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1

Detection of Abnormalities in MANETs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Abnormalities in MANETs can be malicious attacks or selfish nodes which can affect network architecture and network operation significantly. Clearly, there are two distinct objectives: 1) To design/examine attacks and develop countermeasures and 2) design...

W. Wang

2007-01-01

2

Detecting Abnormal Events via Hierarchical Dirichlet Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detecting abnormal event from video sequences is an important problem in computer vision and pattern recognition and a large\\u000a number of algorithms have been devised to tackle this problem. Previous state-based approaches all suffer from the problem\\u000a of deciding the appropriate number of states and it is often difficult to do so except using a trial-and-error approach, which\\u000a may be

Xian-xing Zhang; Hua Liu; Yang Gao; Derek Hao Hu

2009-01-01

3

RAPTOR: Closed-Loop monitoring of the night sky and the earliest optical detection of GRB 021211  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the RAPTOR (Rapid Telescopes for Optical Response) sky monitoring system at Los Alamos National Laboratory. RAPTOR is a fully autonomous robotic system that is designed to identify and make follow-up observations of optical transients with durations as short as one minute. The RAPTOR design is based on Biomimicry of Human Vision. The sky monitor is composed of two identical arrays of telescopes, separated by 38 kilometers, which stereoscopically monitor a field of about 1300 square-degrees for transients. Both monitoring arrays are carried on rapidly slewing mounts and are composed of an ensemble of wide-field telescopes clustered around a more powerful narrow-field telescope called the ``fovea'' telescope. All telescopes are coupled to real-time analysis pipelines that identify candidate transients and relay the information to a central decision unit that filters the candidates to find real celestial transients and command a response. When a celestial transient is found, the system can point the fovea telescopes to any position on the sky within five seconds and begin follow-up observations. RAPTOR also responds to Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) alerts generated by GRB monitoring spacecraft. Here we present RAPTOR observations of GRB 021211 that constitute the earliest detection of optical emission from that event and are the second fastest achieved for any GRB. The detection of bright optical emission from GRB021211, a burst with modest gamma-ray fluence, indicates that prompt optical emission, detectable with small robotic telescopes, is more common than previously thought. Further, the very fast decline of the optical afterglow from GRB 021211 suggests that some so-called ``optically dark'' GRBs were not detected only because of the slow response of the follow-up telescopes.

Vestrand, W. T.; Borozdin, K.; Casperson, D. J.; Fenimore, E.; Galassi, M.; McGowan, K.; Starr, D.; White, R. R.; Wozniak, P.; Wren, J.

2004-10-01

4

An accurate means of detecting and characterizing abnormal patterns of ventricular activation by phase image analysis.  

PubMed

The ability of scintigraphic phase image analysis to characterize patterns of abnormal ventricular activation was investigated. The pattern of phase distribution and sequential phase changes over both right and left ventricular regions of interest were evaluated in 16 patients with normal electrical activation and wall motion and compared with those in 8 patients with an artificial pacemaker and 4 patients with sinus rhythm with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and delta waves. Normally, the site of earliest phase angle was seen at the base of the interventricular septum, with sequential change affecting the body of the septum and the cardiac apex and then spreading laterally to involve the body of both ventricles. The site of earliest phase angle was located at the apex of the right ventricle in seven patients with a right ventricular endocardial pacemaker and on the lateral left ventricular wall in one patient with a left ventricular epicardial pacemaker. In each case the site corresponded exactly to the position of the pacing electrode as seen on posteroanterior and left lateral chest X-ray films, and sequential phase changes spread from the initial focus to affect both ventricles. In each of the patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, the site of earliest ventricular phase angle was located, and it corresponded exactly to the site of the bypass tract as determined by endocardial mapping. In this way, four bypass pathways, two posterior left paraseptal, one left lateral and one right lateral, were correctly localized scintigraphically. On the basis of the sequence of mechanical contraction, phase image analysis provides an accurate noninvasive method of detecting abnormal foci of ventricular activation. PMID:6285685

Botvinick, E H; Frais, M A; Shosa, D W; O'Connell, J W; Pacheco-Alvarez, J A; Scheinman, M; Hattner, R S; Morady, F; Faulkner, D B

1982-08-01

5

Detection of abnormalities in a human gait using smart shoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Health monitoring systems require a means for detecting and quantifying abnormalities from measured signals. In this paper, a new method for detecting abnormalities in a human gait is proposed for an improved gait monitoring system for patients with walking problems. In the previous work, we introduced a fuzzy logic algorithm for detecting phases in a human gait based on four foot pressure sensors for each of the right and left foot. The fuzzy logic algorithm detects the gait phases smoothly and continuously, and retains all information obtained from sensors. In this paper, a higher level algorithm for detecting abnormalities in the gait phases obtained from the fuzzy logic is discussed. In the proposed algorithm, two major abnormalities are detected 1) when the sensors measure improper foot pressure patterns, and 2) when the human does not follow a natural sequence of gait phases. For mathematical realization of the algorithm, the gait phases are dealt with by a vector analysis method. The proposed detection algorithm is verified by experiments on abnormal gaits as well as normal gaits. The experiment makes use of the Smart Shoes that embeds four bladders filled with air, the pressure changes in which are detected by pressure transducers.

Kong, Kyoungchul; Bae, Joonbum; Tomizuka, Masayoshi

2008-05-01

6

Using State Estimation Residuals to Detect Abnormal SCADA Data  

SciTech Connect

Detection of abnormal supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) data is critically important for safe and secure operation of modern power systems. In this paper, a methodology of abnormal SCADA data detection based on state estimation residuals is presented. Preceded with a brief overview of outlier detection methods and bad SCADA data detection for state estimation, the framework of the proposed methodology is described. Instead of using original SCADA measurements as the bad data sources, the residuals calculated based on the results of the state estimator are used as the input for the outlier detection algorithm. The BACON algorithm is applied to the outlier detection task. The IEEE 118-bus system is used as a test base to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. The accuracy of the BACON method is compared with that of the 3-? method for the simulated SCADA measurements and residuals.

Ma, Jian; Chen, Yousu; Huang, Zhenyu; Wong, Pak C.

2010-04-30

7

DETECTION AND ADJUSTMENT OF ABNORMAL TEST-DAY YIELDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A method to detect and to adjust abnormally low or high milk, fat, and protein yields on test-day (TD) was developed. TD yields are compared to previous and subsequent yields and are restricted to be between a floor and ceiling based on predicted yield. Lactation yields are then calculated from the ...

8

Adrenal gland abnormality detection using random forest classification.  

PubMed

Adrenal abnormalities are commonly identified on computed tomography (CT) and are seen in at least 5 % of CT examinations of the thorax and abdomen. Previous studies have suggested that evaluation of Hounsfield units within a region of interest or a histogram analysis of a region of interest can be used to determine the likelihood that an adrenal gland is abnormal. However, the selection of a region of interest can be arbitrary and operator dependent. We hypothesize that segmenting the entire adrenal gland automatically without any human intervention and then performing a histogram analysis can accurately detect adrenal abnormality. We use the random forest classification framework to automatically perform a pixel-wise classification of an entire CT volume (abdomen and pelvis) into three classes namely right adrenal, left adrenal, and background. Once we obtain this classification, we perform histogram analysis to detect adrenal abnormality. The combination of these methods resulted in a sensitivity and specificity of 80 and 90 %, respectively, when analyzing 20 adrenal glands seen on volumetric CT datasets for abnormality. PMID:23344259

Saiprasad, Ganesh; Chang, Chein-I; Safdar, Nabile; Saenz, Naomi; Siegel, Eliot

2013-10-01

9

GPS based detection of pre-seismic ionospheric abnormality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionospheric abnormality before the 26 December 2004 M9.3 Sumatra earthquake is detected by the total electron content (TEC) of ground-based receivers of the global positioning system (GPS) in the Indian Ocean area. Higher spatiotemporal grids of VTEC than earlier research are computed. To identify the abnormal ionospheric-seismic signals before the earthquake, a method of statistical analysis is utilized, and the temporal solar activity and geomagnetic environment is also considered in this paper. Results indicate that VTECs mostly decreased 4 days before earthquake happening, and quickly come back after the tragedy. We also find that areas of ionospheric-seismic anomalies is in +/-15° latitude deviate from epicenter, and the anomalies are more obvious in the sea than the earth, so we can deduce that correlations of ionosphere with seabed and earth are different to some extent.

Meng, Yang; Wang, Zemin; E, Dongchen; Liu, Jingbin

2007-11-01

10

Laser transmission measurements towards the detection of abnormal muscle denervation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic scattering of coherent light by moving particles causes a Doppler shift of the original frequency, depending on the velocity and the scattering angles. This phenomenon was used for the detection of abnormal spontaneous muscle activity caused by the denervation of muscles. Transmission measurements of low frequency modulated laser irradiation have been made in 110 denervated first dorsal interosseous who had previously been imposed to electromyography which detected abnormal activity. Measurements have also been made in 173 normal muscles. The laser used was a diode laser emitting at 830nm and a pulse generator modulated the laser radiation to a low repetition frequency of 84Hz. While passing through the denervated muscles, the incoming laser beam gets a frequency shift due to the contraction of the denervated muscle fibers and mixes with the ballistic part of the beam. To analyze the inherent information the outcoming laser light was transformed into electric current by a photodiode and the signal after being selected by an A/D card was submitted to the Fast Fourrier transformation. The findings of our suggested method have been compared to those of the normal muscles as well as to the electromyographic findings of each denervated muscle.

Stambouli, Despoina; Filippidis, George; Papazoglou, Theodore G.; Stamboulis, Eleftherios; Siafakas, Alexandros; Fotakis, Constantinos

2003-10-01

11

Australia's earliest planispheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Australia's earliest-known planispheres were made by a Sydney amateur astronomer named George Butterfield in 1870 and 1877, although a similar but more crudely-made 'noctural dial' was created by Philip Parker King in 1852. This paper discusses these pioneering endeavours, other nineteenth century attempts to popularise astronomy, and the prevailing astronomical climate in Australia at that time.

Orchiston, W.

2003-12-01

12

The earliest known reptile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AMNIOTES (reptiles, birds and mammals) are distinguished from non-amniote tetrapods (amphibians) by the presence of complex embryonic membranes. One of these, the amnion, gives its name to the group. Very few skeletal characters distinguish amniotes from amphibians1, making it difficult to recognize early amniotes in the fossil record. The earliest amniote fossil identified so far is Hylonomus from the Westphalian (Upper Carboniferous) of Joggins, Nova Scotia2,3, (~300 Myr). I report here the discovery of a much earlier amniote skeleton from the Brigantian (Lower Carboniferous) of Scotland (~338 Myr) 4, which thus represents the earliest occurrence of amniotes in the fossil record. The specimen was collected from the East Kirkton Limestone, near Bathgate, West Lothian4-8, and is part of a unique terrestrial fauna that includes eurypterids, myriapods, scorpions and the earliest-known harvestman spider7,9, together with the earliest known temno-spondyls, a group that may include the ancestors of all living amphibians10. It will make an important contribution to our knowledge of early amniote morphology and the interrelationships of tetrapods.

Smithson, T. R.

1989-12-01

13

Abnormal Policy Detection and Correction Using Overlapping Transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Policy in security devices such as firewalls and Network Intrusion Prevention Systems (NIPS) is usually implemented as a sequence of rules. This allows network packets to proceed or to be discarded based on rule's decision. Since attack methods are increasing rapidly, a huge number of security rules are generated and maintained in security devices. Under attack or during heavy traffic, the policy configured wrong creates security holes and prevents the system from deciding quickly whether to allow or deny a packet. Anomalies between the rules occur when there is overlap among the rules. In this paper, we propose a new method to detect anomalies among rules and generate new rules without configuration error in multiple security devices as well as in a single security device. The proposed method cuts the overlap regions among rules into minimum overlap regions and finds the abnormal domain regions of rules' predicates. Classifying rules by the network traffic flow, the proposed method not only reduces computation overhead but blocks unnecessary traffic among distributed devices.

Kim, Sunghyun; Lee, Heejo

14

Earliest Math Symbols  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, maintained by a teacher at Gulf High School in New Port Richey, Fla., reviews the Earliest Uses of Various Mathematical Symbols. Listed here are the names and information for the first individuals to use some common mathematical symbols, including symbols of operation, grouping symbols, symbols of relation, and symbols used in geometry, trigonometry, calculus, probability, number theory, and logic. The main source used for the information provided is a book by Florian Cajori entitled A History of Mathematical Notations. Links to other pages on topics in mathematics history are also provided.

15

Modeling and analysis of abnormality detection in biomolecular nano-networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

a b s t r a c t A scheme for detection of abnormality in molecular nano-networks is proposed. This is motivated by the fact that early diagnosis, classification and detection of diseases such as cancer play a crucial role in their successful treatment. The proposed nano-abnormality detection scheme (NADS) comprises of a two-tier network of sensor nano-machines (SNMs) in

Siavash Ghavami; Farshad Lahouti; Ali Masoudi-Nejad

2012-01-01

16

Detecting Thalamic Abnormalities in Autism Using Cylinder Conformal Mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of studies have documented that autism has a neurobiological basis, but the anatomical extent of these neurobiological\\u000a abnormalities is largely unknown. In this paper, we applied advanced computational techniques to extract 3D surface models\\u000a of the thalamus and subsequently analyze highly localized shape variations in a homogeneous group of autism children. In particular,\\u000a a new conformal parameterization for

Qing He; Ye Duan; Xiaotian Yin; Xianfeng Gu; Kevin Karsch; Judith Miles

2008-01-01

17

Method to detect cardiac abnormalities based on electrocardiography and sinoatrial pacemaker model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new method for detecting cardiac abnormalities (bradycardia and tachycardia) is proposed. Based on the YNI (Yanagihara, Noma, and Irisawa) model to analyze the pole-zero characteristics of the phase error between abnormal electrocardiography (ECG) and entrained YNI-response, it develops a diagnostic pacemaker system that can replace multiple sensors. The work derives for the first time the thresholds

Wei Vivien Shi; Timothy N. Chang; MengChu Zhou

2010-01-01

18

Using novelty detection to identify abnormalities caused by mean shifts in bivariate processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-random (abnormal) behaviour indicates that a process is under the influence of special causes of variation. Detection of abnormal patterns is well established in univariate statistical process control (SPC). Various solutions including heuristics, traditional computer programming, expert systems and neural networks (NNs) have been successfully implemented. In multivariate SPC (MSPC), on the other hand, there is a clear need for

F. Zorriassatine; J. D. T. Tannock; C. O'Brien

2003-01-01

19

Vision Analysis in Detecting Abnormal Breathing Activity in application to Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnoea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognizing abnormal breathing activity from body movement is a challenging task in machine vision. In this paper, we present a non-intrusive automatic video monitoring technique for detecting abnormal breathing activities and assisting in diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnoea. The proposed technique utilizes infrared video information and avoids imposing geometric or positional constraints on the patient. The technique also deals with

Ching Wei Wang; Amr Ahmed; Andrew Hunter

2006-01-01

20

Evaluation of routine prenatal ultrasound examination in detecting fetal chromosomal abnormalities in a low risk population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prenatal diagnosis performed by fetal ultrasound scan is now a routine part of antenatal care in many countries. We have used our registry of congenital malformations to determine how many fetal anomalies and consequently how many chromosomal abnormalities are detected by this procedure. In our region, evaluation of prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities in women of 38 years and younger

Claude Stoll; Béatrice Dott; Yves Alembik; Marie-Paule Roth

1993-01-01

21

Using State Estimation Residuals to Detect Abnormal SCADA Data  

SciTech Connect

Detection of manipulated supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) data is critically important for the safe and secure operation of modern power systems. In this paper, a methodology of detecting manipulated SCADA data based on state estimation residuals is presented. A framework of the proposed methodology is described. Instead of using original SCADA measurements as the bad data sources, the residuals calculated based on the results of the state estimator are used as the input for the outlier detection process. The BACON algorithm is applied to detect outliers in the state estimation residuals. The IEEE 118-bus system is used as a test case to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. The accuracy of the BACON method is compared with that of the 3-? method for the simulated SCADA measurements and residuals.

Ma, Jian; Chen, Yousu; Huang, Zhenyu; Wong, Pak C.

2010-06-14

22

Toward the detection of abnormal chest radiographs the way radiologists do it  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computer Aided Detection (CADe) and Computer Aided Diagnosis (CADx) are relatively recent areas of research that attempt to employ feature extraction, pattern recognition, and machine learning algorithms to aid radiologists in detecting and diagnosing abnormalities in medical images. However, these computational methods are based on the assumption that there are distinct classes of abnormalities, and that each class has some distinguishing features that set it apart from other classes. However, abnormalities in chest radiographs tend to be very heterogeneous. The literature suggests that thoracic (chest) radiologists develop their ability to detect abnormalities by developing a sense of what is normal, so that anything that is abnormal attracts their attention. This paper discusses an approach to CADe that is based on a technique called anomaly detection (which aims to detect outliers in data sets) for the purpose of detecting atypical regions in chest radiographs. However, in order to apply anomaly detection to chest radiographs, it is necessary to develop a basis for extracting features from corresponding anatomical locations in different chest radiographs. This paper proposes a method for doing this, and describes how it can be used to support CADe.

Alzubaidi, Mohammad; Patel, Ameet; Panchanathan, Sethuraman; Black, John A., Jr.

2011-03-01

23

Computer-assisted Analysis Helps Detect Inner Dynein Arm Abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

dynein arms, 13 absence of inner dynein arms). We developed computer-assisted analysis of electron microscopic micrographs to and commonest axonemal defect detected in patients with improve inner dynein arm visualization. Computer-assisted analysis primary ciliary dyskinesia concerns dynein arms, which con- consisted of image transformations designed to enhance the signal\\/ tain ATPase activity essential for ciliary motion (3). Inner, noise ratio,

Estelle Escudier; Michel Couprie; Benedicte Duriez; Marie-Claude Millepied; Virginie Pruliere-Escabasse; Laurent Labatte

24

Use Cases for Abnormal Behaviour Detection in Smart Homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a While people have many ideas about how a smart home should react to particular behaviours from their inhabitant, there seems\\u000a to have been relatively little attempt to organise this systematically. In this paper, we attempt to rectify this in consideration\\u000a of context awareness and novelty detection for a smart home that monitors its inhabitant for illness and unexpected behaviour.\\u000a We

An C. Tran; Stephen Marsland; Jens Dietrich; Hans W. Guesgen; Paul Lyons

2010-01-01

25

Detection of DTI White Matter Abnormalities in Multiple Sclerosis Patients  

PubMed Central

The emergence of new modalities such as Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) is of great interest for the characterization and the temporal study of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). DTI indeed gives information on water diffusion within tissues and could therefore reveal alterations in white matter fibers before being visible in conventional MRI. However, recent studies generally rely on scalar measures derived from the tensors such as FA or MD instead of using the full tensor itself. Therefore, a certain amount of information is left unused. In this article, we present a framework to study the benefits of using the whole diffusion tensor information to detect statistically significant differences between each individual MS patient and a database of control subjects. This framework, based on the comparison of the MS patient DTI and a mean DTI atlas built from the control subjects, allows us to look for differences both in normally appearing white matter but also in and around the lesions of each patient. We present a study on a database of 11 MS patients, showing the ability of the DTI to detect not only significant differences on the lesions but also in regions around them, enabling an early detection of an extension of the MS disease.

Commowick, Olivier; Fillard, Pierre; Clatz, Olivier; Warfield, Simon K.

2008-01-01

26

Zone-based analysis for automated detection of abnormalities in chest radiographs  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop an automated method for detection of local texture-based and density-based abnormalities in chest radiographs. Methods: The method was based on profile analysis to detect abnormalities in chest radiographs. In the method, one density-based feature, Density Symmetry Index, and two texture-based features, Roughness Maximum Index and Roughness Symmetry Index, were used to detect abnormalities in the lung fields. In each chest radiograph, the lung fields were divided into four zones initially and then the method was applied to each zone separately. For each zone, Density Symmetry Index was obtained from the projection profile of each zone, and Roughness Maximum Index and Roughness Symmetry Index were obtained by measuring the roughness of the horizontal profiles via moving average technique. Linear discriminant analysis was used to classify normal and abnormal cases based on the three indices. The discriminant performance of the method was evaluated using ROC analysis. Results: The method was evaluated on a database of 250 normal and 250 abnormal chest images. In the optimized conditions, the zone-based performance Az of the method for zones 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 0.917, 0.897, 0.892, and 0.814, respectively, and the case-based performance Az of the method was 0.842. Our previous method for detection of gross abnormalities was also evaluated on the same database. The case-based performance of our previous method was 0.689. Conclusions: In comparing the previous method and the new method proposed in this study, there was a great improvement by the new method for detection of local texture-based and density-based abnormalities. The new method combined with the previous one has potential for screening abnormalities in chest radiographs.

Kao, E-Fong; Kuo, Yu-Ting; Hsu, Jui-Sheng; Chou, Ming-Chung; Liu, Gin-Chung [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. (China); Department of Medical Imaging, Kaohsiung Medical University Chung-Ho Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging, Kaohsiung Medical University Chung-Ho Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

2011-07-15

27

Abnormal Markers Detection in Motion Capture System Based on the Revised L^2 Depth  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a method based on the revised ?? 2 depth to detect the abnormal markers in the motion capture system. Firstly, we propose the definition of the revised ?? 2 depth, and the algorithm of the depth is also presented. Secondly, the algorithm of detection using the derivatives of the markers' trajectories is discussed. The results

Jun Wang; Chongzhao Han; Yonggang Hu; Xiaoming Zhou

2011-01-01

28

An observer study methodology for evaluating detection of motion abnormalities in gated myocardial perfusion SPECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

To address the task of detecting nonischemic motion abnormalities from animated displays of gated myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography data, we performed an observer study to evaluate the difference in detection performance between gating to 8 and 16 frames. Images were created from the NCAT mathematical phantom with a realistic heart simulating hypokinetic motion in the left lateral

David S. Lalush; Megan K. Jatko; W. Paul Segars

2005-01-01

29

Visual Sensor Based Abnormal Event Detection with Moving Shadow Removal in Home Healthcare Applications  

PubMed Central

Vision-based abnormal event detection for home healthcare systems can be greatly improved using visual sensor-based techniques able to detect, track and recognize objects in the scene. However, in moving object detection and tracking processes, moving cast shadows can be misclassified as part of objects or moving objects. Shadow removal is an essential step for developing video surveillance systems. The goal of the primary is to design novel computer vision techniques that can extract objects more accurately and discriminate between abnormal and normal activities. To improve the accuracy of object detection and tracking, our proposed shadow removal algorithm is employed. Abnormal event detection based on visual sensor by using shape features variation and 3-D trajectory is presented to overcome the low fall detection rate. The experimental results showed that the success rate of detecting abnormal events was 97% with a false positive rate of 2%. Our proposed algorithm can allow distinguishing diverse fall activities such as forward falls, backward falls, and falling asides from normal activities.

Lee, Young-Sook; Chung, Wan-Young

2012-01-01

30

Visual sensor based abnormal event detection with moving shadow removal in home healthcare applications.  

PubMed

Vision-based abnormal event detection for home healthcare systems can be greatly improved using visual sensor-based techniques able to detect, track and recognize objects in the scene. However, in moving object detection and tracking processes, moving cast shadows can be misclassified as part of objects or moving objects. Shadow removal is an essential step for developing video surveillance systems. The goal of the primary is to design novel computer vision techniques that can extract objects more accurately and discriminate between abnormal and normal activities. To improve the accuracy of object detection and tracking, our proposed shadow removal algorithm is employed. Abnormal event detection based on visual sensor by using shape features variation and 3-D trajectory is presented to overcome the low fall detection rate. The experimental results showed that the success rate of detecting abnormal events was 97% with a false positive rate of 2%. Our proposed algorithm can allow distinguishing diverse fall activities such as forward falls, backward falls, and falling asides from normal activities. PMID:22368486

Lee, Young-Sook; Chung, Wan-Young

2012-01-05

31

Projection profile analysis for automated detection of abnormalities in chest radiographs  

SciTech Connect

Abnormalities in chest images often present as abnormal opacity or abnormal asymmetry. We have developed a novel method for automated detection of abnormalities in chest radiographs by use of these features. Our method is based on an analysis of the projection profile obtained by projecting the pixels data of a frontal chest image on to the mediolateral axis. Two indices, lung opacity index and lung symmetry index, are computed from the projection profile. Lung opacity index and lung symmetry index are then combined to detect gross abnormalities in chest radiographs. The values of lung opacity index are found to be 0.38{+-}0.05 and 0.37{+-}0.06 for normal right and left lung, respectively. The values of lung symmetry index are found to be 0.018{+-}0.014 for normal chest images. The discrimination for the combination of the two indices is evaluated by linear discriminant analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Area A{sub z} under the ROC curve with the combination of the two indices in the classification of normal and abnormal chest images is 0.963.

Kao, E-F.; Lee, C.; Hsu, J.-S.; Jaw, T.-S.; Liu, G.-C. [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung (China); Department of Medical Imaging, Kaohsiung Medical University Chung-Ho Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

2006-01-15

32

Multi-complexity measures for early detection and monitoring of neurological abnormalities from gait time series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, we have proposed to use complementary complexity measures discovered by boosting-like ensemble learning for the enhancement of quantitative indicators dealing with necessarily short physiological time series. We have confirmed robustness of such multi-complexity measures for heart rate variability analysis with the emphasis on detection of emerging and intermittent cardiac abnormalities. Here we demonstrate that such ensemble-based approach could be also effective in discovering universal meta-indicators for early detection and convenient monitoring of neurological abnormalities using gait time series.

Gavrishchaka, Valeriy; Davis, Kristina; Senyukova, Olga

2013-10-01

33

Abnormal Contextual Modulation of Visual Contour Detection in Patients with Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia patients demonstrate perceptual deficits consistent with broad dysfunction in visual context processing. These include poor integration of segments forming visual contours, and reduced visual contrast effects (e.g. weaker orientation-dependent surround suppression, ODSS). Background image context can influence contour perception, as stimuli near the contour affect detection accuracy. Because of ODSS, this contextual modulation depends on the relative orientation between the contour and flanking elements, with parallel flankers impairing contour perception. However in schizophrenia, the impact of abnormal ODSS during contour perception is not clear. It is also unknown whether deficient contour perception marks genetic liability for schizophrenia, or is strictly associated with clinical expression of this disorder. We examined contour detection in 25 adults with schizophrenia, 13 unaffected first-degree biological relatives of schizophrenia patients, and 28 healthy controls. Subjects performed a psychophysics experiment designed to quantify the effect of flanker orientation during contour detection. Overall, patients with schizophrenia showed poorer contour detection performance than relatives or controls. Parallel flankers suppressed and orthogonal flankers enhanced contour detection performance for all groups, but parallel suppression was relatively weaker for schizophrenia patients than healthy controls. Relatives of patients showed equivalent performance with controls. Computational modeling suggested that abnormal contextual modulation in schizophrenia may be explained by suppression that is more broadly tuned for orientation. Abnormal flanker suppression in schizophrenia is consistent with weaker ODSS and/or broader orientation tuning. This work provides the first evidence that such perceptual abnormalities may not be associated with a genetic liability for schizophrenia.

Schallmo, Michael-Paul; Sponheim, Scott R.; Olman, Cheryl A.

2013-01-01

34

Geological constraints on detecting the earliest life on Earth: a perspective from the Early Archaean (older than 3.7 Gyr) of southwest Greenland  

PubMed Central

At greater than 3.7?Gyr, Earth's oldest known supracrustal rocks, comprised dominantly of mafic igneous with less common sedimentary units including banded iron formation (BIF), are exposed in southwest Greenland. Regionally, they were intruded by younger tonalites, and then both were intensely dynamothermally metamorphosed to granulite facies (the highest pressures and temperatures generally encountered in the Earth's crust during metamorphism) in the Archaean and subsequently at lower grades until about 1500?Myr ago. Claims for the first preserved life on Earth have been based on the occurrence of greater than 3.8?Gyr isotopically light C occurring as graphite inclusions within apatite crystals from a 5?m thick purported BIF on the island of Akilia. Detailed geologic mapping and observations there indicate that the banding, first claimed to be depositional, is clearly deformational in origin. Furthermore, the mineralogy of the supposed BIF, being dominated by pyroxene, amphibole and quartz, is unlike well-known BIF from the Isua Greenstone Belt (IGB), but resembles enclosing mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks modified by metasomatism and repeated metamorphic recrystallization. This scenario parsimoniously links the geology, whole-rock geochemistry, 2.7?Gyr single crystal zircon ages in the unit, an approximately 1500?Myr age for apatites that lack any graphite, non-MIF sulphur isotopes in the unit and an inconclusive Fe isotope signature. Although both putative body fossils and carbon-12 enriched isotopes in graphite described at Isua are better explained by abiotic processes, more fruitful targets for examining the earliest stages in the emergence of life remain within greater than 3.7?Gyr IGB, which preserves BIF and other rocks that unambiguously formed at Earth's surface.

Fedo, Christopher M; Whitehouse, Martin J; Kamber, Balz S

2006-01-01

35

The earliest known sauropod dinosaur  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sauropods were a very successful group of dinosaurs during the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, but their earlier history is poorly known. Until now, the earliest reported sauropod bones were from the Early Jurassic, and the only tentative evidence of earlier sauropods was in the form of controversial footprints. Here we report the discovery of an incomplete sauropod skeleton from the

Eric Buffetaut; Varavudh Suteethorn; Gilles Cuny; Haiyan Tong; Jean Le Loeuff; Sasidhorn Khansubha; Sutee Jongautchariyakul

2000-01-01

36

New Methodology for Analysis and Diagnosis of Sympathetic Interaction of Inrush Currents in Power Transformers for Detecting Abnormal Operating Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a methodology for fast detection and identification of abnormal conditions in electrical systems. Modeling and simulation of most common operations of the system are simulated to create a database containing several patterns of performance under different abnormal operation conditions. The methodology has been tested to identify abnormal operating condition caused by sympathetic interaction of inrush currents in

J. San Martin; J. Pontt; J. Rodriguez; J. Dixon

2007-01-01

37

Effectiveness of routine ultrasonography in detecting fetal structural abnormalities in a low risk population.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To review the efficacy of routine prenatal ultrasonography for detecting fetal structural abnormalities. DESIGN--Retrospective study of the ultrasonographic findings and outcome of all pregnancies in women scanned in 1988-9. SETTING--Maternity ultrasonography department of a district general hospital. SUBJECTS--8785 fetuses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Correlation of prenatal ultrasonographic findings with outcome in the neonate. RESULTS--8733 babies were born during 1988-9, and 52 pregnancies were terminated after a fetal malformation was identified. 8432 (95%) of the fetuses were examined by ultrasonography in the second trimester. 130 fetuses (1.5%) were found to have an abnormality at birth or after termination of pregnancy, 125 of which had been examined in the second trimester. In 93 cases the abnormality was detected before 24 weeks (sensitivity 74.4%, 95% confidence interval to 66.7% to 82.1%. Two false positive diagnoses occurred, in both cases the pregnancies were not terminated and apparently normal infants were born. This gives a specificity of 99.98% (99.9% to 99.99%). The positive predictive value of ultrasonography in the second trimester was 97.9% (92.6% to 99.7%). Of the 125 abnormalities, 87 were lethal or severely disabling; 72 of the 87 were detected by the routine screening programme (sensitivity 82.8%, 73.2% to 90.0%). CONCLUSION--Routine fetal examination by ultrasonography in a low risk population detects many fetal structural abnormalities but can present several dilemmas in counselling.

Chitty, L S; Hunt, G H; Moore, J; Lobb, M O

1991-01-01

38

Comparative genomic hybridization in the detection of DNA copy number abnormalities in uveal melanoma.  

PubMed

Genomic instability appears to play an important role in the development, growth, invasiveness, and eventual metastasis of the neoplastic cell. We have used a powerful new technique, comparative genomic hybridization, to evaluate genetic alterations in 10 fresh frozen uveal melanomas. Comparative genomic hybridization utilizes dual fluorescence in situ hybridization to characterize chromosome deletions and duplications, allowing for simultaneous evaluation of the entire human genome. Several consistent chromosomal abnormalities were detected. This study confirmed previous findings obtained using standard cytogenetic techniques but demonstrated an increased incidence in abnormalities of chromosomes 3 and 8; there was loss of chromosome 3 and duplication of 8q. In addition, we identified, although less frequently, other recurrent abnormal regions including alterations on chromosomes 6p, 7q, 9p, and 13q. PMID:8062277

Gordon, K B; Thompson, C T; Char, D H; O'Brien, J M; Kroll, S; Ghazvini, S; Gray, J W

1994-09-01

39

Abnormal pixel detection using sum-of-projections symmetry in cone beam computed tomography.  

PubMed

A novel abnormal pixels (APs) detection approach is proposed to remove artefacts from reconstructed images in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). This approach is based on the symmetry detection of sum-of-projections (SOP). Because some factors affect the SOP symmetry, we combine dyadic wavelet transform-based singularity detection to extract the APs. Next, the Laplacian solution (LS) method is employed to restore the APs in each projection image. Experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of our approach for different imaging tasks. PMID:22565724

Yang, Xiaoquan; Meng, Yuanzheng; Gong, Hui; Deng, Yong; Luo, Qingming

2012-05-01

40

Gastrointestinal transit abnormalities are frequently detected in patients with unexplained GI symptoms at a tertiary centre.  

PubMed

The aim of this prospective study was to analyse the yield and utility of a gastrointestinal (GI) transit measurement procedure in clinical practice. Patients referred by gastroenterologists to a tertiary centre for detailed transit measurements were prospectively included. All together 243 patients were enrolled. Body mass index was recorded. The patients were categorized according to the predominant symptom into five groups: diarrhoea, constipation, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. The patients recorded their bowel movements and GI symptoms daily during the week before the transit measurement. Percentiles 5 and 95 of the transit values in 83 healthy subjects served as reference values. Widespread abnormalities were found in the five patient groups and 63% of the patients had at least one transit abnormality. The abnormalities were more frequent in men compared with women. Patients with underweight had more motility disturbances compared with other patients. In male and female patients with vomiting a significant delay of transit in the ascending colon was observed compared with healthy subjects. Large-scale transit measurements frequently detect transit abnormalities in clinical practice and may elucidate the relationship between some GI symptoms and abnormal motility. PMID:17999649

Sadik, R; Stotzer, P-O; Simrén, M; Abrahamsson, H

2007-11-05

41

Detection of chromosomal abnormalities of chromosome 12 in uterine leiomyoma using fluorescence in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

Fifty uterine leiomyomas were examined using conventional cytogenetic method and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for detection of chromosomal abnormalities of chromosome 12. Of the 50 tumors, nine were examined using FISH on the non-cultured samples. Two (4.0%) of 50 tumor samples examined showed chromosomal abnormalities of chromosome 12 by the conventional cytogenetic analysis. For FISH, the whole-chromosome painting probe and D12Z3 probe specific for the centromeric region were used. Of the 50 cultured samples, 10 showed structural aberrations and four showed numerical aberrations of chromosome 12 by FISH analysis. Of the nine non-cultured samples, four showed structural abnormalities of chromosome 12, all of which also showed structural abnormalities of chromosome 12 on the cultured samples. These results indicate that chromosomal abnormalities of chromosome 12 are important in the biology of at least some types of uterine leiomyoma, and that FISH is a useful complement to the conventional cytogenetic analysis in the study of solid tumors. PMID:8914635

Hayashi, S; Miharu, N; Okamoto, E; Samura, O; Hara, T; Ohama, K

1996-03-01

42

Application of the dc-Exponent Method for Abnormal Pressure Detection in Ahwaz Oil Field: A Comparative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are different methods for detection of abnormal pressure during drilling; one of these methods is the dc-exponent method. In this research, the applicability of the dc-exponent method is investigated for the detection of abnormal pressure zones in Ahwaz oil field in Iran.Two procedures exist to calculate the amount of abnormal pressure from dc-exponent data: the Rehm-McClendon and Zamora methods.

M. Shajari; H. Najibi

2012-01-01

43

Earliest recorded ground-based decameter wavelength observations of Saturn's lightning during the giant E-storm detected by Cassini spacecraft in early 2006  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the history of the first recorded ground-based radio detection of Saturn's lightning using the Ukrainian UTR-2 radiotelescope at frequencies from 20 to 25 MHz. The observations were performed between 29 January and 3 February 2006, during which lighting activity (E-storm) on Saturn was detected by the radio experiment onboard Cassini spacecraft. The minimum detectable flux density (1?-level) at UTR-2 reached 40 Jy (1Jy=10-26WmHz) for narrowband observations (?f=10kHz) and 4 Jy for broadband observations (?f=1MHz), for an effective telescope area of ?100,000m and integration time of 20 ms. Selection criteria including comparison of simultaneous ON/OFF-source observations were applied to distinguish detection of lightning-associated radio pulses from interference. This allowed us to identify about 70 events with signal-to-noise ratio more than 5. Measured flux densities (between 50 and 700 Jy) and burst durations (between 60 and 220 ms) are in good agreement with extrapolation of previous Cassini measurements to a ground-based observer. This first detection demonstrates the possibility of Solar System planetary lightning studies using large, present and future ground-based radio instruments. The developed methods of observations and identification criteria are also implemented on the UTR-2 radio telescope for the investigation of the next Saturn's storms. Together with recently published UTR-2 measurements of activity measured after the 2006 storm reported here, the results have significant implications for detectable planetary radio emission in our Solar System and beyond.

Konovalenko, A. A.; Kalinichenko, N. N.; Rucker, H. O.; Lecacheux, A.; Fischer, G.; Zarka, P.; Zakharenko, V. V.; Mylostna, K. Y.; Grießmeier, J.-M.; Abranin, E. P.; Falkovich, I. S.; Sidorchuk, K. M.; Kurth, W. S.; Kaiser, M. L.; Gurnett, D. A.

2013-05-01

44

Detection of Chromosome Abnormalities by Quantitative Fluorescent PCR in Ectopic Pregnancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the potential value of quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) in the detection of chromosome abnormalities in ectopic pregnancies. Methods: Seventy chorionic villi samples of ectopic pregnancies were studied by QF-PCR. Primers for chromosomes 16, 21, X and Y in chorionic villi were evaluated. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed when results of QF-PCR showed aneuploidy,

Mariette Goddijn; Marja van Stralen; Heleen Schuring-Blom; Bert Redeker; Liesbeth van Leeuwen; Sjoerd Repping; Nico Leschot; Fulco van der Veen

2005-01-01

45

Effectiveness of routine ultrasonography in detecting fetal structural abnormalities in a low risk population  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To review the efficacy of routine prenatal ultrasonography for detecting fetal structural abnormalities. DESIGN--Retrospective study of the ultrasonographic findings and outcome of all pregnancies in women scanned in 1988-9. SETTING--Maternity ultrasonography department of a district general hospital. SUBJECTS--8785 fetuses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Correlation of prenatal ultrasonographic findings with outcome in the neonate. RESULTS--8733 babies were born during 1988-9, and 52 pregnancies

L S Chitty; G H Hunt; J Moore; M O Lobb

1991-01-01

46

Compensatory fuzzy neural networks-based intelligent detection of abnormal neonatal cerebral Doppler ultrasound waveforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract, Compensatory fuzzy neural networks (CFNN) without normalization, which can be trained with a backpropa-gation learning algorithm, is proposed as a pattern recognition technique for intelligent detection of Doppler ultrasound wave-forms of abnormal neonatal cerebral hemodynamics. Doppler ultrasound signals were recorded from the anterior cerebral arteries of 40 normal full-term babies and 14 mature babies with intracranial pathology. The features

Huseyin Seker; David H. Evans; Nizamettin Aydin; Ertugrul Yazgan

2001-01-01

47

Regional Heart Motion Abnormality Detection via Information Measures and Unscented Kalman Filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This study investigates regional heart motion abnormality detection using various classifier features with Shannon’s Differential\\u000a Entropy (SDE). Rather than relying on elementary measurements or a fixed set of moments, the SDE measures global distribution\\u000a information and, as such, has more discriminative power in classifying distributions. Based on functional images, which are\\u000a subject to noise and segmentation inaccuracies, heart wall motion

Kumaradevan Punithakumar; Ismail Ben Ayed; Ali Islam; Ian G. Ross; Shuo Li

2010-01-01

48

Features of chromosomal abnormalities in spontaneous abortion cell culture failures detected by interphase FISH analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytogenetic analysis of reproductive wastage is an important stage in understanding the genetic background of early embryogenesis. The results of conventional cytogenetic studies of spontaneous abortions depend on tissue culturing and are associated with a significant cell culture failure rate. We performed interphase dual-colour FISH analysis to detect chromosomal abnormalities in noncultured cells from two different tissues–cytotrophoblast and extraembryonic mesoderm–of

Igor N Lebedev; Nadezhda V Ostroverkhova; Tatyana V Nikitina; Natalia N Sukhanova; Sergey A Nazarenko

2004-01-01

49

The earliest known sauropod dinosaur.  

PubMed

Sauropods were a very successful group of dinosaurs during the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, but their earlier history is poorly known. Until now, the earliest reported sauropod bones were from the Early Jurassic, and the only tentative evidence of earlier sauropods was in the form of controversial footprints. Here we report the discovery of an incomplete sauropod skeleton from the Late Triassic period of Thailand, which provides the first osteological evidence of pre-Jurassic sauropods. This dinosaur is markedly different from prosauropods and substantiates theoretical predictions that there was a fairly long period of sauropod evolution during the Triassic. PMID:10993074

Buffetaut, E; Suteethorn, V; Cuny, G; Tong, H; Le Loeuff, J; Khansubha, S; Jongautchariyakul, S

2000-09-01

50

Automatic detection of abnormal breast thermograms using asymmetry analysis of texture features.  

PubMed

Thermography is a non-invasive imaging modality that represents surface temperature variations of the skin in the form of images called thermograms. The surface temperature around the area of cancerous cells is slightly higher than normal tissues and this area is seen as hot spots on thermograms. In normal breast thermograms, symmetric heat patterns are observed in both breasts, but in the case of unilateral abnormality, asymmetry is observed. As the intensity variations in thermograms represent surface temperature changes, texture features that would enhance thermal asymmetry, between right and left breasts, have been studied. The texture features are extracted from the breast region and fed to a back propagation neural network for automatic detection of abnormal breast thermograms. The classifier is able to classify abnormal and normal thermograms with an accuracy of 85.19%. From the results of the study, it is inferred that thermography has the potential to detect breast cancer and can be used as an adjunct tool to mammography. PMID:23194447

Francis, Sheeja V; Sasikala, M

2012-11-30

51

Detecting abnormal vehicular dynamics at intersections based on an unsupervised learning approach and a stochastic model.  

PubMed

This investigation demonstrates an unsupervised approach for modeling traffic flow and detecting abnormal vehicle behaviors at intersections. In the first stage, the approach reveals and records the different states of the system. These states are the result of coding and grouping the historical motion of vehicles as long binary strings. In the second stage, using sequences of the recorded states, a stochastic graph model based on a Markovian approach is built. A behavior is labeled abnormal when current motion pattern cannot be recognized as any state of the system or a particular sequence of states cannot be parsed with the stochastic model. The approach is tested with several sequences of images acquired from a vehicular intersection where the traffic flow and duration used in connection with the traffic lights are continuously changed throughout the day. Finally, the low complexity and the flexibility of the approach make it reliable for use in real time systems. PMID:22163616

Jiménez-Hernández, Hugo; González-Barbosa, Jose-Joel; Garcia-Ramírez, Teresa

2010-08-11

52

Detecting Abnormal Vehicular Dynamics at Intersections Based on an Unsupervised Learning Approach and a Stochastic Model  

PubMed Central

This investigation demonstrates an unsupervised approach for modeling traffic flow and detecting abnormal vehicle behaviors at intersections. In the first stage, the approach reveals and records the different states of the system. These states are the result of coding and grouping the historical motion of vehicles as long binary strings. In the second stage, using sequences of the recorded states, a stochastic graph model based on a Markovian approach is built. A behavior is labeled abnormal when current motion pattern cannot be recognized as any state of the system or a particular sequence of states cannot be parsed with the stochastic model. The approach is tested with several sequences of images acquired from a vehicular intersection where the traffic flow and duration used in connection with the traffic lights are continuously changed throughout the day. Finally, the low complexity and the flexibility of the approach make it reliable for use in real time systems.

Jimenez-Hernandez, Hugo; Gonzalez-Barbosa, Jose-Joel; Garcia-Ramirez, Teresa

2010-01-01

53

Role of HRCT in detection and characterization of pulmonary abnormalities in patients with febrile neutropenia  

PubMed Central

Background: Fever is of grave concern in the management of patients with neutropenia with early detection of a focus of infection being the major goal. As lungs are the most common focus, chest imaging is of vital importance. This Institute Review Board approved prospective study was undertaken to assess the usefulness of high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in early detection and characterization of pulmonary abnormalities in febrile neutropenia. Materials and Methods: A total of 104 consecutive patients (M:F:75:29, age range 11–66 years) with fever of 38.2°C or more with an absolute neutrophil count <500/?l underwent HRCT chest. HRCT diagnosis was compared with final diagnosis based on ancillary investigations. Results: HRCT could detect pulmonary abnormalities in 93 patients (89.4%) with air space consolidation being the predominant finding (n = 57), followed by ground-glass opacities (Ground glass opacity (GGO), n = 49) and nodules (n = 39). HRCT could correctly characterize the infective lesions in 76 patients (81.7%). Presence of random or pleural-based nodules >10 mm with or without surrounding GGO or cavitations was sensitive (95.23%) and specific (96.7%) for fungal infection, while small (1–4 mm) random or centrilobular nodules with tree-in-bud appearance was sensitive (90%) and highly specific (97.02%) for tuberculosis. Diagnosis of pyogenic infection based on presence of air-space consolidation, pleural effusion, GGO or centrilobular nodules showed a sensitivity of 84.78% and specificity of 93.84%, whereas patchy or diffuse GGO, interstitial thickening and/or air-space consolidation showed high sensitivity (86.7%) and specificity (96.8%) for Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia. Conclusion: HRCT chest is an excellent modality in the diagnostic work-up of patients with febrile neutropenia allowing early detection and characterization of pulmonary abnormalities.

Kang, Mandeep; Deoghuria, Debasis; Varma, Subash; Gupta, Dheeraj; Bhatia, Anmol; Khandelwal, Niranjan

2013-01-01

54

[Cytogenetic Abnormalities of 50 MDS Patients by FISH Detection and Conventional Karyotype Analysis].  

PubMed

This study was purposed to compare detectable rate of cytogenetic abnormalities including -5/5q-, -7/7q-, 20q-,+8, and -Y in MDS by FISH and metaphase cytogenetics, and to investigate the relationship between cytogenetic abnormalities and progression from MDS to acute leukemia. Metaphase cytogenetics and FISH testing for -5/5q-, -7/7q-, 20q-,+8, and -Y were performed in 50 bone marrow samples obtained from patients with MDS diagnosed according to the WHO criteria (2008). Evolution from MDS to AML was followed up for each patient. The results showed that the cytogenetic abnormalities including -5/5q-, -7/7q-, 20q-,+8, and -Y were identified in 25(50%) of 50 by metaphase cytogenetics, and in 20(40%) of 50 by FISH. -5/5q-, 7/7q-, 20q- , +8, or -Y was identified by metaphase cytogenetics in 3(6%) of 50, 13(26%) of 50, 6(12%) of 50, 12 (24%) of 50, and 1 (2%) of 50, respectively, and by FISH in 3(6%) of 50, 10(20%) 0f 50, 3(6%) of 50, 10(20%) of 50, and 1 of 50 (2%), respectively. The detectable rate ranking was -7/7q- >+8>20q->-5/5q->-Y. 47 patients received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In the IPSS poor prognosis group, 6(46.2%)of 13 received transplantation before progression to acute leukemia. In the IPSS good prognosis group, 10(45.5% ) of 22 received transplantation before progression to acute leukemia. In the IPSS intermediate prognosis group, 2 (16.7%) of 12 received trans- plantation before progression to acute leukemia. The rate of progression to acute leukemia was 7.7% (1/13) in the IPSS poor prognosis group, 4.5% (1/22) in the IPSS good prognosis group, and 58.3% (7/12) in the IPSS intermediate prognosis group. The low rate of progression to acute leukemia in the IPSS poor prognosis group might be associated with the high rate of allogeneic hematopoietic stem transplantation. It is concluded that there is higher detectable rate for detecting a certain chromosome by FISH probe than that by metaphase cytogenetics, especially for detecting low clone chromosomal abnormalities and mitotic figures less than 20. There is no difference between IPSS good prognosis group and IPSS poor prognosis group in our study probably because of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:24156432

Gao, Dong-Ge; Li, Bo-Tao; Zhou, Li-Na; Chen, Hu; Zhang, Bin

2013-09-01

55

Radiologists' confidence in detecting abnormalities on chest images and their subjective judgments of image quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between subjective judgments of image quality for the performance of specific detection tasks and radiologists' confidence level in arriving at correct diagnoses was investigated in two studies in which 12 readers, using a total of three different display environments, interpreted a series of 300 PA chest images. The modalities used were conventional films, laser-printed films, and high-resolution CRT display of digitized images. For the detection of interstitial disease, nodules, and pneumothoraces, there was no statistically significant correlation (Spearman rho) between subjective ratings of quality and radiologists' confidence in detecting these abnormalities. However, in each study, for all modalities and all readers but one, a small but statistically significant correlation was found between the radiologists' ability to correctly and confidently rule out interstitial disease and their subjective ratings of image quality.

King, Jill L.; Gur, David; Rockette, Howard E.; Curtin, Hugh D.; Obuchowski, Nancy A.; Thaete, F. L.; Britton, Cynthia A.; Metz, Charles E.

1991-07-01

56

Noninvasive Detection of Fetal Subchromosome Abnormalities via Deep Sequencing of Maternal Plasma  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine the deep sequencing and analytic conditions needed to detect fetal subchromosome abnormalities across the genome from a maternal blood sample. Cell-free (cf) DNA was isolated from the plasma of 11 pregnant women carrying fetuses with subchromosomal duplications and deletions, translocations, mosaicism, and trisomy 20 diagnosed by metaphase karyotype. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) was performed with 25-mer tags at approximately 109 tags per sample and mapped to reference human genome assembly hg19. Tags were counted and normalized to fixed genome bin sizes of 1 Mb or 100 kb to detect statistically distinct copy-number changes compared to the reference. All seven cases of microdeletions, duplications, translocations, and the trisomy 20 were detected blindly by MPS, including a microdeletion as small as 300 kb. In two of these cases in which the metaphase karyotype showed additional material of unknown origin, MPS identified both the translocation breakpoint and the chromosomal origin of the additional material. In the four mosaic cases, the subchromosomal abnormality was not demonstrated by MPS. This work shows that in nonmosaic cases, it is possible to obtain a fetal molecular karyotype by MPS of maternal plasma cfDNA that is equivalent to a chromosome microarray and in some cases is better than a metaphase karyotype. This approach combines the advantage of enhanced fetal genomic resolution with the improved safety of a noninvasive maternal blood test.

Srinivasan, Anupama; Bianchi, Diana W.; Huang, Hui; Sehnert, Amy J.; Rava, Richard P.

