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1

Earliest detection of the optical afterglow of GRB 030329 and its variability  

E-print Network

We report the earliest detection of an extremely bright optical afterglow of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) 030329 using a 30cm-telescope at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo, JAPAN). Our observation started 67 minutes after the burst, and continued for succeeding two nights until the afterglow faded below the sensitivity limit of the telescope (approximately 18 mag). Combining our data with those reported in GCN Circulars, we find that the early afterglow light curve of the first half day is described by a broken power-law (t^{- alpha}) function with indices alpha_{1} = 0.88 +/- 0.01 (0.047 < t < t_{b1} days), alpha_{2} = 1.18 +/- 0.01 (t_{b1} < t < t_{b2} days), and alpha_{3} = 1.81 +/- 0.04 (t_{b2} < t < 1.2 days), where t_{b1} ~ 0.26 days and t_{b2} ~ 0.54 days, respectively. The change of the power-law index at the first break at t ~ 0.26 days is consistent with that expected from a ``cooling-break'' when the cooling frequency crossed the optical band. If the interpretation is correct, the decay index before the cooling-break implies a uniform ISM environment.

R. Sato; N. Kawai; M. Suzuki; Y. Yatsu; J. Kataoka; R. Takagi; K. Yanagisawa; H. Yamaoka

2003-11-05

2

Hepatic perfusion abnormalities during CT angiography: Detection and interpretation  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-seven perfusion abnormalities were detected in 17 of 50 patients who underwent computed tomographic angiography (CTA) of the liver. All but one of the perfusion abnormalities occurred in patients with primary or metastatic liver tumors. Perfusion abnormalities were lobar in nine cases, segmental in 11, and subsegmental in seven; 14 were hypoperfusion and 13 were hyperperfusion abnormalities. The causes for the abnormalities included nonperfusion of a replaced hepatic artery (n = 11), cirrhosis and nodular regeneration (n = 3), altered hepatic hemodynamics (e.g., siphoning, laminar flow) caused by tumor (n = 7), contrast media washout from a nonperfused vessel (n = 1), compression of adjacent hepatic parenchyma (n = 1), and unknown (n = 4). Differentiation of perfusion abnormalities from tumor usually can be made by comparing the morphology of the known tumor with the suspected perfusion abnormality, changes of each on delayed CTA scans, and review of initial angiograms and other imaging studies.

Freeny, P.C.; Marks, W.M.

1986-06-01

3

Additional chromosomal abnormalities in patients with a previously detected abnormal karyotype, mental retardation, and dysmorphic features.  

PubMed

The detection of chromosomal abnormalities in patients with mental retardation (MR) and dysmorphic features increases with improvements of molecular cytogenetic methods. We report on six patients referred for detailed characterization of chromosomal abnormalities (four translocations, one inversion, one deletion) detected by conventional cytogenetics, in whom metaphase CGH revealed imbalances not involved in the initially detected rearrangements. The detected abnormalities were validated by real-time PCR. Parents were investigated by CGH in four cases. The genomic screening revealed interstitial deletions of 2q33.2-q34, 3p21, 4q12-q13.1, 6q25, 13q22.2-q31.1, and 14q12. The estimated minimum sizes of the deletions ranged from 2.65 to 9.27 Mb. The CGH assay did not reveal imbalances that colocalized with the breakpoints of the inversion or the translocations. The deletion of 6q included ESR1, in which polymorphisms are associated with variation of adult height. FOXG1B, known to be involved in cortical development, was located in the 14q deletion. The results illustrate that whole-genome molecular cytogenetic analysis of phenotypically affected patients with abnormal conventional karyotypes may detect inapparent molecular cytogenetic abnormalities in patients with microscopic chromosomal abnormalities and that these data provide additional information of clinical importance. PMID:16955412

Bisgaard, Anne-Marie; Kirchhoff, Maria; Tümer, Zeynep; Jepsen, Birgit; Brøndum-Nielsen, Karen; Cohen, Monika; Hamborg-Petersen, Bente; Bryndorf, Thue; Tommerup, Niels; Skovby, Flemming

2006-10-15

4

Abnormal "Shape Activity" Detection and Tracking Namrata Vaswani  

E-print Network

of activity, e.g. person taller/shorter · Scaled orthographic camera motion ­ Small field of view PTZ camera in traffic ­ Abnormal Human Action detection, e.g. motion disorders · Sequence Id & Tracking ­ Sequence, view invariant approaches, multiple levels of zoom, DBN, co-occurrence statistics Abnormal "Shape

Vaswani, Namrata

5

Detecting electrocardiogram abnormalities with independent component analysis  

E-print Network

measured ECG signals may be difficult to detect. This is the first known work that applies ICA to EGC is the automatic detection of the QRS complex for patient monitoring. 2. ECG SIGNALS Normal ECG signals are known In this work, we apply independent component analysis (ICA) to electrocardiographic (ECG) signals for improved

Noel, Steven

6

Development of Abnormality Detection System for Bathers using Ultrasonic Sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes an abnormality detection system for bather sitting in bathtub. Increasing number of in-bathtub drowning accidents in Japan draws attention. Behind this large number of bathing accidents, Japan's unique social and cultural background come surface. For majority of people in Japan, bathing serves purpose in deep warming up of body, relax and enjoyable time. Therefore it is the custom for the Japanese to soak in bathtub. However overexposure to hot water may cause dizziness or fainting, which is possible to cause in-bathtub drowning. For drowning prevention, the system detects bather's abnormal state using an ultrasonic sensor array. The array, which has many ultrasonic sensors, is installed on the ceiling of bathroom above bathtub. The abnormality detection system uses the following two methods: posture detection and behavior detection. The function of posture detection is to estimate the risk of drowning by monitoring bather's posture. Meanwhile, the function of behavior detection is to estimate the risk of drowning by monitoring bather's behavior. By using these methods, the system detects bathers' different state from normal. As a result of experiment with a subject in the bathtub, the system was possible to detect abnormal state using subject's posture and behavior. Therefore the system is useful for monitoring bather to prevent drowning in bathtub.

Ohnishi, Yosuke; Abe, Takehiko; Nambo, Hidetaka; Kimura, Haruhiko; Ogoshi, Yasuhiro

7

Using State Estimation Residuals to Detect Abnormal SCADA Data  

SciTech Connect

Detection of abnormal supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) data is critically important for safe and secure operation of modern power systems. In this paper, a methodology of abnormal SCADA data detection based on state estimation residuals is presented. Preceded with a brief overview of outlier detection methods and bad SCADA data detection for state estimation, the framework of the proposed methodology is described. Instead of using original SCADA measurements as the bad data sources, the residuals calculated based on the results of the state estimator are used as the input for the outlier detection algorithm. The BACON algorithm is applied to the outlier detection task. The IEEE 118-bus system is used as a test base to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. The accuracy of the BACON method is compared with that of the 3-? method for the simulated SCADA measurements and residuals.

Ma, Jian; Chen, Yousu; Huang, Zhenyu; Wong, Pak C.

2010-04-30

8

Detecting Abnormal Machine Characteristics in Cloud Infrastructures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the cloud computing environment resources are accessed as services rather than as a product. Monitoring this system for performance is crucial because of typical pay-peruse packages bought by the users for their jobs. With the huge number of machines currently in the cloud system, it is often extremely difficult for system administrators to keep track of all machines using distributed monitoring programs such as Ganglia1 which lacks system health assessment and summarization capabilities. To overcome this problem, we propose a technique for automated anomaly detection using machine performance data in the cloud. Our algorithm is entirely distributed and runs locally on each computing machine on the cloud in order to rank the machines in order of their anomalous behavior for given jobs. There is no need to centralize any of the performance data for the analysis and at the end of the analysis, our algorithm generates error reports, thereby allowing the system administrators to take corrective actions. Experiments performed on real data sets collected for different jobs validate the fact that our algorithm has a low overhead for tracking anomalous machines in a cloud infrastructure.

Bhaduri, Kanishka; Das, Kamalika; Matthews, Bryan L.

2011-01-01

9

Development of Abnormality Detection System for Bathers using Ultrasonic Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an abnormality detection system for bather sitting in bathtub. Increasing number of in-bathtub drowning accidents in Japan draws attention. Behind this large number of bathing accidents, Japan's unique social and cultural background come surface. For majority of people in Japan, bathing serves purpose in deep warming up of body, relax and enjoyable time. Therefore it is the

Yosuke Ohnishi; Takehiko Abe; Hidetaka Nambo; Haruhiko Kimura; Yasuhiro Ogoshi

2006-01-01

10

DETECTION & MAPPING OF ABNORMAL BRAIN STRUCTURE IN METHAMPHETAMINE USERS  

E-print Network

help identify how drug abuse impacts the human brain, and provide therapeutic targets for drug-induced brain injury. Figure 1. Methamphetamine Effects on Brain Structure. ...... #12;DETECTION & MAPPING OF ABNORMAL BRAIN STRUCTURE IN METHAMPHETAMINE USERS 1 P.M. Thompson, 1 K

Thompson, Paul

11

DETECTION AND ADJUSTMENT OF ABNORMAL TEST-DAY YIELDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A method to detect and to adjust abnormally low or high milk, fat, and protein yields on test-day (TD) was developed. TD yields are compared to previous and subsequent yields and are restricted to be between a floor and ceiling based on predicted yield. Lactation yields are then calculated from the ...

12

RAPTOR: Closed-Loop monitoring of the night sky and the earliest optical detection of GRB 021211  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the RAPTOR (Rapid Telescopes for Optical Response) sky monitoring system at Los Alamos National Laboratory. RAPTOR is a fully autonomous robotic system that is designed to identify and make follow-up observations of optical transients with durations as short as one minute. The RAPTOR design is based on Biomimicry of Human Vision. The sky monitor is composed of two identical arrays of telescopes, separated by 38 kilometers, which stereoscopically monitor a field of about 1300 square-degrees for transients. Both monitoring arrays are carried on rapidly slewing mounts and are composed of an ensemble of wide-field telescopes clustered around a more powerful narrow-field telescope called the ``fovea'' telescope. All telescopes are coupled to real-time analysis pipelines that identify candidate transients and relay the information to a central decision unit that filters the candidates to find real celestial transients and command a response. When a celestial transient is found, the system can point the fovea telescopes to any position on the sky within five seconds and begin follow-up observations. RAPTOR also responds to Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) alerts generated by GRB monitoring spacecraft. Here we present RAPTOR observations of GRB 021211 that constitute the earliest detection of optical emission from that event and are the second fastest achieved for any GRB. The detection of bright optical emission from GRB021211, a burst with modest gamma-ray fluence, indicates that prompt optical emission, detectable with small robotic telescopes, is more common than previously thought. Further, the very fast decline of the optical afterglow from GRB 021211 suggests that some so-called ``optically dark'' GRBs were not detected only because of the slow response of the follow-up telescopes.

Vestrand, W. T.; Borozdin, K.; Casperson, D. J.; Fenimore, E.; Galassi, M.; McGowan, K.; Starr, D.; White, R. R.; Wozniak, P.; Wren, J.

2004-10-01

13

Methods and systems for detecting abnormal digital traffic  

DOEpatents

Aspects of the present invention encompass methods and systems for detecting abnormal digital traffic by assigning characterizations of network behaviors according to knowledge nodes and calculating a confidence value based on the characterizations from at least one knowledge node and on weighting factors associated with the knowledge nodes. The knowledge nodes include a characterization model based on prior network information. At least one of the knowledge nodes should not be based on fixed thresholds or signatures. The confidence value includes a quantification of the degree of confidence that the network behaviors constitute abnormal network traffic.

Goranson, Craig A [Kennewick, WA; Burnette, John R [Kennewick, WA

2011-03-22

14

Detecting Botnet Activities Based on Abnormal DNS traffic  

E-print Network

IThe botnet is considered as a critical issue of the Internet due to its fast growing mechanism and affect. Recently, Botnets have utilized the DNS and query DNS server just like any legitimate hosts. In this case, it is difficult to distinguish between the legitimate DNS traffic and illegitimate DNS traffic. It is important to build a suitable solution for botnet detection in the DNS traffic and consequently protect the network from the malicious Botnets activities. In this paper, a simple mechanism is proposed to monitors the DNS traffic and detects the abnormal DNS traffic issued by the botnet based on the fact that botnets appear as a group of hosts periodically. The proposed mechanism is also able to classify the DNS traffic requested by group of hosts (group behavior) and single hosts (individual behavior), consequently detect the abnormal domain name issued by the malicious Botnets. Finally, the experimental results proved that the proposed mechanism is robust and able to classify DNS traffic, and effi...

Manasrah, Ahmed M; Abouabdalla, Omar Amer; Ramadass, Sureswaran

2009-01-01

15

Robust PCA-Based Abnormal Traffic Flow Pattern Isolation and Loop Detector Fault Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

One key function of intelligent transportation systems is to automatically detect abnormal traffic phenomena and to help further investigations of the cause of the abnormality. This paper describes a robust principal components analysis (RPCA)-based abnormal traffic flow pattern isolation and loop detector fault detection method. The results show that RPCA is a useful tool to distinguish regular traffic flow from

Xuexiang Jin; Yi Zhang; Li Li; Jianming Hu

2008-01-01

16

Novel instrumentation of multispectral imaging technology for detecting tissue abnormity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multispectral imaging is becoming a powerful tool in a wide range of biological and clinical studies by adding spectral, spatial and temporal dimensions to visualize tissue abnormity and the underlying biological processes. A conventional spectral imaging system includes two physically separated major components: a band-passing selection device (such as liquid crystal tunable filter and diffraction grating) and a scientific-grade monochromatic camera, and is expensive and bulky. Recently micro-arrayed narrow-band optical mosaic filter was invented and successfully fabricated to reduce the size and cost of multispectral imaging devices in order to meet the clinical requirement for medical diagnostic imaging applications. However the challenging issue of how to integrate and place the micro filter mosaic chip to the targeting focal plane, i.e., the imaging sensor, of an off-shelf CMOS/CCD camera is not reported anywhere. This paper presents the methods and results of integrating such a miniaturized filter with off-shelf CMOS imaging sensors to produce handheld real-time multispectral imaging devices for the application of early stage pressure ulcer (ESPU) detection. Unlike conventional multispectral imaging devices which are bulky and expensive, the resulting handheld real-time multispectral ESPU detector can produce multiple images at different center wavelengths with a single shot, therefore eliminates the image registration procedure required by traditional multispectral imaging technologies.

Yi, Dingrong; Kong, Linghua

2012-10-01

17

ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR DETECTION AND BEHAVIOR MATCHING FOR NETWORKED CAMERAS  

E-print Network

segmentation I. INTRODUCTION Network video cameras permit pervasive, wide-area visual surveillance. However-100362, Presidential Early Career Award (PECASE) behavior model at various regions of the frame, and performs abnormal

Jodoin, Pierre-Marc

18

Comparison of Two Statistical Approaches to Detect Abnormal Building Energy Consumption with Simulation Test  

E-print Network

Comparison?of?Two?Statistical?Approaches? to?Detect?Abnormal?Building?Energy? Consumption?with?Simulation?Test 12th International?Conference?for?Enhanced?Building?Operations 23rd ? 26th October?2012? Manchester,?England Guanjing...:?How?to?keep?the?optimal?building?energy? performance?after?Cx? ? Solution:?Whole?building?fault?detection? ? A?process?of?identifying?abnormal?energy?consumption ? Alert?operators?early?after?the?onset?of?significant? increases/decreases?in?consumption 2 Paper Model Fault Detection Dodier and...

Lin, G.; Claridge, D.

2012-01-01

19

Malicious Web Pages Detection Based on Abnormal Visibility Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, Web sites have already become the attackers' main target. When attackers embed malicious code in the Web pages, they generally change the display mode of the corresponding HTML tags to make the display effect of malicious code invisible or almost invisible to the browser users. In this paper, the concept of abnormal visibility is proposed to describe

Bin Liang; Jianjun Huang; Fang Liu; Dawei Wang; Daxiang Dong; Zhaohui Liang

2009-01-01

20

Aircraft Abnormal Conditions Detection, Identification, and Evaluation Using Innate and Adaptive Immune Systems Interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abnormal flight conditions play a major role in aircraft accidents frequently causing loss of control. To ensure aircraft operation safety in all situations, intelligent system monitoring and adaptation must rely on accurately detecting the presence of abnormal conditions as soon as they take place, identifying their root cause(s), estimating their nature and severity, and predicting their impact on the flight envelope. Due to the complexity and multidimensionality of the aircraft system under abnormal conditions, these requirements are extremely difficult to satisfy using existing analytical and/or statistical approaches. Moreover, current methodologies have addressed only isolated classes of abnormal conditions and a reduced number of aircraft dynamic parameters within a limited region of the flight envelope. This research effort aims at developing an integrated and comprehensive framework for the aircraft abnormal conditions detection, identification, and evaluation based on the artificial immune systems paradigm, which has the capability to address the complexity and multidimensionality issues related to aircraft systems. Within the proposed framework, a novel algorithm was developed for the abnormal conditions detection problem and extended to the abnormal conditions identification and evaluation. The algorithm and its extensions were inspired from the functionality of the biological dendritic cells (an important part of the innate immune system) and their interaction with the different components of the adaptive immune system. Immunity-based methodologies for re-assessing the flight envelope at post-failure and predicting the impact of the abnormal conditions on the performance and handling qualities are also proposed and investigated in this study. The generality of the approach makes it applicable to any system. Data for artificial immune system development were collected from flight tests of a supersonic research aircraft within a motion-based flight simulator. The abnormal conditions considered in this work include locked actuators (stabilator, aileron, rudder, and throttle), structural damage of the wing, horizontal tail, and vertical tail, malfunctioning sensors, and reduced engine effectiveness. The results of applying the proposed approach to this wide range of abnormal conditions show its high capability in detecting the abnormal conditions with zero false alarms and very high detection rates, correctly identifying the failed subsystem and evaluating the type and severity of the failure. The results also reveal that the post-failure flight envelope can be reasonably predicted within this framework.

Al Azzawi, Dia

21

Visual Sensor Based Abnormal Event Detection with Moving Shadow Removal in Home Healthcare Applications  

PubMed Central

Vision-based abnormal event detection for home healthcare systems can be greatly improved using visual sensor-based techniques able to detect, track and recognize objects in the scene. However, in moving object detection and tracking processes, moving cast shadows can be misclassified as part of objects or moving objects. Shadow removal is an essential step for developing video surveillance systems. The goal of the primary is to design novel computer vision techniques that can extract objects more accurately and discriminate between abnormal and normal activities. To improve the accuracy of object detection and tracking, our proposed shadow removal algorithm is employed. Abnormal event detection based on visual sensor by using shape features variation and 3-D trajectory is presented to overcome the low fall detection rate. The experimental results showed that the success rate of detecting abnormal events was 97% with a false positive rate of 2%. Our proposed algorithm can allow distinguishing diverse fall activities such as forward falls, backward falls, and falling asides from normal activities. PMID:22368486

Lee, Young-Sook; Chung, Wan-Young

2012-01-01

22

Myelodysplastic syndromes: pathogenesis, functional abnormalities, and clinical implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The myelodysplastic syndromes represent a preleukaemic state in which a clonal abnormality of haemopoietic stem cell is characterised by a variety of phenotypic manifestations with varying degrees of ineffective haemopoiesis. This state probably develops as a sequence of events in which the earliest stages may be difficult to detect by conventional pathological techniques. The process is characterised by genetic changes

A Jacobs

1985-01-01

23

Detection and diagnosis of abnormal transients in nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

This document describes a simulation-based algorithm that combines fuzzy logic with macroscopic conservation equations to diagnose multiple-failure events subject to uncertainties in transient data. Clusters of single-failure data points of similar characteristics are obtained through a pattern recognition algorithm and the cluster centers are combined in the space of macroscopic inventory derivatives to generate multiple-failure cluster centers. A fuzzy membership function is used to represent the likelihood of a data point belonging to a cluster, and failure estimates are obtained through solution of a fuzzy matrix equation. The algorithm has been successful in detecting simulated malfunctions in the pressurizer of a pressurized water reactor. 11 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Lee, J.C.; Rank, P.J.; Hawkes, E.; Wehe, D.K. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Reifman, J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

1991-01-01

24

The Earliest Matches  

PubMed Central

Cylindrical objects made usually of fired clay but sometimes of stone were found at the Yarmukian Pottery Neolithic sites of Sha‘ar HaGolan and Munhata (first half of the 8th millennium BP) in the Jordan Valley. Similar objects have been reported from other Near Eastern Pottery Neolithic sites. Most scholars have interpreted them as cultic objects in the shape of phalli, while others have referred to them in more general terms as “clay pestles,” “clay rods,” and “cylindrical clay objects.” Re-examination of these artifacts leads us to present a new interpretation of their function and to suggest a reconstruction of their technology and mode of use. We suggest that these objects were components of fire drills and consider them the earliest evidence of a complex technology of fire ignition, which incorporates the cylindrical objects in the role of matches. PMID:22870306

Goren-Inbar, Naama; Freikman, Michael; Garfinkel, Yosef; Goring-Morris, Nigel A.; Grosman, Leore

2012-01-01

25

Antibodies Against Abnormal Glycoproteins Identified as Possible Biomarkers for Cancer Detection  

Cancer.gov

Scientists have found that cancer patients produce antibodies that target abnormal glycoproteins (proteins with sugar molecules attached) made by their tumors. The result of this work suggests that antitumor antibodies in the blood may provide a fruitful source of sensitive biomarkers for cancer detection.

26

Performances of diffusion kurtosis imaging and diffusion tensor imaging in detecting white matter abnormality in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) is an extension of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), exhibiting improved sensitivity and specificity in detecting developmental and pathological changes in neural tissues. However, little attention was paid to the performances of DKI and DTI in detecting white matter abnormality in schizophrenia. In this study, DKI and DTI were performed in 94 schizophrenia patients and 91 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. White matter integrity was assessed by fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD), mean kurtosis (MK), axial kurtosis (AK) and radial kurtosis (RK) of DKI and FA, MD, AD and RD of DTI. Group differences in these parameters were compared using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) (P < 0.01, corrected). The sensitivities in detecting white matter abnormality in schizophrenia were MK (34%) > AK (20%) > RK (3%) and RD (37%) > FA (24%) > MD (21%) for DKI, and RD (43%) > FA (30%) > MD (21%) for DTI. DKI-derived diffusion parameters (RD, FA and MD) were sensitive to detect abnormality in white matter regions (the corpus callosum and anterior limb of internal capsule) with coherent fiber arrangement; however, the kurtosis parameters (MK and AK) were sensitive to reveal abnormality in white matter regions (the juxtacortical white matter and corona radiata) with complex fiber arrangement. In schizophrenia, the decreased AK suggests axonal damage; however, the increased RD indicates myelin impairment. These findings suggest that diffusion and kurtosis parameters could provide complementary information and they should be jointly used to reveal pathological changes in schizophrenia. PMID:25610778

Zhu, Jiajia; Zhuo, Chuanjun; Qin, Wen; Wang, Di; Ma, Xiaomei; Zhou, Yujing; Yu, Chunshui

2014-01-01

27

Abnormal condition detection in a cement rotary kiln with system identification methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we use system identification methods for abnormal condition detection in a cement rotary kiln. After selecting proper inputs and output, an input–output model is identified for the plant’s normal conditions. A novel approach is used in order to estimate the delays of the input channels of the kiln before identification part. This method eases the identification since

Iman Makaremi; Alireza Fatehi; Babak Nadjar Araabi; Morteza Azizi; Ahmad Cheloeian

2009-01-01

28

Automated Heart Wall Motion Abnormality Detection From Ultrasound Images using Bayesian Networks  

E-print Network

Automated Heart Wall Motion Abnormality Detection From Ultrasound Images using Bayesian Networks± . maleeha.qazi@siemens.com , glenn.fung@siemens.com Abstract Coronary Heart Disease can be diagnosed by mea- suring and scoring regional motion of the heart wall in ultrasound images of the left ventricle (LV

Rosales, Rómer E.

29

Arterial Spin Labeling at 3T in semantic dementia: perfusion abnormalities detection and  

E-print Network

Arterial Spin Labeling at 3T in semantic dementia: perfusion abnormalities detection and comparison shown great diagnosis potential in demen- tia. However, it has never been applied to semantic dementia of ASL to assess perfusion impairments in SD. Keywords: ASL, FDG-PET, MRI, semantic dementia. 1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

30

Sensitive and specific detection of mosaic chromosomal abnormalities using the Parent-of-Origin-based Detection (POD) method  

PubMed Central

Background Mosaic somatic alterations are present in all multi-cellular organisms, but the physiological effects of low-level mosaicism are largely unknown. Most mosaic alterations remain undetectable with current analytical approaches, although the presence of such alterations is increasingly implicated as causative for disease. Results Here, we present the Parent-of-Origin-based Detection (POD) method for chromosomal abnormality detection in trio-based SNP microarray data. Our software implementation, triPOD, was benchmarked using a simulated dataset, outperformed comparable software for sensitivity of abnormality detection, and displayed substantial improvement in the detection of low-level mosaicism while maintaining comparable specificity. Examples of low-level mosaic abnormalities from a large autism dataset demonstrate the benefits of the increased sensitivity provided by triPOD. The triPOD analyses showed robustness across multiple types of Illumina microarray chips. Two large, clinically-relevant datasets were characterized and compared. Conclusions Our method and software provide a significant advancement in the ability to detect low-level mosaic abnormalities, thereby opening new avenues for research into the implications of mosaicism in pathogenic and non-pathogenic processes. PMID:23724825

2013-01-01

31

Molecular Detection of HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis Infections in Brazilian Women with Abnormal Cervical Cytology  

PubMed Central

The question of whether Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is a cofactor for human Papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical carcinogenesis is still controversial. We conducted a molecular detection study of both infections in 622 Brazilian women, including 252 women with different grades of abnormal cervical cytology and cervical cancer (CC; cases) and 370 women with normal cytology (controls). Although Ct infection did not seem related to CC carcinogenicity, women with abnormal cytology had a significant high rate of Ct infection. Therefore, it is important to adopt protocols for diagnosis and treatment of this bacterium in conjunction with screening for CC in this population. PMID:23128289

de Abreu, André L. P.; Nogara, Paula R. B.; Souza, Raquel P.; da Silva, Mariana C.; Uchimura, Nelson S.; Zanko, Rodrigo L.; Ferreira, Érika C.; Tognim, Maria C. B.; Teixeira, Jorge J. V.; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Consolaro, Marcia E. L.

2012-01-01

32

The earliest pigeon fanciers  

PubMed Central

Feral Pigeons have colonised all corners of the Earth, having developed a close association with humans and their activities. The wild ancestor of the Feral Pigeon, the Rock Dove, is a species of rocky habitats, nesting typically on cliff ledges and at the entrance to large caves. This habit would have brought them into close contact with cave-dwelling humans, a relationship usually linked to the development of dwellings in the Neolithic. We show that the association between humans and Rock Doves is an ancient one with its roots in the Palaeolithic and predates the arrival of modern humans into Europe. At Gorham's Cave, Gibraltar, the Neanderthals exploited Rock Doves for food for a period of over 40 thousand years, the earliest evidence dating to at least 67 thousand years ago. We show that the exploitation was not casual or sporadic, having found repeated evidence of the practice in different, widely spaced, temporal contexts within the cave. Our results point to hitherto unappreciated capacities of the Neanderthals to exploit birds as food resources on a regular basis. More so, they were practising it long before the arrival of modern humans and had therefore invented it independently. PMID:25101932

Blasco, Ruth; Finlayson, Clive; Rosell, Jordi; Marco, Antonio Sánchez; Finlayson, Stewart; Finlayson, Geraldine; Negro, Juan José; Pacheco, Francisco Giles; Vidal, Joaquín Rodríguez

2014-01-01

33

The earliest pigeon fanciers.  

PubMed

Feral Pigeons have colonised all corners of the Earth, having developed a close association with humans and their activities. The wild ancestor of the Feral Pigeon, the Rock Dove, is a species of rocky habitats, nesting typically on cliff ledges and at the entrance to large caves. This habit would have brought them into close contact with cave-dwelling humans, a relationship usually linked to the development of dwellings in the Neolithic. We show that the association between humans and Rock Doves is an ancient one with its roots in the Palaeolithic and predates the arrival of modern humans into Europe. At Gorham's Cave, Gibraltar, the Neanderthals exploited Rock Doves for food for a period of over 40 thousand years, the earliest evidence dating to at least 67 thousand years ago. We show that the exploitation was not casual or sporadic, having found repeated evidence of the practice in different, widely spaced, temporal contexts within the cave. Our results point to hitherto unappreciated capacities of the Neanderthals to exploit birds as food resources on a regular basis. More so, they were practising it long before the arrival of modern humans and had therefore invented it independently. PMID:25101932

Blasco, Ruth; Finlayson, Clive; Rosell, Jordi; Marco, Antonio Sánchez; Finlayson, Stewart; Finlayson, Geraldine; Negro, Juan José; Pacheco, Francisco Giles; Vidal, Joaquín Rodríguez

2014-01-01

34

Automated CT detection of intestinal abnormalities and ischemia for decision making in emergency medicine  

PubMed Central

Background Evaluation of computed tomography (CT) for the diagnosis of intestinal wall abnormalities and ischemia is important for clinical decision making in patients with acute abdominal pain to which if surgery should be performed in the emergency department. Interpretation of such information on CT is usually based on visual assessment by medical professionals and still remains a challenge in a variety of settings of the medical emergency care. This paper reports a pilot study in the implementation of image processing methods for automated detection of intestinal wall abnormalities and bowel ischemia, which can be of a potential application for CT-based detection of the intestinal disease. Methods CT scans of 3 patients of ischemia, one benign and one control subjects were used in this study. Statistical and geometrical features of the CT scans were extracted for pattern classification using two distance measures and the k-nearest neighbor algorithm. The automated detection of intestinal abnormalities and ischemia was carried out using labeled data from the training process with various proportions of training and testing samples to validate the results. Results Detection rates of intestinal ischemia and abnormalities are promising in terms of sensitivity and specificity, where the sensitivity is higher than the specificity in all test cases. The overall classification accuracy between the diseased and control subjects can be as high as 100% when all CT scans were included for measuring the difference between a cohort of three patients of ischemia and a single control subject. Conclusion The proposed approach can be utilized as a computer-aided tool for decision making in the emergency department, where the availability of expert knowledge of the radiologist and surgeon about this complex bowel disease is limited. PMID:25077973

2014-01-01

35

Automated contralateral subtraction of dental panoramic radiographs for detecting abnormalities in paranasal sinus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inflammation in the paranasal sinus is often observed in seasonal allergic rhinitis or with colds, but is also an indication for odontogenic tumors, carcinoma of the maxillary sinus or a maxillary cyst. The detection of those findings in dental panoramic radiographs is not difficult for radiologists, but general dentists may miss the findings since they focus on treatments of teeth. The purpose of this work is to develop a contralateral subtraction method for detecting the odontogenic sinusitis region on dental panoramic radiographs. We developed a contralateral subtraction technique in paranasal sinus region, consisting of 1) image filtering of the smoothing and sobel operation for noise reduction and edge extraction, 2) image registration of mirrored image by using mutual information, and 3) image display method of subtracted pixel data. We employed 56 cases (24 normal and 32 abnormal). The abnormal regions and the normal cases were verified by a board-certified radiologist using CT scans. Observer studies with and without subtraction images were performed for 9 readers. The true-positive rate at a 50% confidence level in 7 out of 9 readers was improved, but there was no statistical significance in the difference of area-under-curve (AUC) in each radiologist. In conclusion, the contralateral subtraction images of dental panoramic radiographs may improve the detection rate of abnormal regions in paranasal sinus.

Hara, Takeshi; Mori, Shintaro; Kaneda, Takashi; Hayashi, Tatsuro; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

2011-03-01

36

Detecting abnormality in optic nerve head images using a feature extraction analysis  

PubMed Central

Imaging and evaluation of the optic nerve head (ONH) plays an essential part in the detection and clinical management of glaucoma. The morphological characteristics of ONHs vary greatly from person to person and this variability means it is difficult to quantify them in a standardized way. We developed and evaluated a feature extraction approach using shift-invariant wavelet packet and kernel principal component analysis to quantify the shape features in ONH images acquired by scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph [HRT]). The methods were developed and tested on 1996 eyes from three different clinical centers. A shape abnormality score (SAS) was developed from extracted features using a Gaussian process to identify glaucomatous abnormality. SAS can be used as a diagnostic index to quantify the overall likelihood of ONH abnormality. Maps showing areas of likely abnormality within the ONH were also derived. Diagnostic performance of the technique, as estimated by ROC analysis, was significantly better than the classification tools currently used in the HRT software – the technique offers the additional advantage of working with all images and is fully automated. PMID:25071960

Zhu, Haogang; Poostchi, Ali; Vernon, Stephen A; Crabb, David P

2014-01-01

37

Stratum corneum lipid abnormalities in ichthyosis. Detection by a new lipid microanalytical method.  

PubMed

Although the biochemical diagnosis of the ichthyoses is still in its infancy, the two recessively inherited types, recessive X-linked ichthyosis (RXLI) and nonbullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (CIE), are accompanied by stratum corneum lipid abnormalities. However, in RXLI, cholesterol sulfate accumulates; in CIE, massive quantities of n-alkanes accumulate. The diagnosis of these disorders has required large quantities of scale for sequential, quantitative thin-layer chromatography (TLC). In this study, we sought to confirm the previously described lipid abnormalities with the use of a rapid, recently developed microchromatographic technique that employs silica gel-coated quartz rods and flame ionization detection (Iatroscan). The cholesterol sulfate content of RXLI (n = 5) scale and the n-alkane content of CIE (n = 8) scale were determined by both TLC and the microchromatographic technique. Less than 10 mg of scale and even single punch biopsy specimens sufficed for the microchromatographic technique, whereas more than 50 mg of scale were required for TLC. Since the microchromatographic technique can rapidly detect diagnostic biochemical abnormalities from readily obtainable, small tissue samples, this method could eventually supplant or supplement standard lipid biochemical techniques for the diagnosis of cutaneous lipidoses. PMID:6696472

Brown, B E; Williams, M L; Elias, P M

1984-02-01

38

Detection of abnormal fermentations in wine process by multivariate statistics and pattern recognition techniques.  

PubMed

Three multivariate statistical techniques (Multiway Principal Component Analysis, Multiway Partial Least Squares, and Stepwise Linear Discriminant Analysis) and one artificial intelligence method (Artificial Neural Networks) were evaluated to detect and predict early abnormal behaviors of wine fermentations. The techniques were tested with data of thirty-two variables at different stages of fermentation from industrial wine fermentations of Cabernet Sauvignon. All the techniques studied considered a pre-treatment to obtain a homogeneous space and reduce the overfitting. The results were encouraging; it was possible to classify at 72h 100% of the fermentation correctly with three variables using Multiway Partial Least Squares and Artificial Neural Networks. Additional and complementary results were obtained with Stepwise Linear Discriminant Analysis, which found that ethanol, sugars and density measurements are able to discriminate abnormal behavior. PMID:22001524

Urtubia, A; Hernández, G; Roger, J M

2012-06-30

39

Genomic Characterization of Prenatally Detected Chromosomal Structural Abnormalities Using Oligonucleotide Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization  

PubMed Central

Detection of chromosomal structural abnormalities using conventional cytogenetic methods poses a challenge for prenatal genetic counseling due to unpredictable clinical outcomes and risk of recurrence. Of the 1,726 prenatal cases in a 3-year period, we performed oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on 11 cases detected with various structural chromosomal abnormalities. In nine cases, genomic aberrations and gene contents involving a 3p distal deletion, a marker chromosome from chromosome 4, a derivative chromosome 5 from a 5p/7q translocation, a de novo distal 6q deletion, a recombinant chromosome 8 comprised of an 8p duplication and an 8q deletion, an extra derivative chromosome 9 from an 8p/9q translocation, mosaicism for chromosome 12q with added material of initially unknown origin, an unbalanced 13q/15q rearrangement, and a distal 18q duplication and deletion were delineated. An absence of pathogenic copy number changes was noted in one case with a de novo 11q/14q translocation and in another with a familial insertion of 21q into a 19q. Genomic characterization of the structural abnormalities aided in the prediction of clinical outcomes. These results demonstrated the value of aCGH analysis in prenatal cases with subtle or complex chromosomal rearrangements. Furthermore, a retrospective analysis of clinical indications of our prenatal cases showed that approximately 20% of them had abnormal ultrasound findings and should be considered as high risk pregnancies for a combined chromosome and aCGH analysis. PMID:21671377

Li, Peining; Pomianowski, Pawel; DiMaio, Miriam S.; Florio, Joanne R.; Rossi, Michael R.; Xiang, Bixia; Xu, Fang; Yang, Hui; Geng, Qian; Xie, Jiansheng; Mahoney, Maurice J.

2013-01-01

40

Genomic characterization of prenatally detected chromosomal structural abnormalities using oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization.  

PubMed

Detection of chromosomal structural abnormalities using conventional cytogenetic methods poses a challenge for prenatal genetic counseling due to unpredictable clinical outcomes and risk of recurrence. Of the 1,726 prenatal cases in a 3-year period, we performed oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on 11 cases detected with various structural chromosomal abnormalities. In nine cases, genomic aberrations and gene contents involving a 3p distal deletion, a marker chromosome from chromosome 4, a derivative chromosome 5 from a 5p/7q translocation, a de novo distal 6q deletion, a recombinant chromosome 8 comprised of an 8p duplication and an 8q deletion, an extra derivative chromosome 9 from an 8p/9q translocation, mosaicism for chromosome 12q with added material of initially unknown origin, an unbalanced 13q/15q rearrangement, and a distal 18q duplication and deletion were delineated. An absence of pathogenic copy number changes was noted in one case with a de novo 11q/14q translocation and in another with a familial insertion of 21q into a 19q. Genomic characterization of the structural abnormalities aided in the prediction of clinical outcomes. These results demonstrated the value of aCGH analysis in prenatal cases with subtle or complex chromosomal rearrangements. Furthermore, a retrospective analysis of clinical indications of our prenatal cases showed that approximately 20% of them had abnormal ultrasound findings and should be considered as high risk pregnancies for a combined chromosome and aCGH analysis. PMID:21671377

Li, Peining; Pomianowski, Pawel; DiMaio, Miriam S; Florio, Joanne R; Rossi, Michael R; Xiang, Bixia; Xu, Fang; Yang, Hui; Geng, Qian; Xie, Jiansheng; Mahoney, Maurice J

2011-07-01

41

Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification for detection of chromosomal abnormalities in myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

Current strategies for detecting chromosome abnormalities in MDS/AML include FISH or traditional cytogenetics. MLPA detects abnormalities in multiple loci simultaneously, with higher resolution and throughput. Peripheral blood from 50 healthy subjects was used to establish probe-specific reference ranges, increasing MLPA sensitivity and specificity. MLPA was then performed on 110 FISH-tested blood or bone marrow samples from suspected leukemia patients. Our novel MLPA analysis system combined maximum stringency with sensitive detection of low-frequency abnormalities. Accuracy/specificity of MLPA were excellent compared to FISH. Our MLPA analysis/interpretation method provides a clinically robust, high-throughput, high-resolution option for detection of abnormalities associated with MDS/AML. PMID:21764131

Donahue, Amber C; Abdool, Adam K; Gaur, Renu; Wohlgemuth, Jay G; Yeh, Chen-Hsiung

2011-11-01

42

Detection of abnormal diffuse perfusion in SPECT using a normal brain atlas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the advent of sophisticated image analysis algorithms, most SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computerized Tomography)cerebral perfusion studies are assessed visually, leading to unavoidable and significant inter and intra-observer variability. Here, we present an automatic method for evaluating SPECT studies based on a computerized atlas of normal regional cerebral bloodflow(rCBF). To generate the atlas, normal(screened volunteers)brain SPECT studies are registered with an affine transformation to one of them arbitrarily selected as reference to remove any size and orientation variations that are assumed irrelevant for our analysis. Then a smooth non-linear registration is performed to reveal the local activity pattern displacement among the normal subjects. By computing and applying the mean displacement to the reference SPECT image, one obtain the atlas that is the normal mean distribution of the rCBF(up to an affine transformation difference). To complete the atlas we add the intensity variance with the displacement mean and variance of the activity pattern. To investigate a patient's condition, we proceed similarly to the atlas construction phase. We first register the patient's SPECT volume to the atlas with an affine transformation. Then the algorithm computes the non-linear 3D displacement of each voxel needed for an almost perfect shape (but not intensity)fit with the atlas. For each brain voxel, if the intensity difference between the atlas and the registered patient is higher than normal differences then this voxel is counted as "abnormal" and similarly if the 3D motion necessary to move the voxel to its registered position is not within the normal displacements. Our hypothesis is that this number of abnormal voxels discriminates between normal and abnormal studies. A Markovian segmentation algorithm that we have presented elsewhere is also used to identify the white and gray matters for regional analysis. We validated this approachusing 23 SPECT perfusion studies (99mTc ECD)selected visually for clear diffuse anomalies (a much more stringent test than "easy" focal lesions detection) and 21 normal studies. A leave-one-out strategy was used to test our approach to avoid any bias. Based on the number of "abnormal" voxels, two simple supervised classifiers were tested:(1)minimum distance-to-mean and (2)Bayesian. A voxel was considered "abnormal" if its P value with respect to the atlas was lower that 0.01(1%). The results show that for the whole brain, a combination of the number of intensity and displacement "abnormal" voxel is a powerful discriminant with a 91% classification rate. If we focus only on the voxels in the segmented gray matter the rates are slighty higher.

Laliberte, Jean-Francois; Meunier, Jean; Mignotte, Max; Soucy, Jean-Paul

2003-05-01

43

Diagnostic Accuracy of Transvaginal Sonography in the Detection of Uterine Abnormalities in Infertile Women  

PubMed Central

Background Accurate diagnosis of uterine abnormalities has become a core part of the fertility work-up. A variety of modalities can be used for the diagnosis of uterine abnormalities. Objectives This study was designed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal ultrasonography (TVS) in uterine pathologies of infertile patients using hysteroscopy as the gold standard. Patients and Methods This was a cross-sectional study carried out in the Department of Reproductive Imaging at Royan Institute from October 2007 to October 2008. In this study, the medical documents of 719 infertile women who were investigated with transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) and then hysteroscopy were reviewed. All women underwent hysteroscopy in the same cycle time after TVS. Seventy-six out of 719 patients were excluded from the study and 643 patients were studied. TVS was performed in the follicular phase after cessation of bleeding. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for TVS. Hysteroscopy served as the gold standard. Results The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for TVS in the diagnosis of uterine abnormality was 79%, 82%, 84% and 71%, respectively. The sensitivity and PPV of TVS in detection of polyp were 88.3% and 81.6%, respectively. These indices were 89.2% and 92.5%, respectively for fibroma, 67% and 98.3%, respectively for subseptated uterus and 90.9% and 100%, respectively for septated uterus. Adhesion and unicornuated uterus have the lowest sensitivity with a sensitivity of 35% and PPV of 57.1%. Conclusion TVS is a cost-effective and non-invasive method for diagnosis of intrauterine lesions such as polyps, submucosal fibroids and septum. It is a valuable adjunctive to hysteroscopy with high accuracy for identification and characterization of intrauterine abnormalities. This may lead to a more precise surgery plan and performance. PMID:23329979

Niknejadi, Maryam; Haghighi, Hadieh; Ahmadi, Firoozeh; Niknejad, Fatemeh; Chehrazi, Mohammad; Vosough, Ahmad; Moenian, Deena

2012-01-01

44

Vascular, metabolic, and inflammatory abnormalities in normoglycemic offspring of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, and elevated levels of circulating proinflammatory markers are among the earliest detectable abnormalities in people at risk for atherosclerosis. Accelerated atherosclerosis is a leading contributor to morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus, a complex genetic disorder. Therefore, we hypothesized that normoglycemic offspring of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (NOPD) may have impaired vascular

Manfredi Tesauro; Stefano Rizza; Micaela Iantorno; Umberto Campia; Carmine Cardillo; Davide Lauro; Roberto Leo; Mario Turriziani; Giulio Cesare Cocciolillo; Angelo Fusco; Julio A. Panza; Angelo Scuteri; Massimo Federici; Renato Lauro; Michael J. Quon

2007-01-01

45

Geological constraints on detecting the earliest life on Earth: a perspective from the Early Archaean (older than 3.7?Gyr) of southwest Greenland  

PubMed Central

At greater than 3.7?Gyr, Earth's oldest known supracrustal rocks, comprised dominantly of mafic igneous with less common sedimentary units including banded iron formation (BIF), are exposed in southwest Greenland. Regionally, they were intruded by younger tonalites, and then both were intensely dynamothermally metamorphosed to granulite facies (the highest pressures and temperatures generally encountered in the Earth's crust during metamorphism) in the Archaean and subsequently at lower grades until about 1500?Myr ago. Claims for the first preserved life on Earth have been based on the occurrence of greater than 3.8?Gyr isotopically light C occurring as graphite inclusions within apatite crystals from a 5?m thick purported BIF on the island of Akilia. Detailed geologic mapping and observations there indicate that the banding, first claimed to be depositional, is clearly deformational in origin. Furthermore, the mineralogy of the supposed BIF, being dominated by pyroxene, amphibole and quartz, is unlike well-known BIF from the Isua Greenstone Belt (IGB), but resembles enclosing mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks modified by metasomatism and repeated metamorphic recrystallization. This scenario parsimoniously links the geology, whole-rock geochemistry, 2.7?Gyr single crystal zircon ages in the unit, an approximately 1500?Myr age for apatites that lack any graphite, non-MIF sulphur isotopes in the unit and an inconclusive Fe isotope signature. Although both putative body fossils and carbon-12 enriched isotopes in graphite described at Isua are better explained by abiotic processes, more fruitful targets for examining the earliest stages in the emergence of life remain within greater than 3.7?Gyr IGB, which preserves BIF and other rocks that unambiguously formed at Earth's surface. PMID:16754603

Fedo, Christopher M; Whitehouse, Martin J; Kamber, Balz S

2006-01-01

46

Geological constraints on detecting the earliest life on Earth: a perspective from the Early Archaean (older than 3.7 Gyr) of southwest Greenland.  

PubMed

At greater than 3.7 Gyr, Earth's oldest known supracrustal rocks, comprised dominantly of mafic igneous with less common sedimentary units including banded iron formation (BIF), are exposed in southwest Greenland. Regionally, they were intruded by younger tonalites, and then both were intensely dynamothermally metamorphosed to granulite facies (the highest pressures and temperatures generally encountered in the Earth's crust during metamorphism) in the Archaean and subsequently at lower grades until about 1500 Myr ago. Claims for the first preserved life on Earth have been based on the occurrence of greater than 3.8 Gyr isotopically light C occurring as graphite inclusions within apatite crystals from a 5 m thick purported BIF on the island of Akilia. Detailed geologic mapping and observations there indicate that the banding, first claimed to be depositional, is clearly deformational in origin. Furthermore, the mineralogy of the supposed BIF, being dominated by pyroxene, amphibole and quartz, is unlike well-known BIF from the Isua Greenstone Belt (IGB), but resembles enclosing mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks modified by metasomatism and repeated metamorphic recrystallization. This scenario parsimoniously links the geology, whole-rock geochemistry, 2.7 Gyr single crystal zircon ages in the unit, an approximately 1500 Myr age for apatites that lack any graphite, non-MIF sulphur isotopes in the unit and an inconclusive Fe isotope signature. Although both putative body fossils and carbon-12 enriched isotopes in graphite described at Isua are better explained by abiotic processes, more fruitful targets for examining the earliest stages in the emergence of life remain within greater than 3.7 Gyr IGB, which preserves BIF and other rocks that unambiguously formed at Earth's surface. PMID:16754603

Fedo, Christopher M; Whitehouse, Martin J; Kamber, Balz S

2006-06-29

47

The earliest known sauropod dinosaur  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sauropods were a very successful group of dinosaurs during the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, but their earlier history is poorly known. Until now, the earliest reported sauropod bones were from the Early Jurassic, and the only tentative evidence of earlier sauropods was in the form of controversial footprints. Here we report the discovery of an incomplete sauropod skeleton from the

Eric Buffetaut; Varavudh Suteethorn; Gilles Cuny; Haiyan Tong; Jean Le Loeuff; Sasidhorn Khansubha; Sutee Jongautchariyakul

2000-01-01

48

Congenital Abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

... Ask your pediatrician for a referral to a genetic counseling service . These services have expertise with a variety ... Family Health History & Genetics Detecting Genetic Abnormalities Prenatal Genetic Counseling Children with Down Syndrome: Health Care Information for ...

49

Detection of abnormal item based on time intervals for recommender systems.  

PubMed

With the rapid development of e-business, personalized recommendation has become core competence for enterprises to gain profits and improve customer satisfaction. Although collaborative filtering is the most successful approach for building a recommender system, it suffers from "shilling" attacks. In recent years, the research on shilling attacks has been greatly improved. However, the approaches suffer from serious problem in attack model dependency and high computational cost. To solve the problem, an approach for the detection of abnormal item is proposed in this paper. In the paper, two common features of all attack models are analyzed at first. A revised bottom-up discretized approach is then proposed based on time intervals and the features for the detection. The distributions of ratings in different time intervals are compared to detect anomaly based on the calculation of chi square distribution (?(2)). We evaluated our approach on four types of items which are defined according to the life cycles of these items. The experimental results show that the proposed approach achieves a high detection rate with low computational cost when the number of attack profiles is more than 15. It improves the efficiency in shilling attacks detection by narrowing down the suspicious users. PMID:24693248

Gao, Min; Yuan, Quan; Ling, Bin; Xiong, Qingyu

2014-01-01

50

The effects of anatomical information and observer expertise on abnormality detection task  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel study investigating the influences of Magnetic Resonance (MR) image anatomical information and observer expertise on an abnormality detection task. MRI is exquisitely sensitive for detecting brain abnormalities, particularly in the evaluation of white matter diseases, e.g. multiple sclerosis (MS). For this reason, MS lesions are simulated as the target stimuli for detection in the present study. Two different image backgrounds are used in the following experiments: a) homogeneous region of white matter tissue, and b) one slice of a healthy brain MR image. One expert radiologist (more than 10 years' experience), three radiologists (less than 5 years' experience) and eight naïve observers (without any prior medical knowledge) have performed these experiments, during which they have been asked different questions dependent upon level of experience; the three radiologists and eight naïve observers were asked if they were aware of any hyper-signal, likely to represent an MS lesion, while the most experienced consultant was asked if a clinically significant sign was present. With the percentages of response "yes" displayed on the y-axis and the lesion intensity contrasts on the x-axis, psychometric function is generated from the observer' responses. Results of psychometric functions and calculated thresholds indicate that radiologists have better hyper-signal detection ability than naïve observers, which is intuitively shown by the lower simple visibility thresholds of radiologists. However, when radiologists perform a task with clinical implications, e.g. to detect a clinically significant sign, their detection thresholds are elevated. Moreover, the study indicates that for the radiologists, the simple visibility thresholds remain the same with and without the anatomical information, which reduces the threshold for the clinically significant sign detection task. Findings provide further insight into human visual system processing for this specific task, and this study provides the foundation for a series of studies investigating numerical observer modeling to be designed, with the ultimate aim of investigating the medical image quality assessment approach by addressing the perspective of radiologist diagnostic performance.

Zhang, L.; Cavaro-Ménard, C.; Le Callet, P.; Cooper, L. H. K.; Hunault, G.; Tanguy, J.-Y.

2011-03-01

51

Detection of abnormalities in febrile AIDS patients with In-111-labeled leukocyte and Ga-67 scintigraphy  

SciTech Connect

Thirty-six patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), who were febrile but without localizing signs, underwent indium-111 leukocyte scintigraphy 24 hours after injection of labeled white blood cells (WBCs) and were restudied 48 hours after injection of gallium-67 citrate. Fifty-six abnormalities were identified as possible sources of the fever; 27 were confirmed with biopsy. Of these 27, 15 were identified only on In-111 WBC scans (including colitis, sinusitis, and focal bacterial pneumonia); six, only on Ga-67 scans (predominantly Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and lymphadenopathy); and six, on both studies (predominantly pulmonary lesions). In-111 WBC scanning revealed 21 of 27 abnormalities (78%) and gallium scanning, 12 of 27 (44%). If only one scintigraphic study has been performed, particularly with Ga-67, a significant number of lesions would not have been detected. The authors believe radionuclide evaluation of the febrile AIDS patient without localizing signs should begin with In-111 WBC scintigraphy. Gallium scanning may be used depending on results of In-111 WBC scans or if there is a high index of suspicion for P carinii pneumonia.

Fineman, D.S.; Palestro, C.J.; Kim, C.K.; Needle, L.B.; Vallabhajosula, S.; Solomon, R.W.; Goldsmith, S.J.

1989-03-01

52

Preclinical diagnosis and carrier detection in ataxia associated with abnormalities of lipoamide dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

To see whether kinetic assays of lipoamide dehydrogenase could be used for carrier detection or preclinical diagnosis, Michaelis-Menten constants (KmL and KmH) for the enzyme were determined in platelets from families with a form of recessive Friedreich ataxia and low activities of the enzyme. The KmL of patients' enzyme was 132 +/- 5 microM lipoamide (mean +/- SEM) versus 56 +/- 9 microM for controls (p less than 0.001), and KmH for the patients was 421 +/- 19 microM versus 147 +/- 14 microM for the controls (p less than 0.001). The activity and Km values of one patient's enzyme were abnormal 1 year before neurologic signs appeared. The Km values for the enzymes of the six parents were also elevated (average KmL, 105 +/- 10 microM; average KmH, 378 +/- 47 microM, p less than 0.02). The maximal activities of the parents' enzymes, relative to a mitochondrial marker, were intermediate between the mean maximal control activity and the mean activity for the affected offspring. The data suggest that the abnormalities of lipoamide dehydrogenase are inherited in a recessive pattern in these families. PMID:6892725

Kark, R A; Rodriguez-Budelli, M; Perlman, S; Gulley, W F; Torok, K

1980-05-01

53

A method for early detection of abnormal trends in serial clinical examination results over time.  

PubMed

In this paper we describe a method for the early detection of changing health conditions which may eventually lead to serious disease. The method makes use of health screening test results accumulated for individuals and can be applied to those who have taken at least four health examinations. The degree of abnormality is calculated using a logistic regression equation. The variables defining the equation are selected by factor analysis and a stepwise variable selection method based on the likelihood ratio criterion. Statistical estimates include linear regression coefficients, isotonic regression probabilities and their standard deviations. These are used to represent trends in health screening results over time. The method is illustrated using a sample of 308 persons with gastric cancer and 3002 healthy persons. Cross-validations were also performed. PMID:2622294

Mori, H; Nakamura, T; Nose, Y

1989-01-01

54

Sensitivity and specificity of the head-shaking test for detecting vestibular system abnormalities.  

