Note: This page contains sample records for the topic earliest detectable abnormality from
While these samples are representative of the content of,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.

Abnormal haemoglobins: detection & characterization  

PubMed Central

Haemoglobin (Hb) abnormalities though quite frequent, are generally detected in populations during surveys and programmes run for prevention of Hb disorders. Several methods are now available for detection of Hb abnormalities. In this review, the following are discussed: (i) the methods used for characterization of haemoglobin disorders; (ii) the problems linked to diagnosis of thalassaemic trait; (iii) the strategy for detection of common Hb variants; and (iv) the difficulties in identification of rare variants. The differences between developing and industrialized countries for the strategies employed in the diagnosis of abnormal haemoglobins are considered. We mention the limits and pitfalls for each approach and the necessity to characterize the abnormalities using at least two different methods. The recommended strategy is to use a combination of cation-exchange high performance chromatography (CE-HPLC), capillary electrophoresis (CE) and when possible isoelectric focusing (IEF). Difficult cases may demand further investigations requiring specialized protein and/or molecular biology techniques.

Wajcman, Henri; Moradkhani, Kamran



Earliest detection of magma movements by measuring transient streaming potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volcanic eruptions are generally preceded by magma intrusion. Volcanic forecasting is sure to make considerable progress if we have a practical means to detect magma movements. Electric potential variations have been observed since April 1999 at Miyake Island, a volcanic island in Japan. Measurements have been conducted by a special long vertical antenna using a steel casing pipe and a

Yukio Fujinawa; Takumi Matsumoto; Hiroshi Iitaka; Kozo Takahashi; Hiroshi Nakano; Takuya Doi; Toshiyuki Saito; Naoko Kasai; Sohjun Sato



Abnormal glow discharge detection of visible radiation.  


Extension of abnormal glow discharge detection of electromagnetic radiation to visible wavelengths is observed with inexpensive commercial indicator lamps. The spectral response and mechanisms of detection are discussed and advantages over gas-filled photodiodes noted. Responses from different discharge regions are observed and their implications considered. PMID:20165225

Kopeika, N S; Rosenbaum, J; Kastner, R



Cis phosphorylated tau as the earliest detectable pathogenic conformation in Alzheimer disease, offering novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies  

PubMed Central

After protein phosphorylation on certain serine or threonine residues preceding a proline (pSer/Thr-Pro), the function of certain phosphorylated protein is further regulated by cis-trans conformational change. Due to the lack of any tool to detect such two conformations in cells, however, it is not even known whether any cis or trans conformation exists in vivo, not to mention their conformation-specific functions or regulation. We developed a novel peptide chemistry technology to generate the first pair of antibodies that can distinguish cis from trans pThr231-Pro tau. Cis, but not trans, pThr231-tau appears early in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) neurons and further accumulates in only degenerating neurons as Alzheimer disease (AD) progresses, localizing to dystrophic neurites, which are known to correlate well with memory loss. Unlike trans p-tau, the cis cannot promote microtubule assembly, and is more resistant to dephosphorylation and degradation and more prone to aggregation. Pin1 accelerates cis to trans isomerization to prevent tau pathology in AD. Thus, during MCI and AD development, cis pThr231-Pro tau is the earliest detectable pathogenic tau conformation and antibodies and vaccines against the pathogenic cis p-tau may be used for the early diagnosis and treatment of AD. These findings offer in vivo approach to study conformational regulation of Pro-directed phosphorylation signaling.



RAPTOR: Closed-Loop monitoring of the night sky and the earliest optical detection of GRB 021211  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the RAPTOR (Rapid Telescopes for Optical Response) sky monitoring system at Los Alamos National Laboratory. RAPTOR is a fully autonomous robotic system that is designed to identify and make follow-up observations of optical transients with durations as short as one minute. The RAPTOR design is based on Biomimicry of Human Vision. The sky monitor is composed of two identical arrays of telescopes, separated by 38 kilometers, which stereoscopically monitor a field of about 1300 square-degrees for transients. Both monitoring arrays are carried on rapidly slewing mounts and are composed of an ensemble of wide-field telescopes clustered around a more powerful narrow-field telescope called the ``fovea'' telescope. All telescopes are coupled to real-time analysis pipelines that identify candidate transients and relay the information to a central decision unit that filters the candidates to find real celestial transients and command a response. When a celestial transient is found, the system can point the fovea telescopes to any position on the sky within five seconds and begin follow-up observations. RAPTOR also responds to Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) alerts generated by GRB monitoring spacecraft. Here we present RAPTOR observations of GRB 021211 that constitute the earliest detection of optical emission from that event and are the second fastest achieved for any GRB. The detection of bright optical emission from GRB021211, a burst with modest gamma-ray fluence, indicates that prompt optical emission, detectable with small robotic telescopes, is more common than previously thought. Further, the very fast decline of the optical afterglow from GRB 021211 suggests that some so-called ``optically dark'' GRBs were not detected only because of the slow response of the follow-up telescopes.

Vestrand, W. T.; Borozdin, K.; Casperson, D. J.; Fenimore, E.; Galassi, M.; McGowan, K.; Starr, D.; White, R. R.; Wozniak, P.; Wren, J.



Sensor-Based Abnormal Human-Activity Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the availability of affordable sensors and sensor networks, sensor-based human-activity recognition has attracted much attention in artificial intelligence and ubiquitous computing. In this paper, we present a novel two-phase approach for detecting abnormal activities based on wireless sensors attached to a human body. Detecting abnormal activities is a particularly important task in security monitoring and healthcare applications of sensor

Jie Yin; Qiang Yang; Jeffrey Junfeng Pan



Unsupervised detection of abnormalities in medical images using salient features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we propose a new method for abnormality detection in medical images which is based on the notion of medical saliency. The proposed method is general and is suitable for a variety of tasks related to detection of: 1) lesions and microcalcifications (MCC) in mammographic images, 2) stenoses in angiographic images, 3) lesions found in magnetic resonance (MRI) images of brain. The main idea of our approach is that abnormalities manifest as rare events, that is, as salient areas compared to normal tissues. We define the notion of medical saliency by combining local patch information from the lightness channel with geometric shape local descriptors. We demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method by applying it to various modalities, and to various abnormality detection problems. Promising results are demonstrated for detection of MCC and of masses in mammographic images, detection of stenoses in angiography images, and detection of lesions in brain MRI. We also demonstrate how the proposed automatic abnormality detection method can be combined with a system that performs supervised classification of mammogram images into benign or malignant/premalignant MCC's. We use a well known DDSM mammogram database for the experiment on MCC classification, and obtain 80% accuracy in classifying images containing premalignant MCC versus benign ones. In contrast to supervised detection methods, the proposed approach does not rely on ground truth markings, and, as such, is very attractive and applicable for big corpus image data processing.

Alpert, Sharon; Kisilev, Pavel



Dilemmas associated with antenatally detected urinary tract abnormalities.  

PubMed Central

Over a five year period 55 fetuses had abnormalities of the urinary tract detected by antenatal ultrasound scan. The incidence was 1:935 total births during a one year prospective study. Intrauterine intervention was undertaken in five for suspected obstructive uropathy, which was confirmed in only two. Of 51 live born infants, five died (two with renal failure), and only 18 (35%) had a clinically detectable abnormality at birth. Twenty seven patients underwent postnatal operations, the remainder being treated conservatively. Antenatal counseling was seldom undertaken by those responsible for the postnatal care. There were many instances of prospective parents receiving little or inappropriate information. Greater cooperation is required between all the staff concerned particularly as the natural history and appropriate postnatal management of some urinary tract abnormalities are still not known.

Watson, A R; Readett, D; Nelson, C S; Kapila, L; Mayell, M J



Methods and systems for detecting abnormal digital traffic  


Aspects of the present invention encompass methods and systems for detecting abnormal digital traffic by assigning characterizations of network behaviors according to knowledge nodes and calculating a confidence value based on the characterizations from at least one knowledge node and on weighting factors associated with the knowledge nodes. The knowledge nodes include a characterization model based on prior network information. At least one of the knowledge nodes should not be based on fixed thresholds or signatures. The confidence value includes a quantification of the degree of confidence that the network behaviors constitute abnormal network traffic.

Goranson, Craig A. (Kennewick, WA) [Kennewick, WA; Burnette, John R. (Kennewick, WA) [Kennewick, WA



A multiresolution analysis for detection of abnormal lung sounds  

PubMed Central

Automated analysis and detection of abnormal lung sound patterns has great potential for improving access to standardized diagnosis of pulmonary diseases, especially in low-resource settings. In the current study, we develop signal processing tools for analysis of paediatric auscultations recorded under non-ideal noisy conditions. The proposed model is based on a biomimetic multi-resolution analysis of the spectro-temporal modulation details in lung sounds. The methodology provides a detailed description of joint spectral and temporal variations in the signal and proves to be more robust than frequency-based techniques in distinguishing crackles and wheezes from normal breathing sounds.

Emmanouilidou, Dimitra; Patil, Kailash; West, James; Elhilali, Mounya



Early Abnormal Overload Detection and the Solution on Content Delivery Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

From articles of H. Yu Chen about early detection of network attacks [1], the authors applied his approach to Early Abnormal Overload Detection (EAOD) on Content Delivery Network (CDN) and suggested solutions for the problem, to limit abnormal overload to be occurred on a large network, ensuring users always being accessed to desired resources. Early overload detection mechanism are based

Cam Nguyen Tan; Son Dang Truong; Tan Cao Dang




Microsoft Academic Search

e have followed the natural progress of newborn infants in whom ultrasound examination showed abnormalities in hips which appeared to be clinically normal. Over six years we saw 306 such children out of 9952 examined (31 per 1000 live births). The examination was repeated at two to three months and those who still showed an abnormality were followed up further.



Earliest Math Symbols  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, maintained by a teacher at Gulf High School in New Port Richey, Fla., reviews the Earliest Uses of Various Mathematical Symbols. Listed here are the names and information for the first individuals to use some common mathematical symbols, including symbols of operation, grouping symbols, symbols of relation, and symbols used in geometry, trigonometry, calculus, probability, number theory, and logic. The main source used for the information provided is a book by Florian Cajori entitled A History of Mathematical Notations. Links to other pages on topics in mathematics history are also provided.


Hip abnormalities detected by ultrasound in clinically normal newborn infants.  


We have followed the natural progress of newborn infants in whom ultrasound examination showed abnormalities in hips which appeared to be clinically normal. Over six years we saw 306 such children out of 9952 examined (31 per 1000 live births). The examination was repeated at two to three months and those who still showed an abnormality were followed up further. At four to five months a standard radiograph was obtained, and treatment began if this and another ultrasound scan were both abnormal. At this stage, 291 infants had normal hips. In the 15 infants with abnormal hips there was no pronounced deterioration, none developed a frank dislocation, and all became normal after treatment in an abduction splint. Newborn infants with abnormal and suspicious ultrasound findings who are normal on clinical examination do not need treatment from birth; most of these hips will settle spontaneously. Treatment can be postponed until the age of four to five months unless clinical instability develops or ultrasound shows dislocation. The criteria for treatment should be based on measurements by both ultrasound and radiography: both should show an abnormality before intervention is considered necessary. PMID:8682834

Terjesen, T; Holen, K J; Tegnander, A



Screening Tests fot the Detection of Abnormal Milk.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The milk regulations in most progressive areas require that milk shall be from one or more healthy cows; that it shall be practically free of colostrum; and that milk otherwise abnormal should not be offered for sale. The screening tests described in this...



Early Abnormal Overload Detection and the Solution on Content Delivery Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a From articles of H. Yu Chen about early detection of network attacks [1], the authors applied his approach to Early Abnormal\\u000a Overload Detection (EAOD) on Content Delivery Network (CDN) and suggested solutions for the problem, to limit abnormal overload\\u000a to be occurred on a large network, ensuring users always being accessed to desired resources. Early overload detection mechanism\\u000a are based

Cam Nguyen Tan; Son Dang Truong; Tan Cao Dang



Evaluation of routine prenatal ultrasound examination in detecting fetal chromosomal abnormalities in a low risk population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prenatal diagnosis performed by fetal ultrasound scan is now a routine part of antenatal care in many countries. We have used our registry of congenital malformations to determine how many fetal anomalies and consequently how many chromosomal abnormalities are detected by this procedure. In our region, evaluation of prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities in women of 38 years and younger

Claude Stoll; Béatrice Dott; Yves Alembik; Marie-Paule Roth



Detecting long-run abnormal stock returns: The empirical power and specification of test statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the empirical power and specification of test statistics in event studies designed to detect long-run (one- to five-year) abnormal stock returns. We document that test statistics based on abnormal returns calculated using a reference portfolio, such as a market index, are misspecified (empirical rejection rates exceed theoretical rejection rates) and identify three reasons for this misspecification. We correct

Brad M. Barber; John D. Lyon



Detection and characterization of tendon abnormalities with multidetector computed tomography.  


With recent advances in multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) acquisition and reconstruction options, MDCT can now be used successfully for evaluating tendon abnormalities. In this article, MDCT protocol optimization for the imaging of tendons is underscored, and applications of MDCT for assessing tendon pathology are highlighted. Although our retrospective experience of CT imaging with 2-dimensional multiplanar reconstructions and 3-dimensional postprocessing techniques is reviewed, potential applications for newer CT technologies, including dual-energy CT and 4-dimensional CT imaging of the peripheral tendons, are also discussed. PMID:24625602

Demehri, Shadpour; Chalian, Majid; Farahani, Sahar J; Fishman, Elliot K; Fayad, Laura M



[Which abnormalities can be detected in myopic peripheral retina?].  


Vitreoretinal periphery in myopic eyes may present abnormalities whose frequency and severity are correlated with axial elongation of the eye: white-without-pressure, lattice degeneration, pigmentary degeneration, and paving stone degeneration. Sometimes one can find atrophic round holes, retinal breaks, or retinoschisis whose differential diagnosis with slow progressive retinal detachment can be made on the presence of an absolute field defect. The presence of peripheral vitreous strands, pigmentary migrations, holes, associated with extensive liquefaction of the central vitreous body and facial dysmorphy are symptomatic of Stickler syndrome often complicated with bilateral retinal detachments. Congenital hereditary retinoschisis should be raised in the presence of temporal and inferior bullous detachment of a thin inner layer of the retina associated with large multiple holes in a boy with poor vision and cystic macular changes. Examination of peripheral retina should be systematic after the age of 40 in myopic patients to specify the presence of abnormalities predisposing to retinal detachment. It is more important to inform the patient of posterior vitreous detachment or retinal detachment symptoms, a true emergency situation, rather than to suggest regular and repeated consultations in the nonsymptomatic eye. PMID:22521740

Berrod, J-P; Hubert, I



Method of detecting genetic translocations identified with chromosomal abnormalities  


Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyses. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acid probes are typically of a complexity greater than 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods and reagents are provided for the detection of genetic rearrangements. Probes and test kits are provided for use in detecting genetic rearrangements, particularly for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, specifically cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and for biological dosimetry. Methods and reagents are described for cytogenetic research, for the differentiation of cytogenetically similar but genetically different diseases, and for many prognostic and diagnostic applications.

Gray, Joe W. (Livermore, CA); Pinkel, Daniel (Walnut Creek, CA); Tkachuk, Douglas (Livermore, CA)



Method of detecting genetic deletions identified with chromosomal abnormalities  


Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyzes. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acids probes are typically of a complexity greater tha 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods and reagents are provided for the detection of genetic rearrangements. Probes and test kits are provided for use in detecting genetic rearrangements, particlularly for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, specifically cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and for biological dosimetry. Methods and reagents are described for cytogenetic research, for the differentiation of cytogenetically similar ut genetically different diseases, and for many prognostic and diagnostic applications.

Gray, Joe W; Pinkel, Daniel; Tkachuk, Douglas



Zone-based analysis for automated detection of abnormalities in chest radiographs  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop an automated method for detection of local texture-based and density-based abnormalities in chest radiographs. Methods: The method was based on profile analysis to detect abnormalities in chest radiographs. In the method, one density-based feature, Density Symmetry Index, and two texture-based features, Roughness Maximum Index and Roughness Symmetry Index, were used to detect abnormalities in the lung fields. In each chest radiograph, the lung fields were divided into four zones initially and then the method was applied to each zone separately. For each zone, Density Symmetry Index was obtained from the projection profile of each zone, and Roughness Maximum Index and Roughness Symmetry Index were obtained by measuring the roughness of the horizontal profiles via moving average technique. Linear discriminant analysis was used to classify normal and abnormal cases based on the three indices. The discriminant performance of the method was evaluated using ROC analysis. Results: The method was evaluated on a database of 250 normal and 250 abnormal chest images. In the optimized conditions, the zone-based performance Az of the method for zones 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 0.917, 0.897, 0.892, and 0.814, respectively, and the case-based performance Az of the method was 0.842. Our previous method for detection of gross abnormalities was also evaluated on the same database. The case-based performance of our previous method was 0.689. Conclusions: In comparing the previous method and the new method proposed in this study, there was a great improvement by the new method for detection of local texture-based and density-based abnormalities. The new method combined with the previous one has potential for screening abnormalities in chest radiographs.

Kao, E-Fong; Kuo, Yu-Ting; Hsu, Jui-Sheng; Chou, Ming-Chung; Liu, Gin-Chung [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. (China); Department of Medical Imaging, Kaohsiung Medical University Chung-Ho Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging, Kaohsiung Medical University Chung-Ho Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)



Abnormal protein patterns in blood serum and cerebrospinal fluid detected by capillary electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capillary zone electrophoresis and high-resolution agarose gel electrophoresis were compared to detect protein components in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of patients. Both electrophoretic methods proved to be useful for detection of protein abnormalities (e.g., mono- and oligoclonal bands) in biological fluids, but capillary electrophoresis offered several important advantages, such as sample application without preliminary concentration, lack of staining procedures, and

Mariella Ivanova; Elena Tzvetanova; Veska Jetcheva; Ferenc Kilár



Methods, apparatus and articles of manufacture to process cardiac images to detect heart motion abnormalities  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Example methods, apparatus and articles of manufacture to process cardiac images to detect heart motion abnormalities are disclosed. A disclosed example method includes adapting a state of a state-space model based on a plurality of cardiac images to characterize motion of a heart, computing an information-theoretic metric from the state of the state-space model, and comparing the information-theoretic metric to a threshold to determine whether the motion of the heart is abnormal.



Visual search and the detection of abnormal readings in graphical displays.  


Two experiments evaluated the properties of polygon displays and bar graphs as fault indicator for systems with many parameters. A modified visual search paradigm was used to test the effectiveness of different display configurations to be check-read for the presence of abnormal ('target') readings. Whether the task was to detect the occurrence of a single abnormal (off-limits) parameter or count the number of abnormal parameters, both displays yielded response times and error rates that were independent of the total number (from 4 to 16) of displayed parameters. When the task was fault detection, the subjects performed equally well with both types of displays. When the task was counting the number of abnormalities, performance with the bar graph was independent of the number of abnormalities but performance with the polygon display was poorer overall and deteriorated with larger numbers of abnormalities. The results contradict either the proximity-compatibility hypothesis of Wickens or the traditional classification of polygons and bar graphs as typical integral and separable displays, respectively. The results are best characterized in terms of the similarity relations between and among 'target' and 'nontarget' parameters. PMID:9062063

Greaney, J; MacRae, A W



Multi-complexity measures for early detection and monitoring of neurological abnormalities from gait time series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, we have proposed to use complementary complexity measures discovered by boosting-like ensemble learning for the enhancement of quantitative indicators dealing with necessarily short physiological time series. We have confirmed robustness of such multi-complexity measures for heart rate variability analysis with the emphasis on detection of emerging and intermittent cardiac abnormalities. Here we demonstrate that such ensemble-based approach could be also effective in discovering universal meta-indicators for early detection and convenient monitoring of neurological abnormalities using gait time series.

Gavrishchaka, Valeriy; Davis, Kristina; Senyukova, Olga



Test and analysis on the abnormal noise of the ultrasonic detection device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the phenomenon that the abnormal noise appear suddenly when the ultrasonic detection device works at the rate of 800mm/min, a vibration testing for this detection device is designed and investigated in this paper. Deep analysis are carried out based on the experimental modal analysis method of point excitation with multiple point three vectors in response and spectrum analysis method. The analysis results demonstrate the main reasons of the abnormal noise, which is due to the resonance between the motor and the ultrasonic station.

Li, Guangya; Yang, Mingliang; Wang, Mingquan; Tan, Qiulin; Duan, Nengquan



A Real-Time and Reliable Approach to Detecting Traffic Variations at Abnormally High and Low Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormal variations of traffic are conventionally considered to occur under the condition that traffic rate is abnormally high in the cases, such as traffic congestions or traffic under distributed denial-of-service (DDOS) flood attacks. Various methods in detecting traffic variations at abnormally high rate have been reported. We note that a recent paper by Kuzmanovic and Knightly, which explains a type

Ming Li; Shengquan Wang; Wei Zhao



A Layered Multi-Agent Detection Model for Abnormal Intrusion Based on Danger Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A layered multi-agent detection model for abnormal intrusion, based on danger theory, is presented according to the research on the danger theory and artificial immunity. The model, with three layers in the frame, conducts the real time monitoring and danger judgment on the host computer and network resource before it recognizes the nonself, and then the danger signal activates the

Xiao TaoHuang; Sha Li; Li QunHuang



Detecting abnormal operating performance: The empirical power and specification of test statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research evaluates methods used in event studies that employ accounting-based measures of operating performance. We examine the choice of an accounting-based performance measure, a statistical test, and a model of expected operating performance. We document the impact of these choices on the test statistics designed to detect abnormal operating performance. We find that commonly used research designs yield test

Brad M. Barber; John D. Lyon



Effectiveness of routine ultrasonography in detecting fetal structural abnormalities in a low risk population.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To review the efficacy of routine prenatal ultrasonography for detecting fetal structural abnormalities. DESIGN--Retrospective study of the ultrasonographic findings and outcome of all pregnancies in women scanned in 1988-9. SETTING--Maternity ultrasonography department of a district general hospital. SUBJECTS--8785 fetuses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Correlation of prenatal ultrasonographic findings with outcome in the neonate. RESULTS--8733 babies were born during 1988-9, and 52 pregnancies were terminated after a fetal malformation was identified. 8432 (95%) of the fetuses were examined by ultrasonography in the second trimester. 130 fetuses (1.5%) were found to have an abnormality at birth or after termination of pregnancy, 125 of which had been examined in the second trimester. In 93 cases the abnormality was detected before 24 weeks (sensitivity 74.4%, 95% confidence interval to 66.7% to 82.1%. Two false positive diagnoses occurred, in both cases the pregnancies were not terminated and apparently normal infants were born. This gives a specificity of 99.98% (99.9% to 99.99%). The positive predictive value of ultrasonography in the second trimester was 97.9% (92.6% to 99.7%). Of the 125 abnormalities, 87 were lethal or severely disabling; 72 of the 87 were detected by the routine screening programme (sensitivity 82.8%, 73.2% to 90.0%). CONCLUSION--Routine fetal examination by ultrasonography in a low risk population detects many fetal structural abnormalities but can present several dilemmas in counselling.

Chitty, L S; Hunt, G H; Moore, J; Lobb, M O



Detection of Abnormal Movement of Industrial Robot Based on Eigenspace Representation of Image Sequence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a monitoring system for industrial robots working in factories is proposed. This system detects different movement from learning and immediately reports to the operator. It has the advantage that there is no need to receive any signal from the robot controller because it only observes with a simple camera such as a CCD camera. For the detection method, Eigenspace Method is used which is excellent in compression of image data and calculation of the correlation among images. Parametric Eigenspace Method is also used to detect abnormalities such as the speed of movement. Some experiments using 2-axis robot show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Seki, Hirokazu; Hori, Yoichi


A Danger-Theory-Based Abnormal Traffic Detection Model in Local Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

To solve the problem that abnormal traffic including Internet worm and P2P downloading has occupied the LANpsilas bandwidth, a danger-theory-based model to detect anomaly traffic in LAN is presented in this paper. The definition is given, in this paper, to such terms as dangerous signal, antigens, antibodies and memory antibodies. Besides, matching rule between antigen and antibody is improved. Experiments

Wang Xiuying; Xiao Lizhong; Shao Zhiqing



A Comparative Study of Immunohistochemical Methods for Detecting Abnormal Prion Protein with Monoclonal and Polyclonal Antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are associated with the accumulation of abnormal prion protein (PrPSc) in the central nervous system which can be detected immunohistochemically. Using a monoclonal antibody (L42) to an epitope on the first ?-helix of ruminant PrP, we compared previously reported immunohistochemical antigen unmasking and “visualization” systems. In addition, a variety of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to other epitopes

M Hardt; T Baron; MH Groschup



Automated contralateral subtraction of dental panoramic radiographs for detecting abnormalities in paranasal sinus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inflammation in the paranasal sinus is often observed in seasonal allergic rhinitis or with colds, but is also an indication for odontogenic tumors, carcinoma of the maxillary sinus or a maxillary cyst. The detection of those findings in dental panoramic radiographs is not difficult for radiologists, but general dentists may miss the findings since they focus on treatments of teeth. The purpose of this work is to develop a contralateral subtraction method for detecting the odontogenic sinusitis region on dental panoramic radiographs. We developed a contralateral subtraction technique in paranasal sinus region, consisting of 1) image filtering of the smoothing and sobel operation for noise reduction and edge extraction, 2) image registration of mirrored image by using mutual information, and 3) image display method of subtracted pixel data. We employed 56 cases (24 normal and 32 abnormal). The abnormal regions and the normal cases were verified by a board-certified radiologist using CT scans. Observer studies with and without subtraction images were performed for 9 readers. The true-positive rate at a 50% confidence level in 7 out of 9 readers was improved, but there was no statistical significance in the difference of area-under-curve (AUC) in each radiologist. In conclusion, the contralateral subtraction images of dental panoramic radiographs may improve the detection rate of abnormal regions in paranasal sinus.

Hara, Takeshi; Mori, Shintaro; Kaneda, Takashi; Hayashi, Tatsuro; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Fujita, Hiroshi



Detecting abnormality in optic nerve head images using a feature extraction analysis  

PubMed Central

Imaging and evaluation of the optic nerve head (ONH) plays an essential part in the detection and clinical management of glaucoma. The morphological characteristics of ONHs vary greatly from person to person and this variability means it is difficult to quantify them in a standardized way. We developed and evaluated a feature extraction approach using shift-invariant wavelet packet and kernel principal component analysis to quantify the shape features in ONH images acquired by scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph [HRT]). The methods were developed and tested on 1996 eyes from three different clinical centers. A shape abnormality score (SAS) was developed from extracted features using a Gaussian process to identify glaucomatous abnormality. SAS can be used as a diagnostic index to quantify the overall likelihood of ONH abnormality. Maps showing areas of likely abnormality within the ONH were also derived. Diagnostic performance of the technique, as estimated by ROC analysis, was significantly better than the classification tools currently used in the HRT software – the technique offers the additional advantage of working with all images and is fully automated.

Zhu, Haogang; Poostchi, Ali; Vernon, Stephen A; Crabb, David P



Detecting abnormality in optic nerve head images using a feature extraction analysis.  


Imaging and evaluation of the optic nerve head (ONH) plays an essential part in the detection and clinical management of glaucoma. The morphological characteristics of ONHs vary greatly from person to person and this variability means it is difficult to quantify them in a standardized way. We developed and evaluated a feature extraction approach using shift-invariant wavelet packet and kernel principal component analysis to quantify the shape features in ONH images acquired by scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph [HRT]). The methods were developed and tested on 1996 eyes from three different clinical centers. A shape abnormality score (SAS) was developed from extracted features using a Gaussian process to identify glaucomatous abnormality. SAS can be used as a diagnostic index to quantify the overall likelihood of ONH abnormality. Maps showing areas of likely abnormality within the ONH were also derived. Diagnostic performance of the technique, as estimated by ROC analysis, was significantly better than the classification tools currently used in the HRT software - the technique offers the additional advantage of working with all images and is fully automated. PMID:25071960

Zhu, Haogang; Poostchi, Ali; Vernon, Stephen A; Crabb, David P



Online Least Squares One-Class Support Vector Machines-Based Abnormal Visual Event Detection  

PubMed Central

The abnormal event detection problem is an important subject in real-time video surveillance. In this paper, we propose a novel online one-class classification algorithm, online least squares one-class support vector machine (online LS-OC-SVM), combined with its sparsified version (sparse online LS-OC-SVM). LS-OC-SVM extracts a hyperplane as an optimal description of training objects in a regularized least squares sense. The online LS-OC-SVM learns a training set with a limited number of samples to provide a basic normal model, then updates the model through remaining data. In the sparse online scheme, the model complexity is controlled by the coherence criterion. The online LS-OC-SVM is adopted to handle the abnormal event detection problem. Each frame of the video is characterized by the covariance matrix descriptor encoding the moving information, then is classified into a normal or an abnormal frame. Experiments are conducted, on a two-dimensional synthetic distribution dataset and a benchmark video surveillance dataset, to demonstrate the promising results of the proposed online LS-OC-SVM method.

Wang, Tian; Chen, Jie; Zhou, Yi; Snoussi, Hichem



Stratum corneum lipid abnormalities in ichthyosis. Detection by a new lipid microanalytical method.  


Although the biochemical diagnosis of the ichthyoses is still in its infancy, the two recessively inherited types, recessive X-linked ichthyosis (RXLI) and nonbullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (CIE), are accompanied by stratum corneum lipid abnormalities. However, in RXLI, cholesterol sulfate accumulates; in CIE, massive quantities of n-alkanes accumulate. The diagnosis of these disorders has required large quantities of scale for sequential, quantitative thin-layer chromatography (TLC). In this study, we sought to confirm the previously described lipid abnormalities with the use of a rapid, recently developed microchromatographic technique that employs silica gel-coated quartz rods and flame ionization detection (Iatroscan). The cholesterol sulfate content of RXLI (n = 5) scale and the n-alkane content of CIE (n = 8) scale were determined by both TLC and the microchromatographic technique. Less than 10 mg of scale and even single punch biopsy specimens sufficed for the microchromatographic technique, whereas more than 50 mg of scale were required for TLC. Since the microchromatographic technique can rapidly detect diagnostic biochemical abnormalities from readily obtainable, small tissue samples, this method could eventually supplant or supplement standard lipid biochemical techniques for the diagnosis of cutaneous lipidoses. PMID:6696472

Brown, B E; Williams, M L; Elias, P M



Detecting Abnormal Vehicular Dynamics at Intersections Based on an Unsupervised Learning Approach and a Stochastic Model  

PubMed Central

This investigation demonstrates an unsupervised approach for modeling traffic flow and detecting abnormal vehicle behaviors at intersections. In the first stage, the approach reveals and records the different states of the system. These states are the result of coding and grouping the historical motion of vehicles as long binary strings. In the second stage, using sequences of the recorded states, a stochastic graph model based on a Markovian approach is built. A behavior is labeled abnormal when current motion pattern cannot be recognized as any state of the system or a particular sequence of states cannot be parsed with the stochastic model. The approach is tested with several sequences of images acquired from a vehicular intersection where the traffic flow and duration used in connection with the traffic lights are continuously changed throughout the day. Finally, the low complexity and the flexibility of the approach make it reliable for use in real time systems.

Jimenez-Hernandez, Hugo; Gonzalez-Barbosa, Jose-Joel; Garcia-Ramirez, Teresa



CAFE: an R package for the detection of gross chromosomal abnormalities from gene expression microarray data  

PubMed Central

Summary: The current methods available to detect chromosomal abnormalities from DNA microarray expression data are cumbersome and inflexible. CAFE has been developed to alleviate these issues. It is implemented as an R package that analyzes Affymetrix *.CEL files and comes with flexible plotting functions, easing visualization of chromosomal abnormalities. Availability and implementation: CAFE is available from as both source and compiled packages for Linux and Windows. It is released under the GPL version 3 license. CAFE will also be freely available from Bioconductor. Contact: or Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Bollen, Sander; Mah, Nancy



Detection of abnormal fermentations in wine process by multivariate statistics and pattern recognition techniques.  


Three multivariate statistical techniques (Multiway Principal Component Analysis, Multiway Partial Least Squares, and Stepwise Linear Discriminant Analysis) and one artificial intelligence method (Artificial Neural Networks) were evaluated to detect and predict early abnormal behaviors of wine fermentations. The techniques were tested with data of thirty-two variables at different stages of fermentation from industrial wine fermentations of Cabernet Sauvignon. All the techniques studied considered a pre-treatment to obtain a homogeneous space and reduce the overfitting. The results were encouraging; it was possible to classify at 72h 100% of the fermentation correctly with three variables using Multiway Partial Least Squares and Artificial Neural Networks. Additional and complementary results were obtained with Stepwise Linear Discriminant Analysis, which found that ethanol, sugars and density measurements are able to discriminate abnormal behavior. PMID:22001524

Urtubia, A; Hernández, G; Roger, J M



Urinary Screening for Detection of Renal Abnormalities in Asymptomatic School Children  

PubMed Central

Background Urinary screening tests for early detection of renal diseases in asymptomatic school children and adolescents are important in the detection of silent renal diseases. Objectives The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of occult renal diseases by dipstick test (reagent strips) in asymptomatic Nepalese children. Patients and Methods A total of 2,243 school children, aged 5–15 years, were screened for urinary abnormalities using dipstick test screening. The children who tested positive in the first screening were re-tested after 2–4 weeks. Results In the first screening, 123 children (5.5%) tested positive for isolated hematuria and proteinuria and for combined hematuria and proteinuria. Of these children, 16 (0.71%) cases tested positive in a second screening. Subsequently, 1 child from the secondary screening group was lost to follow up, 5 tested normal and 10 revealed abnormalities. Glomerulonephritis was the most commonly detected disorder (50%). Conclusions Urinary screening was found to be useful in identifying occult renal diseases in asymptomatic children. Urinary screening would therefore not only help in early detection but also in the prevention of the deterioration of renal function later in life.

Parakh, Prince; Bhatta, Nisha K; Mishra, Om P; Shrestha, Pramod; Budhathoki, Sunil; Majhi, Shankar; Sinha, Arvind; Dhungel, Kanchan; Prabhakar, Rahul; Haldhar, Niladri



The earliest known eutherian mammal.  


The skeleton of a eutherian (placental) mammal has been discovered from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of northeastern China. We estimate its age to be about 125 million years (Myr), extending the date of the oldest eutherian records with skull and skeleton by about 40 50 Myr. Our analyses place the new fossil at the root of the eutherian tree and among the four other known Early Cretaceous eutherians, and suggest an earlier and greater diversification of stem eutherians that occurred well before the molecular estimate for the diversification of extant placental superorders (104 64 Myr). The new eutherian has limb and foot features that are known only from scansorial (climbing) and arboreal (tree-living) extant mammals, in contrast to the terrestrial or cursorial (running) features of other Cretaceous eutherians. This suggests that the earliest eutherian lineages developed different locomotory adaptations, facilitating their spread to diverse niches in the Cretaceous. PMID:11976675

Ji, Qiang; Luo, Zhe-Xi; Yuan, Chong-Xi; Wible, John R; Zhang, Jian-Ping; Georgi, Justin A



The earliest known holometabolous insects.  


The Eumetabola (Endopterygota (also known as Holometabola) plus Paraneoptera) have the highest number of species of any clade, and greatly contribute to animal species biodiversity. The palaeoecological circumstances that favoured their emergence and success remain an intriguing question. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses have suggested a wide range of dates for the initial appearance of the Holometabola, from the Middle Devonian epoch (391 million years (Myr) ago) to the Late Pennsylvanian epoch (311 Myr ago), and Hemiptera (310 Myr ago). Palaeoenvironments greatly changed over these periods, with global cooling and increasing complexity of green forests. The Pennsylvanian-period crown-eumetabolan fossil record remains notably incomplete, particularly as several fossils have been erroneously considered to be stem Holometabola (Supplementary Information); the earliest definitive beetles are from the start of the Permian period. The emergence of the hymenopterids, sister group to other Holometabola, is dated between 350 and 309 Myr ago, incongruent with their current earliest record (Middle Triassic epoch). Here we describe five fossils--a Gzhelian-age stem coleopterid, a holometabolous larva of uncertain ordinal affinity, a stem hymenopterid, and early Hemiptera and Psocodea, all from the Moscovian age--and reveal a notable penecontemporaneous breadth of early eumetabolan insects. These discoveries are more congruent with current hypotheses of clade divergence. Eumetabola experienced episodes of diversification during the Bashkirian-Moscovian and the Kasimovian-Gzhelian ages. This cladogenetic activity is perhaps related to notable episodes of drying resulting from glaciations, leading to the eventual demise in Euramerica of coal-swamp ecosystems, evidenced by floral turnover during this interval. These ancient species were of very small size, living in the shadow of Palaeozoic-era 'giant' insects. Although these discoveries reveal unexpected Pennsylvanian eumetabolan diversity, the lineage radiated more successfully only after the mass extinctions at the end of the Permian period, giving rise to the familiar crown groups of their respective clades. PMID:24132233

Nel, André; Roques, Patrick; Nel, Patricia; Prokin, Alexander A; Bourgoin, Thierry; Prokop, Jakub; Szwedo, Jacek; Azar, Dany; Desutter-Grandcolas, Laure; Wappler, Torsten; Garrouste, Romain; Coty, David; Huang, Diying; Engel, Michael S; Kirejtshuk, Alexander G



Detection of abnormally high amygdalin content in food by an enzyme immunoassay.  


Amygdalin is a cyanogenic glycoside compound which is commonly found in the pits of many fruits and raw nuts. Although amygdalin itself is not toxic, it can release cyanide (CN) after hydrolysis when the pits and nuts are crushed, moistened and incubated, possibly within the gastrointestinal tract. CN reversibly inhibits cellular oxidizing enzymes and cyanide poisoning generates a range of clinical symptoms. As some pits and nuts may contain unusually high levels of amygdalin such that there is a sufficient amount to induce critical CN poisoning in humans, the detection of abnormal content of amygdalin in those pits and nuts can be a life-saving measure. Although there are various methods to detect amygdalin in food extracts, an enzyme immunoassay has not been developed for this purpose. In this study we immunized New Zealand White rabbits with an amygdalin-KLH (keyhole limpet hemocyanin) conjugate and succeeded in raising anti-sera reactive to amygdalin, proving that amygdalin can behave as a hapten in rabbits. Using this polyclonal antibody, we developed a competition enzyme immunoassay for determination of amygdalin concentration in aqueous solutions. This technique was able to effectively detect abnormally high amygdalin content in various seeds and nuts. In conclusion, we proved that enzyme immunoassay can be used to determine the amount of amygdalin in food extracts, which will allow automated analysis with high throughput. PMID:16682828

Cho, A-Yeon; Yi, Kye Sook; Rhim, Jung-Hyo; Kim, Kyu-Il; Park, Jae-Young; Keum, Eun-Hee; Chung, Junho; Oh, Sangsuk



Noninvasive detection of fetal subchromosome abnormalities via deep sequencing of maternal plasma.  


The purpose of this study was to determine the deep sequencing and analytic conditions needed to detect fetal subchromosome abnormalities across the genome from a maternal blood sample. Cell-free (cf) DNA was isolated from the plasma of 11 pregnant women carrying fetuses with subchromosomal duplications and deletions, translocations, mosaicism, and trisomy 20 diagnosed by metaphase karyotype. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) was performed with 25-mer tags at approximately 10(9) tags per sample and mapped to reference human genome assembly hg19. Tags were counted and normalized to fixed genome bin sizes of 1 Mb or 100 kb to detect statistically distinct copy-number changes compared to the reference. All seven cases of microdeletions, duplications, translocations, and the trisomy 20 were detected blindly by MPS, including a microdeletion as small as 300 kb. In two of these cases in which the metaphase karyotype showed additional material of unknown origin, MPS identified both the translocation breakpoint and the chromosomal origin of the additional material. In the four mosaic cases, the subchromosomal abnormality was not demonstrated by MPS. This work shows that in nonmosaic cases, it is possible to obtain a fetal molecular karyotype by MPS of maternal plasma cfDNA that is equivalent to a chromosome microarray and in some cases is better than a metaphase karyotype. This approach combines the advantage of enhanced fetal genomic resolution with the improved safety of a noninvasive maternal blood test. PMID:23313373

Srinivasan, Anupama; Bianchi, Diana W; Huang, Hui; Sehnert, Amy J; Rava, Richard P



Detection of abnormal diffuse perfusion in SPECT using a normal brain atlas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the advent of sophisticated image analysis algorithms, most SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computerized Tomography)cerebral perfusion studies are assessed visually, leading to unavoidable and significant inter and intra-observer variability. Here, we present an automatic method for evaluating SPECT studies based on a computerized atlas of normal regional cerebral bloodflow(rCBF). To generate the atlas, normal(screened volunteers)brain SPECT studies are registered with an affine transformation to one of them arbitrarily selected as reference to remove any size and orientation variations that are assumed irrelevant for our analysis. Then a smooth non-linear registration is performed to reveal the local activity pattern displacement among the normal subjects. By computing and applying the mean displacement to the reference SPECT image, one obtain the atlas that is the normal mean distribution of the rCBF(up to an affine transformation difference). To complete the atlas we add the intensity variance with the displacement mean and variance of the activity pattern. To investigate a patient's condition, we proceed similarly to the atlas construction phase. We first register the patient's SPECT volume to the atlas with an affine transformation. Then the algorithm computes the non-linear 3D displacement of each voxel needed for an almost perfect shape (but not intensity)fit with the atlas. For each brain voxel, if the intensity difference between the atlas and the registered patient is higher than normal differences then this voxel is counted as "abnormal" and similarly if the 3D motion necessary to move the voxel to its registered position is not within the normal displacements. Our hypothesis is that this number of abnormal voxels discriminates between normal and abnormal studies. A Markovian segmentation algorithm that we have presented elsewhere is also used to identify the white and gray matters for regional analysis. We validated this approachusing 23 SPECT perfusion studies (99mTc ECD)selected visually for clear diffuse anomalies (a much more stringent test than "easy" focal lesions detection) and 21 normal studies. A leave-one-out strategy was used to test our approach to avoid any bias. Based on the number of "abnormal" voxels, two simple supervised classifiers were tested:(1)minimum distance-to-mean and (2)Bayesian. A voxel was considered "abnormal" if its P value with respect to the atlas was lower that 0.01(1%). The results show that for the whole brain, a combination of the number of intensity and displacement "abnormal" voxel is a powerful discriminant with a 91% classification rate. If we focus only on the voxels in the segmented gray matter the rates are slighty higher.

Laliberte, Jean-Francois; Meunier, Jean; Mignotte, Max; Soucy, Jean-Paul



Real-Time and Self-adaptive Method for Abnormal Traffic Detection Based on Self-similarity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abnormal traffic detection is a difficult problem in network management and network security. This paper proposes an abnormal traffic detection method based on a continuous LoSS (loss of self-similarity) through comparing the difference of Hurst parameter distribution under the network normal and abnormal traffic time series conditions. Due to the needs of fast and high accuracy for abnormal traffic detection, the on-line version of the Abry-Veitch wavelet-based estimator of the Hurst parameter in large time-scale is proposed, and the detection threshold could self-adjusted according to the extent of network traffic self-similarity under normal conditions. This work also investigates the effect of the parameters adjustment on the performance of abnormal traffic detection. The test results on data set from Lincoln lab of MIT demonstrate that the new abnormal traffic detection method has the characteristics of dynamic self-adaptive and higher detection rate, and can be implemented in a real-time way.

Xia, Zhengmin; Lu, Songnian; Li, Jianhua; Ma, Jin


Vascular, metabolic, and inflammatory abnormalities in normoglycemic offspring of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, and elevated levels of circulating proinflammatory markers are among the earliest detectable abnormalities in people at risk for atherosclerosis. Accelerated atherosclerosis is a leading contributor to morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus, a complex genetic disorder. Therefore, we hypothesized that normoglycemic offspring of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (NOPD) may have impaired vascular

Manfredi Tesauro; Stefano Rizza; Micaela Iantorno; Umberto Campia; Carmine Cardillo; Davide Lauro; Roberto Leo; Mario Turriziani; Giulio Cesare Cocciolillo; Angelo Fusco; Julio A. Panza; Angelo Scuteri; Massimo Federici; Renato Lauro; Michael J. Quon



Diagnostic Accuracy of Transvaginal Sonography in the Detection of Uterine Abnormalities in Infertile Women  

PubMed Central

Background Accurate diagnosis of uterine abnormalities has become a core part of the fertility work-up. A variety of modalities can be used for the diagnosis of uterine abnormalities. Objectives This study was designed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal ultrasonography (TVS) in uterine pathologies of infertile patients using hysteroscopy as the gold standard. Patients and Methods This was a cross-sectional study carried out in the Department of Reproductive Imaging at Royan Institute from October 2007 to October 2008. In this study, the medical documents of 719 infertile women who were investigated with transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) and then hysteroscopy were reviewed. All women underwent hysteroscopy in the same cycle time after TVS. Seventy-six out of 719 patients were excluded from the study and 643 patients were studied. TVS was performed in the follicular phase after cessation of bleeding. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for TVS. Hysteroscopy served as the gold standard. Results The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for TVS in the diagnosis of uterine abnormality was 79%, 82%, 84% and 71%, respectively. The sensitivity and PPV of TVS in detection of polyp were 88.3% and 81.6%, respectively. These indices were 89.2% and 92.5%, respectively for fibroma, 67% and 98.3%, respectively for subseptated uterus and 90.9% and 100%, respectively for septated uterus. Adhesion and unicornuated uterus have the lowest sensitivity with a sensitivity of 35% and PPV of 57.1%. Conclusion TVS is a cost-effective and non-invasive method for diagnosis of intrauterine lesions such as polyps, submucosal fibroids and septum. It is a valuable adjunctive to hysteroscopy with high accuracy for identification and characterization of intrauterine abnormalities. This may lead to a more precise surgery plan and performance.

Niknejadi, Maryam; Haghighi, Hadieh; Ahmadi, Firoozeh; Niknejad, Fatemeh; Chehrazi, Mohammad; Vosough, Ahmad; Moenian, Deena



Automatic detection system for cough sounds as a symptom of abnormal health condition.  


The problem of attending to the health of the aged who live alone has became an important issue in developed countries. One way of solving the problem is to check their health condition by a remote-monitoring technique and support them with well-timed treatment. The purpose of this study is to develop an automatic system that can monitor a health condition in real time using acoustical information and detect an abnormal symptom. In this study, cough sound was chosen as a representative acoustical symptom of abnormal health conditions. For the development of the system distinguishing a cough sound from other environmental sounds, a hybrid model was proposed that consists of an artificial neural network (ANN) model and a hidden Markov model (HMM). The ANN model used energy cepstral coefficients obtained by filter banks based on human auditory characteristics as input parameters representing a spectral feature of a sound signal. Subsequently, an output of this ANN model and a filtered envelope of the signal were used for making an input sequence for the HMM that deals with the temporal variation of the sound signal. Compared with the conventional HMM using Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients, the proposed hybrid model improved recognition rates on low SNR from 5 dB down to -10 dB. Finally, a preliminary prototype of the automatic detection system was simply illustrated. PMID:19273017

Shin, Sung-Hwan; Hashimoto, Takeo; Hatano, Shigeko



Automated facial image analysis: detecting improvement in abnormal facial movement after treatment with botulinum toxin A.  


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of Automated Facial Image Analysis (AFA) to detect changes in facial motion after Botox injections in patients with facial nerve disorders accompanied by abnormal muscle activity. Eight subjects received Botox for oral to ocular synkinesis (n = 6), ocular to oral synkinesis (n = 1), and/or depressor anguli oris overactivity (n = 3). Subjects were video-recorded during 2 directed facial action tasks before and after Botox treatment. AFA measurement and Facial Grading System (FGS) scores were used to evaluate the effects of Botox. After Botox, AFA detected a decrease in abnormal movements of the eyelids in all patients with oral to ocular synkinesis, a decrease in oral commissure movement for the patients with ocular to oral synkinesis, and an increase in oral commissure movement in all patients with depressor overactivity. The FGS scores failed to demonstrate any change in facial movement for the case of ocular to oral synkinesis and for 2 cases of depressor overactivity. AFA enables recognition of subtle changes in facial movement that may not be adequately measured by observer based ratings of facial function. PMID:17197940

Rogers, Carolyn R; Schmidt, Karen L; VanSwearingen, Jessie M; Cohn, Jeffrey F; Wachtman, Galen S; Manders, Ernest K; Deleyiannis, Frederic W-B



Automatic computer aided detection of abnormalities in multi-parametric prostate MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of CAD systems for detection of prostate cancer has been a recent topic of research. A multi-stage computer aided detection scheme is proposed to help reduce perception and oversight errors in multi-parametric prostate cancer screening MRI. In addition, important features for development of computer aided detection systems for prostate cancer screening MRI are identified. A fast, robust prostate segmentation routine is used to segment the prostate, based on coupled appearance and anatomy models. Subsequently a voxel classification is performed using a support vector machine to compute an abnormality likelihood map of the prostate. This classification step is based on quantitative voxel features like the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and pharmacokinetic parameters. Local maxima in the likelihood map are found using a local maxima detector, after which regions around the local maxima are segmented. Region features are computed to represent statistical properties of the voxel features within the regions. Region classification is performed using these features, which results in a likelihood of abnormality per region. Performance was validated using a 188 patient dataset in a leave-one-patient-out manner. Ground truth was annotated by two expert radiologists. The results were evaluated using FROC analysis. The FROC curves show that inclusion of ADC and pharmacokinetic parameter features increases the performance of an automatic detection system. In addition it shows the potential of such an automated system in aiding radiologists diagnosing prostate MR, obtaining a sensitivity of respectively 74.7% and 83.4% at 7 and 9 false positives per patient.

Litjens, G. J. S.; Vos, P. C.; Barentsz, J. O.; Karssemeijer, N.; Huisman, H. J.



Detection of Abnormal Item Based on Time Intervals for Recommender Systems  

PubMed Central

With the rapid development of e-business, personalized recommendation has become core competence for enterprises to gain profits and improve customer satisfaction. Although collaborative filtering is the most successful approach for building a recommender system, it suffers from “shilling” attacks. In recent years, the research on shilling attacks has been greatly improved. However, the approaches suffer from serious problem in attack model dependency and high computational cost. To solve the problem, an approach for the detection of abnormal item is proposed in this paper. In the paper, two common features of all attack models are analyzed at first. A revised bottom-up discretized approach is then proposed based on time intervals and the features for the detection. The distributions of ratings in different time intervals are compared to detect anomaly based on the calculation of chi square distribution (?2). We evaluated our approach on four types of items which are defined according to the life cycles of these items. The experimental results show that the proposed approach achieves a high detection rate with low computational cost when the number of attack profiles is more than 15. It improves the efficiency in shilling attacks detection by narrowing down the suspicious users.

Yuan, Quan; Ling, Bin; Xiong, Qingyu



Detection of abnormal item based on time intervals for recommender systems.  


With the rapid development of e-business, personalized recommendation has become core competence for enterprises to gain profits and improve customer satisfaction. Although collaborative filtering is the most successful approach for building a recommender system, it suffers from "shilling" attacks. In recent years, the research on shilling attacks has been greatly improved. However, the approaches suffer from serious problem in attack model dependency and high computational cost. To solve the problem, an approach for the detection of abnormal item is proposed in this paper. In the paper, two common features of all attack models are analyzed at first. A revised bottom-up discretized approach is then proposed based on time intervals and the features for the detection. The distributions of ratings in different time intervals are compared to detect anomaly based on the calculation of chi square distribution (? (2)). We evaluated our approach on four types of items which are defined according to the life cycles of these items. The experimental results show that the proposed approach achieves a high detection rate with low computational cost when the number of attack profiles is more than 15. It improves the efficiency in shilling attacks detection by narrowing down the suspicious users. PMID:24693248

Gao, Min; Yuan, Quan; Ling, Bin; Xiong, Qingyu



Clinical Utility of Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization for Detection of Chromosomal Abnormalities in Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Background Accurate detection of recurrent chromosomal abnormalities is critical to assign patients to risk-based therapeutic regimens for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Procedure We investigated the utility of array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) for detection of chromosomal abnormalities compared to standard clinical evaluation with karyotype and fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH). Fifty pediatric ALL diagnostic bone marrows were analyzed by bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) array, and findings compared to standard clinical evaluation. Results Sensitivity of aCGH was 79% to detect karyotypic findings other than balanced translocations, which cannot be detected by aCGH because they involve no copy number change. aCGH also missed abnormalities occurring in subclones constituting less than 25% of cells. aCGH detected 44 additional abnormalities undetected or misidentified by karyotype, 21 subsequently validated by FISH, including abnormalities in 4 of 10 cases with uninformative cytogenetics. aCGH detected concurrent terminal deletions of both 9p and 20q in three cases, in two of which the 20q deletion was undetected by karyotype. A narrow region of loss at 7p21 was detected in two cases. Conclusions An array with increased BAC density over regions important in ALL, combined with PCR for fusion products of balanced translocations, could minimize labor- and time-intensive cytogenetic assays and provide key prognostic information in the approximately 35% of cases with uninformative cytogenetics.

Rabin, Karen R.; Man, Tsz-Kwong; Yu, Alexander; Folsom, Matthew R.; Zhao, Yi-Jue; Rao, Pulivarthi H.; Plon, Sharon E.; Naeem, Rizwan C.



