnosis for abnormal chromosome diseases by microarray technology.  

PubMed

The accuracy of prenatal diagnosis for abnormal chromosome diseases by chromosome microarray technology and karyotyping were compared. A literature search was carried out in the MEDLINE database with the keywords "chromosome" and "karyotype" and "genetic testing" and "prenatal diagnosis" and "oligonucleotide array sequence". The studies obtained were filtered by using the QUADAS tool, and studies conforming to the quality standard were fully analyzed. There was one paper conforming to the QUADAS standards including 4406 gravidas with adaptability syndromes of prenatal diagnosis including elderly parturient women, abnormal structure by type-B ultrasound, and other abnormalities. Microarray technology yielded successful diagnoses in 4340 cases (98.8%), and there was no need for tissue culture in 87.9% of the samples. All aneuploids and non-parallel translocations in 4282 cases of non-chimera identified by karyotyping could be detected using microarray analysis technology, whereas parallel translocations and fetal triploids could not be detected by microarray analysis technology. In the samples with normal karyotyping results, type-B ultrasound showed that 6% of chromosomal deficiencies or chromosome duplications could be detected by microarray technology, and the same abnormal chromosomes were detected in 1.7% of elderly parturient women and samples with positive serology screening results. In the prenatal diagnosis test, compared with karyotyping, microarray technology could identify the extra cell genetic information with clinical significance, aneuploids, and non-parallel translocations; however, its disadvantage is that it could not identify parallel translocations and triploids. PMID:25366803

Xu, H B; Yang, H; Liu, G; Chen, H

2014-01-01

359

Intracranial Ultrasound Abnormalities and Fetal Cytomegalovirus Infection: Report of 8 Cases and Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate fetal intracranial and other ultrasonographic findings in cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Methods: Data on amniotic fluid CMV-DNA-PCR-positive pregnancies detected in our institution between January 2006 and June 2009 were reviewed retrospectively. Fetal biometric measurements, fetal anatomy, amniotic fluid volume, placental thickness and texture were analyzed for abnormalities. Results: Eight fetuses were diagnosed

Y. Dogan; A. Yuksel; I. H. Kalelioglu; R. Has; B. Tatli; A. Yildirim

2011-01-01

360

Instability of a 550Base Pair DNA Segment and Abnormal Methylation in Fragile X Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fragile X syndrome, a common cause of inherited mental retardation, is characterized by an unusual mode of inheritance. Phenotypic expression has been linked to abnormal cytosine methylation of a single CpG island, at or very near the fragile site. Probes adjacent to this island detected very localized DNA rearrangements that consti- tuted the fragile X mutations, and whose target

I. Oberle; F. Rousseau; D. Heitz; C. Kretz; D. Devys; A. Hanauer; J. Boue; M. F. Bertheas; J. L. Mandel

1991-01-01

361

ERG Abnormalities in Relation to Histopathologic Findings in Vitiligo Mutant Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vitiligo,mivit, mutation has several prenatal and perinatal effects on development of the retinal pigment epithelium, and later, leads to extensive, progressive degeneration of photoreceptor cells in the neural retina of homozygous affected mice. The aim of the present study was to determine by functional criteria how early can abnormalities be detected in the neural retina. Electroretinograms (ERGs) were correlated

MAISY TANG; BASIL S PAWLYK; BELA KOSARAS; ELIOT L BERSON; RICHARD L SIDMAN

1997-01-01

362

Earth's earliest atmospheres.  

PubMed

Earth is the one known example of an inhabited planet and to current knowledge the likeliest site of the one known origin of life. Here we discuss the origin of Earth's atmosphere and ocean and some of the environmental conditions of the early Earth as they may relate to the origin of life. A key punctuating event in the narrative is the Moon-forming impact, partly because it made Earth for a short time absolutely uninhabitable, and partly because it sets the boundary conditions for Earth's subsequent evolution. If life began on Earth, as opposed to having migrated here, it would have done so after the Moon-forming impact. What took place before the Moon formed determined the bulk properties of the Earth and probably determined the overall compositions and sizes of its atmospheres and oceans. What took place afterward animated these materials. One interesting consequence of the Moon-forming impact is that the mantle is devolatized, so that the volatiles subsequently fell out in a kind of condensation sequence. This ensures that the volatiles were concentrated toward the surface so that, for example, the oceans were likely salty from the start. We also point out that an atmosphere generated by impact degassing would tend to have a composition reflective of the impacting bodies (rather than the mantle), and these are almost without exception strongly reducing and volatile-rich. A consequence is that, although CO- or methane-rich atmospheres are not necessarily stable as steady states, they are quite likely to have existed as long-lived transients, many times. With CO comes abundant chemical energy in a metastable package, and with methane comes hydrogen cyanide and ammonia as important albeit less abundant gases. PMID:20573713

Zahnle, Kevin; Schaefer, Laura; Fegley, Bruce

2010-10-01

363

The earliest seeds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lagenostomalean-type seeds in bifurcating cupule systems have been discovered in the late Devonian Hampshire Formation of Randolph County, West Virginia, USA (Fig. 1). The associated megaflora, plants from coal balls, and vertebrate and invertebrate faunas demonstrate that the material is Famennian; the microflora indicates a more specific Fa2c age. Consequently, these seeds predate Archaeosperma arnoldii1 from the Fa2d of northeastern Pennsylvania, the oldest previously reported seed. By applying precision fracture, transfer, de??gagement, and thin-section techniques to selected cupules from the more than 100 specimens on hand, we have determined the three-dimensional morphology and histology of the seeds (Fig. 2a-h, k) and cupule systems. A comparison with known late Devonian to early Carboniferous seeds reveals that ours are more primitively organized than all except Genomosperma2,3. ?? 1981 Nature Publishing Group.

Gillespie, W.H.; Rothwell, G.W.; Scheckler, S.E.

1981-01-01

364

The Earliest Known Americans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes archaeological research in the United States. Reconstructs history of Paleo-Indian migrations, discussing archaeological evidence and opposing views regarding specific dates. Reveals cultural details gathered from specific studies at Meadowcroft (Pennsylvania) and Thunderbird (Virginia). (CS)

MOSAIC, 1977

1977-01-01

365

Earth's Earliest Atmospheres  

PubMed Central

Earth is the one known example of an inhabited planet and to current knowledge the likeliest site of the one known origin of life. Here we discuss the origin of Earth’s atmosphere and ocean and some of the environmental conditions of the early Earth as they may relate to the origin of life. A key punctuating event in the narrative is the Moon-forming impact, partly because it made Earth for a short time absolutely uninhabitable, and partly because it sets the boundary conditions for Earth’s subsequent evolution. If life began on Earth, as opposed to having migrated here, it would have done so after the Moon-forming impact. What took place before the Moon formed determined the bulk properties of the Earth and probably determined the overall compositions and sizes of its atmospheres and oceans. What took place afterward animated these materials. One interesting consequence of the Moon-forming impact is that the mantle is devolatized, so that the volatiles subsequently fell out in a kind of condensation sequence. This ensures that the volatiles were concentrated toward the surface so that, for example, the oceans were likely salty from the start. We also point out that an atmosphere generated by impact degassing would tend to have a composition reflective of the impacting bodies (rather than the mantle), and these are almost without exception strongly reducing and volatile-rich. A consequence is that, although CO- or methane-rich atmospheres are not necessarily stable as steady states, they are quite likely to have existed as long-lived transients, many times. With CO comes abundant chemical energy in a metastable package, and with methane comes hydrogen cyanide and ammonia as important albeit less abundant gases. PMID:20573713

Zahnle, Kevin; Schaefer, Laura; Fegley, Bruce

2010-01-01

366

Abnormal Selective Attention in Psychopathic Female Offenders  

PubMed Central

Research on psychopathy in women has generated equivocal laboratory findings. This study examined the performance of psychopathic women in 2 laboratory tasks designed to assess abnormal selective attention associated with response modulation deficits: a computerized picture–word (PW) task, and a picture–word Stroop (PW Stroop) task. Consistent with data from psychopathic men, women receiving high scores on the Psychopathy Checklist—Revised (Hare, 1991) displayed reduced Stroop interference on the PW and PW Stroop tasks. Results suggest that despite some differences in the expression of psychopathy across gender, psychopathic women are characterized by selective attention abnormalities predicted by the response modulation hypothesis and similar to those exhibited by psychopathic men. PMID:17484593

Vitale, Jennifer E.; Brinkley, Chad A.; Hiatt, Kristina D.; Newman, Joseph P.

2011-01-01

367

[Epilepsy in patient with structural autosomal abnormality].  