PubMed

The head-shaking nystagmus (HSN) test has been reported to be a sensitive screening test for the presence of peripheral and central vestibular system disease. Previous investigations have utilized few subjects who were drawn from well-defined patient populations. The purpose of the present investigation was twofold: first, to determine the prevalence of HSN in a large unselected population of dizzy patients seen in an otology and neurotology practice, and second, to determine the sensitivity and specificity of this evaluation in the detection of vestibular system abnormalities as reflected by results of electronystagmography and rotary chair testing. The results of the investigation have suggested that the HSN test has a 27% sensitivity and an 85% specificity. The HSN test yields an acceptable number of false positives (15%) and an unacceptably large number of false negatives (73%). PMID:2195962

Jacobson, G P; Newman, C W; Safadi, I

1990-07-01

55

A novel scheme for abnormal cell detection in Pap smear images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finding malignant cells in Pap smear images is a "needle in a haystack"-type problem, tedious, labor-intensive and error-prone. It is therefore desirable to have an automatic screening tool in order that human experts can concentrate on the evaluation of the more difficult cases. Most research on automatic cervical screening tries to extract morphometric and texture features at the cell level, in accordance with the NIH "The Bethesda System" rules. Due to variances in image quality and features, such as brightness, magnification and focus, morphometric and texture analysis is insufficient to provide robust cervical cancer detection. Using a microscopic spectral imaging system, we have produced a set of multispectral Pap smear images with wavelengths from 400 nm to 690 nm, containing both spectral signatures and spatial attributes. We describe a novel scheme that combines spatial information (including texture and morphometric features) with spectral information to significantly improve abnormal cell detection. Three kinds of wavelet features, orthogonal, bi-orthogonal and non-orthogonal, are carefully chosen to optimize recognition performance. Multispectral feature sets are then extracted in the wavelet domain. Using a Back-Propagation Neural Network classifier that greatly decreases the influence of spurious events, we obtain a classification error rate of 5%. Cell morphometric features, such as area and shape, are then used to eliminate most remaining small artifacts. We report initial results from 149 cells from 40 separate image sets, in which only one abnormal cell was missed (TPR = 97.6%) and one normal cell was falsely classified as cancerous (FPR = 1%).

Zhao, Tong; Wachman, Elliot S.; Farkas, Daniel L.

2004-07-01

56

Real-Time Plasma Process Condition Sensing and Abnormal Process Detection  

PubMed Central

The plasma process is often used in the fabrication of semiconductor wafers. However, due to the lack of real-time etching control, this may result in some unacceptable process performances and thus leads to significant waste and lower wafer yield. In order to maximize the product wafer yield, a timely and accurately process fault or abnormal detection in a plasma reactor is needed. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) is one of the most frequently used metrologies in in-situ process monitoring. Even though OES has the advantage of non-invasiveness, it is required to provide a huge amount of information. As a result, the data analysis of OES becomes a big challenge. To accomplish real-time detection, this work employed the sigma matching method technique, which is the time series of OES full spectrum intensity. First, the response model of a healthy plasma spectrum was developed. Then, we defined a matching rate as an indictor for comparing the difference between the tested wafers response and the health sigma model. The experimental results showed that this proposal method can detect process faults in real-time, even in plasma etching tools. PMID:22219683

Yang, Ryan; Chen, Rongshun

2010-01-01

57

Detection of abnormal cardiac activity using principal component analysis--a theoretical study.  

PubMed

Electrogram-guided ablation has been recently developed for allowing better detection and localization of abnormal atrial activity that may be the source of arrhythmogeneity. Nevertheless, no clear indication for the benefit of using electrograms guided ablation over empirical ablation was established thus far, and there is a clear need of improving the localization of cardiac arrhythmogenic targets for ablation. In this paper, we propose a new approach for detection and localization of irregular cardiac activity during ablation procedures that is based on dimension reduction algorithms and principal component analysis (PCA). Using an 8×8 electrode array, our method produces manifolds that allow easy visualization and detection of possible arrhythmogenic ablation targets characterized by irregular conduction. We employ mathematical modeling and computer simulations to demonstrate the feasibility of the new approach for two well established arrhythmogenic sources for irregular conduction--spiral waves and patchy fibrosis. Our results show that the PCA method can differentiate between focal ectopic activity and spiral wave activity, as these two types of activity produce substantially different manifold shapes. Moreover, the technique allows the detection of spiral wave cores and their general meandering and drifting pattern. Fibrotic patches larger than 2 mm(2) could also be visualized using the PCA method, both for quiescent atrial tissue and for tissue exhibiting spiral wave activity. We envision that this method, contingent to further numerical and experimental validation studies in more complex, realistic geometrical configurations and with clinical data, can improve existing atrial ablation mapping capabilities, thus increasing success rates and optimizing arrhythmia management. PMID:25073163

Greisas, Ariel; Zafrir, Zohar; Zlochiver, Sharon

2015-01-01

58

Detection of breast abnormalities using a prototype resonance electrical impedance spectroscopy system: A preliminary study  

PubMed Central

Electrical impedance spectroscopy has been investigated with but limited success as an adjunct procedure to mammography and as a possible pre-screening tool to stratify risk for having or developing breast cancer in younger women. In this study, the authors explored a new resonance frequency based [resonance electrical impedance spectroscopy (REIS)] approach to identify breasts that may have highly suspicious abnormalities that had been recommended for biopsies. The authors assembled a prototype REIS system generating multifrequency electrical sweeps ranging from 100 to 4100 kHz every 12 s. Using only two probes, one in contact with the nipple and the other with the outer breast skin surface 60 mm away, a paired transmission signal detection system is generated. The authors recruited 150 women between 30 and 50 years old to participate in this study. REIS measurements were performed on both breasts. Of these women 58 had been scheduled for a breast biopsy and 13 had been recalled for additional imaging procedures due to suspicious findings. The remaining 79 women had negative screening examinations. Eight REIS output signals at and around the resonance frequency were computed for each breast and the subtracted signals between the left and right breasts were used in a simple jackknifing method to select an optimal feature set to be inputted into a multi-feature based artificial neural network (ANN) that aims to predict whether a woman’s breast had been determined as abnormal (warranting a biopsy) or not. The classification performance was evaluated using a leave-one-case-out method and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. The study shows that REIS examination is easy to perform, short in duration, and acceptable to all participants in terms of comfort level and there is no indication of sensation of an electrical current during the measurements. Six REIS difference features were selected as input signals to the ANN. The area under the ROC curve (Az) was 0.707±0.033 for classifying between biopsy cases and non-biopsy (including recalled and screening negative) and the performance (Az) increased to 0.746±0.033 after excluding recalled but negative cases. At 95% specificity, the sensitivity levels were approximately 20.5% and 30.4% in the two data sets tested. The results suggest that differences in REIS signals between two breasts measured in and around the tissue resonance frequency can be used to identify at least some of the women with suspicious abnormalities warranting biopsy with high specificity. PMID:18697526

Zheng, Bin; Zuley, Margarita L.; Sumkin, Jules H.; Catullo, Victor J.; Abrams, Gordon S.; Rathfon, Grace Y.; Chough, Denise M.; Gruss, Michelle Z.; Gur, David

2008-01-01

59

The earliest known sauropod dinosaur.  

PubMed

Sauropods were a very successful group of dinosaurs during the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, but their earlier history is poorly known. Until now, the earliest reported sauropod bones were from the Early Jurassic, and the only tentative evidence of earlier sauropods was in the form of controversial footprints. Here we report the discovery of an incomplete sauropod skeleton from the Late Triassic period of Thailand, which provides the first osteological evidence of pre-Jurassic sauropods. This dinosaur is markedly different from prosauropods and substantiates theoretical predictions that there was a fairly long period of sauropod evolution during the Triassic. PMID:10993074

Buffetaut, E; Suteethorn, V; Cuny, G; Tong, H; Le Loeuff, J; Khansubha, S; Jongautchariyakul, S

2000-09-01

60

Voxel-based analysis of MRI detects abnormal visual cortex in children and adults with amblyopia.  

PubMed

Amblyopia, sometimes called "lazy eye," is a relatively common developmental visual disorder well characterized behaviorally; however, the neural substrates associated with amblyopia in humans remain unclear. We hypothesized that abnormalities in the cerebral cortex of subjects with amblyopia exist, possibly as a result of experience-dependent neuronal plasticity. Anatomic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and psychophysical vision testing was carried out on 74 subjects divided into two age ranges, 7-12 years and 18-35 years, and three diagnoses, strabismic amblyopia, anisometropic amblyopia, and normal vision. We report a behavioral impairment in contrast sensitivity for subjects with amblyopia, consistent with previous reports. When the high-resolution MRI brain images were analyzed quantitatively with optimized voxel-based morphometry, results indicated that adults and children with amblyopia have decreased gray matter volume in visual cortical regions, including the calcarine sulcus, known to contain primary visual cortex. This finding was confirmed with a separate region-of-interest analysis. For the children with amblyopia, additional gray matter reductions in parietal-occipital areas and ventral temporal cortex were detected, consistent with recent reports that amblyopia can result in spatial location and object processing deficits. These data are the first to provide possible neuroanatomic bases for the loss of binocularity and visual sensitivity in children and adults with amblyopia. PMID:15846772

Mendola, Janine D; Conner, Ian P; Roy, Anjali; Chan, Suk-Tak; Schwartz, Terry L; Odom, J Vernon; Kwong, Kenneth K

2005-06-01

61

Abnormalities in spontaneous abortions detected by G-banding and chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) at a national reference laboratory  

PubMed Central

Background Cytogenetic evaluation of products of conception (POC) for chromosomal abnormalities is central to determining the cause of pregnancy loss. We compared the test success rates in various specimen types and the frequencies of chromosomal abnormalities detected by G-banding analysis with those found by Oligo-SNP chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA). We evaluated the benefit of CMA testing in cases of failed culture growth. Methods Conventional cytogenetic results of 5457 consecutive POC specimens were reviewed and categorized as placental villi, fetal parts, and unspecified POC tissue. The CMA was performed on 268 cases. Of those, 32 cases had concurrent G-banding results. The remaining 236 cases included 107 cases with culture failure and 129 cases evaluated by CMA alone. Results The overall POC culture success rate was 75%, with the lowest for fetal parts (37.4%) and the highest for placental villi (81%). The abnormality rate was 58% for placental villi, but only 25% for fetal parts. Of the abnormalities detected, the most common were aneuploidies, including trisomy 16, triploidy, monosomy X, trisomy 22, trisomy 21 and trisomy 15, while the least encountered aneuploidies were trisomy 1, trisomy 19 and monosomies (except monosomy 21). Overall, POC specimens studied by CMA were successful in 89.6% of cases and yielded a 44.6% abnormality rate. Conclusions Placental villi yielded higher rates of culture success and a higher percentage of abnormal karyotypes than did other specimen types. The Oligo-SNP CMA method has demonstrated a viable alternative to the G-banding method in view of its advantages in detection of submicroscopic genomic aberrations, shorter turnaround time due to elimination of time required for culture and a higher test success rate. PMID:24914406

2014-01-01

62

Myelodysplastic syndromes: pathogenesis, functional abnormalities, and clinical implications.  

PubMed Central

The myelodysplastic syndromes represent a preleukaemic state in which a clonal abnormality of haemopoietic stem cell is characterised by a variety of phenotypic manifestations with varying degrees of ineffective haemopoiesis. This state probably develops as a sequence of events in which the earliest stages may be difficult to detect by conventional pathological techniques. The process is characterised by genetic changes leading to abnormal control of cell proliferation and differentiation. Expansion of an abnormal clone may be related to independence from normal growth factors, insensitivity to normal inhibitory factors, suppression of normal clonal growth, or changes in the immunological or nutritional condition of the host. The haematological picture is of peripheral blood cytopenias: a cellular bone marrow, and functional abnormalities of erythroid, myeloid, and megakaryocytic cells. In most cases marrow cells have an abnormal DNA content, often with disturbances of the cell cycle: an abnormal karyotype is common in premalignant clones. Growth abnormalities of erythroid or granulocyte-macrophage progenitors are common in marrow cultures, and lineage specific surface membrane markers indicate aberrations of differentiation. Progression of the disorder may occur through clonal expansion or through clonal evolution with a greater degree of malignancy. Current attempts to influence abnormal growth and differentiation have had only limited success. Clinical recognition of the syndrome depends on an acute awareness of the signs combined with the identification of clonal and functional abnormalities. PMID:2999194

Jacobs, A

1985-01-01

63

The earliest known holometabolous insects.  

PubMed

The Eumetabola (Endopterygota (also known as Holometabola) plus Paraneoptera) have the highest number of species of any clade, and greatly contribute to animal species biodiversity. The palaeoecological circumstances that favoured their emergence and success remain an intriguing question. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses have suggested a wide range of dates for the initial appearance of the Holometabola, from the Middle Devonian epoch (391 million years (Myr) ago) to the Late Pennsylvanian epoch (311 Myr ago), and Hemiptera (310 Myr ago). Palaeoenvironments greatly changed over these periods, with global cooling and increasing complexity of green forests. The Pennsylvanian-period crown-eumetabolan fossil record remains notably incomplete, particularly as several fossils have been erroneously considered to be stem Holometabola (Supplementary Information); the earliest definitive beetles are from the start of the Permian period. The emergence of the hymenopterids, sister group to other Holometabola, is dated between 350 and 309 Myr ago, incongruent with their current earliest record (Middle Triassic epoch). Here we describe five fossils--a Gzhelian-age stem coleopterid, a holometabolous larva of uncertain ordinal affinity, a stem hymenopterid, and early Hemiptera and Psocodea, all from the Moscovian age--and reveal a notable penecontemporaneous breadth of early eumetabolan insects. These discoveries are more congruent with current hypotheses of clade divergence. Eumetabola experienced episodes of diversification during the Bashkirian-Moscovian and the Kasimovian-Gzhelian ages. This cladogenetic activity is perhaps related to notable episodes of drying resulting from glaciations, leading to the eventual demise in Euramerica of coal-swamp ecosystems, evidenced by floral turnover during this interval. These ancient species were of very small size, living in the shadow of Palaeozoic-era 'giant' insects. Although these discoveries reveal unexpected Pennsylvanian eumetabolan diversity, the lineage radiated more successfully only after the mass extinctions at the end of the Permian period, giving rise to the familiar crown groups of their respective clades. PMID:24132233

Nel, André; Roques, Patrick; Nel, Patricia; Prokin, Alexander A; Bourgoin, Thierry; Prokop, Jakub; Szwedo, Jacek; Azar, Dany; Desutter-Grandcolas, Laure; Wappler, Torsten; Garrouste, Romain; Coty, David; Huang, Diying; Engel, Michael S; Kirejtshuk, Alexander G

2013-11-14

64

Detection of cryptic chromosomal abnormalities in unexplained mental retardation: A general strategy using hypervariable subtelomeric DNA polymorphisms  

SciTech Connect

Given the availability of DNA from both parents, unusual segregation of hypervariable DNA polymorphisms (HVPs) in the offspring may be attributable to deletion, unbalanced chromosomal translocation, or uniparental disomy. The telomeric regions of chromosomes are rich in both genes and hypervariable minisatellite sequences and may also be particularly prone to cryptic breakage events. Here the author describes and analyzes a general approach to the detection of subtelomeric abnormalities and uniparental disomy in patients with unexplained mental retardation. With 29 available polymorphic systems, [approximately]50%-70% of these abnormalities could currently be detected. Development of subtelomeric HVPs physically localized with respect to their telomers should provide a valuable resource in routine diagnostics. 73 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Wilkie, A.O.M.

1993-09-01

65

Multiple model estimator based detection of abnormal cell overheating in a Li-ion battery string with minimum number of temperature sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes modeling of abnormal cell overheating caused by internal short circuit in a cell of a Li-ion battery string by augmenting the cell state space model with unknown input disturbance. Furthermore, with minimum number of temperature sensors, in order to identify which of the cells in the string is experiencing the abnormal overheating, a multiple model estimator (MME) is used. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed MME can detect the abnormally overheating cell as well as quickly detect that an abnormal overheating event occurred in the battery string.

Lystianingrum, Vita; Hredzak, Branislav; Agelidis, Vassilios G.

2015-01-01

66

Cross-sectional estimation of abnormal accruals using quarterly and annual data: effectiveness in detecting event-specific earnings management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses certain methodological issues that arise in estimating abnormal (or discretionary) accruals for detection of event-specific earnings management. Unlike prior studies (e.g., Dechow, Sloan, and Sweeney, 1995; Guay, Kothari, and Watts, 1996) that rely primarily on time-series models, we focus on the specification of cross-sectional models of expected accruals using quarterly as well as annual data. Perhaps more

Debra C. Jeter; Lakshmanan Shivakumar

1999-01-01

67

Identification of FISH biomarkers to detect chromosome abnormalities associated with prostate adenocarcinoma in tumour and field effect environment  

PubMed Central

Background To reduce sampling error associated with cancer detection in prostate needle biopsies, we explored the possibility of using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) to detect chromosomal abnormalities in the histologically benign prostate tissue from patients with adenocarcinoma of prostate. Methods Tumour specimens from 33 radical prostatectomy (RP) cases, histologically benign tissue from 17 of the 33 RP cases, and 26 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) control cases were evaluated with Locus Specific Identifier (LSI) probes MYC (8q24), LPL (8p21.22), and PTEN (10q23), as well as with centromere enumerator probes CEP8, CEP10, and CEP7. A distribution of FISH signals in the tumour and histologically benign adjacent tissue was compared to that in BPH specimens using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results The combination of MYC gain, CEP8 Abnormal, PTEN loss or chromosome 7 aneusomy was positive in the tumour area of all of the 33 specimens from patients with adenocarcinomas, and in 88% of adjacent histologically benign regions (15 out of 17) but in only 15% (4 out of 26) of the benign prostatic hyperplasia control specimens. Conclusions A panel of FISH markers may allow detection of genomic abnormalities that associate with adenocarcinoma in the field adjacent to and surrounding the tumour, and thus could potentially indicate the presence of cancer in the specimen even if the cancer focus itself was missed by biopsy and histology review. PMID:24568597

2014-01-01

68

The earliest signs of Alzheimer's Disease  

E-print Network

;Neurofibrillary Tangles #12;Alzheimer's Disease-Tangles #12;Brain Areas Affected by AD Frontal Lobe: BehaviorThe earliest signs of Alzheimer's Disease Sterling Johnson, PhD Professor Wisconsin Alzheimers "Earliest Signs of Alzheimer's Disease" · FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE: NONE · UNLABELED/UNAPPROVED USES DISCLOSURE

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

69

The equatorial electrojet as detected from the abnormal electric current distribution above Huancayo, Peru, and elsewhere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abnormally large range of the daily variation of the horizontal (or north) component of magnetic force over Huancayo in Peru indicates the daily rise and decline of a concentrated eastward electric current above that station, superposed on the normal current distribution responsible for the daily magnetic variationSq. The nameelectrojet is suggested for this concentrated current. New investigations indicate the

Sydney Chapman

1951-01-01

70

Sonic Hedgehog: A Good Gene Gone Bad? Detection and Treatment of Genetic Abnormalities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a case of a baby born with the genetic condition holoprosencephaly in which students explore the "Sonic hedgehog" gene, signal transduction, and the ethics of body and tissue donation. Presents a two-part assignment that features students writing an informed consent document that explains the science behind this congenital abnormality,…

Yaich, Lauren E.

2001-01-01

71

Mom's Weight Might Influence Baby's Earliest Development  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mom's Weight Might Influence Baby's Earliest Development Overweight at conception ... Friday, November 14, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Body Weight Obesity Preconception Care FRIDAY, Nov. 14, 2014 (HealthDay ...

72

Rapid testing versus karyotyping in Down's syndrome screening: cost-effectiveness and detection of clinically significant chromosome abnormalities  

PubMed Central

In all, 80% of antenatal karyotypes are generated by Down's syndrome screening programmes (DSSP). After a positive screening, women are offered prenatal foetus karyotyping, the gold standard. Reliable molecular methods for rapid aneuploidy diagnosis (RAD: fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and quantitative fluorescence PCR (QF-PCR)) can detect common aneuploidies, and are faster and less expensive than karyotyping. In the UK, RAD is recommended as a standalone approach in DSSP, whereas the US guidelines recommend that RAD be followed up by karyotyping. A cost-effectiveness (CE) analysis of RAD in various DSSP is lacking. There is a debate over the significance of chromosome abnormalities (CA) detected with karyotyping but not using RAD. Our objectives were to compare the CE of RAD versus karyotyping, to evaluate the clinically significant missed CA and to determine the impact of detecting the missed CA. We performed computer simulations to compare six screening options followed by FISH, PCR or karyotyping using a population of 110?948 pregnancies. Among the safer screening strategies, the most cost-effective strategy was contingent screening with QF-PCR (CE ratio of $24?084 per Down's syndrome (DS) detected). Using karyotyping, the CE ratio increased to $27?898. QF-PCR missed only six clinically significant CA of which only one was expected to confer a high risk of an abnormal outcome. The incremental CE ratio (ICER) to find the CA missed by RAD was $66?608 per CA. These costs are much higher than those involved for detecting DS cases. As the DSSP are mainly designed for DS detection, it may be relevant to question the additional costs of karyotyping. PMID:20842178

Gekas, Jean; van den Berg, David-Gradus; Durand, Audrey; Vallée, Maud; Wildschut, Hajo Izaäk Johannes; Bujold, Emmanuel; Forest, Jean-Claude; Rousseau, François; Reinharz, Daniel

2011-01-01

73

Detection of structural and numerical chomosomal abnormalities by ACM-FISH analysis in sperm of oligozoospermic infertility patients  

SciTech Connect

Modern reproductive technologies are enabling the treatment of infertile men with severe disturbances of spermatogenesis. The possibility of elevated frequencies of genetically and chromosomally defective sperm has become an issue of concern with the increased usage of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), which can enable men with severely impaired sperm production to father children. Several papers have been published about aneuploidy in oligozoospermic patients, but relatively little is known about chromosome structural aberrations in the sperm of these patients. We examined sperm from infertile, oligozoospermic individuals for structural and numerical chromosomal abnormalities using a multicolor ACM FISH assay that utilizes DNA probes specific for three regions of chromosome 1 to detect human sperm that carry numerical chromosomal abnormalities plus two categories of structural aberrations: duplications and deletions of 1pter and 1cen, and chromosomal breaks within the 1cen-1q12 region. There was a significant increase in the average frequencies of sperm with duplications and deletions in the infertility patients compared with the healthy concurrent controls. There was also a significantly elevated level of breaks within the 1cen-1q12 region. There was no evidence for an increase in chromosome-1 disomy, or in diploidy. Our data reveal that oligozoospermia is associated with chromosomal structural abnormalities suggesting that, oligozoospermic men carry a higher burden of transmissible, chromosome damage. The findings raise the possibility of elevated levels of transmissible chromosomal defects following ICSI treatment.

Schmid, T E; Brinkworth, M H; Hill, F; Sloter, E; Kamischke, A; Marchetti, F; Nieschlag, E; Wyrobek, A J

2003-11-10

74

Prevalence of abnormalities in knees detected by MRI in adults without knee osteoarthritis: population based observational study (Framingham Osteoarthritis Study)  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of knees with no radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis to determine the prevalence of structural lesions associated with osteoarthritis and their relation to age, sex, and obesity. Design Population based observational study. Setting Community cohort in Framingham, MA, United States (Framingham osteoarthritis study). Participants 710 people aged >50 who had no radiographic evidence of knee osteoarthritis (Kellgren-Lawrence grade 0) and who underwent MRI of the knee. Main outcome measures Prevalence of MRI findings that are suggestive of knee osteoarthritis (osteophytes, cartilage damage, bone marrow lesions, subchondral cysts, meniscal lesions, synovitis, attrition, and ligamentous lesions) in all participants and after stratification by age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and the presence or absence of knee pain. Pain was assessed by three different questions and also by WOMAC questionnaire. Results Of the 710 participants, 393 (55%) were women, 660 (93%) were white, and 206 (29%) had knee pain in the past month. The mean age was 62.3 years and mean BMI was 27.9. Prevalence of “any abnormality” was 89% (631/710) overall. Osteophytes were the most common abnormality among all participants (74%, 524/710), followed by cartilage damage (69%, 492/710) and bone marrow lesions (52%, 371/710). The higher the age, the higher the prevalence of all types of abnormalities detectable by MRI. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of any of the features between BMI groups. The prevalence of at least one type of pathology (“any abnormality”) was high in both painful (90-97%, depending on pain definition) and painless (86-88%) knees. Conclusions MRI shows lesions in the tibiofemoral joint in most middle aged and elderly people in whom knee radiographs do not show any features of osteoarthritis, regardless of pain. PMID:22932918

2012-01-01

75

Detection of Abnormal Extracellular Matrix in the Interstitium of Regenerating Renal Tubules  

PubMed Central

Stem/progenitor cells are promising candidates for the regeneration of parenchyma in acute and chronic renal failure. However, recent data exhibit that survival of stem/progenitor cells after implantation in diseased renal parenchyma is restricted. To elaborate basic parameters improving survival, cell seeding was simulated under advanced in vitro conditions. After isolation, renal stem/progenitor cells were mounted in a polyester interstitium for perfusion culture. During generation of tubules, chemically defined CO2 Independent Medium or Leibovitz’s L-15 Medium was applied. Specimens were then fixed for transmission electron microscopy to analyze morphological features in generated tubules. Fixation in conventional glutaraldehyde (GA) solution shows development of tubules each exhibiting a polarized epithelium, an intact basal lamina and an inconspicuous interstitium. In contrast, special fixation of specimens in GA solution containing cupromeronic blue, ruthenium red or tannic acid unveils previously not visible extracellular matrix. Control experiments elucidate that a comparable extracellular matrix is not present in the interstitium of the matured kidney. Thus, generation of renal tubules in combination with advanced fixation of specimens for electron microscopy demonstrates that development of abnormal features in the newly developed interstitium has to be considered, when repair of renal parenchyma is performed by implantation of stem/progenitor cells. PMID:25517030

Minuth, Will W.; Denk, Lucia

2014-01-01

76

Detection of liver cancer and abnormal liver tissue by Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, laser induced human serum Raman spectra of liver cancer are measured. The spectra differences in serum from normal people and liver disease patients are analyzed. For the typical spectrum of normal serum, there are three sharp Raman peaks and relative intensity of Raman peaks excited by 514.5nm is higher than that excited by 488.0nm. For the Raman spectrum of liver cancer serum there are no peaks or very weak Raman peaks at the same positions. Results from more than two hundred case measurements show that clinical diagnostic accuracy is 92.86%. And then, the liver fibrosis and liver cirrhosis are studied applying the technology of LIF. To liver cirrhosis, the shape of Raman peak is similar to normal and fluorescence spectrum is similar to that of liver cancer from statistic data. The experiment indicates that there is notable fluorescence difference between the abnormal and normal liver tissue and have blue shift in fluorescence peak. Except for human serum, we use rats serum for researching either. Compared with results of path al examination, we analyze the spectra of normal cases, hepatic fibrosis and hepatocirrhosis respectively in an attempt to find some difference between them. Red shift of fluorescence peak is observed with disease evolution using 514.5nm excitation of an Ar-ion laser. However, no distinct changes happen with 488.0nm excitation. These results have important reference values to explore the method of laser spectrum diagnosis.

Li, Xiaozhou; Ding, Jianhua; Zhang, Xiujun; Lin, Junxiu; Wang, Deli

2005-01-01

77

Detection of abnormal extracellular matrix in the interstitium of regenerating renal tubules.  

PubMed

Stem/progenitor cells are promising candidates for the regeneration of parenchyma in acute and chronic renal failure. However, recent data exhibit that survival of stem/progenitor cells after implantation in diseased renal parenchyma is restricted. To elaborate basic parameters improving survival, cell seeding was simulated under advanced in vitro conditions. After isolation, renal stem/progenitor cells were mounted in a polyester interstitium for perfusion culture. During generation of tubules, chemically defined CO2 Independent Medium or Leibovitz's L-15 Medium was applied. Specimens were then fixed for transmission electron microscopy to analyze morphological features in generated tubules. Fixation in conventional glutaraldehyde (GA) solution shows development of tubules each exhibiting a polarized epithelium, an intact basal lamina and an inconspicuous interstitium. In contrast, special fixation of specimens in GA solution containing cupromeronic blue, ruthenium red or tannic acid unveils previously not visible extracellular matrix. Control experiments elucidate that a comparable extracellular matrix is not present in the interstitium of the matured kidney. Thus, generation of renal tubules in combination with advanced fixation of specimens for electron microscopy demonstrates that development of abnormal features in the newly developed interstitium has to be considered, when repair of renal parenchyma is performed by implantation of stem/progenitor cells. PMID:25517030

Minuth, Will W; Denk, Lucia

2014-01-01

78

Automated detection of brain abnormalities in neonatal hypoxia ischemic injury from MR images.  

PubMed

We compared the efficacy of three automated brain injury detection methods, namely symmetry-integrated region growing (SIRG), hierarchical region splitting (HRS) and modified watershed segmentation (MWS) in human and animal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) datasets for the detection of hypoxic ischemic injuries (HIIs). Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI, 1.5T) data from neonatal arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) patients, as well as T2-weighted imaging (T2WI, 11.7T, 4.7T) at seven different time-points (1, 4, 7, 10, 17, 24 and 31 days post HII) in rat-pup model of hypoxic ischemic injury were used to assess the temporal efficacy of our computational approaches. Sensitivity, specificity, and similarity were used as performance metrics based on manual ('gold standard') injury detection to quantify comparisons. When compared to the manual gold standard, automated injury location results from SIRG performed the best in 62% of the data, while 29% for HRS and 9% for MWS. Injury severity detection revealed that SIRG performed the best in 67% cases while 33% for HRS. Prior information is required by HRS and MWS, but not by SIRG. However, SIRG is sensitive to parameter-tuning, while HRS and MWS are not. Among these methods, SIRG performs the best in detecting lesion volumes; HRS is the most robust, while MWS lags behind in both respects. PMID:25000294

Ghosh, Nirmalya; Sun, Yu; Bhanu, Bir; Ashwal, Stephen; Obenaus, Andre

2014-10-01

79

Atlas-Based Analysis of Neurodevelopment from Infancy to Adulthood Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Applications for Automated Abnormality Detection  

PubMed Central

Quantification of normal brain maturation is a crucial step in understanding developmental abnormalities in brain anatomy and function. The aim of this study was to develop atlas-based tools for time-dependent quantitative image analysis, and to characterize the anatomical changes that occur from 2 years of age to adulthood. We used large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping to register diffusion tensor images of normal participants into the common coordinates and used a pre-segmented atlas to segment the entire brain into 176 structures. Both voxel- and atlas-based analyses reported structure that showed distinctive changes in terms of its volume and diffusivity measures. In the white matter, fractional anisotropy (FA) linearly increased with age in logarithmic scale, while diffusivity indices, such as apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and axial and radial diffusivity, decreased at a different rate in several regions. The average, variability, and the time course of each measured parameter are incorporated into the atlas, which can be used for automated detection of developmental abnormalities. As a demonstration of future application studies, the brainstem anatomy of cerebral palsy patients was evaluated and the altered anatomy was delineated. PMID:20420929

Faria, Andreia V.; Zhang, Jiangyang; Oishi, Kenichi; Li, Xin; Jiang, Hangyi; Akhter, Kazi; Hermoye, Laurent; Lee, Seung-Koo; Hoon, Alexander; Stachinko, Elaine; Miller, Michael I.; van Zijl, Peter C.M.; Mori, Susumu

2010-01-01

80

Individualized Gaussian process-based prediction and detection of local and global gray matter abnormalities in elderly subjects  

PubMed Central

Structural imaging based on MRI is an integral component of the clinical assessment of patients with potential dementia. We here propose an individualized Gaussian process-based inference scheme for clinical decision support in healthy and pathological aging elderly subjects using MRI. The approach aims at quantitative and transparent support for clinicians who aim to detect structural abnormalities in patients at risk of Alzheimer's disease or other types of dementia. Firstly, we introduce a generative model incorporating our knowledge about normative decline of local and global gray matter volume across the brain in elderly. By supposing smooth structural trajectories the models account for the general course of age-related structural decline as well as late-life accelerated loss. Considering healthy subjects' demography and global brain parameters as informative about normal brain aging variability affords individualized predictions in single cases. Using Gaussian process models as a normative reference, we predict new subjects' brain scans and quantify the local gray matter abnormalities in terms of Normative Probability Maps (NPM) and global z-scores. By integrating the observed expectation error and the predictive uncertainty, the local maps and global scores exploit the advantages of Bayesian inference for clinical decisions and provide a valuable extension of diagnostic information about pathological aging. We validate the approach in simulated data and real MRI data. We train the GP framework using 1238 healthy subjects with ages 18–94 years, and predict in 415 independent test subjects diagnosed as healthy controls, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24742919

Ziegler, G.; Ridgway, G.R.; Dahnke, R.; Gaser, C.

2014-01-01

81

Detection of Abnormal Muscle Activations during Walking Following Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to identify optimal rehabilitation strategies for spinal cord injury (SCI) participants, assessment of impaired walking is required to detect, monitor and quantify movement disorders. In the proposed assessment, ten healthy and seven SCI participants were recruited to perform an over-ground walking test at slow walking speeds. SCI…

Wang, Ping; Low, K. H.; McGregor, Alison H.; Tow, Adela

2013-01-01

82

Electroencephalogram (EEG) duration needed to detect abnormalities in angelman syndrome: is 1 hour of overnight recording sufficient?  

PubMed

Approximately, 90% of patients with Angelman syndrome present with epileptic seizures. Obtaining an electroencephalogram (EEG) with sleep improves the chances of detecting ictal, interictal, and benign abnormal rhythms in Angelman syndrome. However, electroencephalograms, even when obtained during sleep, can be challenging in this population because of tactile sensitivities as well as anxiety related to a novel environment. We tested the hypothesis that 1 hour of sleep on an electroencephalogram would provide as much information as an entire night of electroencephalogram recording, yet more than a routine electroencephalogram conducted during the day. Overnight polysomnograms were collected in 14 children with Angelman syndrome seen at Vanderbilt University. All patients who obtained sleep within the first hour of the overnight electroencephalogram had interictal discharges recorded. Our results show that when sleep is obtained, a 1-hour electroencephalogram yields just as much information as recording an entire night. PMID:24820335

Robinson, Althea A; Goldman, Suzanne; Barnes, Gregory; Goodpaster, Luke; Malow, Beth A

2015-01-01

83

Chromosomal microarray analysis as a first-line test in pregnancies with a priori low risk for the detection of submicroscopic chromosomal abnormalities.  

PubMed

In this study, we aimed to explore the utility of chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) in groups of pregnancies with a priori low risk for detection of submicroscopic chromosome abnormalities, usually not considered an indication for testing, in order to assess whether CMA improves the detection rate of prenatal chromosomal aberrations. A total of 3000 prenatal samples were processed in parallel using both whole-genome CMA and conventional karyotyping. The indications for prenatal testing included: advanced maternal age, maternal serum screening test abnormality, abnormal ultrasound findings, known abnormal fetal karyotype, parental anxiety, family history of a genetic condition and cell culture failure. The use of CMA resulted in an increased detection rate regardless of the indication for analysis. This was evident in high risk groups (abnormal ultrasound findings and abnormal fetal karyotype), in which the percentage of detection was 5.8% (7/120), and also in low risk groups, such as advanced maternal age (6/1118, 0.5%), and parental anxiety (11/1674, 0.7%). A total of 24 (0.8%) fetal conditions would have remained undiagnosed if only a standard karyotype had been performed. Importantly, 17 (0.6%) of such findings would have otherwise been overlooked if CMA was offered only to high risk pregnancies.The results of this study suggest that more widespread CMA testing of fetuses would result in a higher detection of clinically relevant chromosome abnormalities, even in low risk pregnancies. Our findings provide substantial evidence for the introduction of CMA as a first-line diagnostic test for all pregnant women undergoing invasive prenatal testing, regardless of risk factors. PMID:23211699

Fiorentino, Francesco; Napoletano, Stefania; Caiazzo, Fiorina; Sessa, Mariateresa; Bono, Sara; Spizzichino, Letizia; Gordon, Anthony; Nuccitelli, Andrea; Rizzo, Giuseppe; Baldi, Marina

2013-07-01

84

Chromosomal microarray analysis as a first-line test in pregnancies with a priori low risk for the detection of submicroscopic chromosomal abnormalities  

PubMed Central

In this study, we aimed to explore the utility of chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) in groups of pregnancies with a priori low risk for detection of submicroscopic chromosome abnormalities, usually not considered an indication for testing, in order to assess whether CMA improves the detection rate of prenatal chromosomal aberrations. A total of 3000 prenatal samples were processed in parallel using both whole-genome CMA and conventional karyotyping. The indications for prenatal testing included: advanced maternal age, maternal serum screening test abnormality, abnormal ultrasound findings, known abnormal fetal karyotype, parental anxiety, family history of a genetic condition and cell culture failure. The use of CMA resulted in an increased detection rate regardless of the indication for analysis. This was evident in high risk groups (abnormal ultrasound findings and abnormal fetal karyotype), in which the percentage of detection was 5.8% (7/120), and also in low risk groups, such as advanced maternal age (6/1118, 0.5%), and parental anxiety (11/1674, 0.7%). A total of 24 (0.8%) fetal conditions would have remained undiagnosed if only a standard karyotype had been performed. Importantly, 17 (0.6%) of such findings would have otherwise been overlooked if CMA was offered only to high risk pregnancies.The results of this study suggest that more widespread CMA testing of fetuses would result in a higher detection of clinically relevant chromosome abnormalities, even in low risk pregnancies. Our findings provide substantial evidence for the introduction of CMA as a first-line diagnostic test for all pregnant women undergoing invasive prenatal testing, regardless of risk factors. PMID:23211699

Fiorentino, Francesco; Napoletano, Stefania; Caiazzo, Fiorina; Sessa, Mariateresa; Bono, Sara; Spizzichino, Letizia; Gordon, Anthony; Nuccitelli, Andrea; Rizzo, Giuseppe; Baldi, Marina

2013-01-01

85

Shape abnormalities of subcortical and ventricular structures in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: detecting, quantifying, and predicting.  

PubMed

This article assesses the feasibility of using shape information to detect and quantify the subcortical and ventricular structural changes in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We first demonstrate structural shape abnormalities in MCI and AD as compared with healthy controls (HC). Exploring the development to AD, we then divide the MCI participants into two subgroups based on longitudinal clinical information: (1) MCI patients who remained stable; (2) MCI patients who converted to AD over time. We focus on seven structures (amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, and lateral ventricles) in 754 MR scans (210 HC, 369 MCI of which 151 converted to AD over time, and 175 AD). The hippocampus and amygdala were further subsegmented based on high field 0.8 mm isotropic 7.0T scans for finer exploration. For MCI and AD, prominent ventricular expansions were detected and we found that these patients had strongest hippocampal atrophy occurring at CA1 and strongest amygdala atrophy at the basolateral complex. Mild atrophy in basal ganglia structures was also detected in MCI and AD. Stronger atrophy in the amygdala and hippocampus, and greater expansion in ventricles was observed in MCI converters, relative to those MCI who remained stable. Furthermore, we performed principal component analysis on a linear shape space of each structure. A subsequent linear discriminant analysis on the principal component values of hippocampus, amygdala, and ventricle leads to correct classification of 88% HC subjects and 86% AD subjects. PMID:24443091

Tang, Xiaoying; Holland, Dominic; Dale, Anders M; Younes, Laurent; Miller, Michael I

2014-08-01

86

Earliest bird had dino-like feet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A new fossil discovery shows that the earliest birds had feet similar to those of theropod dinosaurs (the group of two-legged, meat-eating dinosaurs that includes T. rex). The new specimen provides important details about the feet and skull of these birds and strengthens the argument -- which many but not all scientists agree on -- that modern birds arose from theropod dinosaurs.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2005-12-01

87

Earliest known crown-group salamanders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salamanders are a model system for studying the rates and patterns of the evolution of new anatomical structures. Recent discoveries of abundant Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous salamanders are helping to address these issues. Here we report the discovery of well-preserved Middle Jurassic salamanders from China, which constitutes the earliest known record of crown-group urodeles (living salamanders and their closest

Ke-Qin Gao; Neil H. Shubin

2003-01-01

88

Cortical shell unwrapping for vertebral body abnormality detection on computed tomography.  

PubMed

The vertebral body is the main axial load-bearing structure of the spinal vertebra. Assessment of acute injury and chronic deformity of the vertebral body is difficult to assess accurately and quantitatively by simple visual inspection. We propose a cortical shell unwrapping method to examine the vertebral body for injury such as fractures and degenerative osteophytes. The spine is first segmented and partitioned into vertebrae. Then the cortical shell of the vertebral body is extracted using deformable dual-surface models. The cortical shell is then unwrapped onto a 2D map and the complex 3D detection problem is effectively converted to a pattern recognition problem on a 2D plane. Characteristic features adapted for different applications are computed and sent to a committee of support vector machines for classification. The system was evaluated on two applications, one for fracture detection on trauma CT datasets and the other on degenerative osteophyte assessment on sodium fluoride PET/CT. The fracture CAD achieved 93.6% sensitivity at 3.2 false positive per patient and the degenerative osteophyte CAD achieved 82% sensitivity at 4.7 false positive per patient. PMID:24815367

Yao, Jianhua; Burns, Joseph E; Muñoz, Hector; Summers, Ronald M

2014-10-01

89

Developing and testing a multi-probe resonance electrical impedance spectroscopy system for detecting breast abnormalities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our previous study, we reported on the development and preliminary testing of a prototype resonance electrical impedance spectroscopy (REIS) system with a pair of probes. Although our pilot study on 150 young women ranging from 30 to 50 years old indicated the feasibility of using REIS output sweep signals to classify between the women who had negative examinations and those who would ultimately be recommended for biopsy, the detection sensitivity was relatively low. To improve performance when using REIS technology, we recently developed a new multi-probe based REIS system. The system consists of a sensor module box that can be easily lifted along a vertical support device to fit women of different height. Two user selectable breast placement "cups" with different curvatures are included in the system. Seven probes are mounted on each of the cups on opposing sides of the sensor box. By rotating the sensor box, the technologist can select the detection sensor cup that better fits the breast size of the woman being examined. One probe is mounted in the cup center for direct contact with the nipple and the other six probes are uniformly distributed along an outside circle to enable contact with six points on the outer and inner breast skin surfaces. The outer probes are located at a distance of 60mm away from the center (nipple) probe. The system automatically monitors the quality of the contact between the breast surface and each of the seven probes and data acquisition can only be initiated when adequate contact is confirmed. The measurement time for each breast is approximately 15 seconds during which time the system records 121 REIS signal sweep outputs generated from 200 KHz to 800 KHz at 5 KHz increments for all preselected probe pairs. Currently we are measuring 6 pairs between the center probe and each of six probes located on the outer circle as well as two pairs between probe pairs on the outer circle. This new REIS system has been installed in our clinical breast imaging facility. We are conducting a prospective study to assess performance when using this REIS system under an approved IRB protocol. Over 200 examinations have been conducted to date. Our experience showed that this new REIS system was easy to operate and the REIS examination was fast and considered "comfortable" by examinees since the women presses her breast into the cup herself without any need for forced breast compression, and all but a few highly sensitive women have any sensation of an electrical current during the measurement.

Gur, David; Zheng, Bin; Dhurjaty, Sreeram; Wolfe, Gene; Fradin, Mary; Weil, Richard; Sumkin, Jules; Zuley, Margarita

2009-02-01

90

Automated identification of abnormal metaphase chromosome cells for the detection of chronic myeloid leukemia using microscopic images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Karyotyping is an important process to classify chromosomes into standard classes and the results are routinely used by the clinicians to diagnose cancers and genetic diseases. However, visual karyotyping using microscopic images is time-consuming and tedious, which reduces the diagnostic efficiency and accuracy. Although many efforts have been made to develop computerized schemes for automated karyotyping, no schemes can get be performed without substantial human intervention. Instead of developing a method to classify all chromosome classes, we develop an automatic scheme to detect abnormal metaphase cells by identifying a specific class of chromosomes (class 22) and prescreen for suspicious chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The scheme includes three steps: (1) iteratively segment randomly distributed individual chromosomes, (2) process segmented chromosomes and compute image features to identify the candidates, and (3) apply an adaptive matching template to identify chromosomes of class 22. An image data set of 451 metaphase cells extracted from bone marrow specimens of 30 positive and 30 negative cases for CML is selected to test the scheme's performance. The overall case-based classification accuracy is 93.3% (100% sensitivity and 86.7% specificity). The results demonstrate the feasibility of applying an automated scheme to detect or prescreen the suspicious cancer cases.

Wang, Xingwei; Zheng, Bin; Li, Shibo; Mulvihill, John J.; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Hong

2010-07-01

91

DIFFUSION TENSOR IMAGING DETECTS ABNORMALITIES IN THE CORTICOSPINAL TRACTS OF NEONATES WITH INFANTILE KRABBE DISEASE  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose It is not possible to determine if babies diagnosed with Krabbe disease through statewide newborn screening programs will develop disease as infants, juveniles or adults. The only available treatment for this fatal neurodegenerative condition is unrelated umbilical cord transplantation but this treatment is only effective before clinical symptoms appear. Therefore, a marker of disease progression is needed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) with fiber tracking in identifying early changes in major motor tracts of asymptomatic neonates with infantile Krabbe disease. Methods Six babies with infantile Krabbe disease identified because of family history had a brain MRI within the first 4 weeks of life. Six direction DTI and quantitative tractography of the corticospinal tracts were performed. Hypothesis tests, one for each hemisphere, were used to test whether the FA ratio of the babies with infantile Krabbe disease was significantly different from 45 age and gender matched controls. Results The average FA ratio for the Krabbe patients was 0.89 and 0.87 for left and right tracts, respectively (p= 0.002 and p<0.001). After adjusting for gestational age, gestational age at birth, birth weight, gender and race, the 6 Krabbe patients had significantly lower FA values than the controls (p<0.001). Conclusions DTI with quantitative tractography detected significant differences in the corticospinal tracts of asymptomatic newborns that had the early onset form of Krabbe Disease. Once standardized and validated, this tool has the potential to be used as a marker of disease progression in babies diagnosed through statewide newborn screening programs. PMID:19386732

Escolar, Maria L.; Poe, Michele D.; Smith, J Keith; Gilmore, John H.; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Lin, Weili; Styner, Martin

2009-01-01

92

Detection of Bartonella spp. in neotropical felids and evaluation of risk factors and hematological abnormalities associated with infection.  

PubMed

Although antibodies to Bartonella henselae have been described in all neotropical felid species, DNA has been detected in only one species, Leopardus wiedii. The aim of this study was to determine whether DNA of Bartonella spp. could be detected in blood of other captive neotropical felids and evaluate risk factors and hematological findings associated with infection. Blood samples were collected from 57 small felids, including 1 Leopardus geoffroyi, 17 L. wiedii, 22 Leopardus tigrinus, 14 Leopardus pardalis, and 3 Puma yagouaroundi; 10 blood samples from Panthera onca were retrieved from blood banks. Complete blood counts were performed on blood samples from small felids, while all samples were evaluated by PCR. DNA extraction was confirmed by amplification of the cat GAPDH gene. Bartonella spp. were assessed by amplifying a fragment of their 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region; PCR products were purified and sequenced. For the small neotropical felids, risk factors [origin (wild-caught or zoo-born), gender, felid species, and flea exposure] were evaluated using exact multiple logistic regression. Hematological findings (anemia, polycythemia/hyperproteinemia, leukocytosis and leukopenia) were tested for association with infection using Fisher's exact test. The 635bp product amplified from 10 samples (10/67=14.92%) was identified as B. henselae by sequencing. Small neotropical felid males were more likely to be positive than females (95% CI=0.00-0.451, p=0.0028), however other analyzed variables were not considered risk factors (p>0.05). Hematological abnormalities were not associated with infection (p>0.05). This is the first report documenting B. henselae detection by PCR in several species of neotropical felids. PMID:19913372

Guimaraes, A M S; Brandão, P E; Moraes, W; Kiihl, S; Santos, L C; Filoni, C; Cubas, Z S; Robes, R R; Marques, L M; Neto, R L; Yamaguti, M; Oliveira, R C; Catão-Dias, J L; Richtzenhain, L J; Messick, J B; Biondo, A W; Timenetsky, J

2010-05-19

93

Intereye Comparison of Cirrus OCT in Early Glaucoma Diagnosis and Detecting Photographic Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Abnormalities.  

PubMed

Purpose: To compare the ability of various maps constructed using Cirrus optical coherence tomography (OCT), including the "intereye comparison" derived from the temporal-superior-inferior-nasal-temporal (TSNIT) map, in terms of glaucoma diagnosis and detection of RNFL defects identified in red-free fundus photographs. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 131 open-angle glaucoma patients with early-stage visual field defects (mean deviation ? -6.0 dB) and 56 normal controls. Intereye differences were identified on TSNIT maps constructed by comparing the RNFL thickness curves of both eyes of individual patients and a separation of the RNFL thickness curves of either eye (by >50 µm) was defined as an abnormality. Results: Among 131 red-free fundus photographic RNFL defects, 57 (44.0%) in the Clock-hour map, 51 (39.0%) in the Quadrant map, 37 (28%) in the Deviation map, 16 (12%) in the Thickness map, and 3 (2%) in the intereye difference obtained from the TSNIT map were misidentified. The intereye difference derived from the TSNIT map afforded a sensitivity superior to that of all other maps when used to evaluate eyes with glaucoma (98.0%, all P values <0.05), and preperimetric eyes (97.7%, all P values <0.001). Conclusions: Of the various maps constructed by the Cirrus OCT, comparison of the RNFL thickness curves of both eyes of an individual, which was possible using TSNIT map data, afforded the best diagnostic capability in terms of detecting photographic RNFL defects. Intereye comparisons of TSNIT thickness curves may be useful to detect early-stage glaucoma. PMID:25468889

Park, Hae-Young Lopilly; Shin, Hye-Young; Yoon, Jae-Yoon; Jung, Younhea; Park, Chan Kee

2014-12-01

94

Effect of contrast leakage on the detection of abnormal brain tumor vasculature in high-grade glioma  

PubMed Central

Abnormal brain tumor vasculature has recently been highlighted by a dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MRI processing technique. The technique uses independent component analysis (ICA) to separate arterial and venous perfusion. The overlap of the two, i.e. arterio-venous overlap or AVOL, preferentially occurs in brain tumors and predicts response to anti-angiogenic therapy. The effects of contrast agent leakage on the AVOL biomarker have yet to be established. DSC was acquired during two separate contrast boluses in ten patients undergoing clinical imaging for brain tumor diagnosis. Three components were modeled with ICA, which included the arterial and venous components. The percentage of each component as well as a third component were determined within contrast enhancing tumor and compared. AVOL within enhancing tumor was also compared between doses. The percentage of enhancing tumor classified as not arterial or venous and instead into a third component with contrast agent leakage apparent in the time-series was significantly greater for the first contrast dose compared to the second. The amount of AVOL detected within enhancing tumor was also significantly greater with the second dose compared to the first. Contrast leakage results in large signal variance classified as a separate component by the ICA algorithm. The use of a second dose mitigates the effect and allows measurement of AVOL within enhancement. PMID:24293201

Paulson, Eric S.; Schmainda, Kathleen M.

2014-01-01

95

Detection of abnormal resting-state networks in individual patients suffering from focal epilepsy: an initial step toward individual connectivity assessment  

PubMed Central

The spatial coherence of spontaneous slow fluctuations in the blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal at rest is routinely used to characterize the underlying resting-state networks (RSNs). Studies have demonstrated that these patterns are organized in space and highly reproducible from subject to subject. Moreover, RSNs reorganizations have been suggested in pathological conditions. Comparisons of RSNs organization have been performed between groups of subjects but have rarely been applied at the individual level, a step required for clinical application. Defining the notion of modularity as the organization of brain activity in stable networks, we propose Detection of Abnormal Networks in Individuals (DANI) to identify modularity changes at the individual level. The stability of each RSN was estimated using a spatial clustering method: Bootstrap Analysis of Stable Clusters (BASC) (Bellec et al., 2010). Our contributions consisted in (i) providing functional maps of the most stable cores of each networks and (ii) in detectingabnormal” individual changes in networks organization when compared to a population of healthy controls. DANI was first evaluated using realistic simulated data, showing that focussing on a conservative core size (50% most stable regions) improved the sensitivity to detect modularity changes. DANI was then applied to resting state fMRI data of six patients with focal epilepsy who underwent multimodal assessment using simultaneous EEG/fMRI acquisition followed by surgery. Only patient with a seizure free outcome were selected and the resected area was identified using a post-operative MRI. DANI automatically detected abnormal changes in 5 out of 6 patients, with excellent sensitivity, showing for each of them at least one “abnormal” lateralized network closely related to the epileptic focus. For each patient, we also detected some distant networks as abnormal, suggesting some remote reorganization in the epileptic brain.

Dansereau, Christian L.; Bellec, Pierre; Lee, Kangjoo; Pittau, Francesca; Gotman, Jean; Grova, Christophe

2014-01-01

96

Meiotic abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

NONE

1993-12-31

97

Earliest known crown-group salamanders.  