Gain of chromosome 17 is the most frequent abnormality detected in neuroblastoma by comparative genomic hybridization.  

PubMed Central

Neuroblastoma behavior is variable and outcome partially depends on genetic factors. However, tumors that lack high-risk factors such as MYCN amplification or 1p deletion may progress, possibly due to other genetic aberrations. Comparative genomic hybridization summarizes DNA copy number abnormalities in a tumor by mapping them to their positions on normal metaphase chromosomes. We analyzed 29 tumors from nearly equal proportions of children with stage I, II, III, IV, and IV-S disease by comparative genomic hybridization. We found two classes of copy number abnormalities: whole chromosome and partial chromosome. Whole chromosome losses were frequent at 11, 14, and X. The most frequent partial chromosome losses were on 1p and 11q. Gains were most frequent on chromosome 17 (72% of cases). The two patterns of gain for this chromosome were whole 17 gain and 17q gain, with 17q21-qter as a minimal common region of gain. Other common gains were on chromosomes 7, 6, and 18. High level amplifications were detected at 2p23-25 (MYCN region), at 4q33-35, and at 6p11-22. Chromosome 17q gains were associated with 1p and/or 11q deletions and advanced stage. The high frequency of chromosome 17 gain and its association with bad prognostic factors suggest an important role for this chromosome in the development of neuroblastoma.

Plantaz, D.; Mohapatra, G.; Matthay, K. K.; Pellarin, M.; Seeger, R. C.; Feuerstein, B. G.



Detection of abnormalities in febrile AIDS patients with In-111-labeled leukocyte and Ga-67 scintigraphy  

SciTech Connect

Thirty-six patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), who were febrile but without localizing signs, underwent indium-111 leukocyte scintigraphy 24 hours after injection of labeled white blood cells (WBCs) and were restudied 48 hours after injection of gallium-67 citrate. Fifty-six abnormalities were identified as possible sources of the fever; 27 were confirmed with biopsy. Of these 27, 15 were identified only on In-111 WBC scans (including colitis, sinusitis, and focal bacterial pneumonia); six, only on Ga-67 scans (predominantly Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and lymphadenopathy); and six, on both studies (predominantly pulmonary lesions). In-111 WBC scanning revealed 21 of 27 abnormalities (78%) and gallium scanning, 12 of 27 (44%). If only one scintigraphic study has been performed, particularly with Ga-67, a significant number of lesions would not have been detected. The authors believe radionuclide evaluation of the febrile AIDS patient without localizing signs should begin with In-111 WBC scintigraphy. Gallium scanning may be used depending on results of In-111 WBC scans or if there is a high index of suspicion for P carinii pneumonia.

Fineman, D.S.; Palestro, C.J.; Kim, C.K.; Needle, L.B.; Vallabhajosula, S.; Solomon, R.W.; Goldsmith, S.J.





We propose an automated method to segment cortical necrosis from brain FLAIR-MR Images. Cortical necrosis are regions of dead brain tissue in the cortex caused by cerebrovascular disease (CVD). The accurate segmentation of these regions is difficult as their intensity patterns are similar to the adjoining cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We generate a model of normal variation using MR scans of healthy controls. The model is based on the Jacobians of warps obtained by registering scans of normal subjects to a common coordinate system. For each patient scan a Jacobian is obtained by warping it to the same coordinate system. Large deviations between the model and subject-specific Jacobians are flagged as `abnormalities'. Abnormalities are segmented as cortical necrosis if they are in the cortex and have the intensity profile of CSF. We evaluate our method by using a set of 72 healthy subjects to model cortical variation.We use this model to successfully detect and segment cortical necrosis in a set of 37 patients with CVD. A comparison of the results with segmentations from two independent human experts shows that the overlap between our approach and either of the human experts is in the range of the overlap between the two human experts themselves. PMID:23264845

Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Erus, Guray; Pohl, Kilian M; Tanwar, Manoj; Margiewicz, Stefan; Bryan, R Nick; Davatzikos, Christos



Preclinical diagnosis and carrier detection in ataxia associated with abnormalities of lipoamide dehydrogenase.  


To see whether kinetic assays of lipoamide dehydrogenase could be used for carrier detection or preclinical diagnosis, Michaelis-Menten constants (KmL and KmH) for the enzyme were determined in platelets from families with a form of recessive Friedreich ataxia and low activities of the enzyme. The KmL of patients' enzyme was 132 +/- 5 microM lipoamide (mean +/- SEM) versus 56 +/- 9 microM for controls (p less than 0.001), and KmH for the patients was 421 +/- 19 microM versus 147 +/- 14 microM for the controls (p less than 0.001). The activity and Km values of one patient's enzyme were abnormal 1 year before neurologic signs appeared. The Km values for the enzymes of the six parents were also elevated (average KmL, 105 +/- 10 microM; average KmH, 378 +/- 47 microM, p less than 0.02). The maximal activities of the parents' enzymes, relative to a mitochondrial marker, were intermediate between the mean maximal control activity and the mean activity for the affected offspring. The data suggest that the abnormalities of lipoamide dehydrogenase are inherited in a recessive pattern in these families. PMID:6892725

Kark, R A; Rodriguez-Budelli, M; Perlman, S; Gulley, W F; Torok, K



Chorionic villi sampling: a new technique for detection of genetic abnormalities in the first trimester.  


Chorionic villi sampling (CVS) was performed on 22 patients who were at risk for a variety of genetic disorders between 8.5-11 weeks of gestation to determine whether the developing fetus had a chromosomal and/or biochemical disorder. A thin Portex catheter was passed transcervically into the chorion frondosum under constant real-time ultrasound guidance, and chorionic villi were obtained by gentle suction. The villi, which have the same genotype as the fetus, were processed directly for chromosomal and/or biochemical analysis. Results were available within six to 24 hours and were confirmed by short term cell cultures within three to ten days. One fetus affected with Tay-Sachs disease and one fetus with trisomy 16 were detected. There were no instances of fetal loss or major complications. In contrast to amniocentesis, the procedure is performed early in pregnancy and results of the genetic testing are available during the first trimester, which allows a first trimester termination of pregnancy if an abnormality is detected and greatly reduces parental anxiety if the findings are normal. We believe that CVS offers an alternative to amniocentesis in the detection of genetic disorders. PMID:6701308

Cadkin, A V; Ginsberg, N A; Pergament, E; Verlinski, Y



Real-Time Plasma Process Condition Sensing and Abnormal Process Detection  

PubMed Central

The plasma process is often used in the fabrication of semiconductor wafers. However, due to the lack of real-time etching control, this may result in some unacceptable process performances and thus leads to significant waste and lower wafer yield. In order to maximize the product wafer yield, a timely and accurately process fault or abnormal detection in a plasma reactor is needed. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) is one of the most frequently used metrologies in in-situ process monitoring. Even though OES has the advantage of non-invasiveness, it is required to provide a huge amount of information. As a result, the data analysis of OES becomes a big challenge. To accomplish real-time detection, this work employed the sigma matching method technique, which is the time series of OES full spectrum intensity. First, the response model of a healthy plasma spectrum was developed. Then, we defined a matching rate as an indictor for comparing the difference between the tested wafers response and the health sigma model. The experimental results showed that this proposal method can detect process faults in real-time, even in plasma etching tools.

Yang, Ryan; Chen, Rongshun



Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization Detects Chromosomal Abnormalities in Hematological Cancers That Are Not Detected by Conventional Cytogenetics  

PubMed Central

Application of array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) has allowed an unprecedented high-resolution analysis of cancer genomes. We developed a custom genome-wide oligonucleotide microarray interrogating 493 genes involved in hematological disorders. We analyzed 55 patients with hematological neoplasms by using this microarray. In 33 patients with apparent normal conventional cytogenetic analysis, aneuploidy or isochromosomes were detected in 12% (4 of 33) of the patients by aCGH. The chromosomal changes included trisomy of chromosomes 10, 14, and 15, tetrasomy 11, and isochromosome 17q. In 17 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia who were initially investigated by using a panel of standard fluorescence in situ hybridization probes, additional copy number changes that were not interrogated by the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) panel were detected in 47% (8 of 17) of the patients by aCGH. Important copy number changes included gain on 2p16 involving REL and BCL11A genes, rearrangements of chromosomes 8 and 15, and trisomy of chromosomes 19 and 22. In five patients with known abnormal karyotypes, aCGH identified the origin of two marker chromosomes and detected microdeletions at five breakpoints involved in three apparent balanced translocations. Our results suggest that a subset of potentially significant genomic alterations is missed by the currently available cytogenetic techniques. This pilot study clearly demonstrates high sensitivity of oligonucleotide aCGH for potential use in diagnosis and follow-up in patients with hematological neoplasms.

Shao, Lina; Kang, Sung-Hae L.; Li, Jian; Hixson, Patricia; Taylor, Jesalyn; Yatsenko, Svetlana A.; Shaw, Chad A.; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Chang, Chung-Che; Cheung, Sau Wai; Patel, Ankita



Detection of breast abnormalities using a prototype resonance electrical impedance spectroscopy system: A preliminary study  

PubMed Central

Electrical impedance spectroscopy has been investigated with but limited success as an adjunct procedure to mammography and as a possible pre-screening tool to stratify risk for having or developing breast cancer in younger women. In this study, the authors explored a new resonance frequency based [resonance electrical impedance spectroscopy (REIS)] approach to identify breasts that may have highly suspicious abnormalities that had been recommended for biopsies. The authors assembled a prototype REIS system generating multifrequency electrical sweeps ranging from 100 to 4100 kHz every 12 s. Using only two probes, one in contact with the nipple and the other with the outer breast skin surface 60 mm away, a paired transmission signal detection system is generated. The authors recruited 150 women between 30 and 50 years old to participate in this study. REIS measurements were performed on both breasts. Of these women 58 had been scheduled for a breast biopsy and 13 had been recalled for additional imaging procedures due to suspicious findings. The remaining 79 women had negative screening examinations. Eight REIS output signals at and around the resonance frequency were computed for each breast and the subtracted signals between the left and right breasts were used in a simple jackknifing method to select an optimal feature set to be inputted into a multi-feature based artificial neural network (ANN) that aims to predict whether a woman’s breast had been determined as abnormal (warranting a biopsy) or not. The classification performance was evaluated using a leave-one-case-out method and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. The study shows that REIS examination is easy to perform, short in duration, and acceptable to all participants in terms of comfort level and there is no indication of sensation of an electrical current during the measurements. Six REIS difference features were selected as input signals to the ANN. The area under the ROC curve (Az) was 0.707±0.033 for classifying between biopsy cases and non-biopsy (including recalled and screening negative) and the performance (Az) increased to 0.746±0.033 after excluding recalled but negative cases. At 95% specificity, the sensitivity levels were approximately 20.5% and 30.4% in the two data sets tested. The results suggest that differences in REIS signals between two breasts measured in and around the tissue resonance frequency can be used to identify at least some of the women with suspicious abnormalities warranting biopsy with high specificity.

Zheng, Bin; Zuley, Margarita L.; Sumkin, Jules H.; Catullo, Victor J.; Abrams, Gordon S.; Rathfon, Grace Y.; Chough, Denise M.; Gruss, Michelle Z.; Gur, David



Detection of Abnormal Operation Noise Using CHLAC of Sound Spectrograph and Continuous DP Matching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is a general way that the industrial product is tested by individual inspector. If the product involves sound factors, each inspector will evaluate the test product to sort out a strange engine noise from the natural sound. However, it is hard to cover the consistency in evaluation criteria due to the personal equation referred to the idea that every individual had an inherent bias, plus a physical and mental conditions can be a negative effect on his/her evaluation criteria. It would be ideal if the criteria would not be affected by anyone, anywhere, circumstances; accordingly the quality of products must be equated. In this paper, we propose a noise detection method based on Cubic Higher-order Local Auto-Correlation (CHLAC) scheme and DP Matching provided by Cepstrum Analysis to extract the correct solution. This technique is practically used for detecting any human abnormal movements out of a monitored video clip and identifying individual persons by voice. The study results are shown to be highly effective in our proposed method.

Hattori, Koosuke; Ohmi, Taishi; Taguchi, Ryo; Umezaki, Taizo


Automated detection of contractile abnormalities from stress-rest motion changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in myocardial function signatures such as wall motion and thickening are typically computed separately from myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) stress and rest studies to assess for stress-induced function abnormalities. The standard approach may suffer from the variability in contour placements and image orientation when subtle changes between stress and rest scans in motion and thickening are being evaluated. We have developed a new measure of regional change of function signature (motion and thickening) computed directly from registered stress and rest gated MPS data. In our novel approach, endocardial surfaces at the end-diastolic and end-systolic frames for stress and rest studies were registered by matching ventricular surfaces. Furthermore, we propose a new global registration method based on finding the optimal rotation for myocardial best ellipsoid fit to minimize the indexing disparities between two surfaces between stress and rest studies. Myocardial stress-rest function changes were computed and normal limits of change were determined as the mean and standard deviation of the training set for each polar sample. Normal limits were utilized to quantify the stress-rest function change for each polar map sample and the accumulated quantified function signature values were used for abnormality assessments in territorial regions. To evaluate the effectiveness of our novel method, we examined the agreements of our results against visual scores for motion change on vessel territorial regions obtained by human experts on a test group with 623 cases and were able to show that our detection method has a improved sensitivity on per vessel territory basis, compared to those obtained by human experts utilizing gated MPS data.

Karimi-Ashtiani, Shahryar; Arsanjani, Reza; Fish, Mathews; Berman, Daniel; Kavanagh, Paul; Germano, Guido; Slomka, Piotr



Detection of the abnormal events along the oil and gas pipeline and multi-scale chaotic character analysis of the detected signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the monitoring principle of abnormal events along oil and gas pipelines, which is conducted by a Mach–Zehnder optical fiber interferometer based distributed optical fiber pipeline pre-warning system. The detected signals of three typical abnormal events are analyzed by a multi-scale chaotic character analysis method based on orthogonal wavelet packet decomposition. In this pre-warning system, an optical cable

Zhigang Qu; Yan Zhou; Zhoumo Zeng; Hao Feng; Yu Zhang; Shijiu Jin



Detection and typing of human papillomaviruses by polymerase chain reaction in cervical scrapes of Croatian women with abnormal cytology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between certain human papillomaviruses (HPV) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is well documented, but still unknown among Croatian women. In 1995, women between the age of 17 and 64 with cytomorphologically abnormal smears (CIN I–IV) were tested for the presence of HPV. Consensus and specific primers were used in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the most

Magdalena Grce; Koraljka Husnjak; Lada Magdi?; Marijan Ilijaš; Marijan Zla?ki; Dubravko Lepuši?; Josip Luka?; Branko Hodek; Veselko Grizelj; Asim Kurjak; Zvonko Kusi?; Krešimir Paveli?



Detection prognostically relevant genetic abnormalities childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia: recommendations Biology Diagnosis Committee International Berlin-Frankfurt.2010  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Did you mean: Detection prognostically relevant genetic abnormalities childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia: recommendations Biology Diagnosis Committee International Berlin-Frankfurt.2010 ?


Abnormalities in spontaneous abortions detected by G-banding and chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) at a national reference laboratory  

PubMed Central

Background Cytogenetic evaluation of products of conception (POC) for chromosomal abnormalities is central to determining the cause of pregnancy loss. We compared the test success rates in various specimen types and the frequencies of chromosomal abnormalities detected by G-banding analysis with those found by Oligo-SNP chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA). We evaluated the benefit of CMA testing in cases of failed culture growth. Methods Conventional cytogenetic results of 5457 consecutive POC specimens were reviewed and categorized as placental villi, fetal parts, and unspecified POC tissue. The CMA was performed on 268 cases. Of those, 32 cases had concurrent G-banding results. The remaining 236 cases included 107 cases with culture failure and 129 cases evaluated by CMA alone. Results The overall POC culture success rate was 75%, with the lowest for fetal parts (37.4%) and the highest for placental villi (81%). The abnormality rate was 58% for placental villi, but only 25% for fetal parts. Of the abnormalities detected, the most common were aneuploidies, including trisomy 16, triploidy, monosomy X, trisomy 22, trisomy 21 and trisomy 15, while the least encountered aneuploidies were trisomy 1, trisomy 19 and monosomies (except monosomy 21). Overall, POC specimens studied by CMA were successful in 89.6% of cases and yielded a 44.6% abnormality rate. Conclusions Placental villi yielded higher rates of culture success and a higher percentage of abnormal karyotypes than did other specimen types. The Oligo-SNP CMA method has demonstrated a viable alternative to the G-banding method in view of its advantages in detection of submicroscopic genomic aberrations, shorter turnaround time due to elimination of time required for culture and a higher test success rate.



Occurrence of maxillary sinus abnormalities detected by cone beam CT in asymptomatic patients  

PubMed Central

Background Although cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of the maxillofacial region allow the inspection of the entire volume of the maxillary sinus (MS), identifying anatomic variations and abnormalities in the image volume, this is frequently neglected by oral radiologists when interpreting images of areas at a distance from the dentoalveolar region, such as the full anatomical aspect of the MS. The aim of this study was to investigate maxillary sinus abnormalities in asymptomatic patients by using CBCT. Methods 1113 CBCT were evaluated by two examiners and identification of abnormalities, the presence of periapical lesions and proximity to the lower sinus wall were recorded. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-square tests and Kappa statistics. Results Abnormalities were diagnosed in 68.2% of cases (kappa = 0.83). There was a significant difference between genders (p < 0.001) and there was no difference in age groups. Mucosal thickening was the most prevalent abnormality (66%), followed by retention cysts (10.1%) and opacification (7.8%). No association was observed between the proximity of periapical lesions and the presence and type of inflammatory abnormalities (p = 0.124). Conclusions Abnormalities in maxillary sinus emphasizes how important it is for the dentomaxillofacial radiologist to undertake an interpretation of the whole volume of CBCT images.



Detection of abnormality in the electrocardiogram without prior knowledge by using the quantisation error of a self-organising map, tested on the European ischaemia database.  


Most systems for the automatic detection of abnormalities in the ECG require prior knowledge of normal and abnormal ECG morphology from pre-existing databases. An automated system for abnormality detection has been developed based on learning normal ECG morphology directly from the patient. The quantisation error from a self-organising map 'learns' the form of the patient's ECG and detects any change in its morphology. The system does not require prior knowledge of normal and abnormal morphologies. It was tested on 76 records from the European Society of Cardiology database and detected 90.5% of those first abnormalities declared by the database to be ischaemic. The system also responded to abnormalities arising from ECG axis changes and slow baseline drifts and revealed that ischaemic episodes are often followed by long-term changes in ECG morphology. PMID:11465888

Fernández, E A; Willshaw, P; Perazzo, C A; Presedo, R J; Barro, S



A Reliability Study of Earliest School Recollections.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Judges classified 100 third and fourth graders into behavioral categories according to their earliest school recollections (ESRs). The same students were reclassified one year later. Results showed a statistically significant agreement between a student's initial and most recent classification, suggesting the value of ESR as a reliable diagnostic…

Roth, Henry J.



Earliest bird had dino-like feet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A new fossil discovery shows that the earliest birds had feet similar to those of theropod dinosaurs (the group of two-legged, meat-eating dinosaurs that includes T. rex). The new specimen provides important details about the feet and skull of these birds and strengthens the argument -- which many but not all scientists agree on -- that modern birds arose from theropod dinosaurs.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)



Cross-sectional estimation of abnormal accruals using quarterly and annual data: effectiveness in detecting event-specific earnings management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses certain methodological issues that arise in estimating abnormal (or discretionary) accruals for detection of event-specific earnings management. Unlike prior studies (e.g., Dechow, Sloan, and Sweeney, 1995; Guay, Kothari, and Watts, 1996) that rely primarily on time-series models, we focus on the specification of cross-sectional models of expected accruals using quarterly as well as annual data. Perhaps more

Debra C. Jeter; Lakshmanan Shivakumar



Identification of FISH biomarkers to detect chromosome abnormalities associated with prostate adenocarcinoma in tumour and field effect environment  

PubMed Central

Background To reduce sampling error associated with cancer detection in prostate needle biopsies, we explored the possibility of using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) to detect chromosomal abnormalities in the histologically benign prostate tissue from patients with adenocarcinoma of prostate. Methods Tumour specimens from 33 radical prostatectomy (RP) cases, histologically benign tissue from 17 of the 33 RP cases, and 26 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) control cases were evaluated with Locus Specific Identifier (LSI) probes MYC (8q24), LPL (8p21.22), and PTEN (10q23), as well as with centromere enumerator probes CEP8, CEP10, and CEP7. A distribution of FISH signals in the tumour and histologically benign adjacent tissue was compared to that in BPH specimens using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results The combination of MYC gain, CEP8 Abnormal, PTEN loss or chromosome 7 aneusomy was positive in the tumour area of all of the 33 specimens from patients with adenocarcinomas, and in 88% of adjacent histologically benign regions (15 out of 17) but in only 15% (4 out of 26) of the benign prostatic hyperplasia control specimens. Conclusions A panel of FISH markers may allow detection of genomic abnormalities that associate with adenocarcinoma in the field adjacent to and surrounding the tumour, and thus could potentially indicate the presence of cancer in the specimen even if the cancer focus itself was missed by biopsy and histology review.



Clinical detection of abnormalities in central vision in chronic simple glaucoma using contrast sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual defect was assessed by contrast sensitivity and perimetry in 50 patients with chronic simple glaucoma. Abnormal contrast sensitivity using static gratings was found in patients with full central fields (i.e. a field of 15° or more around fixation for the 12e isopter). It appears that central vision is affected by nerve fibre damage in the early stages of glaucoma,

J. E. Ross



The equatorial electrojet as detected from the abnormal electric current distribution above Huancayo, Peru, and elsewhere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abnormally large range of the daily variation of the horizontal (or north) component of magnetic force over Huancayo in Peru indicates the daily rise and decline of a concentrated eastward electric current above that station, superposed on the normal current distribution responsible for the daily magnetic variationSq. The nameelectrojet is suggested for this concentrated current. New investigations indicate the

Sydney Chapman



CT of the chest can hinder the management of seminoma of the testis; it detects irrelevant abnormalities.  


To evaluate the role of chest CT in the initial staging of testicular seminomatous germ cell tumours. All patients referred to Addenbrooke's Hospital with testicular seminoma from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2005 were included and case notes retrospectively reviewed. One hundred and eighty-two patients with testicular seminoma were identified, with a median age of 37 years (range 19-74). Most patients had stage I disease (86%). Twenty-four patients had abnormal abdominal CT findings. One hundred and fifty-eight had normal abdominal CT findings but, on initial staging, chest CT reported abnormalities in 13 patients, which, on further follow-up CT were deemed to be irrelevant to the diagnosis of seminoma. There was a further patient with a normal CT abdomen in whom chest CT detected obvious metastatic disease, which was seen on chest x-ray. Overall 18 cases required additional investigations and follow-up for abnormalities subsequently found to be benign. There was a false-positive rate of 10% for initial staging with chest CT. This is the largest reported series of staging CT chest in testicular seminoma. In all patients with normal abdominal CT, normal chest x-ray and abnormal chest CT, subsequent follow-up investigations demonstrated that the lung lesions were incidental findings. PMID:17375035

Horan, G; Rafique, A; Robson, J; Dixon, A K; Williams, M V



Patient-specific detection of perfusion abnormalities combining within-subject and between-subject variances in Arterial Spin Labeling.  


In this paper, patient-specific perfusion abnormalities in Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) were identified by comparing a single patient to a group of healthy controls using a mixed-effect hierarchical General Linear Model (GLM). Two approaches are currently in use to solve hierarchical GLMs: (1) the homoscedastic approach assumes homogeneous variances across subjects and (2) the heteroscedastic approach is theoretically more efficient in the presence of heterogeneous variances but algorithmically more demanding. In practice, in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, the superiority of the heteroscedastic approach is still under debate. Due to the low signal-to-noise ratio of ASL sequences, within-subject variances have a significant impact on the estimated perfusion maps and the heteroscedastic model might be better suited in this context. In this paper we studied how the homoscedastic and heteroscedastic approaches behave in terms of specificity and sensitivity in the detection of patient-specific ASL perfusion abnormalities. Validation was undertaken on a dataset of 25 patients diagnosed with brain tumors and 36 healthy volunteers. We showed evidence of heterogeneous within-subject variances in ASL and pointed out an increased false positive rate of the homoscedastic model. In the detection of patient-specific brain perfusion abnormalities with ASL, modeling heterogeneous variances increases the sensitivity at the same specificity level. PMID:23668968

Maumet, Camille; Maurel, Pierre; Ferré, Jean-Christophe; Carsin, Béatrice; Barillot, Christian



Solar activity cycle and the incidence of foetal chromosome abnormalities detected at prenatal diagnosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied 2001 foetuses during the period of minimal solar activity of solar cycle 21 and 2265 foetuses during the period of maximal solar activity of solar cycle 22, in all women aged 37 years and over who underwent free prenatal diagnosis in four hospitals in the greater Tel Aviv area. There were no significant differences in the total incidence of chromosomal abnormalities or of trisomy between the two periods (2.15% and 1.8% versus 2.34% and 2.12%, respectively). However, the trend of excessive incidence of chromosomal abnormalities in the period of maximal solar activity suggests that a prospective study in a large population would be required to rule out any possible effect of extreme solar activity.

Halpern, Gabrielle J.; Stoupel, Eliahu G.; Barkai, Gad; Chaki, Rina; Legum, Cyril; Fejgin, Moshe D.; Shohat, Mordechai



Creatinine-Based Glomerular Filtration Rates and Microalbuminuria for Detecting Metabolic Abnormalities in US Adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Guidelines suggest searching for metabolic complications of chronic kidney disease when glomerular filtration rates (GFR) or urinary albumin tests are abnormal. This study aimed to quantify diagnostic test characteristics of these measures for detecting metabolic abnormalities. Methods Subjects were participants aged ?20 years (n = 7,778) in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2004. Low GFR was defined as creatinine-based estimate <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2; abnormal urinary albumin-creatinine ratio as ?20 mg/dl in men, ?30 mg/dl in women; and metabolic abnormalities as abnormal potassium, hemoglobin, bicarbonate, phosphorus, or parathyroid hormone levels. Results Of adults, 5.66% had low GFR and 8.14% abnormal urinary albumin-creatinine ratio. Overall, 15.09% had ? one metabolic abnormality, as did 34.07% with low GFR (p < 0.0001) and 24.27% with abnormal urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (p = 0.0021). Considered as a diagnostic test, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of low GFR for detecting ?1 metabolic abnormality were 0.13, 0.96, 0.34, and 0.86, respectively. Corresponding values for abnormal urinary albumin-creatinine ratio were 0.13, 0.92, 0.24, and 0.86. Conclusions A policy of searching for metabolic complications in every adult with low GFR or microalbuminuria has limited diagnostic yield.

Foley, Robert N.; Wang, Changchun; Ishani, Areef; Ibrahim, Hassan N.; Collins, Allan J.



Malaria detection with the Sysmex XE2100 hematology analyzer using pseudoeosinophilia and abnormal WBC scattergram  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent investigation using the Sysmex XE-2100 hematology analyzer (Sysmex Corporation, Japan) has demonstrated erroneously\\u000a high eosinophil counts and abnormal white blood cell (WBC) scattergrams in malaria cases. This study was conducted to assess\\u000a the diagnostic efficiency of the Sysmex XE-2100 analyzer for malaria. One hundred forty-four patients initially diagnosed\\u000a with Plasmodium vivax infection, 319 patients with febrile illness, and 24

Hee Jin Huh; Gwi Young Oh; Jung Won Huh; Seok Lae Chae



Detection of cytogenetics abnormalities in chronic lymphocytic leukemia using FISH technique and their prognostic impact.  


Introduction: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a clonal lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by progressive accumulation of morphologically and immunophenotypically mature lymphocytes. Characterization of genomic aberrations may help to understand the pathogenesis of CLL and may give prognostic information independent from conventional clinical markers for a risk-adapted management of CLL patients. Aim: The aim of the present study is to determine the most common cytogenetics abnormalities between patients with CLL and its prognostic impact. Patients and Methods: The present study was carried out on 20 adult patients presented with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The patients were diagnosed on the basis of standard clinical (lymph node involvement and/or hepatosplenomegaly), hematological and immunophenotypic criteria for diagnosis of B-CLL. All cases were studied at the time of their diagnosis. FISH technique was successfully performed on PB samples using CLL LSI probes for ATM (11q22) / GLI (12q13) and 13q14/ p53 (17p13). Results: For comparative statistical studies, the patients were divided into group I (patients with favorable outcome) and group II (patients with unfavorable outcome). All patients showed one or more cytogenetic abnormality with the prevalence of p53 in 16 patients out of 20 that perfectly correlated with the poor outcome of the patients. This is followed by deletion in the 13q14 and to a lesser extent deletion in ATM gene, but no one has exhibited amplification in the 12q13 locus. Conclusion: p53 deletion as a sole abnormality has a higher prognostic power than other cytogenetics abnormalities. The cytogenetics study using FISH panel for CLL patients in a complementary fashion to the other clinical and laboratory findings may overcome the pitfalls in the diagnosis and may also assess the assignment of therapeutic protocols for CLL patients according to the results of their cytogenetic analysis at the time of diagnosis. Keywords: FISH, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, CLL, p53, cytogenetics, Egypt. PMID:24610291

Eid, O M; Eid, M M; Kayed, H F; Mahmoud, W M; Mousafa, S S; Ismail, M M; Abdeen, D M



Detection of germ cell genotoxic potential of carbon disulphide using sperm head shape abnormality test.  


1. Adult male albino rats (CF Strain) were administered i.p. CS2 dissolved in cotton seed oil at doses of 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg b. wt. for a period of 60 days. Effect of CS2 on epididymis, adrenal weight, sperm count and sperm head shape abnormality was studied. 2. Epididymal weight remained unaltered in 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg CS2 treated groups, whereas in highest dose of CS2 treated (200 mg/kg) group a non-significant reduction in epididymis weight was observed. A slight increase in adrenal weight was observed in lower doses groups (25 and 50 mg/kg) while a considerable decrease in adrenal weight was noted in highest dose (200 mg/kg) of CS2 treated group in the present study. 3. An increase in sperm head shape abnormality and decrease in sperm count was observed in all the CS2 treated groups. However, the changes were statistically significant only after higher dose of CS2 treatment as compared to control. 4. This study suggests that CS2 may have the potential to induce adverse effects on male reproductive system of rats. Sperm head shape abnormality assay used in this study also elicits germ cell genotoxic potential of carbon disulphide. PMID:10627660

Kumar, S; Patel, K G; Gautam, A K; Agarwal, K; Shah, B A; Saiyed, H N



Detection and quantification of the parenchymal abnormalities in emphysema using pulmo-CT.  


We aimed to determine the degree and extent of parenchymal abnormalities on pulmo-CT in patients with emphysema. The study group consisted of 29 patients (18 male, 11 female; mean age 57.9+/-13). The diagnosis was based on clinical symptoms, pulmonary function tests (PFT) values, and chest CT findings. All of the patients CT scans were obtained during suspended deep inspiration from the apices to the costophrenic angles. The mean lung attenuation (MLD) and parenchymal abnormalities related to emphysema were quantitatively calculated with tables, histograms and graphics at the whole lung. The lung density measurements revealed a mean density of -898.48+/-51.37 HU in patients with emphysema and -825.1+/-25.5 HU in control group. In addition, mean percentage of subthreshold attenuation values was found as 12.03+/-15.75 and 1.07+/-0.83 in patients with emphysema and control group, respectively. Compared with control group, the patients with emphysema had a significantly lower inspiratory MLD (p<0.05). Additionally, statistically significant correlations were seen between the MLD and percentage of subthreshold values (r=0.44, p<0.05). In contrast, there was poor correlation between PFT measurements and the subthreshold values. In conclusion, pulmo-CT is a quick, simple method for quantitative confirmation of the presence of parenchymal abnormalities of lung as mosaic attenuation and should be used in combination with other radiological methods and PFT as it gives additional information to routine examinations in patients with emphysema. PMID:17689224

Temizoz, Osman; Etlik, Omer; Sakarya, Mehmet Emin; Uzun, Kursat; Arslan, Halil; Harman, Mustafa; Demir, Mustafa Kemal



Prevalence of hematological abnormalities and detection of infected bone marrow cells in asymptomatic cats with feline immunodeficiency virus infection.  


Peripheral blood cytopenia such as anemia, leukopenia with neutropenia and thrombocytopenia is frequently observed in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Although previous studies report that cytopenia has been observed in FIV-infected symptomatic cats, yet the asymptomatic cats also present cytopenia occasionally. In the present study, hematological and virological analyses in FIV-infected asymptomatic cats were carried out to understand the prevalence and pathogenesis of peripheral blood cytopenia in FIV infection. Hematological abnormalities were detected in 24 of 50 FIV-infected asymptomatic cats (48%) in which no other cause of cytopenia than FIV infection was observed. Anemia only, neutropenia only, thrombocytopenia only, bicytopenia and pancytopenia were observed in 10%, 10%, 6%, 14% and 8%, respectively. Bone marrow (BM) examination was performed in 8 FIV-infected asymptomatic cats with peripheral blood cytopenia. Myeloid dysplasia was observed in 4 cats with neutropenia of which 2 cats with concurrent thrombocytopenia presented morphological abnormalities of megakaryocytes. FIV-infected BM cells in the 8 cats were analyzed by PCR and immunocytochemistry. Lobulated mononuclear cells in BM were infected with FIV in 5 cats with neutropenia of which 2 cats with concurrent thrombocytopenia showed FIV-infected megakaryocytes. Parts of isolated stromal cells from BM were infected with FIV in all the 8 cats. Present results suggest that FIV infection of BM cells can cause peripheral blood cytopenia and myelodysplasia even if the cat is asymptomatic. Such FIV-related hematological abnormalities are supposed to be diagnosed as FIV-myelopathy. PMID:19110384

Fujino, Yasuhito; Horiuchi, Hiroshi; Mizukoshi, Fuminori; Baba, Kenji; Goto-Koshino, Yuko; Ohno, Koichi; Tsujimoto, Hajime



A neural network learned information measures for heart motion abnormality detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we propose an information theoretic neural network for normal/abnormal left ventricular motion classification which outperforms significantly other recent methods in the literature. The proposed framework consists of a supervised 3-layer artificial neural network (ANN) which uses hyperbolic tangent sigmoid and linear transfer functions for hidden and output layers, respectively. The ANN is fed by information theoretic measures of left ventricular wall motion such as Shannon's differential entropy (SDE), Rényi entropy and Fisher information, which measure global information of subjects distribution. Using 395×20 segmented LV cavities of short-axis magnetic resonance images (MRI) acquired from 48 subjects, the experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms Support Vector Machine (SVM) and thresholding based information theoretic classifiers. It yields a specificity equal to 90%, a sensitivity of 91%, and a remarkable Area Under Curve (AUC) for Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC), equal to 93.2%.

Nambakhsh, M. S.; Punithakumar, Kumaradevan; Ben Ayed, Ismail; Goela, Aashish; Islam, Ali; Peters, Terry; Li, Shuo



Ultraviolet selection pressure on the earliest organisms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It had been proposed by Sagan (1957, 1961) that UV light, partially penetrating the primitive reducing atmosphere of the earth, posed a major problem for the earliest evolution of life. This argument is now updated and refined. The picture of a secondary reducing atmosphere is presented. It is assumed that an excess of hydrogen from this atmosphere has already escaped to space. The genetic material surrounded itself as a solution to the UV selection pressure with bases or nucleotides having no function whatever in replication or protein synthesis.

Sagan, C.



Robust algorithmic detection of the developed cardiac pathologies and emerging or transient abnormalities from short periods of RR data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous research efforts and clinical testing have confirmed validity of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis as one of the cardiac diagnostics modalities. The majority of HRV analysis tools currently used in practice are based on linear indicators. Methods from nonlinear dynamics (NLD) provide more natural modeling framework for adaptive biological systems with multiple feedback loops. Compared to linear indicators, many NLD-based measures are much less sensitive to data artifacts and non-stationarity. However, majority of NLD measures require long time series for stable calculation. Similar restrictions also apply for linear indicators. Such requirements could drastically limit practical usability of HRV analysis in many applications, including express diagnostics, early indication of subtle directional changes during personalization of medical treatment, and robust detection of emerging or transient abnormalities. Recently we have illustrated that these challenges could be overcome by using classification framework based on boosting-like ensemble learning techniques that are capable of discovering robust meta-indicators from existing HRV measures and other incomplete empirical knowledge. In this paper we demonstrate universality of such meta-indicators and discuss operational details of their practical usage. Using such pathology examples as congestive heart failure (CHF) and arrhythmias, we show that classifiers trained on short RR segments (down to several minutes) could achieve reasonable classification accuracy (~80-85% and higher). These indicators calculated from longer RR segments could be applicable for accurate diagnostics with classification accuracy approaching 100%. In addition, it is feasible to discover single ``normal-abnormal'' meta-classifier capable of detecting multiple abnormalities.

Gavrishchaka, Valeriy V.; Senyukova, Olga




PubMed Central

Background In Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS), structural MRI abnormalities are most common in the posterior brain regions. Frontal lobe involvement increases the risk of motor impairment. The goal of this study was to determine whether Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging (MRSI) can improve detection of frontal lobe involvement in children with SWS. Methods Sixteen children (age: 0.9–10.4 years) with unilateral SWS underwent MRI with MRSI prospectively. N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) and choline asymmetries in the posterior and frontal regions were measured. Results Eight children presented normal-appearing frontal lobes on conventional MRI, but 7 of them showed abnormal NAA and/or choline content in the frontal lobe of the affected hemisphere. Lower frontal lobe gray matter NAA was associated with earlier onset of seizures (r = 0.76; p = 0.04) and impaired motor function (r =? 0.89, p < 0.001). Frontal NAA asymmetry was an independent predictor of motor function in a regression analysis (p=0.01) Conclusion MRSI is more sensitive than conventional structural MRI for detection of frontal lobe involvement in SWS. Decreased frontal lobe NAA is an excellent predictor of motor functions. Thus, MRSI can provide complementary information for the assessment of normal appearing brain regions, and may assist prognosis evaluation in children with SWS.

Batista, Carlos E. A.; Chugani, Harry T.; Hu, Jiani; Haacke, E. Mark; Behen, Michael E.; Helder, Emily J.; Juhasz, Csaba



Automated detection of genetic abnormalities combined with cytology in sputum is a sensitive predictor of lung cancer  

PubMed Central

Detection of lung cancer by sputum cytology has low sensitivity but is noninvasive and, if improved, could be a powerful tool for early lung cancer detection. To evaluate whether the accuracy of diagnosing lung cancer by evaluating sputa for cytologic atypia and genetic abnormalities is greater than that of conventional cytology alone, automated scoring of genetic abnormalities for 3p22.1 and 10q22.3 (SP-A) by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and conventional cytology was done on sputa from 35 subjects with lung cancer, 25 high-risk smokers, and 6 healthy control subjects. Multivariate analysis was performed to select variables that most accurately predicted lung cancer. A model of probability for the presence of lung cancer was derived for each subject. Cells exfoliated from patients with lung cancer contained genetic aberrations and cytologic atypias at significantly higher levels than in those from control subjects. When combined with cytologic atypia, a model of risk for lung cancer was derived that had 74% sensitivity and 82% specificity to predict the presence of lung cancer, whereas conventional cytology achieved only 37% sensitivity and 87% specificity. For diagnosing lung cancer in sputum, a combination of molecular and cytologic variables was superior to using conventional cytology alone.

Katz, Ruth L; Zaidi, Tanweer M; Fernandez, Ricardo L; Zhang, Jingpin; He, Weigong; Acosta, Charisse; Daniely, Michal; Madi, Lea; Vargas, Mary A; Dong, Qiong; Gao, Xiaoying; Jiang, Feng; Caraway, Nancy P; Vaporciyan, Ara A; Roth, Jack A; Spitz, Margaret R



Morphometric Analysis for Pathological Abnormality Detection in the Skull Vaults of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a comprehensive framework to detect morphological changes in skull vaults of adolescent idiopathic\\u000a scoliosis girls. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to use a combination of medical knowledge, image analysis techniques,\\u000a statistical learning tools, and scientific visualization methods to detect skull morphological changes. The shape analysis\\u000a starts from a reliable 3-D segmentation of

Lin Shi; Pheng-ann Heng; Tien-tsin Wong; Winnie C. W. Chu; Benson H. Y. Yeung; Jack C. Y. Cheng



Neonatal nucleated red blood cell counts: relationship to abnormal fetoplacental circulation detected by Doppler studies.  


Increased neonatal nucleated red blood cell counts are thought to be related to intrauterine hypoxemia. We sought to determine the effect of increasing circulatory impairment in fetuses on the neonatal nucleated red blood cell count. One hundred thirty-four singleton pregnancies were included in the study and were allocated to 4 study groups according to Doppler findings. The systolic-to-diastolic ratios of the umbilical artery, fetal aorta, middle cerebral artery, and uterine arteries were recorded. Fetuses were assigned to the following groups on the basis of the last Doppler examination before delivery: group 1, normal systolic-to-diastolic ratios in the examined vessels; group 2, a systolic-to-diastolic ratio greater than 2 SD above the mean for gestational age in the umbilical artery or fetal aorta and no abnormal Doppler findings in the uterine arteries; group 3, systolic-to-diastolic ratios greater than 2 SD above the mean for gestational age in all examined vessels; and group 4, absence of end-diastolic velocity in the umbilical artery or fetal aorta and systolic-to-diastolic ratios greater than 2 SD above the mean for gestational age in the uterine arteries. A blood sample from the umbilical artery was obtained within 1 minute after birth, and nucleated red blood cells per 100 white blood cells were counted by light microscopy. Nucleated red blood cell counts were higher in fetuses in group 4 (median, 72.0; range, 9-720; P < .001) and group 3 (median, 38.4; range, 7-201; P < .001) than in fetuses in group 1 (median, 5.1; range, 0-20). Neonates in group 4 had significantly lower birth weights (P < .001), lower arterial and venous pH values (P < .05), and lower Apgar scores after 5 minutes (P < .01) as well as an increased likelihood of cesarean delivery because of fetal distress (P < .001). The number of fetuses in group 4 with a cord blood base deficit of less than -8 mmol/L was increased. Nucleated red blood cell counts were comparable in fetuses in group 2 (median, 5.4; range, 0-37) and group 1. In groups 1 to 3 no brain-sparing effect occurred, whereas in 15 of 21 cases in group 4 a brain-sparing effect was present. Multivariate analysis revealed that Doppler results of the umbilical artery, fetal aorta, and uterine arteries were independent determinants of neonatal nucleated red blood cell count. Increasing abnormalities seen on fetoplacental Doppler studies are associated with increasing numbers of nucleated red blood cells at birth. Given the known relationship between abnormal Doppler flow and intrauterine hypoxemia, the neonatal nucleated red blood cell count might become an additional valuable tool in the surveillance of growth-restricted fetuses. PMID:11270521

Axt-Fliedner, R; Ertan, K; Hendrik, H J; Schmidt, W



Detection of liver cancer and abnormal liver tissue by Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, laser induced human serum Raman spectra of liver cancer are measured. The spectra differences in serum from normal people and liver disease patients are analyzed. For the typical spectrum of normal serum, there are three sharp Raman peaks and relative intensity of Raman peaks excited by 514.5nm is higher than that excited by 488.0nm. For the Raman spectrum of liver cancer serum there are no peaks or very weak Raman peaks at the same positions. Results from more than two hundred case measurements show that clinical diagnostic accuracy is 92.86%. And then, the liver fibrosis and liver cirrhosis are studied applying the technology of LIF. To liver cirrhosis, the shape of Raman peak is similar to normal and fluorescence spectrum is similar to that of liver cancer from statistic data. The experiment indicates that there is notable fluorescence difference between the abnormal and normal liver tissue and have blue shift in fluorescence peak. Except for human serum, we use rats serum for researching either. Compared with results of path al examination, we analyze the spectra of normal cases, hepatic fibrosis and hepatocirrhosis respectively in an attempt to find some difference between them. Red shift of fluorescence peak is observed with disease evolution using 514.5nm excitation of an Ar-ion laser. However, no distinct changes happen with 488.0nm excitation. These results have important reference values to explore the method of laser spectrum diagnosis.

Li, Xiaozhou; Ding, Jianhua; Zhang, Xiujun; Lin, Junxiu; Wang, Deli



Cardiovascular abnormality detection method using cardiac sound characteristic waveform with data clustering technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

If life-style related diseases could not be monitored continuously during a long time some heart defects might be difficult to be diagnosed appropriately and detected in an early step. Furthermore, the need for the primary health care physicians to improve the cardiac auscultation skill is still very strong in the primary screening examination, and becomes stronger for the general users

Samjin Choi; Zhongwei Jiang; Il-Hwan Kim; Chan-Won Park



Detection of Abnormal Muscle Activations during Walking Following Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to identify optimal rehabilitation strategies for spinal cord injury (SCI) participants, assessment of impaired walking is required to detect, monitor and quantify movement disorders. In the proposed assessment, ten healthy and seven SCI participants were recruited to perform an over-ground walking test at slow walking speeds. SCI…

Wang, Ping; Low, K. H.; McGregor, Alison H.; Tow, Adela



Preponderant mitotic activity of nonleukemic cells plays an important role in failures to detect abnormal clone in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.  


At diagnosis, clonal chromosomal abnormalities are found in the bone marrow blasts in more than two thirds of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Practically, however, failure to detect these abnormalities is frequent and usually attributed to poor marrow sampling, inadequate metaphases, and/or a preponderant mitotic activity among nonleukemic cells. The authors applied fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques to re-examine 30 cases of karyotypically "normal" childhood ALL to explore the role of preponderant mitotic activities of nonleukemic cells in failures to detect clonal abnormalities. The FISH test were performed using TEL/AML1 fusion gene probe and the centromere probes for chromosome 8 and 10 to detect the t(12;21) translocation and/or hyperdiploidy. Half of the karyotypically "normal" ALL cases examined have been found to have abnormal clones with t(12;21) rearrangement and/or hyperdiploidy by this specially designed FISH assay. Contrary to expectation, the authors found a higher incidence (52%) of clonal abnormalities in cases where over 20 metaphases had been examined than in cases (44%) where fewer than 20 metaphases had been analyzed. These findings suggest that a preponderant mitotic activity of nonleukemic cells plays an important role in failures to detect an abnormal clone by conventional cytogenetic studies. Therefore, karyotypically "normal" childhood ALL patients should undergo FISH studies to rule out the presence of t(12;21) and/or hyperdiploid clone. PMID:12847317

Wu, Shi Qi; Weinberg, Kenneth I; Joo, Wan Jong; Quinn, John J; Franklin, Janet; Siegel, Stuart E; Gaynon, Paul S



Architecture design of the multi-functional wavelet-based ECG microprocessor for realtime detection of abnormal cardiac events.  


Most of the abnormal cardiac events such as myocardial ischemia, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and fatal arrhythmia can be diagnosed through continuous electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis. According to recent clinical research, early detection and alarming of such cardiac events can reduce the time delay to the hospital, and the clinical outcomes of these individuals can be greatly improved. Therefore, it would be helpful if there is a long-term ECG monitoring system with the ability to identify abnormal cardiac events and provide realtime warning for the users. The combination of the wireless body area sensor network (BASN) and the on-sensor ECG processor is a possible solution for this application. In this paper, we aim to design and implement a digital signal processor that is suitable for continuous ECG monitoring and alarming based on the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) through the proposed architectures--using both programmable RISC processor and application specific integrated circuits (ASIC) for performance optimization. According to the implementation results, the power consumption of the proposed processor integrated with an ASIC for CWT computation is only 79.4 mW. Compared with the single-RISC processor, about 91.6% of the power reduction is achieved. PMID:23366919

Cheng, Li-Fang; Chen, Tung-Chien; Chen, Liang-Gee



Individualized Gaussian process-based prediction and detection of local and global gray matter abnormalities in elderly subjects.  


Structural imaging based on MRI is an integral component of the clinical assessment of patients with potential dementia. We here propose an individualized Gaussian process-based inference scheme for clinical decision support in healthy and pathological aging elderly subjects using MRI. The approach aims at quantitative and transparent support for clinicians who aim to detect structural abnormalities in patients at risk of Alzheimer's disease or other types of dementia. Firstly, we introduce a generative model incorporating our knowledge about normative decline of local and global gray matter volume across the brain in elderly. By supposing smooth structural trajectories the models account for the general course of age-related structural decline as well as late-life accelerated loss. Considering healthy subjects' demography and global brain parameters as informative about normal brain aging variability affords individualized predictions in single cases. Using Gaussian process models as a normative reference, we predict new subjects' brain scans and quantify the local gray matter abnormalities in terms of Normative Probability Maps (NPM) and global z-scores. By integrating the observed expectation error and the predictive uncertainty, the local maps and global scores exploit the advantages of Bayesian inference for clinical decisions and provide a valuable extension of diagnostic information about pathological aging. We validate the approach in simulated data and real MRI data. We train the GP framework using 1238 healthy subjects with ages 18-94years, and predict in 415 independent test subjects diagnosed as healthy controls, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24742919

Ziegler, G; Ridgway, G R; Dahnke, R; Gaser, C



Trends in breast biopsies for abnormalities detected at screening mammography: a population-based study in the Netherlands  

PubMed Central

Background: Diagnostic surgical breast biopsies have several disadvantages, therefore, they should be used with hesitation. We determined time trends in types of breast biopsies for the workup of abnormalities detected at screening mammography. We also examined diagnostic delays. Methods: In a Dutch breast cancer screening region 6230 women were referred for an abnormal screening mammogram between 1 January 1997 and 1 January 2011. During two year follow-up clinical data, breast imaging-, biopsy-, surgery- and pathology-reports were collected of these women. Furthermore, breast cancers diagnosed >3 months after referral (delays) were examined, this included review of mammograms and pathology specimens to determine the cause of the delays. Results: In 41.1% (1997–1998) and in 44.8% (2009–2010) of referred women imaging was sufficient for making the diagnosis (P<0.0001). Fine-needle aspiration cytology decreased from 12.7% (1997–1998) to 4.7% (2009–2010) (P<0.0001), percutaneous core-needle biopsies (CBs) increased from 8.0 to 49.1% (P<0.0001) and surgical biopsies decreased from 37.8 to 1.4% (P<0.0001). Delays in breast cancer diagnosis decreased from 6.7 to 1.8% (P=0.003). Conclusion: The use of diagnostic surgical breast biopsies has decreased substantially. They have mostly been replaced by percutaneous CBs and this replacement did not result in an increase of diagnostic delays.

van Breest Smallenburg, V; Nederend, J; Voogd, A C; Coebergh, J W W; van Beek, M; Jansen, F H; Louwman, W J; Duijm, L E M



Atlas-Based Analysis of Neurodevelopment from Infancy to Adulthood Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Applications for Automated Abnormality Detection  

PubMed Central

Quantification of normal brain maturation is a crucial step in understanding developmental abnormalities in brain anatomy and function. The aim of this study was to develop atlas-based tools for time-dependent quantitative image analysis, and to characterize the anatomical changes that occur from 2 years of age to adulthood. We used large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping to register diffusion tensor images of normal participants into the common coordinates and used a pre-segmented atlas to segment the entire brain into 176 structures. Both voxel- and atlas-based analyses reported structure that showed distinctive changes in terms of its volume and diffusivity measures. In the white matter, fractional anisotropy (FA) linearly increased with age in logarithmic scale, while diffusivity indices, such as apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and axial and radial diffusivity, decreased at a different rate in several regions. The average, variability, and the time course of each measured parameter are incorporated into the atlas, which can be used for automated detection of developmental abnormalities. As a demonstration of future application studies, the brainstem anatomy of cerebral palsy patients was evaluated and the altered anatomy was delineated.

Faria, Andreia V.; Zhang, Jiangyang; Oishi, Kenichi; Li, Xin; Jiang, Hangyi; Akhter, Kazi; Hermoye, Laurent; Lee, Seung-Koo; Hoon, Alexander; Stachinko, Elaine; Miller, Michael I.; van Zijl, Peter C.M.; Mori, Susumu



Earliest recollections of childhood: a demographic analysis.  