PubMed

Few cases have been reported on the structural autosomal abnormality (SAA) focusing on epilepsy excluding those of Down syndrome and Klinefelter syndrome. We investigated patients who had SAA with special reference to epilepsy. Various types of epilepsy were observed in its severity in our cases as well as previously reported cases. There was no correlation between the degree of mental retardation, motor dysfunction, brain damage on CT scan, and severity of epilepsy. Some cases had brain dysplasia, such as agenesis of corpus callosum, pachygyria, and mega cisterna magna. No correlation was found between these brain dysplasia and severity of epilepsy. It is important for a pediatrician to find a common epileptic syndrome or EEG abnormality in a SAA. An observation of symptoms in patients with the same chromosomal deletion or duplication will lead to identification of responsible gene for an epileptic symptom. PMID:7803078

Sugama, S; Atsukawa, K; Kusano, K; Akatsuka, A; Ochiai, Y; Tsuzura, S; Maekawa, K

1994-11-01

368

Cortical thickness abnormality in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies on gray matter concentration changes in patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) are inconsistent.\\u000a To investigate cortical abnormality in JME differently, we measured the cortical thickness in 19 JME patients and 18 normal\\u000a controls. Results showed that the cortical thicknesses of superior\\/middle\\/medial frontal gyri, and superior\\/middle\\/ inferior\\u000a temporal gyri were decreased in JME patients. Moreover, cortical thicknesses of

Woo Suk Tae; Sun Hyung Kim; Eun Yun Joo; Sun Jung Han; I. Y. Kim; S. I. Kim; J.-M. Lee; S. B. Hong

2008-01-01

369

Sonic Hedgehog Genetic Abnormalities and Tissue Donations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this case study about a baby born with the genetic condition holoprosencephaly, students explore the “Sonic hedgehog” gene, signal transduction, and the ethics of body and tissue donation. The assignment involves students writing an informed consent document that explains the science behind this congenital abnormality. Designed for an upper-level undergraduate biology course, the case could also be used in a cell biology, developmental biology, neurobiology, or other related upper-level course.

Yaich, Lauren E.

2001-01-01

370

CT of trauma to the abnormal kidney  

SciTech Connect

Traumatic injuries to already abnormal kidneys are difficult to assess by excretory urography and clinical evaluation. Bleeding and urinary extravasation may accompany minor trauma; conversely, underlying tumors, perirenal hemorrhage, and extravasation may be missed on urography. Computed tomography (CT) was performed in eight cases including three neoplasms, one adult polycystic disease, one simple renal cyst, two hydronephrotic kidneys, and one horseshoe kidney. CT provided specific and clinically useful information in each case that was not apparent on excretory urography.

Rhyner, P.; Federle, M.P.; Jeffrey, R.B.

1984-04-01

371

Esophageal motility abnormalities in gastroesophageal reflux disease  

PubMed Central

Esophageal motility abnormalities are among the main factors implicated in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The recent introduction in clinical and research practice of novel esophageal testing has markedly improved our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease, allowing a better management of patients with this disorder. In this context, the present article intends to provide an overview of the current literature about esophageal motility dysfunctions in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal manometry, by recording intraluminal pressure, represents the gold standard to diagnose esophageal motility abnormalities. In particular, using novel techniques, such as high resolution manometry with or without concurrent intraluminal impedance monitoring, transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations, hypotensive LES, ineffective esophageal peristalsis and bolus transit abnormalities have been better defined and strongly implicated in gastroesophageal reflux disease development. Overall, recent findings suggest that esophageal motility abnormalities are increasingly prevalent with increasing severity of reflux disease, from non-erosive reflux disease to erosive reflux disease and Barrett’s esophagus. Characterizing esophageal dysmotility among different subgroups of patients with reflux disease may represent a fundamental approach to properly diagnose these patients and, thus, to set up the best therapeutic management. Currently, surgery represents the only reliable way to restore the esophagogastric junction integrity and to reduce transient LES relaxations that are considered to be the predominant mechanism by which gastric contents can enter the esophagus. On that ground, more in depth future studies assessing the pathogenetic role of dysmotility in patients with reflux disease are warranted. PMID:24868489

Martinucci, Irene; de Bortoli, Nicola; Giacchino, Maria; Bodini, Giorgia; Marabotto, Elisa; Marchi, Santino; Savarino, Vincenzo; Savarino, Edoardo

2014-01-01

372

Abnormal calcium homeostasis in peripheral neuropathies  

PubMed Central

Abnormal neuronal calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis has been implicated in numerous diseases of the nervous system. The pathogenesis of two increasingly common disorders of the peripheral nervous system, namely neuropathic pain and diabetic polyneuropathy, has been associated with aberrant Ca2+ channel expression and function. Here we review the current state of knowledge regarding the role of Ca2+ dyshomeostasis and associated mitochondrial dysfunction in painful and diabetic neuropathies. The central impact of both alterations of Ca2+ signalling at the plasma membrane and also intracellular Ca2+ handling on sensory neuron function is discussed and related to abnormal endoplasmic reticulum performance. We also present new data highlighting sub-optimal axonal Ca 2+ signalling in diabetic neuropathy and discuss the putative role for this abnormality in the induction of axonal degeneration in peripheral neuropathies. The accumulating evidence implicating Ca2+ dysregulation with both painful and degenerative neuropathies, along with recent advances in understanding of regional variations in Ca2+ channel and pump structures, makes modulation of neuronal Ca2+ handling an increasingly viable approach for therapeutic interventions against the painful and degenerative aspects of many peripheral neuropathies. PMID:20034667

Fernyhough, Paul; Calcutt, Nigel A.

2010-01-01

373

Reversible abnormalities of myocardial relaxation in hypothyroidism.  

PubMed

Fifteen selected hypothyroid patients without symptoms or signs of cardiovascular disease and an equal number of matched control subjects underwent simultaneous recording of electrocardiogram and phono-, apex-, and echocardiography to assess dynamic systolic and diastolic left ventricular function. Both the systolic preejection period and the isovolumic relaxation period were significantly increased in the hypothyroid group. However, whereas the rate of myocardial contraction, assessed from the echocardiograph of the left ventricular posterior wall, was identical in patients and control subjects, the diastolic thinning rate of the muscle was markedly slowed in the hypothyroid individuals. The abnormalities demonstrated were in the main completely reversed after 3 months of T4 therapy. These results demonstrate a relatively selective and readily reversible disturbance of the rate of myocardial relaxation in hypothyroidism, suggesting an intrinsic abnormality of cardiac muscle. This allows an intriguing parallel to be drawn with the delayed relaxation phase of voluntary muscle contraction, long recognized as a direct measure of tissue thyroid function in hypothyroidism. The abnormality of diastolic function we have described is of similar character to that found in patients with other cardiomyopathies and which has been shown to be a major cause of disturbance of global cardiac action. PMID:4008607

Vora, J; O'Malley, B P; Petersen, S; McCullough, A; Rosenthal, F D; Barnett, D B

1985-08-01

374

Trading networks, abnormal motifs and stock manipulation  

E-print Network

We study trade-based manipulation of stock prices from the perspective of complex trading networks constructed by using detailed information of trades. A stock trading network consists of nodes and directed links, where every trader is a node and a link is formed from one trader to the other if the former sells shares to the latter. Specifically, three abnormal network motifs are investigated, which are found to be formed by a few traders, implying potential intention of price manipulation. We further investigate the dynamics of volatility, trading volume, average trade size and turnover around the transactions associated with the abnormal motifs for large, medium and small trades. It is found that these variables peak at the abnormal events and exhibit a power-law accumulation in the pre-event time period and a power-law relaxation in the post-event period. We also find that the cumulative excess returns are significantly positive after buyer-initiated suspicious trades and exhibit a mild price reversal afte...

Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Xiong, Xiong; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yong-Jie; Zhou, W -X

2013-01-01

375

Abnormal dynamics of language in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Language could be conceptualized as a dynamic system that includes multiple interactive levels (sub-lexical, lexical, sentence, and discourse) and components (phonology, semantics, and syntax). In schizophrenia, abnormalities are observed at all language elements (levels and components) but the dynamic between these elements remains unclear. We hypothesize that the dynamics between language elements in schizophrenia is abnormal and explore how this dynamic is altered. We, first, investigated language elements with comparable procedures in patients and healthy controls. Second, using measures of reaction time, we performed multiple linear regression analyses to evaluate the inter-relationships among language elements and the effect of group on these relationships. Patients significantly differed from controls with respect to sub-lexical/lexical, lexical/sentence, and sentence/discourse regression coefficients. The intercepts of the regression slopes increased in the same order above (from lower to higher levels) in patients but not in controls. Regression coefficients between syntax and both sentence level and discourse level semantics did not differentiate patients from controls. This study indicates that the dynamics between language elements is abnormal in schizophrenia. In patients, top-down flow of linguistic information might be reduced, and the relationship between phonology and semantics but not between syntax and semantics appears to be altered. PMID:24629711

Stephane, Massoud; Kuskowski, Michael; Gundel, Jeanette

2014-05-30

376

Sensory abnormalities in autism. A brief report.  