PubMed

Salamanders are a model system for studying the rates and patterns of the evolution of new anatomical structures. Recent discoveries of abundant Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous salamanders are helping to address these issues. Here we report the discovery of well-preserved Middle Jurassic salamanders from China, which constitutes the earliest known record of crown-group urodeles (living salamanders and their closest relatives). The new specimens are from the volcanic deposits of the Jiulongshan Formation (Bathonian), Inner Mongolia, China, and represent basal members of the Cryptobranchidae, a family that includes the endangered Asian giant salamander (Andrias) and the North American hellbender (Cryptobranchus). These fossils document a Mesozoic record of the Cryptobranchidae, predating the previous record of the group by some 100 million years. This discovery provides evidence to support the hypothesis that the divergence of the Cryptobranchidae from the Hynobiidae had taken place in Asia before the Middle Jurassic period. PMID:12660782

Gao, Ke-Qin; Shubin, Neil H

2003-03-27

98

The Earliest Ion Channels in Protocellular Membranes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cellular membranes with their hydrophobic interior are virtually impermeable to ions. Bulk of ion transport through them is enabled through ion channels. Ion channels of contemporary cells are complex protein molecules which span the membrane creating a cylindrical pore filled with water. Protocells, which are widely regarded as precursors to modern cells, had similarly impermeable membranes, but the set of proteins in their disposal was much simpler and more limited. We have been, therefore, exploring an idea that the first ion channels in protocellular membranes were formed by much smaller peptide molecules that could spontaneously selfassemble into short-lived cylindrical bundles in a membrane. Earlier studies have shown that a group of peptides known as peptaibols is capable of forming ion channels in lipid bilayers when they are exposed to an electric field. Peptaibols are small, non-genetically encoded peptides produced by some fungi as a part of their system of defense against bacteria. They are usually only 14-20 residues long, which is just enough to span the membrane. Their sequence is characterized by the presence of non-standard amino acids which, interestingly, are also expected to have existed on the early earth. In particular, the presence of 2-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) gives peptaibols strong helix forming propensities. Association of the helices inside membranes leads to the formation of cylindrical bundles, typically containing 4 to 10 monomers. Although peptaibols are excellent candidates for models of the earliest ion channels their structures, which are stabilized only by van der Waals forces and occasional hydrogen bonds between neighboring helices, are not very stable. Although it might properly reflect protobiological reality, it is also a major obstacle in studying channel behavior. For this reason we focused on two members of the peptaibol family, trichotoxin and antiamoebin, which are characterized by a single conductance level. This indicates that their structures are unique and stable. In addition, it is also believed that the trichotoxin channel displays some selectivity between potassium and chloride ions. This makes trichotoxin and antiamoebin ideal models of the earliest ion channels that could provide insight into the origins of ion conductance and selectivity. In the absence of crystal structure of the trichotoxin and antiamoebin channels, we propose their molecular models based on experimentally determined number of monomers forming the bundles. We use molecular dynamics simulations to validate the models in terms of their conductance and selectivity. On the basis of our simulations we show that the emergence of channels built of small, alpha-helical peptides was protobiologically plausible and did not require highly specific amino acid sequences, which is a convenient evolutionary trait. Despite their simple structure, such channels could possess properties that, at the first sight, appear to require markedly larger complexity. To this end, we will discuss how the amino acid sequence and structure of primitive channels give rise to the phenomena of ionic conductance and selectivity across the earliest cell walls, which were essential functions for the emergence and early evolution of protocells. Furthermore, we will argue that even though architectures of membrane proteins are not nearly as diverse as those of water-soluble proteins, they are sufficiently flexible to adapt readily to the functional demands arising during evolution.

Mijajlovic, Milan; Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael; Wei, Chenyu

2010-01-01

99

The earliest ion channels in protocellular membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cellular membranes with their hydrophobic interior are virtually impermeable to ions. Bulk of ion transport through them is enabled through ion channels. Ion channels of contemporary cells are complex protein molecules which span the membrane creating a cylindrical pore filled with water. Protocells, which are widely regarded as precursors to modern cells, had similarly impermeable membranes, but the set of proteins in their disposal was much simpler and more limited. We have been, therefore, exploring an idea that the first ion channels in protocellular membranes were formed by much smaller peptide molecules that could spontaneously self-assemble into short-lived cylindrical bundles in a membrane. Earlier studies have shown that a group of peptides known as peptaibols is capable of forming ion channels in lipid bilayers when they are exposed to an electric field. Peptaibols are small, non-genetically encoded peptides produced by some fungi as a part of their system of defense against bacteria. They are usually only 14-20 residues long, which is just enough to span the membrane. Their sequence is characterized by the presence of non-standard amino acids which, interestingly, are also expected to have existed on the early earth. In particular, the presence of 2-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) gives peptaibols strong helix forming propensities. Association of the helices inside membranes leads to the formation of cylindrical bundles, typically containing 4 to 10 monomers. Although peptaibols are excellent candidates for models of the earliest ion channels their struc-tures, which are stabilized only by van der Waals forces and occasional hydrogen bonds between neighboring helices, are not very stable. Although it might properly reflect protobiological real-ity, it is also a major obstacle in studying channel behavior. For this reason we focused on two members of the peptaibol family, trichotoxin and antiamoebin, which are characterized by a single conductance level. This indicates that their structures are unique and stable. In addition, it is also believed that the trichotoxin channel displays some selectivity between potassium and chloride ions. This makes trichotoxin and antiamoebin ideal models of the earliest ion channels that could provide insight into the origins of ion conductance and selectivity. In the absence of crystal structure of the trichotoxin and antiamoebin channels, we propose their molecular models based on experimentally determined number of monomers forming the bundles. We use molecular dynamics simulations to validate the models in terms of their conductance and selectivity. On the basis of our simulations we show that the emergence of channels built of small, ?-helical peptides was protobiologically plausible and did not require highly specific amino acid sequences, which is a convenient evolutionary trait. Despite their simple structure, such channels could possess properties that, at the first sight, appear to require markedly larger complexity. To this end, we will discuss how the amino acid sequence and structure of primitive channels give rise to the phenomena of ionic conductance and selectivity across the earliest cell walls, which were essential functions for the emergence and early evolution of protocells. Furthermore, we will argue that even though architectures of membrane proteins are not nearly as diverse as those of water-soluble proteins, they are sufficiently flexible to adapt readily to the functional demands arising during evolution.

Mijajlovic, Milan; Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael; Wei, Chenyu

100

Comparison of myocardial contrast echocardiography with NC100100 and 99mTc sestamibi SPECT for detection of resting myocardial perfusion abnormalities in patients with previous myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To determine whether myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) following intravenous injection of perfluorocarbon microbubbles permits identification of resting myocardial perfusion abnormalities in patients who have had a previous myocardial infarction.?PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS—22 patients (mean (SD) age 66 (11) years) underwent MCE after intravenous injection of NC100100, a novel perfluorocarbon containing contrast agent, and resting 99mTc sestamibi single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). With both methods, myocardial perfusion was graded semiquantitatively as 1 = normal, 0.5 = mild defect, and 0 = severe defect.?RESULTS—Among the 203 normally contracting segments, 151 (74%) were normally perfused by SPECT and 145 (71%) by MCE. With SPECT, abnormal tracer uptake was mainly found among normally contracting segments from the inferior wall. By contrast, with MCE poor myocardial opacification was noted essentially among the normally contracting segments from the anterior and lateral walls. Of the 142 dysfunctional segments, 87 (61%) showed perfusion defects by SPECT, and 94 (66%) by MCE. With both methods, perfusion abnormalities were seen more frequently among akinetic than hypokinetic segments. MCE correctly identified 81/139 segments that exhibited a perfusion defect by SPECT (58%), and 135/206 segments that were normally perfused by SPECT (66%). Exclusion of segments with attenuation artefacts (defined as abnormal myocardial opacification or sestamibi uptake but normal contraction) by either MCE or SPECT improved both the sensitivity (76%) and the specificity (83%) of the detection of SPECT perfusion defects by MCE.?CONCLUSIONS—The data suggest that MCE allows identification of myocardial perfusion abnormalities in patients who have had a previous myocardial infarction, provided that regional wall motion is simultaneously taken into account.???Keywords: myocardial contrast echocardiography; NC100100; single photon emission computed tomography; perfusion PMID:10768900

Jucquois, I; Nihoyannopoulos, P; D'Hondt, A; Roelants, V; Robert, A; Melin, J; Glass, D; Vanoverschelde, J

2000-01-01

101

Oxygen requirements of the earliest animals  

PubMed Central

A rise in the oxygen content of the atmosphere and oceans is one of the most popular explanations for the relatively late and abrupt appearance of animal life on Earth. In this scenario, Earth’s surface environment failed to meet the high oxygen requirements of animals up until the middle to late Neoproterozoic Era (850–542 million years ago), when oxygen concentrations sufficiently rose to permit the existence of animal life for the first time. Although multiple lines of geochemical evidence support an oxygenation of the Ediacaran oceans (635–542 million years ago), roughly corresponding with the first appearance of metazoans in the fossil record, the oxygen requirements of basal animals remain unclear. Here we show that modern demosponges, serving as analogs for early animals, can survive under low-oxygen conditions of 0.5–4.0% present atmospheric levels. Because the last common ancestor of metazoans likely exhibited a physiology and morphology similar to that of a modern sponge, its oxygen demands may have been met well before the enhanced oxygenation of the Ediacaran Period. Therefore, the origin of animals may not have been triggered by a contemporaneous rise in the oxygen content of the atmosphere and oceans. Instead, other ecological and developmental processes are needed to adequately explain the origin and earliest evolution of animal life on Earth. PMID:24550467

Mills, Daniel B.; Ward, Lewis M.; Jones, CarriAyne; Sweeten, Brittany; Forth, Michael; Treusch, Alexander H.; Canfield, Donald E.

2014-01-01

102

Persistent Homological Sparse Network Approach to Detecting White Matter Abnormality in Maltreated Children: MRI and DTI Multimodal Study  

PubMed Central

We present a novel persistent homological sparse network analysis framework for characterizing white matter abnormalities in tensor-based morphometry (TBM) in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Traditionally TBM is used in quantifying tissue volume change in each voxel in a massive univariate fashion. However, this obvious approach cannot be used in testing, for instance, if the change in one voxel is related to other voxels. To address this limitation of univariate-TBM, we propose a new persistent homological approach to testing more complex relational hypotheses across brain regions. The proposed methods are applied to characterize abnormal white matter in maltreated children. The results are further validated using fractional anisotropy (FA) values in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). PMID:24505679

Chung, Moo K.; Hanson, Jamie L.; Lee, Hyekyoung; Adluru, Nagesh; Alexander, Andrew L.; Davidson, Richard J.; Pollak, Seth D.

2014-01-01

103

Prenatal detection of epidermolysis bullosa letalis with pyloric atresia in a fetus by abnormal ultrasound and elevated alpha-fetoprotein.  

PubMed

We report on the prenatal diagnosis of epidermolysis bullosa letalis with pyloric atresia in a pregnancy not known to be at risk for this condition. Elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels led to ultrasonography which demonstrated gastric dilatation, consistent with pyloric atresia, and echogenic particles in the amniotic fluid, the "snowflake sign," previously described in two pregnancies of fetuses with disorders of skin sloughing. Amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein was markedly elevated and the acetylcholinesterase was positive. The diagnosis of epidermolysis bullosa letalis with pyloric atresia was confirmed after delivery by electron microscopy of fetal skin which showed typical changes of hypoplastic absent hemidesmosomes and separation along the dermal-epidermal junction. None of these abnormal prenatal findings are consistently present in pregnancies with epidermolysis bullosa with pyloric atresia. Thus, although useful when abnormal, when the test results are normal, the need for confirmatory fetoscopy and fetal skin biopsy remains. PMID:7510931

Dolan, C R; Smith, L T; Sybert, V P

1993-09-01

104

Comparative genomic hybridization on microarray (a-CGH) in constitutional and acquired mosaicism may detect as low as 8% abnormal cells  

PubMed Central

Background The results of cytogenetic investigations on unbalanced chromosome anomalies, both constitutional and acquired, were largely improved by comparative genomic hybridization on microarray (a-CGH), but in mosaicism the ability of a-CGH to reliably detect imbalances is not yet well established. This problem of sensitivity is even more relevant in acquired mosaicism in neoplastic diseases, where cells carrying acquired imbalances coexist with normal cells, in particular when the proportion of abnormal cells may be low. We constructed a synthetic mosaicism by mixing the DNA of three patients carrying altogether seven chromosome imbalances with normal sex-matched DNA. Dilutions were prepared mimicking 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 10% and 15% levels of mosaicism. Oligomer-based a-CGH (244 K whole-genome system) was applied on the patients' DNA and customized slides designed around the regions of imbalance were used for the synthetic mosaics. Results and conclusions The a-CGH on the synthetic mosaics proved to be able to detect as low as 8% abnormal cells in the tissue examined. Although in our experiment some regions of imbalances escaped to be revealed at this level, and were detected only at 10-15% level, it should be remarked that these ones were the smallest analyzed, and that the imbalances recurrent as clonal anomalies in cancer and leukaemia are similar in size to those revealed at 8% level. PMID:21554683

2011-01-01

105

Structural chromosomal abnormalities detected during CVS analysis and their role in the prenatal ascertainment of cryptic subtelomeric rearrangements.  

PubMed

Mosaic structural chromosomal abnormalities observed along the trophoblast-mesenchyme-fetal axis, although rare, pose a difficult problem for their prognostic interpretation in prenatal diagnosis. Additional issues are raised by the presence of mosaic imbalances of the same chromosome showing different sizes in the different tissues, that is, deletions and duplications in the cytotrophoblast and mesenchyme of chorionic villi (CV). Some of these cytogenetic rearrangements originate from the post-zygotic breakage of a dicentric chromosome or of the product of its first anaphasic breakage. Selection of the most viable cell line may result in confined placental mosaicism of the most severe imbalance, favoring the presence of the cell lines with the mildest duplications or deletions in the fetal tissues. We document three cases of ambiguous results in CV analysis due to the presence of different cell lines involving structural rearrangements of the same chromosome which were represented differently in the trophoblast and the mesenchyme. Observation by conventional karyotype of a grossly rearranged chromosome in one of the CV preparations (direct or culture) was crucial to call attention to the involved chromosomal region in other tissues (villi or amniotic fluid), allowing the prenatal diagnosis through molecular cytogenetic methods of subtelomeric rearrangements [del(7)(q36qter); del(11)(q25qter); del(20)(p13pter)]. This would have surely been undiagnosed with the routine banding technique. In conclusion, the possibility to diagnose complex abnormalities leading to cryptic subtelomeric rearrangements, together with a better knowledge of the initial/intermediate products leading to the final abnormal cryptic deletion should be added to the advantages of the CV sampling technique. PMID:23922197

Pittalis, Maria Carla; Mattarozzi, Angela; Menozzi, Cristina; Malacarne, Michela; Baccolini, Ilaria; Farina, Antonio; Pompilii, Eva; Magini, Pamela; Percesepe, Antonio

2013-10-01

106

The Earliest Electrophysiological Correlate of Visual Awareness?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine the neural correlates and timing of human visual awareness, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in two experiments while the observers were detecting a grey dot that was presented near subjective threshold. ERPs were averaged for conscious detections of the stimulus (hits) and nondetections (misses) separately. Our results…

Koivisto, Mika; Lahteenmaki, Mikko; Sorensen, Thomas Alrik; Vangkilde, Signe; Overgaard, Morten; Revonsuo, Antti

2008-01-01

107

Project EARTH-13-CMN3: The Earliest records of the Earth's magnetic field a combined Iron-isotope & Palaeomagnetic analysis  

E-print Network

, they will record distinct iron isotope compositions. Hence, we will be able to detect if the magnetic signalProject EARTH-13-CMN3: The Earliest records of the Earth's magnetic field ­ a combined Iron minerals may be much younger. We are developing a new way of detecting whether magnetic minerals

Henderson, Gideon

108

Using tensor-based morphometry to detect structural brain abnormalities in rats with adolescent intermittent alcohol exposure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the effects of adolescent binge drinking that persist into adulthood is a crucial public health issue. Adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure (AIE) is an animal model that can be used to investigate these effects in rodents. In this work, we investigate the application of a particular image analysis technique, tensor-based morphometry, for detecting anatomical differences between AIE and control rats using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). Deformation field analysis is a popular method for detecting volumetric changes analyzing Jacobian determinants calculated on deformation fields. Recent studies showed that computing deformation field metrics on the full deformation tensor, often referred to as tensor-based morphometry (TBM), increases the sensitivity to anatomical differences. In this paper we conduct a comprehensive TBM study for precisely locating differences between control and AIE rats. Using a DTI RARE sequence designed for minimal geometric distortion, 12-directional images were acquired postmortem for control and AIE rats (n=9). After preprocessing, average images for the two groups were constructed using an unbiased atlas building approach. We non-rigidly register the two atlases using Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping, and analyze the resulting deformation field using TBM. In particular, we evaluate the tensor determinant, geodesic anisotropy, and deformation direction vector (DDV) on the deformation field to detect structural differences. This yields data on the local amount of growth, shrinkage and the directionality of deformation between the groups. We show that TBM can thus be used to measure group morphological differences between rat populations, demonstrating the potential of the proposed framework.

Paniagua, Beatriz; Ehlers, Cindy; Crews, Fulton; Budin, Francois; Larson, Garrett; Styner, Martin; Oguz, Ipek

2011-03-01

109

Comparing voxel-based iterative sensitivity and voxel-based morphometry to detect abnormalities in T2-weighted MRI.  

PubMed

This study aimed to test the superiority proposed by Abbott et al. (2011) of their Voxel based iterative sensitivity (VBIS) method over Voxel Based Morphometry using T2-weighted images (T2-VBM), in detecting intensity changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A comparison was made first in simulated intensity lesions and then in AD patients. Intensity changes were evaluated in the whole-brain with VBIS and with a simple intensity-based approach and in specific tissue classes with the conventional VBM method of using tissue probability segments. Results showed that VBIS performed well in the simulated environment though it showed no superiority in detecting the lesion compared to the much simpler VBM approach. The VBIS method, however, failed to detect any meaningful signal intensity reduction in AD patient data. Moreover, its whole brain approach was contaminated by the excess cerebrospinal fluid signal (very bright on T2-weighted scans) in areas of maximal measurable atrophy (mesial temporal lobes); this gave rise to spurious signal intensity increases in these regions in AD. The same artefact was observed for both intensity-based methods but not with the conventional VBM approach of performing statistics on grey matter segments. In conclusion, no evidence was found to indicate that VBIS offers benefits over T2-VBM in AD, nor in simulation intensity lesions. The study highlights the necessity of empirically testing voxel-based analysis techniques rather than merely claiming superiority of one method over another on theoretical grounds. PMID:24954279

Diaz-de-Grenu, Lara Z; Acosta-Cabronero, Julio; Williams, Guy B; Nestor, Peter J

2014-10-15

110

SNP array karyotyping allows for the detection of uniparental disomy and cryptic chromosomal abnormalities in MDS/MPD-U and MPD.  

PubMed

We applied single nucleotide polymorphism arrays (SNP-A) to study karyotypic abnormalities in patients with atypical myeloproliferative syndromes (MPD), including myeloproliferative/myelodysplastic syndrome overlap both positive and negative for the JAK2 V617F mutation and secondary acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In typical MPD cases (N = 8), which served as a control group, those with a homozygous V617F mutation showed clear uniparental disomy (UPD) of 9p using SNP-A. Consistent with possible genomic instability, in 19/30 MDS/MPD-U patients, we found additional lesions not identified by metaphase cytogenetics. In addition to UPD9p, we also have detected UPD affecting other chromosomes, including 1 (2/30), 11 (4/30), 12 (1/30) and 22 (1/30). Transformation to AML was observed in 8/30 patients. In 5 V617F+ patients who progressed to AML, we show that SNP-A can allow for the detection of two modes of transformation: leukemic blasts evolving from either a wild-type jak2 precursor carrying other acquired chromosomal defects, or from a V617F+ mutant progenitor characterized by UPD9p. SNP-A-based detection of cryptic lesions in MDS/MPD-U may help explain the clinical heterogeneity of this disorder. PMID:18030353

Gondek, Lukasz P; Dunbar, Andrew J; Szpurka, Hadrian; McDevitt, Michael A; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw P

2007-01-01

111

Localized right ventricular morphological abnormalities detected by electron-beam computed tomography represent arrhythmogenic substrates in patients with the Brugada syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims This study was designed to determine, using electron- beam CT, whether there are morphological abnormalities in patients with the Brugada syndrome and to elucidate the relationship between those abnormalities and arrhythmogenesis. Methods and Results Twenty-six consecutive patients with the Brugada syndrome and 23 age- and gender- matched control subjects (controls) were evaluated for morphological abnormalities using electron beam CT.

M. Takagi; N. Aihara; S. Kuribayashi; A. Taguchi; W. Shimizu; T. Kurita; K. Suyama; S. Kamakura; S. Hamad; M. Takamiya

2001-01-01

112

The Earliest Comet Photographs: Usherwood and Bond for Donati 1858  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first known photographs of a comet were taken in 1858. The earliest astronomical telescopic photographs, daguerreotypes from 1850-51, had been made only when the violet focus of telescopes was found. Tracking remained a problem preventing astronomical objects from being photographed. When the Harvard refractor's tracking was improved in 1858, it was used by the Bonds and colleagues to photograph

J. M. Pasachoff; R. J. M. Olson

1995-01-01

113

Diet and the evolution of the earliest human ancestors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, discussions of the evolution of the earliest human ancestors have focused on the locomotion of the australopithecines. Recent discoveries in a broad range of disciplines have raised important questions about the influence of ecological factors in early human evolution. Here we trace the cranial and dental traits of the early australopithecines through time, to show that

Mark F. Teaford; Peter S. Ungar

2000-01-01

114

88 2012 desert symposium Earliest delivery of sediment from the  

E-print Network

88 2012 desert symposium Earliest delivery of sediment from the Colorado River to the Salton Trough et al., 2008, 2011). Despite recent advances, age constraints from two locations challenge our California and northwestern Mexico, and location of Split Mountain Gorge (SMG, star) in the western Salton

Dorsey, Becky

115

The Origin and Earliest History of the Earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this chapter is to explain the various lines of geochemical evidence relating to the origin and earliest development of the Earth, while at the same time clarifying current limitations on these constraints. The Earth's origins are to some extent shrouded in greater uncertainty than those of Mars or the Moon because, while vastly more accessible and extensively

A. N. Halliday

2003-01-01

116

Earliest Appropriate Time for Administering Neurobehavioral Assessment in Newborn Infants  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of examination time on newborn neurobehavioral examinations administered within 48 hours of delivery and to identify the earliest appropriate time for performing the assessment. METHODS: We analyzed data from neurobehavioral examinations on 324 newborns using the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS). Trends over examination time and cumulative percentage within published normal ranges were analyzed to identify the earliest appropriate time for administering the examination. Ordinal logistic regression and multivariate regression were used for testing and defining the earliest appropriate time for administering the examination without being influenced by acute effects of labor and delivery while controlling for several potential confounding factors. RESULTS: The arousal, excitability, lethargy, quality-of-movement, hypotonicity, and nonoptimal-reflexes scales were sensitive to timing of the examination. Results of ordinal logistic regression showed that 20 hours after delivery seemed to be the earliest appropriate time for administering newborn NNNS examinations. The proportion of NNNS scores within the normal range increased with time significantly when the examination was made less than 20 hours after delivery (n = 148) (odds ratio: 1.12 [95% confidence interval: 1.02–1.23]), but there was no longer significant association with time of examination after 20 hours (n = 176) (odds ratio: 1.04 [95% confidence interval: 0.99–1.09]). This result was confirmed by multivariate regression. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend 20 hours after delivery as the earliest appropriate time for administering newborn NNNS examinations to obtain results reflecting outcomes that are a representative assessment of newborn neurobehavior and not contaminated by acute effects of labor and delivery. PMID:21172999

Xu, Yingying; Khoury, Jane

2011-01-01

117

Abnormality Detection in Retinal Images  

E-print Network

The implementation of data mining techniques in the medical area has generated great interest because of its potential for more efficient, economic and robust performance when compared to physicians. In this paper, we focus ...

Yu, Xiaoxue

118

The earliest fossil record of the animals and its significance.  

PubMed

The fossil record of the earliest animals has been enlivened in recent years by a series of spectacular discoveries, including embryos, from the Ediacaran to the Cambrian, but many issues, not least of dating and interpretation, remain controversial. In particular, aspects of taphonomy of the earliest fossils require careful consideration before pronouncements about their affinities. Nevertheless, a reasonable case can now be made for the extension of the fossil record of at least basal animals (sponges and perhaps cnidarians) to a period of time significantly before the beginning of the Cambrian. The Cambrian explosion itself still seems to represent the arrival of the bilaterians, and many new fossils in recent years have added significant data on the origin of the three major bilaterian clades. Why animals appear so late in the fossil record is still unclear, but the recent trend to embrace rising oxygen levels as being the proximate cause remains unproven and may even involve a degree of circularity. PMID:18192192

Budd, Graham E

2008-04-27

119

Multigated equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography: improved detection of left ventricular wall motion abnormalities and aneurysms by the addition of the left lateral view  

SciTech Connect

The usefulness of adding the left lateral (LLAT) view to the standard anterior and left anterior oblique views in multigated equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography was assessed in 50 patients. Contrast ventriculography was used as the standard. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to assess results. Recognition of inferior wall motion abnormality and left ventricular aneurysms was improved significantly by the addition of the LLAT view. Sensitivity was improved for inferior wall motion abnormality and for aneurysms; there was no loss of specificity. There was no improvement in recognition of anterior wall and apical regional abnormalities in the absence of aneurysms.

Kelly, M.J.; Giles, R.W.; Simon, T.R.; Berger, H.J.; Langou, R.A.; Zaret, B.L.; Wackers, F.J.T.

1981-04-01

120

Knee Cartilage T2 Characteristics and Evolution in Relation to Morphologic Abnormalities Detected at 3-T MR Imaging: A Longitudinal Study of the Normal Control Cohort from the Osteoarthritis Initiative  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To determine the frequency of degenerative knee morphologic abnormalities in asymptomatic individuals by using 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and to investigate the characteristics and evolution of cartilage T2 values in relation to morphologic abnormalities with a longitudinal study. Materials and Methods: The study was approved by the institutional review board and was compliant with HIPAA. Ninety-five asymptomatic subjects aged 45–78 years who were free of risk factors for osteoarthritis (OA) were selected from the Osteoarthritis Initiative normal control cohort and examined with radiography and 3-T MR imaging. Data obtained at both baseline and 2-year follow-up were analyzed. OA-related knee abnormalities were analyzed by using the whole-organ MR imaging score (WORMS). Cartilage T2 maps were generated by using sagittal two-dimensional multiecho spin-echo images of the right knee. Statistical significance was determined with the Student t test, the paired t test, a mixed random effects model, one-way analysis of variance, and a multiple linear regression model. Results: Knee abnormalities were identified with a high frequency (90% at baseline and 92% at 2-year follow-up). The prevalence of hyaline cartilage lesions was particularly high (86% at baseline and 84% at follow-up). A significant longitudinal increase in T2 was detected in the tibiofemoral cartilage but not the patellofemoral cartilage (P = .0072). The longitudinal change in T2 was significantly associated with worsening of the cartilage WORMS (P = .038). Conclusion: Asymptomatic subjects have a high frequency of OA-related morphologic abnormalities. A significant increase in tibiofemoral cartilage T2 was detected over the 2-year period. A greater increase in T2 was associated with increased progression of cartilage morphologic abnormalities. © RSNA, 2011 PMID:21900614

Pialat, Jean-Baptiste; Joseph, Tom; Kuo, Daniel; Joseph, Gabby B.; Nevitt, Michael C.; Link, Thomas M.

2011-01-01

121

The earliest record of human activity in northern Europe.  

PubMed

The colonization of Eurasia by early humans is a key event after their spread out of Africa, but the nature, timing and ecological context of the earliest human occupation of northwest Europe is uncertain and has been the subject of intense debate. The southern Caucasus was occupied about 1.8 million years (Myr) ago, whereas human remains from Atapuerca-TD6, Spain (more than 780 kyr ago) and Ceprano, Italy (about 800 kyr ago) show that early Homo had dispersed to the Mediterranean hinterland before the Brunhes-Matuyama magnetic polarity reversal (780 kyr ago). Until now, the earliest uncontested artefacts from northern Europe were much younger, suggesting that humans were unable to colonize northern latitudes until about 500 kyr ago. Here we report flint artefacts from the Cromer Forest-bed Formation at Pakefield (52 degrees N), Suffolk, UK, from an interglacial sequence yielding a diverse range of plant and animal fossils. Event and lithostratigraphy, palaeomagnetism, amino acid geochronology and biostratigraphy indicate that the artefacts date to the early part of the Brunhes Chron (about 700 kyr ago) and thus represent the earliest unequivocal evidence for human presence north of the Alps. PMID:16355223

Parfitt, Simon A; Barendregt, René W; Breda, Marzia; Candy, Ian; Collins, Matthew J; Coope, G Russell; Durbidge, Paul; Field, Mike H; Lee, Jonathan R; Lister, Adrian M; Mutch, Robert; Penkman, Kirsty E H; Preece, Richard C; Rose, James; Stringer, Christopher B; Symmons, Robert; Whittaker, John E; Wymer, John J; Stuart, Anthony J

2005-12-15

122

Journal of Abnormal Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is reprinted from the Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1965, 70, 1. The Journal of Abnormal Psychology will give priority to articles on problems related to abnormal behavior, broadly defined. The Journal's interests thus include the following: (a) psychopathology--its development or acquisition, its treatment or remission, and its symptomatology and course; (b) normal processes in abnormal individuals; (c) pathological

Howard F. Hunt; William N. Thetford

1965-01-01

123

The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in northwestern Europe.  

PubMed

The earliest anatomically modern humans in Europe are thought to have appeared around 43,000-42,000 calendar years before present (43-42 kyr cal BP), by association with Aurignacian sites and lithic assemblages assumed to have been made by modern humans rather than by Neanderthals. However, the actual physical evidence for modern humans is extremely rare, and direct dates reach no farther back than about 41-39 kyr cal BP, leaving a gap. Here we show, using stratigraphic, chronological and archaeological data, that a fragment of human maxilla from the Kent's Cavern site, UK, dates to the earlier period. The maxilla (KC4), which was excavated in 1927, was initially diagnosed as Upper Palaeolithic modern human. In 1989, it was directly radiocarbon dated by accelerator mass spectrometry to 36.4-34.7 kyr cal BP. Using a Bayesian analysis of new ultrafiltered bone collagen dates in an ordered stratigraphic sequence at the site, we show that this date is a considerable underestimate. Instead, KC4 dates to 44.2-41.5 kyr cal BP. This makes it older than any other equivalently dated modern human specimen and directly contemporary with the latest European Neanderthals, thus making its taxonomic attribution crucial. We also show that in 13 dental traits KC4 possesses modern human rather than Neanderthal characteristics; three other traits show Neanderthal affinities and a further seven are ambiguous. KC4 therefore represents the oldest known anatomically modern human fossil in northwestern Europe, fills a key gap between the earliest dated Aurignacian remains and the earliest human skeletal remains, and demonstrates the wide and rapid dispersal of early modern humans across Europe more than 40 kyr ago. PMID:22048314

Higham, Tom; Compton, Tim; Stringer, Chris; Jacobi, Roger; Shapiro, Beth; Trinkaus, Erik; Chandler, Barry; Gröning, Flora; Collins, Chris; Hillson, Simon; O'Higgins, Paul; FitzGerald, Charles; Fagan, Michael

2011-11-24

124

Chromosomal Anomalies in Abnormal Human Pregnancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the cytogenetic observations on abnormal human pregnancies (anembryonic pregnancy, early fetal loss, and hydatidiform moles), and to detect the most frequent or typical chromosomal aberration for anembryonic pregnancy and early fetal loss. Study Design: Abnormal pregnancies were divided into three clinical and morphological groups: (a) anembryonic pregnancy; (b) early fetal loss,

1998-01-01

125

Abnormal Head Position  

MedlinePLUS

... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

126

Immune abnormalities in myelodysplastic syndromes.  

PubMed Central

The immune states of 52 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes classified according to the FAB criteria were studied. Serum electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis, direct Coombs test, and tests for organ and non-organ specific antibodies were performed. Twenty six patients had immunoglobulin abnormalities: six (11.5%) had monoclonal gammopathy; 17 (32.6%) had polyclonal increases in serum immunoglobulin; while in three (5.8%) immunoglobulin concentrations were decreased. The distribution of immunoglobulin abnormalities among the five myelodysplastic syndrome subtypes was fairly uniform. Results of direct Coombs test were negative in all cases. Organ specific antibodies were not detected in any of the patients tested, although two patients were found positive for antinuclear antibodies. The presence of immunoglobulin abnormalities indicates an involvement of the lymphoplasmatic system in myelodysplastic syndromes. PMID:3928701

Economopoulos, T; Economidou, J; Giannopoulos, G; Terzoglou, C; Papageorgiou, E; Dervenoulas, J; Arseni, P; Hadjioannou, J; Raptis, S

1985-01-01

127

Immune abnormalities in myelodysplastic syndromes.  

PubMed

The immune states of 52 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes classified according to the FAB criteria were studied. Serum electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis, direct Coombs test, and tests for organ and non-organ specific antibodies were performed. Twenty six patients had immunoglobulin abnormalities: six (11.5%) had monoclonal gammopathy; 17 (32.6%) had polyclonal increases in serum immunoglobulin; while in three (5.8%) immunoglobulin concentrations were decreased. The distribution of immunoglobulin abnormalities among the five myelodysplastic syndrome subtypes was fairly uniform. Results of direct Coombs test were negative in all cases. Organ specific antibodies were not detected in any of the patients tested, although two patients were found positive for antinuclear antibodies. The presence of immunoglobulin abnormalities indicates an involvement of the lymphoplasmatic system in myelodysplastic syndromes. PMID:3928701

Economopoulos, T; Economidou, J; Giannopoulos, G; Terzoglou, C; Papageorgiou, E; Dervenoulas, J; Arseni, P; Hadjioannou, J; Raptis, S

1985-08-01

128

The probability for a Pap test to be abnormal is directly proportional to HPV viral load: results from a Swiss study comparing HPV testing and liquid-based cytology to detect cervical cancer precursors in 13,842 women.  

PubMed

In a study involving 13,842 women and 113 gynaecologists, liquid-based cytology and HPV testing for detecting cervical cancer were compared. A total of 1334 women were found to be positive for one or both tests and were invited for colposcopy with biopsy. A total of 1031 satisfactory biopsies on 1031 women were thereafter collected using a systematic biopsy protocol, which was random in the colposcopically normal-appearing cervix or directed in the abnormal one. In all, 502 women with negative tests were also biopsied. A total of 82 histologic high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) were reported in biopsies, all from the group with one or both tests positive. Sensitivity and specificity to detect histologic HSIL were 59 and 97% for cytology, and 97 and 92% for HPV. In total, 14% of reviewed negative cytological preparations associated with histologic HSIL contained no morphologically abnormal cells despite a positive HPV test. This suggested a theoretical limit for cytology sensitivity. HPV viral load analysis of the 1143 HPV-positive samples showed a direct relationship between abnormal Pap test frequency and HPV viral load. Thus, not only does the HPV testing have a greater sensitivity than cytology but the probability of the latter being positive can also be defined as a function of the associated HPV viral load. PMID:16136031

Bigras, G; de Marval, F

2005-09-01

129

The probability for a Pap test to be abnormal is directly proportional to HPV viral load: results from a Swiss study comparing HPV testing and liquid-based cytology to detect cervical cancer precursors in 13?842 women  

PubMed Central

In a study involving 13?842 women and 113 gynaecologists, liquid-based cytology and HPV testing for detecting cervical cancer were compared. A total of 1334 women were found to be positive for one or both tests and were invited for colposcopy with biopsy. A total of 1031 satisfactory biopsies on 1031 women were thereafter collected using a systematic biopsy protocol, which was random in the colposcopically normal-appearing cervix or directed in the abnormal one. In all, 502 women with negative tests were also biopsied. A total of 82 histologic high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) were reported in biopsies, all from the group with one or both tests positive. Sensitivity and specificity to detect histologic HSIL were 59 and 97% for cytology, and 97 and 92% for HPV. In total, 14% of reviewed negative cytological preparations associated with histologic HSIL contained no morphologically abnormal cells despite a positive HPV test. This suggested a theoretical limit for cytology sensitivity. HPV viral load analysis of the 1143 HPV-positive samples showed a direct relationship between abnormal Pap test frequency and HPV viral load. Thus, not only does the HPV testing have a greater sensitivity than cytology but the probability of the latter being positive can also be defined as a function of the associated HPV viral load. PMID:16136031

Bigras, G; de Marval, F

2005-01-01

130

Researchers Find Abnormal Cells in the Blood Years before Leukemia is Diagnosed  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have shown that abnormal white blood cells can be present in patients' blood more than six years prior to the diagnosis of a chronic form of lymphocytic leukemia. This finding may lead to a better understanding of the cellular changes that characterize the earliest stages of the disease and how it progresses.

131

The earliest fossil evidence for sexual dimorphism in primates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently obtained material of the early Eocene primate Notharctus venticolus, including two partial skulls from a single stratigraphic horizon, provides the geologically earliest evidence of sexual dimorphism in canine size and shape in primates and the only unequivocal evidence for such dimorphism in strepsirhines. By analogy with living platyrrhines, these data suggest that Notharctus venticolus may have lived in polygynous social groups characterized by a relatively high level of intermale competition for mates and other limited resources. The anatomy of the upper incisors and related evidence imply that Notharctus is not as closely related to extant lemuriform primates as has been recently proposed. The early Eocene evidence for canine sexual dimorphism reported here, and its occurrence in a nonanthropoid, indicates that in the order Primates such a condition is either primitive or evolved independently more than once.

Krishtalka, Leonard; Stucky, Richard K.; Beard, K. C.

1990-01-01

132

Plated Cambrian Bilaterians Reveal the Earliest Stages of Echinoderm Evolution  

PubMed Central

Echinoderms are unique in being pentaradiate, having diverged from the ancestral bilaterian body plan more radically than any other animal phylum. This transformation arises during ontogeny, as echinoderm larvae are initially bilateral, then pass through an asymmetric phase, before giving rise to the pentaradiate adult. Many fossil echinoderms are radial and a few are asymmetric, but until now none have been described that show the original bilaterian stage in echinoderm evolution. Here we report new fossils from the early middle Cambrian of southern Europe that are the first echinoderms with a fully bilaterian body plan as adults. Morphologically they are intermediate between two of the most basal classes, the Ctenocystoidea and Cincta. This provides a root for all echinoderms and confirms that the earliest members were deposit feeders not suspension feeders. PMID:22701623

Zamora, Samuel; Rahman, Imran A.; Smith, Andrew B.

2012-01-01

133

Testing microstructural adaptation in the earliest dental tools  

PubMed Central

Conodont elements are the earliest vertebrate dental structures. The dental tools on elements responsible for food fracture—cusps and denticles—are usually composed of lamellar crown tissue (a putative enamel homologue) and the enigmatic tissue known as ‘white matter’. White matter is unique to conodonts and has been hypothesized to be a functional adaptation for the use of elements as teeth. We test this quantitatively using finite-element analysis. Our results indicate that white matter allowed cusps and denticles to withstand greater tensile stresses than do cusps comprised solely of lamellar crown tissue. Microstructural variation is demonstrably associated with dietary and loading differences in teeth, so secondary loss of white matter through conodont phylogeny may reflect changes in diet and element occlusal kinematics. The presence, development and distribution of white matter could thus provide constraints on function in the first vertebrate dental structures. PMID:22764115

Jones, David; Evans, Alistair R.; Rayfield, Emily J.; Siu, Karen K. W.; Donoghue, Philip C. J.

2012-01-01

134

Incidence of Brain Abnormalities Detected on Preoperative Brain MR Imaging and Their Effect on the Outcome of Cochlear Implantation in Children with Sensorineural Hearing Loss  

PubMed Central

The incidence of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) increased gradually in the past decades. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, as an important part of preimplantation evaluation for children with SNHL, could provide the detailed information about the inner ear, the vestibulocochlear nerve, and the brain, so as to select suitable candidate for cochlear implantation (CI). Brain abnormalities were not rare in the brain MR imaging of SNHL children; however, its influence on the effect of CI has not been clarified. After retrospectively analyzing the CT and MR imaging of 157 children with SNHL that accepted preoperative evaluation from June 2011 to February 2013 in our hospital and following them during a period of 14.09 ± 5.08 months, we found that the white matter change, which might be associated with the history of medical condition, was the most common brain abnormality. Usually CI was still beneficial to the children with brain abnormalities, and the short-term hearing improvement could be achieved. Further study with more patients and longer follow-up time was needed to confirm our results.

Xu, Xiao-Quan; Wu, Fei-Yun; Hu, Hao; Su, Guo-Yi; Shen, Jie

2015-01-01

135

Earliest evidence for commensal processes of cat domestication  

PubMed Central

Domestic cats are one of the most popular pets globally, but the process of their domestication is not well understood. Near Eastern wildcats are thought to have been attracted to food sources in early agricultural settlements, following a commensal pathway to domestication. Early evidence for close human–cat relationships comes from a wildcat interred near a human on Cyprus ca. 9,500 y ago, but the earliest domestic cats are known only from Egyptian art dating to 4,000 y ago. Evidence is lacking from the key period of cat domestication 9,500–4,000 y ago. We report on the presence of cats directly dated between 5560–5280 cal B.P. in the early agricultural village of Quanhucun in Shaanxi, China. These cats were outside the wild range of Near Eastern wildcats and biometrically smaller, but within the size-range of domestic cats. The ?13C and ?15N values of human and animal bone collagen revealed substantial consumption of millet-based foods by humans, rodents, and cats. Ceramic storage containers designed to exclude rodents indicated a threat to stored grain in Yangshao villages. Taken together, isotopic and archaeological data demonstrate that cats were advantageous for ancient farmers. Isotopic data also show that one cat ate less meat and consumed more millet-based foods than expected, indicating that it scavenged among or was fed by people. This study offers fresh perspectives on cat domestication, providing the earliest known evidence for commensal relationships between people and cats. PMID:24344279

Hu, Yaowu; Hu, Songmei; Wang, Weilin; Wu, Xiaohong; Marshall, Fiona B.; Chen, Xianglong; Hou, Liangliang; Wang, Changsui

2014-01-01

136

Considerations on Terrestrial Iron Depositing Analogs to Earliest Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Iron oxide and hydroxide minerals, including hematite, can mineralize and preservemicrofossils and physical biomarkers (Allen at al., 2004). Preserved remnants of phototrophic microorganisms are recognized as biosignatures of past life on Earth (Schopf, 2006). To date, two types of surface iron depositing environments have been studied as analogs to possible habitable environments on earliest Mars: the highly acidified Rio Tinto River (Iberian Belt, Spain) [Gomez Ortis et al., 2007], and the nearneutral iron depositing Chocolate Pots Hot Spring (Yellowstone National Park, US) [Parenteau at al., 2005]. While phototrophs in the Rio Tinto are only represented by eukaryotic algae (Amaral Zettler et all., 2002), Chocolate Pots is mainly populated with cyanobacteria (Pierson et all., 2000; Brown et all., 2007). Which of these environments is the closer analog to a potentially habitable early Mars? Paleobiological data, combined with recent "tree of life" interpretations, suggest that phototrophic eukaryotes evolved not earlier than 2.5 - 2.8 b.y. after Earth s accretion (4.6 b.y.), while cyanobacteria and /or their iron-tolerant predecessors evolved between 1 - 1.5 b.y. after accretion (Brown et al., 2007). Lindsay and Brasier (2002) postulated that microbial life on Mars surface could have lasted no more than 1-1.5 b.y. after Mars accretion (also 4.6 b.y.). Recent multispectral mapping of Mars suggests that near-neutral wet environments prevailed at approximately this time (Bibring, et al., 2006). Thus, near-neutral iron depositing hot springs such as Chocolate Pots Hot Spring seem to be the more likely habitable analogs for earliest Mars.

Brown, Igor I.; Allen, Carlton C.; Sarkisova, S. A.; Garrison, D. H.; McKay, D. S.

2007-01-01

137

Earliest evidence for commensal processes of cat domestication.  

PubMed

Domestic cats are one of the most popular pets globally, but the process of their domestication is not well understood. Near Eastern wildcats are thought to have been attracted to food sources in early agricultural settlements, following a commensal pathway to domestication. Early evidence for close human-cat relationships comes from a wildcat interred near a human on Cyprus ca. 9,500 y ago, but the earliest domestic cats are known only from Egyptian art dating to 4,000 y ago. Evidence is lacking from the key period of cat domestication 9,500-4,000 y ago. We report on the presence of cats directly dated between 5560-5280 cal B.P. in the early agricultural village of Quanhucun in Shaanxi, China. These cats were outside the wild range of Near Eastern wildcats and biometrically smaller, but within the size-range of domestic cats. The ?(13)C and ?(15)N values of human and animal bone collagen revealed substantial consumption of millet-based foods by humans, rodents, and cats. Ceramic storage containers designed to exclude rodents indicated a threat to stored grain in Yangshao villages. Taken together, isotopic and archaeological data demonstrate that cats were advantageous for ancient farmers. Isotopic data also show that one cat ate less meat and consumed more millet-based foods than expected, indicating that it scavenged among or was fed by people. This study offers fresh perspectives on cat domestication, providing the earliest known evidence for commensal relationships between people and cats. PMID:24344279

Hu, Yaowu; Hu, Songmei; Wang, Weilin; Wu, Xiaohong; Marshall, Fiona B; Chen, Xianglong; Hou, Liangliang; Wang, Changsui

2014-01-01

138

Reduction of net primary productivity in southern China caused by abnormal low-temperature freezing in winter of 2008 detected by a remote sensing-driven ecosystem model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial carbon cycle is an important determinant of global climate change and affected by various factors, including climate, CO2 concentration, atmospheric nitrogen deposition and human activities. Extreme weather events can significantly regulate short-term even long-term carbon exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. During the period from the middle January to the middle February 2008, Southern China was seriously hit by abnormal low-temperature freezing, which caused serous damages to forests and crops. However, the reduction of net primary productivity (NPP) of terrestrial ecosystems caused by this extremely abnormal weather event has not been quantitatively investigated. In this study, the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) model was employed to assess the reduction of NPP in Southern China caused by the abnormal low-temperature freezing. Prior to the regional simulation, the BEPS model was validated using measured NPP in different ecosystems, demonstrating the ability of this model to simulate NPP reliably in China. Then, it was forced using meteorological data interpolated from observations of weather stations and leaf area index inversed from MODIS reflectance data to simulate national wide NPP at a 500 m resolution for the period from 2003 to 2008. The departures of NPP in 2008 from the means during 2003-2007 were used as the indicator of NPP reduction caused by the low-temperature freezing. It was found out that NPP in 2008 decreased significantly in forests of Southern China, especially in Guangdong, Fujian, Zhejiang, Guangxi, Jiangxi, and Hunan Provinces, in which the low-temperature freeing was more serious. The annul reduction of NPP was above 150 g C/m^2/yr in these areas. Key words: Net Primary Productivity, low-temperature freezing, BEPS model, MODIS Correspondence author: Weimin Ju Email:juweimin@nju.edu.cn

Ju, W.; Liu, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, G.

2011-12-01

139

The natural history of hip abnormalities detected by ultrasound in clinically normal newborns: a 6-8 year radiographic follow-up study of 93 children.  

PubMed

Ultrasound screening for hip dysplasia or dislocation has revealed a group of children with clinically normal hips, but with abnormal or suspicious ultrasound. During the 3-year period 1988-90, we found 170 children with this combination. We evaluated the natural history of these hips. 93 children were examined clinically and with standard radiography 6-8 years after birth. The center edge (CE) angle of Wiberg and migration percentage (MP) were measured on the radiographs. 87 children had not undergone any treatment, whereas treatment with an abduction orthosis had been initiated at approximately 4 months of age because of persisting dysplasia in 6 cases. All hips were radiographically normal at this follow-up. The mean CE value was 24 degrees (SD 6.5) and the mean MP was 13% (SD 5.2). 73 children had no complaints in their lower extremities, whereas 12 had intoeing gait, 1 had outtoeing gait, 2 had hip or knee pain, and 5 had other complaints not relevant to hip dysplasia. We conclude that infants with sonographically abnormal or suspicious hips, but with normal clinical findings, do not need immediate treatment because spontaneous resolution occurs in most of them. Postponement of treatment in the few with persistent dysplasia does not seem to affect the outcome. PMID:10569261

Tegnander, A; Holen, K J; Terjesen, T

1999-08-01

140

A novel pathogenic pathway of immune activation detectable before clinical onset in Huntington's disease  

PubMed Central

Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by both neurological and systemic abnormalities. We examined the peripheral immune system and found widespread evidence of innate immune activation detectable in plasma throughout the course of HD. Interleukin 6 levels were increased in HD gene carriers with a mean of 16 years before the predicted onset of clinical symptoms. To our knowledge, this is the earliest plasma abnormality identified in HD. Monocytes from HD subjects expressed mutant huntingtin and were pathologically hyperactive in response to stimulation, suggesting that the mutant protein triggers a cell-autonomous immune activation. A similar pattern was seen in macrophages and microglia from HD mouse models, and the cerebrospinal fluid and striatum of HD patients exhibited abnormal immune activation, suggesting that immune dysfunction plays a role in brain pathology. Collectively, our data suggest parallel central nervous system and peripheral pathogenic pathways of immune activation in HD. PMID:18625748

Björkqvist, Maria; Wild, Edward J.; Thiele, Jenny; Silvestroni, Aurelio; Andre, Ralph; Lahiri, Nayana; Raibon, Elsa; Lee, Richard V.; Benn, Caroline L.; Soulet, Denis; Magnusson, Anna; Woodman, Ben; Landles, Christian; Pouladi, Mahmoud A.; Hayden, Michael R.; Khalili-Shirazi, Azadeh; Lowdell, Mark W.; Brundin, Patrik; Bates, Gillian P.; Leavitt, Blair R.; Möller, Thomas; Tabrizi, Sarah J.

2008-01-01

141

Structurally abnormal human autosomes  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

NONE

1993-12-31

142

Morphological abnormalities among lampreys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

Manion, Patrick J.

1967-01-01

143

Computer Modeling of the Earliest Cellular Structures and Functions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the absence of extinct or extant record of protocells (the earliest ancestors of contemporary cells). the most direct way to test our understanding of the origin of cellular life is to construct laboratory models of protocells. Such efforts are currently underway in the NASA Astrobiology Program. They are accompanied by computational studies aimed at explaining self-organization of simple molecules into ordered structures and developing designs for molecules that perform proto-cellular functions. Many of these functions, such as import of nutrients, capture and storage of energy. and response to changes in the environment are carried out by proteins bound to membrane< We will discuss a series of large-scale, molecular-level computer simulations which demonstrate (a) how small proteins (peptides) organize themselves into ordered structures at water-membrane interfaces and insert into membranes, (b) how these peptides aggregate to form membrane-spanning structures (eg. channels), and (c) by what mechanisms such aggregates perform essential proto-cellular functions, such as proton transport of protons across cell walls, a key step in cellular bioenergetics. The simulations were performed using the molecular dynamics method, in which Newton's equations of motion for each item in the system are solved iteratively. The problems of interest required simulations on multi-nanosecond time scales, which corresponded to 10(exp 6)-10(exp 8) time steps.

Pohorille, Andrew; Chipot, Christophe; Schweighofer, Karl

2000-01-01

144

Aurorae: The earliest datable observation of the aurora borealis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Late Babylonian astronomical texts, discovered at the site of Babylon (32.5°N, 44.4°E) more than a century ago, contain what is probably the earliest reliable account of the aurora borealis. A clay tablet recording numerous celestial observations made by the official astronomers during the 37th year of King Nebuchadnezzar II (568/567 BC) describes an unusual ``red glow'' in the sky at night; the exact date of this observation corresponds to the night of 12/13 March in 567 BC. The most likely interpretation of the phenomenon is an auroral display. This event occurred several centuries before the first clearly identifiable observation of the aurora from elsewhere in the world, namely China in 193 BC. The Babylonian auroral observation is remarkable in the sense that it is one of a series of carefully recorded astronomical observations, for each of which the year, month and day are known precisely. This observation occurred at a time when the geomagnetic (dipole) latitude of Babylon was about 41°N compared with the present value of 27.5°N, suggesting a higher auroral incidence at Babylon in 567 BC than at present.

Stephenson, F. Richard; Willis, David M.; Hallinan, Thomas J.

2004-12-01

145

Digging up the Earliest Astronomical Observatory in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the town of Taosi, county of Xiangfen, Shanxi province the earliest (up to date about 4000 years ago) astronomical observatory and sacrificial altar relic was dug up, which consists of an observing site, some tamped soil columniations and slits between those columniations. This construction was used to observe the variations of the sunrise azimuth and determine the tropical year length in order to constitute the calendar. It is indicated from the simulated observations that the two slits located in the southeast and the northwest could be precisely used to determine the dates of the Winter Solstice and the Summer Solstice. Between those two slits there are 10 columniations which could indicate that the visual Sun moving from one columniation to another is a solar term. It implies that in the Emperor Yao time the calendar was the solar calendar in which one year was divided into 20 solar terms. The Yin-Yang five-element calendar, a 10-month calendar, in the very ancient time was based on this calendar.

Li, Wei-Boa; Chen, Jiu-Jin

2007-09-01

146

Computer Modeling of the Earliest Cellular Structures and Functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the absence of extinct or extant record of protocells (the earliest ancestors of contemporary cells), the most direct way to test ourunderstanding of the origin of cellular life is to construct laboratory models of protocells. Such efforts are currently underway in the NASA Astrobiology Program. They are accompanied by computational studies aimed at explaining self-organization of simple molecules into ordered structures and developing designs for molecules that perform protocellular functions. Many of these functions, such as import of nutrients, capture and storage of energy, and response to changes in the environment are carried out by proteins bound to membranes. We will discuss a series of large-scale, molecular-level computer simulations which demonstrate (a) how small proteins (peptides)organize themselves into ordered structures at water-membrane interfaces and insert into membranes, (b) how these peptides aggregate to form membrane-spanning structures (e.g. channels), and (c) by what mechanisms such aggregates perform essential protocellular functions, such as proton transport of protons across cell walls, a key step in cellular bioenergetics. The simulations were performed using the molecular dynamics method, in which Newton's equations of motion for each atom in the system are solved iteratively. The problems of interest required simulations on multi-nanosecond time scales, which corresponded to 10^6-10^8 time steps.

Pohorille, Andrew

2000-03-01

147

The earliest pterodactyloid and the origin of the group.  

PubMed

The pterosaurs were a diverse group of Mesozoic flying reptiles that underwent a body plan reorganization, adaptive radiation, and replacement of earlier forms midway through their long history, resulting in the origin of the Pterodactyloidea, a highly specialized clade containing the largest flying organisms. The sudden appearance and large suite of morphological features of this group were suggested to be the result of it originating in terrestrial environments, where the pterosaur fossil record has traditionally been poor [1, 2], and its many features suggested to be adaptations to those environments [1, 2]. However, little evidence has been available to test this hypothesis, and it has not been supported by previous phylogenies or early pterodactyloid discoveries. We report here the earliest pterosaur with the diagnostic elongate metacarpus of the Pterodactyloidea, Kryptodrakon progenitor, gen. et sp. nov., from the terrestrial Middle-Upper Jurassic boundary of Northwest China. Phylogenetic analysis confirms this species as the basalmost pterodactyloid and reconstructs a terrestrial origin and a predominantly terrestrial history for the Pterodactyloidea. Phylogenetic comparative methods support this reconstruction by means of a significant correlation between wing shape and environment also found in modern flying vertebrates, indicating that pterosaurs lived in or were at least adapted to the environments in which they were preserved. PMID:24768054

Andres, Brian; Clark, James; Xu, Xing

2014-05-01

148

Four families with immunodeficiency and chromosome abnormalities.  

