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1

Robotic-enhanced arterial revascularization for multivessel coronary artery disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. A tendency to reduce operative trauma is determining the evolution of cardiac surgical techniques lately. The introduction of robotic-enhanced endoscopic systems enables surgeons to perform arterial revascularization for multivessel disease without sternotomy.Methods. From May 1999, 17 (4 women, 13 men; median age 63 ± 7.4 years) patients with multivessel coronary artery disease were treated surgically using arterial revascularization by

Romuald Cichon; Utz Kappert; Jens Schneider; Ina Schramm; Vassilios Gulielmos; Sems M Tugtekin; Stephan Schüler

2000-01-01

2

Early postoperative angiographic assessment of radial artery grafts used for coronary artery bypass grafting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a revival of interest in using the radial artery as an alternative conduit for myocardial revascularization, little angiographic documentation of early postoperative results has been presented, particularly in North America. Accordingly, 60 of 150 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass with radial arteries from November 1993 to July 1995 have had postoperative cardiac catheterization at our institution. The patency

Alan H. Chen; Tatsuya Nakao; Richard F. Brodman; Mark Greenberg; Richard Charney; Mark Menegus; Michael Johnson; Richard Grose; Rosemary Frame; Eric C. Hu; Hong-Keun Choi; Steven Safyer

1996-01-01

3

MRI arterial enhancement fraction in hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. Fibrosis leads to altered liver hemodynamics. The arterial enhancement fraction, which is defined as the ratio of hepatic arterial perfusion to the total hepatic perfusion, can provide noninvasive assessment of hepatic perfusion. The aim of this study was to show that the arterial enhancement fraction values correlate with histopathologic stage of liver fibrosis, thus providing a reliable noninvasive radiologic alternative to liver biopsy for the detection and staging of hepatic fibrosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS. We evaluated hepatic fibrosis stage (denoted by Metavir score [F]) and arterial enhancement fraction of patients who underwent standard triphasic liver MRI and liver biopsy within 1 year from January 2005 to December 2010. Prototype software was used to calculate the arterial enhancement fraction. Statistical analysis included nonparametric tests and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). RESULTS. One hundred fourteen patients (69 men and 45 women; median age, 52.5 years) were divided into groups according to the Metavir score. The mean arterial enhancement fraction was 24.2% ± 11.6% for F0, 35.2% ± 18.7% for F1, 30.2% ± 12.5% for F2, 37.5% ± 16.4% for F3, and 59.8% ± 16.6% for F4. The mean arterial enhancement fraction values differed significantly between Metavir scores (p < 0.001) and showed a positive correlation with Metavir score (r = 0.693; p < 0.001). The optimal mean arterial enhancement fraction cutoffs were 32.96% or more (AUC = 0.8343) for detection of mild fibrosis, 33.33% or more (AUC = 0.8524) for detection of moderate fibrosis, 38.43% or more (AUC = 0.8819) for detection of severe fibrosis, and 45.76% or more (AUC = 0.9161) for detection of cirrhosis. CONCLUSION. Arterial enhancement fraction using triple-phase MRI can provide a reliable noninvasive method to assess hepatic fibrosis. PMID:24059398

Ou, Hsin-You; Bonekamp, Susanne; Bonekamp, David; Corona-Villalobos, Celia Pamela; Torbenson, Michael S; Geiger, Bernhard; Kamel, Ihab R

2013-10-01

4

Coronary Artery Imaging with Contrast-Enhanced MDCT: Extracardiac Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the incidence of extracardiac find- ings on contrast-enhanced MDCT of the coronary arteries and to assess the effect of different field-of-view settings. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Patients with suspected coronary artery disease (n = 166) were examined with contrast-enhanced MDCT (16 × 0.75 mm focused on the heart) during injection of contrast

Sabine Haller; Christoph Kaiser; Peter Buser; Georg Bongartz; Jens Bremerich

2006-01-01

5

Fatal Kawasaki disease caused by early occlusive coronary artery disease.  

PubMed

In Kawasaki disease severe coronary artery narrowing may develop at an early stage despite treatment with gammaglobulin and in the absence of prominent aneurysm formation or thrombosis. Vaso-occlusive disease may not be clinically or echocardiographically apparent until very severe. PMID:12138067

Heaton, P; Wilson, N

2002-08-01

6

Early open mitral valve surgery following arterial embolism  

PubMed Central

A report is presented of nine patients who underwent early open mitral valve surgery after arterial embolism had occurred. Five of these patients suffered an early second arterial embolism before their mitral operation, an observation which stresses the risk inherent in delay of mitral valve surgery. The demonstration of atrial thrombi in four illustrates the potential danger of closed valvotomy techniques in such cases. Advanced pathological changes and severe stenosis of the mitral valve were found in all nine patients; valve replacement had to be done in three. All nine patients are alive and well after follow-up from 6 to 42 months. No further thromboembolic events have occurred after mitral valve surgery.

Borman, J. B.; Merin, G; Romanoff, H.; Milwidsky, H.

1970-01-01

7

In Vivo Volumetric Intravascular Ultrasound Visualization of Early/Inflammatory Arterial Atheroma Using Targeted Echogenic Immunoliposomes  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aimed to demonstrate three-dimensional (3D) visualization of early/inflammatory arterial atheroma using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and targeted echogenic immunoliposomes (ELIP). IVUS can be used as a molecular imaging modality with the use of targeted contrast agents for atheroma detection. Three-dimensional reconstruction of 2-dimensional IVUS images may provide improved atheroma visualization. Materials and Methods Atheroma were induced in arteries of Yucatan miniswine (n = 5) by endothelial cell denudation followed by a 4-week high cholesterol diet. The contralateral arteries were left intact and served as controls. Anti-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and generic gammaglobulin (IgG) conjugated ELIP were prepared. Arteries were imaged using IVUS before and after ELIP injection. Images were digitized, manually traced, segmented, and placed in tomographic sequence for 3D visualization. Atheroma brightness enhancement was compared and reported as mean gray scale values. Plaque volume was quantified both from IVUS and histologic images. Results Anti-ICAM-1 ELIP highlighting of the atheroma in all arterial segments was different compared with baseline (P < 0.05). There was no difference in the mean gray scale values with IgG-ELIP. Arterial 3D IVUS images allowed visualization of the entire plaque distribution. The highlighted plaque/atheroma volume with anti-ICAM-1 ELIP was greater than baseline (P < 0.01). Conclusion This study demonstrates specific highlighting of early/inflammatory atheroma in vivo using anti-ICAM-1 ELIP. Three-dimensional IVUS reconstruction provides good visualization of plaque distribution in the arterial wall. This novel methodology may help to detect and diagnose pathophysiologic development of all stages of atheroma formation in vivo and quantitate plaque volume for serial and long-term atherosclerotic treatment studies.

Kim, Hyunggun; Moody, Melanie R.; Laing, Susan T.; Kee, Patrick H.; Huang, Shao-Ling; Klegerman, Melvin E.; McPherson, David D.

2011-01-01

8

Early and Delayed Myocardial Enhancement in Myocardial Infarction Using Two-Phase Contrast-Enhanced Multidetector-Row CT  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to describe the myocardial enhancement patterns in patients with myocardial infarction using two-phase contrast-enhanced multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT). Materials and Methods Twenty-three patients with clinically proven myocardial infarction (17 acute myocardial infarction [AMI] and 6 chronic myocardial infarction [CMI]) were examined with two-phase contrast-enhanced ECG-gated MDCT. The presence, location, and patterns of myocardial enhancement on two-phase MDCT images were compared with infarcted myocardial territories determined by using electrocardiogram, echocardiography, thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography, catheter and MDCT coronary angiography. Results After clinical assessment, the presence of myocardial infarctions were found in 27 territories (19 AMI and 8 CMI) of 23 patients. Early perfusion defects were observed in 30 territories of all 23 patients. Three territories not corresponding to a myocardial infarction were detected in three patients with AMI and were associated with artifacts. Fourteen of perfusion defects were in the left anterior descending artery territory, four in the left circumflex artery territory, and nine in the right coronary artery territory. Delayed enhancement was observed in 25 territories (17 AMI and 8 CMI) of 21 patients. Delayed enhancement patterns were variable. Transmural early perfusion defects (n =12) were closely associated with transmural late enhancement (n = 5) and subendocardial residual defect with subepicardial late enhancement (n = 5). Conclusion Myocardial infarction showed early perfusion defects and variable delayed enhancement patterns on two-phase contrast-enhanced MDCT. Delayed enhancement technique of MDCT could provide additional information of the location and extent of infarcted myocardium, and could be useful to plan appropriate therapeutic strategies in patients with AMI.

Kim, Young-Whan; Han, Seong-Wook; Seo, Joon-Beom

2007-01-01

9

Ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm followed by spontaneous acute occlusion and early recanalization: case report.  

PubMed

A 47-year-old man presented with a ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm manifesting as subarachnoid hemorrhage followed by acute occlusion and early recanalization of the affected artery. Cerebral angiography 2 hours after the onset of the symptom showed pearl-and-string sign in the right vertebral artery. Serial angiography showed that the affected artery was occluded at 12 hours but was recanalized on the 4th day. The dissecting aneurysm was resected with side-to-side anastomosis between the bilateral posterior inferior cerebellar arteries. Postoperative cerebral angiography demonstrated disappearance of the lesion and patency of the right posterior inferior cerebellar artery via the anastomosis. Histological examination of the lesion showed hematoma between the media and adventitia, disrupting the internal elastica and intima. Acute occlusion and early recanalization of the affected artery may occur in ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms. Serial neurological and neuroradiological examinations are essential to decide the timing and method of treatment. PMID:16127257

Endo, Hidehiko; Otawara, Yasunari; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Ogawa, Akira; Nakamura, Shin-ichi

2005-08-01

10

Early experience with the inferior epigastric artery in coronary artery bypass grafting. A word of caution.  

PubMed

The excellent results with the internal thoracic artery for coronary artery bypass grafting have prompted the search for other arterial conduits. From November 1991 to February 1992, 18 patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting with the use of inferior epigastric artery grafts. Patients' ages averaged 52 +/- 9 years. Bilateral internal thoracic artery grafts were used in 17 patients (17/18, 94%) and a free graft with one inferior epigastric artery was used in each patient. The inferior epigastric artery grafts were anastomosed to the right coronary artery (n = 9), a marginal circumflex artery (n = 4), and to a diagonal artery (n = 5). Three patients had abdominal wound complication related to harvesting of the inferior epigastric artery. Immediate postoperative angiographic evaluation of inferior epigastric artery grafts showed that eight grafts were patent (8/14, 57%). Four of the occluded inferior epigastric arteries were grafted to the right coronary artery and one to the second marginal circumflex coronary artery. Because of the low patency rate of inferior epigastric artery grafts, a word of caution is necessary in the selection of patients. At the present time, the inferior epigastric artery appears to be an interesting alternative only in patients who have no other available conduits. PMID:8231217

Perrault, L P; Carrier, M; Hebert, Y; Cartier, R; Leclerc, Y; Pelletier, L C

1993-11-01

11

Early thrombolysis in stroke due to basilar artery occlusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Basilar artery occlusion is usually associated with a poor prognosis. Nevertheless, intra-arterial thrombolysis has been\\u000a shown to improve clinical outcome in selected cases. We report the case of a 29-year-old patient who suffered a severe ischemic\\u000a stroke due to basilar artery occlusion and who was treated with intra-arterial thrombolysis within 3 h of symptoms onset;\\u000a treatment was followed by

G. Orlandi; G. Moscato; R. Padolecchia; F. Sartucci

2001-01-01

12

Effect of enhanced external counterpulsation depends on arterial compliance.  

PubMed

Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) is a non-invasive therapy offered to patients with refractory angina pectoris. Previous studies have demonstrated that its clinical effect depends on the diastolic/systolic augmentation ratio (D/S ratio). We hypothesized that the D/S ratio is associated with arterial stiffness measured as pulse wave velocity (PWV) and brachial pulse pressure (PP). Twenty patients with known refractory angina (17 men, 3 women; mean age 64 years) were included and underwent one hour of EECP treatment (Vasomedical Inc., Westbury, NY, USA). Three sets of cuffs were applied around the lower extremities. Gated by electrocardiography (ECG), air was inflated in diastole at a pressure of 260 mmHg and deflated at the start of systole. The D/S ratio was monitored with finger plethysmography. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured with mechanotransducers (Complior SP, Artech Medical, France). PWV and brachial BP were measured at baseline before EECP. The mean (SD) BP was 140 (23.5)/77 (9.9) mmHg, PP 62.8 (18.3) mmHg and PWV 10.8 (4.4) m/s. EECP treatment increased the D/S ratio during a one-hour session compared with baseline (1.30 (0.11) vs. 0.56 (0.04) P < 0.001), and the D/S ratio at 45 min. was significantly correlated with PWV (r = 0.49, P < 0.05) and PP (r = 0.58, P < 0.05). We demonstrated that the diastolic augmentation (D/S ratio) during EECP treatment depends on arterial stiffness. The results suggest that arterial compliance has a crucial influence on the effect of EECP and that large-artery stiffness may reduce the effect of EECP. PMID:23457909

Eftekhari, Ashkan; May, Ole

2013-02-01

13

Timing of Recanalization After Microbubble-Enhanced Intravenous Thrombolysis in Basilar Artery Occlusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—Information about early recanalization of basilar artery occlusion after systemic tissue plasminogen activator remains unknown. We aimed to determine the timing of recanalization in basilar artery occlusion treated with systemic thrombolysis, microbubbles, and continuous transcranial Doppler monitoring. Methods—We studied 20 patients with 12 hours basilar artery occlusion treated with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator, 2 hours continuous ultrasound, and

Jorge Pagola; Marc Ribo; Marcos Lange; Marta Rubiera; Carlos A. Molina

14

Symptomatic AortoPulmonary Collaterals Early After Arterial Switch Operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enlarged bronchial arteries and\\/or systemic-to-pulmonary collaterals have been frequently demonstrated in association with\\u000a transposition of the great arteries. They are usually clinically silent, although they might be large enough to cause accelerated\\u000a pulmonary vascular obstructive disease or symptomatic cardiac volume overload after surgical repair. We report on a low-weight\\u000a neonate with transposition of the great arteries and intact ventricular septum

Giuseppe Santoro; Marianna Carrozza; Maria Giovanna Russo; Raffaele Calabrņ

2008-01-01

15

Uterine artery hemodynamic adaptations through the menstrual cycle into early pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:To estimate the time course of human uterine artery vascular adaptation through the menstrual cycle into early pregnancy.METHODS:We prospectively measured the uterine artery pulsatility index, peak systolic velocity, and volumetric blood flow during the menstrual cycle and at 4, 6, and 12 weeks of pregnancy in women who conceived. Upper extremity radial artery hemodynamic changes were examined as a control

Ira M Bernstein; William F Ziegler; Thomas Leavitt; Gary J Badger

2002-01-01

16

Effects of Enhanced External Counterpulsation on Carotid Circulation in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) is a noninvasive method previously shown to improve measures of myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease. However, the concomitant effects of EECP on large and small arterial properties have been poorly examined. In a randomized controlled study, we investigated whether arterial stiffness and resistance of the carotid circulation are altered by EECP. Methods:

Jaime Levenson; Alain Simon; Jean L. Megnien; Gilles Chironi; Jerome Gariepy; Marie G. Pernollet; Damian Craiem; Marie C. Iliou

2007-01-01

17

Quantitative Exercise Electrocardiography in the Evaluation of Patients with Early Coronary Artery Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Computer analysis of treadmill exercise electrocardiographic data has been used in the evaluation of USAF flyers suspected of early coronary artery disease. Quantitative measurements of ST segment slope, depression, area, and spatial vectors were correlat...

F. G. Yanowitz M. O. Lancaster N. Feiser V. F. Froelicher

1974-01-01

18

Correlation of Early CT Signs in the Deep Middle Cerebral Artery Territories with Angiographically Confirmed Site of Arterial Occlusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Early CT signs in the deep middle cerebral artery (MCA) territories have been reported to be seen at the initial period of ischemia. We attempted to investigate the incidence of parenchymal hypodensity within 3 hours after ischemic onset among patients with angiographically proved embolic MCA occlusion and to assess the cor- relation of subtle hypodensity in the deep

Shinichi Nakano; Tsutomu Ised; Hirokazu Kawano; Takumi Yoneyama; Tokuro Ikeda; Shinichiro Wakisaka

19

Enhanced neointimal hyperplasia and carotid artery remodelling in sequestosome 1 deficient mice.  

PubMed

Deficiency in the signal adaptor protein sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1/A170/p62) in mice is associated with mature-onset obesity, accompanied by insulin and leptin resistance. We previously established that redox sensitive transcription factor Nrf2 up-regulates SQSTM1 expression in response to atherogenic stimuli or laminar shear stress in vascular cells, and here examine the role of SQSTM1 in neointimal hyperplasia and vascular remodelling in vivo following carotid artery ligation. Neointimal hyperplasia was markedly enhanced at ligation sites after 3 weeks in SQSTM1(-/-) compared with wild-type (WT) mice. The intimal area and stenotic ratio were, respectively, 2.1- and 1.7-fold higher in SQSTM1(-/-) mice, indicating enhanced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). When aortic SMCs were isolated from WT and SQSTM1(-/-) mice and cultured in vitro, we found that SQSTM1(-/-) SMCs proliferated more rapidly in response to foetal calf serum (FCS) and attained 2-3-fold higher cell densities compared to WT SMCs. Moreover, migration of SQSTM1(-/-) SMCs was enhanced compared to WT SMCs. Early and late phases of p38(MAPK) activation in response to FCS stimulation were also more enhanced in SQSTM1(-/-) SMCs, and inhibitors of p38 and ERK1/2 signalling pathways significantly attenuated SMC proliferation. In summary, SQSTM1(-/-) mice exhibit enhanced neointimal hyperplasia and vascular remodelling following arterial ligation in vivo. The enhanced proliferation of SQSTM1(-/-) aortic SMCs in vitro highlights a novel role for SQSTM1 in suppressing smooth muscle proliferation following vascular injury. PMID:19780870

Sugimoto, Rika; Warabi, Eiji; Katayanagi, Satoru; Sakai, Satoshi; Uwayama, Junya; Yanagawa, Toru; Watanabe, Ayaka; Harada, Harumi; Kitamura, Kiyoshi; Noguchi, Noriko; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Siow, Richard C M; Mann, Giovanni E; Ishii, Tetsuro

2009-09-24

20

Gadolinium-Enhanced MR Imaging in the Evaluation of Uterine Fibroids Treated with Uterine Artery Embolization  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE . The purpose of this study was to determine whether tumor volume reduc- tion can be predicted by the infarction rate of uterine fibroids as seen on gadolinium-enhanced MR images obtained immediately after uterine artery embolization. MATERIALS AND METHODS . In our study, 36 women with symptomatic uterine fi- broids successfully underwent uterine artery embolization. Unenhanced and enhanced MR

Tetsuya Katsumori; Kazuhiro Nakajima; Mitsukuni Tokuhiro

21

Robotic computer-assisted telemanipulation enhances coronary artery bypass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting depends greatly on perfecting the anastomosis. We tested a new computer-assisted telemanipulation robot (Intuitive Surgical Inc, Mountain View, Calif) in performing endoscopic coronary bypass. Methods: On-bench anastomoses of the porcine arterial graft to the left anterior descending coronary artery were performed with both direct visualization and conventional surgical instruments (group I), endoscopic 3-dimensional

Hani Shennib; Amr Bastawisy; Joan McLoughlin; Frederic Moll

1999-01-01

22

Arterial blood pressure during early sepsis and outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To evaluate the association between arterial blood pressure (ABP) during the first 24 h and mortality in sepsis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  Retrospective cohort study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Setting  Multidisciplinary intensive care unit (ICU).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and participants  A total of 274 septic patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Interventions  None.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Measurements and results  Hemodynamic, and laboratory parameters were extracted from a PDMS database. The hourly time integral of ABP drops below clinically\\u000a relevant systolic arterial pressure (SAP),

Martin W. Dünser; Jukka Takala; Hanno Ulmer; Viktoria D. Mayr; Günter Luckner; Stefan Jochberger; Fritz Daudel; Philipp Lepper; Walter R. Hasibeder; Stephan M. Jakob

2009-01-01

23

Enhancing Thinking Skills in Early Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A case study approach was adopted to investigate two thinking skills programmes for a maximum variation sample of five- to six-year-olds in four schools, in two local authorities (LAs), in England and Wales, using multiple methods. School staff interviewed felt that thinking skills programmes enhanced critical thinking skills and improved use of…

Aubrey, Carol; Ghent, Kathryn; Kanira, Eleni

2012-01-01

24

Contrast-enhanced duplex scanning of crural arteries by means of continuous infusion of Levovist  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo estimate the dosage needed for continuous infusion and to investigate whether continuous infusion of the ultrasound contrast-enhancing agent Levovist (SH U 508A) can improve duplex scanning of crural arteries in patients with peripheral arterial obstructive disease (PAOD) eligible for distal bypass graft surgery.

Stephen B. Coffi; Dirk Th. Ubbink; Ineke Zwiers; Johan A. M. van Gurp; Dianne Hanson; Dink A. Legemate

2004-01-01

25

Endometrial secretory proteins enhance early embryo development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate the role of endometrial stromal cells and their secretory proteins in early embryo development, two-celled CB6F1 mouse embryos were cultured alone or cocultured with human endometrial stromal cells in various culture conditions. Results: The percentage of embryo blastocyst formation, hatching, and outgrowth was significantly greater in (1) coculture with endometrial stroma( cells than in a cellfree control

Hung-Ching Liu; Carol Ann Mele; Nicole Noyes; Zev Rosenwaks

1994-01-01

26

[Radionuclide techniques in early diagnosis of pulmonary artery thromboembolism].  

PubMed

A combined procedure of indirect radionuclide phlebography and emission tomography of the lung with human serum albumin microspheres was employed to diagnose thromboembolism of pulmonary arterial branches (TPAB) and thrombosis in the inferior cava system. Four hundred and forty nine patients suspected for TPAB were examined. The data characteristic of pulmonary thromboembolism were obtained in 21.6% of cases. In 75 (17.6%) of 432 patients, indirect radionuclide phlebography revealed signs of thrombosis in the inferior cava at various sites. The radionuclide study of pulmonary perfusion is the only technique that assesses the degree of recovery of pulmonary perfusion after TPAB. PMID:10067352

Sychev, V K; Zolotareva, L A

1998-01-01

27

[Early and long-term outcome after coronary artery patency].  

PubMed

The role of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) in the management of chronically occluded coronary arteries is still controversial. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty of chronic total occlusion is associated with relatively low success rates and a high incidence of restenosis. The purpose of this analysis was to determine, from the records of our institution, the efficacy and long-term outcome of angioplasty performed for chronic total occlusion defined as complete occlusion (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infraction [TIMI] grade 0). PTCA was performed in 212 consecutive patients with chronically occluded coronary arteries and was successful in 125 (59%) patients. Complications were not observed. Successful initial PTCA was related to the clinical duration of occlusion and the type of guidewire (the primary success rate with the conventional guidewire was 49 (48%) versus 76 (69.1%) with Magnum Meier System p < 0.01). Repeat angiography was performed for 65 (52.0%) consecutive patients with successful initial PTCA and demonstrated restenosis in 34 (52.3%). 17 patients were successfully treated by a second PTCA. Restenosis or reocclusion was not clearly related to the residual stenosis post PTCA. In addition, the grade of collateral supply was not different in the vessels with and without restenosis. PMID:8966145

Chmielak, Z; Witowski, A; Dabrowski, M; Jodkowski, J; Debski, A; Demkow, M; Kochman, W; Ciszewski, A; Szmaus, P; Ciszewski, M; Norwa-Otto, B; Górecka, B; Ruzy??o, W

1996-07-01

28

Surface Roughness Detection of Arteries via Texture Analysis of Ultrasound Images for Early Diagnosis of Atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

There is a strong research interest in identifying the surface roughness of the carotid arterial inner wall via texture analysis for early diagnosis of atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study is to assess the efficacy of texture analysis methods for identifying arterial roughness in the early stage of atherosclerosis. Ultrasound images of common carotid arteries of 15 normal mice fed a normal diet and 28 apoE?/? mice fed a high-fat diet were recorded by a high-frequency ultrasound system (Vevo 2100, frequency: 40 MHz). Six different texture feature sets were extracted based on the following methods: first-order statistics, fractal dimension texture analysis, spatial gray level dependence matrix, gray level difference statistics, the neighborhood gray tone difference matrix, and the statistical feature matrix. Statistical analysis indicates that 11 of 19 texture features can be used to distinguish between normal and abnormal groups (p<0.05). When the 11 optimal features were used as inputs to a support vector machine classifier, we achieved over 89% accuracy, 87% sensitivity and 93% specificity. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity for the k-nearest neighbor classifier were 73%, 75% and 70%, respectively. The results show that it is feasible to identify arterial surface roughness based on texture features extracted from ultrasound images of the carotid arterial wall. This method is shown to be useful for early detection and diagnosis of atherosclerosis.

Niu, Lili; Qian, Ming; Yang, Wei; Meng, Long; Xiao, Yang; Wong, Kelvin K. L.; Abbott, Derek; Liu, Xin; Zheng, Hairong

2013-01-01

29

Surface Roughness Detection of Arteries via Texture Analysis of Ultrasound Images for Early Diagnosis of Atherosclerosis.  

PubMed

There is a strong research interest in identifying the surface roughness of the carotid arterial inner wall via texture analysis for early diagnosis of atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study is to assess the efficacy of texture analysis methods for identifying arterial roughness in the early stage of atherosclerosis. Ultrasound images of common carotid arteries of 15 normal mice fed a normal diet and 28 apoE(-/-) mice fed a high-fat diet were recorded by a high-frequency ultrasound system (Vevo 2100, frequency: 40 MHz). Six different texture feature sets were extracted based on the following methods: first-order statistics, fractal dimension texture analysis, spatial gray level dependence matrix, gray level difference statistics, the neighborhood gray tone difference matrix, and the statistical feature matrix. Statistical analysis indicates that 11 of 19 texture features can be used to distinguish between normal and abnormal groups (p<0.05). When the 11 optimal features were used as inputs to a support vector machine classifier, we achieved over 89% accuracy, 87% sensitivity and 93% specificity. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity for the k-nearest neighbor classifier were 73%, 75% and 70%, respectively. The results show that it is feasible to identify arterial surface roughness based on texture features extracted from ultrasound images of the carotid arterial wall. This method is shown to be useful for early detection and diagnosis of atherosclerosis. PMID:24146940

Niu, Lili; Qian, Ming; Yang, Wei; Meng, Long; Xiao, Yang; Wong, Kelvin K L; Abbott, Derek; Liu, Xin; Zheng, Hairong

2013-10-17

30

Early and late outcome of skeletonised bilateral internal mammary arteries anastomosed to the left coronary system  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To investigate in a retrospective study the technical aspects of using the in situ bilateral internal mammary arteries (IMAs), with the right IMA (RIMA) used for revascularisation of the circumflex system, and to evaluate early and late outcome. Materials and methods: Between January 1997 and July 2003, 552 consecutive patients underwent grafting of the circumflex artery system with an in situ skeletonised RIMA routed through the transverse sinus (eventually retrocaval). Mean (SD) age was 63.8 (11) years. 331 (60%) patients underwent total arterial myocardial revascularisation. Mean follow up was 26 (9) months. Results: The success rate of skeletonised RIMA grafting to the circumflex branch was 100%. There were 19 (3.4%) in-hospital deaths. Perioperative myocardial infarction occurred in 12 (2.2%) patients. In 155 patients undergoing postoperative angiography, two had an occluded RIMA and a string-like phenomenon was seen in three RIMA and one left IMA (LIMA). Three RIMA and three LIMA had stenotic lesions. The patency rates of RIMA and LIMA were 94% and 97.4%, respectively. Strong predictors of non-functional IMA grafts were a recipient coronary artery diameter of < 1.5 mm (p ?=? 0.022), < 60% stenosis of the recipient coronary artery (p ?=? 0.015), diffuse stenotic lesions of the recipient coronary artery (p ?=? 0.018), and a small IMA calibre (p ?=? 0.0001). Cumulative actuarial survival at three years was 96.4% and event-free cumulative survival was 93.8%. Conclusions: Use of the bilateral IMAs offers the possibility of constructing various configurations, making total arterial myocardial revascularisation possible with a minimum number of arterial conduits. Use of the skeletonised RIMA through the transverse sinus and eventually retrocavally can reach most branches of the circumflex system and is associated with an excellent patency rate. Patients who received bilateral IMA grafts for left coronary system revascularisation had improved early and late outcomes and decreased risk of death, reoperation, and angioplasty.

Bonacchi, M; Battaglia, F; Prifti, E; Leacche, M; Nathan, N S; Sani, G; Popoff, G

2005-01-01

31

Computer analysis of the early diastolic notch in doppler sonograms of the uterine arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a set of processing and analysis techniques for automated identification and quantification of the early diastolic notch (EDN), a feature of Doppler sonograms from the uterine arteries which has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preeclampsia and intrauterine growth retardation. Examples covering different sonogram types are provided to illustrate the effectiveness and reproducibility of the

T. Loupas; D. A. Ellwood; R. W. Gill; S. Bruce; R. A. Fay

1995-01-01

32

Early microglial reaction following mild forebrain ischemia induced by common carotid artery occlusion in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early microglial reaction following mild ischemic injury caused by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion has been investigated in rats. The ischemic insults lasted for 10, 15 and 20 min without recirculation, and with several reperfusion intervals from 1 h to 3 days. The resting and activated microglial cells were visualized with immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies raised against the CR3 complement

Hajnalka Įbrahįm; Gyula Lįzįr

2000-01-01

33

Early risk of stroke after a transient ischemic attack in patients with internal carotid artery disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) often herald a stroke, but little is known about the acute natural history of TIAs. Our objective was to quantify the early risk of stroke af- ter a TIA in patients with internal carotid artery disease. Methods: Using patient data from the medical arm of the North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial, we cal- culated

Michael Eliasziw; James Kennedy; Michael D. Hill; Alastair M. Buchan; Henry J. M. Barnett

2004-01-01

34

77 FR 13513 - Enhanced Prudential Standards and Early Remediation Requirements for Covered Companies  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Enhanced Prudential Standards and Early Remediation Requirements for Covered Companies AGENCY...Dodd-Frank Act or Act) and the early remediation requirements established under section...Enhanced Prudential Standards and Early Remediation Requirements for Covered...

2012-03-07

35

Reading Acquisition Enhances an Early Visual Process of Contour Integration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The acquisition of reading has an extensive impact on the developing brain and leads to enhanced abilities in phonological processing and visual letter perception. Could this expertise also extend to early visual abilities outside the reading domain? Here we studied the performance of illiterate, ex-illiterate and literate adults closely matched…

Szwed, Marcin; Ventura, Paulo; Querido, Luis; Cohen, Laurent; Dehaene, Stanislas

2012-01-01

36

Wrist-enhanced instrumentation: moving toward totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. With the introduction of the da Vinci robotic surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Mountain View, CA) into minimally invasive cardiac operations the outlook for performing coronary artery bypass operations “closed chest” became a reality.Methods. Between May 1999 and December 1999 this new wrist-enhanced instrumentation was used in 61 patients. Six patients suffering from single-vessel coronary artery disease and one female

Utz Kappert; Jens Schneider; Romuald Cichon; Vassilios Gulielmos; Klaus Matschke; Sems M Tugtekin; Stephan Schüler

2000-01-01

37

Chronic Hypoxia during Gestation Enhances Uterine Arterial Myogenic Tone via Heightened Oxidative Stress  

PubMed Central

Chronic hypoxia during gestation has profound adverse effects on the adaptation of uteroplacental circulation in pregnancy. Yet, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The present study tested the hypothesis that enhanced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in uterine arteries plays a critical role in the maladaptation of uterine circulation associated with chronic hypoxia. Uterine arteries were isolated from nonpregnant and near-term pregnant sheep maintained at sea level (?300 m) or exposed to high-altitude (3801 m) hypoxia for 110 days. Hypoxia significantly increased ROS production in uterine arteries of pregnant, but not nonpregnant, sheep. This was associated with a significant increase in NADPH oxidase (Nox) 2, but not Nox1 or Nox4, protein abundance and total Nox activity in uterine arteries of pregnant animals. Chronic hypoxia significantly increased pressure-dependent uterine arterial myogenic tone in pregnant sheep, which was abrogated by a Nox inhibitor apocynin. Additionally, the hypoxia-induced increase in myogenic reactivity of uterine arteries to phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate in pregnant sheep was blocked by apocynin and tempol. In consistence with the myogenic responses, the hypoxia-mediated down-regulation of BKCa channel activity in uterine arteries of pregnant animals was reversed by apocynin. The findings suggest that heightened oxidative stress in uterine arteries plays a key role in suppressing the BKCa channel activity, resulting in increased myogenic reactivity and maladaptation of uteroplacental circulation caused by chronic hypoxia during gestation.

Xiao, Daliao; Hu, Xiang-Qun; Huang, Xiaohui; Zhou, Jianjun; Wilson, Sean M.; Yang, Shumei; Zhang, Lubo

2013-01-01

38

Chronic Hypoxia during Gestation Enhances Uterine Arterial Myogenic Tone via Heightened Oxidative Stress.  

PubMed

Chronic hypoxia during gestation has profound adverse effects on the adaptation of uteroplacental circulation in pregnancy. Yet, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The present study tested the hypothesis that enhanced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in uterine arteries plays a critical role in the maladaptation of uterine circulation associated with chronic hypoxia. Uterine arteries were isolated from nonpregnant and near-term pregnant sheep maintained at sea level (?300 m) or exposed to high-altitude (3801 m) hypoxia for 110 days. Hypoxia significantly increased ROS production in uterine arteries of pregnant, but not nonpregnant, sheep. This was associated with a significant increase in NADPH oxidase (Nox) 2, but not Nox1 or Nox4, protein abundance and total Nox activity in uterine arteries of pregnant animals. Chronic hypoxia significantly increased pressure-dependent uterine arterial myogenic tone in pregnant sheep, which was abrogated by a Nox inhibitor apocynin. Additionally, the hypoxia-induced increase in myogenic reactivity of uterine arteries to phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate in pregnant sheep was blocked by apocynin and tempol. In consistence with the myogenic responses, the hypoxia-mediated down-regulation of BKCa channel activity in uterine arteries of pregnant animals was reversed by apocynin. The findings suggest that heightened oxidative stress in uterine arteries plays a key role in suppressing the BKCa channel activity, resulting in increased myogenic reactivity and maladaptation of uteroplacental circulation caused by chronic hypoxia during gestation. PMID:24066066

Xiao, Daliao; Hu, Xiang-Qun; Huang, Xiaohui; Zhou, Jianjun; Wilson, Sean M; Yang, Shumei; Zhang, Lubo

2013-09-16

39

Music listening enhances cognitive recovery and mood after middle cerebral artery stroke.  