2013-01-01

57

Noninvasive detection of fetal subchromosome abnormalities via deep sequencing of maternal plasma.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the deep sequencing and analytic conditions needed to detect fetal subchromosome abnormalities across the genome from a maternal blood sample. Cell-free (cf) DNA was isolated from the plasma of 11 pregnant women carrying fetuses with subchromosomal duplications and deletions, translocations, mosaicism, and trisomy 20 diagnosed by metaphase karyotype. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) was performed with 25-mer tags at approximately 10(9) tags per sample and mapped to reference human genome assembly hg19. Tags were counted and normalized to fixed genome bin sizes of 1 Mb or 100 kb to detect statistically distinct copy-number changes compared to the reference. All seven cases of microdeletions, duplications, translocations, and the trisomy 20 were detected blindly by MPS, including a microdeletion as small as 300 kb. In two of these cases in which the metaphase karyotype showed additional material of unknown origin, MPS identified both the translocation breakpoint and the chromosomal origin of the additional material. In the four mosaic cases, the subchromosomal abnormality was not demonstrated by MPS. This work shows that in nonmosaic cases, it is possible to obtain a fetal molecular karyotype by MPS of maternal plasma cfDNA that is equivalent to a chromosome microarray and in some cases is better than a metaphase karyotype. This approach combines the advantage of enhanced fetal genomic resolution with the improved safety of a noninvasive maternal blood test. PMID:23313373

Srinivasan, Anupama; Bianchi, Diana W; Huang, Hui; Sehnert, Amy J; Rava, Richard P

2013-01-10

58

Automatic detection system for cough sounds as a symptom of abnormal health condition.  

PubMed

The problem of attending to the health of the aged who live alone has became an important issue in developed countries. One way of solving the problem is to check their health condition by a remote-monitoring technique and support them with well-timed treatment. The purpose of this study is to develop an automatic system that can monitor a health condition in real time using acoustical information and detect an abnormal symptom. In this study, cough sound was chosen as a representative acoustical symptom of abnormal health conditions. For the development of the system distinguishing a cough sound from other environmental sounds, a hybrid model was proposed that consists of an artificial neural network (ANN) model and a hidden Markov model (HMM). The ANN model used energy cepstral coefficients obtained by filter banks based on human auditory characteristics as input parameters representing a spectral feature of a sound signal. Subsequently, an output of this ANN model and a filtered envelope of the signal were used for making an input sequence for the HMM that deals with the temporal variation of the sound signal. Compared with the conventional HMM using Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients, the proposed hybrid model improved recognition rates on low SNR from 5 dB down to -10 dB. Finally, a preliminary prototype of the automatic detection system was simply illustrated. PMID:19273017

Shin, Sung-Hwan; Hashimoto, Takeo; Hatano, Shigeko

2008-04-22

59

Detection of abnormal living patterns for elderly living alone using support vector data description.  

PubMed

In this study, we developed an automated behavior analysis system using infrared (IR) motion sensors to assist the independent living of the elderly who live alone and to improve the efficiency of their healthcare. An IR motion-sensor-based activity-monitoring system was installed in the houses of the elderly subjects to collect motion signals and three different feature values, activity level, mobility level, and nonresponse interval (NRI). These factors were calculated from the measured motion signals. The support vector data description (SVDD) method was used to classify normal behavior patterns and to detect abnormal behavioral patterns based on the aforementioned three feature values. The simulation data and real data were used to verify the proposed method in the individual analysis. A robust scheme is presented in this paper for optimally selecting the values of different parameters especially that of the scale parameter of the Gaussian kernel function involving in the training of the SVDD window length, T of the circadian rhythmic approach with the aim of applying the SVDD to the daily behavior patterns calculated over 24 h. Accuracies by positive predictive value (PPV) were 95.8% and 90.5% for the simulation and real data, respectively. The results suggest that the monitoring system utilizing the IR motion sensors and abnormal-behavior-pattern detection with SVDD are effective methods for home healthcare of elderly people living alone. PMID:21317086

Shin, Jae Hyuk; Lee, Boreom; Park, Kwang Suk

2011-02-10

60

Regional heart motion abnormality detection via information measures and unscented Kalman filtering.  

PubMed

This study investigates regional heart motion abnormality detection using various classifier features with Shannon's Differential Entropy (SDE). Rather than relying on elementary measurements or a fixed set of moments, the SDE measures global distribution information and, as such, has more discriminative power in classifying distributions. Based on functional images, which are subject to noise and segmentation inaccuracies, heart wall motion analysis is acknowledged as a difficult problem and, therefore, incorporation of prior knowledge is desirable to enhance the accuracy. Given noisy data and nonlinear dynamic model to describe the myocardial motion, unscented Kalman filter, a recursive nonlinear Bayesian filter, is devised in this study so as to estimate LV cavity points. Subsequently, a naive Bayes classifier algorithm is constructed from the SDEs of different features in order to automatically detect abnormal functional regions of the myocardium. Using 90 x 20 segmented LV cavities of short-axis magnetic resonance images obtained from 30 subjects, the experimental analysis carried over 480 myocardial segments demonstrates that the proposed method perform significantly better than other recent methods, and can lead to a promising diagnostic support tool to assist clinicians. PMID:20879257

Punithakumar, Kumaradevan; Ben Ayed, Ismail; Islam, Ali; Ross, Ian G; Li, Shuo

2010-01-01

61

Automatic computer aided detection of abnormalities in multi-parametric prostate MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of CAD systems for detection of prostate cancer has been a recent topic of research. A multi-stage computer aided detection scheme is proposed to help reduce perception and oversight errors in multi-parametric prostate cancer screening MRI. In addition, important features for development of computer aided detection systems for prostate cancer screening MRI are identified. A fast, robust prostate segmentation routine is used to segment the prostate, based on coupled appearance and anatomy models. Subsequently a voxel classification is performed using a support vector machine to compute an abnormality likelihood map of the prostate. This classification step is based on quantitative voxel features like the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and pharmacokinetic parameters. Local maxima in the likelihood map are found using a local maxima detector, after which regions around the local maxima are segmented. Region features are computed to represent statistical properties of the voxel features within the regions. Region classification is performed using these features, which results in a likelihood of abnormality per region. Performance was validated using a 188 patient dataset in a leave-one-patient-out manner. Ground truth was annotated by two expert radiologists. The results were evaluated using FROC analysis. The FROC curves show that inclusion of ADC and pharmacokinetic parameter features increases the performance of an automatic detection system. In addition it shows the potential of such an automated system in aiding radiologists diagnosing prostate MR, obtaining a sensitivity of respectively 74.7% and 83.4% at 7 and 9 false positives per patient.

Litjens, G. J. S.; Vos, P. C.; Barentsz, J. O.; Karssemeijer, N.; Huisman, H. J.

2011-03-01

62

The effects of anatomical information and observer expertise on abnormality detection task  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel study investigating the influences of Magnetic Resonance (MR) image anatomical information and observer expertise on an abnormality detection task. MRI is exquisitely sensitive for detecting brain abnormalities, particularly in the evaluation of white matter diseases, e.g. multiple sclerosis (MS). For this reason, MS lesions are simulated as the target stimuli for detection in the present study. Two different image backgrounds are used in the following experiments: a) homogeneous region of white matter tissue, and b) one slice of a healthy brain MR image. One expert radiologist (more than 10 years' experience), three radiologists (less than 5 years' experience) and eight naïve observers (without any prior medical knowledge) have performed these experiments, during which they have been asked different questions dependent upon level of experience; the three radiologists and eight naïve observers were asked if they were aware of any hyper-signal, likely to represent an MS lesion, while the most experienced consultant was asked if a clinically significant sign was present. With the percentages of response "yes" displayed on the y-axis and the lesion intensity contrasts on the x-axis, psychometric function is generated from the observer' responses. Results of psychometric functions and calculated thresholds indicate that radiologists have better hyper-signal detection ability than naïve observers, which is intuitively shown by the lower simple visibility thresholds of radiologists. However, when radiologists perform a task with clinical implications, e.g. to detect a clinically significant sign, their detection thresholds are elevated. Moreover, the study indicates that for the radiologists, the simple visibility thresholds remain the same with and without the anatomical information, which reduces the threshold for the clinically significant sign detection task. Findings provide further insight into human visual system processing for this specific task, and this study provides the foundation for a series of studies investigating numerical observer modeling to be designed, with the ultimate aim of investigating the medical image quality assessment approach by addressing the perspective of radiologist diagnostic performance.

Zhang, L.; Cavaro-Ménard, C.; Le Callet, P.; Cooper, L. H. K.; Hunault, G.; Tanguy, J.-Y.

2011-03-01

63

Support vector machine for abnormality detection on a cable-stayed bridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper applies support vector machine (SVM) to the field of structural health monitoring. SVM is a data processing technique that performs binary classification. The machine in its name indicates its association with machine learning, a category of algorithms that are able to solve classification problems by learning from example data given in a training process. This paper uses SVM for abnormality detection on data from a cable-stayed bridge's health monitoring system. The goal is to investigate whether the east end expansion joint is constraining the longitudinal motion of the bridge's main girder, which is suspected due to the results of a finite element updating procedure. Regarding the training process, distinct examples of the normal and abnormal expansion joint are unavailable from the health monitoring system. For this reason training examples are obtained from a finite element model. Accordingly, since SVM accuracy is highly dependent on the similarity between the training data and data being classified, the finite element modeling is a primary challenge of the paper's approach. The contributions of this paper include an application of SVM to an in-service structure, as well as a discussion on its performance and some limitations that affect its accuracy.

Vines-Cavanaugh, David; Cao, Yinghong; Wang, Ming L.

2010-03-01

64

Validation of a simple technique for the detection of abnormal mucosal cell replication in humans.  

PubMed

Abnormal intestinal crypt cell proliferation is considered to be an important early risk marker for colorectal cancer but measurement of the rate and spatial distribution of cell division by histochemical localization of DNA synthesis is labour-intensive and expensive. We developed and evaluated a simpler technique for measurement of these parameters using direct visual analysis of mitotic figures in microdissected crypts. The direct crypt analysis technique was applied to colorectal biopsies from patients with ulcerative colitis or no mucosal abnormality. A characteristic shift of cell division toward the intestinal lumen was detected in patients with ulcerative colitis. The direct method was validated using rats fed diets containing cellulose, or guar gum to stimulate mucosal cell proliferation. The crypt cell proliferation rate (CCPR) was measured by the metaphase-arrest technique and the results were compared with direct crypt analysis. There was a fivefold range of CCPR values at three sampling sites across the dietary groups. An excellent linear correlation between the results by the two techniques was obtained (r = 0.98; P < 0.001). In a second experiment the spatial distribution of dividing cells between five zones in colonic crypts, determined by the new method or by staining with BrdU, was compared. Good agreement was again achieved. Visual analysis of intact crypts is a valid technique for the measurement of crypt cell cytokinetics and it is particularly suited for use in a clinical environment. PMID:7524884

Matthew, J A; Pell, J D; Prior, A; Kennedy, H J; Fellows, I W; Gee, J M; Burton, J; Johnson, I T

1994-07-01

65

Detection of abnormalities in febrile AIDS patients with In-111-labeled leukocyte and Ga-67 scintigraphy  

SciTech Connect

Thirty-six patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), who were febrile but without localizing signs, underwent indium-111 leukocyte scintigraphy 24 hours after injection of labeled white blood cells (WBCs) and were restudied 48 hours after injection of gallium-67 citrate. Fifty-six abnormalities were identified as possible sources of the fever; 27 were confirmed with biopsy. Of these 27, 15 were identified only on In-111 WBC scans (including colitis, sinusitis, and focal bacterial pneumonia); six, only on Ga-67 scans (predominantly Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and lymphadenopathy); and six, on both studies (predominantly pulmonary lesions). In-111 WBC scanning revealed 21 of 27 abnormalities (78%) and gallium scanning, 12 of 27 (44%). If only one scintigraphic study has been performed, particularly with Ga-67, a significant number of lesions would not have been detected. The authors believe radionuclide evaluation of the febrile AIDS patient without localizing signs should begin with In-111 WBC scintigraphy. Gallium scanning may be used depending on results of In-111 WBC scans or if there is a high index of suspicion for P carinii pneumonia.

Fineman, D.S.; Palestro, C.J.; Kim, C.K.; Needle, L.B.; Vallabhajosula, S.; Solomon, R.W.; Goldsmith, S.J.

1989-03-01

66

Array-Based Comparative Genomic Hybridization for the Genomewide Detection of Submicroscopic Chromosomal Abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Microdeletions and microduplications, not visible by routine chromosome analysis, are a major cause of human malformation and mental retardation. Novel high-resolution, whole-genome technologies can improve the diagnostic detection rate of these small chromosomal abnormalities. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization allows such a high-resolution screening by hybridizing differentially labeled test and reference DNAs to arrays consisting of thousands of genomic clones. In this study, we tested the diagnostic capacity of this technology using ?3,500 flourescent in situ hybridization–verified clones selected to cover the genome with an average of 1 clone per megabase (Mb). The sensitivity and specificity of the technology were tested in normal-versus-normal control experiments and through the screening of patients with known microdeletion syndromes. Subsequently, a series of 20 cytogenetically normal patients with mental retardation and dysmorphisms suggestive of a chromosomal abnormality were analyzed. In this series, three microdeletions and two microduplications were identified and validated. Two of these genomic changes were identified also in one of the parents, indicating that these are large-scale genomic polymorphisms. Deletions and duplications as small as 1 Mb could be reliably detected by our approach. The percentage of false-positive results was reduced to a minimum by use of a dye-swap-replicate analysis, all but eliminating the need for laborious validation experiments and facilitating implementation in a routine diagnostic setting. This high-resolution assay will facilitate the identification of novel genes involved in human mental retardation and/or malformation syndromes and will provide insight into the flexibility and plasticity of the human genome.

Vissers, Lisenka E. L. M.; de Vries, Bert B. A.; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Janssen, Irene M.; Feuth, Ton; Choy, Chik On; Straatman, Huub; van der Vliet, Walter; Huys, Erik H. L. P. G.; van Rijk, Anke; Smeets, Dominique; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M. A.; Knoers, Nine V.; van der Burgt, Ineke; de Jong, Pieter J.; Brunner, Han G.; van Kessel, Ad Geurts; Schoenmakers, Eric F. P. M.; Veltman, Joris A.

2003-01-01

67

Prenatal aneupioidy detection by fluorencence in situ hybridization (FISH) in 1,068 second trimester pregnancies with fetal ultrasound abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

One indication for rapid prenatal aneuploidy detection in uncultured amniocytes by FISH is the identification of fetal abnormalities by ultrasound. We analyzed 1,068 consecutive specimens from second trimester pregnancies with fetal ultrasound abnormalities referred for FISH plus cytogenetics. These specimens are a subset (14.7%) of the most recent 7,240 clinical referrals for these combined analyses. Hybridization with specific probes for

B. E. Ward; M. Wright; C. Lytle

1994-01-01

68

Array comparative genomic hybridization detects chromosomal abnormalities in hematological cancers that are not detected by conventional cytogenetics.  

PubMed

Application of array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) has allowed an unprecedented high-resolution analysis of cancer genomes. We developed a custom genome-wide oligonucleotide microarray interrogating 493 genes involved in hematological disorders. We analyzed 55 patients with hematological neoplasms by using this microarray. In 33 patients with apparent normal conventional cytogenetic analysis, aneuploidy or isochromosomes were detected in 12% (4 of 33) of the patients by aCGH. The chromosomal changes included trisomy of chromosomes 10, 14, and 15, tetrasomy 11, and isochromosome 17q. In 17 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia who were initially investigated by using a panel of standard fluorescence in situ hybridization probes, additional copy number changes that were not interrogated by the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) panel were detected in 47% (8 of 17) of the patients by aCGH. Important copy number changes included gain on 2p16 involving REL and BCL11A genes, rearrangements of chromosomes 8 and 15, and trisomy of chromosomes 19 and 22. In five patients with known abnormal karyotypes, aCGH identified the origin of two marker chromosomes and detected microdeletions at five breakpoints involved in three apparent balanced translocations. Our results suggest that a subset of potentially significant genomic alterations is missed by the currently available cytogenetic techniques. This pilot study clearly demonstrates high sensitivity of oligonucleotide aCGH for potential use in diagnosis and follow-up in patients with hematological neoplasms. PMID:20724749

Shao, Lina; Kang, Sung-Hae L; Li, Jian; Hixson, Patricia; Taylor, Jesalyn; Yatsenko, Svetlana A; Shaw, Chad A; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Chang, Chung-Che; Cheung, Sau Wai; Patel, Ankita

2010-08-19

69

Automated detection of contractile abnormalities from stress-rest motion changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in myocardial function signatures such as wall motion and thickening are typically computed separately from myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) stress and rest studies to assess for stress-induced function abnormalities. The standard approach may suffer from the variability in contour placements and image orientation when subtle changes between stress and rest scans in motion and thickening are being evaluated. We have developed a new measure of regional change of function signature (motion and thickening) computed directly from registered stress and rest gated MPS data. In our novel approach, endocardial surfaces at the end-diastolic and end-systolic frames for stress and rest studies were registered by matching ventricular surfaces. Furthermore, we propose a new global registration method based on finding the optimal rotation for myocardial best ellipsoid fit to minimize the indexing disparities between two surfaces between stress and rest studies. Myocardial stress-rest function changes were computed and normal limits of change were determined as the mean and standard deviation of the training set for each polar sample. Normal limits were utilized to quantify the stress-rest function change for each polar map sample and the accumulated quantified function signature values were used for abnormality assessments in territorial regions. To evaluate the effectiveness of our novel method, we examined the agreements of our results against visual scores for motion change on vessel territorial regions obtained by human experts on a test group with 623 cases and were able to show that our detection method has a improved sensitivity on per vessel territory basis, compared to those obtained by human experts utilizing gated MPS data.

Karimi-Ashtiani, Shahryar; Arsanjani, Reza; Fish, Mathews; Berman, Daniel; Kavanagh, Paul; Germano, Guido; Slomka, Piotr

2012-02-01

70

Detection of chromosomal abnormalities in uterine leiomyoma using conventional cytogenetic method and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

Seventy-nine uterine leiomyomas were examined using a conventional cytogenetic method and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for detection of chromosomal abnormalities of chromosome 12. Nine (17.6%) of 51 tumor samples examined showed chromosomal abnormalities by conventional cytogenetic analysis. Rearrangements of chromosome 12 were detected in two tumors. Other tumors showed abnormalities affecting chromosomes 1, 4, 6, 7, 10, 13, 14, and 22. For FISH, the whole-chromosome painting probe and the D12Z3 probe specific for the centromeric region were used to detect structural and numerical abnormalities of chromosome 12. Of forty-one tumor samples, six showed structural aberrations and four showed numerical aberrations of chromosome 12 by FISH analysis. Of the tumors with structural aberrations identified by FISH, two had normal karyotypes, two showed structural rearrangements of chromosome 12 cytogenetically, and two could not be analyzed because of an insufficient number of metaphases. There were no correlations between the cytogenetic data and clinical parameters. The results indicate that chromosomal abnormalities are important in the biology of at least some types of uterine leiomyomas, and that FISH is a useful complement to conventional cytogenetic analysis in the study of solid tumors. PMID:8697434

Hayashi, S; Miharu, N; Okamoto, E; Samura, O; Hara, T; Ohama, K

1996-07-15

71

Detection of the abnormal events along the oil and gas pipeline and multi-scale chaotic character analysis of the detected signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the monitoring principle of abnormal events along oil and gas pipelines, which is conducted by a Mach–Zehnder optical fiber interferometer based distributed optical fiber pipeline pre-warning system. The detected signals of three typical abnormal events are analyzed by a multi-scale chaotic character analysis method based on orthogonal wavelet packet decomposition. In this pre-warning system, an optical cable

Zhigang Qu; Yan Zhou; Zhoumo Zeng; Hao Feng; Yu Zhang; Shijiu Jin

2008-01-01

72

Voxel-based analysis of MRI detects abnormal visual cortex in children and adults with amblyopia.  

PubMed

Amblyopia, sometimes called "lazy eye," is a relatively common developmental visual disorder well characterized behaviorally; however, the neural substrates associated with amblyopia in humans remain unclear. We hypothesized that abnormalities in the cerebral cortex of subjects with amblyopia exist, possibly as a result of experience-dependent neuronal plasticity. Anatomic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and psychophysical vision testing was carried out on 74 subjects divided into two age ranges, 7-12 years and 18-35 years, and three diagnoses, strabismic amblyopia, anisometropic amblyopia, and normal vision. We report a behavioral impairment in contrast sensitivity for subjects with amblyopia, consistent with previous reports. When the high-resolution MRI brain images were analyzed quantitatively with optimized voxel-based morphometry, results indicated that adults and children with amblyopia have decreased gray matter volume in visual cortical regions, including the calcarine sulcus, known to contain primary visual cortex. This finding was confirmed with a separate region-of-interest analysis. For the children with amblyopia, additional gray matter reductions in parietal-occipital areas and ventral temporal cortex were detected, consistent with recent reports that amblyopia can result in spatial location and object processing deficits. These data are the first to provide possible neuroanatomic bases for the loss of binocularity and visual sensitivity in children and adults with amblyopia. PMID:15846772

Mendola, Janine D; Conner, Ian P; Roy, Anjali; Chan, Suk-Tak; Schwartz, Terry L; Odom, J Vernon; Kwong, Kenneth K

2005-06-01

73

Money laundering and income tax evasion: the determination of optimal audits and inspections to detect abnormal prices in international trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a statistical auditing system which gives a methodology for statistical analysis of international trade prices. Discusses how this can help governments and international lending agencies, or internationally trading firms, determine the optimal level of audits and physical inspections of cargoes in order to detect abnormally priced imports and exports, using a cost - benefit approach. Applies a computer program

Maria E. de Boyrie; Simon J. Pak; John S. Zdanowicz

2004-01-01

74

Reliability of comparative genomic hybridization to detect chromosome abnormalities in first polar bodies and metaphase II oocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) using FISH to analyze up to nine chromosomes to dis- card chromosomally abnormal embryos has resulted in an increase of pregnancy rates in certain groups of patients. However, the number of chromosomes that can be analyzed is a clear limitation. We evaluate the reliability of using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to detect the whole set

Cristina Gutierrez-Mateo; Dagan Wells; Jordi Benet; Jorge F. Sanchez-Garcia; Mercedes G. Bermudez; Itziar Belil; Josep Egozcue; Santiago Munne

2004-01-01

75

Occurrence of maxillary sinus abnormalities detected by cone beam CT in asymptomatic patients  

PubMed Central

Background Although cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of the maxillofacial region allow the inspection of the entire volume of the maxillary sinus (MS), identifying anatomic variations and abnormalities in the image volume, this is frequently neglected by oral radiologists when interpreting images of areas at a distance from the dentoalveolar region, such as the full anatomical aspect of the MS. The aim of this study was to investigate maxillary sinus abnormalities in asymptomatic patients by using CBCT. Methods 1113 CBCT were evaluated by two examiners and identification of abnormalities, the presence of periapical lesions and proximity to the lower sinus wall were recorded. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-square tests and Kappa statistics. Results Abnormalities were diagnosed in 68.2% of cases (kappa = 0.83). There was a significant difference between genders (p < 0.001) and there was no difference in age groups. Mucosal thickening was the most prevalent abnormality (66%), followed by retention cysts (10.1%) and opacification (7.8%). No association was observed between the proximity of periapical lesions and the presence and type of inflammatory abnormalities (p = 0.124). Conclusions Abnormalities in maxillary sinus emphasizes how important it is for the dentomaxillofacial radiologist to undertake an interpretation of the whole volume of CBCT images.

2012-01-01

76

Abnormal Noise Detection Method Based on Wavelet Filter and K-L Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

De-noising and extraction of the abnormal noise signature are important to analyze signal in which abnormal noise are often very weak and masked by noise. The wavelet transform has been widely used in signal de-noising due to its extraordinary time-frequency representation capability. In this paper, the wavelet filter-based de-noising methods are introduced to de-noise signals from mechanical defects. In order

Gen-yuan Zhang

2009-01-01

77

Age of the earliest african anthropoids.  

PubMed

The earliest fossil record of African anthropoid primates (monkeys and apes) comes from the Jebel Qatrani Formation in the Fayum depression of Egypt. Reevaluation of both geologic and faunal evidence indicates that this formation was deposited in the early part of the Oligocene Epoch, more than 31 million years ago, earlier than previous estimates. The great antiquity of the fossil higher primates from Egypt accords well with their primitive morphology compared with later Old World higher primates. Thus, the anthropoid primates and hystricomorph rodents from Fayum are also considerably older than the earliest higher primates and rodents from South America. PMID:17778006

Fleagle, J G; Bown, T M; Obradovich, J D; Simons, E L

1986-12-01

78

Earliest bird had dino-like feet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A new fossil discovery shows that the earliest birds had feet similar to those of theropod dinosaurs (the group of two-legged, meat-eating dinosaurs that includes T. rex). The new specimen provides important details about the feet and skull of these birds and strengthens the argument -- which many but not all scientists agree on -- that modern birds arose from theropod dinosaurs.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2005-12-01

79

A Reliability Study of Earliest School Recollections.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Judges classified 100 third and fourth graders into behavioral categories according to their earliest school recollections (ESRs). The same students were reclassified one year later. Results showed a statistically significant agreement between a student's initial and most recent classification, suggesting the value of ESR as a reliable diagnostic…

Roth, Henry J.

1987-01-01

80

Earliest known crown-group salamanders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salamanders are a model system for studying the rates and patterns of the evolution of new anatomical structures. Recent discoveries of abundant Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous salamanders are helping to address these issues. Here we report the discovery of well-preserved Middle Jurassic salamanders from China, which constitutes the earliest known record of crown-group urodeles (living salamanders and their closest

Ke-Qin Gao; Neil H. Shubin

2003-01-01

81

Evaluation of Seven Procedures for Detection of Abnormal Milk Due to Mastitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five screening tests (California ~as- titis Test, Catalase Test, Milk Quality Test, Modified Whiteside Test, and Wis- consin Mastitis Test) and two confirmatory procedures (Direct Microscopic Somatic Cell Count and Electronic Somatic Cell Count) for testing for abnormal milk due to mastitis were evaluated for relative precision when used to test 48-hr bulk- tank milk within 6 hr after pickup,

R. B. READ; A. L. REYES; J. G. BRADSHAW; J. T. PEELER

1968-01-01

82

The equatorial electrojet as detected from the abnormal electric current distribution above Huancayo, Peru, and elsewhere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abnormally large range of the daily variation of the horizontal (or north) component of magnetic force over Huancayo in Peru indicates the daily rise and decline of a concentrated eastward electric current above that station, superposed on the normal current distribution responsible for the daily magnetic variationSq. The nameelectrojet is suggested for this concentrated current. New investigations indicate the

Sydney Chapman

1951-01-01

83

Clinical detection of abnormalities in central vision in chronic simple glaucoma using contrast sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual defect was assessed by contrast sensitivity and perimetry in 50 patients with chronic simple glaucoma. Abnormal contrast sensitivity using static gratings was found in patients with full central fields (i.e. a field of 15° or more around fixation for the 12e isopter). It appears that central vision is affected by nerve fibre damage in the early stages of glaucoma,

J. E. Ross

1985-01-01

84

Sonic Hedgehog: A Good Gene Gone Bad? Detection and Treatment of Genetic Abnormalities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a case of a baby born with the genetic condition holoprosencephaly in which students explore the "Sonic hedgehog" gene, signal transduction, and the ethics of body and tissue donation. Presents a two-part assignment that features students writing an informed consent document that explains the science behind this congenital abnormality,…

Yaich, Lauren E.

2001-01-01

85

Solar activity cycle and the incidence of foetal chromosome abnormalities detected at prenatal diagnosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied 2001 foetuses during the period of minimal solar activity of solar cycle 21 and 2265 foetuses during the period of maximal solar activity of solar cycle 22, in all women aged 37 years and over who underwent free prenatal diagnosis in four hospitals in the greater Tel Aviv area. There were no significant differences in the total incidence of chromosomal abnormalities or of trisomy between the two periods (2.15% and 1.8% versus 2.34% and 2.12%, respectively). However, the trend of excessive incidence of chromosomal abnormalities in the period of maximal solar activity suggests that a prospective study in a large population would be required to rule out any possible effect of extreme solar activity.

Halpern, Gabrielle J.; Stoupel, Eliahu G.; Barkai, Gad; Chaki, Rina; Legum, Cyril; Fejgin, Moshe D.; Shohat, Mordechai

1995-06-01

86

Detectable urogenital schistosome DNA and cervical abnormalities 6 months after single-dose praziquantel in women with Schistosoma haematobium infection.  

PubMed

We explored response to single-dose praziquantel therapy in a cohort of 33 women with Schistosoma haematobium infection in rural Mwanza, Tanzania. Women with S. haematobium infection confirmed both by eggs in urine and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) received single-dose praziquantel and treatment of concomitant sexually transmitted infections. Macroscopic cervical abnormalities were also quantified. After 6 months, microscopically detectable egg excretion was eliminated, but 8 of 33 women (24%) were persistently positive for S. haematobium by PCR, and 11 (33%) had cervical abnormalities potentially attributable to schistosomiasis. This suggests that praziquantel treatment more frequently than every 6 months may be necessary for complete elimination of the parasite and prevention of genital tissue pathology. This aggressive therapy may in turn play a key role decreasing HIV susceptibility in millions of people living in regions in which S. haematobium is endemic. PMID:23937701

Downs, Jennifer A; Kabangila, Rodrick; Verweij, Jaco J; Jaka, Hyasinta; Peck, Robert N; Kalluvya, Samuel E; Changalucha, John M; Johnson, Warren D; van Lieshout, Lisette; Fitzgerald, Daniel W

2013-09-01

87

Earth's earliest biosphere: Its origin and evolution  

SciTech Connect

Some of the subjects discussed are related to the early biogeologic history, the nature of the earth prior to the oldest known rock record, the early earth and the Archean rock record, the prebiotic organic syntheses and the origin of life, Precambrian organic geochemistry, the biochemical evolution of anaerobic energy conversion, the isotopic inferences of ancient biochemistries, Archean stromatolites providing evidence of the earth's earliest benthos, Archean microfossils, the geologic evolution of the Archean-Early Proterozoic earth, and the environmental evolution of the Archean-Early Proterozoic earth. Other topics examined are concerned with geochemical evidence bearing on the origin of aerobiosis, biological and biochemical effects of the development of an aerobic environment, Early Proterozoic microfossils, the evolution of earth's earliest ecosystems, and geographic and geologic data for processed rock samples. Attention is given to a processing procedure for abiotic samples and calculation of model atmospheric compositions, and procedures of organic geochemical analysis.

Schopf, J.W.

1983-01-01

88

The earliest history of the earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of radioactive dating techniques in search for clues about the earliest stages of terrestrial history is discussed. Particular attention is given to the uranium-lead method, zircon dating, development of the Super High-Resolution Ion Micro-Probe, measurements of rock's internal magnetism, the potassium-argon dating technique, and laser argon-argon dating. Results of recent research using these dating methods are summarized, with attention given to the dating of Agasta gneiss and tectonic drift studies.

York, Derek

1993-01-01

89

Towards functional repertoire of the earliest proteins.  

PubMed

The conserved protein sequence motifs present in all prokaryotic proteomes, "omnipresent motifs," presumably, correspond to the earliest proteins of the Last Universal Cellular Ancestor, from which all the proteomes have descended. Fifteen proteomes, each representing one of the total 15 diverse phyla of 131 Eubacteria and Archea, from which the omnipresent elements have been originally derived, are exhaustively screened. All those proteins which harbor the omnipresent motifs are identified. Six "omnipresent" protein types are revealed which are located in all 15 proteomes: ABC cassettes, FtsH proteases, translation initiation factors, translation elongation factors, isoleucyl-tRNA synthases, and RNA polymerases ?'. In addition to the omnipresent motifs, these proteins also contain other highly conserved motifs, standing for additional modules of the proteins. Remarkably, the identified tentative earliest proteins are responsible for only three basic functions: supply of monomers (ABC transporters and proteases), protein synthesis (initiation and elongation factors, aminoacyl-tRNA synthases), and RNA synthesis (polymerases). No enzymes involved in metabolic activities are present in the list of the earliest proteins derived by this approach. Some of the omnipresent sequence motifs are found, indeed, in the metabolic enzymes (e.g. NTP binding motifs), but these enzymes do not make a sequence matching collection of 15 sequences, i.e. they are not omnipresent. Future analysis of less conserved sequence motifs may reveal at what degree of conservation (stage of evolution) the metabolic enzymes could have entered the scene. PMID:23140233

Sobolevsky, Y; Guimarães, R C; Trifonov, E N

2012-11-12

90

Wavelet analysis applied to the detection of abnormal ICE exhaust noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ``Rasping Noise'' is an abnormal exhaust noise that occurs in small cars equipped with two boxes exhaust systems. It is an intermittent metallic noise that irritates the ear because of its high frequency components. It occurs during rapid acceleration or deceleration in cold conditions. Pressure signals are picked up in a critical exhaust line at Rasping conditions. Order and wavelet analysis are found to be efficient and completing tools in studying an eventual occurrence of discontinuities or shock waves in such a critical exhaust line. .

Ayadi, M.; Frikha, S.; Hennion, P. Y.

2000-07-01

91

Rapid testing versus karyotyping in Down's syndrome screening: cost-effectiveness and detection of clinically significant chromosome abnormalities.  

PubMed

In all, 80% of antenatal karyotypes are generated by Down's syndrome screening programmes (DSSP). After a positive screening, women are offered prenatal foetus karyotyping, the gold standard. Reliable molecular methods for rapid aneuploidy diagnosis (RAD: fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and quantitative fluorescence PCR (QF-PCR)) can detect common aneuploidies, and are faster and less expensive than karyotyping.In the UK, RAD is recommended as a standalone approach in DSSP, whereas the US guidelines recommend that RAD be followed up by karyotyping. A cost-effectiveness (CE) analysis of RAD in various DSSP is lacking. There is a debate over the significance of chromosome abnormalities (CA) detected with karyotyping but not using RAD. Our objectives were to compare the CE of RAD versus karyotyping, to evaluate the clinically significant missed CA and to determine the impact of detecting the missed CA. We performed computer simulations to compare six screening options followed by FISH, PCR or karyotyping using a population of 110948 pregnancies. Among the safer screening strategies, the most cost-effective strategy was contingent screening with QF-PCR (CE ratio of $24084 per Down's syndrome (DS) detected). Using karyotyping, the CE ratio increased to $27898. QF-PCR missed only six clinically significant CA of which only one was expected to confer a high risk of an abnormal outcome. The incremental CE ratio (ICER) to find the CA missed by RAD was $66608 per CA. These costs are much higher than those involved for detecting DS cases. As the DSSP are mainly designed for DS detection, it may be relevant to question the additional costs of karyotyping. PMID:20842178

Gekas, Jean; van den Berg, David-Gradus; Durand, Audrey; Vallée, Maud; Wildschut, Hajo Izaäk Johannes; Bujold, Emmanuel; Forest, Jean-Claude; Rousseau, François; Reinharz, Daniel

2010-09-15

92

Rapid testing versus karyotyping in Down's syndrome screening: cost-effectiveness and detection of clinically significant chromosome abnormalities  

PubMed Central

In all, 80% of antenatal karyotypes are generated by Down's syndrome screening programmes (DSSP). After a positive screening, women are offered prenatal foetus karyotyping, the gold standard. Reliable molecular methods for rapid aneuploidy diagnosis (RAD: fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and quantitative fluorescence PCR (QF-PCR)) can detect common aneuploidies, and are faster and less expensive than karyotyping. In the UK, RAD is recommended as a standalone approach in DSSP, whereas the US guidelines recommend that RAD be followed up by karyotyping. A cost-effectiveness (CE) analysis of RAD in various DSSP is lacking. There is a debate over the significance of chromosome abnormalities (CA) detected with karyotyping but not using RAD. Our objectives were to compare the CE of RAD versus karyotyping, to evaluate the clinically significant missed CA and to determine the impact of detecting the missed CA. We performed computer simulations to compare six screening options followed by FISH, PCR or karyotyping using a population of 110?948 pregnancies. Among the safer screening strategies, the most cost-effective strategy was contingent screening with QF-PCR (CE ratio of $24?084 per Down's syndrome (DS) detected). Using karyotyping, the CE ratio increased to $27?898. QF-PCR missed only six clinically significant CA of which only one was expected to confer a high risk of an abnormal outcome. The incremental CE ratio (ICER) to find the CA missed by RAD was $66?608 per CA. These costs are much higher than those involved for detecting DS cases. As the DSSP are mainly designed for DS detection, it may be relevant to question the additional costs of karyotyping.

Gekas, Jean; van den Berg, David-Gradus; Durand, Audrey; Vallee, Maud; Wildschut, Hajo Izaak Johannes; Bujold, Emmanuel; Forest, Jean-Claude; Rousseau, Francois; Reinharz, Daniel

2011-01-01

93

Lymphoma associated chromosomal abnormalities can easily be detected by FISH on tissue imprints. An underused diagnostic alternative  

PubMed Central

Background: Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) is useful for detecting specific chromosomal abnormalities in various tumours. In lymphomas, diagnosis is frequently made using paraffin wax embedded tissue. However, FISH performed under these conditions presents potential technical problems and difficulties in interpretation. Aims: To show that FISH using tissue imprints and cytopreps or alternatively, bone marrow (BM) smears, constitutes an easy and rapid strategy to overcome these constraints. Methods: The study comprised 46 patients with lymphoma. Sixty nine tissue imprints, cytopreps, or BM smears were analysed by FISH. Dual colour, dual fusion FISH probes were used to detect the t(8;14), t(11;14), and t(14;18) translocations, whereas a dual colour breakapart FISH probe was used to detect chromosomal translocations involving the BCL6 gene. Results: Tissue imprints and cytopreps were successfully hybridised in all 52 cases, whereas hybridisation was successful in 16 of 17 archival BM smears. All patients could be analysed to identify either the presence or absence of chromosomal translocations. Conclusions: The use of tissue imprints, cytopreps, or BM smears to identify chromosomal abnormalities by FISH is a rapid and useful ancillary approach for diagnostic purposes. Therefore, it could be used on a routine basis whenever fresh samples are available.

Buno, I; Nava, P; Alvarez-Doval, A; Alvarez-Rodriguez, F; Diez-Martin, J L; Menarguez, J

2005-01-01

94

Detection of structural and numerical chomosomal abnormalities by ACM-FISH analysis in sperm of oligozoospermic infertility patients  

SciTech Connect

Modern reproductive technologies are enabling the treatment of infertile men with severe disturbances of spermatogenesis. The possibility of elevated frequencies of genetically and chromosomally defective sperm has become an issue of concern with the increased usage of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), which can enable men with severely impaired sperm production to father children. Several papers have been published about aneuploidy in oligozoospermic patients, but relatively little is known about chromosome structural aberrations in the sperm of these patients. We examined sperm from infertile, oligozoospermic individuals for structural and numerical chromosomal abnormalities using a multicolor ACM FISH assay that utilizes DNA probes specific for three regions of chromosome 1 to detect human sperm that carry numerical chromosomal abnormalities plus two categories of structural aberrations: duplications and deletions of 1pter and 1cen, and chromosomal breaks within the 1cen-1q12 region. There was a significant increase in the average frequencies of sperm with duplications and deletions in the infertility patients compared with the healthy concurrent controls. There was also a significantly elevated level of breaks within the 1cen-1q12 region. There was no evidence for an increase in chromosome-1 disomy, or in diploidy. Our data reveal that oligozoospermia is associated with chromosomal structural abnormalities suggesting that, oligozoospermic men carry a higher burden of transmissible, chromosome damage. The findings raise the possibility of elevated levels of transmissible chromosomal defects following ICSI treatment.

Schmid, T E; Brinkworth, M H; Hill, F; Sloter, E; Kamischke, A; Marchetti, F; Nieschlag, E; Wyrobek, A J

2003-11-10

95

Prevalence of abnormalities in knees detected by MRI in adults without knee osteoarthritis: population based observational study (Framingham Osteoarthritis Study)  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of knees with no radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis to determine the prevalence of structural lesions associated with osteoarthritis and their relation to age, sex, and obesity. Design Population based observational study. Setting Community cohort in Framingham, MA, United States (Framingham osteoarthritis study). Participants 710 people aged >50 who had no radiographic evidence of knee osteoarthritis (Kellgren-Lawrence grade 0) and who underwent MRI of the knee. Main outcome measures Prevalence of MRI findings that are suggestive of knee osteoarthritis (osteophytes, cartilage damage, bone marrow lesions, subchondral cysts, meniscal lesions, synovitis, attrition, and ligamentous lesions) in all participants and after stratification by age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and the presence or absence of knee pain. Pain was assessed by three different questions and also by WOMAC questionnaire. Results Of the 710 participants, 393 (55%) were women, 660 (93%) were white, and 206 (29%) had knee pain in the past month. The mean age was 62.3 years and mean BMI was 27.9. Prevalence of “any abnormality” was 89% (631/710) overall. Osteophytes were the most common abnormality among all participants (74%, 524/710), followed by cartilage damage (69%, 492/710) and bone marrow lesions (52%, 371/710). The higher the age, the higher the prevalence of all types of abnormalities detectable by MRI. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of any of the features between BMI groups. The prevalence of at least one type of pathology (“any abnormality”) was high in both painful (90-97%, depending on pain definition) and painless (86-88%) knees. Conclusions MRI shows lesions in the tibiofemoral joint in most middle aged and elderly people in whom knee radiographs do not show any features of osteoarthritis, regardless of pain.

2012-01-01

96

A neural network learned information measures for heart motion abnormality detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we propose an information theoretic neural network for normal/abnormal left ventricular motion classification which outperforms significantly other recent methods in the literature. The proposed framework consists of a supervised 3-layer artificial neural network (ANN) which uses hyperbolic tangent sigmoid and linear transfer functions for hidden and output layers, respectively. The ANN is fed by information theoretic measures of left ventricular wall motion such as Shannon's differential entropy (SDE), Rényi entropy and Fisher information, which measure global information of subjects distribution. Using 395×20 segmented LV cavities of short-axis magnetic resonance images (MRI) acquired from 48 subjects, the experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms Support Vector Machine (SVM) and thresholding based information theoretic classifiers. It yields a specificity equal to 90%, a sensitivity of 91%, and a remarkable Area Under Curve (AUC) for Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC), equal to 93.2%.

Nambakhsh, M. S.; Punithakumar, Kumaradevan; Ben Ayed, Ismail; Goela, Aashish; Islam, Ali; Peters, Terry; Li, Shuo

2011-03-01

97

Detection of liver cancer and abnormal liver tissue by Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, laser induced human serum Raman spectra of liver cancer are measured. The spectra differences in serum from normal people and liver disease patients are analyzed. For the typical spectrum of normal serum, there are three sharp Raman peaks and relative intensity of Raman peaks excited by 514.5nm is higher than that excited by 488.0nm. For the Raman spectrum of liver cancer serum there are no peaks or very weak Raman peaks at the same positions. Results from more than two hundred case measurements show that clinical diagnostic accuracy is 92.86%. And then, the liver fibrosis and liver cirrhosis are studied applying the technology of LIF. To liver cirrhosis, the shape of Raman peak is similar to normal and fluorescence spectrum is similar to that of liver cancer from statistic data. The experiment indicates that there is notable fluorescence difference between the abnormal and normal liver tissue and have blue shift in fluorescence peak. Except for human serum, we use rats serum for researching either. Compared with results of path al examination, we analyze the spectra of normal cases, hepatic fibrosis and hepatocirrhosis respectively in an attempt to find some difference between them. Red shift of fluorescence peak is observed with disease evolution using 514.5nm excitation of an Ar-ion laser. However, no distinct changes happen with 488.0nm excitation. These results have important reference values to explore the method of laser spectrum diagnosis.

Li, Xiaozhou; Ding, Jianhua; Zhang, Xiujun; Lin, Junxiu; Wang, Deli

2005-01-01

98

Genetic abnormalities detected by comparative genomic hybridization in a human endometriosis-derived cell line.  

PubMed

Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was used in parallel with fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) and conventional karyotyping to perform a genome-wide survey of DNA gains and losses in the endometriosis-derived permanent cell line, FbEM-1. The cytogenetic analysis showed a complex karyotype with numerical changes and multiple chromosome aberrations, including the der(1) complement marker exhibiting a large homogenous staining region (HSR). The chromosomal rearrangement interpreted as der(5) t(5;6)(q34;p11) was found in the majority of the metaphases indicating a clonal abnormality. Repeated CGH experiments demonstrated over-representation of chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 5, 6p, 7, 16, 17q, 20, 21q and 22q, while chromosomes 6q, 9, 11p, 12, 13q, 18 and X were under-represented. Using DNA from the original endometriotic tissues, including a peritoneal implant and ovarian endometrioma, CGH analysis revealed loss of DNA copy number on 1p, 22q and chromosome X, while gain was found on chromosomal arms 6p and 17q. FISH analysis confirmed that the gain at 17q includes amplification of the proto-oncogene HER-2/neu in 16% of the FbEM-1 nuclei and in 12% of cells from the primary ovarian endometrioma tissue. These findings demonstrate that FbEM-1 cells share certain molecular cytogenetic features with the original tissue and suggest that chromosomal instability is important in the development of endometriosis. PMID:10956554

Gogusev, J; Bouquet de Jolinière, J; Telvi, L; Doussau, M; du Manoir, S; Stojkoski, A; Levardon, M

2000-09-01

99

Spectroscopic detection of abnormality in chicken liver as an inspection tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful differentiation of normal chicken livers from septicemic chicken livers was demonstrated using visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectral data subjected to principal component analysis and then fed into a feedforward back-propagation neural network. The study used 300 fresh chicken livers, 150 collected from normal chicken carcasses and 150 collected from chicken carcasses diagnosed with the septicemica/toxemia (septox) condition as defined for condemnation under U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) standards for food safety. Using a training set of 200 samples and testing set of 100 samples, the best neural network model demonstrated a classification accuracy of 98% for normal samples and 94% for septicemia/toxemia samples. These results show that Vis/NIR spectral methods have potential for use in chicken liver inspection as part of automated online systems for food safety inspection. Liver abnormalities are identifying characteristics of the septox condition; consequently, liver screening would be extremely useful as part of an automated inspection system to meet USDA food safety requirements for poultry. Automated inspection systems capable of real-time on-line operation are currently being developed, and spectroscopic liver inspection is potential tool that could be implemented as part of such systems to help poultry processors increase production while meeting food safety inspection requirements.

Dey, Bhabani P.; Chan, Diane E.; Chen, Yud-Ren; Gwozdz, Frank B.

2004-03-01

100

Detection of Abnormal Muscle Activations during Walking Following Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to identify optimal rehabilitation strategies for spinal cord injury (SCI) participants, assessment of impaired walking is required to detect, monitor and quantify movement disorders. In the proposed assessment, ten healthy and seven SCI participants were recruited to perform an over-ground walking test at slow walking speeds. SCI…

Wang, Ping; Low, K. H.; McGregor, Alison H.; Tow, Adela

2013-01-01

101

Detection of Abnormal Muscle Activations during Walking Following Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In order to identify optimal rehabilitation strategies for spinal cord injury (SCI) participants, assessment of impaired walking is required to detect, monitor and quantify movement disorders. In the proposed assessment, ten healthy and seven SCI participants were recruited to perform an over-ground walking test at slow walking speeds. SCI…

Wang, Ping; Low, K. H.; McGregor, Alison H.; Tow, Adela

2013-01-01

102

Molecular detection of chromosomal abnormalities in germ and somatic cells of aged male mice  

SciTech Connect

Three cytogenetic methods were applied to eight B6C3F1 male mice aged 22.5 - 30.5mo to determine if advanced age was associated with an elevated risk of producing chromosomally defective germinal and somatic cells; sperm aneuploidy analysis by multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization for three chromosomes, spermatid micronucleus analysis with anti-kinetochore antibodies, and translocation analysis of somatic metaphases by {open_quotes}painting{close_quotes} for two chromosomes. Eight mice aged 2.4mo served as controls. Sperm aneuploidy was measured by multi-color fluorescence in situ co-hybridization with DNA probes specific for chromosomes X, Y and 8, scoring 10,000 cells per animal. The aged group showed significant 1.5 - 2.0 fold increases in the hyperhaploidy phenotypes X-X-8, Y-Y-8, 8-8-Y, and 8-8-X with the greater effects appearing in animals aged >29mo. The aged group also showed significantly increased frequencies of micronucleated spermatids (2.0 vs 0.4 per 1000; all were kinetochore negative). Analysis of metaphase chromosomes from blood by {open_quotes}painting{close_quotes} of chromosomes 2 and 8 yielded 4 translocation per 858 cell-equivalents in the aged group which was a non-significant elevation over 0/202 in controls. Although interpretation must be cautious due to the small number of animals analyzed, these findings suggest that advanced paternal age may be a risk factor for chromosomal abnormalities of reproductive and somatic importance.

Lowe, X.; Baulch, J.; Quintana, L.; Ramsey, M.; Breneman, J.; Tucker, J.; Wyrobek, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States); Collins, B.; Allen, J. [EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Holland, N. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

1994-12-31

103

Maternal IgG avidity, IgM and ultrasound abnormalities: combined method to detect congenital cytomegalovirus infection with sequelae.  

PubMed

Objective:We used maternal immunoglobulin M (IgM), immunoglobulin G (IgG) avidity index (AI) and fetal ultrasonography (US) to effectively detect a congenital cytomegalovirus-infected fetus that would suffer neurological sequelae after birth.Study Design:The detecting method was prospectively adapted to 1163 unselected pregnant women. IgM, IgG and IgG-AI were measured at the first prenatal examination (10.8±2.2 weeks of gestation). Advanced US was performed for the IgM-positive women at our center. The urine of 1163 neonates was examined via PCR. All infected neonates were followed for neurological development.Result:Most women (83.3%) were seropositive. Among them, 40 (4.1%) were IgM positive. Nine of forty (22.5%) had low AI, of which one showed abnormal US and suffered severe sequelae. The remaining eight had a normal US; however, one infant had hearing impairment. There were another three infected infants with normal development. Their mothers' serological results were: IgM positive with high AI (n=1); IgG positive; IgM negative with high AI (n=1); and both IgG and IgM negative (n=1).Conclusion:This method enabled us to detect infected fetuses having severe sequelae. However, the problem remains of detecting infected fetuses that only have a hearing impairment. PMID:23867961

Kaneko, M; Sameshima, H; Minematsu, T; Kusumoto, K; Yamauchi, A; Ikenoue, T

2013-07-18

104

Atlas-Based Analysis of Neurodevelopment from Infancy to Adulthood Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Applications for Automated Abnormality Detection  

PubMed Central

Quantification of normal brain maturation is a crucial step in understanding developmental abnormalities in brain anatomy and function. The aim of this study was to develop atlas-based tools for time-dependent quantitative image analysis, and to characterize the anatomical changes that occur from 2 years of age to adulthood. We used large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping to register diffusion tensor images of normal participants into the common coordinates and used a pre-segmented atlas to segment the entire brain into 176 structures. Both voxel- and atlas-based analyses reported structure that showed distinctive changes in terms of its volume and diffusivity measures. In the white matter, fractional anisotropy (FA) linearly increased with age in logarithmic scale, while diffusivity indices, such as apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and axial and radial diffusivity, decreased at a different rate in several regions. The average, variability, and the time course of each measured parameter are incorporated into the atlas, which can be used for automated detection of developmental abnormalities. As a demonstration of future application studies, the brainstem anatomy of cerebral palsy patients was evaluated and the altered anatomy was delineated.

Faria, Andreia V.; Zhang, Jiangyang; Oishi, Kenichi; Li, Xin; Jiang, Hangyi; Akhter, Kazi; Hermoye, Laurent; Lee, Seung-Koo; Hoon, Alexander; Stachinko, Elaine; Miller, Michael I.; van Zijl, Peter C.M.; Mori, Susumu

2010-01-01

105

Earliest recollections in anorexia and bulimia.  

PubMed

Earliest Recollections (ER) are very useful as they reveal information about a person's main aims and lifestyle, according to the Individual Psychology assumption of the inner coherence of the personality. This paper looks at the utility of analyzing ER in psychopathological research, diagnosis and therapy. Its purpose is to compare particular ER in a group of anorectic outpatients, a group of bulimic outpatients and in a control group. The results provide further evidence that ER are a useful instrument to identify various aspects of family dynamics, particular pathological nuclei which are often of the borderline type. They can also help to overcome the initial hostility towards any therapy that is often present in anorectic and assist the therapist early on in drawing a mental picture of the premises for understanding the lifestyle of the subject both as a child, and now as a patient. PMID:10728151

Fassino, S; Abbate Daga, G; Garzaro, L; Rovera, G G

1998-06-01

106

Earliest known crown-group salamanders.  