A theory has recently been advanced which proposes that the development autobiographical recollection is shaped by a child's participation in discussions of events with adults (e.g. Nelson, 1988; Snow, 1990). A logical prediction of the theory is that demographic factors related to the nature of linguistic environments might be associated with differences in the development of autobiographical recollection. Four questionnaire studies that test this prediction are presented. The results, on a total of 768 subjects, show that the age of earliest memory increases across birth order, is slightly earlier for females than for males, and is earlier for Caucasians than for Asians. These findings are discussed in light of previous research showing that parents interact and talk more with first-borns and with girls, and in light of differences between Western and Asian cultures in socialization goals and the significance of autobiography in the development of self-concept. PMID:7924199

Mullen, M K



Detecting Mechanical Abnormalities in Prostate Tissue Using FE-Based Image Registration  

Microsoft Academic Search

An image registration-based elastography algorithm is presented for assessing the stiffness of tissue regions inside the prostate\\u000a for the purpose of detecting tumors. A 3D finite-element model of the prostate is built from ultrasound images and used to\\u000a simulate the deformation of the prostate induced by a TRUS probe. To reconstruct the stiffness of tissues, their Young’s moduli\\u000a are varied

Patrick Courtis; Abbas Samani



Enhanced Spontaneous Transmitter Release Is the Earliest Consequence of Neocortical Hypoxia That Can Explain the Disruption of Normal Circuit Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the onset of an acute episode of arrested circulation to the brain and consequent cerebral hypoxia, EEG changes and modifications of consciousness ensue within seconds. This in part reflects the rapid effect of hypoxia on the neocortex, where oxygen deprivation leads to impaired neuronal excitability and abnormal synaptic transmission. To identify the cellular mech- anisms responsible for the earliest

Ilya A. Fleidervish; Christine Gebhardt; Nadav Astman; Michael J. Gutnick; Uwe Heinemann



Automated detection of abnormalities in paranasal sinus on dental panoramic radiographs by using contralateral subtraction technique based on mandible contour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inflammation in paranasal sinus sometimes becomes chronic to take long terms for the treatment. The finding is important for the early treatment, but general dentists may not recognize the findings because they focus on teeth treatments. The purpose of this study was to develop a computer-aided detection (CAD) system for the inflammation in paranasal sinus on dental panoramic radiographs (DPRs) by using the mandible contour and to demonstrate the potential usefulness of the CAD system by means of receiver operating characteristic analysis. The detection scheme consists of 3 steps: 1) Contour extraction of mandible, 2) Contralateral subtraction, and 3) Automated detection. The Canny operator and active contour model were applied to extract the edge at the first step. At the subtraction step, the right region of the extracted contour image was flipped to compare with the left region. Mutual information between two selected regions was obtained to estimate the shift parameters of image registration. The subtraction images were generated based on the shift parameter. Rectangle regions of left and right paranasal sinus on the subtraction image were determined based on the size of mandible. The abnormal side of the regions was determined by taking the difference between the averages of each region. Thirteen readers were responded to all cases without and with the automated results. The averaged AUC of all readers was increased from 0.69 to 0.73 with statistical significance (p=0.032) when the automated detection results were provided. In conclusion, the automated detection method based on contralateral subtraction technique improves readers' interpretation performance of inflammation in paranasal sinus on DPRs.

Mori, Shintaro; Hara, Takeshi; Tagami, Motoki; Muramatsu, Chicako; Kaneda, Takashi; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Fujita, Hiroshi



Chromosomal microarray analysis as a first-line test in pregnancies with a priori low risk for the detection of submicroscopic chromosomal abnormalities  

PubMed Central

In this study, we aimed to explore the utility of chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) in groups of pregnancies with a priori low risk for detection of submicroscopic chromosome abnormalities, usually not considered an indication for testing, in order to assess whether CMA improves the detection rate of prenatal chromosomal aberrations. A total of 3000 prenatal samples were processed in parallel using both whole-genome CMA and conventional karyotyping. The indications for prenatal testing included: advanced maternal age, maternal serum screening test abnormality, abnormal ultrasound findings, known abnormal fetal karyotype, parental anxiety, family history of a genetic condition and cell culture failure. The use of CMA resulted in an increased detection rate regardless of the indication for analysis. This was evident in high risk groups (abnormal ultrasound findings and abnormal fetal karyotype), in which the percentage of detection was 5.8% (7/120), and also in low risk groups, such as advanced maternal age (6/1118, 0.5%), and parental anxiety (11/1674, 0.7%). A total of 24 (0.8%) fetal conditions would have remained undiagnosed if only a standard karyotype had been performed. Importantly, 17 (0.6%) of such findings would have otherwise been overlooked if CMA was offered only to high risk pregnancies.The results of this study suggest that more widespread CMA testing of fetuses would result in a higher detection of clinically relevant chromosome abnormalities, even in low risk pregnancies. Our findings provide substantial evidence for the introduction of CMA as a first-line diagnostic test for all pregnant women undergoing invasive prenatal testing, regardless of risk factors.

Fiorentino, Francesco; Napoletano, Stefania; Caiazzo, Fiorina; Sessa, Mariateresa; Bono, Sara; Spizzichino, Letizia; Gordon, Anthony; Nuccitelli, Andrea; Rizzo, Giuseppe; Baldi, Marina



Developing and testing a multi-probe resonance electrical impedance spectroscopy system for detecting breast abnormalities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our previous study, we reported on the development and preliminary testing of a prototype resonance electrical impedance spectroscopy (REIS) system with a pair of probes. Although our pilot study on 150 young women ranging from 30 to 50 years old indicated the feasibility of using REIS output sweep signals to classify between the women who had negative examinations and those who would ultimately be recommended for biopsy, the detection sensitivity was relatively low. To improve performance when using REIS technology, we recently developed a new multi-probe based REIS system. The system consists of a sensor module box that can be easily lifted along a vertical support device to fit women of different height. Two user selectable breast placement "cups" with different curvatures are included in the system. Seven probes are mounted on each of the cups on opposing sides of the sensor box. By rotating the sensor box, the technologist can select the detection sensor cup that better fits the breast size of the woman being examined. One probe is mounted in the cup center for direct contact with the nipple and the other six probes are uniformly distributed along an outside circle to enable contact with six points on the outer and inner breast skin surfaces. The outer probes are located at a distance of 60mm away from the center (nipple) probe. The system automatically monitors the quality of the contact between the breast surface and each of the seven probes and data acquisition can only be initiated when adequate contact is confirmed. The measurement time for each breast is approximately 15 seconds during which time the system records 121 REIS signal sweep outputs generated from 200 KHz to 800 KHz at 5 KHz increments for all preselected probe pairs. Currently we are measuring 6 pairs between the center probe and each of six probes located on the outer circle as well as two pairs between probe pairs on the outer circle. This new REIS system has been installed in our clinical breast imaging facility. We are conducting a prospective study to assess performance when using this REIS system under an approved IRB protocol. Over 200 examinations have been conducted to date. Our experience showed that this new REIS system was easy to operate and the REIS examination was fast and considered "comfortable" by examinees since the women presses her breast into the cup herself without any need for forced breast compression, and all but a few highly sensitive women have any sensation of an electrical current during the measurement.

Gur, David; Zheng, Bin; Dhurjaty, Sreeram; Wolfe, Gene; Fradin, Mary; Weil, Richard; Sumkin, Jules; Zuley, Margarita



Denoising diffusion tensor images: preprocessing for automated detection of subtle diffusion tensor abnormalities between populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is the only non-invasive imaging modality to visualize fiber tracts. Many disease states, e.g. depression, show subtle changes in diffusion tensor indices, which can only be detected by comparison of population cohorts with high quality images. Further, it is important to reduce noise in the acquired diffusion weighted images to perform accurate fiber tracking. In order to obtain acceptable SNR values for DTI images, a large number of averages is required. For whole brain coverage with isotropic and high-resolution imaging, this leads to unacceptable scan times. In order to obtain high SNR images with smaller number of averages, we propose to combine the strengths of two recently developed methodologies for denoising: total variation and wavelet. Our algorithm, which uses translational invariant BayesShrink wavelet thresholding with total variation regularization, successfully removes image noise and Pseudo-Gibbs phenomena while preserving both texture and edges. We compare our results with other denoising methods proposed for DTI images based on visual and quantitative metrics.

Lee, Tin Man; Sinha, Usha



Neuroradiological advances detect abnormal neuroanatomy underlying neuropsychological impairments: the power of PET imaging.  


Medical imaging has made a major contribution to cerebral dysfunction due to inherited diseases, as well as injuries sustained with modern living, such as car accidents, falling down, and work-related injuries. These injuries, up until the introduction of sensitive techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET), were overlooked because of heavy reliance on structural imaging techniques such as MRI and CT. These techniques are extremely insensitive for dysfunction caused by such underlying disorders. We believe that the use of these highly powerful functional neuroimaging technologies, such as PET, has substantially improved our ability to assess these patients properly in the clinical setting, to determine their natural course, and to assess the efficacy of various interventional detections. As such the contribution from the evolution of PET technology has substantially improved our knowledge and ability over the past 3 decades to help patients who are the victims of serious deficiencies due to these injuries. In particular, in recent years the use of PET/CT and soon PET/MRI will provide the best option for a structure-function relationship in these patients. We are of the belief that the clinical effectiveness of PET in managing these patients can be translated to the use of this important approach in bringing justice to the victims of many patients who are otherwise uncompensated for disorders that they have suffered without any justification. Therefore, legally opposing views about the relevance of PET in the court system by some research groups may not be justifiable. This has proven to be the case in many court cases, where such imaging techniques have been employed either for criminal or financial compensation purposes in the past 2 decades. PMID:23576100

Hayempour, Benjamin Jacob; Alavi, Abass



Automated identification of abnormal metaphase chromosome cells for the detection of chronic myeloid leukemia using microscopic images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Karyotyping is an important process to classify chromosomes into standard classes and the results are routinely used by the clinicians to diagnose cancers and genetic diseases. However, visual karyotyping using microscopic images is time-consuming and tedious, which reduces the diagnostic efficiency and accuracy. Although many efforts have been made to develop computerized schemes for automated karyotyping, no schemes can get be performed without substantial human intervention. Instead of developing a method to classify all chromosome classes, we develop an automatic scheme to detect abnormal metaphase cells by identifying a specific class of chromosomes (class 22) and prescreen for suspicious chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The scheme includes three steps: (1) iteratively segment randomly distributed individual chromosomes, (2) process segmented chromosomes and compute image features to identify the candidates, and (3) apply an adaptive matching template to identify chromosomes of class 22. An image data set of 451 metaphase cells extracted from bone marrow specimens of 30 positive and 30 negative cases for CML is selected to test the scheme's performance. The overall case-based classification accuracy is 93.3% (100% sensitivity and 86.7% specificity). The results demonstrate the feasibility of applying an automated scheme to detect or prescreen the suspicious cancer cases.

Wang, Xingwei; Zheng, Bin; Li, Shibo; Mulvihill, John J.; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Hong



Automated identification of abnormal metaphase chromosome cells for the detection of chronic myeloid leukemia using microscopic images  

PubMed Central

Karyotyping is an important process to classify chromosomes into standard classes and the results are routinely used by the clinicians to diagnose cancers and genetic diseases. However, visual karyotyping using microscopic images is time-consuming and tedious, which reduces the diagnostic efficiency and accuracy. Although many efforts have been made to develop computerized schemes for automated karyotyping, no schemes can get be performed without substantial human intervention. Instead of developing a method to classify all chromosome classes, we develop an automatic scheme to detect abnormal metaphase cells by identifying a specific class of chromosomes (class 22) and prescreen for suspicious chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The scheme includes three steps: (1) iteratively segment randomly distributed individual chromosomes, (2) process segmented chromosomes and compute image features to identify the candidates, and (3) apply an adaptive matching template to identify chromosomes of class 22. An image data set of 451 metaphase cells extracted from bone marrow specimens of 30 positive and 30 negative cases for CML is selected to test the scheme’s performance. The overall case-based classification accuracy is 93.3% (100% sensitivity and 86.7% specificity). The results demonstrate the feasibility of applying an automated scheme to detect or prescreen the suspicious cancer cases.

Wang, Xingwei; Zheng, Bin; Li, Shibo; Mulvihill, John J.; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Hong



[Evaluation study of abnormal detectability with Thurstone and Scheffé (Nakaya) of paired comparison method using chest phantom].  


Monitors are increasingly being used as diagnostic imaging devices. In this study, using an all-purpose liquid-crystal display (LCD), the rate of detection of abnormalities was investigated using Thurstone's and Scheffé's (Nakaya) paired comparison methods. A chest phantom was prepared as a test sample with acryl and aluminum plates and intensities suggesting small adenocarcinomas. For the acquisition conditions for computed radiography, after setting the baseline at a dose at which the film density of the standard screen-film system at the same as those for the lung, costal bone, and mediastinum, 5 steps of 2-fold serial doses were then set: 1/4, 1/2, 1, 2, and 4. The test sample was observed by 10 students. On the Thurstone scale, detectability decreased with a decrease in the dose in the lung, costal bone, and mediastinum. When the significance of differences between the values at adjacent doses was investigated using the yardstick method, using Scheffé's method revealed a significant difference between the 4- and 2-fold doses and between the 1/2 and 1/4 doses in the pulmonary region. A significant difference was also noted between the baseline and 1/2 doses in the mediastinum. Changes in the order of the scale values may not occur in the intervals in which significant differences were noted using Scheffé's methods. PMID:24464066

Mochizuki, Yasuo



Diffusion Tensor Imaging Detects Areas of Abnormal White Matter Microstructure in Patients with Partial Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE OTCD, an X-linked disorder, is the most common of the UCDs. Neonatal onset is associated with uniformly poor outcome. Males with late-onset OTCD show deficits in executive function, motor planning, and working memory. A broad phenotype is observed in heterozygous females. A specific neurobehavioral phenotype with white matter dysfunction and impaired attention and working memory has been described. The extent to which the deficits involve specific pathways in the brain is unknown. We hypothesized that DTI would disclose white matter microstructure in OTCD correlating with cognitive deficits. MATERIALS AND METHODS Nineteen adults with partial OTCD and 18 adult control subjects ages 19–59 years participated. MR imaging was performed by using a 3T whole-body scanner. Anisotropy was calculated from the eigenvalues of the diffusion tensor by using the FA metric and was compared between the study and control groups. RESULTS FA of the frontal white matter was significantly decreased in subjects, indicating changes in white matter microstructure. There was an inverse relationship between FA and disease severity, but not with age. CONCLUSIONS Findings of MR imaging in OTCD are often normal in patients with late-onset disease, heterozygotes, or in those not in hyperammonemic crisis. DTI was more sensitive than FSE T2- weighted imaging for detecting abnormalities in normal-appearing white matter. The extent of abnormality correlated with cognitive deficits. The location of the deficits in the frontal white matter is important because this area connects fibers that are vital to executive function, attention, and working memory.

Gropman, A.L.; Gertz, B.; Shattuck, K.; Kahn, I.L.; Seltzer, R.; Krivitsky, L.; Van Meter, J.



Detection of Hepatitis C virus RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with abnormal alanine transaminase in Ahvaz.  


Purpose: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important agent for chronic and acute hepatitis. Occult hepatitis C remains a major health problem worldwide. Patients with chronic occult HCV may progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of occult hepatitis C by IS-PCR-ISH (in situ PCR in situ hybridisation) in the patients with abnormal ALT. Materials and Methods: The blood samples were taken from 53 patients including 17 females (32.1%) and 36 (67.9%) males who had abnormal alanine transaminase (ALT) for more than 1 year. The mean ALT and aspartate transaminase (AST) level were 41.02 ± 9.3 and 24.17 ± 7.3, respectively. The patients' age were between 4 and 70-years old with mean age 38 ± 13. All the patients were negative for HCV antibody, HCV RNA and HBs Ag. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were separated with ficoll gradient from each blood sample, then the cells were fixed on slides by cold acetone and followed by IS-PCR-ISH for HCV RNA detection. Results: Seventeen (32%) patients including 6 (11.3%) females and 11 (20.7%) males showed positive results for HCV RNA by in situ-PCR in situ hybridisation. Ten (18.8%) positive cases were between 20 and 40-years old and 6 (11.3%) positive patients were between 40 and 60 years old. Ten (19.6%) patients who were positive for IS-PCR-ISH also had positive anti-HBc IgG and 7 (13.2%) patients were negative for HBc-IgG. Conclusion: In the present study high rate of 32% occult hepatitis C were found among the patients with elevated ALT. PMID:25008816

Makvandi, M; Khalafkhany, D; Rasti, M; Neisi, N; Omidvarinia, A; Mirghaed, A T; Masjedizadeh, A; Shyesteh, A A



Earliest Archaeological Evidence of Persistent Hominin Carnivory  

PubMed Central

The emergence of lithic technology by ?2.6 million years ago (Ma) is often interpreted as a correlate of increasingly recurrent hominin acquisition and consumption of animal remains. Associated faunal evidence, however, is poorly preserved prior to ?1.8 Ma, limiting our understanding of early archaeological (Oldowan) hominin carnivory. Here, we detail three large well-preserved zooarchaeological assemblages from Kanjera South, Kenya. The assemblages date to ?2.0 Ma, pre-dating all previously published archaeofaunas of appreciable size. At Kanjera, there is clear evidence that Oldowan hominins acquired and processed numerous, relatively complete, small ungulate carcasses. Moreover, they had at least occasional access to the fleshed remains of larger, wildebeest-sized animals. The overall record of hominin activities is consistent through the stratified sequence – spanning hundreds to thousands of years – and provides the earliest archaeological evidence of sustained hominin involvement with fleshed animal remains (i.e., persistent carnivory), a foraging adaptation central to many models of hominin evolution.

Ferraro, Joseph V.; Plummer, Thomas W.; Pobiner, Briana L.; Oliver, James S.; Bishop, Laura C.; Braun, David R.; Ditchfield, Peter W.; Seaman, John W.; Binetti, Katie M.; Seaman, John W.; Hertel, Fritz; Potts, Richard



Detection of Bartonella spp. in neotropical felids and evaluation of risk factors and hematological abnormalities associated with infection.  


Although antibodies to Bartonella henselae have been described in all neotropical felid species, DNA has been detected in only one species, Leopardus wiedii. The aim of this study was to determine whether DNA of Bartonella spp. could be detected in blood of other captive neotropical felids and evaluate risk factors and hematological findings associated with infection. Blood samples were collected from 57 small felids, including 1 Leopardus geoffroyi, 17 L. wiedii, 22 Leopardus tigrinus, 14 Leopardus pardalis, and 3 Puma yagouaroundi; 10 blood samples from Panthera onca were retrieved from blood banks. Complete blood counts were performed on blood samples from small felids, while all samples were evaluated by PCR. DNA extraction was confirmed by amplification of the cat GAPDH gene. Bartonella spp. were assessed by amplifying a fragment of their 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region; PCR products were purified and sequenced. For the small neotropical felids, risk factors [origin (wild-caught or zoo-born), gender, felid species, and flea exposure] were evaluated using exact multiple logistic regression. Hematological findings (anemia, polycythemia/hyperproteinemia, leukocytosis and leukopenia) were tested for association with infection using Fisher's exact test. The 635bp product amplified from 10 samples (10/67=14.92%) was identified as B. henselae by sequencing. Small neotropical felid males were more likely to be positive than females (95% CI=0.00-0.451, p=0.0028), however other analyzed variables were not considered risk factors (p>0.05). Hematological abnormalities were not associated with infection (p>0.05). This is the first report documenting B. henselae detection by PCR in several species of neotropical felids. PMID:19913372

Guimaraes, A M S; Brandão, P E; Moraes, W; Kiihl, S; Santos, L C; Filoni, C; Cubas, Z S; Robes, R R; Marques, L M; Neto, R L; Yamaguti, M; Oliveira, R C; Catão-Dias, J L; Richtzenhain, L J; Messick, J B; Biondo, A W; Timenetsky, J



Shape abnormalities of subcortical and ventricular structures in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: Detecting, quantifying, and predicting.  


This article assesses the feasibility of using shape information to detect and quantify the subcortical and ventricular structural changes in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We first demonstrate structural shape abnormalities in MCI and AD as compared with healthy controls (HC). Exploring the development to AD, we then divide the MCI participants into two subgroups based on longitudinal clinical information: (1) MCI patients who remained stable; (2) MCI patients who converted to AD over time. We focus on seven structures (amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, and lateral ventricles) in 754 MR scans (210 HC, 369 MCI of which 151 converted to AD over time, and 175 AD). The hippocampus and amygdala were further subsegmented based on high field 0.8 mm isotropic 7.0T scans for finer exploration. For MCI and AD, prominent ventricular expansions were detected and we found that these patients had strongest hippocampal atrophy occurring at CA1 and strongest amygdala atrophy at the basolateral complex. Mild atrophy in basal ganglia structures was also detected in MCI and AD. Stronger atrophy in the amygdala and hippocampus, and greater expansion in ventricles was observed in MCI converters, relative to those MCI who remained stable. Furthermore, we performed principal component analysis on a linear shape space of each structure. A subsequent linear discriminant analysis on the principal component values of hippocampus, amygdala, and ventricle leads to correct classification of 88% HC subjects and 86% AD subjects. Hum Brain Mapp 35:3701-3725, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24443091

Tang, Xiaoying; Holland, Dominic; Dale, Anders M; Younes, Laurent; Miller, Michael I



Earliest holozoan expansion of phosphotyrosine signaling.  


Phosphotyrosine (pTyr) signaling is involved in development and maintenance of metazoans' multicellular body through cell-to-cell communication. Tyrosine kinases (TKs), tyrosine phosphatases, and other proteins relaying the signal compose the cascade. Domain architectures of the pTyr signaling proteins are diverse in metazoans, reflecting their complex intercellular communication. Previous studies had shown that the metazoan-type TKs, as well as other pTyr signaling proteins, were already diversified in the common ancestor of metazoans, choanoflagellates, and filastereans (which are together included in the clade Holozoa) whereas they are absent in fungi and other nonholozoan lineages. However, the earliest-branching holozoans Ichthyosporea and Corallochytrea, as well as the two fungi-related amoebae Fonticula and Nuclearia, have not been studied. Here, we analyze the complete genome sequences of two ichthyosporeans and Fonticula, and RNAseq data of three additional ichthyosporeans, one corallochytrean, and Nuclearia. Both the ichthyosporean and corallochytrean genomes encode a large variety of receptor TKs (RTKs) and cytoplasmic TKs (CTKs), as well as other pTyr signaling components showing highly complex domain architectures. However, Nuclearia and Fonticula have no TK, and show much less diversity in other pTyr signaling components. The CTK repertoires of both Ichthyosporea and Corallochytrea are similar to those of Metazoa, Choanoflagellida, and Filasterea, but the RTK sets are totally different from each other. The complex pTyr signaling equipped with positive/negative feedback mechanism likely emerged already at an early stage of holozoan evolution, yet keeping a high evolutionary plasticity in extracellular signal reception until the co-option of the system for cell-to-cell communication in metazoans. PMID:24307687

Suga, Hiroshi; Torruella, Guifré; Burger, Gertraud; Brown, Matthew W; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki



Effect of contrast leakage on the detection of abnormal brain tumor vasculature in high-grade glioma.  


Abnormal brain tumor vasculature has recently been highlighted by a dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MRI processing technique. The technique uses independent component analysis (ICA) to separate arterial and venous perfusion. The overlap of the two, i.e. arterio-venous overlap or AVOL, preferentially occurs in brain tumors and predicts response to anti-angiogenic therapy. The effects of contrast agent leakage on the AVOL biomarker have yet to be established. DSC was acquired during two separate contrast boluses in ten patients undergoing clinical imaging for brain tumor diagnosis. Three components were modeled with ICA, which included the arterial and venous components. The percentage of each component as well as a third component were determined within contrast enhancing tumor and compared. AVOL within enhancing tumor was also compared between doses. The percentage of enhancing tumor classified as not arterial or venous and instead into a third component with contrast agent leakage apparent in the time-series was significantly greater for the first contrast dose compared to the second. The amount of AVOL detected within enhancing tumor was also significantly greater with the second dose compared to the first. Contrast leakage results in large signal variance classified as a separate component by the ICA algorithm. The use of a second dose mitigates the effect and allows measurement of AVOL within enhancement. PMID:24293201

LaViolette, Peter S; Daun, Mitchell K; Paulson, Eric S; Schmainda, Kathleen M



Abnormal cortical sensorimotor activity during "Target" sound detection in subjects with acute acoustic trauma sequelae: an fMRI study  

PubMed Central

The most common consequences of acute acoustic trauma (AAT) are hearing loss at frequencies above 3 kHz and tinnitus. In this study, we have used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to visualize neuronal activation patterns in military adults with AAT and various tinnitus sequelae during an auditory “oddball” attention task. AAT subjects displayed overactivities principally during reflex of target sound detection, in sensorimotor areas and in emotion-related areas such as the insula, anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortex, in premotor area, in cross-modal sensory associative areas, and, interestingly, in a region of the Rolandic operculum that has recently been shown to be involved in tympanic movements due to air pressure. We propose further investigations of this brain area and fine middle ear investigations, because our results might suggest a model in which AAT tinnitus may arise as a proprioceptive illusion caused by abnormal excitability of middle-ear muscle spindles possibly link with the acoustic reflex and associated with emotional and sensorimotor disturbances.

Job, Agnes; Pons, Yoann; Lamalle, Laurent; Jaillard, Assia; Buck, Karl; Segebarth, Christoph; Delon-Martin, Chantal



Walking abnormalities  


Gait abnormalities ... of how a person walks is called the gait. Different types of walking problems occur without a ... Some walking abnormalities have been given names: Propulsive gait -- a stooped, stiff posture with the head and ...


Early Detection of Abnormal Prion Protein in Genetic Human Prion Diseases Now Possible Using Real-Time QUIC Assay  

PubMed Central

Introduction The definitive diagnosis of genetic prion diseases (gPrD) requires pathological confirmation. To date, diagnosis has relied upon the finding of the biomarkers 14-3-3 protein and total tau (t-tau) protein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), but many researchers have reported that these markers are not sufficiently elevated in gPrD, especially in Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS). We recently developed a new in vitro amplification technology, designated “real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QUIC)”, to detect the abnormal form of prion protein in CSF from sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) patients. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the presence of biomarkers and evaluate RT-QUIC assay in patients with gPrD, as the utility of RT-QUIC as a diagnostic tool in gPrD has yet to be determined. Method/Principal Findings 56 CSF samples were obtained from gPrD patients, including 20 cases of GSS with P102L mutation, 12 cases of fatal familial insomnia (FFI; D178N), and 24 cases of genetic CJD (gCJD), comprising 22 cases with E200K mutation and 2 with V203I mutation. We subjected all CSF samples to RT-QUIC assay, analyzed 14-3-3 protein by Western blotting, and measured t-tau protein using an ELISA kit. The detection sensitivities of RT-QUIC were as follows: GSS (78%), FFI (100%), gCJD E200K (87%), and gCJD V203I (100%). On the other hand the detection sensitivities of biomarkers were considerably lower: GSS (11%), FFI (0%), gCJD E200K (73%), and gCJD V203I (67%). Thus, RT-QUIC had a much higher detection sensitivity compared with testing for biomarkers, especially in patients with GSS and FFI. Conclusion/Significance RT-QUIC assay is more sensitive than testing for biomarkers in gPrD patients. RT-QUIC method would thus be useful as a diagnostic tool when the patient or the patient's family does not agree to genetic testing, or to confirm the diagnosis in the presence of a positive result for genetic testing.

Sano, Kazunori; Satoh, Katsuya; Atarashi, Ryuichiro; Takashima, Hiroshi; Iwasaki, Yasushi; Yoshida, Mari; Sanjo, Nobuo; Murai, Hiroyuki; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Schmitz, Matthias; Zerr, Inga; Kim, Yong-Sun; Nishida, Noriyuki



The Earliest Electrophysiological Correlate of Visual Awareness?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine the neural correlates and timing of human visual awareness, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in two experiments while the observers were detecting a grey dot that was presented near subjective threshold. ERPs were averaged for conscious detections of the stimulus (hits) and nondetections (misses) separately. Our results…

Koivisto, Mika; Lahteenmaki, Mikko; Sorensen, Thomas Alrik; Vangkilde, Signe; Overgaard, Morten; Revonsuo, Antti



Enhanced detection of chromosomal abnormalities in chronic lymphocytic leukemia by conventional cytogenetics using CpG oligonucleotide in combination with pokeweed mitogen and phorbol myristate acetate.  


Reproducible cytogenetic analysis in CLL has been limited by the inability to obtain reliable metaphase cells for analysis. CpG oligonucleotide and cytokine stimulation have been shown to improve metaphase analysis of CLL cytogenetic abnormalities, but is limited by variability in the cytokine receptor levels, stability and biological activity of the cytokine in culture conditions and high costs associated with these reagents. We report here use of a novel, stable CpG, GNKG168 along with pokeweed mitogen (PWM) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) for conventional cytogenetic assessment in CLL. We demonstrate that the combined use of GNKG168+PWM/PMA increased the sensitivity of detection of chromosomal abnormalities compared to PWM/PMA (n=207, odds ratio=2.2, p=0.0002) and GNKG168 (n=219, odds ratio=1.5, p=0.0452). Further, a significant increase in sensitivity to detect complexity ?3 with GNKG168+PWM/PMA compared to GNKG168 alone (odds ratio 8.0, p=0.0022) or PWM/PMA alone (odds ratio 9.6, p=0.0007) was observed. The trend toward detection of higher complexity was significantly greater with GNKG168+PWM/PMA compared to GNKG168 alone (p=0.0412). The increased sensitivity was mainly attributed to the addition of PWM/PMA with GNKG168 because GNKG168 alone showed no difference in sensitivity for detection of complex abnormalities (p=0.17). Comparison of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) results with karyotypic results showed a high degree of consistency, although some complex karyotypes were present in cases with no adverse FISH abnormality. These studies provide evidence for potential use of GNKG168 in combination with PWM and PMA in karyotypic analysis of CLL patient samples to better identify chromosomal abnormalities for risk stratification. PMID:21494579

Muthusamy, Natarajan; Breidenbach, Heather; Andritsos, Leslie; Flynn, Joseph; Jones, Jeffrey; Ramanunni, Asha; Mo, Xiaokui; Jarjoura, David; Byrd, John C; Heerema, Nyla A



Application of the FICTION technique for the simultaneous detection of immunophenotype and chromosomal abnormalities in routinely fixed, paraffin wax embedded bone marrow trephines  

PubMed Central

The use of interphase fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) to study cytogenetic abnormalities in routinely fixed paraffin wax embedded tissue has become commonplace over the past decade. However, very few studies have applied FISH to routinely fixed bone marrow trephines (BMTs). This may be because of the acid based decalcification methods that are commonly used during the processing of BMTs, which may adversely affect the suitability of the sample for FISH analysis. For the first time, this report describes the simultaneous application of FISH and immunofluorescent staining (the FICTION technique) to formalin fixed, EDTA decalcified and paraffin wax embedded BMTs. This technique allows the direct correlation of genetic abnormalities to immunophenotype, and therefore will be particularly useful for the identification of genetic abnormalities in specific tumour cells present in BMTs. The application of this to routine clinical practice will assist diagnosis and the detection of minimal residual disease.

Korac, P; Jones, M; Dominis, M; Kusec, R; Mason, D Y; Banham, A H; Ventura, R A



High frequency of common DNA copy number abnormalities detected by bacterial artificial chromosome array comparative genomic hybridization in 24 breast cancer cell lines.  


Breast cancer is a widespread disease in Japan and across the world. Breast cancer cells, as well as most other types of cancer cells, have diverse chromosomal aberrations. Clarifying the character of these chromosomal aberrations should contribute to the development of more suitable therapies, along with the predictions of metastasis and prognosis. Twenty-four breast cancer cell lines were analyzed by bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). The array slide contained duplicate spots of 4030 BAC clone DNAs covering the entire human genome with 1 Mbp resolution. In all 24 breast cancer cell lines, frequent and significant amplifications as well as deletions were detected by BAC array CGH. Common DNA copy number gains, detected in 60% (above 15 cell lines) of the 24 breast cancer cell lines were found in 76 BAC clones, located at 1q, 5p, 8q, 9p, 16p, 17q, and 20q. Moreover, common DNA copy number loss was detected in 136 BAC clones, located at 1q, 2q, 3p, 4p, 6q, 8p, 9p, 11p, 13q, 17p, 18q, 19p, Xp, and Xq. The DNA copy number abnormalities found included abnormality of the well-known oncogene cMYC (8q24.21); however, most of them were not reported to relate to breast cancer. BAC array CGH has great potential to detect DNA copy number abnormalities, and has revealed that breast cancer cell lines have substantial heterogeneity. PMID:19222606

Saito, Soichiro; Morita, Keiko; Hirano, Takashi



Novel Application of a Multiscale Entropy Index as a Sensitive Tool for Detecting Subtle Vascular Abnormalities in the Aged and Diabetic  

PubMed Central

Although previous studies have shown the successful use of pressure-induced reactive hyperemia as a tool for the assessment of endothelial function, its sensitivity remains questionable. This study aims to investigate the feasibility and sensitivity of a novel multiscale entropy index (MEI) in detecting subtle vascular abnormalities in healthy and diabetic subjects. Basic anthropometric and hemodynamic parameters, serum lipid profiles, and glycosylated hemoglobin levels were recorded. Arterial pulse wave signals were acquired from the wrist with an air pressure sensing system (APSS), followed by MEI and dilatation index (DI) analyses. MEI succeeded in detecting significant differences among the four groups of subjects: healthy young individuals, healthy middle-aged or elderly individuals, well-controlled diabetic individuals, and poorly controlled diabetic individuals. A reduction in multiscale entropy reflected age- and diabetes-related vascular changes and may serve as a more sensitive indicator of subtle vascular abnormalities compared with DI in the setting of diabetes.

Wu, Hsien-Tsai; Lo, Men-Tzung; Chen, Guan-Hong; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Chen, Jian-Jung



Placental abnormalities detected by ultrasonography in a case of confined placental mosaicism for trisomy 2 with severe fetal growth restriction.  


Clinical outcome of confined placental mosaicism (CPM) is varied, from normal pregnancy to intrauterine fetal death. It has been suggested that CPM for trisomy 2 is less likely to cause serious adverse effect on pregnancy. We hereby report a case of CPM for trisomy 2, which presented severe fetal growth restriction (FGR) and placental abnormalities. A 30-year-old woman was referred to our hospital at 17(+2) weeks because of marked FGR. Ultrasonography demonstrated prominent placental hypertrophy with multiple focal defects without any fetal structural abnormalities. Amniocentesis at 18(+3) weeks revealed normal karyotype. Fetal growth rate worsened with gestational weeks, reaching -7 standard deviation at 36 weeks. At 37 weeks, the fetal condition suddenly deteriorated, ending in a stillbirth of a 756-g female baby. Postnatal cytogenetic analysis by array comparative genomic hybridization revealed trisomy 2 of the chorionic villi, and CPM for trisomy 2 was suggested as the cause of FGR and placental abnormalities. PMID:24033883

Nagamatsu, Takeshi; Kamei, Yoshimasa; Yamashita, Takahiro; Fujii, Tomoyuki; Kozuma, Shiro



Detection of High-Grade Lesions on Cell Blocks from Residual Fluids of Pap Smears Diagnosed as Low-Grade Abnormalities: A Preliminary Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the feasibility of the technique of cell blocks (CBs) from residual fluids of Papanicolaou (Pap) smears diagnosed as low-grade abnormalities in the detection of high-grade lesions on biopsies. Study Design: In the present pilot study, we evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of 70 CBs from liquid-based cervicovaginal smears of women with atypical squamous cells (ASCs) of undetermined

Xavier Catteau; Philippe Simon; Jean-Christophe Noël



Abnormal myocardial fatty acid metabolism in dilated cardiomyopathy detected by iodine-123 phenylpentadecanoic acid and tomographic imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radioidinated synthetic fatty acid iodine-123 phenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) has proven useful in the identification of regional abnormalities of cardiac metabolism in patients with myocardial ischemia. The present study was performed to test the hypothesis that the myocardial distribution and turnover of fatty acids, assessed noninvasively with IPPA, are altered in patients with cardiomyopathy. Nine normal volunteers and 19 patients

Valentina Ugolini; Christopher L. Hansen; Padamakar V. Kulkarni; Donald E. Jansen; Marvin S. Akers; James R. Corbett



Risk of Newly Detected Infections and Cervical Abnormalities in Women Seropositive for Naturally Acquired Human Papillomavirus Type 16/18 Antibodies: Analysis of the Control Arm of PATRICIA  

PubMed Central

Background.?We examined risk of newly detected human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical abnormalities in relation to HPV type 16/18 antibody levels at enrollment in PATRICIA (Papilloma Trial Against Cancer in Young Adults; NCT00122681). Methods.?Using Poisson regression, we compared risk of newly detected infection and cervical abnormalities associated with HPV-16/18 between seronegative vs seropositive women (15–25 years) in the control arm (DNA negative at baseline for the corresponding HPV type [HPV-16: n = 8193; HPV-18: n = 8463]). Results.?High titers of naturally acquired HPV-16 antibodies and/or linear trend for increasing antibody levels were significantly associated with lower risk of incident and persistent infection, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or greater (ASCUS+), and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 1/2 or greater (CIN1+, CIN2+). For HPV-18, although seropositivity was associated with lower risk of ASCUS+ and CIN1+, no association between naturally acquired antibodies and infection was demonstrated. Naturally acquired HPV-16 antibody levels of 371 (95% confidence interval [CI], 242–794), 204 (95% CI, 129–480), and 480 (95% CI, 250–5756) EU/mL were associated with 90% reduction of incident infection, 6-month persistent infection, and ASCUS+, respectively. Conclusions.?Naturally acquired antibodies to HPV-16, and to a lesser extent HPV-18, are associated with some reduced risk of subsequent infection and cervical abnormalities associated with the same HPV type.

Castellsague, Xavier; Naud, Paulo; Chow, Song-Nan; Wheeler, Cosette M.; Germar, Maria Julieta V.; Lehtinen, Matti; Paavonen, Jorma; Jaisamrarn, Unnop; Garland, Suzanne M.; Salmeron, Jorge; Apter, Dan; Kitchener, Henry; Teixeira, Julio C.; Skinner, S. Rachel; Limson, Genara; Szarewski, Anne; Romanowski, Barbara; Aoki, Fred Y.; Schwarz, Tino F.; Poppe, Willy A. J.; Bosch, F. Xavier; de Carvalho, Newton S.; Peters, Klaus; Tjalma, Wiebren A. A.; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Raillard, Alice; Descamps, Dominique; Struyf, Frank; Dubin, Gary; Rosillon, Dominique; Baril, Laurence



Persistent homological sparse network approach to detecting white matter abnormality in maltreated children: MRI and DTI multimodal study.  


We present a novel persistent homological sparse network analysis framework for characterizing white matter abnormalities in tensor-based morphometry (TBM) in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Traditionally TBM is used in quantifying tissue volume change in each voxel in a massive univariate fashion. However, this obvious approach cannot be used in testing, for instance, if the change in one voxel is related to other voxels. To address this limitation of univariate-TBM, we propose a new persistent homological approach to testing more complex relational hypotheses across brain regions. The proposed methods are applied to characterize abnormal white matter in maltreated children. The results are further validated using fractional anisotropy (FA) values in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). PMID:24505679

Chung, Moo K; Hanson, Jamie L; Lee, Hyekyoung; Adluru, Nagesh; Alexander, Andrew L; Davidson, Richard J; Pollak, Seth D



Single-subject-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mild traumatic brain injury  

PubMed Central

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of sustained impairment in military and civilian populations. However, mild TBI (mTBI) can be difficult to detect using conventional MRI or CT. Injured brain tissues in mTBI patients generate abnormal slow-waves (1–4 Hz) that can be measured and localized by resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG). In this study, we develop a voxel-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mTBI on a single-subject basis. A normative database of resting-state MEG source magnitude images (1–4 Hz) from 79 healthy control subjects was established for all brain voxels. The high-resolution MEG source magnitude images were obtained by our recent Fast-VESTAL method. In 84 mTBI patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms (36 from blasts, and 48 from non-blast causes), our method detected abnormalities at the positive detection rates of 84.5%, 86.1%, and 83.3% for the combined (blast-induced plus with non-blast causes), blast, and non-blast mTBI groups, respectively. We found that prefrontal, posterior parietal, inferior temporal, hippocampus, and cerebella areas were particularly vulnerable to head trauma. The result also showed that MEG slow-wave generation in prefrontal areas positively correlated with personality change, trouble concentrating, affective lability, and depression symptoms. Discussion is provided regarding the neuronal mechanisms of MEG slow-wave generation due to deafferentation caused by axonal injury and/or blockages/limitations of cholinergic transmission in TBI. This study provides an effective way for using MEG slow-wave source imaging to localize affected areas and supports MEG as a tool for assisting the diagnosis of mTBI.

Huang, Ming-Xiong; Nichols, Sharon; Baker, Dewleen G.; Robb, Ashley; Angeles, Annemarie; Yurgil, Kate A.; Drake, Angela; Levy, Michael; Song, Tao; McLay, Robert; Theilmann, Rebecca J.; Diwakar, Mithun; Risbrough, Victoria B.; Ji, Zhengwei; Huang, Charles W.; Chang, Douglas G.; Harrington, Deborah L.; Muzzatti, Laura; Canive, Jose M.; Christopher Edgar, J.; Chen, Yu-Han; Lee, Roland R.



Diet and the evolution of the earliest human ancestors  

PubMed Central

Over the past decade, discussions of the evolution of the earliest human ancestors have focused on the locomotion of the australopithecines. Recent discoveries in a broad range of disciplines have raised important questions about the influence of ecological factors in early human evolution. Here we trace the cranial and dental traits of the early australopithecines through time, to show that between 4.4 million and 2.3 million years ago, the dietary capabilities of the earliest hominids changed dramatically, leaving them well suited for life in a variety of habitats and able to cope with significant changes in resource availability associated with long-term and short-term climatic fluctuations.

Teaford, Mark F.; Ungar, Peter S.



Structural chromosomal abnormalities detected during CVS analysis and their role in the prenatal ascertainment of cryptic subtelomeric rearrangements.  


Mosaic structural chromosomal abnormalities observed along the trophoblast-mesenchyme-fetal axis, although rare, pose a difficult problem for their prognostic interpretation in prenatal diagnosis. Additional issues are raised by the presence of mosaic imbalances of the same chromosome showing different sizes in the different tissues, that is, deletions and duplications in the cytotrophoblast and mesenchyme of chorionic villi (CV). Some of these cytogenetic rearrangements originate from the post-zygotic breakage of a dicentric chromosome or of the product of its first anaphasic breakage. Selection of the most viable cell line may result in confined placental mosaicism of the most severe imbalance, favoring the presence of the cell lines with the mildest duplications or deletions in the fetal tissues. We document three cases of ambiguous results in CV analysis due to the presence of different cell lines involving structural rearrangements of the same chromosome which were represented differently in the trophoblast and the mesenchyme. Observation by conventional karyotype of a grossly rearranged chromosome in one of the CV preparations (direct or culture) was crucial to call attention to the involved chromosomal region in other tissues (villi or amniotic fluid), allowing the prenatal diagnosis through molecular cytogenetic methods of subtelomeric rearrangements [del(7)(q36qter); del(11)(q25qter); del(20)(p13pter)]. This would have surely been undiagnosed with the routine banding technique. In conclusion, the possibility to diagnose complex abnormalities leading to cryptic subtelomeric rearrangements, together with a better knowledge of the initial/intermediate products leading to the final abnormal cryptic deletion should be added to the advantages of the CV sampling technique. PMID:23922197

Pittalis, Maria Carla; Mattarozzi, Angela; Menozzi, Cristina; Malacarne, Michela; Baccolini, Ilaria; Farina, Antonio; Pompilii, Eva; Magini, Pamela; Percesepe, Antonio



Diffusion Tensor Imaging Detects Early Cerebral Cortex Abnormalities in Neuronal Architecture Induced by Bilateral Neonatal Enucleation: An Experimental Model in the Ferret  

PubMed Central

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a technique that non-invasively provides quantitative measures of water translational diffusion, including fractional anisotropy (FA), that are sensitive to the shape and orientation of cellular elements, such as axons, dendrites and cell somas. For several neurodevelopmental disorders, histopathological investigations have identified abnormalities in the architecture of pyramidal neurons at early stages of cerebral cortex development. To assess the potential capability of DTI to detect neuromorphological abnormalities within the developing cerebral cortex, we compare changes in cortical FA with changes in neuronal architecture and connectivity induced by bilateral enucleation at postnatal day 7 (BEP7) in ferrets. We show here that the visual callosal pattern in BEP7 ferrets is more irregular and occupies a significantly greater cortical area compared to controls at adulthood. To determine whether development of the cerebral cortex is altered in BEP7 ferrets in a manner detectable by DTI, cortical FA was compared in control and BEP7 animals on postnatal day 31. Visual cortex, but not rostrally adjacent non-visual cortex, exhibits higher FA than control animals, consistent with BEP7 animals possessing axonal and dendritic arbors of reduced complexity than age-matched controls. Subsequent to DTI, Golgi-staining and analysis methods were used to identify regions, restricted to visual areas, in which the orientation distribution of neuronal processes is significantly more concentrated than in control ferrets. Together, these findings suggest that DTI can be of utility for detecting abnormalities associated with neurodevelopmental disorders at early stages of cerebral cortical development, and that the neonatally enucleated ferret is a useful animal model system for systematically assessing the potential of this new diagnostic strategy.

Bock, Andrew S.; Olavarria, Jaime F.; Leigland, Lindsey A.; Taber, Erin N.; Jespersen, Sune N.; Kroenke, Christopher D.



Detection of intraoperative segmental wall-motion abnormalities by transesophageal echocardiography: the incremental value of additional cross sections in the transverse and longitudinal planes.  


Because biplane and multiplane transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) are more complex and expensive than single-plane TEE, we performed this study to determine whether the use of multiple single-plane (transverse) cross sections is as reliable for detection of left ventricular segmental wall-motion abnormalities (SWMA) as biplane TEE. We used biplane TEE to acquire nine standard cross sections of the left ventricle in 41 consecutive adults undergoing cardiac or vascular surgery. Six of these cross sections were in the transverse plane (i.e., achievable with single-plane TEE) and three in the longitudinal plane (i.e., achievable only with biplane or multiplane TEE). Each cross section was divided into myocardial segments for analysis. A total of 1810 segments were analyzed by independent investigators using a standardized evaluation system. Seventeen percent of all SWMA detected in this study were in the midpapillary transverse-plane cross section, an additional 48% in other transverse-plane cross sections, and 35% exclusively in the longitudinal-plane cross sections. Thus, most (65%), but not all, SWMA were in cross sections achievable with single-plane TEE. We conclude that the MP-T cross section should be the foundation for assessment of segmental function, but additional cross sections in the transverse and longitudinal planes are required for detection of the majority of segmental wall-motion abnormalities. PMID:8942576

Rouine-Rapp, K; Ionescu, P; Balea, M; Foster, E; Cahalan, M K



Interpretation of serum total calcium: effects of adjustment for albumin concentration on frequency of abnormal values and on detection of change in the individual.  

PubMed Central

Serum total calcium was measured in 1693 patients during a four-month period. We examined the effects of adjustment for albumin concentration on the interpretation of single measurements of serum total calcium and on the variation of series of measurements in individual patients. Markedly abnormal total calcium concentrations--2.75 mmol/l (11.0 mg/100 ml) or more, or 2.00 mmol/l (8.0 mg/100 ml) or less--were found in 115 patients, but only 24 (21%) remained markedly abnormal after adjustment for albumin. Three patients, two with malignant disease and one with primary hyperparathyroidism, had significant hypercalcaemia which was masked by hypoalbuminaemia. The serum total calcium measured on a subsequent occasion had changed 0.15 mmol/l (0.6 mg/100 ml) or more in 60 patients, but after adjustment for albumin this number was reduced to 27 (45%). The within-person standard deviation for serum total calcium was calculated in 26 patients with normal mean adjusted calcium concentrations who had had six or more sequential measurements. The mean standard deviation was 0.148 mmol/1 (0.59 mg/100 ml) and, after adjustment for albumin, this was reduced to 0.100 mmol/1 (0.40 mg/100 ml). We conclude that adjustment of serum total calcium concentration for albumin is essential to detect abnormal values and to assess changes in a value.

Payne, R B; Carver, M E; Morgan, D B



Earliest Recollections and Birth Order: Two Adlerian Exercises.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents two exercises designed to demonstrate the influence of two Adlerian principles on personality. Includes exercises dealing with birth order and earliest recollection. Concludes that the exercises actively demonstrate major concepts for counseling courses in Adlerian psychotherapy. Reports that students rated both exercises highly, with…

Parrott, Les



Chromosomal Abnormalities and Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia is a common and serious psychiatric illness with strong evidence for genetic causation, but no specific loci yet identified. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with schizophrenia may help to understand the genetic complexity of the illness. This paper reviews the evidence for associations between chromosomal abnormalities and schizophrenia and related disorders. The results indicate that 22q11.2 microdeletions detected by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) are significantly associated with schizophrenia. Sex chromosome abnormalities seem to be increased in schizophrenia but insufficient data are available to indicate whether schizophrenia or related disorders are increased in patients with sex chromosome aneuploidies. Other reports of chromosomal abnormalities associated with schizophrenia have the potential to be important adjuncts to linkage studies in gene localization. Advances in molecular cytogenetic techniques (i.e., FISH) have produced significant increases in rates of identified abnormalities in schizophrenia, particularly in patients with very early age at onset, learning difficulties or mental retardation, or dysmorphic features. The results emphasize the importance of considering behavioral phenotypes, including adult onset psychiatric illnesses, in genetic syndromes and the need for clinicians to actively consider identifying chromosomal abnormalities and genetic syndromes in selected psychiatric patients.




Noninvasive Skin Fluorescence Spectroscopy is Comparable to Hemoglobin A1c and Fasting Plasma Glucose for Detection of Abnormal Glucose Tolerance  

PubMed Central

Aim: We compare performance of noninvasive skin fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and hemoglobin A1c (A1C) for detection of abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT). Methods: The NSEEDS trial evaluated SFS, FPG, and A1C in an at-risk population of 479 previously undiagnosed subjects from nine US centers, each of whom received a 75 g, 2 h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Skin fluorescence spectra were collected and analyzed with SCOUT DS® devices. Disease truth was AGT, defined as OGTT ?140 mg/dl. Abnormal glucose tolerance sensitivity, false positive rate (FPR), and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were computed for each measurement technique. Skin fluorescence spectroscopy reproducibility was also assessed. Results: The AGT sensitivity of SFS was 68.2%, higher than that of FPG (thresholds of 100 and 110 mg/dl) and A1C (thresholds of 5.7% and 6.0%). The FPR of SFS was 37.7%, comparable to A1C at the 5.7% threshold (30.7%). Partial ROC areas of SFS, FPG, and A1C were similar for FPRs of 20–50% (average sensitivities of 64.0%, 59.0%, and 68.6%, respectively). The interday coefficient of variation for SFS was 7.6%. Conclusions: Skin fluorescence spectroscopy has similar screening performance to FPG and A1C and is a viable approach for detection of AGT.

Olson, Byron P.; Matter, Nathaniel I.; Ediger, Marwood N.; Hull, Edward L.; Maynard, John D.



New Archeological Evidence for the Earliest Hominin Presence in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Although China is literally at the end of Eurasia, there is increasing evidence that some of the earliest records of hominins\\u000a outside of Africa are from China. Recent work at three archeological sites in southern China provide artifactual evidence\\u000a of hominins in this region near the beginning of the Pleistocene. Renzidong in Anhui Province is a cave site dated to

Ya-Mei Hou; Ling-Xia Zhao


The earliest record of human activity in northern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The colonization of Eurasia by early humans is a key event after their spread out of Africa, but the nature, timing and ecological context of the earliest human occupation of northwest Europe is uncertain and has been the subject of intense debate. The southern Caucasus was occupied about 1.8 million years (Myr) ago, whereas human remains from Atapuerca-TD6, Spain (more

Simon A. Parfitt; René W. Barendregt; Marzia Breda; Ian Candy; G. Russell Coope; Paul Durbidge; Mike H. Field; Jonathan R. Lee; Adrian M. Lister; Robert Mutch; Kirsty E. H. Penkman; Richard C. Preece; James Rose; Christopher B. Stringer; Robert Symmons; John E. Whittaker; John J. Wymer; Anthony J. Stuart



Aurorae: The earliest datable observation of the aurora borealis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Late Babylonian astronomical texts, discovered at the site of Babylon (32.5°N, 44.4°E) more than a century ago, contain what is probably the earliest reliable account of the aurora borealis. A clay tablet recording numerous celestial observations made by the official astronomers during the 37th year of King Nebuchadnezzar II (568\\/567 BC) describes an unusual ``red glow'' in the sky

F. Richard Stephenson; David M. Willis; Thomas J. Hallinan



Ranges of Likely Earliest Crustal Compositions on Rocky Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of exoplanets potentially provides a new range of planetary bulk compositions and conditions. Rocky planets have a high likelihood of having been largely or entirely molten early in their evolution as a result of kinetic energy of accretion, short-lived radioisotopes, and metallic iron core formation. Solidification of rocky exoplanets will follow the same chemical and physical processes as planets in our solar system would, and so models of the solidification of these silicate magma oceans provide some constraints on initial crustal compositions of these various bodies. Estimates of crustal compositions can be matched with the spectra that are eventually expected to be obtained from these bodies. Different initial planetary compositions, magma ocean depths, and planetary masses produce different earliest igneous crusts. By using the range of primitive meteorite compositions from our solar system for the planetary initial bulk compositions, a template for a wide range of bodies is created. Sensitivity analyses of changes to bulk compositions are possible by altering the fraction of individual oxide constituents, such as silica or magnesia. Combining these sensitivity analyses with mineralogies suitable for the bulk compositions provides a method of determining a range of earliest crustal compositions. The wide range of initial bulk compositions produce a relatively small selection of predicted earliest crustal compositions, because of predictable actions such as flotation of buoyant minerals in the solidifying magma, as appeared to have occurred on the Moon. The terrestrial bodies that provide a reference and will be discussed include the Earth, Mercury, Mars, the Moon, and asteroid 4 Vesta. Models of the crust-producing processes calibrated on these bodies in our solar system can then be applied to exoplanets in order to estimate their earliest crustal compositions.