PubMed

We know from animal studies that a stimulating and enriched environment can enhance recovery after stroke, but little is known about the effects of an enriched sound environment on recovery from neural damage in humans. In humans, music listening activates a wide-spread bilateral network of brain regions related to attention, semantic processing, memory, motor functions, and emotional processing. Music exposure also enhances emotional and cognitive functioning in healthy subjects and in various clinical patient groups. The potential role of music in neurological rehabilitation, however, has not been systematically investigated. This single-blind, randomized, and controlled trial was designed to determine whether everyday music listening can facilitate the recovery of cognitive functions and mood after stroke. In the acute recovery phase, 60 patients with a left or right hemisphere middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke were randomly assigned to a music group, a language group, or a control group. During the following two months, the music and language groups listened daily to self-selected music or audio books, respectively, while the control group received no listening material. In addition, all patients received standard medical care and rehabilitation. All patients underwent an extensive neuropsychological assessment, which included a wide range of cognitive tests as well as mood and quality of life questionnaires, one week (baseline), 3 months, and 6 months after the stroke. Fifty-four patients completed the study. Results showed that recovery in the domains of verbal memory and focused attention improved significantly more in the music group than in the language and control groups. The music group also experienced less depressed and confused mood than the control group. These findings demonstrate for the first time that music listening during the early post-stroke stage can enhance cognitive recovery and prevent negative mood. The neural mechanisms potentially underlying these effects are discussed. PMID:18287122

Särkämö, Teppo; Tervaniemi, Mari; Laitinen, Sari; Forsblom, Anita; Soinila, Seppo; Mikkonen, Mikko; Autti, Taina; Silvennoinen, Heli M; Erkkilä, Jaakko; Laine, Matti; Peretz, Isabelle; Hietanen, Marja

2008-03-01

40

Early and late results of surgical treatment of congenital coronary artery fistula.  

PubMed Central

The early and late results of surgical treatment in 23 patients with congenital coronary artery fistula (CCAF) are presented. One patient died for reasons unrelated to the fistula during corrective surgery for an associated complex cyanotic abnormality. The patients with isolated CCAF and preoperative symptoms improved significantly after surgical closure of the CCAF (p less than 0.05). We conclude that all symptomatic patients with CCAF should be treated with surgical closure of the fistula.

Bogers, A J; Quaegebeur, J M; Huysmans, H A

1987-01-01

41

Platelets enhance contractility in perfused rat mesenteric arteries: Involvement of endothelin-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of platelet supernatant on pressor responses to norepinephrine in isolated perfused rat mesenteric arteries. Perfusion of the arteries with platelet supernatant for 2 h markedly enhanced the pressor responses to norepinephrine (10?6 and 3×10?6 M). This enhancement was significantly inhibited by phosphoramidon (10?4 M), an endothelin converting enzyme inhibitor. Both BQ788 [N-cis-2,6-dimethylpiperidinocarbonyl-l-?-methylleucyl-d-1-methoxycarbonyltryptophanyl-d-norleucine] (10?6 M), an endothelin

Satomi Kita; Yasuo Matsumura; Yuri Tanida; Tomoko Kusuno; Sumiko Chatani; Yuko Taguchi; Masanori Takaoka; Shiro Morimoto

1997-01-01

42

The Enhancing Secondary Prevention in Coronary Artery Disease trial  

PubMed Central

Background Proven efficacious therapies are sometimes underused in patients with chronic cardiac conditions, resulting in suboptimal outcomes. We evaluated whether evidence summaries, which were either unsigned or signed by local opinion leaders, improved the quality of secondary prevention care delivered by primary care physicians of patients with coronary artery disease. Methods We performed a randomized trial, clustered at the level of the primary care physician, with 3 study arms: control, unsigned statements or opinion leader statements. The statements were faxed to primary care physicians of adults with coronary artery disease at the time of elective cardiac catheterization. The primary outcome was improvement in statin management (initiation or dose increase) 6 months after catheterization. Results We enrolled 480 adults from 252 practices. Although statin use was high at baseline (n = 316 [66%]), most patients were taking a low dose (mean 32% of the guideline-recommended dose), and their low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels were elevated (mean 3.09 mmol/L). Six months after catheterization, statin management had improved in 79 of 157 patients (50%) in the control arm, 85 of 158 (54%) patients in the unsigned statement group (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.18, 95% CI 0.71–1.94, p = 0.52) and 99 of 165 (60%) patients in the opinion leader statement group (adjusted OR 1.51, 95% CI 0.94–2.42, p = 0.09). The mean fasting LDL cholesterol levels after 6 months were similar in all 3 study arms: 2.35 (standard deviation [SD] 0.86) mmol/L in the control arm compared with 2.24 (SD 0.73) among those in the opinion leader group (p = 0.48) and 2.19 (SD 0.68) in the unsigned statement group (p = 0.32). Interpretation Faxed evidence reminders for primary care physicians, even when endorsed by local opinion leaders, were insufficient to optimize the quality of care for adults with coronary artery disease. ClinicalTrials.gov trial register no. NCT00175240.

McAlister, Finlay A.; Fradette, Miriam; Majumdar, Sumit R.; Williams, Randall; Graham, Michelle; McMeekin, James; Ghali, William A.; Tsuyuki, Ross T.; Knudtson, Merril L.; Grimshaw, Jeremy

2009-01-01

43

Enhanced susceptibility to arterial thrombosis in a murine model of hyperhomocysteinemia.  

PubMed

Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for thrombosis, but the mechanisms are not well defined. We tested the hypothesis that hyperhomocysteinemia accelerates arterial thrombosis in mice. Mice heterozygous for a targeted disruption of the cystathionine beta-synthase gene (Cbs+/-) and wild-type littermates (Cbs+/+) were fed either a control diet or a high methionine/low folate (HM/LF) diet for 6 to 8 months to produce graded hyperhomocysteinemia. The time to occlusion of the carotid artery after photochemical injury was shortened by more than 50% in Cbs+/+ or Cbs+/- mice fed the HM/LF diet (P < .001 versus control diet). Carotid artery thrombosis was not accelerated in mice deficient in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (Nos3), which suggests that decreased endothelium-derived nitric oxide is not a sufficient mechanism for enhancement of thrombosis. Cbs+/+ and Cbs+/- mice fed the HM/LF diet had elevated levels of reactive oxygen species in the carotid artery, increased aortic expression of the NADPH oxidase catalytic subunit, Nox4, and decreased activation of anticoagulant protein C in the aorta (P < .05 versus control diet). We conclude that hyperhomocysteinemia enhances susceptibility to arterial thrombosis through a mechanism that is not caused by loss of endothelium-derived nitric oxide but may involve oxidative stress and impairment of the protein C anticoagulant pathway. PMID:16804115

Dayal, Sanjana; Wilson, Katina M; Leo, Lorie; Arning, Erland; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Lentz, Steven R

2006-06-27

44

Ultrasound-enhanced drug delivery in a perfused ex vivo artery model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acoustically driven stable cavitation may improve treatments of diseases in which passive penetration of drug into the target tissue is poor. Examples include atherosclerosis, in which the endothelium can prevent penetration of therapeutics into the plaque, and ischemic stroke, in which pathologically low flow of blood impedes the delivery of intravenous drugs to the clot. Understanding the way in which ultrasound cavitation agents nucleate cavitation in flowing blood-mimicking solutions is an important step in optimizing ultrasound-enhanced drug delivery. The use of a perfused, living ex vivo artery model permitted study of this phenomenon while still providing information on arterial bioeffects. Cavitation-enhanced delivery of anti-ICAM-1-targeted echogenic liposomes into and beyond the ex vivo murine aortic endothelium was demonstrated using 1-MHz continuous wave ultrasound. Acoustic cavitation had no apparent effect on the health of the murine arterial tissue. A method of maximizing the energy of stable cavitation through the use of intermittent 120-kHz ultrasound with quiescent periods to allow contrast agent inflow was developed. Using this insonificaiton method, sonothrombolysis was studied in ex vivo porcine carotid arteries using a 120-kHz center frequency and 0.44 MPa peak-to-peak pressure amplitude. Clot mass loss was used as a metric of thrombolytic efficacy. Clots exposed to recombinant tissue plasminogen activator and the ultrasound contrast agent, DefinityRTM in flowing porcine plasma without ultrasound experienced 34% mass loss. When robust stable cavitation was induced via 120-kHz insonation, the mean clot mass loss rose to 83%, which constituted a significant improvement (n = 6, p<0.0001). Without DefinityRTM there was no thrombolytic enhancement by ultrasound exposure alone at the same insonation pressure (n = 6, p<0.0001). Significant loss of endothelium occurred in 64% of the porcine carotid arteries, possibly due to poor oxygen delivery by the low flow of plasma. However, no correlation was observed between arterial tissue damage and treatment type. In this perfused ex vivo artery model, acoustic stable cavitation was shown to enhance both the delivery of endothelium-targeted therapeutics into the arterial wall and the lysis of whole blood clots in the presence of rt-PA.

Hitchcock, Kathryn E.

45

Primary Stroke Unit Treatment Followed by Very Early Carotid Endarterectomy for Carotid Artery Stenosis after Acute Stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although it is recognized that carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is the treatment of choice in symptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis, in the past, very early CEA has been shown to carry substantial risks. We assessed an interdisciplinary concept of very early CEA in patients with high-grade (>70%) symptomatic ICA stenosis at a single center. Patients and Methods: The course

M. Aleksic; M. A. Rueger; F. G. Lehnhardt; J. Sobesky; V. Matoussevitch; M. Neveling; W. D. Heiss; J. Brunkwall; A. H. Jacobs

2006-01-01

46

High Rate of Coronary Artery Abnormalities in Adolescents and Young Adults Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Early in Life  

PubMed Central

We completed a cross-sectional study of individuals infected with HIV in early childhood using cardiac MRI and MRA. Coronary artery abnormality (CAA) was defined by the presence of luminal narrowing and irregularity of the coronary vessel wall. More than 50% of participants (14/27) had evidence of CAA. Individuals had a high rate of CAA, suggesting possible early atherosclerosis.

MIKHAIL, IRENE J.; PURDY, JULIA B.; DIMOCK, DAVID S.; THOMAS, VIJAYA M.; MULDOON, NANCY A.; CLAUSS, SARAH B.; CROSS, RUSSELL R.; PETTIGREW, RODERIC I.; HAZRA, ROHAN; HADIGAN, COLLEEN; GHARIB, AHMED M.

2011-01-01

47

Preexisting intimal hyperplasia of radial artery is associated with early failure of radiocephalic arteriovenous fistula in hemodialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The radiocephalic arteriovenous fistula (AVF), which provides the best vascular access for hemodialysis, continues to have a high incidence of early failure. Intimal hyperplasia (IH) of the radial artery is observed commonly in uremic patients before hemodialysis, but the impact of this preexisting IH on the early failure of radiocephalic AVFs has not been reported yet. Therefore, we designed

Young Ok Kim; Ho Cheol Song; Sun Ae Yoon; Chul Woo Yang; Nam Il Kim; Yeong Jin Choi; Eun Jung Lee; Wan Young Kim; Yoon Sik Chang; Byung Kee Bang

2003-01-01

48

Nonlinear Adaptive Speech Enhancement Inspired by Early Auditory Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper presents non-linear adaptive speech enhancement schemes inspired by features of early auditory processing. A generic\\u000a multi-microphone sub-band adaptive (MMSBA) framework is described which allows for the manipulation of several factors that\\u000a may influence the intelligibility and perceived quality of the processed speech. The proposed framework supports inclusion\\u000a of: non-linear distribution of sub-bands (as in humans), cross-band effects such

Amir Hussain; Tariq S. Durrani; Ali Alkulaibi; Nhamo Mtetwa

2004-01-01

49

Recanalization of a chronic totally occluded left anterior descending artery after enhanced external counterpulsation therapy.  

PubMed

We present a case of a 52 y/o male with history of hypertension and high cholesterol who suffered an acute myocardial infarction. His catheterization revealed severe 3-vessel coronary artery disease with total occlusion of left anterior descending (LAD) artery at the mid segment with anterior and apical wall dyskinesia and estimated ejection fraction of 30%. After 3 years of medical therapy the patient had NYHA class II heart failure symptoms without angina. Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) therapy was offered as adjunctive therapy. After completing therapy patient started to develop angina and a new catheterization showed recanalization of LAD with TIMI I flow and normal ejection fraction without wall motion abnormalities. Patient underwent successful coronary artery bypass graft. PMID:19610581

Salgado, Vķctor; Salgado, Carlos; Medina, Arturo

50

Early calcifications in human coronary arteries as determined with a proton microprobe.  

PubMed

The current paradigm reads that calcifications characterize the advanced and complex lesions in the atherosclerotic process. To explore the possibility that coronary artery wall calcifications already commence at an early stage of atherosclerosis, a combination of proton beam techniques with a (sub-) micrometer resolution, i.e., micro-proton induced X-ray emission, backward and forward scattering spectroscopy, was applied on human coronary arteries with lesions preceding overt atheromas. The detection limits of phosphorus and calcium in each separate pixel, 0.88*0.88 microm2 in size, were approximately 150 and 80 microg/g dry weight, respectively. Calcium distributions of entire coronary artery cross section were obtained, and calcifications were demonstrated at a preatheroma stage of the atherosclerotic process. The size of the microcalcifications varied between 1 and 10 microm. The composition of the microcalcifications was deduced from the calcium-to-phosphorus ratio. In order to quantify this ratio, the thickness of the specific X-ray absorber used for PIXE had to be accurately determined. Also, thick target PIXE calculations were performed and the method was validated. The calcium-to-phosphorus ratios of the microcalcifications were assessed with good accuracy and varied from 1.62 to 2.79, which corresponds with amorphous calcium phosphate. PMID:18027908

Roijers, Ruben B; Dutta, Raj K; Cleutjens, Jack P M; Mutsaers, Peter H A; de Goeij, Jeroen J M; van der Vusse, Ger J

2007-11-21

51

Platelets selectively enhance lymphocyte adhesion on subendothelial matrix under arterial flow conditions.  

PubMed

Platelet adhesion at sites of cardiovascular injury may facilitate leukocyte deposition. We asked if and how platelets enhance lymphocyte adhesion on different subendothelial matrix protein (SEMP)-coated surface at arterial shear stress. Hirudinised whole blood was subjected to an arterial shear rate (500 s(-1)) in a Cone and Plate(let) analyser (CPA) for 5 minutes using plates coated with bovine serum albumin (BSA), collagen, fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor (vWF), or fibronectin. Platelet and lymphocyte adhesion were monitored by CPA and flow cytometry. Exposure of blood to collagen, fibrinogen, and vWF-coated surfaces induced platelet activation. The most marked effect was seen with collagen-coating, which markedly enhanced the adhesion of all lymphocyte subpopulations compared to BSA-coating. Fibrinogen-coating supported both T and NK cell adhesion, while vWF-coated surface only enhanced NK cell deposition. In contrast, fibronectin enhanced neither platelet activation nor lymphocyte adhesion. Moreover, platelets preferentially facilitated adhesion of large CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and NK cells, and of small B cells. Enhanced cell adhesion of larger lymphocytes was associated with elevated platelet conjugation and higher lymphocyte expression of PSGL-1, Mac-1, and CD40L. The enhancement of lymphocyte adhesion was totally platelet-dependent, and was abolished in platelet-depleted blood. Moreover, blockade of the platelet adhesion molecules P-selectin, GPIIb/IIIa, and CD40L attenuated platelet-dependent lymphocyte deposition. In conclusion, platelets support lymphocyte adhesion on SEMP-coated surfaces under arterial shear. The enhancement is selective for large T and NK cells and small B cells. PMID:22688347

Spectre, Galia; Zhu, Linjing; Ersoy, Maria; Hjemdahl, Paul; Savion, Naphtali; Varon, David; Li, Nailin

2012-06-12

52

Role of Lipoxygenase Metabolites of Arachidonic Acid in Enhanced Pulmonary Artery Contractions of Female Rabbits  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary arterial hypertension is characterized by elevated pulmonary artery pressure and vascular resistance. In women the incidence is 4 fold greater than that in men. Studies suggest sustained vasoconstriction is a factor in increased vascular resistance. Possible vasoconstrictor mediators include arachidonic acid-derived lipoxygenase metabolites. Our studies in rabbits showed enhanced endothelium-dependent contractions to arachidonic acid in pulmonary arteries from females compared to males. Because treatment with a non-specific lipoxygenase inhibitor reduced contractions in females but not males, the present study identified which lipoxygenase isoform contributes to sex-specific pulmonary artery vasoconstriction. 15- and 5- but not 12-lipoxygenase protein expression was greater in females. Basal and A23187-stimulated release of 15-, 5- and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid from females and males was measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Only 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid synthesis was greater in females compared to males under both basal and stimulated conditions. Vascular contractions to 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid were enhanced in females compared to males (maximal contraction; 44 ± 6% vs 25 ± 3%). The specific 15-lipoxygenase inhibitor PD146176 (12 ?mol/L) decreased arachidonic acid-induced contractions in females (maximal contraction; 93 ± 4% vs 57 ± 10%). If male pulmonary arteries were incubated with estrogen (1 ?mol/L, 18 hrs), protein expression of 15-lipoxygenase, and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid production increased. Mechanisms to explain the increased incidence of pulmonary hypertension in women are not known. Results suggest the 15-lipoxygenase pathway is different between females and males and is regulated by estrogen. Understanding this novel sex-specific mechanism may provide insight into the increased incidence of pulmonary hypertension in females.

Pfister, Sandra L.

2011-01-01

53

Early recovery of wall motion abnormalities after recanalization of chronic totally occluded coronary arteries: A dobutamine echocardiographic, prospective, single-center experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Patients with symptomatic myocardial ischemia from a chronic totally occluded coronary (TOC) artery are usually referred for coronary artery bypass surgery. Because guide wire technology has improved considerably in recent years, percutaneous coronary angioplasty has become a useful technique in opening chronic TOC arteries. We evaluated the early functional results of successful percutaneous recanalization by performing dobutamine stress echocardiography

Riccardo Rambaldi; Jaap N. Hamburger; Marcel L. Geleijnse; Don Poldermans; Geert J. Kimman; Aric A. Aiazian; Paolo M. Fioretti; Folkert J. Ten Cate; Jos R. T. C. Roelandt; Patrick W. Serruys

1998-01-01

54

Stenosis enhances role of platelets in growth of regional thrombus and intimal wall thickening in rat carotid arteries.  

PubMed

The authors present the results of a study in which stenosis was induced, resulting in either thrombus or intimal wall thickening, in rat carotid arteries. At > or = 75% stenosis in mildly denuded arteries, an acute and occlusive thrombus formation was induced, but the thrombus was significantly reduced in thrombocytopenia. Thrombus formation near the site of stenosis decreased with decreasing degree of stenosis, whereas the percent formation in the distal region (percent total thrombus) increased. Numerous mural platelet microthrombi were noted at the distal region of the stenosed arteries. After chronic 50% stenosis of the carotid artery for 2 weeks, significant intimal thickening was observed, without any occlusive thrombus formation. The combination with mild denudation was critical in eliciting the effect of stenosis. The magnitude of intimal growth in the stenosed artery was marked by day 6 and plateaued thereafter, whereas it was slight in nonstenosed arteries. The 5-bromodeoxyuridine index of the cells of the medial layer at day 3 was significantly increased by the stenosis, and the effect was reversed in thrombocytopenia. Complete reendothelialization of the intimal surface was observed by 7 to 10 days after surgery in the stenosed arteries. These findings suggest that the introduction of stenosis in these arteries enhances the interaction of platelets with the damaged arterial walls under abnormal fluid shear and that this enhancement leads to acute and occlusive thrombus formation associated with more marked stenosis as well as to sustained increase of intimal wall thickness in less marked stenosis. PMID:7614718

Igawa, T; Nagamura, Y; Ozeki, Y; Itoh, H; Unemi, F

1995-08-01

55

Characteristic changes in coronary artery at the early hyperglycaemic stage in a rat type 2 diabetes model and the effects of pravastatin  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: Diabetes is a risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease but it is not known whether the functions of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) in coronary arteries are altered in the early stage of diabetes. Such alterations and the effects of pravastatin were examined in left anterior descending coronary arteries (LAD) from Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats (type 2 diabetes model) at the early hyperglycaemic stage [vs. non-diabetic Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats]. Experimental approach: Isometric tension, membrane potential and superoxide production were measured, as were protein expression of NAD(P)H oxidase components and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). Key results: Superoxide production and the protein expressions of both the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) [NAD(P)H] oxidase components and eNOS were increased in OLETF rats. These changes were normalized by pravastatin administration. Not only acetylcholine (ACh)-induced endothelial NO production but also functions of endothelium-derived NO [from (i) the absolute tension induced by epithio-thromboxane A2 (STA2) or high K+; (ii) enhancement of the STA2-contraction by a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor; and (iii) the ACh-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation of high K+-induced contraction] or EDHF [from (iv) ACh-induced endothelium-dependent smooth muscle cell hyperpolarization and relaxation in the presence of a NOS inhibitor] were similar between LETO and OLETF rats [whether or not the latter were pravastatin-treated or -untreated]. Conclusions and implications: Under conditions of increased vascular superoxide production, endothelial function is retained in LAD in OLETF rats at the early hyperglycaemic stage, partly due to enhanced endothelial NOS protein expression. Inhibition of superoxide production may contribute to the beneficial vascular effects of pravastatin.

Kajikuri, J; Watanabe, Y; Ito, Y; Ito, R; Yamamoto, T; Itoh, T

2009-01-01

56

Parathyroid lesions: characterization with dual-phase arterial and venous enhanced CT of the neck.  

PubMed

This clinical report describes the enhancement characteristics of hypersecreting parathyroid lesions on dual-phase neck CT. We retrospectively analyzed the enhancement characteristics of 5 pathologically confirmed PTH-secreting lesions on dual-phase CT examinations. Attenuation values were measured for PTH-secreting lesions, vascular structures (CCA and IJV), and soft tissue structures (thyroid gland, jugulodigastric lymph node, and submandibular gland). From the attenuation values, "relative enhancement washout percentage" and "tissue-vascular ratio" were calculated and compared. All lesions decreased in attenuation from arterial to venous phase, while the mean attenuation values of other soft tissue structures increased. A high relative enhancement washout percentage was correlated with parathyroid lesions (P < .006). The tissue-CCA ratio and tissue-IJV ratio for PTH-secreting lesions in the arterial phase were statistically significantly higher compared with soft tissue structures (P < .05). If these results are validated in future larger studies, noncontrast and delayed venous phases of 4D-CT could be eliminated to markedly reduce radiation exposure. PMID:22241395

Gafton, A R; Glastonbury, C M; Eastwood, J D; Hoang, J K

2012-01-12

57

Nitric oxide generation by NO donors is enhanced following balloon injury in the porcine coronary artery.  

PubMed

Vasospasm is a complication of cardiological procedures such as balloon angioplasty and may be related to vascular oxidant stress. Although nitric oxide donor drugs are often administered to prevent vasospasm, the response to these drugs in balloon-injured arteries has not been studied. Pig coronary arteries were balloon-injured in vitro and relaxations to nitric oxide (NO)-donating and NO-independent vasodilators studied. Generation of superoxide in response to injury was assayed using dihydroethidium. NO formation on addition of the NO donor drugs was studied using an amperometric sensor. Expression of nitrotyrosine, a peroxynitrite marker, was probed using immunocytochemistry. In vitro injury enhanced sensitivity to the NO donors SNAP and SpermineNONOate but blunted the response to isoprenaline or chromakalim. With both donors, NO formation was significantly enhanced in the presence of an injured vessel. Vascular superoxide generation was also increased throughout the vessel wall and a small increase in nitrotyrosine was detected in the injured vessel media following addition of SNAP. In conclusion, injured vessels were more sensitive to NO donors and this appears to be due to enhanced NO generation by the donor molecule. Increased formation of peroxynitrite within the injured vessel may contribute to the enhanced relaxation in injured vessels. PMID:17497367

Kennedy, Simon; Burke, Steven G; Preston, Anthony A; McPhaden, Allan R

58

The Feasibility of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound During Uterine Artery Embolization: A Pilot Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. To evaluate the feasibility of using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) during uterine artery embolization (UAE) in order to define the correct end-point of embolization with complete devascularization of all fibroids. Methods. In this prospective study of 10 consecutive women undergoing UAE, CEUS was performed in the angiographic suite during embolization. When the angiographic end-point, defined as the 'pruned-tree' appearance of the uterine arteries was reached, CEUS was performed while the angiographic catheters to both uterine arteries were kept in place. The decision whether or not to continue the embolization was based on the findings at CEUS. The results of CEUS were compared with those of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 1 day as well as 3 months following UAE. Results. CEUS was successfully performed in all women. In 4 cases injection of particles was continued based on the findings at CEUS despite angiographically complete embolization. CEUS imaging at completion of UAE correlated well with the findings at MRI. Conclusion. The use of CEUS during UAE is feasible and may increase the quality of UAE.

Dorenberg, Eric J., E-mail: eric.dorenberg@rikshospitalet.no; Jakobsen, Jarl A.; Brabrand, Knut; Hafsahl, Geir; Smith, Hans-Jorgen [Rikshospitalet-Radiumhospitalet Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Norway)

2007-09-15

59

The early and mid-term results of carotid artery stenting in high-risk patients  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study aimed to investigate early and mid-term outcomes of carotid artery stenting (CAS). Methods We retrospectively reviewed 111 patients who were treated for carotid stenosis between October 2004 and December 2009 (42 CASs and 69 carotid endarterectomies [CEAs]). Results CAS group was older than CEA group (70 years vs. 67 years, P = 0.001). Coronary artery disease and high lesion above the 2nd cervical vertebral body were more common in CAS group (29% vs. 13%, P = 0.002; 4% vs. 24%, P = 0.004). The 30-days stroke rate was higher in CAS group (10% vs. 1% in CEA group, P = 0.067, Fisher's exact test). New brain lesions on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging were more common in CAS group (48% vs. 20% in CEA group, P = 0.002, chi-square test). The 1-, 3-year freedom from stroke were 91%, 84% in CAS group and 99%, 99% in CEA group (P = 0.007, log-rank test). Univariate analysis showed that female gender and age > 70 years were related with postprocedural neurological complications (P = 0.046 and P = 0.007, log-rank test). However, none were independent risk factors on multivariate analysis. Conclusion In our series, the rates of peri-procedural neurological complications in CAS group were significantly high. These results suggest that more experience and restricted patient selection will be needed for CAS.

Yun, Woo-Sung; Suh, Bo-Yang

2011-01-01

60

Enhanced Ca2+-sensing Receptor Function in Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Rationale A rise in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC) is an important stimulus for pulmonary vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling. Increased resting [Ca2+]cyt and enhanced Ca2+ influx have been implicated in PASMC from patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). Objective We examined whether the extracellular Ca2+-sensing receptor (CaSR) is involved in the enhanced Ca2+ influx and proliferation in IPAH-PASMC and whether blockade of CaSR inhibits experimental pulmonary hypertension. Methods and Results In normal PASMC superfused with Ca2+-free solution, addition of 2.2 mM Ca2+ to the perfusate had little effect on [Ca2+]cyt. In IPAH-PASMC, however, restoration of extracellular Ca2+ induced a significant increase in [Ca2+]cyt. Extracellular application of spermine also markedly raised [Ca2+]cyt in IPAH-PASMC, but not in normal PASMC. The calcimimetic R568 enhanced, whereas the calcilytic NPS 2143 attenuated, the extracellular Ca2+-induced [Ca2+]cyt rise in IPAH-PASMC. Furthermore, the protein expression level of CaSR in IPAH-PASMC was greater than in normal PASMC; knockdown of CaSR in IPAH-PASMC with siRNA attenuated the extracellular Ca2+-mediated [Ca2+]cyt increase and inhibited IPAH-PASMC proliferation. Using animal models of pulmonary hypertension, our data showed that CaSR expression and function were both enhanced in PASMC, whereas intraperitoneal injection of the calcilytic NPS 2143 prevented the development of pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy in rats injected with monocrotaline and mice exposed to hypoxia. Conclusions The extracellular Ca2+-induced increase in [Ca2+]cyt due to upregulated CaSR is a novel pathogenic mechanism contributing to the augmented Ca2+ influx and excessive PASMC proliferation in patients and animals with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Yamamura, Aya; Guo, Qiang; Yamamura, Hisao; Zimnicka, Adriana M.; Pohl, Nicole M.; Smith, Kimberly A.; Fernandez, Ruby A.; Zeifman, Amy; Makino, Ayako; Dong, Hui; Yuan, Jason X.-J.

2013-01-01

61

Morbidity outcome in early versus conventional tracheal extubation after coronary artery bypass grafting: A prospective randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: We undertook a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial to evaluate morbidity outcomes and safety of a modified anesthetic technique to provide shorter sedation and early extubation (1 to 6 hours) than those of the conventional anesthetic protocol used for prolonged sedation and extubation (12 to 22 hours) in patients after coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods: One hundred twenty patients

Davy C. H. Cheng; Jacek Karski; Charles Peniston; Buvanendran Asokumar; Ganesh Raveendran; Jo Carroll; Hillary Nierenberg; Sandra Roger; Don Mickle; Jeff Tong; J. Zelovitsky; Tirone David; Alan Sandler

1996-01-01

62

A genomewide scan for early-onset coronary artery disease in 438 families: the GENECARD Study.  

PubMed

A family history of coronary artery disease (CAD), especially when the disease occurs at a young age, is a potent risk factor for CAD. DNA collection in families in which two or more siblings are affected at an early age allows identification of genetic factors for CAD by linkage analysis. We performed a genomewide scan in 1,168 individuals from 438 families, including 493 affected sibling pairs with documented onset of CAD before 51 years of age in men and before 56 years of age in women. We prospectively defined three phenotypic subsets of families: (1) acute coronary syndrome in two or more siblings; (2) absence of type 2 diabetes in all affected siblings; and (3) atherogenic dyslipidemia in any one sibling. Genotypes were analyzed for 395 microsatellite markers. Regions were defined as providing evidence for linkage if they provided parametric two-point LOD scores >1.5, together with nonparametric multipoint LOD scores >1.0. Regions on chromosomes 3q13 (multipoint LOD = 3.3; empirical P value <.001) and 5q31 (multipoint LOD = 1.4; empirical P value <.081) met these criteria in the entire data set, and regions on chromosomes 1q25, 3q13, 7p14, and 19p13 met these criteria in one or more of the subsets. Two regions, 3q13 and 1q25, met the criteria for genomewide significance. We have identified a region on chromosome 3q13 that is linked to early-onset CAD, as well as additional regions of interest that will require further analysis. These data provide initial areas of the human genome where further investigation may reveal susceptibility genes for early-onset CAD. PMID:15272420

Hauser, Elizabeth R; Crossman, David C; Granger, Christopher B; Haines, Jonathan L; Jones, Christopher J H; Mooser, Vincent; McAdam, Brendan; Winkelmann, Bernhard R; Wiseman, Alan H; Muhlestein, J Brent; Bartel, Alan G; Dennis, Charles A; Dowdy, Elaine; Estabrooks, Susan; Eggleston, Karen; Francis, Sheila; Roche, Kath; Clevenger, Paula W; Huang, Liling; Pedersen, Bonnie; Shah, Svati; Schmidt, Silke; Haynes, Carol; West, Sandra; Asper, Donny; Booze, Michael; Sharma, Sanjay; Sundseth, Scott; Middleton, Lefkos; Roses, Allen D; Hauser, Michael A; Vance, Jeffery M; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Kraus, William E

2004-07-22

63

Do Carotid Artery Diameters Manifest Early Evidence of Atherosclerosis in Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis?  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective Given the high incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we examined the associations between RA diagnosis and characteristics and evidence of carotid atherosclerosis. We take a unique approach by evaluating lumen and interadventitial diameters in addition to intima-media thickness and plaque. Methods Ninety-three women with RA were matched with 93 healthy women by age, race, and menopause status. In cross-sectional analyses, we compared common carotid artery measures between groups and examined their relationships with measures of RA severity and activity. Results Mean age was 53.3 years, and median RA duration was 14 years. Lumen diameter in patients was significantly greater than in healthy women (5.50 vs. 5.19?mm, p?artery diameters compared with healthy women. This may reflect premature vascular aging and may be an early indicator of increased cardiovascular risk.

Kao, Amy H.; Cunningham, Amy; Wildman, Rachel P.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Wasko, Mary Chester M.

2009-01-01

64

Color-flow duplex scanning of the leg arteries by use of a new echo-enhancing agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This was a dose-finding and effectiveness study of a newly developed contrast-enhancing agent, sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), in patients with peripheral arterial disease in whom the therapeutic policy could not be established on the basis of standard color-flow duplex scanning of the leg arteries. Methods: In this open-label, randomized, dose-ranging, crossover design, 14 patients in whom the assessment of vessel

Dirk Th. Ubbink; Dink A. Legemate; Jean-Bernard Llull

2002-01-01

65

Enhancing Early Intervention Services to Infants\\/Toddlers and Their Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early interventionists, regardless of primary discipline, are highly interested in enhancing services to children under three years and their families. A significant barrier to improved case-finding may be a lack of familiarity with an important array of issues related to early intervention. This article is designed to familiarize all members of the early intervention team with several significant issues and

Louis M. Rossetti

1993-01-01

66

Visualization of coronary artery anomalies and their anatomic course by contrast-enhanced electron beam tomography and three-dimensional reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anomalous coronary arteries are rare conditions. However, they may cause myocardial ischemia and sudden death and their reliable identification is crucial for any imaging method that attempts coronary artery visualization. We studied the ability of contrast-enhanced electron beam tomography (EBT) to identify anomalous coronary arteries and their course. Thirty patients with previously identified coronary anomalies and 30 subjects with normal

Dieter Ropers; Werner Moshage; Werner G Daniel; Jürgen Jessl; Martin Gottwik; Stephan Achenbach

2001-01-01

67

The vascular-disrupting agent, combretastatin-A4-phosphate, enhances neurogenic vasoconstriction in rat small arteries.  