PubMed

Sensory abnormalities were assessed in a population-based group of 208 20-54-month-old children, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and referred to a specialized habilitation centre for early intervention. The children were subgrouped based upon degree of autistic symptoms and cognitive level by a research team at the centre. Parents were interviewed systematically about any abnormal sensory reactions in the child. In the whole group, pain and hearing were the most commonly affected modalities. Children in the most typical autism subgroup (nuclear autism with no learning disability) had the highest number of affected modalities. The children who were classified in an "autistic features" subgroup had the lowest number of affected modalities. There were no group differences in number of affected sensory modalities between groups of different cognitive levels or level of expressive speech. The findings provide support for the notion that sensory abnormality is very common in young children with autism. This symptom has been proposed for inclusion among the diagnostic criteria for ASD in the upcoming DSM-V. PMID:21111574

Klintwall, Lars; Holm, Anette; Eriksson, Mats; Carlsson, Lotta Höglund; Olsson, Martina Barnevik; Hedvall, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

2011-01-01

377

Patients with chronic pain and abnormal pituitary function require investigation.  

PubMed

Misuse of opioids is associated with abnormalities of pituitary function. Patients with chronic pain frequently complain of fatigue and undergo endocrine testing. To test whether oral opioid treatment causes abnormal pituitary function we prospectively assessed pituitary function in 37 patients with chronic pain who were receiving either oral opioid analgesia or non-opioid analgesia. Oral opioid treatment was not associated with abnormal pituitary function although a few patients had abnormal results mainly related to obesity. Our results suggest that patients with chronic pain who have abnormal endocrine results should have a complete assessment, since abnormal test results cannot be attributed to their analgesia. PMID:12842375

Merza, Z; Edwards, N; Walters, S J; Newell-Price, J; Ross, R J M

2003-06-28

378

Gene Expression Alterations in the Sphingolipid Metabolism Pathways during Progression of Dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease: A Shift Toward Ceramide Accumulation at the Earliest Recognizable Stages of Alzheimer’s Disease?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is mounting evidence linking A?42 generation in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) with sphingomyelin catabolism. Using microarray technology to study 17 brain regions\\u000a from subjects with varying severity of AD and dementia we detected multiple gene expression abnormalities of the key enzymes\\u000a that control sphingolipid metabolism. These changes were correlated with the progression of clinical dementia. The upregulation\\u000a of gene expression

Pavel Katsel; Celeste Li; Vahram Haroutunian

2007-01-01

379

Abnormal oculocardiac reflex in two patients with Marcus Gunn syndrome.  

PubMed

Marcus Gunn phenomenon is seen in 4 to 6% of congenital ptosis patients. We report two cases of abnormal oculocardiac reflex during ptosis correction surgery. Marcus Gunn syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition with incomplete penetrance. It is believed to be a neural misdirection syndrome in which fibres of the motor division of the trigeminal nerve are congenitally misdirected into the superior pterygoid and the levator muscles. Anesthetic considerations include taking a detailed history about any previous anaesthetic exposure and any reaction to it as this syndrome has a high probability of being associated with malignant hyperthermia. It is also postulated that an atypical oculocardiac reflex might be initiated in these patients as seen in our patients, so precautions must be taken for its prevention and early detection. PMID:21897519

Pandey, Maitree; Baduni, Neha; Jain, Aruna; Sanwal, Manoj Kumar; Vajifdar, Homay

2011-07-01

380

Abnormal oculocardiac reflex in two patients with Marcus Gunn syndrome  

PubMed Central

Marcus Gunn phenomenon is seen in 4 to 6% of congenital ptosis patients. We report two cases of abnormal oculocardiac reflex during ptosis correction surgery. Marcus Gunn syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition with incomplete penetrance. It is believed to be a neural misdirection syndrome in which fibres of the motor division of the trigeminal nerve are congenitally misdirected into the superior pterygoid and the levator muscles. Anesthetic considerations include taking a detailed history about any previous anaesthetic exposure and any reaction to it as this syndrome has a high probability of being associated with malignant hyperthermia. It is also postulated that an atypical oculocardiac reflex might be initiated in these patients as seen in our patients, so precautions must be taken for its prevention and early detection. PMID:21897519

Pandey, Maitree; Baduni, Neha; Jain, Aruna; Sanwal, Manoj Kumar; Vajifdar, Homay

2011-01-01

381

Radiographic abnormalities in eyes with retinoblastoma and other disorders.  

PubMed Central

The importance of radiographic examinations of pathological ocular material is stressed. Characteristic ocular radiodensities are observed with retinoblastomas, calcified cataracts, senile scleral plaques, intraocular ossification, and a variety of radiodense foreign bodies. Radiographs supplement other techniques for the documentation of ocular abnormalities and in certain instances may be the ideal method. They also permit the precise localisation of radiodense foreign bodies that need to be removed prior to the processing of tissue for microscopic examination. In certain situations valuable data can be obtained by x-ray examinations of embedded material. Retinoblastomas have an extremely high incidence of radiodensities with a characteristics appearance. This finding stresses the clinical importance of utilising and developing clinically applicable techniques for the detection of calcification in patients with suspected retinoblastomas. Images PMID:666984

Klintworth, G. K.

1978-01-01

382

Earliest Silicic Volcanism Associated with Mid-Miocene Flood Basalts: Tuffs Interbedded with Steens Basalt, Nevada and Oregon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the main phase of Steens and Columbia River flood basalt eruptions between ~16.7 and 15.0 Ma, spatially associated silicic volcanism was widespread, ~4,000 km3 of silicic magma erupting at calderas and smaller centers dispersed across ~25,000 km2 in eastern Oregon and northern Nevada (Coble and Mahood, 2012). The oldest flood basalts erupted from a focus at Steens Mountain in eastern Oregon, where the section of lavas is ~1 km thick. The Steens Basalt thins southward to only a few flows thick in northern Nevada, either because fewer flows were emplaced this far from the focus or because fewer dikes propagated to the surface on encountering thicker continental crust and/or were intercepted by growing bodies of silicic magma that ultimately erupted in McDermitt Caldera Field (Rytuba and McKee, 1984), High Rock Caldera Complex, and the Lone Mountain/Hawks Valley center (Wypych et al., 2011). Rhyolitic tuffs have not been recognized interbedded with the basalt lavas in the type section, but we have identified several silicic tuffs interbedded with Steens Basalt in the southern Pueblo Mountains and in the Trout Creek Mountains. Although noted by previous workers (e.g., Avent, 1965; Minor, 1986; Hart et al., 1989), they have not been studied. We identified six tuffaceous intervals 20 cm to 15 m thick in the escarpment of the southern Pueblo Mountains near the Oregon-Nevada border where the Steens basalt section is ~250 m thick, with the base unexposed. Two intervals are lithic-rich, reworked volcaniclastic sediments, but four are primary or only slightly reworked sequences of fall deposits that range from fine ash to lapilli in grain size. The heat and weight of the overlying basaltic lava flows has fused the tuffs so that the upper parts of thicker tuffaceous intervals and entire thinner ones are converted to vitrophyres, with crystals of alkali feldspar × quartz × biotite typically 1-2 mm in diameter set in a dense, black, variably hydrated, glassy matrix. We have analyzed the vitrophyres of these four tuffs and, accounting for possible crystal enrichment/depletion in fall deposits and the observed mineralogy, we believe they represent eruption of an alkali rhyolite, two trachydacites and one trachyte. In their weakly alkalic composition they are most similar to the more alkalic lavas from the Hawks Valley/Lone Mountain center or the oldest ignimbrite from High Rock Caldera Complex, the Idaho Canyon Tuff. They appear to be insufficiently allkalic to come from McDermitt Caldera Field. Jarboe et al. (2010) report a reverse paleomagnetic polarity for a sample of Steens Basalt within the section in the southern Pueblo Mountains, making it equivalent to lower Steens Basalt at the type section at Steens Mountain. This suggests that at least minor silicic volcanism accompanied the earliest stages of flood basalt magmatism. We have irradiated alkali feldspar from the fused tuffs for 40Ar/39Ar analysis, and will present this data as a way to determine the timing of these earliest silicic eruptions, and to provide ages for Steens basalt lavas more precise than can be obtained on the low-K basalts themselves.

Luckett, M.; Mahood, G. A.; Benson, T. R.