Brown, Stephanie; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.



The earliest record of human activity in northern Europe.  


The colonization of Eurasia by early humans is a key event after their spread out of Africa, but the nature, timing and ecological context of the earliest human occupation of northwest Europe is uncertain and has been the subject of intense debate. The southern Caucasus was occupied about 1.8 million years (Myr) ago, whereas human remains from Atapuerca-TD6, Spain (more than 780 kyr ago) and Ceprano, Italy (about 800 kyr ago) show that early Homo had dispersed to the Mediterranean hinterland before the Brunhes-Matuyama magnetic polarity reversal (780 kyr ago). Until now, the earliest uncontested artefacts from northern Europe were much younger, suggesting that humans were unable to colonize northern latitudes until about 500 kyr ago. Here we report flint artefacts from the Cromer Forest-bed Formation at Pakefield (52 degrees N), Suffolk, UK, from an interglacial sequence yielding a diverse range of plant and animal fossils. Event and lithostratigraphy, palaeomagnetism, amino acid geochronology and biostratigraphy indicate that the artefacts date to the early part of the Brunhes Chron (about 700 kyr ago) and thus represent the earliest unequivocal evidence for human presence north of the Alps. PMID:16355223

Parfitt, Simon A; Barendregt, René W; Breda, Marzia; Candy, Ian; Collins, Matthew J; Coope, G Russell; Durbidge, Paul; Field, Mike H; Lee, Jonathan R; Lister, Adrian M; Mutch, Robert; Penkman, Kirsty E H; Preece, Richard C; Rose, James; Stringer, Christopher B; Symmons, Robert; Whittaker, John E; Wymer, John J; Stuart, Anthony J



Earliest electrocardiographic evidence of myocardial infarction: implications for thrombolytic treatment. The GREAT Group.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--To determine the incidence of the earliest electrocardiographic changes in patients with suspected myocardial infarction and their sensitivity and specificity for predicting the final diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. DESIGN--Retrospective study of paired electrocardiograms recorded at home and on admission to hospital. SETTING--29 rural practices in Grampian and teaching hospitals in Aberdeen. PATIENTS--137 patients participating in the early anistreplase trial in the Grampian region, who received placebo at home and for whom paired electrocardiograms were available. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Classified electrocardiographic abnormalities and diagnosis at discharge. RESULTS--Electrocardiograms were recorded immediately before injection of placebo at home and anistreplase in hospital at median times of 110 and 240 minutes after the onset of symptoms. Definite or probable myocardial infarction was later confirmed in 93 (68%) patients. Of these, 66 (71%) had the same findings on both electrocardiograms of either ST elevation, bundle branch block, or a non-specific abnormality, while 27 (29%) showed a major change of classification between home and hospital recordings; 21 (23%) had ST elevation or bundle branch block on only one of the paired recordings. Although ST elevation was the commonest abnormality in the 93 patients with myocardial infarction, in only 51 was it recorded at home (sensitivity 55%) and in 49 on admission (sensitivity 53%). Of 57 patients with ST elevation at home, six did not have infarction (specificity 86%), while of 51 with ST elevation on admission, two did not have infarction (specificity 95%). CONCLUSIONS--Elevation of the ST segment is a transient electrocardiographic abnormality that has high specificity but low sensitivity for predicting the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction; it is an unsatisfactory precondition for giving thrombolytic treatment to patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction.

Adams, J; Trent, R; Rawles, J



Your earliest memory may be earlier than you think: prospective studies of children's dating of earliest childhood memories.  


Theories of childhood amnesia and autobiographical memory development have been based on the assumption that the age estimates of earliest childhood memories are generally accurate, with an average age of 3.5 years among adults. It is also commonly believed that early memories will by default become inaccessible later on and this eventually results in childhood amnesia. These assumptions were examined in 2 prospective studies, in which children recalled and dated their earliest memories at an initial interview and did it again 1 year (Study 1) and 2 years later (Study 2). Systematic telescoping errors emerged: Children substantially postdated their memories for the same events at the follow-up interview, particularly for memories initially dated from earlier ages. These findings have critical methodological and theoretical implications for research on childhood amnesia and autobiographical memory development. PMID:24588518

Wang, Qi; Peterson, Carole



A method for multi-group inter-participant correlation: Abnormal synchrony in patients with schizophrenia during auditory target detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general linear model (GLM) approach is the most commonly used method in functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis in predicting a particular response. Recently, a novel method of analysis, referred to as inter-participant correlation (IPC), was developed which attempts to determine the level of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) synchrony among subjects. The IPC approach enables detection of changes in inter-participant

D. Kim; G. D. Pearlson; K. A. Kiehl; E. Bedrick; O. Demirci; V. D. Calhoun



Liqui-Prep® versus conventional Papanicolaou smear to detect cervical cells abnormality by split-sample technique: a randomized double-blind controlled trial.  


To assess the diagnostic performances of LiquiPrep® (LP) to detect cervical cellular abnormality in comparison to Papanicolaou (Pap) smear in 194 women with abnormal cervical cytology who were scheduled for colposcopy at the institution between January 2008 and November 2008. The women were randomized to undergo a repeated cervical cytologic evaluation by Pap smear followed by LP, or the two methods in alternating order. The pathologist was blinded to previous cytologic diagnosis and the pair of slides assigned for each woman. Cytologic results from each method were compared to subsequent histopathology. Mean screening time for each LP and Pap slides were 4.3 ± 1.2 minutes and 5.4 ± 1.1 minutes, respectively (P < 0.001). From 194 cases, ASC or AGC were diagnosed in 72 cases (37.1%) from LP and 68 cases (35.1%) from Pap smear. After excluding the ASC/AGC group, the overall cytologic diagnostic agreement between the two tests were 69 of 87 cases (73.6%) while the agreements with histologic diagnoses were 39/87 cases from LP (44.8%) and 41 (47.1%) from Pap smear (P = 0.824). The accuracy of LP was not significantly different from Pap test, 43.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 34.8-52.1%) compared to 44.4% (95% CI: 35.7-53.1%). LP did not have superior performance over Pap test to detect high-grade lesions (? cervical intraepithelial neoplasia II) using ASC/AGC as the threshold with the sensitivity of 70.5% (95% CI: 64.0-76.9%) versus 77.3% (95% CI: 71.4-83.2%), respectively. PMID:20063407

Jesdapatarakul, Somnuek; Tangjitgamol, Siriwan; Nguansangiam, Sudarat; Manusirivithaya, Sumonmal



Who were the earliest humans?, Chris StringerSite: DNA Interactive (  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interviewee: Chris Stringer DNAi Location:Applications>Human origins>our family tree>The earliest humans? Human origins expert Chris Stringer talks about the earliest Homo species and his view of their relationships with apes and humans.



Simple and specific detection of abnormal prion protein by a magnetic bead-based immunoassay coupled with laser-induced fluorescence spectrofluorometry.  


Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), also termed prion diseases, are fatal neurodegenerative conditions that affect both humans and animals. The transmissibility and fatal nature of TSEs necessitate their rapid and accurate diagnosis. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectrofluorometry is useful for obtaining measurements on fluorescence-labeled targets with a high degree of sensitivity. In the present study, we applied this technology to the immunological detection of abnormal prion protein, PrPSc, which is a universal diagnostic marker for TSEs. The assay format consists of a magnetic bead-based sandwich immunoassay utilizing a biotin-conjugated capture antibody and a fluorophore-labeled detector antibody. By using one pair of anti-PrP monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), PrPSc in brain homogenates from various experimental and natural TSEs can be easily detected with high specificity. Furthermore, the assay proved to be applicable for the detection of PrPSc in the lymph nodes from deer with TSE. The sensitivity of the assay was shown to be comparable to standard immunoblotting, but has several advantages over conventional tests, in terms of flexibility, simplicity, specificity, and run time. These results provide an important basis for the development of an early diagnostic test with potential for multi-sample analysis. PMID:15589044

Kim, Jae-Il; Wang, Chuanhua; Kuizon, Salomon; Xu, Jiliu; Barengolts, Denis; Gray, Perry C; Rubenstein, Richard



A method for multi-group inter-participant correlation: abnormal synchrony in patients with schizophrenia during auditory target detection.  


The general linear model (GLM) approach is the most commonly used method in functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis in predicting a particular response. Recently, a novel method of analysis, referred to as inter-participant correlation (IPC), was developed which attempts to determine the level of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) synchrony among subjects. The IPC approach enables detection of changes in inter-participant BOLD synchrony in a manner that does not rely on an explicit model of the hemodynamic activity. In this paper, we extend IPC to the case of two groups and derive an approach for thresholding the resulting maps. We demonstrate our approach by comparing 35 patients with paranoid schizophrenia (DSM-IV sub-type 295.30) to 35 healthy matched controls during an auditory target detection paradigm. Results showed significantly lower inter-participant BOLD synchrony in patients versus healthy controls in areas including bilateral temporal lobes, medial frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, thalamus, insula, and cerebellum. The IPC approach is straightforward to use and provides a useful complement to traditional GLM techniques. This approach may also be sensitive to underlying, but unpredictable, changes in inter-participant BOLD synchrony between patients and controls. PMID:17996465

Kim, D; Pearlson, G D; Kiehl, K A; Bedrick, E; Demirci, O; Calhoun, V D



A Method for Multi-group Inter-Participant Correlation: Abnormal Synchrony in Patients with Schizophrenia during Auditory Target Detection  

PubMed Central

The general linear model (GLM) approach is the most commonly used method in functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis to predict a particular response. Recently, a novel method of analysis, referred to as inter-participant correlation (IPC), was developed that attempts to determine the level of BOLD (Blood Oxygen Level Dependent) synchrony among subjects. The IPC approach enables detection of changes in inter-participant BOLD synchrony in a manner that does not rely on an explicit model of the hemodynamic activity. In this paper, we extend IPC to the case of two groups and derive an approach for thresholding the resulting maps. We demonstrate our approach by comparing 35 patients with paranoid schizophrenia (DSM-IV subtype 295.30) to 35 healthy matched controls during an auditory target detection paradigm. Results showed significantly lower inter-participant BOLD synchrony in patients versus healthy controls in areas including bilateral temporal lobes, medial frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, thalamus, insula, and cerebellum. The IPC approach is straightforward to use and provides a useful complement to traditional GLM techniques. This approach may also be sensitive to underlying, but unpredictable, changes in inter-participant BOLD synchrony between patients and controls.

Kim, D.; Pearlson, G. D.; Kiehl, K. A.; Bedrick, E.; Demirci, O.; Calhoun, V. D.



Mapping the lunar shadow - the earliest solar eclipse maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The English astronomer Edmond Halley (1656-1742) is commonly credited as the first to draw and publish maps delineating the paths of totality for solar eclipses. Halley published such maps for the solar eclipses of 3 May 1715 and 22 May 1724, which were both visible from southern England. In this paper, the author presents examples of earlier maps depicting solar eclipse paths from Germany, the Netherlands and France. The earliest eclipse maps of this kind appear to be those showing the path of totality for the solar eclipses of 23 September 1699 and 12 May 1706.

van Gent, Robert H.


Brief communication: earliest cranial surgery in North America.  


The archaeological evidence of ancient cranial surgery is limited to cases of trepanation and cauterization. I report here on the only known case of cranial surgery in direct association with the osseous image of a non-trauma-induced soft tissue lesion (sinus pericranii). This case, from Alameda County, California (Late Middle Period, ca. 300-500 AD), is the earliest and only definitive evidence of invasive surgery from prehistoric North America. Because this individual presents the only bony evidence of cranial surgery other than trepanation or cauterization, it contributes substantially to our extremely limited understanding of medical practices in preliterate societies. PMID:8644880

Richards, G D



Earliest evidence for commensal processes of cat domestication  

PubMed Central

Domestic cats are one of the most popular pets globally, but the process of their domestication is not well understood. Near Eastern wildcats are thought to have been attracted to food sources in early agricultural settlements, following a commensal pathway to domestication. Early evidence for close human–cat relationships comes from a wildcat interred near a human on Cyprus ca. 9,500 y ago, but the earliest domestic cats are known only from Egyptian art dating to 4,000 y ago. Evidence is lacking from the key period of cat domestication 9,500–4,000 y ago. We report on the presence of cats directly dated between 5560–5280 cal B.P. in the early agricultural village of Quanhucun in Shaanxi, China. These cats were outside the wild range of Near Eastern wildcats and biometrically smaller, but within the size-range of domestic cats. The ?13C and ?15N values of human and animal bone collagen revealed substantial consumption of millet-based foods by humans, rodents, and cats. Ceramic storage containers designed to exclude rodents indicated a threat to stored grain in Yangshao villages. Taken together, isotopic and archaeological data demonstrate that cats were advantageous for ancient farmers. Isotopic data also show that one cat ate less meat and consumed more millet-based foods than expected, indicating that it scavenged among or was fed by people. This study offers fresh perspectives on cat domestication, providing the earliest known evidence for commensal relationships between people and cats.

Hu, Yaowu; Hu, Songmei; Wang, Weilin; Wu, Xiaohong; Marshall, Fiona B.; Chen, Xianglong; Hou, Liangliang; Wang, Changsui



The earliest normal flower from Liaoning Province, China.  


The early evolution of angiosperms has been a focus of intensive research for more than a century. The Yixian Formation in western Liaoning yields one of the earliest angiosperm macrofloras. Despite multitudes of angiosperm fossils uncovered, including Archaefructus and Sinocarpus, no bona fide normal flower has been dated to 125 Ma (mega-annum) or older. Here we report Callianthus dilae gen. et sp. nov. from the Yixian Formation (Early Cretaceous) in western Liaoning, China as the earliest normal flower known to date. The flower demonstrates a typical floral organization, including tepals, androecium, and gynoecium. The tepals are spatulate with parallel veins. The stamens have a slender filament, a globular anther, bristles at the anther apex, and in situ round-triangular pollen grains. The gynoecium is composed of two stylate carpels enclosed in a fleshy envelope, and develops into a "hip" when mature. Since the well-accepted history of angiosperms is not much longer than 125 Ma, Callianthus together with Chaoyangia, Archaefructus and Sinocarpus from the Yixian Formation demonstrate a surprisingly high diversity of angiosperms, implying a history of angiosperms much longer than currently accepted. PMID:19686377

Wang, Xin; Zheng, Shaolin



Improved detection rate of cytogenetic abnormalities in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other mature B-cell neoplasms with use of CpG-oligonucleotide DSP30 and interleukin 2 stimulation.  


Detection of cytogenetic abnormalities requires successful culture of the clonal population to obtain metaphase chromosomes for study, and as such, has been hampered by low mitotic indices of mature B cells in culture. Our study presents data on the improved abnormality detection rate with the use of a CpG-oligonucleotide/interleukin 2 (OL/IL-2) culture protocol for mature B-cell neoplasms, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and non-CLL specimens. The increased detection rate of abnormalities, compared with unstimulated culture and traditional pokeweed mitogen culture, was statistically significant for both CLL and non-CLL neoplasms. For CLL specimens, our data also showed that for cytogenetically visible aberrations, OL/IL-2 was as, if not more, sensitive than detection with interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH). Use of OL/IL-2 allowed a number of abnormalities to be detected, which were not covered by specific iFISH panels, especially balanced translocations. Therefore, OL/IL-2 stimulation improves diagnostic sensitivity and increases discovery rate of novel prognostic findings. PMID:23596118

Shi, Min; Cipollini, Matthew J; Crowley-Bish, Patricia A; Higgins, Anne W; Yu, Hongbo; Miron, Patricia M



The earliest fossil evidence for sexual dimorphism in primates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently obtained material of the early Eocene primate Notharctus venticolus, including two partial skulls from a single stratigraphic horizon, provides the geologically earliest evidence of sexual dimorphism in canine size and shape in primates and the only unequivocal evidence for such dimorphism in strepsirhines. By analogy with living platyrrhines, these data suggest that Notharctus venticolus may have lived in polygynous social groups characterized by a relatively high level of intermale competition for mates and other limited resources. The anatomy of the upper incisors and related evidence imply that Notharctus is not as closely related to extant lemuriform primates as has been recently proposed. The early Eocene evidence for canine sexual dimorphism reported here, and its occurrence in a nonanthropoid, indicates that in the order Primates such a condition is either primitive or evolved independently more than once.

Krishtalka, Leonard; Stucky, Richard K.; Beard, K. C.



Testing microstructural adaptation in the earliest dental tools  

PubMed Central

Conodont elements are the earliest vertebrate dental structures. The dental tools on elements responsible for food fracture—cusps and denticles—are usually composed of lamellar crown tissue (a putative enamel homologue) and the enigmatic tissue known as ‘white matter’. White matter is unique to conodonts and has been hypothesized to be a functional adaptation for the use of elements as teeth. We test this quantitatively using finite-element analysis. Our results indicate that white matter allowed cusps and denticles to withstand greater tensile stresses than do cusps comprised solely of lamellar crown tissue. Microstructural variation is demonstrably associated with dietary and loading differences in teeth, so secondary loss of white matter through conodont phylogeny may reflect changes in diet and element occlusal kinematics. The presence, development and distribution of white matter could thus provide constraints on function in the first vertebrate dental structures.

Jones, David; Evans, Alistair R.; Rayfield, Emily J.; Siu, Karen K. W.; Donoghue, Philip C. J.



The earliest fossil evidence for sexual dimorphism in primates.  

PubMed Central

Recently obtained material of the early Eocene primate Notharctus venticolus, including two partial skulls from a single stratigraphic horizon, provides the geologically earliest evidence of sexual dimorphism in canine size and shape in primates and the only unequivocal evidence for such dimorphism in strepsirhines. By analogy with living platyrrhines, these data suggest that Notharctus venticolus may have lived in polygynous social groups characterized by a relatively high level of intermale competition for mates and other limited resources. The anatomy of the upper incisors and related evidence imply that Notharctus is not as closely related to extant lemuriform primates as has been recently proposed. The early Eocene evidence for canine sexual dimorphism reported here, and its occurrence in a nonanthropoid, indicates that in the order Primates such a condition is either primitive or evolved independently more than once. Images

Krishtalka, L; Stucky, R K; Beard, K C



The earliest known tyrannosaur from the Lower Cretaceous of Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

THE Tyrannosauridae were the dominant large carnivorous dinosaurs in Asia (excluding India) and western North America during the Late Cretaceous period1-3. Most of them are from the Campanian and Maastrichtian ages, and very little is known about their earlier history, although scanty remains have been reported from the early part of the Upper Cretaceous4-7. We describe a newly discovered incomplete skeleton of a large theropod from the Early Cretaceous Sao Khua Formation of northeastern Thailand as an early and primitive representative of the Tyrannosauridae. This new taxon, which is at least 20 million years older than the earliest previously known tyranno-saurids, suggests that the early evolution of tyrannosaurids may have taken place in Asia.

Buffetaut, Eric; Suteethorn, Varavudh; Tong, Haiyan



Plated Cambrian Bilaterians Reveal the Earliest Stages of Echinoderm Evolution  

PubMed Central

Echinoderms are unique in being pentaradiate, having diverged from the ancestral bilaterian body plan more radically than any other animal phylum. This transformation arises during ontogeny, as echinoderm larvae are initially bilateral, then pass through an asymmetric phase, before giving rise to the pentaradiate adult. Many fossil echinoderms are radial and a few are asymmetric, but until now none have been described that show the original bilaterian stage in echinoderm evolution. Here we report new fossils from the early middle Cambrian of southern Europe that are the first echinoderms with a fully bilaterian body plan as adults. Morphologically they are intermediate between two of the most basal classes, the Ctenocystoidea and Cincta. This provides a root for all echinoderms and confirms that the earliest members were deposit feeders not suspension feeders.

Zamora, Samuel; Rahman, Imran A.; Smith, Andrew B.



The earliest mantle fabrics formed during subduction zone infancy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Harzburgites obtained from the oldest crust-mantle section in the Philippine Sea plate (˜52 Ma) along the landward slope of the southern Izu-Ogasawara Trench, preserve mantle fabrics formed during the infancy of the subduction zone; that is during the initial stages of Pacific plate subduction beneath the Philippine Sea plate. The harzburgites have relatively fresh primary minerals despite of their heavy serpentinizations, and show inequigranular interlobate textures, and crystal preferred orientation patterns in olivine (001)[100] and Opx (100)[001]. The harzburgites have the characteristics of residual peridotites, whereas the dunites, obtained from the same location as the harzburgites, provide evidence for the earliest stages of arc volcanism during the inception of subduction. We propose that the (001)[100] olivine patterns began forming in immature fore-arc mantle with an increase in slab-derived hydrous fluids during the initial stages of subduction in in situ oceanic island arc.

Harigane, Yumiko; Michibayashi, Katsuyoshi; Morishita, Tomoaki; Tani, Kenichiro; Dick, Henry J. B.; Ishizuka, Osamu



Earliest evidence for commensal processes of cat domestication.  


Domestic cats are one of the most popular pets globally, but the process of their domestication is not well understood. Near Eastern wildcats are thought to have been attracted to food sources in early agricultural settlements, following a commensal pathway to domestication. Early evidence for close human-cat relationships comes from a wildcat interred near a human on Cyprus ca. 9,500 y ago, but the earliest domestic cats are known only from Egyptian art dating to 4,000 y ago. Evidence is lacking from the key period of cat domestication 9,500-4,000 y ago. We report on the presence of cats directly dated between 5560-5280 cal B.P. in the early agricultural village of Quanhucun in Shaanxi, China. These cats were outside the wild range of Near Eastern wildcats and biometrically smaller, but within the size-range of domestic cats. The ?(13)C and ?(15)N values of human and animal bone collagen revealed substantial consumption of millet-based foods by humans, rodents, and cats. Ceramic storage containers designed to exclude rodents indicated a threat to stored grain in Yangshao villages. Taken together, isotopic and archaeological data demonstrate that cats were advantageous for ancient farmers. Isotopic data also show that one cat ate less meat and consumed more millet-based foods than expected, indicating that it scavenged among or was fed by people. This study offers fresh perspectives on cat domestication, providing the earliest known evidence for commensal relationships between people and cats. PMID:24344279

Hu, Yaowu; Hu, Songmei; Wang, Weilin; Wu, Xiaohong; Marshall, Fiona B; Chen, Xianglong; Hou, Liangliang; Wang, Changsui



Echocardiographic abnormalities following cardiac radiation  

SciTech Connect

Five years or more after receiving cardiac radiation, 41 patients with Hodgkin's disease and seminoma in remission were subjected to echocardiography. The abnormalities detected included pericardial thickening in 70%, thickening of the aortic and/or mitral valves in 28%, right ventricular dilatation or hypokinesis in 39%, and left ventricular dysfunction in 39%. In the 23 patients treated by an upper mantle technique with shielding, the incidence of right ventricular abnormalities and valvular thickening was significantly lower than in patients treated with modified techniques. Although no symptoms were attributable to the observed abnormalities, longer follow-up time may reveal important functional implications.

Perrault, D.J.; Levy, M.; Herman, J.D.; Burns, R.J.; Bar Shlomo, B.Z.; Druck, M.N.; Wu, W.Q.; McLaughlin, P.R.; Gilbert, B.W.



Abnormal Uterine Bleeding  


MENU Return to Web version Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Overview What is abnormal uterine bleeding? Abnormal uterine bleeding is any bleeding from the uterus (through your vagina) other than your normal monthly ...


The first skull of the earliest giant panda  

PubMed Central

Fossils of the giant panda Ailuropoda (Order Carnivora, Family Ursidae) are largely isolated teeth, mandibles, and a few rare skulls, known from the late Pliocene to late Pleistocene in China and Southeast Asia. Much of this material represents a Pleistocene chronospecies, Ailuropoda baconi, an animal larger than the living giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca. The earliest certain record of Ailuropoda is the late Pliocene chronospecies, Ailuropoda microta, smaller than either A. baconi or A. melanoleuca, and previously known only from teeth and a few mandibles from karst caves in south China. Here, we report the discovery of the first skull of A. microta, establishing its cranial anatomy and demonstrating that the specialized cranial and dental adaptations of Ailuropoda for durophagous feeding behavior centered on bamboo were already evident in this late Pliocene species. The skull from Jinyin cave (Guangxi) and dental remains from other karst localities in southeastern China show that Ailuropoda microta occupied south China from ?2 to 2.4 Myr ago after a marked global climatic deterioration. Dental and basicranial anatomy indicate a less specialized morphology early in the history of the lineage and support derivation of the giant panda from the Miocene Asian ursid Ailurarctos

Jin, Changzhu; Ciochon, Russell L.; Dong, Wei; Hunt, Robert M.; Liu, Jinyi; Jaeger, Marc; Zhu, Qizhi



Exploring the Earliest Stage of Low-Mass Star Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors present a series of studies to shed light on the earliest stage of low-mass star formation process. Their intensive survey has identified such a protostar GF 9-2 that shows the H2O maser emission, a clear signpost of protostar formation, but does not have well-developed molecular outflow. These facts indicate that the natal cloud core harboring the protostar still retains some information of the initial conditions for gravitational collapse as the core has not being dispersed by the onset of outflow. Combining single-dish radio telescope and interferometric data, they have obtained high-fidelity 3-dimensional images, yielding to analyze the density and velocity structure of the core from 0.1pc down to 0.003pc in size. Furthermore, they found clear spectroscopic evidence for the presence of infall toward the central protostar. These results have a reasonable consistency with the initial conditions given in one of the extreme paradigms for core collapse scenario - the runaway collapse solution - debated over the four decades. The authors believe that the core has been undergoing gravitational collapse for about 5,000 yrs since the protostar formation and that the gravitationally unstable state initiated the collapse 2 ×105 yrs (the free-fall time) ago.

Furuya, Ray S.



The earliest pterodactyloid and the origin of the group.  


The pterosaurs were a diverse group of Mesozoic flying reptiles that underwent a body plan reorganization, adaptive radiation, and replacement of earlier forms midway through their long history, resulting in the origin of the Pterodactyloidea, a highly specialized clade containing the largest flying organisms. The sudden appearance and large suite of morphological features of this group were suggested to be the result of it originating in terrestrial environments, where the pterosaur fossil record has traditionally been poor [1, 2], and its many features suggested to be adaptations to those environments [1, 2]. However, little evidence has been available to test this hypothesis, and it has not been supported by previous phylogenies or early pterodactyloid discoveries. We report here the earliest pterosaur with the diagnostic elongate metacarpus of the Pterodactyloidea, Kryptodrakon progenitor, gen. et sp. nov., from the terrestrial Middle-Upper Jurassic boundary of Northwest China. Phylogenetic analysis confirms this species as the basalmost pterodactyloid and reconstructs a terrestrial origin and a predominantly terrestrial history for the Pterodactyloidea. Phylogenetic comparative methods support this reconstruction by means of a significant correlation between wing shape and environment also found in modern flying vertebrates, indicating that pterosaurs lived in or were at least adapted to the environments in which they were preserved. PMID:24768054

Andres, Brian; Clark, James; Xu, Xing



Fixational Eye Movements in the Earliest Stage of Metazoan Evolution  

PubMed Central

All known photoreceptor cells adapt to constant light stimuli, fading the retinal image when exposed to an immobile visual scene. Counter strategies are therefore necessary to prevent blindness, and in mammals this is accomplished by fixational eye movements. Cubomedusae occupy a key position for understanding the evolution of complex visual systems and their eyes are assumedly subject to the same adaptive problems as the vertebrate eye, but lack motor control of their visual system. The morphology of the visual system of cubomedusae ensures a constant orientation of the eyes and a clear division of the visual field, but thereby also a constant retinal image when exposed to stationary visual scenes. Here we show that bell contractions used for swimming in the medusae refresh the retinal image in the upper lens eye of Tripedalia cystophora. This strongly suggests that strategies comparable to fixational eye movements have evolved at the earliest metazoan stage to compensate for the intrinsic property of the photoreceptors. Since the timing and amplitude of the rhopalial movements concur with the spatial and temporal resolution of the eye it circumvents the need for post processing in the central nervous system to remove image blur.

Bielecki, Jan; H?eg, Jens T.; Garm, Anders



Aurorae: The earliest datable observation of the aurora borealis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Late Babylonian astronomical texts, discovered at the site of Babylon (32.5°N, 44.4°E) more than a century ago, contain what is probably the earliest reliable account of the aurora borealis. A clay tablet recording numerous celestial observations made by the official astronomers during the 37th year of King Nebuchadnezzar II (568/567 BC) describes an unusual ``red glow'' in the sky at night; the exact date of this observation corresponds to the night of 12/13 March in 567 BC. The most likely interpretation of the phenomenon is an auroral display. This event occurred several centuries before the first clearly identifiable observation of the aurora from elsewhere in the world, namely China in 193 BC. The Babylonian auroral observation is remarkable in the sense that it is one of a series of carefully recorded astronomical observations, for each of which the year, month and day are known precisely. This observation occurred at a time when the geomagnetic (dipole) latitude of Babylon was about 41°N compared with the present value of 27.5°N, suggesting a higher auroral incidence at Babylon in 567 BC than at present.

Stephenson, F. Richard; Willis, David M.; Hallinan, Thomas J.



Buried Impact Basins and the Earliest History of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The "Quasi-Circular Depressions" (QCDs) seen in MOLA data which have little or no visible appearance in image data have been interpreted as buried impact basins on Mars. These have important implications for the age of the lowland crust, what mechanisms could produce the crustal dichotomy, and the existence of crust older than the oldest observed surface units on Mars. A global survey of large QCDs using high resolution MOLA data now available has provided further details of the earliest history of Mars. The lowlands are of Early Noachian age, slightly younger than the buried highlands and definitely older than the exposed highland surface. A depopulation of large visible basins at diameters 800 to 1300 km suggests some global scale event early in martian history, maybe related to the formation of the lowlands and/or the development of Tharsis. A suggested early disappearance of the global magnetic field can be placed within a temporal sequence of formation of the very largest impact basins.

Frey, H. V.



Ediacaran matground ecology persisted into the earliest Cambrian.  


The beginning of the Cambrian was a time of marked biological and sedimentary changes, including the replacement of Proterozoic-style microbial matgrounds by Phanerozoic-style bioturbated mixgrounds. Here we show that Ediacaran-style matground-based ecology persisted into the earliest Cambrian. Our study in the type section of the basal Cambrian in Fortune Head, Newfoundland, Canada reveals widespread microbially induced sedimentary structures and typical Ediacaran-type matground ichnofossils. Ediacara-type body fossils are present immediately below the top of the Ediacaran but are strikingly absent from the overlying Cambrian succession, despite optimal conditions for their preservation, and instead the microbial surfaces are marked by the appearance of the first abundant arthropod scratch marks in Earth evolution. These features imply that the disappearance of the Ediacara biota represents an abrupt evolutionary event that corresponded with the appearance of novel bilaterian clades, rather than a fading away owing to the gradual elimination of conditions appropriate for Ediacaran preservation. PMID:24675373

Buatois, Luis A; Narbonne, Guy M; Mángano, M Gabriela; Carmona, Noelia B; Myrow, Paul



Earliest Example of a Giant Monitor Lizard (Varanus, Varanidae, Squamata)  

PubMed Central

Background Varanidae is a clade of tiny (<20 mm pre-caudal length [PCL]) to giant (>600 mm PCL) lizards first appearing in the Cretaceous. True monitor lizards (Varanus) are known from diagnostic remains beginning in the early Miocene (Varanus rusingensis), although extremely fragmentary remains have been suggested as indicating earlier Varanus. The paleobiogeographic history of Varanus and timing for origin of its gigantism remain uncertain. Methodology/Principal Findings A new Varanus from the Mytilini Formation (Turolian, Miocene) of Samos, Greece is described. The holotype consists of a partial skull roof, right side of a braincase, partial posterior mandible, fragment of clavicle, and parts of six vertebrae. A cladistic analysis including 83 taxa coded for 5733 molecular and 489 morphological characters (71 previously unincluded) demonstrates that the new fossil is a nested member of an otherwise exclusively East Asian Varanus clade. The new species is the earliest-known giant (>600 mm PCL) terrestrial lizard. Importantly, this species co-existed with a diverse continental mammalian fauna. Conclusions/Significance The new monitor is larger (longer) than 99% of known fossil and living lizards. Varanus includes, by far, the largest limbed squamates today. The only extant non-snake squamates that approach monitors in maximum size are the glass-snake Pseudopus and the worm-lizard Amphisbaena. Mosasauroids were larger, but exclusively marine, and occurred only during the Late Cretaceous. Large, extant, non-Varanus, lizards are limbless and/or largely isolated from mammalian competitors. By contrast, our new Varanus achieved gigantism in a continental environment populated by diverse eutherian mammal competitors.

Conrad, Jack L.; Balcarcel, Ana M.; Mehling, Carl M.



The earliest mantle fabrics formed during subduction zone infancy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Harzburgites obtained from the oldest crust-mantle section in the Philippine Sea plate along the landward slope of the southern Izu-Ogasawara Trench in Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc, that explored by Dive 7K417 of the ROV Kaiko 7000II during R/V Kairei cruise KR08-07, and Dredge 31 of R/V Hakuho-Maru cruise KH07-02, operated by the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology. Harzburgites preserve mantle fabrics formed during the infancy of the subduction zone; that is during the initial stages of Pacific plate subduction beneath the Philippine Sea plate. The main constituent minerals of harzburgites are olivine (15.6%), orthopyroxene (Opx; 13.1%) and spinel (0.5%), along with serpentine (70.8%) as a secondary mineral. Microstructure shows inequigranular interlobate (or protogranular) textures. There is no secondary deformation such as porphyroclastic or fine-grained textures. The secondary serpentine shows undeformed mesh texture in the harzburgites. Harzburgites have crystal preferred orientation patterns in olivine (001)[100] and Opx (100)[001]. The mineral chemistry in harzburgites have high olivine forsterite (90.6-92.1 mol.%) and NiO (~0.4 wt%) contents, low Opx Al2O3 (<~1.5 wt%) and Na2O (<0.03 wt%), and high spinel Cr# (65-67). This has the characteristics of residual peridotites, whereas the dunites, obtained from the same location as the harzburgites, provide evidence for the earliest stages of arc volcanism during the inception of subduction. Therefore, we propose that the (001)[100] olivine patterns began forming in immature fore-arc mantle with an increase in slab-derived hydrous fluids during the initial stages of subduction in in situ oceanic island arc.

Harigane, Y.; Michibayashi, K.; Morishita, T.; Tani, K.; Dick, H. J.; Ishizuka, O.



Using the Earliest School Recollection as One Method for Identifying a Student's Behavior Patterns at School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The researchers devised a system for classifying earliest school recollections (ESRs). To determine the validity of this system, judges classified 100 third- and fourth-grade public school students according to their earliest school recollections. A statistically significant agreement was found between judges' and teachers' classifications of…

Roth, Henry J.; Ward-Alexander, Lucia A.



Adults' reports of their earliest memories: Consistency in events, ages, and narrative characteristics over time.  


Earliest memories have been of interest since the late 1800s, when it was first noted that most adults do not have memories from the first years of life (so-called childhood amnesia). Several characteristics of adults' earliest memories have been investigated, including emotional content, the perspective from which they are recalled, and vividness. The focus of the present research was a feature of early memories heretofore relatively neglected in the literature, namely, their consistency. Adults reported their earliest memories 2-4 times over a 4-year period. Reports of earliest memories were highly consistent in the events identified as the bases for earliest memories, the reported age at the time of the event, and in terms of qualities of the narrative descriptions. These findings imply stability in the boundary that marks the offset of childhood amnesia, as well as in the beginning of a continuous sense of self over time. PMID:24836979

Bauer, Patricia J; Tasdemir-Ozdes, Aylin; Larkina, Marina



Detection of numerical chromosomal abnormalities (chr. 1 and 18) before and after photodynamic therapy of human bladder carcinoma cells in vitro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of nonradioactive in situ hybridization with chromosome-specific probes for cytogenetic analysis has increased significantly in recent years. In the field of photodynamic therapy (PDT) the hypothesis is that after PDT the remaining viable malignant cells are potentially metastatic cells. Therefore, we performed in vitro experiments on human bladder carcinoma cells to evaluate numerical chromosomal abnormalities before and after PDT. The possible genotoxic effect of PDT with porphycene (AamTPPn) appears to be small based on criteria such as numerical chromosomal abnormalities for chromosome 1 and 18.

Bachor, Ruediger; Reich, Ella D.; Kleinschmidt, Klaus; Hautmann, Richard E.



Ichnotaxonomy of the Laetoli trackways: The earliest hominin footprints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At 3.6 Ma, the Laetoli Pliocene hominin trackways are the earliest direct evidence of hominin bipedalism. Three decades since their discovery, not only is the question of their attribution still discussed, but marked differences in interpretation concerning the footprints' qualitative features and the inferred nature of the early hominin foot morphology remain. Here, we establish a novel ichnotaxon, Praehominipes laetoliensis, for these tracks and clarify the distinctions of these footprints from those of later hominins, especially modern humans. We also contrast hominin, human, and ape footprints to establish morphological features of these footprints correlated with a midtarsal break versus a stiff longitudinal arch. Original photos, including stereo photographs, and casts of footprints from the 1978 Laetoli excavation, confirm midtarsal flexibility, and repeatedly indicate an associated midfoot pressure ridge. In contrast, the modern human footprint reflects the derived arched-foot architecture, combined with a stiff-legged striding gait. Fossilized footprints of unshod modern human pedestrians in Hawaii and Nicaragua unambiguously illustrate these contrasts. Some points of comparisons with ape footprints are complicated by a variable hallucal position and the distinct manner of ape facultative bipedalism. In contrast to the comparatively rigid platform of the modern human foot, midtarsal flexibility is present in the chimpanzee foot. In ape locomotion, flexion at the transverse tarsal joint, referred to as the "midtarsal break," uncouples the respective functions of the prehensile forefoot and the propulsive hindfoot during grasp-climbing. At some point after the transition to habitual bipedalism, these grasp-climb adaptations, presumed to be present in the last common ancestor of apes and humans, were initially compromised by the loss of divergence of the hallux. An analogous trajectory is evident along an array of increasingly terrestrial extant ape species. However, a flexible midfoot was retained, presumably to spare lateral toes from bending stresses by concentrating push-off from the forefoot, beneath the metatarsals. Only later did the evolution of the longitudinal arch permit increased mechanical advantage of the plantarflexors for speed and improved economy of endurance distance walking and running.

Meldrum, D. J.; Lockley, Martin G.; Lucas, Spencer G.; Musiba, Charles



ESA on the trail of the earliest stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

hi-res Size hi-res: 3054 kb Credits: NASA Simulated image of the distant Universe as seen by JWST This is a simulated image showing the abilities of the NGST. Compared to the Hubble Space Telescope the NGST will improve our 'sight' considerably. Artist's impression of JWST hi-res Size hi-res: 3960 kb Credits: ESA Artist's impression of JWST Image shows an artist's impression of the selected design for the JWST spacecraft. Northrop Grumman and Ball Aerospace are the prime contractors for JWST. Gamma-ray burst as seen by Integral Credits: ESA. Original image by the Integral IBIS team. Image processing by ESA/ECF Gamma-ray burst as seen by Integral A gamma-ray burst seen by ESA's Integral satellite. This picture was taken using the Imager on Board the Integral Satellite (IBIS). Astronomers suspect that some gamma-ray bursts are the explosions of individual population III stars. Astronomers know they must have been out there: only in this way could they solve the riddle of the origin and composition of stars in today's Universe. A couple of ESA missions will help astronomers search for this elusive population. When the Universe formed, there was just hydrogen and helium. Chemical elements such as oxygen, carbon, iron and so on were forged later, in the nuclear furnaces at the hearts of stars and then cast into space at the end of the star's life. Astronomers call everything that is heavier than helium a 'metal'. All stars we can observe today contain metals. The youngest contain the most metals and astronomers call them population I stars. The oldest contain only some metals and astronomers call these population II stars. Where do these metals come from? Astronomers have theorised that a first generation of stars, which they call population III, must have existed in the early Universe. This first generation of stars must have formed using only hydrogen and helium, the only elements available in the early cosmic history. After living for 'just' a million years, they extinguished themselves, showering the metals they had created into space. The heavy elements lay dormant until they were collected into the next generation of stars and the first galaxies, sometime later. The theory of population III stars suggests they are long dead in the local Universe. How can their existence then be confirmed? In the most distant realms of space, where what we observe is either very old or even extinguished, some signs of their existence might still be glimpsed. One mission that will help considerably in the search is the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), ESA's collaboration with NASA to replace the Hubble Space Telescope with a six-metre-class telescope. There are many questions for it to answer. "We don't really know what the first generation of stars are like and we don't know where exactly they formed," says Peter Jakobsen, ESA's Study Scientist for the JWST. "One of the biggest questions is whether the first stars formed in clumps or as isolated individuals. If they clumped, we'll be able to see them much more easily and further away than if they didn't." Even if JWST does not see the first stars directly, it will give astronomers an invaluable clue about how far away they are, allowing them to refine their theories. New research suggests that even if the population III stars are extremely far away, JWST would see them exploding as supernovae, at the ends of their individual lives. In addition, some astronomers suspect that some gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are created by the death of these earliest stars. Ironically, we may therefore already be seeing the farewell detonation of some population III stars. ESA's new gamma-ray observatory, Integral, is perfectly placed to shed light on these violent events. It will indirectly help provide clues about population III stars. "I suspect that in the next ten years, we'll know the answers to at least some of our questions about what went on in the early Universe," says Jakobsen. This includes learning more about the existence and role of the earliest stars. JWST The Ja



Skeletal limb abnormalities  


Skeletal limb abnormalities refer to a variety of bone structure problems in the arms or legs (limbs). ... Skeletal limb abnormalities are most often used to describe defects in the legs or arms that are ...


Immune abnormalities in myelodysplastic syndromes.  

PubMed Central

The immune states of 52 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes classified according to the FAB criteria were studied. Serum electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis, direct Coombs test, and tests for organ and non-organ specific antibodies were performed. Twenty six patients had immunoglobulin abnormalities: six (11.5%) had monoclonal gammopathy; 17 (32.6%) had polyclonal increases in serum immunoglobulin; while in three (5.8%) immunoglobulin concentrations were decreased. The distribution of immunoglobulin abnormalities among the five myelodysplastic syndrome subtypes was fairly uniform. Results of direct Coombs test were negative in all cases. Organ specific antibodies were not detected in any of the patients tested, although two patients were found positive for antinuclear antibodies. The presence of immunoglobulin abnormalities indicates an involvement of the lymphoplasmatic system in myelodysplastic syndromes.

Economopoulos, T; Economidou, J; Giannopoulos, G; Terzoglou, C; Papageorgiou, E; Dervenoulas, J; Arseni, P; Hadjioannou, J; Raptis, S



The origin of the genetic code and of the earliest oligopeptides.  


Reconstruction of the earliest proteins in the ancient binary alphabet [glycine family G, alanine family A] leads to repeats of G alternating with repeats of A. In addition, omnipresent motifs can be assembled in two of the earliest genes involved in energy supply, crucial for Life, i.e. ATP/GTP binding and ATPase activity. They are an almost perfect match to the alternating G and A and are complementary to each other. PMID:19524038

Trifonov, Edward N



Advances in Understanding Paternally Transmitted Chromosomal Abnormalities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Multicolor FISH has been adapted for detecting the major types of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm including aneuploidies for clinically-relevant chromosomes, chromosomal aberrations including breaks and rearrangements, and other numerical abnorma...

F. Marchetti E. Sloter A. J. Wyrobek



The natural history of hip abnormalities detected by ultrasound in clinically normal newborns: a 6-8 year radiographic follow-up study of 93 children.  


Ultrasound screening for hip dysplasia or dislocation has revealed a group of children with clinically normal hips, but with abnormal or suspicious ultrasound. During the 3-year period 1988-90, we found 170 children with this combination. We evaluated the natural history of these hips. 93 children were examined clinically and with standard radiography 6-8 years after birth. The center edge (CE) angle of Wiberg and migration percentage (MP) were measured on the radiographs. 87 children had not undergone any treatment, whereas treatment with an abduction orthosis had been initiated at approximately 4 months of age because of persisting dysplasia in 6 cases. All hips were radiographically normal at this follow-up. The mean CE value was 24 degrees (SD 6.5) and the mean MP was 13% (SD 5.2). 73 children had no complaints in their lower extremities, whereas 12 had intoeing gait, 1 had outtoeing gait, 2 had hip or knee pain, and 5 had other complaints not relevant to hip dysplasia. We conclude that infants with sonographically abnormal or suspicious hips, but with normal clinical findings, do not need immediate treatment because spontaneous resolution occurs in most of them. Postponement of treatment in the few with persistent dysplasia does not seem to affect the outcome. PMID:10569261

Tegnander, A; Holen, K J; Terjesen, T



Use of a novel high-resolution magnetic resonance neurography protocol to detect abnormal dorsal root Ganglia in Sjögren patients with neuropathic pain: case series of 10 patients and review of the literature.  


The diagnosis and treatment of patients with Sjögren syndrome (SS) with neuropathic pain pose several challenges. Patients with SS may experience unorthodox patterns of burning pain not conforming to a traditional "stocking-and-glove" distribution, which can affect the face, torso, and proximal extremities. This distribution of neuropathic pain may reflect mechanisms targeting the proximal-most element of the peripheral nervous system-the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Skin biopsy can diagnose such a small-fiber neuropathy and is a surrogate marker of DRG neuronal cell loss. However, SS patients have been reported who have similar patterns of proximal neuropathic pain, despite having normal skin biopsy studies. In such cases, DRGs may be targeted by mechanisms not associated with neuronal cell loss. Therefore, alternative approaches are warranted to help characterize abnormal DRGs in SS patients with proximal neuropathic pain.We performed a systematic review of the literature to define the frequency and spectrum of SS peripheral neuropathies, and to better understand the attribution of SS neuropathic pain to peripheral neuropathies. We found that the frequency of SS neuropathic pain exceeded the prevalence of peripheral neuropathies, and that painful peripheral neuropathies occurred less frequently than neuropathies not always associated with pain. We developed a novel magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) protocol to evaluate DRG abnormalities. Ten SS patients with proximal neuropathic pain were evaluated by this MRN protocol, as well as by punch skin biopsies evaluating for intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) of unmyelinated nerves. Five patients had radiographic evidence of DRG abnormalities. Patients with MRN DRG abnormalities had increased IENFD of unmyelinated nerves compared to patients without MRN DRG abnormalities (30.2 [interquartile range, 4.4] fibers/mm vs. 11.0 [4.1] fibers/mm, respectively; p = 0.03). Two of these 5 SS patients whose neuropathic pain resolved with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy had improvement of MRN DRG abnormalities.We have developed a novel MRN protocol that can detect DRG abnormalities in SS patients with neuropathic pain who do not have markers of peripheral neuropathy. We found that SS patients with MRN DRG abnormalities had statistically significant, increased IENFD on skin biopsy studies, which may suggest a relationship between trophic mediators and neuropathic pain. Given that our literature review has demonstrated that many SS neuropathic pain patients do not have a neuropathy, our findings suggest an important niche for this MRN DRG technique in the evaluation of broader subsets of SS neuropathic pain patients who may not have underlying neuropathies. The improvement of MRN DRG abnormalities in patients with IVIg-induced remission of neuropathic pain suggests that our MRN protocol may be capturing reversible, immune-mediated mechanisms targeting the DRG. PMID:24797167

Birnbaum, Julius; Duncan, Trisha; Owoyemi, Kristie; Wang, Kenneth C; Carrino, John; Chhabra, Avneesh



Urine - abnormal color  


The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. ... Abnormal urine color may be caused by infection, disease, medicines, or food you eat. Cloudy or milky urine is a sign ...


Morphological abnormalities among lampreys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

Manion, Patrick J.




SciTech Connect

We present ten medium-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio near-infrared (NIR) spectra of SN 2011fe from SpeX on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) and Gemini Near-Infrared Spectrograph (GNIRS) on Gemini North, obtained as part of the Carnegie Supernova Project. This data set constitutes the earliest time-series NIR spectroscopy of a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia), with the first spectrum obtained at 2.58 days past the explosion and covering -14.6 to +17.3 days relative to B-band maximum. C I {lambda}1.0693 {mu}m is detected in SN 2011fe with increasing strength up to maximum light. The delay in the onset of the NIR C I line demonstrates its potential to be an effective tracer of unprocessed material. For the first time in a SN Ia, the early rapid decline of the Mg II {lambda}1.0927 {mu}m velocity was observed, and the subsequent velocity is remarkably constant. The Mg II velocity during this constant phase locates the inner edge of carbon burning and probes the conditions under which the transition from deflagration to detonation occurs. We show that the Mg II velocity does not correlate with the optical light-curve decline rate {Delta}m{sub 15}(B). The prominent break at {approx}1.5 {mu}m is the main source of concern for NIR k-correction calculations. We demonstrate here that the feature has a uniform time evolution among SNe Ia, with the flux ratio across the break strongly correlated with {Delta}m{sub 15}(B). The predictability of the strength and the onset of this feature suggests that the associated k-correction uncertainties can be minimized with improved spectral templates.

Hsiao, E. Y.; Phillips, M. M.; Morrell, N.; Contreras, C.; Roth, M. [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 601 (Chile)] [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 601 (Chile); Marion, G. H.; Kirshner, R. P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)] [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Burns, C. R.; Freedman, W. L.; Persson, S. E. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara St, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)] [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara St, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Winge, C. [Gemini South Observatory, c/o AURA Inc., Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile)] [Gemini South Observatory, c/o AURA Inc., Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Kromer, M.; Gall, E. E. E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Gerardy, C. L.; Hoeflich, P. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Im, M.; Jeon, Y. [CEOU/Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [CEOU/Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nugent, P. E. [Computational Cosmology Center, Computational Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road MS 50B-4206, Berkeley, CA 94611 (United States)] [Computational Cosmology Center, Computational Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road MS 50B-4206, Berkeley, CA 94611 (United States); Pignata, G. [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Avda. Republica 252, Santiago (Chile)] [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Avda. Republica 252, Santiago (Chile); Stanishev, V., E-mail: [CENTRA - Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); and others



Detecting Abnormalities in Choroidal Vasculature in a Mouse Model of Age-related Macular Degeneration by Time-course Indocyanine Green Angiography  

PubMed Central

Indocyanine Green Angiography (or ICGA) is a technique performed by ophthalmologists to diagnose abnormalities of the choroidal and retinal vasculature of various eye diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). ICGA is especially useful to image the posterior choroidal vasculature of the eye due to its capability of penetrating through the pigmented layer with its infrared spectrum. ICGA time course can be divided into early, middle, and late phases. The three phases provide valuable information on the pathology of eye problems. Although time-course ICGA by intravenous (IV) injection is widely used in the clinic for the diagnosis and management of choroid problems, ICGA by intraperitoneal injection (IP) is commonly used in animal research. Here we demonstrated the technique to obtain high-resolution ICGA timecourse images in mice by tail-vein injection and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. We used this technique to image the choroidal lesions in a mouse model of age-related macular degeneration. Although it is much easier to introduce ICG to the mouse vasculature by IP, our data indicate that it is difficult to obtain reproducible ICGA time course images by IP-ICGA. In contrast, ICGA via tail vein injection provides high quality ICGA time-course images comparable to human studies. In addition, we showed that ICGA performed on albino mice gives clearer pictures of choroidal vessels than that performed on pigmented mice. We suggest that time-course IV-ICGA should become a standard practice in AMD research based on animal models.

Kumar, Sandeep; Berriochoa, Zachary; Jones, Alex D.; Fu, Yingbin



[Importance of the delayed 123I-BMIPP image for detecting myocardial metabolic abnormality induced by transient myocardial ischemia: a case of vasospastic angina].  


We experienced a case of 64-year-old man with stunned myocardium caused by vasospasm. Without enzymatic evidence of an acute myocardial infarction, the patient developed a prolonged chest pain with ST elevation in the electrocardiogram in the midnight before the day of coronary angiography. Coronary angiogram revealed no significant stenosis and left ventriculography demonstrated akinesis in the apico-anteroseptal region. Although initial images of 123I-BMIPP myocardium SPECT showed no significant decrease of uptake, delayed images revealed marked decrease of tracer uptake in the apico-anteroseptal region in which left ventriculography showed abnormal wall motion. After 3 months of medication, left ventriculography disclosed a marked improvement, and coronary spasm was evoked in the proximal portion of left anterior descending artery after intracoronary ergonovine provocations. At the same time, both initial and delayed images of 123I-BMIPP myocardial SPECT showed no significant decrease of tracer uptake. This patients was considered as a noteworthy case to understand the kinetics and metabolism of 123I-BMIPP in stunned myocardium. PMID:9183146

Tanaka, K; Ito, K; Kinoshita, N; Nakagawa, M; Terada, K; Kajita, Y; Sugihara, H



Detecting abnormalities in choroidal vasculature in a mouse model of age-related macular degeneration by time-course indocyanine green angiography.  