PubMed

Salamanders are a model system for studying the rates and patterns of the evolution of new anatomical structures. Recent discoveries of abundant Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous salamanders are helping to address these issues. Here we report the discovery of well-preserved Middle Jurassic salamanders from China, which constitutes the earliest known record of crown-group urodeles (living salamanders and their closest relatives). The new specimens are from the volcanic deposits of the Jiulongshan Formation (Bathonian), Inner Mongolia, China, and represent basal members of the Cryptobranchidae, a family that includes the endangered Asian giant salamander (Andrias) and the North American hellbender (Cryptobranchus). These fossils document a Mesozoic record of the Cryptobranchidae, predating the previous record of the group by some 100 million years. This discovery provides evidence to support the hypothesis that the divergence of the Cryptobranchidae from the Hynobiidae had taken place in Asia before the Middle Jurassic period. PMID:12660782

Gao, Ke-Qin; Shubin, Neil H

2003-03-27

107

Chromosomal microarray analysis as a first-line test in pregnancies with a priori low risk for the detection of submicroscopic chromosomal abnormalities.  

PubMed

In this study, we aimed to explore the utility of chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) in groups of pregnancies with a priori low risk for detection of submicroscopic chromosome abnormalities, usually not considered an indication for testing, in order to assess whether CMA improves the detection rate of prenatal chromosomal aberrations. A total of 3000 prenatal samples were processed in parallel using both whole-genome CMA and conventional karyotyping. The indications for prenatal testing included: advanced maternal age, maternal serum screening test abnormality, abnormal ultrasound findings, known abnormal fetal karyotype, parental anxiety, family history of a genetic condition and cell culture failure. The use of CMA resulted in an increased detection rate regardless of the indication for analysis. This was evident in high risk groups (abnormal ultrasound findings and abnormal fetal karyotype), in which the percentage of detection was 5.8% (7/120), and also in low risk groups, such as advanced maternal age (6/1118, 0.5%), and parental anxiety (11/1674, 0.7%). A total of 24 (0.8%) fetal conditions would have remained undiagnosed if only a standard karyotype had been performed. Importantly, 17 (0.6%) of such findings would have otherwise been overlooked if CMA was offered only to high risk pregnancies.The results of this study suggest that more widespread CMA testing of fetuses would result in a higher detection of clinically relevant chromosome abnormalities, even in low risk pregnancies. Our findings provide substantial evidence for the introduction of CMA as a first-line diagnostic test for all pregnant women undergoing invasive prenatal testing, regardless of risk factors. PMID:23211699

Fiorentino, Francesco; Napoletano, Stefania; Caiazzo, Fiorina; Sessa, Mariateresa; Bono, Sara; Spizzichino, Letizia; Gordon, Anthony; Nuccitelli, Andrea; Rizzo, Giuseppe; Baldi, Marina

2012-12-05

108

The earliest ion channels in protocellular membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cellular membranes with their hydrophobic interior are virtually impermeable to ions. Bulk of ion transport through them is enabled through ion channels. Ion channels of contemporary cells are complex protein molecules which span the membrane creating a cylindrical pore filled with water. Protocells, which are widely regarded as precursors to modern cells, had similarly impermeable membranes, but the set of proteins in their disposal was much simpler and more limited. We have been, therefore, exploring an idea that the first ion channels in protocellular membranes were formed by much smaller peptide molecules that could spontaneously self-assemble into short-lived cylindrical bundles in a membrane. Earlier studies have shown that a group of peptides known as peptaibols is capable of forming ion channels in lipid bilayers when they are exposed to an electric field. Peptaibols are small, non-genetically encoded peptides produced by some fungi as a part of their system of defense against bacteria. They are usually only 14-20 residues long, which is just enough to span the membrane. Their sequence is characterized by the presence of non-standard amino acids which, interestingly, are also expected to have existed on the early earth. In particular, the presence of 2-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) gives peptaibols strong helix forming propensities. Association of the helices inside membranes leads to the formation of cylindrical bundles, typically containing 4 to 10 monomers. Although peptaibols are excellent candidates for models of the earliest ion channels their struc-tures, which are stabilized only by van der Waals forces and occasional hydrogen bonds between neighboring helices, are not very stable. Although it might properly reflect protobiological real-ity, it is also a major obstacle in studying channel behavior. For this reason we focused on two members of the peptaibol family, trichotoxin and antiamoebin, which are characterized by a single conductance level. This indicates that their structures are unique and stable. In addition, it is also believed that the trichotoxin channel displays some selectivity between potassium and chloride ions. This makes trichotoxin and antiamoebin ideal models of the earliest ion channels that could provide insight into the origins of ion conductance and selectivity. In the absence of crystal structure of the trichotoxin and antiamoebin channels, we propose their molecular models based on experimentally determined number of monomers forming the bundles. We use molecular dynamics simulations to validate the models in terms of their conductance and selectivity. On the basis of our simulations we show that the emergence of channels built of small, ?-helical peptides was protobiologically plausible and did not require highly specific amino acid sequences, which is a convenient evolutionary trait. Despite their simple structure, such channels could possess properties that, at the first sight, appear to require markedly larger complexity. To this end, we will discuss how the amino acid sequence and structure of primitive channels give rise to the phenomena of ionic conductance and selectivity across the earliest cell walls, which were essential functions for the emergence and early evolution of protocells. Furthermore, we will argue that even though architectures of membrane proteins are not nearly as diverse as those of water-soluble proteins, they are sufficiently flexible to adapt readily to the functional demands arising during evolution.

Mijajlovic, Milan; Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael; Wei, Chenyu

109

Automated identification of abnormal metaphase chromosome cells for the detection of chronic myeloid leukemia using microscopic images  

PubMed Central

Karyotyping is an important process to classify chromosomes into standard classes and the results are routinely used by the clinicians to diagnose cancers and genetic diseases. However, visual karyotyping using microscopic images is time-consuming and tedious, which reduces the diagnostic efficiency and accuracy. Although many efforts have been made to develop computerized schemes for automated karyotyping, no schemes can get be performed without substantial human intervention. Instead of developing a method to classify all chromosome classes, we develop an automatic scheme to detect abnormal metaphase cells by identifying a specific class of chromosomes (class 22) and prescreen for suspicious chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The scheme includes three steps: (1) iteratively segment randomly distributed individual chromosomes, (2) process segmented chromosomes and compute image features to identify the candidates, and (3) apply an adaptive matching template to identify chromosomes of class 22. An image data set of 451 metaphase cells extracted from bone marrow specimens of 30 positive and 30 negative cases for CML is selected to test the scheme’s performance. The overall case-based classification accuracy is 93.3% (100% sensitivity and 86.7% specificity). The results demonstrate the feasibility of applying an automated scheme to detect or prescreen the suspicious cancer cases.

Wang, Xingwei; Zheng, Bin; Li, Shibo; Mulvihill, John J.; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Hong

2010-01-01

110

The earliest telescope preserved in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the antique telescope owned by one of Japan's major feudal warlords, Tokugawa Yoshinao. As he died in 1650, this means that this telescope was produced in or before that year. Our recent investigation of the telescope revealed that it is of Schyrlean type, consisting of four convex lenses, so that it gives erect images with a measured magnifying power of 3.9 (± 0.2-0.3). This also implies that Yoshinao's telescope could be one of the earliest Schyrlean telescopes ever. The design, fabrication technique, and the surface decoration of the telescopic tube and caps all suggest that it is not a Western make at all, but was produced probably under the guidance of a Chinese Jesuit missionary or by the Chinese, in Suzhou or Hangzhou in Zhejiang province, China, or in Nagasaki. Following descriptions in the Japanese and Chinese historical literature, we also discuss the possibility that production of Schyrlean-type telescopes started independently in the Far East nearly simultaneously with the publication of Oculus Enoch et Eliae by Anton Maria Schyrle in 1645.

Nakamura, Tsuko

2008-11-01

111

Earliest Evidence for Life on Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth's earliest fossil record is the only one we have of primitive life anywhere in the universe. As Earth may have had a similar early environmental, and perhaps biological, history to other rocky planets, this record provides our only model for astrobiological exploration elsewhere. There is, however, a paucity of data from the oldest and most interesting part of this record because of the rarity of ancient rocks due to constant recycling on our tectonically active planet, metamorphic and deformational destruction of rocks, and poor rock exposure on deeply weathered old continents. The best evidence of primitive life potentially comes from microfossils, the preserved bodily relics of microbes. However, the oldest known examples are all highly controversial because of doubts about their biological origin and ancient age. Stromatolites, sedimentary structures constructed by microbes, provide tangible evidence of early life but yield less information than actual microfossils. Carbon isotopes constitute perhaps the most robust evidence of primordial biological processes, because they are relatively immune to later geological perturbation. Perhaps the most informative evidence on early life comes from sulfur isotopes and hydrocarbon molecules that allow determination of particular types of early metabolism, as well as inferences regarding evolutionary relationships. From this range of data, we can conclude that life was probably present on Earth by 3.8 billion years ago, that microbes with modern types of metabolism existed as early as 3.45 Byr ago, and that our lineage of life, the eukaryotes, has a history as ancient as 2.7 Byr.

Buick, R.

2002-12-01

112

The earliest history of diaphragm physiology.  

PubMed

The diaphragm was recognized as a distinct anatomical structure in the earliest Greek writings. However, the precise description of wounds suffered by warriors during the Trojan war by Homer was not tied to any particular function. The diaphragm was assimilated to the region that harbours thought. The first physiologic explanations of respiration by Empedocles in the 5th century BC and the concepts introduced by Plato and Hippocrates did not include a significant participation of the diaphragm. Aristole was the first to link respiration to a particular organ and a specific movement of the thorax. However, he considered that it was the heart which caused the lungs to expand by heating them, and the lungs in turn forced the thorax to dilate, a concept which was to survive until the 17th century. As in Aristole's theory the diaphragm played no role in respiration and was just a fence separating the thorax from the abdomen. A major break through occurred in Alexandria in the 4th and 3rd century BC: Herophilus was the first to recognize that muscles were the agents of movement and Erasistratus performed animal experiments which showed that the respiratory muscles were the agents of respiratory movements, thus opening the way to the later discoveries of Galen. PMID:7713209

Derenne, J P; Debru, A; Grassino, A E; Whitelaw, W A

1994-12-01

113

Detection of Bartonella spp. in neotropical felids and evaluation of risk factors and hematological abnormalities associated with infection.  

PubMed

Although antibodies to Bartonella henselae have been described in all neotropical felid species, DNA has been detected in only one species, Leopardus wiedii. The aim of this study was to determine whether DNA of Bartonella spp. could be detected in blood of other captive neotropical felids and evaluate risk factors and hematological findings associated with infection. Blood samples were collected from 57 small felids, including 1 Leopardus geoffroyi, 17 L. wiedii, 22 Leopardus tigrinus, 14 Leopardus pardalis, and 3 Puma yagouaroundi; 10 blood samples from Panthera onca were retrieved from blood banks. Complete blood counts were performed on blood samples from small felids, while all samples were evaluated by PCR. DNA extraction was confirmed by amplification of the cat GAPDH gene. Bartonella spp. were assessed by amplifying a fragment of their 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region; PCR products were purified and sequenced. For the small neotropical felids, risk factors [origin (wild-caught or zoo-born), gender, felid species, and flea exposure] were evaluated using exact multiple logistic regression. Hematological findings (anemia, polycythemia/hyperproteinemia, leukocytosis and leukopenia) were tested for association with infection using Fisher's exact test. The 635bp product amplified from 10 samples (10/67=14.92%) was identified as B. henselae by sequencing. Small neotropical felid males were more likely to be positive than females (95% CI=0.00-0.451, p=0.0028), however other analyzed variables were not considered risk factors (p>0.05). Hematological abnormalities were not associated with infection (p>0.05). This is the first report documenting B. henselae detection by PCR in several species of neotropical felids. PMID:19913372

Guimaraes, A M S; Brandão, P E; Moraes, W; Kiihl, S; Santos, L C; Filoni, C; Cubas, Z S; Robes, R R; Marques, L M; Neto, R L; Yamaguti, M; Oliveira, R C; Catão-Dias, J L; Richtzenhain, L J; Messick, J B; Biondo, A W; Timenetsky, J

2009-10-20

114

Earliest evidence for the use of pottery.  

PubMed

Pottery was a hunter-gatherer innovation that first emerged in East Asia between 20,000 and 12,000 calibrated years before present (cal bp), towards the end of the Late Pleistocene epoch, a period of time when humans were adjusting to changing climates and new environments. Ceramic container technologies were one of a range of late glacial adaptations that were pivotal to structuring subsequent cultural trajectories in different regions of the world, but the reasons for their emergence and widespread uptake are poorly understood. The first ceramic containers must have provided prehistoric hunter-gatherers with attractive new strategies for processing and consuming foodstuffs, but virtually nothing is known of how early pots were used. Here we report the chemical analysis of food residues associated with Late Pleistocene pottery, focusing on one of the best-studied prehistoric ceramic sequences in the world, the Japanese J?mon. We demonstrate that lipids can be recovered reliably from charred surface deposits adhering to pottery dating from about 15,000 to 11,800 cal bp (the Incipient J?mon period), the oldest pottery so far investigated, and that in most cases these organic compounds are unequivocally derived from processing freshwater and marine organisms. Stable isotope data support the lipid evidence and suggest that most of the 101 charred deposits analysed, from across the major islands of Japan, were derived from high-trophic-level aquatic food. Productive aquatic ecotones were heavily exploited by late glacial foragers, perhaps providing an initial impetus for investment in ceramic container technology, and paving the way for further intensification of pottery use by hunter-gatherers in the early Holocene epoch. Now that we have shown that it is possible to analyse organic residues from some of the world's earliest ceramic vessels, the subsequent development of this critical technology can be clarified through further widespread testing of hunter-gatherer pottery from later periods. PMID:23575637

Craig, O E; Saul, H; Lucquin, A; Nishida, Y; Taché, K; Clarke, L; Thompson, A; Altoft, D T; Uchiyama, J; Ajimoto, M; Gibbs, K; Isaksson, S; Heron, C P; Jordan, P

2013-04-10

115

Abnormal cortical sensorimotor activity during "Target" sound detection in subjects with acute acoustic trauma sequelae: an fMRI study  

PubMed Central

The most common consequences of acute acoustic trauma (AAT) are hearing loss at frequencies above 3 kHz and tinnitus. In this study, we have used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to visualize neuronal activation patterns in military adults with AAT and various tinnitus sequelae during an auditory “oddball” attention task. AAT subjects displayed overactivities principally during reflex of target sound detection, in sensorimotor areas and in emotion-related areas such as the insula, anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortex, in premotor area, in cross-modal sensory associative areas, and, interestingly, in a region of the Rolandic operculum that has recently been shown to be involved in tympanic movements due to air pressure. We propose further investigations of this brain area and fine middle ear investigations, because our results might suggest a model in which AAT tinnitus may arise as a proprioceptive illusion caused by abnormal excitability of middle-ear muscle spindles possibly link with the acoustic reflex and associated with emotional and sensorimotor disturbances.

Job, Agnes; Pons, Yoann; Lamalle, Laurent; Jaillard, Assia; Buck, Karl; Segebarth, Christoph; Delon-Martin, Chantal

2012-01-01

116

Automated Detection of Regional Wall Motion Abnormalities Based on a Statistical Model Applied to Multislice Short-Axis Cardiac MR Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a statistical shape analysis method for myocardial contraction is presented that was built to detect and locate regional wall motion abnormalities (RWMA). For each slice level (base, middle, and apex), 44 short-axis magnetic resonance images were selected from healthy volunteers to train a statistical model of normal myocardial contraction using independent component analysis (ICA). A classification algorithm

Avan Suinesiaputra; Alejandro F. Frangi; Theodorus A. M. Kaandorp; Hildo J. Lamb; Jeroen J. Bax; Johan H. C. Reiber; Boudewijn P. F. Lelieveldt

2009-01-01

117

Efficacy of the Biparietal Diameter\\/Femur Length Ratio to Detect Down Syndrome in Patients with an Abnormal Biochemical Screen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormal fetal biometry is considered a marker for fetal trisomy. We prospectively evaluated the biparietal diameter\\/femur length ratio to identify Down syndrome fetuses. This ratio was calculated when women (< 35 years old) underwent an amniocentesis for an abnormal biochemical screen for Down syndrome. Using reported ratio cut-offs (> 1.5 SD above the mean), the ratio had a sensitivity of

Winston A. Campbell; Anthony M. Vintzileos; John F. Rodis; Leslie Ciarleglio; Alicia Craffey

1994-01-01

118

Comparison of rootMUSIC and discrete wavelet transform analysis of Doppler ultrasound blood flow waveforms to detect microvascular abnormalities in type I diabetes.  

PubMed

The earliest signs of cardiovascular disease occur in microcirculations. Changes to mechanical and structural properties of these small resistive vessels alter the impedance to flow, subsequent reflected waves, and consequently, flow waveform morphology. In this paper, we compare two frequency analysis techniques: 1) rootMUSIC and 2) the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) to extract features of flow velocity waveform morphology captured using Doppler ultrasound from the ophthalmic artery (OA) in 30 controls and 38 age and sex matched Type I diabetics. Conventional techniques for characterizing Doppler velocity waveforms, such as mean velocity, resistive index, and pulsatility index, revealed no significant differences between the groups. However, rootMUSIC and the DWT provided highly correlated results with the spectral content in bands 2-7 (30-0.8 Hz) significantly elevated in the diabetic group (p < 0.05). The spectral distinction between the groups may be attributable to manifestations of underlying pathophysiological processes in vascular impedance and consequent wave reflections, with bands 5 and 7 related to age. Spectral descriptors of OA blood velocity waveforms are better indicators of preclinical microvascular abnormalities in Type I diabetes than conventional measures. Although highly correlated DWT proved slightly more discriminatory than rootMUSIC and has the advantage of extending to subheart rate frequencies, which may be of interest. PMID:21138796

Agnew, Christina Elizabeth; McCann, A J; Lockhart, C J; Hamilton, P K; McVeigh, G E; McGivern, R C

2010-12-06

119

Spectrum of brain abnormalities detected on whole body F-18 FDG PET/CT in patients undergoing evaluation for non-CNS malignancies  

PubMed Central

We present the pattern of metabolic brain abnormalities detected in patients undergoing whole body (WB) F-18 flurodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) examination for non-central nervous system (CNS) malignancies. Knowledge of the PET/CT appearance of various intracranial metabolic abnormalities enables correct interpretation of PET scans in oncological patients where differentiation of metastasis from benign intracranial pathologies is important and improves specificity of the PET study. A complete clinical history and correlation with CT and MRI greatly helps in arriving at a correct imaging diagnosis.

Tripathi, Madhavi; Jaimini, Abhinav; D'Souza, Maria M; Sharma, Rajnish; Jain, Jyotika; Garg, Gunjan; Singh, Dinesh; Kumar, Nitin; Mishra, Anil K; Grover, Rajesh K; Mondal, Anupam

2011-01-01

120

Abnormal posturing  

MedlinePLUS

People with abnormal posturing almost always have reduced consciousness. Anyone who shows symptoms of abnormal posturing should ... Elsevier; 2008:chap 5. Bleck T. Levels of consciousness and attention. In: Goetz, CG, ed. Textbook of ...

121

Walking abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

Gait abnormalities ... of how a person walks is called the gait. Many different types of walking problems occur without ... Some walking abnormalities have been given names: Propulsive gait -- a stooped, stiff posture with the head and ...

122

High frequency of common DNA copy number abnormalities detected by bacterial artificial chromosome array comparative genomic hybridization in 24 breast cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is a widespread disease in Japan and across the world. Breast cancer cells, as well as most other types of cancer cells, have diverse chromosomal aberrations. Clarifying the character of these chromosomal aberrations should contribute to the development of more suitable therapies, along with the predictions of metastasis and prognosis. Twenty-four breast cancer cell lines were analyzed by bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). The array slide contained duplicate spots of 4030 BAC clone DNAs covering the entire human genome with 1 Mbp resolution. In all 24 breast cancer cell lines, frequent and significant amplifications as well as deletions were detected by BAC array CGH. Common DNA copy number gains, detected in 60% (above 15 cell lines) of the 24 breast cancer cell lines were found in 76 BAC clones, located at 1q, 5p, 8q, 9p, 16p, 17q, and 20q. Moreover, common DNA copy number loss was detected in 136 BAC clones, located at 1q, 2q, 3p, 4p, 6q, 8p, 9p, 11p, 13q, 17p, 18q, 19p, Xp, and Xq. The DNA copy number abnormalities found included abnormality of the well-known oncogene cMYC (8q24.21); however, most of them were not reported to relate to breast cancer. BAC array CGH has great potential to detect DNA copy number abnormalities, and has revealed that breast cancer cell lines have substantial heterogeneity. PMID:19222606

Saito, Soichiro; Morita, Keiko; Hirano, Takashi

2009-02-01

123

Cyprus’s Earliest Prehistory: Seafarers, Foragers and Settlers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 20 years, the earliest prehistory of Cyprus has been completely rewritten as a result of new excavations, survey\\u000a work and high-resolution radiocarbon dating. This study attempts to summarise the earliest chapter in the prehistory of Cyprus,\\u000a focusing on published and unpublished results from several new sites and surveys. I attempt to place these results in an interpretative\\u000a context

A. Bernard Knapp

2010-01-01

124

Novel Application of a Multiscale Entropy Index as a Sensitive Tool for Detecting Subtle Vascular Abnormalities in the Aged and Diabetic  

PubMed Central

Although previous studies have shown the successful use of pressure-induced reactive hyperemia as a tool for the assessment of endothelial function, its sensitivity remains questionable. This study aims to investigate the feasibility and sensitivity of a novel multiscale entropy index (MEI) in detecting subtle vascular abnormalities in healthy and diabetic subjects. Basic anthropometric and hemodynamic parameters, serum lipid profiles, and glycosylated hemoglobin levels were recorded. Arterial pulse wave signals were acquired from the wrist with an air pressure sensing system (APSS), followed by MEI and dilatation index (DI) analyses. MEI succeeded in detecting significant differences among the four groups of subjects: healthy young individuals, healthy middle-aged or elderly individuals, well-controlled diabetic individuals, and poorly controlled diabetic individuals. A reduction in multiscale entropy reflected age- and diabetes-related vascular changes and may serve as a more sensitive indicator of subtle vascular abnormalities compared with DI in the setting of diabetes.

Wu, Hsien-Tsai; Lo, Men-Tzung; Chen, Guan-Hong; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Chen, Jian-Jung

2013-01-01

125

Segmentation and Classification of Dot and Non-Dot-Like Fluorescence in situ Hybridization Signals for Automated Detection of Cytogenetic Abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Signal segmentation and classification of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) images are essential for the detection of cytogenetic abnormalities. Since current methods are limited to dot-like signal analysis, we propose a methodology for segmenta- tion and classification of dot and non-dot-like signals. First, nuclei are segmented from their background and from each other in order to associate signals with specific

Boaz Lerner; Lev Koushnir; Josepha Yeshaya

2007-01-01

126

Biological and Prognostic Significance of Interphase Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization Detection of Chromosome 13 Abnormalities (13) in Multiple Myeloma: An Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Study1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosome 13 abnormalities (13) have been associated with an unfavorable prognosis in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). The significance of this has been unresolved because of diverse methods of detection and heterogeneous groups of patients. We conducted a study of 13 in patients entered into the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group trial E9486\\/E9487. Patients with newly diagnosed MM (median follow-up of

Rafael Fonseca; David Harrington; Martin M. Oken; Gordon W. Dewald; Richard J. Bailey; Scott A. Van Wier; Kimberly J. Henderson; Emily A. Blood; S. Vincent Rajkumar; Neil E. Kay; Brian Van Ness; Philip R. Greipp

127

Quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy detects abnormalities in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and motor cortex of patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a neurodegenerative disease of the frontal and temporal neocortex. The single\\u000a most common pathology underlying FTLD is neuronal degeneration with ubiquitin-positive but tau-negative inclusions consisting\\u000a of Tar DNA binding proteins (TDP-43). Inclusions containing TDP-43 in neurons are also the most common pathology underlying\\u000a motor neuron disease (MND). The present study tested the hypothesis that abnormal

Sanjeev Chawla; Sumei Wang; Peachie Moore; John H. Woo; Lauren Elman; Leo F. McCluskey; Elias R. Melhem; Murray Grossman; Harish Poptani

2010-01-01

128

Detection of regional perfusion abnormalities during adenosine stress echocardiography with intravenous perfluorocarbon-exposed sonicated dextrose albumin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although perfluorocarbon-exposed sonicated dextrose albumin (PESDA) microbubbles produce myocardial contrast after intravenous injection, it is unknown whether their use can accurately identify myocardial blood-flow abnormalities during stress echocardiography. Accordingly, we compared the background-subtracted peak myocardial videointensity (PMVI) after intravenous injections of PESDA before and during adenosine stress (100 to 140 units\\/kg\\/min) in 10 open-chest dogs with angiographically significant left circumflex

Thomas R. Porter; Alan Kricsfeld; Ubeydullah Deligonul; Feng Xie

1996-01-01

129

Computer-aided diagnosis in endoscopy: A novel application toward automatic detection of abnormal lesions on magnifying narrow-band imaging endoscopy in the stomach.  

PubMed

Gastric cancer is the fourth common cancer and the second major cause of cancer death worldwide. Early detection of gastric cancer by endoscopy surveillance is actively investigated to improve patient survival, especially using the newly developed magnifying narrow-band imaging endoscopy in the stomach. However, meticulous examination of the aforementioned images is both time and experience demanding and interpretation could be variable among different doctors, which hindered its widespread application. In this study, we developed a new image analysis system by adopting local binary pattern and vector quantization to perform pattern comparison between known training abnormal images and testing images of magnifying narrow band endoscopy images in the stomach. Our preliminary results demonstrated promising potential for automatically labeled region of interest for endoscopy doctors to focus on abnormal lesions for subsequent targeted biopsy, with the rates of recall 0.46-1.00 and precision 0.39-0.87. PMID:24110716

Lee, Tsung-Chun; Lin, Yu-Huei; Uedo, Noriya; Wang, Hsiu-Po

2013-07-01

130

Diet and the evolution of the earliest human ancestors  

PubMed Central

Over the past decade, discussions of the evolution of the earliest human ancestors have focused on the locomotion of the australopithecines. Recent discoveries in a broad range of disciplines have raised important questions about the influence of ecological factors in early human evolution. Here we trace the cranial and dental traits of the early australopithecines through time, to show that between 4.4 million and 2.3 million years ago, the dietary capabilities of the earliest hominids changed dramatically, leaving them well suited for life in a variety of habitats and able to cope with significant changes in resource availability associated with long-term and short-term climatic fluctuations.

Teaford, Mark F.; Ungar, Peter S.

2000-01-01

131

Craniofacial Abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

132

Congenital Abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

... only. Girls may carry the abnormal gene that causes these disorders but not show the actual disease. (Examples of this problem include hemophilia, color blindness, and the common forms of muscular ...

133

Structural chromosomal abnormalities detected during CVS analysis and their role in the prenatal ascertainment of cryptic subtelomeric rearrangements.  

PubMed

Mosaic structural chromosomal abnormalities observed along the trophoblast-mesenchyme-fetal axis, although rare, pose a difficult problem for their prognostic interpretation in prenatal diagnosis. Additional issues are raised by the presence of mosaic imbalances of the same chromosome showing different sizes in the different tissues, that is, deletions and duplications in the cytotrophoblast and mesenchyme of chorionic villi (CV). Some of these cytogenetic rearrangements originate from the post-zygotic breakage of a dicentric chromosome or of the product of its first anaphasic breakage. Selection of the most viable cell line may result in confined placental mosaicism of the most severe imbalance, favoring the presence of the cell lines with the mildest duplications or deletions in the fetal tissues. We document three cases of ambiguous results in CV analysis due to the presence of different cell lines involving structural rearrangements of the same chromosome which were represented differently in the trophoblast and the mesenchyme. Observation by conventional karyotype of a grossly rearranged chromosome in one of the CV preparations (direct or culture) was crucial to call attention to the involved chromosomal region in other tissues (villi or amniotic fluid), allowing the prenatal diagnosis through molecular cytogenetic methods of subtelomeric rearrangements [del(7)(q36qter); del(11)(q25qter); del(20)(p13pter)]. This would have surely been undiagnosed with the routine banding technique. In conclusion, the possibility to diagnose complex abnormalities leading to cryptic subtelomeric rearrangements, together with a better knowledge of the initial/intermediate products leading to the final abnormal cryptic deletion should be added to the advantages of the CV sampling technique. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23922197

Pittalis, Maria Carla; Mattarozzi, Angela; Menozzi, Cristina; Malacarne, Michela; Baccolini, Ilaria; Farina, Antonio; Pompilii, Eva; Magini, Pamela; Percesepe, Antonio

2013-08-06

134

Detection of myocardial perfusion abnormalities: standard dual-source coronary computed tomography angiography versus rest/stress technetium-99m single-photo emission CT.  

PubMed

We compared coronary dual-source computed tomography angiography (corDSCTA) with technetium-99m single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for the detection of myocardial perfusion abnormalities. Fifty-five consecutive patients underwent both gated myocardial perfusion SPECT and corDSCTA, the latter during a single arterial-phase injection of contrast agent. The perfusion defects visualised by corDSCTA correlated with the findings of rest/stress SPECT. Abnormal findings on stress SPECT, which were due to either ischaemia or infarct, were found in 24 patients. In comparison to SPECT at rest, corDSCTA detected perfusion defects with a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 78%, respectively. Compared to SPECT at stress, the sensitivity and specificity values of corDSCTA were 83.3% and 90.3%, respectively. On corDSCTA , the average attenuation values of perfusion defects that corresponded to chronic infarcts (-8.5+/-22.2 HU) were significantly lower (p = 0.002) than those of non-infarct-related perfusion defects (43.1+/-17.5 HU). Using rest/stress SPECT is the gold standard for the diagnosis of myocardial ischaemia, corDSCTA was able to diagnose ischaemic disease (defined as the presence of high-grade stenotic CAD (>or=50% luminal narrowing)) with a sensitivity and specificity of 59% and 89%, respectively, in patients with no known history of myocardial infarction (n = 4). Thus, corDSCTA may serve as a diagnostic tool for the detection of perfusion abnormalities (first) visualised by SPECT. There appears to be a limited correlation between coronary stenotic disease and SPECT findings. PMID:20413446

Cheng, W; Zeng, M; Arellano, C; Mafori, W; Goldin, J; Krishnam, M; Ruehm, S G

2010-04-22

135

Detection of myocardial perfusion abnormalities: standard dual-source coronary computed tomography angiography versus rest/stress technetium-99m single-photo emission CT  

PubMed Central

We compared coronary dual-source computed tomography angiography (corDSCTA) with technetium-99m single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for the detection of myocardial perfusion abnormalities. Fifty-five consecutive patients underwent both gated myocardial perfusion SPECT and corDSCTA, the latter during a single arterial-phase injection of contrast agent. The perfusion defects visualised by corDSCTA correlated with the findings of rest/stress SPECT. Abnormal findings on stress SPECT, which were due to either ischaemia or infarct, were found in 24 patients. In comparison to SPECT at rest, corDSCTA detected perfusion defects with a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 78%, respectively. Compared to SPECT at stress, the sensitivity and specificity values of corDSCTA were 83.3% and 90.3%, respectively. On corDSCTA , the average attenuation values of perfusion defects that corresponded to chronic infarcts (?8.5±22.2 HU) were significantly lower (p = 0.002) than those of non-infarct-related perfusion defects (43.1±17.5 HU). Using rest/stress SPECT is the gold standard for the diagnosis of myocardial ischaemia, corDSCTA was able to diagnose ischaemic disease (defined as the presence of high-grade stenotic CAD (?50% luminal narrowing)) with a sensitivity and specificity of 59% and 89%, respectively, in patients with no known history of myocardial infarction (n = 4). Thus, corDSCTA may serve as a diagnostic tool for the detection of perfusion abnormalities (first) visualised by SPECT. There appears to be a limited correlation between coronary stenotic disease and SPECT findings.

Cheng, W; Zeng, M; Arellano, C; Mafori, W; Goldin, J; Krishnam, M; Ruehm, S G

2010-01-01

136

Diffusion Tensor Imaging Detects Early Cerebral Cortex Abnormalities in Neuronal Architecture Induced by Bilateral Neonatal Enucleation: An Experimental Model in the Ferret  

PubMed Central

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a technique that non-invasively provides quantitative measures of water translational diffusion, including fractional anisotropy (FA), that are sensitive to the shape and orientation of cellular elements, such as axons, dendrites and cell somas. For several neurodevelopmental disorders, histopathological investigations have identified abnormalities in the architecture of pyramidal neurons at early stages of cerebral cortex development. To assess the potential capability of DTI to detect neuromorphological abnormalities within the developing cerebral cortex, we compare changes in cortical FA with changes in neuronal architecture and connectivity induced by bilateral enucleation at postnatal day 7 (BEP7) in ferrets. We show here that the visual callosal pattern in BEP7 ferrets is more irregular and occupies a significantly greater cortical area compared to controls at adulthood. To determine whether development of the cerebral cortex is altered in BEP7 ferrets in a manner detectable by DTI, cortical FA was compared in control and BEP7 animals on postnatal day 31. Visual cortex, but not rostrally adjacent non-visual cortex, exhibits higher FA than control animals, consistent with BEP7 animals possessing axonal and dendritic arbors of reduced complexity than age-matched controls. Subsequent to DTI, Golgi-staining and analysis methods were used to identify regions, restricted to visual areas, in which the orientation distribution of neuronal processes is significantly more concentrated than in control ferrets. Together, these findings suggest that DTI can be of utility for detecting abnormalities associated with neurodevelopmental disorders at early stages of cerebral cortical development, and that the neonatally enucleated ferret is a useful animal model system for systematically assessing the potential of this new diagnostic strategy.

Bock, Andrew S.; Olavarria, Jaime F.; Leigland, Lindsey A.; Taber, Erin N.; Jespersen, Sune N.; Kroenke, Christopher D.

2010-01-01

137

Fishlike gills and breathing in the earliest known tetrapod  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE origin of tetrapods is generally associated with the emergence of terrestrial vertebrate life. Anatomical features unique to tetrapods are usually considered to be adaptations to the terrestrial environment. Here we report the discovery of a fish-like branchial skeleton in Acanthostega gunnari, from the Upper Devonian of East Greenland, one of the earliest tetrapods known. It shows a proximally expanded

M. I. Coates; J. A. Clack

1991-01-01

138

7. HOSPITAL. ONE OF THE EARLIEST BUILDINGS COMPLETED ON POST. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. HOSPITAL. ONE OF THE EARLIEST BUILDINGS COMPLETED ON POST. THIS STRUCTURE IS EXCLUDED FROM THE DISTRCIT BECAUSE OF ITS ALTERATIONS, BUT IS INCLUDED IN THIS LISTING BECAUSE IT RELATES TO THE DISTRICT HISTORICALLY. - Fort Lawton, Discovery Park, Seattle, King County, WA

139

Earliest Appropriate Time for Administering Neurobehavioral Assessment in Newborn Infants  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of examination time on newborn neurobehavioral examinations administered within 48 hours of delivery and to identify the earliest appropriate time for performing the assessment. METHODS: We analyzed data from neurobehavioral examinations on 324 newborns using the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS). Trends over examination time and cumulative percentage within published normal ranges were analyzed to identify the earliest appropriate time for administering the examination. Ordinal logistic regression and multivariate regression were used for testing and defining the earliest appropriate time for administering the examination without being influenced by acute effects of labor and delivery while controlling for several potential confounding factors. RESULTS: The arousal, excitability, lethargy, quality-of-movement, hypotonicity, and nonoptimal-reflexes scales were sensitive to timing of the examination. Results of ordinal logistic regression showed that 20 hours after delivery seemed to be the earliest appropriate time for administering newborn NNNS examinations. The proportion of NNNS scores within the normal range increased with time significantly when the examination was made less than 20 hours after delivery (n = 148) (odds ratio: 1.12 [95% confidence interval: 1.02–1.23]), but there was no longer significant association with time of examination after 20 hours (n = 176) (odds ratio: 1.04 [95% confidence interval: 0.99–1.09]). This result was confirmed by multivariate regression. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend 20 hours after delivery as the earliest appropriate time for administering newborn NNNS examinations to obtain results reflecting outcomes that are a representative assessment of newborn neurobehavior and not contaminated by acute effects of labor and delivery.

Xu, Yingying; Khoury, Jane

2011-01-01

140

Prenatal detection of structural abnormalities of chromosome 18: associations with interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and maternal serum screening.  

PubMed

We describe two cases of prenatally ascertained isochromosome 18. Case 1 included both an isochromosome 18p and an isochromosome 18q, while Case 2 involved only an isochromosome 18q. Both of these cases were associated with a positive maternal serum triple screen trisomy 18 risk (greater than 1 in 100 risk). In addition, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed on uncultured amniotic fluid interphase cells in both cases looking for aneuploidy for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y. The results of the interphase analyses support the common knowledge that careful interpretation of interphase FISH analysis is necessary and that results should be followed by full cytogenetic analysis. To our knowledge these are the first reported cases of structurally abnormal chromosomes 18 being associated with a positive maternal serum triple screen for trisomy 18. PMID:12210569

Graf, Michael D; Gill, Prabhcharan; Krew, Michael; Schwartz, Stuart

2002-08-01

141

Abnormal myocardial fatty acid metabolism in dilated cardiomyopathy detected by iodine-123 phenylpentadecanoic acid and tomographic imaging  

SciTech Connect

The radioidinated synthetic fatty acid iodine-123 phenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) has proven useful in the identification of regional abnormalities of cardiac metabolism in patients with myocardial ischemia. The present study was performed to test the hypothesis that the myocardial distribution and turnover of fatty acids, assessed noninvasively with IPPA, are altered in patients with cardiomyopathy. Nine normal volunteers and 19 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy of various etiologies underwent cardiac imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) after intravenous injection of IPPA. Apical short-axis and basal short-axis sections were reconstructed and quantitatively analyzed for relative IPPA activity distribution and washout. Patients with congestive cardiomyopathy demonstrated significantly greater heterogeneity of IPPA uptake than normal subjects (maximal percent variation of activity 27 +/- 11 vs 18 +/- 4, p less than 0.01). They also demonstrated a more rapid percent washout rate than control subjects (24 +/- 8 vs 17 +/- 6 for the apical short-axis section, p less than 0.05; 26 +/- 7 vs 18 +/- 5 for the basal short-axis section, p less than 0.01). These abnormalities of fatty acid distribution and turnover were independent of the etiology of the cardiomyopathy. The degree of heterogeneity of IPPA uptake was significantly related to the patients' New York Heart Association functional class (r = 0.64, p less than 0.01). Thus, compared with normal myocardium, the myocardium of patients with congestive cardiomyopathy demonstrates a more heterogeneous distribution of fatty acid uptake, which parallels the clinical severity of the disease. Furthermore, patients with congestive cardiomyopathy demonstrate a more rapid myocardial clearance of the labeled fatty acid, as assessed with SPECT imaging.

Ugolini, V.; Hansen, C.L.; Kulkarni, P.V.; Jansen, D.E.; Akers, M.S.; Corbett, J.R.

1988-11-01

142

Abnormal Plasminogen  

PubMed Central

A patient who suffered a recurring thrombosis over the last 15 yr has been investigated. The only abnormality found in this patient was a significantly depressed level of plasminogen activity in plasma. In spite of the depressed plasminogen activity, the patient was found to have a normal level of plasminogen antigen concentration. It was calculated that the activity per milligram of plasminogen of the patient was approximately one-half the values of normal subjects. The same discrepancy between biological activity and antigen concentration was found in the other members of the kindred. A niece was found to have practically no plasminogen activity but possessed a normal concentration of plasminogen antigen. Both her parents were found to have approximately half the normal plasminogen activity and normal antigen levels. These studies suggested that the molecular abnormality was inherited as an autosomal characteristic, and the family members who had half the normal levels of activity with normal plasminogen antigen were heterozygotes whereas the one with practically no plasminogen activity was homozygote. Subsequent studies showed that the pattern of gel electrofocusing of purified plasminogen of the heterozygotes consisted of 10 normal bands and 10 additional abnormal bands, each of which had a slightly higher isoelectric point than each corresponding normal component. This indicates that plasminogen of the heterozygote is a mixture of normal and abnormal molecules in an approximately equal amount, which was substantiated by active site titration of purified plasminogen preparations obtained from the propositus and a normal individual. The gel electrofocusing pattern of the homozygote consisted of abnormal bands only. The defect is a hereditary abnormality of plasminogen. Images

Aoki, Nobuo; Moroi, Masaaki; Sakata, Yoichi; Yoshida, Nobuhiko; Matsuda, Michio

1978-01-01

143

Prenatal diagnosis of mosaic ring 22 duplication/deletion with terminal 22q13 deletion due to abnormal first trimester screening and choroid plexus cyst detected on ultrasound.  

PubMed

We report a rare case of mosaic ring chromosome 22 duplication/deletion in a fetus for whom karyotype analysis was required because of an abnormal finding in the maternal serum screening test and a choroid plexus cyst detected on prenatal ultrasound. Additional prenatal study of the amniotic fluid by fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed and the terminal 22q13.3 deletion was detected on ring chromosome. The final karyotype was 45,XX,-22[3]/46,XX,r(22)(p11q13.2)[63]/46,XX,idicr(22)(p11q13.2;p11q13.2)[2]dn.ishder(22)(N25+, ARSA-, ter-). The pegnancy was terminated. Cytogenetic analysis of the intracardiac blood also revealed ring 22 mosaicism with only one metaphase spread with idicr(22) as the unstable isodicentric rings are subsequently lost from most cells. We discuss the prenatal diagnosis of this rare condition. PMID:20149051

Koç, Altu?; Arisoy, Ozgür; Pala, Elif; Erdem, Mehmet; Kaymak, Ay?egül Oztürk; Erkal, Ozgür; Karao?uz, Meral Yirmibe?

2009-10-01

144

Spatial Discrimination Threshold Abnormalities are not Detected in a Pilot Study of DYT6 Dystonia Mutation Carriers  

PubMed Central

Background Spatial discrimination thresholds (SDTs) assess somatosensory integration, and provide a window into better understanding the pathophysiology of dystonia. They are abnormal in some focal dystonias, but normal in DYT1 dystonia. It is unknown whether SDTs are altered in DYT6 gene mutation carriers (C). Methods SDTs were assessed in 17 DYT6 C (including eight manifesting carriers), 15 DYT1 C (including seven manifesting carriers) and 34 controls, using a standardized grating orientation task. Subjects were asked to recognize the orientation of Johnson–Van Boven–Philips (JVP) dome gratings on either index fingertip until 40% or more answers were incorrect. SDTs between indexes were calculated and averaged, with a final SDT assigned to each subject, and tertiles for control SDTs were constructed. Results SDTs of DYT6 C or DYT1 C were comparable to those of controls, and not more likely to be in the worst tertile (p?=?0.8 for DYT6 C vs. controls and p?=?1.0 for DYT1 C vs. controls). This was independent of gene expression. Discussion DYT6 carriers do not have impaired SDTs with the JVP dome paradigm. The normal SDT pattern thus suggests shared sensory physiologic patterns with DYT1 dystonia.

Deik, Andres F.; O'Riordan, Sean; Luciano, Marta San; Shanker, Vicki L.; Raymond, Deborah; Bressman, Susan B.; Saunders-Pullman, Rachel

2012-01-01

145

Comparison of immunodiffusion and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in the detection of abnormal antibodies in pigeon breeder's disease.  

PubMed Central

AIMS: To compare the sensitivity of two methods for the detection of serum antibodies to pigeon faecal antigens in patients with pigeon breeder's disease. METHODS: Serum samples stored at -20 degrees C from 50 patients with pigeon breeder's disease, 50 control samples from patients with other respiratory diseases, and 50 healthy blood donors were examined for the precipitating antibodies and IgG antibodies to antigens present in extract of pigeon droppings by immunodiffusion and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. RESULTS: Both antigen preparations of pigeon dropping extract were equally effective. A positive immunodiffusion reaction gave one or more precipitin lines and these antibodies were detected only in undiluted sera from 80% of the patients with pigeon breeder's disease. In the ELISA the sera were tested at a starting dilution of 1 in 100 because positive reactions were observed with sera from healthy blood donors at lower dilutions. All sera which gave optical density readings above 3 SD of the control value were considered to have IgG antibodies. These antibodies were detected in sera from all the patients with pigeon breeder's disease. The antibody titres were much higher in those patients who had precipitating antibodies (range 800-51,200) than those without (range 100-800). The antibodies were not detected in the sera of patients with respiratory diseases or healthy blood donors by either method. CONCLUSIONS: Antibodies to pigeon dropping antigens were detected by immunodiffusion and ELISA in sera from patients with pigeon breeder's disease but not in control sera. ELISA was a more sensitive method for detecting antibodies and therefore seems to have considerable potential as a routine technique in the serological diagnosis of pigeon breeder's disease.

Simpson, C.; Shirodaria, P. V.; Evans, J. P.; Simpson, D. I.; Stanford, C. F.

1992-01-01

146

Detection of whole-brain abnormalities in temporal lobe epilepsy using tensor-based morphometry with DARTEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tensor-based morphometry (TBM) is an automated technique for detecting the anatomical differences between populations by examining the gradients of the deformation fields used to nonlinearly warp MR images. The purpose of this study was to investigate the whole-brain volume changes between the patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and the controls using TBM with DARTEL, which could achieve more

Wenjing Li; Huiguang He; Jingjing Lu; Bin Lv; Meng Li; Zhengyu Jin

2009-01-01

147

Rapid testing versus karyotyping in Down's syndrome screening: cost-effectiveness and detection of clinically significant chromosome abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In all, 80% of antenatal karyotypes are generated by Down's syndrome screening programmes (DSSP). After a positive screening, women are offered prenatal foetus karyotyping, the gold standard. Reliable molecular methods for rapid aneuploidy diagnosis (RAD: fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and quantitative fluorescence PCR (QF-PCR)) can detect common aneuploidies, and are faster and less expensive than karyotyping.In the UK, RAD

Jean Gekas; David-Gradus van den Berg; Audrey Durand; Maud Vallée; Hajo Izaäk Johannes Wildschut; Emmanuel Bujold; Jean-Claude Forest; François Rousseau; Daniel Reinharz

2011-01-01

148

Detection, visualization and animation of abnormal anatomic structure with a deformable probabilistic brain atlas based on random vector field transformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design, implementation and preliminary results of a technique for creat- ing a comprehensive probabilistic atlas of the human brain based on high-dimensional vector field transformations. The goal of the atlas is to detect and quantify distributed patterns of deviation from normal anatomy, in a 3-D brain image from any given subject. The algorithm analyzes a reference

Paul M. Thompson; Arthur W. Toga

1997-01-01

149

Chemical and archaeological evidence for the earliest cacao beverages  

PubMed Central

Chemical analyses of residues extracted from pottery vessels from Puerto Escondido in what is now Honduras show that cacao beverages were being made there before 1000 B.C., extending the confirmed use of cacao back at least 500 years. The famous chocolate beverage served on special occasions in later times in Mesoamerica, especially by elites, was made from cacao seeds. The earliest cacao beverages consumed at Puerto Escondido were likely produced by fermenting the sweet pulp surrounding the seeds.

Henderson, John S.; Joyce, Rosemary A.; Hall, Gretchen R.; Hurst, W. Jeffrey; McGovern, Patrick E.

2007-01-01

150

Ranges of Likely Earliest Crustal Compositions on Rocky Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of exoplanets potentially provides a new range of planetary bulk compositions and conditions. Rocky planets have a high likelihood of having been largely or entirely molten early in their evolution as a result of kinetic energy of accretion, short-lived radioisotopes, and metallic iron core formation. Solidification of rocky exoplanets will follow the same chemical and physical processes as planets in our solar system would, and so models of the solidification of these silicate magma oceans provide some constraints on initial crustal compositions of these various bodies. Estimates of crustal compositions can be matched with the spectra that are eventually expected to be obtained from these bodies. Different initial planetary compositions, magma ocean depths, and planetary masses produce different earliest igneous crusts. By using the range of primitive meteorite compositions from our solar system for the planetary initial bulk compositions, a template for a wide range of bodies is created. Sensitivity analyses of changes to bulk compositions are possible by altering the fraction of individual oxide constituents, such as silica or magnesia. Combining these sensitivity analyses with mineralogies suitable for the bulk compositions provides a method of determining a range of earliest crustal compositions. The wide range of initial bulk compositions produce a relatively small selection of predicted earliest crustal compositions, because of predictable actions such as flotation of buoyant minerals in the solidifying magma, as appeared to have occurred on the Moon. The terrestrial bodies that provide a reference and will be discussed include the Earth, Mercury, Mars, the Moon, and asteroid 4 Vesta. Models of the crust-producing processes calibrated on these bodies in our solar system can then be applied to exoplanets in order to estimate their earliest crustal compositions.

Brown, Stephanie; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.

2008-09-01

151

The earliest record of human activity in northern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The colonization of Eurasia by early humans is a key event after their spread out of Africa, but the nature, timing and ecological context of the earliest human occupation of northwest Europe is uncertain and has been the subject of intense debate. The southern Caucasus was occupied about 1.8 million years (Myr) ago, whereas human remains from Atapuerca-TD6, Spain (more

Simon A. Parfitt; René W. Barendregt; Marzia Breda; Ian Candy; G. Russell Coope; Paul Durbidge; Mike H. Field; Jonathan R. Lee; Adrian M. Lister; Robert Mutch; Kirsty E. H. Penkman; Richard C. Preece; James Rose; Christopher B. Stringer; Robert Symmons; John E. Whittaker; John J. Wymer; Anthony J. Stuart

2005-01-01

152

Subplate and the Formation of the Earliest Cerebral Cortical Circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Development of the cortex involves transient, dynamic cortical circuits, which get substantially remodelled according to the\\u000a interplay between the developmental programme and the environment. Subplate constitutes a largely transient cortical neuron\\u000a population. They are among the earliest generated neurons of our brain and lay the foundation of our developing cerebral cortex.\\u000a Since most initial cortical input and output are directed

Zoltán Molnár; Wei Zhi Wang; Maria Carmen Piñon; Daniel Blakey; Shinichi Kondo; Franziska Oeschger; Anna Hoerder-Suabedissen

153

Aurorae: The earliest datable observation of the aurora borealis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Late Babylonian astronomical texts, discovered at the site of Babylon (32.5°N, 44.4°E) more than a century ago, contain what is probably the earliest reliable account of the aurora borealis. A clay tablet recording numerous celestial observations made by the official astronomers during the 37th year of King Nebuchadnezzar II (568\\/567 BC) describes an unusual ``red glow'' in the sky

F. Richard Stephenson; David M. Willis; Thomas J. Hallinan

2004-01-01

154

Hominid behaviour and the earliest occupation of Europe: an exploration.  

PubMed

The last decade has witnessed a heated debate over the age and the character of the earliest occupation of Europe. This paper addresses two aspects of the debate, one dealing with the chronology of occupation, which is put to use in the second issue, an exploration of the behaviour of the earliest occupants of Europe. The review of the debate on chronology concludes that a short chronology applies to Europe north of the large mountain chains of the Alps and the Pyrenees, where the earliest traces of a human presence date back to about half a million years ago. In this phased-colonisation model, the Mediterranean, and especially Spain, saw an earlier occupation, starting around the end of the Lower Pleistocene. The archaeological record of these first Europeans suggests that from the first presence in northern Europe onwards, regular hunting of large game was common practice among Middle Pleistocene hominids. By situating this archaeological evidence in the context of findings from a range of other disciplines I develop a behavioural scenario which suggests that, at its latest by the Middle Pleistocene, increased forms of social cooperation, exchange of information within larger groups and in general forms of behaviour based on a "release from proximity" had become a standard ingredient of the hominid behavioural repertoire. PMID:11681861

Roebroeks, W

2001-11-01

155

The earliest record of human activity in northern Europe.  