2013-12-01

383

Prefrontal blood flow dysregulation in drug naive ADHD children without structural abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.   Recent studies suggest a role for prefrontal cortex abnormalities in the pathogenesis of attention deficit\\/hyperactivity\\u000a disorder (ADHD). We evaluated young drug-naïve ADHD outpatients without MRI structural abnormalities to detect prefrontal\\u000a cortex regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) functional dysregulation; correlation between age and rCBF; and correlation between\\u000a symptoms profile and rCBF. Functional brain activities (i.e. rCBF), neuropsychological attention performance and

G. Spalletta; A. Pasini; F. Pau; G. Guido; L. Menghini; C. Caltagirone

2001-01-01

384

Scientists find that chromosomal abnormalities are associated with aging and cancer  

Cancer.gov

Two new studies have found that large structural abnormalities in chromosomes, some of which have been associated with increased risk of cancer, can be detected in a small fraction of people without a prior history of cancer. The studies found that these alterations in chromosomes appear to increase with age, particularly after the age of 50, and may be associated with an increased risk for cancer. Mosaicism, the type of structural abnormality in chromosomes that is described in these studies, results from a DNA alteration that is present in some of the body's cells but not in others. A person with mosaicism has a mixture of normal and mutated cells.

385

Earliest evidence for caries and exploitation of starchy plant foods in Pleistocene hunter-gatherers from Morocco.  

PubMed

Dental caries is an infectious disease that causes tooth decay. The high prevalence of dental caries in recent humans is attributed to more frequent consumption of plant foods rich in fermentable carbohydrates in food-producing societies. The transition from hunting and gathering to food production is associated with a change in the composition of the oral microbiota and broadly coincides with the estimated timing of a demographic expansion in Streptococcus mutans, a causative agent of human dental caries. Here we present evidence linking a high prevalence of caries to reliance on highly cariogenic wild plant foods in Pleistocene hunter-gatherers from North Africa, predating other high caries populations and the first signs of food production by several thousand years. Archaeological deposits at Grotte des Pigeons in Morocco document extensive evidence for human occupation during the Middle Stone Age and Later Stone Age (Iberomaurusian), and incorporate numerous human burials representing the earliest known cemetery in the Maghreb. Macrobotanical remains from occupational deposits dated between 15,000 and 13,700 cal B.P. provide evidence for systematic harvesting and processing of edible wild plants, including acorns and pine nuts. Analysis of oral pathology reveals an exceptionally high prevalence of caries (51.2% of teeth in adult dentitions), comparable to modern industrialized populations with a diet high in refined sugars and processed cereals. We infer that increased reliance on wild plants rich in fermentable carbohydrates and changes in food processing caused an early shift toward a disease-associated oral microbiota in this population. PMID:24395774

Humphrey, Louise T; De Groote, Isabelle; Morales, Jacob; Barton, Nick; Collcutt, Simon; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Bouzouggar, Abdeljalil

2014-01-21

386

Gene Expression in Wilms' Tumor Mimics the Earliest Committed Stage in the Metanephric Mesenchymal-Epithelial Transition  

PubMed Central

Wilms’ tumor (WT) has been considered a prototype for arrested cellular differentiation in cancer, but previous studies have relied on selected markers. We have now performed an unbiased survey of gene expression in WTs using oligonucleotide microarrays. Statistical criteria identified 357 genes as differentially expressed between WTs and fetal kidneys. This set contained 124 matches to genes on a microarray used by Stuart and colleagues (Stuart RO, Bush KT, Nigam SK: Changes in global gene expression patterns during development and maturation of the rat kidney. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2001, 98:5649–5654) to establish genes with stage-specific expression in the developing rat kidney. Mapping between the two data sets showed that WTs systematically overexpressed genes corresponding to the earliest stage of metanephric development, and underexpressed genes corresponding to later stages. Automated clustering identified a smaller group of 27 genes that were highly expressed in WTs compared to fetal kidney and heterologous tumor and normal tissues. This signature set was enriched in genes encoding transcription factors. Four of these, PAX2, EYA1, HBF2, and HOXA11, are essential for cell survival and proliferation in early metanephric development, whereas others, including SIX1, MOX1, and SALL2, are predicted to act at this stage. SIX1 and SALL2 proteins were expressed in the condensing mesenchyme in normal human fetal kidneys, but were absent (SIX1) or reduced (SALL2) in cells at other developmental stages. These data imply that the blastema in WTs has progressed to the committed stage in the mesenchymal-epithelial transition, where it is partially arrested in differentiation. The WT-signature set also contained the Wnt receptor FZD7, the tumor antigen PRAME, the imprinted gene NNAT and the metastasis-associated transcription factor E1AF. PMID:12057921

Li, Chi-Ming; Guo, Meirong; Borczuk, Alain; Powell, Charles A.; Wei, Michelle; Thaker, Harshwardhan M.; Friedman, Richard; Klein, Ulf; Tycko, Benjamin

2002-01-01

387

Earliest evidence for caries and exploitation of starchy plant foods in Pleistocene hunter-gatherers from Morocco  

PubMed Central

Dental caries is an infectious disease that causes tooth decay. The high prevalence of dental caries in recent humans is attributed to more frequent consumption of plant foods rich in fermentable carbohydrates in food-producing societies. The transition from hunting and gathering to food production is associated with a change in the composition of the oral microbiota and broadly coincides with the estimated timing of a demographic expansion in Streptococcus mutans, a causative agent of human dental caries. Here we present evidence linking a high prevalence of caries to reliance on highly cariogenic wild plant foods in Pleistocene hunter-gatherers from North Africa, predating other high caries populations and the first signs of food production by several thousand years. Archaeological deposits at Grotte des Pigeons in Morocco document extensive evidence for human occupation during the Middle Stone Age and Later Stone Age (Iberomaurusian), and incorporate numerous human burials representing the earliest known cemetery in the Maghreb. Macrobotanical remains from occupational deposits dated between 15,000 and 13,700 cal B.P. provide evidence for systematic harvesting and processing of edible wild plants, including acorns and pine nuts. Analysis of oral pathology reveals an exceptionally high prevalence of caries (51.2% of teeth in adult dentitions), comparable to modern industrialized populations with a diet high in refined sugars and processed cereals. We infer that increased reliance on wild plants rich in fermentable carbohydrates and changes in food processing caused an early shift toward a disease-associated oral microbiota in this population. PMID:24395774

Humphrey, Louise T.; De Groote, Isabelle; Morales, Jacob; Barton, Nick; Collcutt, Simon; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Bouzouggar, Abdeljalil

2014-01-01

388

Dividing without centrioles: innovative plant microtubule organizing centres organize mitotic spindles in bryophytes, the earliest extant lineages of land plants  

PubMed Central

Background and aims As remnants of the earliest land plants, the bryophytes (liverworts, mosses and hornworts) are important in understanding microtubule organization in plant cells. Land plants have an anastral mitotic spindle that forms in the absence of centrosomes, and a cytokinetic apparatus comprised of a predictive preprophase band (PPB) before mitosis and a phragmoplast after mitosis. These microtubule arrays have no counterpart in animal cells and the nature of the plant microtubule organizing centre (MTOC) remained an enigma for many years until antibodies to ?-tubulin, an essential component of the MTOC in all eukaryotes, became available for tracing the origin of microtubule arrays. Methodology We used immunofluorescence techniques to colocalize ?-tubulin, microtubules and chromosomes in mitotic cells of a representative liverwort, moss and hornwort to study the organization of microtubules during mitotic cell division. Principal results The future division site is marked by a PPB in all taxa but the MTOCs initially generating the half spindles differ: polar organizers in the liverwort, plastid MTOCs in the hornwort, and nuclear envelope-associated MTOCs in the moss. By mid-prophase, the forming spindles become more similar as ?-tubulin begins to spread around the polar regions of the nuclear envelope. Conclusions Regardless of origin, mature metaphase spindles are identical and indistinguishable from the typical anastral spindle of higher plants with broad polar regions consisting of numerous subsets of converging microtubules. A curious phenomenon of plant spindles, true of bryophytes as well as higher plants, is the movement of ?-tubulin into the metaphase spindle itself. The bipolar arrays of phragmoplast microtubules are organized by diffuse ?-tubulin located at proximal surfaces of reforming nuclear envelopes. Phragmoplast development appears similar in the three taxa and to vascular plants as well. PMID:22476498

Brown, Roy C.; Lemmon, Betty E.

2011-01-01

389

Vehicle Detection and Compass Applications using AMR Magnetic Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The earliest magnetic field detectors allowed navigation over trackless oceans by sensing the earth's magnetic poles. Magnetic field sensing has vastly expanded as industry has adapted a variety of magnetic sensors to detect the presence, strength, or direction of magnetic fields not only from the earth, but also from permanent magnets, magnetized soft magnets, vehicle distur- bances, brain wave activity,

Michael J. Caruso; Lucky S. Withanawasam

390

Automatic Microaneurysm Detection and Characterization Through Digital Color Fundus Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocular fundus images can provide information about retinal, ophthalmic, and even systemic diseases such as diabetes. Microaneurysms (MAs) are the earliest sign of Diabetic Retinopathy, a frequently observed complication in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Robust detection of MAs in digital color fundus images is critical in the development of automated screening systems for this kind of disease.