Indocyanine Green Angiography (or ICGA) is a technique performed by ophthalmologists to diagnose abnormalities of the choroidal and retinal vasculature of various eye diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). ICGA is especially useful to image the posterior choroidal vasculature of the eye due to its capability of penetrating through the pigmented layer with its infrared spectrum. ICGA time course can be divided into early, middle, and late phases. The three phases provide valuable information on the pathology of eye problems. Although time-course ICGA by intravenous (IV) injection is widely used in the clinic for the diagnosis and management of choroid problems, ICGA by intraperitoneal injection (IP) is commonly used in animal research. Here we demonstrated the technique to obtain high-resolution ICGA time-course images in mice by tail-vein injection and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. We used this technique to image the choroidal lesions in a mouse model of age-related macular degeneration. Although it is much easier to introduce ICG to the mouse vasculature by IP, our data indicate that it is difficult to obtain reproducible ICGA time course images by IP-ICGA. In contrast, ICGA via tail vein injection provides high quality ICGA time-course images comparable to human studies. In addition, we showed that ICGA performed on albino mice gives clearer pictures of choroidal vessels than that performed on pigmented mice. We suggest that time-course IV-ICGA should become a standard practice in AMD research based on animal models. PMID:24637497

Kumar, Sandeep; Berriochoa, Zachary; Jones, Alex D; Fu, Yingbin



Prognostic impact of coronary microcirculation abnormalities in systemic sclerosis: a prospective study to evaluate the role of non-invasive tests  

PubMed Central

Introduction Microcirculation dysfunction is a typical feature of systemic sclerosis (SSc) and represents the earliest abnormality of primary myocardial involvement. We assessed coronary microcirculation status by combining two functional tests in SSc patients and estimating its impact on disease outcome. Methods Forty-one SSc patients, asymptomatic for coronary artery disease, were tested for coronary flow velocity reserve (CFR) by transthoracic-echo-Doppler with adenosine infusion (A-TTE) and for left ventricular wall motion abnormalities (WMA) by dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE). Myocardial multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) enabled the presence of epicardial stenosis, which could interfere with the accuracy of the tests, to be excluded. Patient survival rate was assessed over a 6.7- ± 3.5-year follow-up. Results Nineteen out of 41 (46%) SSc patients had a reduced CFR (?2.5) and in 16/41 (39%) a WMA was observed during DSE. Furthermore, 13/41 (32%) patients showed pathological CFR and WMA. An inverse correlation between wall motion score index (WMSI) during DSE and CFR value (r = -0.57, P <0.0001) was observed; in addition, CFR was significantly reduced (2.21 ± 0.38) in patients with WMA as compared to those without (2.94 ± 0.60) (P <0.0001). In 12 patients with abnormal DSE, MDCT was used to exclude macrovasculopathy. During a 6.7- ± 3.5-year follow-up seven patients with abnormal coronary functional tests died of disease-related causes, compared to only one patient with normal tests. Conclusions A-TTE and DSE tests are useful tools to detect non-invasively pre-clinical microcirculation abnormalities in SSc patients; moreover, abnormal CFR and WMA might be related to a worse disease outcome suggesting a prognostic value of these tests, similar to other myocardial diseases.



Abnormal menstrual periods (image)  


... may have a variety of causes, such as endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial polyps, uterine fibroids, and abnormal thyroid or ... the endometrium becomes unusually thick it is called endometrial ... Hyperplasia may cause profuse or extended menstrual bleeding.


Tooth - abnormal colors  


Abnormal tooth color is any color other than the white to yellowish-white of normal teeth. ... things can cause tooth discoloration. The change in color may affect the entire tooth, or just appear ...


Detection of Genomic Amplification of the Human Telomerase Gene TERC, a Potential Marker for Triage of Women with HPV-Positive, Abnormal Pap Smears  

PubMed Central

The vast majority of invasive cervical carcinomas harbor additional copies of the chromosome arm 3q, resulting in genomic amplification of the human telomerase gene TERC. Here, we evaluated TERC amplification in routinely collected liquid based cytology (LBC) samples with histologically confirmed diagnoses. A set of 78 LBC samples from a Swedish patient cohort were analyzed with a four-color fluorescence in situ hybridization probe panel that included TERC. Clinical follow-up included additional histological evaluation and Pap smears. Human papillomavirus status was available for all cases. The correlation of cytology, TERC amplification, human papillomavirus typing, and histological diagnosis showed that infection with high-risk human papillomavirus was detected in 64% of the LBC samples with normal histopathology, in 65% of the cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)1, 95% of the CIN2, 96% of the CIN3 lesions, and all carcinomas. Seven percent of the lesions with normal histopathology were positive for TERC amplification, 24% of the CIN1, 64% of the CIN2, 91% of the CIN3 lesions, and 100% of invasive carcinomas. This demonstrates that detection of genomic amplification of TERC in LBC samples can identify patients with histopathologically confirmed CIN3 or cancer. Indeed, the proportion of TERC-positive cases increases with the severity of dysplasia. Among the markers tested, detection of TERC amplification in cytological samples has the highest combined sensitivity and specificity for discernment of low-grade from high-grade dysplasia and cancer.

Andersson, Sonia; Sowjanya, Pavani; Wangsa, Darawalee; Hjerpe, Anders; Johansson, Bo; Auer, Gert; Gravitt, Patti E.; Larsson, Catharina; Wallin, Keng-Ling; Ried, Thomas; Heselmeyer-Haddad, Kerstin



Spitzer and HHT observations of the earliest stages of star formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use Spitzer Space Telescope and Heinrich Hertz Telescope (HHT) observations to study the earliest stages of low-mass star formation. Using spatially resolved absorption features, termed shadows, we study the cold cloud cores where stars form. We study Barnard 335, a prototypical isolated Bok globule with an embedded Class 0 protostar. We discover an 8 mm shadow in the inner regions of the core; using this feature we measure the dense core structure and mass. Using HHT observations we detect a rotating structure, a flattened molecular core, with a diameter ~10,000 AU. The flattened molecular core is likely to be the same structure as that generating the 8 mm shadow, and is expected from theoretical simulations. This structure has not been robustly detected in previous observations although there have been some prior indications of its presence. We study dense starless core structure through longer wavelength observations of shadows; we present Spitzer observations of 8 mm, 24 mm, and 70 mm shadows of 14 cores in total. Combined with HHT observations of 12 CO 2-1 and 13 CO2- 1, we derive core sizes, masses, study core structure, and investigate the collapse status of each core. Our study of starless core CB190 reveals that the core is likely to be stable against collapse if magnetic pressure is present at a reasonable level in the core. Our study of the 70 mm shadow associated with the starless core L429 reveals that this object is very likely to be collapsing. Finally, we study a sample of 12 starless cores selected to have prominent 24 mm shadows. We find that about 2/3 of these sources are likely to be collapsing. Additionally, we find indications that 1/2 of the cores revealed to be collapse candidates show indications of having 70 mm shadows. We conclude that all cores dense enough to produce 70 mm shadows are collapse candidates, and that the presence of a shadow at 24 mm is an indicator that the core is likely ([Special characters omitted.] 60% probability) to be collapsing.

Stutz, Amelia M.


Infantile Amnesia across the Years: A 2-Year Follow-Up of Children's Earliest Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although infantile amnesia has been investigated for many years in adults, only recently has it been investigated in children. This study was a 2-year follow-up and extension of an earlier study. Children (4-13 years old) were asked initially and 2 years later for their earliest 3 memories. At follow-up, their age at the time of these memories…

Peterson, Carole; Warren, Kelly L.; Short, Megan M.



Earliest known proboscidean from early Eocene of north-west Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The earliest known proboscidean remains have now been found at a new early Eocene locality at Brezina in southern Algeria (El Kohol). These new finds, represented by complete skulls and postcranial material, show several unexpected derived characters shared with the modern representatives of the Elephantoidea and the Deinotheriidae, suggesting close phylo-genetic affinities and demonstrating also the great antiquity of the

M. Mahboubi; R. Ameur; J. Y. Crochett; J. J. Jaeger



Maternal Reminiscing Style during Early Childhood Predicts the Age of Adolescents' Earliest Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual differences in parental reminiscing style are hypothesized to have long-lasting effects on children's autobiographical memory development, including the age of their earliest memories. This study represents the first prospective test of this hypothesis. Conversations about past events between 17 mother-child dyads were recorded on…

Jack, Fiona; MacDonald, Shelley; Reese, Elaine; Hayne, Harlene



Radiocarbon AMS dating of the ancient sites with earliest pottery from the Russian Far East  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently obtained radiocarbon accelerator mass spectrometry dates from the Gasya and Khummi sites (lower Amur River basin, the Russian Far East), on charcoal associated with pottery, fall within the interval 10345 ± 110 to 13260 ± 100 radiocarbon yr BP. Now both Russian Far East and southern Japanese Islands present evidence of the earliest pottery-making technology in the world starting about 13 000 BP.

Kuzmin, Yaroslav V.; Jull, A. J. T.; Lapshina, Zoya S.; Medvedev, Vitaly E.



Non-invasive in-situ detection of malignant skin tissue and other abnormalities using portable LIBS system with fiber spectrometer and eye-safe erbium glass laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Portable LIBS, (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) systems are capable of real-time material analysis without sample preparation. LIBS systems focus a high peak power laser pulse onto a targeted material to produce a laser spark or plasma. Elemental line spectra is created, collected and analyzed by a fiber spectrophotometer. The line spectra emission data is quickly displayed on a laptop computer display. "Eye-safe" Class I lasers provide for practical in-situ LIBS applications such as detection of malignant skin tissues without the need for eye-protection goggles. This is due to the fact that Megawatt peak power Q-switched lasers operating at 1.54um in the narrow spectral window between 1.5um and 1.6um are approximately 8000 times more "eye-safe" than other laser devices operating in the visible and near infrared.

Myers, Michael J.; Myers, John D.; Guo, Baoping; Yang, Chengxin; Hardy, Christopher R.; Myers, Jeffrey A.; Myers, Abbey G.; Christian, Sean M.



Highly Sensitive Detection and Genotyping of HPV by PCR Multiplex and Luminex Technology in a Cohort of Colombian Women with Abnormal Cytology.  


Cancer of the uterine cervix (CC) is the second most common cancer in women worldwide. In Colombia, CC is the second most frequent cancer among the entire women population and the first among women aged between 15 and 44 years, with an estimated incidence of 24.9 cases/100,000 inhabitants. The main risk factor is infection with one or more high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types. The aim of this study was to estimate the genotype-specific prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in patients with cervical pathology using the multiplex PCR and Luminex xMAP technology. In addition, we compared genotyping with Luminex xMAP and with Reverse Line Blot (RLB). A cohort of 160 patients participated in the study, of which 25.6% had no cervical lesions, 35% presented cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade I (CIN I), 10% CIN II, 20.6% CIN III and 8.8% CC. The most frequent viral types in all lesion grades were HPV16 and HPV18. Infections by a unique virus were less frequent (19.4%) than multiple infections (80.6%). Single infections were found in 22% of women with no cervical lesions, and in 14.3% of CIN I, 18.7% CIN II, 21.2% CIN III and 28.6% of CC. Multiple infections were observed in 78.0% of cervical samples with negative histopathologic diagnosis, and in 85.7% of CIN I, 81.2% CIN II, 78.8% CIN III and 71.4% CC. All samples analyzed with Luminex xMAP were HPV-positive, while we could detect HPV in only 48.8% of cases with RLB. Of the samples positive by both methods, there was a 67.2% correlation in the viral type(s) detected. In conclusion, Luminex suspension array showed a remarkably higher sensitivity compared with RLB. Multiple infections were unexpectedly common, being HPV types 16 and 18 the most prevalent in all histopathologic grades. PMID:21769306

García, Dabeiba A; Cid-Arregui, Angel; Schmitt, Markus; Castillo, Marcos; Briceño, Ignacio; Aristizábal, Fabio A



Robust nonradioactive oligonucleotide ligation assay to detect a common point mutation in the CYP2D6 gene causing abnormal drug metabolism.  


A new nonradioactive oligonucleotide ligation assay for the detection of a common point mutation in the CYP2D6 gene is presented. The assay takes advantage of simultaneous time-resolved fluorescence measurements of lanthanide-labeled probes and the specificity of T4-DNA ligase in combination with the polymerase chain reaction. This strategy makes it possible to perform the assay using both the wild-type-specific and mutant-specific probes simultaneously, securing an internal control in each reaction. We show that the allele-specific ligation part of the assay can be performed with great accuracy over a wide range of temperatures, salt concentrations, and T4-DNA ligase concentrations. This eliminates the risk of false-positive or false-negative reactions due to variations in these factors. Because the assay is simple to perform, is very reliable, and can be partly automated, we conclude that it is well-suited for analysis in a routine laboratory. PMID:7882517

Hansen, T S; Petersen, N E; Iitiä, A; Blaabjerg, O; Hyltoft-Petersen, P; Hørder, M



AMS 14C age of the earliest pottery from the Russian Far East: 1996–2002 results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new results of AMS 14C dating of the earliest pottery from the Russian Far East, Osipovka, Gromatukha and Novopetrovka cultural complexes (Amur River basin), are presented. Pottery temper (represented by sedge grass) was chosen for dating; pottery-associated charcoal was also dated. The earliest pottery from the Amur River basin nowadays may be dated to ca. 13000 BP (ca. 16000

A. P. Derevianko; Y. V. Kuzmin; G. S. Burr; A. J. T. Jull; J. C. Kim



Models of Abnormal Scarring  

PubMed Central

Keloids and hypertrophic scars are thick, raised dermal scars, caused by derailing of the normal scarring process. Extensive research on such abnormal scarring has been done; however, these being refractory disorders specific to humans, it has been difficult to establish a universal animal model. A wide variety of animal models have been used. These include the athymic mouse, rats, rabbits, and pigs. Although these models have provided valuable insight into abnormal scarring, there is currently still no ideal model. This paper reviews the models that have been developed.

Seo, Bommie F.; Lee, Jun Yong; Jung, Sung-No



Abnormality, rationality, and sanity.  


A growing body of studies suggests that neurological and mental abnormalities foster conformity to norms of rationality that are widely endorsed in economics and psychology, whereas normality stands in the way of rationality thus defined. Here, we outline the main findings of these studies, discuss their implications for experimental design, and consider how 'sane' some benchmarks of rationality really are. PMID:24055170

Hertwig, Ralph; Volz, Kirsten G



Ornaments of the earliest Upper Paleolithic: New insights from the Levant  

PubMed Central

Two sites located on the northern Levantine coast, Üça??zl? Cave (Turkey) and Ksar 'Akil (Lebanon) have yielded numerous marine shell beads in association with early Upper Paleolithic stone tools. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dates indicate ages between 39,000 and 41,000 radiocarbon years (roughly 41,000–43,000 calendar years) for the oldest ornament-bearing levels in Üça??zl? Cave. Based on stratigraphic evidence, the earliest shell beads from Ksar 'Akil may be even older. These artifacts provide some of the earliest evidence for traditions of personal ornament manufacture by Upper Paleolithic humans in western Asia, comparable in age to similar objects from Eastern Europe and Africa. The new data show that the initial appearance of Upper Paleolithic ornament technologies was essentially simultaneous on three continents. The early appearance and proliferation of ornament technologies appears to have been contingent on variable demographic or social conditions.

Kuhn, Steven L.; Stiner, Mary C.; Reese, David S.; Gulec, Erksin



The characteristics and chronology of the earliest Acheulean at Konso, Ethiopia.  


The Acheulean technological tradition, characterized by a large (>10 cm) flake-based component, represents a significant technological advance over the Oldowan. Although stone tool assemblages attributed to the Acheulean have been reported from as early as circa 1.6-1.75 Ma, the characteristics of these earliest occurrences and comparisons with later assemblages have not been reported in detail. Here, we provide a newly established chronometric calibration for the Acheulean assemblages of the Konso Formation, southern Ethiopia, which span the time period ?1.75 to <1.0 Ma. The earliest Konso Acheulean is chronologically indistinguishable from the assemblage recently published as the world's earliest with an age of ?1.75 Ma at Kokiselei, west of Lake Turkana, Kenya. This Konso assemblage is characterized by a combination of large picks and crude bifaces/unifaces made predominantly on large flake blanks. An increase in the number of flake scars was observed within the Konso Formation handaxe assemblages through time, but this was less so with picks. The Konso evidence suggests that both picks and handaxes were essential components of the Acheulean from its initial stages and that the two probably differed in function. The temporal refinement seen, especially in the handaxe forms at Konso, implies enhanced function through time, perhaps in processing carcasses with long and stable cutting edges. The documentation of the earliest Acheulean at ?1.75 Ma in both northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia suggests that behavioral novelties were being established in a regional scale at that time, paralleling the emergence of Homo erectus-like hominid morphology. PMID:23359714

Beyene, Yonas; Katoh, Shigehiro; Woldegabriel, Giday; Hart, William K; Uto, Kozo; Sudo, Masafumi; Kondo, Megumi; Hyodo, Masayuki; Renne, Paul R; Suwa, Gen; Asfaw, Berhane



Fossil Skulls from Dmanisi: A Paleodeme Representing Earliest Homo in Eurasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Plio-Pleistocene site of Dmanisi has yielded much evidence bearing on the morphology and behavior of the earliest hominins\\u000a from western Eurasia. Human remains, animal bones and stone artifacts were deposited at Dmanisi during a brief interval following\\u000a the close of the Olduvai Subchron (1.77 million years ago). The hominin fossils now include an adult braincase (D2280), the\\u000a partial skull

G. Philip Rightmire; David Lordkipanidze


The characteristics and chronology of the earliest Acheulean at Konso, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

The Acheulean technological tradition, characterized by a large (>10 cm) flake-based component, represents a significant technological advance over the Oldowan. Although stone tool assemblages attributed to the Acheulean have been reported from as early as circa 1.6–1.75 Ma, the characteristics of these earliest occurrences and comparisons with later assemblages have not been reported in detail. Here, we provide a newly established chronometric calibration for the Acheulean assemblages of the Konso Formation, southern Ethiopia, which span the time period ?1.75 to <1.0 Ma. The earliest Konso Acheulean is chronologically indistinguishable from the assemblage recently published as the world’s earliest with an age of ?1.75 Ma at Kokiselei, west of Lake Turkana, Kenya. This Konso assemblage is characterized by a combination of large picks and crude bifaces/unifaces made predominantly on large flake blanks. An increase in the number of flake scars was observed within the Konso Formation handaxe assemblages through time, but this was less so with picks. The Konso evidence suggests that both picks and handaxes were essential components of the Acheulean from its initial stages and that the two probably differed in function. The temporal refinement seen, especially in the handaxe forms at Konso, implies enhanced function through time, perhaps in processing carcasses with long and stable cutting edges. The documentation of the earliest Acheulean at ?1.75 Ma in both northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia suggests that behavioral novelties were being established in a regional scale at that time, paralleling the emergence of Homo erectus-like hominid morphology.

Beyene, Yonas; Katoh, Shigehiro; WoldeGabriel, Giday; Hart, William K.; Uto, Kozo; Sudo, Masafumi; Kondo, Megumi; Hyodo, Masayuki; Renne, Paul R.; Suwa, Gen; Asfaw, Berhane



The Earliest Giant Osprioneides Borings from the Sandbian (Late Ordovician) of Estonia  

PubMed Central

The earliest Osprioneides kampto borings were found in bryozoan colonies of Sandbian age from northern Estonia (Baltica). The Ordovician was a time of great increase in the quantities of hard substrate removed by single trace makers. Increased predation pressure was most likely the driving force behind the infaunalization of larger invertebrates such as the Osprioneides trace makers in the Ordovician. It is possible that the Osprioneides borer originated in Baltica or in other paleocontinents outside of North America.

Vinn, Olev; Wilson, Mark A.; Motus, Mari-Ann



From Nothing to Something: The Appearance and Context of the Earliest Archaeological Record  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Before 2.6 million years ago (Ma), no archaeological record has been securely documented, and therefore there is no evidence\\u000a of hominin tool use. Then, at 2.6–2.58 Ma, there is widespread evidence for tool manufacture and use at several archaeological\\u000a sites, with undisputed stone tools and fossil fauna at Gona, Ethiopia. Additionally, the evidence from the earliest archaeological\\u000a sites at Gona shows

Michael J. Rogers; Sileshi Semaw


Earliest magmatism in Ethiopia: Evidence for two mantle plumes in one flood basalt province  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tertiary magmatism in Ethiopia has been linked to the thermal influence of the Afar mantle plume. However, new laser 40Ar\\/39Ar ages for the volcanic succession in southern Ethiopia confirm the presence of two distinct magmatic phases at 45 35 Ma and 19 12 Ma. The earliest phase predates both extension and magmatism in northern Ethiopia by 15 m.y. and cannot

Rhiannon George; Nick Rogers; Simon Kelley



The earliest known pelican reveals 30 million years of evolutionary stasis in beak morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding apparatus of Paleogene birds is rarely well-preserved. Here, we describe the earliest known pelican (early Oligocene,\\u000a Luberon, southeastern France), with its almost complete beak. Morphologically identical to modern pelicans, the new fossil\\u000a already shows several advanced features unique to extant species of the genus Pelecanus. It probably belongs to the lineage ancestral to all or some of these

Antoine Louchart; Nicolas Tourment; Julie Carrier



Chromosomal Abnormalities in Couples with Reproductive Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To determine the prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities in couples with reproductive disorders. Methods: A retrospective study was performed in 939 Mexican couples with reproductive disorders (542 with recurrent fetal loss, 356 with malformed\\/stillborn children, and 41 with sterility) whose karyotype was established on GTG-banded metaphases. Results: A chromosomal aberration was detected in one partner of 52 couples, including a

Juan Pablo Meza-Espinoza; Lilia Ortiz Anguiano; Horacio Rivera



Prenatal diagnosis of limb abnormalities: role of fetal ultrasonography  

PubMed Central

Fetal ultrasonografy is the most important tool to provide prenatal diagnosis of fetal anomalies. The detection of limb abnormalities may be a complex problem if the correct diagnostic approch is not established. A careful description of the abnormality using the rigth nomenclature is the first step. Looking for other associated abnormalities is the threshold to suspect chromosomal abnormalities or single gene disorder. According to the patogenic point of view, limb abnormalities may be the result of malformation, deformation, or disruption. The prenatal diagnosis and the management of limb abnormalities involve a multidisciplinary team of ostetrician, radiologist/sonologist, clinical geneticist, neonatologist, and orthopedic surgeons to provide the parents with the information regarding etiology of the disorder, prognosis, option related to the pregnancy and recurrence risk for future pregnancies. The aim of this review is to describe the importance of detailed fetal ultrasonography in prenatal diagnosis of limb abnormalities.

Ermito, Santina; Dinatale, Angela; Carrara, Sabina; Cavaliere, Alessandro; Imbruglia, Laura; Recupero, Stefania



Liver abnormalities in pregnancy.  


Abnormalities of liver function (notably rise in alkaline phosphatase and fall in serum albumin) are common in normal pregnancy, whereas rise in serum bilirubin and aminotransferase suggest either exacerbation of underlying pre-existing liver disease, liver disease related to pregnancy or liver disease unrelated to pregnancy. Pregnant women appear to have a worse outcome when infected with Hepatitis E virus. Liver diseases associated with pregnancy include abnormalities associated hyperemesis gravidarum, acute fatty liver disease, pre-eclampsia, cholestasis of pregnancy and HELLP syndrome. Prompt investigation and diagnosis is important in ensuring a successful maternal and foetal outcome. In general, prompt delivery is the treatment of choice for acute fatty liver, pre-eclampsia and HELLP syndrome and ursodeoxycholic acid is used for cholestasis of pregnancy although it is not licenced for this indication. PMID:24090943

Than, Nwe Ni; Neuberger, James



Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena  

USGS Publications Warehouse

So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

Neuzil, C. E.



[Detection of chromosomal abnormalities using cordocentesis].  


Four cases of cytogenetic prenatal diagnosis of fetuses with chromosomal aberrations are presented: (1) the Patau syndrome; (2) and (4) the Down syndrome; (3) the Klinefelter syndrome. Cordocentesis has been shown to be expedient for rapid and accurate determination of fetus karyotype. Indicative for cytogenetic examination were ultrasonic data, maternal age, the values of AFP, HGG and nonconjugated estreol in maternal serum. Comparison of ultrasonic examination of fetuses with the data on abortus autotopsia was undertaken. The results demonstrate importance of ultrasonic, cytogenetic, biochemical and morphological research in prenatal malformation diagnosis. PMID:1722186

Zolotukhina, T V; Kuznetsov, M I; Kostiuk, E V; Shilova, N V; Solonichenko, V G



Malicious Hubs: Detecting Abnormally Malicious Autonomous Systems  

SciTech Connect

While many attacks are distributed across botnets, investigators and network operators have recently targeted malicious networks through high profile autonomous system (AS) de-peerings and network shut-downs. In this paper, we explore whether some ASes indeed are safe havens for malicious activity. We look for ISPs and ASes that exhibit disproportionately high malicious behavior using 12 popular blacklists. We find that some ASes have over 80% of their routable IP address space blacklisted and others account for large fractions of blacklisted IPs. Overall, we conclude that examining malicious activity at the AS granularity can unearth networks with lax security or those that harbor cybercrime.

Kalafut, Andrew J. [Indiana University; Shue, Craig A [ORNL; Gupta, Prof. Minaxi [Indiana University



Detection of Chromosomal Abnormalities in Human Sperm.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new technology developed by Rudak, et al. for examining the chromosomal constitution of human sperm through fusion with eggs from the Syrian hamster was used to obtain baseline data on the types and frequencies of aberrations in sperm of normal men. The...

B. Brandriff L. Gordon A. K. Ashworth G. Watchmaker A. V. Carrano



American College of Medical Genetics recommendations for the design and performance expectations for clinical genomic copy number microarrays intended for use in the postnatal setting for detection of constitutional abnormalities.  


Genomic copy number microarrays have significantly increased the diagnostic yield over a karyotype for clinically significant imbalances in individuals with developmental delay, intellectual disability, multiple congenital anomalies, and autism, and they are now accepted as a first tier diagnostic test for these indications. As it is not feasible to validate microarray technology that targets the entire genome in the same manner as an assay that targets a specific gene or syndromic region, a new paradigm of validation and regulation is needed to regulate this important diagnostic technology. We suggest that these microarray platforms be evaluated and manufacturers regulated for the ability to accurately measure copy number gains or losses in DNA (analytical validation) and that the subsequent interpretation of the findings and assignment of clinical significance be determined by medical professionals with appropriate training and certification. To this end, the American College of Medical Genetics, as the professional organization of board-certified clinical laboratory geneticists, herein outlines recommendations for the design and performance expectations for clinical genomic copy number microarrays and associated software intended for use in the postnatal setting for detection of constitutional abnormalities. PMID:21681105

Kearney, Hutton M; South, Sarah T; Wolff, Daynna J; Lamb, Allen; Hamosh, Ada; Rao, Kathleen W



Roentgenologic Abnormalities in Down's Syndrome.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Roentgenograms of 28 patients with Down's syndrome were reviewed with emphasis on all previously reported abnormalities and any possible additional ones. Most of the abnormalities occurred with the same frequency as previously reported, but some less freq...

T. Higuchi W. J. Russell M. Komatsuda S. Neriishi



Shallow marine sedimentary facies in the earliest Triassic (Griesbachian) Cordilleran miogeocline, U.S.A.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Permian history in the Cordilleran miogeocline, U.S.A., ended with an erosional interval of 1 to 22 million years. Previous studies of this event focused on unrepresented time, faunal extinction, regional truncation, or physical evidence in local areas. Another way to view this unconformity is to examine the nature of shallow marine sediments deposited on the erosional surface during the earliest Triassic (Griesbachian) transgression. As part of this study, the rate of the initial Mesozoic flood was estimated by determining the extent of the oldest Triassic conodont biozone within the study area. The calculated rate of transgression over 194,000 km 2 occupied by this biozone, within the 270,000 km 2 depositional area of the earliest Triassic Dinwoody Formation, is orders of magnitude greater than those suggested for eustatic sea-level change related to glaciation or plate tectonic processes. The rapidity of transgression, paucity of reworked material at the base of the Triassic, a general lack of local relief, and nearly conformable relations of Permian and Triassic rocks throughout the region suggest that the Triassic sea advanced across a featureless plain. The earliest Triassic sediments described in this study are restricted to the basal 2 m of the Dinwoody Formation. The generalized geographic distribution of facies within the depositional basin follows: evaporites are restricted to the northeast, Lingula-bearing dolomite characterizes the north-central, sandstone is locally present in the northwest and central areas, the southern part is dominated by shaly-bedded siltstone with some thin limestone interbeds, and calcareous, silty shale is present in the west toward the basin center. The similarity of basalmost Triassic depositional environments to those of the earlier Permian documents tectonic rejuvenation of a previous paleogeographic regime that strongly controlled Early Triassic sedimentation.

Paull, Rachel K.; Paull, Richard A.



Symptom Complexes at the Earliest Phases of Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Synthesis of the Qualitative Literature  

PubMed Central

Objective Understanding the features and patterns of symptoms that characterize the earliest stages of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is of considerable importance if patients are to be identified and started on treatment early. However, little is known about the characteristics of symptoms at the onset of a disease that eventually progresses to RA. Methods A systematic review of qualitative peer-reviewed publications was conducted to identify the earliest symptoms associated with the onset of RA. A total of 1,736 abstracts were searched to identify relevant publications. Twenty-six publications were identified, assessed for quality, and subjected to analysis informed by thematic and grounded theory frameworks. Results Several interacting themes describing the early symptoms of RA were identified, including swelling, pain and tenderness, stiffness, fatigue and weakness, and the emotional impact of symptoms. For each symptom, different and evolving intensities were described; in some cases, patterns of symptom onset and symptom complexes at the onset of RA were highlighted. Importantly, this review has emphasized major deficiencies in the literature. None of the studies reviewed originally aimed to explore symptoms at RA onset (often discussions about symptom onset were secondary to the study's primary aim). Also, many of the articles identified sampled people diagnosed with RA many years previously, making their recollection of symptoms at onset less reliable. Conclusion In order for clinicians to fully understand the earliest phases of disease, the nature of symptoms at onset needs to be understood. The current work represents a useful starting point, but this area needs further qualitative investigation, followed by quantitative explorations of symptom clusters and their associated features.

Stack, Rebecca J; Sahni, Melanie; Mallen, Christian D; Raza, Karim



Epilepsy and chromosomal abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Many chromosomal abnormalities are associated with Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations and other neurological alterations,\\u000a among which seizures and epilepsy. Some of these show a peculiar epileptic and EEG pattern. We describe some epileptic syndromes\\u000a frequently reported in chromosomal disorders.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Detailed clinical assessment, electrophysiological studies, survey of the literature.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  In some of these congenital syndromes the clinical presentation and EEG

Giovanni Sorge; Anna Sorge



Referenceless stratification of parenchymal lung abnormalities.  


This paper introduces computational tools that could enable personalized, predictive, preemptive, and participatory (P4) Pulmonary medicine. We demonstrate approaches to (a) stratify lungs from different subjects based on the spatial distribution of parenchymal abnormality and (b) visualize the stratification through glyphs that convey both the grouping efficacy and an iconic overview of an individual's lung wellness. Affinity propagation based on regional parenchymal abnormalities is used in the referenceless stratification. Abnormalities are computed using supervised classification based on Earth Mover's distance. Twenty natural clusters were detected from 372 CT lung scans. The computed clusters correlated with clinical consensus of 9 disease types. The quality of inter- and intra-cluster stratification as assessed by ANOSIM R was 0.887 +/- 0.18 (pval < 0.0005). The proposed tools could serve as biomarkers to objectively diagnose pathology, track progression and assess pharmacologic response within and across patients. PMID:22003703

Raghunath, Sushravya; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Karwoski, Ronald A; Bartholmai, Brian J; Robb, Richard A



The earliest-generated neurons of the cat cerebral cortex: characterization by MAP2 and neurotransmitter immunohistochemistry during fetal life.  


The earliest-generated neurons of the cat cerebral cortex have been studied here during development using a combination of 3H-thymidine birthdating with immunohistochemistry for the neuron-specific protein MAP2 or for several neuropeptides/transmitters. These neurons are the first postmitotic cells of the cortex, with birthdates during the 1-week period preceding the genesis of cells of the adult cerebral cortex (Luskin and Shatz, 1985a; Chun et al., 1987). However, they are transient and the majority disappear by adulthood (Luskin and Shatz, 1985a; Chun and Shatz, 1989). When autoradiographic birthdating is combined with MAP2 immunostaining during fetal life, the entire population of these early-generated neurons appears to be stained, resulting in labeled bands above and below the cortical plate. The band above the cortical plate (in the marginal zone) contains early-generated neurons with horizontal morphologies, while the thicker band beneath the cortical plate (within the intermediate zone) contains the somata of early-generated neurons and their elaborate processes that are frequently directed towards the ventricular surface. In view of the correspondence between the location of the early-generated neurons and the MAP2-immunostained band beneath the cortical plate, we suggest that this combined approach can be used to define accurately the subdivision of the intermediate zone known as the subplate. The early-generated neurons are also immunoreactive for GABA, neuropeptide Y (NPY), somatostatin (SRIF), and cholecystokinin (CCK) during fetal life. While GABA, NPY, and SRIF immunostaining could be detected by embryonic day 50 (E50), that for CCK was not found until E60. Moreover, there is a relationship between neuropeptide immunoreactivity and location within the cerebral wall. The marginal-zone neurons are immunoreactive only for CCK. The subplate neurons are immunoreactive for CCK, SRIF, and NPY. Most of those immunoreactive for SRIF tend to be clustered within the upper part of the subplate, while those immunoreactive for NPY tend to be located more deeply. Cells immunoreactive for GABA are more uniformly distributed throughout the cerebral wall. These observations demonstrate directly that the marginal zone and subplate contain peptide- and GABA-immunoreactive neurons that belong to the earliest-generated cell population of the cerebral cortex. The presence of these early-generated neurons, which achieve a remarkable degree of maturity during fetal life, suggests that they perform an essential, yet transient, role in the development of the cerebral cortex. PMID:2566660

Chun, J J; Shatz, C J



Notes on historical aspects on the earliest known observations of noctilucent clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper considers historical aspects of the earliest known observations of noctilucent clouds (NLCs). The 1884 and 1885 are discussed by considering important historical citations by the pioneers of the earliest known observations of noctilucent clouds. For the first time in NLC studies, we consider seven major volcanic eruptions: Laki in 1783, Mount St. Helens in 1800, Tambora in 1815, Galunggung in 1822, Cosigüina in 1835, Shiveluch in 1854 and Askja in 1875. These all preceded the catastrophic 1883 eruption of Krakatoa, which despite having a lesser magnitude than Tambora in 1815, had pronounced effects on the atmosphere. These eruptions represent possible triggers for the appearance of NLCs. For the first time, we publish an unknown, in English-speaking literature, historical fact on the first determinations of the altitude of noctilucent clouds made by two Russian astronomers V. K. Tseraskii and A. A. Belopolskii on 26 June 1885, who managed to infer the altitude of the clouds in the range of 73-83 km, that is, for the first time, demonstrating the possible existence of the clouds at great altitudes in the Earth's atmosphere. Moreover, V. K. Tseraskii was the first observer to photograph noctilucent clouds in 1885 or 1886, which is 1-2 yr before the German astronomer O. Jesse, who owns the first published images of noctilucent clouds. The photographs made by V. K. Tseraskii, unfortunately, did not reach us.

Dalin, P.; Pertsev, N.; Romejko, V.



The earliest modern mongoose (Carnivora, Herpestidae) from Africa (late Miocene of Chad)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the earliest modern mongooses of Africa, from the late Miocene (ca. 7 Ma) of the hominid locality TM 266, Toros-Menalla, Chad. The material is based on fragmentary dentitions of three individuals. The main diagnostic feature of the Chadian species is the great development of the shear in the carnassials, which distinguishes the Chadian specimens from all extant herpestids except Herpestes and Galerella. In comparison with most extinct and extant Herpestes, the species from Toros-Menalla differs by a markedly smaller size and, depending on the species, relatively more elongated carnassials, more transversely elongated M1 and more reduced p4. On the basis of a great morphological similarity and the absence of significant differences, we assign our material to Galerella sanguinea; the Chadian finding therefore represents the earliest appearance of an extant species of Herpestidae. This record ties the first appearance of the genus to a minimum age of ca. 7 Ma, which is consistent with the estimated divergence date of 11.4 Ma known from the literature for the species of Galerella.

Peigné, Stéphane; Bonis, Louis; Likius, Andossa; Mackaye, Hassane Taïsso; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel



The Earliest Type Oe Stars: Shattering the Record for the Be Phenomenon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oe stars are massive and likely evolved stars that may be key to understanding aspects of massive star evolution. These are rapidly rotating stars that may have spun up during main sequence evolution and are believed to have formed decretion disks. A decretion disk forms when stellar material is spun out of a star as it rotates near break-up velocity. Oe stars are extremely rare in the Milky Way (MW), where the earliest known Oe star has a spectral type of O7.5. Because weaker stellar winds prevent O stars from losing angular momentum, this model of Oe disk formation predicts that, in low metallicity environments, the weak winds allow larger numbers and frequencies of early-type Oe stars. We test this scenario in the low-metallicity, Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), where we have identified approximately 30 field Oe stars from RIOTS4, a spatially complete, spectroscopic survey of field OB stars. To date, the earliest reported Oe star in any galaxy is type O7.5. However, here we find seven Oe stars of types O5 to O7, thus yielding much earlier type Oe stars than ever before. Therefore, the increase in the frequency of early-type Oe stars in the SMC compared to the MW supports the decretion disk model because the weaker winds in low-metallicity environments allow earlier type O stars to form decretion disks. Funding for this project was provided by NSF grant AST-0907758.

Golden-Marx, Jesse B.; Oey, M. S.; Lamb, Joel B; Graus, Andrew S



The earliest transcribed zygotic genes are short, newly evolved, and different across species.  


The transition from maternal to zygotic control is fundamental to the life cycle of all multicellular organisms. It is widely believed that genomes are transcriptionally inactive from fertilization until zygotic genome activation (ZGA). Thus, the earliest genes expressed probably support the rapid cell divisions that precede morphogenesis and, if so, might be evolutionarily conserved. Here, we identify the earliest zygotic transcripts in the zebrafish, Danio rerio, through metabolic labeling and purification of RNA from staged embryos. Surprisingly, the mitochondrial genome was highly active from the one-cell stage onwards, showing that significant transcriptional activity exists at fertilization. We show that 592 nuclear genes become active when cell cycles are still only 15 min long, confining expression to relatively short genes. Furthermore, these zygotic genes are evolutionarily younger than those expressed at other developmental stages. Comparison of fish, fly, and mouse data revealed different sets of genes expressed at ZGA. This species specificity uncovers an evolutionary plasticity in early embryogenesis that probably confers substantial adaptive potential. PMID:24440719

Heyn, Patricia; Kircher, Martin; Dahl, Andreas; Kelso, Janet; Tomancak, Pavel; Kalinka, Alex T; Neugebauer, Karla M



A latest Pliocene age for the earliest and most extensive Cordilleran Ice Sheet in northwestern Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Klondike gravel is a widespread glaciofluvial gravel marking the earliest and most extensive Cordilleran Ice Sheet (CIS) in NW North America. New terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) burial ages indicate this gravel was emplaced 2.64+0.20/-0.18 Ma (1?). Coupled with previously interpreted paleomagnetic stratigraphy, this numerical age constrains the timing of the earliest CIS to the late Gauss Chron and provides a minimum age for the Upper White Channel gravel, a significant placer gold source in the Yukon. This implies the first CIS glacial maximum pre-dates the maximum extent of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, indicating that during the initial stages of northern hemisphere glaciation, the most extensive glaciers were present in the relatively cold and high elevation northern Cordillera. Our results verify the CIS as a likely source of persistent coeval ice-rafted debris in the northern Pacific, and suggest that the first CIS formed as a response to the establishment of the northern Pacific halocline and emergence of the 41 ka obliquity cycle during the Plio-Pliocene transition.

Hidy, Alan J.; Gosse, John C.; Froese, Duane G.; Bond, Jeffrey D.; Rood, Dylan H.



Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer  

SciTech Connect

To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease.

Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.



The clinical usefulness of electrocardiogram-gated Tc-99m methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile images in the detection of basal wall motion abnormalities and reversibility of stress induced perfusion defects.  


Technetium-99m methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (SESTAMIBI) has been recently introduced to trace regional myocardial perfusion. Beyond blood flow distribution, a quantitative index of regional myocardial wall motion from SESTAMIBI electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated images was obtained, according to the assumption that changes in the detected radioactivity reflect changes in myocardial wall thickness during the cardiac cycle. As a preliminary study, 20 patients with coronary artery disease and regional wall motion abnormalities and 15 normal subjects were studied by SESTAMIBI scintigraphy and contrast ventriculography. Regional wall motion was analyzed by a radial method applied to both techniques. Absolute systolic changes in radioactivity and its ratio to reference normal values (wall thickening index, WTI) were determined in 9 anatomical cardiac regions according to the formula (endsystolic counting profile-enddiastolic counting profile/enddiastolic counting profile) x 100. The overall agreement between radioisotopic and ventriculographic techniques was 88% (158 of 180 segments). Normal, hypokinetic and akinetic ventriculographic segments showed WTI values of 1.1 +/- 0.2, 0.8 +/- 0.2 and 0.4 +/- 0.3 respectively (P less than 0.001). A second clinical study was performed in 25 patients studied by stress/rest ECG-gated SESTAMIBI scintigraphy. The assumption of this part of the study was to investigate if a preserved wall thickening in segments with stress defects might predict those areas with normal resting perfusion. Partial or total normalization of regional perfusion was observed in 90% of segments with a WTI greater than or equal to 0.8. These studies indicate the ECG-gated SESTAMIBI may represent a suitable technique for the simultaneous analysis of flow distribution and function. Analysis of post-exercise ECG-gated SESTAMIBI can predict the reversibility of transient perfusion defects. PMID:1629639

Marzullo, P; Marcassa, C; Sambuceti, G; Parodi, O; L'Abbate, A



Comparison of the detection of HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, and 45 by type-specific DNA- and E6/E7 mRNA-based assays of HPV DNA positive women with abnormal Pap smears.  


This study compares the type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test with E6/E7 mRNA detection assay because of their importance in cervical cancer screening programs. A total of 105 women with positive high-risk Hybrid Capture 2 or Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV screening test and an abnormal cervical Pap smear were enrolled in the study. HPV typing was performed by multiplex real-time PCR (HPV High Risk Typing Real-TM test). HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, and 45 E6/E7 mRNAs were determined by type-specific real-time NASBA assay (NucliSENS EasyQ HPV v1.1). Infections caused by HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, and 45 types increased with severity of cervical cytology (p=0.008). Global positivity of five HPV E6/E7 mRNAs was lower than DNA positivity within women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (p=0.016; p=0.008). High agreement of the tests was found in the groups of women with low-grade (p=1.000; p=0.063) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (p=0.250; p=0.125). Type-specific agreement of both diagnostic approaches was high regardless of cytology. Based on the found differences between HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, and 45 E6/E7 mRNA and DNA positivity, further study is needed to test the role of mRNA testing in the triage of women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance in Pap smear. PMID:24036071

Salimovi?-Beši?, Irma; Tomi?-?i?a, Anja; Smailji, Admir; Huki?, Mirsada



Estimating and adjusting abnormal networks with unknown parameters and topology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The changes of parameters and topology in a complex network often lead to unexpected accidents in complex systems, such as diseases in neural systems and unexpected current in circuit system, so the methods of adjusting the abnormal network back to its normal conditions are necessary to avoid these problems. However, it is not easy to detect the structures and information of each network, even if we can find a network which has the same function as the abnormal network, it is still hard to use it as a reference to adjust the abnormal network because a lot of network information is unknown. In this paper, we design a ``bridging network'' as an information bridge between a normal network and an abnormal network to estimate and control the abnormal network. Through the ``bridging network'' and some adaptive laws, the abnormal parameters and connections in abnormal network can be adjusted to the same conditions as those of the normal network which is chosen as a reference model. Finally, the ``bridging network'' and the abnormal network achieve synchronization with the normal network. Besides, the detailed inner information in normal network and abnormal network can be accurately estimated by this ``bridging network.'' Finally, the nodes in the abnormal network will behave normally after the correction. In this paper, we use Hindmarsh-Rose model as an example to describe our method.

Jia, Chenhui; Wang, Jiang; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile; Che, Yanqiu



Eye movement abnormalities.  


Generation and control of eye movements requires the participation of the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The signals of this complex neural network finally converge on the ocular motoneurons of the brainstem. Infarct or hemorrhage at any level of the oculomotor system (though more frequent in the brain-stem) may give rise to a broad spectrum of eye movement abnormalities (EMAs). Consequently, neurologists and particularly stroke neurologists are routinely confronted with EMAs, some of which may be overlooked in the acute stroke setting and others that, when recognized, may have a high localizing value. The most complex EMAs are due to midbrain stroke. Horizontal gaze disorders, some of them manifesting unusual patterns, may occur in pontine stroke. Distinct varieties of nystagmus occur in cerebellar and medullary stroke. This review summarizes the most representative EMAs from the supratentorial level to the brainstem. PMID:22377853

Moncayo, Jorge; Bogousslavsky, Julien



Recommendations for management of equine athletes with cardiovascular abnormalities.  


Murmurs and arrhythmias are commonly detected in equine athletes. Assessing the relevance of these cardiovascular abnormalities in the performance horse can be challenging. Determining the impact of a cardiovascular disorder on performance, life expectancy, horse and rider or driver safety relative to the owner's future expectations is paramount. A comprehensive assessment of the cardiovascular abnormality detected is essential to determine its severity and achieve these aims. This consensus statement presents a general approach to the assessment of cardiovascular abnormalities, followed by a discussion of the common murmurs and arrhythmias. The description, diagnosis, evaluation, and prognosis are considered for each cardiovascular abnormality. The recommendations presented herein are based on available literature and a consensus of the panelists. While the majority of horses with cardiovascular abnormalities have a useful performance life, periodic reexaminations are indicated for those with clinically relevant cardiovascular disease. Horses with pulmonary hypertension, CHF, or complex ventricular arrhythmias should not be ridden or driven. PMID:24628586

Reef, V B; Bonagura, J; Buhl, R; McGurrin, M K J; Schwarzwald, C C; van Loon, G; Young, L E



Platelet abnormalities during colonic inflammation  

PubMed Central

Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are susceptible to microvascular thrombosis and thromboembolism. The increased incidence of thrombosis is accompanied by enhanced coagulation and abnormalities in platelet function. Clinical studies have revealed thrombocytosis, alterations in platelet activation, enhanced platelet-leukocyte interactions, and elevated plasma levels of prothrombotic cytokines. This study was directed towards determining whether the thrombocytosis, altered platelet functions, and enhanced platelet-leukocyte interactions observed in IBD patients can be recapitulated in the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) and T-cell transfer models of murine colonic inflammation. Flow cytometry was used to characterize platelet function in heparin-anticoagulated whole blood of control mice and in mice with colonic inflammation. Platelets were identified by characteristic light scattering and membrane expression of CD41. Thiazole orange (TO) labeling was used to differentiate between immature and mature platelets. Platelet activation was monitored using the expression of an activation epitope of GPIIb/IIIa integrin. The combination of CD41, CD45.2, Gr-1, F4/80 and isotype control antibodies was used to detect and quantify aggregates of leukocytes, neutrophils and monocytes with platelets. Our results indicated that colonic inflammation is associated with thrombocytosis, leukocytosis, and the appearance of immature platelets. An increased number of circulating activated platelets was detected in colitic mice, along with the formation of aggregates of leukocytes (PLA), neutrophils (PNA) and monocytes (PMA) with platelets. Selectin blockade with fucoidin inhibited DSS-induced PLA formation. The findings of this study indicate that many features of the altered platelet function detected in human IBD can be reproduced in animal models of colonic inflammation.

Yan, Serena LS.; Russell, Janice; Harris, Norman R.; Senchenkova, Elena Y.; Yildirim, Alper; Granger, D. Neil



Electrocardiographic abnormalities in patients with heart failure  

PubMed Central

Summary Background The morbidity and mortality from heart failure (HF) differ between patients with reduced (< 50%) and with preserved (? 50%) left ventricular ejection fraction (LV EF) on account of many factors, including abnormalities detected in the electrocardiogram (ECG). The aim of this study was to determine and compare the ECG abnormalities between HF patients with reduced and with preserved LV EF. Methods The study was cross-sectional in design and carried out in Aminu Kano teaching hospital and Murtala Mohammed specialist hospital, Kano, Nigeria, from April 2005 to June 2006. We studied the resting electrocardiograms of all HF patients aged 15 years and older who were referred to the two centres for echocardiography. Results A total of 113 patients were studied and 98.2% of them had abnormal ECGs. Forty-two patients (37.2%) had preserved LV EF while the remaining 71 (62.8%) had reduced LV EF. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LV H) was the commonest ECG abnormality, found among 55 patients (77.5%) with reduced LV EF, and 21 patients (50%) with preserved LV EF (p = 0.0026). The commonest arrhythmia was atrial fibrillation, found among 10 patients (14.1%) with reduced LV EF and eight patients (19.1%) with preserved LV EF (p = 0.486). Prolonged corrected QT interval was found among 30 (71.4%) and 56 patients (78.9%) with preserved and reduced LV EF, respectively (p = 0.370). Conclusion Most of the patients with heart failure studied in Kano, Nigeria had abnormal electrocardiograms, and the most common abnormality was LV H.

Karaye, Kamilu M; Sani, Mahmoud U



Paleozoic-Mesozoic crayfish from Antarctica: Earliest evidence of freshwater decapod crustaceans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discovery of an Early Permian claw from Antarctica extends the fossil record of crayfish by ˜65 m.y. and demonstrates that decapod crustaceans had radiated into freshwater habitats by the late Paleozoic. Burrows in Lower Triassic rocks of Antarctica are among the oldest apparently constructed by crayfish. Their morphology is similar to modern crayfish burrows, and this demonstrates that burrowing behavior was established early in the evolution of this group. The new discoveries show that the earliest Permian crayfish were distributed in high paleolatitudes of southernmost Pangea, where they lived in freshwater lakes fed by glacial meltwater. Modern crayfish habitat, used as a guide to crayfish temperature tolerance, indicates that summer temperatures of streams and lakes near the South Pole that supported the crayfish probably reached 10 20 °C during Permian-Triassic interglacial intervals.

Babcock, Loren E.; Miller, Molly F.; Isbell, John L.; Collinson, James W.; Hasiotis, Stephen T.



The termites of Early Eocene Cambay amber, with the earliest record of the Termitidae (Isoptera)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The fauna of termites (Isoptera) preserved in Early Eocene amber from the Cambay Basin (Gujarat, India) are described and figured. Three new genera and four new species are recognized, all of them Neoisoptera – Parastylotermes krishnai Engel & Grimaldi, sp. n. (Stylotermitidae); Prostylotermes kamboja Engel & Grimaldi, gen. et sp. n. (Stylotermitidae?); Zophotermes Engel, gen. n., with Zophotermes ashoki Engel & Singh, sp. n. (Rhinotermitidae: Prorhinotermitinae); and Nanotermes isaacae Engel & Grimaldi, gen. et sp. n. (Termitidae: Termitinae?). Together these species represent the earliest Tertiary records of the Neoisoptera and the oldest definitive record of Termitidae, a family that comprises >75% of the living species of Isoptera. Interestingly, the affinities of the Cambay amber termites are with largely Laurasian lineages, in this regard paralleling relationships seen between the fauna of bees and some flies. Diversity of Neoisoptera in Indian amber may reflect origin of the amber deposit in Dipterocarpaceae forests formed at or near the paleoequator.

Engel, Michael S.; Grimaldi, David A.; Nascimbene, Paul C.; Singh, Hukam



The termites of Early Eocene Cambay amber, with the earliest record of the Termitidae (Isoptera).  


The fauna of termites (Isoptera) preserved in Early Eocene amber from the Cambay Basin (Gujarat, India) are described and figured. Three new genera and four new species are recognized, all of them Neoisoptera - Parastylotermes krishnai Engel & Grimaldi, sp. n. (Stylotermitidae); Prostylotermes kamboja Engel & Grimaldi, gen. et sp. n. (Stylotermitidae?); Zophotermes Engel, gen. n., with Zophotermes ashoki Engel & Singh, sp. n. (Rhinotermitidae: Prorhinotermitinae); and Nanotermes isaacae Engel & Grimaldi, gen. et sp. n. (Termitidae: Termitinae?). Together these species represent the earliest Tertiary records of the Neoisoptera and the oldest definitive record of Termitidae, a family that comprises >75% of the living species of Isoptera. Interestingly, the affinities of the Cambay amber termites are with largely Laurasian lineages, in this regard paralleling relationships seen between the fauna of bees and some flies. Diversity of Neoisoptera in Indian amber may reflect origin of the amber deposit in Dipterocarpaceae forests formed at or near the paleoequator. PMID:22287892

Engel, Michael S; Grimaldi, David A; Nascimbene, Paul C; Singh, Hukam



The earliest humans?, still image with audioSite: DNA Interactive (  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

And here, creatures which have been called the earliest humans, Homo rudolfensis and Homo habilis. And certainly in terms of brain size, they are a step up from the australopithicines. But again, looking at them in detail when we have parts of their skeletons, when we look at their teeth and faces, they, for many of us, are not totally convincing as the first humans. Some people still see them as only a halfway house between australopithicines and humans. And some people have argued that actually, the line to the first humans should be drawn somewhere here, and these creatures actually are still more closely related to the australopithicines than they are to later humans.