PubMed

Combretastatin-A4-phosphate (CA4P/CA4), an anti-cancer drug, induces tumour hypoxia by destabilizing the cytoskeleton in tumour endothelial cells. Hypertensive side effects have been observed. We hypothesized that CA4P/CA4 lead to endothelial dysfunction followed by increased vasoconstriction. Mesenteric small arteries and femoral arteries isolated from male Wistar rats were mounted in microvascular myographs for isometric tension recordings and electrical field stimulation (EFS). Immunoblotting of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was performed on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). CA4P failed per se to change vascular tone. In femoral arteries, endothelial cell removal, l-nitro-arginine (l-NNA, an inhibitor of eNOS) and CA4P enhanced phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction, while in mesenteric arteries only l-NNA leftward shifted concentration-response curves for phenylephrine. CA4P enhanced vasoconstriction induced by low frequency (0.5-4Hz) EFS in femoral arteries, but not in mesenteric arteries. Neurogenic contractions were inhibited by prazosin, an ?(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist. In mesenteric arteries, CA4P and l-NNA inhibited vasorelaxation induced by vanadate, a tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor. CA4P did not affect acetylcholine-induced relaxation. In HUVECs, CA4P increased phosphorylation at eNOS-Thr(495), a negative regulatory site, while the positive phosphorylation site eNOS-Ser(1177) was not affected. CA4 neither influenced the actions of phenylephrine, vanadate nor acetylcholine in femoral and mesenteric arteries. In conclusion, our findings suggest that CA4P, but not CA4, enhances sympathetic adrenergic vasoconstriction probably by increasing eNOS-Thr(495) phosphorylation, in a tissue selective manner. These findings encourage further investigation to show that the hypertension and regional organ ischemia induced by CA4P can be avoided by concomitant treatment with an ?(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist. PMID:22981665

Su, Junjing; Laursen, Britt E; Eskildsen-Helmond, Yvonne; Horsman, Michael R; Simonsen, Ulf

2012-09-07

68

Peripheral arterial disease: gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography versus color-guided duplex USa meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To summarize and compare the published data on\\u000a gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) angiography and color-guided\\u000a duplex ultrasonography (US) for the work-up for peripheral arterial\\u000a disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Studies published between January 1984 and\\u000a November 1998 were included if (a) gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography\\u000a and\\/or color-guided duplex US were performed for evaluation of arterial\\u000a stenoses and occlusions in the work-up

K. Visser; M. G. M. Hunink

2000-01-01

69

Use of Intra-Arterial Carbon-Dioxide-Enhanced Ultrasonography for Guidance of Radiofrequency Ablation and Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization in Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

A 73-year-old man with hepatitis-C-related cirrhosis and an elevated alpha-fetoprotein level and tumor in segment 3 of his liver was referred for interventional radiologic treatment. He was not a candidate for surgical resection due to impaired liver function and his personal preferences. On conventional ultrasonography no lesion could be detected, but the tumor was clearly depicted by intra-arterial carbon-dioxide-enhanced ultrasonography. Radiofrequency ablation was performed safely and accurately under the guidance of carbon-dioxide-enhanced ultrasonography. By concomitant performance of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization with radiofrequency ablation, extensive necrosis was obtained and adequate tumor volume reduction achieved with only one treatment session.

Ohmoto, Kenji, E-mail: ohmotok@med.kawasaki-m.ac.jp; Yoshioka, Naoko; Tomiyama, Yasuyuki; Shibata, Norikuni; Kawase, Tomoya; Yoshida, Koji; Kuboki, Makoto; Yamamoto, Shinichiro [Kawasaki Medical School, Division of Hepatology, Department of Medicine (Japan)

2006-12-15

70

Role of the Proximal Enhancer of the Major Immediate-Early Promoter in Human Cytomegalovirus Replication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human cytomegalovirus (CMV) enhancer has a distal component (positions 550 to 300) and a proximal component (300 to 39) relative to the transcription start site (1) of the major immediate-early (MIE) promoter. Without the distal enhancer, human CMV replicates slower and has a small-plaque pheno- type. We determined the sequence requirements of the proximal enhancer by making 5? -end

Hiroki Isomura; Tatsuya Tsurumi; Mark F. Stinski

2004-01-01

71

Direct neonatal ventriculo-arterial connections (REV): early results and future implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Is the time-honored supposition correct that insertion of a competent prosthetic conduit or homograft is necessary to achieve right ventricular (RV) to pulmonary artery continuity in neonates? A direct ventriculo-arterial connection, or réparation ą l’étage ventriculaire (REV), has been successfully used to achieve RV to pulmonary artery continuity in neonates without mortality or major morbidity. Acute RV function is

Michael D. Black; Vinayak Shukla; Robert M. Freedom

1999-01-01

72

Direct Neonatal Ventriculo-Arterial Connections (REV): Early Results and Future Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Is the time-honored supposition correct that insertion of a competent prosthetic conduit or ho- mograft is necessary to achieve right ventricular (RV) to pulmonary artery continuity in neonates? A direct ven- triculo-arterial connection, or reparation al'etage ven- triculaire (REV), has been successfully used to achieve RV to pulmonary artery continuity in neonates without mortality or major morbidity. Acute RV

Michael D. Black; Vinayak Shukla; Robert M. Freedom

2010-01-01

73

Attenuated Corticomedullary Contrast: An Early Cerebral Computed Tomography Sign Indicating Malignant Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction A Case-Control Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—No neuroradiological markers have been characterized that support a timely decision for decompressive surgery in malignant middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction (mMCAI). This case-control study was designed to analyze whether early cerebral CT (CCT) scanning provides reliable information for the prospective selection of stroke patients at risk of developing mMCAI. Methods—Thirty-one pairs (n 562) were formed with cases

Hans-Peter Haring; Erika Dilitz; Anton Pallua; Gerald Hessenberger; Andreas Kampfl; Bettina Pfausler; Erich Schmutzhard

2010-01-01

74

Bilateral common carotid artery occlusion as an adequate preconditioning stimulus to induce early ischemic tolerance to focal cerebral ischemia.  

PubMed

There is accumulating evidence, that ischemic preconditioning - a non-damaging ischemic challenge to the brain - confers a transient protection to a subsequent damaging ischemic insult. We have established bilateral common carotid artery occlusion as a preconditioning stimulus to induce early ischemic tolerance to transient focal cerebral ischemia in C57Bl6/J mice. In this video, we will demonstrate the methodology used for this study. PMID:23685461

Speetzen, Lukas Julius; Endres, Matthias; Kunz, Alexander

2013-05-09

75

Triggered non-contrast enhanced MR angiography of peripheral arteries: optimization of systolic and diastolic time delays for electrocardiographic triggering.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal systolic and diastolic time delays for electrocardiographic triggering of a non-contrast media enhanced MR angiography using a 3-dimensional fast spin echo sequence in patients suffering from peripheral arterial disease. 12 patients with suspected peripheral arterial disease were examined on a 1.5 T Philips Achieva MR scanner. A cardiac-triggered Volumetric Isotropic T2-weighted fast spin echo sequence was performed using variable trigger delays for systolic and diastolic phase. The signal in the popliteal arteries and anterior tibial arteries of the systolic and diastolic images was measured and optimal delay times for systolic and diastolic phase were determined. Minimum signal to noise ratio (SNR) appears at the time difference ?T=-21 ms on systolic images of the popliteal arteries. In the anterior tibial arteries the minimum SNR is significantly higher and appears at the time difference ?T=-14 ms. Diastolic delay times must be chosen as long or as short as possible depending on heart rate. In peripheral vessels triggered non-contrast MR angiography can yield results which are comparable with contrast enhanced MRA techniques. It is crucial to optimize timing parameters. PMID:21030171

Radlbauer, Rudolf; Salomonowitz, Erich; van der Riet, Wilma; Stadlbauer, Andreas

2010-10-28

76

Hypoxia enhances a cGMP-independent nitric oxide relaxing mechanism in pulmonary arteries.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) donors generally relax vascular preparations through cGMP-mediated mechanisms. Relaxation of endothelium-denuded bovine pulmonary arteries (BPA) and coronary arteries to the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP) is almost eliminated by inhibition of soluble guanylate cyclase activation with 10 microM 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo-[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), whereas only a modest inhibition of relaxation is observed under hypoxia (PO2 = 8-10 Torr). This effect of hypoxia is independent of the contractile agent used and is also observed with NO gas. ODQ eliminated SNAP-induced increases in cGMP under hypoxia in BPA. cGMP-independent relaxation of BPA to SNAP was not attenuated by inhibition of K+ channels (10 mM tetraethylammonium), myosin light chain phosphatase (0.5 microM microcystin-LR), or adenylate cyclase (4 microM 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine). SNAP relaxed BPA contracted with serotonin under Ca2+-free conditions in the presence of hypoxia and ODQ, and contraction to Ca2+ readdition was also attenuated. The sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-reuptake inhibitor cyclopiazonic acid (0.2 mM) attenuated SNAP-mediated relaxation of BPA in the presence of ODQ. Thus hypoxic conditions appear to promote a cGMP-independent relaxation of BPA to NO by enhancing sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ reuptake. PMID:12691956

Mingone, Christopher J; Gupte, Sachin A; Iesaki, Takafumi; Wolin, Michael S

2003-04-11

77

Vasculoprotective properties of enhanced external counterpulsation for coronary artery disease: beyond the hemodynamics.  

PubMed

A growing pool of evidence has shown that enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) is a non-invasive, safe, low-cost, and highly beneficial therapy for patients with coronary artery disease. However, the exact mechanisms of benefit exerted by EECP therapy remain only partially understood. The favorable hemodynamic effects of EECP were previously considered as the primary mechanism of action. Nevertheless, recent advances have shed light on the shear stress-increasing effects of EECP which are vasculoprotective and anti-atherosclerotic. EECP-induced endothelial shear stress increase may lead to improvement in endothelial function and morphology, attenuation of oxidative stress and inflammation, and promotion of angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. This review summarizes evidence of the potential mechanisms contributing to the immediate and long-term benefits of EECP, from the perspective of its shear stress-increasing effects. PMID:22560950

Yang, Da-ya; Wu, Gui-fu

2012-05-04

78

Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 Induces Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation  

PubMed Central

Introduction Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) is a progressively devastating disease characterized by excessive proliferation of the Pulmonary Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells (PASMCs). Studies suggest that PAH and cancers share an apoptosis-resistant state featuring excessive cell proliferation. The proliferation of cancer cells is mediated by increased expression of Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2), a mammalian histone methyltransferase that contributes to the epigenetic silencing of target genes. However, the role of EZH2 in PAH has not been studied. In this study, it is hypothesized that EZH2 could play a role in the proliferation of PASMCs. Methods In the present study, the expression patterns of EZH2 were investigated in normal and hypertensive mouse PASMCs. The effects of EZH2 overexpression on the proliferation of human PASMCs were tested. PASMCs were transfected with EZH2 or GFP using nucleofector system. After transfection, the cells were incubated for 48 hours at 37°C. Proliferation and cell cycle analysis were performed using flow cytometry. Apoptosis of PASMCs was determined using annexin V staining and cell migration was tested by wound healing assay. Results EZH2 protein expression in mouse PASMCs were correlated with an increase in right ventricular systolic pressure and Right Ventricular Hypertrophy (RVH). The overexpression of EZH2 in human PASMCs enhances proliferation, migration, and decrease in the rate of apoptosis when compared to GFP-transfected cells. In the G2/M phase of the EZH2 transfected cells, there was a 3.5 fold increase in proliferation, while there was a significant decrease in the rate of apoptosis of PASMCs, when compared to control. Conclusion These findings suggest that EZH2 plays a role in the migration and proliferation of PASMCs, which is a major hallmark in PAH. It also suggests that EZH2 could play a role in the development of PAH and can serve as a potential target for new therapies for PAH.

Aljubran, Salman A.; Rajanbabu, Venugopal; Bao, Huynh; Mohapatra, Shyam M.; Lockey, Richard; Kolliputi, Narasaiah

2012-01-01

79

[The histophotometric characteristics of the hepatocytes in acute blood loss and pulmonary artery thromboembolism (based on the data from early autopsies)].  

PubMed

A comparative morphological study of the liver in acute blood loss and massive thromboembolism of the pulmonary artery was carried on basis of early autopsies. Histoenzymatic and correlation analysis was used to study the characteristic features of the metabolism of hepatocytes in conditions of acute blood loss and massive pulmonary artery thromboembolism. PMID:1792769

Mishnev, O D; Shchegolev, A I; Ragozin, A Iu

1991-12-01

80

Early intervention in pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with systemic sclerosis: an essential component of disease management.  

PubMed

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a life-threatening complication of systemic sclerosis (SSc). However, PAH-specific treatments are available and can significantly improve survival of patients, especially those diagnosed in World Health Organization (WHO) functional class (FC) II. Registry data have shown that without screening, more than two-thirds of PAH-SSc patients are in WHO FC III or IV when diagnosed. The recognised predisposition of SSc patients to develop PAH should mean that an optimal screening programme will enable the early diagnosis of PAH, and provide the opportunity for earlier treatment, in this population. Evidence-based treatment guidelines advocate the use of oral PAH-specific therapies, including bosentan, ambrisentan, sildenafil (I-A recommendation), tadalafil (I-B recommendation) and sitaxentan (IIA-C recommendation), for patients in WHO FC II. A randomised, placebo-controlled trial of bosentan in WHO FC II PAH patients, including cases of PAH-SSc, showed improved haemodynamics in actively treated patients and a reduced risk of progression from WHO FC II to FC III. For PAH patients diagnosed in WHO FC III, the treatment goal is to improve to WHO FC II. Data from bosentan trials have shown that nearly one-quarter of patients in WHO FC III at baseline can attain WHO FC II status with monotherapy. Maintenance of PAH-SSc patients in WHO FC II with monotherapy is unrealistic, and sequential goal-directed combination therapy is now becoming an accepted treatment strategy. It is hoped that earlier diagnosis, coupled both with regular assessments to ensure treatment goals are being met and timely, appropriate treatment, will further improve the survival rates of those PAH-SSc patients. PMID:21119190

Hachulla, E; Denton, C P

2010-12-01

81

Using Contrast-Enhanced Helical CT to Visualize Arterial Extravasation After Blunt Abdominal Trauma: Incidence and Organ Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. We evaluated the incidence and organ distribution of arterial extravasation identified using contrast-enhanced helical CT in patients who had sustained abdominal vis- ceral injuries and pelvic fractures after blunt trauma. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Five hundred sixty-five consecutive patients from four level I trauma centers who had CT scans showing abdominal visceral injuries or pelvic frac- tures were included in

Dorcas C. Yao; R. Brooke; Stuart E. Mirvis; Arnold Weekes; Michael P. Federle; Connie Kim; Priya Prabhakar; Philip W. Ralls

82

Enhancing international collaboration among early-career researchers  

PubMed Central

Objective The European Association of Communication in Healthcare (EACH) Early Career Researchers Network (ECRN) aims are to (1) promote international collaboration among young investigators and (2) provide a support network for future innovative communication research projects. In October 2009, Miami, USA at a workshop facilitated by the ECRN at the International Conference on Communication in Healthcare (ICCH) hosted by the American Academy of Communication in Healthcare we explored common facilitators and challenges faced by early career researchers in health communication research. Methods Attendees introduced themselves, their research area(s) of interest, and listed one facilitator and one barrier for their career development. EACH ECRN members then led a discussion of facilitators and challenges encountered in communication research projects and career development. We discussed potential collaboration opportunities, future goals, and activities. Results Having supportive collegial relationships, institutional support, job security, and funding are critical facilitators for early career investigators. Key challenges include difficulty with time management and prioritizing, limited resources, and contacts. Conclusion International collaboration among early career researchers is a feasible and effective means to address important challenges, by increasing opportunities for professional support and networking, problem-solving, discussion of data, and ultimately publishing. Practice Implications Future AACH-EACH Early Career Researcher Networks should continue to build collaborations by developing shared research projects, papers, and other scholarly products.

Carroll, Jennifer K; Albada, Akke; Farahani, Mansoureh; Lithner, Maria; Neumann, Melanie; Sandhu, Harbinder; Shepherd, Heather L

2010-01-01

83

Enhancement of Early Childhood Professional Status as a Bridge to Positive Parent Perception and Respect for Early Childhood Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This practicum was designed to enhance the perception of the early childhood professional among parents of children at an on-site child development center in a medical center. A pattern was documented of negative communication and lack of respect for the goals and policies of the child care center. The practicum's goal was to replace the parental…

Fields, Doreatha J.

84

The efficacy and safety of enhanced external counterpulsation in patients with peripheral arterial disease.  

PubMed

Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is common in patients with severe coronary artery disease (CAD) and is considered a relative contraindication to external enhanced counterpulsation (EECP), but there are no data that define the efficacy and safety of EECP in patients with PAD. The International EECP Patient Registry (IEPR) was used to compare initial post-therapy and 2-year follow-up clinical outcomes and adverse event rates in patients with and without PAD. From January 2002 to October 2004, 2126 patients were enrolled in the IEPR, of whom 493 (23%) had a history of PAD. Immediately following EECP, the reduction in angina (> or = 1 Canadian Cardiovascular Society class) was similar in patients with and without PAD (76.6% vs 79.0%, p = 0.27) as was improvement in the Duke Activity Score Index (DASI) score (+4.7% vs +6.1%, p < 0.001). Both angina reduction and DASI score improvement were sustained at 2 years. PAD patients discontinued EECP more frequently (12.0% vs 8.5%, p < 0.05), but lower extremity ulceration did not occur more frequently in patients with PAD (3.7% vs 2.7%, p = 0.26). Rates of death (17.1% vs 8.6%, p < 0.001) and myocardial infarction (9.5% vs 5.0%, p < 0.001) were, as expected, higher in patients with PAD compared to patients without PAD at 2 years. In conclusion, while PAD patients constitute a high-risk cohort with known higher adverse event rates, EECP led to similar short- and long-term improvements in angina and quality of life for individuals with PAD compared to those without PAD. PMID:19841026

Thakkar, Bhavik V; Hirsch, Alan T; Satran, Daniel; Bart, Bradley A; Barsness, Gregory; McCullough, Peter A; Kennard, Elizabeth D; Kelsey, Sheryl F; Henry, Timothy D

2009-10-19

85

Arterial-phase contrast-enhanced ultrasonography for evaluating anti-angiogenesis treatment: A pilot study  

PubMed Central

AIM: To verify whether arterial-phase contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) of tumor parenchymal tissue is useful for evaluation of anti-angiogenesis agents. METHODS: Rabbits with liver tumor were subjected to CEUS, and images of the nodular maximal diameter in vascular phase were recorded. Image analysis was performed to plot the time intensity curve (TIC) at the tumor parenchyma, which set the diameter of the region of interest of intensity measurement. The TIC was calculated to obtain the time to peak intensity (TPI) and the magnitude of PI. Rabbits were randomly assigned to a treatment group with sorafenib and a control group. Two weeks later, the same ultrasound examination was repeated followed by pathological testing to assess the effect of sorafenib on the liver tumor. RESULTS: In four rabbits in the treatment group, the rate of change of tumor size was decreased compared with that of the control (the rate 2.3 vs 7.9, P = 0.02). The TPI of the treatment group elongated significantly (the rate 3.1 vs 1.1, P = 0.07 for SonoVue, 2.0 vs 0.88, P = 0.09 for Sonazoid). The magnitude of PI showed no significant changes. In pathological examination, capillary diameters in the treatment group were significantly smaller than those in the control group (26.4 vs 42.8 ?m, P = 0.013). CONCLUSION: Analysis of the TIC in the arterial phase of tumor tissue could evaluate the efficacy of anti-angiogenesis drug treatment in liver tumor.

Yoshida, Keiko; Hirokawa, Tomihiko; Moriyasu, Fuminori; Liu, Longzhong; Liu, Guang-Jian; Yamada, Masahiko; Imai, Yasuharu

2011-01-01

86

Effects of enhanced external counterpulsation on arterial stiffness and myocardial oxygen demand in patients with chronic angina pectoris.  

PubMed

Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) is a noninvasive technique for treatment of symptomatic coronary artery disease in patients not amenable to revascularization procedures. However, the mechanisms underlying the benefits of EECP remain unknown. We hypothesized that decreases in arterial stiffness and aortic wave reflection are a therapeutic target for EECP. Patients with coronary artery disease and chronic angina pectoris were randomized (2:1 ratio) to 35 1-hour sessions of EECP (n = 28) or sham EECP (n = 14). Central and peripheral arterial pulse-wave velocity and aortic wave reflection (augmentation index) were measured using applanation tonometry before, and after 17 and 35 1-hour treatment sessions. Wasted left ventricular pressure energy and aortic systolic tension-time index, markers of left-ventricular myocardial oxygen demand, were derived from the synthesized aortic pressure wave. Exercise duration, anginal threshold, and peak oxygen consumption were measured using a graded treadmill test. Central arterial stiffness and augmentation index were decreased after 17 and 35 sessions in the treatment group. Measurements of peripheral arterial stiffness were decreased after 35 sessions in the treatment group. Changes in aortic pressure wave reflection resulted in decreased measurements of myocardial oxygen demand and wasted left ventricular energy. No changes in central or peripheral arterial stiffness were observed in the sham group. Furthermore, measurements of exercise capacity were improved in the EECP group but unchanged in the sham group. In conclusion, EECP therapy decreases central and peripheral arterial stiffness, which may explain improvements in myocardial oxygen demand in patients with chronic angina pectoris after treatment. PMID:21420062

Casey, Darren P; Beck, Darren T; Nichols, Wilmer W; Conti, C Richard; Choi, Calvin Y; Khuddus, Matheen A; Braith, Randy W

2011-03-17

87

Clopidogrel Use and Early Outcomes among Older Patients Receiving a Drug Eluting Coronary Artery Stent  

PubMed Central

Background Clopidogrel use following drug eluting coronary artery stent (DES) implant is essential for prevention of early in-stent thrombosis, but clopidogrel use among older DES recipients has not been widely studied. We sought to identify characteristics associated with failure to fill a clopidogrel prescription and to examine the relationship between a clopidogrel prescription fill and hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or death. Methods and Results Retrospective analysis of administrative data (20% sample) for 15,996 Medicare Part D enrollees receiving a DES 2006–2007. We modeled the adjusted probability and odds of clopidogrel prescription fill within 7 and 90 days of discharge and its association with AMI hospitalization or death. 19.7% of individuals did not fill a clopidogrel prescription within 7 days of discharge, falling to 13.3% by day 90. The adjusted probability of filling a clopidogrel prescription within 7 or 90 days of discharge was lower for patient with dementia (20.2% less likely, 95% CI 10.4–30.1%), depression (10.7% less likely, 95% CI 6.9–14.5%), age >84 compared to age 65–69 (10.6% less likely, 95% CI 8.6–12.7%), black race (6.6% less likely, 95% CI 4.2–9.0%), intermediate levels of medication cost-share (5.2% less likely, 95% CI 2.9–7.6%), and female sex (3.3% less likely, 95% CI 2.1–4.5%). It was higher for patients initially hospitalized for an AMI (12.5% more likely, 95% CI 11.3–13.6%). Failure to fill a clopidogrel prescription within 7 days of discharge was associated with a higher adjusted odds ratio of death during days 8–90 (OR 2.44, 95% CI 1.76–3.38) but was not associated with an increased risk of hospitalization for AMI. Conclusions One in five patients failed to fill a prescription for clopidogrel following DES at 7 days and one in seven failed by 3 months. Individual characteristics available at the time of hospital discharge were associated with a clopidogrel prescription fill. Those mostly strongly associated with nonadherence, including age >84, not having an AMI, depression, and dementia, may guide clinicians and health systems seeking to target this high-risk population and improve health outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Roth, Gregory A.; Morden, Nancy E.; Zhou, Weiping; Malenka, David J.; Skinner, Jonathan

2011-01-01

88

Enhanced SCR Proton Flux from the Early Sun, Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greater concentrations of [21Ne]c in the dark phase of Kapoeta, compared to the light phase, may represent a large irradiation by solar protons (SCR) in the early solar system [1] or a longer galactic cosmic ray (GCR) irradiation [2]. Lunar rock studies demonstrate that the 21Ne\\/22Ne ratio can be used to distinguish between components produced by energetic SCR and GCR

M. N. Rao; D. H. Garrison; D. D. Bogard; R. L. Palma; G. Dreibus

1995-01-01

89

White blood cell count in young adulthood and coronary artery calcification in early middle age: coronary artery risk development in young adults (CARDIA) study.  

PubMed

White blood cell (WBC) count is associated with incident coronary heart disease (CHD). Data are sparse regarding its association in young adults with future coronary artery calcification (CAC). Our study was conducted among coronary artery risk development in young adults (CARDIA) participants (n = 3,094). We examined the association between baseline (Y0) WBC counts and CHD risk factors using linear regression models. We further assessed prospective associations between Y0 WBC and inflammatory biomarkers during the follow-up, and the presence of CAC 15 and 20 years later. In total, 272 and 566 subjects had CAC scores >0 at year (Y) 15 and Y20, respectively. Baseline total WBC counts were cross-sectionally associated with SBP, BMI, and smoking, or HDL-cholesterol (p ? 0.01) at Y0, and prospectively associated with C-reactive protein at Y7, Y15, and Y20, and fibrinogen at Y5 and Y20 (p < 0.01). After adjustment for potential confounding factors, baseline neutrophil count was borderline associated with CAC presence 15 years later (OR = 1.18 per unit, 95 % CI 1.00-1.44) and total WBC (OR = 1.07, 95 % CI 0.96-1.19) or eosinophil (OR = 1.12, 95 %CI 1.00-1.25) was borderline associated with CAC presence at Y20. Baseline total WBC counts in young adults was associated prospectively with CAC presence 20 years later after adjusting for age, sex, and race. Results are attenuated when other risk factors are accounted for. Our results suggest the possible early involvement of WBC, particularly eosinophils, in the early stages of atherosclerosis. PMID:24030512

Hou, Lifang; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Ning, Hongyan; Huffman, Mark D; Fornage, Myriam; He, Ka; Zhang, Xiao; Jacobs, David R; Goff, David C; Sidney, Steve; Carr, Jeffrey J; Liu, Kiang

2013-09-13

90

Cutting-Balloon Angioplasty in Transplant Renal Artery Stenosis as First-Line Treatment in the Early Postoperative Period  

SciTech Connect

Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty has been successfully used for the treatment of transplant renal artery stenosis (RAS). Cutting-balloon angioplasty (CBA) is being used as a second option in pressure-resistant stenosis. It is thought that CBA is less traumatic and therefore restenosis occurs less frequently than in conventional angioplasty. This case report describes the unusual use of a cutting balloon in transplant RAS as a first option in the early postoperative period. Long-term follow-up data are also presented.

Ucar, Adem, E-mail: ucaradem@yahoo.com [Istanbul University, Interventional Radiology Department, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Yahyayev, Aghakishi, E-mail: aghakishi@yahoo.com [Istanbul University, Radiology Department, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Bakkaloglu, Huseyin, E-mail: drhuseyin@yahoo.com [Istanbul University, Transplantlogy Department, General Surgery, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Agayev, Ayaz, E-mail: ayazagayev@gmail.com [Istanbul University, Radiology Department, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Aydin, Ali Emin, E-mail: alieminaydin@hotmail.com [Istanbul University, Transplantlogy Department, General Surgery, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Rozanes, Izzet, E-mail: rozanes@superonline.com [Istanbul University, Interventional Radiology Department, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine (Turkey)

2011-02-15

91

Early overuse and disuse of the affected forelimb after moderately severe intraluminal suture occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously shown that early forced overuse of the affected forelimb worsens outcome following moderately severe transient focal cortical ischemic stroke in rats using a distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) model. This effect may be site-dependent, because we have also found that early forced use of the affected limb after unilateral 6-OHDA induced degeneration of ascending nigrostriatal dopamine

Sondra T. Bland; Rathi N. Pillai; Jaroslaw Aronowski; James C. Grotta; Timothy Schallert

2001-01-01

92

Automated quantification of carotid artery stenosis on contrast-enhanced MRA data using a deformable vascular tube model.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a method for automated segmentation of the carotid artery lumen from volumetric MR Angiographic (MRA) images using a deformable tubular 3D Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) model. A flexible 3D tubular NURBS model was designed to delineate the carotid arterial lumen. User interaction was allowed to guide the model by placement of forbidden areas. Contrast-enhanced MRA (CE-MRA) from 21 patients with carotid atherosclerotic disease were included in this study. The validation was performed against expert drawn contours on multi-planar reformatted image slices perpendicular to the artery. Excellent linear correlations were found on cross-sectional area measurement (r = 0.98, P < 0.05) and on luminal diameter (r = 0.98, P < 0.05). Strong match in terms of the Dice similarity indices were achieved: 0.95 ± 0.02 (common carotid artery), 0.90 ± 0.07 (internal carotid artery), 0.87 ± 0.07 (external carotid artery), 0.88 ± 0.09 (carotid bifurcation) and 0.75 ± 0.20 (stenosed segments). Slight overestimation of stenosis grading by the automated method was observed. The mean differences was 7.20% (SD = 21.00%) and 5.2% (SD = 21.96%) when validated against two observers. Reproducibility in stenosis grade calculation by the automated method was high; the mean difference between two repeated analyses was 1.9 ± 7.3%. In conclusion, the automated method shows high potential for clinical application in the analysis of CE-MRA of carotid arteries. PMID:22160666

Suinesiaputra, Avan; de Koning, Patrick J H; Zudilova-Seinstra, Elena; Reiber, Johan H C; van der Geest, Rob J

2011-12-09

93

Enhanced Tyrosine Nitration of Prostacyclin Synthase Is Associated with Increased Inflammation in Atherosclerotic Carotid Arteries from Type 2 Diabetic Patients  

PubMed Central

Prostacyclin synthase (PGIS) is tyrosine nitrated in diseased animals. Whether PGIS nitration occurs in human diabetic atherosclerotic arteries has not been reported. The present study was designed to determine PGIS nitration and its association with the inflammatory response in atherosclerotic carotid arteries from patients with or without type 2 diabetes, and carotid plaques were obtained from patients who underwent carotid endarterectomy. PGIS nitration, nitric oxide synthases, adhesion molecules, myeloperoxidase, osteopontin, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) were measured by using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. In low stenosis areas, diabetes enhanced reactive nitrogen species production, as evidenced by increases in 3-nitrotyrosine and PGIS nitration. In parallel, diabetes dramatically increased inflammatory markers including intracellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular adhesion molecule-1, and osteopontin. In both diabetic and nondiabetic patients, MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein levels were significantly increased in the arteries with high stenosis as compared with those with low stenosis. Moreover, diabetes enhanced inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in the plaques from low stenosis areas and up-regulated myeloperoxidase expression in the plaques from both high and low stenosis areas. These data demonstrate that diabetes preferentially increases PGIS nitration that is associated with excessive vascular inflammation in atherosclerotic carotid arteries from patients with type 2 diabetes, suggesting a possible role of tyrosine nitration of PGIS in the development of atherosclerosis in patients with diabetes.

He, Chaoyong; Chul Choi, Hyoung; Xie, Zhonglin

2010-01-01

94

Association of Increased Hair Calcium Levels and Enhanced Augmentation Index (AIx): a Marker of Arterial Stiffness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arterial stiffness is involved in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease, and the degree of arterial stiffness is associated\\u000a with the extent of vascular calcification. This study aimed to investigate the association of hair calcium levels with augmentation\\u000a index (AIx), a simple, non-invasive measurement for arterial stiffness. Healthy Koreans (male, n?=?34, female, n?=?70) were enrolled in this study. Anthropometric parameters, lipid

Oh Yoen Kim; Seung Han Baek; Young Jin Lee; Ki Ho Lee

2010-01-01

95

Coronary and systemic arterial physiology and immunohistochemical markers related to early coronary arterial lesions in beagle dogs given the potassium channel opener, ZD6169, or the endothelin receptor antagonist, ZD1611.  

PubMed

We evaluated immunohistochemistry (von Willebrand Factor [vWF] or fibrinogen) and systemic and coronary arterial physiological parameters in beagle dogs to investigate early arterial lesions induced by the potassium channel opener, ZD6169, or the endothelin receptor antagonist, ZD1611. Dogs given an oral dose of ZD6169 (experiment 1) were terminated 1 day later and showed arterial and myocardial lesions. Minimal arterial lesions exhibited few condensed medial smooth muscle cells only, with others showing segmental medial necrosis occasionally with medial/adventitial acute inflammation. Intercellular immunostaining was seen in ostensibly normal tissue, where no pathology was present in conventionally stained sections. vWF and fibrinogen are valuable tools for detecting disruption of arterial integrity. In experiment 2, 2 dogs were given a single high dose of ZD6169 or ZD1611 and BP/HR monitored by conventional measures or telemetry. Substantially reduced systolic/diastolic BP and increased HR occurred within 10 min of ZD6169 infusion: ZD1611 caused minor BP decrease and HR increase. In experiment 3, both drugs given to anaesthetized dogs induced markedly exaggerated systolic phasic forward and reverse flow in left descending and right coronary arteries. Diastolic coronary artery flows were unaffected with ZD1611 and increased slightly with ZD6169. In both coronary arteries, the ZD1611-induced increase in flows paralleled decreased resistance. PMID:23125115

Jones, Huw Bowen; Björkman, Jan-Arne; Schofield, Jason

2012-11-02

96

Curved Multiplanar Reconstructions for the Evaluation of Contrast-Enhanced Electron Beam CT of the Coronary Arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. We investigated the applicability of curved multiplanar reconstructions for the evaluation of contrast-enhanced electron beam CT scans of the coronary arteries. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Thirty-two patients (43-72 years old: mean age, 58 years old) underwent electron beam CT. After injection of IV contrast medium. 40 axial cross sections of the heart were acquired. triggered to the ECG during breath-hold

Werner Moshage; Dieter Ropers; Kurt BaChmann

97

Umbilical artery blood S100beta protein: a tool for the early identification of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.  

PubMed

Neuroprotective interventions in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) require early indicators of brain damage to initiate therapy. In order to find a reliable, rapid, and simple method to identify infants at risk for this disorder, 40 infants with asphyxia were selected as the observation group (HIE group) and 25 normal-term infants as the control group. S100beta protein concentration and gas analysis of the umbilical cord artery blood of all infants were determined. We found that the S100beta protein levels of the HIE group (1.98 microg/L) were higher than those of the control group (1.05 microg/L, p<0.05), and there were significant differences between the mild HIE group (1.72 microg/L) and the moderate or severe HIE groups (3.61 microg/L, p<0.05). An S100beta protein concentration cutoff level of 2.02 microg/L had a sensitivity of 86.7% and a specificity of 88.0% for predicting the development of moderate or severe HIE. The blood gas parameters of umbilical artery blood, such as pH, carbon dioxide tension, and base excess, were significantly different in the HIE group compared to the control group (all p<0.001), but there were no differences between the mild HIE group and the moderate or severe HIE groups. On the basis of clinical manifestations of asphyxiated neonates, detecting the S100beta protein levels in the umbilical artery blood may be of important value in the early diagnosis and grading of HIE. PMID:18398623

Qian, Jing; Zhou, Dong; Wang, Yu-Wei

2008-04-09

98

Arterial Ageing  

PubMed Central

Arterial ageing is characterized by age associated degeneration and sclerosis of the media layer of the large arteries. However, besides ageing, clinical conditions, which enhance oxidative stress and inflammation act to accelerate the degree of arterial ageing. In this review, we summarized the pathophysiology and contributing factors that accelerate arterial ageing. Among them, we focused on hypertension, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and vascular inflammation which are modifiable causes of the arterial ageing process. Also, novel treatment targets derived from the disease models such as the Hutchinson Gilford Progeria Syndrome were reviewed.