PubMed

The colonization of Eurasia by early humans is a key event after their spread out of Africa, but the nature, timing and ecological context of the earliest human occupation of northwest Europe is uncertain and has been the subject of intense debate. The southern Caucasus was occupied about 1.8 million years (Myr) ago, whereas human remains from Atapuerca-TD6, Spain (more than 780 kyr ago) and Ceprano, Italy (about 800 kyr ago) show that early Homo had dispersed to the Mediterranean hinterland before the Brunhes-Matuyama magnetic polarity reversal (780 kyr ago). Until now, the earliest uncontested artefacts from northern Europe were much younger, suggesting that humans were unable to colonize northern latitudes until about 500 kyr ago. Here we report flint artefacts from the Cromer Forest-bed Formation at Pakefield (52 degrees N), Suffolk, UK, from an interglacial sequence yielding a diverse range of plant and animal fossils. Event and lithostratigraphy, palaeomagnetism, amino acid geochronology and biostratigraphy indicate that the artefacts date to the early part of the Brunhes Chron (about 700 kyr ago) and thus represent the earliest unequivocal evidence for human presence north of the Alps. PMID:16355223

Parfitt, Simon A; Barendregt, René W; Breda, Marzia; Candy, Ian; Collins, Matthew J; Coope, G Russell; Durbidge, Paul; Field, Mike H; Lee, Jonathan R; Lister, Adrian M; Mutch, Robert; Penkman, Kirsty E H; Preece, Richard C; Rose, James; Stringer, Christopher B; Symmons, Robert; Whittaker, John E; Wymer, John J; Stuart, Anthony J

2005-12-15

156

Detection of DNA Abnormalities by Arbitrarily Primed PCR Fingerprinting: Allelic Losses in Chromosome 10q in Lung Cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA fingerprinting using arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR) is useful for detecting cancer-specific DNA aberrations without targeting any particular genes or knowing any nucleotide sequences in advance. AP-PCR fingerprinting is an efficient method for finding loss of anonymous chromosomal regions in cancers. We analyzed DNA from 44 human non-small cell lung cancers by fingerprinting using a single primer and found a

Keita Kawakami; Jun Yasuda; Masahiko Shiraishi; Takamasa Kayama; Katsuhiko Doi; Manuel Perucho; Takao Sekiya

1998-01-01

157

Using tensor-based morphometry to detect structural brain abnormalities in rats with adolescent intermittent alcohol exposure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the effects of adolescent binge drinking that persist into adulthood is a crucial public health issue. Adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure (AIE) is an animal model that can be used to investigate these effects in rodents. In this work, we investigate the application of a particular image analysis technique, tensor-based morphometry, for detecting anatomical differences between AIE and control rats using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). Deformation field analysis is a popular method for detecting volumetric changes analyzing Jacobian determinants calculated on deformation fields. Recent studies showed that computing deformation field metrics on the full deformation tensor, often referred to as tensor-based morphometry (TBM), increases the sensitivity to anatomical differences. In this paper we conduct a comprehensive TBM study for precisely locating differences between control and AIE rats. Using a DTI RARE sequence designed for minimal geometric distortion, 12-directional images were acquired postmortem for control and AIE rats (n=9). After preprocessing, average images for the two groups were constructed using an unbiased atlas building approach. We non-rigidly register the two atlases using Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping, and analyze the resulting deformation field using TBM. In particular, we evaluate the tensor determinant, geodesic anisotropy, and deformation direction vector (DDV) on the deformation field to detect structural differences. This yields data on the local amount of growth, shrinkage and the directionality of deformation between the groups. We show that TBM can thus be used to measure group morphological differences between rat populations, demonstrating the potential of the proposed framework.

Paniagua, Beatriz; Ehlers, Cindy; Crews, Fulton; Budin, Francois; Larson, Garrett; Styner, Martin; Oguz, Ipek

2011-03-01

158

Diffusion MRI of the developing cerebral cortical gray matter can be used to detect abnormalities in tissue microstructure associated with fetal ethanol exposure.  

PubMed

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) comprise a wide range of neurological deficits that result from fetal exposure to ethanol (EtOH), and are the leading cause of environmentally related birth defects and mental retardation in the western world. One aspect of diagnostic and therapeutic intervention strategies that could substantially improve our ability to combat this significant problem would be to facilitate earlier detection of the disorders within individuals. Light microscopy-based investigations performed by several laboratories have previously shown that morphological development of neurons within the early-developing cerebral cortex is abnormal within the brains of animals exposed to EtOH during fetal development. We and others have recently demonstrated that diffusion MRI can be of utility for detecting abnormal cellular morphological development in the developing cerebral cortex. We therefore assessed whether diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could be used to distinguish the developing cerebral cortices of ex vivo rat pup brains born from dams treated with EtOH (EtOH; 4.5g/kg, 25%) or calorie-matched quantities of maltose/dextrin (M/D) throughout gestation. Water diffusion and tissue microstructure were investigated using DTI (fractional anisotropy, FA) and histology (anisotropy index, AI), respectively. Both FA and AI decreased with age, and were higher in the EtOH than the M/D group at postnatal ages (P)0, P3, and P6. Additionally, there was a significant correlation between FA and AI measurements. These findings provide evidence that disruptions in cerebral cortical development induced by EtOH exposure can be revealed by water diffusion anisotropy patterns, and that these disruptions are directly related to cerebral cortical differentiation. PMID:23921100

Leigland, Lindsey A; Budde, Matthew D; Cornea, Anda; Kroenke, Christopher D

2013-08-03

159

Work in progress: abnormal parathyroid glands: comparison of nonselective arterial digital arteriography, selective parathyroid arteriography, and venous digital arteriogrpahy as methods of detection  

SciTech Connect

Nonselective arterial digital arteriography (NSADA), selective parathyroid arteriography (SPA), and venous digital arteriography (VDA) were compared as methods of detecting parathyroid enlargement in 14 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism undergoing preoperative localization following unsuccessful neck surgery. All 14 had SPA and NSADA, consisting of contrast injections into the ascending aorta, innominate artery, and left subclavian artery; 7 also had VDA. Surgery was performed in 9 patients, and 2 additional glands were confirmed by fine-needle aspiration and venous sampling. Parathyroid glands could not be located in 3 patients, who were not re-explored. SPA demonstrated 11/13 abnormal glands (85%). NSADA detected 7/13 (54%), and there were 2 false positives. VDA showed 5/6 glands detected by NSADA (83%); the seventh patient did not have VDA. The overall quality of VDA was inferior to NSADA. Although NSADA and VDA are less sensitive than SPA, they are safer and easier to perform and should be the initial vascular screening procedures following unsuccessful parathyroid surgery.

Krudy, A.G.; Doppman, J.L.; Miller, D.L.; Marx, S.J.; Norton, J.A.; Santora, A.C. II; Lasker, R.D.; Downs, R.W.; Spiegel, A.M.; Aurbach, G.D.

1983-07-01

160

Ancients' Criterion of Earliest Visibility of the Lunar Crescent - how Good is it  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earliest visibility of the lunar crescent is an important calendrical element. It was needed in all early calendars and remains in use on some lunar calendars today. An astronomical criterion of earliest lunar visibility was therefore evolved quite early, using observations, right from the Babylonian era. Recently, an improved and comprehensive global criterion of earliest visibility, developed by the author,

M. Ilyas

1987-01-01

161

Scheduling Mixed Traffic under Earliest-Deadline-First Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Recently, real-time packet schedulers based on Earliest Deadline First (EDF) policy have been extensively studied to support end-to-end bounded delay for real-time traffic. However, the packet\\u000a scheduler could not guarantee the QoS requirements of real-time traffic since it receives a number of non-real-time traffic\\u000a for the purpose of management and control. In this paper, we study a packet scheduling scheme

Yeonseung Ryu

2003-01-01

162

Mapping the lunar shadow - the earliest solar eclipse maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The English astronomer Edmond Halley (1656-1742) is commonly credited as the first to draw and publish maps delineating the paths of totality for solar eclipses. Halley published such maps for the solar eclipses of 3 May 1715 and 22 May 1724, which were both visible from southern England. In this paper, the author presents examples of earlier maps depicting solar eclipse paths from Germany, the Netherlands and France. The earliest eclipse maps of this kind appear to be those showing the path of totality for the solar eclipses of 23 September 1699 and 12 May 1706.

van Gent, Robert H.

163

High energy neutrino emission from the earliest gamma-ray bursts  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the high energy neutrino emission from gamma-ray bursts resulting from the earliest generation (''population III'') stars forming in the Universe, whose core collapses into a black hole. These gamma-ray bursts are expected to produce a highly relativistic, magnetically dominated jet, where protons can be accelerated to ultrahigh energies. These interact with the photons produced by the jet, leading to ultrahigh energy photomeson neutrinos as well as secondary leptons and photons. The photon luminosity and the shock properties, and thus the neutrino spectrum, depend on the mass of the black holes as well as on the density of the surrounding external gas. We calculate the individual source neutrino spectral fluxes and the expected diffuse neutrino flux for various source parameters and evolution scenarios. Both the individual and diffuse signals appear detectable in the 1-300 PeV range with current and planned neutrino detectors such as IceCube and ARIANNA, provided the black hole mass is in excess of 30-100 solar masses. This provides a possible test for the debated mass of the progenitor stellar objects, as well as a probe for the early cosmological environment and the formation rate of the earliest structures.

Gao Shan; Toma, Kenji; Meszaros, Peter [Department of Physics, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Center for Particle Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, 16802 (United States)

2011-05-15

164

Origin and radiation of the earliest vascular land plants.  

PubMed

Colonization of the land by plants most likely occurred in a stepwise fashion starting in the Mid-Ordovician. The earliest flora of bryophyte-like plants appears to have been cosmopolitan and dominated the planet, relatively unchanged, for some 30 million years. It is represented by fossilized dispersed cryptospores and fragmentary plant remains. In the Early Silurian, cryptospore abundance and diversity diminished abruptly as trilete spores appeared, became abundant, and underwent rapid diversification. This change coincides approximately with the appearance of vascular plant megafossils and probably represents the origin and adaptive radiation of vascular plants. We have obtained a diverse trilete spore occurrence from the Late Ordovician that suggests that vascular plants originated and diversified earlier than previously hypothesized, in Gondwana, before migrating elsewhere and secondarily diversifying. PMID:19372423

Steemans, Philippe; Hérissé, Alain Le; Melvin, John; Miller, Merrell A; Paris, Florentin; Verniers, Jacques; Wellman, Charles H

2009-04-17

165

The earliest mantle fabrics formed during subduction zone infancy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Harzburgites obtained from the oldest crust–mantle section in the Philippine Sea plate (˜52 Ma) along the landward slope of the southern Izu–Ogasawara Trench, preserve mantle fabrics formed during the infancy of the subduction zone; that is during the initial stages of Pacific plate subduction beneath the Philippine Sea plate. The harzburgites have relatively fresh primary minerals despite of their heavy serpentinizations, and show inequigranular interlobate textures, and crystal preferred orientation patterns in olivine (001)[100] and Opx (100)[001]. The harzburgites have the characteristics of residual peridotites, whereas the dunites, obtained from the same location as the harzburgites, provide evidence for the earliest stages of arc volcanism during the inception of subduction. We propose that the (001)[100] olivine patterns began forming in immature fore-arc mantle with an increase in slab-derived hydrous fluids during the initial stages of subduction in in situ oceanic island arc.

Harigane, Yumiko; Michibayashi, Katsuyoshi; Morishita, Tomoaki; Tani, Kenichiro; Dick, Henry J. B.; Ishizuka, Osamu

2013-09-01

166

The earliest fossil evidence for sexual dimorphism in primates.  

PubMed Central

Recently obtained material of the early Eocene primate Notharctus venticolus, including two partial skulls from a single stratigraphic horizon, provides the geologically earliest evidence of sexual dimorphism in canine size and shape in primates and the only unequivocal evidence for such dimorphism in strepsirhines. By analogy with living platyrrhines, these data suggest that Notharctus venticolus may have lived in polygynous social groups characterized by a relatively high level of intermale competition for mates and other limited resources. The anatomy of the upper incisors and related evidence imply that Notharctus is not as closely related to extant lemuriform primates as has been recently proposed. The early Eocene evidence for canine sexual dimorphism reported here, and its occurrence in a nonanthropoid, indicates that in the order Primates such a condition is either primitive or evolved independently more than once. Images

Krishtalka, L; Stucky, R K; Beard, K C

1990-01-01

167

Short Communication Application of an immunocapillary electrophoresis assay to the detection of abnormal prion protein in brain, spleen and blood specimens from patients with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensitive and specific detection of abnormal prion protein in blood could provide a diagnostic test or screening assay for animal and human prion diseases. Here, the application of an immunocapillary electrophoresis (ICE) method developed for sheep scrapie to brain, spleen and blood from patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is described. The assay involves organic-solvent extraction, a competitive immunoassay using fluorescently

Paula C. Lourenco; Mary Jo Schmerr; Ian MacGregor; Robert G. Will; James W. Ironside; Mark W. Head

168

The Origin and Earliest History of the Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this chapter is to explain the various lines of geochemical evidence relating to the origin and earliest development of the Earth, while at the same time clarifying current limitations on these constraints. The Earth's origins are to some extent shrouded in greater uncertainty than those of Mars or the Moon because, while vastly more accessible and extensively studied, the geological record of the first 500 Myr is almost entirely missing. This means that we have to rely heavily on theoretical modeling and geochemistry to determine the mechanisms and timescales involved. Both of these approaches have yielded a series of, sometimes strikingly different, views about Earth's origin and early evolution that have seen significant change every few years. There has been a great deal of discussion and debate in the past few years in particular, fueled by new kinds of data and more powerful computational codes.The major issues to address in discussing the origin and early development of the Earth are as follows:(i) What is the theoretical basis for our understanding of the mechanisms by which the Earth accreted?(ii) What do the isotopic and bulk chemical compositions of the Earth tell us about the Earth's accretion?(iii) How are the chemical compositions of the early Earth and the Moon linked? Did the formation of the Moon affect the Earth's composition?(iv) Did magma oceans exist on Earth and how can we constrain this from geochemistry?(v) How did the Earth's core form?(vi) How did the Earth acquire its atmosphere and hydrosphere and how have these changed?(vii) What kind of crust might have formed in the earliest stages of the Earth's development?(viii) How do we think life first developed and how might geochemical signatures be used in the future to identify early biological processes?Although these issues could, in principle, all be covered in this chapter, some are dealt with in more detail in other chapters and, therefore, are given only cursory treatment here. Furthermore, there are major gaps in our knowledge that render a comprehensive overview unworkable. The nature of the early crust (item (vii)) is poorly constrained, although some lines of evidence will be mentioned. The nature of the earliest life forms (item (viii)) is so loaded with projections into underconstrained hypothetical environments that not a great deal can be described as providing a factual basis suitable for inclusion in a reference volume at this time. Even in those areas in which geochemical constraints are more plentiful, it is essential to integrate them with astronomical observations and dynamic (physical) models of planetary growth and primary differentiation. In some cases, the various theoretical dynamic models can be tested with isotopic and geochemical methods. In other cases, it is the Earth's composition itself that has been used to erect specific accretion paradigms. Therefore, much of this background is provided in this chapter.All these models and interpretations of geochemical data involve some level of assumption in scaling the results to the big picture of the Earth. Without this, one cannot erect useful concepts that address the above issues. It is one of the main goals of this chapter to explain what these underlying assumptions are. As a consequence, this chapter focuses on the range of interpretations and uncertainties, leaving many issues "open." The chapter finishes by indicating where the main sources of uncertainty remain and what might be done about these in the future.

Halliday, A. N.

2003-12-01

169

Multigated equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography: improved detection of left ventricular wall motion abnormalities and aneurysms by the addition of the left lateral view  

SciTech Connect

The usefulness of adding the left lateral (LLAT) view to the standard anterior and left anterior oblique views in multigated equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography was assessed in 50 patients. Contrast ventriculography was used as the standard. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to assess results. Recognition of inferior wall motion abnormality and left ventricular aneurysms was improved significantly by the addition of the LLAT view. Sensitivity was improved for inferior wall motion abnormality and for aneurysms; there was no loss of specificity. There was no improvement in recognition of anterior wall and apical regional abnormalities in the absence of aneurysms.

Kelly, M.J.; Giles, R.W.; Simon, T.R.; Berger, H.J.; Langou, R.A.; Zaret, B.L.; Wackers, F.J.T.

1981-04-01

170

Use of maximal expiratory flow-volume curves with air and helium-oxygen in the detection of ventilatory abnormalities in population surveys.  

PubMed

Flow-volume curves with air and helium, and spirometry were obtained in 423 subjects during epidemiologic health surveys; subjects were divided into 4 groups: nonsmokers and smokers not exposed to air pollutants at work, and nonsmoking and smoking grain elevator workers. The data obtained from 78 healthy nonsmokers who were not exposed to any air contaminants at work and had no respiratory symptoms were used to develop "normal" prediction equations for each of the following parameters: forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), maximal mid-expiratory flow, maximal expiratory flow at 50% of vital capacity while breathing air (Vmax50), the increase in Vmax50 after breathing a mixture of helium and O2 (delta Vmax50), and the volume of isoflow (VisoV). The prediction equations thus obtained from normal nonsmokers agreed with those published in the literature. The coefficient of variation was higher for delta Vmax50 (40.7%) and VisoV (57.6%) than for FEV1 (17.7%) or Vmax50 (27.7%). Comparison of results in smokers and nonsmokers who were not exposed to any air contaminants at work indicated that Vmax50 was the best test for discriminating the effect of cigarette smoking, whereas delta Vmax50 and VisoV were not significantly different. The FEV1 was the best discriminator of the effects of grain dust. There was poor concordance among FEV1, Vmax50, and delta Vmax50 or VisoV. We concluded that FEV1 and Vmax50 are more useful parameters than are delta Vmax50 and VisoV for detecting ventilatory abnormalities in a smoking, working population and in grain elevator workers. The results suggest that the addition of the more time-consuming test, the helium flow-volume curve, is unlikely to contribute any further useful information among the populations surveyed. PMID:7235364

Lam, S; Abboud, R T; Chan-Yeung, M; Tan, F

1981-02-01

171

Cardiac Diastolic Evaluation in Pregnant Women with Abnormal Glucose Tolerance: An Opportunity to Detect the Early and Subclinical Alterations and Prevent Cardiovascular Diseases  

PubMed Central

Objectives of this study were to assess diastolic function in pregnant women with abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT), compared with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) women, and to evaluate the insulin resistance status and its association with Doppler-echocardiographic indexes. Echocardiograms of 108 consecutive Caucasian women with singleton pregnancies were performed. Insulin resistance status was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI). All the studied women showed normal diastolic patterns. Patients with AGT (50.9%), as compared with NGT women, had higher HOMA-IR (1.70 ± 1.30 versus 1.01 ± 0.81, P = 0.003), lower QUICKI (0.36 ± 0.005 versus 0.40 ± 0.06, P = 0.004), higher lateral mitral annulus late diastolic velocity (13.6 ± 4.9 versus 11.9 ± 4.9, P = 0.03), and higher A-wave velocity, the wave responsible for the active atrial contraction component (75.2 ± 14.2 versus 67.7 ± 16.2, P = 0.01). At multivariate regression analysis HOMA-IR was the only parameter associated with A-wave velocity. In conclusion, women with AGT had an increased subclinical diastolic active participation, which is associated with higher levels of insulin resistance. For the increased risk of deterioration of cardiac diastolic function, earlier and more seriously than normal pregnancy, AGT women may have a careful followup to detect the early signs of cardiac alteration and to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

Pintaudi, B.; Di Vieste, G.; Corrado, F.; Creazzo, M. F.; Fazio, A.; Valenti, A.; D'Anna, R.; Di Benedetto, A.

2013-01-01

172

A Jurassic mammaliaform and the earliest mammalian evolutionary adaptations.  

PubMed

The earliest evolution of mammals and origins of mammalian features can be traced to the mammaliaforms of the Triassic and Jurassic periods that are extinct relatives to living mammals. Here we describe a new fossil from the Middle Jurassic that has a mandibular middle ear, a gradational transition of thoracolumbar vertebrae and primitive ankle features, but highly derived molars with a high crown and multiple roots that are partially fused. The upper molars have longitudinal cusp rows that occlude alternately with those of the lower molars. This specialization for masticating plants indicates that herbivory evolved among mammaliaforms, before the rise of crown mammals. The new species shares the distinctive dental features of the eleutherodontid clade, previously represented only by isolated teeth despite its extensive geographic distribution during the Jurassic. This eleutherodontid was terrestrial and had ambulatory gaits, analogous to extant terrestrial mammals such as armadillos or rock hyrax. Its fur corroborates that mammalian integument had originated well before the common ancestor of living mammals. PMID:23925238

Zhou, Chang-Fu; Wu, Shaoyuan; Martin, Thomas; Luo, Zhe-Xi

2013-08-01

173

Digging up the Earliest Astronomical Observatory in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the town of Taosi, county of Xiangfen, Shanxi province the earliest (up to date about 4000 years ago) astronomical observatory and sacrificial altar relic was dug up, which consists of an observing site, some tamped soil columniations and slits between those columniations. This construction was used to observe the variations of the sunrise azimuth and determine the tropical year length in order to constitute the calendar. It is indicated from the simulated observations that the two slits located in the southeast and the northwest could be precisely used to determine the dates of the Winter Solstice and the Summer Solstice. Between those two slits there are 10 columniations which could indicate that the visual Sun moving from one columniation to another is a solar term. It implies that in the Emperor Yao time the calendar was the solar calendar in which one year was divided into 20 solar terms. The Yin-Yang five-element calendar, a 10-month calendar, in the very ancient time was based on this calendar.

Li, Wei-Boa; Chen, Jiu-Jin

2007-09-01

174

The first skull of the earliest giant panda  

PubMed Central

Fossils of the giant panda Ailuropoda (Order Carnivora, Family Ursidae) are largely isolated teeth, mandibles, and a few rare skulls, known from the late Pliocene to late Pleistocene in China and Southeast Asia. Much of this material represents a Pleistocene chronospecies, Ailuropoda baconi, an animal larger than the living giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca. The earliest certain record of Ailuropoda is the late Pliocene chronospecies, Ailuropoda microta, smaller than either A. baconi or A. melanoleuca, and previously known only from teeth and a few mandibles from karst caves in south China. Here, we report the discovery of the first skull of A. microta, establishing its cranial anatomy and demonstrating that the specialized cranial and dental adaptations of Ailuropoda for durophagous feeding behavior centered on bamboo were already evident in this late Pliocene species. The skull from Jinyin cave (Guangxi) and dental remains from other karst localities in southeastern China show that Ailuropoda microta occupied south China from ?2 to 2.4 Myr ago after a marked global climatic deterioration. Dental and basicranial anatomy indicate a less specialized morphology early in the history of the lineage and support derivation of the giant panda from the Miocene Asian ursid Ailurarctos

Jin, Changzhu; Ciochon, Russell L.; Dong, Wei; Hunt, Robert M.; Liu, Jinyi; Jaeger, Marc; Zhu, Qizhi

2007-01-01

175

Aurorae: The earliest datable observation of the aurora borealis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Late Babylonian astronomical texts, discovered at the site of Babylon (32.5°N, 44.4°E) more than a century ago, contain what is probably the earliest reliable account of the aurora borealis. A clay tablet recording numerous celestial observations made by the official astronomers during the 37th year of King Nebuchadnezzar II (568/567 BC) describes an unusual ``red glow'' in the sky at night; the exact date of this observation corresponds to the night of 12/13 March in 567 BC. The most likely interpretation of the phenomenon is an auroral display. This event occurred several centuries before the first clearly identifiable observation of the aurora from elsewhere in the world, namely China in 193 BC. The Babylonian auroral observation is remarkable in the sense that it is one of a series of carefully recorded astronomical observations, for each of which the year, month and day are known precisely. This observation occurred at a time when the geomagnetic (dipole) latitude of Babylon was about 41°N compared with the present value of 27.5°N, suggesting a higher auroral incidence at Babylon in 567 BC than at present.

Stephenson, F. Richard; Willis, David M.; Hallinan, Thomas J.

2004-12-01

176

Knee Cartilage T2 Characteristics and Evolution in Relation to Morphologic Abnormalities Detected at 3-T MR Imaging: A Longitudinal Study of the Normal Control Cohort from the Osteoarthritis Initiative  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To determine the frequency of degenerative knee morphologic abnormalities in asymptomatic individuals by using 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and to investigate the characteristics and evolution of cartilage T2 values in relation to morphologic abnormalities with a longitudinal study. Materials and Methods: The study was approved by the institutional review board and was compliant with HIPAA. Ninety-five asymptomatic subjects aged 45–78 years who were free of risk factors for osteoarthritis (OA) were selected from the Osteoarthritis Initiative normal control cohort and examined with radiography and 3-T MR imaging. Data obtained at both baseline and 2-year follow-up were analyzed. OA-related knee abnormalities were analyzed by using the whole-organ MR imaging score (WORMS). Cartilage T2 maps were generated by using sagittal two-dimensional multiecho spin-echo images of the right knee. Statistical significance was determined with the Student t test, the paired t test, a mixed random effects model, one-way analysis of variance, and a multiple linear regression model. Results: Knee abnormalities were identified with a high frequency (90% at baseline and 92% at 2-year follow-up). The prevalence of hyaline cartilage lesions was particularly high (86% at baseline and 84% at follow-up). A significant longitudinal increase in T2 was detected in the tibiofemoral cartilage but not the patellofemoral cartilage (P = .0072). The longitudinal change in T2 was significantly associated with worsening of the cartilage WORMS (P = .038). Conclusion: Asymptomatic subjects have a high frequency of OA-related morphologic abnormalities. A significant increase in tibiofemoral cartilage T2 was detected over the 2-year period. A greater increase in T2 was associated with increased progression of cartilage morphologic abnormalities. © RSNA, 2011

Pialat, Jean-Baptiste; Joseph, Tom; Kuo, Daniel; Joseph, Gabby B.; Nevitt, Michael C.; Link, Thomas M.

2011-01-01

177

The earliest stages of follicular development: follicle formation and activation.  

PubMed

The formation of primordial follicles to establish a reservoir of resting follicles and the gradual depletion of that reservoir to provide a succession of growing follicles are key to female fertility, but little is known about the regulation of these early stages of follicular development. This review summarizes the efforts of our laboratory to elucidate these critical processes in cattle. Primordial follicles first appear in fetal ovaries around the end of the first trimester of pregnancy (Day 90), during a decline in fetal ovarian production of estradiol and progesterone. In ovarian cortical pieces from 90 to 120-day-old fetuses, follicles form in vitro and estradiol or progesterone inhibits follicle formation, whereas the non-aromatizable androgen 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) does not. Newly formed bovine follicles are not capable of activating within 2 days in vitro, but they can acquire the capacity to activate during a longer culture; estradiol and progesterone inhibit the acquisition of their capacity to activate. When primordial follicles first form in cattle, their oocytes are not yet in meiotic arrest and acquisition of competence to activate is correlated with their progression to meiotic arrest at the diplotene stage of first prophase. After they acquire the competence to activate, bovine primordial follicles can be stimulated to activate in vitro by insulin or kit ligand, whereas anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) is inhibitory. Although few follicles progress to the secondary stage in vitro, addition of testosterone or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) dramatically increased the incidence of that transition. Regulation of the earliest stages of follicular development is complex and far from understood; better understanding could lead to new interventions to enhance fertility. PMID:21755674

Fortune, J E; Yang, M Y; Muruvi, W

2010-01-01

178

Configurational approach to identifying the earliest hominin butchers  

PubMed Central

The announcement of two approximately 3.4-million-y-old purportedly butchered fossil bones from the Dikika paleoanthropological research area (Lower Awash Valley, Ethiopia) could profoundly alter our understanding of human evolution. Butchering damage on the Dikika bones would imply that tool-assisted meat-eating began approximately 800,000 y before previously thought, based on butchered bones from 2.6- to 2.5-million-y-old sites at the Ethiopian Gona and Bouri localities. Further, the only hominin currently known from Dikika at approximately 3.4 Ma is Australopithecus afarensis, a temporally and geographically widespread species unassociated previously with any archaeological evidence of butchering. Our taphonomic configurational approach to assess the claims of A. afarensis butchery at Dikika suggests the claims of unexpectedly early butchering at the site are not warranted. The Dikika research group focused its analysis on the morphology of the marks in question but failed to demonstrate, through recovery of similarly marked in situ fossils, the exact provenience of the published fossils, and failed to note occurrences of random striae on the cortices of the published fossils (incurred through incidental movement of the defleshed specimens across and/or within their abrasive encasing sediments). The occurrence of such random striae (sometimes called collectively “trampling” damage) on the two fossils provide the configurational context for rejection of the claimed butchery marks. The earliest best evidence for hominin butchery thus remains at 2.6 to 2.5 Ma, presumably associated with more derived species than A. afarensis.

Dominguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Pickering, Travis Rayne; Bunn, Henry T.

2010-01-01

179

Using the Earliest School Recollection as One Method for Identifying a Student's Behavior Patterns at School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The researchers devised a system for classifying earliest school recollections (ESRs). To determine the validity of this system, judges classified 100 third- and fourth-grade public school students according to their earliest school recollections. A statistically significant agreement was found between judges' and teachers' classifications of…

Roth, Henry J.; Ward-Alexander, Lucia A.

1985-01-01

180

Parental decisions regarding a prenatally detected fetal chromosomal abnormality and the impact of genetic counseling: an analysis of 38 cases with aneuploidy in Southeast Turkey.  

PubMed

This study investigated parental decision-making to terminate or continue a pregnancy after prenatal diagnosis of a chromosomal abnormality among a sample of patients in Southeast Turkey. Between 2004 and 2007, 1068 amniocentesis tests were performed in the Medical Biology and Genetic Department Laboratory at Dicle University. Aneuploidy was found in 38 cases (3.56%). Genetic counseling was provided for the couples that received abnormal results, and they were later interviewed and asked if they had continued or interrupted the pregnancy after the diagnosis. When confronted with autosomal aneuploidy in which a severe prognosis was expected, 85% of cases decided to terminate the pregnancy. When confronted with sex chromosome aneuploidy with a low risk of an abnormal clinical phenotype 60% of cases decided to continue the pregnancy. Among the diagnoses with aneuploidy, pregnancy was continued in 21.1% of cases due to religious beliefs regardless of whether there was a low or severe risk of an abnormal clinical phenotype. These findings indicate that both severity of abnormality and religiosity play an important role in genetic counseling patients' decision-making processes and outcomes in Turkey. In addition, the findings suggest the need for legislation that reduces the differences in approaches between the physicians and institutions regarding parental decision-making to terminate or continue a pregnancy in our country. PMID:20119701

Balkan, Mahmut; Kalkanli, Sevgi; Akbas, Halit; Yalinkaya, Ahmet; Alp, M Nail; Budak, Turgay

2010-01-30

181

[Molecular abnormalities in lymphomas].  

PubMed

Numerous molecular abnormalities have been described in lymphomas. They are of diagnostic and prognostic value and are taken into account for the WHO classification of these tumors. They also shed some light on the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in lymphomas. Overall, four types of molecular abnormalities are involved: mutations, translocations, amplifications and deletions of tumor suppressor genes. Several techniques are available to detect these molecular anomalies: conventional cytogenetic analysis, multicolor FISH, CGH array or gene expression profiling using DNA microarrays. In some lymphomas, genetic abnormalities are responsible for the expression of an abnormal protein (e.g. tyrosine-kinase, transcription factor) detectable by immunohistochemistry. In the present review, molecular abnormalities observed in the most frequent B, T or NK cell lymphomas are discussed. In the broad spectrum of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas microarray analysis shows mostly two subgroups of tumors, one with gene expression signature corresponding to germinal center B-cell-like (GCB: CD10+, BCL6 [B-Cell Lymphoma 6]+, centerine+, MUM1-) and a subgroup expressing an activated B-cell-like signature (ABC: CD10-, BCL6-, centerine-, MUM1+). Among other B-cell lymphomas with well characterized molecular abnormalies are follicular lymphoma (BCL2 deregulation), MALT lymphoma (Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue) [API2-MALT1 (mucosa-associated-lymphoid-tissue-lymphoma-translocation-gene1) fusion protein or deregulation BCL10, MALT1, FOXP1. MALT1 transcription factors], mantle cell lymphoma (cycline D1 [CCND1] overexpression) and Burkitt lymphoma (c-Myc expression). Except for ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma, well characterized molecular anomalies are rare in lymphomas developed from T or NK cells. Peripheral T cell lymphomas not otherwise specified are a heterogeneous group of tumors with frequent but not recurrent molecular abnormalities. Gene profiling analysis shows that the expression of several genes is deregulated including PDGFRA (platelet-derived growth factor receptor) gene, encoding a receptor with tyrosine kinase activity. In angio-immunoblastic T-cell lymphomas molecular abnormalities are found in follicular helper T-cell (TFH) that express some distinctive markers such as CD10, PD-1, CXCR5 and the CXCL13 chemokine. ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a paradigme of T-cell lymphoma since it is associated with an X-ALK oncogenic fusion protein due to a translocation involving ALK gene at 2p23. ALK tyrosine kinase activates downstream pathways (Stat3/5b, Src kinases, PLC?, PI3 kinase) implicated in lymphomagenesis, proliferation and protection against apoptosis. Specific ALK inhibitors are currently in clinical evaluation. Lastly several lymphomas are associated with infectious agents that play a direct (EB virus, HTLV1) or indirect role (e.g. Helicobacter pylori in MALT lymphoma) in lymphomagenesis. PMID:21084243

Delsol, G

2010-11-01

182

Is cancer a disease of abnormal cellular metabolism?  

PubMed Central

In the 1920s, Otto Warburg observed that tumor cells consume a large amount of glucose, much more than normal cells, and convert most of it to lactic acid. This phenomenon, now known as the ‘Warburg effect,’ is the foundation of one of the earliest general concepts of cancer: that a fundamental disturbance of cellular metabolic activity is at the root of tumor formation and growth. In the ensuing decades, as it became apparent that abnormalities in chromosomes and eventually individual genes caused cancer, the ‘metabolic’ model of cancer lost a good deal of its appeal, even as emerging technologies were exploiting the Warburg effect clinically to detect tumors in vivo. We now know that tumor suppressors and proto-oncogenes influence metabolism, and that mutations in these genes can promote a metabolic phenotype supporting cell growth and proliferation. Thus, these advances have unified aspects of the metabolic and genetic models of cancer, and have stimulated a renewed interest in the role of cellular metabolism in tumorigenesis. This review reappraises the notion that dysregulated cellular metabolism is a key feature of cancer, and discusses some metabolic issues that have escaped scrutiny over the years and now deserve closer attention.

DeBerardinis, Ralph J.

2009-01-01

183

Use of capillary electrophoresis and fluorescent labeled peptides to detect the abnormal prion protein in the blood of animals that are infected with a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in humans and in animals are fatal neuro-degenerative diseases with long incubation times. The putative cause of these diseases is a normal host protein, the prion protein, that becomes altered. This abnormal prion protein is found mostly in the brains of infected individuals in later stages of the disease, but also can be found in lymphoid and

Mary Jo Schmerr; Allen L Jenny; Marie S Bulgin; Janice M Miller; Amirali N Hamir; Randall C Cutlip; Kathryn R Goodwin

1999-01-01

184

Detection of myocardial perfusion abnormalities during dobutamine and adenosine stress echocardiography with transient myocardial contrast imaging after minute quantities of intravenous perfluorocarbon-exposed sonicated dextrose albumin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recently discovered that if ultrasound transmission is briefly suspended (triggered to just one frame per cardiac cycle) after very small doses of intravenous perfluorocarbon-exposed sonicated dextrose albumin, the myocardial contrast produced is significantly enhanced. The objective of this study was to test whether this technique (termed transient response imaging) could identify myocardial perfusion abnormalities during adenosine and dobutamine

Thomas R. Porter; Feng Xie; Karen Kilzer; Ubeydullah Deligonul

1996-01-01

185

Perceptual Learning Increases The Strength of The Earliest Signals in Visual Cortex  

PubMed Central

Training improves performance on most visual tasks. Such perceptual learning can modify how information is read out from, and represented in, later visual areas, but effects on early visual cortex are controversial. In particular, it remains unknown whether learning can reshape neural response properties in early visual areas independent from feedback arising in later cortical areas. Here, we tested whether learning can modify feed-forward signals in early visual cortex as measured by the human electroencephalogram (EEG). Fourteen subjects were trained for over 28 days to detect a diagonal grating pattern in one quadrant of the visual field. Training improved performance, reducing the contrast needed for reliable detection, and also reliably increased the amplitude of the earliest component of the visual evoked potential, the C1. Control orientations and locations showed smaller effects of training. Because the C1 arises rapidly and has a source in early visual cortex, our results suggest that learning can increase early visual area response through local receptive field changes without feedback from later areas.

Bao, Min; Yang, Lin; Rios, Cristina; He, Bin; Engel, Stephen A.

2010-01-01

186

Parental Decisions Regarding a Prenatally Detected Fetal Chromosomal Abnormality and the Impact of Genetic Counseling: An Analysis of 38 Cases with Aneuploidy in Southeast Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated parental decision-making to terminate or continue a pregnancy after prenatal diagnosis of a chromosomal\\u000a abnormality among a sample of patients in Southeast Turkey. Between 2004 and 2007, 1068 amniocentesis tests were performed\\u000a in the Medical Biology and Genetic Department Laboratory at Dicle University. Aneuploidy was found in 38 cases (3.56%). Genetic\\u000a counseling was provided for the couples

Mahmut Balkan; Sevgi Kalkanli; Halit Akbas; Ahmet Yalinkaya; M. Nail Alp; Turgay Budak

2010-01-01

187

Tooth - abnormal shape  

MedlinePLUS

Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. Abnormally shaped teeth can result from many different conditions. Specific diseases can have a profound effect ...

188

Abnormal Head Position  

MedlinePLUS

... ocular problem. What are some of the ocular causes of an abnormal head position? Eye misalignment: Sometimes when ... asymmetry. What are some of the non-ocular causes of an abnormal head position? Congenital shortening of the ...

189

Lymphocyte abnormalities in Behçet's syndrome.  

PubMed

In order to test indirectly the hypothesis that Behçet's syndrome is caused by a virus, lymphocytes from eighty-six patients were evaluated for two parameters consistent with persistent virus infection: chromosomal abnormalities and decreased ability to herpes simplex virus type I (HSV) to grow in lymphocyte cultures stimulated by PHA. Whereas HSV grew in lymphocytes cultured from all normal donors, replication was impaired in lymphocytes from 37% of the patients with Behçet's syndrome. This figure is increased to 57% if patients receiving steroids or cytotoxic drugs were excluded. Lymphocytes were scored as chromosomally abnormal from sixteen of the thirty-eight patients examined, compared with only one of seventeen normal controls. There was damage to specific chromosomes in four patients. The frequency with which chromosomal abnormalities were detected was significantly related to failure to replicate HSV and inversely related to concomitant steroid treatment. The findings are consistent with a viral aetiology for Behçet's syndrome but other explanations are not excluded. PMID:6161726

Denman, A M; Fialkow, P J; Pelton, B K; Salo, A C; Appleford, D J; Gilchrist, C

1980-10-01

190

Advances in Understanding Paternally Transmitted Chromosomal Abnormalities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Multicolor FISH has been adapted for detecting the major types of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm including aneuploidies for clinically-relevant chromosomes, chromosomal aberrations including breaks and rearrangements, and other numerical abnorma...

F. Marchetti E. Sloter A. J. Wyrobek

2002-01-01

191

Age at earliest reported memory: associations with personality traits, behavioral health, and repression.  

PubMed

The present study examined relationships between the age at earliest memory and the personality traits and behavioral health of 107 undergraduates. Participants answered questions on their earliest memory and completed the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and a medical history form. Analyses indicated that continuous scores on two MBTI scales (Sensing-Intuition and Judging-Perceiving) were inversely related to age at earliest memory as were participant's self-reported drug and alcohol problems, emotional and psychological symptoms, accident rates, physical symptoms, and satisfaction with health. Respondents who reported first memories at or after 7 years of age (i.e., approximately 1 SD above the mean age at recalled memory) were classified as repressors. Repressors scored in the Sensing and Judging directions on the MBTI and reported significantly fewer emotional symptoms, accidents, psychological symptoms, and less health satisfaction than nonrepressors. Results are consistent with the age at earliest memory and repression literature and support the use of earliest memory age as an index of repression. PMID:11575624

Spirrison, C L; McCarley, N G

2001-09-01

192

Investigation of the effects of experimental autolysis on the detection of abnormal prion protein in lymphoid and central nervous system tissues from elk and sheep using the Western blotting method  

PubMed Central

Tissues unsuitable for standard immunohistochemical and histopathological examinations for chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids and for scrapie in sheep are frequently submitted for testing. This study investigated the effects of experimental autolysis on the detection of abnormal prion protein (PrPsc) in lymphoid and central nervous system (CNS) tissues from elk and sheep. The PrPsc was detected using a Western blotting (WB) test following PrPsc enrichment using sodium phosphotungstic acid (PTA) precipitation (PTA-WB). A commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used as a reference test for quantitative measurement. This study showed that the amount of PrPsc in lymphoid and CNS tssues from elk and sheep decreased gradually as a result of autolysis, but PrPsc was still detectable after 5 and 15 d incubation at 37°C by PTA-WB for all lymphoid and CNS samples. The results of the ELISA supported those of PTA-WB, particularly for CNS tissues. In conclusion, autolysis at 37°C for 15 d would not significantly affect the detection of PrPsc in lymphoid and CNS tissues by WB and ELISA and, particularly, PTA-WB is a valuable and alternative confirmatory test to detect PrPsc in autolyzed lymphoid and CNS samples.

Huang, Hongsheng; Soutyrine, Andrei; Rendulich, Jasmine; O'Rourke, Katherine; Balachandran, Aru

2011-01-01

193

FRAGMENTATION AT THE EARLIEST PHASE OF MASSIVE STAR FORMATION  

SciTech Connect

We present 1.3 mm continuum and spectral line images of two massive molecular clumps P1 and P2 in the G28.34+0.06 region with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). While the two clumps contain masses of 1000 and 880 M {sub sun}, respectively, P1 has a luminosity OF <10{sup 2} L {sub sun}, and a lower gas temperature and smaller line width than P2. Thus, P1 appears to be at a much earlier stage of massive star formation than P2. The high-resolution SMA observations reveal two distinctive cores in P2 with masses of 97 and 49 M {sub sun}, respectively. The 4 GHz spectral bandpass captures line emission from CO isotopologues, SO, CH{sub 3}OH, and CH{sub 3}CN, similar to hot molecular cores harboring massive young stars. The P1 clump, on the other hand, is resolved into five cores along the filament with masses from 22 to 64 M {sub sun} and an average projected separation of 0.19 pc. Except {sup 12}CO, no molecular line emission is detected toward the P1 cores at a 1{sigma} rms of 0.1 K. Since strong {sup 12}CO and C{sup 18}O emissions are seen with the single-dish telescope at a resolution of 11'', the nondetection of these lines with the SMA indicates a depletion factor up to 10{sup 3}. While the spatial resolution of the SMA is better than the expected Jeans length, the masses in P1 cores are much larger than the thermal Jeans mass, indicating the importance of turbulence and/or magnetic fields in cloud fragmentation. The hierarchical structures in the P1 region provide a glimpse of the initial phase of massive star and cluster formation.

Zhang Qizhou; Wang Yang; Pillai, Thushara; Rathborne, Jill [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)], E-mail: qzhang@cfa.harvard.edu

2009-05-01

194

A new fluorometric turn-on detection of L-lactic acid based on the cascade enzymatic and chemical reactions and the abnormal fluorescent behavior of silole.  

PubMed

By making use of the aggregation-induced emission feature of silole 1 and the cascade reactions among l-lactic acid (LA), lactate oxidase (LOD), and dodecanoic hydrazine (DH), a new fluorometric "turn-on" method is developed for the detection of LA. PMID:22443585

Shen, Xiang; Zhang, Guanxin; Zhang, Deqing

2012-03-23

195

In vivo detection of cortical abnormalities in BCNU-treated rats, model of cortical dysplasia, using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

The 1-3-bis-chloroethyl-nitrosurea (BCNU)-treated rats represent a good model of cortical dysplasia (CD), as proved by the presence of some histological alterations similar to those observed in human CD, including cortical thinning, laminar disorganization, and heterotopia. The cortical cytoarchitectonics of BCNU-treated rats has been widely investigated by means of histological procedures, immunocytochemistry, and in situ hybridization techniques, implying the sacrifice of the animals. With the aim of identifying brain alterations in vivo to have the possibility of performing longitudinal studies, we used both conventional T(2)-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI). Though the T(2)-weighted MRI showed the gross anatomical landmarks of BCNU-treated rats, only following Mn(2+) administration T(1)-weighted MRI did reveal the brain cytoarchitectonics both of control and BCNU-treated rats. In particular, changes in MEMRI signal depicted the laminar architecture of control rats while BCNU-treated cortex showed no appreciable changes in MEMRI contrast, consistent with their abnormal cortical lamination. Furthermore, in the treated animals MEMRI revealed hyperintense signals corresponding to heterotopia, as shown by the comparison between MEMRI images and Thionin staining and calbindin immunocytochemistry from the same animals. The qualitative findings obtained with MEMRI were semi-quantitatively confirmed by image segmentation of grey matter. Overall, these data show that MEMRI can be used as a non-invasive technique to investigate cortical alterations in animal models of CD in vivo, giving the possibility to perform longitudinal studies, such as electrophysiological recordings or behavioural investigations. PMID:21782902

Moroni, R F; Zucca, I; Inverardi, F; Mastropietro, A; Regondi, M C; Spreafico, R; Frassoni, C

2011-07-18

196

Elevation of intact and proteolytic fragments of acute phase proteins constitutes the earliest systemic antiviral response in HIV-1 infection.  

PubMed

The earliest immune responses activated in acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection (AHI) exert a critical influence on subsequent virus spread or containment. During this time frame, components of the innate immune system such as macrophages and DCs, NK cells, beta-defensins, complement and other anti-microbial factors, which have all been implicated in modulating HIV infection, may play particularly important roles. A proteomics-based screen was performed on a cohort from whom samples were available at time points prior to the earliest positive HIV detection. The ability of selected factors found to be elevated in the plasma during AHI to inhibit HIV-1 replication was analyzed using in vitro PBMC and DC infection models. Analysis of unique plasma donor panels spanning the eclipse and viral expansion phases revealed very early alterations in plasma proteins in AHI. Induction of acute phase protein serum amyloid A (A-SAA) occurred as early as 5-7 days prior to the first detection of plasma viral RNA, considerably prior to any elevation in systemic cytokine levels. Furthermore, a proteolytic fragment of alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT), termed virus inhibitory peptide (VIRIP), was observed in plasma coincident with viremia. Both A-SAA and VIRIP have anti-viral activity in vitro and quantitation of their plasma levels indicated that circulating concentrations are likely to be within the range of their inhibitory activity. Our results provide evidence for a first wave of host anti-viral defense occurring in the eclipse phase of AHI prior to systemic activation of other immune responses. Insights gained into the mechanism of action of acute-phase reactants and other innate molecules against HIV and how they are induced could be exploited for the future development of more efficient prophylactic vaccine strategies. PMID:20463814

Kramer, Holger B; Lavender, Kerry J; Qin, Li; Stacey, Andrea R; Liu, Michael K P; di Gleria, Katalin; Simmons, Alison; Gasper-Smith, Nancy; Haynes, Barton F; McMichael, Andrew J; Borrow, Persephone; Kessler, Benedikt M

2010-05-06

197

Morphological abnormalities among lampreys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

Manion, Patrick J.

1967-01-01

198

Deletion 2p25.2: A cryptic chromosome abnormality in a patient with autism and mental retardation detected using aCGH  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a 7-year-old patient with autism, moderate mental retardation, secondary microcephaly, agenesis of right optic nerve, and dysmorphic features carrying a de novo cryptic deletion of chromosome 2p25.2, detected by aCGH.Pure monosomies of 2p are very rare, and are usually observed as part of more complex aberrations involving other chromosomes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the

Adriana Lo-Castro; Grazia Giana; Marco Fichera; Lucia Castiglia; Lucia Grillo; Sebastiano Antonino Musumeci; Cinzia Galasso; Paolo Curatolo

2009-01-01

199

Detection of Genomic Amplification of the Human Telomerase Gene TERC, a Potential Marker for Triage of Women with HPV-Positive, Abnormal Pap Smears  

PubMed Central

The vast majority of invasive cervical carcinomas harbor additional copies of the chromosome arm 3q, resulting in genomic amplification of the human telomerase gene TERC. Here, we evaluated TERC amplification in routinely collected liquid based cytology (LBC) samples with histologically confirmed diagnoses. A set of 78 LBC samples from a Swedish patient cohort were analyzed with a four-color fluorescence in situ hybridization probe panel that included TERC. Clinical follow-up included additional histological evaluation and Pap smears. Human papillomavirus status was available for all cases. The correlation of cytology, TERC amplification, human papillomavirus typing, and histological diagnosis showed that infection with high-risk human papillomavirus was detected in 64% of the LBC samples with normal histopathology, in 65% of the cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)1, 95% of the CIN2, 96% of the CIN3 lesions, and all carcinomas. Seven percent of the lesions with normal histopathology were positive for TERC amplification, 24% of the CIN1, 64% of the CIN2, 91% of the CIN3 lesions, and 100% of invasive carcinomas. This demonstrates that detection of genomic amplification of TERC in LBC samples can identify patients with histopathologically confirmed CIN3 or cancer. Indeed, the proportion of TERC-positive cases increases with the severity of dysplasia. Among the markers tested, detection of TERC amplification in cytological samples has the highest combined sensitivity and specificity for discernment of low-grade from high-grade dysplasia and cancer.

Andersson, Sonia; Sowjanya, Pavani; Wangsa, Darawalee; Hjerpe, Anders; Johansson, Bo; Auer, Gert; Gravitt, Patti E.; Larsson, Catharina; Wallin, Keng-Ling; Ried, Thomas; Heselmeyer-Haddad, Kerstin

2009-01-01

200

Genetic Counseling for Fetal Abnormalities in a South African Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fetal abnormalities are congenital abnormalities identified prenatally. Women who have a fetal abnormality detected often\\u000a have to make difficult decisions regarding continuation or termination of the pregnancy. The aims of this research project\\u000a were: to investigate some of the factors that influenced the decision to terminate a pregnancy in which fetal abnormalities\\u000a were diagnosed; and to determine the implications for

Caryn Todd; Tabitha Haw; Jennifer Kromberg; Arnold Christianson

2010-01-01

201

Draft Genome Sequence of the Earliest Cronobacter sakazakii Sequence Type 4 Strain, NCIMB 8272.  

PubMed

The Cronobacter sakazakii clonal lineage defined as sequence type 4 (ST4) is associated with severe cases of neonatal meningitis and persistence in powdered infant formula. For genome sequencing of the earliest deposited culture collection strain of Cronobacter sakazakii ST4, we used the strain NCIMB 8272, originally isolated from milk powder in 1950. PMID:24072871

Masood, Naqash; Moore, Karen; Farbos, Audrey; Hariri, Sumyya; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Dickins, Ben; McNally, Alan; Forsythe, Stephen

2013-09-26

202

Infantile Amnesia across the Years: A 2-Year Follow-Up of Children's Earliest Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although infantile amnesia has been investigated for many years in adults, only recently has it been investigated in children. This study was a 2-year follow-up and extension of an earlier study. Children (4-13 years old) were asked initially and 2 years later for their earliest 3 memories. At follow-up, their age at the time of these memories…

Peterson, Carole; Warren, Kelly L.; Short, Megan M.