PubMed Central

Six children, with severe deficiency of some or all of the immunoglobulins and minor somatic abnormalities, had chromosomal abnormalities: (1) 45,XY,t(13q/18q), (2) 46,XY,21ps +, (3) two brothers 46,XY (inv. 7) (4) 45,X,t(11p/10p)/46X,iXq,t(11p/10p) and, (5) in addendum, 45,XX,-18;46,XX, r18. The chromosome abnormalities were detected in B- as well as T-lymphocytes (as evidenced by using both PHA- and PWM-stimulated cultures) in all probands, but one was mosaic in PHA culture, although all his PWM-stimulated cells were abnormal. Chromosomal variants were also detected in relatives of three and immunodeficiency in relatives of two. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:314782

Candy, D C; Hayward, A R; Hughes, D T; Layward, L; Soothill, J F

1979-01-01

149

Prognostic impact of coronary microcirculation abnormalities in systemic sclerosis: a prospective study to evaluate the role of non-invasive tests  

PubMed Central

Introduction Microcirculation dysfunction is a typical feature of systemic sclerosis (SSc) and represents the earliest abnormality of primary myocardial involvement. We assessed coronary microcirculation status by combining two functional tests in SSc patients and estimating its impact on disease outcome. Methods Forty-one SSc patients, asymptomatic for coronary artery disease, were tested for coronary flow velocity reserve (CFR) by transthoracic-echo-Doppler with adenosine infusion (A-TTE) and for left ventricular wall motion abnormalities (WMA) by dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE). Myocardial multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) enabled the presence of epicardial stenosis, which could interfere with the accuracy of the tests, to be excluded. Patient survival rate was assessed over a 6.7- ± 3.5-year follow-up. Results Nineteen out of 41 (46%) SSc patients had a reduced CFR (?2.5) and in 16/41 (39%) a WMA was observed during DSE. Furthermore, 13/41 (32%) patients showed pathological CFR and WMA. An inverse correlation between wall motion score index (WMSI) during DSE and CFR value (r = -0.57, P <0.0001) was observed; in addition, CFR was significantly reduced (2.21 ± 0.38) in patients with WMA as compared to those without (2.94 ± 0.60) (P <0.0001). In 12 patients with abnormal DSE, MDCT was used to exclude macrovasculopathy. During a 6.7- ± 3.5-year follow-up seven patients with abnormal coronary functional tests died of disease-related causes, compared to only one patient with normal tests. Conclusions A-TTE and DSE tests are useful tools to detect non-invasively pre-clinical microcirculation abnormalities in SSc patients; moreover, abnormal CFR and WMA might be related to a worse disease outcome suggesting a prognostic value of these tests, similar to other myocardial diseases. PMID:23302110

2013-01-01

150

"Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

Keutzer, Carolin S.

1993-01-01

151

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding  

MedlinePLUS

... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

152

Tooth - abnormal colors  

MedlinePLUS

... age when teeth are forming Poor oral care Porphyria Severe neonatal jaundice Too much fluoride from environmental ... abnormal coloration began Foods you have been eating Medications you are taking Personal and family health history ...

153

Electrophysiological abnormalities in the transplanted human heart.  

PubMed Central

Fourteen relatively long term survivors of cardiac transplantation underwent systematic electrophysiological evaluation and ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring. Six patients had prolonged conduction intervals during sinus rhythm. Sinus node function could be assessed in all donor atria and in 10 recipient atria. Sinus node recovery times were prolonged in four of the donor atria and in six recipient atria. In the donor atria abnormalities of sinus node automaticity were invariably associated with abnormalities of sinoatrial conduction. Four patients showed functional duality of atrioventricular nodal conduction during programmed extrastimulation, but no patient developed re-entrant arrhythmia. During ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring no pronounced tachyarrhythmias were recorded. Three patients showed abnormalities of sinus node impulse formation. All three patients had abnormal sinus node recovery times during their electrophysiological study. Long term survivors of cardiac transplantation have a high incidence of electrophysiological abnormalities. Abnormalities of donor sinus node function are probably of clinical significance. The clinical significance of abnormalities detected within the atrioventricular conduction system of the denervated heart remains to be elucidated. PMID:6360191

Bexton, R S; Nathan, A W; Hellestrand, K J; Cory-Pearce, R; Spurrell, R A; English, T A; Camm, A J

1983-01-01

154

Ichnotaxonomy of the Laetoli trackways: The earliest hominin footprints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At 3.6 Ma, the Laetoli Pliocene hominin trackways are the earliest direct evidence of hominin bipedalism. Three decades since their discovery, not only is the question of their attribution still discussed, but marked differences in interpretation concerning the footprints' qualitative features and the inferred nature of the early hominin foot morphology remain. Here, we establish a novel ichnotaxon, Praehominipes laetoliensis, for these tracks and clarify the distinctions of these footprints from those of later hominins, especially modern humans. We also contrast hominin, human, and ape footprints to establish morphological features of these footprints correlated with a midtarsal break versus a stiff longitudinal arch. Original photos, including stereo photographs, and casts of footprints from the 1978 Laetoli excavation, confirm midtarsal flexibility, and repeatedly indicate an associated midfoot pressure ridge. In contrast, the modern human footprint reflects the derived arched-foot architecture, combined with a stiff-legged striding gait. Fossilized footprints of unshod modern human pedestrians in Hawaii and Nicaragua unambiguously illustrate these contrasts. Some points of comparisons with ape footprints are complicated by a variable hallucal position and the distinct manner of ape facultative bipedalism. In contrast to the comparatively rigid platform of the modern human foot, midtarsal flexibility is present in the chimpanzee foot. In ape locomotion, flexion at the transverse tarsal joint, referred to as the "midtarsal break," uncouples the respective functions of the prehensile forefoot and the propulsive hindfoot during grasp-climbing. At some point after the transition to habitual bipedalism, these grasp-climb adaptations, presumed to be present in the last common ancestor of apes and humans, were initially compromised by the loss of divergence of the hallux. An analogous trajectory is evident along an array of increasingly terrestrial extant ape species. However, a flexible midfoot was retained, presumably to spare lateral toes from bending stresses by concentrating push-off from the forefoot, beneath the metatarsals. Only later did the evolution of the longitudinal arch permit increased mechanical advantage of the plantarflexors for speed and improved economy of endurance distance walking and running.

Meldrum, D. J.; Lockley, Martin G.; Lucas, Spencer G.; Musiba, Charles

2011-04-01

155

ESA on the trail of the earliest stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

hi-res Size hi-res: 3054 kb Credits: NASA Simulated image of the distant Universe as seen by JWST This is a simulated image showing the abilities of the NGST. Compared to the Hubble Space Telescope the NGST will improve our 'sight' considerably. Artist's impression of JWST hi-res Size hi-res: 3960 kb Credits: ESA Artist's impression of JWST Image shows an artist's impression of the selected design for the JWST spacecraft. Northrop Grumman and Ball Aerospace are the prime contractors for JWST. Gamma-ray burst as seen by Integral Credits: ESA. Original image by the Integral IBIS team. Image processing by ESA/ECF Gamma-ray burst as seen by Integral A gamma-ray burst seen by ESA's Integral satellite. This picture was taken using the Imager on Board the Integral Satellite (IBIS). Astronomers suspect that some gamma-ray bursts are the explosions of individual population III stars. Astronomers know they must have been out there: only in this way could they solve the riddle of the origin and composition of stars in today's Universe. A couple of ESA missions will help astronomers search for this elusive population. When the Universe formed, there was just hydrogen and helium. Chemical elements such as oxygen, carbon, iron and so on were forged later, in the nuclear furnaces at the hearts of stars and then cast into space at the end of the star's life. Astronomers call everything that is heavier than helium a 'metal'. All stars we can observe today contain metals. The youngest contain the most metals and astronomers call them population I stars. The oldest contain only some metals and astronomers call these population II stars. Where do these metals come from? Astronomers have theorised that a first generation of stars, which they call population III, must have existed in the early Universe. This first generation of stars must have formed using only hydrogen and helium, the only elements available in the early cosmic history. After living for 'just' a million years, they extinguished themselves, showering the metals they had created into space. The heavy elements lay dormant until they were collected into the next generation of stars and the first galaxies, sometime later. The theory of population III stars suggests they are long dead in the local Universe. How can their existence then be confirmed? In the most distant realms of space, where what we observe is either very old or even extinguished, some signs of their existence might still be glimpsed. One mission that will help considerably in the search is the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), ESA's collaboration with NASA to replace the Hubble Space Telescope with a six-metre-class telescope. There are many questions for it to answer. "We don't really know what the first generation of stars are like and we don't know where exactly they formed," says Peter Jakobsen, ESA's Study Scientist for the JWST. "One of the biggest questions is whether the first stars formed in clumps or as isolated individuals. If they clumped, we'll be able to see them much more easily and further away than if they didn't." Even if JWST does not see the first stars directly, it will give astronomers an invaluable clue about how far away they are, allowing them to refine their theories. New research suggests that even if the population III stars are extremely far away, JWST would see them exploding as supernovae, at the ends of their individual lives. In addition, some astronomers suspect that some gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are created by the death of these earliest stars. Ironically, we may therefore already be seeing the farewell detonation of some population III stars. ESA's new gamma-ray observatory, Integral, is perfectly placed to shed light on these violent events. It will indirectly help provide clues about population III stars. "I suspect that in the next ten years, we'll know the answers to at least some of our questions about what went on in the early Universe," says Jakobsen. This includes learning more about the existence and role of the earliest stars. JWST The Ja

2003-01-01

156

EmergencyEmergency and Abnormal Situationsand Abnormal Situations  

E-print Network

SituationsAbnormal Situations Neil Johnston Aerospace Psychology Research Group Trinity College DublinEmergencyEmergency and Abnormal Situationsand Abnormal Situations in Aviation Symposiumin Aviation Symposium Santa Clara, June 2003 #12;Responding toResponding to Emergencies andEmergencies and Abnormal

157

Introduction Pulsatile jet propulsion is one of the earliest known forms  

E-print Network

2025 Introduction Pulsatile jet propulsion is one of the earliest known forms of aquatic locomotion et al., 1980)]. In cnidarians such as Aglantha, the jetting strategy is the sole means of propulsion

Dabiri, John O.

158

Non-invasive in-situ detection of malignant skin tissue and other abnormalities using portable LIBS system with fiber spectrometer and eye-safe erbium glass laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Portable LIBS, (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) systems are capable of real-time material analysis without sample preparation. LIBS systems focus a high peak power laser pulse onto a targeted material to produce a laser spark or plasma. Elemental line spectra is created, collected and analyzed by a fiber spectrophotometer. The line spectra emission data is quickly displayed on a laptop computer display. "Eye-safe" Class I lasers provide for practical in-situ LIBS applications such as detection of malignant skin tissues without the need for eye-protection goggles. This is due to the fact that Megawatt peak power Q-switched lasers operating at 1.54um in the narrow spectral window between 1.5um and 1.6um are approximately 8000 times more "eye-safe" than other laser devices operating in the visible and near infrared.

Myers, Michael J.; Myers, John D.; Guo, Baoping; Yang, Chengxin; Hardy, Christopher R.; Myers, Jeffrey A.; Myers, Abbey G.; Christian, Sean M.

2008-02-01

159

Prenatal diagnosis of limb abnormalities: role of fetal ultrasonography  

PubMed Central

Fetal ultrasonografy is the most important tool to provide prenatal diagnosis of fetal anomalies. The detection of limb abnormalities may be a complex problem if the correct diagnostic approch is not established. A careful description of the abnormality using the rigth nomenclature is the first step. Looking for other associated abnormalities is the threshold to suspect chromosomal abnormalities or single gene disorder. According to the patogenic point of view, limb abnormalities may be the result of malformation, deformation, or disruption. The prenatal diagnosis and the management of limb abnormalities involve a multidisciplinary team of ostetrician, radiologist/sonologist, clinical geneticist, neonatologist, and orthopedic surgeons to provide the parents with the information regarding etiology of the disorder, prognosis, option related to the pregnancy and recurrence risk for future pregnancies. The aim of this review is to describe the importance of detailed fetal ultrasonography in prenatal diagnosis of limb abnormalities. PMID:22439035

Ermito, Santina; Dinatale, Angela; Carrara, Sabina; Cavaliere, Alessandro; Imbruglia, Laura; Recupero, Stefania

2009-01-01

160

Abnormal Psychology Psychology 280  

E-print Network

1 Abnormal Psychology Psychology 280 1st Summer Session 2013 May 13June 27, 2013 Tuesday" Kalibatseva, M.A. Office: 127B Psychology Building Email: kalibats@msu.edu Phone Psychology PhD program at Michigan State University. I completed my bachelor's dual degree in psychology

Liu, Taosheng

161

Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena  

USGS Publications Warehouse

So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

Neuzil, C.E.

1995-01-01

162

Oxidative damage to hyaluronate and glucose in synovial fluid during exercise of the inflamed rheumatoid joint. Detection of abnormal low-molecular-mass metabolites by proton-n.m.r. spectroscopy.  

PubMed Central

Proton Hahn spin-echo n.m.r. spectroscopy was employed to detect abnormal metabolites present in rheumatoid synovial fluid that are derived from the deleterious generation of reactive oxygen radical species during exercise of the inflamed rheumatoid joint. A resonance attributable to a low-molecular-mass N-acetylglucosamine-containing oligosaccharide formed by the oxygen-radical-mediated depolymerization of synovial-fluid hyaluronate was clearly demonstrable when subjects with inflammatory joint disease were exercised. Moreover, formate, which may be derived from the attack of OH.radical on synovial-fluid carbohydrates, was also readily detectable in these samples. gamma-Radiolysis of rheumatoid synovial fluid samples and aqueous solutions of hyaluronate also gave rise to the production of the low-molecular-mass hyaluronate-derived oligosaccharide species and markedly elevated concentrations of (non-protein-bound) formate in the biological fluids. As expected, corresponding spectra of gamma-irradiated blood serum samples obtained from normal volunteers did not contain the signal attributable to the low-molecular-mass oligosaccharide species, but the formate resonance (barely detectable in non-irradiated normal serum samples) became clearly visible. Additionally, a curious increase in the effective concentration of non-protein-bound low-molecular-mass metabolites such as acetate, citrate, lactate and glutamine was observed after gamma-radiolysis of all biological fluids studied. The hyaluronate-derived low-molecular-mass oligosaccharide species and formate are suggested as novel markers of reactive oxygen radical activity in the inflamed rheumatoid joint during exercise-induced hypoxic/reperfusion injury. PMID:1991041

Grootveld, M; Henderson, E B; Farrell, A; Blake, D R; Parkes, H G; Haycock, P

1991-01-01

163

Thalassemia and abnormal hemoglobin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thalassemia and abnormal hemoglobins are common genetic disorders in Asia. Thalassemia is not only an important public health\\u000a problem but also a socio-economic problem of many countries in the region. The approach to deal with the thalassemic problem\\u000a is to prevent and control birth of new cases. This requires an accurate identification of the couple at high risk for thalassemia.

Suthat Fucharoen; Pranee Winichagoon

2002-01-01

164

Anatomical Abnormalities in Autism?  

PubMed

Substantial controversy exists regarding the presence and significance of anatomical abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The release of the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (?1000 participants, age 6-65 years) offers an unprecedented opportunity to conduct large-scale comparisons of anatomical MRI scans across groups and to resolve many of the outstanding questions. Comprehensive univariate analyses using volumetric, thickness, and surface area measures of over 180 anatomically defined brain areas, revealed significantly larger ventricular volumes, smaller corpus callosum volume (central segment only), and several cortical areas with increased thickness in the ASD group. Previously reported anatomical abnormalities in ASD including larger intracranial volumes, smaller cerebellar volumes, and larger amygdala volumes were not substantiated by the current study. In addition, multivariate classification analyses yielded modest decoding accuracies of individuals' group identity (<60%), suggesting that the examined anatomical measures are of limited diagnostic utility for ASD. While anatomical abnormalities may be present in distinct subgroups of ASD individuals, the current findings show that many previously reported anatomical measures are likely to be of low clinical and scientific significance for understanding ASD neuropathology as a whole in individuals 6-35 years old. PMID:25316335

Haar, Shlomi; Berman, Sigal; Behrmann, Marlene; Dinstein, Ilan

2014-10-14

165

Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

Fernald, Charles D.

1980-01-01

166

Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

... Home About Goals Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

167

Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

NONE

1993-12-31

168

Prenatal screening for chromosome abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

An abnormal chromosome complement (aneuploidy) contributes significantly to fetal loss during pregnancy, as well as to perinatal morbidity and mortality. The contribution of chromosomal abnormalities to fetal loss decreases as pregnancy continues with an estimated 50% of first trimester spontaneous abortions due to chromosomal abnormalities, but only 5% of stillbirths (after 28 weeks). Prenatal screening for aneuploidy (in particular Down

Lyn Chitty

169

THE EARLIEST NEAR-INFRARED TIME-SERIES SPECTROSCOPY OF A TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA  

SciTech Connect

We present ten medium-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio near-infrared (NIR) spectra of SN 2011fe from SpeX on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) and Gemini Near-Infrared Spectrograph (GNIRS) on Gemini North, obtained as part of the Carnegie Supernova Project. This data set constitutes the earliest time-series NIR spectroscopy of a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia), with the first spectrum obtained at 2.58 days past the explosion and covering -14.6 to +17.3 days relative to B-band maximum. C I {lambda}1.0693 {mu}m is detected in SN 2011fe with increasing strength up to maximum light. The delay in the onset of the NIR C I line demonstrates its potential to be an effective tracer of unprocessed material. For the first time in a SN Ia, the early rapid decline of the Mg II {lambda}1.0927 {mu}m velocity was observed, and the subsequent velocity is remarkably constant. The Mg II velocity during this constant phase locates the inner edge of carbon burning and probes the conditions under which the transition from deflagration to detonation occurs. We show that the Mg II velocity does not correlate with the optical light-curve decline rate {Delta}m{sub 15}(B). The prominent break at {approx}1.5 {mu}m is the main source of concern for NIR k-correction calculations. We demonstrate here that the feature has a uniform time evolution among SNe Ia, with the flux ratio across the break strongly correlated with {Delta}m{sub 15}(B). The predictability of the strength and the onset of this feature suggests that the associated k-correction uncertainties can be minimized with improved spectral templates.

Hsiao, E. Y.; Phillips, M. M.; Morrell, N.; Contreras, C.; Roth, M. [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 601 (Chile)] [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 601 (Chile); Marion, G. H.; Kirshner, R. P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)] [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Burns, C. R.; Freedman, W. L.; Persson, S. E. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara St, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)] [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara St, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Winge, C. [Gemini South Observatory, c/o AURA Inc., Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile)] [Gemini South Observatory, c/o AURA Inc., Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Kromer, M.; Gall, E. E. E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Gerardy, C. L.; Hoeflich, P. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Im, M.; Jeon, Y. [CEOU/Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [CEOU/Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nugent, P. E. [Computational Cosmology Center, Computational Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road MS 50B-4206, Berkeley, CA 94611 (United States)] [Computational Cosmology Center, Computational Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road MS 50B-4206, Berkeley, CA 94611 (United States); Pignata, G. [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Avda. Republica 252, Santiago (Chile)] [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Avda. Republica 252, Santiago (Chile); Stanishev, V., E-mail: hsiao@lco.cl [CENTRA - Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); and others

2013-04-01

170

Combining Registration and Abnormality Detection in Mammography  

E-print Network

of a same patient. Such comparisons help radiologists to locate suspicious differences which indicate- normalities as pixels generating large image differences, which is not always the case. A more general

Desolneux, Agnès

171

Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer  

SciTech Connect

To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease.

Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.

1986-07-01

172

Recommendations for management of equine athletes with cardiovascular abnormalities.  

PubMed

Murmurs and arrhythmias are commonly detected in equine athletes. Assessing the relevance of these cardiovascular abnormalities in the performance horse can be challenging. Determining the impact of a cardiovascular disorder on performance, life expectancy, horse and rider or driver safety relative to the owner's future expectations is paramount. A comprehensive assessment of the cardiovascular abnormality detected is essential to determine its severity and achieve these aims. This consensus statement presents a general approach to the assessment of cardiovascular abnormalities, followed by a discussion of the common murmurs and arrhythmias. The description, diagnosis, evaluation, and prognosis are considered for each cardiovascular abnormality. The recommendations presented herein are based on available literature and a consensus of the panelists. While the majority of horses with cardiovascular abnormalities have a useful performance life, periodic reexaminations are indicated for those with clinically relevant cardiovascular disease. Horses with pulmonary hypertension, CHF, or complex ventricular arrhythmias should not be ridden or driven. PMID:24628586

Reef, V B; Bonagura, J; Buhl, R; McGurrin, M K J; Schwarzwald, C C; van Loon, G; Young, L E

2014-01-01

173

Melanopsin-Dependent Photoreception Provides Earliest Light Detection in the Mammalian Retina  

PubMed Central

Summary Background The visual system is now known to be composed of image-forming and non-image-forming pathways. Photoreception for the image-forming pathway begins at the rods and cones, whereas that for the non-image-forming pathway also involves intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), which express the photopigment melanopsin. In the mouse retina, the rod and cone photoreceptors become light responsive from postnatal day 10 (P10); however, the development of photosensitivity of the ipRGCs remains largely unexplored. Results Here, we provide direct physiological evidence that the ipRGCs are light responsive from birth (P0) and that this photosensitivity requires melanopsin expression. Interestingly, the number of ipRGCs at P0 is over five times that in the adult retina, reflecting an initial overproduction of melanopsin-expressing cells during development. Even at P0, the ipRGCs form functional connections with the suprachiasmatic nucleus, as assessed by light-induced Fos expression. Conclusions The findings suggest that the non-image-forming pathway is functional long before the mainstream image-forming pathway during development. PMID:15964274

Sekaran, S.; Lupi, D.; Jones, S.L.; Sheely, C.J.; Hattar, S.; Yau, K.-W.; Lucas, R.J.; Foster, R.G.; Hankins, M.W.

2010-01-01

174

A Rare Stapes Abnormality  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50?dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

2015-01-01

175

A rare stapes abnormality.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50?dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

2015-01-01

176

THE EARLIEST STAGES OF HIGH MASS STAR FORMATION METHANOL MASER INSIGHTS , P. Andr1  

E-print Network

THE EARLIEST STAGES OF HIGH MASS STAR FORMATION ­ METHANOL MASER INSIGHTS V. Minier1 , P. André1 (>8 M ) star formation using methanol MASERs as astronomical probes. Methanol masers can provide form. Tracers of high mass star-forming complexes in the Galactic plane: The brightest methanol masers

De Buizer, James Michael

177

Variability of dental morphology and the relationships of the earliest arctocyonid species  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on the variability of dental morphology and the relationships of the earliest arctocyonid species. Analysis of arctocyonid premolars and molars from the Bug Creek Anthills local fauna (Hell Creek Fm., Puercan, Montana) shows far wider ranges of variation of many dental characters than were previously recognized. Based on morphological and morphometrical differences, two additional species, Oxyprimus erikseni

Zhexi Luo

1991-01-01

178

Refining Earliest Settlement in Remote Oceania: Renewed Archaeological Investigation at Unai Bapot, Saipan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewed archaeological investigation at Unai Bapot in Saipan refines the documentation of chronological change during the earliest period of human occupation of the Mariana Islands. First site use was in the range of 1600 to 1420 BC, and site abandonment occurred shortly after AD 1670. In more than 2 m of continuous stratigraphy, abundant examples of pottery occur in stratigraphic

Mike T. Carson

2008-01-01

179

The Earliest Bronze Age in Southwest Asia (3100-2700 BC) ... Henry Wright  

E-print Network

The Earliest Bronze Age in Southwest Asia (3100-2700 BC) ... Henry Wright I.Introduction: 5000 the Late Bronze Age during the later second millennium BC and termed this the time of the "real First years ago in the Middle East A."The First Internationalism" or the "First Dark Age"? Half a century ago

White, Douglas R.

180

A fossil primate of uncertain affinities from the earliest late Eocene of Egypt  

E-print Network

A fossil primate of uncertain affinities from the earliest late Eocene of Egypt Erik R. Seifferta,1 Primates, Duke Lemur Center, Durham, NC 27705; c Department of Ecology and Evolution, Stony Brook but is considerably larger than other primate taxa known from the same paleocommunity. The species bears an odd mosaic

Boyer, Doug M.

181

South America's earliest rodent and recognition of a new interval of mammalian evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE mid-Cenozoic immigration of rodents and primates to South America (when it was widely isolated by oceans) represents a pre-eminent problem in the biogeographical history of placental mammals. The unexpected discovery of South America's earliest rodent in the central Chilean Andes provides information critical to resolving the source area and primitive morphology of South American caviomorphs, suggesting an African origin

André R. Wyss; John J. Flynn; Mark A. Norell; Carl C. Swisher; Reynaldo Charrier; Michael J. Novacek; Malcolm C. McKenna

1993-01-01

182

Earliest Holocene south Greenland ice sheet retreat within its late Holocene extent  

E-print Network

suggest that marine-terminating GIS margins can respond to climate change within decades [Andresen et al]. As there are no notable major changes in Greenland ice accumulation over the Holocene [Cuffey and Clow, 1997] and assumingEarliest Holocene south Greenland ice sheet retreat within its late Holocene extent Anders E

183

Laetoli Footprints Preserve Earliest Direct Evidence of HumanLike Bipedal Biomechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Debates over the evolution of hominin bipedalism, a defining human characteristic, revolve around whether early bipeds walked more like humans, with energetically efficient extended hind limbs, or more like apes with flexed hind limbs. The 3.6 million year old hominin footprints at Laetoli, Tanzania represent the earliest direct evidence of hominin bipedalism. Determining the kinematics of Laetoli hominins will

David A. Raichlen; Adam D. Gordon; William E. H. Harcourt-Smith; Adam D. Foster; Wm. Randall Haas

2010-01-01

184

Laetoli Footprints Preserve Earliest Direct Evidence of HumanLike Bipedal Biomechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDebates over the evolution of hominin bipedalism, a defining human characteristic, revolve around whether early bipeds walked more like humans, with energetically efficient extended hind limbs, or more like apes with flexed hind limbs. The 3.6 million year old hominin footprints at Laetoli, Tanzania represent the earliest direct evidence of hominin bipedalism. Determining the kinematics of Laetoli hominins will allow

David A. Raichlen; Adam D. Gordon; William E. H. Harcourt-Smith; Adam D. Foster; Wm. Randall Haas

2010-01-01

185

Earliest date for milk use in the Near East and southeastern Europe linked to cattle herding  

E-print Network

LETTERS Earliest date for milk use in the Near East and southeastern Europe linked to cattle considerable economic and nutritional gains from using these animals for their milk and other products from the late fifth and fourth millennia BC 4,5 . Hence, the timing and region in which milking was first

Cai, Long

186

ological support for the molecular findings (10, 11). These earliest corn cobs don't look  

E-print Network

1159 ological support for the molecular findings (10, 11). These earliest corn cobs don't look much record of the southwestern United States more than 3000 years ago (12), and it is evident that cob size, and the su1 gene encoding a starch-debranching en- zyme whose activity affects the texture of corn tortillas

Nori, Franco

187

Earliest Eligible Virtual Deadline First : A Flexible and Accurate Mechanism for Proportional Share  

E-print Network

Earliest Eligible Virtual Deadline First : A Flexible and Accurate Mechanism for Proportional Share proportional share allocation algorithm for time shared resources. We assume that the resource is allocated in two categories: proportional share 2, 26, 28, 29, 30], and real-time1 based sched- ulers 20, 21, 22

California at Irvine, University of

188

Infantile Amnesia across the Years: A 2-Year Follow-Up of Children's Earliest Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although infantile amnesia has been investigated for many years in adults, only recently has it been investigated in children. This study was a 2-year follow-up and extension of an earlier study. Children (4-13 years old) were asked initially and 2 years later for their earliest 3 memories. At follow-up, their age at the time of these memories…

Peterson, Carole; Warren, Kelly L.; Short, Megan M.

2011-01-01

189

GENERAL CONCLUSIONS The aim of this study was to give a reconstruction of the earliest history  

E-print Network

held on Sunday evening. This practice goes back to the earliest communities in Judea/Palestine was theologically more important to them than the Jewish family meal which, as members of their Jewish families on the Jewish family meal, the Christian group supper was best held as soon as possible after the Jewish family

van den Brink, Jeroen

190

Students' reactions to abnormal psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of some concern about the effect of courses in abnormal psychology on students, a questionnaire was presented to several classes at the close of the course. The majority answering the questionnaire felt the course to be beneficial, giving evidence that the study of abnormal psychology need not be generally harmful, and may have a significant place in

W. S. Taylor

1932-01-01

191

abnormalities in infants and toddlers  

E-print Network

, Akshoomoff 2000). Similarly, patients with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) have decreased cerebellar volumesCerebellar abnormalities in infants and toddlers with Williams syndrome Wendy Jones* PhD, The Salk-mail: jones@crl.ucsd.edu One commonly observed neuroanatomical abnormality in adults with Williams syndrome

Bellugi, Ursula

192

Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

1998-01-01

193

Abnormal hemoglobins in a quarter million people.  

PubMed

Hemolysates of erythrocytes from more than a quarter million people in Alabama were electrophoresed on cellulose acetate, pH 8.4, and those samples exhibiting an abnormality were also electrophoresed in citrate agar, pH 6.0. The globin chains of mutants other than Hb S and C were electrophoresed in urea-mercaptoethanol buffers at both pH 8.9 and pH 6.0, and 60 of them were also analyzed structurally. Of about 6000 samples from whites, only three contained abnormal hemoglobins--Hb D Los Angeles, Hb J Baltimore, and one unidentified. Of 249,000 samples from blacks, about 29,000 contained electrophoretically detectable abnormalities, most of them associated with Hb S or C, present in a frequency of about 9% and 3%, respectively. About 1000 samples resolved into patterns of potential clinical significance. Twenty other mutant hemoglobins were detected, in various genetic combinations in 164 kindreds; four of these-Hb Alabama, Montgomery, Titusville, and Mobile--were previously unknown. The methods used are rapid, economical, and well suited for large scale surveys. They provide highly specific characterizations of many mutant hemoglobins, and no discrepancies were found between the presumptive identifications based on these characterizations and the definitive identifications obtained from structural analyses. PMID:974261

Schneider, R G; Hightower, B; Hosty, T S; Ryder, H; Tomlin, G; Atkins, R; Brimhall, B; Jones, R T

1976-11-01

194

The characteristics and chronology of the earliest Acheulean at Konso, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

The Acheulean technological tradition, characterized by a large (>10 cm) flake-based component, represents a significant technological advance over the Oldowan. Although stone tool assemblages attributed to the Acheulean have been reported from as early as circa 1.6–1.75 Ma, the characteristics of these earliest occurrences and comparisons with later assemblages have not been reported in detail. Here, we provide a newly established chronometric calibration for the Acheulean assemblages of the Konso Formation, southern Ethiopia, which span the time period ?1.75 to <1.0 Ma. The earliest Konso Acheulean is chronologically indistinguishable from the assemblage recently published as the world’s earliest with an age of ?1.75 Ma at Kokiselei, west of Lake Turkana, Kenya. This Konso assemblage is characterized by a combination of large picks and crude bifaces/unifaces made predominantly on large flake blanks. An increase in the number of flake scars was observed within the Konso Formation handaxe assemblages through time, but this was less so with picks. The Konso evidence suggests that both picks and handaxes were essential components of the Acheulean from its initial stages and that the two probably differed in function. The temporal refinement seen, especially in the handaxe forms at Konso, implies enhanced function through time, perhaps in processing carcasses with long and stable cutting edges. The documentation of the earliest Acheulean at ?1.75 Ma in both northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia suggests that behavioral novelties were being established in a regional scale at that time, paralleling the emergence of Homo erectus-like hominid morphology. PMID:23359714

Beyene, Yonas; Katoh, Shigehiro; WoldeGabriel, Giday; Hart, William K.; Uto, Kozo; Sudo, Masafumi; Kondo, Megumi; Hyodo, Masayuki; Renne, Paul R.; Suwa, Gen; Asfaw, Berhane

2013-01-01

195

The earliest known flying dinosaurs flew like the biplanes of early aviation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, from Texas Tech, contains a summary of a discovery that one of the earliest-known flying dinosaurs could configure their feathers into two sets of wings, similar to a biplane. The evidence for this new hypothesis is provided, along with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of such flight. An analogy between the evolution of flight in birds and the evolution of aeronautical design is also presented.

Pressley, Gretchen

2007-04-26

196

Dietary specializations and diversity in feeding ecology of the earliest stem mammals.  

PubMed

The origin and radiation of mammals are key events in the history of life, with fossils placing the origin at 220 million years ago, in the Late Triassic period. The earliest mammals, representing the first 50 million years of their evolution and including the most basal taxa, are widely considered to be generalized insectivores. This implies that the first phase of the mammalian radiation--associated with the appearance in the fossil record of important innovations such as heterodont dentition, diphyodonty and the dentary-squamosal jaw joint--was decoupled from ecomorphological diversification. Finds of exceptionally complete specimens of later Mesozoic mammals have revealed greater ecomorphological diversity than previously suspected, including adaptations for swimming, burrowing, digging and even gliding, but such well-preserved fossils of earlier mammals do not exist, and robust analysis of their ecomorphological diversity has previously been lacking. Here we present the results of an integrated analysis, using synchrotron X-ray tomography and analyses of biomechanics, finite element models and tooth microwear textures. We find significant differences in function and dietary ecology between two of the earliest mammaliaform taxa, Morganucodon and Kuehneotherium--taxa that are central to the debate on mammalian evolution. Morganucodon possessed comparatively more forceful and robust jaws and consumed 'harder' prey, comparable to extant small-bodied mammals that eat considerable amounts of coleopterans. Kuehneotherium ingested a diet comparable to extant mixed feeders and specialists on 'soft' prey such as lepidopterans. Our results reveal previously hidden trophic specialization at the base of the mammalian radiation; hence even the earliest mammaliaforms were beginning to diversify--morphologically, functionally and ecologically. In contrast to the prevailing view, this pattern suggests that lineage splitting during the earliest stages of mammalian evolution was associated with ecomorphological specialization and niche partitioning. PMID:25143112

Gill, Pamela G; Purnell, Mark A; Crumpton, Nick; Brown, Kate Robson; Gostling, Neil J; Stampanoni, M; Rayfield, Emily J

2014-08-21

197

The characteristics and chronology of the earliest Acheulean at Konso, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

The Acheulean technological tradition, characterized by a large (>10 cm) flake-based component, represents a significant technological advance over the Oldowan. Although stone tool assemblages attributed to the Acheulean have been reported from as early as circa 1.6-1.75 Ma, the characteristics of these earliest occurrences and comparisons with later assemblages have not been reported in detail. Here, we provide a newly established chronometric calibration for the Acheulean assemblages of the Konso Formation, southern Ethiopia, which span the time period ?1.75 to <1.0 Ma. The earliest Konso Acheulean is chronologically indistinguishable from the assemblage recently published as the world's earliest with an age of ?1.75 Ma at Kokiselei, west of Lake Turkana, Kenya. This Konso assemblage is characterized by a combination of large picks and crude bifaces/unifaces made predominantly on large flake blanks. An increase in the number of flake scars was observed within the Konso Formation handaxe assemblages through time, but this was less so with picks. The Konso evidence suggests that both picks and handaxes were essential components of the Acheulean from its initial stages and that the two probably differed in function. The temporal refinement seen, especially in the handaxe forms at Konso, implies enhanced function through time, perhaps in processing carcasses with long and stable cutting edges. The documentation of the earliest Acheulean at ?1.75 Ma in both northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia suggests that behavioral novelties were being established in a regional scale at that time, paralleling the emergence of Homo erectus-like hominid morphology. PMID:23359714

Beyene, Yonas; Katoh, Shigehiro; Woldegabriel, Giday; Hart, William K; Uto, Kozo; Sudo, Masafumi; Kondo, Megumi; Hyodo, Masayuki; Renne, Paul R; Suwa, Gen; Asfaw, Berhane

2013-01-29

198

Earth’s earliest evolved crust generated in an Iceland-like setting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is unclear how the earliest continental crust formed on an Earth that was probably originally surfaced with oceanic crust. Continental crust may have first formed in an ocean island-like setting, where upwelling mantle generates magmas that crystallize to form new crust. Of the oceanic plateaux, Iceland is closest in character to continental crust, because its crust is anomalously thick and contains a relatively high proportion of silica-rich (sialic) rocks. Iceland has therefore been considered a suitable analogue for the generation of Earth’s earliest continental crust. However, the geochemical signature of sialic rocks from Iceland is distinct from the typical 3.9- to 2.5-billion-year-old Archaean rocks discovered so far. Here we report the discovery of an exceptionally well-preserved, 4.02-billion-year-old tonalitic gneiss rock unit within the Acasta Gneiss Complex in Canada. We use geochemical analyses to show that this rock unit is characterized by iron enrichment, negative Europium anomalies, unfractionated rare-earth-element patterns, and magmatic zircons with low oxygen isotope ratios. These geochemical characteristics are unlike typical Archaean igneous rocks, but are strikingly similar to those of the sialic rocks from Iceland and imply that this ancient rock unit was formed by shallow-level magmatic processes that include assimilation of rocks previously altered by surface waters. Our data provide direct evidence that Earth’s earliest continental crust formed in a tectonic setting comparable to modern Iceland.

Reimink, Jesse R.; Chacko, Thomas; Stern, Richard A.; Heaman, Larry M.

2014-07-01

199

Chromosomal Abnormality in Men with Impaired Spermatogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background: Chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletions are regarded as two most frequent genetic causes associated with failure of spermatogenesis in the Caucasian population. Materials and Methods: To investigate the distribution of genetic defects in the Romanian population with azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia, karyotype analysis by G-banding was carried out in 850 idiopathic infertile men and in 49 fertile men with one or more children. Screening for microdeletions in the azoospermia factor (AZF) region of Y chromosome was performed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on a group of 67 patients with no detectable chromosomal abnormality. The results of the two groups were compared by a two-tailed Fisher’s exact test. Results: In our study chromosomal abnormalities were observed in 12.70% and 8.16% of infertile and fertile individuals respectively. Conclusion: Our data suggests that infertile men with severe azoospermia have higher incidences of genetic defects than fertile men and also patients from any other group. Infertile men with normal sperm present a higher rate of polymorphic variants. It is important to know whether there is a genetic cause of male infertility before patients are subjected to intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or testicular sperm extraction (TESE)/ICSI treatment. PMID:24696767

Mierla, Dana; Jardan, Dumitru; Stoian, Veronica

2014-01-01

200

Maxillary tumour as first sign of endocrine abnormality: A report of a rare case  

PubMed Central

Brown tumour is a non-neoplastic giant cell lesion resulting as a complication of hyperparathyroidism (HPT). HPT usually results from increased secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH). We present a rare case of brown tumour of anterior maxilla presenting as a first sign of previously undiagnosed secondary HPT, to emphasise that giant cell lesions of jaw bones should routinely be screened for PTH levels to rule out underlying endocrine abnormalities and oral manifestation is the earliest manifestation of many systemic diseases and careful evaluation of oral cavity by physician gives information to underlying systemic pathology.

Thankappan, Prasanth; Chundru, Naga Sirisha; Amudala, Rajesh; Kuppusamy, Anitha

2015-01-01

201

Using Reduced Interference Distribution to Analyze Abnormal Cardiac Signal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the non-stationary, multicomponent nature of biomedical signals, the use of time-frequency analysis can be inevitable for these signals. The choice and selection of the proper Time-Frequency Distribution (TFD) that can reveal the exact multicomponent structure of biological signals is vital in many applications, including the diagnosis of medical abnormalities. In this paper, the instantaneous frequency techniques using two distribution functions are applied for analysis of biological signals. These distributions are the Wigner-Ville Distribution and the Bessel Distribution. The simulation performed on normaland abnormal cardiac signals show that the Bessel Distribution can clearly detect the QRS complexes. However, Wigner-Ville Distribution was able to detect the QRS complexes in the normal signa, but fails to detect these complexes in the abnormal cardiac signal.

Mousa, Allam; Saleem, Rashid

2011-05-01

202

The earliest ostracods from the Ordovician of the Prague Basin, Czech Republic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The earliest ostracods from the Bohemian Massif (Central European Variscides) have been recorded from the Middle Ordovician of the Prague Basin (Barrandian area), in the upper Klabava Formation, and became an abundant component of fossil assemblages in the overlying Šarka Formation. Both early ostracod associations consist of eight species in total, representing mainly eridostracans, palaeocopids, and binodicopids. The revision, description, or redescription of all species and their distribution in the basin is provided. Their diversification patterns and palaeogeographical relationships to ostracod assemblages from other regions are discussed.

Lajblová, Karolína; Kraft, Petr

2014-12-01

203

Postcranial skeletal pneumaticity and air-sacs in the earliest pterosaurs  

PubMed Central

Patterns of postcranial skeletal pneumatization (PSP) indicate that pterosaurs possessed components of a bird-like respiratory system, including a series of ventilatory air-sacs. However, the presence of PSP in the oldest known pterosaurs has not been unambiguously demonstrated by previous studies. Here we provide the first unequivocal documentation of PSP in Late Triassic and earliest Jurassic pterosaurs. This demonstrates that PSP and, by inference, air-sacs were probably present in the common ancestor of almost all known pterosaurs, and has broader implications for the evolution of respiratory systems in bird-line archosaurs, including dinosaurs. PMID:19411265

Butler, Richard J.; Barrett, Paul M.; Gower, David J.

2009-01-01

204

Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

2002-01-01

205

Laetoli Footprints Preserve Earliest Direct Evidence of Human-Like Bipedal Biomechanics  

PubMed Central

Background Debates over the evolution of hominin bipedalism, a defining human characteristic, revolve around whether early bipeds walked more like humans, with energetically efficient extended hind limbs, or more like apes with flexed hind limbs. The 3.6 million year old hominin footprints at Laetoli, Tanzania represent the earliest direct evidence of hominin bipedalism. Determining the kinematics of Laetoli hominins will allow us to understand whether selection acted to decrease energy costs of bipedalism by 3.6 Ma. Methodology/Principal Findings Using an experimental design, we show that the Laetoli hominins walked with weight transfer most similar to the economical extended limb bipedalism of humans. Humans walked through a sand trackway using both extended limb bipedalism, and more flexed limb bipedalism. Footprint morphology from extended limb trials matches weight distribution patterns found in the Laetoli footprints. Conclusions These results provide us with the earliest direct evidence of kinematically human-like bipedalism currently known, and show that extended limb bipedalism evolved long before the appearance of the genus Homo. Since extended-limb bipedalism is more energetically economical than ape-like bipedalism, energy expenditure was likely an important selection pressure on hominin bipeds by 3.6 Ma. PMID:20339543

Raichlen, David A.; Gordon, Adam D.; Harcourt-Smith, William E. H.; Foster, Adam D.; Haas, Wm. Randall

2010-01-01

206

Ribonucleic acid folder: The earliest moves of a good structure seeker  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We identify the earliest folding events of a classical soft-mode ribonucleic acid chain under renaturation conditions. Due to hard-mode elimination, when this problem is cast in terms of intrinsic (dihedral torsional) coordinates, the weight of the differential volume, resulting merely from the transformation from Cartesian onto intrinsic coordinates, is not constant. This inherent geometry resulting from the embedding of the infinite Cartesian space onto the compact torsional manifold has physical consequences, especially in the earliest folding times, when the intramolecular potential has not yet had a chance to outweigh it. Thus, the early folding events are induced by a coupling between the inherent geometry and the hydrodynamic drag, and they predate the occurrence of nonbonded intrachain interactions. Thus, by contrasting the early geometrically determined probability distribution in torsional conformation space with the energetically favorable regions, we elucidate how the interplay between hydrodynamic control and potential energy surface during the early stages of folding (10 ps-1 ?s) determines the expediency of the process. In this way we are able to decide in simple cases whether geometry and Watson-Crick complementarities represent reinforcing or conflicting propensities, defining a good seeker or a bad folder.

Fernández, Ariel; Appignanesi, Gustavo

2001-05-01

207

Electrocardiographic abnormalities in centenarians: impact on survival  

PubMed Central

Background The centenarian population is gradually increasing, so it is becoming more common to see centenarians in clinical practice. Electrocardiogram abnormalities in the elderly have been reported, but several methodological biases have been detected that limit the validity of their results. The aim of this study is to analyse the ECG abnormalities in a prospective study of the centenarian population and to assess their impact on survival. Method We performed a domiciliary visit, where a medical history, an ECG and blood analysis were obtained. Barthel index (BI), cognitive mini-exam (CME) and Charlson index (ChI) were all determined. Patients were followed up by telephone up until their death. Results A total of 80 centenarians were studied, 26 men and 64 women, mean age 100.8 (SD 1.3). Of these, 81% had been admitted to the hospital at least once in the past, 81.3% were taking drugs (mean 3.3, rank 0–11). ChI was 1.21 (SD 1.19). Men had higher scores both for BI (70 -SD 34.4- vs. 50.4 -SD 36.6-, P?=?.005) and CME (16.5 -SD 9.1- vs. 9.1 –SD 11.6-, P?=?.008); 40.3% of the centenarians had anaemia, 67.5% renal failure, 13% hyperglycaemia, 22.1% hypoalbuminaemia and 10.7% dyslipidaemia, without statistically significant differences regarding sex. Only 7% had a normal ECG; 21 (26.3%) had atrial fibrillation (AF), 30 (37.5%) conduction defects and 31 (38.8%) abnormalities suggestive of ischemia, without sex-related differences. A history of heart disease was significantly associated with the presence of AF (P?=?.002, OR 5.2, CI 95% 1.8 to 15.2) and changes suggestive of ischemia (P?=?.019, OR 3.2, CI 95% 1.2-8.7). Mean survival was 628?days (SD 578.5), median 481?days. Mortality risk was independently associated with the presence of AF (RR 2.0, P?=?.011), hyperglycaemia (RR 2.2, P?=?.032), hypoalbuminaemia (RR 3.5, P?abnormalities are common in centenarians, they are not related to sex, functional capacity or cognitive impairment. The only abnormality that has an impact on survival is AF. PMID:22520618

2012-01-01

208

Abnormal Psychology, Spring 2008 1 Psychology 350  

E-print Network

Abnormal Psychology, Spring 2008 1 Psychology 350 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2008 N-101 Tuesdays 4 psychology. By the end of the semester, students will be able to: · Discuss extant models of abnormal in Foundation II.B., Social and Behavioral Sciences required." #12;Abnormal Psychology, Spring 2008 2 Course

Gallo, Linda C.

209

[A boy with nail abnormalities].  

PubMed

A 12-year-old boy consulted the dermatologist for nail abnormalities. Three weeks earlier, he was treated with doxycycline 100 mg BID for 10 days because of erythema chronicum migrans. Following sun exposure, the patient had developed distal onycholysis surrounded by a hyperpigmented zone. He was diagnosed with doxycycline-induced photo-onycholysis. PMID:23838405

Atiq, Nasirah; van Meurs, Tim

2013-01-01

210

Comprehensive imaging review of abnormalities of the umbilical cord.  

PubMed

A complete fetal ultrasonographic (US) study includes assessment of the umbilical cord for possible abnormalities. Knowledge of the normal appearance of the umbilical cord is necessary for the radiologist to correctly diagnose pathologic conditions. Umbilical cord abnormalities can be related to cord coiling, length, and thickness; the placental insertion site; in utero distortion; vascular abnormalities; and primary tumors or masses. These conditions may be associated with other fetal anomalies and aneuploidies, and their discovery should prompt a thorough fetal US examination. Further workup and planning for a safe fetal delivery may include fetal echocardiography and karyotype analysis. Doppler US is a critical tool for assessment and diagnosis of vascular cord abnormalities. US also can be used for follow-up serial imaging evaluation of conditions that could result in fetal demise. Recent studies suggest that three- or four-dimensional Doppler US of the fetal umbilical cord and abdominal vasculature allows more accurate diagnosis of vascular abnormalities. Doppler US also is invaluable in assessment of fetal growth restriction since hemodynamic changes in the placenta or fetus would appear as a spectral pattern of increased resistance to forward flow in the fetal umbilical artery. Early detection of umbilical cord abnormalities and close follow-up can reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality and assist in decision making. PMID:24428290

Moshiri, Mariam; Zaidi, Sadaf F; Robinson, Tracy J; Bhargava, Puneet; Siebert, Joseph R; Dubinsky, Theodore J; Katz, Douglas S

2014-01-01

211

Size of the earliest mollusks: Did small helcionellids grow to become large adults?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generally accepted view that early mollusks were millimeter-scaleanimals is partly based on paleontological data. Millimeter-scale,exquisitely preserved mollusks are important constituents ofmany small shelly fossil assemblages and have been the focusof most modern studies of Cambrian mollusks. Centimeter-sizedmollusks occur in the fossil record as early as the earliestCambrian but have been neglected for decades in favor of theirbetter-preserved, millimeter-scale counterparts. Here we presenta large, limpet-like mollusk from the Lower Cambrian of Spainthat preserves an apical shell indistinguishable from the millimeter-scalehelcionellids that have come to epitomize the ancestral "conchiferan."The Spanish fossils provide direct evidence that at least somemillimeter-scale helcionellids represent juvenile or larvalshells of large, limpet-like mollusks, suggesting that the presumedgeneralized small size of Cambrian mollusks may be a taphonomicartifact.

Martí Mus, Mónica; Palacios, Teodoro; Jensen, Sören

2008-02-01

212

Biotic Response in Aquatic Reptiles (Testudines) during Earliest Eocene Climatic Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The earliest Eocene is marked by significant events of global warming: the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) at ~55.8 Ma and two short-lived events (ETM2 or Elmo and H2) approximately 2 Ma later. These environmental changes induced strong responses in the continental biota. Noteworthy changes in North American mid-latitude faunas and floras that are temporally correlated with earliest Eocene warming events include: increased diversity; turnover; and significant range changes, comprising both northward shifts in ranges of North American taxa as well as intercontinental dispersal across Holarctica. Evidence for these biotic changes comes directly from the fossil record and indirectly from phylogeographic analyses of molecular phylogenies of extant biota. To date, the stratigraphic record of biotic change has only been examined for the flora and terrestrial mammals. Data on reptiles and for continental aquatic systems are particularly lacking. In order to assess the impact of climate-mediated faunal change in aquatic systems during early Paleogene warming, we have focused on developing a detailed record of fossil turtles (Testudines) from the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming, where these records can be directly compared to similarly studied mammalian and floral data and to isotopic studies that provide independent proxies of climate change. Using genus-level occurrence data from more than 450 stratigraphically-constrained localities spanning ~2.5 Ma, we calculated first and last appearances, taxonomic richness, and relative abundance as measured by presence-absence (site occupancy). Among turtles, taxonomic richness increased episodically through the earliest Eocene with two new taxa appearing at the PETM, two immediately following it, and two at Biohorizon B, an interval associated with the younger hyperthermals. These new, immigrant taxa eventually comprised 40% of known generic richness. Phylogenetically, the inferred biogeographic source regions are southern North America and Asia, with an equal number of taxa originating in each area. Although immigrant taxa comprised less than half of the known earliest Eocene diversity, their relative dominance in these assemblages varied markedly. Within the PETM interval, immigrant taxa comprise nearly 70% of occurrences. Post-PETM, as temperatures cooled, immigrant taxa and taxa persisting from the Paleocene showed greater evenness, but immigrant taxa again became dominant with renewed warming. Among immigrant taxa, intercontinental dispersers are much more common than those that that dispersed from southern North America. These data are consistent with and stratigraphically correlative with significant changes in the mammalian fauna and flora of the Bighorn Basin and underline the importance of climatic change as a driver in these events. However, the magnitude and relative importance of intra- vs. intercontinental dispersal has not yet been fully examined in other taxonomic groups. The asymmetry of response following immigration that we observe in turtles may be taxon-specific, unique to aquatic systems, or may illustrate a more general pattern of how biotas respond to significant climate change.

Holroyd, P. A.; Hutchison, J. H.

2010-12-01

213

The earliest recorded aurora in North America since European colonization [rapid communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jesuit missionaries in the seventeenth century, in what is now Quebec, Canada and New England, United States, periodically sent reports on their activities to their superiors in Canada and France. These were then edited and published in annual volumes. A translation of these reports, together with related documents, was published in the United States around the turn of the twentieth century. Included in these volumes are three reports easily identified as auroras. The earliest of these, from 1611, predates the hitherto known first North American report, in 1719, by more than a century. The other reports are from Quebec in 1662 and mid-America in 1736. These reports are quoted in full and discussed in terms of the geophysical context of the times. Additional reports from New England for the aurora of 1719, not previously available in the auroral literature, are also presented and discussed.

Silverman, S. M.

2005-05-01

214

Functional Capabilities of the Earliest Peptides and the Emergence of Life  

PubMed Central

Considering how biological macromolecules first evolved, probably within a marine environment, it seems likely the very earliest peptides were not encoded by nucleic acids, or at least not via the genetic code as we know it. An objective of the present work is to demonstrate that sequence-independent peptides, or peptides with variable and unreliable lengths and sequences, have the potential to perform a variety of chemically useful functions such as anion and cation binding and membrane and channel formation as well as simple types of catalysis. These functions tend to be performed with the assistance of the main chain CONH atoms rather than the more variable or limited side chain atoms of the peptides presumed to exist then. PMID:24710286

Milner-White, E. James; Russell, Michael J.

2011-01-01

215

Earliest human occupations at Dmanisi (Georgian Caucasus) dated to 1.85–1.78 Ma  

PubMed Central

The early Pleistocene colonization of temperate Eurasia by Homo erectus was not only a significant biogeographic event but also a major evolutionary threshold. Dmanisi's rich collection of hominin fossils, revealing a population that was small-brained with both primitive and derived skeletal traits, has been dated to the earliest Upper Matuyama chron (ca. 1.77 Ma). Here we present archaeological and geologic evidence that push back Dmanisi's first occupations to shortly after 1.85 Ma and document repeated use of the site over the last half of the Olduvai subchron, 1.85–1.78 Ma. These discoveries show that the southern Caucasus was occupied repeatedly before Dmanisi's hominin fossil assemblage accumulated, strengthening the probability that this was part of a core area for the colonization of Eurasia. The secure age for Dmanisi's first occupations reveals that Eurasia was probably occupied before Homo erectus appears in the East African fossil record. PMID:21646521

Ferring, Reid; Oms, Oriol; Agustí, Jordi; Berna, Francesco; Nioradze, Medea; Shelia, Teona; Tappen, Martha; Vekua, Abesalom; Zhvania, David; Lordkipanidze, David

2011-01-01

216

Bivalves from the latest Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous hydrocarbon seep carbonates from central Spitsbergen, Svalbard.  