Lee, Seung-Jun

2013-01-01

99

Arterial ageing.  

PubMed

Arterial ageing is characterized by age associated degeneration and sclerosis of the media layer of the large arteries. However, besides ageing, clinical conditions, which enhance oxidative stress and inflammation act to accelerate the degree of arterial ageing. In this review, we summarized the pathophysiology and contributing factors that accelerate arterial ageing. Among them, we focused on hypertension, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and vascular inflammation which are modifiable causes of the arterial ageing process. Also, novel treatment targets derived from the disease models such as the Hutchinson Gilford Progeria Syndrome were reviewed. PMID:23508642

Lee, Seung-Jun; Park, Sung-Ha

2013-02-28

100

Depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores enhances flow-induced vascular dilatation in rat small mesenteric artery  

PubMed Central

The effect of depleting intracellular Ca2+ stores on flow-induced vascular dilatation and the mechanism responsible for the vasodilatation were examined in rat isolated small mesenteric arteries. The arteries were pressurized to 50?mmHg and preconstricted with phenylephrine. Intraluminal flow reversed the effect of phenylephrine, resulting in vasodilatation. Flow dilatation consisted of an initial transient peak followed by a sustained plateau phase. The magnitude of dilatation was markedly reduced by removing Ca2+ from the intraluminal flow medium. Depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores with either cyclopiazonic acid (CPA, 2??M) or 1,4-dihydroxy-2,5-di-tert-butylbenzene (BHQ, 10??M) significantly augmented the magnitude of flow dilatation. Flow-induced endothelial cell Ca2+ influx was also markedly enhanced in arteries pretreated with CPA or BHQ. Flow-induced dilatation was insensitive to Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (100??M) plus indomethacin (3??M) or to oxyhemoglobin (3??M), but was markedly reduced by 30?mM extracellular K+ or 2?mM tetrabutylammonium (TBA), suggesting an involvement of EDHF. Catalase at 1200?U?ml?1 abolished the flow-induced dilatation, while the application of exogenous H2O2 (90–220??M) induced relaxation in phenylephrine-preconstricted arteries. Relaxation to exogenous H2O2 was blocked in the presence of 30?mM extracellular K+, and H2O2 (90??M) hyperpolarized the smooth muscle cells, indicating that H2O2 can act as an EDHF. In conclusion, flow-induced dilatation in rat mesenteric arteries can be markedly enhanced by prior depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores. Furthermore, these data are consistent with a role for H2O2 as the vasodilator involved.

Liu, Cuiling; Ngai, Ching-Yuen; Huang, Yu; Ko, Wing-Hung; Wu, Min; He, Guo-Wei; Garland, Christopher J; Dora, Kim A; Yao, Xiaoqiang

2006-01-01

101

Effects of Enhanced External Counterpulsation on Arterial Stiffness and Myocardial Oxygen Demand in Patients with Chronic Angina Pectoris  

PubMed Central

Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) is a non-invasive modality for treatment of symptomatic coronary disease (CAD) in patients not amenable to revascularization procedures. However, the mechanism(s) underlying the benefits of EECP remain unknown. We hypothesized that reductions in arterial stiffness and aortic wave reflection are a therapeutic target for EECP. CAD patients with chronic angina pectoris were randomized (2:1 ratio) to either 35 1-hr sessions of EECP (n=28) or Sham-EECP (n=14). Central and peripheral arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV) and aortic wave reflection (augmentation index; AIx) were measured using applanation tonometry before, and after 17 and 35 1-hr treatment sessions. Wasted left ventricular pressure energy and aortic systolic tension time index, markers of left-ventricular myocardial oxygen demand were derived from the synthesized aortic pressure wave. Exercise duration, anginal threshold, and peak oxygen consumption were measured using a graded treadmill test. Central arterial stiffness and AIx were reduced following 17- and 35-sessions in the treatment group. Measures of peripheral arterial stiffness were reduced following 35 sessions in the treatment group. Changes in aortic pressure wave reflection resulted in decreased measures of myocardial oxygen demand and wasted left ventricular energy. No changes in either central or peripheral arterial stiffness were observed in the Sham group. Furthermore, measures of exercise capacity were improved in the EECP group, but unchanged in the Sham group. In conclusion, EECP therapy reduces central and peripheral arterial stiffness, which may explain improvements in myocardial oxygen demand in patients with chronic angina pectoris following treatment.

Casey, Darren P.; Beck, Darren T.; Nichols, Wilmer W.; Conti, C. Richard; Choi, Calvin Y.; Khuddus, Matheen A.; Braith, Randy W.

2011-01-01

102

Extraction of Functional Binding Sites from Unique Regulatory Regions: The Drosophila Early Developmental Enhancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early developmental enhancers of Drosophila melanogaster comprise one of the most sophisticated regulatory systems in higher eukaryotes.An elaborate code in their DNA sequence translates both maternal and early embryonic regulatory signals into spatial distribution of transcription factors.One of the most striking features of this code is the redundancy of binding sites for these transcription factors (BSTF).Using this redundancy, we

Dmitri A. Papatsenko; Vsevolod J. Makeev; Alex P. Lifanov; Mireille Regnier; Anna G. Nazina; Claude Desplan

2002-01-01

103

Cognitive enhancement therapy improves emotional intelligence in early course schizophrenia: Preliminary effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined the preliminary effects of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET) on social cognition in early course schizophrenia, using an objective, performance-based measure of emotional intelligence. Individuals in the early course of schizophrenia were randomly assigned to either CET (n=18) or Enriched Supportive Therapy (n=20), and assessed at baseline and after 1 year of treatment with the Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test.

Shaun M. Eack; Gerard E. Hogarty; Deborah P. Greenwald; Susan S. Hogarty; Matcheri S. Keshavan

2007-01-01

104

[Spontaneous rupture of a splenic artery aneurysm during the early puerperium].  

PubMed

A 35-year-old otherwise healthy woman was found unconscious on the floor of her room in the delivery ward 3 days after giving birth by a cesarean section. Following primary evaluation and resuscitation, a relaparotomy for assumed internal bleeding was performed, and active bleeding from a splenic artery aneurysm was discovered. The following case report reminds us yet again that the puerperium is a highly unique period in a woman's life during which submerged pathologies surface, and therefore, poses a great challenge to the caring physician. In this article, the authors report the sequence of events leading from the patient's admittance to the cesarean section to her subsequent relaparotomy. A brief review is presented on the literature related to splenic artery aneurysm rupture during pregnancy and the puerperium. PMID:20549922

Inbar, Rotem; Dulitzky, Mordechay; Barkai, Gad

2010-02-01

105

Survival enhancing indications for coronary artery bypass graft surgery in California  

PubMed Central

Background Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is performed because of anticipated survival benefit, improvement in quality of life, or both. We performed this study to explore variations in clinical indications for CABG surgery among California hospitals and surgeons. Methods Using California CABG Outcomes Reporting Program data, we classified all isolated CABG cases in 2003–2004 as having "probable survival enhancing indications (SEIs)", "possible SEIs" or "non-SEIs." Patient and hospital characteristics associated with SEIs were examined. Results While 82.9% of CABG were performed for probable SEIs, the range extended from 68% to 96% among hospitals and 51% to 100% among surgeons. SEI rates were higher among patients aged ? 65 compared with those aged 18–64 (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] > 1.29 for age groups 65–69, 70–74 and ? 75; all p < 0.001), among Asians and Native Americans compared with Caucasians (AOR 1.22 and 1.15, p < 0.001); and among patients with hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, diabetes, cerebrovascular disease and congestive heart failure compared to patients without these conditions (AOR > 1.09, all p < 0.001). Variations in indications for surgery were more strongly related to patient mix than to surgeon or hospital effects (intraclass correlation [ICC] = 0.04 for hospital; ICC = 0.01 for surgeon). Conclusion California hospitals and surgeons vary in their distribution of indications for CABG surgery. Further research is required to identify the roles of market factors, referral patterns, patient preferences, and local clinical culture in producing the observed variations.

Li, Zhongmin; Kravitz, Richard L; Marcin, James P; Romano, Patrick S; Rocke, David M; Denton, Timothy A; Brindis, Ralph G; Dai, Jian; Amsterdam, Ezra A

2008-01-01

106

[3 T MRI imaging methods in the study of contrast-enhanced Adamkiewicz Artery].  

PubMed

Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) is a common method for imaging the Adamkiewicz Artery (AKA). Test-bolus imaging methods have long been the mainstream, and recently, a time resolved technique (4D-MRA) is also reported. However, the current rates of detection for both are mixed, and the best method has not been established yet. For AKA, the present rate is 72% left, Th8?L1 91% that exists between, with a vessel diameter of 0.5 to 1.5 mm. Additionally, the AKA branch is known to have large individual differences, and thus, a wide range of high spatial resolution imaging. At our institution from January 2009, a 3 T system is installed, and 4D-MRA (time-resolved angiography with interleaved stochastic trajectories: TWIST) imaging became possible. TWIST is a sequence to balance the temporal resolution and spatial resolution, and is considered optimal for the imaging of AKA. In accordance with this idea, the first group of seven patients was imaged by TWIST, but in all cases, the results were not depicting AKA. In subsequent cases, the technique was changed to a 3D-gradient echo sequence with a Bolus-tracking method (Care bolus), and good results were obtained. In conclusion, AKA TWIST was not thought to depict the relationship between specific parameters. When using TWIST for imaging AKA, we will need to find out why it was not visualized, by examining AKA with simulated vessel phantoms, TWIST and Care Bolus. Furthermore, we report on our visual evaluation of the Retrospective clinical pictures. PMID:21282914

Hirata, Keiya; Takahashi, Masaru; Chikakoshi, Saeko; Nakamura, Eisui; Nishio, Hiroshi

2010-12-20

107

Intimal histolysis as an early stage of atherosclerotic involvement. Observations on the human coronary arteries.  

PubMed

Investigation of the coronary arteries in 330 subjects aged 11 to 50 years showed that the "missing link" between age-dependent changes and atherosclerotic lesions appeared as a process of intimal histolysis. This term refers to focal disintegrations of the intimal connective tissue involving successively ground substance, reticular networks, collagen fibers, elastic fibers and smooth muscle cells. The resulting gelatinous plaques and detritus cavities represent the starting point for the development of fibrous plaques with or without necrotic centers (atheroma). PMID:989177

Velican, C; Velican, D

108

Lipopolysaccharide induces H1 receptor expression and enhances histamine responsiveness in human coronary artery endothelial cells  

PubMed Central

Histamine is a well-recognized modulator of vascular inflammation. We have shown that histamine, acting via H1 receptors (H1R), synergizes lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of prostaglandin I2 (PGI2), PGE2 and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by endothelial cells. The synergy between histamine and LPS was partly attributed to histamine -induced expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). In this study, we examined whether LPS stimulates the H1R expression in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) with resultant enhancement of histamine responsiveness. Incubation of HCAEC with LPS (10–1000 ng/ml) resulted in two-fold to fourfold increases in H1R mRNA expression in a time-dependent and concentration-dependent fashion. In contrast, LPS treatment did not affect H2R mRNA expression. The LPS-induced H1R mRNA expression peaked by 4 hr after LPS treatment and remained elevated above the basal level for 20–24 hr. Flow cytometric and Western blot analyses revealed increased expression of H1R protein in LPS-treated cells. The specific binding of [3H]pyrilamine to H1R in membrane proteins from LPS-treated HCAEC was threefold higher than the untreated cells. The LPS-induced H1R expression was mediated through TLR4 as gene silencing by TLR4-siRNA and treatment with a TLR4 antagonist inhibited the LPS effect. When HCAEC were pre-treated with LPS for 24 hr, washed and challenged with histamine, 17-, 10- and 15-fold increases in PGI2, PGE2 and IL-6 production, respectively, were noted. Histamine-induced enhancement of the synthesis of PGI2, PGE2 and IL-6 by LPS-primed HCAEC was completely blocked by an H1R antagonist. The results demonstrate that LPS, through TLR4 activation, up-regulates the expression and function of H1R and amplifies histamine-induced inflammatory responses in HCAEC.

Raveendran, Vineesh V; Tan, Xiaoyu; Sweeney, Matthew E; Levant, Beth; Slusser, Joyce; Stechschulte, Daniel J; Dileepan, Kottarappat N

2011-01-01

109

Arterial phase enhancement and body mass index are predictors of response to chemoembolisation for liver metastases of endocrine tumours  

PubMed Central

Transcatheter arterial chemoembolisation (TACE) has been reported to be an efficient treatment of liver metastases of endocrine tumours in short series of patients. However, several factors seem to affect its results. The aim of this work is to identify predictors of response to TACE for liver metastases of endocrine tumours. A total of 163 TACE procedures were performed in 67 patients between 1994 and 2004. Forty-four patients were treated with streptozotocin and 23 with doxorubicin. Primary tumour was located in the pancreas for 19 patients, and had been removed in 43. Thirty-eight tumours were functioning. Response rate was 37% (confidence interval [CI] 95%: 28–49%). Median time to progression (TTP) was 14.5 months (CI 95%: 9–41). In multivariate analysis (n=43), predictors of tumour response were body mass index (BMI) (odds ratio [OR]: 1.3; CI 95%: 1.04–1.63; P=0.022), functioning type of tumour (OR: 7.31; CI 95%: 1.26–42.5; P=0.027), arterial phase enhancement on abdominal computed tomography (CT) (OR: 8.11; CI 95%:1.06–62; P=0.044) and use of streptozotocin for cytotoxic agent (OR: 21.3; CI 95%: 1.48–306; P=0.025). Analysis of TTP predictors showed that BMI (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.85; CI 95%: 0.76–0.86; P=0.01) and arterial phase enhancement (HR: 0.3; CI 95%: 0.12–0.73; P=0.008) were associated with delayed progression. This large study confirms the previously reported results of TACE regarding its efficacy for the treatment of liver metastases of endocrine tumours. Arterial phase enhancement on abdominal CT and BMI are predictors of treatment's efficacy. Streptozotocin should be the preferred cytotoxic agent in order to save anthracycline for systemic chemotherapy.

Marrache, F; Vullierme, M P; Roy, C; Assoued, Y El; Couvelard, A; O'Toole, D; Mitry, E; Hentic, O; Hammel, P; Levy, P; Ravaud, P; Rougier, P; Ruszniewski, P

2006-01-01

110

Arterial phase enhancement and body mass index are predictors of response to chemoembolisation for liver metastases of endocrine tumours.  

PubMed

Transcatheter arterial chemoembolisation (TACE) has been reported to be an efficient treatment of liver metastases of endocrine tumours in short series of patients. However, several factors seem to affect its results. The aim of this work is to identify predictors of response to TACE for liver metastases of endocrine tumours. A total of 163 TACE procedures were performed in 67 patients between 1994 and 2004. Forty-four patients were treated with streptozotocin and 23 with doxorubicin. Primary tumour was located in the pancreas for 19 patients, and had been removed in 43. Thirty-eight tumours were functioning. Response rate was 37% (confidence interval [CI] 95%: 28-49%). Median time to progression (TTP) was 14.5 months (CI 95%: 9-41). In multivariate analysis (n=43), predictors of tumour response were body mass index (BMI) (odds ratio [OR]: 1.3; CI 95%: 1.04-1.63; P=0.022), functioning type of tumour (OR: 7.31; CI 95%: 1.26-42.5; P=0.027), arterial phase enhancement on abdominal computed tomography (CT) (OR: 8.11; CI 95%:1.06-62; P=0.044) and use of streptozotocin for cytotoxic agent (OR: 21.3; CI 95%: 1.48-306; P=0.025). Analysis of TTP predictors showed that BMI (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.85; CI 95%: 0.76-0.86; P=0.01) and arterial phase enhancement (HR: 0.3; CI 95%: 0.12-0.73; P=0.008) were associated with delayed progression. This large study confirms the previously reported results of TACE regarding its efficacy for the treatment of liver metastases of endocrine tumours. Arterial phase enhancement on abdominal CT and BMI are predictors of treatment's efficacy. Streptozotocin should be the preferred cytotoxic agent in order to save anthracycline for systemic chemotherapy. PMID:17164755

Marrache, F; Vullierme, M P; Roy, C; El Assoued, Y; Couvelard, A; O'Toole, D; Mitry, E; Hentic, O; Hammel, P; Lévy, P; Ravaud, P; Rougier, P; Ruszniewski, P

2006-12-12

111

Pilot Evaluation of Early Juvenile Blue Crab Stock Enhancement Using a Replicated BACI Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

We quantified whether local populations of early juvenile blue crabs (J1–2) could be enhanced through the translocation of crabs to underutilized nursery habitats, and if enhancement success, survival, and potential impacts of stocked crabs on their benthic prey varied in a density-dependent manner. Using plankton nets, ?143,000 blue crab megalopae were collected as they ingressed into Pamlico Sound, NC. Of

David B. Eggleston; Eric G. Johnson; G. Todd Kellison; Gayle R. Plaia; Cynthia L. Huggett

2008-01-01

112

Angiotensin II receptors involved in the enhancement of noradrenergic transmission in the caudal artery of the spontaneously hypertensive rat.  

PubMed Central

1. The effects of the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan and the AT2 receptor antagonist PD 123319, on actions of angiotensin II in isolated caudal arteries of spontaneously hypertensive (SH) and age-matched normotensive (Wistar-Kyoto) rats were compared. 2. Angiotensin II (0.1-3 microM) produced concentration-dependent increases in perfusion pressure in artery preparations from both SH and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, the maximal increase in the SH rat being significantly greater than the increase in WKY rats. The increase in perfusion pressure in preparations from both strains of rats was prevented by losartan (0.1 microM) and unaffected by PD 123319 (0.1 microM), indicating that the vasoconstrictor action of angiotensin II is subserved by AT1 receptors. 3. Angiotensin II (0.1-3 microM) produced concentration-dependent enhancement of both stimulation-induced (S-I) efflux of [3H]-noradrenaline and stimulation-evoked vasoconstrictor responses in isolated preparations of caudal artery from both SH and WKY rats, in which the noradrenergic transmitter stores had been labelled with [3H]-noradrenaline. The maximum enhancement of S-I efflux produced by angiotensin II (1 microM) was significantly greater in artery preparations from WKY rats than in preparations from SH rats, whereas the maximum enhancement of stimulation-evoked vasoconstrictor responses was greater in preparations from SH rats than in those from WKY rats. 4. In artery preparations from both WKY and SH rats, the AT1 angiotensin II receptor antagonist, losartan (0.01 and 0.1 microM), reduced or abolished the enhancement of both S-I efflux and vasoconstrictor responses by 1 microM angiotensin II. 5. The combination of 0.01 microM losartan and 0.1 microM angiotensin II enhanced both the S-I efflux and stimulation-evoked vasoconstrictor response in caudal artery preparations from WKY rats, whereas 0.1 microM angiotensin alone was ineffective. The AT2 receptor antagonist PD 123319 (0.01 and 0.1 microM) prevented the enhancement of both S-I efflux and stimulation-evoked vasoconstrictor responses by the combination of angiotensin II and losartan. 6. In contrast to findings in WKY preparations and those previously obtained for arteries from another normotensive strain (Sprague-Dawley), in artery preparations from SH rats there was no synergistic interaction between losartan and angiotensin II. Rather, combinations of 0.1 microM angiotensin II and PD 123319 (both 0.01 and 0.1 microM) enhanced S-I [3H]-noradrenaline efflux, whereas 0.1 microM angiotensin II alone was without effect. Moreover, losartan (0.1 microM) prevented the enhancement of S-I efflux by the combination of angiotensin II and PD 123319. 7. The present findings indicate that in the caudal artery of WKY and SH rats, and as previously found in Sprague-Dawley preparations, angiotensin II receptors similar to the AT1B subtype subserve enhancement of transmitter noradrenaline release. 8. As previously suggested for Sprague-Dawley caudal artery preparations, the synergistic prejunctional interaction of losartan and 0.1 microM angiotensin II in caudal artery preparations from WKY rats may be due to either the unmasking by losartan of a latent population of angiotensin II receptors subserving facilitation of transmitter noradrenaline release, or blockade by losartan of an inhibitory action of angiotensin II on transmitter release. 9. The synergistic interaction of PD 123319 and 0.1 microM angiotensin II in caudal arteries of SH rats may also be explained by either of the mechanisms proposed for the normotensive strains, but the involvement of different receptor subtypes would need to be postulated for each of the proposed mechanisms.

Cox, S. L.; Story, D. F.; Ziogas, J.

1996-01-01

113

Quantitative analysis of exercise-induced enhancement of early- and late-systolic retrograde coronary blood flow  

PubMed Central

Coronary blood flow (CBF) is reduced and transiently reversed during systole via cardiac contraction. Cardiac contractility, coronary tone, and arterial pressure each influence systolic CBF (CBFSYS), particularly by modulating the retrograde component of CBFSYS. The effect of concurrent changes in these factors on CBFSYS during dynamic exercise has not been examined. Using chronically instrumented swine, we hypothesized that dynamic exercise enhances retrograde CBFSYS. Phasic CBF was examined at rest and during treadmill exercise [2–5 miles/h (mph)]. Absolute values of mean CBF over the cardiac cycle (CBFCYCLE) as well as mean CBF in diastole (CBFDIAS) and mean CBFSYS were increased by exercise, while relative CBFDIAS and CBFSYS expressed as percentage of mean CBFCYCLE were principally unchanged. Early retrograde CBFSYS was present at rest and increased in magnitude (?33 ± 4 ml/min) and as a percent of CBFCYCLE (?0.6 ± 0.1%) at 5 mph. This reversal was transient, comprising 3.7 ± 0.3% of cardiac cycle duration at 5 mph. Our results also reveal that moderately intense exercise (>3 mph) induced a second CBF reversal in late systole before aortic valve closure. At 5 mph, late retrograde CBFSYS amounted to ?53 ± 11 ml/min (?3.1 ± 0.7% of CBFCYCLE) while occupying 11.1 ± 0.3% of cardiac cycle duration. Wave-intensity analysis revealed that the second flow reversal coincided with an enhanced aortic forward-going decompression wave (vs. rest). Therefore, our data demonstrate a predictable increase in early-systolic CBF reversal during exercise and additionally that exercise induces a late-systolic CBF reversal related to the hemodynamic effects of left ventricular relaxation that is not predictable using current models of phasic CBF.

van Houwelingen, Marc J.; Merkus, Daphne; Duncker, Dirk J.; Laughlin, M. Harold

2010-01-01

114

Quantitative analysis of exercise-induced enhancement of early- and late-systolic retrograde coronary blood flow.  

PubMed

Coronary blood flow (CBF) is reduced and transiently reversed during systole via cardiac contraction. Cardiac contractility, coronary tone, and arterial pressure each influence systolic CBF (CBF(SYS)), particularly by modulating the retrograde component of CBF(SYS). The effect of concurrent changes in these factors on CBF(SYS) during dynamic exercise has not been examined. Using chronically instrumented swine, we hypothesized that dynamic exercise enhances retrograde CBF(SYS). Phasic CBF was examined at rest and during treadmill exercise [2-5 miles/h (mph)]. Absolute values of mean CBF over the cardiac cycle (CBF(CYCLE)) as well as mean CBF in diastole (CBF(DIAS)) and mean CBF(SYS) were increased by exercise, while relative CBF(DIAS) and CBF(SYS) expressed as percentage of mean CBF(CYCLE) were principally unchanged. Early retrograde CBF(SYS) was present at rest and increased in magnitude (-33 +/- 4 ml/min) and as a percent of CBF(CYCLE) (-0.6 +/- 0.1%) at 5 mph. This reversal was transient, comprising 3.7 +/- 0.3% of cardiac cycle duration at 5 mph. Our results also reveal that moderately intense exercise (>3 mph) induced a second CBF reversal in late systole before aortic valve closure. At 5 mph, late retrograde CBF(SYS) amounted to -53 +/- 11 ml/min (-3.1 +/- 0.7% of CBF(CYCLE)) while occupying 11.1 +/- 0.3% of cardiac cycle duration. Wave-intensity analysis revealed that the second flow reversal coincided with an enhanced aortic forward-going decompression wave (vs. rest). Therefore, our data demonstrate a predictable increase in early-systolic CBF reversal during exercise and additionally that exercise induces a late-systolic CBF reversal related to the hemodynamic effects of left ventricular relaxation that is not predictable using current models of phasic CBF. PMID:20007853

Bender, Shawn B; van Houwelingen, Marc J; Merkus, Daphne; Duncker, Dirk J; Laughlin, M Harold

2009-12-10

115

Reversible Ischemia Determined by Xenon-Enhanced CT after 90 Minutes of Complete Basilar Artery Occlusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Intraarterial thrombolytic therapy decreases mortality in the treatment of acute basilar artery occlusion. An acute decrease in cerebral blood flow (CBF) (<12 mL\\/ 100 g per minute) has been reported to invariably result in infarction. We report a case of acute basilar artery occlu- sion, recanalized within 90 minutes, with reversal of CBF of less than 6 mL\\/100 g

Elad I. Levy; Alan M. Scarrow; Emanuel Kanal; Giorgio Rubin; Howard Yonas; Lori Kirby

116

Enhancing Early Child Care Quality and Learning for Toddlers at Risk: The Responsive Early Childhood Program.  

PubMed

Despite reports of positive effects of high-quality child care, few experimental studies have examined the process of improving low-quality center-based care for toddler-age children. In this article, we report intervention effects on child care teachers' behaviors and children's social, emotional, behavioral, early literacy, language, and math outcomes as well as the teacher-child relationship. The intervention targeted the use of a set of responsive teacher practices, derived from attachment and sociocultural theories, and a comprehensive curriculum. Sixty-five childcare classrooms serving low-income 2- and 3-year-old children were randomized into 3 conditions: business-as-usual control, Responsive Early Childhood Curriculum (RECC), and RECC plus explicit social-emotional classroom activities (RECC+). Classroom observations showed greater gains for RECC and RECC+ teachers' responsive practices including helping children manage their behavior, establishing a predictable schedule, and use of cognitively stimulating activities (e.g., shared book reading) compared with controls; however, teacher behaviors did not differ for focal areas such as sensitivity and positive discipline supports. Child assessments demonstrated that children in the interventions outperformed controls in areas of social and emotional development, although children's performance in control and intervention groups was similar for cognitive skills (language, literacy, and math). Results support the positive impact of responsive teachers and environments providing appropriate support for toddlers' social and emotional development. Possible explanations for the absence of systematic differences in children's cognitive skills are considered, including implications for practice and future research targeting low-income toddlers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23772822

Landry, Susan H; Zucker, Tricia A; Taylor, Heather B; Swank, Paul R; Williams, Jeffrey M; Assel, Michael; Crawford, April; Huang, Weihua; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine; Lonigan, Christopher J; Phillips, Beth M; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L; de Villiers, Jill; de Villiers, Peter; Barnes, Marcia; Starkey, Prentice; Klein, Alice

2013-06-17

117

Enhanced Visual Speech Perception in Individuals with Early-Onset Hearing Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: L. E. Bernstein, M. E. Demorest, and P. E. Tucker (2000) demonstrated enhanced speechreading accuracy in participants with early-onset hearing loss compared with hearing participants. Here, the authors test the generalization of Bernstein et al.'s (2000) result by testing 2 new large samples of participants. The authors also investigated…

Auer, Edward T., Jr.; Bernstein, Lynne E.

2007-01-01

118

Relation between preoperative mild increased in serum creatinine level and early outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the effect of preoperative increased level of serum creatinine (Cr) on early outcomes after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). 1140 patients who underwent CABG in our center were studied. Patients with Cr >2.25 mg/dl or preoperative dialysis and who had off-pump operations were excluded. Group 1 consisted of 892 patients with normal Cr (0.5-1.2 mg/dl) and group 2 consisted of 248 (21.8%) patients with mild increased level of serum Cr (1.3-2.2 mg/dl). Patients in group 1 were younger than group 2. There were more patients with hypertension in group 2, but there were not statistically significant difference between two groups in terms of the frequency of diabetes, smoking, cerebrovascular disease and New York Heart Association (NYHA) class. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was lower in group 2. Cardiopulmonary bypass time (CPB) was longer in group 2. Early mortality was 3.2% in group 1 and 8.4% in group 2 (P<0.001). Prolonged ICU stay, low cardiac output, prolonged mechanical ventilation, postoperative atrial fibrillation, postoperative re-exploration and sepsis were more frequent in group 2. Mild increase in serum Cr level preoperatively is a marker of increased early mortality and outcome after CABG. PMID:21598216

Radmehr, Hassan; Forouzannia, Seyed Khalil; Bakhshandeh, Ali Reza; Sanatkar, Mehdi

2011-01-01

119

Enhanced External Counterpulsation Improves Peripheral Artery Flow Mediated Dilation in Patients With Chronic Angina: A Randomized Sham-Controlled Study  

PubMed Central

Background Mechanisms responsible for anti-ischemic benefits of enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) remain unknown. This was the first randomized, sham controlled study to investigate the extra-cardiac effects of EECP on peripheral artery flow mediated dilation. Methods and Results Forty-two symptomatic patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) were randomized (2:1 ratio) to either 35 1-hr sessions of EECP (n=28) or Sham-EECP (n=14). Flow-mediated dilation of the brachial and femoral arteries was performed using ultrasound. Plasma levels of nitrate and nitrite (NOx), 6-keto prostaglandin F1? (PGF1?), endothelin-1 (ET-1), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), tumor necrosis factor–? (TNF-?), monocyte chemoattractant protein–1 (MCP-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM), C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and 8-Isoprostane (8-iso-PGF2?) were measured. EECP increased brachial (+51% vs. +2%) and femoral (+30% vs. +3%) artery flow mediated dilation, the nitric oxide turnover/production marker NOx (+36% vs. +2%) and PGF1? (+71% vs. +1%), while decreasing ET-1 (-25% vs. +5%) and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor ADMA (-28% vs. +0.2%) in treatment vs. sham, respectively (all p<0.05). EECP decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-? (-16% vs. +12%), MCP-1 (-13% vs. +0.2%), sVCAM-1 (-6% vs. +1%), hsCRP (-32% vs. +5%), and the lipid peroxidation marker 8-iso-PGF2? (-21% vs. +1.3%) in treatment vs. sham, respectively (all p<0.05). EECP reduced angina classification (-62% vs 0%; p<0.001) in treatment vs. sham, respectively. Conclusions Our findings provide novel mechanistic evidence that EECP has a beneficial effect on peripheral artery flow mediated dilation and endothelial-derived vasoactive agents in patients with symptomatic CAD.

Braith, Randy W.; Conti, C. Richard; Nichols, Wilmer W.; Choi, Calvin Y.; Khuddus, Matheen A.; Beck, Darren T.; Casey, Darren P.

2010-01-01

120

[Evaluation of early response to antiangiogenic treatment with dynamic contrast enhanced ultrasound].  

PubMed

Early functional imaging evaluation of targeted treatments in oncology is of major importance. Dynamic contrast enhanced US is now recognized as a functional imaging technique able to evaluate new antiangiogenic drugs targeting superficial and deep seated lesions. This evaluation is based on an analysis of the curve of signal intensity over time after injection of the contrast agent. The availability of quantification software allows objective quantification of tumor perfusion parameters from linear raw data, prior to logarithmic signal compression, including maximum intensity of enhancement, mean transit time, time to peak, and wash-in slope coefficient. Dynamic contrast enhanced US, a sensitive, reproducible and readily available technique, allows early prediction of tumor response to treatment based on changes in vascularity, before morphological changes (RECIST) become apparent. PMID:18535495

Lassau, N; Brule, A; Chami, L; Benatsou, B; Péronneau, P; Roche, A

2008-05-01

121

Associations of fetuin-A and osteoprotegerin with arterial stiffness and early atherosclerosis in chronic hemodialysis patients  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality remains excessive in patients with chronic kidney disease. The association of vascular changes with regulators of extraosseous calcification in this patient population is still under investigation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations of the calcification inhibitor fetuin-A, and the anti-osteoclastic factor osteoprotegerin (OPG) with vascular pathology in chronic hemodialysis patients. Methods In this cross-sectional study including 81 stable chronic hemodialysis patients, we measured carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) with applanation tonometry, reflecting arterial stiffness, and common carotid intima-media thickness (ccIMT), a surrogate of early atherosclerosis, as well as serum levels of fetuin-A and OPG. Co-morbidities, traditional cardiovascular risk factors, inflammatory markers and mineral-bone disease serology parameters were also recorded. Results cfPWV correlated inversely with fetuin-A (r=?0.355, p=0.001) and positively with OPG (r=0.584, p<0.001). In multilinear regression analysis including age, gender, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, pulse pressure, LDL, logCRP, both fetuin-A and OPG were independently associated with cfPWV (p=0.024 and p=0.041 respectively). ccIMT was negatively associated with fetuin-A (r=?0.312, p=0.005) and positively with OPG (r=0.521, p<0.0001); however these associations lost statistical significance after adjustment for age. Conclusion In chronic hemodialysis patients both fetuin-A and OPG levels are independently associated with arterial stiffness but not with early atherosclerotic vascular changes.

2013-01-01

122

Factors associated with early atherosclerosis and arterial calcifications in young subjects with a benign phenotype of obesity.  