Functional capabilities of the earliest peptides and the emergence of life.  


Considering how biological macromolecules first evolved, probably within a marine environment, it seems likely the very earliest peptides were not encoded by nucleic acids, or at least not via the genetic code as we know it. An objective of the present work is to demonstrate that sequence-independent peptides, or peptides with variable and unreliable lengths and sequences, have the potential to perform a variety of chemically useful functions such as anion and cation binding and membrane and channel formation as well as simple types of catalysis. These functions tend to be performed with the assistance of the main chain CONH atoms rather than the more variable or limited side chain atoms of the peptides presumed to exist then. PMID:24710286

Milner-White, E James; Russell, Michael J



Earliest human occupations at Dmanisi (Georgian Caucasus) dated to 1.85-1.78 Ma  

PubMed Central

The early Pleistocene colonization of temperate Eurasia by Homo erectus was not only a significant biogeographic event but also a major evolutionary threshold. Dmanisi's rich collection of hominin fossils, revealing a population that was small-brained with both primitive and derived skeletal traits, has been dated to the earliest Upper Matuyama chron (ca. 1.77 Ma). Here we present archaeological and geologic evidence that push back Dmanisi's first occupations to shortly after 1.85 Ma and document repeated use of the site over the last half of the Olduvai subchron, 1.85–1.78 Ma. These discoveries show that the southern Caucasus was occupied repeatedly before Dmanisi's hominin fossil assemblage accumulated, strengthening the probability that this was part of a core area for the colonization of Eurasia. The secure age for Dmanisi's first occupations reveals that Eurasia was probably occupied before Homo erectus appears in the East African fossil record.

Ferring, Reid; Oms, Oriol; Agusti, Jordi; Berna, Francesco; Nioradze, Medea; Shelia, Teona; Tappen, Martha; Vekua, Abesalom; Zhvania, David; Lordkipanidze, David



The Earliest Thymic T Cell Progenitors Sustain B Cell and Myeloid Lineage Potentials  

PubMed Central

The stepwise commitment from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow (BM) to T lymphocyte-restricted progenitors in the thymus represents a paradigm for understanding the requirement for distinct extrinsic cues during different stages of lineage restriction from multipotent to lineage restricted progenitors. However, the commitment stage at which progenitors migrate from the BM to the thymus remains unclear. Here we provide functional and molecular evidence at the single cell level that the earliest progenitors in the neonatal thymus possessed combined granulocyte-monocyte, T and B lymphocyte, but not megakaryocyte-erythroid lineage potential. These potentials were identical to those of thymus-seeding progenitors in the BM, which were closely related at the molecular level. These findings establish the distinct lineage-restriction stage at which the T lineage commitment transits from the BM to the remote thymus.

Luc, Sidinh; Luis, Tiago C.; Boukarabila, Hanane; Macaulay, Iain C.; Buza-Vidas, Natalija; Bouriez-Jones, Tiphaine; Lutteropp, Michael; Woll, Petter S.; Loughran, Stephen J.; Mead, Adam J.; Hultquist, Anne; Brown, John; Mizukami, Takuo; Matsuoka, Sahoko; Ferry, Helen; Anderson, Kristina; Duarte, Sara; Atkinson, Deborah; Soneji, Shamit; Domanski, Aniela; Farley, Alison; Sanjuan-Pla, Alejandra; Carella, Cintia; Patient, Roger; de Bruijn, Marella; Enver, Tariq; Nerlov, Claus; Blackburn, Clare; Godin, Isabelle; Jacobsen, Sten Eirik W.



Earliest known coelacanth skull extends the range of anatomically modern coelacanths to the Early Devonian.  


Coelacanths are known for their evolutionary conservatism, and the body plan seen in Latimeria can be traced to late Middle Devonian Diplocercides, Holopterygius and presumably Euporosteus. However, the group's early history is unclear because of an incomplete fossil record. Until now, the only Early Devonian coelacanth is an isolated dentary (Eoactinistia) from Australia, whose position within the coelacanths is unknown. Here we report the earliest known coelacanth skull (Euporosteus yunnanensis sp. nov.) from the Early Devonian (late Pragian) of Yunnan, China. Resolved by maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses as crownward of Diplocercides or as its sister taxon, the new form extends the chronological range of anatomically modern coelacanths by about 17?Myr. The finding lends support to the possibility that Eoactinistia is also an anatomically modern coelacanth, and provides a more refined reference point for studying the rapid early diversification and subsequent evolutionary conservatism of the coelacanths. PMID:22491320

Zhu, Min; Yu, Xiaobo; Lu, Jing; Qiao, Tuo; Zhao, Wenjin; Jia, Liantao



New postcranial elements for the earliest Eocene fossil primate Teilhardina belgica.  


Teilhardina belgica is one of the most primitive fossil primates known to date and the earliest haplorhine with associated postcranials, making it relevant to a reconstruction of the ancestral primate morphotype. Here we describe newly discovered postcranial elements of T. belgica. It is a small primate with an estimated body mass between 30 and 60 g, similar to the size of a mouse lemur. Its hindlimb anatomy suggests frequent and forceful leaping with excellent foot mobility and grasping capabilities. It can now be established that this taxon exhibits critical primate postcranial synapomorphies such as a grasping hallux, a tall knee, and nailed digits. This anatomical pattern and behavioral profile is similar to what has been inferred before for other omomyids and adapiforms. The most unusual feature of T. belgica is its elongated middle phalanges (most likely manual phalanges), suggesting that this early primate had very long fingers similar to those of living tarsiers. PMID:22704262

Gebo, Daniel L; Smith, Thierry; Dagosto, Marian



Volutidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of the Lakhra Formation (Earliest Eocene, Sindh, Pakistan): systematics, biostratigraphy and paleobiogeography.  


The paleobiodiversity of the Volutidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of the Ranikot Group (Sindh, Pakistan) and particularly of the Lakhra Formation (SBZ 5 biozone, Earliest Eocene), is reconsidered on the basis of new material collected during recent field trips. Ten new species are described (Mitreola brohii sp. nov., Lyrischapa vredenburgi sp. nov., L. brevispira sp. nov., Athleta (Volutopupa) citharopsis sp. nov., A. (Volutocorbis) lasharii sp. nov., Volutilithes welcommei sp. nov., V. sindhiensis sp. nov., Pseudaulicina coxi sp. nov., Sindhiluta lakhraensis sp. nov. and Pakiluta solangii sp. nov.) and one species is in open nomenclature (Lyria sp.). Three new genera are described: Lyriopsis gen. nov. [Volutinae, ?Lyriini, type species: Lyriopsis cossmanni (Vredenburg, 1923)], Sindhiluta gen. nov. [Volutilithinae, type species: Sindhiluta lakhraensis n. sp.] and Pakiluta gen. nov. [?Volutodermatinae, type species: Pakiluta solangii n. sp.]. Two new combinations are proposed: Lyriopsis cossmanni (Vredenburg, 1923) comb. nov. and Athleta (Volutopupa) intercrenatus (Cossmann & Pissarro, 1909) comb. nov. Lectotypes are designated for Lyria cossmanni Vredenburg, 1923, L. feddeni Vredenburg, 1923, Volutospina noetlingi Cossmann & Pissarro, 1909, V. intercrenata Cossmann & Pissarro, 1909 and Athleta (Volutocorbis) victoriae Vredenburg, 1923. With 21 species, this volutid fauna is the most diverse recorded from the Tethys Ocean during Earliest Eocene time. The assemblage is characterized by a strong turnover marked by regional speciation and the appearance of many western Tethyan invaders. Although at the species level, the assemblage documents a strong provincialism, at the genus level, the high number of shared genera between Eastern Tethyan and Old World Tethyan realms begins a phase of long-term homogeneity of volutid assemblages from the Tethyan paleobiogeographic province. PMID:24990040

Merle, Didier; Pacaud, Jean-Michel; Métais, Grégoire; Bartolini, Annachiara; Lashari, Rafiq A; Brohi, Imdad A; Solangi, Sarfraz H; Marivaux, Laurent; Welcomme, Jean-Loup



Postnatal evaluation of infants with an abnormal antenatal renal sonogram  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Antenatally detected renal abnormalities are frequently encountered. Recommended postnatal evaluation of these infants has evolved to minimize invasive testing while maximizing detection of significant abnormalities. Recent findings There is a low rate of detectable renal abnormalities in infants with a normal postnatal sonogram at 4–6 weeks of age. Routine prophylactic antibiotics are not indicated in infants with isolated antenatal hydronephrosis. Infants with a multicystic dysplastic kidney and a normal contralateral kidney on renal ultrasound do not require further evaluation. Parents of these children should be counseled on symptoms of urinary tract infections to allow prompt diagnosis. Summary All infants with abnormalities on antenatal sonogram should undergo postnatal evaluation with a sonogram after birth and at 4–6 weeks of age. Further evaluation can be safely limited when the postnatal sonogram is normal at 6 weeks of age.

Becker, Amy M.



Chromosome abnormality incidence in fetuses with cerebral ventriculomegaly.  


Abstract Ventriculomegaly (VM) is a marker of aneuploidy and warrants a detailed examination of fetal anatomy. Chromosomal abnormalities worsen the fetal and neonatal prognosis significantly and karyotyping of fetuses is critically important when accompanying anomalies are detected. Here, we report the genetic results of 140 fetuses with isolated and non-isolated VM detected during a second trimester ultrasound examination followed by invasive in utero diagnostic procedures for karyotyping. VM was diagnosed in seven (5%) fetuses with abnormal karyotype and the chromosomal abnormality incidence was higher in severe VM (6.8%) than mild (4.2%). Higher chromosomal abnormality rates were detected when VM was isolated (8.6%), rather than associated with any anomaly (3.8%). These results suggest that karyotype analysis should be offered to all patients with any degree of VM, regardless of its association with structural anomalies. PMID:24678817

Gezer, C; Ekin, A; Ozeren, M; Taner, C E; Ozer, O; Koc, A; Bilgin, M; Gezer, N S



Evaluation of nail abnormalities.  


Knowledge of the anatomy and function of the nail apparatus is essential when performing the physical examination. Inspection may reveal localized nail abnormalities that should be treated, or may provide clues to an underlying systemic disease that requires further workup. Excessive keratinaceous material under the nail bed in a distal and lateral distribution should prompt an evaluation for onychomycosis. Onychomycosis may be diagnosed through potassium hydroxide examination of scrapings. If potassium hydroxide testing is negative for the condition, a nail culture or nail plate biopsy should be performed. A proliferating, erythematous, disruptive mass in the nail bed should be carefully evaluated for underlying squamous cell carcinoma. Longitudinal melanonychia (vertical nail bands) must be differentiated from subungual melanomas, which account for 50 percent of melanomas in persons with dark skin. Dystrophic longitudinal ridges and subungual hematomas are local conditions caused by trauma. Edema and erythema of the proximal and lateral nail folds are hallmark features of acute and chronic paronychia. Clubbing may suggest an underlying disease such as cirrhosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or celiac sprue. Koilonychia (spoon nail) is commonly associated with iron deficiency anemia. Splinter hemorrhages may herald endocarditis, although other causes should be considered. Beau lines can mark the onset of a severe underlying illness, whereas Muehrcke lines are associated with hypoalbuminemia. A pincer nail deformity is inherited or acquired and can be associated with beta-blocker use, psoriasis, onychomycosis, tumors of the nail apparatus, systemic lupus erythematosus, Kawasaki disease, and malignancy. PMID:22534387

Tully, Amber S; Trayes, Kathryn P; Studdiford, James S



New directions in quantum dot-based cytometry detection of cancer serum markers and tumor cells.  


The use of fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) incorporated in or tagged with polymeric microbeads allows multiplexed coding of biomolecules. Compared to organic dyes, QDs are characterized by improved imaging capabilities, brightness, and photostability and may be used for simultaneous detection of multiple biomarkers. Development of QD conjugates and QD-encoded suspension arrays has given rise to new promising approaches to cell labeling, in vivo visualization, and diagnostic assay techniques. QDs have proved to be efficient donors for Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and are characterized by high multiphoton absorption coefficients. Implication of QD-based suspension arrays for identification of autoantibodies, tumor-specific T cells, and detection of circulating cancer cells by means of flow cytometry, holds considerable promise for earliest diagnosis of human abnormalities and effective monitoring of the therapeutic effects. This review summarizes recent advances in QD-based suspension arrays application to cancer diagnosis and attempts to predict their diagnostic potential in a future. PMID:23058250

Akinfieva, Olga; Nabiev, Igor; Sukhanova, Alyona



Chromosomal abnormalities and mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linkage studies of mental illness have provided suggestive evidence of susceptibility loci over many broad chromosomal regions. Pinpointing causative gene mutations by conventional linkage strategies alone is problematic. The breakpoints of chromosomal abnormalities occurring in patients with mental illness may be more direct pointers to the relevant gene locus. Publications that describe patients where chromosomal abnormalities co-exist with mental illness

D J MacIntyre; D H R Blackwood; D J Porteous; B S Pickard; W J Muir



Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

Law, B. E.; Spencer, C. W.



AMS 14C age of the earliest pottery from the Russian Far East: 1996-2002 results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new results of AMS 14C dating of the earliest pottery from the Russian Far East, Osipovka, Gromatukha and Novopetrovka cultural complexes (Amur River basin), are presented. Pottery temper (represented by sedge grass) was chosen for dating; pottery-associated charcoal was also dated. The earliest pottery from the Amur River basin nowadays may be dated to ca. 13 000 BP (ca. 16 000 cal BP), and this is one of the oldest potteries in East Asia, and in Old World in general.

Derevianko, A. P.; Kuzmin, Y. V.; Burr, G. S.; Jull, A. J. T.; Kim, J. C.



Precise U-Pb Zircon Constraints on the Earliest Magmatic History of the Carolina Terrane.  


The early magmatic and tectonic history of the Carolina terrane and its possible affinities with other Neoproterozoic circum-Atlantic arc terranes have been poorly understood, in large part because of a lack of reliable geochronological data. Precise U-Pb zircon dates for the Virgilina sequence, the oldest exposed part, constrain the timing of the earliest known stage of magmatism in the terrane and of the Virgilina orogeny. A flow-banded rhyolite sampled from a metavolcanic sequence near Chapel Hill, North Carolina, yielded a U-Pb zircon date of 632.9 +2.6/-1.9 Ma. A granitic unit of the Chapel Hill pluton, which intrudes the metavolcanic sequence, yielded a nearly identical U-Pb zircon date of 633 +2/-1.5 Ma, interpreted as its crystallization age. A felsic gneiss and a dacitic tuff from the Hyco Formation yielded U-Pb zircon dates of 619.9 +4.5/-3 Ma and 615.7 +3.7/-1.9 Ma, respectively. Diorite and granite of the Flat River complex have indistinguishable U-Pb upper-intercept dates of 613.9 +1.6/-1.5 Ma and 613.4 +2.8/-2 Ma. The Osmond biotite-granite gneiss, which intruded the Hyco Formation before the Virgilina orogeny, crystallized at 612.4 +5.2/-1.7 Ma. Granite of the Roxboro pluton, an intrusion that postdated the Virgilina orogeny, yielded a U-Pb upper intercept date of 546.5 +3.0/-2.4 Ma, interpreted as the time of its crystallization. These new dates both provide the first reliable estimates of the age of the Virgilina sequence and document that the earliest known stage of magmatism in the Carolina terrane had begun by 633 +2/-1.5 Ma and continued at least until 612.4 +5.2/-1.7 Ma, an interval of approximately 25 m.yr. Timing of the Virgilina orogeny is bracketed between 612.4 +5.2/-1.7 Ma and 586+/-10 Ma (reported age of the upper Uwharrie Formation). The U-Pb systematics of all units studied in the Virgilina sequence are simple and lack any evidence of an older xenocrystic zircon component, which would indicate the presence of a continental-type basement. This observation, together with the juvenile Nd isotopic character of the Virgilina volcanic arc sequence, suggests that the oldest part of the Carolina terrane was built on oceanic crust away from a continental crustal influence. PMID:10769159

Wortman; Samson; Hibbard



Chromosome abnormalities in Indonesian patients with short stature  

PubMed Central

Background Short stature is associated with several disorders including wide variations of chromosomal disorders and single gene disorders. The objective of this report is to present the cytogenetic findings in Indonesian patients with short stature. Methods G-banding and interphase/metaphase FISH were performed on short stature patients with and without other clinical features who were referred by clinicians all over Indonesia to our laboratory during the year 2003–2009. Results The results of chromosomal analysis of ninety seven patients (mean age: 10.7 years old) were collected. The group of patients with other clinical features showed sex chromosome abnormalities in 45% (18/40) and autosomal abnormalities in 10% (4/40), whereas those with short stature only, 42.1% (24/57) had sex chromosome abnormalities and 1.75% (1/57) had autosomal abnormalities. The autosomal chromosomal abnormalities involved mostly subtelomeric regions. Results discrepancies between karyotype and FISH were found in 10 patients, including detection of low-level monosomy X mosaicism in 6 patients with normal karyotype, and detection of mosaic aneuploidy chromosome 18 in 1 patient with 45,XX,rob(13;14)(q10;q10). Statistical analysis showed no significant association between the groups and the type of chromosomal abnormalities. Conclusion Chromosome abnormalities account for about 50% of the short stature patients. Wide variations of both sex and autosomal chromosomes abnormalities were detected in the study. Since three out of five patients had autosomal structural abnormalities involving the subtelomeric regions, thus in the future, subtelomeric FISH or even a more sensitive method such as genomic/SNP microarray is needed to confirm deletions of subtelomeric regions of chromosome 9, 11 and 18. Low-level mosaicism in normal karyotype patients indicates interphase FISH need to be routinely carried out in short stature patients as an adjunct to karyotyping.



Earliest School Recollections as a Diagnostic Device for Identifying Successfully or Unsuccessfully Mainstreamed Violent and Assaultive Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated whether earliest school recollections (ESRs) diagnostic approach can reveal current attitude toward being mainstreamed of violent and assaultive youth. Examined current student behavior assessments of violent and assaultive youth (n=60) who previously attended specialized day-treatment facility to determine mainstreaming success.…

Roth, Henry; Nicholson, Charles L.



Lymphatic abnormalities in Noonan syndrome: A case report.  


Lymphatic abnormalities are not generally recognized as part of the Noonan syndrome. A child with this condition in whom unique and widespread lymphatic abnormalities were demonstrated by lymphography is described. Both T and B lymphocytes were detected in chylous fluid drained from the thorax. In addition, the child was found to have a protein-losing enteropathy and cardiovascular defects. The clinical spectrum of the Noonan syndrome may include animalies of the lymphatic system. PMID:550483

Smith, S; Schulman, A; Weir, E K; Beatty, D W; Joffe, H S



Stomatocytosis, abnormal platelets and pseudo-homozygous hypercholesterolaemia.  


A 13-yr-old girl with congenital haemolytic anaemia associated with pseudo-homozygous hypercholesterolaemia is described. The erythrocyte morphology showed 50-80% stomatocytes, but no abnormality of membrane lipid or protein composition or of cation transport was detected. The platelets were reduced in number, abnormally large and showed reduced adhesion. Successful treatment of the hypercholesterolaemia did not influence the stomatocytosis. PMID:3609257

Stewart, G W; O'Brien, H; Morris, S A; Owen, J S; Lloyd, J K; Ames, J A



Ancestral feeding state of ruminants reconsidered: earliest grazing adaptation claims a mixed condition for Cervidae  

PubMed Central

Background Specialised leaf-eating is almost universally regarded as the ancestral state of all ruminants, yet little evidence can be cited in support of this assumption, apart from the fact that all early ruminants had low crowned cheek teeth. Instead, recent years have seen the emergence evidence contradicting the conventional view that low tooth crowns always indicate leaf-eating and high tooth crowns grass-eating. Results Here we report the results of two independent palaeodietary reconstructions for one of the earliest deer, Procervulus ginsburgi from the Early Miocene of Spain, suggesting that despite having lower tooth crowns than any living ruminant, this species included a significant proportion of grass in its diet. Conclusion The phylogenetic distribution of feeding styles strongly supports that leaf-grass mixed feeding was the original feeding style of deer, and that later dietary specialization on leaves or grass occurred independently in several lineages. Evidence for other ruminant clades suggests that facultative mixed feeding may in fact have been the primitive dietary state of the Ruminantia, which would have been morphologically expressed only under specific environmental factors.



Earliest Carboniferous tetrapod and arthropod faunas from Scotland populate Romer's Gap  

PubMed Central

Devonian tetrapods (limbed vertebrates), known from an increasingly large number of localities, have been shown to be mainly aquatic with many primitive features. In contrast, the post-Devonian record is marked by an Early Mississippian temporal gap ranging from the earliest Carboniferous (Tournaisian and early Viséan) to the mid-Viséan. By the mid-Viséan, tetrapods had become effectively terrestrial as attested by the presence of stem amniotes, developed an essentially modern aspect, and given rise to the crown group. Up to now, only two localities have yielded tetrapod specimens from the Tournaisian stage: one in Scotland with a single articulated skeleton and one in Nova Scotia with isolated bones, many of uncertain identity. We announce a series of discoveries of Tournaisian-age localities in Scotland that have yielded a wealth of new tetrapod and arthropod fossils. These include both terrestrial and aquatic forms and new taxa. We conclude that the gap in the fossil record has been an artifact of collection failure.

Smithson, Timothy R.; Wood, Stanley P.; Marshall, John E. A.; Clack, Jennifer A.



Gnomon shadow lengths recorded in the Zhoubi Suanjing: the earliest meridian observations in China?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Zhoubi Suanjing, one of the most important ancient Chinese books on mathematical astronomy, was compiled about 100 BC in the Western Han dynasty (BC 206 - AD 23). We study the gnomon shadow lengths for the 24 solar terms as recorded in the book. Special attention is paid to the so-called law of 'cun qian li', which says the shadow length of a gnomon of 8 chi (about 1.96 m) high will increase (or decrease) 1 cun (1/10 chi) for every 1000 li (roughly 400 km) the gnomon moves northward (or southward). From these data, one can derive the time and location of the observations. The results, however, do not fit historical facts. We suggest that compilers of the Zhoubi Suanjing must have modified the original data according to the law of 'cun qian li'. Through reversing the situation, we recovered the original data, our analysis of which reveals the best possible observation time as 564 BC and the location of observation as 35.78° N latitude. We conclude that this must be the earliest records of solar meridian observations in China. In the meantime, we give the errors of solar altitudes for the 24 solar terms. The average deviation is 5.22°, and the mean absolute deviation is 5.52°, signifying the accuracy of astronomical calculations from that time.

Li, Yong; Sun, Xiao-Chun



Earliest foraminifera and radiolaria from North America: evolutionary and geological implications  

SciTech Connect

Foraminifera and radiolaria were found in lower and middle Cambrian rocks in the western US. They occur in clastic rocks associated with archaeocyathid bioherms and shales in SE California, SW Nevada, W Utah and Idaho. The foraminifera are agglutinated tubes, straight or coiled; the radiolaria are spherical or flattened wit robust lattices. They occur together with some of the earliest shelled metazoa. Their widespread occurrence indicates that protozoa were important elements of the first animal-dominated communities. Their presence suggests a complex trophic structure involving secondary consumers that utilized small autotrophs, carnivores, and detritus. Ordovician and Silurian foraminifera and radiolaria, also found in the US and USSR, show that the subsequent radiation of heterotrophic protists follows a pattern similar to that of metazoans. These fossil protozoa indicate that the skeletonization of early organisms was controlled by factors not related solely to a multicellular grade of organization. Hypotheses requiring the attainment of atmospheric oxygen levels high enough for metazoan skeletonization processes to operate, seawater chemistry allowing the use of specific skeletal materials, attainment of large size, evolution of regulatory genes, and similar ideas can be eliminated or modified. The fossils also indicate that the advent of skeletonized metazoa and protists, and their subsequent radiation were probably related to the proliferation of trophic interactions within those early communities.

Lipps, J.H.



Rise of the earliest tetrapods: an early Devonian origin from marine environment.  


Tetrapod fossil tracks are known from the Middle Devonian (Eifelian at ca. 397 million years ago--MYA), and their earliest bony remains from the Upper Devonian (Frasnian at 375-385 MYA). Tetrapods are now generally considered to have colonized land during the Carboniferous (i.e., after 359 MYA), which is considered to be one of the major events in the history of life. Our analysis on tetrapod evolution was performed using molecular data consisting of 13 proteins from 17 species and different paleontological data. The analysis on the molecular data was performed with the program TreeSAAP and the results were analyzed to see if they had implications on the paleontological data collected. The results have shown that tetrapods evolved from marine environments during times of higher oxygen levels. The change in environmental conditions played a major role in their evolution. According to our analysis this evolution occurred at about 397-416 MYA during the Early Devonian unlike previously thought. This idea is supported by various environmental factors such as sea levels and oxygen rate, and biotic factors such as biodiversity of arthropods and coral reefs. The molecular data also strongly supports lungfish as tetrapod's closest living relative. PMID:21779385

George, David; Blieck, Alain



The proterozoic and earliest cambrian trace fossil record; patterns, problems and perspectives.  


The increase in trace fossil diversity across the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian boundary often is presented in terms of tabulations of ichnogenera. However, a clearer picture of the increase in diversity and complexity can be reached by combining trace fossils into broad groups defined both on morphology and interpretation. This also focuses attention on looking for similarites between Neoproterozoic and Cambrian trace fossils. Siliciclastic sediments of the Neoproterozoic preserve elongate tubular organisms and structures of probable algal origin, many of which are very similar to trace fossils. Such enigmatic structures include Palaeopascichnus and Yelovichnus, previously thought to be trace fossils in the form of tight meanders.A preliminary two or tripartite terminal Neoproterozoic trace fossil zonation can be be recognized. Possibly the earliest trace fossils are short unbranched forms, probably younger than about 560 Ma. Typical Neoproterozoic trace fossils are unbranched and essentially horizontal forms found associated with diverse assemblages of Ediacaran organisms. In sections younger than about 550 Ma a modest increase in trace fossil diversity occurs, including the appearance of rare three-dimensional burrow systems (treptichnids), and traces with a three-lobed lower surfaces. PMID:21680425

Jensen, Sören



Dicer is selectively important for the earliest stages of erythroid development.  


MicroRNAs (miRs) are involved in many aspects of normal and malignant hematopoiesis, including hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal, proliferation, and terminal differentiation. However, a role for miRs in the generation of the earliest stages of lineage committed progenitors from HSCs has not been identified. Using Dicer inactivation, we show that the miR complex is not only essential for HSC maintenance but is specifically required for their erythroid programming and subsequent generation of committed erythroid progenitors. In bipotent pre-MegEs, loss of Dicer up-regulated transcription factors preferentially expressed in megakaryocyte progenitors (Gata2 and Zfpm1) and decreased expression of the erythroid-specific Klf1 transcription factor. These results show a specific requirement for Dicer in acquisition of erythroid lineage programming and potential in HSCs and their subsequent erythroid lineage differentiation, and in particular indicate a role for the miR complex in achieving proper balance of lineage-specific transcriptional regulators necessary for HSC multilineage potential to be maintained. PMID:22869792

Buza-Vidas, Natalija; Cismasiu, Valeriu B; Moore, Susan; Mead, Adam J; Woll, Petter S; Lutteropp, Michael; Melchiori, Luca; Luc, Sidinh; Bouriez-Jones, Tiphaine; Atkinson, Deborah; O'Carroll, Donal; Jacobsen, Sten Eirik W; Nerlov, Claus



Rise of the Earliest Tetrapods: An Early Devonian Origin from Marine Environment  

PubMed Central

Tetrapod fossil tracks are known from the Middle Devonian (Eifelian at ca. 397 million years ago - MYA), and their earliest bony remains from the Upper Devonian (Frasnian at 375–385 MYA). Tetrapods are now generally considered to have colonized land during the Carboniferous (i.e., after 359 MYA), which is considered to be one of the major events in the history of life. Our analysis on tetrapod evolution was performed using molecular data consisting of 13 proteins from 17 species and different paleontological data. The analysis on the molecular data was performed with the program TreeSAAP and the results were analyzed to see if they had implications on the paleontological data collected. The results have shown that tetrapods evolved from marine environments during times of higher oxygen levels. The change in environmental conditions played a major role in their evolution. According to our analysis this evolution occurred at about 397–416 MYA during the Early Devonian unlike previously thought. This idea is supported by various environmental factors such as sea levels and oxygen rate, and biotic factors such as biodiversity of arthropods and coral reefs. The molecular data also strongly supports lungfish as tetrapod's closest living relative.

George, David; Blieck, Alain



A fossil primate of uncertain affinities from the earliest late Eocene of Egypt  

PubMed Central

Paleontological work carried out over the last 3 decades has established that three major primate groups were present in the Eocene of Africa—anthropoids, adapiforms, and advanced strepsirrhines. Here we describe isolated teeth of a previously undocumented primate from the earliest late Eocene (?37 Ma) of northern Egypt, Nosmips aenigmaticus, whose phylogenetic placement within Primates is unclear. Nosmips is smaller than the sympatric adapiform Afradapis but is considerably larger than other primate taxa known from the same paleocommunity. The species bears an odd mosaic of dental features, combining enlarged, elongate, and molariform premolars with simple upper molars that lack hypocones. Phylogenetic analysis across a series of different assumption sets variously places Nosmips as a stem anthropoid, a nonadapiform stem strepsirrhine, or even among adapiforms. This phylogenetic instability suggests to us that Nosmips likely represents a highly specialized member of a previously undocumented, and presumably quite ancient, endemic African primate lineage, the subordinal affinities of which have been obscured by its striking dental autapomorphies. Discriminant functions based on measurements of lower molar size and topography reliably classify extant prosimian primates into their correct dietary groups and identify Nosmips and Afradapis as omnivores and folivores, respectively. Although Nosmips currently defies classification, this strange and unexpected fossil primate nevertheless provides additional evidence for high primate diversity in northern Africa ?37 million years ago and further underscores the fact that our understanding of early primate evolution on that continent remains highly incomplete.

Seiffert, Erik R.; Simons, Elwyn L.; Boyer, Doug M.; Perry, Jonathan M. G.; Ryan, Timothy M.; Sallam, Hesham M.



A Swift Look at SN 2011fe: The Earliest Ultraviolet Observations of a Type Ia Supernova  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the earliest ultraviolet (UV) observations of the bright Type Ia supernova SN 2011fe/PTF11kly in the nearby galaxy M101 at a distance of only 6.4 Mpc. It was discovered shortly after explosion by the Palomar Transient Factory and first observed by Swift/UVOT about a day after explosion. The early UV light is well-defined, with approx. 20 data points per filter in the 5 days after explosion. With these early UV observations, we extend the near-UV template of SNe Ia to earlier times for comparison with observations at low and high redshift and report fits from semiempirical models of the explosion. We find the early UV count rates to be well fit by the superposition of two parabolic curves. Finally, we use the early UV flux measurements to examine a possible shock interaction with a non-degenerate companion. We find that even a solar mass companion at a distance of a few solar radii is unlikely at more than 95% confidence.

Oates, Samantha; Holland, Stephen; Immler, Stefan; Brown, Peter J.; Dawson, Kyle S.; DePasquale, Massimiliano; Gronwall, Caryl; Kuin, Paul; Mazzali, Paolo; Miline, Peter; Siegel, Michael



Basal tissue structure in the earliest euconodonts: Testing hypotheses of developmental plasticity in euconodont phylogeny  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The hypothesis that conodonts are vertebrates rests solely on evidence of soft tissue anatomy. This has been corroborated by microstructural, topological and developmental evidence of homology between conodont and vertebrate hard tissues. However, these conclusions have been reached on the basis of evidence from highly derived euconodont taxa and the degree to which they are representative of plesiomorphic euconodonts remains an open question. Furthermore, the range of variation in tissue types comprising the euconodont basal body has been used to establish a hypothesis of developmental plasticity early in the phylogeny of the clade, and a model of diminishing potentiality in the evolution of development systems. The microstructural fabrics of the basal tissues of the earliest euconodonts (presumed to be the most plesiomorphic) are examined to test these two hypotheses. It is found that the range of microstructural variation observed hitherto was already apparent among plesiomorphic euconodonts. Thus, established histological data are representative of the most plesiomorphic euconodonts. However, although there is evidence of a range in microstructural fabrics, these are compatible with the dentine tissue system alone, and the degree of variation is compatible with that seen in clades of comparable diversity. ?? The Palaeontological Association.

Dong, X. -P.; Donoghue, P. C. J.; Repetski, J. E.



The earliest known stem-tetrapod from the Lower Devonian of China.  


Recent discoveries of advanced fish-like stem-tetrapods (for example, Panderichthys and Tiktaalik) have greatly improved our knowledge of the fin-to-limb transition. However, a paucity of fossil data from primitive finned tetrapods prevents profound understanding of the acquisition sequence of tetrapod characters. Here we report a new stem-tetrapod (Tungsenia paradoxa gen. et sp. nov.) from the Lower Devonian (Pragian, ?409 million years ago) of China, which extends the earliest record of tetrapods by some 10 million years. Sharing many primitive features with stem-lungfishes, the new taxon further fills in the morphological gap between tetrapods and lungfishes. The X-ray tomography study of the skull depicts the plesiomorphic condition of the brain in the tetrapods. The enlargement of the cerebral hemispheres and the possible presence of the pars tuberalis in this stem-tetrapod indicate that some important brain modifications related to terrestrial life had occurred at the beginning of the tetrapod evolution, much earlier than previously thought. PMID:23093197

Lu, Jing; Zhu, Min; Long, John A; Zhao, Wenjin; Senden, Tim J; Jia, Liantao; Qiao, Tuo



Earliest and first Northern Hemispheric hoatzin fossils substantiate Old World origin of a "Neotropic endemic".  


The recent identification of hoatzins (Opisthocomiformes) in the Miocene of Africa showed part of the evolution of these birds, which are now only found in South America, to have taken place outside the Neotropic region. Here, we describe a new fossil species from the late Eocene of France, which constitutes the earliest fossil record of hoatzins and the first one from the Northern Hemisphere. Protoazin parisiensis gen. et sp. nov. is more closely related to South American Opisthocomiformes than the African taxon Namibiavis and substantiates an Old World origin of hoatzins, as well as a relictual distribution of the single extant species. Although recognition of hoatzins in Europe may challenge their presumed transatlantic dispersal, there are still no North American fossils in support of an alternative, Northern Hemispheric, dispersal route. In addition to Opisthocomiformes, other avian taxa are known from the Cenozoic of Europe, the extant representatives of which are only found in South America. Recognition of hoatzins in the early Cenozoic of Europe is of particular significance because Opisthocomiformes have a fossil record in sub-Saharan Africa, which supports the hypothesis that extinction of at least some of these "South American" groups outside the Neotropic region was not primarily due to climatic factors. PMID:24441712

Mayr, Gerald; De Pietri, Vanesa L



Earliest and first Northern Hemispheric hoatzin fossils substantiate Old World origin of a "Neotropic endemic"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent identification of hoatzins (Opisthocomiformes) in the Miocene of Africa showed part of the evolution of these birds, which are now only found in South America, to have taken place outside the Neotropic region. Here, we describe a new fossil species from the late Eocene of France, which constitutes the earliest fossil record of hoatzins and the first one from the Northern Hemisphere. Protoazin parisiensis gen. et sp. nov. is more closely related to South American Opisthocomiformes than the African taxon Namibiavis and substantiates an Old World origin of hoatzins, as well as a relictual distribution of the single extant species. Although recognition of hoatzins in Europe may challenge their presumed transatlantic dispersal, there are still no North American fossils in support of an alternative, Northern Hemispheric, dispersal route. In addition to Opisthocomiformes, other avian taxa are known from the Cenozoic of Europe, the extant representatives of which are only found in South America. Recognition of hoatzins in the early Cenozoic of Europe is of particular significance because Opisthocomiformes have a fossil record in sub-Saharan Africa, which supports the hypothesis that extinction of at least some of these "South American" groups outside the Neotropic region was not primarily due to climatic factors.

Mayr, Gerald; De Pietri, Vanesa L.



Final Report for CRADA Agreement , AL-C-2006-01 with Microsens Biotechnologies: Detection of the Abnormal Prion Protein in Blood by Improving the Extraction of this Protein  

SciTech Connect

Several conditions were examined to optimize the extraction protocol using Seprion beads for the abnormal prion protein. Different combinations of water, hexafluro-2-propanol and formic acid were used. The results of these extraction protocols showed that the magnetic beads coated with Seprion reagents were subject to degradation, themselves, when the extraction conditions that would solubilize the abnormal prion protein were used. These compounds caused interference in the immunoassay for the abnormal prion protein and rendered these protocols incompatible with the assay systems. In an attempt to overcome this problem, another approach was then used. The coated beads were used as an integral part of the assay platform. After washing away denaturing agents, the beads with the 'captured' abnormal prion were incubated directly in the immunoassay, followed by analysis by the capillary electrophoresis. When a capillary electrophoresis electro-kinetic separation was attempted, the beads disturbed the analysis making it impossible to interpret. A pressure separation method was then developed for capillary electrophoresis analysis. When 20 samples, 5 of which were positive were analyzed, the assay identified 4 of the 5 positives and had no false positives. When a larger number of samples were analyzed the results were not as good - there were false positives and false negatives. It was then observed that the amount of beads that were loaded was dependent upon how long the beads were allowed to settle before loading them into the capillary. This resulted in unacceptable variations in the results and explained that when large numbers of samples were evaluated the results were not consistent. Because the technical difficulties with using the Seprion beads could not be overcome at this time, another approach is underway that is outside of the scope of this CRADA. No further agreements have been developed. Because the results were not favorable, no manuscripts were written nor intellectual property developed.

Schmerr, Mary Jo



The abnormal proximal tibiofibular joint.  


Abnormalities of the proximal tibiofibular joint are infrequently encountered. Mostly instability occurs as a result of trauma. Four types of instability are distinguished: subluxation, anterolateral, posteromedial and superior dislocation. Four radiological methods designed to visualize abnormalities of the proximal tibiofibular joint are discussed. Special notice is given to the clinical relevance of a new method. Instability was demonstrated in 19 patients; 16 of these were treated by an operation. History, data obtained by physical examination and ways of treatment are discussed. PMID:6703874

Veth, R P; Kingma, L M; Nielsen, H K



Chromosome abnormalities in sperm of individuals with constitutional sex chromosomal abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most common type of karyotype abnormality detected in infertile subjects is represented by Klinefelter’s syndrome, and the most frequent non-chromosomal alteration is represented by Y chromosome long arm microdeletions. Here we report our experience and a review of the literature on sperm sex chromosome aneuploidies in these two conditions. Non mosaic 47,XXY Klinefelter patients (12 subjects) show a significantly

A. Ferlin; A. Garolla; C. Foresta



Neurological abnormalities in young adults born preterm  

PubMed Central

Objective Individuals born before 33?weeks' gestation (very preterm, VPT) have an increased likelihood of neurological abnormality, impaired cognitive function, and reduced academic performance in childhood. It is currently not known whether neurological signs detected in VPT children persist into adulthood or become attenuated by maturation of the CNS. Method We assessed 153 VPT individuals and 71 term?born controls at 17–18?years old, using a comprehensive neurological examination. This examination divides neurological signs into primary and integrative domains, the former representing the localising signs of classical neurology, and the latter representing signs requiring integration between different neural networks or systems. Integrative signs are sub?divided into three groups: sensory integration, motor confusion, and sequencing. The VPT individuals have been followed up since birth, and neonatal information is available on them, along with the results of neurological assessment at 4 and 8?years of age and neuropsychological assessment at 18?years of age. Results The total neurology score and primary and integrative scores were significantly increased in VPT young adults compared to term?born controls. Within the integrative domain, sensory integration and motor confusion scores were significantly increased in the VPT group, but sequencing was not significantly different between the VPT and term groups. Integrative neurological abnormalities at 18 were strongly associated with reduced IQ but primary abnormalities were not. Conclusions Neurological signs are increased in VPT adults compared to term?born controls, and are strongly associated with reduced neuropsychological function.

Allin, M; Rooney, M; Griffiths, T; Cuddy, M; Wyatt, J; Rifkin, L; Murray, R



Abnormal Position and Presentation of the Fetus  


... Health Issues > Complications of Labor and Delivery 4 Abnormal Position and Presentation of the Fetus Position refers ... neck flexed, and presentation is head first. An abnormal position is facing forward, and abnormal presentations include ...


Origin and age of the earliest Martian crust from meteorite NWA?7533.  


The ancient cratered terrain of the southern highlands of Mars is thought to hold clues to the planet's early differentiation, but until now no meteoritic regolith breccias have been recovered from Mars. Here we show that the meteorite Northwest Africa (NWA)?7533 (paired with meteorite NWA?7034) is a polymict breccia consisting of a fine-grained interclast matrix containing clasts of igneous-textured rocks and fine-grained clast-laden impact melt rocks. High abundances of meteoritic siderophiles (for example nickel and iridium) found throughout the rock reach a level in the fine-grained portions equivalent to 5 per cent CI chondritic input, which is comparable to the highest levels found in lunar breccias. Furthermore, analyses of three leucocratic monzonite clasts show a correlation between nickel, iridium and magnesium consistent with differentiation from impact melts. Compositionally, all the fine-grained material is alkalic basalt, chemically identical (except for sulphur, chlorine and zinc) to soils from Gusev crater. Thus, we propose that NWA?7533 is a Martian regolith breccia. It contains zircons for which we measured an age of 4,428?±?25 million years, which were later disturbed 1,712?±?85 million years ago. This evidence for early crustal differentiation implies that the Martian crust, and its volatile inventory, formed in about the first 100 million years of Martian history, coeval with earliest crust formation on the Moon and the Earth. In addition, incompatible element abundances in clast-laden impact melt rocks and interclast matrix provide a geochemical estimate of the average thickness of the Martian crust (50 kilometres) comparable to that estimated geophysically. PMID:24256724

Humayun, M; Nemchin, A; Zanda, B; Hewins, R H; Grange, M; Kennedy, A; Lorand, J-P; Göpel, C; Fieni, C; Pont, S; Deldicque, D



Microbial biosynthesis of wax esters during desiccation: an adaptation for colonization of the earliest terrestrial environments?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biosynthesis of wax esters (WE) by prokaryotes in natural systems, notably bacteria from hot springs and marine phytoplankton, is poorly documented, primarily because saponification is a routine step in the analysis of microbial mat lipids. Use of this preparative procedure, critical for characterization of the diagnostic distributions of carboxylic acids in phospholipids, precludes recovery of intact WE. Examination of non-saponified lipids in emergent and desiccated mats with comparable microbial communities from the Warner Lake region, Oregon, reveals increases in the relative abundance (18.6 to 59.9?g/g Corg) and average chain length (C38 to C46) of WE in the latter, combined with assimilation of phytol and tocopherol moieties. Prokaryotes can accumulate WE as storage lipids in vitro, notably at elevated temperature or under nitrogen limiting conditions, but we propose that biosynthesis of long-chain WE that have a low solubility and are resistant to degradation/oxidation may represent an evolutionary strategy to survive desiccation in evaporative environments. Moreover, aeolian transport of desiccated mat-rip-ups between lake flats allows for migration of microbial communities within and between lake flats and basins during arid conditions. Subsequent rehydration within an alkaline environment would naturally saponify WE, and thereby regenerate alcohol and acid moieties that could serve as membrane lipids for the next viable microbial generation. The evolutionary cradle of WE was likely abiotic generation under hydrothermal conditions, which is consistent with the antiquity of the ester linkage necessitated by its integral role in the membranes of Eubacteria (though not Archaea) and in bacteriochlorophyll. The subsequent capability of microbes to biosynthesize WE may have facilitated their survival when nutrients were limiting, and production of long-chain WE (>C40) may represent a further critical evolutionary threshold that enabled their persistence through and during dehydration or desiccation cycles. Thus, production of WE may have facilitated microbial migration to the lake environments that represented the earliest terrestrial ecosystems, and survival through the Great Oxygenation Event.

Finkelstein, D. B.; Brassell, S. C.; Pratt, L. M.



Late Paleocene fossils from the Cerrejon Formation, Colombia, are the earliest record of Neotropical rainforest.  


Neotropical rainforests have a very poor fossil record, making hypotheses concerning their origins difficult to evaluate. Nevertheless, some of their most important characteristics can be preserved in the fossil record: high plant diversity, dominance by a distinctive combination of angiosperm families, a preponderance of plant species with large, smooth-margined leaves, and evidence for a high diversity of herbivorous insects. Here, we report on an approximately 58-my-old flora from the Cerrejón Formation of Colombia (paleolatitude approximately 5 degrees N) that is the earliest megafossil record of Neotropical rainforest. The flora has abundant, diverse palms and legumes and similar family composition to extant Neotropical rainforest. Three-quarters of the leaf types are large and entire-margined, indicating rainfall >2,500 mm/year and mean annual temperature >25 degrees C. Despite modern family composition and tropical paleoclimate, the diversity of fossil pollen and leaf samples is 60-80% that of comparable samples from extant and Quaternary Neotropical rainforest from similar climates. Insect feeding damage on Cerrejón fossil leaves, representing primary consumers, is abundant, but also of low diversity, and overwhelmingly made by generalist feeders rather than specialized herbivores. Cerrejón megafossils provide strong evidence that the same Neotropical rainforest families have characterized the biome since the Paleocene, maintaining their importance through climatic phases warmer and cooler than present. The low diversity of both plants and herbivorous insects in this Paleocene Neotropical rainforest may reflect an early stage in the diversification of the lineages that inhabit this biome, and/or a long recovery period from the terminal Cretaceous extinction. PMID:19833876

Wing, Scott L; Herrera, Fabiany; Jaramillo, Carlos A; Gómez-Navarro, Carolina; Wilf, Peter; Labandeira, Conrad C



Simulating Metal-Poor and Metal-Free Star Formation in the Earliest Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The end of the cosmic dark ages was brought about by the formation of the first stars and galaxies. Since this epoch is currently outside of observational reach, numerical studies are key in understanding this uncharted cosmic epoch. In this dissertation talk, I will describe my work using high-resolution, zoom-in simulations to understand the formation of these earliest stellar associations in a cosmological setting. The overarching focus will be on the fragmentation of collapsing gas and how this process is moderated by the gas chemistry, radiation fields, and realistic cosmological initial conditions. A key aspect of this work has been the development of sophisticated physics modules for the hydrodynamics code FLASH, including non-equilibrium chemistry, radiative transfer schemes, and sink particles. I will begin by describing how more moderate mass Population III stars ended their lives with a relatively quick heavy-element enrichment of their host dark matter halos, resulting in prompt Population II star formation. The introduction of metals from the first supernovae is believed to induce a star formation mode transition from high to low characteristic mass. I will show how the fragmentation of such metal enriched gas depends strongly on the metallicity, with fragmentation setting in when gas hits the CMB temperature floor. If present, an H2 photo-dissociating Lyman-Werner radiation background can delay the formation of the first stars and potentially result in clustered metal-free star formation in more massive, self-shielding halos at lower redshift. I will present results from recent simulations that follow the collapse and fragmentation of the first dust enriched gas to high densities (n ~ 10^14 cm^-3), analyzing the interplay of dust cooling with a CMB temperature floor and gauging the effect that dust heating from protostellar feedback has on the outcome of star formation. Finally, I will discuss this work’s implications for next-generation observatories, in particular the James Webb Space Telescope.

Safranek-Shrader, Chalence



Using Reduced Interference Distribution to Analyze Abnormal Cardiac Signal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the non-stationary, multicomponent nature of biomedical signals, the use of time-frequency analysis can be inevitable for these signals. The choice and selection of the proper Time-Frequency Distribution (TFD) that can reveal the exact multicomponent structure of biological signals is vital in many applications, including the diagnosis of medical abnormalities. In this paper, the instantaneous frequency techniques using two distribution functions are applied for analysis of biological signals. These distributions are the Wigner-Ville Distribution and the Bessel Distribution. The simulation performed on normaland abnormal cardiac signals show that the Bessel Distribution can clearly detect the QRS complexes. However, Wigner-Ville Distribution was able to detect the QRS complexes in the normal signa, but fails to detect these complexes in the abnormal cardiac signal.

Mousa, Allam; Saleem, Rashid



[Walking abnormalities in children].  


Walking is a spontaneous movement termed locomotion that is promoted by activation of antigravity muscles by serotonergic (5HT) neurons. Development of antigravity activity follows 3 developmental epochs of the sleep-wake (S-W) cycle and is modulated by particular 5HT neurons in each epoch. Activation of antigravity activities occurs in the first epoch (around the age of 3 to 4 months) as restriction of atonia in rapid eye movement (REM) stage and development of circadian S-W cycle. These activities strengthen in the second epoch, with modulation of day-time sleep and induction of crawling around the age of 8 months and induction of walking by 1 year. Around the age of 1 year 6 months, absence of guarded walking and interlimb cordination is observed along with modulation of day-time sleep to once in the afternoon. Bipedal walking in upright position occurs in the third epoch, with development of a biphasic S-W cycle by the age of 4-5 years. Patients with infantile autism (IA), Rett syndrome (RTT), or Tourette syndrome (TS) show failure in the development of the first, second, or third epoch, respectively. Patients with IA fail to develop interlimb coordination; those with RTT, crawling and walking; and those with TS, walking in upright posture. Basic pathophysiology underlying these condition is failure in restricting atonia in REM stage; this induces dysfunction of the pedunculopontine nucleus and consequently dys- or hypofunction of the dopamine (DA) neurons. DA hypofunction in the developing brain, associated with compensatory upward regulation of the DA receptors causes psychobehavioral disorders in infancy (IA), failure in synaptogenesis in the frontal cortex and functional development of the motor and associate cortexes in late infancy through the basal ganglia (RTT), and failure in functional development of the prefrontal cortex through the basal ganglia (TS). Further, locomotion failure in early childhood causes failure in development of functional specialization of the cortex through the spinal stepping generator-fastigial nucleus-thalamus-cortex pathway. Early detection of locomotion failure and early adjustment of this condition through environmental factors can prevent the development of higher cortical dysfunction. PMID:21068458

Segawa, Masaya



Granulocyte, monocyte and blast immunophenotype abnormalities in acute myeloid leukemia with myelodysplasia-related changes.  


Little literature exists regarding granulocyte and monocyte immunophenotype abnormalities in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). We hypothesized that granulocyte and monocyte immunophenotype abnormalities are common in AML, and especially in AML with myelodysplasia-related changes (AMLMRC). Bone marrow or peripheral blood specimens from 48 cases of AML and 22 cases of control specimens were analyzed by flow cytometric immunophenotyping. Granulocyte, monocyte, and blast immunophenotype abnormalities were compared between cases of AML versus controls and AMLMRC versus AML without myelodysplasia. The results revealed that granulocyte, monocyte, and blast abnormalities were more common in AMLMRC than in AML without myelodysplasia or control cases. The difference reached statistical significance for abnormalities of granulocytes and abnormalities in all cells of interest. From the numerous individual abnormalities, only CD25 expression in blasts was significantly more prevalent in AMLMRC in this study. We conclude that detection of granulocyte, monocyte, and blast immunophenotype abnormalities can contribute to the diagnosis of AMLMRC. PMID:24695467

Ayar, Sonali P; Ravula, Sreelakshmi; Polski, Jacek M



Oedema in obesity; role of structural lymphatic abnormalities.  


Oedema is a common finding in obesity and its cause is not always clear. Possible causes include impairment of cardiac, respiratory and/or renal function, chronic venous insufficiency and lymphatic problems. Lymphoscintigraphy is the best method to detect structural lymphatic abnormalities that can cause lymphoedema. We reviewed 49 female subjects with pitting oedema who had undergone lymphoscintigraphy, divided in three groups. The first group was comprised of severely obese patients in whom cardiorespiratory causes for oedema had been excluded. The second group consisted of non-obese patients with recognized causes for oedema and the third group was non-obese patients with 'idiopathic' oedema. A standard classification was used to interpret lymphoscintigraphy results. The frequency and severity of lymphoscintigraphic abnormalities was greatest in patients with clinical diagnoses of oedema related to 'recognized causes' (any abnormality in 50% of legs with obstruction in 22%). Obese patients and those with 'idiopathic'oedema had fewer (P=0.02 for both) and milder lymphoscintographic abnormalities (any abnormality 32 and 25%, respectively, obstruction 5 and 3%, respectively), and although the clinical oedema was invariably bilateral, the lymphoscintigraphy abnormalities were usually unilateral. In conclusion, structural lymphoscintigraphic abnormalities are uncommon in obesity and do not closely correlate with the clinical pattern of oedema. PMID:21266949

Vasileiou, A-M; Bull, R; Kitou, D; Alexiadou, K; Garvie, N J; Coppack, S W



Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical ``heartprints'' which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing ~105 heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon



Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon



Culture effects on adults' earliest childhood recollection and self-description: implications for the relation between memory and the self.  


American and Chinese college students (N = 256) reported their earliest childhood memory on a memory questionnaire and provided self-descriptions on a shortened 20 Statements Test (M. H. Kuhn & T. S. McPartland, 1954). The average age at earliest memory of Americans was almost 6 months earlier than that of Chinese. Americans reported lengthy, specific, self-focused, and emotionally elaborate memories; they also placed emphasis on individual attributes in describing themselves. Chinese provided brief accounts of childhood memories centering on collective activities, general routines, and emotionally neutral events; they also included a great number of social roles in their self-descriptions. Across the entire sample, individuals who described themselves in more self-focused and positive terms provided more specific and self-focused memories. Findings are discussed in light of the interactive relation between autobiographical memory and cultural self-construal. PMID:11519928

Wang, Q



Craniocervical junction abnormalities in dogs.  