2011-01-01

203

Adults' earliest memories as a function of age, gender, and education in a large stratified sample.  

PubMed

Childhood amnesia (i.e., a marked paucity of memories from the first 3-4 years of life) has often been examined by asking people for their earliest memory. Such studies have generally been conducted with college students, and thus been unable to examine possible effects of education and current age. We here report the first study on adults' earliest memories based on a large, stratified sample covering the adult life span from age 20 to 70 (n = 1,043). Because of the nature and size of our sample we have been able to investigate a range of factors simultaneously that typically have been studied separately in other studies. Participants with higher education reported earlier first memories than respondents with lower education. Women reported earlier memories than men. There was no interaction between gender and educational level. The current age of the respondents did not affect age of earliest memory, but older respondents had more vivid and more coherent earliest memories relative to younger respondents. Finally, the data provided some support for the claim that elaborative parents have children with earlier memories. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23421324

Kingo, Osman S; Berntsen, Dorthe; Krøjgaard, Peter

2013-02-18

204

Birth to Three Matters: A Framework to Support Children in Their Earliest Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Government commitment to the care and education of children from birth to three years in England led to the commissioning in 2001 of "a framework of best practice" (DfEE, 2001:24) to support children in their earliest years. The resulting framework of "effective" practice, together with supporting materials, was developed by a team based at…

Abbott, Lesley; Langston, Ann

2005-01-01

205

Focal atrial tachycardia: increased electrogram fractionation in the vicinity of the earliest activation site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims Fractionated electrograms are often noted during mapping of focal atrial tachycardia (FAT). This finding suggests poor cell-to-cell coupling, which is thought to be an important prerequisite in the process of ectopic impulse initiation and propagation. The purpose of the present study was to assess the electrogram fractionation in the vicinity of the earliest activation site and in the remaining

Ioan Liuba; Hakan Walfridsson

206

Eliciting adults’ earliest memories: Does it matter how we ask the question?  

Microsoft Academic Search

For more than a century, psychologists have debated the age of adults’ earliest memories. To date, estimates have ranged from 2 to 6–8 years of age. In this experiment, we examined how the nature of the question used to elicit early memories influenced the age from which memories were retrieved. Young adults provided written descriptions of autobiographical memories and estimated

Fiona Jack; Harlene Hayne

2007-01-01

207

Infantile Amnesia across the Years: A 2-Year Follow-Up of Children's Earliest Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although infantile amnesia has been investigated for many years in adults, only recently has it been investigated in children. This study was a 2-year follow-up and extension of an earlier study. Children (4-13 years old) were asked initially and 2 years later for their earliest 3 memories. At follow-up, their age at the time of these memories…

Peterson, Carole; Warren, Kelly L.; Short, Megan M.

2011-01-01

208

Draft Genome Sequence of the Earliest Cronobacter sakazakii Sequence Type 4 Strain, NCIMB 8272  

PubMed Central

The Cronobacter sakazakii clonal lineage defined as sequence type 4 (ST4) is associated with severe cases of neonatal meningitis and persistence in powdered infant formula. For genome sequencing of the earliest deposited culture collection strain of Cronobacter sakazakii ST4, we used the strain NCIMB 8272, originally isolated from milk powder in 1950.

Masood, Naqash; Moore, Karen; Farbos, Audrey; Hariri, Sumyya; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Dickins, Ben; McNally, Alan

2013-01-01

209

Basaltic accumulation instability and chaotic plate motion in the earliest mantle inferred from numerical experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of self-consistent numerical models of mantle convection with magmatism and moving plates are presented to clarify the dynamics of the strongly heated mantle of the earliest Earth. Broad hot accumulations of subducted basaltic crusts develop on the core-mantle boundary and remain there for geologic time only when the internal heating rate is below a threshold. Above the threshold,

Kunihiro Fujita; Masaki Ogawa

2009-01-01

210

Variability of dental morphology and the relationships of the earliest arctocyonid species  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on the variability of dental morphology and the relationships of the earliest arctocyonid species. Analysis of arctocyonid premolars and molars from the Bug Creek Anthills local fauna (Hell Creek Fm., Puercan, Montana) shows far wider ranges of variation of many dental characters than were previously recognized. Based on morphological and morphometrical differences, two additional species, Oxyprimus erikseni

Zhexi Luo

1991-01-01

211

South America's earliest rodent and recognition of a new interval of mammalian evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE mid-Cenozoic immigration of rodents and primates to South America (when it was widely isolated by oceans) represents a pre-eminent problem in the biogeographical history of placental mammals. The unexpected discovery of South America's earliest rodent in the central Chilean Andes provides information critical to resolving the source area and primitive morphology of South American caviomorphs, suggesting an African origin

André R. Wyss; John J. Flynn; Mark A. Norell; Carl C. Swisher; Reynaldo Charrier; Michael J. Novacek; Malcolm C. McKenna

1993-01-01

212

Highly Sensitive Detection and Genotyping of HPV by PCR Multiplex and Luminex Technology in a Cohort of Colombian Women with Abnormal Cytology  

PubMed Central

Cancer of the uterine cervix (CC) is the second most common cancer in women worldwide. In Colombia, CC is the second most frequent cancer among the entire women population and the first among women aged between 15 and 44 years, with an estimated incidence of 24.9 cases/100,000 inhabitants. The main risk factor is infection with one or more high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types. The aim of this study was to estimate the genotype-specific prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in patients with cervical pathology using the multiplex PCR and Luminex xMAP technology. In addition, we compared genotyping with Luminex xMAP and with Reverse Line Blot (RLB). A cohort of 160 patients participated in the study, of which 25.6% had no cervical lesions, 35% presented cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade I (CIN I), 10% CIN II, 20.6% CIN III and 8.8% CC. The most frequent viral types in all lesion grades were HPV16 and HPV18. Infections by a unique virus were less frequent (19.4%) than multiple infections (80.6%). Single infections were found in 22% of women with no cervical lesions, and in 14.3% of CIN I, 18.7% CIN II, 21.2% CIN III and 28.6% of CC. Multiple infections were observed in 78.0% of cervical samples with negative histopathologic diagnosis, and in 85.7% of CIN I, 81.2% CIN II, 78.8% CIN III and 71.4% CC. All samples analyzed with Luminex xMAP were HPV-positive, while we could detect HPV in only 48.8% of cases with RLB. Of the samples positive by both methods, there was a 67.2% correlation in the viral type(s) detected. In conclusion, Luminex suspension array showed a remarkably higher sensitivity compared with RLB. Multiple infections were unexpectedly common, being HPV types 16 and 18 the most prevalent in all histopathologic grades.

Garcia, Dabeiba A; Cid-Arregui, Angel; Schmitt, Markus; Castillo, Marcos; Briceno, Ignacio; Aristizabal, Fabio A

2011-01-01

213

AMS 14C age of the earliest pottery from the Russian Far East: 1996–2002 results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new results of AMS 14C dating of the earliest pottery from the Russian Far East, Osipovka, Gromatukha and Novopetrovka cultural complexes (Amur River basin), are presented. Pottery temper (represented by sedge grass) was chosen for dating; pottery-associated charcoal was also dated. The earliest pottery from the Amur River basin nowadays may be dated to ca. 13000 BP (ca. 16000

A. P. Derevianko; Y. V. Kuzmin; G. S. Burr; A. J. T. Jull; J. C. Kim

2004-01-01

214

42 CFR 137.260 - What is the earliest date on which a reassumption can be effective?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What is the earliest date on which a reassumption...SELF-GOVERNANCE Reassumption § 137.260 What is the earliest date on which a reassumption...the Self-Governance Tribe with an opportunity to take corrective action in...

2012-10-01

215

Chromosomal abnormalities as a cause of recurrent abortions in Egypt  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: In 4%-8% of couples with recurrent abortion, at least one of the partners has chromosomal abnormality. Most spontaneous miscarriages which happen in the first and second trimesters are caused by chromosomal abnormalities. These chromosomal abnormalities may be either numerical or structural. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cytogenetic study was done for 73 Egyptian couples who presented with recurrent abortion at Genetic Unit of Children Hospital, Mansoura University. RESULTS: We found that the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities was not significantly different from that reported worldwide. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 9 (6.1%) of 73 couples. Seven of chromosomal abnormalities were structural and two of them were numerical. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that 6.1% of the couples with recurrent abortion had chromosomal abnormalities, with no other abnormalities. We suggest that it is necessary to perform cytogenetic in vestigation for couples who have recurrent abortion.

El-Dahtory, Faeza Abdel Mogib

2011-01-01

216

Ornaments of the earliest Upper Paleolithic: New insights from the Levant  

PubMed Central

Two sites located on the northern Levantine coast, Üça??zl? Cave (Turkey) and Ksar 'Akil (Lebanon) have yielded numerous marine shell beads in association with early Upper Paleolithic stone tools. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dates indicate ages between 39,000 and 41,000 radiocarbon years (roughly 41,000–43,000 calendar years) for the oldest ornament-bearing levels in Üça??zl? Cave. Based on stratigraphic evidence, the earliest shell beads from Ksar 'Akil may be even older. These artifacts provide some of the earliest evidence for traditions of personal ornament manufacture by Upper Paleolithic humans in western Asia, comparable in age to similar objects from Eastern Europe and Africa. The new data show that the initial appearance of Upper Paleolithic ornament technologies was essentially simultaneous on three continents. The early appearance and proliferation of ornament technologies appears to have been contingent on variable demographic or social conditions.

Kuhn, Steven L.; Stiner, Mary C.; Reese, David S.; Gulec, Erksin

2001-01-01

217

Earliest known tetrapod braincase and the evolution of the stapes and fenestra ovalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

ACANTHOSTEGA gunnari, from the Upper Devonian (Famennian) of East Greenland, is the most primitive known tetrapod, and retains many fish-like characters1-4. I report here the discovery of further well preserved specimens that show the earliest known tetrapod braincase, and shed light on the history of the tetrapod ear region. The fenestra ovalis is shown to be derived directly from the

J. A. Clack

1994-01-01

218

GRB 081203A: Swift UVOT captures the earliest ultraviolet spectrum of a gamma-ray burst  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the earliest ultraviolet (UV) spectrum of a gamma-ray burst (GRB) as observed with the Swift Ultra-Violet\\/Optical Telescope (UVOT). The GRB 081203A spectrum was observed for 50 s with the UV-grism starting 251 s after the Swift-Burst-Alert-Telescope (BAT) trigger. During this time, the GRB was ?13.4 mag (u filter) and was still rising to its peak optical brightness. In

N. P. M. Kuin; W. Landsman; M. J. Page; P. Schady; M. Still; A. A. Breeveld; M. De Pasquale; P. W. A. Roming; P. J. Brown; M. Carter; C. James; P. A. Curran; A. Cucchiara; C. Gronwall; S. T. Holland; E. A. Hoversten; S. Hunsberger; T. Kennedy; S. Koch; H. Lamoureux; F. E. Marshall; S. R. Oates; A. Parsons; D. M. Palmer; P. J. Smith

2009-01-01

219

GRB 081203A: Swift UVOT captures the earliest ultraviolet spectrum of a gamma-ray burst  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the earliest ultraviolet (UV) spectrum of a gamma-ray burst (GRB) as observed with the Swift Ultra-Violet\\/Optical Telescope (UVOT). The GRB 081203A spectrum was observed for 50 s with the UV-grism starting 251 s after the Swift-Burst-Alert-Telescope (BAT) trigger. During this time, the GRB was ~13.4 mag (u filter) and was still rising to its peak optical brightness. In

N. P. M. Kuin; W. B. Landsman; M. J. Page; P. Schady; M. Still; A. A. Breeveld; M. de Pasquale; P. W. A. Roming; P. J. Brown; M. Carter; C. James; P. A. Curran; A. Cucchiara; C. Gronwall; S. T. Holland; E. A. Hoversten; S. Hunsberger; T. Kennedy; S. Koch; H. Lamoureux; F. E. Marshall; S. R. Oates; A. Parsons; D. M. Palmer; P. J. Smith

2009-01-01

220

Radiocarbon AMS dating of the ancient sites with earliest pottery from the Russian Far East  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently obtained radiocarbon accelerator mass spectrometry dates from the Gasya and Khummi sites (lower Amur River basin, the Russian Far East), on charcoal associated with pottery, fall within the interval 10345+/-110 to 13260+/-100 radiocarbon yr BP. Now both Russian Far East and southern Japanese Islands present evidence of the earliest pottery-making technology in the world starting about 13000 BP.

Kuzmin, Y. V.; Jull, A. J. T.; Lapshina, Z. S.; Medvedev, V. E.

1997-03-01

221

Earliest Intercept Geometry Guidance to improve mid-course guidance in area air-defence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a mid-course guidance strategy based on the Earliest Intercept Geometry (EIG) Guidance. An analytical solution and performance validation will be addressed for generalized mid-course guidance problem in area air-defence to improve reachability and performance. The EIG is generated for a wide range of possible manoeuvres of the challenging missile based on the guidance algorithm using differential geometry

H. S. Shin; A. Tsourdos; B. A. White; M. J. Tahk

2009-01-01

222

Earliest magmatism in Ethiopia: Evidence for two mantle plumes in one flood basalt province  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tertiary magmatism in Ethiopia has been linked to the thermal influence of the Afar mantle plume. However, new laser 40Ar\\/39Ar ages for the volcanic succession in southern Ethiopia confirm the presence of two distinct magmatic phases at 45 35 Ma and 19 12 Ma. The earliest phase predates both extension and magmatism in northern Ethiopia by 15 m.y. and cannot

Rhiannon George; Nick Rogers; Simon Kelley

1998-01-01

223

A Non-critical Path Earliest-Finish Algorithm for Interdependent Tasks in Heterogeneous Computing Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, many researchers have proposed several algorithms to schedule critical tasks in a homogeneous multiprocessor system for obtaining a shorter scheduling length. However, for heterogeneous computing systems, such methods may lead to lengthen the execution of other non-critical tasks. In this paper, a Non-critical Path Earliest-Finish (NPEF) scheduling algorithm for heterogeneous computing systems has been proposed to eliminate

Liang-teh Lee; Ching-wei Chen; Hung-yuan Chang; Chih-chieh Tang; Kun-chi Pan

2009-01-01

224

Models of Abnormal Scarring  

PubMed Central

Keloids and hypertrophic scars are thick, raised dermal scars, caused by derailing of the normal scarring process. Extensive research on such abnormal scarring has been done; however, these being refractory disorders specific to humans, it has been difficult to establish a universal animal model. A wide variety of animal models have been used. These include the athymic mouse, rats, rabbits, and pigs. Although these models have provided valuable insight into abnormal scarring, there is currently still no ideal model. This paper reviews the models that have been developed.

Seo, Bommie F.; Lee, Jun Yong; Jung, Sung-No

2013-01-01

225

Earliest mechanical evidence of cross-bridge activity after stimulation of single skeletal muscle fibers.  

PubMed Central

The stiffness of single fibers from frog skeletal muscle was measured by the application of small 2-kHz sinusoidal length oscillations during twitch and tetanic contractions at a range of initial sarcomere lengths. The earliest mechanical signs of activation were a fall in tension (latency relaxation) and a rise in stiffness. The earliest stiffness increase and the earliest tension fall occurred simultaneously at all sarcomere lengths. This suggests a cross-bridge origin for the latency relaxation. The lead of stiffness over tension seen during the rise of tension was substantially established during the latent period. Reducing the size of the twitch by reducing calcium release with D-600 (methoxyverapamil) reduced the latency relaxation and the stiffness development during latency much less than it reduced the twitch tension. For very small twitches the peak of the stiffness response occurred during the latent period and the times of onset of both latency relaxation and stiffness rise were delayed, but remained coincident. This suggests a strong connection between the latency relaxation and the rise of stiffness during the latent period, whereas the connection between these events and positive tension generation appears to be less strong.

Claflin, D R; Morgan, D L; Julian, F J

1990-01-01

226

Virtual endocranial cast of earliest Eocene Diacodexis (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) and morphological diversity of early artiodactyl brains  

PubMed Central

The study of brain evolution, particularly that of the neocortex, is of primary interest because it directly relates to how behavioural variations arose both between and within mammalian groups. Artiodactyla is one of the most diverse mammalian clades. However, the first 10 Myr of their brain evolution has remained undocumented so far. Here, we used high-resolution X-ray computed tomography to investigate the endocranial cast of Diacodexis ilicis of earliest Eocene age. Its virtual reconstruction provides unprecedented access to both metric parameters and fine anatomy of the most complete endocast of the earliest artiodactyl. This picture is assessed in a broad comparative context by reconstructing endocasts of 14 other Early and Middle Eocene representatives of basal artiodactyls, allowing the tracking of the neocortical structure of artiodactyls back to its simplest pattern. We show that the earliest artiodactyls share a simple neocortical pattern, so far never observed in other ungulates, with an almond-shaped gyrus instead of parallel sulci as previously hypothesized. Our results demonstrate that artiodactyls experienced a tardy pulse of encephalization during the Late Neogene, well after the onset of cortical complexity increase. Comparisons with Eocene perissodactyls show that the latter reached a high level of cortical complexity earlier than the artiodactyls.

Orliac, M. J.; Gilissen, E.

2012-01-01

227

Virtual endocranial cast of earliest Eocene Diacodexis (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) and morphological diversity of early artiodactyl brains.  

PubMed

The study of brain evolution, particularly that of the neocortex, is of primary interest because it directly relates to how behavioural variations arose both between and within mammalian groups. Artiodactyla is one of the most diverse mammalian clades. However, the first 10 Myr of their brain evolution has remained undocumented so far. Here, we used high-resolution X-ray computed tomography to investigate the endocranial cast of Diacodexis ilicis of earliest Eocene age. Its virtual reconstruction provides unprecedented access to both metric parameters and fine anatomy of the most complete endocast of the earliest artiodactyl. This picture is assessed in a broad comparative context by reconstructing endocasts of 14 other Early and Middle Eocene representatives of basal artiodactyls, allowing the tracking of the neocortical structure of artiodactyls back to its simplest pattern. We show that the earliest artiodactyls share a simple neocortical pattern, so far never observed in other ungulates, with an almond-shaped gyrus instead of parallel sulci as previously hypothesized. Our results demonstrate that artiodactyls experienced a tardy pulse of encephalization during the Late Neogene, well after the onset of cortical complexity increase. Comparisons with Eocene perissodactyls show that the latter reached a high level of cortical complexity earlier than the artiodactyls. PMID:22764165

Orliac, M J; Gilissen, E

2012-07-04

228

Electrocardiographic manifestations: electrolyte abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because myocyte depolarization and repolarization depend on intra- and extracellular shifts in ion gradients, abnormal serum electrolyte levels can have profound effects on cardiac conduction and the electrocardiogram (EKG). Changes in extracellular potassium, calcium, and magnesium levels can change myocyte membrane potential gradients and alter the cardiac action potential. These changes can result in incidental findings on the 12-lead EKG

Deborah B Diercks; George M Shumaik; Richard A Harrigan; William J Brady; Theodore C Chan

2004-01-01

229

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common presenting symptom in the family practice setting. In women of childbearing age, a methodical history, physical examination, and laboratory evaluation may enable the physician to rule out causes such as pregnancy and pregnancy-related disorders, medications, iatro- genic causes, systemic conditions, and obvious genital tract pathology. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (anovulatory or ovulatory) is diagnosed by

JANET R. ALBERS; SHARON K. HULL; ROBERT M. WESLEY

230

What is abnormal psychology?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormal psychology is the scientific study of the mental pathology that underlies the symptomatology of psychiatric diseases. It is general when the symptoms studied are common to a number of diseases; and special, when the symptoms studied are idiopathic to particular diseases.

A. E. Davies

1931-01-01

231

Character and abnormal psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Character may be defined in terms of ethically effective organization of all the forces of an individual. Such a definition takes account of modern ethical conceptions and seems to express the fundamental interest of all students of abnormal psychology. It serves to distinguish character from other aspects of personality.

W. S. Taylor

1926-01-01

232

Pigment abnormalities in flatfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pigment abnormalities have been reported to occur on both sides of flatfish. Hypomelanosis or pseudo-albinism, characterized by white patches or areas devoid of normal pigmentation on the ocular surface of the skin, is common in both wild and hatchery reared flatfish. The blind side may display hypermelanosis in the form of dark spots, known as ambicoloration of the skin. The

Arietta Venizelos; Daniel D Benetti

1999-01-01

233

ABNORMALITY, NORMALITY AND HEALTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ideally, each participant in psychotherapy should be accepted as a unique individual with no reference to diagnosis. Most forms of psychotherapy are limited by assumptions about abnormality that focus on pathology while ignoring the potential for growth that exists in all. Effective psychotherapy requires respect for human complexity. Each person needs to be perceived as embodying a unique balance of

LUCIEN A. BUCK

1990-01-01

234

Advances in understanding paternally transmitted Chromosomal Abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

Multicolor FISH has been adapted for detecting the major types of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm including aneuploidies for clinically-relevant chromosomes, chromosomal aberrations including breaks and rearrangements, and other numerical abnormalities. The various sperm FISH assays have been used to evaluate healthy men, men of advanced age, and men who have received mutagenic cancer therapy. The mouse has also been used as a model to investigate the mechanism of paternally transmitted genetic damage. Sperm FISH for the mouse has been used to detect chromosomally abnormal mouse sperm, while the PAINT/DAPI analysis of mouse zygotes has been used to evaluate the types of chromosomal defects that can be paternally transmitted to the embryo and their effects on embryonic development.

Marchetti, F; Sloter, E; Wyrobek, A J

2001-03-01

235

Detection of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm  

SciTech Connect

A new technology developed by Rudak, et al. for examining the chromosomal constitution of human sperm through fusion with eggs from the Syrian hamster was used to obtain baseline data on the types and frequencies of aberrations in sperm of normal men. The frequency of structural aberrations in 2724 sperm chromosome karyotypes from the 13 healthy non-exposed donors ranged from 2 to 15.8%, demonstrating significant interindividual variability. The most frequently occurring aberrations were chromosome breaks, followed by acentric fragments, chromatid exchanges, chromatid breaks, dicentrics and translocations, chromosome deletions and duplications, inversions, and chromatid deletions. Two donors previously reported had one cell each with multiple chromatid exchanges and breaks. In addition, the oldest donor, AA, had 5 cells out of 124 examined with multiple breaks and rearrangements too extensive to completely identify. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

Brandriff, B.; Gordon, L.; Ashworth, A.K.; Watchmaker, G.; Carrano, A.V.

1985-06-19

236

Malicious Hubs: Detecting Abnormally Malicious Autonomous Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

While many attacks are distributed across botnets, investigators and network operators have recently targeted malicious networks through high profile autonomous system (AS) de-peerings and network shut-downs. In this paper, we explore whether some ASes indeed are safe havens for malicious activity. We look for ISPs and ASes that exhibit disproportionately high malicious behavior using 12 popular blacklists. We find that

Andrew J. Kalafut; Craig A. Shue; Minaxi Gupta

2010-01-01

237

Detection of Chromosomal Abnormalities in Human Sperm.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new technology developed by Rudak, et al. for examining the chromosomal constitution of human sperm through fusion with eggs from the Syrian hamster was used to obtain baseline data on the types and frequencies of aberrations in sperm of normal men. The...

B. Brandriff L. Gordon A. K. Ashworth G. Watchmaker A. V. Carrano

1985-01-01

238

Cytogenetic Abnormalities During Clinical, Immunophenotypic, and Molecular Remission in Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significance of random cytogenetic abnormalities detected in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) during remission is unknown. We studied 10 of 72 consecutive ALL patients who developed cytogenetic abnormalities during clinical remission to determine their effect on remission status. The cytogenetic abnormalities occurred at a median of 14.5 months (range 5–72) from the initial diagnosis. Five abnormalities were designated as

Claudio Sandoval; Sharon P Mayer; Joseph Giamelli; Timothy Farley; M. Fevzi Ozkaynak; Oya Tugal; Somasundaram Jayabose

2000-01-01

239

Methods and conclusions in contemporary abnormal psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods available for use in the field of contemporary abnormal psychology are: (1) application of certain standardized procedures which either measure or detect degrees of mental function, (2) observation and intelligent speculation, and (3) use of the experimental method. During the past ten years there has been a slow recrudescence of experimental fact and conclusion coming out of proper experimental

C. Landis

1938-01-01

240

Dysmorphometrics: the modelling of morphological abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Background The study of typical morphological variations using quantitative, morphometric descriptors has always interested biologists in general. However, unusual examples of form, such as abnormalities are often encountered in biomedical sciences. Despite the long history of morphometrics, the means to identify and quantify such unusual form differences remains limited. Methods A theoretical concept, called dysmorphometrics, is introduced augmenting current geometric morphometrics with a focus on identifying and modelling form abnormalities. Dysmorphometrics applies the paradigm of detecting form differences as outliers compared to an appropriate norm. To achieve this, the likelihood formulation of landmark superimpositions is extended with outlier processes explicitly introducing a latent variable coding for abnormalities. A tractable solution to this augmented superimposition problem is obtained using Expectation-Maximization. The topography of detected abnormalities is encoded in a dysmorphogram. Results We demonstrate the use of dysmorphometrics to measure abrupt changes in time, asymmetry and discordancy in a set of human faces presenting with facial abnormalities. Conclusion The results clearly illustrate the unique power to reveal unusual form differences given only normative data with clear applications in both biomedical practice & research.

2012-01-01

241

Prenatal diagnosis of limb abnormalities: role of fetal ultrasonography  

PubMed Central

Fetal ultrasonografy is the most important tool to provide prenatal diagnosis of fetal anomalies. The detection of limb abnormalities may be a complex problem if the correct diagnostic approch is not established. A careful description of the abnormality using the rigth nomenclature is the first step. Looking for other associated abnormalities is the threshold to suspect chromosomal abnormalities or single gene disorder. According to the patogenic point of view, limb abnormalities may be the result of malformation, deformation, or disruption. The prenatal diagnosis and the management of limb abnormalities involve a multidisciplinary team of ostetrician, radiologist/sonologist, clinical geneticist, neonatologist, and orthopedic surgeons to provide the parents with the information regarding etiology of the disorder, prognosis, option related to the pregnancy and recurrence risk for future pregnancies. The aim of this review is to describe the importance of detailed fetal ultrasonography in prenatal diagnosis of limb abnormalities.

Ermito, Santina; Dinatale, Angela; Carrara, Sabina; Cavaliere, Alessandro; Imbruglia, Laura; Recupero, Stefania

2009-01-01

242

Liver abnormalities in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Abnormalities of liver function (notably rise in alkaline phosphatase and fall in serum albumin) are common in normal pregnancy, whereas rise in serum bilirubin and aminotransferase suggest either exacerbation of underlying pre-existing liver disease, liver disease related to pregnancy or liver disease unrelated to pregnancy. Pregnant women appear to have a worse outcome when infected with Hepatitis E virus. Liver diseases associated with pregnancy include abnormalities associated hyperemesis gravidarum, acute fatty liver disease, pre-eclampsia, cholestasis of pregnancy and HELLP syndrome. Prompt investigation and diagnosis is important in ensuring a successful maternal and foetal outcome. In general, prompt delivery is the treatment of choice for acute fatty liver, pre-eclampsia and HELLP syndrome and ursodeoxycholic acid is used for cholestasis of pregnancy although it is not licenced for this indication. PMID:24090943

Than, Nwe Ni; Neuberger, James

2013-08-01

243

Chromosome abnormalities in glioma  

SciTech Connect

Cytogenetic studies were performed in 25 patients with gliomas. An interesting finding was a seemingly identical abnormality, an extra band on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1, add(1)(p36), in two cases. The abnormality was present in all cells from a patient with a glioblastoma and in 27% of the tumor cells from a patient with a recurrent irradiated anaplastic astrocytoma; in the latter case, 7 unrelated abnormal clones were identified except 4 of those clones shared a common change, -Y. Three similar cases have been described previously. In a patient with pleomorphic astrocytoma, the band 1q42 in both homologues of chromosome 1 was involved in two different rearrangements. A review of the literature revealed that deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 including 1q42 often occurs in glioma. This may indicate a possible tumor suppressor gene in this region. Cytogenetic follow-up studies were carried out in two patients and emergence of unrelated clones were noted in both. A total of 124 clonal breakpoints were identified in the 25 patients. The breakpoints which occurred three times or more were: 1p36, 1p22, 1q21, 1q25, 3q21, 7q32, 8q22, 9q22, 16q22, and 22q13.

Li, Y.S.; Ramsay, D.A.; Fan, Y.S. [Victoria Hospital, London, Ontario (Canada)] [and others

1994-09-01

244

Pulses of middle Eocene to earliest Oligocene climatic deterioration in southern California and the Gulf Coast  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A general deterioration of terrestrial climate took place during middle Eocene to earliest Oligocene time in southern California and in the Gulf Coast. Pollen data, calibrated by calcareous nannofossil ages, indicate four events of rapid floral and/or vegetational change among angiosperms during this time interval. The events can be correlated between the two regions even though these regions lay within different floristic provinces, and each event of angiosperm change is interpreted to indicate a pulse of rapid climatic shift. The most distinct of these events is the Middle Eocene Diversity Decline, which resulted from a peak in last appearances (extinctions, emigrations) centered in the early Bartonian. -from Author

Frederiksen, N. O.

1991-01-01

245

The earliest record of birch mice from the Early Miocene Nei Mongol, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The earliest species of birch mouse, Sicista primus sp. nov., was recovered from the 17-Ma-old (Early Miocene) Gashunyinadege locality, central Nei Mongol, China. It is ~9 Ma older than the previous first appearance datum of Sicista in Eurasia. This study indicates that North American Macrognathomys is a synonym of Eurasian Sicista, having 12 shared dental characters. As a result, the biogeography of dipodids indicates that Asian Sicista dispersed to North America as opposed to the hypothesis that Sicista originated from the North American clade. Sicista is one of the few extant rodent genera that originated as early as the Early Miocene.

Kimura, Yuri

2011-01-01

246

AMS 14C age of the earliest pottery from the Russian Far East: 1996-2002 results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new results of AMS 14C dating of the earliest pottery from the Russian Far East, Osipovka, Gromatukha and Novopetrovka cultural complexes (Amur River basin), are presented. Pottery temper (represented by sedge grass) was chosen for dating; pottery-associated charcoal was also dated. The earliest pottery from the Amur River basin nowadays may be dated to ca. 13000 BP (ca. 16000 cal BP), and this is one of the oldest potteries in East Asia, and in Old World in general.

Derevianko, A. P.; Kuzmin, Y. V.; Burr, G. S.; Jull, A. J. T.; Kim, J. C.

2004-08-01

247

Abnormality in the external limiting membrane in early Stargardt disease.  

PubMed

Stargardt disease (STGD1) is caused by mutations in the ABCA4 gene. It has previously been reported that abnormalities in STGD1 may be detectable in the photoreceptors using spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) prior to the detection of retinal pigment epithelium abnormalities. We present a 5-year-old asymptomatic girl with normal appearing fundi who possessed pathogenic ABCA4 variants on both chromosomes and where thickening of the external limiting membrane was the only abnormality detected on SD-OCT. PMID:22871184

Burke, Tomas R; Yzer, Suzanne; Zernant, Jana; Smith, R Theodore; Tsang, Stephen H; Allikmets, Rando

2012-08-07

248

Insular lesions, ECG abnormalities, and outcome in acute stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that lesions in the insula may result in abnormal electrocardiographic (ECG) findings and increase the risk of sudden death. We investigated if computed tomography (CT) detected insular lesions due to acute stroke were related to ECG abnormalities and mortality at three months. Acute insular lesions were diagnosed in 43\\/179 patients (left insular = 25; right insular

H Christensen; G Boysen; A F Christensen; H H Johannesen

2005-01-01

249

Neurodevelopmental Abnormalities in ADHD  

PubMed Central

Structural and functional imaging studies in subjects with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are reviewed with the goal of gleaning information about neurodevelopmental abnormalities characterizing the disorder. Structural imaging studies, particularly those with longitudinal designs, suggest that brain maturation is delayed by a few years in ADHD. However, a maturational delay model alone is incomplete: alternate courses are suggested by differences associated with phenotypic factors, such as symptom remission/persistence and exposure to stimulant treatment. Findings from functional imaging studies point to multiple loci of abnormalities that are not limited to frontal–striatal circuitry, which is important for executive and motivational function, but also include parietal, temporal and motor cortices, and the cerebellum. However, a definitive conclusion about maturational delays or alternate trajectories cannot be drawn from this work as activation patterns are influenced by task-specific factors that may induce variable performance levels and strategies across development. In addition, no studies have implemented cross-sectional or longitudinal designs, without which the developmental origin of differences in activation cannot be inferred. Thus, current task-evoked functional imaging provides information about dynamic or state-dependent differences rather than fixed or trait-related differences. In the future, task-free functional imaging holds promise for revealing neurodevelopmental information that is minimally influenced by performance/strategic differences. Further, studies using longitudinal designs that identify sources of phenotypic heterogeneity in brain maturation and characterize the relationship between brain function and underlying structural properties are needed to provide a comprehensive view of neurodevelopmental abnormalities in ADHD.

Vaidya, Chandan J.

2012-01-01

250

A structural intermediate between triisodontids and mesonychians (Mammalia, Acreodi) from the earliest Eocene of Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new mammal, Mondegodon eutrigonus gen. et sp. nov., is described from the earliest Eocene locality of Silveirinha, Portugal. This species shows dental adaptations indicative of a carnivorous diet. M. eutrigonus is referred to the order Acreodi and considered, along with the early Paleocene North American species Oxyclaenus cuspidatus, as a morphological intermediate between two groups of ungulate-like mammals, namely, the triisodontids and mesonychians. Considering that triisodontids are early to early-late Paleocene North American taxa, Mondegodon probably belongs to a group that migrated from North America towards Europe during the first part of the Paleocene. Mondegodon could represent thus a relict genus, belonging to the ante-Eocene European mammalian fauna. The occurrence of such a taxon in Southern Europe may reflect a period of isolation of this continental area during the Paleocene/Eocene transition. In this context, the non-occurrence of closely allied forms of Mondegodon in the Eocene North European mammalian faunas is significant. This strengthens the hypothesis that the mammalian fauna from Southern Europe is characterized by a certain degree of endemism during the earliest Eocene. Mondegodon also presents some striking similarities with an unnamed genus from the early Eocene of India which could represent the first Asian known transitional form between the triisodontids and mesonychians.

Tabuce, Rodolphe; Clavel, Julien; Antunes, Miguel Telles

2010-12-01

251

A structural intermediate between triisodontids and mesonychians (Mammalia, Acreodi) from the earliest Eocene of Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new mammal, Mondegodon eutrigonus gen. et sp. nov., is described from the earliest Eocene locality of Silveirinha, Portugal. This species shows dental adaptations indicative of a carnivorous diet. M. eutrigonus is referred to the order Acreodi and considered, along with the early Paleocene North American species Oxyclaenus cuspidatus, as a morphological intermediate between two groups of ungulate-like mammals, namely, the triisodontids and mesonychians. Considering that triisodontids are early to early-late Paleocene North American taxa, Mondegodon probably belongs to a group that migrated from North America towards Europe during the first part of the Paleocene. Mondegodon could represent thus a relict genus, belonging to the ante-Eocene European mammalian fauna. The occurrence of such a taxon in Southern Europe may reflect a period of isolation of this continental area during the Paleocene/Eocene transition. In this context, the non-occurrence of closely allied forms of Mondegodon in the Eocene North European mammalian faunas is significant. This strengthens the hypothesis that the mammalian fauna from Southern Europe is characterized by a certain degree of endemism during the earliest Eocene. Mondegodon also presents some striking similarities with an unnamed genus from the early Eocene of India which could represent the first Asian known transitional form between the triisodontids and mesonychians.

Tabuce, Rodolphe; Clavel, Julien; Antunes, Miguel Telles

2011-02-01

252

A structural intermediate between triisodontids and mesonychians (Mammalia, Acreodi) from the earliest Eocene of Portugal.  

PubMed

A new mammal, Mondegodon eutrigonus gen. et sp. nov., is described from the earliest Eocene locality of Silveirinha, Portugal. This species shows dental adaptations indicative of a carnivorous diet. M. eutrigonus is referred to the order Acreodi and considered, along with the early Paleocene North American species Oxyclaenus cuspidatus, as a morphological intermediate between two groups of ungulate-like mammals, namely, the triisodontids and mesonychians. Considering that triisodontids are early to early-late Paleocene North American taxa, Mondegodon probably belongs to a group that migrated from North America towards Europe during the first part of the Paleocene. Mondegodon could represent thus a relict genus, belonging to the ante-Eocene European mammalian fauna. The occurrence of such a taxon in Southern Europe may reflect a period of isolation of this continental area during the Paleocene/Eocene transition. In this context, the non-occurrence of closely allied forms of Mondegodon in the Eocene North European mammalian faunas is significant. This strengthens the hypothesis that the mammalian fauna from Southern Europe is characterized by a certain degree of endemism during the earliest Eocene. Mondegodon also presents some striking similarities with an unnamed genus from the early Eocene of India which could represent the first Asian known transitional form between the triisodontids and mesonychians. PMID:21181109

Tabuce, Rodolphe; Clavel, Julien; Antunes, Miguel Telles

2010-12-23

253

Notes on historical aspects on the earliest known observations of noctilucent clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper considers historical aspects of the earliest known observations of noctilucent clouds (NLCs). The 1884 and 1885 are discussed by considering important historical citations by the pioneers of the earliest known observations of noctilucent clouds. For the first time in NLC studies, we consider seven major volcanic eruptions: Laki in 1783, Mount St. Helens in 1800, Tambora in 1815, Galunggung in 1822, Cosigüina in 1835, Shiveluch in 1854 and Askja in 1875. These all preceded the catastrophic 1883 eruption of Krakatoa, which despite having a lesser magnitude than Tambora in 1815, had pronounced effects on the atmosphere. These eruptions represent possible triggers for the appearance of NLCs. For the first time, we publish an unknown, in English-speaking literature, historical fact on the first determinations of the altitude of noctilucent clouds made by two Russian astronomers V. K. Tseraskii and A. A. Belopolskii on 26 June 1885, who managed to infer the altitude of the clouds in the range of 73-83 km, that is, for the first time, demonstrating the possible existence of the clouds at great altitudes in the Earth's atmosphere. Moreover, V. K. Tseraskii was the first observer to photograph noctilucent clouds in 1885 or 1886, which is 1-2 yr before the German astronomer O. Jesse, who owns the first published images of noctilucent clouds. The photographs made by V. K. Tseraskii, unfortunately, did not reach us.

Dalin, P.; Pertsev, N.; Romejko, V.

2012-03-01

254

The cellular composition of lymph nodes in the earliest phase of inflammatory arthritis  

PubMed Central

Objectives Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an immune-mediated inflammatory disease of unknown aetiology. Recent work has shown that systemic autoimmunity precedes synovial inflammation, and animal models have suggested that changes in the lymph nodes may precede those in the synovial tissue. Therefore, we investigated the cellular composition of the lymph node in the earliest phases of inflammatory arthritis. Methods Thirteen individuals positive for immunoglobulin M (IgM) rheumatoid factor and/or anticitrullinated protein antibodies without arthritis were included. Additionally, we studied 14 early arthritis patients (arthritis duration ?6?months, naïve for disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs), and eight healthy controls. All subjects underwent ultrasound-guided inguinal lymph node biopsy. Different T- and B-lymphocyte subsets were analysed by multicolour flow cytometry. Results There was an increase in activated CD69 CD8 T cells and CD19 B cells in early arthritis patients compared with healthy controls. We also observed a trend towards increased CD19 B cells in autoantibody-positive individuals without arthritis compared with healthy controls. Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that there is increased immune cell activation within lymph nodes of early arthritis patients as well as in autoantibody-positive individuals at risk of developing RA. This method provides a unique tool to investigate immunological changes in the lymph node compartment in the earliest phases of inflammatory arthritis.

van Baarsen, L G M; de Hair, M J H; Ramwadhdoebe, T H; Zijlstra, IJ A J; Maas, M; Gerlag, D M; Tak, P P

2013-01-01

255

A latest Pliocene age for the earliest and most extensive Cordilleran Ice Sheet in northwestern Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Klondike gravel is a widespread glaciofluvial gravel marking the earliest and most extensive Cordilleran Ice Sheet (CIS) in NW North America. New terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) burial ages indicate this gravel was emplaced 2.64+0.20/-0.18 Ma (1?). Coupled with previously interpreted paleomagnetic stratigraphy, this numerical age constrains the timing of the earliest CIS to the late Gauss Chron and provides a minimum age for the Upper White Channel gravel, a significant placer gold source in the Yukon. This implies the first CIS glacial maximum pre-dates the maximum extent of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, indicating that during the initial stages of northern hemisphere glaciation, the most extensive glaciers were present in the relatively cold and high elevation northern Cordillera. Our results verify the CIS as a likely source of persistent coeval ice-rafted debris in the northern Pacific, and suggest that the first CIS formed as a response to the establishment of the northern Pacific halocline and emergence of the 41 ka obliquity cycle during the Plio-Pliocene transition.

Hidy, Alan J.; Gosse, John C.; Froese, Duane G.; Bond, Jeffrey D.; Rood, Dylan H.

2013-02-01

256

The homeobox gene Hhex regulates the earliest stages of definitive hematopoiesis  

PubMed Central

The development and emergence of the hematopoietic stem cell involves a series of tightly regulated molecular events that are not well characterized. The hematopoietically expressed homeobox (Hhex) gene, a member of the homeobox gene family, is an essential regulator of embryogenesis and hematopoietic progenitor development. To investigate the role of Hhex in hematopoiesis we adapted a murine embryonic stem (ES) cell coculture system, in which ES cells can differentiate into CD41+ and CD45+ hematopoietic progenitors in vitro. Our results show that in addition to delayed hemangioblast development, Hhex?/? ES-derived progeny accumulate as CD41+ and CD41+c-kit+ cells, or the earliest definitive hematopoietic progenitors. In addition, Hhex?/? ES-derived progeny display a significantly reduced ability to develop into mature CD45+ hematopoietic cells. The observed reduction in hematopoietic maturation was accompanied by reduced proliferation, because Hhex?/? CD41+CD45?c-kit+ hematopoietic progenitors accumulated in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Thus, Hhex is a critical regulator of hematopoietic development and is necessary for the maturation and proliferation of the earliest definitive hematopoietic progenitors.

Paz, Helicia; Lynch, Maureen R.; Bogue, Clifford W.

2010-01-01

257

Sacroiliac joint abnormalities in paraplegics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied 186 paraplegic patients to clarify the pathogenesis of the sacroiliac (SI) joint abnormalities reported in these patients. Partial or complete fusion of SI joints was noted in 47 patients (25%), and milder degrees of abnormalities of these joints were present in 27 patients (15%). The abnormalities differed from those seen in ankylosing spondylitis and were found more commonly

M A Khan; I Kushner; A A Freehafer

1979-01-01

258

Abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Abnormalities in hematological indices are frequently encountered in cirrhosis. Multiple causes contribute to the occurrence of hematological abnormalities. Recent studies suggest that the presence of hematological cytopenias is associated with a poor prognosis in cirrhosis. The present article reviews the pathogenesis, incidence, prevalence, clinical significance and treatment of abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis.

Qamar, Amir A; Grace, Norman D

2009-01-01

259

Classification of oesophageal motility abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manometric examination of the oesophagus frequently reveals abnormalities whose cause is unknown and whose physiological importance is not clear. A large body of literature dealing with oesophageal motility abnormalities has evolved over the past few decades but comparisons among studies have been compromised by the lack of a widely accepted system for classifying the abnormal motility patterns, and by the

S J SPECHLER; D O CASTELL

2001-01-01

260

Minicolumnar abnormalities in autism.  

PubMed

Autism is characterized by qualitative abnormalities in behavior and higher order cognitive functions. Minicolumnar irregularities observed in autism provide a neurologically sound localization to observed clinical and anatomical abnormalities. This study corroborates the initial reports of a minicolumnopathy in autism within an independent sample. The patient population consisted of six age-matched pairs of patients (DSM-IV-TR and ADI-R diagnosed) and controls. Digital micrographs were taken from cortical areas S1, 4, 9, and 17. The image analysis produced estimates of minicolumnar width (CW), mean interneuronal distance, variability in CW (V (CW)), cross section of Nissl-stained somata, boundary length of stained somata per unit area, and the planar convexity. On average CW was 27.2 microm in controls and 25.7 microm in autistic patients (P = 0.0234). Mean neuron and nucleolar cross sections were found to be smaller in autistic cases compared to controls, while neuron density in autism exceeded the comparison group by 23%. Analysis of inter- and intracluster distances of a Delaunay triangulation suggests that the increased cell density is the result of a greater number of minicolumns, otherwise the number of cells per minicolumns appears normal. A reduction in both somatic and nucleolar cross sections could reflect a bias towards shorter connecting fibers, which favors local computation at the expense of inter-areal and callosal connectivity. PMID:16819561

Casanova, Manuel F; van Kooten, Imke A J; Switala, Andrew E; van Engeland, Herman; Heinsen, Helmut; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Hof, Patrick R; Trippe, Juan; Stone, Janet; Schmitz, Christoph

2006-07-04

261

Epilepsy and chromosomal abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Background Many chromosomal abnormalities are associated with Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations and other neurological alterations, among which seizures and epilepsy. Some of these show a peculiar epileptic and EEG pattern. We describe some epileptic syndromes frequently reported in chromosomal disorders. Methods Detailed clinical assessment, electrophysiological studies, survey of the literature. Results In some of these congenital syndromes the clinical presentation and EEG anomalies seems to be quite typical, in others the manifestations appear aspecific and no strictly linked with the chromosomal imbalance. The onset of seizures is often during the neonatal period of the infancy. Conclusions A better characterization of the electro clinical patterns associated with specific chromosomal aberrations could give us a valuable key in the identification of epilepsy susceptibility of some chromosomal loci, using the new advances in molecular cytogenetics techniques - such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), subtelomeric analysis and CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) microarray. However further studies are needed to understand the mechanism of epilepsy associated with chromosomal abnormalities.

2010-01-01

262

The earliest settlers' antiquity and evolutionary history of Indian populations: evidence from M2 mtDNA lineage  

PubMed Central

Background The "out of Africa" model postulating single "southern route" dispersal posits arrival of "Anatomically Modern Human" to Indian subcontinent around 66–70 thousand years before present (kyBP). However the contributions and legacy of these earliest settlers in contemporary Indian populations, owing to the complex past population dynamics and later migrations has been an issue of controversy. The high frequency of mitochondrial lineage "M2" consistent with its greater age and distribution suggests that it may represent the phylogenetic signature of earliest settlers. Accordingly, we attempted to re-evaluate the impact and contribution of earliest settlers in shaping the genetic diversity and structure of contemporary Indian populations; using our newly sequenced 72 and 4 published complete mitochondrial genomes of this lineage. Results The M2 lineage, harbouring two deep rooting subclades M2a and M2b encompasses approximately one tenth of the mtDNA pool of studied tribes. The phylogeographic spread and diversity indices of M2 and its subclades among the tribes of different geographic regions and linguistic phyla were investigated in detail. Further the reconstructed demographic history of M2 lineage as a surrogate of earliest settlers' component revealed that the demographic events with pronounced regional variations had played pivotal role in shaping the complex net of populations phylogenetic relationship in Indian subcontinent. Conclusion Our results suggest that tribes of southern and eastern region along with Dravidian and Austro-Asiatic speakers of central India are the modern representatives of earliest settlers of subcontinent. The Last Glacial Maximum aridity and post LGM population growth mechanised some sort of homogeneity and redistribution of earliest settlers' component in India. The demic diffusion of agriculture and associated technologies around 3 kyBP, which might have marginalized hunter-gatherer, is coincidental with the decline of earliest settlers' population during this period.

2008-01-01

263

Congenital ocular abnormalities of Rocky Mountain Horses.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence and describe ocular abnormalities in a cross-section of the population of Rocky Mountain Horses. Design: Prospective study. Animals: Five-hundred and fourteen Rocky Mountain Horses. Procedure: Ophthalmic examinations were performed using a slit-lamp biomicroscope and an indirect ophthalmoscope. Intraocular pressures were measured by applanation tonometry. Eyes from six horses were obtained for histologic examination. RESULTS: Cysts of the posterior iris, ciliary body, and peripheral retina were detected most frequently (249 horses), and were always located temporally. Curvilinear streaks of retinal pigmented epithelium extending from the peripheral temporal retina marked the boundary of previous retinal detachment in 189 horses. Retinal dysplasia was detected in 125 horses. Multiple ocular anomalies were evident in 71 horses and were always bilateral and symmetrical. Affected eyes had a large, clear cornea that protruded excessively and had an apparent short radius of curvature, a deep anterior chamber, miotic and dyscoric pupil, and iris hypoplasia. Pupillary light responses were decreased or absent and pupils failed to dilate after repeated instillation of mydriatic drugs in horses with multiple ocular anomalies. Less frequently encountered abnormalities included peripheral iridocorneal adhesions and goniosynechiae. Congenital cataract was always present in eyes with multiple abnormalities. Intraocular pressures did not differ among horses with normal eyes and horses with multiple ocular abnormalities. Histologic examination of eyes corroborated the clinical appearance. PMID:11397242

Ramsey, D.T.; Ewart, S.L.; Render, J.A.; Cook, C.S.; Latimer, C.A.

1999-01-01

264

Abnormal Menstrual Cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

After completing this chapter, you should have an understanding of the following:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a • The terminology of normal and abnormal menstrual function.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a • The causes of menstrual dysfunction.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a • Consequences of menstrual dysfunction in young women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a • Health concerns because of menstrual dysfunction.

Reid Norman

265

Biotic Response in Aquatic Reptiles (Testudines) during Earliest Eocene Climatic Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The earliest Eocene is marked by significant events of global warming: the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) at ~55.8 Ma and two short-lived events (ETM2 or Elmo and H2) approximately 2 Ma later. These environmental changes induced strong responses in the continental biota. Noteworthy changes in North American mid-latitude faunas and floras that are temporally correlated with earliest Eocene warming events include: increased diversity; turnover; and significant range changes, comprising both northward shifts in ranges of North American taxa as well as intercontinental dispersal across Holarctica. Evidence for these biotic changes comes directly from the fossil record and indirectly from phylogeographic analyses of molecular phylogenies of extant biota. To date, the stratigraphic record of biotic change has only been examined for the flora and terrestrial mammals. Data on reptiles and for continental aquatic systems are particularly lacking. In order to assess the impact of climate-mediated faunal change in aquatic systems during early Paleogene warming, we have focused on developing a detailed record of fossil turtles (Testudines) from the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming, where these records can be directly compared to similarly studied mammalian and floral data and to isotopic studies that provide independent proxies of climate change. Using genus-level occurrence data from more than 450 stratigraphically-constrained localities spanning ~2.5 Ma, we calculated first and last appearances, taxonomic richness, and relative abundance as measured by presence-absence (site occupancy). Among turtles, taxonomic richness increased episodically through the earliest Eocene with two new taxa appearing at the PETM, two immediately following it, and two at Biohorizon B, an interval associated with the younger hyperthermals. These new, immigrant taxa eventually comprised 40% of known generic richness. Phylogenetically, the inferred biogeographic source regions are southern North America and Asia, with an equal number of taxa originating in each area. Although immigrant taxa comprised less than half of the known earliest Eocene diversity, their relative dominance in these assemblages varied markedly. Within the PETM interval, immigrant taxa comprise nearly 70% of occurrences. Post-PETM, as temperatures cooled, immigrant taxa and taxa persisting from the Paleocene showed greater evenness, but immigrant taxa again became dominant with renewed warming. Among immigrant taxa, intercontinental dispersers are much more common than those that that dispersed from southern North America. These data are consistent with and stratigraphically correlative with significant changes in the mammalian fauna and flora of the Bighorn Basin and underline the importance of climatic change as a driver in these events. However, the magnitude and relative importance of intra- vs. intercontinental dispersal has not yet been fully examined in other taxonomic groups. The asymmetry of response following immigration that we observe in turtles may be taxon-specific, unique to aquatic systems, or may illustrate a more general pattern of how biotas respond to significant climate change.