PubMed

We assessed (i) the association between early arterial disease and factors linked to adiposity, dietary habits, and family in a young cohort of 151 obese children and adolescents with less than or equal to one cardiovascular (CV) risk factor, (ii) whether in subjects with carotid calcifications there was an imbalance of calcium-phosphorus homeostasis. Measurement included: carotid ultrasound, oral glucose tolerance test, anthropometry, body composition, dietary history, white blood cells count, lipids, uric acid, adiponectin, insulin, C-reactive protein, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium and phosphorus. Obese children with carotid artery intima media thickness (cIMT) values >75° percentile (0.55 mm), compared to those with lower cIMT, were more obese, more often pubertal and had higher prevalence of family history of CV disease (CVD) (P < 0.05), higher plasma PAI-1 and uric acid (P < 0.001) and lower adiponectin (P < 0.05) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels (P < 0.05). After adjustment for sex, age, puberty, obesity, and insulin levels, only PAI-I remained significantly different between the two groups (10.9 (7.2-29.8) vs. 6.2 (4.3-10.6) ng/ml, P < 0.001). Dietary intake did not affect cIMT values. Eight percent of subjects showed nonatherosclerotic carotid calcifications with patchy pattern. These children had a worse lipid profile (P < 0.05) and higher plasma PTH levels (48.6 ± 21.5 vs 38.5 ± 16.9 pg/ml, P < 0.05) that were inversely associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (r = 0.245, P < 0.01). Present results suggest that (i) several adiposity-related factors may play a role in promoting the development of early arterial diseases in young subjects with a benign phenotype of obesity, (ii) a PTH rise resulting from a subclinical imbalance in calcium-phosphorus homeostasis may affect the biological process of vascular calcifications. PMID:21273999

Gilardini, Luisa; Pasqualinotto, Lucia; Di Matteo, Silvia; Caffetto, Katherine; Croci, Marina; Girola, Andrea; Invitti, Cecilia

2011-01-27

123

Regional Ischemia and Ischemic Injury in Patients With Acute Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke as Defined by Early Diffusion-Weighted and Perfusion-Weighted MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—We sought to map early regional ischemia and infarction in patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke and compare them with final infarct size using advanced MRI techniques. MRI can now delineate very early infarction by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and abnormal tissue perfusion by perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI). Methods—Seventeen patients seen within 12 hours of onset of MCA stroke

Guy Rordorf; Walter J. Koroshetz; William A. Copen; Steven C. Cramer; Pamela W. Schaefer; Ronald F. Budzik; Lee H. Schwamm; Ferdinando Buonanno; A. Gregory Sorensen; Gilberto Gonzalez

124

Early life stress and inflammatory mechanisms of fatigue in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study.  

PubMed

Fatigue is highly prevalent and causes serious disruption in quality of life. Although cross-sectional studies suggest childhood adversity is associated with adulthood fatigue, longitudinal evidence of this relationship and its specific biological mechanisms have not been established. This longitudinal study examined the association between early life stress and adulthood fatigue and tested whether this association was mediated by low-grade systemic inflammation as indexed by circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). In the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, a population-based longitudinal study conducted in 4 US cities, early life stress was retrospectively assessed in 2716 African-American and white adults using the Risky Families Questionnaire at Year 15 examination (2000-2001, ages 33-45 years). Fatigue as indexed by a loss of subjective vitality using the Vitality Subscale of the 12-item Short Form Health Survey was assessed at both Years 15 and 20. While CRP was measured at both Years 15 and 20, IL-6 was measured only at Year 20. Early life stress assessed at Year 15 was associated with adulthood fatigue at Year 20 after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, body-mass index, medication use, medical comorbidity, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, current stress, pain, sleep disturbance as well as Year 15 fatigue (adjusted beta 0.047, P=0.007). However, neither CRP nor IL-6 was a significant mediator of this association. In summary, early life stress assessed in adulthood was associated with fatigue 5 years later, but this association was not mediated by low-grade systemic inflammation. PMID:22554493

Cho, Hyong Jin; Bower, Julienne E; Kiefe, Catarina I; Seeman, Teresa E; Irwin, Michael R

2012-04-25

125

Effect of Different Pump Heads for CPB on Early Cognitive Outcome after Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery.  

PubMed

Objectives: Reduction of cognitive function is a possible side effect after coronary artery surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). We investigated the effect of roller versus centrifugal pumps for CPB on cognitive performance in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).Methods: 50 consecutive CABG patients operated with centrifugal pump were compared to 50 roller pump patients matched for age and duration of CPB. Six neuropsychological subtests from the Syndrom Kurz Test and the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale were performed preoperatively and on the third postoperative day in a double blind fashion. To assess the overall cognitive function and the degree of cognitive decline across all tests after surgery we combined the six test-scores by principal component analysis.Results: Patients with a mean age of 63.9±8.4 years received a mean of 3.0±0.9 bypasses within an average of 80.6±20.7 mins on CPB. These parameters as well as the preoperative combined neurocognitive score were not significantly different between the groups. After the operation there was a significant deterioration of the combined neuropsychological score in both groups (centrifugal: preop 0.41±2.49 vs.postop -2.86±2.70, p <0.0005 and roller: preop -0.41±2.35 vs. postop -2.73±3.16, p <0.0005). However, the patients operated with a centrifugal pump had a significantly greater decline of overall cognitive function compared to the roller pump patients(3.3±1.7 vs. 2.3±2.7, p = 0.04).Conclusion: Roller pumps have a less cerebro-damaging effect than centrifugal pumps since they lead to a smaller postoperative decline of neuropsychological abilities in coronary bypass patients. PMID:23237983

Holinski, Sebastian; Claus, Benjamin; Haeger, Nicole; Neumann, Konrad; Uebelhack, Ralf; Konertz, Wolfgang

2012-12-14

126

Early and long-term results of the surgical treatment of tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia, with or without major aortopulmonary collateral arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We sought to determine the results of surgical treatment of patients with tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia with or without major aortopulmonary collateral arteries, to clarify variables affecting early and late mortality, and to expose late, nonfatal events affecting surgical patients. Methods: The records of 495 patients operated on from 1977 to 1999 were reviewed. Patients were separated

John M. Cho; Francisco J. Puga; Gordon K. Danielson; Joseph A. Dearani; Douglas D. Mair; Donald J. Hagler; Paul R. Julsrud; Duane M. Ilstrup

2002-01-01

127

Endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastric cancer using endoscopy with Fuji Intelligent Color Enhancement.  

PubMed

Demarcation of early gastric cancers is sometimes unclear. Indigo carmine chromoendoscopy has usually been used as a diagnostic method for tumor margins as it enhances mucosal irregularities and differences in color. Fuji Intelligent Color Enhancement (FICE), a recently developed virtual chromoendoscopic system, can explore the entire mucosal surface (of structures and vessels). Here we report a case of a patient with early gastric cancer who underwent a successful endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) using endoscopy with FICE. A 58-year-old man with early gastric cancer underwent an ESD. Demarcation of the lesion was not clear through normal endoscopy. Therefore, an endoscopy was performed with FICE, which clearly revealed the demarcation. An ESD was carried out after spots were marked circumferentially. We identified the positional relationship between the demarcation and all markings on the magnifying model. A resection of the lesion was performed on the area outside the markings. Finally, the lesion was Histopathologically diagnosed as a well-differentiated adeno-carcinoma confined in the mucosal region, and the margins were free from carcinoma. FICE, especially combined with the magnifying model, is useful in the identification of the demarcation of early gastric cancer. This method may be useful in increasing the rate of complete resection by ESD for early gastric cancer. PMID:23386167

Yu, Shi-Jie; Shen, Lei; Luo, He-Sheng

2013-02-01

128

Early detection of acute fulminant pancreatitis by contrast-enhanced computed tomography.  

PubMed

Twenty-eight consecutive patients with a first attack of acute alcohol-induced pancreatitis were examined by computed tomography (CT). After a survey scan of the abdomen a rapid contrast bolus (400 mg I/kg) was given intravenously, and the contrast enhancement of the pancreatic parenchyma was measured from a consecutive series of pancreatic scans. Nine patients with a fulminant course of the disease were operated on, and haemorrhagic necrotizing pancreatitis was found in eight. In all of these the contrast enhancement was decreased or absent. Patients recovering by conservative treatment showed normal or increased enhancement. The contrast enhancement seems to constitute a useful criterion for the early differentiation of acute fulminant pancreatitis from less severe forms of the disease. PMID:6675177

Kivisaari, L; Somer, K; Standertskjöld-Nordenstam, C G; Schröder, T; Kivilaakso, E; Lempinen, M

1983-01-01

129

Detection of Recurrent Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Cirrhotic Liver after Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization: Value of Quantitative Color Mapping of the Arterial Enhancement Fraction of the Liver  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the additional diagnostic value of color mapping of the hepatic arterial enhancement fraction (AEF) for detecting recurrent or residual hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients treated with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). Materials and Methods Seventy-six patients with 126 HCCs, all of whom had undergone previous TACE, and subsequently, underwent follow-up multiphasic liver CT scans, were included in this study. Quantitative color maps of the AEF of the whole liver were created, by using prototype software with non-rigid registration. The AEF was defined as the ratio of the attenuation increment during the arterial phase to the attenuation increment during the portal phase. Two radiologists independently analyzed the two image sets at a two-week interval, i.e., the multiphasic CT image set and the second image set of the AEF color maps and the CT images. The additional diagnostic value of the AEF color mapping was determined, by the use of the jackknife-alternative free-response receiver-operating-characteristic analysis. The sensitivity and positive predictive values for detecting HCCs of each image set were also evaluated and compared. Results The reader-averaged figures of merit were 0.699 on the initial interpretation of the MDCT image set, and 0.831 on the second interpretation of the combined image set; the difference between the two interpretations was significant (p value < 0.001). The mean sensitivity for residual or recurrent HCC detection increased from 62.7% on the initial analysis to 82.1% on the second analysis using the AEF color maps (p value < 0.001). The mean positive predictive value for HCC detection was 74.5% on the initial analysis using MDCT, and 71.6% on the second analysis using AEF color mapping. Conclusion Quantitative color mapping of the hepatic AEF may have the possibility to increase the diagnostic performance of MDCT for the detection of recurrent or residual HCC without the potential risk of radiation-related hazards.

Lee, Dong Ho; Klotz, Ernst; Kim, Soo Jin; Kim, Kyung Won; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn

2013-01-01

130

Renal dysfunction enhances, and nifedipine retards coronary artery calcifications in high risk hypertensives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renal failure may be associated with adverse coronary outcome. We examined the progression of coronary atherosclerosis as measured by dual-section spiral computed tomography using total coronary artery calcium score (TCS) as a quantitative measure of the burden of atherosclerosis. In this side-arm of the INSIGHT study, 313 high risk Israeli hypertensive patients completed the prospective calcification study. Subjects were studied

Michael Bursztyn; Michael Motro; Ehud Grossman; Joseph Shemesh

2003-01-01

131

Early auditory enrichment with music enhances auditory discrimination learning and alters NR2B protein expression in rat auditory cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that the functional development of auditory system is substantially influenced by the structure of environmental acoustic inputs in early life. In our present study, we investigated the effects of early auditory enrichment with music on rat auditory discrimination learning. We found that early auditory enrichment with music from postnatal day (PND) 14 enhanced learning ability in

Jinghong Xu; Liping Yu; Rui Cai; Jiping Zhang; Xinde Sun

2009-01-01

132

Evaluation of contrast-enhanced MR angiography in the follow-up of visceral arterial aneurysms after coil embolization.  

PubMed

BackgroundThe placement of detachable coil has become the alternative method of treating visceral arterial aneurysms (VAAs). Imaging follow-up is necessary after coil embolization because of frequent incomplete occlusion.PurposeTo compare contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) at 3T with a reference standard of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) for the evaluation of VAAs after coil embolization.Material and MethodsWe treated 15 patients with VAA with coil embolization; eight had splenic artery aneurysms and seven had renal artery aneurysms. We packed the aneurysmal sac preserving native arterial circulation. For follow-up, all patients underwent CE-MRA at 3T and DSA. The results were classified according to coil occlusion: Class 1, complete occlusion; Class 2, residual neck; Class 3, aneurysmal filling.ResultsCE-MRA revealed 11 complete occlusions and four residual necks. DSA follow-up showed 12 complete occlusions and three residual necks. No aneurysmal filling occurred after treatment. Comparison of CE-MRA and DSA findings showed 93% agreement (14/15). CE-MRA allowed the detection of a residual neck in one misclassified case in which DSA showed occlusion. Coil-related artifacts were minimal and did not interfere with evaluation of the occlusion status of the VAAs.ConclusionCE-MRA at 3T provides high-quality images equivalent to DSA for the evaluation of VAAs after coil embolization. We suggest that CE-MRA at 3T might be used as the primary method for follow-up of VAAs after coil embolization. PMID:23436827

Iryo, Yasuhiko; Ikushima, Ichiro; Hirai, Toshinori; Yonenaga, Kazuchika; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

2013-02-23

133

Contralateral internal carotid artery occlusion impairs early but not 30-day stroke rate following carotid endarterectomy.  

PubMed

Neurological complications and mortality within 30 days following carotid endarterectomy (CEA) alone or with concomitant cardiac surgery/cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were assessed in patients with or without contralateral occlusion of the internal carotid artery (CO-ICA).Of 335 patients undergoing CEA, 173 underwent concomitant cardiac surgery with CPB. Group A consisted of 260 patients without CO-ICA and group B of 75 patients with CO-ICA. The neurological complications (peripheral nerve damage, transient ischemic attack [TIA], prolonged reversible ischemic neurological deficit [PRIND], and stroke) and the Rankin index within 24 hours and 30 days postoperatively were compared. Strokes within 24 hours were significantly increased (P = .006) in group B (11%) compared with A (3.1%); TIA and PRIND did not differ (P = .33). The overall neurological complications and in particular for peripheral neurological damage, TIA/PRIND, and stroke did not differ within the 30-day-period postsurgery. A significantly higher stroke rate within 24 hours postsurgery occurred in patients with CO-ICA. PMID:20498141

Bagaev, Erik; Pichlmaier, A Maximilian; Bisdas, Theodosios; Wilhelmi, Mathias H; Haverich, Axel; Teebken, Omke E

2010-05-24

134

Baculovirus immediately early 1, a mediator for homologous regions enhancer function in trans  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Enhancers are DNA sequences that serve as binding sites for regulatory proteins, and stimulate transcriptional activity independent of their positions and orientations with respect to the transcriptional initiation site. Previous studies considered that baculovirus homologous regions (hrs) function as enhancers in cis. In our study, a plasmid containing homologous region 3 (hr3) enhancer from Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) failed to enhance transcription of promoter in other plasmid in co-transfection assays, but strong stimulation occurred when cells were infected by BmNPV. Results The cotransfection results of each BmNPV genomic library plasmid, hr3 plasmid and reporter plasmid showed that there were eight library plasmids stimulated the luciferase gene expression remarkably. Sequencing these plasmids revealed that each of them contained the ie-1 gene. Transfected plasmids, containing ie-1, hr3 and various origin promoter drove reporter gene showed the function was even retained. Cotransfection of hr3 functional dissected fragment and ie-1 revealed that the 30-bp imperfect palindrome destroyed fragment can't enhance reporter gene expression even though transfected with ie-1. Conclusion IE-1 was the only early factor of BmNPV that could act as a mediator for hr enhancer function in trans and the trans-function was achieved with a broad-spectrum of promoters. The 30-bp imperfect palindrome was the elementary molecular structure by which IE-1 participated in the enhancer function in trans.

2010-01-01

135

Absence of endogenous interleukin 10 enhances early stress response during post-ischaemic injury in mice intestine  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Interleukin 10 (IL-10) exerts a wide spectrum of regulatory activities in immune and inflammatory responses.?AIMS—The aim of this study was to investigate the role of endogenous IL-10 on modulation of the early inflammatory response after splanchnic ischaemia and reperfusion.?METHODS—Intestinal damage was induced by clamping the superior mesenteric artery and the coeliac trunk for 45 minutes followed by reperfusion in IL-10 deficient mice (IL-10?/?) and wild-type controls.?RESULTS—IL-10?/? mice experienced a higher rate of mortality and more severe tissue injury compared with wild-type mice subjected to ischaemia and reperfusion. Splanchnic injury was characterised by massive epithelial haemorrhagic necrosis, upregulation of P-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and neutrophil infiltration. The degree of oxidative and nitrosative damage was significantly higher in IL-10?/? mice than in wild-type littermates, as indicated by elevated malondialdehyde levels and formation of nitrotyrosine. Plasma levels of the proinflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor ? and interleukin 6 were also greatly enhanced in comparison with wild-type mice. These events were preceded by increased immunostaining and activity of the stress regulated c-Jun NH2 terminal kinase and activation of the transcription factor activator protein 1 in the cellular nuclei of damaged tissue.?CONCLUSIONS—These data demonstrate that endogenous IL-10 exerts an anti-inflammatory role during reperfusion injury, possibly by regulating early stress related genetic response, adhesion molecule expression, neutrophil recruitment, and subsequent cytokine and oxidant generation.???Keywords: splanchnic tissue; activator protein 1; adhesion molecules; interleukin 6; c-Jun NH2 terminal kinase; tumour necrosis factor ?

Zingarelli, B; Yang, Z; Hake, P; Denenberg, A; Wong, H

2001-01-01

136

Noninvasive Detection of Coronary Artery Stenoses with Contrast-Enhanced Whole-Heart Coronary Magnetic Resonance Angiography at 3.0 T  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the accuracy of contrast-enhanced whole-heart coronary magnetic resonance angiography (CMRA) at 3.0 T, with the use of sublingual nitroglycerin and abdominal banding, for assessing significant stenosis (?50% lumen diameter reduction) in patients with suspected coronary disease, using conventional coronary artery angiography as the reference standard. Methods: We prospectively studied 71 consecutive patients with suspected coronary artery

Zhiyong Chen; Qing Duan; Xunjing Xue; Lianglong Chen; Wenbin Ye; Lixin Jin; Bin Sun

2010-01-01

137

Enhancing the communication learning environment of an early years unit through action research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on an action research project in which an external consultant, special educational needs coordinator and staff of the early years unit of a mainstream school worked together to understand and enhance the communication learning environment provided for 3-5 year-old pupils. A transactional rather than deficit model was adopted, such that bi-directional influences in communication difficulties and communication

Melanie Nind

2003-01-01

138

Enhanced utilization of glycerol for glyceride synthesis in isolated adipocytes from early pregnant rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adipose tissue normally has low glycerol kinase activity, but its expression is enhanced under conditions of augmented insulin\\u000a sensitivity and\\/or obesity. Since these conditions occur during early pregnancy, the comparative utilization of glucose or\\u000a glycerol by isolated adipocytes from rats at 0, 7, 14, or 20 days of pregnancy was studied. Incubations were carried out in\\u000a the presence of [U14C]-glucose or

Emilio Herrera; Sonia del Campo; Justyna Marciniak; Julio Sevillano; Maria Pilar Ramos

2010-01-01

139

Complex functional interactions at the early enhancer of the PQ strain of BK virus.  

PubMed Central

BK virus is a human papovavirus that latently infects a majority of the world's population. There are more than 30 strains of the virus, most of which differ in the structure of the early enhancer region. The enhancer of the progenitor strain, WW, from which the other strains can be derived, consists of four conserved DNA domains, P, Q, R, and S. Rearrangement of the enhancer occurs upon passage in tissue culture and is thought to occur during virus replication. The strain under study, PQ, was selected upon passage of the Gardner strain (PPPQS) in the permissive cell line, Vero. Mutational analysis of the entire enhancer region demonstrates the importance of five cis-acting sequences: DNA sites B, C, and F, which have homology to the NF-1 protein binding sequence; one purine-rich motif designated A; and site D, which is similar to an SP-1 protein binding site. Two sites, B and C, appear to have a negative influence on gene activity. To study the functional interactions in more detail, promoter-enhancer constructions that contain different combinations of the five DNA sites linked to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene were tested for early gene activity. The results reveal that the proteins binding to the enhancer functionally cooperate with each other. The effects of making mutations at the DNA sites are very similar to the effects of using excess enhancer DNA sequences to titrate the proteins that bind to the cis-acting DNA sites (in vivo competition). Moreover, the effects of changing the spacing between the DNA sites also demonstrate that there are cooperative interactions among the proteins that bind to the PQ strain enhancer. DNA sites B, C, and F are clearly protected from DNase I digestion by Vero cell nuclear proteins. In addition, mutation of each DNA site alters its sensitivity to DNase I in the presence of Vero cell proteins. Interestingly, mutation of site B affects protein binding to site B as well as to sites A, C, D, and F. These results suggest that cooperative functional and physical interactions occur at the early enhancer of the PQ strain. Images

Ferguson, A T; Subramani, S

1994-01-01

140

MRI after implantation of a novel femoral closure device following intra-arterial catheterisation: implications for subsequent contrast-enhanced MR angiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To assess MRI safety aspects and artefacts of a novel femoral artery closure device during contrast-enhanced MR angiography\\u000a in patients following intra-arterial catheterisation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Ten consecutive patients underwent MRI within 24 h of coronary angiography and placement of a femoral artery closure device.\\u000a We used a T2-weighted gradient-echo MRI sequence to measure the device-related artefact size in comparison with a phantom\\u000a image,

Oliver K. Mohrs; Steffen E. Petersen; Bernd Nowak; Hans-Ulrich Kauczor; Thomas Voigtlaender

2010-01-01

141

Regional Coronary Endothelial Function is Closely Related to Local Early Coronary Atherosclerosis in Patients with Mild Coronary Artery Disease: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background Coronary endothelial function (endoFx) is abnormal in patients with established coronary artery disease (CAD) and was recently shown by MRI to relate to the severity of luminal stenosis. Recent advances in MRI now allow the non-invasive assessment of both anatomic and functional (endoFx) changes that previously required invasive studies. We tested the hypothesis that abnormal coronary endoFx is related to measures of early atherosclerosis such as increased coronary wall thickness (CWT). Methods and Results Seventeen arteries in fourteen healthy adults and seventeen arteries in fourteen patients with non-obstructive CAD were studied. To measure endoFx, coronary MRI was performed before and during isometric handgrip exercise, an endothelial-dependent stressor and changes in coronary cross-sectional area (CSA) and flow were measured. Black blood imaging was performed to quantify CWT and other indices of arterial remodeling. The mean stress-induced change in CSA was significantly higher in healthy adults (13.5%±12.8%, mean±SD, n=17) than in those with mildly diseased arteries (-2.2±6.8%, p<0.0001, n=17). Mean CWT was lower in healthy subjects (0.9±0.2mm) than in CAD patients (1.4±0.3mm, p<0.0001). In contrast to healthy subjects, stress-induced changes in CSA, a measure of coronary endoFx, correlated inversely with CWT in CAD patients (r= -0.73, p=0.0008). Conclusions There is an inverse relationship between coronary endothelial function and local CWT in CAD patients but not in healthy adults. These findings demonstrate that local endothelial-dependent functional changes are related to the extent of early anatomic atherosclerosis in mildly diseased arteries. This combined MRI approach enables the anatomic and functional investigation of early coronary disease.

Hays, Allison G.; Kelle, Sebastian; Hirsch, Glenn A.; Soleimanifard, Sahar; Yu, Jing; Agarwal, Harsh K.; Gerstenblith, Gary; Schar, Michael; Stuber, Matthias; Weiss, Robert G.

2012-01-01

142

Magnetic field enriched surface enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy for early malaria diagnosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hemozoin is a by-product of malaria infection in erythrocytes, which has been explored as a biomarker for early malaria diagnosis. We report magnetic field-enriched surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERRS) of ?--hematin crystals, which are the equivalent of hemozoin biocrystals in spectroscopic features, by using magnetic nanoparticles with iron oxide core and silver shell (Fe3O4@Ag). The external magnetic field enriches ?--hematin crystals and enhances the binding between ?--hematin crystals and magnetic nanoparticles, which provides further improvement in SERRS signals. The magnetic field-enriched SERRS signal of ?--hematin crystals shows approximately five orders of magnitude enhancement in the resonance Raman signal, in comparison to about three orders of magnitude improvement in the SERRS signal without the influence of magnetic field. The improvement has led to a ?--hematin detection limit at a concentration of 5 nM (roughly equivalent to 30 parasites/?l at the early stages of malaria infection), which demonstrates the potential of magnetic field-enriched SERRS technique in early malaria diagnosis.

Yuen, Clement; Liu, Quan

2012-01-01

143

Delirium in early-stage alzheimer's disease: enhancing cognitive reserve as a possible preventive measure.  

PubMed

Delirium is a disorder of acute onset with fluctuating symptoms and is character ized by inattention, disorganized thinking and altered levels of consciousness. The risk for delirium is greatest in individual with dementia, and the incidence of both is increasing worldwide because of the aging of our population. Although s clinical trials have tested interventions f delirium prevention in individuals without dementia, little is known about the m anisms for the prevention of delirium i early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD). Th purpose of this article is to explore ways o preventing delirium and slowing the ra of cognitive decline in early-stage AD enhancing cognitive reserve. An agenda for future research on interventions to prevent delirium in individuals with early-stage AD is also presented. PMID:19326827

Fick, Donna M; Kolanowski, Ann; Beattie, Elizabeth; McCrow, Judith

2009-03-01

144

Enhanced susceptibility to arterial thrombosis in a murine model of hyperhomocysteinemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for thrombosis, but the mechanisms are not well defined. We tested the hypoth- esis that hyperhomocysteinemia acceler- ates arterial thrombosis in mice. Mice heterozygous for a targeted disruption of the cystathionine -synthase gene (Cbs\\/) and wild-type littermates (Cbs\\/) were fed either a control diet or a high methionine\\/low folate (HM\\/LF) diet for 6 to 8

Sanjana Dayal; Katina M. Wilson; Lorie Leo; Erland Arning; Teodoro Bottiglieri; Steven R. Lentz

2006-01-01

145

Congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries: imaging with contrast-enhanced, multidetector computed tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to evaluate multidetector CT (MDCT) in detecting and characterizing anomalous coronary arteries. Forty-four patients with anomalies of the coronaries were selected from a total of 1758 individuals examined with ECG-gated 4- and 16-row MDCT including thinMIP, MPR and VRT post-processing. Twenty-eight patients showed origin and course anomalies of the central coronary segments, and in

Rainer Schmitt; Steffen Froehner; Juergen Brunn; Matthias Wagner; Horst Brunner; Oleg Cherevatyy; Frank Gietzen; Georgios Christopoulos; Sebastian Kerber; Franz Fellner

2005-01-01

146

The Human Cytomegalovirus Major Immediate-Early Enhancer Determines the Efficiency of Immediate-Early Gene Transcription and Viral Replication in Permissive Cells at Low Multiplicity of Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the effect of the human cytomegalovirus (CMV) major immediate-early (MIE) enhancer or promoter on the efficiency of viral replication in permissive human cells, we constructed recombinant viruses with their human MIE promoter, enhancer, and promoter plus enhancer replaced with the murine CMV components. After a low multiplicity of infection (MOI) (0.01 PFU\\/cell), recombinant human CMV with the murine

Hiroki Isomura; Mark F. Stinski

2003-01-01

147

The Human Cytomegalovirus Major Immediate-Early Distal Enhancer Region Is Required for Efficient Viral Replication and Immediate-Early Gene Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) major immediate-early (MIE) genes, encoding IE1 p72 and IE2 p86, are activated by a complex enhancer region (base positions -65 to -550) that operates in a cell type- and differentiation-dependent manner. The expression of MIE genes is required for HCMV replication. Previous studies analyzing functions of MIE promoter-enhancer segments suggest that the distal enhancer region vari-

JEFFERY L. MEIER; JONATHAN A. PRUESSNER

2000-01-01

148

Social paediatrics and early child development - the practical enhancements: Part 2  

PubMed Central

Parents have central and critical influence in the health, learning and development of their young children. The physician plays a key role in supporting this role of parents, and there are practical health interventions that practitioners can promote in everyday practice that are coherent with the population-based evidence related to childhood outcomes. Four child development enhancers are recognized – emotional awareness, reading books, appropriate discipline and preschool programs including appropriate play opportunities. The child’s physician can give clear messages about why each enhancer is important and what parents can do to use them to create nurturing environments for their children. The present article provides the evidence for these interventions and a series of coordinated physician activities that will enhance the early learning opportunities of the first few years of life, for improved trajectories for health and well being.

Bertrand, Jane; Williams, Robin; Ford-Jones, Lee

2008-01-01

149

Phase-based arterial input function measurements in the femoral arteries for quantification of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI and comparison with DCE-CT.  

PubMed

Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI is useful for diagnosis, treatment monitoring and follow-up of prostate cancer. However, large differences have been reported in the parameter range of the transfer constant K(trans) , making longitudinal studies and comparison of DCE-MRI findings between studies difficult. Large part of this inconsistency in K(trans) values can be attributed to problems with the accurate measurement of the arterial input function (AIF) from the magnitude signal (AIF(MAG) (N) ). Phase-based AIF measurements (AIF(PHASE) ) have been proposed as a more robust alternative to AIF(MAG) (N) measurements. This study compares AIF(PHASE) with AIFs measured with DCE-CT (AIF(CT) ), and the corresponding K(trans) maps in 12 prostate cancer patients. The shape of AIF(PHASE) and AIF(CT) are similar, although differences in the peak height and peak width exist as a result of differences in injection protocol. No significant differences in K(trans) values were found between the DCE-MRI and DCE-CT exams, with median K(trans) values of 0.10 and 0.08 min(-1) for healthy peripheral zone tissue and 0.44 and 0.36 min(-1) for regions suspected of tumor respectively. Therefore, robust quantification of K(trans) values from DCE-MRI exams in the cancerous prostate is feasible with the use of AIF(PHASE) . PMID:21604291

Korporaal, Johannes G; van den Berg, Cornelis A T; van Osch, Matthias J P; Groenendaal, Greetje; van Vulpen, Marco; van der Heide, Uulke A

2011-05-20

150

Influence of starter protein content on growth of dairy calves in an enhanced early nutrition program.  

PubMed

Our objectives were to determine the effect of starter crude protein (CP) content on growth of Holstein calves from birth to 10 wk of age in an enhanced early nutrition program, and to compare the enhanced program to a conventional milk replacer program. Calves (64 female, 25 male) were assigned to 3 treatments in a randomized block design: 1) conventional milk replacer (20% CP, 20% fat) plus conventional starter [19.6% CP, dry matter (DM) basis], 2) enhanced milk replacer (28.5% CP, 15% fat) plus conventional starter, and 3) enhanced milk replacer plus high-CP starter (25.5% CP, DM basis). Calves began treatments (n=29, 31, and 29 for treatments 1 to 3) at 3 d of age. Conventional milk replacer (12.5% solids) was fed at 1.25% of birth body weight (BW) as DM daily in 2 feedings from wk 1 to 5 and at 0.625% of birth BW once daily during wk 6. Enhanced milk replacer (15% solids) was fed at 1.5% of BW as DM during wk 1 and 2% of BW as DM during wk 2 to 5, divided into 2 daily feedings. During wk 6, enhanced milk replacer was fed at 1% of BW as DM once daily. Calves were weaned at d 42. Starter was available for ad libitum intake starting on d 3. Starter intake was greater for calves fed conventional milk replacer. For calves fed enhanced milk replacer, starter intake tended to be greater for calves fed enhanced starter. During the weaning period, enhanced starter promoted greater starter DM intake than the conventional starter. Over the 10-wk study, the average daily gain of BW (0.64, 0.74, and 0.80 kg/d) was greater for calves fed enhanced milk replacer with either starter and, for calves fed enhanced milk replacer, tended to be greater for calves fed high-CP starter. Rates of change in withers height, body length, and heart girth were greater for calves fed enhanced milk replacer but did not differ between starter CP concentrations. The postweaning BW for enhanced milk replacer treatments was greater for calves receiving the enhanced starter at wk 8 (73.7, 81.3, and 85.8 kg) and wk 10 (88.0, 94.9, and 99.9 kg). Starter CP content did not affect height, length, or heart girth within enhanced milk replacer treatments. Regression analysis showed that gain of BW during the first week postweaning (wk 7) increased with greater 3-d mean starter intake in the week before weaning. Starter with 25.5% CP (DM basis) provided modest benefits in starter intake (particularly around weaning) and growth for dairy calves in an enhanced early nutrition program compared with a conventional starter (19.6% CP). PMID:22612966

Stamey, J A; Janovick, N A; Kertz, A F; Drackley, J K

2012-06-01

151

Association of CD36 gene polymorphisms with echo- and electrocardiographic parameters in patients with early onset coronary artery disease  

PubMed Central

Introduction CD36 plays an important role in long-chain fatty acid homeostasis in skeletal muscle and the myocardium. CD36 deficiency may lead to reduced myocardial uptake of long-chain fatty acid. Therefore, different mutations of the CD36 gene may contribute to the clinical heterogeneity of cardiac hypertrophy. Material and methods The objective of the study was to investigate whether there is an association between the sequence changes in CD36 and echocardiographic and electrocardiographic parameters in Caucasian patients with early onset coronary artery disease. The study group comprised 100 patients. Electrocardiography and echocardiography were performed in all patients. Amplicons of exons 4 to 6 including fragments of introns were studied using the denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography technique. Results IVS3-6TC (rs3173798) heterozygotes had impaired left ventricle diastolic function. 573GA heterozygotes (rs5956) had higher frequency of pseudonormal left ventricular diastolic function and it was confirmed by the increase in wave A’ in the tissue Doppler. 591AT genotype was associated with borderline higher posterior wall end-diastolic thickness and lower E/A ratio. These results are consistent with electrocardiography parameters which could reflect left ventricular hypertrophy (higher RV5(6) and RV5(6) + SV1(2) parameters, depressed ST segments and tendency to longer Qtc II interval) in 591AT heterozygotes. Conclusions Detected variant alleles of CD36 may be associated with features of left ventricular hypertrophy and impaired diastolic function.

Kurzawski, Grzegorz; Safranow, Krzysztof; Rac, Michal; Sagasz-Tysiewicz, Dagmara; Krzystolik, Andrzej; Poncyljusz, Wojciech; Olszewska, Maria; Dawid, Grazyna; Chlubek, Dariusz

2012-01-01

152

Osteogenic Matrix Cell Sheet Transplantation Enhances Early Tendon Graft to Bone Tunnel Healing in Rabbits  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine whether osteogenic matrix cell sheets (OMCS) could induce bone formation around grafted tendons, thereby enhancing early stage tendon to bone tunnel healing in skeletally mature male Japanese white rabbits. First, the osteogenic potential of rabbit OMCS was evaluated. Then, the OMCS were transplanted into the interface between the grafted tendon and the bone tunnel created at the tibia. Histological assessments and biomechanical tensile testing were performed after 3 weeks. The rabbit OMCS showed high alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, positive staining of ALP, and osteogenic potential when transplanted subcutaneously with beta tricalcium phosphate disks. Newly formed bony walls and positive collagen type I staining were seen around the grafted tendon with OMCS transplantation, whereas such bony walls were thinner or less frequent without OMCS transplantation. Micro-computed tomography images showed significantly higher bone volume in the OMCS transplantation group. The pullout strength was significantly higher with OMCS (0.74 ± 0.23?N/mm2) than without OMCS (0.58 ± 0.15?N/mm2). These results show that OMCS enhance early tendon to bone tunnel healing. This method can be applied to cases requiring early tendon to bone tunnel healing after ligament reconstruction surgery.