PubMed

The bivalve fauna from the latest Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous hydrocarbon seep deposits from central Spitsbergen, Svalbard comprises at least 17 species, four of which belong to chemosymbiotic taxa often found at seeps. These are the solemyid Solemya (Petrasma) cf. woodwardiana; Nucinella svalbardensis sp. nov., which belongs to a group of large Nucinella species known from seeps and deep water environments; the lucinid bivalve, Tehamatea rasmusseni sp. nov., included in a genus widely distributed in other Jurassic-Cretaceous seeps; and Cretaxinus hurumi gen. et sp. nov., which is the oldest known thyasirid and is discussed in relation to other large seep-restricted genera in this family. The remaining species in the fauna belong to 'background' genera known from coeval normal marine sediments, mostly from the Boreal area. These include the nuculid Dacromya chetaensis, two new malletiids (Mesosaccella rogovi sp. nov. and M. toddi sp. nov.), the oxytomiid Oxytoma octavia, at least three Buchia species, at least two pectinids, including Camptonectes (Costicamptonectes) aff. milnelandensis and Camptonectes (Camptochlamys) clatrathus, the limid Pseudolimea arctica, the arcticid Pseudotrapezium aff. groenlandicum, and the pholadomyid Goniomya literata. The large number of 'background' species in the bivalve fauna is probably a reflection of the shallow-water setting of the Svalbard seeps. This might also explain the lack of the seep-restricted modiomorphid bivalve Caspiconcha from the fauna. With solemyids, Nucinella, lucinids and thyasirids, the latest Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous bivalve seep fauna of Svalbard contains typical representatives of the Mesozoic bivalve seep faunas, both long established and young evolutionary colonists. PMID:25283172

Hryniewicz, Krzysztof; Little, Crispin T S; Nakrem, Hans Arne

2014-01-01

217

Volutidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of the Lakhra Formation (Earliest Eocene, Sindh, Pakistan): systematics, biostratigraphy and paleobiogeography.  

PubMed

The paleobiodiversity of the Volutidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of the Ranikot Group (Sindh, Pakistan) and particularly of the Lakhra Formation (SBZ 5 biozone, Earliest Eocene), is reconsidered on the basis of new material collected during recent field trips. Ten new species are described (Mitreola brohii sp. nov., Lyrischapa vredenburgi sp. nov., L. brevispira sp. nov., Athleta (Volutopupa) citharopsis sp. nov., A. (Volutocorbis) lasharii sp. nov., Volutilithes welcommei sp. nov., V. sindhiensis sp. nov., Pseudaulicina coxi sp. nov., Sindhiluta lakhraensis sp. nov. and Pakiluta solangii sp. nov.) and one species is in open nomenclature (Lyria sp.). Three new genera are described: Lyriopsis gen. nov. [Volutinae, ?Lyriini, type species: Lyriopsis cossmanni (Vredenburg, 1923)], Sindhiluta gen. nov. [Volutilithinae, type species: Sindhiluta lakhraensis n. sp.] and Pakiluta gen. nov. [?Volutodermatinae, type species: Pakiluta solangii n. sp.]. Two new combinations are proposed: Lyriopsis cossmanni (Vredenburg, 1923) comb. nov. and Athleta (Volutopupa) intercrenatus (Cossmann & Pissarro, 1909) comb. nov. Lectotypes are designated for Lyria cossmanni Vredenburg, 1923, L. feddeni Vredenburg, 1923, Volutospina noetlingi Cossmann & Pissarro, 1909, V. intercrenata Cossmann & Pissarro, 1909 and Athleta (Volutocorbis) victoriae Vredenburg, 1923. With 21 species, this volutid fauna is the most diverse recorded from the Tethys Ocean during Earliest Eocene time. The assemblage is characterized by a strong turnover marked by regional speciation and the appearance of many western Tethyan invaders. Although at the species level, the assemblage documents a strong provincialism, at the genus level, the high number of shared genera between Eastern Tethyan and Old World Tethyan realms begins a phase of long-term homogeneity of volutid assemblages from the Tethyan paleobiogeographic province. PMID:24990040

Merle, Didier; Pacaud, Jean-Michel; Métais, Grégoire; Bartolini, Annachiara; Lashari, Rafiq A; Brohi, Imdad A; Solangi, Sarfraz H; Marivaux, Laurent; Welcomme, Jean-Loup

2014-01-01

218

The earliest events in protein folding: Helix dynamics in proteins and model peptides  

SciTech Connect

The earliest events in protein folding are critically important in determining the folding pathway, but have proved difficult to study by conventional approaches. We have developed new rapid initiation methods and structure-specific probes to interrogate the earliest events of protein folding. Our focus is the pathways. Folding or unfolding reactions are initiated on a fast timescale (10 ns) using a laser induced temperature jump (15 C) and probed with time-resolved infrared spectroscopy. We obtained the kinetics of the helix-coil transition for a model 21-residue peptide. The observed rate constant k{sub obs} = k{sub f} + k{sub u} for reversible kinetics; from the observed rate (6 x 10{sup 6} s{sup -1}) and the equilibrium constant favoring folding of 7.5 at 27 C, we calculate a folding lifetime of 180 ns and an unfolding lifetime of 1.4 {mu}s. The {open_quotes}molten globule{close_quotes} form of apomyoglobin (horse, pH*3, 0.15M NaCl) shows similar kinetics for helix that is unconstrained by tertiary structure (helix with an unusually low Amide I frequency, near 1633 cm{sup -1}). In {open_quotes}native{close_quotes} apomyoglobin (horse, pH*5.3, 10 mM NaCl) two very different rates (45 ns and 70 {mu}s) are observed and we infer that a third occurs on a timescales inaccessible to our experiment (> 1 ms). We suggest that the slower processes are due to helix formation that is rate-limited by the formation of tertiary structure.

Dyer, R.B.; Williams, S.; Woodruff, W.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31

219

Road Proximity Increases Risk of Skeletal Abnormalities in Wood Frogs from National Wildlife Refuges in Alaska  

PubMed Central

Background Skeletal and eye abnormalities in amphibians are not well understood, and they appear to be increasing while global populations decline. Here, we present the first study of amphibian abnormalities in Alaska. Objective In this study we investigated the relationship between anthropogenic influences and the probability of skeletal and eye abnormalities in Alaskan wood frogs (Rana sylvatica). Methods From 2000 to 2006, we examined 9,269 metamorphic wood frogs from 86 breeding sites on five National Wildlife Refuges: Arctic, Innoko, Kenai, Tetlin, and Yukon Delta. Using road proximity as a proxy for human development, we tested relationships between skeletal and eye abnormalities and anthropogenic effects. We also examined a subsample of 458 frogs for the trematode parasite Ribeiroia ondatrae, a known cause of amphibian limb abnormalities. Results Prevalence of skeletal and eye abnormalities at Alaskan refuges ranged from 1.5% to 7.9% and were as high as 20% at individual breeding sites. Proximity to roads increased the risk of skeletal abnormalities (p = 0.004) but not eye abnormalities. The only significant predictor of eye abnormalities was year sampled (p = 0.006). R. ondatrae was not detected in any Alaskan wood frogs. Conclusions Abnormality prevalence at road-accessible sites in the Kenai and Tetlin refuges is among the highest reported in the published literature. Proximity to roads is positively correlated with risk of skeletal abnormalities in Alaskan wood frogs. PMID:18709167

Reeves, Mari K.; Dolph, Christine L.; Zimmer, Heidi; Tjeerdema, Ronald S.; Trust, Kimberly A.

2008-01-01

220

Functional neuroimaging abnormalities in idiopathic generalized epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have been used to quantitatively assess focal and network abnormalities. Idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) is characterized by bilateral synchronous spike–wave discharges on electroencephalography (EEG) but normal clinical MRI. Dysfunctions involving the neocortex, particularly the prefrontal cortex, and thalamus likely contribute to seizure activity. To identify possible morphometric and functional differences in the brains of IGE patients and normal controls, we employed measures of thalamic volumes, cortical thickness, gray–white blurring, fractional anisotropy (FA) measures from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF) in thalamic subregions from resting state functional MRI. Data from 27 patients with IGE and 27 age- and sex-matched controls showed similar thalamic volumes, cortical thickness and gray–white contrast. There were no differences in FA values on DTI in tracts connecting the thalamus and prefrontal cortex. Functional analysis revealed decreased fALFF in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) subregion of the thalamus in patients with IGE. We provide minimum detectable effect sizes for each measure used in the study. Our analysis indicates that fMRI-based methods are more sensitive than quantitative structural techniques for characterizing brain abnormalities in IGE. PMID:25383319

McGill, Megan L.; Devinsky, Orrin; Wang, Xiuyuan; Quinn, Brian T.; Pardoe, Heath; Carlson, Chad; Butler, Tracy; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Thesen, Thomas

2014-01-01

221

Differential light scattering spectroscopy measurements for detecting and imaging cancer  

E-print Network

Optical spectroscopy show great promise for diagnosing the earliest stages of cancer. Light scattering spectroscopy (LSS), the study of single elastic backscattering as a function of wavelength and angle, can detect ...

Lau, Condon

2006-01-01

222

Abnormal pupillary light reflex with chromatic pupillometry in Gaucher disease  

PubMed Central

The hallmark of neuronopathic Gaucher disease (GD) is oculomotor abnormalities, but ophthalmological assessment is difficult in uncooperative patients. Chromatic pupillometry is a quantitative method to assess the pupillary light reflex (PLR) with minimal patient cooperation. Thus, we investigated whether chromatic pupillometry could be useful for neurological evaluations in GD. In our neuronopathic GD patients, red light-induced PLR was markedly impaired, whereas blue light-induced PLR was relatively spared. In addition, patients with non-neuronopathic GD showed no abnormalities. These novel findings show that chromatic pupillometry is a convenient method to detect neurological signs and monitor the course of disease in neuronopathic GD. PMID:25356393

Narita, Aya; Shirai, Kentarou; Kubota, Norika; Takayama, Rumiko; Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Onuki, Takanori; Numakura, Chikahiko; Kato, Mitsuhiro; Hamada, Yusuke; Sakai, Norio; Ohno, Atsuko; Asami, Maya; Matsushita, Shoko; Hayashi, Anri; Kumada, Tomohiro; Fujii, Tatsuya; Horino, Asako; Inoue, Takeshi; Kuki, Ichiro; Asakawa, Ken; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Ohno, Koyo; Nishimura, Yoko; Tamasaki, Akiko; Maegaki, Yoshihiro; Ohno, Kousaku

2014-01-01

223

Abnormal pupillary light reflex with chromatic pupillometry in Gaucher disease.  

PubMed

The hallmark of neuronopathic Gaucher disease (GD) is oculomotor abnormalities, but ophthalmological assessment is difficult in uncooperative patients. Chromatic pupillometry is a quantitative method to assess the pupillary light reflex (PLR) with minimal patient cooperation. Thus, we investigated whether chromatic pupillometry could be useful for neurological evaluations in GD. In our neuronopathic GD patients, red light-induced PLR was markedly impaired, whereas blue light-induced PLR was relatively spared. In addition, patients with non-neuronopathic GD showed no abnormalities. These novel findings show that chromatic pupillometry is a convenient method to detect neurological signs and monitor the course of disease in neuronopathic GD. PMID:25356393

Narita, Aya; Shirai, Kentarou; Kubota, Norika; Takayama, Rumiko; Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Onuki, Takanori; Numakura, Chikahiko; Kato, Mitsuhiro; Hamada, Yusuke; Sakai, Norio; Ohno, Atsuko; Asami, Maya; Matsushita, Shoko; Hayashi, Anri; Kumada, Tomohiro; Fujii, Tatsuya; Horino, Asako; Inoue, Takeshi; Kuki, Ichiro; Asakawa, Ken; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Ohno, Koyo; Nishimura, Yoko; Tamasaki, Akiko; Maegaki, Yoshihiro; Ohno, Kousaku

2014-02-01

224

Normal and abnormal skin color.  

PubMed

The varieties of normal skin color in humans range from people of "no color" (pale white) to "people of color" (light brown, dark brown, and black). Skin color is a blend resulting from the skin chromophores red (oxyhaemoglobin), blue (deoxygenated haemoglobin), yellow-orange (carotene, an exogenous pigment), and brown (melanin). Melanin, however, is the major component of skin color ; it is the presence or absence of melanin in the melanosomes in melanocytes and melanin in keratinocytes that is responsible for epidermal pigmentation, and the presence of melanin in macrophages or melanocytes in the dermis that is responsible for dermal pigmentation. Two groups of pigmentary disorders are commonly distinguished: the disorders of the quantitative and qualitative distribution of normal pigment and the abnormal presence of exogenous or endogenous pigments in the skin. The first group includes hyperpigmentations, which clinically manifest by darkening of the skin color, and leukodermia, which is characterized by lightening of the skin. Hypermelanosis corresponds to an overload of melanin or an abnormal distribution of melanin in the skin. Depending on the color, melanodermia (brown/black) and ceruloderma (blue/grey) are distinguished. Melanodermia correspond to epidermal hypermelanocytosis (an increased number of melanocytes) or epidermal hypermelanosis (an increase in the quantity of melanin in the epidermis with no modification of the number of melanocytes). Ceruloderma corresponds to dermal hypermelanocytosis (abnormal presence in the dermis of cells synthesizing melanins) ; leakage in the dermis of epidermal melanin also exists, a form of dermal hypermelanosis called pigmentary incontinence. Finally, dyschromia can be related to the abnormal presence in the skin of a pigment of exogenous or endogenous origin. PMID:23522626

Ortonne, J P

2012-12-01

225

Glutamatergic Neurotransmission Abnormalities and Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Schizophrenia affects approximately 1% of the adult population worldwide and requires lifelong therapy. Hyperfunction of the\\u000a dopaminergic system has long been hypothesized as the underlying cause of schizophrenia. However, this hypothesis explains\\u000a mostly the positive symptoms associated with schizophrenia. Several lines of evidence point to the glutamatergic system and\\u000a suggest that abnormalities in this system may play a crucial role

Yogesh Dwivedi; Ghanshyam N. Pandey

226

How study of respiratory physiology aided our understanding of abnormal brain function in panic disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a substantial body of literature demonstrating that stimulation of respiration (hyperventilation) is a common event in panic disorder patients during panic attack episodes. Further, a number of abnormalities in respiration, such as enhanced CO2 sensitivity, have been detected in panic patients. This led some to posit that there is a fundamental abnormality in the physiological mechanisms that control

Smit Sinha; Laszlo A Papp; Jack M Gorman

2000-01-01

227

Human papillomavirus ‘reflex’ testing as a screening method in cases of minor cytological abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim was to evaluate human papillomavirus (HPV) ‘reflex genotyping’ in cases of minor cytological abnormalities detected in the gynaecological screening programme in Stockholm, Sweden. Liquid-based cytology samples showing minor cytological abnormalities were analysed using HPV genotyping (Linear Array, Roche diagnostics). Colposcopically directed cervical biopsies were obtained and the HPV test results were correlated with the histological results. In all,

M Fröberg; B Johansson; A Hjerpe; S Andersson

2008-01-01

228

Frontotemporal and Striatal SPECT Abnormalities in Myoclonus-Dystonia: Phenotypic and Pathogenetic Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose: Myoclonus-dystonia (MD) is a rare movement disorder characterized by myoclonic jerks, dystonia and a variety of psychiatric symptoms. Neuroimaging and electrophysiologic studies have not been able to detect any specific central nervous system abnormality. We report for the first time a well-characterized case with MD and abnormal brain perfusion imaging using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)

Spiridon Papapetropoulos; Andreas A. Argyriou; Panagiotis Polychronopoulos; Trifonas Spyridonidis; Philippos Gourzis; Elisabeth Chroni

2008-01-01

229

How to Interpret Abnormal Pap Smear Results  

MedlinePLUS

... Cervical Cancer | How to Interpret Abnormal Pap Smear Results What does an abnormal Pap smear mean? A ... are located in your cervix or uterus. These results mean that some of your glandular cells are ...

230

Mixed Pattern Matching-Based Traffic Abnormal Behavior Recognition  

PubMed Central

A motion trajectory is an intuitive representation form in time-space domain for a micromotion behavior of moving target. Trajectory analysis is an important approach to recognize abnormal behaviors of moving targets. Against the complexity of vehicle trajectories, this paper first proposed a trajectory pattern learning method based on dynamic time warping (DTW) and spectral clustering. It introduced the DTW distance to measure the distances between vehicle trajectories and determined the number of clusters automatically by a spectral clustering algorithm based on the distance matrix. Then, it clusters sample data points into different clusters. After the spatial patterns and direction patterns learned from the clusters, a recognition method for detecting vehicle abnormal behaviors based on mixed pattern matching was proposed. The experimental results show that the proposed technical scheme can recognize main types of traffic abnormal behaviors effectively and has good robustness. The real-world application verified its feasibility and the validity. PMID:24605045

Cui, Zhiming; Zhao, Pengpeng

2014-01-01

231

Olsen, P. E., 1986, Discoveryof earliest Jurassic reptile assemblage from Nova Scotia impliescatastrophicend to Triassic: Lamont (Newsletter),v. 12,p. 1-3. Discovery of Earliest Jurassic Reptile Assemblages from Nova Scotia  

E-print Network

Olsen, P. E., 1986, Discoveryof earliest Jurassic reptile assemblage from Nova Scotia from Nova Scotia: Imply Catastrophic End to the Triassic LateTriassic and EarlyJurassic sediments, tilted, and deeply eroded remnantsare expose6from Nova Scotiato South Carolina and are termed the Newark

Olsen, Paul E.

232

MUC5B Promoter Polymorphism and Interstitial Lung Abnormalities  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND A common promoter polymorphism (rs35705950) in MUC5B, the gene encoding mucin 5B, is associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. It is not known whether this polymorphism is associated with interstitial lung disease in the general population. METHODS We performed a blinded assessment of interstitial lung abnormalities detected in 2633 participants in the Framingham Heart Study by means of volumetric chest computed tomography (CT). We evaluated the relationship between the abnormalities and the genotype at the rs35705950 locus. RESULTS Of the 2633 chest CT scans that were evaluated, interstitial lung abnormalities were present in 177 (7%). Participants with such abnormalities were more likely to have shortness of breath and chronic cough and reduced measures of total lung and diffusion capacity, as compared with participants without such abnormalities. After adjustment for covariates, for each copy of the minor rs35705950 allele, the odds of interstitial lung abnormalities were 2.8 times greater (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0 to 3.9; P<0.001), and the odds of definite CT evidence of pulmonary fibrosis were 6.3 times greater (95% CI, 3.1 to 12.7; P<0.001). Although the evidence of an association between the MUC5B genotype and interstitial lung abnormalities was greater among participants who were older than 50 years of age, a history of cigarette smoking did not appear to influence the association. CONCLUSIONS The MUC5B promoter polymorphism was found to be associated with interstitial lung disease in the general population. Although this association was more apparent in older persons, it did not appear to be influenced by cigarette smoking. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00005121.) PMID:23692170

Hunninghake, Gary M.; Hatabu, Hiroto; Okajima, Yuka; Gao, Wei; Dupuis, Josée; Latourelle, Jeanne C.; Nishino, Mizuki; Araki, Tetsuro; Zazueta, Oscar E.; Kurugol, Sila; Ross, James C.; Estépar, Raúl San José; Murphy, Elissa; Steele, Mark P.; Loyd, James E.; Schwarz, Marvin I.; Fingerlin, Tasha E.; Rosas, Ivan O.; Washko, George R.; O’Connor, George T.; Schwartz, David A.

2013-01-01

233

Precise U-Pb Zircon Constraints on the Earliest Magmatic History of the Carolina Terrane.  

PubMed

The early magmatic and tectonic history of the Carolina terrane and its possible affinities with other Neoproterozoic circum-Atlantic arc terranes have been poorly understood, in large part because of a lack of reliable geochronological data. Precise U-Pb zircon dates for the Virgilina sequence, the oldest exposed part, constrain the timing of the earliest known stage of magmatism in the terrane and of the Virgilina orogeny. A flow-banded rhyolite sampled from a metavolcanic sequence near Chapel Hill, North Carolina, yielded a U-Pb zircon date of 632.9 +2.6/-1.9 Ma. A granitic unit of the Chapel Hill pluton, which intrudes the metavolcanic sequence, yielded a nearly identical U-Pb zircon date of 633 +2/-1.5 Ma, interpreted as its crystallization age. A felsic gneiss and a dacitic tuff from the Hyco Formation yielded U-Pb zircon dates of 619.9 +4.5/-3 Ma and 615.7 +3.7/-1.9 Ma, respectively. Diorite and granite of the Flat River complex have indistinguishable U-Pb upper-intercept dates of 613.9 +1.6/-1.5 Ma and 613.4 +2.8/-2 Ma. The Osmond biotite-granite gneiss, which intruded the Hyco Formation before the Virgilina orogeny, crystallized at 612.4 +5.2/-1.7 Ma. Granite of the Roxboro pluton, an intrusion that postdated the Virgilina orogeny, yielded a U-Pb upper intercept date of 546.5 +3.0/-2.4 Ma, interpreted as the time of its crystallization. These new dates both provide the first reliable estimates of the age of the Virgilina sequence and document that the earliest known stage of magmatism in the Carolina terrane had begun by 633 +2/-1.5 Ma and continued at least until 612.4 +5.2/-1.7 Ma, an interval of approximately 25 m.yr. Timing of the Virgilina orogeny is bracketed between 612.4 +5.2/-1.7 Ma and 586+/-10 Ma (reported age of the upper Uwharrie Formation). The U-Pb systematics of all units studied in the Virgilina sequence are simple and lack any evidence of an older xenocrystic zircon component, which would indicate the presence of a continental-type basement. This observation, together with the juvenile Nd isotopic character of the Virgilina volcanic arc sequence, suggests that the oldest part of the Carolina terrane was built on oceanic crust away from a continental crustal influence. PMID:10769159

Wortman; Samson; Hibbard

2000-05-01

234

Detection  

E-print Network

In this work, we focus on the mainly detection of buildings.. As input data, we use LIDAR data and multispectral aerial images of two different test sites. One is from Zurich airport and the other one is from Vaihingen region close to Stuttgart. Quality assessment has been performed by comparing our results with existing reference data which are generated using commercial photogrammetric software and manual stereo measurement. 1.

unknown authors

235

Early detection of glaucomatous damage. II. Changes in the appearance of the optic disk.  

PubMed

Once we understand that an increase in the size of the optic disk cup is due to loss of optic nerve fibers combined with some physical tissue rearrangements, it is quite clear that cupping begins as soon as nerve loss begins. Methods to detect cupping are more sensitive to the earliest glaucoma damage than are present field testing methods. This conclusion is supported by large clinical studies and histological demonstration of nerve fiber loss prior to field loss in eyes with abnormal cups, asymmetric cupping, or nerve fiber layer abnormalities. While automated perimetry is likely to increase the sensitivity of detection, better test methodologies are needed to combine with the objectivity of computer-assisted machines. Disk hemorrhages, nerve fiber layer defects, and color vision abnormalities are early signs of damage, supporting the conclusion that damage is present before field loss. A number of other methods await further testing to determine their effectiveness. The idea that the disease glaucoma is defined by a certain visual field finding on the Goldmann perimeter is not valid if we define glaucoma as an eye with a history of elevated IOP and optic nerve damage. While such field loss is a convenient means of defining a particular stage of damage in glaucoma, there are clearly earlier stages of damage, whether we can always detect them or not. No patient should be told that he or she does not have glaucoma, but rather has ocular hypertension, based on a particular visual field finding. As testing and examination methods improve, so, hopefully, will our ability to determine whether damage is present. As this occurs, we will be better enabled to select most rationally those patients who will benefit from therapy. The idea that field testing is relatively insensitive to the earliest glaucoma damage might lead the skeptic to conclude that perimetry is not worth the trouble. This review has indicated that none of our present methods, ophthalmoscopic, psychophysical or otherwise, is perfect. But to omit using any of them (especially field testing) does a great disservice to the glaucoma patient. The greatest usefulness of the new automated instruments is that adequate field testing is now available in a cost-effective form to every ophthalmic office. We need to strive for better detection and follow-up of glaucoma damage to prevent needless blindness. PMID:4071380

Quigley, H A

1985-01-01

236

Pathology Case Study: Sensory Abnormalities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Pathology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has compiled a wide range of pathology case studies to aid students and instructors in the medical/health science field. This particular case focuses on a 30-year-old man with a history of focal numbness, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and progressive sensory abnormalities. The patientâÂÂs history, images from an MRI, microscopic images of a specimen collected during his laminectomy, and final diagnosis are provided in this case for your review. Students will find this resource especially helpful, as it provides experience with patient history, lab results, and diagnostics.

Duggal, Neil; Hammond, Robert R.; Lownie, Steven P.; Smith, Sharyn

2007-12-10

237

Identifying patients with diabetes and the earliest date of diagnosis in real time: an electronic health record case-finding algorithm  

PubMed Central

Background Effective population management of patients with diabetes requires timely recognition. Current case-finding algorithms can accurately detect patients with diabetes, but lack real-time identification. We sought to develop and validate an automated, real-time diabetes case-finding algorithm to identify patients with diabetes at the earliest possible date. Methods The source population included 160,872 unique patients from a large public hospital system between January 2009 and April 2011. A diabetes case-finding algorithm was iteratively derived using chart review and subsequently validated (n?=?343) in a stratified random sample of patients, using data extracted from the electronic health records (EHR). A point-based algorithm using encounter diagnoses, clinical history, pharmacy data, and laboratory results was used to identify diabetes cases. The date when accumulated points reached a specified threshold equated to the diagnosis date. Physician chart review served as the gold standard. Results The electronic model had a sensitivity of 97%, specificity of 90%, positive predictive value of 90%, and negative predictive value of 96% for the identification of patients with diabetes. The kappa score for agreement between the model and physician for the diagnosis date allowing for a 3-month delay was 0.97, where 78.4% of cases had exact agreement on the precise date. Conclusions A diabetes case-finding algorithm using data exclusively extracted from a comprehensive EHR can accurately identify patients with diabetes at the earliest possible date within a healthcare system. The real-time capability may enable proactive disease management. PMID:23915139

2013-01-01

238

Cardiac abnormalities in end stage renal failure and anaemia.  

PubMed Central

Thirteen anaemic children on dialysis were assessed to determine the incidence of cardiac changes in end stage renal failure. Nine children had an increased cardiothoracic ratio on radiography. The electrocardiogram was abnormal in every case but no child had left ventricular hypertrophy as assessed by voltage criteria. However, left ventricular hypertrophy, often gross, was found on echocardiography in 12 children and affected the interventricular septum disproportionately. Cardiac index was increased in 10 patients as a result of an increased left ventricular stroke volume rather than heart rate. Left ventricular hypertrophy was significantly greater in those on treatment for hypertension and in those with the highest cardiac index. Abnormal diastolic ventricular function was found in 6/11 children. Children with end stage renal failure have significant cardiac abnormalities that are likely to contribute to the high cardiovascular mortality in this group. Anaemia and hypertension, or its treatment, probably contribute to these changes. Voltage criteria on electrocardiogram are of no value in detecting left ventricular hypertrophy. Echocardiography must be performed, with the results corrected for age and surface area, in order to detect and follow these abnormalities. Images PMID:8323332

Morris, K P; Skinner, J R; Wren, C; Hunter, S; Coulthard, M G

1993-01-01

239

Rise of the Earliest Tetrapods: An Early Devonian Origin from Marine Environment  

PubMed Central

Tetrapod fossil tracks are known from the Middle Devonian (Eifelian at ca. 397 million years ago - MYA), and their earliest bony remains from the Upper Devonian (Frasnian at 375–385 MYA). Tetrapods are now generally considered to have colonized land during the Carboniferous (i.e., after 359 MYA), which is considered to be one of the major events in the history of life. Our analysis on tetrapod evolution was performed using molecular data consisting of 13 proteins from 17 species and different paleontological data. The analysis on the molecular data was performed with the program TreeSAAP and the results were analyzed to see if they had implications on the paleontological data collected. The results have shown that tetrapods evolved from marine environments during times of higher oxygen levels. The change in environmental conditions played a major role in their evolution. According to our analysis this evolution occurred at about 397–416 MYA during the Early Devonian unlike previously thought. This idea is supported by various environmental factors such as sea levels and oxygen rate, and biotic factors such as biodiversity of arthropods and coral reefs. The molecular data also strongly supports lungfish as tetrapod's closest living relative. PMID:21779385

George, David; Blieck, Alain

2011-01-01

240

Identification of Direct Thyroid Hormone Response Genes Reveals the Earliest Gene Regulation Programs during Frog Metamorphosis*  

PubMed Central

Thyroid hormone (T3) is essential for normal development and organ function throughout vertebrates. Its effects are mainly mediated through transcriptional regulation by T3 receptor (TR). The identification and characterization of the immediate early, direct target genes are thus of critical importance in understanding the molecular pathways induced by T3. Unfortunately, this has been hampered by the difficulty to study gene regulation by T3 in uterus-enclosed mammalian embryos. Here we used Xenopus metamorphosis as a model for vertebrate postembryonic development to identify direct T3 response genes in vivo. We took advantage of the ability to easily induce metamorphosis with physiological levels of T3 and to carry out microarray analysis in Xenopus laevis and genome-wide sequence analysis in Xenopus tropicalis. This allowed us to identify 188 up-regulated and 249 down-regulated genes by T3 in the absence of new protein synthesis in whole animals. We further provide evidence to show that these genes contain functional TREs that are bound by TR in tadpoles and that their promoters are regulated by TR in vivo. More importantly, gene ontology analysis showed that the direct up-regulated genes are enriched in categories important for transcriptional regulation and protein degradation-dependent signaling processes but not DNA replication. Our findings thus revealed the existence of interesting pathways induced by T3 at the earliest step of metamorphosis. PMID:19801647

Das, Biswajit; Heimeier, Rachel A.; Buchholz, Daniel R.; Shi, Yun-Bo

2009-01-01

241

Genotypic analysis of the earliest known prehistoric case of tuberculosis in Britain.  

PubMed

The earliest known case of human tuberculosis in Britain dates to the middle period of the Iron Age, approximately 2,200 years before present. Bone lesions on the spine of a male skeleton excavated at Tarrant Hinton in Dorset, United Kingdom, show evidence of Pott's disease and are supported by molecular evidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA amplified by IS6110 PCR (19). In the present study, we used a further series of sensitive PCR methods to confirm the diagnosis of tuberculosis and to determine the genotype of the infecting strain. These tests demonstrated that this individual was infected with a strain of M. tuberculosis rather than Mycobacterium bovis. The strain had undergone the tuberculosis D1 deletion affecting the mmpS6 and mmpL6 genes and can therefore be identified as a member of the family of "modern" M. tuberculosis isolates. All evidence obtained was consistent with surviving mycobacterial DNA being highly fragmented in this case. PMID:15872248

Taylor, G Michael; Young, Douglas B; Mays, Simon A

2005-05-01

242

Earliest Carboniferous tetrapod and arthropod faunas from Scotland populate Romer's Gap.  

PubMed

Devonian tetrapods (limbed vertebrates), known from an increasingly large number of localities, have been shown to be mainly aquatic with many primitive features. In contrast, the post-Devonian record is marked by an Early Mississippian temporal gap ranging from the earliest Carboniferous (Tournaisian and early Viséan) to the mid-Viséan. By the mid-Viséan, tetrapods had become effectively terrestrial as attested by the presence of stem amniotes, developed an essentially modern aspect, and given rise to the crown group. Up to now, only two localities have yielded tetrapod specimens from the Tournaisian stage: one in Scotland with a single articulated skeleton and one in Nova Scotia with isolated bones, many of uncertain identity. We announce a series of discoveries of Tournaisian-age localities in Scotland that have yielded a wealth of new tetrapod and arthropod fossils. These include both terrestrial and aquatic forms and new taxa. We conclude that the gap in the fossil record has been an artifact of collection failure. PMID:22393016

Smithson, Timothy R; Wood, Stanley P; Marshall, John E A; Clack, Jennifer A

2012-03-20

243

Rise of the earliest tetrapods: an early Devonian origin from marine environment.  

PubMed

Tetrapod fossil tracks are known from the Middle Devonian (Eifelian at ca. 397 million years ago--MYA), and their earliest bony remains from the Upper Devonian (Frasnian at 375-385 MYA). Tetrapods are now generally considered to have colonized land during the Carboniferous (i.e., after 359 MYA), which is considered to be one of the major events in the history of life. Our analysis on tetrapod evolution was performed using molecular data consisting of 13 proteins from 17 species and different paleontological data. The analysis on the molecular data was performed with the program TreeSAAP and the results were analyzed to see if they had implications on the paleontological data collected. The results have shown that tetrapods evolved from marine environments during times of higher oxygen levels. The change in environmental conditions played a major role in their evolution. According to our analysis this evolution occurred at about 397-416 MYA during the Early Devonian unlike previously thought. This idea is supported by various environmental factors such as sea levels and oxygen rate, and biotic factors such as biodiversity of arthropods and coral reefs. The molecular data also strongly supports lungfish as tetrapod's closest living relative. PMID:21779385

George, David; Blieck, Alain

2011-01-01

244

Earliest foraminifera and radiolaria from North America: evolutionary and geological implications  

SciTech Connect

Foraminifera and radiolaria were found in lower and middle Cambrian rocks in the western US. They occur in clastic rocks associated with archaeocyathid bioherms and shales in SE California, SW Nevada, W Utah and Idaho. The foraminifera are agglutinated tubes, straight or coiled; the radiolaria are spherical or flattened wit robust lattices. They occur together with some of the earliest shelled metazoa. Their widespread occurrence indicates that protozoa were important elements of the first animal-dominated communities. Their presence suggests a complex trophic structure involving secondary consumers that utilized small autotrophs, carnivores, and detritus. Ordovician and Silurian foraminifera and radiolaria, also found in the US and USSR, show that the subsequent radiation of heterotrophic protists follows a pattern similar to that of metazoans. These fossil protozoa indicate that the skeletonization of early organisms was controlled by factors not related solely to a multicellular grade of organization. Hypotheses requiring the attainment of atmospheric oxygen levels high enough for metazoan skeletonization processes to operate, seawater chemistry allowing the use of specific skeletal materials, attainment of large size, evolution of regulatory genes, and similar ideas can be eliminated or modified. The fossils also indicate that the advent of skeletonized metazoa and protists, and their subsequent radiation were probably related to the proliferation of trophic interactions within those early communities.

Lipps, J.H.

1985-01-01

245

A SWIFT LOOK AT SN 2011fe: THE EARLIEST ULTRAVIOLET OBSERVATIONS OF A TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA  

SciTech Connect

We present the earliest ultraviolet (UV) observations of the bright Type Ia supernova SN 2011fe/PTF11kly in the nearby galaxy M101 at a distance of only 6.4 Mpc. It was discovered shortly after explosion by the Palomar Transient Factory and first observed by Swift/UVOT about a day after explosion. The early UV light is well defined, with {approx}20 data points per filter in the five days after explosion. These early and well-sampled UV observations form new template light curves for comparison with observations of other SNe Ia at low and high redshift. We report fits from semiempirical models of the explosion and find the time evolution of the early UV flux to be well fitted by the superposition of two parabolic curves. Finally, we use the early UV flux measurements to examine a possible shock interaction with a non-degenerate companion. From models predicting the measurable shock emission, we find that even a solar mass companion at a distance of a few solar radii is unlikely at more than 95% confidence.

Brown, Peter J.; Dawson, Kyle S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 South 1400 East 201, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); De Pasquale, Massimiliano [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 4505 S. Maryland Parkway, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Gronwall, Caryl; Siegel, Michael [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Holland, Stephen [Space Telescope Science Center, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Immler, Stefan [Astrophysics Science Division, Code 660.1, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard Space Flight Centre, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kuin, Paul; Oates, Samantha [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Mazzali, Paolo [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Milne, Peter, E-mail: pbrown@physics.tamu.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

2012-07-01

246

A Swift Look at SN 2011fe: The Earliest Ultraviolet Observations of a Type Ia Supernova  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the earliest ultraviolet (UV) observations of the bright Type Ia supernova SN 2011fe/PTF11kly in the nearby galaxy M101 at a distance of only 6.4 Mpc. It was discovered shortly after explosion by the Palomar Transient Factory and first observed by Swift/UVOT about a day after explosion. The early UV light is well-defined, with approx. 20 data points per filter in the 5 days after explosion. With these early UV observations, we extend the near-UV template of SNe Ia to earlier times for comparison with observations at low and high redshift and report fits from semiempirical models of the explosion. We find the early UV count rates to be well fit by the superposition of two parabolic curves. Finally, we use the early UV flux measurements to examine a possible shock interaction with a non-degenerate companion. We find that even a solar mass companion at a distance of a few solar radii is unlikely at more than 95% confidence.

Oates, Samantha; Holland, Stephen; Immler, Stefan; Brown, Peter J.; Dawson, Kyle S.; DePasquale, Massimiliano; Gronwall, Caryl; Kuin, Paul; Mazzali, Paolo; Miline, Peter; Siegel, Michael

2012-01-01

247

Earliest date for milk use in the Near East and southeastern Europe linked to cattle herding.  

PubMed

The domestication of cattle, sheep and goats had already taken place in the Near East by the eighth millennium bc. Although there would have been considerable economic and nutritional gains from using these animals for their milk and other products from living animals-that is, traction and wool-the first clear evidence for these appears much later, from the late fifth and fourth millennia bc. Hence, the timing and region in which milking was first practised remain unknown. Organic residues preserved in archaeological pottery have provided direct evidence for the use of milk in the fourth millennium in Britain, and in the sixth millennium in eastern Europe, based on the delta(13)C values of the major fatty acids of milk fat. Here we apply this approach to more than 2,200 pottery vessels from sites in the Near East and southeastern Europe dating from the fifth to the seventh millennia bc. We show that milk was in use by the seventh millennium; this is the earliest direct evidence to date. Milking was particularly important in northwestern Anatolia, pointing to regional differences linked with conditions more favourable to cattle compared to other regions, where sheep and goats were relatively common and milk use less important. The latter is supported by correlations between the fat type and animal bone evidence. PMID:18690215

Evershed, Richard P; Payne, Sebastian; Sherratt, Andrew G; Copley, Mark S; Coolidge, Jennifer; Urem-Kotsu, Duska; Kotsakis, Kostas; Ozdo?an, Mehmet; Ozdo?an, Aslý E; Nieuwenhuyse, Olivier; Akkermans, Peter M M G; Bailey, Douglass; Andeescu, Radian-Romus; Campbell, Stuart; Farid, Shahina; Hodder, Ian; Yalman, Nurcan; Ozba?aran, Mihriban; Biçakci, Erhan; Garfinkel, Yossef; Levy, Thomas; Burton, Margie M

2008-09-25

248

Ancestral feeding state of ruminants reconsidered: earliest grazing adaptation claims a mixed condition for Cervidae  

PubMed Central

Background Specialised leaf-eating is almost universally regarded as the ancestral state of all ruminants, yet little evidence can be cited in support of this assumption, apart from the fact that all early ruminants had low crowned cheek teeth. Instead, recent years have seen the emergence evidence contradicting the conventional view that low tooth crowns always indicate leaf-eating and high tooth crowns grass-eating. Results Here we report the results of two independent palaeodietary reconstructions for one of the earliest deer, Procervulus ginsburgi from the Early Miocene of Spain, suggesting that despite having lower tooth crowns than any living ruminant, this species included a significant proportion of grass in its diet. Conclusion The phylogenetic distribution of feeding styles strongly supports that leaf-grass mixed feeding was the original feeding style of deer, and that later dietary specialization on leaves or grass occurred independently in several lineages. Evidence for other ruminant clades suggests that facultative mixed feeding may in fact have been the primitive dietary state of the Ruminantia, which would have been morphologically expressed only under specific environmental factors. PMID:18205907

2008-01-01

249

Basal tissue structure in the earliest euconodonts: Testing hypotheses of developmental plasticity in euconodont phylogeny  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The hypothesis that conodonts are vertebrates rests solely on evidence of soft tissue anatomy. This has been corroborated by microstructural, topological and developmental evidence of homology between conodont and vertebrate hard tissues. However, these conclusions have been reached on the basis of evidence from highly derived euconodont taxa and the degree to which they are representative of plesiomorphic euconodonts remains an open question. Furthermore, the range of variation in tissue types comprising the euconodont basal body has been used to establish a hypothesis of developmental plasticity early in the phylogeny of the clade, and a model of diminishing potentiality in the evolution of development systems. The microstructural fabrics of the basal tissues of the earliest euconodonts (presumed to be the most plesiomorphic) are examined to test these two hypotheses. It is found that the range of microstructural variation observed hitherto was already apparent among plesiomorphic euconodonts. Thus, established histological data are representative of the most plesiomorphic euconodonts. However, although there is evidence of a range in microstructural fabrics, these are compatible with the dentine tissue system alone, and the degree of variation is compatible with that seen in clades of comparable diversity. ?? The Palaeontological Association.

Dong, X.-P.; Donoghue, P.C.J.; Repetski, J.E.

2005-01-01

250

Earliest Carboniferous tetrapod and arthropod faunas from Scotland populate Romer's Gap  

PubMed Central

Devonian tetrapods (limbed vertebrates), known from an increasingly large number of localities, have been shown to be mainly aquatic with many primitive features. In contrast, the post-Devonian record is marked by an Early Mississippian temporal gap ranging from the earliest Carboniferous (Tournaisian and early Viséan) to the mid-Viséan. By the mid-Viséan, tetrapods had become effectively terrestrial as attested by the presence of stem amniotes, developed an essentially modern aspect, and given rise to the crown group. Up to now, only two localities have yielded tetrapod specimens from the Tournaisian stage: one in Scotland with a single articulated skeleton and one in Nova Scotia with isolated bones, many of uncertain identity. We announce a series of discoveries of Tournaisian-age localities in Scotland that have yielded a wealth of new tetrapod and arthropod fossils. These include both terrestrial and aquatic forms and new taxa. We conclude that the gap in the fossil record has been an artifact of collection failure. PMID:22393016

Smithson, Timothy R.; Wood, Stanley P.; Marshall, John E. A.; Clack, Jennifer A.

2012-01-01

251

The Earliest Post-Paleozoic Freshwater Bivalves Preserved in Coprolites from the Karoo Basin, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Several clades of bivalve molluscs have invaded freshwaters at various times throughout Phanerozoic history. The most successful freshwater clade in the modern world is the Unionoida. Unionoids arose in the Triassic Period, sometime after the major extinction event at the End-Permian boundary and are now widely distributed across all continents except Antarctica. Until now, no freshwater bivalves of any kind were known to exist in the Early Triassic. Principal Findings Here we report on a faunule of two small freshwater bivalve species preserved in vertebrate coprolites from the Olenekian (Lower Triassic) of the Burgersdorp Formation of the Karoo Basin, South Africa. Positive identification of these bivalves is not possible due to the limited material. Nevertheless they do show similarities with Unionoida although they fall below the size range of extant unionoids. Phylogenetic analysis is not possible with such limited material and consequently the assignment remains somewhat speculative. Conclusions Bivalve molluscs re-invaded freshwaters soon after the End-Permian extinction event, during the earliest part of the recovery phase during the Olenekian Stage of the Early Triassic. If the specimens do represent unionoids then these Early Triassic examples may be an example of the Lilliput effect. Since the oldest incontrovertible freshwater unionoids are also from sub-Saharan Africa, it is possible that this subcontinent hosted the initial freshwater radiation of the Unionoida. This find also demonstrates the importance of coprolites as microenvironments of exceptional preservation that contain fossils of organisms that would otherwise have left no trace. PMID:22319562

Yates, Adam M.; Neumann, Frank H.; Hancox, P. John

2012-01-01

252

Lower extremity abnormalities in children.  

PubMed

Rotational and angular problems are two types of lower extremity abnormalities common in children. Rotational problems include intoeing and out-toeing. Intoeing is caused by one of three types of deformity: metatarsus adductus, internal tibial torsion, and increased femoral anteversion. Out-toeing is less common than intoeing, and its causes are similar but opposite to those of intoeing. These include femoral retroversion and external tibial torsion. Angular problems include bowlegs and knock-knees. An accurate diagnosis can be made with careful history and physical examination, which includes torsional profile (a four-component composite of measurements of the lower extremities). Charts of normal values and values with two standard deviations for each component of the torsional profile are available. In most cases, the abnormality improves with time. A careful physical examination, explanation of the natural history, and serial measurements are usually reassuring to the parents. Treatment is usually conservative. Special shoes, cast, or braces are rarely beneficial and have no proven efficacy. Surgery is reserved for older children with deformity from three to four standard deviations from the normal. PMID:12924829

Sass, Pamela; Hassan, Ghinwa

2003-08-01

253

Disorders caused by chromosome abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Many human genetic disorders result from unbalanced chromosome abnormalities, in which there is a net gain or loss of genetic material. Such imbalances often disrupt large numbers of dosage-sensitive, developmentally important genes and result in specific and complex phenotypes. Alternately, some chromosomal syndromes may be caused by a deletion or duplication of a single gene with pleiotropic effects. Traditionally, chromosome abnormalities were identified by visual inspection of the chromosomes under a microscope. The use of molecular cytogenetic technologies, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization and microarrays, has allowed for the identification of cryptic or submicroscopic imbalances, which are not visible under the light microscope. Microarrays have allowed for the identification of numerous new syndromes through a genotype-first approach in which patients with the same or overlapping genomic alterations are identified and then the phenotypes are described. Because many chromosomal alterations are large and encompass numerous genes, the ascertainment of individuals with overlapping deletions and varying clinical features may allow researchers to narrow the region in which to search for candidate genes. PMID:23776360

Theisen, Aaron; Shaffer, Lisa G

2010-01-01

254

Cardiac abnormalities in liver cirrhosis.  

PubMed Central

Cirrhosis is associated with several circulatory abnormalities. A hyperkinetic circulation characterized by increased cardiac output and decreased arterial pressure and peripheral resistance is typical. Despite this hyperkinetic circulation, some patients with alcoholic cirrhosis have subclinical cardiomyopathy with evidence of abnormal ventricular function unmasked by physiologic or pharmacologic stress. Florid congestive alcoholic cardiomyopathy develops in a small percentage, but the concurrent presence of cirrhosis seems to retard the occurrence of overt heart failure. Even nonalcoholic cirrhosis may be associated with latent cardiomyopathy, although overt heart failure is not observed. Tense ascites is associated with some cardiac compromise, and removing or mobilizing ascitic fluid by paracentesis or peritoneovenous shunting results in short-term increases in cardiac output. Cirrhosis also appears to be associated with a decreased risk of major coronary atherosclerosis and an increased risk of bacterial endocarditis. Small hemodynamically insignificant pericardial effusions may be seen in ascitic patients. The release of atrial natriuretic peptide appears to be unimpaired in cirrhosis, although the kidney may be hyporesponsive to its natriuretic effects. PMID:2690463

Lee, S S

1989-01-01

255

Abnormality on Liver Function Test  

PubMed Central

Children with abnormal liver function can often be seen in outpatient clinics or inpatients wards. Most of them have respiratory disease, or gastroenteritis by virus infection, accompanying fever. Occasionally, hepatitis by the viruses causing systemic infection may occur, and screening tests are required. In patients with jaundice, the tests for differential diagnosis and appropriate treatment are important. In the case of a child with hepatitis B virus infection vertically from a hepatitis B surface antigen positive mother, the importance of the recognition of immune clearance can't be overstressed, for the decision of time to begin treatment. Early diagnosis changes the fate of a child with Wilson disease. So, screening test for the disease should not be omitted. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is mainly discovered in obese children, is a new strong candidate triggering abnormal liver function. Muscular dystrophy is a representative disease mimicking liver dysfunction. Although muscular dystrophy is a progressive disorder, and early diagnosis can't change the fate of patients, it will be better to avoid parent's blame for delayed diagnosis. PMID:24511518

2013-01-01

256

Retrospective analysis of genetic abnormalities and survival in 131 patients with multiple myeloma  

PubMed Central

Genetic abnormalities in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) are important risk factors in terms of prognosis. In the present study, the prognostic value of several common MM genetic abnormalities was investigated. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH) was used to detect genetic abnormalities, including 1q21 gain, t(4;14), t(11;14), t(14;16) and 17p13 deletion in 131 patients. A total of 46.6% patients were detected with one or more abnormalities using iFISH analysis. The 1q21 gain, t(4;14), t(11;14), t(14;16) and 17p13 deletion abnormalities were detected in 42.5, 6.9, 17.5, 0.8 and 10.7% of patients, respectively. Patients with t(4;14) commonly exhibited lower levels of albumin and hemoglobin. The progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival times of iFISH-positive patients (particularly patients with two or more iFISH abnormalities) were significantly shorter than those of the patients without detectable abnormalities. The 1q21 gain and 17p13 deletion were also adverse prognostic factors for MM. Bortezomib-based therapies improved the PFS times in the patients with unfavorable iFISH abnormalities. These findings demonstrate that patients with two or more iFISH abnormalities, a gain of the 1q21 region or a 17p13 deletion were more likely to have a poor prognosis; however, bortezomib treatment improved the outcome for MM patients with unfavorable iFISH abnormalities.

LIU, NIAN; ZHOU, HEBING; YANG, GUANGZHONG; GENG, CHUANYING; JIAN, YUAN; GUO, HUAN; CHEN, WENMING

2015-01-01

257

Simulating focal demyelinating neuropathies: membrane property abnormalities.  

PubMed

Membrane properties such as potentials (intracellular, extracellular, electrotonic) and axonal excitability indices (strength-duration and charge-duration curves, strength-duration time constants, rheobasic currents, recovery cycles) can now be measured in healthy subjects and patients with demyelinating neuropathies. They are regarded here in two cases of simultaneously reduced paranodal seal resistance and myelin lamellae in one to three consecutive internodes of human motor nerve fiber. The investigations are performed for 70 and 96% myelin reduction values. The first value is not sufficient to develop a conduction block, but the second leads to a block and the corresponding demyelinations are regarded as mild and severe. For both the mild and severe demyelinations, the paranodally internodally focally demyelinated cases (termed as PIFD1, PIFD2, and PIFD3, respectively, with one, two, and three demyelinated internodes) are simulated using our previous double-cable model of the fiber. The axon model consists of 30 nodes and 29 internodes. The membrane property abnormalities obtained can be observed in vivo in patients with demyelinating forms of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN). The study confirms that focal demyelinations are specific indicators for acquired demyelinating neuropathies. Moreover, the following changes have been calculated in our previous papers: (1) uniform reduction of myelin thickness in all internodes (Stephanova et al. in Clin Neurophysiol 116: 1153-1158, 2005); (2) demyelination of all paranodal regions (Stephanova and Daskalova in Clin Neurophysiol 116: 1159-1166, 2005a); (3) simultaneous reduction of myelin thickness and paranodal demyelination in all internodes (Stephanova and Daskalova in Clin Neurophysiol 116: 2334-2341, 2005b); and (4) reduction of myelin thickness of up to three internodes (Stephanova et al., in J Biol Phys, 2006a,b, DOI: 10.1007/s10867-005-9001-9; DOI: 10.1007/s10867-006-9008-x). The membrane property abnormalities obtained in the homogeneously demyelinated cases are quite different and abnormally greater than those in the case investigated here of simultaneous reduction in myelin thickness and paranodal demyelination of up to three internodes. Our previous and present results show that unless focal demyelination is severe enough to cause outright conduction block, changes are so slight as to be essentially indistinguishable from normal values. Consequently, the excitability-based approaches that have shown strong potential as diagnostic tools in systematically demyelinated conditions may not be useful in detecting mild focal demyelinations, independently of whether they are internodal, paranodal, or paranodal internodal. PMID:17072638

Stephanova, D I; Alexandrov, A S; Kossev, A; Christova, L

2007-02-01

258

Cell lineage involvement of recurrent chromosomal abnormalities in hematologic neoplasms.  

PubMed

Analysis of most hematologic neoplasms indicates the involvement of one or more cell lineages in the bone marrow and/or the blood but rules out the involvement of all lineages in any one neoplasm. It is important to detect lineage involvement in order to clarify which stem cells are involved in leukemia, to predict prognosis, and to select appropriate treatment. Our aim was to study the cell lineage involvement of some of the recurrent chromosomal abnormalities seen in hematological neoplasms. The direct morphology-antibody-chromosomes (MAC) method was used. The deletion 20q in myeloproliferative diseases (MPD), the deletion of 5q and t(1;7) in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), and t(3;3) in acute myeloid leukemia subtype M7 (AML-M7) were seen in all or at least in two myeloid lineages. These were interpreted as stem cell abnormalities. Deletion 13q in MPD, t(8;21) in AML-M2 and t(15;17) in AML-M3 were seen in granulocytic lineages only; t(14;18) in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and trisomy 12 as the sole abnormality in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) were seen only in immunoglobulin light chain clonal B cells; inversion 14 in T-CLL was seen only in T cells, whereas t(15;14) in acute lymphocytic leukemia with eosinophilia (ALL-EO) was seen in lymphoid stem cells but not in mature granulocytes or lymphocytes. Additional abnormalities (in addition to the Philadelphia chromosome) in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) were seen in all myeloid cell lineages and also in mature granulocytes, B cells, and large granular lymphocytes. Abnormalities in Hodgkin's disease were restricted to CD30-positive Reed-Sternberg cells. Trisomy 8 and monosomy 7 are abnormalities that may be present in either stem cells or any of the single cell lineages. PMID:7520272

Knuutila, S; Teerenhovi, L; Larramendy, M L; Elonen, E; Franssila, K O; Nylund, S J; Timonen, T; Heinonen, K; Mahlamäki, E; Winqvist, R

1994-06-01

259

Abnormal iron homeostasis and neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Abnormal iron metabolism is observed in many neurodegenerative diseases, however, only two have shown dysregulation of brain iron homeostasis as the primary cause of neurodegeneration. Herein, we review one of these - hereditary ferritinopathy (HF) or neuroferritinopathy, which is an autosomal dominant, adult onset degenerative disease caused by mutations in the ferritin light chain (FTL) gene. HF has a clinical phenotype characterized by a progressive movement disorder, behavioral disturbances, and cognitive impairment. The main pathologic findings are cystic cavitation of the basal ganglia, the presence of ferritin inclusion bodies (IBs), and substantial iron deposition. Mutant FTL subunits have altered sequence and length but assemble into soluble 24-mers that are ultrastructurally indistinguishable from those of the wild type. Crystallography shows substantial localized disruption of the normally tiny 4-fold pores between the ferritin subunits because of unraveling of the C-termini into multiple polypeptide conformations. This structural alteration causes attenuated net iron incorporation leading to cellular iron mishandling, ferritin aggregation, and oxidative damage at physiological concentrations of iron and ascorbate. A transgenic murine model parallels several features of HF, including a progressive neurological phenotype, ferritin IB formation, and misregulation of iron metabolism. These studies provide a working hypothesis for the pathogenesis of HF by implicating (1) a loss of normal ferritin function that triggers iron accumulation and overproduction of ferritin polypeptides, and (2) a gain of toxic function through radical production, ferritin aggregation, and oxidative stress. Importantly, the finding that ferritin aggregation can be reversed by iron chelators and oxidative damage can be inhibited by radical trapping may be used for clinical investigation. This work provides new insights into the role of abnormal iron metabolism in neurodegeneration. PMID:23908629

Muhoberac, Barry B.; Vidal, Ruben

2013-01-01

260

Adults with Chromosome 18 Abnormalities.  