Craniocervical junction abnormality (CJA) is a term that encompasses a number of developmental anatomical aberrations at the region of the caudal occiput and first two cervical vertebrae. Chiari-like malformation appears to be the most common CJA encountered in dogs, and there has been a tremendous amount of clinical investigation into this disorder in recent years. Other abnormalities in this region include atlanto-occipital overlap, dorsal constriction at C1/C2 and atlantoaxial instability. This review article presents an overview of the current understanding of CJA in dogs, as well as medical and surgical treatment options available. PMID:23556552

Dewey, C W; Marino, D J; Loughin, C A



Size matters: MEG empirical and simulation study on source localization of the earliest visual activity in the occipital cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the relationship between sensory stimulation and tasks and the size of the cortical activations is generally unknown,\\u000a the visual modality offers a unique possibility of an experimental manipulation of stimulus size-related increases of the\\u000a spatial extent of cortical activation even during the earliest activity in the retinotopically organized primary visual cortex.\\u000a We used magnetoecephalography (MEG), visual stimuli of increasing

Sanja Josef Golubic; Ana Susac; Veljko Grilj; Douglas Ranken; Ralph Huonker; Jens Haueisen; Selma Supek



Earliest Triassic microbialites in the South China block and other areas: controls on their growth and distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earliest Triassic microbialites (ETMs) and inorganic carbonate crystal fans formed after the end-Permian mass extinction (ca.\\u000a 251.4 Ma) within the basal Triassic Hindeodus parvus conodont zone. ETMs are distinguished from rarer, and more regional, subsequent Triassic microbialites. Large differences\\u000a in ETMs between northern and southern areas of the South China block suggest geographic provinces, and ETMs are most abundant\\u000a throughout the

Steve Kershaw; Yue Li; Sylvie Crasquin-Soleau; Qinglai Feng; Xinan Mu; Pierre-Yves Collin; Alan Reynolds; Li Guo



Contribution of the earliest woody trees (lignophytes) to the greening of the continents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diversification of early terrestrial plants is characterized by an intense phase of morphological innovation during the Devonian that resulted in the evolution of a large variety of growth forms. Several unrelated taxa adopted the tree habit, a form characterized by its extended lifetime and the possession of a tall, vertical trunk.This evolution provided large-sized plants with functional advantages over smaller ones in terms of reproduction and light interception. From a biophysical point of view, this increase in stature was a challenge as it created new constraints in terms of biomechanical support and water transport. The various groups that evolved trees resolved these problems by adopting specific strategies in relation to their own evolutionary history and inherited traits. It is uncertain whether the evolution of the tree habit and of forests has directly promoted the diversification of the reproductive systems and the advent of the seed habit. But it created new niches, contributing to the diversication of the terrestrial floras and faunas. It may also have considerably impacted the biosphere and contributed to the dramatic decline of atmospheric CO2 in the Late Devonian through the enhanced development of soils and changes in erosional and sedimentary processes. Understanding these interactions through a better assessment of the structure, development, functioning and evolution of early trees represents a new challenge for paleobotanists. Here we provide a review of the earliest arborescent representatives of the lignophyte clade, paying special attention to the anatomical, morphological and developmental traits that may have contributed to their wide paleogeographical distribution in the Late Devonian and later on. These trees are the first ones in the history of vegetation to possess leaves as well as long-lived roots and branches. Their growth is three-dimensional by comparison to the essentially vertical growth of earlier trees. Using the material we collected from diverse North Gondwanan localities, we investigated the evolution and patterns of changes in the floras of arborescent lignophytes around the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary. New evidence indicates that (1) the time interval between the extinction of the progymnosperm (free-sporing) genus Archaeopteris that flourished in the Late Devonian and the diversification of a new tree flora in the Mississippian was short if any, and (2) that the majority of this renewed arborescent vegetation reproduced by seeds.

Meyer-Berthaud, B.; Decombeix, A.-L.



High-resolution stable carbon isotope record of the Permian to earliest Triassic from East Greenland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Late Permian and Early Triassic organic carbon isotope records show global major excursions probably triggered by episodic volcanic degasing of the Siberian Large Igneous Province. Important and rapid fluctuations of the global carbon cycle are also reflected in the biosphere. The geological record seems to comprise several major floral and marine faunal turnovers indicating short-lived biotic recoveries. In northwest Pangea, the active Early Triassic Greenland - Norway rifting system led to the accommodation of thick sedimentary sequences. This basin has a great potential for detailed studies of regional and global biotic and climatic changes with high temporal resolution during this critical interval in Earth's history. The western part of this basin is exposed in north-eastern Greenland and is represented by a succession of deltaic sediments organized in a general regressive trend ranging throughout the Griesbachian and the onset of the Dienerian. On the eastern side of the basin the succession has been drilled off the Norwegian coast. On Hold with Hope (East Greenland, 74°N) up to ca. 800m thick sections of the ammonoid-bearing Early Triassic Wordie Creek Formation have been logged and sampled. Here we present a high-resolution organic carbon isotope record and preliminary palynofacies data of a 500m thick composite section ranging from the Permian into the earliest Triassic. The organic carbon isotope record is closely comparable to the coeval section from the Trøndelag platform in Mid-Norway. The two records show a first major negative shift (ca. -6‰) representing the unconformity between the Ravnefjeld and the Wordie Creek formations, regionally known as the lithological Permian-Triassic boundary. Higher up, a second negative shift of ca. -4‰ correlates with the carbon shift associated with the GSSP Permian-Triassic boundary as defined at Meishan (China), represented by carbon isotope values around -30‰. This negative shift is followed by a steady positive trend, which is interrupted by two striking events, (a) a positive shift reaching values of ca. -22‰, comparable to the values of the Permian Ravnefjeld Formation, and (b) another negative shift of ca. -7‰ bringing the carbon record back to values around -31‰. Our data from north-eastern Greenland indicate multiple and major events recorded by the carbon cycle within less than a million years at the onset of the Triassic.

Sanson Barrera, Anna; Hochuli, Peter A.; Bucher, Hugo; Meier, Maximiliano; Schneebeli Hermann, Elke; Weissert, Helmut; Bernasconi, Stefano M.



Paleointensity obtained from late Cretaceous and earliest Paleogene basalts drilled from Louisville seamount trail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

IODP Expedition 330 occupied six sites on five seamounts along the northwestern part of the Louisville seamount trail. The ages of the seamounts range between 50 and 74 Ma. Fresh basalts were recovered by drilling despite the old ages. From onboard examination of the rocks, it is considered that part of basalts erupted in subaerial or shallow submarine conditions and probably suffered high-temperature oxidation, in particular at Sites U1372 and U1373, suggesting that they may be suitable for absolute paleointensity estimation. We conducted paleointensity measurements using the Tsunakawa-Shaw method with low-temperature demagnetization (LTD) and double heating (DHT). First, thermomagnetic curves were measured for all samples with a Curie balance at the Center for Advanced Marine Core Research, Kochi University. Samples that showed evidence for being suffered low-temperature oxidation were excluded. Then, samples from which characteristic magnetization component was isolated by stepwise alternating-field demagnetization were subjected to the paleointensity experiments; samples with MAD of larger than 10° were excluded. Paleointensity of 23.6×8.9 mirco T was obtained at Site U1372 on the Canopus Seamount, the oldest seamount drilled (˜74 Ma), as the mean of 15 lithological units (lava flows) that passed the selection criteria of Yamamoto and Tsunakawa (2005). Sites U1373 and U1374 on the Rigil Seamount (˜70 Ma) yielded paleointensity of 22.2 ×8.5 micro T (n=18), and Site U1376 on the Burton Seamount (˜64 Ma) resulted 21.6 ×6.8 micro T (n=10). The mean paleointensities are converted to virtual axial dipole moment (VADM) of approximately 3.7 x1022 Am2 based on a paleolatitude of ˜43° to ˜50°S of the Louisville hotspot between 50 and 74 Ma from onboard paleomagnetic results. The results of this study suggests that paleointensity of latest Cretaceous to earliest Paleogene was about a half of the present field intensity and similar to the mean of the last 5 Ma by Yamamoto and Tsunakawa (2005).

Yamazaki, T.; Yamamoto, Y.



Employing an Osmium Clock to Investigate Earliest Paleogene Impact Recovery in the Southern Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Constraining the time scale of biotic recovery in the aftermath of mass extinctions is difficult because the normal patterns of cyclic sedimentation used to constrain sediment accumulation rates can be disrupted by the extinction event itself. At the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary, impact-induced changes in ocean chemistry provide a novel approach to time keeping for the earliest Paleogene pelagic sediments. The bolide impact, widely accepted as the primary cause of the K-Pg mass extinction, caused an abrupt decrease in the global seawater 187Os/188Os ratio from ~0.4 to < 0.2. Here, we employ a recently proposed geochemical "clock" which utilizes the change in the 187Os/188Os ratio of the sediment over time from low, post-impact ratios, immediately after the K-Pg event, back to the pre-impact, steady state ratios, to determine the amount of time elapsed since the impact event (Ravizza and VonderHaar, Paleoceanography, doi:10.1029/2012PA002301). This method assumes that the residence time of Os in the early Paleogene ocean is the same as in the modern ocean, making the Os clock most useful for constraining the age of sediments deposited in the first 200 kyr after the K-Pg mass extinction. While the model yields ages that compare favorably with the orbital tuning results from ODP Site 1262 on Walvis Ridge (South Atlantic), results from ODP Hole 738C located in the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean are surprising. In the first 50 cm of the Paleogene, Os data indicate a sedimentation rate of approximately 1 cm/kyr, at least 5 times faster than previously inferred from biostratigraphic data. From 50 cm to 250cm above the K-Pg, 187Os/188Os ratios increase gradually from 0.25 to ~0.3, yielding sediment accumulation rate estimates as high as 10 cm/kyr. If correct, these results require an episode of extremely rapid carbonate accumulation roughly 50 kyr after the extinction event. Alternatively, the Os isotope record may be biased by either reworked ejecta particles or by lithogenic matter from the Kerguelen Plateau. These possibilities must be further evaluated to test the Os clock in detail. If the Os clock method proves reliable, this approach will more accurately determine biotic recovery times and sedimentation rates than current methods.

Zaiss, J. M.; Ravizza, G. E.; Schmitz, B.



Earliest step of core-mantle separation: Shock melting experiment of chondrite-like materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to understand the dynamic melting process during the planet accretion stage, we carried out shock melting experiments on chondrite-like starting materials, mixture of Fe-metal and peridotite KLB-1 (Takahashi, 1986) with various proportion of Fe metal sponge. Six shock experiments were carried out using a propellant gun (30 mm bore) at the NIMS, using methods similar to Hirata et al. (2009PEPI). In shock recovered samples, melting took place only locally and numerous metal droplets were formed in molten part of the sample. Large Fe-droplets up to 50 micron in diameter were formed in the center of the sample (Fig.1a) which indicates that growth of Fe-metal droplets took place in less than 1/100 sec. In contrast to the very slow growth rate of FeS melts dispersed in partially molten peridotite (Yoshino & Watson, 2005), large Fe-metal droplets formed in shock melting experiments must represent the volume of Fe that had been three dimensionally connected prior to shock melting. Size of the metal grains formed in shock melting process in planet building stage may depend on the connectivity of Fe-metal phase in the source materials. In order to test the above hypothesis, we carried out 40 experiments using a piston-cylinder apparatus at the Magma Factory, Tokyo Institute of Technology using the same starting materials. In the PC experiments, pressure was kept constant at 1 GPa. Sample temperatures were raised quickly to 1300C and then hold for 10 min (just above the solidus of peridotite KLB-1 at 1 GPa). Temperature was raised very quickly from 1300 to 1600C and quenched. Sample temperature was controlled so that the total time for melting of Fe (>1550C) to be 10 to 1800sec. Graphite capsule was used for short experiments whereas MgO was used in longer experiments (>60sec). Textures of the melted samples are similar to those by the propellant gun experiments at iron poor sample. In iron rich samples, however, up to millimeter scale very large Fe-grains were formed even in shortest runs (Fig.1b, 1600C 10 sec). Based on these experiments, we conclude that size of the metal grains formed in each shock melting process in planet building stage depends on the connectivity of Fe-metal phase in the source materials. Pallasite (stony-iron meteorite) may represent the product of local melt pockets formed after impacts, the earliest form of core-mantle separation in planet building stage.

Eiichi, T.; Tsumagari, Y.; Nishio, M.; Sekine, T.



Interpreting chromosomal abnormalities using Prolog.  


This paper describes an expert system for interpreting the standard notation used to represent human chromosomal abnormalities, namely, the International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature. Written in Prolog, this program is very powerful, easy to maintain, and portable. The system can be used as a front end to any database that employs cytogenetic notation, such as a patient registry. PMID:2185921

Cooper, G; Friedman, J M



Extracellular Matrix Abnormalities in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Emerging evidence points to the involvement of the brain extracellular matrix (ECM) in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ). Abnormalities affecting several ECM components, including Reelin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), have been described in subjects with this disease. Solid evidence supports the involvement of Reelin, an ECM glycoprotein involved in corticogenesis, synaptic functions and glutamate NMDA receptor regulation, expressed prevalently in distinct populations of GABAergic neurons, which secrete it into the ECM. Marked changes of Reelin expression in SZ have typically been reported in association with GABA-related abnormalities in subjects with SZ and bipolar disorder. Recent findings from our group point to substantial abnormalities affecting CSPGs, a main ECM component, in the amygdala and entorhinal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia, but not bipolar disorder. Striking increases of glial cells expressing CSPGs were accompanied by reductions of perineuronal nets, CSPG- and Reelin-enriched ECM aggregates enveloping distinct neuronal populations. CSPGs developmental and adult functions, including neuronal migration, axon guidance, synaptic and neurotransmission regulation are highly relevant to the pathophysiology of SZ. Together with reports of anomalies affecting several other ECM components, these findings point to the ECM as a key component of the pathology of SZ. We propose that ECM abnormalities may contribute to several aspects of the pathophysiology of this disease, including disrupted connectivity and neuronal migration, synaptic anomalies and altered GABAergic, glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission.

Berretta, Sabina



Swellings over the Limbs as the Earliest Feature in a Patient with Osteogenesis Imperfecta Type V.  


Swellings over the upper and lower limbs were encountered in a one-year-old child. Skeletal survey showed a constellation of distinctive radiographic abnormalities of osteoporosis, hyperplastic callus and ossification of the interosseous membrane of the forearm, femora, and to lesser extent the tibiae. Neither wormian bones of the skull nor dentinogenesis imperfecta was present. Genetic tests revealed absence of mutation in COL1A1 or COL1A2 genes, respectively. The overall phenotypic features were consistent with the diagnosis of osteogenesis imperfecta type V (OI-V). The aim of this paper is to distinguish between swellings because of intrinsic bone disorders and these due to child physical abuse. PMID:24772361

Al Kaissi, Ali; Ganger, Rudolf; Klaushofer, Klaus; Grill, Franz



The measurement of abnormal movement: methods developed for Huntington's disease.  


Clinical and laboratory methods were developed to detect motor abnormalities in patients with Huntington Disease. For clinical evaluation a quantitated neurological examination was used which factor analyzed into 2 scales: a chorea scale (a measure of involuntary movement) and a motor impairment scale (a measure of abnormalities of voluntary movement). Mechanized methods of measuring involuntary movement (accelerometer) and voluntary movement (reaction time, tapping speed, and movement time) were also developed. The motor abnormalities detected on the clinical and mechanical tests were not specific to HD but were also present in persons at 50% risk for HD and in patients with a variety of neurological disorders. The mechanized tests may be useful for screening for motor disorders in the population: they are non-specific, portable and do not require the services of an experienced clinician. PMID:6230541

Folstein, S E; Jensen, B; Leigh, R J; Folstein, M F



The Earliest Fossil Evidence for Life on Land and the Freshwater Origin of Algae?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some 150 years ago, in 1859, Charles Darwin was greatly puzzled by a seeming absence of fossils in rocks older than the Cambrian period. He drew attention to a veritable Lost World that it is now known to have spanned more than 80 per cent of Earth History. And he made a prediction that we here bring again into focus: 'The presence of phosphate nodules and bituminous matter in some of the lowest azoic rocks probably indicates the former existence of life at these periods (Darwin 1859, p.307). His prediction came to fruition in 1899, when Sir Archibald Geikie announced to the world the first discovery of genuine microfossils in Precambrian phosphatic rocks, made by Jephro Teall, Ben Peach and John Horne within the Torridonian rocks of Scotland. The Torridonian phosphate of NW Scotland has, however, been rather little studied until recently. It is remarkable for its fidelity of fossil preservation, and also for its non-marine depositional setting. Dating to the end of the Mesoproterozoic Era around 1Ga ago, thick packages of fluvial sandstones are found to serve the remains of very ancient intermontane lake ecosystems. Fossil assemblages from terrestrial settings are rarely seen before the Devonian ~ 350 Ma ago. Evidence for freshwater and terrestrial life in the Precambrian has therefore been circumstantial rather than detailed and none has yet come from freshwater phosphate. We here demonstrate that phosphate from ~ 1200-1000 Ma Mesoproterozoic lake sediments of the Torridon Group preserve a remarkable suite of organisms forming a freshwater, terrestrial, phototrophic ecosystem. Ephemeral lakes and streams developed in intermontane basins within the interior of the supercontinent of Rodinia and periodically experienced prolonged desiccation allowing phosphate precipitation. The microbiology of these lake sediments is being studied in detail, where they are yielding - with the aid of Automontage - fresh evidence for the earliest known terrestrial ecology and lagerstatte. Delicate cellular structures, and even sub-cellular structures, can be preserved with high fidelity in the phosphate. These cells show evidence for life cycles that ranged from resting cysts - sometimes sculptured - to colonial vegetative stages and thence to single celled dispersal stages. Cyanobacteria, eukaryotic protists and algae are all present. The ecological structure and responses of these Torridon lake communities can be compared with those of modern, mainly acidiphilic, lakes. Together with sedimentary structures and wrinkle mats of demonstrably microbial origin, we can point to the variable development of seasonal eutrophication and stagnation in the photic zone of these ancient lakes. Population statistics of the various morphotypes reveal differences between the assemblages collected from older and younger units of the Torridon Group, attributable to differing lacustrine ecologies. Such exceptional preservation in the Proterozoic is part of an emerging picture of evolving taphonomic styles through time, in which better preservation of cells is found as we go further back into the fossil record. We attribute this remarkable preservation in the Proterozoic to very early diagenesis in a world before the evolution of a sediment Mixed Layer during the Cambrian explosion of the Metazoa. This evidence suggests that Earth's terrestrial biota and its associated phosphorus cycle were well established on land by ~1000 Ma ago. It also suggests that many algal groups, which today are obligate freshwater denizens, may have originated in freshwater lakes over a billion years ago.

Battison, L.; Brasier, M. D.; Antcliffe, J. B.



New insights into the earliest Quaternary environments in the Central North Sea from 3D seismic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past the transition between an unconformable surface in the south to a conformable horizon towards the north has made identification and mapping the base-Quaternary in the central North Sea difficult (Sejrup et al 1991; Gatliff et al 1994). However recent integration of biostratigraphy, pollen analysis, paleomagnetism and amino acid analysis in the Dutch and Danish sectors (Rasmussen et al 2005; Kuhlmann et al 2006) has allowed greater confidence in the correlation to the region 3D seismic datasets and thus has allowed the base-Quaternary to be mapped across the entire basin. The base-Quaternary has been mapped using the PGS MegaSurvey dataset from wells in the Danish Sector along the initially unconformable horizon and down the delta front into the more conformable basin giving a high degree of confidence in the horizon pick. The revised base-Quaternary surface reaches a depth of 1248 ms TWT with an elongate basin shape which is significantly deeper than the traditionally mapped surface. Using RMS amplitudes and other seismic attributes the revised base-Quaternary has been investigated along the horizon and in time slice to interpret the environments of the earliest Quaternary prior to the onset of glaciation. Combined with analysis of aligned elongate furrows over 10 km long, 100 m wide and 100 m deep suggest a deep marine environment in an almost enclosed basin with persistent strong NW-SE bottom currents in the deepest parts. Pockmarks were formed by the escape of shallow gas on the sides of a small delta in the eastern part of the basin. The progradation of large deltas from both the north and south into the basin make up the majority of the deposition of sediment into the basin. Key Words: base-Quaternary; seismic interpretation; paleoenvironments References: Gatliff, R.W, Richards, P.C, Smith, K, Graham, C.C, McCormac, M, Smith, N.J.P, Long, D, Cameron, T.D.J, Evans, D, Stevenson, A.G, Bulat, J, Ritchie, J.D, (1994) 'United Kingdom offshore regional report: the geology of the central North Sea.' London: HMSO for the British Geological Survey Kuhlmann, G., Langereis C.G., Munsterman, D., van Leeuwen, R.-J., Verreussel, R., Meulenkamp, J.E., Wong, Th.E., 2006 'Intergrated chronostratigraphy of the Pliocene-Pliestocene interval and its relation to the regional stratigraphical stages in the Southern North Sea region' Netherlands Journal of Geosciences 85(1), 29-45 Rasmussen, E.A., Vejb?k O.V., Bidstrup, T., Piasecki, S., Dybkj?r, K., 2005 'Late Cenozoic depositional history of the Danish North Sea Basin: implications for the petroleum systems in the Kraka, Halfdan, Siri and Nini fields', Petroleum Geology Conference series 6, 1347-1358 Sejrup, H.P., Aareseth, I., Haflidason, H., 1991 'The Quaternary succession in the northern North Sea' Marine Geology 101 103-111

Lamb, Rachel; Huuse, Mads; Stewart, Margaret; Brocklehurst, Simon H.



Cenozoic analogues support a plate tectonic origin for the Earth’s earliest continental crust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eocene rhyodacite lavas from the Wagwater Basin in eastern Jamaica have adakitic-like major element compositions, low Y and heavy rare Earth element (REE) concentrations and negative Nb and Ta anomalies on a normal mid-ocean ridge basalt normalised multi-element diagram. They also have lower Sr (<400 ppm), MgO (?2.0 wt.%), Ni (mostly ?30 ppm) and Cr (mostly ?40 ppm) concentrations compared to other modern adakites and middle-late Archaean (3.5-2.5 Ga) trondhjemite, tonalite and granodiorite/dacites (TTGs). ?Nd(i) and ?Hf(i) values indicate that the adakites can not been formed by assimilation and fractional crystallisation processes involving any other igneous rock in the area and so the composition of the adakites is the result of the residual mineralogy in the source region. Low Sr and Al2O3 contents indicate a fluid/vapour-absent source with residual plagioclase, and REE systematics point to residual amphibole and garnet in the source region. The plagioclase and garnet residue implies that the Newcastle magmas were derived from partially melting a metabasic protolith at 1.0-1.6 GPa, which would intersect the amphibole dehydration partial melt solidus at ~ 850-900oC. Radiogenic isotopes along with the low MgO, Ni and Cr concentrations in the adakites demonstrate that the garnet amphibolite source region can not be part of (1) the lower Jamaican arc crust, (2) delaminated lower crust or (3) subducted Proto-Caribbean “normal” oceanic crust that may, or may not, have detached. This data, in addition to partial melting models involving a theoretical garnet-amphibolite source region for the Newcastle lavas, shows that the adakites are derived from metamorphosed Caribbean oceanic plateau crust that underthrust Jamaica in the early Tertiary. The underplated oceanic plateau crust partially melted by either (1) influx of basaltic magma during lithospheric extension in the early Tertiary or (2) direct partial melting of the underthrusting (subducting) plateau crust. The Newcastle magmas ascended and erupted without coming into contact with a mantle wedge thus forming the low MgO, Ni and Cr contents. Most Cenozoic adakites have compositions similar to the middle-late Archaean TTG suite of igneous rocks. In contrast, early (>3.5 Ga) Archaean TTG crustal rocks have lower Sr, MgO, Ni and Cr concentrations and prior to this study had no modern adakite analogue. However, the Newcastle adakites have similar compositions to the, early Archaean TTG. The discovery of these rocks has important implications for our understanding of the formation of the Earth’s earliest continental crust and so it is proposed that the Newcastle lavas be classified as a unique sub-group of adakites: Jamaican-type adakite.

Hastie, A. R.; Kerr, A. C.; Mitchell, S. F.; McDonald, I.; Pearce, J. A.; Millar, I. L.; Wolstencroft, M.



The earliest phases of high-mass star formation: the NGC 6334-NGC 6357 complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Our knowledge of high-mass star formation has been mainly based on follow-up studies of bright sources found by IRAS, and has thus been incomplete for its earliest phases, which are inconspicuous at infrared wavelengths. With a new generation of powerful bolometer arrays, unbiased large-scale surveys of nearby high-mass star-forming complexes now search for the high-mass analog of low-mass cores and class 0 protostars. Aims: Following the pioneering study of Cygnus X, we investigate the star-forming region NGC 6334-NGC 6357 (~1.7 kpc). Methods: We study the complex NGC 6334-NGC 6357 in an homogeneous way following the previous work of Motte and collaborators. We used the same method to extract the densest cores which are the most likely sites for high-mass star formation. We analyzed the SIMBA/SEST 1.2 mm data presented in Munoz and coworkers, which covers all high-column density areas (A v ? 15 mag) of the NGC 6334-NGC 6357 complex and extracted dense cores following the method used for Cygnus X. We constrain the properties of the most massive dense cores (M > 100 M_?) using new molecular line observations (as SiO, N2H+,H13CO+, HCO+ (1-0) and CH3CN) with Mopra and a complete cross-correlation with infrared databases (MSX, GLIMPSE, MIPSGAL) and literature. Results: We extracted 163 massive dense cores of which 16 are more massive than 200 M_?. These high-mass dense cores have a typical FWHM size of 0.37 pc, an average mass of M ~ 600 M_?, and a volume-averaged density of ~ 1.5 × 105 cm-3. Among these massive dense cores, 6 are good candidates for hosting high-mass infrared-quiet protostars, 9 cores are classified as high-luminosity infrared protostars, and we find only one high-mass starless clump (~0.3 pc, ~ 4 × 104 cm-3) that is gravitationally bound. Conclusions: Since our sample is derived from a single molecular complex and covers every embedded phase of high-mass star formation, it provides a statistical estimate of the lifetime of massive stars. In contrast to what is found for low-mass class 0 and class I phases, the infrared-quiet protostellar phase of high-mass stars may last as long as their more well known high-luminosity infrared phase. As in Cygnus X, the statistical lifetime of high-mass protostars is shorter than found for nearby, low-mass star-forming regions which implies that high-mass pre-stellar and protostellar cores are in a dynamic state, as expected in a molecular cloud where turbulent and/or dynamical processes dominate. Based on observations made with Mopra telescope. The Mopra telescope is part of the Australia Telescope which is funded by the Commonwealth of Australia for operation as a National Facility managed by CSIRO.Table 1 and Appendix are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgProfiles as FITS files are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

Russeil, D.; Zavagno, A.; Motte, F.; Schneider, N.; Bontemps, S.; Walsh, A. J.



Immunologic abnormalities in chronic fatigue syndrome.  

PubMed Central

The chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), formerly known as chronic Epstein-Barr virus syndrome, is a clinical state of some complexity and uncertain etiology. In order to characterize in a comprehensive manner the status of laboratory markers associated with cellular immune function in patients with this syndrome, 30 patients with clinically defined CFS were studied. All of the subjects were found to have multiple abnormalities in these markers. The most consistent immunological abnormality detected among these patients, when compared with normal controls, was low natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity. The number of NK cells, as defined by reactivity with monoclonal antibody NKH.1 (CD56), was elevated, but the killing of K562 tumor cells per CD56 cell was significantly diminished. Lymphoproliferative responses after stimulation with phytohemagglutinin and pokeweed mitogen were decreased in most patients when compared with those in normal controls, as was the production of gamma interferon following mitogen stimulation. Lymphocyte phenotypic marker analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes showed that there were significant differences between patients with CFS and controls. There was an increase in the percentage of suppressor-cytotoxic T lymphocytes, CD8, and a proportionally larger increase in the number of CD8 cells expressing the class II activation marker. Most patients had an elevated number of CD2 cells which expressed the activation marker CDw26. The numbers of CD4 cells and the helper subset of CD4+CD29+ cells in patients with CFS were not different from those in controls. There was, however, a significant decrease in the suppressor inducer subset of CD4+ CD45RA+ cells. The number of B cells, CD20 and CD21, were elevated, as were the numbers of a subset of B cells which coexpressed CD20 and CD5. The patterns of immune marker abnormalities observed was compatible with a chronic viral reactivation syndrome.

Klimas, N G; Salvato, F R; Morgan, R; Fletcher, M A



Structural Pituitary Abnormalities Associated With CHARGE Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Introduction: CHARGE syndrome is a multisystem disorder that, in addition to Kallmann syndrome/isolated hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, has been associated with anterior pituitary hypoplasia (APH). However, structural abnormalities such as an ectopic posterior pituitary (EPP) have not yet been described in such patients. Objective: The aims of the study were: 1) to describe the association between CHARGE syndrome and a structurally abnormal pituitary gland; and 2) to investigate whether CHD7 variants, which are identified in 65% of CHARGE patients, are common in septo-optic dysplasia /hypopituitarism. Methods: We describe 2 patients with features of CHARGE and EPP. CHD7 was sequenced in these and other patients with septo-optic dysplasia/hypopituitarism. Results: EPP, APH, and GH, TSH, and probable LH/FSH deficiency were present in 1 patient, and EPP and APH with GH, TSH, LH/FSH, and ACTH deficiency were present in another patient, both of whom had features of CHARGE syndrome. Both had variations in CHD7 that were novel and undetected in control cohorts or in the international database of CHARGE patients, but were also present in their unaffected mothers. No CHD7 variants were detected in the patients with septo-optic dysplasia/hypopituitarism without additional CHARGE features. Conclusion: We report a novel association between CHARGE syndrome and structural abnormalities of the pituitary gland in 2 patients with variations in CHD7 that are of unknown significance. However, CHD7 mutations are an uncommon cause of septo-optic dysplasia or hypopituitarism. Our data suggest the need for evaluation of pituitary function/anatomy in patients with CHARGE syndrome.

Gregory, Louise C.; Gevers, Evelien F.; Baker, Joanne; Kasia, Tessa; Chong, Kling; Josifova, Dragana J.; Caimari, Maria; Bilan, Frederic; McCabe, Mark J.



Taste perception abnormalities after acute stroke in postmenopausal women.  


The study aims to elucidate the characteristics of post-stroke taste dysfunction in postmenopausal women. Taste function in 120 consecutive postmenopausal women with acute (<7 days) stroke was compared with that of age-matched control subjects (n=109). The agents used were: sodium chloride for saltiness, sucrose for sweetness, glacial acetic acid for sourness and quinine hemisulfate for bitterness. Detection and recognition thresholds were performed by the three-stimulus drop technique. Taste threshold values beyond two standard deviations of normal were considered "abnormal". For postmenopausal women after acute stroke, abnormal detection thresholds for the ability to taste sweetness, saltiness, sourness and bitterness were found in 33%, 21%, 35% and 30% of women, respectively, and abnormal recognition thresholds were found in 40%, 34%, 42% and 33% of women respectively. The taste dysfunction occurred ipsilaterally, contralaterally or bilaterally, and was not related to the side or location of the lesion. Large (>2 cm) lesions were more frequently associated with sweet and salty taste dysfunction than small lesions (p<0.05). Follow-up examination in 23 patients at 24 to 31 months (mean 27 months) after the initial evaluation showed that the taste abnormality persisted in 8 (35%) patients. Taste perception abnormalities are common and often persistent in stroke patients. The dysfunction can occur ipsilaterally, contralaterally or bilaterally. PMID:19297163

Kim, Jong S; Choi-Kwon, Smi; Kwon, Sun U; Kwon, Jee-Hyun



Lymphatic abnormalities in Noonan's syndrome.  


Five boys who had Noonan's syndrome and lymphatic abnormalities are reported. The youngest boy had clinical lymphoedema and the other four showed dermal backflow after interdigital injection of Patent Blue indicating impairment of flow along the superficial lymphatics. One boy had severe bilateral chylothorax. The lymphographic findings in four of these boys are reported. Patients with the Noonan syndrome frequently have oedema of the hands and feet at birth, which decreases during the first years of life [10]. It has been demonstrated by lymphography that similar peripheral oedema in patients with the Turner's syndrome is due to lymphatic hypoplasia [1, 3]. We report certain lymphatic abnormalities diagnosed by lymphography in four out of five patients with Noonan's syndrome. PMID:673526

Lanning, P; Similä, S; Suramo, I; Paavilainen, T



Computed tomography of thymic abnormalities.  


Computed tomographic examinations of 38 patients with surgically and histologically proven diagnosis were reviewed. Twenty subjects (52%) had an invasive thymoma and 16% an hyperplasic thymus. Myasthenia gravis was present in 6 cases (16%) of thymic abnormalities, four (10.5%) with invasive thymoma and two (5%) with thymic hyperplasia. Graves' disease was also present in one case of thymic hyperplasia. We emphasize the contribution of CT to the diagnosis and the prognosis. PMID:3595619

Schnyder, P; Candardjis, G



Detecting the origin of text segments efficiently  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the origin detection problem an algorithm is given a set S of documents, ordered by creation time, and a query doc- ument D. It needs to output for every consecutive sequence of k alphanumeric terms in D the earliest document in S in which the sequence appeared (if such a document exists). Algorithms for the origin detection problem can,

Ossama Abdel Hamid; Behshad Behzadi; Stefan Christoph; Monika Rauch Henzinger



Hybrid Approach for Detection of Hard Exudates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetic Retinopathy is a severe and widely spread eye disease which can lead to blindness. Hence, early detection of Diabetic Retinopathy is a must. Hard Exudates are the primary sign of Diabetic Retinopathy. Early treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy is possible if we detect Hard Exudates at the earliest stage. The main concentration of this paper is to discuss techniques for



"Idiopathic" mental retardation and new chromosomal abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Mental retardation is a heterogeneous condition, affecting 1-3% of general population. In the last few years, several emerging clinical entities have been described, due to the advent of newest genetic techniques, such as array Comparative Genomic Hybridization. The detection of cryptic microdeletion/microduplication abnormalities has allowed genotype-phenotype correlations, delineating recognizable syndromic conditions that are herein reviewed. With the aim to provide to Paediatricians a combined clinical and genetic approach to the child with cognitive impairment, a practical diagnostic algorithm is also illustrated. The use of microarray platforms has further reduced the percentage of "idiopathic" forms of mental retardation, previously accounted for about half of total cases. We discussed the putative pathways at the basis of remaining "pure idiopathic" forms of mental retardation, highlighting possible environmental and epigenetic mechanisms as causes of altered cognition.



Abnormal Canine Bone Development Associated with Hypergravity Exposure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chronic centrifugation of 85- to 92-day-old Beagles at 2.0 x g and 2.6 x g for 26 weeks during the time of active skeletal growth caused skeletal abnormalities in the radius and the ulna of ten of 11 dogs. The pattern of change mimicked that found in naturally occurring and experimentally induced premature distal ulnar physeal closure or delayed growth at this physis. Minimal changes in bone density were detected by sensitive photon absorptiometric techniques. Skeletal abnormalities also were found in five of the six cage-control dogs, although the run-control dogs were radiographically normal.

Morgan, J. P.; Fisher, G. L.; McNeill, K. L.; Oyama, J.



Road Proximity Increases Risk of Skeletal Abnormalities in Wood Frogs from National Wildlife Refuges in Alaska  

PubMed Central

Background Skeletal and eye abnormalities in amphibians are not well understood, and they appear to be increasing while global populations decline. Here, we present the first study of amphibian abnormalities in Alaska. Objective In this study we investigated the relationship between anthropogenic influences and the probability of skeletal and eye abnormalities in Alaskan wood frogs (Rana sylvatica). Methods From 2000 to 2006, we examined 9,269 metamorphic wood frogs from 86 breeding sites on five National Wildlife Refuges: Arctic, Innoko, Kenai, Tetlin, and Yukon Delta. Using road proximity as a proxy for human development, we tested relationships between skeletal and eye abnormalities and anthropogenic effects. We also examined a subsample of 458 frogs for the trematode parasite Ribeiroia ondatrae, a known cause of amphibian limb abnormalities. Results Prevalence of skeletal and eye abnormalities at Alaskan refuges ranged from 1.5% to 7.9% and were as high as 20% at individual breeding sites. Proximity to roads increased the risk of skeletal abnormalities (p = 0.004) but not eye abnormalities. The only significant predictor of eye abnormalities was year sampled (p = 0.006). R. ondatrae was not detected in any Alaskan wood frogs. Conclusions Abnormality prevalence at road-accessible sites in the Kenai and Tetlin refuges is among the highest reported in the published literature. Proximity to roads is positively correlated with risk of skeletal abnormalities in Alaskan wood frogs.

Reeves, Mari K.; Dolph, Christine L.; Zimmer, Heidi; Tjeerdema, Ronald S.; Trust, Kimberly A.



Abnormal Neurons in Teratomas in NMDAR Encephalitis.  


IMPORTANCE Ovarian teratomas are frequently described in patients with N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis, yet NMDAR encephalitis is rarely described in patients with ovarian teratomas. Understanding why a minority of patients with teratomas are seen with autoimmune encephalitis may improve the management of NMDAR encephalitis and other teratoma-associated autoimmune diseases. OBJECTIVE To characterize the unique organization of neuroglial elements within ovarian teratomas resected from patients with NMDAR encephalitis. DESIGN Case-control study comparing the pathological features of ovarian teratomas resected from consecutively accrued cases with NMDAR encephalitis between January 1, 2009, and December 15, 2013, and ovarian teratomas resected from controls between June 1, 2012, and June 30, 2013. SETTING Pathology tissue database at a tertiary academic care center. PARTICIPANTS Five cases with teratoma-associated NMDAR encephalitis and serum or cerebrospinal fluid autoantibodies against central nervous system (CNS) NMDAR and 38 controls (39 ovarian teratomas) without neurological symptoms or signs. EXPOSURES Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded ovarian teratomas were examined for the presence of CNS tissue and inflammatory infiltrates using direct microscopy, enhanced with standard histopathological and immunological stains. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Frequency of detection of atypical (dysplastic) CNS neuronal elements in ovarian teratomas resected from cases vs controls, as well as characterization of the relationship between atypical neurons and immune infiltrates. RESULTS Central nervous system neuronal elements were detected in 4 of 5 teratomas resected from cases with NMDAR encephalitis and in 20 of 39 controls (P?=?.36). Atypical neurons were seen within teratomas resected from 4 of 5 cases but not in 39 controls, reliably distinguishing teratomas associated with NMDAR encephalitis (P?abnormalities would have received the diagnosis of gangliogliomas (n?=?3) and ganglioneuroblastoma (n?=?1). Reactive changes were present in teratomas from controls, including ferruginated neurons and Rosenthal fibers. Abnormal neuroglial elements were closely related to immune infiltrates in teratomas resected from 4 of 4 cases. Inflammatory infiltrates were not associated with neuroglial tissue in 20 controls, further differentiating these populations (P?Abnormal neurons within teratomas distinguish cases with NMDAR encephalitis from controls and may promote the development of autoimmunity. PMID:24781184

Day, Gregory S; Laiq, Simin; Tang-Wai, David F; Munoz, David G



Abnormal menstruation in malaria: a short review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malarial infection is an important tropical mosquito borne infectious disease. An important unusual manifestation of malaria\\u000a is the abnormal menstruation. In this brief review, the author will focus on the abnormal menstruation in malarial infection.

Viroj Wiwanitkit



The clinical usefulness of electrocardiogram-gated Tc99 m methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile images in the detection of basal wall motion abnormalities and reversibility of stress induced perfusion defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technetium-99 m methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (SESTAMIBI) has been recently introduced to trace regional myocardial perfusion. Beyond blood flow distribution, a quantitative index of regional myocardial wall motion from SESTAMIBI electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated images was obtained, according to the assumption that changes in the detected radioactivity reflect changes in myocardial wall thickness during the cardiac cycle. As a preliminary study, 20 patients with coronary

Paolo Marzullo; Claudio Marcassa; Gianmario Sambuceti; Oberdan Parodi; Antonio L'Abbate



In multiple myeloma, bone-marrow lymphocytes harboring the same chromosomal abnormalities as autologous plasma cells predict poor survival  

PubMed Central

Chromosomal abnormalities in plasma cells (PCs) from multiple myeloma (MM) provide a clonal signature to identify malignant cells. BM-lymphocytes from MM aspirates, defined by stringent criteria, were screened for the same chromosomal abnormalities as autologous PCs, including translocations, deletions, and amplifications. For 200 MM patients, we evaluated BM mononuclear cells to identify lymphocytes and autologous PCs on the same slide, followed by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization to characterize their chromosomal abnormalities. Of all patients having a given chromosomal abnormality(s) in PCs, 45% showed that same abnormality(s) in 2–37% (median = 5%) of BM-lymphocytes. Most translocations, amplifications, and deletions found in MM PCs were also detected in lymphocytes, above the healthy-donor “cut-off.” In patients having chromosomally abnormal CD20? PCs, chromosomally abnormal lymphocytes were found among CD20+ cells confirming them as B cells. Exceptions were amplification of 1q21 or p53 deletion, which characterize PCs but were undetectable in BM-lymphocytes, suggesting that processes leading to these abnormalities may be exclusive to PCs. For a set of 75 patients whose BM-lymphocytes and PCs were analyzed by all six probe sets, 58% of those with abnormal PC also had abnormal BM-lymphocytes harboring from one to five different abnormalities. Confirming the clinical significance of chromosomally abnormal BM-lymphocytes, MM patients having abnormalities in both lymphocytes and PC had significantly worse survival than those with abnormalities only in PC (HR = 2.68). The presence of at least one chromosomal abnormality in BM-lymphocytes appears to have greater clinical significance than particular abnormalities. Chromosomally abnormal BM-lymphocytes correlate with poor outcome and by extrapolation with more aggressive disease.

Marun, Carina S Debes; Belch, Andrew R; Pilarski, Linda M



Platelet abnormalities in muscular dystrophy.  


Platelets which have complex membranes and calcium shifts similar to those in muscles were investigated in 14 patients with muscular dystrophy and 20 suitable controls. In 4 Duchenne and one limb-girdle dystrophy aggregations were done and found to be depressed with adrenaline and ADP. Electron microscopic and chemical examinations revealed an increased number of dense bodies, changed permeability and/or binding of cations and elevated intracellular calcium in all the 9 cases of Duchenne dystrophy while the 2 limb-girdle and 3 myotonic dystrophies varied. A two phase polymer separation system applied to fixed platelets of all patients and controls showed no abnormality of surface negative charge. PMID:6308847

Yarom, R; Meyer, S; More, R; Liebergall, M; Eldor, A



Foot abnormalities of wild birds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.



Alterations in Myocardial Cardiolipin Content and Composition Occur at the Very Earliest Stages of Diabetes: A Shotgun Lipidomics Study  

PubMed Central

Recently, we have identified the dramatic depletion of cardiolipin (CL) in diabetic myocardium 6 weeks after streptozotocin (STZ) injection that was accompanied by increases in triacylglycerol content and multiple changes in polar lipid molecular species. However, after 6 weeks in the diabetic state, the predominant lipid hallmarks of diabetic cardiomyopathy were each present concomitantly, and thus, it was impossible to identify the temporal course of lipid alterations in diabetic myocardium. Using the newly developed enhanced shotgun lipidomics approach, we demonstrated the dramatic loss of abundant CL molecular species in STZ-treated hearts at the very earliest stages of diabetes accompanied by a profound remodeling of the remaining CL molecular species including a 16-fold increase in the content of 18:2?22:6?22:6?22:6 CL. These alterations in CL metabolism occur within days after the induction of the diabetic state and precede the triacylglycerol accumulation manifest in diabetic myocardium. Similarly, in ob/ob mice, a dramatic and progressive redistribution from 18:2 FA-containing CL molecular species to 22:6 FA-containing CL molecular species was also identified. Collectively, these results demonstrate alterations in CL hydrolysis and remodeling at the earliest stages of diabetes and are consistent with a role for alterations in CL content in precipitating mitochondrial dysfunction in diabetic cardiomyopathy.

Han, Xianlin; Yang, Jingyue; Yang, Kui; Zhao, Zhongdan,; Abendschein, Dana R.; Gross, Richard W.



Mixed Pattern Matching-Based Traffic Abnormal Behavior Recognition  

PubMed Central

A motion trajectory is an intuitive representation form in time-space domain for a micromotion behavior of moving target. Trajectory analysis is an important approach to recognize abnormal behaviors of moving targets. Against the complexity of vehicle trajectories, this paper first proposed a trajectory pattern learning method based on dynamic time warping (DTW) and spectral clustering. It introduced the DTW distance to measure the distances between vehicle trajectories and determined the number of clusters automatically by a spectral clustering algorithm based on the distance matrix. Then, it clusters sample data points into different clusters. After the spatial patterns and direction patterns learned from the clusters, a recognition method for detecting vehicle abnormal behaviors based on mixed pattern matching was proposed. The experimental results show that the proposed technical scheme can recognize main types of traffic abnormal behaviors effectively and has good robustness. The real-world application verified its feasibility and the validity.

Cui, Zhiming; Zhao, Pengpeng



Mixed pattern matching-based traffic abnormal behavior recognition.  


A motion trajectory is an intuitive representation form in time-space domain for a micromotion behavior of moving target. Trajectory analysis is an important approach to recognize abnormal behaviors of moving targets. Against the complexity of vehicle trajectories, this paper first proposed a trajectory pattern learning method based on dynamic time warping (DTW) and spectral clustering. It introduced the DTW distance to measure the distances between vehicle trajectories and determined the number of clusters automatically by a spectral clustering algorithm based on the distance matrix. Then, it clusters sample data points into different clusters. After the spatial patterns and direction patterns learned from the clusters, a recognition method for detecting vehicle abnormal behaviors based on mixed pattern matching was proposed. The experimental results show that the proposed technical scheme can recognize main types of traffic abnormal behaviors effectively and has good robustness. The real-world application verified its feasibility and the validity. PMID:24605045

Wu, Jian; Cui, Zhiming; Sheng, Victor S; Shi, Yujie; Zhao, Pengpeng



Computed tomography of the trachea: normal and abnormal  

SciTech Connect

The trachea was investigated by means of computed tomography (CT) in 50 patients without tracheal or mediastinal abnormalities and in 39 patients with various diseases of the trachea. The variations in the normal CT appearance of the trachea and surrounding structures are described. CT did not provide additional information in the detection of characterization of tracheal stenosis beyond that obtained from more conventional studies, including tomography and positive-contrast tracheography. In patients with a saber-sheath trachea, CT demonstrated the abnormal configuration of the tracheal cartilages and abnormal collapse of the trachea on forced expiration. In patients with primary or secondary neoplasms involving the trachea, CT was most accurate in defining the intraluminal presence of tumor, the degree of airway compression, and the extratracheal extension of tumor. CT can be of value in determining the resectability of primary tracheal neoplasms and the planning of radiation therapy in metastatic lesions to the trachea and surrounding mediastinum.

Gamsu, G.; Webb, W.R.



The earliest record of major anthropogenic deforestation in the Ghab Valley, northwest Syria: a palynological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen analytical studies on the sediment core from the Ghab Valley in Northwest Syria detected a large-scale anthropogenic deforestation of deciduous oak forest as early as 9000 14C yr BP. Following the lateglacial climatic amelioration, deciduous oak forest gradually expanded at the foot of Mt. Ansarie since 14,500 14C yr BP. Then this forest was cleared by Pre-Pottery Neolithic B

Yoshinori Yasuda; Hiroyuki Kitagawa; Takeshi Nakagawa



Acute myeloid leukemia associated with FGFR1 abnormalities.  


Hematologic malignancies associated with FGFR1 abnormalities present in heterogeneous forms, including myeloproliferative neoplasm, acute myeloid leukemia (AML), T- or B-lineage lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma, and even mixed phenotype acute leukemia. In the present report, we describe three new cases of AML associated with FGFR1 abnormalities: AML with minimal differentiation with 45,XY,-7,t(8;13)(p11.2;q12), acute myelomonocytic leukemia with eosinophilia with 48,XY,t(8;9)(p11.2;q33),+19,+21, and AML with minimal differentiation with 46,XX,add(8)(p11.2). FGFR1 abnormalities were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. We reviewed the records of 19 patients reported from Asian countries, and found that approximately 40 % of cases manifested as acute leukemia associated with myeloid lineage, and 47 % were not accompanied with eosinophilia. These findings highlight the need for detection of FGFR1 abnormalities, not only in myeloproliferative disorder, but also in AML patients even without eosinophilia. The prognosis for this group of neoplasms is poor, and there is no recognized effective targeted treatment. Two patients, including our case, who received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) survived. Accumulation of long-term follow-up data can help determine the allo-HSCT protocol or the need for new therapeutic trials to improve the survival rate of patients with FGFR1 abnormalities. PMID:23609419

Lee, Hyeyoung; Kim, Myungshin; Lim, Jihyang; Kim, Yonggoo; Han, Kyungja; Cho, Byung-Sik; Kim, Hee-Je



Disorders caused by chromosome abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Many human genetic disorders result from unbalanced chromosome abnormalities, in which there is a net gain or loss of genetic material. Such imbalances often disrupt large numbers of dosage-sensitive, developmentally important genes and result in specific and complex phenotypes. Alternately, some chromosomal syndromes may be caused by a deletion or duplication of a single gene with pleiotropic effects. Traditionally, chromosome abnormalities were identified by visual inspection of the chromosomes under a microscope. The use of molecular cytogenetic technologies, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization and microarrays, has allowed for the identification of cryptic or submicroscopic imbalances, which are not visible under the light microscope. Microarrays have allowed for the identification of numerous new syndromes through a genotype-first approach in which patients with the same or overlapping genomic alterations are identified and then the phenotypes are described. Because many chromosomal alterations are large and encompass numerous genes, the ascertainment of individuals with overlapping deletions and varying clinical features may allow researchers to narrow the region in which to search for candidate genes.

Theisen, Aaron; Shaffer, Lisa G



Lower extremity abnormalities in children.  


Rotational and angular problems are two types of lower extremity abnormalities common in children. Rotational problems include intoeing and out-toeing. Intoeing is caused by one of three types of deformity: metatarsus adductus, internal tibial torsion, and increased femoral anteversion. Out-toeing is less common than intoeing, and its causes are similar but opposite to those of intoeing. These include femoral retroversion and external tibial torsion. Angular problems include bowlegs and knock-knees. An accurate diagnosis can be made with careful history and physical examination, which includes torsional profile (a four-component composite of measurements of the lower extremities). Charts of normal values and values with two standard deviations for each component of the torsional profile are available. In most cases, the abnormality improves with time. A careful physical examination, explanation of the natural history, and serial measurements are usually reassuring to the parents. Treatment is usually conservative. Special shoes, cast, or braces are rarely beneficial and have no proven efficacy. Surgery is reserved for older children with deformity from three to four standard deviations from the normal. PMID:12924829

Sass, Pamela; Hassan, Ghinwa



Nitrile-induced behavioral abnormalities in mice.  


A single oral dose of crotononitrile or 2-pentenenitrile induced behavioral abnormalities such as circling, hyperactivity and head twitching. Crotononitrile induced the abnormalities in both olive oil- and CCl4 pretreated mice, whereas 2-pentenenitrile induced the abnormalities only in CCl4-pretreated mice. Seven related compounds induced no behavioral abnormality. The head twitching by crotononitrile and 2-pentenenitrile was either reduced by treatment with serotonin and dopamine antagonists, or enhanced by a serotonin releaser, suggesting that both the serotonin and dopamine systems are involved in the behavioral abnormalities induced by these two nitriles. PMID:2616059

Tanii, H; Hayashi, M; Hashimoto, K



Potential of an intracardiac electrogram for the rapid detection of coronary artery occlusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEarly identification of acute MI and prompt intervention can improve clinical outcomes. It would be valuable to identify a method that could allow the earliest possible detection of myocardial injury or ischemia.

Tim A. Fischella; David R. Fischell; Robert E. Fischell; Susan Baskerville; Susan Hendrick; Carol Moshier; Jonathan P. Harwood; Mitchell W. Krucoff



Cell Biosensors: Rapid Detection and Identification of Pathogens Using FTIR Microspectroscopic Spectra.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Life threatening virus infections require the earliest possible identification in order to save lives and preserve wellbeing. Field detection of viruses causing infection is vital to limit the detrimental effects of pathogen spread. Currently, rapid ident...

C. Filfili D. Katz I. Patrusheva J. Hilliard P. Fuchs



A biologically inspired algorithm for microcalcification cluster detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early detection of breast cancer greatly improves prognosis. One of the earliest signs of cancer is the formation of clusters of microcalcifications. We introduce a novel method for microcalcification detection based on a biologically inspired adaptive model of contrast detection. This model is used in conjunction with image filtering based on anisotropic diffusion and curvilinear structure removal using local

Marius George Linguraru; Kostas Marias; Ruth E. English; Michael Brady



Cardiac abnormalities in end stage renal failure and anaemia.  