Uematsu, Kota; Akahane, Manabu; Morita, Yusuke; Ogawa, Munehiro; Ueha, Tomoyuki; Shimizu, Takamasa; Kura, Tomohiko; Kawate, Kenji; Tanaka, Yasuhito

2013-01-01

153

Orientation enhancement in early visual processing can explain time course of brightness contrast and White's illusion.  

PubMed

Dynamics of orientation tuning in V1 indicates that computational model of V1 should not only comprise of bank of static spatially oriented filters but also include the contribution for dynamical response facilitation or suppression along orientation. Time evolution of orientation response in V1 can emerge due to time- dependent excitation and lateral inhibition in the orientation domain. Lateral inhibition in the orientation domain suggests that Ernst Mach's proposition can be applied for the enhancement of initial orientation distribution that is generated due to interaction of visual stimulus with spatially oriented filters and subcortical temporal filter. Oriented spatial filtering that appears much early (<70 ms) in the sequence of visual information processing can account for many of the brightness illusions observed at steady state. It is therefore expected that time evolution of orientation response might be reflecting in the brightness percept over time. Our numerical study suggests that only spatio-temporal filtering at early phase can explain experimentally observed temporal dynamics of brightness contrast illusion. But, enhancement of orientation response at early phase of visual processing is the key mechanism that can guide visual system to predict the brightness by "Max-rule" or "Winner Takes All" (WTA) estimation and thus producing White's illusions at any exposure. PMID:23456306

Karmakar, Subhajit; Sarkar, Sandip

2013-03-02

154

Rat Cytomegalovirus Major Immediate-Early Enhancer Switching Results in Altered Growth Characteristics  

PubMed Central

It has been hypothesized that the major immediate-early (MIE) enhancer of cytomegalovirus (CMV) is important in determining virus tropism and latency because of its essential role in initiating the cascade of early gene expression necessary for virus replication. Although rat CMV (RCMV) and murine CMV (MCMV) exhibit extreme species specificity in vivo, they differ in their ability to replicate in tissue culture. MCMV can replicate in a rat embryo fibroblast (REF) cell line while RCMV does not grow in murine fibroblasts. The tropism is not due to a block in virus entry into the cell. We have constructed a recombinant RCMV in which the RCMV MIE enhancer has been replaced with that of MCMV. Growth of the recombinant virus in tissue culture remains restricted to rat cells, suggesting that other viral and/or host factors are more important in determining in vitro tropism. Unlike findings using recombinant MCMV in which the human CMV (HCMV) MIE enhancer substitutes for the native one (A. Angulo, M. Messerle, U. H. Koszinowski, and P. Ghazal, J. Virol. 72:8502–8509, 1998), infection with our recombinant virus at a low multiplicity of infection resulted in a substantial decrease in virus replication. This occurred despite comparable or increased MIE transcription from the recombinant virus. In vivo experiments showed that the recombinant virus replicates normally in the spleen during acute infection. Notably, the recombinant virus appears to be deficient in spreading to the salivary gland, suggesting a role for the MIE enhancer in tropism for certain tissues involved in virus dissemination. Four months after infection, recombinant virus with the foreign MIE enhancer was reactivated from spleen explants.

Sandford, Gordon R.; Brock, Lorine E.; Voigt, Sebastian; Forester, Craig M.; Burns, William H.

2001-01-01

155

Cholinergic enhancement reduces spatial spread of visual responses in human early visual cortex  

PubMed Central

Summary Animal studies have shown that acetylcholine decreases excitatory receptive field size and spread of excitation in early visual cortex. These effects are thought to be due to facilitation of thalamocortical synaptic transmission and/or suppression of intracortical connections. We have used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure the spatial spread of responses to visual stimulation in human early visual cortex. The cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil was administered to normal healthy human subjects to increase synaptic levels of acetylcholine in the brain. Cholinergic enhancement with donepezil decreased the spatial spread of excitatory fMRI responses in visual cortex, consistent with a role of acetylcholine in reducing excitatory receptive field size of cortical neurons. Donepezil also reduced response amplitude in visual cortex, but the cholinergic effects on spatial spread were not a direct result of reduced amplitude. These findings demonstrate that acetylcholine regulates spatial integration in human visual cortex.

Silver, Michael A.; Shenhav, Amitai; D'Esposito, Mark

2009-01-01

156

Acute hypoxia increases intracellular [Ca2+] in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle by enhancing capacitative Ca2+ entry.  

PubMed

Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) requires influx of extracellular Ca2+ in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). To determine whether capacitative Ca2+ entry (CCE) through store-operated Ca2+ channels (SOCCs) contributes to this influx, we used fluorescent microscopy and the Ca2+-sensitive dye fura-2 to measure effects of 4% O2 on intracellular [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) and CCE in primary cultures of PASMCs from rat distal pulmonary arteries. In PASMCs perfused with Ca2+-free Krebs Ringer bicarbonate solution (KRBS) containing cyclopiazonic acid to deplete Ca2+ stores in sarcoplasmic reticulum and nifedipine to prevent Ca2+ entry through L-type voltage-operated Ca2+ channels (VOCCs), hypoxia markedly enhanced both the increase in [Ca2+]i caused by restoration of extracellular [Ca2+] and the rate at which extracellular Mn2+ quenched fura-2 fluorescence. These effects, as well as the increased [Ca2+]i caused by hypoxia in PASMCs perfused with normal salt solutions, were blocked by the SOCC antagonists SKF-96365, NiCl2, and LaCl3 at concentrations that inhibited CCE >80% but did not alter [Ca2+]i responses to 60 mM KCl. In contrast, the VOCC antagonist nifedipine inhibited [Ca2+]i responses to hypoxia by only 50% at concentrations that completely blocked responses to KCl. The increased [Ca2+]i caused by hypoxia was completely reversed by perfusion with Ca2+-free KRBS. LaCl3 increased basal [Ca2+]i during normoxia, indicating effects other than inhibition of SOCCs. Our results suggest that acute hypoxia enhances CCE through SOCCs in distal PASMCs, leading to depolarization, secondary activation of VOCCs, and increased [Ca2+]i. SOCCs and CCE may play important roles in HPV. PMID:15665040

Wang, Jian; Shimoda, Larissa A; Weigand, Letitia; Wang, Wenqian; Sun, Dejun; Sylvester, J T

2005-01-21

157

Coronary artery calcium score assessed by a 64 multislice computed tomography and early indexes of functional and structural vascular remodeling in cardiac syndrome X patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Regardless of normal coronary angiograms, coronary artery calcium (CAC) can be found in cardiac syndrome X (CSX) patients.\\u000a According to some data, a relationship between the CAC score and markers of early atherosclerosis in CSX has been observed.\\u000a Our aim was to assess whether the extent of the CAC score assessed by multislice computed tomography (MSCT) with a 64-slice

Katarzyna Mizia-Stec; Maciej Haberka; Magdalena Mizia; Artur Chmiel; Joanna Wierzbicka-Chmiel; Mariusz Skowerski; Zbigniew Gasior

2008-01-01

158

Quantitative analysis of the admission electrocardiogram identifies patients with unstable coronary artery disease who benefit the most from early invasive treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the effect of an early invasive treatment strategy differed between patients sub-grouped according to their severity of myocardial ischemia, as evaluated by quantitative electrocardiographic (ECG) analysis at the time of presentation. The present study is a sub-study of the previously published Fast Revascularization during InStability in Coronary artery disease trial

Lene Holmvang; Peter Clemmensen; Bertil Lindahl; Bo Lagerqvist; Per Venge; Galen Wagner; Lars Wallentin; Peer Grande

2003-01-01

159

Sample preselection process designed to enhance early planning information. [Sampling program for evaluating nuclear weapon stockpiles  

SciTech Connect

The DOE provides for the continuing evaluation of the nuclear weapon stockpiles through a stockpile sampling program in which randomly selected weapons are withdrawn for testing from the stockpiles each year. For some time, DOE has used a preselection scheme to obtain early identification of certain characteristics of the sample weapons for planning purposes, but which does so without jeopardizing the necessary randomization of sample selection. A DOD desire for additional and more detailed planning information to minimize weapon movements has led to an improvement of the original preselection scheme that enhances the planning information and its accuracy, while still preserving randomization.

Mueller, F.W.; Spencer, F.W.

1981-11-01

160

Mechanisms involved in the early increase of serotonin contraction evoked by endotoxin in rat middle cerebral arteries  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated the mechanisms involved in the increased 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) vasoconstriction observed in rat middle cerebral arteries exposed in vitro to lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 10 ?g ml?1) for 1–5 h. Functional, immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis and superoxide anion measurements by ethidium fluorescence were performed. LPS exposure increased 5-HT (10 ?M) vasoconstriction only during the first 4 h. In contrast to control tissue, indomethacin (10 ?M), the COX-2 inhibitor NS 398 (10 ?M), the TXA2/PGH2 receptor antagonist SQ 29,548 (1 ?M) and the TXA2 synthase inhibitor furegrelate (1 ?M) reduced 5-HT contraction of LPS-treated arteries from hour one. The iNOS inhibitor aminoguanidine (0.1 mM) increased 5-HT contraction from hour three of LPS incubation. The superoxide anion scavenger superoxide dismutase (SOD, 100 U ml?1) and the H2O2 scavenger catalase (1000 U ml?1), as well as the respective inhibitors of NAD(P)H oxidase and xanthine oxidase, apocynin (0.3 mM) and allopurinol (0.3 mM), reduced 5-HT contraction after LPS incubation. LPS induced an increase in superoxide anion levels that was abolished by PEG-SOD. Subthreshold concentrations of the TXA2 analogue U 46619, xanthine/xanthine oxidase and H2O2 potentiated, whereas those of sodium nitroprusside inhibited, the 5-HT contraction. COX-2 expression was increased at 1 and 5 h of LPS incubation, while that of iNOS, Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD was only increased after 5 h. All the three vascular layers expressed COX-2 and Cu/Zn-SOD. iNOS expression was detected in the endothelium and adventitia after LPS. In conclusion, increased production of TXA2 from COX-2, superoxide anion and H2O2 enhanced vasoconstriction to 5-HT during the first few hours of LPS exposure; iNOS and SOD expression counteracted that increase at 5 h. These changes can contribute to the disturbance of cerebral blood flow in endotoxic shock.

Hernanz, Raquel; Alonso, Maria J; Briones, Ana M; Vila, Elisabet; Simonsen, Ulf; Salaices, Mercedes

2003-01-01

161

Effects of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy on Employment Outcomes in Early Schizophrenia: Results from a 2-Year Randomized Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To examine the effects of psychosocial cognitive rehabilitation on employment outcomes in a randomized controlled trial for individuals with early course schizophrenia. Method: Early course schizophrenia outpatients (N = 58) were randomly assigned to cognitive enhancement therapy (CET) or an enriched supportive therapy (EST) control…

Eack, Shaun M.; Hogarty, Gerard E.; Greenwald, Deborah P.; Hogarty, Susan S.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.

2011-01-01

162

Aortic Counterpulsation May Improve Late Patency of the Occluded Coronary Artery in Patients With Early Failure of Thrombolytic Therapy 1 1 This study was supported in part by a research grant from Osaka Mishima Critical Care Medical Center, Osaka, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. Using a prospective, randomized design, we tested our hypothesis that the augmentation of diastolic pressure by intraaortic balloon counterpulsation (IABP) would improve the late patency of the occluded coronary artery in patients with early failure of thrombolytic therapy.Background. Rescue angioplasty is often performed in patients in whom thrombolysis has failed, although 30% to 60% of the infarct-related arteries that

AKIRA FUJIWARA

1996-01-01

163

Plasma F2-Isoprostanes and Coronary Artery Calcification: The CARDIA Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Oxidation of lipids in lipoproteins and cells may initiate and enhance the early development of cardiovascular disease. Method and Results: We assayed F2-isoprostanes, oxi- dation products of arachidonic acid, by gas chromatog- raphy-mass spectrometry in a biracial cohort of 2850 young healthy adult men and women. Coronary artery calcification (CAC), a component of coronary artery atherosclerosis, was detectable in

Myron Gross; Michael Steffes; David R. Jacobs; Xinhua Yu; Linda Lewis; Cora E. Lewis; Catherine M. Loria

164

Binaries in r-Process Enhanced Extremely Metal-Poor Stars: Chemical Tagging in the Early Galactic Halo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This poster showed that the frequency and orbital properties of binaries among r-process enhanced EMP stars is normal. Thus, the r-process enhancement has nothing to do with binary evolution or mass exchange, but was imprinted preferentially on some star-forming clouds in the early ISM.

Andersen, J.; Nordström, B.; Hansen, T.; Buchhave, L.; Beers, T. C.

2012-08-01

165

Focused ultrasound (HIFU) induces localized enhancement of reporter gene expression in rabbit carotid artery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of accurate, safe, and efficient gene delivery remains a major challenge towards the realization of gene therapeutic prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we investigated the ability of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), a form of mechanical wave transmission, to act as a noninvasive tool for the enhancement of in vivo gene transfer into rabbit carotid

P E Huber; M J Mann; L G Melo; A Ehsan; D Kong; L Zhang; M Rezvani; P Peschke; F Jolesz; V J Dzau; K Hynynen

2003-01-01

166

Enhanced musical rhythmic perception in Turkish early and late learners of German.  

PubMed

As language rhythm relies partly on general acoustic properties, such as intensity and duration, mastering two languages with distinct rhythmic properties (i.e., stress position) may enhance musical rhythm perception. We investigated whether competence in a second language (L2) with different rhythmic properties than a L1 affects musical rhythm aptitude. Turkish early (TELG) and late learners (TLLG) of German were compared to German late L2 learners of English (GLE) regarding their musical rhythmic aptitude. While Turkish and German present distinct linguistic rhythm and metric properties, German and English are rather similar in this regard. To account for inter-individual differences, we measured participants' short-term and working memory (WM) capacity, melodic aptitude, and time they spent listening to music. Both groups of Turkish L2 learners of German perceived rhythmic variations significantly better than German L2 learners of English. No differences were found between early and late learners' performance. Our findings suggest that mastering two languages with different rhythmic properties enhances musical rhythm perception, providing further evidence of shared cognitive resources between language and music. PMID:24065946

Roncaglia-Denissen, M Paula; Schmidt-Kassow, Maren; Heine, Angela; Vuust, Peter; Kotz, Sonja A

2013-09-20

167

Enhanced musical rhythmic perception in Turkish early and late learners of German  

PubMed Central

As language rhythm relies partly on general acoustic properties, such as intensity and duration, mastering two languages with distinct rhythmic properties (i.e., stress position) may enhance musical rhythm perception. We investigated whether competence in a second language (L2) with different rhythmic properties than a L1 affects musical rhythm aptitude. Turkish early (TELG) and late learners (TLLG) of German were compared to German late L2 learners of English (GLE) regarding their musical rhythmic aptitude. While Turkish and German present distinct linguistic rhythm and metric properties, German and English are rather similar in this regard. To account for inter-individual differences, we measured participants' short-term and working memory (WM) capacity, melodic aptitude, and time they spent listening to music. Both groups of Turkish L2 learners of German perceived rhythmic variations significantly better than German L2 learners of English. No differences were found between early and late learners' performance. Our findings suggest that mastering two languages with different rhythmic properties enhances musical rhythm perception, providing further evidence of shared cognitive resources between language and music.

Roncaglia-Denissen, M. Paula; Schmidt-Kassow, Maren; Heine, Angela; Vuust, Peter; Kotz, Sonja A.

2013-01-01

168

Contrast-enhanced cardiac MRI before coronary artery bypass surgery: impact of myocardial scar extent on bypass flow.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to relate the extent of myocardial late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) in cardiac MRI to intraoperative graft flow in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Thirty-three CAD patients underwent LGE MRI before surgery using an inversion-recovery GRE sequence (turboFLASH). Intraoperative graft flow in Doppler ultrasonography was compared with the scar extent in each coronary vessel territory. One hundred and fourteen grafts were established supplying 86 of the 99 vessel territories. A significant negative correlation was found between scar extent and graft flow (r = -0.4, p < 0.0001). Flow in grafts to territories with no or small subendocardial scar was significantly higher than in grafts to territories with broad nontransmural or transmural scar (75 +/- 39 vs. 38 +/- 26 cc min(-1); p < 0.0001). In summary, the extent of myocardial scar as defined by contrast-enhanced MRI predicts coronary bypass graft flow. Beyond the probability of functional recovery, preoperative MRI might add value to surgery planning by predicting midterm bypass graft patency. PMID:18581115

Hunold, Peter; Massoudy, Parwis; Boehm, Claudia; Schlosser, Thomas; Nassenstein, Kai; Knipp, Stephan; Eggebrecht, Holger; Thielmann, Matthias; Erbel, Raimund; Jakob, Heinz; Barkhausen, Jörg

2008-06-26

169

Enhanced resistance to early blight in transgenic tomato lines expressing heterologous plant defense genes.  

PubMed

Genes coding for an iris ribosomal-inactivating protein (I-RIP), a maize beta-glucanase (M-GLU), and a Mirabilis jalapa antimicrobial peptide (Mj-AMP1) were separately introduced into tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Sweet Chelsea) cotyledons via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Transgenic lines carrying each of the transgenes were confirmed for integration into the tomato genome using Southern blot hybridization. Transcription of I-RIP, M-GLU, and Mj-AMP1 genes in various transgenic lines was determined using Northern blot analysis. Plants of selected transgenic lines were inoculated with a 2-3x10(4) conidial spores/ml suspension of the fungal pathogen Alternaria solani, the causal agent of tomato early blight. Compared to control (non-transformed) plants, two transgenic lines carrying either a M-GLU or Mj-AMP1 showed enhanced resistance to early blight disease. None of the four lines carrying the I-RIP transgene showed increased resistance to early blight. PMID:16047198

Schaefer, Scott C; Gasic, Ksenija; Cammue, Bruno; Broekaert, Willem; van Damme, Els J M; Peumans, Willy J; Korban, Schuyler S

2005-07-27

170

Coronary artery remodeling in non-contrast CT images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A significant cause of coronary artery disease is the coronary atherosclerosis which leads to stenosis of coronary arteries. It has been shown in recent studies, using intravascular ultrasound and contrast-enhanced CT, that early atherosclerosis causes positive coronary artery remodeling, defined as increases in the cross-sectional area. It is hypothesized that detection of artery remodeling using non-contrast CT can be an important factor in sub-clinical assessment of cardiac risk for asymptomatic subjects. However, measuring remodeling in coronary arteries in non-contrast CT images is a challenging task because coronary arteries are small and the intensity of coronary arteries is similar to that of surrounding tissues. Automatic segmentation algorithms that have been successful in segmenting coronary arteries in contrast-enhanced images do not perform well. To overcome these difficulties, we developed an interactive application to enable effective measurement of coronary artery remodeling in non-contrast CT images. This application is an extension to the 3D Slicer image analysis platform. It allows users to visualize and trace the centerline of arteries in cross sectional views. The artery centerlines are displayed in a three dimensional view overlaid on the original image volume and color-coded according to the artery labels. Using this 3D artery model, the user can sample the cross-sectional area of the arteries at selected points for remodeling assessment. Initial validation has demonstrated the effectiveness of this method. A pilot study also showed positive correlation of large coronary artery remodeling with highest lifetime risks. Further evaluation is underway using larger study size and more measurement points.

Xu, Haiyong; Zheng, Mingna; Yang, Yanhua; Carr, J. Jeffery; Ge, Yaorong

2012-02-01

171

Arterial stiffness  

PubMed Central

Measurements of biomechanical properties of arteries have become an important surrogate outcome used in epidemiological and interventional cardiovascular research. Structural and functional differences of vessels in the arterial tree result in a dampening of pulsatility and smoothing of blood flow as it progresses to capillary level. A loss of arterial elastic properties results a range of linked pathophysiological changes within the circulation including increased pulse pressure, left ventricular hypertrophy, subendocardial ischaemia, vessel endothelial dysfunction and cardiac fibrosis. With increased arterial stiffness, the microvasculature of brain and kidneys are exposed to wider pressure fluctuations and may lead to increased risk of stroke and renal failure. Stiffening of the aorta, as measured by the gold-standard technique of aortic Pulse Wave Velocity (aPWV), is independently associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes across many different patient groups and in the general population. Therefore, use of aPWV has been proposed for early detection of vascular damage and individual cardiovascular risk evaluation and it seems certain that measurement of arterial stiffness will become increasingly important in future clinical care. In this review we will consider some of the pathophysiological processes that result from arterial stiffening, how it is measured and factors that may drive it as well as potential avenues for therapy. In the face of an ageing population where mortality from atheromatous cardiovascular disease is falling, pathology associated with arterial stiffening will assume ever greater importance. Therefore, understanding these concepts for all clinicians involved in care of patients with cardiovascular disease will become vital.

Quinn, Ursula; Tomlinson, Laurie A; Cockcroft, John R

2012-01-01

172

Pseudoaneurysm Formation Following Intrasphenoid Rupture of an Idiopathic Intracavernous Carotid Artery Aneurysm: Coil Migration and Early Recurrence after Endovascular Treatment  

PubMed Central

Summary Intrasphenoid rupture of a non-traumatic aneurysm of the cavernous carotid artery is rare. We describe a patient in whom this condition manifested with epistaxis and led to the formation of a pseudoaneurysm occupying the right sphenoid sinus. The lesion recurred after repeated attempts at conservative endovascular therapy. Eventually the patient was treated with endovascular occlusion of the right internal carotid artery. Our report emphasizes the relapsing behaviour of a non-traumatic aneurysm of the cavernous portion of the internal carotid artery ruptured into the sphenoid sinus.

De Blasi, R.; Bracciolini, E.; Chiumarulo, L.; Salvati, A.; Monetti, C.; Federico, F.; Carella, A.

2010-01-01

173

Asbestos related changes in pulmonary and systemic immune responses--early enhancement followed by inhibition.  

PubMed Central

We recently developed an animal model in order to study the pulmonary and systemic reactions following exposure to environmental pollutants. In this model, conscious sheep received repeated intratracheal instillations of a suspension of 0 (controls), 2mg (low dose) or 128 mg (high dose) of chrysotile asbestos fibres over a 12 month period. A significant dose-dependent enhancement in proliferative responses of pulmonary free airway cells (FAC) to four mitogens was observed after a first instillation. A somewhat weaker stimulation was also observed in peripheral blood mononuclear leucocytes (PBML). At 6 months, the high dose animals no longer displayed the dose-dependent enhancement of FAC responses and manifested actual depression of PBML responses. At 12 months, all asbestos exposed animals showed impaired responses of FAC, whereas only the PBML of high dose animals were showing such an impairment. These data suggest that asbestos exposure has a dose-dependent initial enhancement of local pulmonary as well as systemic responses to mitogens while prolonged exposure and higher doses can subsequently lead to a relative depression of local and systemic cellular immune activity. Although responsive early after asbestos exposure, systemic immunity appears to lag behind local immunity in the late depressive effect of asbestos fibres on mitogen responsiveness. In addition to these cell-directed effects serum factors seem to play an inhibitory role in lymphocyte responses to mitogens in animals repeatedly exposed to asbestos.

Rola-Pleszczynski, M; Lemaire, I; Sirois, P; Masse, S; Begin, R

1982-01-01

174

Cerebrospinal Fluid Enhancement on Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery Images After Carotid Artery Stenting with Neuroprotective Balloon Occlusions: Hemodynamic Instability and Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: A rare complication of carotid artery stenting (CAS), prolonged reversible neurological symptoms with delayed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space enhancement on fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images, is associated with blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. We prospectively identified patients who showed CSF space enhancement on FLAIR images. Methods: Nineteen patients-5 acute-phase and 14 scheduled-underwent 21 CAS procedures. Balloon catheters were navigated across stenoses, angioplasty was performed using a neuroprotective balloon, and stents were placed with after dilation under distal balloon protection. CSF space hyperintensity or obscuration on FLAIR after versus before CAS indicated CSF space enhancement. Correlations with clinical factors were examined. Results: CSF space was enhanced on FLAIR in 12 (57.1%) cases. Postprocedural CSF space enhancement was significantly related to age, stenosis rate, acute-stage procedure, and total occlusion time. All acute-stage CAS patients showed delayed enhancement. Only age was associated with delayed CSF space enhancement in scheduled CAS patients. Conclusions: Ischemic intolerance for severe carotid artery stenosis and temporary neuroprotective balloon occlusion, causing reperfusion injury, seem to be the main factors that underlie BBB disruption with delayed CSF space enhancement shortly after CAS, rather than sudden poststenting hemodynamic change. Our results suggest that factors related to hemodynamic instability or ischemic intolerance seem to be associated with post-CAS BBB vulnerability. Patients at risk for hemodynamic instability or with ischemic intolerance, which decrease BBB integrity, require careful management to prevent intracranial hemorrhagic and other post-CAS complications.

Ogami, Ryo, E-mail: ogami.r@mazda.co.jp; Nakahara, Toshinori [Mazda Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery (Japan); Hamasaki, Osamu [Shimane Prefectural Central Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery (Japan); Araki, Hayato [Mazda Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery (Japan); Kurisu, Kaoru [Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Neurosurgery (Japan)

2011-10-15

175

Darbepoetin enhances endothelium-dependent vasomotor function in patients with stable coronary artery disease only after preceding ischaemia/reperfusion.  

PubMed

Vasoprotective effects of erythropoietin in animal models are mediated by endothelium-derived NO and/or mobilization of EPCs (endothelial progenitor cells) and may be enhanced by ischaemia: whether they are present in humans is unknown. We examined whether the erythropoietin analogue darbepoetin improves FMD (flow-mediated dilatation), a measure of endothelium-derived NO, and whether this is influenced by preceding I/R (ischaemia/reperfusion). A total of 36 patients (50-75 years) with stable coronary artery disease were randomized to receive a single dose of darbepoetin (300 ?g) or saline placebo. FMD was measured at the brachial artery using high-resolution ultrasound. CD133?/CD34?/VEGFR2? (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2) circulating EPCs were enumerated by flow cytometry. Measurements were made immediately before darbepoetin/placebo and at 24 h, 72 h and 7 days. At 24 h, FMD was repeated after 20 min of I/R of the upper limb. A further group of 11 patients was studied according to the same protocol, all receiving darbepoetin, with omission of forearm I/R at 24 h. Immunoreactive erythropoietin peaked at 24 h and remained elevated at approximately 50-fold of baseline at 72 h. FMD did not differ significantly between groups at 24 h (before I/R). At 72 h (48 h after I/R), FMD was greater (by 2.3±0.5% in the darbepoetin compared with the placebo group, a 66% increase over baseline; P<0.001) and greater than FMD at the same time point without preceding I/R (P<0.01). Increases in CD133?/CD34?/VEGFR2? cells after darbepoetin did not differ according to the presence or absence of preceding I/R. Preceding I/R is required for darbepoetin to enhance endothelial function, possibly by increasing expression of the erythropoietin receptor and by a mechanism likely to involve Akt/NO rather than circulating EPCs. PMID:21966999

Tilling, Lindsey; Hunt, Joanne; Donald, Ann; Clapp, Brian; Chowienczyk, Phil

2012-04-01

176

Arterial stiffness and 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in young healthy volunteers: the early vascular ageing Aristotle University Thessaloniki Study (EVA-ARIS Study).  

PubMed

Differences in 24 h blood pressure (BP) monitoring parameters such as average 24 h BP, day to night BP ratio and BP variability could have an impact in arterial stiffness. The study hypothesis was that despite similar average BP values in ambulatory blood pressure monitoring subjects with increased 24 h BP variability may have increased arterial stiffness. The study population consisted of 115 consecutive young healthy volunteers. Carotid-femoral PWV was measured in all subjects. Clinic BP was measured and an appropriate cuff was fitted on the non-dominant arm of each subject for a 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring session. Waist to hip ratio as well as BMI was measured. Family history and smoking habits were recorded. In univariate analysis, estimated carotid-femoral PWV showed a significant correlation with age, weight, waist circumference, height, clinic systolic and diastolic BP, 24-h systolic and diastolic BP, 24-h pulse pressure, 24-h systolic and diastolic BP variability, daytime systolic and diastolic BP, daytime pulse pressure, daytime systolic and diastolic BP variability, nighttime systolic BP, nighttime pulse pressure and nighttime systolic BP variability. In multivariate regression analysis, age (B=0.95, P<0.001) and 24 h systolic BP variability (B=0.28, P<0.001) were independent determinanats of arterial stiffness. In conclusions, increased 24 h systolic BP variability is associated with arterial stiffness in young healthy volunteers. Pulse wave velocity in a young healthy population is useful to identify determinants of premature arterial stiffness, thus further elucidating the aspects of early vascular ageing. PMID:21840525

Kotsis, Vasilios; Stabouli, Stella; Karafillis, Ioannis; Papakatsika, Sofia; Rizos, Zoe; Miyakis, Spiros; Goulopoulou, Sofia; Parati, Gianfranco; Nilsson, Peter

2011-07-30

177

Coincident stimulation of convergent cortical inputs enhances immediate early gene induction in the striatum.  

PubMed

The effect of coincident stimulation of convergent corticostriatal inputs was analyzed by the induction of immediate early genes in striatal neurons. Cortical motor areas were stimulated through implanted electrodes in awake, behaving rats, and the induction of the mRNAs encoding the immediate early genes (IEGs) c-fos and arc was analyzed in the striatum with in situ hybridization histochemistry. In the first experiment, unilateral stimulation of the medial agranular cortex, orofacial region of the lateral agranular cortex or the forelimb region of the lateral agranular cortex resulted in IEG induction in the striatum, which was restricted to the topographically related area receiving input from the stimulated cortical area. In a second experiment, stimulation parameters were altered, including frequency, number of pulses/train, and number of trains/s. These parameters did not have a significant effect on IEG induction. Notably, in some cases, in which there was IEG induction not only in the stimulated cortical region, but also in the homologous area in the contralateral hemisphere, very robust IEG induction was observed in the striatum. In a third experiment, the orofacial regions of the lateral agranular cortex of both hemispheres were stimulated coincidently. All of these animals showed robust striatal IEG induction. This IEG induction was attenuated by pretreatment with an NMDA antagonist MK-801. In a fourth experiment, we tested whether the coincidence of bilateral cortical stimulation contributed to the efficacy of striatal IEG induction. Either alternating stimulation or coincident stimulation of non-homologous cortical regions produced significantly lower striatal IEG induction than obtained with coincident stimulation of homologous cortical areas. Enhanced striatal IEG induction occurred in indirect striatal neurons, labeled with enkephalin, but was also present in a large number of enkephalin-negative neurons, most of which are likely direct pathway neurons. These results suggest that regional and temporal convergence of cortical inputs enhances striatal IEG induction. PMID:15978736

Miyachi, S; Hasegawa, Y T; Gerfen, C R

2005-01-01

178

Enhancing early attachment: Design and pilot study of an intervention for primary health care dyads.  

PubMed

The attachment style of an infant with his caregiver can greatly influence his future development. Many interventions have been proposed to enhance early secure attachment styles, but few have characteristics that make them suitable for primary health care. The objective of the study wasto design a complex intervention for promoting secure attachment in dyads detected in Primary Health Care with altered patterns of attachment styles. The methodology proposed by the UK Medical Research Council was used: (1) theoretical phase: literature review; (2) modelling phase: the main components of the intervention were defined through qualitative research; and (3) exploration phase: pilot study of the preliminary intervention. The attachment style of the dyads was evaluated using the Massie-Campbell scale prior to and four months after the pilot intervention. The preliminary intervention was designed: a group workshop (five to seven dyads, with children aged between 6 and 12 months and two health care professional monitors) structured around various activities that specifically dealt with the skills associated with parental sensitivity and addressed relevant issues to child rearing. The intervention was then tested in a pilot study of 11 dyads in two primary health care centres. The analysis was done with nine dyads (two were lost in the second evaluation), and showed an improvement of 33 per cent in the secure attachment style in the dyads (not statistically significant). An original intervention is designed and proposed for dyads who have early indicators of altered styles of attachment in primary health care. PMID:23162050

Leigh, Francisca Figueroa; Vergara, Victoria Binda; Santelices, Marķa Pķa

2012-11-16

179

Enhancing early literacy skills for preschool children: bringing a professional development model to scale.  

PubMed

A quasi-experimental, statewide intervention targeting preschool teachers' enhancement of children's language and early literacy was evaluated. Across 2 years and 20 Head Start sites, 750 teachers participated (500 target, 250 control), with 370 classrooms randomly selected to conduct pre- and posttest assessments (10 randomly selected children per class). The inability to randomize children to classrooms was addressed by examining children's performance for teachers who were control teachers in Year 1 and target teachers in Year 2. We also compared teachers with 2 years of training with teachers with 1 year of training and with control teachers. Greater gains were found for children in target classrooms than for those in control classrooms for all skills, but particularly for language skills, in Year 2, and this varied by program site. The presence of a research-based early literacy curriculum, higher levels of teacher education, and full-day versus half-day programs were significant moderators of intervention effectiveness. The challenges of implementing a statewide initiative across programs that varied in their readiness to implement a cognitively rich experience for preschool children are discussed. PMID:16895156

Landry, Susan H; Swank, Paul R; Smith, Karen E; Assel, Michael A; Gunnewig, Susan B

180

Morphometric assessment of liver fibrosis may enhance early diagnosis of biliary atresia.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Neonatal cholestasis syndrome is considered as a major challenge in pediatric practice. This study was undertaken to investigate the value of morphometric assessment of hepatic fibrosis in early diagnosis of biliary atresia. METHODS: We studied liver biopsy specimens from 53 patients with neonatal cholestasis. The patients were assigned to two groups: group 1 (25 patients with biliary atresia) and group 2 (28 patients with non-obstructive cholestasis). Morphometric assessment of fibrosis was performed for all biopsies; in addition, another twelve histological parameters were estimated and scored on a scale of 0 to 4. Biopsies of infants aged 60 days or younger were characterized and analyzed separately. RESULTS: Morphometric value of fibrosis was significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 (16.8±8.4% vs. 5.9±2.3%, respectively; P<0.001). By multiple regression analysis, bile ductular plugs, morphometric assessment of fibrosis, rosetting, portal tract inflammation and pattern of cholestasis were found to be significant in discriminating the two groups. In infants aged 60 days or younger, a cutoff value for morphometric assessment of fibrosis of 7.5% was the discriminating point between the two groups with a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 84%. CONCLUSION: Morphometric assessment of hepatic fibrosis could enhance the value of liver biopsy in early diagnosis of biliary atresia. PMID:23775681

Abdalla, Ahmed F; Fathy, Abeer; Zalata, Khaled R; Megahed, Ahmed; Abo-Alyazeed, Ahmed; El Regal, Mohammed Ezz

2013-06-17

181

The Value of Arterial Spin-Labeled Perfusion Imaging in Acute Ischemic Stroke - Comparison with Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast Enhanced MRI  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose To evaluate the potential clinical value of arterial spin labeled (ASL) perfusion MRI in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) through comparison with dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) enhanced perfusion MRI. Methods Pseudo-continuous ASL with 3D background suppressed GRASE (Gradient and Spin Echo) readout was applied with DSC perfusion MRI on 26 AIS patients. ASL CBF and multi-parametric DSC perfusion maps were rated for image quality and lesion severity/conspicuity. Mean ASL CBF and DSC perfusion values were obtained in main vascular territories. Kendall’s coefficient of concordance was calculated to evaluate the reliability of ratings. Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated to compare ratings and quantitative perfusion values between ASL and DSC perfusion maps. Results ASL CBF and DSC perfusion maps provided largely consistent results in delineating hypoperfused brain regions in AIS. Hyperemic lesions, which also appeared frequently in the AIS cases studied, were more conspicuous on ASL CBF than on DSC CBF, Mean Transit Time (MTT) and Time to the maximum of the tissue residual function (Tmax) maps. Conclusions As a rapid, noninvasive and quantitative technique, ASL has clinical utility in detecting blood flow abnormalities in AIS patients.