Charles Martins; Rodrigo Veras; Geraldo Ramalho; Fatima Medeiros; Daniela Ushizima

2008-01-01

391

Genetics Home Reference: X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia  

MedlinePLUS

... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia On this page: ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed August 2013 What is X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia? X-linked lissencephaly ...

392

Down's Syndrome and Leukemia: Mechanism of Additional Chromosomal Abnormalities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chromosomal abnormalities, some appearing in a stepwise clonal evoluation, were found in five Down's syndrome patients (35 weeks to 12 years old), four with acute leukemia and one with abnormal regulation of leukopoiesis. (Author/SBH)

And Others; Goh, Kong-oo

1978-01-01

393

Diffusion Tensor Brain Imaging Findings At Term-equivalent Age May Predict Neurologic Abnormalities in Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Low birth weight preterm infants are at high risk of brain injury, particularly injury to the white matter. Diffusion tensor imaging is thought to be more sensitive than conventional MR imaging for detecting subtle white matter abnormalities. The objective of this study was to examine whether diffusion tensor imaging could detect abnor- malities that may be associated

Y. Arzoumanian; M. Mirmiran; P. D. Barnes; K. Woolley; R. L. Ariagno; M. E. Moseley; B. E. Fleisher; S. W. Atlas

394

Chromosome abnormalities in primary ovarian cancer  

SciTech Connect

Chromosome abnormalities that are specific and recurrent may occur in regions of the genome that are involved in the conversion of normal cells to those with tumorigenic potential. Ovarian cancer is the primary cause of death among patients with gynecological malignancies. We have performed cytogenetic analysis of 16 ovarian tumors from women age 28-82. Three tumors of low malignant potential and three granulosa cell tumors had normal karyotypes. To look for the presence of trisomy 12, which has been suggested to be a common aberration in this group of tumors, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on direct preparations from three of these tumors using a probe for alpha satellite sequences of chromosome 12. In the 3 preparations, 92-98 percent of the cells contained two copies of chromosome 12, indicating that trisomy 12 is not a universal finding in low grade ovarian tumors. Endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary is histologically indistinguishable from endometial carcinoma of the uterus. We studied 10 endometrioid tumors to determine the degree of genetic similarity between these two carcinomas. Six out of ten endometrioid tumors showed a near-triploid modal number, and one presented with a tetraploid modal number. Eight of the ten contained structural chromosome abnormalities, of which the most frequent were 1p- (5 tumors), 19q+ (3 tumors), 6q- or ins(6) (4 tumors), 3q- or 3q+ (4 tumors). These cytogenetic results resemble those reported for papillary ovarian tumors and differ from those of endometrial carcinoma of the uterus. We conclude that despite the histologic similarities between the endometrioid and endometrial carcinomas, the genetic abnormalities in the genesis of these tumors differ significantly.

Yonescu, R.; Currie, J.; Griffin, C.A. [John Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)

1994-09-01

395

Radiological abnormalities in electric-arc welders.  

PubMed Central

Chest radiographs of 661 British electric-arc welders have been examined by three film readers experienced in the radiology of pneumoconiosis. About 7% of the welders showed signs of small rounded opacities of category 0/1 or greater. No definite evidence of large opacities (Progressive Massive Fibrosis) was seen. The prevalence of chest abnormalities other than pneumoconiosis was 7%. A clear association between prevalence of small rounded opacities of category 0/1 or greater and years of exposure to fumes was established, although few signs of severe grades of simple pneumoconiosis were seen. PMID:656335

Attfield, M D; Ross, D S

1978-01-01

396

The Challenge of Emergency and Abnormal Situations for  

E-print Network

/Abnormal Situation · Prevent Accident/Incident ­ Communicate needed information to flight deck ­ Fight fires · ReduceThe Challenge of Emergency and Abnormal Situations for Flight Attendants The Challenge of Emergency and Abnormal Situations for Flight Attendants By Nora C. Marshall Chief, Survival Factors Division NTSB #12

397

Clinical Significance of Abnormal Electrocardiographic Patterns in Trained Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—The prevalence, clinical significance, and determinants of abnormal ECG patterns in trained athletes remain largely unresolved. Methods and Results—We compared ECG patterns with cardiac morphology (as assessed by echocardiography) in 1005 consecutive athletes (aged 2466 years; 75% male) who were participating in 38 sporting disciplines. ECG patterns were distinctly abnormal in 145 athletes (14%), mildly abnormal in 257 (26%), and

Antonio Pelliccia; Barry J. Maron; Franco Culasso; Fernando M. Di Paolo; Antonio Spataro; Alessandro Biffi; Giovanni Caselli; Paola Piovano

2010-01-01

398

SOFTWARE AGENTS IN HANDLING ABNORMAL SITUATIONS IN INDUSTRIAL PLANTS  

E-print Network

SOFTWARE AGENTS IN HANDLING ABNORMAL SITUATIONS IN INDUSTRIAL PLANTS Sami Syrjälä and Seppo Kuikka. The abnormal situation handling in industrial plants is a challenging application area due to the complexity-model, abnormal situation handling, industrial plants 1. Introduction This paper is based on the work made

399

A Case of ADHD and a Major Y Chromosome Abnormality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: ADHD is a common, heritable disorder of childhood. Sex chromosome abnormalities are relatively rare conditions that are sometimes associated with behavioral disorders. Method: The authors present a male child with ADHD and a major de-novo Y chromosome abnormality consisting of deletion of the long arm and duplication of the short arm. It is possible that the Y chromosomal abnormality

Aisling Mulligan; Michael Gill; Michael Fitzgerald

2008-01-01

400

Application of the Abnormally Dangerous Activities Doctrine to Environmental Cleanups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common law tort doctrine of strict liability for abnormally dangerous activities is emerging as a key element of the law of hazardous substance regulation, which has been dominated by CERCLA. Recent applications of the abnormally dangerous activities doctrine have shown the doctrine's formidable potential for expansion. Together with the related torts of nuisance and trespass, strict liability for abnormally

Jim C. Chen; Kyle E. McSlarrow

1992-01-01

401

Some of the present problems of abnormal psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the problems surfacing in the field of abnormal psychology. Abnormal psychology has thrown much light on the mechanisms of normal mental processes, for disease dissects the mind and brings into view the mechanisms. In the department of medicine, it has furnished an intelligible explanation of many unexplained derangements of the mind. The problems of abnormal psychology are largely the

Morton Prince

1905-01-01

402

Prenatal diagnosis of monosomy 1p36: a focus on brain abnormalities and a review of the literature.  

PubMed

Monosomy 1p36 is an increasingly recognized chromosomal anomaly. We describe two patients with monosomy 1p36 who had brain abnormalities detected on prenatal ultrasound. The first patient was ascertained prenatally with ultrasound abnormalities, including ventriculomegaly, a single umbilical artery, a unilateral club foot, a ventricular septal defect, and intra-uterine growth retardation. Amniocentesis showed a normal karyotype. A postnatal MRI showed moderate to severe non-obstructive hydrocephalus, bilateral colpocephaly, and abnormal myelination of the anterior limb of the internal capsule. A postnatal karyotype demonstrated a deletion of 1p36.3 that was not detected prenatally due to low resolution. Molecular studies by array comparative genome hybridization (CGH) identified a terminal deletion of approximately 10 Mb. Our second patient was a fetus who had brain abnormalities suggestive of holoprosencephaly identified on prenatal ultrasound. Amniocentesis showed 46,XX,der(1)t(1;20)(p36.1;p12.2), that was found to be maternally inherited. Fetal autopsy demonstrated hydrocephalus, focal polymicrogyria, and cerebellar hypoplasia. However, holoprosencephaly was not confirmed. In addition to describing two patients with monosomy 1p36 who had abnormal brain anatomy on prenatal ultrasounds, we review the literature of other prenatally detected patients with monosomy 1p36 and review brain abnormalities seen both prenatally and postnatally. PMID:19006213

Campeau, Philippe M; Ah Mew, Nicholas; Cartier, Lola; Mackay, Katherine L; Shaffer, Lisa G; Der Kaloustian, Vazken M; Thomas, Mary Ann

2008-12-01

403

Swallowing abnormalities in HIV infected children: an important cause of morbidity  