Holroyd, P. A.; Hutchison, J. H.

2010-12-01

266

Earliest crinoids: New evidence for the origin of the dominant Paleozoic echinoderms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oldest crinoids have been discovered in Early Ordovician strata of the western United States. A set of emergent crinoid traits based on these and other early crinoids enables reinterpretation of crinoid origins and early history. The new fossils retain primitive echinoderm characteristics, including ambulacral floor plates and largely unorganized cup plating, a first for crinoids. They lack shared derived characteristics linking them to other stalked echinoderms, including blastozoans. Contrary to current widespread opinion, crinoids originated as an independent group during the Cambrian, apparently from an edrioasteroid ancestor. All four major Paleozoic crinoid clades had evolved by the early Ibexian (Tremadocian), and this initial diversification slightly preceded those of most other Paleozoic evolutionary fauna components. These earliest crinoids attached to carbonate hardgrounds developed on sponge-algal mounds, intraformational conglomerates, and grainstones.

Guensburg, Thomas E.; Sprinkle, James

2001-02-01

267

Paleozoic-Mesozoic crayfish from Antarctica: Earliest evidence of freshwater decapod crustaceans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discovery of an Early Permian claw from Antarctica extends the fossil record of crayfish by ˜65 m.y. and demonstrates that decapod crustaceans had radiated into freshwater habitats by the late Paleozoic. Burrows in Lower Triassic rocks of Antarctica are among the oldest apparently constructed by crayfish. Their morphology is similar to modern crayfish burrows, and this demonstrates that burrowing behavior was established early in the evolution of this group. The new discoveries show that the earliest Permian crayfish were distributed in high paleolatitudes of southernmost Pangea, where they lived in freshwater lakes fed by glacial meltwater. Modern crayfish habitat, used as a guide to crayfish temperature tolerance, indicates that summer temperatures of streams and lakes near the South Pole that supported the crayfish probably reached 10 20 °C during Permian-Triassic interglacial intervals.

Babcock, Loren E.; Miller, Molly F.; Isbell, John L.; Collinson, James W.; Hasiotis, Stephen T.

1998-06-01

268

Earliest human occupations at Dmanisi (Georgian Caucasus) dated to 1.85-1.78 Ma  

PubMed Central

The early Pleistocene colonization of temperate Eurasia by Homo erectus was not only a significant biogeographic event but also a major evolutionary threshold. Dmanisi's rich collection of hominin fossils, revealing a population that was small-brained with both primitive and derived skeletal traits, has been dated to the earliest Upper Matuyama chron (ca. 1.77 Ma). Here we present archaeological and geologic evidence that push back Dmanisi's first occupations to shortly after 1.85 Ma and document repeated use of the site over the last half of the Olduvai subchron, 1.85–1.78 Ma. These discoveries show that the southern Caucasus was occupied repeatedly before Dmanisi's hominin fossil assemblage accumulated, strengthening the probability that this was part of a core area for the colonization of Eurasia. The secure age for Dmanisi's first occupations reveals that Eurasia was probably occupied before Homo erectus appears in the East African fossil record.

Ferring, Reid; Oms, Oriol; Agusti, Jordi; Berna, Francesco; Nioradze, Medea; Shelia, Teona; Tappen, Martha; Vekua, Abesalom; Zhvania, David; Lordkipanidze, David

2011-01-01

269

The earliest humans?, still image with audioSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

And here, creatures which have been called the earliest humans, Homo rudolfensis and Homo habilis. And certainly in terms of brain size, they are a step up from the australopithicines. But again, looking at them in detail when we have parts of their skeletons, when we look at their teeth and faces, they, for many of us, are not totally convincing as the first humans. Some people still see them as only a halfway house between australopithicines and humans. And some people have argued that actually, the line to the first humans should be drawn somewhere here, and these creatures actually are still more closely related to the australopithicines than they are to later humans.

2008-10-06

270

Paleoenvironment of the earliest hominoids: new evidence from the oligocene avifauna of egypt.  

PubMed

Analysis of fossil birds from the Oligocene Jebel Qatrani Formation in the Fayum depression of Egypt, site of the oldest known hominoid primates, allows precise paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the climatic and biotic conditions that influenced some of the earliest stages of hominoid evolution. Unlike the fossil mammals of the Fayum, which belong largely to extinct groups, most of the birds are referable to living families, with some being close to modern genera. The avifauna consists mainly of aquatic species, with such forms as jacanas (Jacanidae) and shoebilled storks (Balaenicipitidae) indicating expanses of freshwater with dense floating vegetation. An avifauna closely analogous to that of the Fayum is found today only in a limited area of Uganda, north and west of Lake Victoria, a region of swampland bordered by forest and grasslands that presents marked faunal similarities to the environment inferred for the Egyptian Oligocene. PMID:17756873

Olson, S L; Rasmussén, D T

1986-09-12

271

Earliest human occupations at Dmanisi (Georgian Caucasus) dated to 1.85-1.78 Ma.  

PubMed

The early Pleistocene colonization of temperate Eurasia by Homo erectus was not only a significant biogeographic event but also a major evolutionary threshold. Dmanisi's rich collection of hominin fossils, revealing a population that was small-brained with both primitive and derived skeletal traits, has been dated to the earliest Upper Matuyama chron (ca. 1.77 Ma). Here we present archaeological and geologic evidence that push back Dmanisi's first occupations to shortly after 1.85 Ma and document repeated use of the site over the last half of the Olduvai subchron, 1.85-1.78 Ma. These discoveries show that the southern Caucasus was occupied repeatedly before Dmanisi's hominin fossil assemblage accumulated, strengthening the probability that this was part of a core area for the colonization of Eurasia. The secure age for Dmanisi's first occupations reveals that Eurasia was probably occupied before Homo erectus appears in the East African fossil record. PMID:21646521

Ferring, Reid; Oms, Oriol; Agustí, Jordi; Berna, Francesco; Nioradze, Medea; Shelia, Teona; Tappen, Martha; Vekua, Abesalom; Zhvania, David; Lordkipanidze, David

2011-06-06

272

Fates of the earliest generated cells in the developing murine neocortex.  

PubMed

In mammalian species studied to date, the first-born neocortical cells normally form two layers, one above and one below the cortical plate, called the marginal zone (future layer 1) and the subplate. In primates and carnivores, many of these first-born cells die early in postnatal life. Whether this also occurs in rodents is highly controversial. In this study, we injected pregnant mice with bromodeoxyuridine on embryonic days (E) 11-14 to label the earliest generated neocortical cells, and examined their fates between birth and postnatal day 21. At birth, most cells born on embryonic day 11 were below the cortical plate, and a smaller proportion were above it. Very few of these cells remained by postnatal day 3 and there were none at any depth in the neocortex at older ages. At birth, the largest proportion of cells born on embryonic days 12 and 13 were in the subplate and smaller proportions were in the cortical plate and marginal zone. At older ages, almost all of these cells had disappeared from the marginal zone and from below the cortical plate, although some were retained in the cortical plate. The density of the remaining E12- and E13-born cells decreased more than could be explained by neocortical expansion alone. As a control, we studied cells born on embryonic day 14. These cells were restricted to the cortical plate at birth. By postnatal day 21, their density had decreased by an amount that could be explained by neocortical expansion alone. We conclude that, as in other species, many of the earliest generated cells of the murine neocortex die. PMID:8989655

Price, D J; Aslam, S; Tasker, L; Gillies, K

1997-01-20

273

Evaluation of nail abnormalities.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the anatomy and function of the nail apparatus is essential when performing the physical examination. Inspection may reveal localized nail abnormalities that should be treated, or may provide clues to an underlying systemic disease that requires further workup. Excessive keratinaceous material under the nail bed in a distal and lateral distribution should prompt an evaluation for onychomycosis. Onychomycosis may be diagnosed through potassium hydroxide examination of scrapings. If potassium hydroxide testing is negative for the condition, a nail culture or nail plate biopsy should be performed. A proliferating, erythematous, disruptive mass in the nail bed should be carefully evaluated for underlying squamous cell carcinoma. Longitudinal melanonychia (vertical nail bands) must be differentiated from subungual melanomas, which account for 50 percent of melanomas in persons with dark skin. Dystrophic longitudinal ridges and subungual hematomas are local conditions caused by trauma. Edema and erythema of the proximal and lateral nail folds are hallmark features of acute and chronic paronychia. Clubbing may suggest an underlying disease such as cirrhosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or celiac sprue. Koilonychia (spoon nail) is commonly associated with iron deficiency anemia. Splinter hemorrhages may herald endocarditis, although other causes should be considered. Beau lines can mark the onset of a severe underlying illness, whereas Muehrcke lines are associated with hypoalbuminemia. A pincer nail deformity is inherited or acquired and can be associated with beta-blocker use, psoriasis, onychomycosis, tumors of the nail apparatus, systemic lupus erythematosus, Kawasaki disease, and malignancy. PMID:22534387

Tully, Amber S; Trayes, Kathryn P; Studdiford, James S

2012-04-15

274

[Renal abnormalities in ankylosing spondylitis].  

PubMed

We will study the epidemiologic, clinical, biological, therapeutic, prognostic characteristics and predictive factors of development of nephropathy in ankylosing spondylitis patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 32 cases with renal involvement among 212 cases of ankylosing spondylitis followed in our service during the period spread out between 1978 and 2006. The renal involvement occurred in all patients a mean of 12 years after the clinical onset of the rheumatic disease. Thirty-two patients presented one or more signs of renal involvement: microscopic hematuria in 22 patients, proteinuria in 23 patients, nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients and decreased renal function in 24 patients (75%). Secondary renal amyloidosis (13 patients), which corresponds to a prevalence of 6,1% and tubulointerstitial nephropathy (7 patients) were the most common cause of renal involvement in ankylosing spondylitis followed by IgA nephropathy (4 patients). Seventeen patients evolved to the end stage renal disease after an average time of 29.8 ± 46 months. The average follow-up of the patients was 4,4 years. By comparing the 32 patients presenting a SPA and renal disease to 88 with SPA and without nephropathy, we detected the predictive factors of occurred of nephropathy: tobacco, intense inflammatory syndrome, sacroileite stage 3 or 4 and presence of column bamboo. The finding of 75% of the patients presented a renal failure at the time of the diagnosis of renal involvement suggests that evidence of renal abnormality involvement should be actively sought in this disease. PMID:22520483

Samia, Barbouch; Hazgui, Faiçal; Abdelghani, Khaoula Ben; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Taarit, Chokri Ben; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel

2012-04-18

275

Precise U-Pb Zircon Constraints on the Earliest Magmatic History of the Carolina Terrane.  

PubMed

The early magmatic and tectonic history of the Carolina terrane and its possible affinities with other Neoproterozoic circum-Atlantic arc terranes have been poorly understood, in large part because of a lack of reliable geochronological data. Precise U-Pb zircon dates for the Virgilina sequence, the oldest exposed part, constrain the timing of the earliest known stage of magmatism in the terrane and of the Virgilina orogeny. A flow-banded rhyolite sampled from a metavolcanic sequence near Chapel Hill, North Carolina, yielded a U-Pb zircon date of 632.9 +2.6/-1.9 Ma. A granitic unit of the Chapel Hill pluton, which intrudes the metavolcanic sequence, yielded a nearly identical U-Pb zircon date of 633 +2/-1.5 Ma, interpreted as its crystallization age. A felsic gneiss and a dacitic tuff from the Hyco Formation yielded U-Pb zircon dates of 619.9 +4.5/-3 Ma and 615.7 +3.7/-1.9 Ma, respectively. Diorite and granite of the Flat River complex have indistinguishable U-Pb upper-intercept dates of 613.9 +1.6/-1.5 Ma and 613.4 +2.8/-2 Ma. The Osmond biotite-granite gneiss, which intruded the Hyco Formation before the Virgilina orogeny, crystallized at 612.4 +5.2/-1.7 Ma. Granite of the Roxboro pluton, an intrusion that postdated the Virgilina orogeny, yielded a U-Pb upper intercept date of 546.5 +3.0/-2.4 Ma, interpreted as the time of its crystallization. These new dates both provide the first reliable estimates of the age of the Virgilina sequence and document that the earliest known stage of magmatism in the Carolina terrane had begun by 633 +2/-1.5 Ma and continued at least until 612.4 +5.2/-1.7 Ma, an interval of approximately 25 m.yr. Timing of the Virgilina orogeny is bracketed between 612.4 +5.2/-1.7 Ma and 586+/-10 Ma (reported age of the upper Uwharrie Formation). The U-Pb systematics of all units studied in the Virgilina sequence are simple and lack any evidence of an older xenocrystic zircon component, which would indicate the presence of a continental-type basement. This observation, together with the juvenile Nd isotopic character of the Virgilina volcanic arc sequence, suggests that the oldest part of the Carolina terrane was built on oceanic crust away from a continental crustal influence. PMID:10769159

Wortman; Samson; Hibbard

2000-05-01

276

Chromosomal abnormalities and mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linkage studies of mental illness have provided suggestive evidence of susceptibility loci over many broad chromosomal regions. Pinpointing causative gene mutations by conventional linkage strategies alone is problematic. The breakpoints of chromosomal abnormalities occurring in patients with mental illness may be more direct pointers to the relevant gene locus. Publications that describe patients where chromosomal abnormalities co-exist with mental illness

D J MacIntyre; D H R Blackwood; D J Porteous; B S Pickard; W J Muir

2003-01-01

277

Systemic abnormalities in liver disease  

PubMed Central

Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases.

Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

2009-01-01

278

Electrocardiograph abnormalities revealed during laparoscopy  

PubMed Central

This brief case presents a well patient in whom an electrocardiograph abnormality consistent with an accessory pathway was found during a routine procedure. We present the electrocardiographs, explain the underlying condition, and consider why the abnormality was revealed in this manner.

Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Dubrey, Simon William

2010-01-01

279

Radiographic abnormalities in Laron dwarfism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiographic abnormalities in two children with Laron dwarfism are described. In addition to a characteristic bone age, which was retarded for the chronological age but advanced for the height of the patients, there were marked skull changes and minor skeletal abnormalities in the long bones and vertebrae. Such findings on a skeletal survey should lead the radiologist to suspect the

M. Vasil; A. Baxova; K. Kozlowski

1994-01-01

280

Earliest School Recollections as a Diagnostic Device for Identifying Successfully or Unsuccessfully Mainstreamed Violent and Assaultive Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigated whether earliest school recollections (ESRs) diagnostic approach can reveal current attitude toward being mainstreamed of violent and assaultive youth. Examined current student behavior assessments of violent and assaultive youth (n=60) who previously attended specialized day-treatment facility to determine mainstreaming success.…

Roth, Henry; Nicholson, Charles L.

1990-01-01

281

A SWIFT LOOK AT SN 2011fe: THE EARLIEST ULTRAVIOLET OBSERVATIONS OF A TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA  

SciTech Connect

We present the earliest ultraviolet (UV) observations of the bright Type Ia supernova SN 2011fe/PTF11kly in the nearby galaxy M101 at a distance of only 6.4 Mpc. It was discovered shortly after explosion by the Palomar Transient Factory and first observed by Swift/UVOT about a day after explosion. The early UV light is well defined, with {approx}20 data points per filter in the five days after explosion. These early and well-sampled UV observations form new template light curves for comparison with observations of other SNe Ia at low and high redshift. We report fits from semiempirical models of the explosion and find the time evolution of the early UV flux to be well fitted by the superposition of two parabolic curves. Finally, we use the early UV flux measurements to examine a possible shock interaction with a non-degenerate companion. From models predicting the measurable shock emission, we find that even a solar mass companion at a distance of a few solar radii is unlikely at more than 95% confidence.

Brown, Peter J.; Dawson, Kyle S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 South 1400 East 201, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); De Pasquale, Massimiliano [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 4505 S. Maryland Parkway, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Gronwall, Caryl; Siegel, Michael [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Holland, Stephen [Space Telescope Science Center, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Immler, Stefan [Astrophysics Science Division, Code 660.1, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard Space Flight Centre, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kuin, Paul; Oates, Samantha [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Mazzali, Paolo [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Milne, Peter, E-mail: pbrown@physics.tamu.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

2012-07-01

282

Crystals stirred up: 2. Numerical insights into the formation of the earliest crust on the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the second paper in a two-part series examining the fluid dynamics of crystal settling and flotation in the lunar magma ocean. In the first paper, we develop a direct numerical method for resolving the hydrodynamic interactions between crystals and their feedback on the flow field in magmatic liquid. In this paper, we use this computational technique to test the leading model for the formation of the earliest crust on the Moon. The anorthositic lithology of the lunar crust is thought to have been formed by the flotation of buoyant plagioclase crystals at a time when the lunar mantle was still wholly or largely molten. This model is appealing from an observational point of view, but its fluid dynamical validity is not obvious, because (1) plagioclase probably started crystallizing very late (i.e., when the magma ocean was already 80% solidified) and (2) a significant portion of the shallow lunar crust consists of almost pure plagioclase (>90 vol. %), requiring very efficient plagioclase segregation. The goal of this study is to better understand the fluid dynamical conditions that hinder or facilitate crystal settling or flotation. Our approach complements earlier studies by explicitly linking the petrological and fluid dynamical evolution and by focusing on the effect of increasing crystal fraction. We find that crystal settling was probably possible throughout the entire solidification history of the lunar magma ocean as long as crystal sizes were sufficiently large (r > 1 mm) and crystal fraction sufficiently low (? < 13%).

Suckale, Jenny; Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.; Sethian, James A.

2012-08-01

283

Rise of the earliest tetrapods: an early Devonian origin from marine environment.  

PubMed

Tetrapod fossil tracks are known from the Middle Devonian (Eifelian at ca. 397 million years ago--MYA), and their earliest bony remains from the Upper Devonian (Frasnian at 375-385 MYA). Tetrapods are now generally considered to have colonized land during the Carboniferous (i.e., after 359 MYA), which is considered to be one of the major events in the history of life. Our analysis on tetrapod evolution was performed using molecular data consisting of 13 proteins from 17 species and different paleontological data. The analysis on the molecular data was performed with the program TreeSAAP and the results were analyzed to see if they had implications on the paleontological data collected. The results have shown that tetrapods evolved from marine environments during times of higher oxygen levels. The change in environmental conditions played a major role in their evolution. According to our analysis this evolution occurred at about 397-416 MYA during the Early Devonian unlike previously thought. This idea is supported by various environmental factors such as sea levels and oxygen rate, and biotic factors such as biodiversity of arthropods and coral reefs. The molecular data also strongly supports lungfish as tetrapod's closest living relative. PMID:21779385

George, David; Blieck, Alain

2011-07-14

284

Earliest Carboniferous tetrapod and arthropod faunas from Scotland populate Romer's Gap  

PubMed Central

Devonian tetrapods (limbed vertebrates), known from an increasingly large number of localities, have been shown to be mainly aquatic with many primitive features. In contrast, the post-Devonian record is marked by an Early Mississippian temporal gap ranging from the earliest Carboniferous (Tournaisian and early Viséan) to the mid-Viséan. By the mid-Viséan, tetrapods had become effectively terrestrial as attested by the presence of stem amniotes, developed an essentially modern aspect, and given rise to the crown group. Up to now, only two localities have yielded tetrapod specimens from the Tournaisian stage: one in Scotland with a single articulated skeleton and one in Nova Scotia with isolated bones, many of uncertain identity. We announce a series of discoveries of Tournaisian-age localities in Scotland that have yielded a wealth of new tetrapod and arthropod fossils. These include both terrestrial and aquatic forms and new taxa. We conclude that the gap in the fossil record has been an artifact of collection failure.

Smithson, Timothy R.; Wood, Stanley P.; Marshall, John E. A.; Clack, Jennifer A.

2012-01-01

285

Gnomon shadow lengths recorded in the Zhoubi Suanjing: the earliest meridian observations in China?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Zhoubi Suanjing, one of the most important ancient Chinese books on mathematical astronomy, was compiled about 100 BC in the Western Han dynasty (BC 206 - AD 23). We study the gnomon shadow lengths for the 24 solar terms as recorded in the book. Special attention is paid to the so-called law of 'cun qian li', which says the shadow length of a gnomon of 8 chi (about 1.96 m) high will increase (or decrease) 1 cun (1/10 chi) for every 1000 li (roughly 400 km) the gnomon moves northward (or southward). From these data, one can derive the time and location of the observations. The results, however, do not fit historical facts. We suggest that compilers of the Zhoubi Suanjing must have modified the original data according to the law of 'cun qian li'. Through reversing the situation, we recovered the original data, our analysis of which reveals the best possible observation time as 564 BC and the location of observation as 35.78° N latitude. We conclude that this must be the earliest records of solar meridian observations in China. In the meantime, we give the errors of solar altitudes for the 24 solar terms. The average deviation is 5.22°, and the mean absolute deviation is 5.52°, signifying the accuracy of astronomical calculations from that time.

Li, Yong; Sun, Xiao-Chun

2009-12-01

286

Paleoecology of the earliest skeletal metazoan communities: Implications for early biomineralization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oldest skeletal metazoans (~ 550-543 Ma) are probably of diploblast grade, i.e., stem- or crown-group cnidarians or basal stem-group bilaterians, sessile benthos, and found in shallow marine carbonate settings. The abundant ions in carbonate environments made the formation of carbonate exoskeletons within pre-existing organic matrices physiologically inexpensive. Individuals also reached the largest sizes within reefs, further suggesting that growth in settings conducive to rapid carbonate precipitation promoted skeletonization. Likewise, the preferential precipitation of aragonite and high-Mg calcite mineralogies was thermodynamically-favored by ambient seawater Mg:Ca ratios/ pCO 2. Finally, the sessile habit of the earliest skeletal metazoans may be due to the fact that it is energetically far less costly to mineralise immobile rather than mobile organisms. The morphological and paleoecological characteristics of this biota — occupation of progressively younger skeletal parts ( Cloudina and Sinotubulites), aggregating behavior and possession of a stalk or holdfast ( Namacalathus), and the ability to encrust, a modular habit, and large size ( Namapoikia) — as well as general attachment to thrombolitic substrates, are all consistent with competitive strategies and anti-predation traits. Together, these observations support the view that skeletonization was promoted by the rise of substrate competitors and bilaterian predators, in predominately carbonate platform and reef environments.

Wood, Rachel A.

2011-05-01

287

Identification of Direct Thyroid Hormone Response Genes Reveals the Earliest Gene Regulation Programs during Frog Metamorphosis*  

PubMed Central

Thyroid hormone (T3) is essential for normal development and organ function throughout vertebrates. Its effects are mainly mediated through transcriptional regulation by T3 receptor (TR). The identification and characterization of the immediate early, direct target genes are thus of critical importance in understanding the molecular pathways induced by T3. Unfortunately, this has been hampered by the difficulty to study gene regulation by T3 in uterus-enclosed mammalian embryos. Here we used Xenopus metamorphosis as a model for vertebrate postembryonic development to identify direct T3 response genes in vivo. We took advantage of the ability to easily induce metamorphosis with physiological levels of T3 and to carry out microarray analysis in Xenopus laevis and genome-wide sequence analysis in Xenopus tropicalis. This allowed us to identify 188 up-regulated and 249 down-regulated genes by T3 in the absence of new protein synthesis in whole animals. We further provide evidence to show that these genes contain functional TREs that are bound by TR in tadpoles and that their promoters are regulated by TR in vivo. More importantly, gene ontology analysis showed that the direct up-regulated genes are enriched in categories important for transcriptional regulation and protein degradation-dependent signaling processes but not DNA replication. Our findings thus revealed the existence of interesting pathways induced by T3 at the earliest step of metamorphosis.

Das, Biswajit; Heimeier, Rachel A.; Buchholz, Daniel R.; Shi, Yun-Bo

2009-01-01

288

Dicer is selectively important for the earliest stages of erythroid development.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRs) are involved in many aspects of normal and malignant hematopoiesis, including hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal, proliferation, and terminal differentiation. However, a role for miRs in the generation of the earliest stages of lineage committed progenitors from HSCs has not been identified. Using Dicer inactivation, we show that the miR complex is not only essential for HSC maintenance but is specifically required for their erythroid programming and subsequent generation of committed erythroid progenitors. In bipotent pre-MegEs, loss of Dicer up-regulated transcription factors preferentially expressed in megakaryocyte progenitors (Gata2 and Zfpm1) and decreased expression of the erythroid-specific Klf1 transcription factor. These results show a specific requirement for Dicer in acquisition of erythroid lineage programming and potential in HSCs and their subsequent erythroid lineage differentiation, and in particular indicate a role for the miR complex in achieving proper balance of lineage-specific transcriptional regulators necessary for HSC multilineage potential to be maintained. PMID:22869792

Buza-Vidas, Natalija; Cismasiu, Valeriu B; Moore, Susan; Mead, Adam J; Woll, Petter S; Lutteropp, Michael; Melchiori, Luca; Luc, Sidinh; Bouriez-Jones, Tiphaine; Atkinson, Deborah; O'Carroll, Donal; Jacobsen, Sten Eirik W; Nerlov, Claus

2012-08-06

289

Involvement of sulfated proteoglycans in embryonic brain expansion at earliest stages of development in rat embryos.  

PubMed

The expansive force generated by the positive pressure of the neural tube fluid confined inside the brain vesicles has been shown to be a key factor during the earliest stages of brain morphogenesis and development of chick embryos. In a previous study, we demonstrated the existence of an intracavity extracellular matrix rich in condroitin sulfate in this species, which could be involved in the regulation of the expansive process. In this report, scanning electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry show that, after neurulation, a similar extracellular matrix rich in chondroitin sulfate is present inside the brain vesicles of rat embryos during early enlargement of the brain anlage. In vitro treatment of rat embryos with beta-D-xyloside (a chemical compound which disrupts chondroitin sulfate synthesis) shows that changes in intralumen chondroitin sulfate concentration are accompanied by significant changes in brain anlage growth. These results support the hypothesis that intracerebral chondroitin sulfate plays a relevant role in the regulation of the expansive process of the brain anlage of rat embryos, and could represent a general mechanism in the early brain development of avian and mammalian embryos. PMID:10460967

Alonso, M I; Gato, A; Moro, J A; Martin, P; Barbosa, E

1999-01-01

290

The earliest history of the deuterostomes: the importance of the Chengjiang Fossil-Lagerst?tte  

PubMed Central

While the broad framework of deuterostome evolution is now clear, the remarkable diversity of extant forms within this group has rendered the nature of the ancestral types problematic: what, for example, does the common ancestor of a sea urchin and lamprey actually look like? The answer to such questions can be addressed on the basis of remarkably well-preserved fossils from Cambrian Lagerstätten, not least the celebrated Chengjiang Lagerstätte (Yunnan, China). This deposit is particularly important because of its rich diversity of deuterostomes. These include some of the earliest known representatives, among which are the first vertebrates, as well as more enigmatic groups, notably the vetulicolians and yunnanozoans. The latter groups, in particular, have been the subject of some radical divergences in opinion as to their exact phylogenetic placements. Here, we both review the known diversity of Chengjiang deuterostomes and in particular argue that the vetulicolians and yunnanozoans represent very primitive deuterostomes. Moreover, in the latter case we present new data to indicate that the yunnanozoans are unlikely to be any sort of chordate.

Shu, D.-G.; Conway Morris, S.; Zhang, Z.-F.; Han, J.

2010-01-01

291

A fossil primate of uncertain affinities from the earliest late Eocene of Egypt  

PubMed Central

Paleontological work carried out over the last 3 decades has established that three major primate groups were present in the Eocene of Africa—anthropoids, adapiforms, and advanced strepsirrhines. Here we describe isolated teeth of a previously undocumented primate from the earliest late Eocene (?37 Ma) of northern Egypt, Nosmips aenigmaticus, whose phylogenetic placement within Primates is unclear. Nosmips is smaller than the sympatric adapiform Afradapis but is considerably larger than other primate taxa known from the same paleocommunity. The species bears an odd mosaic of dental features, combining enlarged, elongate, and molariform premolars with simple upper molars that lack hypocones. Phylogenetic analysis across a series of different assumption sets variously places Nosmips as a stem anthropoid, a nonadapiform stem strepsirrhine, or even among adapiforms. This phylogenetic instability suggests to us that Nosmips likely represents a highly specialized member of a previously undocumented, and presumably quite ancient, endemic African primate lineage, the subordinal affinities of which have been obscured by its striking dental autapomorphies. Discriminant functions based on measurements of lower molar size and topography reliably classify extant prosimian primates into their correct dietary groups and identify Nosmips and Afradapis as omnivores and folivores, respectively. Although Nosmips currently defies classification, this strange and unexpected fossil primate nevertheless provides additional evidence for high primate diversity in northern Africa ?37 million years ago and further underscores the fact that our understanding of early primate evolution on that continent remains highly incomplete.

Seiffert, Erik R.; Simons, Elwyn L.; Boyer, Doug M.; Perry, Jonathan M. G.; Ryan, Timothy M.; Sallam, Hesham M.

2010-01-01

292

The Earliest Post-Paleozoic Freshwater Bivalves Preserved in Coprolites from the Karoo Basin, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Several clades of bivalve molluscs have invaded freshwaters at various times throughout Phanerozoic history. The most successful freshwater clade in the modern world is the Unionoida. Unionoids arose in the Triassic Period, sometime after the major extinction event at the End-Permian boundary and are now widely distributed across all continents except Antarctica. Until now, no freshwater bivalves of any kind were known to exist in the Early Triassic. Principal Findings Here we report on a faunule of two small freshwater bivalve species preserved in vertebrate coprolites from the Olenekian (Lower Triassic) of the Burgersdorp Formation of the Karoo Basin, South Africa. Positive identification of these bivalves is not possible due to the limited material. Nevertheless they do show similarities with Unionoida although they fall below the size range of extant unionoids. Phylogenetic analysis is not possible with such limited material and consequently the assignment remains somewhat speculative. Conclusions Bivalve molluscs re-invaded freshwaters soon after the End-Permian extinction event, during the earliest part of the recovery phase during the Olenekian Stage of the Early Triassic. If the specimens do represent unionoids then these Early Triassic examples may be an example of the Lilliput effect. Since the oldest incontrovertible freshwater unionoids are also from sub-Saharan Africa, it is possible that this subcontinent hosted the initial freshwater radiation of the Unionoida. This find also demonstrates the importance of coprolites as microenvironments of exceptional preservation that contain fossils of organisms that would otherwise have left no trace.

Yates, Adam M.; Neumann, Frank H.; Hancox, P. John

2012-01-01

293

The earliest known stem-tetrapod from the Lower Devonian of China.  

PubMed

Recent discoveries of advanced fish-like stem-tetrapods (for example, Panderichthys and Tiktaalik) have greatly improved our knowledge of the fin-to-limb transition. However, a paucity of fossil data from primitive finned tetrapods prevents profound understanding of the acquisition sequence of tetrapod characters. Here we report a new stem-tetrapod (Tungsenia paradoxa gen. et sp. nov.) from the Lower Devonian (Pragian, ?409 million years ago) of China, which extends the earliest record of tetrapods by some 10 million years. Sharing many primitive features with stem-lungfishes, the new taxon further fills in the morphological gap between tetrapods and lungfishes. The X-ray tomography study of the skull depicts the plesiomorphic condition of the brain in the tetrapods. The enlargement of the cerebral hemispheres and the possible presence of the pars tuberalis in this stem-tetrapod indicate that some important brain modifications related to terrestrial life had occurred at the beginning of the tetrapod evolution, much earlier than previously thought. PMID:23093197

Lu, Jing; Zhu, Min; Long, John A; Zhao, Wenjin; Senden, Tim J; Jia, Liantao; Qiao, Tuo

2012-01-01

294

Joseph Gensoul and the earliest illustrated operations for maxillary sinus carcinoma.  

PubMed

Surgery has evolved along with anatomical illustrations through the ages. Joseph Gensoul (1797-1858), an important figure of the great Lyonnaise medical tradition of the 19th century, was occupied with many different surgical diseases, mostly diseases of the face. Apart from his many contributions stand various techniques on ophthalmological, otorhinolaryngological and oral and maxillofacial surgery. In this context, two rare illustrations depicting an innovative facial surgical operation performed by the great surgeon Joseph Gensoul are thoroughly analyzed. The two illustrations represent the "before" and "after" phases of Gensoul's most eminent operation, most probably practiced for a maxillary sinus carcinoma. This surgical operation is probably the earliest recorded of its kind in the history of surgery, even though the development of maxillary surgery is connected with the practice of Irwin Moure, who also practiced a type of lateral rhinotomy about a century later than Gensoul. Surgical illustrations are closely related to the history of surgery in every corner of the world. PMID:22843064

Tsoucalas, Gregory; Gentimi, Fotini; Kousoulis, Antonis A; Karamanou, Marianna; Androutsos, George

2012-07-28

295

Earliest foraminifera and radiolaria from North America: evolutionary and geological implications  

SciTech Connect

Foraminifera and radiolaria were found in lower and middle Cambrian rocks in the western US. They occur in clastic rocks associated with archaeocyathid bioherms and shales in SE California, SW Nevada, W Utah and Idaho. The foraminifera are agglutinated tubes, straight or coiled; the radiolaria are spherical or flattened wit robust lattices. They occur together with some of the earliest shelled metazoa. Their widespread occurrence indicates that protozoa were important elements of the first animal-dominated communities. Their presence suggests a complex trophic structure involving secondary consumers that utilized small autotrophs, carnivores, and detritus. Ordovician and Silurian foraminifera and radiolaria, also found in the US and USSR, show that the subsequent radiation of heterotrophic protists follows a pattern similar to that of metazoans. These fossil protozoa indicate that the skeletonization of early organisms was controlled by factors not related solely to a multicellular grade of organization. Hypotheses requiring the attainment of atmospheric oxygen levels high enough for metazoan skeletonization processes to operate, seawater chemistry allowing the use of specific skeletal materials, attainment of large size, evolution of regulatory genes, and similar ideas can be eliminated or modified. The fossils also indicate that the advent of skeletonized metazoa and protists, and their subsequent radiation were probably related to the proliferation of trophic interactions within those early communities.

Lipps, J.H.

1985-01-01

296

Final Report for CRADA Agreement , AL-C-2006-01 with Microsens Biotechnologies: Detection of the Abnormal Prion Protein in Blood by Improving the Extraction of this Protein  

SciTech Connect

Several conditions were examined to optimize the extraction protocol using Seprion beads for the abnormal prion protein. Different combinations of water, hexafluro-2-propanol and formic acid were used. The results of these extraction protocols showed that the magnetic beads coated with Seprion reagents were subject to degradation, themselves, when the extraction conditions that would solubilize the abnormal prion protein were used. These compounds caused interference in the immunoassay for the abnormal prion protein and rendered these protocols incompatible with the assay systems. In an attempt to overcome this problem, another approach was then used. The coated beads were used as an integral part of the assay platform. After washing away denaturing agents, the beads with the 'captured' abnormal prion were incubated directly in the immunoassay, followed by analysis by the capillary electrophoresis. When a capillary electrophoresis electro-kinetic separation was attempted, the beads disturbed the analysis making it impossible to interpret. A pressure separation method was then developed for capillary electrophoresis analysis. When 20 samples, 5 of which were positive were analyzed, the assay identified 4 of the 5 positives and had no false positives. When a larger number of samples were analyzed the results were not as good - there were false positives and false negatives. It was then observed that the amount of beads that were loaded was dependent upon how long the beads were allowed to settle before loading them into the capillary. This resulted in unacceptable variations in the results and explained that when large numbers of samples were evaluated the results were not consistent. Because the technical difficulties with using the Seprion beads could not be overcome at this time, another approach is underway that is outside of the scope of this CRADA. No further agreements have been developed. Because the results were not favorable, no manuscripts were written nor intellectual property developed.

Schmerr, Mary Jo

2009-03-31

297

Chromosome abnormalities in Indonesian patients with short stature  

PubMed Central

Background Short stature is associated with several disorders including wide variations of chromosomal disorders and single gene disorders. The objective of this report is to present the cytogenetic findings in Indonesian patients with short stature. Methods G-banding and interphase/metaphase FISH were performed on short stature patients with and without other clinical features who were referred by clinicians all over Indonesia to our laboratory during the year 2003–2009. Results The results of chromosomal analysis of ninety seven patients (mean age: 10.7 years old) were collected. The group of patients with other clinical features showed sex chromosome abnormalities in 45% (18/40) and autosomal abnormalities in 10% (4/40), whereas those with short stature only, 42.1% (24/57) had sex chromosome abnormalities and 1.75% (1/57) had autosomal abnormalities. The autosomal chromosomal abnormalities involved mostly subtelomeric regions. Results discrepancies between karyotype and FISH were found in 10 patients, including detection of low-level monosomy X mosaicism in 6 patients with normal karyotype, and detection of mosaic aneuploidy chromosome 18 in 1 patient with 45,XX,rob(13;14)(q10;q10). Statistical analysis showed no significant association between the groups and the type of chromosomal abnormalities. Conclusion Chromosome abnormalities account for about 50% of the short stature patients. Wide variations of both sex and autosomal chromosomes abnormalities were detected in the study. Since three out of five patients had autosomal structural abnormalities involving the subtelomeric regions, thus in the future, subtelomeric FISH or even a more sensitive method such as genomic/SNP microarray is needed to confirm deletions of subtelomeric regions of chromosome 9, 11 and 18. Low-level mosaicism in normal karyotype patients indicates interphase FISH need to be routinely carried out in short stature patients as an adjunct to karyotyping.

2012-01-01

298

Detecting \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the effects of observing windows on detecting\\u000atransiting planets by calculating the fraction of planets with a given period\\u000athat have zero, one (single), two (double), or $\\\\ge$3 (multiple) transits\\u000aoccurring while observations are being taken. We also investigate the effects\\u000aof collaboration by performing the same calculations with combined observing\\u000atimes from two wide-field transit survey

S. W. Fleming; S. R. Kane; P. R. McCullough; F. R. Chromey

2008-01-01

299

Abnormal grain growth in a medium-carbon microalloyed steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study on the grain growth of a medium-carbon V-Ti microalloyed steel with two levels of AIN has been carried out. A system to study grain-size distributions in order to detect the abnormal grain growth has been proposed. Log-normal distributions were verified and then properties of normal distributions were applied to distinguish normal and abnormal grains. The benefits of

J. M. Cabrera; A. Al Omar; J. M. Prado

1996-01-01

300

Abnormal States of Nuclear Matter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results for abnormal states in nuclear matter are reviewed and compared with pi exp - condensates in the context of chiral invariance and the sigma model. The relative importance of symmetry breaking and conserving interactions is assessed for the two pro...

L. Castillejo

1975-01-01

301

Is the opening of the Tasmanian Gateway related to earliest Oligocene Antarctic cryospheric development?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tasmanian Gateway (TG) opening during the Eocene/Oligocene transition has long been invoked as the causal mechanism for the global climate shift from the "Hothouse" world of the early Cenozoic to the "Icehouse" world of the past 35 million years. ODP Leg 189 was designed to test the hypothesis that Antarctic cryospheric evolution resulted from the thermal isolation of Antarctica, caused by the opening of the TG. The proposed mechanism specifically being investigated was the cessation of poleward penetration of the heat-transporting, warm East Australian Current (EAC), and concomitant Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) development, as the cause of the climate cooling. Five sites (1168-1172) were drilled to document paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic changes associated with the opening of the TG as Australia moved northward from Antarctica during the early Cenozoic. Demonstrating that this climatic transformation occurred immediately following significant opening of the TG is one of the major results of ODP Leg 189 (Stickley et al., this volume). To elucidate pre-TG paleo-ocean circulation in this critical region, Eocene phytoplankton records from Leg 189 and other published biotic records from the circum-Antarctic are here examined for biogeographic patterns. To test the TG hypothesis further we compare model fully coupled (ocean-atmosphere-sea ice-land) climate model results for Late Eocene conditions with proxy data and isotopic climate reconstructions. We demonstrate that (1) the EAC never extended far poleward, bending eastward around the northern edge of New Zealand instead, (2) even if this current had extended to Antarctica it is unlikely that turning the current off would have initiated glaciation, (3) that the proxy data agree with the paleocurrent predictions of the model, and (4) that the field data and model responses are not consistent with TG opening as being the control on earliest Oligocene Antarctic glaciation.

Brinkhuis, H.; Huber, M.; Schellenberg, S. A.; Stickley, C. E.; Sluijs, A.; Warnaar, J.; Williams, G. L.

2003-04-01

302

Assessing the duration and possible causes of the earliest Toarcian carbon isotopic excursion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early Toarcian stage (Early Jurassic) records two short-lived events of major faunal turnover and environmental perturbation. The first event (eT-E) occurs during the earliest Toarcian (early Polymorphum chronozone) and has been documented only in a few sites worldwide. The second event, better known as the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE) has been documented in numerous sites from Northern Siberia to Argentina. Both events are marked by negative carbon isotope excursions (CIE) recorded in carbonate and organic substrate. Therefore they are thought to be associated with major changes in carbon cycling. Similarities between the eT-E and the T-OAE thus lead to the conclusion that these events might have been triggered by similar mechanisms. If this is the case, the CIEs associated with both events should have a comparable duration. In order to valid or falsify this hypothesis, it is therefore crucial to constrain the duration of both events. The duration of the T-OAE CIE was assessed in several papers by cyclostratigraphic analyses thanks to favourable outcropping condition. It is however not the case for the eT-E CIE, this latter being often associated with sedimentary condensation or hiatal surfaces. We make use of the high palaeo-subsidence rates of the Lower Toarcian Moroccan shelf leading to extended sections in the High Atlas Basin. The Foum Tillicht section was sampled in increments of 20 cm across a stratigraphic interval of 50 m, covering the Polymorphum chronozone. Carbon and oxygen isotopes analyses were performed on micritic and organic matter. Ammonites and nannofossils biostratigraphy aided in calibrating geochemical analyses. Carbon isotopes data display a rhythmic pattern. Preliminary results indicate that the eT-E negative carbon isotope excursion lasted around 400 kyr.

Krencker, Francois-Nicolas; Bodin, Stéphane; Suan, Guillaume; Kabiri, Lahcen; Immenhauser, Adrian

2013-04-01

303

First Farmers in South India: The role of internal processes and external influences in the emergence and transformation of south India's earliest settled societies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Neolithic period in the south Deccan plateau of south India seems to have begun sometime in the 3rd millennium BC. It is therefore not one of the world's earliest Neolithic transitions, nor indeed the earliest Neolithic culture in South Asia. Nonetheless, the Southern Neolithic, as it is known in India, is of significant interest to Neolithic scholars worldwide because

Nicole Boivin; Dorian Fuller; Ravi Korisettar; Michael Petraglia

304

Lymphocyte abnormalities in Beh?et's syndrome.  

PubMed Central

In order to test indirectly the hypothesis that Behçet's syndrome is caused by a virus, lymphocytes from eighty-six patients were evaluated for two parameters consistent with persistent virus infection: chromosomal abnormalities and decreased ability to herpes simplex virus type I (HSV) to grow in lymphocyte cultures stimulated by PHA. Whereas HSV grew in lymphocytes cultured from all normal donors, replication was impaired in lymphocytes from 37% of the patients with Behçet's syndrome. This figure is increased to 57% if patients receiving steroids or cytotoxic drugs were excluded. Lymphocytes were scored as chromosomally abnormal from sixteen of the thirty-eight patients examined, compared with only one of seventeen normal controls. There was damage to specific chromosomes in four patients. The frequency with which chromosomal abnormalities were detected was significantly related to failure to replicate HSV and inversely related to concomitant steroid treatment. The findings are consistent with a viral aetiology for Behçet's syndrome but other explanations are not excluded. Images Fig. 6

Denman, A M; Fialkow, P J; Pelton, B K; Salo, A C; Appleford, D J; Gilchrist, C

1980-01-01

305

MR imaging of cerebral abnormalities in utero.  

PubMed

In view of the lack of ionizing radiation, ability to image in a variety of planes, and high contrast resolution, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging may have a role in obstetrical management. Three fetuses with severe cerebral abnormalities were studied by MR in utero. The findings were correlated with ultrasound examinations and with autopsy results. Ventricular dilatation and progression of hydrocephalus were detected by MR. Although fetal motion may affect image quality, diagnostically useful images were obtained with imaging times of 2.5 min. PMID:6389620

Thickman, D; Mintz, M; Mennuti, M; Kressel, H Y

1984-12-01

306

The Earliest-Generated Neurons of the Cat Cerebral Cortex: Characterization by MAP2 and Neurotransmitter lmmunohistochemistry During Fetal Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The earliest-generated neurons of the cat cerebral cortex have been studied here during development using a com- bination of 3H-thymidine birthdating with immunohistochem- istry for the neuron-specific protein MAP2 or for several neu- ropeptides\\/transmitters. These neurons are the first postmitotic cells of the cortex, with birthdates during the l-week period preceding the genesis of cells of the adult cerebral cortex

Jerold J. M. Chun; Carla J. Shatz

307

Comparing the composition of the earliest basalts erupted by the Iceland and Afar mantle plumes.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first basalts erupted by mantle plumes are typically generated by mantle melting at temperatures 200-300°C higher than average ambient mantle. This is consistent with the derivation of from a thermal boundary layer at the core-mantle boundary. Mantle plume temperatures decrease with time, likely as large plume heads give way to thin plume conduits. Consequently the early, hot plume basalts are a window into the deep mantle. At it's simplest they provide a test of whether the discrete plume source regions are primordial mantle that have been isolated since soon after Earth accretion, or have substantial contributions from subducted slabs. Here I present new isotopic and trace element determinations of the earliest picritic basalts from the ~30 Ma Afar plume in Ethiopia. They will be compared with similar material from the ~60 Ma proto-Iceland plume (PIP) in an effort to test prevailing models regarding the source of mantle plumes. The extremely primordial nature of the helium in the PIP picrites (3He/4He ~ 50 Ra) contrasts with much lower values of the Ethiopian flood basalt province (~21 Ra). The Iceland plume 3He/4He has decreased (linearly) with time, mirroring the secular cooling of the Iceland mantle plume identified by decreasing MgO and FeO in primary melts. In 60 million years the Iceland plume 3He/4He is still higher than the maximum Afar plume value. The Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic composition of the high 3He/4He Ethiopian flood basalt province picrites are remarkably homogenous (e.g. 87Sr/86Sr = 0.70396-0.70412; 206Pb/204Pb = 18.82-19.01). In comparison the PIP picrites have ranges that span nearly the global range of E-MORB and N-MORB. The Afar and proto-Iceland mantle plumes are clearly not initiated in a single deep mantle domain with the same depletion/enrichment and degassing histories, and the same scale of heterogeneity. This implies that there is more than one plume source region/mechanism that is capable of generating comparable volumes of basalt melt at Earth surface.

Stuart, Finlay M.

2013-04-01

308

Ciliary abnormalities in respiratory disease.  

PubMed

One hundred and sixty seven children, ranging in age from 5 weeks to 16 years, with chronic upper or lower respiratory tract problems, or both, were investigated for ciliary dyskinesia. Abnormal ciliary function was found in 18 cases all of whom had chronic lower respiratory disease and most of whom also had upper respiratory problems. Fifteen of the 18 cases had reduced ciliary beat frequencies (less than 10 Hz) associated with dyskinesia and the other three showed apparent absence of ciliated cells. Of the 15 cases with reduced ciliary beat frequencies, ciliary ultrastructure was normal in seven cases but abnormal with missing dynein arms and occasional abnormalities of microtubular arrangement in eight. Respiratory symptoms in the perinatal period were more common in children with abnormal ciliary function and present in all those with ultrastructural abnormalities or absence of ciliated cells compared with 34 (26%) of 132 children, in whom symptoms were recorded, with normal ciliary function. This study would suggest that all children with unexplained chronic respiratory disease, in particular those with symptoms starting in the perinatal period, should be investigated for ciliary dyskinesia. PMID:3355203

Buchdahl, R M; Reiser, J; Ingram, D; Rutman, A; Cole, P J; Warner, J O

1988-03-01

309

Novel HESX1 Mutations Associated with a Life Threatening Neonatal Phenotype, Pituitary Aplasia, but Normally Located Posterior Pituitary and No Optic Nerve Abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Hesx1 is one of the earliest homeodomain transcription factors expressed during pituitary development. Very few HESX1 mutations have been identified in humans; although in those cases the disease phenotype shows considerable variability, all but one of the patients display an ectopic posterior pituitary and\\/or optic nerve abnormalities. Objective:The objectives of the study were to describe the complex phenotype associated

Marie-Laure Sobrier; Mohamad Maghnie; Marie-Pierre Vie; Andrea Secco; Renata Lorini; Serge Amselem

310

Earliest Izu-Bonin arc volcanism found on the submarine Bonin Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By extensive sampling of the Izu-Bonin forearc, we have found evidence of MORB-like volcanism above the new slab at the very initiation of volcanism. Bonin Ridge is an unusually prominent forearc massif in the Izu- Bonin arc that exposes early arc volcanic rocks on islands of Chichijima, Hahajima, and smaller islands. In 2007 we sampled along the entire length of the Bonin Ridge between the Bonin Islands and Izu-Bonin Trench to establish the nature and timing of the earliest stages of Izu-Bonin arc and to attempt to recover material from the deepest sections of the arc crust. Dredge stations on the deeper part of the landward slope (as deep as 6420m) of the Izu-Bonin Trench recovered pillow basalts as well as gabbroic rocks and peridotite. This is the first recovery of these types of rocks (i.e., upper mantle and lower crust) from the Izu-Bonin forearc other than at serpentine seamounts. Preliminary data imply that these basalts are MORB-like (i.e., with no slab signature). Interestingly, these lavas have lower Ti/V (14-16) which distinguishes them from subducting Pacific MORB (26-32) and Philippine Sea MORB (17-25) which are the potential basement components of the arc. Pb isotopes of the forearc MORB show that like other Izu-Bonin arc magmas they are derived from a mantle source with Indian Ocean characteristics. Chemically and petrographically they have similar characteristics to tholeiites from the Mariana forearc that are considered to predate boninitic volcanism in that region. This strongly implies that MORB-like tholeiitic magmatism was associated with forearc spreading along the length of the Izu-Bonin- Mariana arc. Like the adjacent boninitic magmatism, it can be linked to an Indian Ocean-type source. Low concentrations of incompatible elements and low trace element ratios such as Nb/Yb imply that these lavas were from depleted mantle and/or large degree of partial melting compared to typical Philippine Sea MORB. Dredge sampling at small bathymetric highs east of the Bonin Islands mainly recovered aphyric or ol-cpx basalt lava, which have not been recognized on the Bonin Islands nearby. This result implies that these forearc highs are remnant volcanic edifices. These basalts show weak slab signatures and could represent the arc prior to boninitic volcanism and immediately after MORB-like basalts. Boninite from the Bonin Islands are characterized by high ?7/4Pb and low 143Nd/144Nd relative to local MORB sources and the MORB-like basalt recovered in the forearc. The Bonin Islands are also distinct from the 44 Ma volcanics from the Hahajima Islands and the Bonin Ridge escarpment (Ishizuka et al., 2006). So potentially the geochemical and isotopic characteristics of the arc may have evolved by 1) an initial decompressional melting without significant slab flux producing MORB-like basalt at the onset of forearc spreading, 2) melting of subducted pelagic sediment and extremely depleted mantle followed during a limited period (48-45 Ma), 3) subsequent melting with more extensive hydrous fluid input generated the tholeiitic and calcalkaline magma after 44 Ma. Dating results on the forearc basalts will be presented at the conference, which for the first time will enable the magmatic evolution of the early stages of arc initiation to be traced.