PubMed Central

Thirteen anaemic children on dialysis were assessed to determine the incidence of cardiac changes in end stage renal failure. Nine children had an increased cardiothoracic ratio on radiography. The electrocardiogram was abnormal in every case but no child had left ventricular hypertrophy as assessed by voltage criteria. However, left ventricular hypertrophy, often gross, was found on echocardiography in 12 children and affected the interventricular septum disproportionately. Cardiac index was increased in 10 patients as a result of an increased left ventricular stroke volume rather than heart rate. Left ventricular hypertrophy was significantly greater in those on treatment for hypertension and in those with the highest cardiac index. Abnormal diastolic ventricular function was found in 6/11 children. Children with end stage renal failure have significant cardiac abnormalities that are likely to contribute to the high cardiovascular mortality in this group. Anaemia and hypertension, or its treatment, probably contribute to these changes. Voltage criteria on electrocardiogram are of no value in detecting left ventricular hypertrophy. Echocardiography must be performed, with the results corrected for age and surface area, in order to detect and follow these abnormalities. Images

Morris, K P; Skinner, J R; Wren, C; Hunter, S; Coulthard, M G



Tumour progression of human neuroblastoma cells tagged with a lacZ marker gene: earliest events at ectopic injection sites.  

PubMed Central

Human Platt neuroblastoma cells were transfected with the marker gene, bacterial lacZ, to track cells at the earliest stages after ectopic injection at two different sites in athymic nude mice. Three clones (LZPt-1,-2 and -3) of differing morphologies were analysed. All clones yielded large primary tumours subcutaneously or intradermally with similar latency. While LZPt-2 and -3 clones generated well-staining primary tumours, LZPt-1 cells yielded many non-staining tumours, indicating greater instability of lacZ expression for this clone in situ (stability of lacZ expression in culture was similar for all three clones). After s.c. or intradermal injections, tumour cells were tracked for 1 h to > 3 weeks (palpable) to evaluate the topology and population expansion characteristics at the earliest times. From 1 h to 2 days, tumour cells were concentrated in central masses with 'crinkly hair' distributions emanating from the periphery. Between 3 and 7 days, these 'crinkly hair' patterns were cleared from the tissue, leaving dense ovoid patterns of tumour cells. These concentrations of cells expanded collectively, not by division of one or a few cells, but by division of many cells. For clone LZPt-1, cells stained well with X-gal for 2-3 days; by 7 days, most cells were non-staining. Evidence suggests that lacZ expression is turned off in these tumour cells, rather than a lacZ- cell type clonally dominating the population. For all three clones, tumour cells remained rounded and did not spread in any tissue environment at all time points, indicating very different matrix adhesion mechanisms operating in situ compared with their distinctive spreading patterns in culture. Angioneogenesis near primary tumours became evident by 2-3 days, leading to extensive vascularisation by 1-2 weeks. Overall, these studies indicate common tumour progression characteristics for three different clones of human neuroblastoma, insight into lacZ instability mechanisms operating in one of these clones and the earliest events in primary tumour formation for this tumour at two different ectopic sites. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6

Kleinman, N. R.; Lewandowska, K.; Culp, L. A.



Biological assessment of abnormal genitalia.  


Biological assessment of abnormal genitalia is based on an ordered sequence of endocrine and genetic investigations that are predicated on knowledge obtained from a suitable history and detailed examination of the external genital anatomy. Investigations are particularly relevant in 46,XY DSD where the diagnostic yield is less successful than in the 46,XX counterpart. Advantage should be taken of spontaneous activity of the pituitary-gonadal axis in early infancy rendering measurements of gonadotrophins and sex steroids by sensitive, validated assays key to assessing testicular function. Allied measurement of serum anti-Müllerian hormone completes a comprehensive testis profile of Leydig and Sertoli cell function. Genetic assessment is dominated by analysis of a plethora of genes that attempts to delineate a cause for gonadal dysgenesis. In essence, this is successful in up to 20% of cases from analysis of SRY and SF1 (NR5A1) genes. In contrast, gene mutation analysis is highly successful in 46,XY DSD due to defects in androgen synthesis or action. The era of next generation sequencing is increasingly being applied to investigate complex medical conditions of unknown cause, including DSD. The challenge for health professionals will lie in integrating vast amounts of genetic information with phenotypes and counselling families appropriately. How tissues respond to hormones is apposite to assessing the range of genital phenotypes that characterise DSD, particularly for syndromes associated with androgen resistance. In vitro methods are available to undertake quantitative and qualitative analysis of hormone action. The in vivo equivalent is some assessment of the degree of under-masculinisation in the male, such as an external masculinisation score, and measurement of the ano-genital distance. This anthropometric marker is effectively a postnatal readout of the effects of prenatal androgens acting during the masculinisation programming window. For investigation of the newborn with abnormal genitalia, a pragmatic approach can be taken to guide the clinician using appropriate algorithms. PMID:23168057

Hughes, I A; Morel, Y; McElreavey, K; Rogol, A



Abnormal iron homeostasis and neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Abnormal iron metabolism is observed in many neurodegenerative diseases, however, only two have shown dysregulation of brain iron homeostasis as the primary cause of neurodegeneration. Herein, we review one of these - hereditary ferritinopathy (HF) or neuroferritinopathy, which is an autosomal dominant, adult onset degenerative disease caused by mutations in the ferritin light chain (FTL) gene. HF has a clinical phenotype characterized by a progressive movement disorder, behavioral disturbances, and cognitive impairment. The main pathologic findings are cystic cavitation of the basal ganglia, the presence of ferritin inclusion bodies (IBs), and substantial iron deposition. Mutant FTL subunits have altered sequence and length but assemble into soluble 24-mers that are ultrastructurally indistinguishable from those of the wild type. Crystallography shows substantial localized disruption of the normally tiny 4-fold pores between the ferritin subunits because of unraveling of the C-termini into multiple polypeptide conformations. This structural alteration causes attenuated net iron incorporation leading to cellular iron mishandling, ferritin aggregation, and oxidative damage at physiological concentrations of iron and ascorbate. A transgenic murine model parallels several features of HF, including a progressive neurological phenotype, ferritin IB formation, and misregulation of iron metabolism. These studies provide a working hypothesis for the pathogenesis of HF by implicating (1) a loss of normal ferritin function that triggers iron accumulation and overproduction of ferritin polypeptides, and (2) a gain of toxic function through radical production, ferritin aggregation, and oxidative stress. Importantly, the finding that ferritin aggregation can be reversed by iron chelators and oxidative damage can be inhibited by radical trapping may be used for clinical investigation. This work provides new insights into the role of abnormal iron metabolism in neurodegeneration.

Muhoberac, Barry B.; Vidal, Ruben



Fluorescent studies directed towards the location of abnormal epithelial cells in cervical smears.  


Cervical screening is concerned with the search for abnormal epithelial cells in smears prepared from scrapings from the uterine cervix. It is a highly skilled labour intensive operation and automated methods of detecting dyskariotic cells in cervical smears would be helpful. We report a fluorescence method of detecting abnormal cervical cells in smears and biopsies using a probe for guanidinobenzoatase. This approach has the potential for automation. PMID:1714306

Steven, F S; Johnson, J



A Mouse Model of Conduction System Patterning Abnormalities in Heterotaxy Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Duplication or absence of parts of the specialized cardiac conduction system in patients with heterotaxy syndrome causes significant clinical disease, but the mechanistic basis by which embryonic disruption of left-right patterning alters conduction system patterning in these patients is not well understood. We sought to determine whether a mouse model of X-linked human heterotaxy recapitulates conduction system abnormalities identified in heterotaxy patients. Cardiac structure and conduction system patterning were evaluated in Zic3 null embryos from e9.5 – 16.5 using genetic and molecular methods. Severe structural abnormalities involving atrial, ventricular and conotruncal development were associated with a spectrum of disorganized and ambiguous arrangements throughout the conduction system, including the appearance of duplicated structures. The severity and location of conduction system abnormalities correlated with the severity and location of associated structural heart disease and were identifiable at the earliest stages examined. The Zic3 mouse model provides a novel tool to dissect the mechanistic underpinnings of conduction system patterning and dysfunction and its relationship to cardiovascular malformations, making it a promising model to improve understanding and risk assessment in the clinical arena.

Czosek, Richard J.; Haaning, Allison; Ware, Stephanie M.



High-resolution ?13Ccarb chemostratigraphy from latest Guadalupian through earliest Triassic in South China and Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large carbon cycle perturbations are associated with the end-Permian mass extinction and subsequent recovery, but Late Permian (Lopingian) carbon cycle dynamics prior to the mass extinction event remain poorly documented. Here we present a high-resolution ?13Ccarb chemostratigraphic framework from latest Guadalupian to earliest Triassic time, calibrated with high-resolution conodont biostratigraphy and high-precision geochronology. We observe two large negative excursions in ?13Ccarb, the first in uppermost Guadalupian strata and the second at the end of the Changhsingian stage, and between these events distinctive excursions from the middle Wuchiapingian to the early Changhsingian. The end-Changhsingian excursion represents a major reorganization of the global carbon cycle associated with the end-Permian mass extinction. However, the extent to which the end-Guadalupian and Wuchiapingian/Changhsingian boundary excursions result from local versus global controls remains unresolved. Regardless of their underlying causes, these three excursions provide chemostratigraphic markers for global correlation of Lopingian strata.

Shen, Shu-zhong; Cao, Chang-qun; Zhang, Hua; Bowring, Samuel A.; Henderson, Charles M.; Payne, Jonathan L.; Davydov, Vladimir I.; Chen, Bo; Yuan, Dong-xun; Zhang, Yi-chun; Wang, Wei; Zheng, Quan-feng



Temperate carbonate debrites and short-lived earliest Miocene yo-yo tectonics, eastern Taranaki Basin margin, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines two unconformity-bound earliest Miocene temperate shallow-marine limestones at remote Gibson Beach, western North Island, on the eastern margin of Taranaki Basin, New Zealand's only producing hydrocarbon province. The local geology comprises an upper limestone of up to 6 m of spectacular conglomeratic limestone (rudstone; Papakura Limestone) whose pebble- to boulder-sized clasts were derived from cannibalisation of the lower skeletal limestone (bryomol grainstone; Otorohanga Limestone). Multiple lines of evidence require the Otorohanga Limestone to have been well indurated before erosion and clast generation. Cementation occurred from pressure dissolution of calcitic skeletons at burial depths of probably 400 m or more. Subsequent uplift led to local subaerial exposure and karstification of a fault-block cliffed coastline where physical erosion sourced talus limestone debris onto adjacent high-energy pocket beaches. Storm and/or seismic events periodically triggered mass flows of the limestone clasts offshore onto the contemporary mixed siliciclastic-carbonate shelf as channelised carbonate debrites. Lithification of these Papakura Limestone debrites occurred via pressure dissolution, and required a second burial episode. Karst pinnacles preserved on the eroded upper surface of the Papakura Limestone demand uplift again and erosion in a subaerial setting, before subsequent deep burial by Early Miocene siliciclastic shelf sand and turbidite deposits. Strontium isotope dating of brachiopod fossils suggests the two postulated burial-uplift cycles, involving movements up to 400 ± 100 m, occurred very rapidly within several 100 kyr. Speculative drivers of the yo-yo tectonic events are earliest Miocene movements on the nearby major Taranaki Fault thrust in association with regional changes in subduction tectonics at the Australian-Pacific plate boundary, along with pulsed emplacement of obducted gravity slide deposits (Northland Allochthon) onto northern North Island. The two limestones record a previously undocumented degree of eastern Taranaki Basin margin tectonic mobility relevant to a fuller appreciation of petroleum system development in that basin.

Hood, Steven D.; Nelson, Campbell S.



Individual Trabeculae Segmentation (ITS)-Based Morphological Analysis of High-Resolution Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography Images Detects Abnormal Trabecular Plate and Rod Microarchitecture in Premenopausal Women With Idiopathic Osteoporosis  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic osteoporosis (IOP) in premenopausal women is a poorly understood entity in which otherwise healthy women have low-trauma fracture or very low bone mineral density (BMD). In this study, we applied individual trabeculae segmentation (ITS)–based morphological analysis to high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) images of the distal radius and distal tibia to gain greater insight into skeletal microarchitecture in premenopausal women with IOP. HR-pQCT scans were performed for 26 normal control individuals and 31 women with IOP. A cubic subvolume was extracted from the trabecular bone compartment and subjected to ITS-based analysis. Three Young's moduli and three shear moduli were calculated by micro–finite element (µFE) analysis. ITS-based morphological analysis of HR-pQCT images detected significantly decreased trabecular plate and rod bone volume fraction and number, decreased axial bone volume fraction in the longitudinal axis, increased rod length, and decreased rod-to-rod, plate-to-rod, and plate-to-plate junction densities at the distal radius and distal tibia in women with IOP. However, trabecular plate and rod thickness did not differ. A more rod-like trabecular microstructure was found in the distal radius, but not in the distal tibia. Most ITS measurements contributed significantly to the elastic moduli of trabecular bone independent of bone volume fraction (BV/TV). At a fixed BV/TV, plate-like trabeculae contributed positively to the mechanical properties of trabecular bone. The results suggest that ITS-based morphological analysis of HR-pQCT images is a sensitive and promising clinical tool for the investigation of trabecular bone microstructure in human studies of osteoporosis. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

Liu, X Sherry; Cohen, Adi; Shane, Elizabeth; Stein, Emily; Rogers, Halley; Kokolus, Shannon L; Yin, Perry T; McMahon, Donald J; Lappe, Joan M; Recker, Robert R; Guo, X Edward



Fetal Facial Defects: Associated Malformations and Chromosomal Abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

During an 8-year period, facial defects were observed in 146 (7%) of the 2,086 fetuses that underwent karyotyping in our unit because of fetal malformations and\\/or growth retardation. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 37 of 56 (66%) fetuses with micrognathia, in 10 of 13 (77%) with macroglossia, in 31 of 64 (48 %) with cleft lip and palate, in 5

K. H. Nicolaides; D. R. Salvesen; R. J. M. Snijders; C. M. Gosden



Transient abnormal myelopoeisis in newborns with Down syndrome.  


Transient abnormal myelopoeisis (TAM) is a haematological phenomenon commonly seen in newborns with Down syndrome. Although the majority show spontaneous resolution, this condition should not be dismissed too readily as there have been associated fatalities. Furthermore, even for those who do show spontaneous resolution, a significant percentage will develop acute megakaryoblastic leukaemia within the next few years of life. We report a series of four patients with TAM who presented with hepatosplenomegaly and leucocytosis detected on preliminary investigations. PMID:19108403

Zarina, A L; Hamidah, A; Yong, S C; Rohana, J; Hamidah, N H; Azma, R Z; Boo, N Y; Jamal, R



Major soluble proteome changes in Deinococcus deserti over the earliest stages following gamma-ray irradiation  

PubMed Central

Background Deinococcus deserti VCD115 has been isolated from Sahara surface sand. This radiotolerant bacterium represents an experimental model of choice to understand adaptation to harsh conditions encountered in hot arid deserts. We analysed the soluble proteome dynamics in this environmentally relevant model after exposure to 3 kGy gamma radiation, a non-lethal dose that generates massive DNA damages. For this, cells were harvested at different time lapses after irradiation and their soluble proteome contents have been analysed by 2-DE and mass spectrometry. Results In the first stage of the time course we observed accumulation of DNA damage response protein DdrB (that shows the highest fold change ~11), SSB, and two different RecA proteins (RecAP and RecAC). Induction of DNA repair protein PprA, DNA damage response protein DdrD and the two gyrase subunits (GyrA and GyrB) was also detected. A response regulator of the SarP family, a type II site-specific deoxyribonuclease and a putative N-acetyltransferase are three new proteins found to be induced. In a more delayed stage, we observed accumulation of several proteins related to central metabolism and protein turn-over, as well as helicase UvrD and novel forms of both gyrase subunits differing in terms of isoelectric point and molecular weight. Conclusions Post-translational modifications of GyrA (N-terminal methionine removal and acetylation) have been evidenced and their significance discussed. We found that the Deide_02842 restriction enzyme, which is specifically found in D. deserti, is a new potential member of the radiation/desiccation response regulon, highlighting the specificities of D. deserti compared to the D. radiodurans model.



Electrocardiographic abnormalities in patients with myotonic dystrophy.  

PubMed Central

In examining the incidence and progression of electrocardiographic abnormalities in 45 patients with myotonic dystrophy, 26 (58%) of whom at entry had at least 1 electrocardiographic abnormality, we found conduction abnormalities in 17 (38%). In 21 patients (47%), new abnormalities developed during follow-up (mean, 4.6 years). The overall incidence of electrocardiographic abnormalities increased to 78%, and the incidence of conduction defects increased to 62%. Second-degree or complete atrioventricular block did not develop in any of the patients. Pseudoinfarction patterns were common at entry and during follow-up and were not correlated with evidence of clinical coronary artery disease. There was no correlation between the presence of electrocardiographic abnormalities and apparent disease severity. Images

Florek, R. C.; Triffon, D. W.; Mann, D. E.; Ringel, S. P.; Reiter, M. J.



Latest Carboniferous-earliest Permian transgressive deposits in the Paganzo Basin of western Argentina: Lithofacies and sequence stratigraphy of a coastal-plain to bay succession  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The upper Paleozoic rocks of Gondwana record a complex paleoclimatic history related to the migration of the supercontinent over high latitudes. Changes in climate and relative sea level can be traced through detailed sedimentologic and sequence-stratigraphic analysis. Our study focuses on transgressive deposits of Stephanian-Early Permian age in the lower member of the Tupe Formation with the objective of characterizing lithofacies and sedimentary environments within a sequence-stratigraphic framework in order to achieve a better understanding of the sedimentary history of the Paganzo Basin and the nature of transgressive deposits. Sixteen lithofacies grouped in eight assemblages were defined and arranged in two complete sequences. A sequence boundary (SB) is identified at the base of the Tupe Formation. Coastal-plain deposits capped by marine embayment lithofacies are included within sequence 1. A relative sea-level fall (SB) is recorded by an abrupt change into braided alluvial-plaine deposits (LST). The beginning of the TST is characterized by the appearance of coal and deltaic lithofacies. Late TST deposits occur above a ravinement surface and comprise bay-margin to distal-bay deposits forming a retrogradational stacking package. These lithofacies are replaced upwards by HST deposits. A relative sea-level fall (SB) is recorded by the presence of fluvial deposits overlying marine lithofacies. The Tupe Formation illustrates the transition of a coastal-plain to a marine embayment. The detection of a transgressive surface within the coastal-plain deposits of sequence 1 expanded significantly the volume of deposits now included as part of the latest Carboniferous-earliest Permian transgression, and underscores the importance of searching for transgressive signatures in non-marine environments. The presence of two sequences supports a punctuated shoreline trajectory with an overall retrogradational stacking pattern. An abrupt relative sea-level fall and increased aridity is recorded at the end of the transgressive event.

Desjardins, Patricio R.; Buatois, Luis A.; Limarino, Carlos O.; Cisterna, Gabriela A.



Evaluation of abnormal liver function tests.  


Interpretation of abnormalities in liver function tests is a common problem faced by clinicians. This has become more common with the introduction of automated routine laboratory testing. Not all persons with one or more abnormalities in these tests actually have liver disease. The various biochemical tests, their pathophysiology, and an approach to the interpretation of abnormal liver function tests are discussed in this review. PMID:12840117

Limdi, J K; Hyde, G M



Apparatus and method for removing abnormal tissue  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A computer assisted, minimally invasive method and apparatus for surgically removing abnormal tissue from a patient, for example, from a breast, are disclosed. The method involves imaging of the breast to locate the abnormal tissue, and determining a volume encapsulating the abnormal tissue and including a margin of healthy tissue. Based on the volume, a sequence of movements of a surgical instrument for tissue removal device is planned, so as to predictably excise the desired volume of tissue.



Abnormal T-lymphocytes in lymphomatoid papulosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The abnormal cell population in lymphomatoid papulosis was studied by immunohistochemistry, light and electron microscopy\\u000a in five cases. It resulted in a comprehensive description of all the main variants within the abnormal cell population.\\u000a \\u000a In one of the cases an irreversible intracytoplasmic process in the abnormal lymphocytes made it possible to demonstrate the\\u000a derivation of lymphomatoid cells with cerebriform nuclei

S. C. J. van der Putte; J. Toonstra; W. A. van Vloten; J. A. M. van Unnik



Cardiac abnormalities in mixed connective tissue disease.  


Sixteen patients with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) were studied using noninvasive cardiovascular techniques. Cardiovascular abnormalities including pericarditis, asymmetric septal hypertrophy, and LV dilatation were found in 38 percent of the study group. Borderline ECG and echocardiographic abnormalities were present in 31 percent of the study group, and the remaining 31 percent were normal by all study techniques. MCTD patients have a high prevalence of cardiovascular abnormalities when studied noninvasively. The most common clinical abnormality is a steroid-responsive pericarditis, present in 25 percent of our series. PMID:6822098

Oetgen, W J; Mutter, M L; Lawless, O J; Davia, J E



Abnormal Mitochondrial Dynamics and Neurodegenerative Diseases  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial dysfunction is a prominent feature of various neurodegenerative diseases. A deeper understanding of the remarkably dynamic nature of mitochondria, characterized by a delicate balance of fission and fusion, has helped to fertilize a recent wave of new studies demonstrating abnormal mitochondrial dynamics in neurodegenerative diseases. This review highlights mitochondrial dysfunction and abnormal mitochondrial dynamics in Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Huntington disease and discusses how these abnormal mitochondrial dynamics may contribute to mitochondrial and neuronal dysfunction. We propose that abnormal mitochondrial dynamics represents a key common pathway that mediates or amplifies mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal dysfunction during the course of neurodegeneration.

Su, Bo; Wang, Xinglong; Zheng, Ling; Perry, George; Smith, Mark A.; Zhu, Xiongwei



Fetal facial abnormalities identified during obstetric sonography.  


The orbits and, if readily accessible, the facial profile were visualized as part of a brief fetal anatomy survey during approximately 7100 low-risk and high-risk obstetric sonographic examinations. This examination identified 17 facial abnormalities in 11 fetuses. There were seven abnormalities of the eyes, including three instances of absence of both eyes, two of hypertelorism, one of proptosis, and one of relative prominence. There were seven abnormalities of the nose, including three instances of marked flattening, one of absence, one of a proboscis, one of a single nostril, and one of a sunken appearance. There were two abnormally small chins. There was one marked cleft that involved the nose, lip, and palate. At least two fetuses with abnormal faces were missed entirely and coexistent facial abnormalities were missed in another three fetuses. Of the 11 fetuses with facial abnormalities identified, eight had other structural abnormalities as well, and the other three had either polyhydramnios or a history of teratogen exposure. A brief facial examination done as part of the fetal anatomy survey helps to identify abnormalities in high-risk fetuses but is considerably less productive in low-risk fetuses. PMID:3543386

Hegge, F N; Prescott, G H; Watson, P T



Prenatal-postnatal correlations of brain abnormalities: how lesions and diagnoses change over time  

PubMed Central

A combination of prenatal ultrasound and MRI can be used to detect and characterize many primary and secondary CNS abnormalities in the developing fetus. While this information is useful in prenatal patient counseling, it is important to understand the factors that can influence change in diagnosis and prognosis over time. The etiology of the abnormality, the conspicuity of associated findings, the change in appearance over time, and the opinion of subspecialty experts all can influence the diagnosis. Additionally, technical factors of imaging acquisition may allow the detection of an abnormality in the postnatal period and not prenatally. Having an understanding of the normal fetal central nervous system anatomy at varying gestational ages will aid in the imaging detection and interpretation of CNS pathology. Understanding how these appearances and diagnoses can change over time will aid in the discussion of prognosis with expectant parents, which is crucial in fetal CNS abnormalities.

Senapati, Gunjan; Levine, Deborah



Ultrastructural Differentiation of Abnormal Scars  

PubMed Central

Summary Aim: To evaluate the differences between keloid and hypertrophic scars by biochemical and ultrastructural techniques. Method: Over 1000 patients with different types of scars were studied and followed up for a period of 20 years. The histochemical and biochemical analysis with respect to the composition of the extracellular matrix of the dermis was conducted. At the ultrastructural level, collagen deposition and assembly were studied using electron microscopy. The rate of proliferation and metabolic activity of the dermal fibroblasts isolated from the normal skin and scar biopsies were studied to assess the cause of excess matrix deposition in scar tissues. Results: Evaluation of different types of scars showed that both keloid and hypertrophic scars have excess matrix deposition in terms of collagen and proteoglycans. Keloid shows a high amount of acid-soluble collagen. The assembly of collagen fibrils is also abnormal in keloids. Studies on the proliferation and metabolic activity showed that keloid fibroblasts have a higher rate of proliferation and metabolic activity than fibroblasts from hypertrophic scars and normal skin. Finally, keloid fibroblasts show high and intense staining for the endoplasmic reticulum, suggesting a possible reason for high activity of these fibroblasts. Conclusion: Keloids and hypertrophic scars show distinct ultrastructural patterns of both collagen deposition and assembly. These parameters could be refined by further research, and they would thus serve as a useful tool for surgeons to distinguish different types of scars and adopt suitable therapeutic strategies.

Meenakshi, J.; Jayaraman, V.; Ramakrishnan, K.M..; Babu, M.



Thoracic duct injury resulting in abnormal newborn screen.  


Measurement of T-cell receptor excision circles (TREC) in neonates has allowed for population-based screening of severe combined immunodeficiency and other disorders associated with T-cell lymphopenia. In addition to primary T-cell lymphopenic disorders, secondary causes of T-cell lymphopenia can be diagnosed with TREC analysis. We discuss the diagnostic evaluation of a patient with normal TREC analysis at birth that became abnormal after cardiac surgery. TREC analysis was performed by the Florida State Laboratory. Diagnostic evaluation and treatment were performed at All Children's Hospital, St Petersburg, Florida. We identified a 38-day-old female patient with thoracic duct injury, which caused chylothorax and chylous ascites diagnosed after an abnormal newborn screen. Chylothorax was secondary to thoracic duct injury after cardiac surgery and led to severe lymphopenia and hypogammaglobulinemia. Thoracic duct ligation led to improved lymphocyte counts and normalization of immunoglobulin levels. Secondary causes of lymphopenia are detected with TREC assay that lead to abnormal newborn screen results. Many secondary causes of lymphopenia can be acquired with normal initial newborn screens that become abnormal over time. PMID:24565704

Tillipman Ladinsky, Hava; Gillispie, Miriah; Sriaroon, Panida; Leiding, Jennifer W



A new look at abnormal uterine bleeding.  


New universal terminology, classifications, and definitions recommended by the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics and supported by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists to describe abnormal uterine bleeding abnormalities in reproductive women are presented. Identification and management of anovulatory and ovulatory uterine bleeding are explored. PMID:24177024

Twiss, Janice J



Renal Tubular Abnormalities in Infants with Hydronephrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeAbnormalities in renal tubular function have been observed in hydronephrotic urinary tract disease, resulting in metabolic acidosis, hyperkalemia and excessive free water diuresis. The frequency of these abnormalities, particularly in our infant population, was the impetus for our study.

Jayanthi Chandar; Carolyn Abitbol; Gaston Zilleruelo; Rafael Gosalbez; Brenda Montane; Jose Strauss



Retinal Circulatory Abnormalities in Type 1 Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. To quantify retinal circulatory abnormalities in patients with type 1 diabetes; to compare blood speed and blood flow in major temporal retinal arteries as well as total retinal arterial cross-section measured in patients to that measured in controls without diabetes; to determine which factors are related to the measured abnormalities within the patient group. Methods. The laser Doppler technique

Gilbert T. Feke; Sheldon M. Buzney; Hironobu Ogasawara; Naoki Fujio; Douglas G. Goger; Norman P. Spack; Kenneth H. GabbayX


Renal abnormalities and their developmental origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) occur in 1 out of 500 newborns, and constitute approximately 20–30% of all anomalies identified in the prenatal period. CAKUT has a major role in renal failure, and there is increasing evidence that certain abnormalities predispose to the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in adult life. Moreover, defects in nephron

Andreas Schedl



Immune Abnormalities in Patients with Autism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 31 autistic patients (3-28 years old) has revealed several immune-system abnormalities, including decreased numbers of T lymphocytes and an altered ratio of helper-to-suppressor T cells. Immune-system abnormalities may be directly related to underlying biologic processes of autism or an indirect reflection of the actual pathologic…

Warren, Reed P.; And Others



Breathing abnormalities in sleep in achondroplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overnight sleep studies were performed in 20 subjects with achondroplasia to document further the respiratory abnormalities present in this group. Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were recorded in 19 of the subjects to screen for the presence of brainstem abnormalities, which are one of the potential aetiological mechanisms. Fifteen children aged 1 to 14 years, and five young adults, aged 20

K A Waters; F Everett; D Sillence; E Fagan; C E Sullivan



A Cytogenetic Study of Abnormal Sexual Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nineteen patients associated with sexual anomalies were studied for chromosome abnormalities. Five cases (26.3 per cent) were found to be chromosomally abnormal. They were one case of mixed gonadal dysgenesis with an XY/XO mosaicism, two cases of Klinefel...

C. C. Lin K. S. W. Kim P. Y. Wei



Severely Symptomatic Craniovertebral Junction Abnormalities in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The treatment of symptomatic cranio-vertebral junction (CVJ) instability in children affected by CVJ abnormalities is a challenge. A series of severely symptomatic children has been reviewed to understand the controversial long-term effectiveness of the aggressive management of CVJ abnormalities, in terms of clinical improvement, spinal stability and growth. Methods: Three Down syndrome patients, 1 with mucopolysaccharidosis and 1 with

Carlo Giussani; Franck-Emmanuel Roux; Paolo Guerra; David Pirillo; Marco Grimaldi; Giuseppe Citerio; Erik P. Sganzerla



Myenteric plexus abnormalities associated with epiphrenic diverticula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To (1) categorize histologic esophageal myenteric plexus abnormalities in patients undergoing surgical treatment for epiphrenic diverticulum, and (2) correlate histologic changes with associated esophageal motility disorders and hiatal hernia. Methods: From January 1987 to May 2008, 40 patients had surgery for epiphrenic diverticulum. Esophageal manometry was abnormal in 29 (73%); 23 (58%) had hiatal hernia. Esophageal muscle specimens were

Thomas W. Rice; John R. Goldblum; Martha M. Yearsley; Steven S. Shay; Scott I. Reznik; Sudish C. Murthy; David P. Mason; Eugene H. Blackstone



Myenteric plexus abnormalities associated with epiphrenic diverticula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To (1) categorize histologic esophageal myenteric plexus abnormalities in patients undergoing surgical treatment for epiphrenic diverticulum, and (2) correlate histologic changes with associated esophageal motility disorders and hiatal hernia. Methods: From January 1987 to May 2008, 40 patients had surgery for epiphrenic diverticulum. Esophageal manometry was abnormal in 29 (73%); 23 (58%) had hiatal hernia. Esophageal muscle specimens were

Thomas W. Rice; John R. Goldblum; Martha M. Yearsley; Steven S. Shay; Scott I. Reznik; Sudish C. Murthy; David P. Mason; Eugene H. Blackstone



Prenatal Ultrasound Screening for External Ear Abnormality in the Fetuses  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To investigate the best time of examination and section chosen of routine prenatal ultrasound screening for external ear abnormalities and evaluate the feasibility of examining the fetal external ear with ultrasonography. Methods. From July 2010 until August 2011, 42118 pregnant women with single fetus during 16–40 weeks of pregnancy were enrolled in the study. Fetal auricles and external auditory canal in the second trimester of pregnancy were evaluated by routine color Doppler ultrasound screening and systematic screening. Ultrasound images of fetal external ears were obtained on transverse-incline view at cervical vertebra level and mandible level and on parasagittal view and coronal view at external ear level. Results. Five fetuses had anomalous ears including bilateral malformed auricles with malformed external auditory canal, unilateral deformed external ear, and unilateral microtia. The detection rate of both auricles was negatively correlated with gestational age. Of the 5843 fetuses undergoing a routine ultrasound screening, 5797 (99.21%) had bilateral auricles. Of the 4955 fetuses following systematic screening, all fetuses (100%) had bilateral auricles. The best time for fetal auricles observation with ultrasonography is 20–24 weeks of pregnancy. Conclusions. Detection of external ear abnormalities may assist in the diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities.

Wei, Jun; Ran, Suzhen; Yang, Zhengchun; Lin, Yun; Tang, Jing



Comparisons of Mineralogy of Lunar Meteorites Possibly from the Farside and the Kaguya Remote Sensing Data to Reconstruct the Earliest Anorthositic Crust of the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparisons of mineralogy of lunar meteorites (Dhofar 911, etc.) from the farside and the Kaguya Th concentrations a to reconstruct the earliest, asymmetric anorthositic crust of the Moon. We propose that these meteorites might have come from the Dirichlet-Jackson basin.

Takeda, H.; Nagaoka, H.; Ohtake, M.; Kobayashi, S.; Yamaguchi, A.; Morota, T.; Karouji, Y.; Haruyma, J.; Katou, M.; Hiroi, T.; Nyquist, L. E.



The Earliest Reference to ADHD in the Medical Literature? Melchior Adam Weikard's Description in 1775 of "Attention Deficit" (Mangel der Aufmerksamkeit, Attentio Volubilis)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The present article reports on the discovery and translation of a chapter in a 1775 medical textbook by the German physician, Melchior Adam Weikard, which describes attention disorders. This article is believed to be the earliest reference to the syndrome that today is known as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD. Method:…

Barkley, Russell A.; Peters, Helmut



A new lizard assemblage from the earliest eocene (Zone Wa0) of the bighorn basin, wyoming, USA: Biogeography during the warmest interval of the cenozoic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite two decades of research into the earliest Eocène fossils of the Rocky Mountain interior of North America, almost nothing is known of the squamates (lizards and snakes) from this time, nor of the response of this component of the terrestrial biota to climate change near the PalEocène\\/Eocène boundary. The present study addresses this lacuna. Sixteen squamate species are described

Krister T. Smith



Paleomagnetism of the earliest Cretaceous to early late Cretaceous sandstones, Khorat Group, Northeast Thailand: Implications for tectonic plate movement of the Indochina block  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 400 samples (33 sites) were collected from the earliest Cretaceous to early Late Cretaceous sandstones of the Khorat Group in the Indochina block for paleomagnetic study to unravel the tectonic evolution of the region. The sites were adopted from 3 traverses located in the northern edge of the Khorat Plateau, northeastern Thailand. Results indicate that almost all

Punya Charusiri; Suvapak Imsamut; Zhonghai Zhuang; Tainpan Ampaiwan; Xiaoxhong Xu




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




Aberrant crypt foci: detection, gene abnormalities, and clinical usefulness.  


Human aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were first identified as lesions consisting of large thick crypts in colonic mucosa of surgical specimens after staining with methylene blue. Previously we succeeded in identifying ACF by using magnifying endoscopy and analyzed the number, size, and dysplastic features of ACF in normal controls and patients with adenoma or cancer patients. On the basis of these analyses, we strongly suggested that ACF, particularly dysplastic ACF, are precursor lesions of the adenoma-carcinoma sequence in humans. In most sporadic ACF, K-ras mutations were positive, but APC mutations were negative irrespective of nondysplastic or dysplastic features. Conversely, in most ACF from familial adenomatous polyposis patients, APC mutations were positive but K-ras mutations were negative. These results may suggest that the molecular mechanism of sporadic colon carcinogenesis is not necessarily the same as that of familial adenomatous polyposis. It was shown that ACF acquired resistance to apoptosis induced by bile salts, whereas normal colonic epithelial cells are turning over consistently by apoptosis. This apoptosis resistance was closely associated with glutathione S-transferase P1-1 expression. One of the most important clinical applications of ACF observation with magnifying endoscopy is its use as a target lesion for chemoprevention. Because ACF are tiny lesions, they should be eradicated during a short time by administration of chemopreventive agents. In fact, we performed an open chemopreventive trial of sulindac and found that the number of ACF was reduced markedly in 2 months. We currently are proceeding with a randomized double-blind trial targeting ACF. PMID:16012995

Takayama, Tetsuji; Miyanishi, Koji; Hayashi, Tsuyoshi; Kukitsu, Takehiro; Takanashi, Kunihiro; Ishiwatari, Hirotoshi; Kogawa, Takahiro; Abe, Tomoyuki; Niitsu, Yoshiro



Detecting corpus callosum abnormalities in autism based on anatomical landmarks  

PubMed Central

Autism is a severe developmental disorder whose neurological basis is largely unknown. Autism is a subtype of autism that displays more homogeneous features within group. The aim of this study was to identify the shape differences of the corpus callosum between patients with autism and the controls. Anatomical landmarks were collected from mid-sagittal MRI of 25 patients and 18 controls. Euclidean distance matrix analysis and thin-plate spline were used to analyze the landmark forms. Point-by-point shape comparison was performed both globally and locally. A new local shape comparison scheme was proposed which compared each part of the shape in its local coordinate system. Point correspondence was established among individual shapes based on the inherent landmark correspondence. No significant difference was found in the landmark form between patients and controls, but the distance between interior genu and posterior most was found significantly shorter in patients. Thin-plate spline analysis showed significant group difference between the landmark configurations in terms of the deformation from the overall mean configuration. Significant global shape differences were found in the anterior lower body and posterior bottom, and local shape difference existed in the anterior bottom. This study can serve as both clinical reference and a detailed procedure guideline for similar studies in the future.

He, Qing; Duan, Ye; Karsch, Kevin; Miles, Judith



Monitoring and detecting abnormal behavior in mobile cloud infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, several mobile services are changing to cloud-based mobile services with richer communications and higher flexibility. We present a new mobile cloud infrastructure that combines mobile devices and cloud services. This new infrastructure provides virtual mobile instances through cloud computing. To commercialize new services with this infrastructure, service providers should be aware of security issues. In this paper, we first

Taehyun Kim; Yeongrak Choi; Seunghee Han; Jae Yoon Chung; Jonghwan Hyun; Jian Li; James Won-Ki Hong



Application of 3D Ultrasonography in Detection of Uterine Abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Structural pathologies in the uterine cavity such as müllerian duct anomalies (MDAs) and intrauterine lesions (fibroids, polyps, synechiae) may have important roles in subinfertility, implantation failure and pregnancy outcome. Various imaging modalities such as hysterosalpingography (HSG), sonography, laparoscopy and hysteroscopy are used in the evaluation of MDAs and intrauterine lesions. Recently, three-dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) has been introduced as a non-invasive, outpatient diagnostic modality. With increased spatial awareness, it is superior to other techniques used for the same purpose.

Ahmadi, Firoozeh; Zafarani, Fatemeh; Haghighi, Hadieh; Niknejadi, Maryam; Vosough Taqi Dizaj, Ahmad



A Comparison of Techniques for Detecting Abnormal Change in Blogs  

SciTech Connect

Distributed collections are made of metadata entries that contain references to artifacts not controlled by the collection curators. These collections often have limited forms of change; for digital distributed collections, primarily creation and deletion of additional resources. However, there exists a class of digital collection that undergoes additional kinds of change. These collections consist of resources that are distributed across the Internet and brought together via hyperlinking. Resources in these collections can be expected to change as time goes on. Part of the difficulty in maintaining these collections is determining if a changed page is still a valid member of the collection. Others have tried to address this by defining a maximum allowed threshold of change, however, these methods treat change as a potential problem and treat web content as static despite its intrinsic dynamicism. Instead we acknowledge change on the web as a normal part of a web document and determine the difference between what a maintainer expects a page to do and what it actually does. In this work we evaluate options for extractors and analyzers from a suite of techniques against a human-generated ground-truth set of blog changes. The results of this work show a statistically significant improvement over traditional threshold techniques for our collection.

Furuta, Dr. Richard Keith [Texas A& M University; ShipmanIII, Dr. Frank Major [Texas A& M University; Bogen, Paul Logasa [ORNL



Liver abnormalities and endocrine diseases.  


The liver and its pleotropic functions play a fundamental role in regulating metabolism, and is also an inevitable target of multiple metabolic disorders. The numerous and constant relationships and feedback mechanisms between the liver and all endocrine organs is reflected by the fact that an alteration of one oftentimes results in the malfunction of the other. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism are frequently associated with hepatic alterations, and thyroid diseases must be excluded in transaminase elevation of unknown cause. Drugs such as propylthiouracil, used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism, may induce liver damage, and other drugs such as amiodarone, carbamazepine, and several chemotherapeutic agents can lead to both thyroid and liver abnormalities. Liver diseases such as hepatitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and cirrhosis may cause altered levels of thyroid hormones, and alcoholic liver disease, both due to the noxious substance ethanol as well as to the hepatic damage it causes, may be responsible for altered thyroid function. Both excess and insufficiency of adrenal function may result in altered liver function, and adrenocortical dysfunction may be present in patients with cirrhosis, especially during episodes of decompensation. Again an important player which affects both the endocrine system and the liver, alcohol may be associated with pseudo-Cushing syndrome. Sex hormones, both intrinsic as well as extrinsically administered, have an important impact on liver function. While oestrogens are related to cholestatic liver damage, androgens are the culprit of adenomas and hepatocellular carcinoma, among others. Chronic liver disease, on the other hand, has profound repercussions on sex hormone metabolism, inducing feminization in men and infertility and amenorrhoea in women. Lastly, metabolic syndrome, the pandemia of the present and future centuries, links the spectrum of liver damage ranging from steatosis to cirrhosis, to the array of endocrine alterations that are features of the syndrome, including insulin resistance, central obesity, and hyperlipidaemia. Clinical practice must integrally evaluate the effects of the intricate and tight relationship between the liver and the endocrine system, in order to better address all manifestations, complications, and prevent deterioration of one or the other organ-system. PMID:24090942

Burra, Patrizia



Earliest Marine beds in the Jurassic sedimentary record near the Huajuapan-Petlalcingo region, southern Mexico and their paleogeographic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A paleogeographic model of Jurassic-Cretaceous is presented, the study area is the region near Huajuapan de Leon in the Mixteca Terrane, Mexico where a sedimentary successions constituted by interlayered terrestrial and marine beds, provides evidence of transgression and regression episodes. The sediments in the study zone were deposited over a Paleozoic metamorphic basement, the Acatlan Complex. The stratigraphic features in the Middle Jurassic of the terrestrial beds indicate a depositional elements varying from alluvial fans to floodplains and channel deposits, represented by conglomerates, sandy conglomerates and sandstones. After, in the same epoch (Bajocian and Bathonian age) a transgression coming from the Pacific Ocean covered the region. A transitional zone between continental and marine sediments is situated between Tezoatlan and Petlalcingo, the actual cross section consists in the earliest marine beds: limestones interlayered with terrestrial beds. Fossil contents in this beds indicate an age between the Oxfordian and the Tithonian. During this period of transgression the paleogeography was dominated by a small bay with shallow waters connected in the south with the Pacific Ocean, represented principally by limestone and dolomite units. At the end of the transgression, volcanic episodes occurred and the land emerged again. The sedimentary beds were later affected by tectonic activity that produced a normal fault near Zapotitlan, putting the metamorphic basement in contact with the sedimentary sequence.

Contla, D.



The early Middle Pleistocene archeopaleontological site of Wadi Sarrat (Tunisia) and the earliest record of Bos primigenius  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we describe the new, rich lacustrine paleontological and archeological site of Wadi Sarrat (Le Kef, northeastern Tunisia), dated to the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene, ?0.7 Ma, by a combination of paleomagnetism and biochronology. This locality preserves the earliest record of auroch, Bos primigenius, the ancestor of the worldwide extant domestic cattle species Bos taurus, which is represented by a nearly complete, giant-sized cranium (specimen OS1). Both the cranial anatomy and the size of this specimen reflect the phylogenetic legacy inherited from its ancestor, the late Early Pleistocene African Bos buiaensis, recorded in the eastern African paleoanthropological site of Buia, Eritrea (1.0 Ma). Given that the latter species is an evolved form of the classical Early Pleistocene African buffalo Pelorovis oldowayensis, the finding of B. primigenius at Wadi Sarrat shows that the genus Bos evolved in Africa and dispersed into Eurasia at the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene, which coincides with the spread of the Acheulian technocomplex in northern Africa and Europe. Therefore, the lineage of Pelorovis-Bos has been part of the human ecological landscape since the appearance of the genus Homo in the African Early Pleistocene.

Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido; Karoui-Yaakoub, Narjess; Oms, Oriol; Amri, Lamjed; López-García, Juan Manuel; Zerai, Kamel; Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Mtimet, Moncef-Saïd; Espigares, María-Patrocinio; Ben Haj Ali, Nebiha; Ros-Montoya, Sergio; Boughdiri, Mabrouk; Agustí, Jordi; Khayati-Ammar, Hayet; Maalaoui, Kamel; El Khir, Maahmoudi Om; Sala, Robert; Othmani, Abdelhak; Hawas, Ramla; Gómez-Merino, Gala; Solè, Àlex; Carbonell, Eudald; Palmqvist, Paul



Onwards and upwards in the Caucasus - A multidisciplinary approach to understanding the lifeways of the earliest modern humans in Armenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Armenian Highlands have functioned as a gateway with regards to the peopling of the Southern Caucasus. Most importantly, changes in climate have long controlled access to this remote and often inhospitable mountainous region. Here we present the results of the multidisciplinary study of Aghitu-3 Cave which brings together researchers from the fields of archaeology, geology and geomorphology, zooarchaeology, paleobotany and paleoclimate. By integrating these areas of study, we have reconstructed the lifeways of the earliest behaviorally (and presumably anatomically) modern humans who settled Southern Armenia about 35,000 (cal BP) years ago and placed this occupational sequence within a framework of environmental change. These first Upper Paleolithic inhabitants of Armenia made temporary use of this basalt cave located along the Vorotan River corridor at an altitude of 1601 m during seasonal forays into the highlands. The infrequent use of this site as a hunting camp comes to an end at about 31,000 cal BP. The next package of sediment shows little evidence of human occupation, although fauna seem to flourish during the time between 31-29,000 cal BP. Following this phase of depopulation, the intensity of occupation increases substantially after 29,000 cal BP. Human presence is amply documented in the numerous stone artifacts, faunal remains and fireplaces that cover the site. These changes in population movement are echoed in the sequence of sediments preserved in the cave and can be correlated with the fluctuating climatic conditions associated with the late Pleistocene.

Kandel, Andrew; Gasparyan, Boris; Bruch, Angela; Deckers, Katleen; Nahapetyan, Samvel; Weissbrod, Lior



New insights into the earliest phases of low-mass star formation with the Herschel Space Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Herschel Space Observatory has been revolutionizing our understanding of the the earliest phases of star formation. In this contribution, we describe early results from the Gould Belt Survey, a Herschel Key Project to map 15 nearby molecular clouds in continuum emission from 70 ?m to 500 ?m. In particular, I describe how the sensitive and wide maps of the Aquila Rift have strongly confirmed the similarity between the shapes of the stellar Initial Mass Function and the prestellar core mass function (CMF). Also, the Herschel map sensitivity to larger scale emission has revealed that prestellar cores form almost exclusively within dense filaments that exceed a critical mass per unit length defined by temperature (and gravity). Finally, filaments in three clouds, IC 5146, Polaris and Aquila, are found to have similar widths of ˜0.1 pc, approximately the scale where the turbulent velocity equals the sound speed of 10 K gas. This common width suggests filaments themselves are formed through collisional shocks of turbulent flows and evolve in quasi-virial balance through mass accretion.

Di Francesco, J.


The Earliest Known Americans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes archaeological research in the United States. Reconstructs history of Paleo-Indian migrations, discussing archaeological evidence and opposing views regarding specific dates. Reveals cultural details gathered from specific studies at Meadowcroft (Pennsylvania) and Thunderbird (Virginia). (CS)

MOSAIC, 1977



Earth's Earliest Atmospheres  

PubMed Central

Earth is the one known example of an inhabited planet and to current knowledge the likeliest site of the one known origin of life. Here we discuss the origin of Earth’s atmosphere and ocean and some of the environmental conditions of the early Earth as they may relate to the origin of life. A key punctuating event in the narrative is the Moon-forming impact, partly because it made Earth for a short time absolutely uninhabitable, and partly because it sets the boundary conditions for Earth’s subsequent evolution. If life began on Earth, as opposed to having migrated here, it would have done so after the Moon-forming impact. What took place before the Moon formed determined the bulk properties of the Earth and probably determined the overall compositions and sizes of its atmospheres and oceans. What took place afterward animated these materials. One interesting consequence of the Moon-forming impact is that the mantle is devolatized, so that the volatiles subsequently fell out in a kind of condensation sequence. This ensures that the volatiles were concentrated toward the surface so that, for example, the oceans were likely salty from the start. We also point out that an atmosphere generated by impact degassing would tend to have a composition reflective of the impacting bodies (rather than the mantle), and these are almost without exception strongly reducing and volatile-rich. A consequence is that, although CO- or methane-rich atmospheres are not necessarily stable as steady states, they are quite likely to have existed as long-lived transients, many times. With CO comes abundant chemical energy in a metastable package, and with methane comes hydrogen cyanide and ammonia as important albeit less abundant gases.

Zahnle, Kevin; Schaefer, Laura; Fegley, Bruce



Abnormal Brain Functional Connectivity of the Hypothalamus in Cluster Headaches  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to detect the abnormality of the brain functional connectivity of the hypothalamus during acute spontaneous cluster headache (CH) attacks (‘in attack’) and headache-free intervals (‘out of attack’) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) technique. The RS-fMRI data from twelve male CH patients during ‘in attack’ and ‘out of attack’ periods and twelve age- and sex-matched normal controls were analyzed by the region-of-interest -based functional connectivity method using SPM5 software. Abnormal brain functional connectivity of the hypothalamus is present in CH, which is located mainly in the pain system during the spontaneous CH attacks. It extends beyond the pain system during CH attack intervals.

Qiu, Enchao; Wang, Yan; Ma, Lin; Tian, Lixia; Liu, Ruozhuo; Dong, Zhao; Xu, Xian; Zou, Zhitong; Yu, Shengyuan



Augmentation mammoplasty: normal and abnormal findings with mammography and US.  


A retrospective review of 133 patients who had undergone augmentation mammoplasty (n = 122), reconstructive mammoplasty (n = 10), and silicone injections (n = 1) was undertaken to establish the normal appearance of various types of implants, to establish a range of normal variations (wrinkles, valves, minor bulges), and to recognize true implant complications (collapse of a saline prosthesis, leakage of silicone gel, capsular contracture, capsular calcification, and deformities). The detection and evaluation of breast parenchymal abnormalities in the presence of a radiopaque implant are more difficult, and frequently ultrasound (US) or special mammographic views in conjunction with physical examination are required. Coned-down compression spot views are suggested for asymmetric opacities or ill-defined mammographic masses, and magnification views are recommended for microcalcifications: Both should be obtained with the Eklund implant displacement technique. Tangential or other special views combined with US are best for the evaluation of palpable abnormalities and suspected silicone implant rupture. PMID:1561417

Ganott, M A; Harris, K M; Ilkhanipour, Z S; Costa-Greco, M A



Prothrombotic abnormalities in childhood ischaemic stroke.  


Childhood ischaemic stroke, incorporating arterial ischaemic stroke and cerebral sinus venous thrombosis, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in children. The majority of cases in children present with well-recognised risk factors. The appreciation of the role prothrombotic abnormalities have in disease states is developing rapidly. Prothrombotic abnormalities are abnormalities of the coagulation system, fibrinolytic system, endothelial cells or platelets that lead to a reduced threshold for pathological thrombus formation. Our understanding of the role of prothrombotic abnormalities in childhood ischaemic stroke is increasing and has a direct bearing on the development of effective management and prevention strategies. We provide a brief background of prothrombotic abnormalities and review the available literature on prothrombotic markers in childhood ischaemic stroke. Overall, prothrombotic abnormalities have been identified in 20-50% of children presenting with AIS and 33-99% of children with cerebral sinus venous thrombosis. There appear to be a number of associations emerging including an increased frequency of factor V Leiden mutation, elevated lipoprotein (a), protein C deficiency and antiphospholipid antibodies in children presenting with arterial ischaemic stroke. The pathogenic role of prothrombotic abnormalities as predisposing to initial and recurrent childhood ischaemic stroke is becoming increasingly evident. The impact on treatment, however, will only be clarified with carefully designed, multi-institutional prospective studies. PMID:16039697

Barnes, Chris; Deveber, Gabrielle



Frequency and the type of chromosomal abnormalities in patients with primary amenorrhea in northeast of iran.  


Objective(s): Primary and secondary amenorrhea are different from each other in that the former refers to a physiological failure in the onset of spontaneous menarche during the time when it is expected. whereas the latter involves the cessation of normal menstruation any time prior to menopause. In this study we aimed to investigate chromosomal abnormalities in patients with Primary Amenorrhea in Northeast of Iran by employing GTG banding. Materials and Methods: Chromosomal analysis was carried out on 180 cases that were referred from different clinics in eastern cities of Iran to our laboratory from 2004 to 2009. We implemented the suggested protocol regarding peripheral blood lymphocyte culture for metaphase chromosome preparation as well as conventional analysis for G-bande