PubMed Central

Background Swallowing disorders, well recognised in adults, contribute to HIV-infection morbidity. Little data however is available for HIV-infected children. The purpose of this study is to describe swallowing disorders in a group of HIV-infected children in Africa after the introduction of combined anti-retroviral therapy. Methods We describe 25 HIV-infected children referred for possible swallowing disorders. Clinical and videofluoroscopic assessment of swallowing (VFSS), HIV stage, and respiratory and neurological examination were recorded. Results Median age was 8?months (range 2.8-92) and 15 (60%) were male. Fifteen (60%) were referred for recurrent respiratory complaints, 4 (16%) for poor growth, 4 (16%) for poor feeding and 2 (8%) patients for respiratory complaints and either poor growth or feeding. Twenty patients (80%) had clinical evidence of swallowing abnormalities: 11 (44%) in the oral phase, 4 (16%) in the pharyngeal phase, and 5 (25%) in both the oral and pharyngeal phases. Thirteen patients had a videofluoroscopic assessment of which 6 (46%) where abnormal. Abnormalities were detected in the oral phase in 2, in the pharyngeal phase in 3, and in the oral and pharyngeal phase in 1; all of these patients also had evidence of respiratory involvement. Abnormal swallowing occurred in 85% of children with central nervous system disease. CNS disease was due to HIV encephalopathy (8) and miscellaneous central nervous system diseases (5). Three of 4 (75%) patients with thrush had an abnormal oral phase on assessment. No abnormalities of the oesophagus were found. Conclusions This report highlights the importance of swallowing disorders in HIV infected children. Most patients have functional rather than structural or mucosal abnormalities. VFSS makes an important contribution to the diagnosis and management of these patients. PMID:22704533

2012-01-01

404

Influence of genetic abnormalities on semen quality and male fertility: A four-year prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background: Wide range of disorders ranging from genetic disorders to coital difficulties can influence male fertility. In this regard, genetic factors are highlighted as the most frequent, contributed to 10-15%, of male infertility causes. Objective: To investigate the influence of genetic abnormalities on semen quality and reproductive hormone levels of infertile men from Northeast China. Materials and Methods: 2034 infertile men including 691 patients with abnormal sperm parameters were investigated retrospectively. Semen analysis was performed according to the World Health Organization guidelines. Y chromosome micro deletions were detected by polymerase chain reaction assays. Chromosome analysis was performed using G-banding. Results: The incidence of abnormal chromosomal karyotype in the patients with abnormal sperm parameters was 12.01% (83/691). The most frequent cause was Klinefelter's syndrome 37.35% (31/83). As the same as chromosomal abnormalities group, the volumes of testes (p=0.000 and 0.000, respectively) and the levels of testosterone (T) (p=0.000), and testosterone/ luteinizing hormone (T/LH) (p=0.000) of patients with Y chromosome micro deletions were significantly lower than those of fertile group. In addition, the levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) (p=0.000), and luteinizing hormone (LH) (p=0.000) were significantly higher in patients with Y chromosome micro deletions than those in the fertile group. Translocation abnormalities displayed slight effect on sperm motility. Conclusion: Y chromosome micro deletions and sex chromosome disorders particularly Klinefelter’s (47, XXY), have severe adverse influence on normal hormone levels, testicular volume and sperm count, whereas translocation abnormalities may inversely correlate with sperm motility. PMID:24799866

Elfateh, Fadlalla; Wang, Ruixue; Zhang, Zhihong; Jiang, Yuting; Chen, Shuang; Liu, Ruizhi

2014-01-01

405

Chromosomal abnormalities associated with cyclopia and synophthalmia.  

PubMed Central

At the present time, essentially all known facts concerning cyclopia are consistent with some chromosomal disease, including clinical features of the pregnancy (fetal wastage, prematurity, intrauterine growth retardation, maternal age factor, complications of pregnancy), the generalized developmental abnormalities, specific ocular dysgenesis, by the high incidence of chromosomal abnormality already demonstrated, and the possibility of error in those cases of cyclopia with normal chromosomes. Even if chromosomal aberrations represent only one group of several different etiologic factors leading to cyclopia, at the present time chromosomal errors would seem to be the most common cause of cyclopia now recognized. Further studies will establish or disprove a chromosomal error in those instances which are now considered to be the result of an environmental factor alone or those with apparent familial patterns of inheritance. This apparent diverse origin of cyclopia can be clarified if future cyclopic specimens are carefully investigated. The evaluation should include a careful gross and microscopic examination of all organs, including the eye, and chromosome banding studies of all organs, including the eye, and chromosome banding studies of at least two cyclopic tissues. Then the presence or absence of multiple causative factors can be better evaluated. Images FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 2 B FIGURE 1 A FIGURE 1 B FIGURE 1 C FIGURE 1 D FIGURE 1 E FIGURE 1 F FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 4 A FIGURE 4 B FIGURE 4 C FIGURE 4 D FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B PMID:418547

Howard, R O

1977-01-01

406

Superior temporal gyrus spectral abnormalities in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Considerable evidence indicates early auditory stimulus processing abnormalities in schizophrenia, but the mechanisms are unclear. The present study examined oscillatory phenomena during a paired-click paradigm in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) as a possible core problem. The primary question addressed is whether first click and/or second click group differences in the time-domain evoked response in patients with schizophrenia are due to (1) group differences in the magnitude of poststimulus oscillatory activity, (2) group differences in poststimulus phase-locking, and/or (3) group differences in the magnitude of ongoing background oscillatory activity. Dense-array magnetoencephalography from 45 controls and 45 patients with schizophrenia produced left- and right-hemisphere STG 50- and 100-ms time-frequency evoked, phase-locking, and total power measures. Whereas first click 100-ms evoked theta and alpha abnormalities were observed bilaterally, evoked low beta-band differences were specific to the left hemisphere. Compared to controls, patients with schizophrenia showed more low-frequency phase variability, and the decreased 100-ms S1 evoked response observed in patients was best predicted by the STG phase-locking measure. PMID:18665866

EDGAR, J. CHRISTOPHER; HANLON, FAITH M.; HUANG, MING-XIONG; WEISEND, MICHAEL P.; THOMA, ROBERT J.; CARPENTER, BRUCE; HOECHSTETTER, KARSTEN; CANIVE, JOSE M.; MILLER, GREGORY A.

2009-01-01

407

Superior temporal gyrus spectral abnormalities in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Considerable evidence indicates early auditory stimulus processing abnormalities in schizophrenia, but the mechanisms are unclear. The present study examined oscillatory phenomena during a paired-click paradigm in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) as a possible core problem. The primary question addressed is whether first click and/or second click group differences in the time-domain evoked response in patients with schizophrenia are due to (1) group differences in the magnitude of poststimulus oscillatory activity, (2) group differences in poststimulus phase-locking, and/or (3) group differences in the magnitude of ongoing background oscillatory activity. Dense-array magnetoencephalography from 45 controls and 45 patients with schizophrenia produced left- and right-hemisphere STG 50- and 100-ms time-frequency evoked, phase-locking, and total power measures. Whereas first click 100-ms evoked theta and alpha abnormalities were observed bilaterally, evoked low beta-band differences were specific to the left hemisphere. Compared to controls, patients with schizophrenia showed more low-frequency phase variability, and the decreased 100-ms S1 evoked response observed in patients was best predicted by the STG phase-locking measure. PMID:18665866

Edgar, J Christopher; Hanlon, Faith M; Huang, Ming-Xiong; Weisend, Michael P; Thoma, Robert J; Carpenter, Bruce; Hoechstetter, Karsten; Cañive, José M; Miller, Gregory A

2008-09-01

408

Protruding labia minora: abnormal or just uncool?  

PubMed

There is a wide variety in the appearance of normal female external genitalia. Nevertheless a specific prototype is promoted by the media, leading to a false sense that all other appearances are abnormal. As adolescents become sexually aware at an earlier age, most of them are worried about the appearance of their genitalia, especially when labia minora protrude beyond labia majora. This is a prospective audit of adolescents presenting for assessment of their perceived abnormal genitalia. Sixteen girls aged 10.2 to 17.8 years presented between June 2009 and December 2010 to a specialist adolescent gynecology service. Their mean labial width was 36?mm (range: 20-55?mm). In six girls, the reason for attending the service was inequality of the size of labia ranging between 6?mm and 35?mm (mean of 20?mm). Among the remaining 10 girls, the concern had arisen through comparison with a prepubescent sibling (one case), change of genitalia during puberty (four cases), looking at internet pictures (four cases), and looking at an anatomy book (one case). Risks of Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery (FGCS) have not been adequately documented, especially with regards to sexual function and long-term patient satisfaction. External genitalia are likely to change during puberty and therefore, any genital operation in the absence of clear pathology should be deferred until adulthood. Even then, women should have clear expectations of what will be achieved with the operation in terms of appearance and function. PMID:21696338

Michala, Lina; Koliantzaki, Sofia; Antsaklis, Aris

2011-09-01

409

Failure of prediction of liver function test abnormalities with the urine urobilinogen and urine bilirubin assays.  