Wang, Danny JJ; Alger, Jeffry R; Qiao, Joe X; Hao, Qing; Hou, Samuel; Fiaz, Rana; Gunther, Matthias; Pope, Whitney B; Saver, Jeffrey L; Salamon, Noriko; Liebeskind, David S

2012-01-01

182

Exonic splicing enhancers in fission yeast: functional conservation demonstrates an early evolutionary origin  

PubMed Central

Discrete sequence elements known as exonic splicing enhancers (ESEs) have been shown to influence both the efficiency of splicing and the profile of mature mRNAs in multicellular eukaryotes. While the existence of ESEs has not been demonstrated previously in unicellular eukaryotes, the factors known to recognize these elements and mediate their communication with the core splicing machinery are conserved and essential in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Here, we provide evidence that ESE function is conserved through evolution by demonstrating that three exonic splicing enhancers derived from vertebrates (chicken ASLV, mouse IgM, and human cTNT) promote splicing of two distinct S. pombe pre-messenger RNAs (pre-mRNAs). Second, as in extracts from mammalian cells, ESE function in S. pombe is compromised by mutations and increased distance from the 3?-splice site. Third, three-hybrid analyses indicate that the essential SR (serine/arginine-rich) protein Srp2p, but not the dispensable Srp1p, binds specifically to both native and heterologous purine-rich elements; thus, Srp2p is the likely mediator of ESE function in fission yeast. Finally, we have identified five natural purine-rich elements from S. pombe that promote splicing of our reporter pre-mRNAs. Taken together, these results provide strong evidence that the genesis of ESE-mediated splicing occurred early in eukaryotic evolution.

Webb, Christopher J.; Romfo, Charles M.; van Heeckeren, Willem J.; Wise, Jo Ann

2005-01-01

183

Detection of Coronary Artery Stenoses by Contrast-Enhanced, Retrospectively Electrocardiographically-Gated, Multislice Spiral Computed Tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) with retrospectively ECG-gated image reconstruction permits coronary artery visualization. We investigated the method's ability to identify high-grade coronary artery stenoses and occlusions. Methods and Results—A total of 64 consecutive patients were studied by MSCT (4 31 mm cross-sections, 500-ms rotation, table feed 1.5 mm\\/rotation, intravenous contrast agent, retrospectively ECG-gated image reconstruction). All coronary arteries and

Stephan Achenbach; Tom Giesler; Dieter Ropers; Stefan Ulzheimer; Hans Derlien; Christoph Schulte; Evelyn Wenkel; Werner Moshage; Werner Bautz; Werner G. Daniel; Willi A. Kalender; Ulrich Baum

184

Endovascular treatment of ruptured dissecting vertebral artery aneurysms—long-term follow-up results, benefits of early embolization, and predictors of outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of endovascular treatment of ruptured dissecting aneurysms of the vertebral\\u000a artery, the benefits of early embolization, and the predictors of outcomes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Clinical material and methods  Between September, 2001 and May, 2009, 25 patients with ruptured vertebral dissecting aneurysms were treated by internal coil\\u000a trapping (n?=?23) or stents (n?=?2) in our hospital.

Jong-Myong Lee; Tae-Sun Kim; Sung-Pil Joo; Woong Yoon; Ha-Young Choi

2010-01-01

185

Gadolinium-Enhanced Angiography for Diagnosis and Interventional Treatment of Subclavian Artery Stenosis Prior to Fistula Creation  

SciTech Connect

We report the use of gadolinium-based contrast agent for both diagnostic and interventional subclavian angiography in two azotemic patients, presenting with an asymptomatic, high-grade stenosis of the left subclavian artery, ipsilateral to the site of choice for native fistula creation. Angiographic imaging performed with diluted gadolinium-based contrast material was clear enough to perform successful subclavian artery stenting, resulting in normalization of the arterial blood pressure in the afferent artery of the dialysis fistula. Clinically, no decrease in residual renal function and no other complication were noted immediately or a longer period after the interventional treatment.

Termote, Bruno; Maleux, Geert, E-mail: geert.maleux@uz.kuleuven.ac.be; Heye, Sam [University Hospitals, Department of Radiology (Belgium); Fourneau, Inge [University Hospitals, Department of Vascular Surgery (Belgium); Claes, Kathleen [University Hospitals, Department of Nephrology (Belgium)

2008-07-15

186

Early hepatocellular carcinomas showing isointensity or hyperintensity in gadoxetic acid-enhanced, hepatocyte-phase magnetic resonance images.  

PubMed

Hypointensity in the hepatocyte phase is believed to be a key feature of hypovascular early hepatocellular carcinoma, which indicates malignancy. The 3 cases we present suggest that the converse is not true. Three small hepatocellular lesions showed isointensity/hyperintensity on gadoxetic acid-enhanced, hepatocyte-phase magnetic resonance images and were pathologically confirmed as early hepatocellular carcinomas. We conclude that isointensity or hyperintensity in the hepatocyte phase does not always represent benignity of hepatocellular lesions in the cirrhotic liver. PMID:23674023

Chen, Ningxin; Motosugi, Utaroh; Sano, Katsuhiro; Ichikawa, Tomoaki; Nakano, Masayuki; Morisaka, Hiroyuki; Ichikawa, Shintaro; Matsuda, Masanori; Fujii, Hideki; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Araki, Tsutomu

187

Predicting the extent and location of coronary artery disease during the early postinfarction period by quantitative thallium-201 scintigraphy  

SciTech Connect

The ability of quantitative thallium-201 scintigraphy to predict the extent and location of coronary artery disease before hospital discharge after acute myocardial infarction was evaluated in 52 patients. All patients underwent coronary angiography and serial thallium-201 imaging either at rest (10 patients) or after submaximal exercise stress (42 patients; target heart rate 120 beats/min). Two or three vessel disease was designated if abnormal thallium-201 uptake or washout patterns, or both, were seen in two or three vascular segments, respectively. Thus, 2 weeks after myocardial infarction, exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy is useful for predicting the extent and location of coronary artery disease, particularly stenoses in the left anterior descending and right coronary arteries. Moreover, thallium-201 imaging at rest is reliable in assessing the extent of coronary disease in hospitalized patients who cannot undergo exercise testing because of unstable angina, uncompensated heart failure, poorly controlled arrhythmias or physical limitations.

Gibson, R.S.; Taylor, G.J.; Watson, D.D.; Stebbins, P.T.; Martin, R.P.; Crampton, R.S.; Beller, G.A.

1981-05-01

188

Fully automated segmentation of carotid and vertebral arteries from contrast enhanced CTA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a method for segmenting and labeling the main head and neck vessels (common, internal, external carotid, vertebral) from a contrast enhanced computed tomography angiography (CTA) volume. First, an initial centerline of each vessel is extracted. Next, the vessels are segmented using 3D active objects initialized using the first step. Finally, the true centerline is identified by smoothly deforming it away from the segmented mask edges using a spline-snake. We focus particularly on the novel initial centerline extraction technique. It uses a locally adaptive front propagation algorithm that attempts to find the optimal path connecting the ends of the vessel, typically from the lowest image of the scan to the Circle of Willis in the brain. It uses a patient adapted anatomical model of the different vessels both to initialize and constrain this fast marching, thus eliminating the need for manual selection of seed points. The method is evaluated using data from multiple regions (USA, India, China, Israel) including a variety of scanners (10, 16, 40, 64-slice; Brilliance CT, Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, OH, USA), contrast agent dose, and image resolution. It is fully successful in over 90% of patients and only misses a single vessel in most remaining cases. We also demonstrate its robustness to metal and dental artifacts and anatomical variability. Total processing time is approximately two minutes with no user interaction, which dramatically improves the workflow over existing clinical software. It also reduces patient dose exposure by obviating the need to acquire an unenhanced scan for bone suppression as this can be done by applying the segmentation masks.

Cuisenaire, Olivier; Virmani, Sunny; Olszewski, Mark E.; Ardon, Roberto

2008-04-01

189

The Human Cytomegalovirus Major Immediate-Early Distal Enhancer Region Is Required for Efficient Viral Replication and Immediate-Early Gene Expression  

PubMed Central

The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) major immediate-early (MIE) genes, encoding IE1 p72 and IE2 p86, are activated by a complex enhancer region (base positions -65 to -550) that operates in a cell type- and differentiation-dependent manner. The expression of MIE genes is required for HCMV replication. Previous studies analyzing functions of MIE promoter-enhancer segments suggest that the distal enhancer region variably modifies MIE promoter activity, depending on cell type, stimuli, or state of differentiation. To further understand the mechanism by which the MIE promoter is regulated, we constructed and analyzed several different recombinant HCMVs that lack the distal enhancer region (-300 to -582, -640, or -1108). In human fibroblasts, the HCMVs without the distal enhancer replicate normally at high multiplicity of infection (MOI) but replicate poorly at low MOI in comparison to wild-type virus (WT) or HCMVs that lack the neighboring upstream unique region and modulator (-582 or -640 to -1108). The growth aberrancy was normalized after restoring the distal enhancer in a virus lacking this region. For HCMVs without a distal enhancer, the impairment in replication at low MOI corresponds to a deficiency in production of MIE RNAs compared to WT or virus lacking the unique region and modulator. An underproduction of viral US3 RNA was also evident at low MOI. Whether lower production of IE1 p72 and IE2 p86 causes a reduction in expression of the immediate-early (IE) class US3 gene remains to be determined. We conclude that the MIE distal enhancer region possesses a mechanism for augmenting viral IE gene expression and genome replication at low MOI, but this regulatory function is unnecessary at high MOI.

Meier, Jeffery L.; Pruessner, Jonathan A.

2000-01-01

190

Tissue loss, early primary graft occlusion, female gender, and a prohibitive failure rate of secondary infrainguinal arterial reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This study tested the hypothesis that a subset of secondary infrainguinal arterial reconstructions show prohibitive failure rates. Methods: Records of 79 consecutive patients, 44 men and 35 women, with a mean age of 60 years, who underwent secondary infrainguinal bypass from 1992 to 2000 at the University of Michigan Hospital, were reviewed. Data were analyzed with life-table analysis, logistic

Peter K. Henke; Mary C. Proctor; Paul J. Zajkowski; Asheesh Bedi; Gilbert R. Upchurch Jr; Thomas W. Wakefield; Lloyd A. Jacobs; Lazar J. Greenfield; James C. Stanley

2002-01-01

191

Quantitative Contrast-Enhanced First-Pass Cardiac Perfusion MRI at 3T with Accurate Arterial Input Function and Myocardial Wall Enhancement  

PubMed Central

Purpose To develop, and validate in vivo, a robust quantitative first-pass perfusion cardiovascular MR (CMR) method with accurate arterial input function (AIF) and myocardial wall enhancement. Materials and Methods A saturation-recovery (SR) pulse sequence was modified to sequentially acquire multiple slices after a single non-selective saturation pulse at 3T. In each heartbeat, an AIF image is acquired in the aortic root with a short TD (50ms), followed by the acquisition of myocardial images with longer TD values (~150-400ms). Longitudinal relaxation rates (R1=1/T1) were calculated using an ideal saturation recovery equation based on the Bloch equation, and corresponding gadolinium contrast concentrations were calculated assuming fast water exchange condition. The proposed method was validated against a reference multi-point SR method by comparing their respective R1 measurements in the blood and left ventricular myocardium, prior to and at multiple time-points following contrast injections, in 7 volunteers. Results R1 measurements with the proposed method and reference multi-point method were strongly correlated (r>0.88, P<10?5) and in good agreement (mean difference ±1.96 standard deviation 0.131 ± 0.317 / 0.018 ± 0.140 s?1 for blood/myocardium, respectively). Conclusion The proposed quantitative first-pass perfusion CMR method measured accurate R1 values for quantification of AIF and myocardial wall contrast agent concentrations in 3 cardiac short-axis slices, in a total acquisition time of 523ms per heartbeat.

Breton, Elodie; Kim, Daniel; Chung, Sohae; Axel, Leon

2011-01-01

192

Role of alpha-adrenoceptors and prostacyclin in the enhanced adrenergic reactivity of goat cerebral arteries after ischemia-reperfusion.  

PubMed

To analyze ischemia-reperfusion effects on the cerebrovascular adrenergic response, the left middle cerebral artery (MCA) of anesthetized goats was occluded for 120 min and reperfused for 60 min. Isolated segments from the left (ischemic) and right (control) MCA exhibited isometric constriction in response to noradrenaline (10(-8)-10(-4)M, in the presence of beta-adrenoceptors blockade), phenylephrine (alpha(1)-adrenoceptors agonist, 10(-8)-10(-4)M), B-HT-920 (alpha(2)-adrenoceptors agonist, 10(-7) - 3 x 10(-3)M) or tyramine (indirect sympatheticomimetic amine, 10(-8)-10(-4)M), but this constriction was greater in ischemic arteries. The cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor meclofenamate (10(-5)M) augmented the response to noradrenaline only in control arteries. The prostacyclin (PGI(2)) synthesis inhibitor tranylcypromine (TCP, 10(-5)M) increased the response to noradrenaline in control arteries and reduced it in ischemic arteries. The thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) synthase inhibitor furegrelate (10(-6)M) did not modify the noradrenaline effect in both types of arteries, whereas the TXA(2) receptor antagonist SQ 29 548 (10(-5)M) and the COX-2 inhibitor NS-398 (10(-6)M) decreased the response to noradrenaline only in ischemic arteries. PGI(2) caused a small relaxation in control arteries and a small contraction in ischemic arteries. alpha-Adrenoceptors and COX-2 protein expression and the metabolite of PGI(2) were augmented in ischemic arteries. Therefore, ischemia-reperfusion may increase the cerebrovascular responsiveness to noradrenaline, through upregulation of alpha-adrenoceptors and increased COX-2-derived PGI(2) exerting a vasoconstrictor action. After ischemia-reperfusion, noradrenaline might increase PGI(2) production thus contributing to adrenergic vasoconstriction and/or PGI(2) would potentiate the noradrenaline effects. PMID:20529667

Monge, Luis; Fernįndez, Nuria; Salcedo, Adely; Garcķa-Villalón, Angel Luis; Diéguez, Godofredo

2010-06-04

193

Leukocytosis as an important risk factor for arterial thrombosis in WHO-defined early/prefibrotic myelofibrosis: an international study of 264 patients.  

PubMed

We aimed to determine risk factors for thrombotic events in early/prefibrotic myelofibrosis diagnosed according to the World Health Organization criteria. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was calculated on a total number of 264 patients derived from an international database. After a median follow-up of 6.28 years, 42 (15.9%) patients experienced arterial (n = 31) or venous thrombosis (n = 11). A higher leukocyte count correlated with an increased risk for total thrombosis and in particular, with an increased risk for arterial thrombosis (P = 0.005, HR 1.15 and P = 0.047, HR 1.12, respectively). A platelet count above 870 × 10?/L was associated with a lower risk for total thrombosis and also for venous thrombosis (P = 0.022, HR 0.44 and P = 0.027, HR 0.19). Moreover, a lower hemoglobin level was associated with an increased risk for venous thrombosis (P = 0.007, HR 0.59). Our data indicate that leukocytosis is a prominent risk factor for thrombosis in early/prefibrotic MF. PMID:22573503

Buxhofer-Ausch, Veronika; Gisslinger, Heinz; Thiele, Jürgen; Gisslinger, Bettina; Kvasnicka, Hans-Michael; Müllauer, Leonhard; Frantal, Sophie; Carobbio, Alessandra; Passamonti, Francesco; Rumi, Elisa; Ruggeri, Marco; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Randi, Maria L; Bertozzi, Irene; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Antonioli, Elisabetta; Finazzi, Guido; Gangat, Naseema; Tefferi, Ayalew; Barbui, Tiziano

2012-05-10

194

Geometry and dimensions of the pulmonary artery bifurcation in children and adolescents: assessment in vivo by contrast-enhanced MR-angiography.  

PubMed

We sought to establish normal values for the diameters of the main (MPA), right (RPA), and left (LPA) pulmonary arteries and for the angles describing the geometry of the pulmonary artery bifurcation in children by using contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA). CE-MRA was performed in 69 children without cardiovascular disease. The median age was 10 ± 4.9 years (range 2-20), weight 37.4 ± 18.5 kg (10-82), body surface area (BSA) 1.18 ± 0.4 m(2) (0.48-2.07). The pulmonary artery diameters and angles were measured at standardized sites and projections. Regression analysis of diameters and angles in relation to BSA demonstrated linear relationship between the cross-sectional diameters of the pulmonary arteries and the square root of BSA (BSA(0.5)). Normalized mean diameters were for the MPA 17.6 ± 5.1 mm/m(2), origin of RPA 13.1 ± 2.9 mm/m(2), origin of LPA 14.2 ± 2.9 mm/m(2). The MPA showed a mean antero-posterior inclination of 33° ± 8° and a lateral leftward angulation of 18° ± 5°. The mean angle of the bifurcation was 99.5° ± 10.3°. Both side branches showed a supero-inferior course of the proximal segments, steeper for the RPA (7.7° ± 6.5°) than for the LPA (2.1° ± 7.8°). Normative curves in relation to BSA are presented for all measurements. This study provides normative values by CE-MRA for the main pulmonary artery and its side branches in children during somatic growth. These data can be used for identifying pulmonary arteries anomalies in children, and evaluate the need and the modality for treatment. PMID:20652636

Knobel, Zita; Kellenberger, Christian J; Kaiser, Thomas; Albisetti, Manuela; Bergsträsser, Eva; Buechel, Emanuela R Valsangiacomo

2010-07-21

195

High Postoperative Serum Cortisol Level Is Associated with Increased Risk of Cognitive Dysfunction Early after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: A Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Context Stress response induced by surgery is proposed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Objective To investigate the association between postoperative serum cortisol level and occurrence of cognitive dysfunction early after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Two teaching hospitals. Patients One hundred and sixth-six adult patients who were referred to elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery from March 2008 to December 2009. Intervention None. Main Outcome Measures Neuropsychological tests were completed one day before and seven days after surgery. Cognitive dysfunction was defined using the same definition as used in the ISPOCD1-study. Blood samples were obtained in the first postoperative morning for measurement of serum cortisol concentration. Multivariate Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between serum cortisol level and occurrence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Results Cognitive dysfunction occurred in 39.8% (66 of 166) of patients seven days after surgery. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that high serum cortisol level was significantly associated with the occurrence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (odds ratio [OR] 2.603, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.371-4.944, P = 0.003). Other independent predictors of early postoperative cognitive dysfunction included high preoperative New York Heart Association functional class (OR 0.402, 95% CI 0.207-0.782, P = 0.007), poor preoperative Grooved Pegboard test score of nondominant hand (OR 1.022, 95% CI 1.003-1.040, P = 0.020), use of penehyclidine as premedication (OR 2.565, 95% CI 1.109-5.933, P = 0.028), and occurrence of complications within seven days after surgery (OR 2.677, 95% CI 1.201-5.963, P = 0.016). Conclusions High serum cortisol level in the first postoperative morning was associated with increased risk of cognitive dysfunction seven days after coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

Mu, Dong-Liang; Li, Li-Huan; Wang, Dong-Xin; Li, Nan; Shan, Guo-Jin; Li, Jun; Yu, Qin-Jun; Shi, Chun-Xia

2013-01-01

196

Role of dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in monitoring early response of locally advanced breast cancer to neoadjuvant chemotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has become the standard treatment for patients with locally advanced breast cancer; however a technique that can accurately differentiate responders from non-responders at an early time point during treatment has still to be identified. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the ability of pharmacokinetically modelled dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI data to predict and monitor response of patients

Martin D. Pickles; Martin Lowry; David J. Manton; Peter Gibbs; Lindsay W. Turnbull

2005-01-01

197

Enhancement of mesenteric artery contraction to 5-HT depends on Rho kinase and Src kinase pathways in the ob/ob mouse model of type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: Arteries from hypertensive subjects are reportedly hyperresponsive to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), but it remains unclear whether this is true in chronic type 2 diabetes. We have assessed responses to 5-HT shown by mesenteric arteries from type 2 diabetic ob/ob mice (27–32 weeks old) and have identified the molecular mechanisms involved. Experimental approach: Contractions of mesenteric rings to 5-HT were examined in vitro. Activation of mesenteric RhoA, Rho kinase and Src was measured by Western blotting or by modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Key results: Concentration-dependent contractions to 5-HT were greater in mesenteric rings from the ob/ob than in those from the age-matched control (‘Lean’) group. In each group, there was no significant change in the 5-HT-induced contractions after inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (with NG-nitro-L-arginine), of cyclooxygenase (with indomethacin) or of protein kinase C (with chelerythrine). However inhibition of the MEK/ERK pathway (with PD98059) decreased the response to 5-HT. Although the diabetes-related enhancement of the 5-HT response was preserved with each of these inhibitors, enhancement was abolished by a Rho kinase inhibitor (Y27632) and by Src kinase inhibitors (PP1 analogue or Src kinase inhibitor I). 5-HT-induced activation of RhoA, Rho kinase and Src kinase in mesenteric arteries was greater in the ob/ob than in the Lean group, but the expression of RhoA, Rho kinase isoforms and Src did not differ between these groups. Conclusions and implications: These results suggest that the enhancement of 5-HT-induced contraction in mesenteric arteries from ob/ob mice may be attributable to increased activation of RhoA/Rho kinase and Src kinase.

Matsumoto, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Tsuneo; Ishida, Keiko; Taguchi, Kumiko; Kamata, Katsuo

2010-01-01

198

A Case Study of the Use of Internet Photobook Technology to Enhance Early Childhood "Scientist" Identity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many influences on a child's identity. Photobook technology purposefully prepared around science explorations presents a modern opportunity to repeatedly trigger memories that reinforce the "me, as scientist" viewpoint. Semi-structured interviews at 6 and 8 years of age were conducted with a child who was the subject of a photobook of everyday science activities to gain insights into his thinking about the nature of science and how he interprets his younger self participating. Interview data were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using dimensions from the previously established parameters for the nature of science. The child's statements about his participation in the photos were matched to these dimensions to consider how he sees himself "doing science" through his early years. Preliminary findings suggest that the child recognizes elements of science and regards himself as an active participant. In both interviews, the child reinforces these views by the opportunity to revisit the experiences in the photobook. Affective components may motivate further science involvement as well: the child enjoyed the time and attention that the photos and discussion provided; the child took pride in being the subject of a book. This case study suggests that there is a fertile field of research to investigate how, for whom, and in what ways internet photobook technology may enhance a child's developing identity as capable science explorer.

Katz, Phyllis

2011-10-01

199

Feedback Seeking in Early Adolescence: Self-Enhancement or Self-Verification?  

PubMed

The authors examined whether early adolescents (N = 90) solicit self-enhancing feedback (i.e., positive feedback) or self-verifying feedback (i.e., feedback congruent with self-views, even when these views are negative). Sixth, seventh, and eighth graders first completed a self-perception measure and then selected whether to receive positive or negative feedback from an unknown peer in different domains of self. Results were consistent with self-verification theory; adolescents who perceived themselves as having both strengths and weaknesses were more likely to seek negative feedback regarding a self-perceived weakness compared to a self-perceived strength. The authors found similar support for self-verification processes when they considered the entire sample regardless of perceived strengths and weaknesses; hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) examined the predictive power of ratings of self-perceived ability, certainty, and importance on feedback seeking for all participants and provided additional evidence of self-verification strivings in adolescence. PMID:23543746

Rosen, Lisa H; Principe, Connor P; Langlois, Judith H

2012-04-12

200

Weight loss and progression of early atherosclerosis in the carotid artery: a four-year controlled study of obese subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the extent of carotid artery atherosclerosis in obese subjects and to examine the possible effects of weight loss on atherosclerotic development.DESIGN: Controlled 4 y intervention study.SUBJECTS: 20 obese patients treated with weight-reducing gastroplasty, 19 obese patients treated with dietary recommendations and 35 lean subjects.MEASUREMENTS: Body weight, blood pressure, blood lipids, glucose and insulin were measured. A B-mode

K Karason; J Wikstrand; L Sjöström; I Wendelhag

1999-01-01

201

Borderline hypertension: early alterations of carotid artery mechanical properties and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. a possible relationship?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We sought to compare arterial mechanical variables in borderline hypertensives (BH, 135-139\\/85-89 mmHg, n=29) with those with essential hypertension (EH:>135\\/ 85mmHg, n=42) and normotensive subjects (NT: <135\\/85mmHg, n=27), classified according to mean diurnal ambulatory BP values. All subjects were 18 to 50 years old and free from any antihypertensive drug for at least 7 days before the study. Mean age

Hugo P. Baglivo; Laura Brandani; Alejandra Christen; Ricardo L. Armentano; Sebastian Graf; Agustin J. Ramirez; Ramiro A. Sanchez

2002-01-01

202

Thrombospondin-1 in Early Flow-Related Remodeling of Mesenteric Arteries from Young Normotensive and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats  

PubMed Central

We tested the hypotheses that TSP-1 participates in the initiation of remodeling of small muscular arteries in response to altered blood flow and that the N-terminal domain of TSP-1 (hepI) can reverse the pathological inward remodeling of resistance arteries from SHR. We measured (1) changes in gene/protein expression in MA of 6 week old WKY and SHR exposed to either increased (+ 100 %) or reduced blood flow (- 90 %) for 24-40 hours and (2) structural changes in MA of 12 week old SHR exposed for 3 days to hepI in organ culture. In both HF and LF of WKY, mRNA expression of eNOS, sGC?1 and PKG1? were significantly reduced (p < 0.05), whereas mRNA of TSP1 was markedly increased (p < 0.05). In MA of young SHR, similar results were obtained except that eNOS mRNA was not reduced in LF. Expression of TSP1 protein was significantly increased in LF of young WKY and SHR (p < 0.05). Exposure of MA of 12 week old SHR to hepI (1 µmol/L) resulted in a rapid lumen diameter increase (+ 12 ± 2% after 3 days) without alteration in vascular reactivity, distensibility, media surface area or cell number. These are the first observations of reduced gene expression of eNOS/sGC/PKG and increased expression of TSP1 at the initiation of arterial remodeling in young WKY and SHR, irrespective of its outward or inward outcome. Furthermore, a fragment of TSP-1 rapidly and directly reversed pathological inward arterial remodeling of SHR in vitro.

Lemkens, P; Boari, GEM; Fazzi, GE; Janssen, GMJ; Murphy-Ullrich, JE; Schiffers, PMH; De Mey, JGR

2012-01-01

203

Thrombospondin-1 in early flow-related remodeling of mesenteric arteries from young normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

We tested the hypotheses that TSP-1 participates in the initiation of remodeling of small muscular arteries in response to altered blood flow and that the N-terminal domain of TSP-1 (hepI) can reverse the pathological inward remodeling of resistance arteries from SHR.We measured (1) changes in gene/protein expression in MA of 6 week old WKY and SHR exposed to either increased (+ 100 %) or reduced blood flow (- 90 %) for 24-40 hours and (2) structural changes in MA of 12 week old SHR exposed for 3 days to hepI in organ culture.In both HF and LF of WKY, mRNA expression of eNOS, sGC?1 and PKG1? were significantly reduced (p < 0.05), whereas mRNA of TSP1 was markedly increased (p < 0.05). In MA of young SHR, similar results were obtained except that eNOS mRNA was not reduced in LF. Expression of TSP1 protein was significantly increased in LF of young WKY and SHR (p < 0.05). Exposure of MA of 12 week old SHR to hepI (1 µmol/L) resulted in a rapid lumen diameter increase (+ 12 ± 2% after 3 days) without alteration in vascular reactivity, distensibility, media surface area or cell number.These are the first observations of reduced gene expression of eNOS/sGC/PKG and increased expression of TSP1 at the initiation of arterial remodeling in young WKY and SHR, irrespective of its outward or inward outcome. Furthermore, a fragment of TSP-1 rapidly and directly reversed pathological inward arterial remodeling of SHR in vitro. PMID:22670160

Lemkens, P; Boari, Gem; Fazzi, Ge; Janssen, Gmj; Murphy-Ullrich, Je; Schiffers, Pmh; De Mey, Jgr

2012-05-18

204

Alcohol consumption, binge drinking, and early coronary calcification: findings from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is unclear to what extent the apparently beneficial cardiovascular effects of moderate alcohol consumption are mediated by protection against atherosclerosis. Alcohol consumption, coronary heart disease risk factors, and coronary calcification (a marker of atherosclerosis) were measured during 15 years of follow-up in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study (1985-2001). Among 3,037 participants aged 33-45 years

Mark J. Pletcher; Paul Varosy; Catarina I. Kiefe; Cora E. Lewis; Stephen Sidney; Stephen B. Hulley

2005-01-01

205

Short atrioventricular delay dual-chamber pacing early after coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with poor left ventricular function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the effect of short atrioventricular (AV) delay dual-chamber pacing on mean arterial pressure (MAP) and stroke volume index (SVI) in patients with poor left ventricular (LV) function after cardiac surgery.Design: A prospective study.Setting: A university hospital, single-center study.Participants: The study group consisted of 20 patients aged 63 ± 9 years with a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)

Andreas Liebold; Gabriele Rödig; Johannes Merk; Dietrich E. Birnbaum

1998-01-01

206

Visualization of segmental arterialization with arrival time parametric imaging using Sonazoid-enhanced ultrasonography in portal vein thrombosis: A case report  

PubMed Central

A 55-year-old male was admitted in mid-April 2011 with a fever of >39°C and pain in the lower right abdomen. A medical examination revealed sepsis originating from colonic diverticulitis. Abdominal B-mode ultrasonography (US) performed on admission detected thrombi in the superior mesenteric vein and in the right branch of the hepatic portal vein. Arrival time parametric imaging (At-PI) using Sonazoid-enhanced US showed arterialization of the entire right lobe of the liver. The treatment for the sepsis and portal thrombi that had been started upon admission dissolved the thrombi by day 22, with the exception of one thrombus in the P8 branch of the portal vein. At-PI performed on the same day confirmed arterialization in segment 8, but portal vein dominance was restored elsewhere. When the blood inflow from the hepatic portal vein was reduced, the hepatic arterial blood flow was increased to compensate for the reduction in the total blood supply. The At-PI functions used in the Sonazoid-enhanced US were simple yet effective in visualizing the changes in the hepatic hemodynamics caused by the portal thrombus.

WAKUI, NORITAKA; TAKAYAMA, RYUJI; MATSUKIYO, YASUSHI; SHINOHARA, MIE; KOBAYASHI, SHUNSUKE; KANEKAWA, TAKENORI; NAKANO, SHIGERU; NAGAI, HIDENARI; KUDO, TAKAHIDE; MARUYAMA, KENICHI; SUMINO, YASUKIYO

2013-01-01

207

Enhancing the Early Childhood Development System in Yakutia (Russia): Meeting the Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yakutia Republic is currently working to update its early childhood development (ECD) system. Its goal is to ensure a high quality environment for early learning and child care and to enable higher enrolment levels.

Jure Kotnik; Tigran Shmis

2011-01-01

208

Combinatorial Binding in Human and Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells Identifies Conserved Enhancers Active in Early Embryonic Development  

PubMed Central

Transcription factors are proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to cis-regulatory sequences such as promoters and enhancers. In embryonic stem (ES) cells, binding of the transcription factors OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG is essential to maintain the capacity of the cells to differentiate into any cell type of the developing embryo. It is known that transcription factors interact to regulate gene expression. In this study we show that combinatorial binding is strongly associated with co-localization of the transcriptional co-activator Mediator, H3K27ac and increased expression of nearby genes in embryonic stem cells. We observe that the same loci bound by Oct4, Nanog and Sox2 in ES cells frequently drive expression in early embryonic development. Comparison of mouse and human ES cells shows that less than 5% of individual binding events for OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG are shared between species. In contrast, about 15% of combinatorial binding events and even between 53% and 63% of combinatorial binding events at enhancers active in early development are conserved. Our analysis suggests that the combination of OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG binding is critical for transcription in ES cells and likely plays an important role for embryogenesis by binding at conserved early developmental enhancers. Our data suggests that the fast evolutionary rewiring of regulatory networks mainly affects individual binding events, whereas “gene regulatory hotspots” which are bound by multiple factors and active in multiple tissues throughout early development are under stronger evolutionary constraints.