Ishizuka, O.; Yuasa, M.; Sakamoto, I.; Kanayama, K.; Taylor, R. N.; Umino, S.; Tani, K.; Ohara, Y.

2008-12-01

311

Extracellular Matrix Abnormalities in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Emerging evidence points to the involvement of the brain extracellular matrix (ECM) in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ). Abnormalities affecting several ECM components, including Reelin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), have been described in subjects with this disease. Solid evidence supports the involvement of Reelin, an ECM glycoprotein involved in corticogenesis, synaptic functions and glutamate NMDA receptor regulation, expressed prevalently in distinct populations of GABAergic neurons, which secrete it into the ECM. Marked changes of Reelin expression in SZ have typically been reported in association with GABA-related abnormalities in subjects with SZ and bipolar disorder. Recent findings from our group point to substantial abnormalities affecting CSPGs, a main ECM component, in the amygdala and entorhinal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia, but not bipolar disorder. Striking increases of glial cells expressing CSPGs were accompanied by reductions of perineuronal nets, CSPG- and Reelin-enriched ECM aggregates enveloping distinct neuronal populations. CSPGs developmental and adult functions, including neuronal migration, axon guidance, synaptic and neurotransmission regulation are highly relevant to the pathophysiology of SZ. Together with reports of anomalies affecting several other ECM components, these findings point to the ECM as a key component of the pathology of SZ. We propose that ECM abnormalities may contribute to several aspects of the pathophysiology of this disease, including disrupted connectivity and neuronal migration, synaptic anomalies and altered GABAergic, glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission.

Berretta, Sabina

2011-01-01

312

Transcriptional abnormalities in Huntington disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Huntington disease (HD) is caused by a CAG repeat expansion that is translated into an abnormally long polyglutamine (polyQ) tract in the huntingtin protein. The precise mechanisms leading to neurodegeneration in HD have not been fully elucidated, but alterations in gene transcription could well be involved because the activities of several nuclear proteins are compromised by the polyQ mutation. Recent

Katharine L. Sugars; David C. Rubinsztein

2003-01-01

313

Abnormal waves during Hurricane Camille  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reanalysis is reported of the wave time series recorded during Hurricane Camille having as objective the identification of individual waves that satisfy current criteria defining abnormal or freak waves. It is shown that during the hurricane development, a very nonstationary situation has occurred during which the second-order sea state parameters changed significantly with time. The parameters of the largest

C. Guedes Soares; Z. Cherneva; E. M. Antão

2004-01-01

314

Journal of Abnormal Psychology: Editorial  

Microsoft Academic Search

In keeping with tradition, the editor of the current issue of the Journal of Abnormal Psychology (1980, Vol. 89, No. 4) presents an account of his policies and goals for the benefit of readers and potential authors. The author discusses the Journal's coverage, criteria for acceptance, types of articles, evaluation procedures, and the blind review process.

Alexander M. Buchwald

1980-01-01

315

Anxiety, pregnancy, and childbirth abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women who later experienced complications or had abnormal children show higher manifest anxiety scores in the 7th month of pregnancy. For those retested, differences were not significant 6 weeks later. From Psyc Abstracts 36:01:3HK74D.

Anthony Davids; Spencer Devault; Max Talmadge

1961-01-01

316

Distress Associated with Prenatal Screening for Fetal Abnormality  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretically-based, multivariate approach was used to identify factors associated with emotional distress for pregnant women undergoing maternal serum alpha fetoprotein (MSAFP or AFP) testing, used to detect abnormalities of the fetal brain and spinal cord. Participants were those who received normal results (N = 87). Study results supported the hypothesis that different factors would predict distress before and after

Marci Lobel; Lynette Dias; Bruce A. Meyer

2005-01-01

317

Haematology of clinically normal and abnormal captive llamas and guanacoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood counts of healthy juvenile and adult llamas (Lama glama) and guanacoes (L guanacoe) showed that guanacoes have higher red cell counts, haemoglobin values and packed cell volumes than llamas. In both species, the numbers of lymphocytes and platelets were higher in juveniles than in adults. By reference to the values found in normal animals, abnormal haematological variations were detected

CM Hawkey; FM Gulland

1988-01-01

318

Identification of Three Phase Transformer Abnormal Conditions Using Wavelet Entropy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, power system signals have been analyzed by techniques based on Fourier transform and fast Fourier transform for the purposes of identifying abnormal conditions and power quality issues. Distinguishing the inrush currents and fault currents in power transformers is an essential task for protection purposes. Detecting, discriminating and severity ranking of different unbalanced conditions of power transformers may prevent damage

A. Al-Zaben; W. Abu-Elhaija; M. Alomoush

2007-01-01

319

Structural Pituitary Abnormalities Associated With CHARGE Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Introduction: CHARGE syndrome is a multisystem disorder that, in addition to Kallmann syndrome/isolated hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, has been associated with anterior pituitary hypoplasia (APH). However, structural abnormalities such as an ectopic posterior pituitary (EPP) have not yet been described in such patients. Objective: The aims of the study were: 1) to describe the association between CHARGE syndrome and a structurally abnormal pituitary gland; and 2) to investigate whether CHD7 variants, which are identified in 65% of CHARGE patients, are common in septo-optic dysplasia /hypopituitarism. Methods: We describe 2 patients with features of CHARGE and EPP. CHD7 was sequenced in these and other patients with septo-optic dysplasia/hypopituitarism. Results: EPP, APH, and GH, TSH, and probable LH/FSH deficiency were present in 1 patient, and EPP and APH with GH, TSH, LH/FSH, and ACTH deficiency were present in another patient, both of whom had features of CHARGE syndrome. Both had variations in CHD7 that were novel and undetected in control cohorts or in the international database of CHARGE patients, but were also present in their unaffected mothers. No CHD7 variants were detected in the patients with septo-optic dysplasia/hypopituitarism without additional CHARGE features. Conclusion: We report a novel association between CHARGE syndrome and structural abnormalities of the pituitary gland in 2 patients with variations in CHD7 that are of unknown significance. However, CHD7 mutations are an uncommon cause of septo-optic dysplasia or hypopituitarism. Our data suggest the need for evaluation of pituitary function/anatomy in patients with CHARGE syndrome.

Gregory, Louise C.; Gevers, Evelien F.; Baker, Joanne; Kasia, Tessa; Chong, Kling; Josifova, Dragana J.; Caimari, Maria; Bilan, Frederic; McCabe, Mark J.

2013-01-01

320

Taste perception abnormalities after acute stroke in postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

The study aims to elucidate the characteristics of post-stroke taste dysfunction in postmenopausal women. Taste function in 120 consecutive postmenopausal women with acute (<7 days) stroke was compared with that of age-matched control subjects (n=109). The agents used were: sodium chloride for saltiness, sucrose for sweetness, glacial acetic acid for sourness and quinine hemisulfate for bitterness. Detection and recognition thresholds were performed by the three-stimulus drop technique. Taste threshold values beyond two standard deviations of normal were considered "abnormal". For postmenopausal women after acute stroke, abnormal detection thresholds for the ability to taste sweetness, saltiness, sourness and bitterness were found in 33%, 21%, 35% and 30% of women, respectively, and abnormal recognition thresholds were found in 40%, 34%, 42% and 33% of women respectively. The taste dysfunction occurred ipsilaterally, contralaterally or bilaterally, and was not related to the side or location of the lesion. Large (>2 cm) lesions were more frequently associated with sweet and salty taste dysfunction than small lesions (p<0.05). Follow-up examination in 23 patients at 24 to 31 months (mean 27 months) after the initial evaluation showed that the taste abnormality persisted in 8 (35%) patients. Taste perception abnormalities are common and often persistent in stroke patients. The dysfunction can occur ipsilaterally, contralaterally or bilaterally. PMID:19297163

Kim, Jong S; Choi-Kwon, Smi; Kwon, Sun U; Kwon, Jee-Hyun

2009-03-18

321

Endocrine abnormalities in anorexia nervosa.  

PubMed

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disease associated with notable medical complications and increased mortality. Endocrine abnormalities, including hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, hypercortisolemia, growth hormone resistance and sick euthyroid syndrome, mediate the clinical manifestations of this disease. Alterations in anorexigenic and orexigenic appetite-regulating pathways have also been described. Decreases in fat mass result in adipokine abnormalities. Although most of the endocrine changes that occur in AN represent physiologic adaptation to starvation, some persist after recovery and might contribute to susceptibility to AN recurrence. In this Review, we summarize key endocrine alterations in AN, with a particular focus on the profound bone loss that can occur in this disease. Although AN is increasingly prevalent among boys and men, the disorder predominantly affects girls and women who are, therefore, the focus of this Review. PMID:18542109

Lawson, Elizabeth A; Klibanski, Anne

2008-06-10

322

Le nouveau polar a la francaise (The New French Detective Story).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A recent trend in French detective stories characterized by the author's anger at society, a new range of character types, and a more personal and authentic writing style reminiscent of the earliest novelists is examined. (MSE)|

Deloux, Jean-Pierre

1984-01-01

323

Coagulation Abnormalities in Critical Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In critically ill patients coagulation abnormalities often occur. The most pronounced manifestation of these, caused by overwhelming\\u000a activation of the coagulation system, is disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) which is also considered to be a component\\u000a of the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). There is no generally accepted definition of DIC but recently a working\\u000a definition has been proposed [1]: “DIC

L. G. Thijs

324

Mastoid abnormalities in down syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected\\u000a children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality\\u000a may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child’s hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors\\u000a which are important

R. B. J. Glass; D. K. Yousefzadeh; N. J. Roizen

1989-01-01

325

Liver abnormalities in Turner syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated whether hepatic abnormalities represent a specific feature in girls with Turner syndrome (TS) or whether they\\u000a are related to an increased susceptibility to hormonal therapies and\\/or other factors. Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate\\u000a aminotransferase and ?-glutamyl transferase were monitored in 70 patients with TS for a mean period of 7.6?±?4.2 years. An\\u000a increase in serum liver enzymes was observed in

M. Salerno; S. Di Maio; N. Gasparini; M. Rizzo; P. Ferri; P. Vajro

1999-01-01

326

Maternal flu and congenital abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionRecent case studies following swine flu pandemic show that pregnant woman are more susceptible to flu infection. Various studies have sought to find an association between fetal congenital abnormalities (CAs) and maternal flu infection.MethodologyThe authors performed a review of literature since 1950 in Medline and on the web using keywords ‘Flu’ and ‘CAs’ and collated the results.ResultsIn 2005, Acs et

S Pandey; K Singh

2010-01-01

327

Road Proximity Increases Risk of Skeletal Abnormalities in Wood Frogs from National Wildlife Refuges in Alaska  

PubMed Central

Background Skeletal and eye abnormalities in amphibians are not well understood, and they appear to be increasing while global populations decline. Here, we present the first study of amphibian abnormalities in Alaska. Objective In this study we investigated the relationship between anthropogenic influences and the probability of skeletal and eye abnormalities in Alaskan wood frogs (Rana sylvatica). Methods From 2000 to 2006, we examined 9,269 metamorphic wood frogs from 86 breeding sites on five National Wildlife Refuges: Arctic, Innoko, Kenai, Tetlin, and Yukon Delta. Using road proximity as a proxy for human development, we tested relationships between skeletal and eye abnormalities and anthropogenic effects. We also examined a subsample of 458 frogs for the trematode parasite Ribeiroia ondatrae, a known cause of amphibian limb abnormalities. Results Prevalence of skeletal and eye abnormalities at Alaskan refuges ranged from 1.5% to 7.9% and were as high as 20% at individual breeding sites. Proximity to roads increased the risk of skeletal abnormalities (p = 0.004) but not eye abnormalities. The only significant predictor of eye abnormalities was year sampled (p = 0.006). R. ondatrae was not detected in any Alaskan wood frogs. Conclusions Abnormality prevalence at road-accessible sites in the Kenai and Tetlin refuges is among the highest reported in the published literature. Proximity to roads is positively correlated with risk of skeletal abnormalities in Alaskan wood frogs.

Reeves, Mari K.; Dolph, Christine L.; Zimmer, Heidi; Tjeerdema, Ronald S.; Trust, Kimberly A.

2008-01-01

328

Induced lymphatic sinus hyperplasia in sentinel lymph nodes by VEGF-C as the earliest premetastatic indicator  

PubMed Central

Research on tumor-induced lymphangiogenesis has predominantly focused on alterations and abnormal growth of peritumoral and intratumoral lymphatic vessels. However, recent evidence indicates that lymphangiogenesis of sentinel lymph nodes might also contribute to cancer progression. In clinical oncology, the sentinel lymph nodes play an important role in diagnosis, staging and management of disease. The prognostic value that may be placed in the analysis of various parameters in tumor-free lymph nodes is still under debate. We, therefore, chose to investigate genetically fluorescent MDA-MB-435/green fluorescent protein human cancer cells transfected to overexpress VEGF-C in a nude mouse model and investigated metastasis, lymph node lymphangiogenesis, lymph node angiogenesis and size of sentinel lymph nodes. The nature of MDA-MB-435, identified as a breast cancer cell line for several decades, has recently been reidentified as being from melanoma origin. Vascular endothelial growth factor-C overexpression induced early metastasis and significantly increased the lymphatic vessel area in sentinel lymph nodes even before the tumor metastasis. At early time-points, expansion of the lymphatic network was observed even though no difference of blood vessel area and lymph node size was detected. These results suggest that primary tumors -via secretion of VEGF-C- can induce hyperplasia of the sentinel lymph node lymphatic vessel network and thereby promote their further spread. In cases of tumor-free lymph nodes the increased lymphatic network of sentinel lymph nodes is a very early premetastatic sign and may provide a new prognostic indicator and target for aggressive diseases.

LIERSCH, RUEDIGER; HIRAKAWA, SATOSHI; BERDEL, WOLFGANG E.; MESTERS, ROLF M.; DETMAR, MICHAEL

2012-01-01

329

Renal abnormalities in children with hypertrophic pyloric stenosis —fact or fallacy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retrospective review of the abdominal ultrasound (US) examination of 274 children studied for hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) was undertaken to determine if there is an increased incidence of renal disease as previously reported. Five major abnormalities were detected in the 126 children with HPS. Three lesions were newly diagnosed and two had been diagnosed previously. Five children had abnormalities classified

S. K. Fernbach; F. P. Morello

1993-01-01

330

Ultrastructural abnormality of sarcolemmal nuclei in Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed ultrastructural studies on nuclear abnormalities in biopsied muscles from seven patients with EDMD, of three non-related families, and two sporadic cases. The diagnosis was based on clinical data and molecular findings. We detected different degrees of abnormalities in the sarcolemmal nuclei ranging from marked condensation of chromatin to complete damage of nuclear components. Other nuclei in the same

A Fidzia?ska; D Toniolo; I Hausmanowa-Petrusewicz

1998-01-01

331

How study of respiratory physiology aided our understanding of abnormal brain function in panic disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a substantial body of literature demonstrating that stimulation of respiration (hyperventilation) is a common event in panic disorder patients during panic attack episodes. Further, a number of abnormalities in respiration, such as enhanced CO2 sensitivity, have been detected in panic patients. This led some to posit that there is a fundamental abnormality in the physiological mechanisms that control

Smit Sinha; Laszlo A Papp; Jack M Gorman

2000-01-01

332

Pathology Case Study: Sensory Abnormalities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This particular case focuses on a 30-year-old man with a history of focal numbness, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and progressive sensory abnormalities. The patientâÂÂs history, images from an MRI, microscopic images of a specimen collected during his laminectomy, and final diagnosis are provided in this case for your review. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

Smith, Sharyn; Lownie, Steven P.; Duggal, Neil; Hammond, Robert R.

2007-12-10

333

High prevalence of thyroid ultrasonographic abnormalities in primary aldosteronism.  

PubMed

The study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid abnormalities detected by ultrasonography and, in particular, of multinodular nontoxic goiter in primary aldosteronism. We analyzed 80 consecutive of patients with primary hyperaldosteronism (40 with unilateral adenoma and 40 with idiopathic hyperaldosteronism) and 80 normotensive healthy controls, comparable for age, sex, iodine intake, and geographical area. Blood pressure, thyroid palpation, thyroid function, and ultrasonography were evaluated. The prevalence of ultrasonographic thyroid abnormalities was 60% in primary aldosteronism and 27% in controls (p < 0.0001). There was a statistically significant difference in prevalence of these abnormalities in unilateral adenoma and idiopathic hyperaldosteronism with respect to controls (p < 0.05 and p < 0.0001, respectively). The prevalence of multinodular nontoxic goiter in idiopathic hyperaldosteronism was higher than in controls (p < 0.001) and, in particular, in female patients. From these data it seems to be worth considering the existence of primary hyperaldosteronism in patients with multinodular goiter and hypertension. PMID:14665720

Armanini, Decio; Nacamulli, Davide; Scaroni, Carla; Lumachi, Franco; Selice, Riccardo; Fiore, Cristina; Favia, Gennaro; Mantero, Franco

2003-11-01

334

Electrophysiology of type II mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis with associated fundus abnormalities.  

PubMed Central

The retinal electrophysiology is reported in four patients with type II mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis and partial lipodystrophy with associated fundus abnormalities and no visual symptoms. The histological hallmark of the condition is that of widespread electron dense deposits in the renal glomerulus and in the choriocapillaris and Bruch's membrane of the eye. Three of the four patients had the typical fundal appearance of multiple, yellow, drusen-like lesions at the posterior pole of the eye with normal visual acuity. These three patients had abnormally low Arden ratios on electro-oculography with normal electroretinography responses. This is the first clinical model of disease known to be isolated to the choriocapillaris and Bruch's membrane causing an electro-oculographic abnormality without any clinically detectable deficit in visual function. Images

O'Brien, C; Duvall-Young, J; Brown, M; Short, C; Bone, M

1993-01-01

335

Computed tomography of the trachea: normal and abnormal  

SciTech Connect

The trachea was investigated by means of computed tomography (CT) in 50 patients without tracheal or mediastinal abnormalities and in 39 patients with various diseases of the trachea. The variations in the normal CT appearance of the trachea and surrounding structures are described. CT did not provide additional information in the detection of characterization of tracheal stenosis beyond that obtained from more conventional studies, including tomography and positive-contrast tracheography. In patients with a saber-sheath trachea, CT demonstrated the abnormal configuration of the tracheal cartilages and abnormal collapse of the trachea on forced expiration. In patients with primary or secondary neoplasms involving the trachea, CT was most accurate in defining the intraluminal presence of tumor, the degree of airway compression, and the extratracheal extension of tumor. CT can be of value in determining the resectability of primary tracheal neoplasms and the planning of radiation therapy in metastatic lesions to the trachea and surrounding mediastinum.

Gamsu, G.; Webb, W.R.

1982-08-01

336

Evaluation of abnormal liver function tests  

PubMed Central

Interpretation of abnormalities in liver function tests is a common problem faced by clinicians. This has become more common with the introduction of automated routine laboratory testing. Not all persons with one or more abnormalities in these tests actually have liver disease. The various biochemical tests, their pathophysiology, and an approach to the interpretation of abnormal liver function tests are discussed in this review.

Limdi, J; Hyde, G

2003-01-01

337

Neurobiological trait abnormalities in bipolar disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissecting trait neurobiological abnormalities in bipolar disorder (BD) from those characterizing episodes of mood disturbance will help elucidate the aetiopathogenesis of the illness. This selective review highlights the immunological, neuroendocrinological, molecular biological and neuroimaging abnormalities characteristic of BD, with a focus on those likely to reflect trait abnormalities by virtue of their presence in euthymic patients or in unaffected relatives

C Langan; C McDonald

2009-01-01

338

Disorders caused by chromosome abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Many human genetic disorders result from unbalanced chromosome abnormalities, in which there is a net gain or loss of genetic material. Such imbalances often disrupt large numbers of dosage-sensitive, developmentally important genes and result in specific and complex phenotypes. Alternately, some chromosomal syndromes may be caused by a deletion or duplication of a single gene with pleiotropic effects. Traditionally, chromosome abnormalities were identified by visual inspection of the chromosomes under a microscope. The use of molecular cytogenetic technologies, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization and microarrays, has allowed for the identification of cryptic or submicroscopic imbalances, which are not visible under the light microscope. Microarrays have allowed for the identification of numerous new syndromes through a genotype-first approach in which patients with the same or overlapping genomic alterations are identified and then the phenotypes are described. Because many chromosomal alterations are large and encompass numerous genes, the ascertainment of individuals with overlapping deletions and varying clinical features may allow researchers to narrow the region in which to search for candidate genes.

Theisen, Aaron; Shaffer, Lisa G

2010-01-01

339

Unveiling the earliest stage of star formation: the H3+ deuteration tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deuterium enhancement of monodeuterated species has been recognized for more than 30 years as a result of the chemical fractionation that results from the difference in zero point energies of deuterated and hydrogenated molecules. The key reaction is the deuteron exchange in the reaction between HD, the reservoir of deuterium in dark interstellar clouds, and the H3+ molecular ion, leading to the production of the H2D+ molecule, and the low temperature in dark interstellar clouds favors this production. Furthermore, the presence of multiply deuterated species have incited us (Phillips & Vastel 2003) to proceed further and consider the subsequent reaction of H2D+ with HD, leading to D2H+ (first detected by Vastel et al. 2004), which can further react with HD to produce D3+. In prestellar cores, where CO was found to be depleted (Bacmann et al. 2003), this production should be increased, as CO would normally destroy H3+. The first model including D2}H+ and D3}+ (Roberts, Herbst & Millar 2003) predicted that these molecules should be as abundant as H2D+. The first detection of the D2H+ was made possible by the recent laboratory measurement by Hirao & Amano (2003) for the frequency of the fundamental line of the para-D2H+. In this paper I present observations of H3D+ and D2H+ towards a sample of dark clouds and prestellar cores and show how the distribution of ortho-H2}D+ (11,0}-B11}) can trace the deuterium factory in prestellar cores. I will also present how future instrumentation will improve our knowledge concerning the deuterium enhancement of H3+.

Vastel, Charlotte

2007-07-01

340

Individual Trabeculae Segmentation (ITS)-Based Morphological Analysis of High-Resolution Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography Images Detects Abnormal Trabecular Plate and Rod Microarchitecture in Premenopausal Women With Idiopathic Osteoporosis  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic osteoporosis (IOP) in premenopausal women is a poorly understood entity in which otherwise healthy women have low-trauma fracture or very low bone mineral density (BMD). In this study, we applied individual trabeculae segmentation (ITS)–based morphological analysis to high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) images of the distal radius and distal tibia to gain greater insight into skeletal microarchitecture in premenopausal women with IOP. HR-pQCT scans were performed for 26 normal control individuals and 31 women with IOP. A cubic subvolume was extracted from the trabecular bone compartment and subjected to ITS-based analysis. Three Young's moduli and three shear moduli were calculated by micro–finite element (µFE) analysis. ITS-based morphological analysis of HR-pQCT images detected significantly decreased trabecular plate and rod bone volume fraction and number, decreased axial bone volume fraction in the longitudinal axis, increased rod length, and decreased rod-to-rod, plate-to-rod, and plate-to-plate junction densities at the distal radius and distal tibia in women with IOP. However, trabecular plate and rod thickness did not differ. A more rod-like trabecular microstructure was found in the distal radius, but not in the distal tibia. Most ITS measurements contributed significantly to the elastic moduli of trabecular bone independent of bone volume fraction (BV/TV). At a fixed BV/TV, plate-like trabeculae contributed positively to the mechanical properties of trabecular bone. The results suggest that ITS-based morphological analysis of HR-pQCT images is a sensitive and promising clinical tool for the investigation of trabecular bone microstructure in human studies of osteoporosis. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

Liu, X Sherry; Cohen, Adi; Shane, Elizabeth; Stein, Emily; Rogers, Halley; Kokolus, Shannon L; Yin, Perry T; McMahon, Donald J; Lappe, Joan M; Recker, Robert R; Guo, X Edward

2010-01-01

341

The earliest archaeological maize (Zea mays L.) from highland Mexico: New accelerator mass spectrometry dates and their implications  

PubMed Central

Accelerator mass spectrometry age determinations of maize cobs (Zea mays L.) from Guilá Naquitz Cave in Oaxaca, Mexico, produced dates of 5,400 carbon-14 years before the present (about 6,250 calendar years ago), making those cobs the oldest in the Americas. Macrofossils and phytoliths characteristic of wild and domesticated Zea fruits are absent from older strata from the site, although Zea pollen has previously been identified from those levels. These results, together with the modern geographical distribution of wild Zea mays, suggest that the cultural practices that led to Zea domestication probably occurred elsewhere in Mexico. Guilá Naquitz Cave has now yielded the earliest macrofossil evidence for the domestication of two major American crop plants, squash (Cucurbita pepo) and maize.

Piperno, D. R.; Flannery, K. V.

2001-01-01

342

Temperate carbonate debrites and short-lived earliest Miocene yo-yo tectonics, eastern Taranaki Basin margin, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines two unconformity-bound earliest Miocene temperate shallow-marine limestones at remote Gibson Beach, western North Island, on the eastern margin of Taranaki Basin, New Zealand's only producing hydrocarbon province. The local geology comprises an upper limestone of up to 6 m of spectacular conglomeratic limestone (rudstone; Papakura Limestone) whose pebble- to boulder-sized clasts were derived from cannibalisation of the lower skeletal limestone (bryomol grainstone; Otorohanga Limestone). Multiple lines of evidence require the Otorohanga Limestone to have been well indurated before erosion and clast generation. Cementation occurred from pressure dissolution of calcitic skeletons at burial depths of probably 400 m or more. Subsequent uplift led to local subaerial exposure and karstification of a fault-block cliffed coastline where physical erosion sourced talus limestone debris onto adjacent high-energy pocket beaches. Storm and/or seismic events periodically triggered mass flows of the limestone clasts offshore onto the contemporary mixed siliciclastic-carbonate shelf as channelised carbonate debrites. Lithification of these Papakura Limestone debrites occurred via pressure dissolution, and required a second burial episode. Karst pinnacles preserved on the eroded upper surface of the Papakura Limestone demand uplift again and erosion in a subaerial setting, before subsequent deep burial by Early Miocene siliciclastic shelf sand and turbidite deposits. Strontium isotope dating of brachiopod fossils suggests the two postulated burial-uplift cycles, involving movements up to 400 ± 100 m, occurred very rapidly within several 100 kyr. Speculative drivers of the yo-yo tectonic events are earliest Miocene movements on the nearby major Taranaki Fault thrust in association with regional changes in subduction tectonics at the Australian-Pacific plate boundary, along with pulsed emplacement of obducted gravity slide deposits (Northland Allochthon) onto northern North Island. The two limestones record a previously undocumented degree of eastern Taranaki Basin margin tectonic mobility relevant to a fuller appreciation of petroleum system development in that basin.

Hood, Steven D.; Nelson, Campbell S.

2012-03-01

343

Estimating the magnitude of capital flight due to abnormal pricing in international trade: The Russia–USA case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Governmental and international lending agencies, as well as private sector firms, who engage in international trade, have long been concerned with detecting and determining the magnitude of abnormal pricing in international trade. To detect such abnormal pricings, we present a framework analyzing millions of import\\/export transactions between the U.S. and Russia. The objectives of this study are to estimate the

Maria E. de Boyrie; Simon J. Pak; John S. Zdanowicz

2005-01-01

344

Congenital Abnormalities and Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background There is a strong maternal parent-of-origin effect in determining susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS). One hypothesis is that an abnormal intrauterine milieu leading to impaired fetal development could plausibly also result in increased susceptibility to MS. A possible marker for this intrauterine insult is the presence of a non-fatal congenital anomaly. Methods We investigated whether or not congenital anomalies are associated with MS in a population-based cohort. We identified 7063 MS index cases and 2655 spousal controls with congenital anomaly information from the Canadian Collaborative Project on Genetic Susceptibility to MS (CCPGSMS). Results The frequency of congential anomalies were compared between index cases and controls. No significant differences were found. Conclusions Congenital anomalies thus do not appear to be associated with MS. However, we did not have complete data on types and severity of congenital anomalies or on maternal birth history and thus this study should be regarded as preliminary.

2010-01-01

345

Local Kinetic Measures of Macromolecular Structure Reveal Partitioning Among Multiple Parallel Pathways from the Earliest Steps in the Folding of a Large RNA Molecule  

SciTech Connect

At the heart of the RNA folding problem is the number, structures, and relationships among the intermediates that populate the folding pathways of most large RNA molecules. Unique insight into the structural dynamics of these intermediates can be gleaned from the time-dependent changes in local probes of macromolecular conformation (e.g. reports on individual nucleotide solvent accessibility offered by hydroxyl radical ({center_dot}OH) footprinting). Local measures distributed around a macromolecule individually illuminate the ensemble of separate changes that constitute a folding reaction. Folding pathway reconstruction from a multitude of these individual measures is daunting due to the combinatorial explosion of possible kinetic models as the number of independent local measures increases. Fortunately, clustering of time progress curves sufficiently reduces the dimensionality of the data so as to make reconstruction computationally tractable. The most likely folding topology and intermediates can then be identified by exhaustively enumerating all possible kinetic models on a super-computer grid. The folding pathways and measures of the relative flux through them were determined for Mg{sup 2+} and Na{sup +}-mediated folding of the Tetrahymena thermophila group I intron using this combined experimental and computational approach. The flux during Mg{sup 2+}-mediated folding is divided among numerous parallel pathways. In contrast, the flux during the Na{sup +}-mediated reaction is predominantly restricted through three pathways, one of which is without detectable passage through intermediates. Under both conditions, the folding reaction is highly parallel with no single pathway accounting for more than 50% of the molecular flux. This suggests that RNA folding is non-sequential under a variety of different experimental conditions even at the earliest stages of folding. This study provides a template for the systematic analysis of the time-evolution of RNA structure from ensembles of local measures that will illuminate the chemical and physical characteristics of each step in the process. The applicability of this analysis approach to other macromolecules is discussed.

Laederach,A.; Shcherbakova, I.; Liang, M.; Brenowitz, M.; Altman, R.

2006-01-01

346

Cranial base abnormalities in osteogenesis imperfecta: phenotypic and genotypic determinants.  

PubMed

Cranial base abnormalities are an important complication of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), a hereditary bone fragility disorder that in most patients is caused by mutations affecting collagen type I. To elucidate which clinical characteristics are associated with the occurrence of cranial base abnormalities in OI, we compared cephalometric results of 187 OI patients (median age 12.0 years, range 3.4 to 47 years; 96 female) with those of 191 healthy subjects and related findings to clinical descriptors of the disease. Overall, 41 patients (22%) had at least one unambiguously abnormal skull base measure. Multivariate logistic regression analysis in patients with OI types I, III, and IV (n = 169) revealed that height Z-score [odds ratio (OR)?= 0.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.43-0.66, p abnormalities. Among patients with a height Z-score below -3, 48% had a skull base abnormality regardless of whether they had received bisphosphonate treatment in the first year of life or not. Genotype-phenotype correlations were evaluated in patients with detectable mutations in COL1A1 or COL1A2, the genes coding for collagen type I (n = 140). Skull base abnormalities were present in 6% of patients with haploinsufficiency (frameshift or nonsense) mutations, in 43% of patients with helical glycine substitutions caused by COL1A1 mutations, in 32% of patients with helical glycine substitutions owing to COL1A2 mutations, and in 17% of patients with splice-site mutations affecting either COL1A1 or COL1A2. However, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that height Z-score but not the type of collagen type I mutation was independently associated with the prevalence of skull base abnormalities. In conclusion, this study shows that clinical severity of OI, as expressed by the height Z-score, was the strongest predictor of skull base abnormalities. We did not find evidence for the hypothesis that bisphosphonate treatment protects against skull base abnormalities. PMID:20721936

Cheung, Moira S; Arponen, Heidi; Roughley, Peter; Azouz, Michel E; Glorieux, Francis H; Waltimo-Sirén, Janna; Rauch, Frank

2011-02-01

347

Anomalous intrusion detection system for hostile Java applets  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intrusion detection system (IDS) aims to increase the security of a computer system by dynamically monitoring various features and parameters of the system so as to be able to detect intrusions at the earliest possible. IDS's have been developed for privileged UNIX programs like sendmail, lpr, and login. The IDS that we have built is for applets. It serves

Guy G. Helmer; Johnny S. Wong; Subhasri Madaka

2001-01-01

348

High prevalence of thyroid ultrasonographic abnormalities in primary aldosteronism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid abnormalities detected by ultrasonography and, in particular,\\u000a of multinodular nontoxic goiter in primary aldosteronism. We analyzed 80 consecutive of patients with primary hyperaldosteronism\\u000a (40 with unilateral adenoma and 40 with idiopathic hyperaldosteronism) and 80 normotensive healthy controls, comparable for\\u000a age, sex, iodine intake, and geographical area. Blood pressure, thyroid palpation,

Decio Armanini; Davide Nacamulli; Carla Scaroni; Franco Lumachi; Riccardo Selice; Cristina Fiore; Gennaro Favia; Franco Mantero

2003-01-01

349

Multiple white matter tract abnormalities underlie cognitive impairment in RRMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a sensitive tool for detecting microstructural tissue damage in vivo. In this study, we investigated DTI abnormalities in individuals with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and examined the relations between imaging-based measures of white matter injury and cognitive impairment. DTI-derived metrics using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were compared between 37 individuals with RRMS and 20

Hui Jing Yu; Christopher Christodoulou; Vikram Bhise; Daniel Greenblatt; Yashma Patel; Dana Serafin; Mirjana Maletic-Savatic; Lauren B. Krupp; Mark Wagshul

350

Fetal Facial Defects: Associated Malformations and Chromosomal Abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

During an 8-year period, facial defects were observed in 146 (7%) of the 2,086 fetuses that underwent karyotyping in our unit because of fetal malformations and\\/or growth retardation. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 37 of 56 (66%) fetuses with micrognathia, in 10 of 13 (77%) with macroglossia, in 31 of 64 (48 %) with cleft lip and palate, in 5

K. H. Nicolaides; D. R. Salvesen; R. J. M. Snijders; C. M. Gosden

1993-01-01

351

Odontodysplasia, gingival manifestations, and accompanying abnormalities.  

PubMed

Regional odontodysplasia is an uncommon developmental dental disorder that may occasionally be accompanied by other abnormalities. A case is described in which the chief report was of a gingival enlargement arising in a female patient who also had dolichocephaly, thin calvarium, clinodactyly and transverse grooving of her fingernails, and a history of abnormal hair. Previously suggested etiologic factors and cases reported in association with other abnormalities are reviewed. PMID:8850490

Fanibunda, K B; Soames, J V

1996-01-01

352

Abnormal grain growth behavior of an  

Microsoft Academic Search

To obtain a superior high temperature creep strength, the transformation of fine-grained structure to large elongated grains\\u000a by abnormal grain growth is an important process for oxide dispersion strengthened superalloys. The present study investigated\\u000a the abnormal grain growth behavior of TMO-2, an experimental alloy possessing higher creep strength than existing ODS alloys.\\u000a It was found that abnormal grain growth was

K. Mino; Y. G. Nakagawa; A. Ohtomo

1987-01-01

353

Prenatal-postnatal correlations of brain abnormalities: how lesions and diagnoses change over time  

PubMed Central

A combination of prenatal ultrasound and MRI can be used to detect and characterize many primary and secondary CNS abnormalities in the developing fetus. While this information is useful in prenatal patient counseling, it is important to understand the factors that can influence change in diagnosis and prognosis over time. The etiology of the abnormality, the conspicuity of associated findings, the change in appearance over time, and the opinion of subspecialty experts all can influence the diagnosis. Additionally, technical factors of imaging acquisition may allow the detection of an abnormality in the postnatal period and not prenatally. Having an understanding of the normal fetal central nervous system anatomy at varying gestational ages will aid in the imaging detection and interpretation of CNS pathology. Understanding how these appearances and diagnoses can change over time will aid in the discussion of prognosis with expectant parents, which is crucial in fetal CNS abnormalities.

Senapati, Gunjan; Levine, Deborah

2013-01-01

354

Radiologic atlas of pulmonary abnormalities in children  

SciTech Connect

This book is an atlas about thoracic abnormalities in infants and children. The authors include computed tomographic, digital subtraction angiographic, ultrasonographic, and a few magnetic resonance (MR) images. They recognize and discuss how changes in the medical treatment of premature infants and the management of infection and pediatric tumors have altered some of the appearances and considerations in these diseases. Oriented toward all aspects of pulmonary abnormalities, the book starts with radiographic techniques and then discusses the normal chest, the newborn, infections, tumors, and pulmonary vascular diseases. There is comprehensive treatment of mediastinal abnormalities and a discussion of airway abnormalities.

Singleton, E.B.; Wagner, M.L.; Dutton, R.V.

1988-01-01

355

Abnormal Mitochondrial Dynamics and Neurodegenerative Diseases  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial dysfunction is a prominent feature of various neurodegenerative diseases. A deeper understanding of the remarkably dynamic nature of mitochondria, characterized by a delicate balance of fission and fusion, has helped to fertilize a recent wave of new studies demonstrating abnormal mitochondrial dynamics in neurodegenerative diseases. This review highlights mitochondrial dysfunction and abnormal mitochondrial dynamics in Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Huntington disease and discusses how these abnormal mitochondrial dynamics may contribute to mitochondrial and neuronal dysfunction. We propose that abnormal mitochondrial dynamics represents a key common pathway that mediates or amplifies mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal dysfunction during the course of neurodegeneration.

Su, Bo; Wang, Xinglong; Zheng, Ling; Perry, George; Smith, Mark A.; Zhu, Xiongwei

2009-01-01

356

Detecting corpus callosum abnormalities in autism based on anatomical landmarks  

PubMed Central

Autism is a severe developmental disorder whose neurological basis is largely unknown. Autism is a subtype of autism that displays more homogeneous features within group. The aim of this study was to identify the shape differences of the corpus callosum between patients with autism and the controls. Anatomical landmarks were collected from mid-sagittal MRI of 25 patients and 18 controls. Euclidean distance matrix analysis and thin-plate spline were used to analyze the landmark forms. Point-by-point shape comparison was performed both globally and locally. A new local shape comparison scheme was proposed which compared each part of the shape in its local coordinate system. Point correspondence was established among individual shapes based on the inherent landmark correspondence. No significant difference was found in the landmark form between patients and controls, but the distance between interior genu and posterior most was found significantly shorter in patients. Thin-plate spline analysis showed significant group difference between the landmark configurations in terms of the deformation from the overall mean configuration. Significant global shape differences were found in the anterior lower body and posterior bottom, and local shape difference existed in the anterior bottom. This study can serve as both clinical reference and a detailed procedure guideline for similar studies in the future.

He, Qing; Duan, Ye; Karsch, Kevin; Miles, Judith

2010-01-01

357

Abnormality Detection for Improving Elder's Daily Life Independent  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Since the dramatic demographic change makes it inevitable that rapid aging of the population is an unprecedented phenomenon\\u000a in Taiwan. A growing social problem is supporting older adults who want to live independently in their own homes. It needs\\u000a a health assistance system to make them independent living up to a higher age. Recently, technological advancements have spurred\\u000a various ideas

Ya-Xuan Hung; Chih-Yen Chiang; Steen J. Hsu; Chia-Tai Chan

2010-01-01

358

Analytical cytology applied to detection of induced cytogenetic abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

Radiation-induced biological damage results in formation of a broad spectrum of cytogenetic changes such as translocations, dicentrics, ring chromosomes, and acentric fragments. A battery of analytical cytologic techniques are now emerging that promise to significantly improve the precision and ease with which these radiation induced cytogenetic changes can be quantified. This report summarizes techniques to facilitate analysis of the frequency of occurrence of structural and numerical aberrations in control and irradiated human cells. 14 refs., 2 figs.

Gray, J.W.; Lucas, J.; Straume, T.; Pinkel, D.

1987-08-06

359

Genetic abnormalities underlying familial epilepsy syndromes.  

PubMed

Genetic defects have been recently identified in certain inherited epilepsy syndromes in which the phenotypes are similar to common idiopathic epilepsies. Mutations in the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor 4 and 2 subunit genes have been detected in families with autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. Both receptors are components of neuronal acetylcholine receptor, a ligand-gated ion channel in the brain. Furthermore, mutations of two K+-channel genes were also identified as the underlying genetic abnormalities of benign familial neonatal convulsions. Mutations in the voltage-gated Na+-channel 1, 2 and 1 and the gamma aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptor 2 subunit genes were found as a cause of generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, a clinical subset of febrile convulsions. Na+-channels, GABAA receptor and their auxiliaries may be involved in the pathogenesis of this subtype and even in simple febrile convulsions. Mutation of a voltage-gated K+-channel gene can cause partial seizures associated with periodic ataxia type 1 and some forms of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and idiopathic generalized epilepsy can result from mutations of a Ca2+-channel. This line of evidence suggests the involvement of channels expressed in the brain in the pathogenesis of certain types of epilepsy. Our working hypothesis is to view certain idiopathic epilepsies as disorders of ion channels, i.e. 'channelopathies'. Such hypothesis should provide a new insight to our understanding of the genetic background of epilepsy. PMID:12015163

Hirose, Shinichi; Okada, Motohiro; Yamakawa, Kazuhiro; Sugawara, Takashi; Fukuma, Goryu; Ito, Masatoshi; Kaneko, Sunao; Mitsudome, Akihisa

2002-06-01

360

Mapping Brain Abnormalities in Boys with Autism  

PubMed Central

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit characteristic cognitive and behavioral differences, but no systematic pattern of neuroanatomical differences has been consistently found. Recent neurodevelopmental models posit an abnormal early surge in subcortical white matter growth in at least some autistic children, perhaps normalizing by adulthood, but other studies report subcortical white matter deficits. To investigate the profile of these alterations in 3D, we mapped brain volumetric differences using a relatively new method, tensor-based morphometry (TBM). 3D T1-weighted brain MRIs of 24 male children with ASD (age: 9.5 years ± 3.2 SD) and 26 age-matched healthy controls (age: 10.3 ± 2.4 SD) were fluidly registered to match a common anatomical template. Autistic children had significantly enlarged frontal lobes (by 3.6% on the left and 5.1% on the right), and all other lobes of the brain were enlarged significantly, or at trend level. By analyzing the applied deformations statistically point-by-point, we detected significant gray matter volume deficits in bilateral parietal, left temporal and left occipital lobes (p=0.038, corrected), trend-level cerebral white matter volume excesses, and volume deficits in the cerebellar vermis, adjacent to volume excesses in other cerebellar regions. This profile of excesses and deficits in adjacent regions may (1) indicate impaired neuronal connectivity, resulting from aberrant myelination and/or an inflammatory process, and (2) help to understand inconsistent findings of regional brain tissue excesses and deficits in autism.

Brun, Caroline; Nicolson, Rob; Lepore, Natasha; Chou, Yi-Yu; Vidal, Christine N.; DeVito, Timothy J.; Drost, Dick J.; Williamson, Peter C.; Rajakumar, Nagalingam; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.

2009-01-01

361

Earliest Mexican Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in the Maya Region: Implications for Pre-Hispanic Animal Trade and the Timing of Turkey Domestication  

PubMed Central

Late Preclassic (300 BC–AD 100) turkey remains identified at the archaeological site of El Mirador (Petén, Guatemala) represent the earliest evidence of the Mexican turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) in the ancient Maya world. Archaeological, zooarchaeological, and ancient DNA evidence combine to confirm the identification and context. The natural pre-Hispanic range of the Mexican turkey does not extend south of central Mexico, making the species non-local to the Maya area where another species, the ocellated turkey (Meleagris ocellata), is indigenous. Prior to this discovery, the earliest evidence of M. gallopavo in the Maya area dated to approximately one thousand years later. The El Mirador specimens therefore represent previously unrecorded Preclassic exchange of animals from northern Mesoamerica to the Maya cultural region. As the earliest evidence of M. gallopavo found outside its natural geographic range, the El Mirador turkeys also represent the earliest indirect evidence for Mesoamerican turkey rearing or domestication. The presence of male, female and sub-adult turkeys, and reduced flight morphology further suggests that the El Mirador turkeys were raised in captivity. This supports an argument for the origins of turkey husbandry or at least captive rearing in the Preclassic.

Thornton, Erin Kennedy; Emery, Kitty F.; Steadman, David W.; Speller, Camilla; Matheny, Ray; Yang, Dongya

2012-01-01

362

Earliest Mexican Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in the Maya Region: implications for pre-Hispanic animal trade and the timing of turkey domestication.  

PubMed

Late Preclassic (300 BC-AD 100) turkey remains identified at the archaeological site of El Mirador (Petén, Guatemala) represent the earliest evidence of the Mexican turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) in the ancient Maya world. Archaeological, zooarchaeological, and ancient DNA evidence combine to confirm the identification and context. The natural pre-Hispanic range of the Mexican turkey does not extend south of central Mexico, making the species non-local to the Maya area where another species, the ocellated turkey (Meleagris ocellata), is indigenous. Prior to this discovery, the earliest evidence of M. gallopavo in the Maya area dated to approximately one thousand years later. The El Mirador specimens therefore represent previously unrecorded Preclassic exchange of animals from northern Mesoamerica to the Maya cultural region. As the earliest evidence of M. gallopavo found outside its natural geographic range, the El Mirador turkeys also represent the earliest indirect evidence for Mesoamerican turkey rearing or domestication. The presence of male, female and sub-adult turkeys, and reduced flight morphology further suggests that the El Mirador turkeys were raised in captivity. This supports an argument for the origins of turkey husbandry or at least captive rearing in the Preclassic. PMID:22905156

Thornton, Erin Kennedy; Emery, Kitty F; Steadman, David W; Speller, Camilla; Matheny, Ray; Yang, Dongya

2012-08-08

363

A new lizard assemblage from the earliest eocene (Zone Wa0) of the bighorn basin, wyoming, USA: Biogeography during the warmest interval of the cenozoic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite two decades of research into the earliest Eocène fossils of the Rocky Mountain interior of North America, almost nothing is known of the squamates (lizards and snakes) from this time, nor of the response of this component of the terrestrial biota to climate change near the PalEocène\\/Eocène boundary. The present study addresses this lacuna. Sixteen squamate species are described

Krister T. Smith

2009-01-01

364

The Earliest Reference to ADHD in the Medical Literature? Melchior Adam Weikard's Description in 1775 of "Attention Deficit" (Mangel der Aufmerksamkeit, Attentio Volubilis)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: The present article reports on the discovery and translation of a chapter in a 1775 medical textbook by the German physician, Melchior Adam Weikard, which describes attention disorders. This article is believed to be the earliest reference to the syndrome that today is known as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD. Method:…

Barkley, Russell A.; Peters, Helmut

2012-01-01

365

The earliest daily barometric pressure readings in Italy: Pisa AD 1657-1658 and Modena AD 1694, and the weather over Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The earliest daily barometric pressure readings were taken during the Maunder Minimum of Solar activity (1645—1715). In Italy, observations were made at Pisa over the years 1657—1658 by V. Viviani and A. Borelli, and at Modena during the year 1694 by B. Ramazzini. These readings have been recovered, corrected and adjusted to modern units. The early instruments used and their

Dario Camuffo; Chiara Bertolin; Phil D. Jones; Richard Cornes; Emmanuel Garnier

2010-01-01

366

Late Mesoproterozoic to earliest Neoproterozoic basin record of the Sibao orogenesis in western South China and relationship to the assembly of Rodinia  

Microsoft Academic Search

New geochronological and geochemical constraints on the 5000–9000m thick Precambrian sedimentary and volcanic successions exposed along the western margin of the South China Block indicate the presence of two distinct tectonostratigraphic successions. The earliest, termed here the Laowushan Formation, comprises of volcanic rocks such as alkali basalts, breccias and tuff that are atypical of the sedimentary rocks in the previously

Matthew R. Greentree; Zheng-Xiang Li; Xian-Hua Li; Huaichun Wu

2006-01-01

367

Magnetostratigraphy of the Miocene Chiang Muan Formation, northern Thailand: Implication for revised chronology of the earliest Miocene hominoid in Southeast Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A paleomagnetic study has been conducted on the Miocene Chiang Muan Formation in northern Thailand, in order to provide a chronology for the earliest large-bodied Miocene hominoid in Southeast Asia. The Chiang Muan Formation is mainly composed of clay, silt and sand beds, indicating lacustrine and fluvial environments. Paleomagnetic samples were collected from 124 horizons along an approximately 150 m

Y. Suganuma; T. Hamada; S. Tanaka; M. Okada; H. Nakaya; Y. Kunimatsu; H. Saegusa; S. Nagaoka; B. Ratanasthien

2006-01-01

368

Corneal Endothelial Abnormalities After SLT.  

PubMed

PURPOSE:: Whitish spots are sometimes observed in the corneal endothelium after selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT). To evaluate the corneal endothelium after SLT, corneal specular microscopy was performed. METHODS:: A total of 142 eyes with open angle glaucoma that underwent SLT during the period of 9 months from February 10 to November 10, 2012, had their corneal endothelium examined with specular microscopy before and after SLT. RESULTS:: Dark spots were observed in the corneal endothelium on corneal specular microscopy immediately after SLT. Seventy-one of the 142 eyes had no significant dark spots or increase in dark spots after SLT. Thirty-seven of the 142 eyes showed few dark spots after SLT. Thirty-four of the 142 eyes showed numerous dark spots after SLT on specular microscopy imaging, which resolved by 1 month. The last group had the greatest decrease in the corneal endothelial cell count at 1 month after SLT, but this was not statistically significant in this study (P=0.1). CONCLUSIONS:: The corneal endothelial abnormalities after SLT shown in this study may be transient, and long-term effects are probably negligible in normal corneas or single treatments. However, in corneas with reduced transparency of the endothelium, such as compromised corneas and corneas with pigment deposits on the endothelium, there may be a risk of further corneal endothelial compromise, especially after repeated SLT. Larger and longer term studies with histopathologic evaluation would be useful to evaluate the effect of SLT on normal and subnormal corneal endothelium. Until further studies are done, it would be wise to minimize the number and energy of SLT laser shots. PMID:23632397

Ong, Keith; Ong, Leonard; Ong, Lillian B

2013-04-29

369

Microscopic endometrial perivascular epithelioid cell nodules: a case report with the earliest presentation of a uterine perivascular epithelioid cell tumor  

PubMed Central

Abstract Perivascular epithelioid cell (PEC) tumors (PEComas) are a family of related mesenchymal tumors composed of PECs which co-express melanocytic and smooth muscle markers. Although their distinctive histologic, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and genetic features have been clearly demonstrated, their histogenesis and normal counterpart remain largely unknown. Precursor lesions of PEComas have rarely been reported. We herein describe a tuberous sclerosis patient with microscopic PEC nodules in the endometrium of adenomyosis, pelvic endometriosis, an ovarian endometriotic cyst, and the endometrium of the uterine cavity. The nodules showed a mixture of spindle-shaped and epithelioid cells concentrically arranged around small arteries. The cells exhibited uniform nuclei, light eosinophilic cytoplasm, and immunoreactivity with HMB-45 and CD10. Some nodules revealed continuity with a PEComa in the myometrium. These findings support microscopic endometrial PEC nodules possibly being precursor lesions of uterine PEComas. The wide distribution of the nodules in the pelvis may be related to the multicentricity of PEComas in tuberous sclerosis patients. Owing to the immunoreactivity with CD10, microscopic endometrial PEC nodules may be misinterpreted as endothelial stromal cells unless melanocytic markers are stained. To the best of our knowledge, this is a case with the earliest manifestation of PEC lesions occurring in the endometrium. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/9658280017862643

2012-01-01

370

Earliest complete hominin fifth metatarsal-Implications for the evolution of the lateral column of the foot.  