PubMed

A prospective observational study of 229 cases was conducted in a busy ambulatory care setting to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and accuracy of spot urine urobilinogen and urine bilirubin assays as screening tests for serum liver function test (LFT) abnormalities. Both urine tests exhibited remarkably similar characteristics overall once they were adjusted to maximize accuracy and predictive values (occurring at a normal or abnormal "threshold," respectively, of 3.4 or 5.07 mumol/d for urobilinogen and 0 or 1+ for urine bilirubin). The percentage of cases correctly identified were 81% to 83% for serum bilirubin assays, 68% to 72% for other LFTs, but only 62% to 63% for screens for cases with at least one abnormal LFT finding. Poor sensitivities (47% to 49%) limited the detection of abnormal findings by the screen; both screens were reasonably specific (79% to 89%), but negative predictive values were suitable (89%) for serum bilirubin results only and were prohibitively lower (49% to 50%) in predicting all patients without LFT abnormalities. We conclude that spot urine urobilinogen and urine bilirubin determinations, although good screens for isolated serum bilirubin elevations, have unacceptable statistical properties as predictors of other LFT results due to a high proportion of false-negative results. PMID:2642693

Binder, L; Smith, D; Kupka, T; Nelson, B; Glass, B; Wainscott, M; Haynes, J

1989-01-01

410

The Importance of Screening and Prenatal Diagnosis in the Identification of the Numerical Chromosomal Abnormalities  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Background and aims: The obstetric care of a pregnancy, as it is practiced today, includes non-invasive screening approaches as well as invasive procedures for the definitive prenatal diagnosis of fetal disorders correlations between indications for prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis and results of the chromosomal analysis made upon fetal cells. The aim of our study was to evaluate the correlations between the screening test results and results of chromosomal analysis on fetal cells. Methods: Amniotic fluid samples from 1159 pregnant women were studied with the rapid FISH method and the cytogenetic analysis (karyotype). The results from both methods were compared. Results: The indications to perform prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis for numerical chromosomal abnormalities were: abnormal results of double or triple test, advanced maternal age, fetal abnormality detected through ultrasound examination, and positive family history for chromosomal anomalies. In our study we identified 30 cases with abnormal numeric chromosomes (18 cases of trisomy 21, 4 cases of trisomy 18, 3 cases of trisomy X, 1 case of monosomy, 2 cases of trisomy XYY, 1 case of trisomy XXY and 1 case of triploidy). Conclusions: This report confirms the importance of screening and the cytogenetic diagnosis in the identification of the numerical chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:22368694

NEAGOS, Daniela; CRETU, Ruxandra; SFETEA, Roxana Corina; BOHILTEA, Laurentiu Camil

2011-01-01

411

Early and progressive circadian abnormalities in Huntington's disease sheep are unmasked by social environment.  

PubMed

Insidious changes in behaviour herald the onset of progressive neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's disease (HD), sometimes years before overt symptoms are seen. Sleep and circadian disturbances are particularly disruptive symptoms in patients with neurological disorders, but they are difficult to measure in humans. Here we studied circadian behaviour in transgenic HD sheep expressing the full-length human huntingtin protein with an expanded CAG repeat mutation in the juvenile range. Young HD sheep with no other symptoms exhibited circadian behavioural abnormalities that worsened with age. The most obvious change was a disturbed evening behaviour reminiscent of 'sundowning' that is seen in some patients with dementia. There were no structural abnormalities seen with magnetic resonance imaging, even in 5-year-old HD sheep. Interestingly, detection of the circadian abnormalities depended upon their social grouping. Abnormalities emerged in sheep kept in an 'HD-only' flock, whereas the behaviour of HD sheep kept mixed with normal sheep was relatively normal. Sleep-wake abnormalities in HD patients are also likely to be hidden, and may precede overt symptoms by many years. Sleep disruption has deleterious effects, even in normal people. The knock-on effects of sleep-wake disturbance may exacerbate, or even cause symptoms such as irritability and depression that are common in early stage HD patients. HD sheep will be useful models for probing the mechanisms underlying circadian behavioural disorder in HD. PMID:24488771

Morton, A Jennifer; Rudiger, Skye R; Wood, Nigel I; Sawiak, Stephen J; Brown, Gregory C; Mclaughlan, Clive J; Kuchel, Timothy R; Snell, Russell G; Faull, Richard L M; Bawden, C Simon

2014-07-01

412

Children with new-onset epilepsy exhibit diffusion abnormalities in cerebral white matter in the absence of volumetric differences.  

PubMed

The purpose of this investigation was to examine the diffusion properties of cerebral white matter in children with recent onset epilepsy (n=19) compared to healthy controls (n=11). Subjects underwent DTI with quantification of mean diffusion (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (D(ax)) and radial diffusivity (D(rad)) for regions of interest including anterior and posterior corpus callosum, fornix, cingulum, and internal and external capsules. Quantitative volumetrics were also performed for the corpus callosum and its subregions (anterior, midbody and posterior) and total lobar white and gray matter for the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes. The results demonstrated no group differences in total lobar gray or white matter volumes or volume of the corpus callosum and its subregions, but did show reduced FA and increased D(rad) in the posterior corpus callosum and cingulum. These results provide the earliest indication of microstructural abnormality in cerebral white matter among children with idiopathic epilepsies. This abnormality occurs in the context of normal volumetrics and suggests disruption in myelination processes. PMID:20044239

Hutchinson, Elizabeth; Pulsipher, Dalin; Dabbs, Kevin; Myers y Gutierrez, Adan; Sheth, Raj; Jones, Jana; Seidenberg, Michael; Meyerand, Elizabeth; Hermann, Bruce

2010-02-01

413

Is Rolandic Epilepsy Associated With Abnormal Findings On Cranial MRI?  

PubMed Central

Rolandic epilepsy (RE) is designated an idiopathic epilepsy syndrome, and hence no lesional abnormalities are expected on MRI exam. Recent reports suggest that MRI abnormalities are not only common, but may be specific for temporal lobe epilepsy, and lateralized to the side of EEG discharges. However, no controlled study has been performed to test the hypothesis of association between MRI abnormalities and Rolandic epilepsy. We performed an unmatched case-control study to test the hypothesis of association between MRI abnormalities and Rolandic epilepsy, using 25 typical RE cases and 25 children with migraine. Two independent examiners rated the MRIs for abnormalities. Examiners were blinded to the study hypothesis and identity of case and control exams. Fifty-two percent of RE exams contained at least one abnormality: peri/hippocampal abnormality (1 case), non-localized congenital malformation (7 cases), subcortical parenchymal hyperintensities (2 cases), periventricular parenchymal hyperintensities (1 case), dilated perivascular spaces (6 cases). There was no difference between the number or type of abnormalities in cases and controls. No type of abnormality lateralized to the hemisphere from which the EEG spikes emanated. The odds ratio of association between MRI abnormalities and RE was 0.87, 95% CI: 0.18–4.33 after adjusting for potential demographic and technical factors. We conclude that routine cranial MRI abnormalities are common in RE, but no more common than in controls, and not specific for RE. PMID:17624735

Boxerman, Jerrold L.; Hawash, Karameh; Bali, Bhavna; Clarke, Tara; Rogg, Jeffrey; Pal, Deb K

2007-01-01

414

Neuromuscular abnormality and autonomic dysfunction in patients with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis  

PubMed Central

Background Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a rare lipid-storage disease. Neuromuscular abnormality and autonomic system (ANS) dysfuction in CTX are rarely examined in large-scale studies in the literature. We studied the peripheral nervous system, myopathology, and autonomic system of four CTX patients and performed a literature review of the reported CTX patients with peripheral neuropathy. Methods Four biochemically and genetically confirmed CTX patients, belonging to two families, were included for study and all received nerve conduction study (NCS), muscle biopsy for histopathologic and ultrastructural study, skin biopsy for intraepidermal nerve fiber (INEF) density measurement, autonomic testings including sympathetic skin response, R-R interval variation and head-up tilt test using an automated tilt table to record the changes of blood pressure and heart rate in different postures. The Q-Sweat test was also applied for the detection of sweat amount and onset time of response. The clinical characteristics, study methods and results of 13 studies of peripheral neuropathy in CTX patients in the literature were also recorded for analysis. Results The results of NCS study showed axonal sensory-motor polyneuropathy in three CTX cases and mixed axonal and demyelinating sensor-motor polyneuropathy in one. The myopathological and histopathologic studies revealed mild denervation characteristics, but the ultrastructural study revealed changes of mitochondria and the membranous system, and increased amounts of glycogen, lipofuscin and lipid deposition. The ANS study revealed different degrees of abnormalities in the applied tests and the INEF density measurement showed small fiber neuropathy in three of the four CTX patients. The literature review of peripheral neuropathy in CTX revealed different types of peripheral neuropathy, of which axonal peripheral neuropathy was the most common. Conclusions Peripheral neuropathy, especially the subtype of axonal sensori-motor neuropathy, is common in patients with CTX. Evidence of lipid metabolic derangement in CTX can be reflected in ultrastructural studies of muscles. With an adequate multi-parametric evaluation, a high incidence of ANS abnormalities can be seen in this rare lipid-storage disease, and a high incidence of small fiber involvement is also reflected in the IENF density measurement of skin biopsies. PMID:21627786

2011-01-01

415

Abnormal white matter microstructure in children with sensory processing disorders?  