PubMed

The identification of an underlying chromosome abnormality frequently marks the endpoint of a diagnostic odyssey. However, families are frequently left with more questions than answers as they consider their child's future. In the case of rare chromosome conditions, a lack of longitudinal data often makes it difficult to provide anticipatory guidance to these families. The objective of this study is to describe the lifespan, educational attainment, living situation, and behavioral phenotype of adults with chromosome 18 abnormalities. The Chromosome 18 Clinical Research Center has enrolled 483 individuals with one of the following conditions: 18q-, 18p-, Tetrasomy 18p, and Ring 18. As a part of the ongoing longitudinal study, we collect data on living arrangements, educational level attained, and employment status as well as data on executive functioning and behavioral skills on an annual basis. Within our cohort, 28 of the 483 participants have died, the majority of whom have deletions encompassing the TCF4 gene or who have unbalanced rearrangement involving other chromosomes. Data regarding the cause of and age at death are presented. We also report on the living situation, educational attainment, and behavioral phenotype of the 151 participants over the age of 18. In general, educational level is higher for people with all these conditions than implied by the early literature, including some that received post-high school education. In addition, some individuals are able to live independently, though at this point they represent a minority of patients. Data on executive function and behavioral phenotype are also presented. Taken together, these data provide insight into the long-term outcome for individuals with a chromosome 18 condition. This information is critical in counseling families on the range of potential outcomes for their child. PMID:25403900

Soileau, Bridgette; Hasi, Minire; Sebold, Courtney; Hill, Annice; O'Donnell, Louise; Hale, Daniel E; Cody, Jannine D

2014-11-19

261

Fetal Facial Defects: Associated Malformations and Chromosomal Abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

During an 8-year period, facial defects were observed in 146 (7%) of the 2,086 fetuses that underwent karyotyping in our unit because of fetal malformations and\\/or growth retardation. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 37 of 56 (66%) fetuses with micrognathia, in 10 of 13 (77%) with macroglossia, in 31 of 64 (48 %) with cleft lip and palate, in 5

K. H. Nicolaides; D. R. Salvesen; R. J. M. Snijders; C. M. Gosden

1993-01-01

262

Anterior and posterior hypopituitarism with pituitary stalk abnormalities.  

PubMed

Hypopituitarism and diabetes insipidus are often idiopathic conditions. A retrospective study of 6 cases of diabetes insipidus and 8 cases of partial or global idiopathic anterior hypopituitarism has shown that MRI is of considerable value to detect abnormalities of the pituitary stalk or hypothalamo-pituitary "relay". On the basis of MRI findings, some cases of idiopathic hypopituitarism can now be grouped together in a new entity which may be called hypopituitarism due to neonatal transection of the pituitary stalk. PMID:1880561

Carlier, R; Monnet, O; Idir, A B; Halimi, P; Simon, P; Bouchard, P; Schaison, G; Doyon, D

1991-01-01

263

Late Paleocene fossils from the Cerrejon Formation, Colombia, are the earliest record of Neotropical rainforest.  

PubMed

Neotropical rainforests have a very poor fossil record, making hypotheses concerning their origins difficult to evaluate. Nevertheless, some of their most important characteristics can be preserved in the fossil record: high plant diversity, dominance by a distinctive combination of angiosperm families, a preponderance of plant species with large, smooth-margined leaves, and evidence for a high diversity of herbivorous insects. Here, we report on an approximately 58-my-old flora from the Cerrejón Formation of Colombia (paleolatitude approximately 5 degrees N) that is the earliest megafossil record of Neotropical rainforest. The flora has abundant, diverse palms and legumes and similar family composition to extant Neotropical rainforest. Three-quarters of the leaf types are large and entire-margined, indicating rainfall >2,500 mm/year and mean annual temperature >25 degrees C. Despite modern family composition and tropical paleoclimate, the diversity of fossil pollen and leaf samples is 60-80% that of comparable samples from extant and Quaternary Neotropical rainforest from similar climates. Insect feeding damage on Cerrejón fossil leaves, representing primary consumers, is abundant, but also of low diversity, and overwhelmingly made by generalist feeders rather than specialized herbivores. Cerrejón megafossils provide strong evidence that the same Neotropical rainforest families have characterized the biome since the Paleocene, maintaining their importance through climatic phases warmer and cooler than present. The low diversity of both plants and herbivorous insects in this Paleocene Neotropical rainforest may reflect an early stage in the diversification of the lineages that inhabit this biome, and/or a long recovery period from the terminal Cretaceous extinction. PMID:19833876

Wing, Scott L; Herrera, Fabiany; Jaramillo, Carlos A; Gómez-Navarro, Carolina; Wilf, Peter; Labandeira, Conrad C

2009-11-01

264

Microbial biosynthesis of wax esters during desiccation: an adaptation for colonization of the earliest terrestrial environments?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biosynthesis of wax esters (WE) by prokaryotes in natural systems, notably bacteria from hot springs and marine phytoplankton, is poorly documented, primarily because saponification is a routine step in the analysis of microbial mat lipids. Use of this preparative procedure, critical for characterization of the diagnostic distributions of carboxylic acids in phospholipids, precludes recovery of intact WE. Examination of non-saponified lipids in emergent and desiccated mats with comparable microbial communities from the Warner Lake region, Oregon, reveals increases in the relative abundance (18.6 to 59.9?g/g Corg) and average chain length (C38 to C46) of WE in the latter, combined with assimilation of phytol and tocopherol moieties. Prokaryotes can accumulate WE as storage lipids in vitro, notably at elevated temperature or under nitrogen limiting conditions, but we propose that biosynthesis of long-chain WE that have a low solubility and are resistant to degradation/oxidation may represent an evolutionary strategy to survive desiccation in evaporative environments. Moreover, aeolian transport of desiccated mat-rip-ups between lake flats allows for migration of microbial communities within and between lake flats and basins during arid conditions. Subsequent rehydration within an alkaline environment would naturally saponify WE, and thereby regenerate alcohol and acid moieties that could serve as membrane lipids for the next viable microbial generation. The evolutionary cradle of WE was likely abiotic generation under hydrothermal conditions, which is consistent with the antiquity of the ester linkage necessitated by its integral role in the membranes of Eubacteria (though not Archaea) and in bacteriochlorophyll. The subsequent capability of microbes to biosynthesize WE may have facilitated their survival when nutrients were limiting, and production of long-chain WE (>C40) may represent a further critical evolutionary threshold that enabled their persistence through and during dehydration or desiccation cycles. Thus, production of WE may have facilitated microbial migration to the lake environments that represented the earliest terrestrial ecosystems, and survival through the Great Oxygenation Event.

Finkelstein, D. B.; Brassell, S. C.; Pratt, L. M.

2008-12-01

265

Assessing the duration and possible causes of the earliest Toarcian carbon isotopic excursion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early Toarcian stage (Early Jurassic) records two short-lived events of major faunal turnover and environmental perturbation. The first event (eT-E) occurs during the earliest Toarcian (early Polymorphum chronozone) and has been documented only in a few sites worldwide. The second event, better known as the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE) has been documented in numerous sites from Northern Siberia to Argentina. Both events are marked by negative carbon isotope excursions (CIE) recorded in carbonate and organic substrate. Therefore they are thought to be associated with major changes in carbon cycling. Similarities between the eT-E and the T-OAE thus lead to the conclusion that these events might have been triggered by similar mechanisms. If this is the case, the CIEs associated with both events should have a comparable duration. In order to valid or falsify this hypothesis, it is therefore crucial to constrain the duration of both events. The duration of the T-OAE CIE was assessed in several papers by cyclostratigraphic analyses thanks to favourable outcropping condition. It is however not the case for the eT-E CIE, this latter being often associated with sedimentary condensation or hiatal surfaces. We make use of the high palaeo-subsidence rates of the Lower Toarcian Moroccan shelf leading to extended sections in the High Atlas Basin. The Foum Tillicht section was sampled in increments of 20 cm across a stratigraphic interval of 50 m, covering the Polymorphum chronozone. Carbon and oxygen isotopes analyses were performed on micritic and organic matter. Ammonites and nannofossils biostratigraphy aided in calibrating geochemical analyses. Carbon isotopes data display a rhythmic pattern. Preliminary results indicate that the eT-E negative carbon isotope excursion lasted around 400 kyr.

Krencker, Francois-Nicolas; Bodin, Stéphane; Suan, Guillaume; Kabiri, Lahcen; Immenhauser, Adrian

2013-04-01

266

The earliest evidence for the use of human bone as a tool.  

PubMed

We report on the analysis of three human cranial fragments from a Mousterian context at the site of La Quina (France), which show anthropogenic surface modifications. Macroscopic and microscopic analyses, including SEM observation, demonstrate that the modifications visible on one of these fragments are similar to those produced on bone fragments used experimentally to retouch flakes. The microscopic analysis also identified ancient scraping marks, possibly resulting from the cleaning of the skull prior to its breakage and utilisation of a resulting fragment as a tool. The traces of utilisation and the dimensions of this object are compared to those on a sample of 67 bone retouchers found in the same excavation area and layer. Results show that the tool size, as well as the dimensions and location of the utilised area, fall well within the range of variation observed on faunal shaft fragments from La Quina that were used as retouchers. This skull fragment represents the earliest known use of human bone as a raw material and the first reported use of human bone for this purpose by hominins other than modern humans. The two other skull fragments, which probably come from the same individual, also bear anthropogenic surface modifications in the form of percussion, cut, and scraping marks. The deliberate versus unintentional hypotheses for the unusual choice of the bone are presented in light of contextual information, modifications identified on the two skull fragments not used as tools, and data on bone retouchers from the same layer, the same site, and other Mousterian sites. PMID:21131024

Verna, C; d'Errico, F

2011-02-01

267

Origin and age of the earliest Martian crust from meteorite NWA?7533.  

PubMed

The ancient cratered terrain of the southern highlands of Mars is thought to hold clues to the planet's early differentiation, but until now no meteoritic regolith breccias have been recovered from Mars. Here we show that the meteorite Northwest Africa (NWA)?7533 (paired with meteorite NWA?7034) is a polymict breccia consisting of a fine-grained interclast matrix containing clasts of igneous-textured rocks and fine-grained clast-laden impact melt rocks. High abundances of meteoritic siderophiles (for example nickel and iridium) found throughout the rock reach a level in the fine-grained portions equivalent to 5 per cent CI chondritic input, which is comparable to the highest levels found in lunar breccias. Furthermore, analyses of three leucocratic monzonite clasts show a correlation between nickel, iridium and magnesium consistent with differentiation from impact melts. Compositionally, all the fine-grained material is alkalic basalt, chemically identical (except for sulphur, chlorine and zinc) to soils from Gusev crater. Thus, we propose that NWA?7533 is a Martian regolith breccia. It contains zircons for which we measured an age of 4,428?±?25 million years, which were later disturbed 1,712?±?85 million years ago. This evidence for early crustal differentiation implies that the Martian crust, and its volatile inventory, formed in about the first 100 million years of Martian history, coeval with earliest crust formation on the Moon and the Earth. In addition, incompatible element abundances in clast-laden impact melt rocks and interclast matrix provide a geochemical estimate of the average thickness of the Martian crust (50 kilometres) comparable to that estimated geophysically. PMID:24256724

Humayun, M; Nemchin, A; Zanda, B; Hewins, R H; Grange, M; Kennedy, A; Lorand, J-P; Göpel, C; Fieni, C; Pont, S; Deldicque, D

2013-11-28

268

Origin and age of the earliest Martian crust from meteorite NWA 7533  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ancient cratered terrain of the southern highlands of Mars is thought to hold clues to the planet's early differentiation, but until now no meteoritic regolith breccias have been recovered from Mars. Here we show that the meteorite Northwest Africa (NWA) 7533 (paired with meteorite NWA 7034) is a polymict breccia consisting of a fine-grained interclast matrix containing clasts of igneous-textured rocks and fine-grained clast-laden impact melt rocks. High abundances of meteoritic siderophiles (for example nickel and iridium) found throughout the rock reach a level in the fine-grained portions equivalent to 5 per cent CI chondritic input, which is comparable to the highest levels found in lunar breccias. Furthermore, analyses of three leucocratic monzonite clasts show a correlation between nickel, iridium and magnesium consistent with differentiation from impact melts. Compositionally, all the fine-grained material is alkalic basalt, chemically identical (except for sulphur, chlorine and zinc) to soils from Gusev crater. Thus, we propose that NWA 7533 is a Martian regolith breccia. It contains zircons for which we measured an age of 4,428 +/- 25 million years, which were later disturbed 1,712 +/- 85 million years ago. This evidence for early crustal differentiation implies that the Martian crust, and its volatile inventory, formed in about the first 100 million years of Martian history, coeval with earliest crust formation on the Moon and the Earth. In addition, incompatible element abundances in clast-laden impact melt rocks and interclast matrix provide a geochemical estimate of the average thickness of the Martian crust (50 kilometres) comparable to that estimated geophysically.

Humayun, M.; Nemchin, A.; Zanda, B.; Hewins, R. H.; Grange, M.; Kennedy, A.; Lorand, J.-P.; Göpel, C.; Fieni, C.; Pont, S.; Deldicque, D.

2013-11-01

269

Driving the growth of the earliest supermassive black holes with major mergers of host galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation mechanism of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in general, and of ? {{10}9} {{m}? } SMBHs observed as luminous quasars at redshifts z\\gt 6 in particular, remains an open fundamental question. The presence of such massive BHs at such early times, when the Universe was less than a billion years old, implies that they grew via either super-Eddington accretion, or nearly uninterrupted gas accretion near the Eddington limit; the latter, at first glance, is at odds with empirical trends at lower redshifts, where quasar episodes associated with rapid BH growth are rare and brief. In this work, I examine whether and to what extent the growth of the z\\gt 6 quasar SMBHs can be explained within the standard quasar paradigm, in which major mergers of host galaxies trigger episodes of rapid gas accretion below or near the Eddington limit. Using a suite of Monte Carlo merger tree simulations of the assembly histories of 40 likely z\\gt 6 quasar host halos, I investigate (i) their growth and major merger rates out to z? 40, and (ii) how long the feeding episodes induced by host mergers must last in order to explain the observed z? 6 quasar population without super-Eddington accretion. The halo major merger rate scales roughly as \\propto {{(1+z)}5/2}, consistent with cosmological simulations at lower redshifts, with quasar hosts typically experiencing ? 10 major mergers between 15\\gt z\\gt 6 (? 650 Myr), compared to ?1 for typical massive galaxies at 3\\gt z\\gt 0 (? 11 Gyr). The high rate of major mergers allows for nearly continuous SMBH growth if (for example) a merger triggers feeding for a duration comparable to the halo dynamical time. These findings suggest that the growth mechanisms of the earliest quasar SMBHs need not have been drastically different from their counterparts at lower redshifts.

Tanaka, Takamitsu L.

2014-12-01

270

Prenatal-postnatal correlations of brain abnormalities: how lesions and diagnoses change over time  

PubMed Central

A combination of prenatal ultrasound and MRI can be used to detect and characterize many primary and secondary CNS abnormalities in the developing fetus. While this information is useful in prenatal patient counseling, it is important to understand the factors that can influence change in diagnosis and prognosis over time. The etiology of the abnormality, the conspicuity of associated findings, the change in appearance over time, and the opinion of subspecialty experts all can influence the diagnosis. Additionally, technical factors of imaging acquisition may allow the detection of an abnormality in the postnatal period and not prenatally. Having an understanding of the normal fetal central nervous system anatomy at varying gestational ages will aid in the imaging detection and interpretation of CNS pathology. Understanding how these appearances and diagnoses can change over time will aid in the discussion of prognosis with expectant parents, which is crucial in fetal CNS abnormalities. PMID:24078783

Senapati, Gunjan; Levine, Deborah

2013-01-01

271

Transmitted cytogenetic abnormalities in patients with mental retardation: pathogenic or normal variants?  

PubMed

Knowing the origin of cytogenetic abnormalities detected in individuals with mental retardation and dysmorphic features is essential to genetic counselling of affected families. To illustrate this, we report on six families with transmitted cytogenetic abnormalities and discuss the genotype-phenotype correlations, including the possibility of the abnormalities being normal genomic variants. The abnormalities were detected using metaphase HR-CGH; their size was estimated to range from 1.6 to 7.5 Mb using tiling path array-CGH and real-time PCR. The abnormalities were transmitted through two to four generations and included interstitial deletions of 1p31.3-p32.1, 2q13, 10q11.21-q11.23, and 13q31.1; a duplication of 1p34.1-p34.2; and in one family both a deletion of 18q21.1 and a duplication of 4q35.1-q35.2. The probands were mentally retarded and had nonspecific dysmorphic features except for one patient with the Bohring-Opitz syndrome. We considered the abnormalities in two families to be clinically significant: In one family, the proband's brain abnormality was comparable to previously reported abnormalities in individuals with a similar duplication of 1p31-p32. Congenital heart disease was previously mapped to the chromosomal region of 18q that was affected in the proband of another family. The carrier parents in both families had mild clinical features. In two families the abnormalities were considered as coincidental findings, and in two further families the abnormalities were insufficient to explain the phenotypes of the probands but possibly were related to a milder phenotype in other family members. These cases illustrate the need for careful assessment of the extended family in order to interpret the phenotypic consequences of abnormalities identified using array-CGH. PMID:17531565

Bisgaard, Anne-Marie; Kirchhoff, Maria; Nielsen, Jens Erik; Brandt, Carsten; Hove, Hanne; Jepsen, Birgit; Jensen, Tim; Ullmann, Reinhard; Skovby, Flemming

2007-01-01

272

A Mouse Model of Conduction System Patterning Abnormalities in Heterotaxy Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Duplication or absence of parts of the specialized cardiac conduction system in patients with heterotaxy syndrome causes significant clinical disease, but the mechanistic basis by which embryonic disruption of left-right patterning alters conduction system patterning in these patients is not well understood. We sought to determine whether a mouse model of X-linked human heterotaxy recapitulates conduction system abnormalities identified in heterotaxy patients. Cardiac structure and conduction system patterning were evaluated in Zic3 null embryos from e9.5 – 16.5 using genetic and molecular methods. Severe structural abnormalities involving atrial, ventricular and conotruncal development were associated with a spectrum of disorganized and ambiguous arrangements throughout the conduction system, including the appearance of duplicated structures. The severity and location of conduction system abnormalities correlated with the severity and location of associated structural heart disease and were identifiable at the earliest stages examined. The Zic3 mouse model provides a novel tool to dissect the mechanistic underpinnings of conduction system patterning and dysfunction and its relationship to cardiovascular malformations, making it a promising model to improve understanding and risk assessment in the clinical arena. PMID:20581739

Czosek, Richard J.; Haaning, Allison; Ware, Stephanie M.

2010-01-01

273

Evaluation of abnormal liver function tests  

PubMed Central

Interpretation of abnormalities in liver function tests is a common problem faced by clinicians. This has become more common with the introduction of automated routine laboratory testing. Not all persons with one or more abnormalities in these tests actually have liver disease. The various biochemical tests, their pathophysiology, and an approach to the interpretation of abnormal liver function tests are discussed in this review. PMID:12840117

Limdi, J; Hyde, G

2003-01-01

274

Holoprosencephaly due to Numeric Chromosome Abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is the most common malformation of the human forebrain. When a clinician identifies a patient with HPE, a routine chromosome analysis is often the first genetic test sent for laboratory analysis in order to assess for a structural or numerical chromosome anomaly. An abnormality of chromosome number is overall the most frequently identified etiology in a patient with HPE. These abnormalities include trisomy 13, trisomy 18, and triploidy, though several others have been reported. Such chromosome number abnormalities are almost universally fatal early in gestation or in infancy. Clinical features of specific chromosome number abnormalities may be recognized by phenotypic manifestations in addition to the HPE. PMID:20104610

Solomon, Benjamin D.; Rosenbaum, Kenneth N.; Meck, Jeanne M.; Muenke, Maximilian

2009-01-01

275

Abnormal megakaryocyte development and platelet function in Nbeal2?/? mice  

PubMed Central

Gray platelet syndrome (GPS) is an inherited bleeding disorder associated with macrothrombocytopenia and ?-granule-deficient platelets. GPS has been linked to loss of function mutations in NEABL2 (neurobeachin-like 2), and we describe here a murine GPS model, the Nbeal2?/? mouse. As in GPS, Nbeal2?/? mice exhibit splenomegaly, macrothrombocytopenia, and a deficiency of platelet ?-granules and their cargo, including von Willebrand factor (VWF), thrombospondin-1, and platelet factor 4. The platelet ?-granule membrane protein P-selectin is expressed at 48% of wild-type levels and externalized upon platelet activation. The presence of P-selectin and normal levels of VPS33B and VPS16B in Nbeal2?/? platelets suggests that NBEAL2 acts independently of VPS33B/VPS16B at a later stage of ?-granule biogenesis. Impaired Nbeal2?/? platelet function was shown by flow cytometry, platelet aggregometry, bleeding assays, and intravital imaging of laser-induced arterial thrombus formation. Microscopic analysis detected marked abnormalities in Nbeal2?/? bone marrow megakaryocytes, which when cultured showed delayed maturation, decreased survival, decreased ploidy, and developmental abnormalities, including abnormal extracellular distribution of VWF. Our results confirm that ?-granule secretion plays a significant role in platelet function, and they also indicate that abnormal ?-granule formation in Nbeal2?/? mice has deleterious effects on megakaryocyte survival, development, and platelet production. PMID:23861251

Lo, Richard W.; Li, Ling; Pluthero, Fred G.; Christensen, Hilary; Ni, Ran; Vaezzadeh, Nima; Hawkins, Cynthia E.; Weyrich, Andrew S.; Di Paola, Jorge; Landolt-Marticorena, Carolina; Gross, Peter L.

2013-01-01

276

Abnormal megakaryocyte development and platelet function in Nbeal2(-/-) mice.  

PubMed

Gray platelet syndrome (GPS) is an inherited bleeding disorder associated with macrothrombocytopenia and ?-granule-deficient platelets. GPS has been linked to loss of function mutations in NEABL2 (neurobeachin-like 2), and we describe here a murine GPS model, the Nbeal2(-/-) mouse. As in GPS, Nbeal2(-/-) mice exhibit splenomegaly, macrothrombocytopenia, and a deficiency of platelet ?-granules and their cargo, including von Willebrand factor (VWF), thrombospondin-1, and platelet factor 4. The platelet ?-granule membrane protein P-selectin is expressed at 48% of wild-type levels and externalized upon platelet activation. The presence of P-selectin and normal levels of VPS33B and VPS16B in Nbeal2(-/-) platelets suggests that NBEAL2 acts independently of VPS33B/VPS16B at a later stage of ?-granule biogenesis. Impaired Nbeal2(-/-) platelet function was shown by flow cytometry, platelet aggregometry, bleeding assays, and intravital imaging of laser-induced arterial thrombus formation. Microscopic analysis detected marked abnormalities in Nbeal2(-/-) bone marrow megakaryocytes, which when cultured showed delayed maturation, decreased survival, decreased ploidy, and developmental abnormalities, including abnormal extracellular distribution of VWF. Our results confirm that ?-granule secretion plays a significant role in platelet function, and they also indicate that abnormal ?-granule formation in Nbeal2(-/-) mice has deleterious effects on megakaryocyte survival, development, and platelet production. PMID:23861251

Kahr, Walter H A; Lo, Richard W; Li, Ling; Pluthero, Fred G; Christensen, Hilary; Ni, Ran; Vaezzadeh, Nima; Hawkins, Cynthia E; Weyrich, Andrew S; Di Paola, Jorge; Landolt-Marticorena, Carolina; Gross, Peter L

2013-11-01

277

Karyotype versus Microarray Testing for Genetic Abnormalities after Stillbirth  

PubMed Central

Background Genetic abnormalities have been associated with 6 to 13% of stillbirths, but the true prevalence may be higher. Unlike karyotype analysis, microarray analysis does not require live cells, and it detects small deletions and duplications called copy-number variants. Methods The Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network conducted a population-based study of stillbirth in five geographic catchment areas. Standardized postmortem examinations and karyotype analyses were performed. A single-nucleotide polymorphism array was used to detect copy-number variants of at least 500 kb in placental or fetal tissue. Variants that were not identified in any of three databases of apparently unaffected persons were then classified into three groups: probably benign, clinical significance unknown, or pathogenic. We compared the results of karyotype and microarray analyses of samples obtained after delivery. Results In our analysis of samples from 532 stillbirths, microarray analysis yielded results more often than did karyotype analysis (87.4% vs. 70.5%, P<0.001) and provided better detection of genetic abnormalities (aneuploidy or pathogenic copy-number variants, 8.3% vs. 5.8%; P = 0.007). Microarray analysis also identified more genetic abnormalities among 443 antepartum stillbirths (8.8% vs. 6.5%, P = 0.02) and 67 stillbirths with congenital anomalies (29.9% vs. 19.4%, P = 0.008). As compared with karyotype analysis, microarray analysis provided a relative increase in the diagnosis of genetic abnormalities of 41.9% in all stillbirths, 34.5% in antepartum stillbirths, and 53.8% in stillbirths with anomalies. Conclusions Microarray analysis is more likely than karyotype analysis to provide a genetic diagnosis, primarily because of its success with nonviable tissue, and is especially valuable in analyses of stillbirths with congenital anomalies or in cases in which karyotype results cannot be obtained. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.) PMID:23215556

Reddy, Uma M.; Page, Grier P.; Saade, George R.; Silver, Robert M.; Thorsten, Vanessa R.; Parker, Corette B.; Pinar, Halit; Willinger, Marian; Stoll, Barbara J.; Heim-Hall, Josefine; Varner, Michael W.; Goldenberg, Robert L.; Bukowski, Radek; Wapner, Ronald J.; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn D.; O’Brien, Barbara M.; Dudley, Donald J.; Levy, Brynn

2015-01-01

278

[Neuromuscular abnormalities in critical illness].  

PubMed

The spectrum of neuromuscular disease encountered in today's intensive care units (ICU) has evolved over the last few decades. However, in spite of many studies on neuromuscular disorders complicating critical illness as well as its epidemiology, etiology, treatment and prognosis, several key areas remain unclear. Two main groups are found among these neuromuscular abnormalities. The first group includes primary neuromuscular disorders present on admission to the ICU in which a possible etiology can be identified. Guillain-Barré syndrome and myasthenia gravis are two of the most common diseases admitted to ours units. In the second group, weakness is acquired in the ICU in the absence of preexisting neuromuscular disease. It is believed to reflect illnesses or treatments occurring in the ICU. Critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP) is the most clearly defined neuromuscular complication in this group. However, although we have better knowledge of its clinical, diagnosis, and prognosis features, its pathophysiological substrate has not been fully elucidated. Neuromuscular junction defects and specially myopathies, that frequently coexist with CIP, are the others main causes of acquired weakness in critically ill patients. Advances in understanding of these neuromuscular disorders could have an important impact in terms of developing effective preventive and therapeutic interventions that could help to improve the poor prognosis of these patients. PMID:19406085

Amaya Villar, R; Garnacho-Montero, J; Rincón Ferrari, M D

2009-04-01

279

The XXXXY sex chromosome abnormality.  

PubMed

The most common sex chromosome complex in sex chromatin-positive males with Klinefelter's syndrome is XXY. When the complex is XXYY or XXXY, the clinical findings do not seem to differ materially from those seen in XXY subjects, although more patients with these intersexual chromosome complements need to be studied to establish possible phenotypical expressions of the chromosomal variants.Two male children with an XXXXY sex chromosome abnormality are described. The data obtained from the study of these cases and five others described in the literature suggest that the XXXXY patient is likely to have congenital defects not usually seen in the common form of the Klinefelter syndrome. These include a triad of (1) skeletal anomalies (including radioulnar synostosis), (2) hypogenitalism (hypoplasia of penis and scrotum, incomplete descent of testes and defective prepubertal development of seminiferous tubules), and (3) greater risk of severe mental deficiency.That the conclusions are based on data from a small number of patients is emphasized, together with the need for a cytogenetic survey of a large control or unselected population. PMID:13969480

BARR, M L; CARR, D H; POZSONYI, J; WILSON, R A; DUNN, H G; JACOBSON, T S; MILLER, J R; LEWIS, M; CHOWN, B

1962-10-27

280

Ultrastructural Differentiation of Abnormal Scars  

PubMed Central

Summary Aim: To evaluate the differences between keloid and hypertrophic scars by biochemical and ultrastructural techniques. Method: Over 1000 patients with different types of scars were studied and followed up for a period of 20 years. The histochemical and biochemical analysis with respect to the composition of the extracellular matrix of the dermis was conducted. At the ultrastructural level, collagen deposition and assembly were studied using electron microscopy. The rate of proliferation and metabolic activity of the dermal fibroblasts isolated from the normal skin and scar biopsies were studied to assess the cause of excess matrix deposition in scar tissues. Results: Evaluation of different types of scars showed that both keloid and hypertrophic scars have excess matrix deposition in terms of collagen and proteoglycans. Keloid shows a high amount of acid-soluble collagen. The assembly of collagen fibrils is also abnormal in keloids. Studies on the proliferation and metabolic activity showed that keloid fibroblasts have a higher rate of proliferation and metabolic activity than fibroblasts from hypertrophic scars and normal skin. Finally, keloid fibroblasts show high and intense staining for the endoplasmic reticulum, suggesting a possible reason for high activity of these fibroblasts. Conclusion: Keloids and hypertrophic scars show distinct ultrastructural patterns of both collagen deposition and assembly. These parameters could be refined by further research, and they would thus serve as a useful tool for surgeons to distinguish different types of scars and adopt suitable therapeutic strategies. PMID:21990984

Meenakshi, J.; Jayaraman, V.; Ramakrishnan, K.M..; Babu, M.

2005-01-01

281

Paleointensity obtained from late Cretaceous and earliest Paleogene basalts drilled from Louisville seamount trail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

IODP Expedition 330 occupied six sites on five seamounts along the northwestern part of the Louisville seamount trail. The ages of the seamounts range between 50 and 74 Ma. Fresh basalts were recovered by drilling despite the old ages. From onboard examination of the rocks, it is considered that part of basalts erupted in subaerial or shallow submarine conditions and probably suffered high-temperature oxidation, in particular at Sites U1372 and U1373, suggesting that they may be suitable for absolute paleointensity estimation. We conducted paleointensity measurements using the Tsunakawa-Shaw method with low-temperature demagnetization (LTD) and double heating (DHT). First, thermomagnetic curves were measured for all samples with a Curie balance at the Center for Advanced Marine Core Research, Kochi University. Samples that showed evidence for being suffered low-temperature oxidation were excluded. Then, samples from which characteristic magnetization component was isolated by stepwise alternating-field demagnetization were subjected to the paleointensity experiments; samples with MAD of larger than 10° were excluded. Paleointensity of 23.6×8.9 mirco T was obtained at Site U1372 on the Canopus Seamount, the oldest seamount drilled (˜74 Ma), as the mean of 15 lithological units (lava flows) that passed the selection criteria of Yamamoto and Tsunakawa (2005). Sites U1373 and U1374 on the Rigil Seamount (˜70 Ma) yielded paleointensity of 22.2 ×8.5 micro T (n=18), and Site U1376 on the Burton Seamount (˜64 Ma) resulted 21.6 ×6.8 micro T (n=10). The mean paleointensities are converted to virtual axial dipole moment (VADM) of approximately 3.7 x1022 Am2 based on a paleolatitude of ˜43° to ˜50°S of the Louisville hotspot between 50 and 74 Ma from onboard paleomagnetic results. The results of this study suggests that paleointensity of latest Cretaceous to earliest Paleogene was about a half of the present field intensity and similar to the mean of the last 5 Ma by Yamamoto and Tsunakawa (2005).

Yamazaki, T.; Yamamoto, Y.

2013-12-01

282

Contribution of the earliest woody trees (lignophytes) to the greening of the continents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diversification of early terrestrial plants is characterized by an intense phase of morphological innovation during the Devonian that resulted in the evolution of a large variety of growth forms. Several unrelated taxa adopted the tree habit, a form characterized by its extended lifetime and the possession of a tall, vertical trunk.This evolution provided large-sized plants with functional advantages over smaller ones in terms of reproduction and light interception. From a biophysical point of view, this increase in stature was a challenge as it created new constraints in terms of biomechanical support and water transport. The various groups that evolved trees resolved these problems by adopting specific strategies in relation to their own evolutionary history and inherited traits. It is uncertain whether the evolution of the tree habit and of forests has directly promoted the diversification of the reproductive systems and the advent of the seed habit. But it created new niches, contributing to the diversication of the terrestrial floras and faunas. It may also have considerably impacted the biosphere and contributed to the dramatic decline of atmospheric CO2 in the Late Devonian through the enhanced development of soils and changes in erosional and sedimentary processes. Understanding these interactions through a better assessment of the structure, development, functioning and evolution of early trees represents a new challenge for paleobotanists. Here we provide a review of the earliest arborescent representatives of the lignophyte clade, paying special attention to the anatomical, morphological and developmental traits that may have contributed to their wide paleogeographical distribution in the Late Devonian and later on. These trees are the first ones in the history of vegetation to possess leaves as well as long-lived roots and branches. Their growth is three-dimensional by comparison to the essentially vertical growth of earlier trees. Using the material we collected from diverse North Gondwanan localities, we investigated the evolution and patterns of changes in the floras of arborescent lignophytes around the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary. New evidence indicates that (1) the time interval between the extinction of the progymnosperm (free-sporing) genus Archaeopteris that flourished in the Late Devonian and the diversification of a new tree flora in the Mississippian was short if any, and (2) that the majority of this renewed arborescent vegetation reproduced by seeds.

Meyer-Berthaud, B.; Decombeix, A.-L.

2009-04-01

283

Metabolic Abnormalities in Abstinent Methamphetamine Dependent Subjects  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Chronic methamphetamine use results in persistent neuropsychological deficits in abstinent methamphetamine dependent (AMD) subjects. We examined the hypothesis that elevated concentration of cerebral glutamate (Glu), an excitatory neurotransmitter and neurotoxin, occurs in human AMD. Materials and Methods: We examined 40 subjects, 18 of whom were AMD, abstinent more than 3 weeks and 22 were age matched controls. A Structured Clinical Interview was applied to exclude AMD with comorbid depression. We used TE-Averaged technique of MRS to uniquely identify and quantify the glutamate resonance at 2.35 ppm on a 3T clinical MR scanner. Statistics, including Bonferroni correction for multiple MRS variables were applied. Results: Glu was significantly higher in frontal white matter of AMD (+19%, P = 0.01) and N-acetylaspartate (NAA), an axonal marker, was lower (?14%, P = 0.004). No significant MRS abnormalities were detected in posterior gray matter. Significant correlations were observed between NAA and Glu (P = 0.002 for AMD and P = 0.06 for controls in the posterior gray matter and P = 0.01 for controls and not significant for AMD in the frontal white matter). Conclusion: Our results demonstrate a significant excess of glutamate in frontal white matter of AMD subjects and offer support for the hypothesis that methamphetamine abuse may exert its long-term neuro-toxicity via glutamate. PMID:20485533

Sailasuta, Napapon; Abulseoud, Osama; Hernandez, Martha; Haghani, Poone; Ross, Brian D

2010-01-01

284

Metabolic Abnormalities in Abstinent Methamphetamine Dependent Subjects.  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION: Chronic methamphetamine use results in persistent neuropsychological deficits in abstinent methamphetamine dependent (AMD) subjects. We examined the hypothesis that elevated concentration of cerebral glutamate (Glu), an excitatory neurotransmitter and neurotoxin, occurs in human AMD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined 40 subjects, 18 of whom were AMD, abstinent more than 3 weeks and 22 were age matched controls. A Structured Clinical Interview was applied to exclude AMD with comorbid depression. We used TE-Averaged technique of MRS to uniquely identify and quantify the glutamate resonance at 2.35 ppm on a 3T clinical MR scanner. Statistics, including Bonferroni correction for multiple MRS variables were applied. RESULTS: Glu was significantly higher in frontal white matter of AMD (+19%, P = 0.01) and N-acetylaspartate (NAA), an axonal marker, was lower (-14%, P = 0.004). No significant MRS abnormalities were detected in posterior gray matter. Significant correlations were observed between NAA and Glu (P = 0.002 for AMD and P = 0.06 for controls in the posterior gray matter and P = 0.01 for controls and not significant for AMD in the frontal white matter). CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate a significant excess of glutamate in frontal white matter of AMD subjects and offer support for the hypothesis that methamphetamine abuse may exert its long-term neuro-toxicity via glutamate. PMID:20485533

Sailasuta, Napapon; Abulseoud, Osama; Hernandez, Martha; Haghani, Poone; Ross, Brian D

2010-04-01

285

[Chromosomal abnormalities in acute myeloid leukaemias].  

PubMed

Cytogenetic studies of acute myeloid leukaemias reveal non-random chromosomal abnormalities in 50-70% of karyotypes. Some are correlated with morphological and immunological parameters and constitute a prognostic factor independent of the other factors of risk: favourable for acute leukaemias myeloid with translocations t(8;21), t(15;17) and inversion or translocation of the chromosome 16, inv(16)/t(16;16), poor with deletion of the long arm of chromosome 5 del(5q), rearrangement of the 11q23 region and complex karyotypes. The distribution of the anomalies depends on the age: 11q23 and t(8;21) more frequent for the child, del(5q) and complex anomalies more frequent for the adult. The karyotypes are essential for the diagnosis, the follow-up of the patients and the evaluation of the relapse. It plays a fundamental part in the detection of new genes and their partners implied in the leucemogenese. The knowledge of their function is essential to open new therapeutic ways. PMID:12927889

Mugneret, F; Callier, P; Favre-Audry, B

2003-08-01

286

Multiparametric tissue abnormality characterization using manifold regularization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tissue abnormality characterization is a generalized segmentation problem which aims at determining a continuous score that can be assigned to the tissue which characterizes the extent of tissue deterioration, with completely healthy tissue being one end of the spectrum and fully abnormal tissue such as lesions, being on the other end. Our method is based on the assumptions that there is some tissue that is neither fully healthy or nor completely abnormal but lies in between the two in terms of abnormality; and that the voxel-wise score of tissue abnormality lies on a spatially and temporally smooth manifold of abnormality. Unlike in a pure classification problem which associates an independent label with each voxel without considering correlation with neighbors, or an absolute clustering problem which does not consider a priori knowledge of tissue type, we assume that diseased and healthy tissue lie on a manifold that encompasses the healthy tissue and diseased tissue, stretching from one to the other. We propose a semi-supervised method for determining such as abnormality manifold, using multi-parametric features incorporated into a support vector machine framework in combination with manifold regularization. We apply the framework towards the characterization of tissue abnormality to brains of multiple sclerosis patients.

Batmanghelich, Kayhan; Wu, Xiaoying; Zacharaki, Evangelia; Markowitz, Clyde E.; Davatzikos, Christos; Verma, Ragini

2008-03-01

287

Research Report: Students' knowledge of abnormal psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aims to compare whether final year psychology students (n = 26) could answer more items on a multiple choice questionnaire (MCQ) correctly on abnormal psychology than prospective psychology candidates (n = 77) and final year engineering students (n = 26). The three groups of students completed MCQs in five different fields of abnormal psychology namely; eating disorders,

Adrian Furnham; Bahman Baluch; Fiona Starr

2003-01-01

288

An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

White, Geoffry D.

1977-01-01

289

The present status of abnormal psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical analysis of the content of fifteen representative textbooks in abnormal psychology and seven textbooks in psychiatry. It is found that abnormal psychology is a dumping ground for miscellaneous topics left over from general psychology, including sleep, dreams, suggestion, etc. The most conspicuous defect is the lack of experimental material, of which there is only .8%. Another is the

W. A. Hunt; C. Landis

1935-01-01

290

Abnormal Web Usage Control by Proxy Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approaches to designing a proxy server with Web usage control and to making the proxy server effective on local area networks are proposed to prevent abnormal Web access and to prioritize Web usage. A system is implemented to demonstrate the approaches. The implementation reveals that the proposed approaches are effective, such that the abnormal

Yu, Hsiang-Fu; Tseng, Li-Ming

2002-01-01

291

Immune Abnormalities in Patients with Autism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 31 autistic patients (3-28 years old) has revealed several immune-system abnormalities, including decreased numbers of T lymphocytes and an altered ratio of helper-to-suppressor T cells. Immune-system abnormalities may be directly related to underlying biologic processes of autism or an indirect reflection of the actual pathologic…

Warren, Reed P.; And Others

1986-01-01

292

Ultrastructurally abnormal mitochondria in the pituitary oncocytoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A pituitary adenoma in a 67-year-old man was characterized by abundant mitochondria and identified as an oncocytoma, which clinically and histologically appeared as a chromophobe adenoma. In addition to the numerous mitochondria within the neoplastic cells, structurally abnormal mitochondria were also present. Compared with other pituitary oncocytomas reported in the literature, abnormally structured mitochondria appear rare among the mitochondrial

H. H. Goebel; F. Schulz; B. Rama

1980-01-01

293

Breathing abnormalities in sleep in achondroplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overnight sleep studies were performed in 20 subjects with achondroplasia to document further the respiratory abnormalities present in this group. Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were recorded in 19 of the subjects to screen for the presence of brainstem abnormalities, which are one of the potential aetiological mechanisms. Fifteen children aged 1 to 14 years, and five young adults, aged 20

K A Waters; F Everett; D Sillence; E Fagan; C E Sullivan

1993-01-01

294

Prenatal Ultrasound Screening for External Ear Abnormality in the Fetuses  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To investigate the best time of examination and section chosen of routine prenatal ultrasound screening for external ear abnormalities and evaluate the feasibility of examining the fetal external ear with ultrasonography. Methods. From July 2010 until August 2011, 42118 pregnant women with single fetus during 16–40 weeks of pregnancy were enrolled in the study. Fetal auricles and external auditory canal in the second trimester of pregnancy were evaluated by routine color Doppler ultrasound screening and systematic screening. Ultrasound images of fetal external ears were obtained on transverse-incline view at cervical vertebra level and mandible level and on parasagittal view and coronal view at external ear level. Results. Five fetuses had anomalous ears including bilateral malformed auricles with malformed external auditory canal, unilateral deformed external ear, and unilateral microtia. The detection rate of both auricles was negatively correlated with gestational age. Of the 5843 fetuses undergoing a routine ultrasound screening, 5797 (99.21%) had bilateral auricles. Of the 4955 fetuses following systematic screening, all fetuses (100%) had bilateral auricles. The best time for fetal auricles observation with ultrasonography is 20–24 weeks of pregnancy. Conclusions. Detection of external ear abnormalities may assist in the diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:25050343

Wei, Jun; Ran, Suzhen; Yang, Zhengchun; Lin, Yun; Tang, Jing

2014-01-01

295

A Case of Habitual Neck Compression Induced Electroencephalogram Abnormalities: Differentiating from Epileptic Seizures Using a Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT.  

PubMed

Self-induced hypoxia has been reported particularly in adolescents, and it can result in neurological injury. Here, we present a case of electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities induced by habitual neck compression differentiated from epileptic seizures by Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT. A 19-year-old male was admitted for evaluation of recurrent generalized tonic-clonic seizures. No interictal EEG abnormality was detected; however, abnormal slow delta waves were found immediately after habitual right neck compression. To differentiate EEG abnormalities due to a hemodynamic deficit induced by habitual neck compression from an epileptic seizure, Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT was performed immediately after right carotid artery compression. Abnormal delta waves were triggered, and cerebral hypoperfusion in the right internal carotid artery territory was detected on Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT. The slow delta wave detected on the EEG resulted from the cerebral hypoperfusion because of the habitual neck compression. PMID:24900157

Choi, Hongyoon; Seo, Min-Seok; Lee, Ho-Young; Kim, Young-Soo; Yun, Chang-Ho; Kim, Sang Eun; Park, Sung-Ho

2014-06-01

296

Abnormal erythropoiesis and the pathophysiology of chronic anemia.  

PubMed

Erythropoiesis, the bone marrow production of erythrocytes by the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells, replaces the daily loss of 1% of circulating erythrocytes that are senescent. This daily output increases dramatically with hemolysis or hemorrhage. When erythrocyte production rate of erythrocytes is less than the rate of loss, chronic anemia develops. Normal erythropoiesis and specific abnormalities of erythropoiesis that cause chronic anemia are considered during three periods of differentiation: a) multilineage and pre-erythropoietin-dependent hematopoietic progenitors, b) erythropoietin-dependent progenitor cells, and c) terminally differentiating erythroblasts. These erythropoietic abnormalities are discussed in terms of their pathophysiological effects on the bone marrow cells and the resultant changes that can be detected in the peripheral blood using a clinical laboratory test, the complete blood count. PMID:24560123

Koury, Mark J

2014-03-01

297

The Earliest Fossil Evidence for Life on Land and the Freshwater Origin of Algae?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some 150 years ago, in 1859, Charles Darwin was greatly puzzled by a seeming absence of fossils in rocks older than the Cambrian period. He drew attention to a veritable Lost World that it is now known to have spanned more than 80 per cent of Earth History. And he made a prediction that we here bring again into focus: 'The presence of phosphate nodules and bituminous matter in some of the lowest azoic rocks probably indicates the former existence of life at these periods (Darwin 1859, p.307). His prediction came to fruition in 1899, when Sir Archibald Geikie announced to the world the first discovery of genuine microfossils in Precambrian phosphatic rocks, made by Jephro Teall, Ben Peach and John Horne within the Torridonian rocks of Scotland. The Torridonian phosphate of NW Scotland has, however, been rather little studied until recently. It is remarkable for its fidelity of fossil preservation, and also for its non-marine depositional setting. Dating to the end of the Mesoproterozoic Era around 1Ga ago, thick packages of fluvial sandstones are found to serve the remains of very ancient intermontane lake ecosystems. Fossil assemblages from terrestrial settings are rarely seen before the Devonian ~ 350 Ma ago. Evidence for freshwater and terrestrial life in the Precambrian has therefore been circumstantial rather than detailed and none has yet come from freshwater phosphate. We here demonstrate that phosphate from ~ 1200-1000 Ma Mesoproterozoic lake sediments of the Torridon Group preserve a remarkable suite of organisms forming a freshwater, terrestrial, phototrophic ecosystem. Ephemeral lakes and streams developed in intermontane basins within the interior of the supercontinent of Rodinia and periodically experienced prolonged desiccation allowing phosphate precipitation. The microbiology of these lake sediments is being studied in detail, where they are yielding - with the aid of Automontage - fresh evidence for the earliest known terrestrial ecology and lagerstatte. Delicate cellular structures, and even sub-cellular structures, can be preserved with high fidelity in the phosphate. These cells show evidence for life cycles that ranged from resting cysts - sometimes sculptured - to colonial vegetative stages and thence to single celled dispersal stages. Cyanobacteria, eukaryotic protists and algae are all present. The ecological structure and responses of these Torridon lake communities can be compared with those of modern, mainly acidiphilic, lakes. Together with sedimentary structures and wrinkle mats of demonstrably microbial origin, we can point to the variable development of seasonal eutrophication and stagnation in the photic zone of these ancient lakes. Population statistics of the various morphotypes reveal differences between the assemblages collected from older and younger units of the Torridon Group, attributable to differing lacustrine ecologies. Such exceptional preservation in the Proterozoic is part of an emerging picture of evolving taphonomic styles through time, in which better preservation of cells is found as we go further back into the fossil record. We attribute this remarkable preservation in the Proterozoic to very early diagenesis in a world before the evolution of a sediment Mixed Layer during the Cambrian explosion of the Metazoa. This evidence suggests that Earth's terrestrial biota and its associated phosphorus cycle were well established on land by ~1000 Ma ago. It also suggests that many algal groups, which today are obligate freshwater denizens, may have originated in freshwater lakes over a billion years ago.

Battison, L.; Brasier, M. D.; Antcliffe, J. B.

2009-04-01

298

Long-term follow-up of pediatric sickle cell disease patients with abnormal high velocities on transcranial Doppler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebral arteriopathy can be detected in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) by transcranial Doppler (TCD). Abnormally high velocities are predictive of high stroke risk, which can be reduced by transfusion therapy. We report the results of the screening of 291 SCD children followed in our center, including the clinical and imaging follow-up of 35 children with abnormal TCDs who

Françoise Bernaudin; Suzanne Verlhac; Lena Coïc; Emmanuelle Lesprit; Pierre Brugières; Philippe Reinert

2005-01-01

299

At first sight, this is not a difficult question. Every child is able to identify an animal as a mammal. Since its earliest age  

E-print Network

as a mammal. Since its earliest age it can identify what is a cat, dog, rabbit, bear, fox, wolf, mon- key. Hair, or fur, probably the most obvious mammalian fea- ture, is a structure unique to that group

Horacek, Ivan

300

Sleep Physiology, Abnormal States, and Therapeutic Interventions  

PubMed Central

Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate therapeutic interventions for abnormal sleep states. Clinicians' solid understanding of sleep physiology, abnormal sleep states, and treatments will greatly benefit patients regardless of their disease process. PMID:22778676

Wickboldt, Alvah T.; Bowen, Alex F.; Kaye, Aaron J.; Kaye, Adam M.; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D.

2012-01-01

301

Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

NONE

1993-12-31

302

Abnormal dermatoglyphics in absence of thumb.  

PubMed

Dermatoglyphics of six patients with absence of thumb are described. Two specific abnormal configurations were seen in the palmar area. In the first, there was no axial triradius and the course of the ridges in the proximal part of the palm was transversal. In the second, a peculiar distal loop on the radial border was present with a palmar triradius. These abnormal patterns are probably due to the absence of a thenar volar pad or the presence of an abnormal one when the ridges are formed. PMID:7170953

Borbolla, L

1982-01-01

303

[Abnormal hemoglobins identified in Martinique].  

PubMed

Epidemiologic programs in Martinique during the last 10 years and particularly the last 5, have allowed the determination of the Hb S, Hb C, beta thalassemia traits frequencies. A number of rare variants have been detected during the course of these screening programs. Many of these Hb variants have been analysed at the structural level. For some of them a pathologic interaction with Hb S is observed (Hb D Punjab, Hb O Arab...), and the use of electrophoretic mobilities obtained with the reference samples provides the basis of a rapid, highly probable presumptive identification and then, a useful tool, when for example genetic counselling is necessary. PMID:3991355

Monplaisir, N; Galacteros, F; Arous, N; Rhoda, M D; Delanoe-Garin, J; Ouka-Montjean, M; de Linval, J C; Rosa, J

1985-01-01

304

BRAIN ABNORMALITIES IN YOUNG ADULTS AT GENETIC RISK FOR AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY  

PubMed Central

Summary Background We previously detected functional brain imaging abnormalities in young adults at genetic risk for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here, we sought to characterize structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and plasma biomarker abnormalities in young adults at risk for autosomal dominant early-onset AD. Biomarker measurements were characterized and compared in presenilin 1 (PSEN1) E280A mutation carriers and non-carriers from the world’s largest known autosomal dominant early-onset AD kindred, more than two decades before the carriers’ estimated median age of 44 at the onset of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and before their estimated age of 28 at the onset of amyloid-? (A?) plaque deposition. Methods Biomarker data for this cross-sectional study were acquired in Antioquia, Colombia between July and August, 2010. Forty-four participants from the Colombian Alzheimer’s Prevention Initiative (API) Registry had structural MRIs, functional MRIs during associative memory encoding/novel viewing and control tasks, and cognitive assessments. They included 20 mutation carriers and 24 non-carriers, who were cognitively normal, 18-26 years old and matched for their gender, age, and educational level. Twenty of the participants, including 10 mutation carriers and 10 non-carriers, had lumbar punctures and venipunctures. Primary outcome measures included task-dependent hippocampal/parahippocampal activations and precuneus/posterior cingulate deactivations, regional gray matter reductions, CSF A?1-42, total tau and phospho-tau181 levels, and plasma A?1-42 levels and A?1-42/A?1-40 ratios. Structural and functional MRI data were compared using automated brain mapping algorithms and AD-related search regions. Cognitive and fluid biomarkers were compared using Mann-Whitney tests. Findings The mutation carrier and non-carrier groups did not differ significantly in their dementia ratings, neuropsychological test scores, or proportion of apolipoprotein E (APOE) ?4 carriers. Compared to the non-carriers, carriers had higher CSF A?1-42 levels (p=0·008), plasma A?1-42 levels (p=0·01), and plasma A?1-42/A?1-40 ratios (p=0·001), consistent with A?1-42 overproduction. They also had greater hippocampal/parahippocampal activations (as low as p=0·008, after correction for multiple comparisons), less precuneus/posterior cingulate deactivations (as low as p=0·001, after correction), less gray matter in several regions (p-values <0·005, uncorrected, and corrected p=0·008 in the parietal search region), similar to findings in the later preclinical and clinical stages of autosomal dominant and late-onset AD. Interpretation Young adults at genetic risk for autosomal dominant AD have functional and structural MRI abnormalities, along with CSF and plasma biomarker findings consistent with A?1-42 over-production. While the extent to which the underlying brain changes are progressive or developmental remain to be determined, this study demonstrates the earliest known biomarker changes in cognitively normal people at genetic risk for autosomal dominant AD. Funding Banner Alzheimer’s Foundation, Nomis Foundation, Anonymous Foundation, Forget Me Not Initiative, Boston University Department of Psychology, Colciencias (1115-408-20512, 1115-545-31651), National Institute on Aging (R01 AG031581, P30 AG19610, UO1 AG024904, RO1 AG025526, RF1AG041705), National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (F31-NS078786) and state of Arizona. PMID:23137948

Reiman, Eric M.; Quiroz, Yakeel T.; Fleisher, Adam S.; Chen, Kewei; Velez-Pardo, Carlos; Jimenez-Del-Rio, Marlene; Fagan, Anne M.; Shah, Aarti R.; Alvarez, Sergio; Arbelaez, Andrés; Giraldo, Margarita; Acosta-Baena, Natalia; Sperling, Reisa A.; Dickerson, Brad; Stern, Chantal E.; Tirado, Victoria; Munoz, Claudia; Reiman, Rebecca A.; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Alexander, Gene E.; Langbaum, Jessica B.S.; Kosik, Kenneth S.; Tariot, Pierre N.; Lopera, Francisco

2013-01-01

305

ICSN Data - Abnormal Result Technologies and Procedures  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Breast Cancer (Archived Tables): Home Abnormal

306

Abnormal Position and Presentation of the Fetus  

MedlinePLUS

... Sections Symptoms Multimedia Table Index In This Topic Women's Health Issues Complications of Labor and Delivery Abnormal Position ... Older People's Health Issues Skin Disorders Special Subjects Women's Health Issues Chapters in Women's Health Issues Biology of ...