PubMed

StW 114/115, from Sterkfontein, South Africa, is the earliest complete hominin fifth metatarsal. Comparisons of StW 114/115 to modern humans, extant apes, and partial hominin metatarsals AL 333-13, AL 333-78, SKX 33380, OH 8, and KNM-ER 803f reveal a similar morphology in all six fossils consistent with habitual bipedality. Although StW 114/115 possesses some primitive characters, the proximal articular morphology and internal torsion of the head are very human-like, suggesting a stable lateral column and the likely presence of lateral longitudinal and transverse tarsal arches. We conclude that, at least in the lateral component of the foot of the StW 114/115 individual, the biomechanical pattern is very similar to that of modern humans. This, however, may not have been the case in the medial column of the foot, as a mosaic pattern of hominin foot evolution and function has been suggested. The results of this study may support the hypothesis of an increased calcaneo-cuboid stability having been an early evolutionary event in the history of terrestrial bipedalism. PMID:19530142

Zipfel, Bernhard; DeSilva, Jeremy M; Kidd, Robert S

2009-11-01

371

Onwards and upwards in the Caucasus - A multidisciplinary approach to understanding the lifeways of the earliest modern humans in Armenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Armenian Highlands have functioned as a gateway with regards to the peopling of the Southern Caucasus. Most importantly, changes in climate have long controlled access to this remote and often inhospitable mountainous region. Here we present the results of the multidisciplinary study of Aghitu-3 Cave which brings together researchers from the fields of archaeology, geology and geomorphology, zooarchaeology, paleobotany and paleoclimate. By integrating these areas of study, we have reconstructed the lifeways of the earliest behaviorally (and presumably anatomically) modern humans who settled Southern Armenia about 35,000 (cal BP) years ago and placed this occupational sequence within a framework of environmental change. These first Upper Paleolithic inhabitants of Armenia made temporary use of this basalt cave located along the Vorotan River corridor at an altitude of 1601 m during seasonal forays into the highlands. The infrequent use of this site as a hunting camp comes to an end at about 31,000 cal BP. The next package of sediment shows little evidence of human occupation, although fauna seem to flourish during the time between 31-29,000 cal BP. Following this phase of depopulation, the intensity of occupation increases substantially after 29,000 cal BP. Human presence is amply documented in the numerous stone artifacts, faunal remains and fireplaces that cover the site. These changes in population movement are echoed in the sequence of sediments preserved in the cave and can be correlated with the fluctuating climatic conditions associated with the late Pleistocene.

Kandel, Andrew; Gasparyan, Boris; Bruch, Angela; Deckers, Katleen; Nahapetyan, Samvel; Weissbrod, Lior

2013-04-01

372

Persistent limb pain and raised serum alkaline phosphatase the earliest markers of subclinical hypovitaminosis D in Kashmir.  

PubMed

The present study was an attempt to assess the cause of persistent pain in lower limbs among children from Kashmir. The study was conducted on one hundred children attending Paediatric out-patient department of Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar. All the children were in the age group of 5 to 14 years. They showed markedly raised levels of serum alkaline phosphatase, whereas serum phosphorus, serum calcium levels and antistreptolycin O-titres were normal in 93% cases. None of them had any rheumatic or rheumatoid pathology. Among 15 suspected clinical rickets only three were established radiologically. Dietary and socio-economic history revealed deficient vitamin D intake and less exposure to sun. It was hypothesized that sub-clinical vitamin D deficiency could be a major cause of persistent pain in lower limbs and raised serum alkaline phosphatase could be the earliest marker of vitamin D deficiency. It was confirmed by injecting single dose of vitamin D (3 lac I. U.) which relieved bone pain and lowered the levels of serum alkaline phosphatase to normal within 14 weeks of initiation of therapy. PMID:2620972

Masood, H; Narang, A P; Bhat, I A; Shah, G N

373

The summer monsoon onset over the tropical eastern Indian Ocean: The earliest onset process of the Asian summer monsoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The onset process of the tropical eastern Indian Ocean (TEIO) summer monsoon (TEIOSM) and its relationship with the cross-equatorial flows are investigated via climatological analysis. Climatologically, results indicate that the earliest onset process of the Asian summer monsoon occurs over the TEIO at pentad 22 (April 15 20). Unlike the abrupt onset of the South China Sea (SCS) summer monsoon, the TEIOSM onset process displays a stepwise advance. Moreover, a close relationship between the TEIOSM development and the northward push of the cross-equatorial flows over 80° 90°E is revealed. A difference vorticity center, together with the counterpart over the southern Indian Ocean, constitutes a pair of difference cyclonic vortices, which strengthens the southwesterly wind over the TEIO and the northerly wind to the west of the Indian Peninsula from the end of March to late May. Therefore, the occurrence of the southwesterly wind over the TEIO is earlier than its counterpart over the tropical western Indian Ocean, and the cross-equatorial flows emerge firstly over the TEIO rather than over the Somali area. The former increases in intensity during its northward propagation, which provides a precondition for the TEIOSM onset and its northward advance.

Ding, Yihui; He, Chun

2006-12-01

374

A Cytogenetic Study of Abnormal Sexual Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nineteen patients associated with sexual anomalies were studied for chromosome abnormalities. Five cases (26.3 per cent) were found to be chromosomally abnormal. They were one case of mixed gonadal dysgenesis with an XY/XO mosaicism, two cases of Klinefel...

C. C. Lin K. S. W. Kim P. Y. Wei

1969-01-01

375

Severely Symptomatic Craniovertebral Junction Abnormalities in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The treatment of symptomatic cranio-vertebral junction (CVJ) instability in children affected by CVJ abnormalities is a challenge. A series of severely symptomatic children has been reviewed to understand the controversial long-term effectiveness of the aggressive management of CVJ abnormalities, in terms of clinical improvement, spinal stability and growth. Methods: Three Down syndrome patients, 1 with mucopolysaccharidosis and 1 with

Carlo Giussani; Franck-Emmanuel Roux; Paolo Guerra; David Pirillo; Marco Grimaldi; Giuseppe Citerio; Erik P. Sganzerla

2009-01-01

376

Retinal Circulatory Abnormalities in Type 1 Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. To quantify retinal circulatory abnormalities in patients with type 1 diabetes; to compare blood speed and blood flow in major temporal retinal arteries as well as total retinal arterial cross-section measured in patients to that measured in controls without diabetes; to determine which factors are related to the measured abnormalities within the patient group. Methods. The laser Doppler technique

Gilbert T. Feke; Sheldon M. Buzney; Hironobu Ogasawara; Naoki Fujio; Douglas G. Goger; Norman P. Spack; Kenneth H. GabbayX

377

Multiparametric tissue abnormality characterization using manifold regularization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tissue abnormality characterization is a generalized segmentation problem which aims at determining a continuous score that can be assigned to the tissue which characterizes the extent of tissue deterioration, with completely healthy tissue being one end of the spectrum and fully abnormal tissue such as lesions, being on the other end. Our method is based on the assumptions that there is some tissue that is neither fully healthy or nor completely abnormal but lies in between the two in terms of abnormality; and that the voxel-wise score of tissue abnormality lies on a spatially and temporally smooth manifold of abnormality. Unlike in a pure classification problem which associates an independent label with each voxel without considering correlation with neighbors, or an absolute clustering problem which does not consider a priori knowledge of tissue type, we assume that diseased and healthy tissue lie on a manifold that encompasses the healthy tissue and diseased tissue, stretching from one to the other. We propose a semi-supervised method for determining such as abnormality manifold, using multi-parametric features incorporated into a support vector machine framework in combination with manifold regularization. We apply the framework towards the characterization of tissue abnormality to brains of multiple sclerosis patients.

Batmanghelich, Kayhan; Wu, Xiaoying; Zacharaki, Evangelia; Markowitz, Clyde E.; Davatzikos, Christos; Verma, Ragini

2008-04-01

378

Abnormal Web Usage Control by Proxy Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Approaches to designing a proxy server with Web usage control and to making the proxy server effective on local area networks are proposed to prevent abnormal Web access and to prioritize Web usage. A system is implemented to demonstrate the approaches. The implementation reveals that the proposed approaches are effective, such that the abnormal

Yu, Hsiang-Fu; Tseng, Li-Ming

2002-01-01

379

Immune Abnormalities in Patients with Autism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study of 31 autistic patients (3-28 years old) has revealed several immune-system abnormalities, including decreased numbers of T lymphocytes and an altered ratio of helper-to-suppressor T cells. Immune-system abnormalities may be directly related to underlying biologic processes of autism or an indirect reflection of the actual pathologic…

Warren, Reed P.; And Others

1986-01-01

380

Screening Sexually Active Teenagers for Cervical Abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Sexually active teenagers are at increased risk of developing cervical abnormalities. It is therefore important to screen them with an annual Pap smear. The techniques of this test are reviewed, as are the importance of sexually transmitted diseases in the development of cytologic abnormalities, the pathophysiology of virus-induced changes, and the terminology of reporting.

Erdstein, Julius; Pavilanis, Alan V.

1991-01-01

381

Lipid abnormalities in uremia, dialysis, and transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The institution of renal replacement therapy has sustained the lives of many patients with end-stage renal failure and has made it possible to study in depth the metabolic abnormalities associated with the uremic state. An important consequence of chronic uremia is the development of lipid abnormalities [1, 2], which continue to affect many patients on dialysis [1, 3, 4] and

Man Kam Chan; Zachariah Varghese; John F Moorhead

1981-01-01

382

Adult spinal cord injury without radiological abnormality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinal cord injury without radiological abnormality is rare in adults. A case is described of a 61 year old man who fell 15 feet from a ladder striking his head on a wall who presented with neck pain and with motor and sensory neurological abnormalities in his limbs. Plain radiographs of the neck revealed no fractures or dislocations. Further imaging

Sarah Crawford; Tony Bleetman

2000-01-01

383

Ventilation abnormalities associated with pulmonary embolism  

SciTech Connect

A retrospective analysis of 2035 lung images performed over approximately 5 years revealed abnormal ventilation coexisting with pulmonary embolism in 18 patients. Matching ventilation perfusion defects may be associated with pulmonary embolism without infarction. In patients with a high clinical suspicion of acute pulmonary embolism and matching V/Q abnormalities, an angiogram may be necessary to definitely exclude the diagnosis.

Sandler, M.S.; Velchik, M.G.; Alavi, A.

1988-06-01

384

Ovarian dysgenesis in individuals with chromosomal abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand better the pathogenesis of ovarian dysgenesis in individuals with abnormalities such as 45,X Turner syndrome, trisomy 13, and trisomy 18, we have examined microscopically the ovaries of 36 infants with a number of chromosomal abnormalities confirmed by karyotype analysis. All infants with trisomy 13, trisomy 18, triploidy, and 45,X were found to have severe ovarian dysgenesis characterized by

Christopher Cunniff; Kenneth Lyons Jones; Kurt Benirschke

1991-01-01

385

Renal abnormalities and their developmental origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) occur in 1 out of 500 newborns, and constitute approximately 20–30% of all anomalies identified in the prenatal period. CAKUT has a major role in renal failure, and there is increasing evidence that certain abnormalities predispose to the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in adult life. Moreover, defects in nephron

Andreas Schedl

2007-01-01

386

Cone photoreceptor abnormalities correlate with vision loss in patients with Stargardt disease.  

PubMed

PURPOSE. To study the relationship between macular cone structure, fundus autofluorescence (AF), and visual function in patients with Stargardt disease (STGD). METHODS. High-resolution images of the macula were obtained with adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) and spectral domain optical coherence tomography in 12 patients with STGD and 27 age-matched healthy subjects. Measures of retinal structure and AF were correlated with visual function, including best-corrected visual acuity, color vision, kinetic and static perimetry, fundus-guided microperimetry, and full-field electroretinography. Mutation analysis of the ABCA4 gene was completed in all patients. RESULTS. Patients were 15 to 55 years old, and visual acuity ranged from 20/25-20/320. Central scotomas were present in all patients, although the fovea was spared in three patients. The earliest cone spacing abnormalities were observed in regions of homogeneous AF, normal visual function, and normal outer retinal structure. Outer retinal structure and AF were most normal near the optic disc. Longitudinal studies showed progressive increases in AF followed by reduced AF associated with losses of visual sensitivity, outer retinal layers, and cones. At least one disease-causing mutation in the ABCA4 gene was identified in 11 of 12 patients studied; 1 of 12 patients showed no disease-causing ABCA4 mutations. CONCLUSIONS. AOSLO imaging demonstrated abnormal cone spacing in regions of abnormal fundus AF and reduced visual function. These findings provide support for a model of disease progression in which lipofuscin accumulation results in homogeneously increased AF with cone spacing abnormalities, followed by heterogeneously increased AF with cone loss, then reduced AF with cone and RPE cell death. PMID:21296825

Chen, Yingming; Ratnam, Kavitha; Sundquist, Sanna M; Lujan, Brandon; Ayyagari, Radha; Gudiseva, V Harini; Roorda, Austin; Duncan, Jacque L

2011-05-17

387

The earliest seeds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lagenostomalean-type seeds in bifurcating cupule systems have been discovered in the late Devonian Hampshire Formation of Randolph County, West Virginia, USA (Fig. 1). The associated megaflora, plants from coal balls, and vertebrate and invertebrate faunas demonstrate that the material is Famennian; the microflora indicates a more specific Fa2c age. Consequently, these seeds predate Archaeosperma arnoldii1 from the Fa2d of northeastern Pennsylvania, the oldest previously reported seed. By applying precision fracture, transfer, de??gagement, and thin-section techniques to selected cupules from the more than 100 specimens on hand, we have determined the three-dimensional morphology and histology of the seeds (Fig. 2a-h, k) and cupule systems. A comparison with known late Devonian to early Carboniferous seeds reveals that ours are more primitively organized than all except Genomosperma2,3. ?? 1981 Nature Publishing Group.

Gillespie, W. H.; Rothwell, G. W.; Scheckler, S. E.

1981-01-01

388

Earth's Earliest Atmospheres  

PubMed Central

Earth is the one known example of an inhabited planet and to current knowledge the likeliest site of the one known origin of life. Here we discuss the origin of Earth’s atmosphere and ocean and some of the environmental conditions of the early Earth as they may relate to the origin of life. A key punctuating event in the narrative is the Moon-forming impact, partly because it made Earth for a short time absolutely uninhabitable, and partly because it sets the boundary conditions for Earth’s subsequent evolution. If life began on Earth, as opposed to having migrated here, it would have done so after the Moon-forming impact. What took place before the Moon formed determined the bulk properties of the Earth and probably determined the overall compositions and sizes of its atmospheres and oceans. What took place afterward animated these materials. One interesting consequence of the Moon-forming impact is that the mantle is devolatized, so that the volatiles subsequently fell out in a kind of condensation sequence. This ensures that the volatiles were concentrated toward the surface so that, for example, the oceans were likely salty from the start. We also point out that an atmosphere generated by impact degassing would tend to have a composition reflective of the impacting bodies (rather than the mantle), and these are almost without exception strongly reducing and volatile-rich. A consequence is that, although CO- or methane-rich atmospheres are not necessarily stable as steady states, they are quite likely to have existed as long-lived transients, many times. With CO comes abundant chemical energy in a metastable package, and with methane comes hydrogen cyanide and ammonia as important albeit less abundant gases.

Zahnle, Kevin; Schaefer, Laura; Fegley, Bruce

2010-01-01

389

Earth's earliest atmospheres.  

PubMed

Earth is the one known example of an inhabited planet and to current knowledge the likeliest site of the one known origin of life. Here we discuss the origin of Earth's atmosphere and ocean and some of the environmental conditions of the early Earth as they may relate to the origin of life. A key punctuating event in the narrative is the Moon-forming impact, partly because it made Earth for a short time absolutely uninhabitable, and partly because it sets the boundary conditions for Earth's subsequent evolution. If life began on Earth, as opposed to having migrated here, it would have done so after the Moon-forming impact. What took place before the Moon formed determined the bulk properties of the Earth and probably determined the overall compositions and sizes of its atmospheres and oceans. What took place afterward animated these materials. One interesting consequence of the Moon-forming impact is that the mantle is devolatized, so that the volatiles subsequently fell out in a kind of condensation sequence. This ensures that the volatiles were concentrated toward the surface so that, for example, the oceans were likely salty from the start. We also point out that an atmosphere generated by impact degassing would tend to have a composition reflective of the impacting bodies (rather than the mantle), and these are almost without exception strongly reducing and volatile-rich. A consequence is that, although CO- or methane-rich atmospheres are not necessarily stable as steady states, they are quite likely to have existed as long-lived transients, many times. With CO comes abundant chemical energy in a metastable package, and with methane comes hydrogen cyanide and ammonia as important albeit less abundant gases. PMID:20573713

Zahnle, Kevin; Schaefer, Laura; Fegley, Bruce

2010-06-23

390

Sleep Abnormalities and Treatment in Emphysema  

PubMed Central

Sleep abnormalities are common in severe emphysema, and include poor sleep quality, the development of nocturnal oxygen desaturation, and the presence of coexistent obstructive sleep apnea. With lower baseline oxygenation and abnormal respiratory mechanics in patients with severe emphysema, alterations in ventilatory control and respiratory muscle function that normally occur during sleep can have profound effects, and contribute to the development of sleep abnormalities. The impact on quality of life, cardiopulmonary hemodynamics, and overall survival remains uncertain. In addition, treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its effect on sleep abnormalities have demonstrated conflicting results. More recently, as part of the National Emphysema Treatment Trial, lung volume reduction surgery has been shown to improve both sleep quality and nocturnal oxygenation in emphysema. Although indications for performing an overnight polysomnogram in patients with emphysema have been debated, recommendations have been presented. Future studies investigating disease mechanism and response to therapy in patients with sleep abnormalities and severe emphysema are warranted.

Krachman, Samuel; Minai, Omar A.; Scharf, Steven M.

2008-01-01

391

Liver abnormalities and endocrine diseases.  

PubMed

The liver and its pleotropic functions play a fundamental role in regulating metabolism, and is also an inevitable target of multiple metabolic disorders. The numerous and constant relationships and feedback mechanisms between the liver and all endocrine organs is reflected by the fact that an alteration of one oftentimes results in the malfunction of the other. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism are frequently associated with hepatic alterations, and thyroid diseases must be excluded in transaminase elevation of unknown cause. Drugs such as propylthiouracil, used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism, may induce liver damage, and other drugs such as amiodarone, carbamazepine, and several chemotherapeutic agents can lead to both thyroid and liver abnormalities. Liver diseases such as hepatitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and cirrhosis may cause altered levels of thyroid hormones, and alcoholic liver disease, both due to the noxious substance ethanol as well as to the hepatic damage it causes, may be responsible for altered thyroid function. Both excess and insufficiency of adrenal function may result in altered liver function, and adrenocortical dysfunction may be present in patients with cirrhosis, especially during episodes of decompensation. Again an important player which affects both the endocrine system and the liver, alcohol may be associated with pseudo-Cushing syndrome. Sex hormones, both intrinsic as well as extrinsically administered, have an important impact on liver function. While oestrogens are related to cholestatic liver damage, androgens are the culprit of adenomas and hepatocellular carcinoma, among others. Chronic liver disease, on the other hand, has profound repercussions on sex hormone metabolism, inducing feminization in men and infertility and amenorrhoea in women. Lastly, metabolic syndrome, the pandemia of the present and future centuries, links the spectrum of liver damage ranging from steatosis to cirrhosis, to the array of endocrine alterations that are features of the syndrome, including insulin resistance, central obesity, and hyperlipidaemia. Clinical practice must integrally evaluate the effects of the intricate and tight relationship between the liver and the endocrine system, in order to better address all manifestations, complications, and prevent deterioration of one or the other organ-system. PMID:24090942

Burra, Patrizia

2013-08-01

392

Abnormal electrocardiographic findings in athletes: recognising changes suggestive of cardiomyopathy.  

PubMed

Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of heart muscle diseases and collectively are the leading cause of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in young athletes. The 12-lead ECG is utilised as both a screening and diagnostic tool for detecting conditions associated with SCD. Fundamental to the appropriate evaluation of athletes undergoing ECG is an understanding of the ECG findings that may indicate the presence of an underlying pathological cardiac disorder. This article describes ECG findings present in cardiomyopathies afflicting young athletes and outlines appropriate steps for further evaluation of these ECG abnormalities. The ECG findings defined as abnormal in athletes were established by an international consensus panel of experts in sports cardiology and sports medicine. PMID:23303760

Drezner, Jonathan A; Ashley, Euan; Baggish, Aaron L; Börjesson, Mats; Corrado, Domenico; Owens, David S; Patel, Akash; Pelliccia, Antonio; Vetter, Victoria L; Ackerman, Michael J; Anderson, Jeff; Asplund, Chad A; Cannon, Bryan C; DiFiori, John; Fischbach, Peter; Froelicher, Victor; Harmon, Kimberly G; Heidbuchel, Hein; Marek, Joseph; Paul, Stephen; Prutkin, Jordan M; Salerno, Jack C; Schmied, Christian M; Sharma, Sanjay; Stein, Ricardo; Wilson, Mathew

2013-02-01

393

Abnormal brain functional connectivity of the hypothalamus in cluster headaches.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to detect the abnormality of the brain functional connectivity of the hypothalamus during acute spontaneous cluster headache (CH) attacks ('in attack') and headache-free intervals ('out of attack') using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) technique. The RS-fMRI data from twelve male CH patients during 'in attack' and 'out of attack' periods and twelve age- and sex-matched normal controls were analyzed by the region-of-interest -based functional connectivity method using SPM5 software. Abnormal brain functional connectivity of the hypothalamus is present in CH, which is located mainly in the pain system during the spontaneous CH attacks. It extends beyond the pain system during CH attack intervals. PMID:23460913

Qiu, Enchao; Wang, Yan; Ma, Lin; Tian, Lixia; Liu, Ruozhuo; Dong, Zhao; Xu, Xian; Zou, Zhitong; Yu, Shengyuan

2013-02-27

394

Abnormal Brain Functional Connectivity of the Hypothalamus in Cluster Headaches  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to detect the abnormality of the brain functional connectivity of the hypothalamus during acute spontaneous cluster headache (CH) attacks (‘in attack’) and headache-free intervals (‘out of attack’) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) technique. The RS-fMRI data from twelve male CH patients during ‘in attack’ and ‘out of attack’ periods and twelve age- and sex-matched normal controls were analyzed by the region-of-interest -based functional connectivity method using SPM5 software. Abnormal brain functional connectivity of the hypothalamus is present in CH, which is located mainly in the pain system during the spontaneous CH attacks. It extends beyond the pain system during CH attack intervals.

Qiu, Enchao; Wang, Yan; Ma, Lin; Tian, Lixia; Liu, Ruozhuo; Dong, Zhao; Xu, Xian; Zou, Zhitong; Yu, Shengyuan

2013-01-01

395

Dividing without centrioles: innovative plant microtubule organizing centres organize mitotic spindles in bryophytes, the earliest extant lineages of land plants  

PubMed Central

Background and aims As remnants of the earliest land plants, the bryophytes (liverworts, mosses and hornworts) are important in understanding microtubule organization in plant cells. Land plants have an anastral mitotic spindle that forms in the absence of centrosomes, and a cytokinetic apparatus comprised of a predictive preprophase band (PPB) before mitosis and a phragmoplast after mitosis. These microtubule arrays have no counterpart in animal cells and the nature of the plant microtubule organizing centre (MTOC) remained an enigma for many years until antibodies to ?-tubulin, an essential component of the MTOC in all eukaryotes, became available for tracing the origin of microtubule arrays. Methodology We used immunofluorescence techniques to colocalize ?-tubulin, microtubules and chromosomes in mitotic cells of a representative liverwort, moss and hornwort to study the organization of microtubules during mitotic cell division. Principal results The future division site is marked by a PPB in all taxa but the MTOCs initially generating the half spindles differ: polar organizers in the liverwort, plastid MTOCs in the hornwort, and nuclear envelope-associated MTOCs in the moss. By mid-prophase, the forming spindles become more similar as ?-tubulin begins to spread around the polar regions of the nuclear envelope. Conclusions Regardless of origin, mature metaphase spindles are identical and indistinguishable from the typical anastral spindle of higher plants with broad polar regions consisting of numerous subsets of converging microtubules. A curious phenomenon of plant spindles, true of bryophytes as well as higher plants, is the movement of ?-tubulin into the metaphase spindle itself. The bipolar arrays of phragmoplast microtubules are organized by diffuse ?-tubulin located at proximal surfaces of reforming nuclear envelopes. Phragmoplast development appears similar in the three taxa and to vascular plants as well.

Brown, Roy C.; Lemmon, Betty E.

2011-01-01

396

Low holotranscobalamin II is the earliest serum marker for subnormal vitamin B12 (cobalamin) absorption in patients with AIDS.  

PubMed

In AIDS, as previously found in pernicious anemia (PA), the earliest serum marker of subnormal vitamin B12 (cobalamin) absorption, and therefore of negative B12 balance, is low serum holotranscobalamin II (holo-TC II; B12-TC II) despite normal total serum B12 level, normal serum homocysteine, and normal classic (oral free radio-B12) Schilling test. This may be accompanied by subtle and insidious damage to hematopoietic, immunologic, neuropsychiatric, nutritional and alimentary systems, confirmed by correction on therapeutic trial with B12 therapy. Our studies suggest such selective B12 deficiency occurs in about half of the HIV-1 infected, in part due to frequent depression of B12 absorption by HIV-1 attack on the gastric mucosa and/or opportunistic infection attack on the small bowel, and in part due to a telescoping of the continuum of the stages of negative B12 balance in relation to damage to B12 delivery by the infective and/or systemic disease process. In AIDS, when total serum B12 is normal despite tissue depletion of B12, if the classic Schilling test does not reveal subnormal food B12 absorption, the food Schilling test does. We hypothesize that DNA-synthesizing cells of the hematopoietic, immunologic, neurologic and other systems which have surface receptors solely for holo-TC II, and which have low B12 stores, rapidly become dysfunctional due to B12 deficiency when holo-TC II is low, while cells (such as liver cells) which also have surface receptors for holohaptocorrin (B12-haptocorrin) remain B12-replete. We believe this to be another example of the concept of selective nutrient deficiency in one cell line but not another. PMID:2339679

Herbert, V; Fong, W; Gulle, V; Stopler, T

1990-06-01

397

[Analysis of the chromosomal abnormality in 5774 patients with clinical reproductive abnormality and 32 new karyotypes].  

PubMed

To study the relationship between chromosomal abnormality and clinical ending events of reproductive abnormality, G-banding and karyotype analyses were carried out by using chromosome preparations from peripheral blood lymphocytes. Out of 5 774 cases with reproductive abnormality, 550 individuals had chromosomal abnormalities. Among them, 255 cases (46.36%) were trisomy, 91 cases (16.55%) were reciprocal translocation, 85 cases (15.45%) were chromosomal inversion, 81 cases (14.73%) were deletions, 21 cases (3.82%) were Robertsonian translocation, 7 cases (1.27%) were short arm increment, 6 cases (1.09%) were Y chromosome increment and 4 cases (0.73%) were abnormal satellites. Thirty-two cases with novel chromosomal abnormality karyotypes in them, being complicated by miscarriage, sterility, and congenital malformation, were firstly reported. The results suggested that chromosomal abnormality could be the one of main factors related to the bad reproductive ending events. PMID:19273421

Qin, Jing; Zheng, Chen-Guang; DU, Juan; Chen, Ke; Tian, Xiao-Xian; Xiang, Lei; Sun, Liang; Yang, Ze

2009-02-01

398

A novel cerebello-ocular syndrome with abnormal glycosylation due to abnormalities in dolichol metabolism.  

PubMed

Cerebellar hypoplasia and slowly progressive ophthalmological symptoms are common features in patients with congenital disorders of glycosylation type I. In a group of patients with congenital disorders of glycosylation type I with unknown aetiology, we have previously described a distinct phenotype with severe, early visual impairment and variable eye malformations, including optic nerve hypoplasia, retinal coloboma, congenital cataract and glaucoma. Some of the symptoms overlapped with the phenotype in other congenital disorders of glycosylation type I subtypes, such as vermis hypoplasia, anaemia, ichtyosiform dermatitis, liver dysfunction and coagulation abnormalities. We recently identified pathogenic mutations in the SRD5A3 gene, encoding steroid 5?-reductase type 3, in a group of patients who presented with this particular phenotype and a common metabolic pattern. Here, we report on the clinical, genetic and metabolic features of 12 patients from nine families with cerebellar ataxia and congenital eye malformations diagnosed with SRD5A3-congenital disorders of glycosylation due to steroid 5?-reductase type 3 defect. This enzyme is necessary for the reduction of polyprenol to dolichol, the lipid anchor for N-glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum. Dolichol synthesis is an essential metabolic step in protein glycosylation. The current defect leads to a severely abnormal glycosylation state already in the early phase of the N-glycan biosynthesis pathway in the endoplasmic reticulum. We detected high expression of SRD5A3 in foetal brain tissue, especially in the cerebellum, consistent with the finding of the congenital cerebellar malformations. Based on the overlapping clinical, biochemical and genetic data in this large group of patients with congenital disorders of glycosylation, we define a novel syndrome of cerebellar ataxia associated with congenital eye malformations due to a defect in dolichol metabolism. PMID:20852264

Morava, Eva; Wevers, Ron A; Cantagrel, Vincent; Hoefsloot, Lies H; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Schoots, Jeroen; van Rooij, Arno; Huijben, Karin; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Connie M A; Jongmans, Marjolein C J; Sykut-Cegielska, Jolanta; Hoffmann, Georg F; Bluemel, Peter; Adamowicz, Maciej; van Reeuwijk, Jeroen; Ng, Bobby G; Bergman, Jorieke E H; van Bokhoven, Hans; Körner, Christian; Babovic-Vuksanovic, Dusica; Willemsen, Michel A; Gleeson, Joseph G; Lehle, Ludwig; de Brouwer, Arjan P M; Lefeber, Dirk J

2010-09-17

399

Sleep Physiology, Abnormal States, and Therapeutic Interventions  

PubMed Central

Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate therapeutic interventions for abnormal sleep states. Clinicians' solid understanding of sleep physiology, abnormal sleep states, and treatments will greatly benefit patients regardless of their disease process.

Wickboldt, Alvah T.; Bowen, Alex F.; Kaye, Aaron J.; Kaye, Adam M.; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D.

2012-01-01

400

[Morphological abnormalities among the offspring of irradiated pines (pinus sylvestris L.) from chernobyl populations].  

PubMed

The significant changes of the quantitative signs and the increase in the frequency of morphological abnormalities were found among the offspring of pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) exposed as a result of the Chernobyl accident. We have detected that the typical effects of radiation exposure (stimulation, inhibition, abnormalities of morphogenesis) are transmitted to the offspring of irradiated pine trees. The mechanisms of their occurrence are discussed. PMID:22568019

Igonina, E V; Fedotov, I S; Korotkevich, A Iu; Rubanovich, A V

401

Computer-Aided Detection  

Cancer.gov

New development in computer hardware and software, informatics, methodology and technology can assist physicians in early detection, interpretation of laboratory tests, automation of laboratory tests, and estimating prognosis and staging of cancer. Virtual colonoscopy, for example, can provide a three-dimensional image of colon, help surgeons pinpoint abnormality for surgical removal, and enhance the detection ability of colonoscopy.

402

Genetic aspects of human male infertility: the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletions in severe male factor infertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The main purpose of this study is to detect the frequency and type of both chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletions in patients with severe male factor infertility and fertile control subjects. The association between the genetic abnormality and clinical parameters was also evaluated. Methods: This study was carried out in 208 infertile and 20 fertile men. Results of

Arzu Vicdan; Kubilay Vicdan; Serdar Günalp; Aykut Kence; Cem Akarsu; Ahmet Zeki I??k; Eran Sözen

2004-01-01

403

Long-term follow-up of pediatric sickle cell disease patients with abnormal high velocities on transcranial Doppler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebral arteriopathy can be detected in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) by transcranial Doppler (TCD). Abnormally high velocities are predictive of high stroke risk, which can be reduced by transfusion therapy. We report the results of the screening of 291 SCD children followed in our center, including the clinical and imaging follow-up of 35 children with abnormal TCDs who

Françoise Bernaudin; Suzanne Verlhac; Lena Coïc; Emmanuelle Lesprit; Pierre Brugières; Philippe Reinert

2005-01-01

404

Intra- and inter-observer reliability of MRI examination of intervertebral disc abnormalities in patients with cervical myelopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeIntervertebral cervical disc herniation (CDH) is a relatively common disorder that can coexist with degenerative changes to worsen cervicogenic myelopathy. Despite the frequent disc abnormalities found in asymptomatic populations, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered excellent at detecting cervical spine myelopathy (CSM) associated with disc abnormality. The objective of this study was to investigate the intra- and inter-observer reliability of

Andresa Braga-Baiak; Anand Shah; Ricardo Pietrobon; Larissa Braga; Arnolfo Carvalho Neto; Chad Cook

2008-01-01

405

Chromosomal abnormalities and hormonal disorders of primary amenorrhea patients in Egypt  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Primary amenorrhea is defined as the absence of menstruation and secondary sexual characteristics in phenotypic women aged 14 years or older. Hormonal disorders are main causes of primary amenorrhea. Common hormonal cause of primary amenorrhea includes pituitary dysfunction and absent ovarian function. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and types of chromosomal abnormalities in patients with primary amenorrhea in Egypt. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chromosomal analysis and hormonal assay were carried out on 223 patients with primary amenorrhea that were referred from different parts of Egypt to Cytogenetic laboratory of Genetic Unit, Children Hospital Mansoura University, from July 2008 to December 2010. FISH technique was carried out in some of cases to more evaluation. RESULTS: The frequency of chromosomal abnormalities was 46 (20.63%) in primary amenorrhea patients. The chromosomal abnormalities can be classified into four main types. (1) The numerical abnormalities of the X?chromosome were detected in 23 (50 %). (2) Structural abnormalities of the X chromosome were detected in 11 (23.91%). (3) Mosaicism of X chromosome was found in 10 (21.74%). (4) Male karyotype 46, XY was presented in 2 (4.35%). CONCLUSION: The present study showed that karyotype and FISH are necessary to detect the causes of primary amenorrhea. This study also revealed the incidence of chromosomal abnormalities in women with primary amenorrhea in Egypt is similar to that reported in previous literatures.

El-Dahtory, Faeza

2012-01-01

406

Abnormal intestinal permeability in Crohn's disease pathogenesis.  

PubMed

Increased small intestinal permeability is a longstanding observation in both Crohn's disease patients and in their healthy, asymptomatic first-degree relatives. However, the significance of this compromised gut barrier function and its place in the pathogenesis of the disease remains poorly understood. The association between abnormal small intestinal permeability and a specific mutation in the NOD2 gene, which functions to modulate both innate and adaptive immune responses to intestinal bacteria, suggests a common, genetically determined pathway by which an abnormal gut barrier could result in chronic intestinal inflammation. Furthermore, rodent colitis models show that gut barrier defects precede the development of inflammatory changes. However, it remains possible that abnormal permeability is simply a consequence of mucosal inflammation. Further insight into whether abnormal barrier function is the cause or consequence of chronic intestinal inflammation will be crucial to understanding the role of intestinal permeability in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease. PMID:22731729

Teshima, Christopher W; Dieleman, Levinus A; Meddings, Jon B

2012-07-01

407

Abnormal Glucose Levels Found in Transportation Accidents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Federal Aviation Administration's Office of Aviation Medicine (OAM) is responsible for the certification of pilots with diabetic conditions. Therefore, it is essential for OAM to monitor pilots involved in fatal accidents for abnormal glucose levels, ...

D. V. Canfield A. K. Chaturvedi H. K. Boren S. J. H. Veronneau V. L. White

2000-01-01

408

NFL Veterans Show 'Abnormalities' in Brain Activity  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. NFL Veterans Show 'Abnormalities' in Brain Activity: Study Ex-players who had been sent ... researchers say they see unusual activity in the brains of former National Football League players. These traits ...

409

Immunoglobulin and Chromosome Abnormalities in Multiple Myeloma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Protein abnormalities in 13 patients with multiple myeloma were studied by paper electrophoresis, immunoelectrophoresis, and immunoglobulin quantitation. Five patients had IgA myeloma, six had IgG myeloma, and two had hypoglobulinermic myeloma. These thre...

E. B. Rosenberg C. H. Liu S. L. Yang C. H. Wang T. S. Hwang

1970-01-01

410

Chromosome and Molecular Abnormalities in Myelodysplastic Syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytogenetic abnormalities are seen in approximately 50% of cases of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and 80% of cases of secondary\\u000a MDS (following chemotherapy or radiotherapy). These abnormalities generally consist of partial or complete chromosome deletion\\u000a or addition (del5q, -7, +8, -Y, del20q), whereas balanced or unbalanced translocations are rarely found in MDS. Fluorescence hybridization techniques (fluorescence\\u000a in situ hybridization [FISH], multiplex

Pierre Fenaux

2001-01-01

411

Detector for flow abnormalities in gaseous diffusion plant compressors  

DOEpatents

A detector detects a flow abnormality in a plant compressor which outputs a motor current signal. The detector includes a demodulator/lowpass filter demodulating and filtering the motor current signal producing a demodulated signal, and first, second, third and fourth bandpass filters connected to the demodulator/lowpass filter, and filtering the demodulated signal in accordance with first, second, third and fourth bandpass frequencies generating first, second, third and fourth filtered signals having first, second, third and fourth amplitudes. The detector also includes first, second, third and fourth amplitude detectors connected to the first, second, third and fourth bandpass filters respectively, and detecting the first, second, third and fourth amplitudes, and first and second adders connected to the first and fourth amplitude detectors and the second and third amplitude detectors respectively, and adding the first and fourth amplitudes and the second and third amplitudes respectively generating first and second added signals. Finally, the detector includes a comparator, connected to the first and second adders, and comparing the first and second added signals and detecting the abnormal condition in the plant compressor when the second added signal exceeds the first added signal by a predetermined value. 6 figs.

Smith, S.F.; Castleberry, K.N.

1998-06-16

412

Magnetic properties and Archeointensity of Earth’s magnetic field recovered from El Opeño, earliest funeral architecture known in Western Mesoamerica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite of the impressive cultural heritage and abundant archaeological sites, absolute geomagnetic intensity data from Mesoamerica\\u000a are still sparse. Archeointensity determinations using the Coe variant of the Thellier and Thellier method have been carried\\u000a out on some selected pottery fragments from the El Opeño archeological site which has the earliest funeral architecture known\\u000a in western Mesoamerica. The El Opeño chronology

Modesto Pineda Duran; Avto Goguitchaichvili; Juan Morales; Bertha Aguilar Reyes; Luis M. Alva Valdivia; Arturo Oliveros-Morales; Manuel Calvo-Rathert; Tomas Gonzalez Moran; Jasinto Robles-Camacho

2010-01-01

413

Pb–Pb age of earliest megascopic, eukaryotic alga bearing Rohtas Formation, Vindhyan Supergroup, India: implications for Precambrian atmospheric oxygen evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though considered to be the earliest known, well preserved megascopic body fossil of an eukaryotic alga, Grypania spiralis has not yet been dated directly and reliably in any of its four known locations in the world. We report a Pb–Pb isochron age of 1599±48Ma for the Grypania bearing Rohtas Formation of the Vindhyan Supergroup, Central India. Besides being about 500myears

S Sarangi; K Gopalan; S Kumar

2004-01-01

414

The Chachil Limestone (Pliensbachian-earliest Toarcian) Neuquén Basin, Argentina: U-Pb age calibration and its significance on the Early Jurassic evolution of southwestern Gondwana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New radiometric U-Pb ages obtained on zircon crystals from Early Jurassic ash layers found within beds of the Chachil Limestone at its type locality in the Chachil depocentre (southern Neuquén Basin) confirm a Pliensbachian age (186.0 ± 0.4 Ma). Additionally, two ash layers found in limestone beds in Chacay Melehue at the Cordillera del Viento depocentre (central Neuquén Basin) gave Early Pliensbachian (185.7 ± 0.4 Ma) and earliest Toarcian (182.3 ± 0.4 Ma) U-Pb zircon ages. Based on these new datings and regional geological observations, we propose that the limestones cropping out at Chacay Melehue are correlatable with the Chachil Limestone. Recent data by other authors from limestones at Serrucho creek in the upper Puesto Araya Formation (Valenciana depocentre, southern Mendoza) reveal ages of 182.16 ± 0.6 Ma. Based on these new evidences, we consider the Chachil Limestone an important Early Jurassic stratigraphic marker, representing an almost instantaneous widespread flooding episode in western Gondwana. The unit marks the initiation in the Neuquén Basin of the Cuyo Group, followed by widespread black shale deposition. Accordingly, these limestones can be regarded as the natural seal of the Late Triassic -earliest Jurassic Precuyano Cycle, which represents the infill of halfgrabens and/or grabens related to a strong extensional regime. Paleontological evidence supports that during Pliensbachian-earliest Toarcian times these limestones were deposited in western Gondwana in marine warm water environments.

Leanza, H. A.; Mazzini, A.; Corfu, F.; Llambías, E. J.; Svensen, H.; Planke, S.; Galland, O.

2013-03-01

415

Potentially prothrombotic abnormalities of coagulation in benign intracranial hypertension.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Benign intracranial hypertension (BIH) may be caused by intracranial venous sinus thrombosis. Cerebral angiograms may, however, be normal in patients with BIH that are associated with conditions with an increased risk of venous thrombosis. This raises the possibility that unrecognised non-occlusive venous thrombus might impede CSF drainage. This study therefore examined the strength of the association between risk factors for thrombosis and BIH. METHODS: The incidence of prothrombotic abnormalities among a mixed prospectively and retrospectively investigated cohort of 38 patients with BIH, was compared with healthy obese subjects, and patients with other neurological diseases. Prothrombotic abnormalities investigated included anticardiolipin antibodies, lupus anticoagulant, antithrombin III, proteins C and S, plasma fibrinogen, kaolin cephalin clotting time, prothrombin time, and full blood counts. RESULTS: Evidence for the presence of an antiphospholipid antibody was found in 32% of cases. Cases of familial deficiency of antithrombin III, thrombocytosis, and polycythaemia were also noted. Additionally, an increased concentration of plasma fibrinogen was found in 26%. A coagulation abnormality was more often detectable in those subjects with normal or low body mass index and in those tested within six months of onset. CONCLUSION: There is a thrombotic pathogenesis in some cases of BIH. Images

Sussman, J; Leach, M; Greaves, M; Malia, R; Davies-Jones, G A

1997-01-01

416

Microtubules and parental genome organisation during abnormal fertilisation in humans.  

PubMed

We analysed the distribution of beta-tubulins, acetylated alpha-tubulins and chromatin configuration in 113 human zygotes showing abnormal fertilisation, 16-18 h after conventional in vitro fertilisation (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). After a first characterisation using phase contrast microscopy, immunofluorescence staining was performed in 67 IVF and 46 ICSI zygotes that developed one, three or more pronuclei and/or subnuclei, with or without extrusion of the second polar body. Independently of the number of pronuclei found, beta-tubulins were uniformly distributed throughout the cytoplasm of the abnormal zygotes. We did not observe any kind of microtubule alteration with respect of the ploidy level and/or its origin. The most frequent abnormal fertilisation pattern found after IVF was the presence of three or four pronuclei (74.6%). On the other hand, the presence of one pronucleus (63.0%) was the main pattern found after ICSI. No differences between the two groups were seen in terms of development of subnuclei. Anamolies detected after IVF and ICSI showed different aetiologies such as parthenogenetic activation, gynogenetic or androgenetic development, as well as digynic or diandric fertilisation. PMID:12214803

Rawe, Vanesa Yanina; Brugo Olmedo, Santiago; Nodar, Florencia Noemí; Vitullo, Alfredo Daniel

2002-08-01

417

Vehicle Detection and Compass Applications using AMR Magnetic Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The earliest magnetic field detectors allowed navigation over trackless oceans by sensing the earth's magnetic poles. Magnetic field sensing has vastly expanded as industry has adapted a variety of magnetic sensors to detect the presence, strength, or direction of magnetic fields not only from the earth, but also from permanent magnets, magnetized soft magnets, vehicle distur- bances, brain wave activity,

Michael J. Caruso; Lucky S. Withanawasam

418

A Probabilistic Resource Allocating Network for Novelty Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of novel or abnormal input vectors is of importance in many monitoring tasks, such as fault detection in complex systems and detection of abnormal patterns in medical diagnostics. We have developed a robust method for novelty detection, which aims to minimize the number of heuristically chosen thresholds in the novelty decision process. We achieve this by growing a

Stephen J. Roberts; Lionel Tarassenko

1994-01-01

419

Exhaled nitric oxide and oxygenation abnormalities in hepatic cirrhosis.  

PubMed

Impaired arterial oxygenation, ranging from increased alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient (AaDo2) to hypoxemia, is commonly present in patients with cirrhosis. Nitric oxide (NO), through pulmonary vasodilatation, may play a major role in the oxygen abnormalities of cirrhosis. Our aim was to study the relationship between NO production and O2 abnormalities in 45 nonsmoking patients with cirrhosis and without major cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Intrapulmonary shunting was detected by contrast-enhanced (CE) echocardiography. Lung volumes and diffusion, arterial blood gas analysis, serum NO2-/NO3-, NO output in the exhaled air, and cardiac index by the echocardiographic method were determined in all patients. Twenty-seven (60%) patients had an abnormally increased (> 15 mm Hg) AaDo2. The mean values of exhaled NO output and serum NO2-/NO3- were significantly higher in cirrhotic patients than in controls (252 +/- 117 vs. 75.2 +/- 19 nL/min/m2, P < .0001; and 47.5 +/- 29.4 vs. 32.9 +/- 10.1 micromol/L, P < .02, respectively). In all patients, there was a significant correlation between exhaled NO and AaDo2 (r = .78, P < .0001). Twelve patients (26.6%) were found to have CE-echocardiographic evidence of intrapulmonary shunting (positive CE-echo). Nine patients were considered to have hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) on the basis of an AaDo2 > 15 mm Hg and positive CE-echo. These 9 patients had a mean value of exhaled NO significantly higher than patients without HPS (331 +/- 73.2 vs. 223 +/- 118.4 nL/min/m2, P < .05). In all patients, cardiac index was positively correlated with exhaled NO (r = .47, P < .001) and with serum NO2-/NO3- (r = .43, P < .01). The results suggest an important role of NO in the oxygenation and circulatory abnormalities of patients with cirrhosis. PMID:9328302

Rolla, G; Brussino, L; Colagrande, P; Dutto, L; Polizzi, S; Scappaticci, E; Bergerone, S; Morello, M; Marzano, A; Martinasso, G; Salizzoni, M; Bucca, C

1997-10-01

420

Abnormalities of High Density Lipoproteins in Abetalipoproteinemia*  

PubMed Central

Detailed studies of the high density lipoproteins from three patients with abetalipoproteinemia have revealed the following principal abnormalities: 1) High density lipoprotein 3 (HDL3) is reduced in both absolute and relative concentration, although HDL2 is present in normal amounts. 2) The phospholipid distribution of both HDL fractions is abnormal, with low concentrations of lecithin and an increased percentage (though normal absolute quantity) of sphingomyelin. 3) In both HDL fractions, lecithin contains less linoleate and more oleate than normal. The cholesteryl esters are also low in linoleic acid, and the sphingomyelin is high in nervonic acid. Dietary intake influences the linoleic acid concentration within 2 weeks, and perhaps sooner, but the elevated sphingomyelin nervonic acid is little affected by up to 6 months of corn oil supplementation. Qualitatively similar changes in fatty acid composition, but not phospholipid distribution, are also found in other malabsorption states. The available evidence suggests that the abnormally low levels of HDL3 and the deranged phospholipid distribution are more specific for abetalipoproteinemia than the fatty acid abnormalities. However, the absence of these abnormalities in obligate heterozygous subjects makes their relationship to the primary defect of abetalipoproteinemia difficult to assess. Images

Jones, John W.; Ways, Peter

1967-01-01

421

Chemiluminescent System for Detecting Living Microorganisms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates to a system for detecting living microorganisms, and more particularly, to a method for detecting living microorganisms in abnormal concentrations and differentiating them from dead cells or inert matter. The method makes use of the ...

G. Soli

1971-01-01

422

Anytime Online Novelty Detection for Vehicle Safeguarding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Novelty detection is often treated as a one-class classification problem: how to segment a data set of examples from everything else that would be considered novel or abnormal. Almost all existing novelty detection techniques, however, suffer from diminis...

A. Stentz B. Sofman J. A. Bagnell

2009-01-01

423

[Imaging for evaluation of urologic abnormalities in infants with fetal hydronephrosis: advances and controversies].  

PubMed

Recent advances in prenatal diagnosis resulted in an improvement of detection and management of urinary tract abnormalities. Prenatal ultrasonography allows to identify urological abnormalities that otherwise would not be seen until later in life, when complications occur. The voiding cystourethrogram can be reserved for selected patients. Nuclear medicine exams should be performed in cases of moderate and severe hydronephrosis. A review of the current literature on postnatal approach of prenatal hydronephrosis was performed. Data obtained were compared with the records of the Pediatric Nephrology Unit HC/UFMG regarding management and follow-up of children with uropathies detected while investigating for fetal hydronephrosis. PMID:23318830

Dias, Cristiane Santos; Silva, José Maria Penido; Marciano, Renata Cristiane; Bouzada, Maria Candida Ferrarez; Parisotto, Viviane Marino; Sanches, Sandra; Rodrigues, Carlos José Simal; Duarte, Mariana Guerra; Simões e Silva, Ana Cristina; de Oliveira, Eduardo Araujo

424

Neurological abnormalities associated with CDMA exposure.  

PubMed

Dysaesthesiae of the scalp and neurological abnormality after mobile phone use have been reported previously, but the roles of the phone per se or the radiations in causing these findings have been questioned. We report finding a neurological abnormality in a patient after accidental exposure of the left side of the face to mobile phone radiation [code division multiple access (CDMA)] from a down-powered mobile phone base station antenna. He had headaches, unilateral left blurred vision and pupil constriction, unilateral altered sensation on the forehead, and abnormalities of current perception thresholds on testing the left trigeminal ophthalmic nerve. His nerve function recovered during 6 months follow-up. His exposure was 0.015-0.06 mW/cm(2) over 1-2 h. The implications regarding health effects of radiofrequency radiation are discussed. PMID:11584121

Hocking, B; Westerman, R

2001-09-01

425

Colonic diverticular disease: abnormalities of neuromuscular function.  

PubMed

Although diverticular disease of the colon (diverticulosis) is a frequent finding in Western countries, its pathophysiologic grounds are still only partially understood. Traditionally considered as an age-related condition, colonic diverticulosis is probably the final result of several factors concurring together to determine the anatomo-functional abnormalities eventually causing outpouching of the viscus' mucosa. Among these factors, a relevant role seems to be played by an abnormal neuromuscular function of the large bowel, as shown by abnormal myoelectrical and motor function repeatedly described in these patients, as well as by altered visceral perception. These anomalies might be related to the recent demonstration of derangement of enteric innervation (especially involving interstitial cells of Cajal and enteric glial cells), mucosal neuropeptides, and mucosal inflammation. The latter may have a role of paramount importance in the development of visceral hypersensitivity, responsible for abdominal pain in a subset of patients. PMID:22572681

Bassotti, Gabrio; Villanacci, Vincenzo

2012-05-03

426

Schizophrenia and abnormal brain network hubs  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder of unknown cause or characteristic pathology. Clinical neuroscientists increasingly postulate that schizophrenia is a disorder of brain network organization. In this article we discuss the conceptual framework of this dysconnection hypothesis, describe the predominant methodological paradigm for testing this hypothesis, and review recent evidence for disruption of central/hub brain regions, as a promising example of this hypothesis. We summarize studies of brain hubs in large-scale structural and functional brain networks and find strong evidence for network abnormalities of prefrontal hubs, and moderate evidence for network abnormalities of limbic, temporal, and parietal hubs. Future studies are needed to differentiate network dysfunction from previously observed gray- and white-matter abnormalities of these hubs, and to link endogenous network dysfunction phenotypes with perceptual, behavioral, and cognitive clinical phenotypes of schizophrenia.

Rubinov, Mikail; Bullmore, Ed.

2013-01-01

427