PubMed Central

Sensory processing disorders (SPD) affect 5–16% of school-aged children and can cause long-term deficits in intellectual and social development. Current theories of SPD implicate primary sensory cortical areas and higher-order multisensory integration (MSI) cortical regions. We investigate the role of white matter microstructural abnormalities in SPD using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). DTI was acquired in 16 boys, 8–11 years old, with SPD and 24 age-, gender-, handedness- and IQ-matched neurotypical controls. Behavior was characterized using a parent report sensory behavior measure, the Sensory Profile. Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD) and radial diffusivity (RD) were calculated. Tract-based spatial statistics were used to detect significant group differences in white matter integrity and to determine if microstructural parameters were significantly correlated with behavioral measures. Significant decreases in FA and increases in MD and RD were found in the SPD cohort compared to controls, primarily involving posterior white matter including the posterior corpus callosum, posterior corona radiata and posterior thalamic radiations. Strong positive correlations were observed between FA of these posterior tracts and auditory, multisensory, and inattention scores (r = 0.51–0.78; p < 0.001) with strong negative correlations between RD and multisensory and inattention scores (r = ? 0.61–0.71; p < 0.001). To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate reduced white matter microstructural integrity in children with SPD. We find that the disrupted white matter microstructure predominantly involves posterior cerebral tracts and correlates strongly with atypical unimodal and multisensory integration behavior. These findings suggest abnormal white matter as a biological basis for SPD and may also distinguish SPD from overlapping clinical conditions such as autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. PMID:24179836

Owen, Julia P.; Marco, Elysa J.; Desai, Shivani; Fourie, Emily; Harris, Julia; Hill, Susanna S.; Arnett, Anne B.; Mukherjee, Pratik

2013-01-01

416

Molecular cytogenetic studies in structural abnormalities of chromosome 13  

SciTech Connect

A partial trisomy 13 was detected prenatally in an amniocentesis performed due to the following ultrasound abnormalities: open sacral neural tube defect (NTD), a flattened cerebellum, and lumbar/thoracic hemivertebrae. Elevated AFP and positive acetylcholinesterase in amniotic fluid confirmed the open NTD. Chromosome analysis showed an extra acrocentric chromosome marker. FISH analysis with the painting probe 13 showed that most of the marker was derived from this chromosome. Chromosomes on the parents revealed that the mother had a balanced reciprocal translocation t(2;13)(q23;q21). Dual labeling with painting chromosomes 2 and 13 on cells from the mother and from the amniotic fluid identified the marker as a der(13)t(2;13)(p23;q21). Thus, the fetus had a partial trisomy 13 and a small partial trisomy 2p. The maternal grandfather was found to be a carrier for this translocation. Fetal demise occurred a 29 weeks of gestation. The fetus had open lumbar NTD and showed dysmorphic features, overlapping fingers and imperforate anus. This woman had a subsequent pregnancy and chorionic villi sample showed that this fetus was normal. Another case with an abnormal chromosome 13 was a newborn with partial monosomy 13 due to the presence of a ring chromosome 13. This infant had severe intrauterine growth retardation, oligohydramnios, dysmorphic features and multiple congenital microphthalmia, congenital heart disease, absent thumbs and toes and cervical vertebral anomalies. Chromosome studies in blood and skin fibroblast cultures showed that one chromosome 3 was replaced by a ring chromosome of various sizes. This ring was confirmed to be derived from chromosome 13 using the centromeric 21/13 probe.

Lozzio, C.B.; Bamberger, E.; Anderson, I. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

417

Abnormal cortical thickness in heroin-dependent individuals.  

PubMed

Accumulating evidence from brain structural imaging studies on heroin dependence has supported links between brain morphological alterations and heroin exposure, particularly in gray matter volume or gray matter density. However, the effects of heroin exposure on cortical thickness and the relationship between cortical thickness and heroin addiction are not yet known. In this study, we acquired 3D high-resolution brain structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from 18 heroin-dependent individuals (HDIs) and 15 healthy controls (HCs). Using FreeSurfer, we detected abnormalities in cortical thickness in the HDIs. Based on a vertex-wise analysis, the HDIs showed significantly decreased cortical thickness in the bilateral superior frontal, left caudal middle frontal, right superior temporal, and right insular regions compared to the HCs but significantly increased cortical thickness in the left superior parietal, bilateral lingual, left temporal pole, right inferior parietal, right lateral occipital, and right cuneus regions. To supplement these results, a subsequent ROI-wise analysis was performed and showed decreased cortical thickness in the left superior frontal sulcus, left precuneus gyrus, left calcarine sulcus, left anterior transverse collateral sulcus, and the right medial occipital-temporal and lingual sulcus. These regions partially overlapped with the areas identified using the vertex-wise analysis. In addition, we found that the thickness in the right superior frontal and right insular regions was negatively correlated with the duration of heroin use. These results provide compelling evidence for cortical abnormality in HDIs and also suggest that the duration of heroin use may be a critical factor associated with the brain alteration. PMID:24140937

Li, Meng; Tian, Junzhang; Zhang, Ruibin; Qiu, Yingwei; Wen, Xue; Ma, Xiaofen; Wang, Junjing; Xu, Yong; Jiang, Guihua; Huang, Ruiwang

2014-03-01

418

Chromosome abnormalities in patients with syndactyly.  

PubMed

Chromosome studies on 105 patients with syndactyly included two trisomy-21 mongols, a chromatin-positive boy with 47, XXY, a chromatin-negative short girl with 45,X0 and a boy with a familial D/D translocation. Chromosome patterns were normal in the other cases which included three patients with acrocephalosyndactyly and one patient with oro-facial-digital syndrome.The incidence of chromosome abnormalies was greater than expected since syndactyly of the fingers is uncommon in the chromosome disorders.THIS INCIDENCE MAY BE RELATED TO THE INCREASED MATERNAL AGE (MEAN: 29.4 years) of the syndactyly group compared to maternal age (mean: 26.64 years) of the control group although, paradoxically, four mothers of the five patients with chromosome abnormalities were young. PMID:4310631

Conen, P E; Hampole, M K; Thomson, H G

1969-11-15

419

Pleural abnormalities: thoracic ultrasound to the rescue!  

PubMed

Diaphragmatic hernias that are diagnosed in adulthood may be traumatic or congenital in nature. Therefore, respiratory specialists need to be aware of the presentation of patients with these conditions. In this report, we describe a case series of patients with congenital and traumatic diaphragmatic hernias and highlight a varied range of their presentations. Abnormalities were noted in the thorax on the chest radiographs, but it was unclear as to the nature of the anomaly. The findings on thoracic ultrasound conducted by a pulmonologist helped to direct appropriate investigations avoiding unnecessary interventions. Instead of pleural effusions, consolidation or collapse, thoracic computed tomography demonstrated diaphragmatic hernias which were managed either conservatively or by surgery. There is increasing evidence that pulmonary specialists should be trained in thoracic ultrasonography to identify pleural pathology as well as safely conducting pleural-based interventions. PMID:23819018

Aslam, Imran; Pathmanathan, Sega; Lakshminarayana, Umesh B; Avery, Gerard R; Kastelik, Jack A; Morjaria, Jaymin B

2013-07-01

420

Pharmacological therapy for abnormal uterine bleeding.  

PubMed

Pharmacological therapies for the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding are effective and generally well tolerated. This review presents an evidence-based approach to medical therapy. Selection depends on the etiology and amount of bleeding, need for contraception or preservation of fertility, perimenopause status, and medication efficacy and adverse effects.Available nonhormonal agents include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, which reduce bleeding by 25% to 35% and improve dysmenorrhea through reduced prostaglandin levels; tranexamic acid, which inhibits plasminogen activator with a 40% to 60% reduction in menstrual blood loss; and intranasal desmopressin, which is an antifibrinolytic for women with an underlying bleeding disorder (eg, von Willebrand disease).Hormonal regimens cause the inhibition of endometrial growth. Cyclic progestogen therapy for 21 days results in a significant reduction in menstrual blood loss. Limited data suggest that oral contraceptives reduce menstrual blood loss by 40% to 50% with decreased breast tenderness and dysmenorrhea and a reduction in risk of uterine and ovarian cancer. The progestin-releasing intrauterine devices are effective up to 97% by 6 months and provide relief of dysmenorrhea and contraception. Long-acting progestogen injections produce amenorrhea and provide contraception but are associated with irregular spotting and reversible bone loss. Danazol leads to endometrial atrophy with a reduced menstrual loss; androgenic adverse effects may be lessened with lower doses or vaginal use. Gonadotrophin agonists lead to ovarian suppression and are used to shrink fibroids or the endometrium preoperatively but are limited by hypoestrogenic adverse events. Emergency use of parenteral conjugated estrogens has a 70% chance of stopping abnormal bleeding but an i