307

The graph cuts technique, breast density and abnormality detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of density part of breast tissues is one of the signs considered by radiologists to determine whether a suspicious area is a tumor or cancer. The focus of this research is for the segmentation of dense area with regards to the breast anatomical structure for visualization, such as location of nipple if possible, skin-air interface, fatty tissue, glandular

N. Saidin; H. A. M. Sakim; U. K. Ngah; I. L. Shuaib

2012-01-01

308

Analytical cytology applied to detection of induced cytogenetic abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

Radiation-induced biological damage results in formation of a broad spectrum of cytogenetic changes such as translocations, dicentrics, ring chromosomes, and acentric fragments. A battery of analytical cytologic techniques are now emerging that promise to significantly improve the precision and ease with which these radiation induced cytogenetic changes can be quantified. This report summarizes techniques to facilitate analysis of the frequency of occurrence of structural and numerical aberrations in control and irradiated human cells. 14 refs., 2 figs.

Gray, J.W.; Lucas, J.; Straume, T.; Pinkel, D.

1987-08-06

309

Application of 3D Ultrasonography in Detection of Uterine Abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Structural pathologies in the uterine cavity such as müllerian duct anomalies (MDAs) and intrauterine lesions (fibroids, polyps, synechiae) may have important roles in subinfertility, implantation failure and pregnancy outcome. Various imaging modalities such as hysterosalpingography (HSG), sonography, laparoscopy and hysteroscopy are used in the evaluation of MDAs and intrauterine lesions. Recently, three-dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) has been introduced as a non-invasive, outpatient diagnostic modality. With increased spatial awareness, it is superior to other techniques used for the same purpose. PMID:24851173

Ahmadi, Firoozeh; Zafarani, Fatemeh; Haghighi, Hadieh; Niknejadi, Maryam; Vosough Taqi Dizaj, Ahmad

2011-01-01

310

Tomosynthesis improves cancer detection and simplifies workup of suspected abnormalities  

E-print Network

the screening and diagnostic envi- ronment. Initial studies estimated reduced recall rates from screening Information A 47-year-old female with heterogeneously dense breasts presented for a 6-month follow-up after- tory of breast cancer. A combined 2D and 3D breast tomosynthesis examination was performed on a Hologic

Kim, Duck O.

311

Contrast imaging ultrasound detects abnormalities in the marmoset ovary.  

PubMed

The development of a functional vascular tree within the primate ovary is critical for reproductive health. To determine the efficacy of contrast agents to image the microvascular environment within the primate ovary, contrast ultrasonography was performed in six reproductive-aged female common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) during the late luteal phase of the cycle, following injection of Sonovue™. Regions of interest (ROIs), representing the corpus luteum (CL) and noncorpus luteum ovarian tissue (NCLOT), were selected during gray-scale B-mode ultrasound imaging. The magnitude of backscatter intensity of CL and NCLOT ROIs were calculated in XnView, post hoc: subsequent gamma-variate modeling was implemented in Matlab to determine perfusion parameters. Histological analysis of these ovaries revealed a total of 11 CL, nine of which were identified during contrast ultrasonography. The median enhancement ratio was significantly increased in the CL (5.54AU; 95% CI -2.21-68.71) compared to the NCLOT (2.82AU; 95% CI 2.73-15.06; P < 0.05). There was no difference in time parameters between the CL and NCLOT. An additional avascular ROI was identified in the ovary of Animal 5, both histologically and by ultrasonography. This cystic ROI displayed a markedly lower enhancement ratio (0.79AU) and higher time parameters than mean CL and NCLOT, including time to peak and time to wash out. These data demonstrate, for the first time, the ability of commercially available contrast agents, to differentiate structures within the nonhuman primate ovary. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography has a promising future in reproductive medicine. PMID:22890799

Hastings, J M; Morris, K D; Allan, D; Wilson, H; Millar, R P; Fraser, H M; Moran, C M

2012-12-01

312

NonStationary Shape Activities: Tracking & Abnormality Detection  

E-print Network

motion. Valid model for: Distant PTZ camera rotated to align with line of sight Random jitter of UAV · Use estimated global motion to control a PTZ camera or a UAV to "follow" a "moving" activity 9 #12;A · Sensor independent approach ­ Observations may be obtained using any sensor, e.g. audio, infra-red, radar

Vaswani, Namrata

313

A Comparison of Techniques for Detecting Abnormal Change in Blogs  

SciTech Connect

Distributed collections are made of metadata entries that contain references to artifacts not controlled by the collection curators. These collections often have limited forms of change; for digital distributed collections, primarily creation and deletion of additional resources. However, there exists a class of digital collection that undergoes additional kinds of change. These collections consist of resources that are distributed across the Internet and brought together via hyperlinking. Resources in these collections can be expected to change as time goes on. Part of the difficulty in maintaining these collections is determining if a changed page is still a valid member of the collection. Others have tried to address this by defining a maximum allowed threshold of change, however, these methods treat change as a potential problem and treat web content as static despite its intrinsic dynamicism. Instead we acknowledge change on the web as a normal part of a web document and determine the difference between what a maintainer expects a page to do and what it actually does. In this work we evaluate options for extractors and analyzers from a suite of techniques against a human-generated ground-truth set of blog changes. The results of this work show a statistically significant improvement over traditional threshold techniques for our collection.

Furuta, Dr. Richard Keith [Texas A& M University] [Texas A& M University; ShipmanIII, Dr. Frank Major [Texas A& M University] [Texas A& M University; Bogen, Paul Logasa [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-01-01

314

Project EARTH-11-CMN3: The Earliest records of the Earth's magnetic field a combined  

E-print Network

Palaeomagnetic and Iron Isotope analysis Supervisors: Conall Mac Niocaill & Helen Williams (Durham) The Earth propose a new way of detecting whether magnetic minerals are primary, or whether they grew at a later stage. Our work will exploit the fact that iron has several isotopes, which enter into oxide

Henderson, Gideon

315

Feedforward and feedback motor control abnormalities implicate cerebellar dysfunctions in autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

Sensorimotor abnormalities are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and among the earliest manifestations of the disorder. They have been studied far less than the social-communication and cognitive deficits that define ASD, but a mechanistic understanding of sensorimotor abnormalities in ASD may provide key insights into the neural underpinnings of the disorder. In this human study, we examined rapid, precision grip force contractions to determine whether feedforward mechanisms supporting initial motor output before sensory feedback can be processed are disrupted in ASD. Sustained force contractions also were examined to determine whether reactive adjustments to ongoing motor behavior based on visual feedback are altered. Sustained force was studied across multiple force levels and visual gains to assess motor and visuomotor mechanisms, respectively. Primary force contractions of individuals with ASD showed greater peak rate of force increases and large transient overshoots. Individuals with ASD also showed increased sustained force variability that scaled with force level and was more severe when visual gain was highly amplified or highly degraded. When sustaining a constant force level, their reactive adjustments were more periodic than controls, and they showed increased reliance on slower feedback mechanisms. Feedforward and feedback mechanism alterations each were associated with more severe social-communication impairments in ASD. These findings implicate anterior cerebellar circuits involved in feedforward motor control and posterior cerebellar circuits involved in transforming visual feedback into precise motor adjustments in ASD. PMID:25653359

Mosconi, Matthew W; Mohanty, Suman; Greene, Rachel K; Cook, Edwin H; Vaillancourt, David E; Sweeney, John A

2015-02-01

316

[Seizures revealing phosphocalcic metabolism abnormalities].  

PubMed

Hypocalcemia due to hypoparathyroidism produces a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, but overt symptoms may be sparse. One unusual presentation is onset or aggravation of epilepsy in adolescence revealing hypoparathyroidism. This situation can lead to delayed diagnosis, with inefficacity of the antiepileptic drugs. We report five cases of adolescence-onset epilepsy with unsuccessful antiepileptic therapy, even with gradually increasing dose. Physical examination revealed signs of hypocalcemia, confirmed biologically. Full testing disclosed the origin of the seizures: hypoparathyroidism in three patients and pseudohypoparathyroidism in the other two. In four of five patients, computed tomography showed calcification of the basal ganglia, defining Fahr's syndrome. The patients were treated with oral calcium and active vitamin D (1-alphahydroxy vitamin D3). Seizure frequency progressively decreased and serum calcium levels returned to normal. These cases illustrate the importance of the physical examination and of routine serum calcium assay in patients with new-onset epileptic seizures in order to detect hypocalcemia secondary to hypoparathyroidism. PMID:24726042

Hmami, F; Chaouki, S; Benmiloud, S; Souilmi, F Z; Abourazzak, S; Idrissi, M; Atmani, S; Bouharrou, A; Hida, M

2014-01-01

317

Early physiological abnormalities after simian immunodeficiency virus infection  

PubMed Central

Central nervous system (CNS) damage and dysfunction are devastating consequences of HIV infection. Although the CNS is one of the initial targets for HIV infection, little is known about early viral-induced abnormalities that can affect CNS function. Here we report the detection of early physiological abnormalities in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected monkeys. The acute infection caused a disruption of the circadian rhythm manifested by rises in body temperature, observed in all five individuals between 1 and 2 weeks postinoculation (p.i.), accompanied by a reduction in daily motor activity to 50% of control levels. Animals remained hyperthermic at 1 and 2 months p.i. and returned to preinoculation temperatures at 3 months after viral inoculation. Although motor activity recovered to baseline values at 1 month p.i., activity levels then decreased to approximately 50% of preinoculation values over the next 2 months. Analysis of sensory-evoked responses 1 month p.i. revealed distinct infection-induced changes in auditory-evoked potential peak latencies that persisted at 3 months after viral inoculation. These early physiological abnormalities may precede the development of observable cognitive or motor deficiencies and can provide an assay to evaluate agents to prevent or alleviate neuronal dysfunction. PMID:9844017

Horn, Thomas F. W.; Huitron-Resendiz, Salvador; Weed, Michael R.; Henriksen, Steven J.; Fox, Howard S.

1998-01-01

318

Neurocristopathies presenting with neurologic abnormalities associated with Hirschsprung's disease.  

PubMed

Neurocristopathies are a group of diverse disorders resulting from defective growth, differentiation, and migration of the neural crest cells. Hirschsprung's disease, namely aganglionic megacolon, is the consequence of defective migration of neural crest cells on to the colonic submucosa and is therefore considered a neurocristopathy. We report on four children in whom was diagnosed a neurocristopathy, associating Hirschsprung's disease with a wide spectrum of neurologic abnormalities. The patients included two children presenting the phenotypic features of the Goldberg-Shprintzen syndrome: distinct dysmorphic facial features, microcephaly, and mental retardation, along with agenesis of the corpus callosum and cortical malformations associated with intractable seizures in one child. The third newborn presented with the Haddad syndrome: short-segment Hirschsprung's disease associated with the congenital central hypoventilation syndrome requiring permanent artificial ventilation. In the fourth child, absence of the corpus callosum was associated with mild dysmorphic features, borderline cognitive abilities, and attention-deficit disorder. Therefore, awareness of a possible neurocristopathy associated with neurologic abnormalities should be taken into account in any patient newly diagnosed with Hirschsprung's disease to detect the abnormalities early and promptly manage them. A thorough neurologic examination and a developmental assessment, including magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and electroencephalography, should be performed for any child presenting with an aganglionic megacolon, especially those presenting with seizures, developmental delay, or even congenital hypoventilation. PMID:12878302

Shahar, Eli; Shinawi, Maruan

2003-05-01

319

Abnormal center-periphery gradient in spatial attention in simultanagnosia.  

PubMed

Patients suffering from simultanagnosia cannot perceive more than one object at a time. The underlying mechanism is incompletely understood. One hypothesis is that simultanagnosia reflects "tunnel vision," a constricted attention window around gaze, which precludes the grouping of individual objects. Although this idea has a long history in neuropsychology, the question whether the patients indeed have an abnormal attention gradient around the gaze has so far not been addressed. Here we tested this hypothesis in two simultanagnosia patients with bilateral parieto-occipital lesions and two control groups, with and without brain damage. We assessed the participants' ability to discriminate letters presented briefly at fixation with and without a peripheral distractor or in the visual periphery, with or without a foveal distractor. A constricted span of attention around gaze would predict an increased susceptibility to foveated versus peripheral distractors. Contrary to this prediction and unlike both control groups, the patients' ability to discriminate the target decreased more in the presence of peripheral compared with foveated distractors. Thus, the attentional spotlight in simultanagnosia does not fall on foveated objects as previously assumed, but rather abnormally highlights the periphery. Furthermore, we found the same center-periphery gradient in the patients' ability to recognize multiple objects. They detected multiple, but not single objects more accurately in the periphery than at fixation. These results suggest that an abnormal allocation of attention around the gaze can disrupt the grouping of individual objects into an integrated visual scene. PMID:24893736

Balslev, Daniela; Odoj, Bartholomaeus; Rennig, Johannes; Karnath, Hans-Otto

2014-12-01

320

Detector for flow abnormalities in gaseous diffusion plant compressors  

DOEpatents

A detector detects a flow abnormality in a plant compressor which outputs a motor current signal. The detector includes a demodulator/lowpass filter demodulating and filtering the motor current signal producing a demodulated signal, and first, second, third and fourth bandpass filters connected to the demodulator/lowpass filter, and filtering the demodulated signal in accordance with first, second, third and fourth bandpass frequencies generating first, second, third and fourth filtered signals having first, second, third and fourth amplitudes. The detector also includes first, second, third and fourth amplitude detectors connected to the first, second, third and fourth bandpass filters respectively, and detecting the first, second, third and fourth amplitudes, and first and second adders connected to the first and fourth amplitude detectors and the second and third amplitude detectors respectively, and adding the first and fourth amplitudes and the second and third amplitudes respectively generating first and second added signals. Finally, the detector includes a comparator, connected to the first and second adders, and comparing the first and second added signals and detecting the abnormal condition in the plant compressor when the second added signal exceeds the first added signal by a predetermined value.

Smith, Stephen F. (Loudon, TN); Castleberry, Kim N. (Harriman, TN)

1998-01-01

321

Detector for flow abnormalities in gaseous diffusion plant compressors  

DOEpatents

A detector detects a flow abnormality in a plant compressor which outputs a motor current signal. The detector includes a demodulator/lowpass filter demodulating and filtering the motor current signal producing a demodulated signal, and first, second, third and fourth bandpass filters connected to the demodulator/lowpass filter, and filtering the demodulated signal in accordance with first, second, third and fourth bandpass frequencies generating first, second, third and fourth filtered signals having first, second, third and fourth amplitudes. The detector also includes first, second, third and fourth amplitude detectors connected to the first, second, third and fourth bandpass filters respectively, and detecting the first, second, third and fourth amplitudes, and first and second adders connected to the first and fourth amplitude detectors and the second and third amplitude detectors respectively, and adding the first and fourth amplitudes and the second and third amplitudes respectively generating first and second added signals. Finally, the detector includes a comparator, connected to the first and second adders, and comparing the first and second added signals and detecting the abnormal condition in the plant compressor when the second added signal exceeds the first added signal by a predetermined value. 6 figs.

Smith, S.F.; Castleberry, K.N.

1998-06-16

322

42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other...abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other...

2014-10-01

323

42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other...abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other...

2013-10-01

324

The Cortical Signature of Alzheimer's Disease: Regionally Specific Cortical Thinning Relates to Symptom Severity in Very Mild to Mild AD Dementia and is Detectable in Asymptomatic Amyloid-Positive Individuals  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with neurodegeneration in vulnerable limbic and heteromodal regions of the cerebral cortex, detectable in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging. It is not clear whether abnormalities of cortical anatomy in AD can be reliably measured across different subject samples, how closely they track symptoms, and whether they are detectable prior to symptoms. An exploratory map of cortical thinning in mild AD was used to define regions of interest that were applied in a hypothesis-driven fashion to other subject samples. Results demonstrate a reliably quantifiable in vivo signature of abnormal cortical anatomy in AD, which parallels known regional vulnerability to AD neuropathology. Thinning in vulnerable cortical regions relates to symptom severity even in the earliest stages of clinical symptoms. Furthermore, subtle thinning is present in asymptomatic older controls with brain amyloid binding as detected with amyloid imaging. The reliability and clinical validity of AD-related cortical thinning suggests potential utility as an imaging biomarker. This “disease signature” approach to cortical morphometry, in which disease effects are mapped across the cortical mantle and then used to define ROIs for hypothesis-driven analyses, may provide a powerful methodological framework for studies of neuropsychiatric diseases. PMID:18632739

Bakkour, Akram; Salat, David H.; Feczko, Eric; Pacheco, Jenni; Greve, Douglas N.; Grodstein, Fran; Wright, Christopher I.; Blacker, Deborah; Rosas, H. Diana; Sperling, Reisa A.; Atri, Alireza; Growdon, John H.; Hyman, Bradley T.; Morris, John C.; Fischl, Bruce; Buckner, Randy L.

2009-01-01

325

Localization of abnormal discharges causing insular epilepsy by magnetoencephalography.  

PubMed

The insula, one of the five cerebral lobes of the brain, is located deep within the brain and lies mainly beneath the temporal lobe. Insular epilepsy can be easily confused and misdiagnosed as temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) because of the similar clinical symptoms and scalp electroencephalography (EEG) findings due to the insula location and neuronal connections with the temporal lobe. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) has higher sensitivity and spatial resolution than scalp EEG, and thus can often identify epileptic discharges not revealed by scalp EEG. Simultaneous scalp EEG and MEG were performed to detect and localize epileptic discharges in two patients known to have insular epilepsy associated with cavernous angioma in the insula. Epileptic discharges were detected as abnormal spikes in the EEG and MEG findings. In Patient 1, the sources of all MEG spikes detected simultaneously by EEG and MEG (E/M-spikes) were localized in the anterior temporal lobe, similar to TLE. In contrast, the sources of all MEG spikes detected only by MEG (M-spikes) were adjacent to the insular lesion. In Patient 2, the sources of all MEG spikes detected simultaneously by EEG and MEG (E/M-spikes) were localized in the anterior temporal lobe. These findings indicate that MEG allows us to detect insular activity that is undetectable by scalp EEG. In conclusion, simultaneous EEG and MEG are helpful for detecting spikes and obtaining additional information about the epileptic origin and propagation in patients with insular epilepsy. PMID:22353789

Park, Hyeon-Mi; Nakasato, Nobukazu; Tominaga, Teiji

2012-01-01

326

The earliest record of major anthropogenic deforestation in the Ghab Valley, northwest Syria: a palynological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen analytical studies on the sediment core from the Ghab Valley in Northwest Syria detected a large-scale anthropogenic deforestation of deciduous oak forest as early as 9000 14C yr BP. Following the lateglacial climatic amelioration, deciduous oak forest gradually expanded at the foot of Mt. Ansarie since 14,500 14C yr BP. Then this forest was cleared by Pre-Pottery Neolithic B

Yoshinori Yasuda; Hiroyuki Kitagawa; Takeshi Nakagawa

2000-01-01

327

Rare Structural Chromosomal Abnormalities in Prenatal Diagnosis; Clinical and Cytogenetic Findings on 10125 Prenatal Cases.  

PubMed

Objective: The aim of this study was presentation of the ultrasonographic findings and perinatal autopsy of cases with rare chromosomal abnormalities. Material and Method: A total of 10125 prenatal cases over 17 years including 8731 amniocentesis, 973 chorionic villus sampling, and 421 fetal blood sampling cases were evaluated for prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis. Conventional cytogenetic studies, fluorescence in situ hybridization studies, and Array-CGH analysis techniques were used for genetic analysis. Results: A structural chromosomal abnormality was observed in 95 cases. The most frequently observed structural abnormalities were balanced translocations with a frequency of 53.7% (51 cases) followed by unbalanced translocations (16.8%), inversions (11.6%), supernumerary marker chromosomes (8.4%), duplications (4.2%), deletions and ring chromosomes (2.1%) and complex translocation (1.1%). Rare structural chromosomal abnormalities including de novo balanced translocations, unbalanced translocations, inversions, duplications, deletions, ring chromosomes, and supernumerary marker chromosomes were detected in 24 cases. Conclusion: The rate of rare chromosomal abnormalities varies from 2.4% (South East Ireland) to 12.9% (Northern England) in Europe with a total rate of 7.4/10 000 births. In our study, the overall rate of chromosomal abnormality in prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis was 3.7%, similar to South East Ireland. Ultrasonographic and perinatal autopsy findings of the cases with rare structural chromosomal abnormalities are important for proper genetic counseling for further similar cases. PMID:25301051

Yakut, Sezin; Cet?n, Zafer; S?m?ek, Mehmet; Mend?c?o?lu, Ibrahim Inanç; Toru, Havva Serap; Karaüzüm, Sibel Berker; Lülec?, Güven

2014-10-10

328

Anatomical Abnormalities in Gray and White Matter of the Cortical Surface in Persons with Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background Although schizophrenia has been associated with abnormalities in brain anatomy, imaging studies have not fully determined the nature and relative contributions of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) disturbances underlying these findings. We sought to determine the pattern and distribution of these GM and WM abnormalities. Furthermore, we aimed to clarify the contribution of abnormalities in cortical thickness and cortical surface area to the reduced GM volumes reported in schizophrenia. Methods We recruited 76 persons with schizophrenia and 57 healthy controls from the community and obtained measures of cortical and WM surface areas, of local volumes along the brain and WM surfaces, and of cortical thickness. Results We detected reduced local volumes in patients along corresponding locations of the brain and WM surfaces in addition to bilateral greater thickness of perisylvian cortices and thinner cortex in the superior frontal and cingulate gyri. Total cortical and WM surface areas were reduced. Patients with worse performance on the serial-position task, a measure of working memory, had a higher burden of WM abnormalities. Conclusions Reduced local volumes along the surface of the brain mirrored the locations of abnormalities along the surface of the underlying WM, rather than of abnormalities of cortical thickness. Moreover, anatomical features of white matter, but not cortical thickness, correlated with measures of working memory. We propose that reductions in WM and smaller total cortical surface area could be central anatomical abnormalities in schizophrenia, driving, at least partially, the reduced regional GM volumes often observed in this illness. PMID:23418459

Colibazzi, Tiziano; Wexler, Bruce E.; Bansal, Ravi; Hao, Xuejun; Liu, Jun; Sanchez-Peña, Juan; Corcoran, Cheryl; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Peterson, Bradley S.

2013-01-01

329

Abnormal brain connectivity in schizophrenia : investigations into episodic memory networks.  

E-print Network

??Abnormal connectivity between the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and other brain regions has been demonstrated in subjects with schizophrenia. We tested if abnormal connectivity, particularly between… (more)

Pelletier, Marc, 1973-

2005-01-01

330

Evaluation of retinal vessel segmentation methods for microaneurysms detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microaneurysms (MAs) are the earliest sign of diabetic retinopathy and manifest as small reddish spots on the retina. Generally, algorithm design for MAs detection starts by separating the vascular system from the background for a posterior analysis of candidate MAs presence. Following this approach, this paper assesses three different methods for vessel segmentation and how they affect posterior MAs detection.

Charles Iury Oliveira Martins; Fátima Nelsizeuma Sombra de Medeiros; Rodrigo M. S. Veras; Francisco Nivando Bezerra; Roberto Marcondes Cesar Junior

2009-01-01

331

Abnormal hepatocellular mitochondria in methylmalonic acidemia.  

PubMed

Methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) is one of the most frequently encountered forms of branched-chain organic acidemias. Biochemical abnormalities seen in some MMA patients, such as lactic acidemia and increased tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate excretion, suggest mitochondrial dysfunction. In order to investigate the possibility of mitochondrial involvement in MMA, we examined liver tissue for evidence of mitochondrial ultrastructural abnormalities. Five explanted livers obtained from MMA mut(0) patients undergoing liver transplantation were biopsied. All patients had previous episodes of metabolic acidosis, lactic acidemia, ketonuria, and hyperammonemia. All biopsies revealed a striking mitochondriopathy by electron microscopy. Mitochondria were markedly variable in size, shape, and conformation of cristae. The inner matrix appeared to be greatly expanded and the cristae were diminutive and disconnected. No crystalloid inclusions were noted. This series clearly documents extensive mitochondrial ultrastructure abnormalities in liver samples from MMA patients undergoing transplantation, providing pathological evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathophysiology of MMA mut(0). Considering the trend to abnormally large mitochondria, the metabolic effects of MMA may restrict mitochondrial fission or promote fusion. The correlation between mitochondrial dysfunction and morphological abnormalities in MMA may provide insights for better understanding and monitoring of optimized or novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:24933007

Wilnai, Yael; Enns, Gregory M; Niemi, Anna-Kaisa; Higgins, John; Vogel, Hannes

2014-10-01

332

Localized Hotspots Drive Continental Geography of Abnormal Amphibians on U.S. Wildlife Refuges  

PubMed Central

Amphibians with missing, misshapen, and extra limbs have garnered public and scientific attention for two decades, yet the extent of the phenomenon remains poorly understood. Despite progress in identifying the causes of abnormalities in some regions, a lack of knowledge about their broader spatial distribution and temporal dynamics has hindered efforts to understand their implications for amphibian population declines and environmental quality. To address this data gap, we conducted a nationwide, 10-year assessment of 62,947 amphibians on U.S. National Wildlife Refuges. Analysis of a core dataset of 48,081 individuals revealed that consistent with expected background frequencies, an average of 2% were abnormal, but abnormalities exhibited marked spatial variation with a maximum prevalence of 40%. Variance partitioning analysis demonstrated that factors associated with space (rather than species or year sampled) captured 97% of the variation in abnormalities, and the amount of partitioned variance decreased with increasing spatial scale (from site to refuge to region). Consistent with this, abnormalities occurred in local to regional hotspots, clustering at scales of tens to hundreds of kilometers. We detected such hotspot clusters of high-abnormality sites in the Mississippi River Valley, California, and Alaska. Abnormality frequency was more variable within than outside of hotspot clusters. This is consistent with dynamic phenomena such as disturbance or natural enemies (pathogens or predators), whereas similarity of abnormality frequencies at scales of tens to hundreds of kilometers suggests involvement of factors that are spatially consistent at a regional scale. Our characterization of the spatial and temporal variation inherent in continent-wide amphibian abnormalities demonstrates the disproportionate contribution of local factors in predicting hotspots, and the episodic nature of their occurrence. PMID:24260103

Reeves, Mari K.; Medley, Kimberly A.; Pinkney, Alfred E.; Holyoak, Marcel; Johnson, Pieter T. J.; Lannoo, Michael J.

2013-01-01

333

Unsupervised Pattern Classifier for Abnormality-Scaling of Vibration Features for Helicopter Gearbox Fault Diagnosis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new unsupervised pattern classifier is introduced for on-line detection of abnormality in features of vibration that are used for fault diagnosis of helicopter gearboxes. This classifier compares vibration features with their respective normal values and assigns them a value in (0, 1) to reflect their degree of abnormality. Therefore, the salient feature of this classifier is that it does not require feature values associated with faulty cases to identify abnormality. In order to cope with noise and changes in the operating conditions, an adaptation algorithm is incorporated that continually updates the normal values of the features. The proposed classifier is tested using experimental vibration features obtained from an OH-58A main rotor gearbox. The overall performance of this classifier is then evaluated by integrating the abnormality-scaled features for detection of faults. The fault detection results indicate that the performance of this classifier is comparable to the leading unsupervised neural networks: Kohonen's Feature Mapping and Adaptive Resonance Theory (AR72). This is significant considering that the independence of this classifier from fault-related features makes it uniquely suited to abnormality-scaling of vibration features for fault diagnosis.

Jammu, Vinay B.; Danai, Kourosh; Lewicki, David G.

1996-01-01

334

Endocrine abnormalities in Townes-Brocks syndrome.  

PubMed

Townes-Brocks syndrome is a recognizable variable pattern of malformation caused by mutations to the SALL1 gene located on chromosome 16q12.1. Only three known cases of Townes-Brocks syndrome with proven SALL1 gene mutation and concurrent endocrine abnormalities have been previously documented to our knowledge [Kohlhase et al., 1999; Botzenhart et al., 2005; Choi et al., 2010]. We report on two unrelated patients with Townes-Brocks syndrome who share an identical SALL1 mutation (c.3414_3415delAT), who also have endocrine abnormalities. Patient 1 appears to be the first known case of growth hormone deficiency, and Patient 2 extends the number of documented mutation cases with hypothyroidism to four. We suspect endocrine abnormalities, particularly treatable deficiencies, may be an underappreciated component to Townes-Brocks syndrome. PMID:23894113

Lawrence, Cara; Hong-McAtee, Irene; Hall, Bryan; Hartsfield, James; Rutherford, Andrew; Bonilla, Tracy; Bay, Carolyn

2013-09-01

335

Unveiling the earliest stage of star formation: the H3+ deuteration tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deuterium enhancement of monodeuterated species has been recognized for more than 30 years as a result of the chemical fractionation that results from the difference in zero point energies of deuterated and hydrogenated molecules. The key reaction is the deuteron exchange in the reaction between HD, the reservoir of deuterium in dark interstellar clouds, and the H3+ molecular ion, leading to the production of the H2D+ molecule, and the low temperature in dark interstellar clouds favors this production. Furthermore, the presence of multiply deuterated species have incited us (Phillips & Vastel 2003) to proceed further and consider the subsequent reaction of H2D+ with HD, leading to D2H+ (first detected by Vastel et al. 2004), which can further react with HD to produce D3+. In prestellar cores, where CO was found to be depleted (Bacmann et al. 2003), this production should be increased, as CO would normally destroy H3+. The first model including D2}H+ and D3}+ (Roberts, Herbst & Millar 2003) predicted that these molecules should be as abundant as H2D+. The first detection of the D2H+ was made possible by the recent laboratory measurement by Hirao & Amano (2003) for the frequency of the fundamental line of the para-D2H+. In this paper I present observations of H3D+ and D2H+ towards a sample of dark clouds and prestellar cores and show how the distribution of ortho-H2}D+ (11,0}-B11}) can trace the deuterium factory in prestellar cores. I will also present how future instrumentation will improve our knowledge concerning the deuterium enhancement of H3+.

Vastel, Charlotte

2007-07-01

336

Earliest domestication of common millet (Panicum miliaceum) in East Asia extended to 10,000 years ago  

PubMed Central

The origin of millet from Neolithic China has generally been accepted, but it remains unknown whether common millet (Panicum miliaceum) or foxtail millet (Setaria italica) was the first species domesticated. Nor do we know the timing of their domestication and their routes of dispersal. Here, we report the discovery of husk phytoliths and biomolecular components identifiable solely as common millet from newly excavated storage pits at the Neolithic Cishan site, China, dated to between ca. 10,300 and ca. 8,700 calibrated years before present (cal yr BP). After ca. 8,700 cal yr BP, the grain crops began to contain a small quantity of foxtail millet. Our research reveals that the common millet was the earliest dry farming crop in East Asia, which is probably attributed to its excellent resistance to drought. PMID:19383791

Lu, Houyuan; Zhang, Jianping; Liu, Kam-biu; Wu, Naiqin; Li, Yumei; Zhou, Kunshu; Ye, Maolin; Zhang, Tianyu; Zhang, Haijiang; Yang, Xiaoyan; Shen, Licheng; Xu, Deke; Li, Quan

2009-01-01

337

Earliest domestication of common millet (Panicum miliaceum) in East Asia extended to 10,000 years ago.  

PubMed

The origin of millet from Neolithic China has generally been accepted, but it remains unknown whether common millet (Panicum miliaceum) or foxtail millet (Setaria italica) was the first species domesticated. Nor do we know the timing of their domestication and their routes of dispersal. Here, we report the discovery of husk phytoliths and biomolecular components identifiable solely as common millet from newly excavated storage pits at the Neolithic Cishan site, China, dated to between ca. 10,300 and ca. 8,700 calibrated years before present (cal yr BP). After ca. 8,700 cal yr BP, the grain crops began to contain a small quantity of foxtail millet. Our research reveals that the common millet was the earliest dry farming crop in East Asia, which is probably attributed to its excellent resistance to drought. PMID:19383791

Lu, Houyuan; Zhang, Jianping; Liu, Kam-biu; Wu, Naiqin; Li, Yumei; Zhou, Kunshu; Ye, Maolin; Zhang, Tianyu; Zhang, Haijiang; Yang, Xiaoyan; Shen, Licheng; Xu, Deke; Li, Quan

2009-05-01

338

Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

2014-05-01

339

Latest Carboniferous-earliest Permian transgressive deposits in the Paganzo Basin of western Argentina: Lithofacies and sequence stratigraphy of a coastal-plain to bay succession  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The upper Paleozoic rocks of Gondwana record a complex paleoclimatic history related to the migration of the supercontinent over high latitudes. Changes in climate and relative sea level can be traced through detailed sedimentologic and sequence-stratigraphic analysis. Our study focuses on transgressive deposits of Stephanian-Early Permian age in the lower member of the Tupe Formation with the objective of characterizing lithofacies and sedimentary environments within a sequence-stratigraphic framework in order to achieve a better understanding of the sedimentary history of the Paganzo Basin and the nature of transgressive deposits. Sixteen lithofacies grouped in eight assemblages were defined and arranged in two complete sequences. A sequence boundary (SB) is identified at the base of the Tupe Formation. Coastal-plain deposits capped by marine embayment lithofacies are included within sequence 1. A relative sea-level fall (SB) is recorded by an abrupt change into braided alluvial-plaine deposits (LST). The beginning of the TST is characterized by the appearance of coal and deltaic lithofacies. Late TST deposits occur above a ravinement surface and comprise bay-margin to distal-bay deposits forming a retrogradational stacking package. These lithofacies are replaced upwards by HST deposits. A relative sea-level fall (SB) is recorded by the presence of fluvial deposits overlying marine lithofacies. The Tupe Formation illustrates the transition of a coastal-plain to a marine embayment. The detection of a transgressive surface within the coastal-plain deposits of sequence 1 expanded significantly the volume of deposits now included as part of the latest Carboniferous-earliest Permian transgression, and underscores the importance of searching for transgressive signatures in non-marine environments. The presence of two sequences supports a punctuated shoreline trajectory with an overall retrogradational stacking pattern. An abrupt relative sea-level fall and increased aridity is recorded at the end of the transgressive event.

Desjardins, Patricio R.; Buatois, Luis A.; Limarino, Carlos O.; Cisterna, Gabriela A.

2009-07-01

340

Abnormal Selective Attention Normalizes P3 Amplitudes in PDD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper studied whether abnormal P3 amplitudes in PDD are a corollary of abnormalities in ERP components related to selective attention in visual and auditory tasks. Furthermore, this study sought to clarify possible age differences in such abnormalities. Children with PDD showed smaller P3 amplitudes than controls, but no abnormalities in…

Hoeksma, Marco R.; Kemner, Chantal; Kenemans, J. Leon; van Engeland, Herman

2006-01-01

341

NASA Ames Research Center Emergency and Abnormal Situations in  

E-print Network

NASA Ames Research Center Emergency and Abnormal Situations in Aviation Symposium June 10 -11, 2003 San Jose, California "Dealing with Emergency/Abnormal Situations with New Security Guidelines" Captain MANAGEMENT Emergency/Abnormal SituationsEmergency/Abnormal Situations & Security& Security #12;Agenda

342

Opportunistic Feeding Strategy for the Earliest Old World Hypsodont Equids: Evidence from Stable Isotope and Dental Wear Proxies  

PubMed Central

Background The equid Hippotherium primigenium, with moderately hypsodont cheek teeth, rapidly dispersed through Eurasia in the early late Miocene. This dispersal of hipparions into the Old World represents a major faunal event during the Neogene. The reasons for this fast dispersal of H. primigenium within Europe are still unclear. Based on its hypsodonty, a high specialization in grazing is assumed although the feeding ecology of the earliest European hipparionines within a pure C3 plant ecosystem remains to be investigated. Methodology/Principal Findings A multi-proxy approach, combining carbon and oxygen isotopes from enamel as well as dental meso- and microwear analyses of cheek teeth, was used to characterize the diet of the earliest European H. primigenium populations from four early Late Miocene localities in Germany (Eppelsheim, Höwenegg), Switzerland (Charmoille), and France (Soblay). Enamel ?13C values indicate a pure C3 plant diet with small (<1.4‰) seasonal variations for all four H. primigenium populations. Dental wear and carbon isotope compositions are compatible with dietary differences. Except for the Höwenegg hipparionines, dental microwear data indicate a browse-dominated diet. By contrast, the tooth mesowear patterns of all populations range from low to high abrasion suggesting a wide spectrum of food resources. Conclusions/Significance Combined dental wear and stable isotope analysis enables refined palaeodietary reconstructions in C3 ecosystems. Different H. primigenium populations in Europe had a large spectrum of feeding habits with a high browsing component. The combination of specialized phenotypes such as hypsodont cheek teeth with a wide spectrum of diet illustrates a new example of the Liem’s paradox. This dietary flexibility associated with the capability to exploit abrasive food such as grasses probably contributed to the rapid dispersal of hipparionines from North America into Eurasia and the fast replacement of the brachydont equid Anchitherium by the hypsodont H. primigenium in Europe. PMID:24040254

Tütken, Thomas; Kaiser, Thomas M.; Vennemann, Torsten; Merceron, Gildas

2013-01-01

343

Identification of intestinal wall abnormalities and ischemia by modeling spatial uncertainty in computed tomography imaging findings.  

PubMed

Intestinal abnormalities and ischemia are medical conditions in which inflammation and injury of the intestine are caused by inadequate blood supply. Acute ischemia of the small bowel can be life-threatening. Computed tomography (CT) is currently a gold standard for the diagnosis of acute intestinal ischemia in the emergency department. However, the assessment of the diagnostic performance of CT findings in the detection of intestinal abnormalities and ischemia has been a difficult task for both radiologists and surgeons. Little effort has been found in developing computerized systems for the automated identification of these types of complex gastrointestinal disorders. In this paper, a geostatistical mapping of spatial uncertainty in CT scans is introduced for medical image feature extraction, which can be effectively applied for diagnostic detection of intestinal abnormalities and ischemia from control patterns. Experimental results obtained from the analysis of clinical data suggest the usefulness of the proposed uncertainty mapping model. PMID:24938748

Tsunoyama, Taichiro; Pham, Tuan D; Fujita, Takashi; Sakamoto, Tetsuya

2014-10-01

344

Automatic Fault Characterization via Abnormality-Enhanced Classification  

SciTech Connect

Enterprise and high-performance computing systems are growing extremely large and complex, employing hundreds to hundreds of thousands of processors and software/hardware stacks built by many people across many organizations. As the growing scale of these machines increases the frequency of faults, system complexity makes these faults difficult to detect and to diagnose. Current system management techniques, which focus primarily on efficient data access and query mechanisms, require system administrators to examine the behavior of various system services manually. Growing system complexity is making this manual process unmanageable: administrators require more effective management tools that can detect faults and help to identify their root causes. System administrators need timely notification when a fault is manifested that includes the type of fault, the time period in which it occurred and the processor on which it originated. Statistical modeling approaches can accurately characterize system behavior. However, the complex effects of system faults make these tools difficult to apply effectively. This paper investigates the application of classification and clustering algorithms to fault detection and characterization. We show experimentally that naively applying these methods achieves poor accuracy. Further, we design novel techniques that combine classification algorithms with information on the abnormality of application behavior to improve detection and characterization accuracy. Our experiments demonstrate that these techniques can detect and characterize faults with 65% accuracy, compared to just 5% accuracy for naive approaches.

Bronevetsky, G; Laguna, I; de Supinski, B R

2010-12-20

345

Motor Control Abnormalities in Parkinson's Disease  

E-print Network

Motor Control Abnormalities in Parkinson's Disease Pietro Mazzoni, Britne Shabbott, and Juan Camilo York 10032 Correspondence: pm125@columbia.edu The primary manifestations of Parkinson's disease control processes. In the case of Parkinson's disease, movement slowness, for example, would be explained

346

PSY 350 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2008  

E-print Network

disorders, dissociative and somatoform disorders, mood disorders, substance abuse and dependence, eating of major behavior disorders. A sampling of the specific topics will include: stress and health, #12;anxiety disorders, gender and sexuality, psychotic disorders, personality disorders, abnormal behavior in childhood

Gallo, Linda C.

347

COURSE SYLLABUS Psychology 350: Abnormal Psychology  

E-print Network

Personality Disorders Ch 12 Feb 23 Test 2--100 points; Ch11, 7, 12 plus lecture notes March 2 Abnormal readings, and are objective (multiple choice, true false, matching). Test 1 will be on Jan 26th, test 2 applies to you and your life personally, or to someone you know, including your own reactions and your

Gallo, Linda C.

348

Chromosome abnormalities in Japanese quail embryos  

E-print Network

Chromosome abnormalities in Japanese quail embryos CA de la Sena NS Fechheimer KE Nestor The Ohio-Auzeville, 10-13 July 1990) Japanese quail / embryos / heteroploidy / chromosomes INTRODUCTION Embryos zygotes and the etiology of heteroploid zygotes and embryos (Fechheimer, 1981, 1990). The Japanese quail

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

349

Sensory Abnormalities in Autism: A Brief Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sensory abnormalities were assessed in a population-based group of 208 20-54-month-old children, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and referred to a specialized habilitation centre for early intervention. The children were subgrouped based upon degree of autistic symptoms and cognitive level by a research team at the centre. Parents…

Klintwall Lars; Holm, Anette; Eriksson, Mats; Carlsson, Lotta Hoglund; Olsson, Martina Barnevik; Hedvall, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

2011-01-01

350

Challenges in Emergency and Abnormal Checklist Design  

E-print Network

is funded through the NASA Aviation Safety and Security Program. #12;Emergency and Abnormal Situations to merger) Manufacturers: Regulatory and Governmental Agencies: Unions and Trade Groups: Accident smoke alarm rate EROPS ­ nearest airport is far away Ditching while on fire How much troubleshooting

351

Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

Rapport, Zachary

2011-01-01

352

Schizophrenogenic Parenting in Abnormal Psychology Textbooks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the treatment of family causation of schizophrenia in undergraduate abnormal psychology textbooks. Reviews texts published only after 1986. Points out a number of implications for psychologists which arise from the inclusion in these texts of the idea that parents cause schizophrenia, not the least of which is the potential for…

Wahl, Otto F.

1989-01-01

353

Teaching Abnormal Psychology in a Multimedia Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the techniques used in teaching an abnormal psychology class in a multimedia environment with two computers and a variety of audiovisual equipment. Students respond anonymously to various questions via keypads mounted on their desks, then immediately view and discuss summaries of their responses. (MJP)

Brewster, JoAnne

1996-01-01

354

Renal abnormalities in sickle cell disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renal abnormalities in sickle cell disease. Sickle cell nephropathy is indicated by sickled erythrocytes, with the consequent effects of decreased medullary blood flow, ischemia, microinfarct and papillary necrosis. Impaired urinary concentrating ability, renal acidification, hematuria, and potassium secretion are also found. There may be a causal relationship between an increase in nitric oxide synthesis and experimental sickle cell nephropathy, and

Phuong-Thu T Pham; Phuong-Chi T Pham; Alan H Wilkinson; Susie Q Lew

2000-01-01

355

Abnormal children of a 47,XYY father  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormal children of two 47,XYY men were studied. One of these men had 2 normal daughters and a child, 45,X\\/46,XY, with gonadal dysgenesis. The other man had 2 normal sons and a child with Down's syndrome. The extra chromosome 21 of this child came from the mother. Another 47,XYY man had 4 normal children.

C Stoll; E Flori; A Clavert; D Beshara; P Buck

1979-01-01

356

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Prevalence of Specific Gait Abnormalities  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Prevalence of Specific Gait Abnormalities in Children With Cerebral Palsy Influence of Cerebral Palsy Subtype, Age, and Previous Surgery Tishya A. L. Wren, PhD,* Susan Rethlefsen, PT. These findings provide important information for counsel- ing ambulatory children with cerebral palsy

Valero-Cuevas, Francisco

357

Emergency Abnormal Conditions 1. Bomb Threat  

E-print Network

1 Emergency Abnormal Conditions 1. Bomb Threat a. Bomb threats usually occur by telephone. b. Try OR PACKAGE OR MOVE IT IN ANY WAY! #12;UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE SPACE INSTITUTE BOMB THREAT CALL FORM: ___________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ QUESTIONS TO ASK THE CALLER CONCERNING THE BOMB Who are you

Davis, Lloyd M.

358

Neuropsychological Abnormalities in Schizophrenia and Major Mood  

E-print Network

Neuropsychological Abnormalities in Schizophrenia and Major Mood Disorders: Similarities in schizophrenia. This work has led to an increased emphasis on identifying and evaluating treatments that enhance cognition in schizophrenia, with the hope that this would translate into a better quality of life

359

On (ab)normality: Einstein's fusiform gyrus.  

PubMed

Recently, Hines (2014) wrote an evocative paper challenging findings from both histological and morphological studies of Einstein's brain. In this discussion paper, I extend Hines' theoretical point and further discuss how best to determine 'abnormal' morphology. To do so, I assess the sulcal patterning of Einstein's fusiform gyrus (FG) for the first time. The sulcal patterning of the FG was unconsidered in prior studies because the morphological features of the mid-fusiform sulcus have only been clarified recently. On the one hand, the sulcal patterning of Einstein's FG is abnormal relative to averages of 'normal' brains generated from two independent datasets (N=39 and N=15, respectively). On the other hand, within the 108 hemispheres used to make these average brains, it is not impossible to find FG sulcal patterns that resemble those of Einstein. Thus, concluding whether a morphological pattern is normal or abnormal heavily depends on the chosen analysis method (e.g. group average vs. individual). Such findings question the functional meaning of morphological 'abnormalities' when determined by comparing an individual to an average brain or average frequency characteristics. These observations are not only important for analyzing a rare brain such as that of Einstein, but also for comparing macroanatomical features between typical and atypical populations. PMID:25562419

Weiner, Kevin S

2015-03-01

360

ADEPT - Abnormal Doppler Enteral Prescription Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Pregnancies complicated by abnormal umbilical artery Doppler blood flow patterns often result in the baby being born both preterm and growth-restricted. These babies are at high risk of milk intolerance and necrotising enterocolitis, as well as post-natal growth failure, and there is no clinical consensus about how best to feed them. Policies of both early milk feeding and late

Alison Leaf; Jon Dorling; Steve Kempley; Kenny McCormick; Paul Mannix; Peter Brocklehurst

2009-01-01

361

Abnormally high formation pressures, Potwar Plateau, Pakistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Abnormally high formation pressures in the Potwar Plateau of north-central Pakistan are major obstacles to oil and gas exploration. Severe drilling problems associated with high pressures have, in some cases, prevented adequate evaluation of reservoirs and significantly increased drilling costs. Previous investigations of abnormal pressure in the Potwar Plateau have only identified abnormal pressures in Neogene rocks. We have identified two distinct pressure regimes in this Himalayan foreland fold and thrust belt basin: one in Neogene rocks and another in pre-Neogene rocks. Pore pressures in Neogene rocks are as high as lithostatic and are interpreted to be due to tectonic compression and compaction disequilibrium associated with high rates of sedimentation. Pore pressure gradients in pre-Neogene rocks are generally less than those in Neogene rocks, commonly ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 psi/ft (11.3 to 15.8 kPa/m) and are most likely due to a combination of tectonic compression and hydrocarbon generation. The top of abnormally high pressure is highly variable and doesn't appear to be related to any specific lithologic seal. Consequently, attempts to predict the depth to the top of overpressure prior to drilling are precluded.

Law, B.E.; Shah, S.H.A.; Malik, M.A.

1998-01-01

362

Receiver functions analysis in Northern Tanzania to understand the earliest stage of rifting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The East African Rift (EAR) is the site of stretching and breakup of the lithosphere in response to a combination of regional pulling forces and mantle upwellings. Deformation results from complex interactions between magmatic intrusions, faulting, asthenospheric dynamism and far field stresses. It thus involves both deep processes and local inherited fabrics. In the frame of two international projects CRAFTI (NSF) and CoLiBrEA (ANR), we gather our skills to lead a multidisciplinary project in order to characterize the factors involved in continental rifting. We target the first 5 My of a magmatic rift initiating in thick (>150 km) continental lithosphere, where we can directly image and detect fault and magma interactions, the role of inherited and rheological heterogeneities of the lithosphere on rift localisation. We deployed 35 broadband seismic stations in Natron and Ngorongoro areas in January 2013 to characterize crustal and mantle structures of the rift. The stations were equipped by 3 component sensors and Reftek Recorders to continuously record teleseisms as well as local seismicity. We present here a receiver function analyse on the teleseismic events recorded during the first 6 months of the experiment. Both P- and S-waves receiver functions were proceeded to document the modification of the crust and the mantle due to plate stretching and magmatic processes. The Vp/Vs ratio informs on the state of the crust, which is affected by magmatic and fluids intrusions at different depths. The S-wave receiver function gives insight into the lithosphere state and the nature of the mantle beneath the rift (archean or plume affected).

Tiberi, C.; Albaric, J.; Deschamps, A.; Deverchere, J.; Ebinger, C. J.; Ferdinand, R. W.; Gautier, S.; Lambert, C.; Msabi, M.; Mtelela, K.; Muzuka, A.; Perrot, J.; Rasendra, N.; Roecker, S. W.; Rodzianko, A.; Witkin, E.

2013-12-01

363

Early warning and prediction of flight parameter abnormalities for improved system safety assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely accepted that human error is a major contributing factor in aircraft accidents. The early detection of a subsystem abnormality that is developing during flight is potentially important, because the extra time before an alert range is reached may improve the crew's situation awareness. The flight crew may thus consider and try more options for dealing with the

A. Zolghadri

2002-01-01

364

Regional grey matter abnormalities in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: A voxel-based morphometry study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual assessment of structural MRI is, by definition, normal in patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), a major subsyndrome of idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE). However, recent quantitative MRI studies have shown structural abnormalities in cortical and thalamic grey matter (GM) in JME. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) is a fully automated, unbiased, operator-independent MRI analysis technique that detects regionally specific differences in

Ji Hyun Kim; Jun Ki Lee; Seong-Beom Koh; Sang-Ahm Lee; Jong-Min Lee; Sun I. Kim; Joong Koo Kang

2007-01-01

365

Instability of a 550Base Pair DNA Segment and Abnormal Methylation in Fragile X Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fragile X syndrome, a common cause of inherited mental retardation, is characterized by an unusual mode of inheritance. Phenotypic expression has been linked to abnormal cytosine methylation of a single CpG island, at or very near the fragile site. Probes adjacent to this island detected very localized DNA rearrangements that consti- tuted the fragile X mutations, and whose target

I. Oberle; F. Rousseau; D. Heitz; C. Kretz; D. Devys; A. Hanauer; J. Boue; M. F. Bertheas; J. L. Mandel

1991-01-01

366

Morphological abnormalities in baseline ECGs in healthy normal volunteers participating in phase I studies  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Morphological abnormalities in 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) are seen in subgroups of healthy individuals like athletes and air-force personnel. As these populations may not truly represent healthy individuals, we assessed morphological abnormalities in ECG in healthy volunteers participating in phase I studies, who are screened to exclude associated conditions. Methods: ECGs from 62 phase I studies analyzed in a central ECG laboratory were pooled. A single drug-free baseline ECG from each subject was reviewed by experienced cardiologists. ECG intervals were measured on five consecutive beats and morphological abnormalities identified using standard guidelines. Results: Morphological abnormalities were detected in 25.5 per cent of 3978 healthy volunteers (2495 males, 1483 females; aged 18-76 yr); the presence was higher in males (29.3% vs. 19.2% in females; P<0.001). Rhythm abnormalities were the commonest (11.5%) followed by conduction abnormalities (5.9%), axis deviation (4%), ST-T wave changes (3.1%) and chamber enlargement (1.4%). Incomplete right bundle branch block (RBBB), short PR interval and right ventricular hypertrophy were common in young subjects (<20 yr) while atrial fibrillation, first degree atrioventricular block, complete RBBB and left anterior fascicular block were more prevalent in elderly subjects (>65 yr). Prolonged PR interval, RBBB and intraventricular conduction defects were more common in males while sinus tachycardia, short PR interval and non-specific T wave changes were more frequent in females. Interpretation & Conclusions: Morphological abnormalities in ECG are commonly seen in healthy volunteers participating in phase I studies; and vary with age and gender. Further studies are required to determine whether these abnormalities persist or if some of these disappear on follow up. PMID:22561618

Hingorani, Pooja; Natekar, Mili; Deshmukh, Sheetal; Karnad, Dilip R.; Kothari, Snehal; Narula, Dhiraj; Lokhandwala, Yash

2012-01-01

367

Liver Function Test Abnormalities in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: A Hospital-based Survey  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND AIMS Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are frequently associated with altered liver function tests (LFTs). The causal relationship between abnormal LFTs and IBD is unclear. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence and etiology of LFTs abnormalities and their association with clinical variables in a cohort of IBD patients followed up in a single center. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective review was undertaken of all consecutive IBD in- and outpatients routinely followed up at a single referral center. Clinical and demographic parameters were recorded. Subjects were excluded if they had a previous diagnosis of chronic liver disease. LFT abnormality was defined as an increase in aspartate aminotransferase, (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), or total bilirubin. RESULTS A cohort of 335 patients (179 males, mean age 46.0 ± 15.6 years) was analyzed. Abnormal LFTs were detected in 70 patients (20.9%). In most cases, the alterations were mild and spontaneously returned to normal values in about 60% of patients. Patients with abnormal LFTs were less frequently on treatment with aminosalicylates (22.8 vs. 36.6%, P = 0.04). The most frequent cause for transient abnormal LFTs was drug-induced cholestasis (34.1%), whereas fatty liver was the most frequent cause of persistent liver damage (65.4%). A cholestatic pattern was found in 60.0% of patients and was mainly related to older age, longer duration of disease, and hypertension. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of LFT abnormalities is relatively high in IBD patients, but the development of severe liver injury is exceptional. Moreover, most alterations of LFTs are mild and spontaneously return to normal values. Drug-induced hepatotoxicity and fatty liver are the most relevant causes of abnormal LFTs in patients with IBD. PMID:24966712

Cappello, Maria; Randazzo, Claudia; Bravatà, Ivana; Licata, Anna; Peralta, Sergio; Craxì, Antonio; Almasio, Piero Luigi

2014-01-01

368

Assessment of musculoskeletal abnormalities in children with mucopolysaccharidoses using pGALS  

PubMed Central

Background Children with mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) often have musculoskeletal (MSK) abnormalities. Paediatric Gait, Arms, Legs, and Spine (pGALS), is a simple MSK assessment validated in school-age children to detect abnormal joints. We aimed to identify MSK abnormalities in children with MPS performing pGALS. Methods Videos of children with a spectrum of MPS performing pGALS were analysed. A piloted proforma to record abnormalities for each pGALS manoeuvre observed in the videos (scored as normal/abnormal/not assessable) was used by three observers blinded to MPS subtype. Videos were scored independently and rescored for intra- and inter-observer consistency. Data were pooled and analysed. Results Eighteen videos of children [12 boys, 6 girls, median age 11 years (4–19)] with MPS (13 type I [5 Hurler, 8 attenuated type I]; 4 type II; 1 mannosidosis) were assessed. The most common abnormalities detected using pGALS were restrictions of the shoulder, elbow, wrist, jaw (>75% cases), and fingers (2/3 cases). Mean intra-observer ? 0.74 (range 0.65–0.88) and inter-observer ? 0.62 (range 0.51–0.77). Hip manoeuvres were not clearly demonstrated in the videos. Conclusions In this observational study, pGALS identifies MSK abnormalities in children with MPS. Restricted joint movement (especially upper limb) was a consistent finding. Future work includes pGALS assessment of the hip and testing pGALS in further children with attenuated MPS type I. The use of pGALS and awareness of patterns of joint involvement may be a useful adjunct to facilitate earlier recognition of these rare conditions and ultimately access to specialist care. PMID:25110468

2014-01-01

369

11q23 abnormalities in adult Chinese patients with hematological malignancies.  

PubMed

The mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene on chromosome region 11q23 is frequently involved in chromosomal translocations associated with various human hematologic malignant neoplasms. The aim of this study was to investigate the profile of 11q23 abnormalities in adult Chinese patients with hematological malignancies. In this study, 11q23 abnormalities were detected by cytogenetic and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) approaches in 77 out of a total of 2,404 adult Chinese patients with leukemia, lymphoma, and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). 11q23 abnormalities were found in 5.31 % of the acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases, 5.71 % of the acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) cases, 2.94 % of lymphoma cases, and 1.24 % of MDS cases. Of the patients with 11q23 abnormalities, 59.74 % showed rearrangement or deletion of the MLL gene by FISH; a novel 11q23 rearrangement, der(6)t(6;11)(q23;q23), was discovered in one case. Our data showed that t(11;19)(q23;p13.1) was the most frequent translocation in AML patients and t(4;11)(q21;q23) was the most frequent translocation in ALL patients. FLT-ITD mutations were detected in three out of 33 AML patients with 11q23 abnormalities (9.09 %). The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis further showed that the 11q23 aberration was a poor prognostic factor for AML. The median survival times in the 11q23 aberration subgroup, the normal karyotype subgroup, and the subgroup with other abnormalities were 7.4, 11.3, and 16.8 months, respectively (P = 0.0464). Our study found one novel 11q23 rearrangement, der(6)t(6;11)(q23;q23), and demonstrated the profile of 11q23 abnormalities in adult Chinese patients with hematological malignancies. PMID:25008067

Zhao, Xiaoli; Li, Shuang; Li, Nianyi; Fan, Rong; Lin, Guowei; Wang, Xiaoqin

2014-08-01

370

The use of a novel combination of diagnostic molecular and cytogenetic approaches in horses with sexual karyotype abnormalities: a rare case with an abnormal cellular chimerism.  

PubMed

Sex chromosome aberrations are known to cause congenital abnormalities and unexplained infertility in horses. Most of these anomalies remain undiagnosed because of the complexity of the horse karyotype and the lack of specialized laboratories that can perform such diagnoses. On the other hand, the utilization of microsatellite markers is a technique widely spread in horse breeding, mostly because of their usage in parentage tests. We studied the usage of a novel combination of diagnostic approaches in the evaluation of a very uncommon case of chromosomal abnormalities in a Spanish purebred colt, primarily detected using a commercial panel of short tandem repeat (STR) makers. Based on these results, we performed a full cytogenetic analysis using conventional and fluorescent in situ hybridization techniques with individual Equus caballus chromosome X and Equus caballus chromosome Y painting probes. We also tested the presence of two genes associated with the sexual development in horses and an extra novel panel of eight microsatellite markers specifically located in the sex chromosome pair. This is the first case report of a leukocyte chimerism between chromosomally normal (64,XY) and abnormal (63,X0) cell lines in horses. Our results indicate that the use of the short tandem repeat markers as a screening technique and as a confirmation utilizing cytogenetic techniques can be used as a very interesting, easy, and nonexpensive diagnostic approach to detect chromosomal abnormalities in the domestic horse. PMID:24612694

Demyda-Peyrás, S; Anaya, G; Bugno-Poniewierska, M; Pawlina, K; Membrillo, A; Valera, M; Moreno-Millán, M

2014-05-01

371

Abnormal activity of default mode network in GERD patients  

PubMed Central

Background Abnormal processing of esophageal sensation at the level of the central nervous system has been proven to be involved in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). However, most studies were focused on the possible functions of perceptual processing related network during task status, little attention has been paid to default mode network, which has been manifested to be important in the pathogenesis of many diseases. In our study, we compared the brain activity characteristic in GERD patients with the healthy subjects (HS) at baseline, looking for whether activities of default mode network were abnormal in GERD patients and attempting to identify their possible roles in GERD. In present study, fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation was adopted to detect the brain activities at baseline. Group-level analyses were conducted by one-sample t test within groups (voxel thresholds were p?42, corrected P?90, corrected P?abnormal activities of brain regions in default mode network may be involved in pathophysiology of GERD symptom generation. PMID:23844702

2013-01-01

372

Time Constraints for the Earliest Records of Glaciation in the Canadian Interior Plains and the American Midwest: Magnetostratigraphy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The earliest dateable evidence of Laurentide glaciation on the Canadian Prairies occurs in souterhn Alberta and Saskatchewan. Absolute ages for the sedimentary record immediately predating the first arrival of ice were obtained from sections near Galt Island, Alberta (0.43 +/- 0.07 Ma. and Wellsch Valley, Saskatchewan (0.69+/- 0.11 Ma). At Wascana Creek, Saskatchewan a tephra dated at 0.60 +/- 0.04 Ma is contained in glacial lake deposits associated with the first glaciation of that area. At Wascana Creek and Galt Island, the tephras and their encapsulating sediments are normally magnetized, and based on the tephra ages are assigned to the Brunhes Chron. At Wellsch Valley the tephra and associated preglacial fluvial and lacustrine sediments are reversely magnetized, contain late Blancan and Early Irvingtonian fossil assemblages, and are assigned to the uppermost part of the Matuyama Chron. Immediate preglacial fossil vertebrate assemblages at Wellsch Valley, Galt Island and Medicine Hat sections indicate an early middle Pleistocene fauna, and further strengthen a proposed Brunhes age for the first Laurentide glaciation of this region. At Medicine Hat and Galt Island the preglacial sediments are normally magnetized, suggesting that preglacial sedimentation continued on into a portion of the Brunhes Chron, in the valleys to the west of Swift Current. At least two major till sheets, referred to as the Labuma and Buffalo Lake tills are present throughout large portions of southern Alberta and can be correlated in Saskatchewan to the Sutherland Group and Upper Floral Formation respectively. Based on the 0.43 Ma tephra date at Galt Island and late Irvingtonian faunal assemblages of the underlying sediments and Sangamon age of overlying sediments in the Medicine Hat area, the Labuma till is Illinoian (most probably stage 6). The Buffalo Lake till is Late Wisconsin based on Chlorine 36 dates on erratics and Carbon 14 dates on underlying wood and bone. In Manitoba, the most extensive Quaternary record occurs in the Gillam area, where all sediments are normally magnetized. The lowermost (Sundance) till has a well-developed paleosol, and is overlain by the Amery till (most probably stage 6) which can be traced throughout the region. It is overlain by Nelson River sediments which yield amino acid ratios on Hiatella Arctica shells that indicate a Sangamon age. The overlying tills are Wisconsin in age. Recent detailed paleomagnetic studies carried out at or near the "classic" Quaternary sections of the American midwest and in the general vicinity of the Missouri River, in the states of Iowa, Nebraska, Missouri and Kansas indicate that the earliest glaciations there occurred during the Matuyama Chron. Twelve sections record reversely magnetized lower tills and intertill beds, indicating that the so called "B" and "C" tills predate the Brunhes/Matuyama boundary (0.78 Ma). Tephra dates corroborate a late Pliocene and early Pleistocene age for these tills. Clearly, the extent and timing of the earliest Laurentide glaciations in the Interior Plains of Canada are different from those in the American midwest. Canadian sites reveal only normally magnetized sediments while in the US both normal and reversed sediments occur. The intriguing question is: Why?

Barendregt, R. W.

2001-12-01

373

Paleomagnetism of the earliest Cretaceous to early late Cretaceous sandstones, Khorat Group, Northeast Thailand: Implications for tectonic plate movement of the Indochina block  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 400 samples (33 sites) were collected from the earliest Cretaceous to early Late Cretaceous sandstones of the Khorat Group in the Indochina block for paleomagnetic study to unravel the tectonic evolution of the region. The sites were adopted from 3 traverses located in the northern edge of the Khorat Plateau, northeastern Thailand. Results indicate that almost all

Punya Charusiri; Suvapak Imsamut; Zhonghai Zhuang; Tainpan Ampaiwan; Xiaoxhong Xu

2006-01-01

374

The Earliest Reference to ADHD in the Medical Literature? Melchior Adam Weikard's Description in 1775 of "Attention Deficit" (Mangel der Aufmerksamkeit, Attentio Volubilis)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The present article reports on the discovery and translation of a chapter in a 1775 medical textbook by the German physician, Melchior Adam Weikard, which describes attention disorders. This article is believed to be the earliest reference to the syndrome that today is known as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD. Method:…

Barkley, Russell A.; Peters, Helmut

2012-01-01

375

Comparisons of Mineralogy of Lunar Meteorites Possibly from the Farside and the Kaguya Remote Sensing Data to Reconstruct the Earliest Anorthositic Crust of the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparisons of mineralogy of lunar meteorites (Dhofar 911, etc.) from the farside and the Kaguya Th concentrations a to reconstruct the earliest, asymmetric anorthositic crust of the Moon. We propose that these meteorites might have come from the Dirichlet-Jackson basin.

Takeda, H.; Nagaoka, H.; Ohtake, M.; Kobayashi, S.; Yamaguchi, A.; Morota, T.; Karouji, Y.; Haruyma, J.; Katou, M.; Hiroi, T.; Nyquist, L. E.

2012-03-01

376

Earliest Mexican Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in the Maya Region: Implications for Pre-Hispanic Animal Trade and the Timing of Turkey Domestication  

PubMed Central

Late Preclassic (300 BC–AD 100) turkey remains identified at the archaeological site of El Mirador (Petén, Guatemala) represent the earliest evidence of the Mexican turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) in the ancient Maya world. Archaeological, zooarchaeological, and ancient DNA evidence combine to confirm the identification and context. The natural pre-Hispanic range of the Mexican turkey does not extend south of central Mexico, making the species non-local to the Maya area where another species, the ocellated turkey (Meleagris ocellata), is indigenous. Prior to this discovery, the earliest evidence of M. gallopavo in the Maya area dated to approximately one thousand years later. The El Mirador specimens therefore represent previously unrecorded Preclassic exchange of animals from northern Mesoamerica to the Maya cultural region. As the earliest evidence of M. gallopavo found outside its natural geographic range, the El Mirador turkeys also represent the earliest indirect evidence for Mesoamerican turkey rearing or domestication. The presence of male, female and sub-adult turkeys, and reduced flight morphology further suggests that the El Mirador turkeys were raised in captivity. This supports an argument for the origins of turkey husbandry or at least captive rearing in the Preclassic. PMID:22905156

Thornton, Erin Kennedy; Emery, Kitty F.; Steadman, David W.; Speller, Camilla; Matheny, Ray; Yang, Dongya

2012-01-01

377

Polymer Crystallization at NBS/NIST (1960s-1980s) The earliest studies of the crystallization of polymeric materials at NBS/NIST date back to  

E-print Network

Polymer Crystallization at NBS/NIST (1960s-1980s) F. Khoury The earliest studies of the crystallization of polymeric materials at NBS/NIST date back to the dilatometry-based investigations of the crystallization rates and melting behavior characteristics of natural rubber by N. Bekkedahl and L. A. Woods

378

Reports on freeze tolerant frogs in the historical literature. Following are 3 early accounts of freezing survival by frogs. The earliest is from  

E-print Network

Reports on freeze tolerant frogs in the historical literature. Following are 3 early accounts of freezing survival by frogs. The earliest is from the 1746-1747 voyage of the ship California commanded survival of frogs, probably a species of European pond frog. #12;1. Francis Smith's voyage in search

Storey, Kenneth B.

379

The earliest eutherian mammal Qiang Ji*, Zhe-Xi Luo, Chong-Xi Yuan*, John R. Wible, Jian-Ping Zhang & Justin A. Georgi  

E-print Network

The earliest eutherian mammal Qiang Ji*, Zhe-Xi Luo, Chong-Xi Yuan*, John R. Wible, Jian-Ping Zhang ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... The skeleton of a eutherian (placental) mammal has been discovered from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation from scansorial (climbing) and arboreal (tree-living) extant mammals, in contrast to the terrestrial

Sullivan, Jack

380

Lie algebroids and optimal control: abnormality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Candidates to be solutions to optimal control problems, called extremals, are found using Pontryagin's Maximum Principle [9]. This Principle gives necessary conditions for optimality and, under suitable assumptions, starts a presymplectic constraint algorithm in the sense given in [3]. This procedure, first considered in optimal control theory in [6], can be adapted to characterize the different kinds of extremals [1]. In this paper, we describe the constraints given by the algorithm for the so-called abnormal extremals for optimal control problems defined on Lie algebroids [4, 7, 8]. The peculiarity of the abnormal extremals is their independence on the cost function to characterize them. In particular, we are interested in how useful the geometry provided by the Lie algebroid is to study the constraints obtained in the optimal control problems for affine connection control systems. These systems model the motion of different types of mechanical systems such as rigid bodies, nonholonomic systems and robotic arms [2].

Barbero-Liñán, M.; de Diego, D. Martín; Muñoz-Lecanda, M. C.

2009-05-01

381

Behavioral correlates of epileptiform abnormalities in autism.  

PubMed

There is a high incidence of epileptiform abnormalities in children with autism even in the absence of clinical seizures. These findings are most prominent during sleep recordings. The significance of these abnormalities is unclear. Although studies do not all agree, there may be some association between cognitive function, behavior, and the presence or absence of epileptiform discharges. Small studies of anticonvulsant treatment mostly suggest an improvement in certain aspects of cognitive or behavioral functioning in these children, but larger and more comprehensive studies are needed to determine the potential relationship between epileptiform discharges on EEG, cognitive and behavioral functioning, and treatment effects in the population with autism. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Autism and Epilepsy". PMID:25453621

Trauner, Doris A

2014-11-01

382

[Epilepsy in patient with structural autosomal abnormality].  

PubMed

Few cases have been reported on the structural autosomal abnormality (SAA) focusing on epilepsy excluding those of Down syndrome and Klinefelter syndrome. We investigated patients who had SAA with special reference to epilepsy. Various types of epilepsy were observed in its severity in our cases as well as previously reported cases. There was no correlation between the degree of mental retardation, motor dysfunction, brain damage on CT scan, and severity of epilepsy. Some cases had brain dysplasia, such as agenesis of corpus callosum, pachygyria, and mega cisterna magna. No correlation was found between these brain dysplasia and severity of epilepsy. It is important for a pediatrician to find a common epileptic syndrome or EEG abnormality in a SAA. An observation of symptoms in patients with the same chromosomal deletion or duplication will lead to identification of responsible gene for an epileptic symptom. PMID:7803078

Sugama, S; Atsukawa, K; Kusano, K; Akatsuka, A; Ochiai, Y; Tsuzura, S; Maekawa, K

1994-11-01

383

Chromosomal abnormalities in a psychiatric population  

SciTech Connect

Over a 3.5 year period of time, 345 patients hospitalized for psychiatric problems were evaluated cytogenetically. The patient population included 76% males and 94% children with a mean age of 12 years. The criteria for testing was an undiagnosed etiology for mental retardation and/or autism. Cytogenetic studies identified 11, or 3%, with abnormal karyotypes, including 4 fragile X positive individuals (2 males, 2 females), and 8 with chromosomal aneuploidy, rearrangements, or deletions. While individuals with chromosomal abnormalities do not demonstrate specific behavioral, psychiatric, or developmental problems relative to other psychiatric patients, our results demonstrate the need for an increased awareness to order chromosomal analysis and fragile X testing in those individuals who have combinations of behavioral/psychiatric, learning, communication, or cognitive disturbance. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Lewis, K.E.; Lubetsky, M.J.; Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W. [Univ. of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA (United States)

1995-02-27

384

Selective mutism and abnormal electroencephalography (EEG) tracings.  

PubMed

Epileptic discharges are not considered a part of the clinical picture of selective mutism, and electroencephalography is generally not recommended in its work-up. This report describes 6 children with selective mutism who were found to have a history of epilepsy and abnormal interictal or subclinical electroencephalography recordings. Two of them had benign epilepsy of childhood with centro-temporal spikes. The mutism was not related in time to the presence of active seizures. While seizures could be controlled in all children by medications, the mutism resolved only in 1. Although the discharges could be coincidental, they might represent a co-morbidity of selective mutism or even play a role in its pathogenesis. Selective mutism should be listed among the psychiatric disorders that may be associated with electroencephalographic abnormalities. It can probably be regarded as a symptom of a more complicated organic brain disorder. PMID:21596703

Politi, Keren; Kivity, Sara; Goldberg-Stern, Hadassa; Halevi, Ayelet; Shuper, Avinoam

2011-11-01

385

Impact of genetic abnormalities on survival after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in multiple myeloma  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed the prognostic impact of the most frequent genetic abnormalities detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization in 101 patients with multiple myeloma, who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) after melphalan\\/fludarabine-based reduced conditioning. The incidences of abnormalities in the present analysis were as follows: del(13q14) (61%), t(11;14)(q13;q32) (14%), t(4;14)(p16.3;q32) (19%), MYC-gain gains (8q24) (21%), del(17p13) (16%) and t(14;16)(q32;q23)

G Schilling; T Hansen; A Shimoni; T Zabelina; J-A Simon-Perez; N C Gutierrez; W Bethge; P Liebisch; R Schwerdtfeger; M Bornhäuser; S Otterstetter; E M M Penas; J Dierlamm; F Ayuk; D Atanackovic; U Bacher; C Bokemeyer; A Zander; J S Miguel; A Nagler; N Kröger

2008-01-01

386

Discovering Potential Precursors of Mammography Abnormalities based on Textual Features, Frequencies, and Sequences  

SciTech Connect

Diagnosingbreastcancerfrommammographyreportsisheav- ily dependant on the time sequences of the patient visits. In the work described, we take a longitudinal view of the text of a patient s mam- mogram reports to explore the existence of certain phrase patterns that indicate future abnormalities may exist for the patient. Our approach uses various text analysis techniques combined with Haar wavelets for the discovery and analysis of such precursor phrase patterns. We believe the results show significant promise for the early detection of breast can- cer and other breast abnormalities.

Patton, Robert M [ORNL] [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01

387

Scientists find that chromosomal abnormalities are associated with aging and cancer  

Cancer.gov

Two new studies have found that large structural abnormalities in chromosomes, some of which have been associated with increased risk of cancer, can be detected in a small fraction of people without a prior history of cancer. The studies found that these alterations in chromosomes appear to increase with age, particularly after the age of 50, and may be associated with an increased risk for cancer. Mosaicism, the type of structural abnormality in chromosomes that is described in these studies, results from a DNA alteration that is present in some of the body's cells but not in others. A person with mosaicism has a mixture of normal and mutated cells.

388

[TMJ morphological changes in abnormal occlusion].  

PubMed

TMJ dysfunction is one of the most common diseases among all disorders of the maxillofacial region. Any abnormality in synchrony or amplitude of motion of the TMJ results in the malposition of the articular disc. Researchers and clinicians were always interested in topographic anatomy of the TMJ. There is currently no consensus on matters relating to changes in anatomical features of the TMJ by occlusal disturbances. PMID:23715443

Volkov, S I; Bazhenov, D V; Semkin, V A; Bogdanov, A O

2013-01-01

389

Sonic Hedgehog Genetic Abnormalities and Tissue Donations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this case study about a baby born with the genetic condition holoprosencephaly, students explore the “Sonic hedgehog” gene, signal transduction, and the ethics of body and tissue donation. The assignment involves students writing an informed consent document that explains the science behind this congenital abnormality. Designed for an upper-level undergraduate biology course, the case could also be used in a cell biology, developmental biology, neurobiology, or other related upper-level course.

Yaich, Lauren E.

2001-01-01

390

The handicap of abnormal colour vision.  

PubMed

All people with abnormal colour vision, except for a few mildly affected deuteranomals, report that they experience problems with colour in everyday life and at work. Contemporary society presents them with increasing problems because colour is now so widely used in printed materials and in computer displays. Equal opportunity law gives them protection against unfair discrimination in employment, so a decision to exclude a person from employment on the grounds of abnormal colour vision must now be well supported by good evidence and sound argument. This paper reviews the investigations that have contributed to understanding the nature and consequences of the problems they have. All those with abnormal colour vision are at a disadvantage with comparative colour tasks that involve precise matching of colours or discrimination of fine colour differences either because of their loss of colour discrimination or anomalous perception of metamers. The majority have problems when colour is used to code information, in man-made colour codes and in naturally occurring colour codes that signal ripeness of fruit, freshness of meat or illness. They can be denied the benefit of colour to mark out objects and organise complex visual displays. They may be unreliable when a colour name is used as an identifier. They are slower and less successful in search when colour is an attribute of the target object or is used to organise the visual display. Because those with the more severe forms of abnormal colour vision perceive a very limited gamut of colours, they are at a disadvantage in the pursuit and appreciation of those forms of art that use colour. PMID:15312030

Cole, Barry L

2004-07-01

391

CT of trauma to the abnormal kidney  

SciTech Connect

Traumatic injuries to already abnormal kidneys are difficult to assess by excretory urography and clinical evaluation. Bleeding and urinary extravasation may accompany minor trauma; conversely, underlying tumors, perirenal hemorrhage, and extravasation may be missed on urography. Computed tomography (CT) was performed in eight cases including three neoplasms, one adult polycystic disease, one simple renal cyst, two hydronephrotic kidneys, and one horseshoe kidney. CT provided specific and clinically useful information in each case that was not apparent on excretory urography.

Rhyner, P.; Federle, M.P.; Jeffrey, R.B.

1984-04-01

392

Cortical thickness abnormality in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies on gray matter concentration changes in patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) are inconsistent.\\u000a To investigate cortical abnormality in JME differently, we measured the cortical thickness in 19 JME patients and 18 normal\\u000a controls. Results showed that the cortical thicknesses of superior\\/middle\\/medial frontal gyri, and superior\\/middle\\/ inferior\\u000a temporal gyri were decreased in JME patients. Moreover, cortical thicknesses of

Woo Suk Tae; Sun Hyung Kim; Eun Yun Joo; Sun Jung Han; I. Y. Kim; S. I. Kim; J.-M. Lee; S. B. Hong

2008-01-01

393

Esophageal motility abnormalities in gastroesophageal reflux disease  

PubMed Central

Esophageal motility abnormalities are among the main factors implicated in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The recent introduction in clinical and research practice of novel esophageal testing has markedly improved our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease, allowing a better management of patients with this disorder. In this context, the present article intends to provide an overview of the current literature about esophageal motility dysfunctions in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal manometry, by recording intraluminal pressure, represents the gold standard to diagnose esophageal motility abnormalities. In particular, using novel techniques, such as high resolution manometry with or without concurrent intraluminal impedance monitoring, transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations, hypotensive LES, ineffective esophageal peristalsis and bolus transit abnormalities have been better defined and strongly implicated in gastroesophageal reflux disease development. Overall, recent findings suggest that esophageal motility abnormalities are increasingly prevalent with increasing severity of reflux disease, from non-erosive reflux disease to erosive reflux disease and Barrett’s esophagus. Characterizing esophageal dysmotility among different subgroups of patients with reflux disease may represent a fundamental approach to properly diagnose these patients and, thus, to set up the best therapeutic management. Currently, surgery represents the only reliable way to restore the esophagogastric junction integrity and to reduce transient LES relaxations that are considered to be the predominant mechanism by which gastric contents can enter the esophagus. On that ground, more in depth future studies assessing the pathogenetic role of dysmotility in patients with reflux disease are warranted. PMID:24868489

Martinucci, Irene; de Bortoli, Nicola; Giacchino, Maria; Bodini, Giorgia; Marabotto, Elisa; Marchi, Santino; Savarino, Vincenzo; Savarino, Edoardo

2014-01-01

394

Abnormal functional connectivity density in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

The pathology of Parkinson's disease (PD) is not confined to the nigrostriatal pathway, but also involves widespread cerebral cortical areas. Using seed-based resting state functional connectivity, many previous studies have demonstrated that PD patients have abnormal functional integration. However, this technique strongly relies on a priori selection of the seed regions and may miss important unpredictable findings. Using an ultrafast voxel-wise functional connectivity density approach, this study performed a whole brain functional connectivity analysis to investigate the abnormal resting-state functional activities in PD patients. Compared with healthy controls, PD patients exhibited decreased short-range functional connectivity densities in regions that were mainly located in the ventral visual pathway and decreased long-range functional connectivity densities in the right middle and superior frontal gyrus, which have been speculated to be associated with visual hallucinations and cognitive dysfunction, respectively. PD patients also exhibited increased short- and long-range functional connectivity densities in the bilateral precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex, which may represent a compensatory process for maintaining normal brain function. The observed functional connectivity density alterations might be related to the disturbed structural connectivity of PD patients, leading to abnormal functional integration. Our results suggest that functional connectivity density mapping may provide a useful means to assess PD-related neurodegeneration and to study the pathophysiology of PD. PMID:25496782

Zhang, Jiuquan; Bi, Wenwei; Zhang, Yuling; Zhu, Maohu; Zhang, Yanling; Feng, Hua; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Yuanchao; Jiang, Tianzi

2015-03-01

395

Dynamic Abnormal Grain Growth in Molybdenum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new abnormal grain growth phenomenon that occurs only during continuous plastic straining, termed dynamic abnormal grain growth (DAGG), was observed in molybdenum (Mo) at elevated temperature. DAGG was produced in two commercial-purity molybdenum sheets and in a commercial-purity molybdenum wire. Single crystals, centimeters in length, were created in these materials through the DAGG process. DAGG was observed only at temperatures of 1713 K (1440 °C) and above and occurred across the range of strain rates investigated, ~10-5 to 10-4 s-1. DAGG initiates only after a critical plastic strain, which decreases with increasing temperature but is insensitive to strain rate. Following initiation of an abnormal grain, the rate of boundary migration during DAGG is on the order of 10 mm/min. This rapid growth provides a convenient means of producing large single crystals in the solid state. When significant normal grain growth occurs prior to DAGG, island grains result. DAGG was observed in sheet materials with two very different primary recrystallization textures. DAGG grains in Mo favor boundary growth along the tensile axis in a <110> direction, preferentially producing single crystals with orientations from an approximately <110> fiber family of orientations. A mechanism of boundary unpinning is proposed to explain the dependence of boundary migration on plastic straining during DAGG.

Worthington, Daniel L.; Pedrazas, Nicholas A.; Noell, Philip J.; Taleff, Eric M.

2013-11-01

396

Abnormal Asymmetry of Brain Connectivity in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Recently, a growing body of data has revealed that beyond a dysfunction of connectivity among different brain areas in schizophrenia patients (SCZ), there is also an abnormal asymmetry of functional connectivity compared with healthy subjects. The loss of the cerebral torque and the abnormalities of gyrification, with an increased or more complex cortical folding in the right hemisphere may provide an anatomical basis for such aberrant connectivity in SCZ. Furthermore, diffusion tensor imaging studies have shown a significant reduction of leftward asymmetry in some key white-matter tracts in SCZ. In this paper, we review the studies that investigated both structural brain asymmetry and asymmetry of functional connectivity in healthy subjects and SCZ. From an analysis of the existing literature on this topic, we can hypothesize an overall generally attenuated asymmetry of functional connectivity in SCZ compared to healthy controls. Such attenuated asymmetry increases with the duration of the disease and correlates with psychotic symptoms. Finally, we hypothesize that structural deficits across the corpus callosum may contribute to the abnormal asymmetry of intra-hemispheric connectivity in schizophrenia. PMID:25566030

Ribolsi, Michele; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Siracusano, Alberto; Koch, Giacomo

2014-01-01

397

Iapetonudus (N. gen.) and Iapetognathus Landing, unusual Earliest Ordovician multielement conodont taxa and their utility for biostratigraphy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Early Ordovician (Tremadocian) multielement conodont genus Iapetognathus is one of the oldest denticulate euconodont genera known. The ramiform-ramiform apparatus structure of Iapetognathus is not similar morphologically to other Late Cambrian to Earliest Ordovician denticulate multielement taxa, such as Eodentatus or Cordyloduts, because the major denticulate process has a lateral rather than a posterior orientation as it is in the other two examples. For this reason the genus is believed to have developed from the coniform-coniform apparatus Iapetonudus ibexensis (N.gen., n.sp.) through the development of the denticulate lateral processes. The two genera have a number of morphologic features in common and appear in stratigraphic succession. Iapetognathus aengensis (Lindstro??m) is redefined as a multielement taxon using topotype material and Ig. preaengensis Landing is placed in synonymy with it. Iapetognathus sprakersi, recently described by Landing in Landing and others (1996), is recognized as a multielement species and the new multielement species, Ig. fluctivagus, Ig. jilinensis and Ig. landingi n. spp. are described herein, based on type specimens from Utah (U.S.A.), Jilin (China) and Colorado (U.S.A.) respectively. Iapetonudus and Iapetognathus are important genera in defining the level of the Cambrian-Ordovician boundary. Iapetonudus is currently recognized only from Utah, Texas and Oklahoma, but Iapetognathus is cosmopolitan in its distribution.

Nicoll, R.S.; Miller, J.F.; Nowlan, G.S.; Repetski, J.E.; Ethington, R.L.

1999-01-01

398

The early Middle Pleistocene archeopaleontological site of Wadi Sarrat (Tunisia) and the earliest record of Bos primigenius  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we describe the new, rich lacustrine paleontological and archeological site of Wadi Sarrat (Le Kef, northeastern Tunisia), dated to the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene, ˜0.7 Ma, by a combination of paleomagnetism and biochronology. This locality preserves the earliest record of auroch, Bos primigenius, the ancestor of the worldwide extant domestic cattle species Bos taurus, which is represented by a nearly complete, giant-sized cranium (specimen OS1). Both the cranial anatomy and the size of this specimen reflect the phylogenetic legacy inherited from its ancestor, the late Early Pleistocene African Bos buiaensis, recorded in the eastern African paleoanthropological site of Buia, Eritrea (1.0 Ma). Given that the latter species is an evolved form of the classical Early Pleistocene African buffalo Pelorovis oldowayensis, the finding of B. primigenius at Wadi Sarrat shows that the genus Bos evolved in Africa and dispersed into Eurasia at the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene, which coincides with the spread of the Acheulian technocomplex in northern Africa and Europe. Therefore, the lineage of Pelorovis-Bos has been part of the human ecological landscape since the appearance of the genus Homo in the African Early Pleistocene.

Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido; Karoui-Yaakoub, Narjess; Oms, Oriol; Amri, Lamjed; López-García, Juan Manuel; Zerai, Kamel; Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Mtimet, Moncef-Saïd; Espigares, María-Patrocinio; Ben Haj Ali, Nebiha; Ros-Montoya, Sergio; Boughdiri, Mabrouk; Agustí, Jordi; Khayati-Ammar, Hayet; Maalaoui, Kamel; El Khir, Maahmoudi Om; Sala, Robert; Othmani, Abdelhak; Hawas, Ramla; Gómez-Merino, Gala; Solè, Àlex; Carbonell, Eudald; Palmqvist, Paul

2014-04-01

399

Paratingia wudensis sp. nov., a whole noeggerathialean plant preserved in an earliest Permian air fall tuff in Inner Mongolia, China.  

PubMed

Noeggerathiales are a little known group of Carboniferous and Permian plants of uncertain systematic position that have been variously considered to be ferns, sphenopsids, progymnosperms, or a separate group. These heterosporous plants carry adaxial sporangia on leaf-like or disk-shaped sporophylls that form cones. Leaves are pinnate with a rather stiff appearance, and pinnules can be attached in either two or four rows. In the present report, we present the top of a noeggerathialean plant with leaves and strobili attached, Paratingia wudensis Wang, Pfefferkorn et Bek sp. nov., from an earliest Permian volcanic ash fall tuff in Inner Mongolia. The excellent preservation allows the reconstruction of the whole plant, the complex three-dimensional leaves with anisophyllous pinnules, the heterosporous strobili, and the spores in situ. The homology of leaves and strobili can be elucidated and contributes to an understanding of the debated taxonomic position of Noeggerathiales. The "anisophyllous" leaves carry pinnules arranged in four rows. The strobili are bisporangiate and have disk-shaped sporophylls, each with one ring of 10-14 adaxial sporangia around the strobilus axis. Megaspores have an equatorial bulge. This new species expands the known diversity of Noeggerathiales. It grew in a peat-forming forest, thus changing earlier interpretations of the growth of noeggerathialean plants with anisophyllous pinnules. PMID:21622354

Wang, Jun; Pfefferkorn, Hermann W; Bek, Jirí

2009-09-01

400

Stable isotope paleoclimatology of the earliest Eocene using kimberlite-hosted mummified wood from the Canadian Subarctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent discovery of well-preserved mummified wood buried within a subarctic kimberlite diamond mine prompted a paleoclimatic study of the early Eocene "hothouse" (ca. 53.3 Ma). At the time of kimberlite eruption, the Subarctic and Artic were warm and humid producing a temperate rainforest biome well north of the Arctic Circle. Previous studies have estimated mean annual temperatures in this region were 4-20 °C in the early Eocene, using a variety of proxies including leaf margin analysis, and stable isotopes (?18O) of fossil cellulose. Here, we examine stable isotopes of tree-ring cellulose at subannual to annual scale resolution, using the oldest viable cellulose found to date. We use mechanistic models and transfer functions to estimate earliest Eocene temperatures using mummified cellulose, which was well preserved in the kimberlite. Multiple samples of Piceoxylon wood within the kimberlite were crossdated by tree-ring width. Multiple proxies are used in combination to tease apart likely environmental factors influencing the tree physiology and growth in the unique extinct ecosystem of the Polar rainforest. Calculations of interannual variation in temperature over a multidecadal time-slice in the early Eocene are presented, with a mean temperature estimate of 11.4 °C (1? = 1.8 °C) based on ?18O. Dual-isotope spectral analysis suggests that multidecadal climate cycles similar to the modern Pacific Decadal Oscillation likely drove temperature and cloudiness trends on 20-30 year timescales.

Hook, B. A.; Halfar, J.; Gedalof, Z.; Bollmann, J.; Schulze, D.

2014-11-01

401

Onwards and upwards in the Caucasus - A multidisciplinary approach to understanding the lifeways of the earliest modern humans in Armenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Armenian Highlands have functioned as a gateway with regards to the peopling of the Southern Caucasus. Most importantly, changes in climate have long controlled access to this remote and often inhospitable mountainous region. Here we present the results of the multidisciplinary study of Aghitu-3 Cave which brings together researchers from the fields of archaeology, geology and geomorphology, zooarchaeology, paleobotany and paleoclimate. By integrating these areas of study, we have reconstructed the lifeways of the earliest behaviorally (and presumably anatomically) modern humans who settled Southern Armenia about 35,000 (cal BP) years ago and placed this occupational sequence within a framework of environmental change. These first Upper Paleolithic inhabitants of Armenia made temporary use of this basalt cave located along the Vorotan River corridor at an altitude of 1601 m during seasonal forays into the highlands. The infrequent use of this site as a hunting camp comes to an end at about 31,000 cal BP. The next package of sediment shows little evidence of human occupation, although fauna seem to flourish during the time between 31-29,000 cal BP. Following this phase of depopulation, the intensity of occupation increases substantially after 29,000 cal BP. Human presence is amply documented in the numerous stone artifacts, faunal remains and fireplaces that cover the site. These changes in population movement are echoed in the sequence of sediments preserved in the cave and can be correlated with the fluctuating climatic conditions associated with the late Pleistocene.

Kandel, Andrew; Gasparyan, Boris; Bruch, Angela; Deckers, Katleen; Nahapetyan, Samvel; Weissbrod, Lior

2013-04-01

402

Haematology of clinically normal and abnormal captive llamas and guanacoes.  

PubMed

Blood counts of healthy juvenile and adult llamas (Lama glama) and guanacoes (L guanacoe) showed that guanacoes have higher red cell counts, haemoglobin values and packed cell volumes than llamas. In both species, the numbers of lymphocytes and platelets were higher in juveniles than in adults. By reference to the values found in normal animals, abnormal haematological variations were detected in a number of sick individuals. Neutrophilia, hyperfibrinogenaemia and a tendency to develop regenerative hypochromic anaemia were observed in animals with acute and chronic inflammatory diseases and hypochromic macrocytic anaemia occurred in animals with parasitic infections. Many individuals in which subclinical intestinal parasitic infections were suspected had relatively high eosinophil counts although their other haematological values were normal. PMID:3363814

Hawkey, C M; Gulland, F M

1988-03-01

403

Abnormal oculocardiac reflex in two patients with Marcus Gunn syndrome.  

PubMed

Marcus Gunn phenomenon is seen in 4 to 6% of congenital ptosis patients. We report two cases of abnormal oculocardiac reflex during ptosis correction surgery. Marcus Gunn syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition with incomplete penetrance. It is believed to be a neural misdirection syndrome in which fibres of the motor division of the trigeminal nerve are congenitally misdirected into the superior pterygoid and the levator muscles. Anesthetic considerations include taking a detailed history about any previous anaesthetic exposure and any reaction to it as this syndrome has a high probability of being associated with malignant hyperthermia. It is also postulated that an atypical oculocardiac reflex might be initiated in these patients as seen in our patients, so precautions must be taken for its prevention and early detection. PMID:21897519

Pandey, Maitree; Baduni, Neha; Jain, Aruna; Sanwal, Manoj Kumar; Vajifdar, Homay

2011-07-01

404

Regional shape abnormalities in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance (MR) based shape analysis provides an opportunity to detect regional specificity of volumetric changes that may distinguish mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) from healthy elderly controls (CON), and predict future conversion to AD. We assessed the surface deformation of seven structures (amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, body and temporal horn of the lateral ventricles) in 383 MRI volumes, based on data shared through the publicly available Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), to identify regionally-specific shape abnormalities in MCI and AD. Large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping (LDDMM) was used to generate the shapes of seven structures based on template shapes injected into segmented subcortical volumes. LDDMM then constructed the surface deformation maps encoding the local shape variation of each subject relative to the template. Hierarchical models were developed to detect differences in local shape in MCI and AD relative to CON. Our findings revealed that surface inward-deformation in MCI and AD is most prominent in the anterior hippocampal segment and the basolateral complex of the amygdala. Most pronounced surface outward-deformation in MCI and AD occurs in the lateral ventricles. Mild surface inward-deformation in MCI and AD occurs in the anterior-lateral and ventral-lateral aspects of the thalamus, with no evidence of regionally-specific deformation in the putamen or globus pallidus. Although the locations of the shape abnormalities in MCI and AD are primarily within the mesial temporal region, analyses support distinct components of correlated shape variation that may help predict future MCI conversion. PMID:19280688

Qiu, Anqi; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Dale, Anders M; Miller, Michael I

2009-04-15

405

How to Assess Changes in Feet: Normal or Abnormal  

MedlinePLUS

... in Feet: Normal or Abnormal How to Assess Changes in Feet: Normal or Abnormal Page Content The ... this extensive repetitive use leads to several normal changes associated with aging: The foot becomes wider and ...

406

Down's Syndrome and Leukemia: Mechanism of Additional Chromosomal Abnormalities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chromosomal abnormalities, some appearing in a stepwise clonal evoluation, were found in five Down's syndrome patients (35 weeks to 12 years old), four with acute leukemia and one with abnormal regulation of leukopoiesis. (Author/SBH)

And Others; Goh, Kong-oo

1978-01-01

407

NEW FRONTIER IN UNDERSTANDING THE MECHANISMS OF DEVELOPMENTAL ABNORMALITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent advancements in molecular developmental biology afford an opportunity to apply newly developed tools for understanding the mechanisms of both normal and abnormal development. lthough a number of agents have been identified as causing developmental abnormalities, knowledge ...

408

The earliest medical texts.  

PubMed

The first civilization known to have had an extensive study of medicine and to leave written records of its practices and procedures was that of ancient Egypt. The oldest extant Egyptian medical texts are six papyri from the period between 2000 B.C. and 1500 B.C.: the Kahun Medical Papyrus, the Ramesseum IV and Ramesseum V Papyri, the Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus, The Ebers Medical Papyrus and the Hearst Medical Papyrus. These texts, most of them based on older texts dating possibly from 3000 B.C., are comparatively free of the magician's approach to treating illness. Egyptian medicine influenced the medicine of neighboring cultures, including the culture of ancient Greece. From Greece, its influence spread onward, thereby affecting Western civilization significantly. PMID:2463895

Frey, E F

409

The earliest phase transition?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The question of a phase transition in exiting the Planck epoch of the early universe is addressed. An order parameter is proposed to help decide the issue, and estimates are made concerning its behavior. Our analysis is suggestive that a phase transition occurred.

Samuel, Stuart

2000-10-01

410

Chromosomal abnormalities in patients with autism spectrum disorders from Taiwan.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by verbal communication impairments, social reciprocity deficits, and the presence of restricted interests and stereotyped behaviors. Genetic factors contribute to the incidence of ASD evidently. However, the genetic spectrum of ASD is highly heterogeneous. Chromosomal abnormalities contribute significantly to the genetic deficits of syndromic and non-syndromic ASD. In this study, we conducted karyotyping analysis in a sample of 500 patients (447 males, 53 females) with ASD from Taiwan, the largest cohort in Asia, to the best of our knowledge. We found three patients having sex chromosome aneuploidy, including two cases of 47, XXY and one case of 47, XYY. In addition, we detected a novel reciprocal chromosomal translocation between long arms of chromosomes 4 and 14, designated t(4;14)(q31.3;q24.1), in a patient with Asperger's disorder. This translocation was inherited from his unaffected father, suggesting it might not be pathogenic or it needs further hits to become pathogenic. In line with other studies, our study revealed that subjects with sex chromosomal aneuploidy are liable to neurodevelopmental disorders, including ASD, and conventional karyotyping analysis is still a useful tool in detecting chromosomal translocation in patients with ASD, given that array-based comparative genomic hybridization technology can provide better resolution in detecting copy number variations of genomic DNA. PMID:24132905

Liao, Hsiao-Mei; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Tsai, Wen-Che; Fang, Jye-Siung; Su, Ying-Cheng; Chou, Miao-Chun; Liu, Shih-Kai; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Wu, Yu-Yu; Chen, Chia-Hsiang

2013-10-01

411

Influence of genetic abnormalities on semen quality and male fertility: A four-year prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background: Wide range of disorders ranging from genetic disorders to coital difficulties can influence male fertility. In this regard, genetic factors are highlighted as the most frequent, contributed to 10-15%, of male infertility causes. Objective: To investigate the influence of genetic abnormalities on semen quality and reproductive hormone levels of infertile men from Northeast China. Materials and Methods: 2034 infertile men including 691 patients with abnormal sperm parameters were investigated retrospectively. Semen analysis was performed according to the World Health Organization guidelines. Y chromosome micro deletions were detected by polymerase chain reaction assays. Chromosome analysis was performed using G-banding. Results: The incidence of abnormal chromosomal karyotype in the patients with abnormal sperm parameters was 12.01% (83/691). The most frequent cause was Klinefelter's syndrome 37.35% (31/83). As the same as chromosomal abnormalities group, the volumes of testes (p=0.000 and 0.000, respectively) and the levels of testosterone (T) (p=0.000), and testosterone/ luteinizing hormone (T/LH) (p=0.000) of patients with Y chromosome micro deletions were significantly lower than those of fertile group. In addition, the levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) (p=0.000), and luteinizing hormone (LH) (p=0.000) were significantly higher in patients with Y chromosome micro deletions than those in the fertile group. Translocation abnormalities displayed slight effect on sperm motility. Conclusion: Y chromosome micro deletions and sex chromosome disorders particularly Klinefelter’s (47, XXY), have severe adverse influence on normal hormone levels, testicular volume and sperm count, whereas translocation abnormalities may inversely correlate with sperm motility. PMID:24799866

Elfateh, Fadlalla; Wang, Ruixue; Zhang, Zhihong; Jiang, Yuting; Chen, Shuang; Liu, Ruizhi

2014-01-01

412

Targeted Pathologic Evaluation of Bone Marrow Donors Identifies Previously Undiagnosed Marrow Abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Potential bone marrow donors are screened to ensure the safety of both the donor and recipient. At our institution, potential donors with abnormal peripheral blood cell counts, a personal history of malignancy, or age >60 years are evaluated to ensure that they are viable candidates for donation. Evaluation of the marrow includes morphologic, flow cytometric and cytogenetic studies. 122 potential donors were screened between the years of 2001–2011, encompassing approximately 10% of all donors. The median age of the screened potential donors was 59 years, and included 59 men and 63 women. The donors were screened because of age >60 years old (33), anemia (22), cytopenias other than anemia (27), elevated peripheral blood counts without a concurrent cytopenia (20), elevated peripheral blood counts with a concurrent cytopenia (10), history of malignancy (4), abnormal peripheral blood differential (3), prior graft failure (1), history of treatment with chemotherapy (1), and body habitus (1). Marrow abnormalities were detected in 9% (11/122) of donors. These donors were screened because of anemia (5/22; 23%), age >60 years (2/33; 6%), history of malignancy (2/4; 50%), elevated peripheral blood counts (1/20; 5%), and body habitus (1/1; 100%). Abnormalities included plasma cell dyscrasia (3), abnormal marrow cellularity (3), clonal cytogenetic abnormalities (2), low-grade myelodysplastic syndrome (1), a mutated JAK2 V617F allele (1), and monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (1). Our experience indicates that extended screening of potential donors identifies a significant number of donors with previously undiagnosed marrow abnormalities. PMID:23769818

Tilson, MP; Jones, RJ; Sexauer, A; Griffin, CA; Morsberger, LA; Batista, DAS; Small, D; Burns, KH; Gocke, CD; Vuica-Ross, M; Borowitz, MJ; Duffield, AS

2013-01-01

413

A Case of ADHD and a Major Y Chromosome Abnormality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: ADHD is a common, heritable disorder of childhood. Sex chromosome abnormalities are relatively rare conditions that are sometimes associated with behavioral disorders. Method: The authors present a male child with ADHD and a major de-novo Y chromosome abnormality consisting of deletion of the long arm and duplication of the short arm. It is possible that the Y chromosomal abnormality

Aisling Mulligan; Michael Gill; Michael Fitzgerald

2008-01-01

414

PSY 350 Spring 2011 Page 1 of 5 ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY  

E-print Network

PSY 350 Spring 2011 Page 1 of 5 - 1 - PSY 350 ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY SPRING 2011 Course Information students with the major concepts, theoretical perspectives and empirical findings in abnormal psychology., Johnson, S.L., Davison, Gerald C., Neale, John M. (2004). Abnormal Psychology, 11th Edition. New York

Gallo, Linda C.

415

Some of the present problems of abnormal psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the problems surfacing in the field of abnormal psychology. Abnormal psychology has thrown much light on the mechanisms of normal mental processes, for disease dissects the mind and brings into view the mechanisms. In the department of medicine, it has furnished an intelligible explanation of many unexplained derangements of the mind. The problems of abnormal psychology are largely the

Morton Prince

1905-01-01

416

PSYCHOLOGY 280: ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY Summer 2014 -Section 101  

E-print Network

PSYCHOLOGY 280: ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY Summer 2014 - Section 101 Tuesdays, Wednesdays, and Thursdays variety of topics in the field of abnormal psychology, including its history and the methods used). Abnormal psychology in a changing world (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. Textbook

Liu, Taosheng

417

Physics Division ESH Bulletin 03-1 ABNORMAL EVENT RESPONSE  

E-print Network

: Abnormal Event Response The expectation of ORNL management is a bias toward identifying and reporting allPhysics Division ESH Bulletin 03-1 ABNORMAL EVENT RESPONSE Reference ORNL Program Description abnormal events, even small, seemingly insignificant or low-level events or conditions. Fixing lower level

418

Effect of intravaginal clindamycin cream on pregnancy outcome and on abnormal vaginal microbial flora of pregnant women.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether intravaginal clindamycin cream reduces the incidence of abnormal pregnancy outcome in women with abnormal vaginal microbial flora graded as intermediate or BV and to investigate the effect of the antibiotic on vaginal microbial flora. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of pregnant women in an antenatal clinic of a district general hospital. The subjects were 268 women who had abnormal vaginal microbial flora at first clinic visit by examination of a Gram-stained vaginal smear and 34 women with a normal vaginal flora. Two hundred and thirty-seven women were evaluable. Women with abnormal Gram-stained smears (graded as II or III) on clinic recall were randomised to receive treatment (intravaginal clindamycin cream) or placebo and followed to assess outcome of pregnancy, vaginal flora, and detection of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum after treatment. RESULTS: Abnormal outcomes of pregnancy were not significantly different in treated and placebo groups by Chi square (P = 0.2). However, women with grade III flora responded better to clindamycin than women with grade II flora by numbers of abnormal outcomes (P = 0.03) and return to normal vaginal flora (P = 0.01) (logistic regression analysis model). This may be due to differences in vaginal bacterial species in these grades. Women whose abnormal vaginal flora had spontaneously returned to normal on follow-up and were therefore not treated (revertants) had as many abnormal outcomes as placebos suggesting that damage by abnormal bacterial species occurred early in pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Gram-stain screening distinguishing grade II from grade III flora may be helpful in prescribing treatment other than clindamycin for women with grade II flora. Earlier diagnosis and treatment may be more effective in preventing an abnormal outcome, possibly as soon as pregnancy is diagnosed or even offered as a pre-conception screen. PMID:10968599

Rosenstein, I J; Morgan, D J; Lamont, R F; Sheehan, M; Doré, C J; Hay, P E; Taylor-Robinson, D

2000-01-01

419

A forty-three year museum study of northern cricket frog (Acris crepitans) abnormalities in Arkansas: upward trends and distributions.  

PubMed

The northern cricket frog (Acris crepitans) is a resident of streams, rivers, and wetlands of eastern North America. We documented abnormalities in A. crepitans housed in the Arkansas State University Museum of Zoology Herpetology Collection. Abnormality frequency increased from 1957 to 2000 (chi 2 = 43.76, df = 3, P < 0.001). From 1957 through 1979 only 3.33% of specimens were unusual. This rate was 6.87% during the 1990s, and in 2000 it was 8.48%. High frequencies of abnormalities were identified in the following Ozark highland counties: Sharp, Lawrence, and Randolph. We observed 104 abnormalities among 1,464 frogs (7.10%). The differential abnormality frequencies observed between the Arkansas lowlands and highlands are striking. The Ozarks had significantly higher frequencies of abnormalities than other Arkansas regions (chi 2 = 59.76, df = 4, P < 0.001). The Ouachita Mountains had significantly higher frequencies than the Gulf Coastal Plain, Delta, or Arkansas River Valley (chi 2 = 13.172, df = 3, P < 0.01). There was no difference in abnormality frequency between the Gulf Coastal Plain, Delta, and Arkansas River Valley (chi 2 = 0.422, df = 2, P > 0.70). Proposed hypotheses for distributions include: 1) A. crepitans might possess naturally high abnormality levels, and land use practices of the Delta may reduce this variability; 2) an unknown xenobiotic may be in Ozark streams causing increased numbers of abnormalities; 3) the museum's collection effort may be skewed; 4) Delta habitat might be more favorable for green tree frogs (Hyla cinerea) allowing this species to drive out A. crepitans through competition; here, abnormal metamorphs are not detected because they are even less competitive than normal individuals. PMID:14567212

McCallum, Malcolm L; Trauth, Stanley E

2003-07-01

420

The Importance of Screening and Prenatal Diagnosis in the Identification of the Numerical Chromosomal Abnormalities  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Background and aims: The obstetric care of a pregnancy, as it is practiced today, includes non-invasive screening approaches as well as invasive procedures for the definitive prenatal diagnosis of fetal disorders correlations between indications for prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis and results of the chromosomal analysis made upon fetal cells. The aim of our study was to evaluate the correlations between the screening test results and results of chromosomal analysis on fetal cells. Methods: Amniotic fluid samples from 1159 pregnant women were studied with the rapid FISH method and the cytogenetic analysis (karyotype). The results from both methods were compared. Results: The indications to perform prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis for numerical chromosomal abnormalities were: abnormal results of double or triple test, advanced maternal age, fetal abnormality detected through ultrasound examination, and positive family history for chromosomal anomalies. In our study we identified 30 cases with abnormal numeric chromosomes (18 cases of trisomy 21, 4 cases of trisomy 18, 3 cases of trisomy X, 1 case of monosomy, 2 cases of trisomy XYY, 1 case of trisomy XXY and 1 case of triploidy). Conclusions: This report confirms the importance of screening and the cytogenetic diagnosis in the identification of the numerical chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:22368694

NEAGOS, Daniela; CRETU, Ruxandra; SFETEA, Roxana Corina; BOHILTEA, Laurentiu Camil

2011-01-01

421

Eye Movement Abnormalities in Joubert Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Purpose Joubert syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by hypoplasia of the midline cerebellum and deficiency of crossed connections between neural structures in the brain stem that control eye movements. The goal of the study was to quantify the eye movement abnormalities that occur in Joubert syndrome. Methods Eye movements were recorded in response to stationary stimuli and stimuli designed to elicit smooth pursuit, saccades, optokinetic nystagmus (OKN), vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), and vergence using video-oculography or Skalar search coils in 8 patients with Joubert syndrome. All patients underwent high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results All patients had the highly characteristic molar tooth sign on brain MRI. Six patients had conjugate pendular (n = 4) or see-saw nystagmus (n = 2); gaze holding was stable in four patients. Smooth-pursuit gains were 0.28 to 1.19, 0.11 to 0.68, and 0.33 to 0.73 at peak stimulus velocities of 10, 20, and 30 deg/s in six patients; smooth pursuit could not be elicited in four patients. Saccade gains in five patients ranged from 0.35 to 0.91 and velocities ranged from 60.9 to 259.5 deg/s. Targeted saccades could not be elicited in five patients. Horizontal OKN gain was uniformly reduced across gratings drifted at velocities of 15, 30, and 45 deg/s. VOR gain was 0.8 or higher and phase appropriate in three of seven subjects; VOR gain was 0.3 or less and phase was indeterminate in four subjects. Conclusions The abnormalities in gaze-holding and eye movements are consistent with the distributed abnormalities of midline cerebellum and brain stem regions associated with Joubert syndrome. PMID:19443711

Weiss, Avery H.; Doherty, Dan; Parisi, Melissa; Shaw, Dennis; Glass, Ian; Phillips, James O.

2011-01-01

422

Chromosome abnormalities in primary ovarian cancer  

SciTech Connect

Chromosome abnormalities that are specific and recurrent may occur in regions of the genome that are involved in the conversion of normal cells to those with tumorigenic potential. Ovarian cancer is the primary cause of death among patients with gynecological malignancies. We have performed cytogenetic analys