Goke, Jonathan; Jung, Marc; Behrens, Sarah; Chavez, Lukas; O'Keeffe, Sean; Timmermann, Bernd; Lehrach, Hans; Adjaye, James; Vingron, Martin

2011-01-01

209

Folic Acid Enhances Early Functional Recovery in a Piglet Model of Pediatric Head Injury  

PubMed Central

For stroke and spinal cord injury, folic acid supplementation has been shown to enhance neurodevelopment and to provide neuroprotection. We hypothesized that folic acid would reduce brain injury and improve neurological outcome in a neonatal piglet model of traumatic brain injury (TBI), using 4 experimental groups of 3- to 5-day-old female piglets. Two groups were intubated, anesthetized and had moderate brain injury induced by rapid axial head rotation without impact. One group of injured (Inj) animals received folic acid (Fol; 80 ?g/kg) by intraperitoneal (IP) injection 15 min following injury, and then daily for 6 days (Inj + Fol; n = 7). The second group of injured animals received an IP injection of saline (Sal) at the same time points (Inj + Sal; n = 8). Two uninjured (Uninj) control groups (Uninj + Fol, n = 8; Uninj + Sal, n = 7) were intubated, anesthetized and received folic acid (80 ?g/kg) or saline by IP injection at the same time points as the injured animals following a sham procedure. Animals underwent neurobehavioral and cognitive testing on days 1 and 4 following injury to assess behavior, memory, learning and problem solving. Serum folic acid and homocysteine levels were collected prior to injury and again before euthanasia. The piglets were euthanized 6 days following injury, and their brains were perfusion fixed for histological analysis. Folic acid levels were significantly higher in both Fol groups on day 6. Homocysteine levels were not affected by treatment. On day 1 following injury, the Inj + Fol group showed significantly more exploratory interest, and better motor function, learning and problem solving compared to the Inj + Sal group. Inj + Fol animals had a significantly lower cognitive composite dysfunction score compared to all other groups on day 1. These functional improvements were not seen on day 4 following injury. Axonal injury measured by ?-amyloid precursor protein staining 6 days after injury was not affected by treatment. These results suggest that folic acid may enhance early functional recovery in this piglet model of pediatric head injury. This is the first study to describe the application of complex functional testing to assess an intervention outcome in a swine model of TBI.

Naim, Maryam Y.; Friess, Stuart; Smith, Colin; Ralston, Jill; Ryall, Karen; Helfaer, Mark A.; Margulies, Susan S.

2011-01-01

210

Stroke risk after abrupt internal carotid artery sacrifice: Accuracy of preoperative assessment with balloon test occlusion and stable xenon-enhanced CT  

SciTech Connect

To evaluate stable xenon-enhanced CT cerebral blood flow with balloon test occlusion as a predictor of stroke risk in internal carotid artery sacrifice. Abrupt internal carotid artery occlusion was performed by surgical or endovascular means below the origin of the ophthalmic artery in 31 normotensive patients who were assessed preoperatively by a 15-minute clinical balloon test occlusion followed by an internal carotid artery-occluded xenon CT cerebral blood flow study. One patient, who passed the clinical test occlusion but exhibited regions of cerebral blood flow less than 30 mL/100 g per minute on the occlusion xenon CT cerebral blood flow study went on to have a fatal stroke corresponding exactly to the region of assessment. Neuroimaging demonstrated possible flow-related infarctions, which subsequently developed in three patients. Two patients were asymptomatic, and one patient was left with a mild residual hemiparesis. Our protocol provided a statistically significant reduction in subsequent infarction rate and infarction-related death rate when compared with a control group of normotensive abrupt internal carotid artery occlusion patients who did not undergo any preoperative stroke-risk assessment (reported in the literature). The estimated false-negative rate for our preoperative assessment protocol ranged from 3.3% to 10% depending on the assessment of the cause of the three potentially flow-related infarctions. Although life-threatening major vascular territory infarctions have been avoided, our protocol is less sensitive to changes predicting smaller, often minimally symptomatic, vascular border zone infarctions and does not predict postoperative thromboembolic strokes. 94 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Linskey, M.E.; Jungreis, C.A.; Yonas, H.; Hirsch, W.L. Jr.; Sekhar, L.N.; Horton, J.A.; Janosky, J.E. [Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (United States)

1994-05-01

211

Contrast-agent-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: early detection of neoplastic lesions of the CNS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Even though the intrinsic soft tissue contrast sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) affords excellent visualization of anatomic detail, certain pathologic processes may be diagnosed earlier with the administration of a contrast-enhancing agent. At present there is one agent, gadopentetate dimeglumine, GdDTPA, that has received FDA approval for use in the MR scanning of the brain and spine in human patients. This paramagnetic chelate distributes throughout the extracellular fluid space as dictated by capillary permeability so that abnormal vascularity and sites of blood-CNS barrier breakdown are highlighted. Primary neoplastic disease, metastases, meningeal extension, residual and recurrent tumor have been found to be better distinguished in MR images acquired after administration of GdDTPA. Routine administration of GdDTPA for cranial imaging has resulted in the discovery of otherwise occult lesions in approximately 3% of patients. Although the clinical utility and high therapeutic safety index of the first approved magnetic resonance contrast agent, GdDTPA, have been well established, other contrast agents, having different physical, chemical and biological properties, may offer improved sensitivity and bio-specificity. Agents currently being evaluated in vivo include: low osmolal paramagnetic chelates, superparamagnetic particles, metalloporphyrins, liposome encapsulated agents, perfluorocarbons, intravascular macromolecular chelate complexes and labeled monoclonal antibodies. Concurrent with advances in the development of new compounds, innovations in scanning hardware, pulse sequence design and image post-processing are helping to extend the efficacy of contrast media. Additional clinical experience will indicate which contrast agents and which MR techniques can best facilitate the early detection of specific neoplastic lesions.

Carvlin, Mark J.; Rosa, Louis; Rajan, Sunder S.; Francisco, John

1991-06-01

212

THE EFFECT OF HELIUM-ENHANCED STELLAR POPULATIONS ON THE ULTRAVIOLET-UPTURN PHENOMENON OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

Recent observations and modeling of globular clusters (GCs) with multiple populations strongly indicate the presence of super-helium-rich subpopulations in old stellar systems. Motivated by this, we have constructed new population synthesis models with and without helium-enhanced subpopulations to investigate their impact on the UV-upturn phenomenon of quiescent early-type galaxies (ETGs). We find that our models with helium-enhanced subpopulations can naturally reproduce the strong UV-upturns observed in giant elliptical galaxies assuming an age similar to that of old GCs in the Milky Way. The major source of far-UV (FUV) flux, in this model, is relatively metal-poor and helium-enhanced hot horizontal-branch stars and their progeny. The Burstein et al. relation of the FUV - V color with metallicity is also explained either by the variation of the fraction of helium-enhanced subpopulations or by the spread in mean age of stellar populations in ETGs.

Chung, Chul; Yoon, Suk-Jin; Lee, Young-Wook, E-mail: ywlee2@yonsei.ac.kr [Center for Galaxy Evolution Research and Department of Astronomy, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-10-20

213

Chronic Stress and the Development of Early Atherosclerosis: Moderating Effect of Endothelial Dysfunction and Impaired Arterial Elasticity  

PubMed Central

This study aims to explore the interactive effect of vital exhaustion (VE) and endothelial dysfunction on preclinical atherosclerosis, assessed by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). Furthermore, interaction between VE and carotid elasticity is examined. Participants were 1,596 young healthy adults from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study. Endothelial dysfunction was measured by brachial flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), and carotid elasticity by carotid artery compliance (CAC). Significant interactions between FMD and VE, and between CAC and VE, for IMT were found in participants with the very lowest FMD and CAC. Thus, VE may be harmful if the endothelium is not working properly.

Chumaeva, Nadja; Hintsanen, Mirka; Ravaja, Niklas; Juonala, Markus; Raitakari, Olli T.; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa

2009-01-01

214

Relationship between N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and renal function: the effects on predicting early outcome after off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery  

PubMed Central

Background Plasma levels of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) provide useful prognostic predictors in patients after cardiac surgery. However, predictive accuracy of NT-proBNP levels has varied significantly according to renal dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to assess whether preoperative NT-proBNP levels could be used as predictors of early postoperative outcomes on the basis of renal function in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB). Methods In 219 patients undergoing elective OPCAB, NT-proBNP and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were assessed preoperatively. All patients were divided into 3 groups according to tertiles of eGFR: the first (eGFR ? 90 ml/min/1.73 m2), the second (90 ml/min/1.73 m2 > eGFR ? 72 ml/min/1.73 m2) and the third tertile group (eGFR < 72 ml/min/1.73 m2). End point was the composite of early postoperative complications defined as myocardial infarction, new onset atrial fibrillation, ventricular dysfunction, prolonged mechanical ventilator care (> 48 hr), prolonged ICU stay (? 3 days), and in hospital mortality. Results There was no difference in early postoperative complications among groups. A preoperative NT-proBNP level of 228 pg/ml and 302 pg/ml (sensitivity 70%, specificity 67%, P < 0.001 and sensitivity 73%, specificity 63%, P = 0.001, respectively) were optimal cut-off values predicting complicated early postoperative course in second and third tertile group, respectively. Conclusions Preoperative NT-proBNP levels seem to be predictive of early postoperative complications in patients with eGFR < 90 ml/min/1.73 m2 undergoing OPCAB.

Jo, Youn Yi; Kwak, Young Lan; Lee, Jonghoon

2011-01-01

215

Enhancer blocking activity located near the 3? end of the sea urchin early H2A histone gene  

PubMed Central

The sea urchin early histone repeating unit contains one copy of each of the five histone genes whose coordinate expression during development is regulated by gene-specific elements. To learn how within the histone repeating unit a gene-specific activator can be prevented to communicate with the heterologous promoters, we searched for domain boundaries by using the enhancer blocking assay. We focused on the region near the 3? end of the H2A gene where stage-specific nuclease cleavage sites appear upon silencing of the early histone genes. We demonstrated that a DNA fragment of 265 bp in length, defined as sns (for silencing nucleoprotein structure), blocked the enhancer activity of the H2A modulator in microinjected sea urchin embryos only when placed between the enhancer elements and the promoter. We also found that sns silenced the modulator elements even when placed at 2.7 kb from the promoter. By contrast, the enhancer activity of the modulator sequences, located downstream to the coding region, was not affected when sns was positioned in close proximity to the promoter. Finally, the H2A sns fragment placed between the simian virus 40 regulative region and the tk promoter repressed chloramphenicol acetyltransferase expression in transfected human cell lines. We conclude that 3? end of the H2A gene contains sequence elements that behave as functional barriers of enhancer function in the enhancer blocking assay. Furthermore, our results also indicate that the enhancer blocking function of sns lacks enhancer and species specificity and that it can act in transient assays.

Palla, Franco; Melfi, Raffaella; Anello, Letizia; Di Bernardo, Maria; Spinelli, Giovanni

1997-01-01

216

Impact of Pulmonary Artery Stiffness on Right Ventricular Function and Tricuspid Regurgitation after Successful Percutaneous Balloon Mitral Valvuloplasty: The Importance of Early Intervention.  

PubMed

Aims: We assessed impact of pulmonary artery stiffness (PAS) on the long-term right ventricular (RV) function and tricuspid regurgitation (TR) changes after percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty (PBMV). Methods and Results: Using Doppler echocardiography, PAS was calculated by dividing maximal frequency shift of pulmonary flow by the acceleration time, and mitral area, RV function, and degree of TR severity were evaluated before, immediately after, 6 months, and 12 months after successful PBMV in 81 consecutive patients. Compared with control subjects patients with mitral stenosis (MS) had significant higher PAS (P < 0.001). The PAS was significantly lower in patients with progressive RV function improvement and regression of TR (P < 0.001). PAS was significantly correlated with the degree of pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP), tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), and E/E'm ratio (P < 0.0001, <0.0001, and < 0.001, respectively). Multivariate regression analysis showed that the PAS is an independent predictor of TR regression and sustained RV functional improvement after successful PBMV (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: The changes in RV function and TR after successful PBMV were significantly correlated with the degree of PAS. Despite a sustained increase in mitral valve area, some patients showed no regression of TR, and progressive RV dysfunction suggests a significant role of PAS on RV function and the degree of TR regression in patients with MS suggests that PBMV must be performed early, utilizing PAS as a noninvasive parameter for proper timing for PBMV. PMID:22897621

Mahfouz, Ragab A

2012-08-17

217

Early postoperative interventional ASD-closure for severe atrial right to left shunt in a neonate with common arterial trunk  

PubMed Central

Although closure of an atrial septal defect (ASD II) with an occluding device in the first year of life is not a routine procedure, it is a feasible treatment, even in neonates. Case reports on the off-label use of Amplatzer devices have been repeatedly published, but there are no reports on using the Amplatzer Duct Occluder (ADO) to close an atrial septal defect in a neonate. We report on a successful catheter closure of an ASD II with ADO in a severely cyanotic neonate, seven days after surgical repair of common arterial trunk. Due to progressive cyanosis and clinical signs of right ventricular failure, which developed after common arterial trunk repair, the neonate underwent cardiac catheterization. Diastolic filling impairment of the right ventricle (right ventricle hypertrophy, pulmonary regurgitation, and residual right ventricle outflow tract obstruction) was thought to be the cause of impaired right ventricle diastolic filling, resulting in the right-to-left shunt at the atrial level. Under transesophageal echocardiographic guidance, ADO was delivered through a 5 French sheath into the atrial septal defect. Amplatzer duct occluder closed the defect and proved to be stable in position after disconnection. During the procedure, the child was stable and then transferred to the intensive care unit with significantly improved oxygen saturation. This is the first report on placing a duct occluder in the atrial septal position, which is a novel procedure for-small neonates.

Dilber, Daniel; Eicken, Andreas; Hess, John

2013-01-01

218

Early Detection of Therapeutic Response to Hepatic Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy of Liver Metastases from Colorectal Cancer Using Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) is useful for early detection of the response of hepatic colorectal metastases to hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The subjects were 12 patients with hepatic colorectal metastases. The indwelling catheter for HAIC was placed in the hepatic artery, and 1000 mg/m{sup 2} 5-FU was given repeatedly once a week. DWI was performed before and 9 days after HAIC. The minimum and mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values (minADC and meanADC) were measured. The relative change in ADC values (%ADC) and the relative change in tumor size on follow-up CT after 3 months (reduction ratio) were determined. Liver metastases were divided into two groups, responder and nonresponder. The correlation between %ADC and reduction ratio was determined, and %ADC was compared between the two groups. Eleven patients successfully completed HAIC over the 3-month period; 48 metastatic lesions were evaluated. Positive correlations were observed for relative change between %minADC and reduction ratio (r = 0.709) and between %meanADC and reduction ratio (r = 0.536). Both %minADC and %meanADC were significantly greater in the responder group than in the nonresponder group. With the threshold determined as < 3.5%, the receiver-operating curve analysis showed higher sensitivity and specificity values for %minADC (100% and 92.6%, respectively) than for %meanADC (66.7% and 74.1%, respectively). In conclusion, the relative change in minimum ADC values on DWI may be useful for early detection of the response of liver metastases to HAIC with 5-FU.

Marugami, Nagaaki; Tanaka, Toshihiro, E-mail: toshihir@bf6.so-net.ne.jp; Kitano, Satoru [Nara Medical University, Department of Radiology (Japan); Hirohashi, Shinji [Osaka Gyomeikan Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Nishiofuku, Hideyuki [Nara Medical University, Department of Radiology (Japan); Takahashi, Aki; Sakaguchi, Hiroshi [Nara Prefectural Mimuro Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Matsuoka, Masaki; Otsuji, Toshio [Dongo Hospital, Department of Gastrointestinal Medicine (Japan); Takahama, Junko; Higashiura, Wataru; Kichikawa, Kimihiko [Nara Medical University, Department of Radiology (Japan)

2009-07-15

219

No Child Misunderstood: Enhancing Early Childhood Teachers’ Multicultural Responsiveness to the Social Competence of Diverse Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of rapid demographic changes in our society, more children from diverse racial\\/cultural backgrounds join our early\\u000a childhood classrooms. The majority of early childhood teachers, on the other hand, are middle-class and of European-decent.\\u000a This paper provides early childhood teachers with both theoretical and practical understandings about multicultural responsiveness,\\u000a in order to understand and promote social competence of

Heejeong Sophia Han; M. Shelley Thomas

2010-01-01

220

Myocardial viability by contrast-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance in patients with coronary artery disease: comparison with gated single-photon emission tomography and FDG position emission tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The aim of this study was to assess the value of contrast-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in viability for\\u000a patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction (ejection fraction [EF] ?50%), comparing to gated\\u000a thallium-201 (201Tl) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods and Results  One hundred sixteen patients (EF 37.8 ± 16.2%) underwent

Yen-Wen Wu; Eiji Tadamura; Shotaro Kanao; Masaki Yamamuro; Akira Marui; Masashi Komeda; Masanao Toma; Takeshi Kimura; Kaori Togashi

2007-01-01

221

Early diagnosis of the site of infarction and the infarct-related coronary artery in patients with acute inferior myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

We evaluated the relationship between the site of infarction and the infarct-related coronary arteries from electrocardiograms (ECGs) recorded early after the onset of chest pain in patients with an initial acute inferior myocardial infarction (IMI). The subjects were 80 patients (mean age 57 +/- 12 years) with IMI admitted within 6 hours from the onset of chest pain. This was prior to the thrombolytic era. We analyzed the ECGs on admission, at 24 hours and at 4 weeks. All patients underwent left ventriculography and coronary angiography at 4-6 weeks from the onset of the IMI. Left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) and regional area changes were measured. The infarct-related coronary artery was determined by the site of the asynergy. Patients were allocated into 2 groups according to the infarct-related artery, i.e. right (RCA, n = 52) and left circumflex (LCX, n = 28). Parameters measured were ST elevation, amplitude and width of R wave and R/S ratio in leads V1 and V2, and amplitude of U waves in leads V1 to V3. We defined the U wave as a prominent positive U wave (PPU) if it was > 0.5 mm (50 microV) in height. A significantly greater number of patients with PPU showed asynergy in posterolateral segments compared to those without PPU. The EF was significantly lower in patients with PPU than in those without (46 +/- 12% vs 54 +/- 13%, p < 0.05). Patients with PPUs eventually showed ECG evidence of posterior infarction (increased R wave duration and R/S ratio > or = 1 in lead V1 or V2) by 4 weeks compared to those without PPUs. Also a significantly greater number of patients with PPUs developed posterior infarction shown by left ventriculograms than those without PPUs. As to the infarct-related coronary arteries, a significantly greater number of patients with LCX disease showed concomitant posterior infarction than those with RCA disease. Also, a significantly greater number of LCX patients showed PPUs and ST elevations in leads V5 and V6 than those with RCA disease. The sensitivity of PPUs and ST elevations in leads V5 and V6 suggesting LCX disease was 60% and the specificity was 98% with a predictive accuracy of 87%. Therefore, we conclude that PPUs in leads V1-3 and ST elevations in leads V5 and V6 are specific markers for the diagnosis of LCX-related infarction in the setting of evolving IMI. PMID:1453547

Kanemoto, N; Hosokawa, J

1992-07-01

222

Contrast-enhanced high-frequency ultrasound imaging of early stage liver metastasis in a preclinical mouse model.  

PubMed

Monitoring angiogenesis is potentially an effective strategy for the early detection of cancer. In this study, early detection was achieved by evaluating blood vessel density in the liver using a three-dimensional contrast-enhanced high-frequency ultrasound (CE-HFUS) system and Sonazoid microbubbles. Three-dimensional CE-HFUS detected an increase in blood vessel density in the liver after intrasplenic injection of breast tumor cells into mice. The results were in agreement with immunohistochemical analysis of blood vessel density. Three-dimensional CE-HFUS using microbubbles is an attractive, novel approach for the early detection of liver metastases through quantification of new, pathological vascular growth (i.e. tumor angiogenesis). PMID:23791880

Horie, Sachiko; Chen, Rui; Li, Li; Mori, Shiro; Kodama, Tetsuya

2013-06-18

223

Predicting the extent and location of coronary artery disease during the early postinfarction period by quantitative thallium-201 scintigraphy  

SciTech Connect

The ability of quantitative thallium-201 scintigraphy to predict the extent and location of coronary artery disease before hospital discharge after acute myocardial infarction was evaluated in 52 patients. All patients underwent coronary angiography and serial thallium-201 imaging either at rest or after submaximal exercise stress. Two or three vessel disease was designated if abnormal thallium-201 uptake or washout patterns, or both, were seen in two or three vascular segments, respectively. Of 156 vessels analyzed in the 52 patients, 91 stenoses of 70 percent or greater were found by angiography. Seventy-four of these were predicted by scintigraphy. The specificity of scintigraphy for identifying vessel stenoses was 92 percent. Sensitivity for detecting and localizing stenoses supplying an infarct zone was 96 percent compared with 62 percent for stenoses supplying myocardium remote from the acute infarct. Perfusion abnormalities were more frequently seen in the distribution of vessels with severe stenoses than in those with moderate stenoses. Scintigraphy detected a greater proportion of left anterior descending and right coronary arterial stenoses than circumflex stenoses. In the 42 patients who underwent submaximal exercise testing, multivariate analysis of 23 clinical and laboratory variables identified multiple thallium-201 defects as the best predictor of multivessel disease. The predictive accuracy of exercise-induced S-T segment depression was only 45 percent compared with 88 percent for thallium-201 scintigraphy. Thallium-201 imaging at rest is reliable in assessing the extent of coronary disease in hospitalized patients who cannot undergo exercise testing because of unstable angina, uncompensated heart failure, poorly controlled arrhythmias or physical limitations.

Gibson, R.S.; Taylor, G.J.; Watson, D.D.; Stebbins, P.T.; Martin, R.P.; Crampton, R.S.; Beller, G.A.

1981-05-01

224

Laser recanalisation of coronary arteries by metal-capped optical fibres: early clinical experience in patients with stable angina pectoris.  

PubMed Central

The delivery of laser energy to the coronary circulation by bare optical fibres may cause perforation of the vessel. Experimental studies have shown that this complication can be avoided if the optical fibre is fitted with a metal cap to prevent the potentially dangerous forward projection of the laser beam. This study was performed to assess the feasibility and short term effects of percutaneous coronary laser recanalisation with these modified fibres. Recanalisation of a severe stenosis of the left anterior descending artery was attempted in six patients who were referred for coronary artery bypass grafting. Although the percutaneous technique was used, the laser procedure was performed during coronary bypass surgery before the start of cardiopulmonary bypass to minimise the effects of potential complications. A 1.5 mm diameter metal-capped fibre coupled to an argon laser was advanced percutaneously over a guide wire positioned across the stenosis. In the first patient the delivery of 152 J resulted in the gradual passage of the fibre through a 3 cm long stenosis. Repeat angiography showed a reduction in the severity of the stenosis. In the second patient the delivery of 112 J failed to allow fibre advancement; a further 80 J pulse caused perforation which was repaired. In the remaining four patients the delivery of laser energy in the attempt to traverse the stenosis was limited to less than 90 J. In two of the four patients the severity of stenosis was reduced. No further complications were seen. Percutaneous coronary laser recanalisation with metal-capped optical fibres is feasible but improvements of currently available technology are needed to increase the primary success rate. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4

Crea, F; Davies, G; McKenna, W J; Pashazadeh, M; Keogh, B; Kidner, P; Taylor, K M; Maseri, A

1988-01-01

225

Enhanced jun gene expression is an early genomic response to transforming growth factor. beta. stimulation  

SciTech Connect

Transforming growth factor {beta} (TGF{beta}) is a multifunctional polypeptide4 that regulates proliferation, differentiation, and other functions of many cell types. The pathway of TGF{beta} signal transduction in cells is unknown. The authors report here that an early effect of TGF{beta} is an enhancement of the expression of two genes encoding serum- and phorbol ester tumor promoter-regulated transcription factors: the junB gene and the c-jun proto-oncogene, respectively. This stimulation was observed in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells which were growth inhibited by TGF{beta}, AKR-2B mouse embryo fibroblasts which were growth stimulated by TGF{beta}, and K562 human erythroleukemia cells, which were not appreciably affected in their growth by TFG{beta}. The increase in jun mRNA occurred with picomolar TGF{beta} concentrations within 1 h of TGF{beta} stimulation, reached a peak between 1 and 5 h in different cells, and declined gradually to base-fine levels. This mRNA response was followed by a large increase in the biosynthesis of the c-jun protein (AP-1), as shown by metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation analysis. However, differential and cell type-specific regulation appeared to determine the timing and magnitude of the response of each jun gene in a given cell. In AKR-2B and NIH 3T3 cells, only junB was induced by TGF{beta}, evidently in a protein synthesis-independent fashion. The junB response to TGF{beta} was maintained in c-Ha-ras and neu oncogene-transformed cells. Thus, one of the earliest genomic responses to TGF{beta} may involve nuclear signal transduction and amplification by the junB and c-jun transcription factors in concert with c-fos, which is also induced. The differential activation of the jun genes may explain some of the pleiotropic effects of TGF{beta}.

Pertovaara, L.; Sistonen, L.; Keski-Oja, J.; Alitalo, K. (Helsinki Univ. (Finland)); Bos, T.J.; Vogt, P.K. (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (USA). Dept. of Microbiology)

1989-03-01

226

Enhanced myocardial fluorodeoxyglucose uptake following Adriamycin-based therapy: Evidence of early chemotherapeutic cardiotoxicity?  

PubMed Central

AIM: To analyze changes in myocardial glucose metabolism using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) in patients treated with adriamycin and to investigate the clinical significance of these changes. METHODS: Considering that FDG-PET scanning has the ability to show changes in glucose metabolism in the myocardium, we retrospectively analyzed the FDG-PET studies of 18 lymphoma patients treated with adriamycin-based chemotherapy in both the pre- and post-therapy setting. Cardiac contractile parameters such as left ventricular ejection fraction were not available for correlation in all patients due to the short duration and the level of cumulative dose administered in these patients during the time of the follow-up FDG-PET study. The change in myocardial glucose utilization was estimated by change in standard uptake values (SUV) in the myocardium. RESULTS: We observed a significant change in SUVmean values in the myocardium (defined as more than ± 20% change in cardiac SUVmean between pre- and post-chemotherapy PET) in 12 patients, whereas 6 patients did not show any significant cardiac FDG uptake in both pre- and post-therapy PET scans. Patients were divided into three groups based on the changes observed in myocardial tracer uptake on the follow-up 18F-FDG-PET study. Group A (n = 8): showed an increase in cardiac 18F-FDG uptake in the post-therapy scan compared to the baseline scan carried out prior to starting adriamycin-based chemotherapy. Group B (n = 6): showed no significant cardiac 18F-FDG uptake in post-therapy and baseline PET scans, and group C (n = 4): showed a fall in cardiac 18F-FDG uptake in the post-therapy scan compared to the baseline scan. Mean cumulative adriamycin dose (in mg/m2) received during the time of the follow-up FDG-PET study was 256.25, 250 and 137.5, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our study shows three different trends in the change in myocardial glucose metabolism in patients undergoing adriamycin-based chemotherapy. A further prospective study with prolonged follow-up of ventricular function is warranted to explore the significance of enhanced FDG uptake as a marker of early identification of adriamycin-induced cardiotoxicity.

Borde, Chaitanya; Kand, Purushottam; Basu, Sandip

2012-01-01

227

Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in mice at high field: Estimation of the arterial input function can be achieved by phase imaging.  

PubMed

PURPOSE: Quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI requires an accurate arterial input function (AIF). At high field, increased susceptibility effects and decreased longitudinal relaxivity of contrast agents lead to predominant T(2) * effects in blood vessels, producing a dip in signal during passage of the contrast agent bolus. This study determined phase-derived AIFs in mice at 11.7 T. METHODS: AIFs were measured in aorta/vena cava for five FBV/N mice and in iliac arteries/veins for five NMRI mice with a fast low angle shot sequence, simultaneously with tumor imaging (temporal resolution: 1.19 s). Gadoterate was injected into the tail vein as a bolus (0.286 mmol Gd/kg). An in vitro study was also performed to calculate the relationship between ?? and gadolinium concentration. RESULTS: The phantom system confirmed the linear relationship between measured ?? and gadolinium concentration. In vivo, a dip in arterial magnitude signal made it impossible to quantify the AIF. With phase imaging, a clear quantifiable bolus peak was obtained; peak measured concentration in plasma was 4.9?±?0.9 mM for FBV/N mice and 8.0?±?0.6 mM for NMRI mice, close to the expected concentration of 6.8 mM. CONCLUSION: Phase imaging seems to be an appropriate means to measure the AIF of mice at high field. Magn Reson Med, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23440927

Fruytier, A-C; Magat, J; Colliez, F; Jordan, B; Cron, G; Gallez, B

2013-02-25

228

Enhancing Research and Practice in Early Childhood through Formative and Design Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes formative and design experiments and how they can advance research and instructional practices in early childhood education. We argue that this relatively new approach to education research closes the gap between research and practice, and it addresses limitations that have been identified in early childhood research. We…

Bradley, Barbara A.; Reinking, David

2011-01-01

229

Enhancing research and practice in early childhood through formative and design experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes formative and design experiments and how they can advance research and instructional practices in early childhood education. We argue that this relatively new approach to education research closes the gap between research and practice, and it addresses limitations that have been identified in early childhood research. We provide examples of this approach's potential benefits, trace its origins,

Barbara A. Bradley; David Reinking

2011-01-01

230

Teaching Curriculum with Technology: Enhancing Children's Technological Competence During Early Childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging technologies hold promise for improv- three assertions are posed that emerged from a withining student achievement and teacher quality. Evidence case analysis of these examples. In the concluding secthat diverse uses of technology in early childhood cur- tion, we inform the reader of the contributions of this ricula show measurable differences in student achieve- study to early childhood education

Belinda Gimbert; Dean Cristol

2004-01-01

231

Enhancing the Early Childhood Development System in Yakutia (Russia): Meeting the Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Yakutia Republic is currently working to update its early childhood development (ECD) system. Its goal is to ensure a high quality environment for early learning and child care and to enable higher enrolment levels. Currently, a high priority for the Government of Yakutia is to increase access to pre-school education, given the significant…

Kotnik, Jure; Shmis, Tigran

2011-01-01

232

Early Sexual Experience Fails to Enhance Sexual Performance in Male Goats1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effects of early sexual experience on the adult sexual performance of male dairy goats. Seven postpubertal males were exposed to an estrous female on four occasions during their 1st yr of life. These males were housed with six additional males (controls) that received no early sexual ex- perience. As yearlings, the 13 males were individually exposed to

E. O. Price; R. Borgwardt; A. Orihuela

233

Improved Detection of Coronary Artery Disease by Stress Perfusion Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance With the Use of Delayed Enhancement Infarction Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES We tested a pre-defined visual interpretation algorithm that combines cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) data from perfusion and infarction imaging for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). BACKGROUND Cardiovascular magnetic resonance can assess both myocardial perfusion and infarction with independent techniques in a single session. METHODS We prospectively enrolled 100 consecutive patients with suspected CAD scheduled for X-ray coronary

Igor Klem; John F. Heitner; Dipan J. Shah; Michael H. Sketch Jr; Victor Behar; Jonathan Weinsaft; Peter Cawley; Michele Parker; Michael Elliott; Robert M. Judd; Raymond J. Kim

2006-01-01

234

Can we enhance the detection of ischemia and better identify high risk coronary artery disease by imaging of myocardial metabolism?  

Microsoft Academic Search

For more than 30 years, the main noninvasive nuclear approach to detecting coronary artery disease (CAD) has been with stress and rest (or redistribution for thallium-201) myocardial perfusion imaging. This technology has served us well since CAD was detected with a higher sensitivity and specificity than achieved with exercise ECG stress testing alone. It also permitted stratification of risk for

George A. Beller

2009-01-01

235

Enhanced spontaneous Ca2+ events in endothelial cells reflect signalling through myoendothelial gap junctions in pressurized mesenteric arteries  

PubMed Central

Summary Increases in global Ca2+ in the endothelium are a crucial step in releasing relaxing factors to modulate arterial tone. In the present study we investigated spontaneous Ca2+ events in endothelial cells, and the contribution of smooth muscle cells to these Ca2+ events, in pressurized rat mesenteric resistance arteries. Spontaneous Ca2+ events were observed under resting conditions in 34% of cells. These Ca2+ events were absent in arteries preincubated with either cyclopiazonic acid or U-73122, but were unaffected by ryanodine or nicotinamide. Stimulation of smooth muscle cell depolarization and contraction with either phenylephrine or high concentrations of KCl significantly increased the frequency of endothelial cell Ca2+ events. The putative gap junction uncouplers carbenoxolone and 18· -glycyrrhetinic acid each inhibited spontaneous and evoked Ca2+ events, and the movement of calcein from endothelial to smooth muscle cells. In addition, spontaneous Ca2+ events were diminished by nifedipine, lowering extracellular Ca2+ levels, or by blockers of non-selective Ca2+ influx pathways. These findings suggest that in pressurized rat mesenteric arteries, spontaneous Ca2+ events in the endothelial cells appear to originate from endoplasmic reticulum IP3 receptors, and are subject to regulation by surrounding smooth muscle cells via myoendothelial gap junctions, even under basal conditions.

Kansui, Yasuo; Garland, Christopher J.; Dora, Kim A.

2008-01-01

236

Enhanced spontaneous Ca2+ events in endothelial cells reflect signalling through myoendothelial gap junctions in pressurized mesenteric arteries.  

PubMed

Increases in global Ca(2+) in the endothelium are a crucial step in releasing relaxing factors to modulate arterial tone. In the present study we investigated spontaneous Ca(2+) events in endothelial cells, and the contribution of smooth muscle cells to these Ca(2+) events, in pressurized rat mesenteric resistance arteries. Spontaneous Ca(2+) events were observed under resting conditions in 34% of cells. These Ca(2+) events were absent in arteries preincubated with either cyclopiazonic acid or U-73122, but were unaffected by ryanodine or nicotinamide. Stimulation of smooth muscle cell depolarization and contraction with either phenylephrine or high concentrations of KCl significantly increased the frequency of endothelial cell Ca(2+) events. The putative gap junction uncouplers carbenoxolone and 18alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid each inhibited spontaneous and evoked Ca(2+) events, and the movement of calcein from endothelial to smooth muscle cells. In addition, spontaneous Ca(2+) events were diminished by nifedipine, lowering extracellular Ca(2+) levels, or by blockers of non-selective Ca(2+) influx pathways. These findings suggest that in pressurized rat mesenteric arteries, spontaneous Ca(2+) events in the endothelial cells appear to originate from endoplasmic reticulum IP(3) receptors, and are subject to regulation by surrounding smooth muscle cells via myoendothelial gap junctions, even under basal conditions. PMID:18191200

Kansui, Yasuo; Garland, Christopher J; Dora, Kim A

2008-01-11

237

Arterial phase enhancement and body mass index are predictors of response to chemoembolisation for liver metastases of endocrine tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transcatheter arterial chemoembolisation (TACE) has been reported to be an efficient treatment of liver metastases of endocrine tumours in short series of patients. However, several factors seem to affect its results. The aim of this work is to identify predictors of response to TACE for liver metastases of endocrine tumours. A total of 163 TACE procedures were performed in 67

F Marrache; M P Vullierme; C Roy; Y El Assoued; A Couvelard; D O'Toole; E Mitry; O Hentic; P Hammel; P Lévy; P Ravaud; P Rougier; P Ruszniewski

2007-01-01

238

Value of single-dose contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography versus intraarterial digital subtraction angiography in therapy indications in abdominal and iliac arteries.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to prove the value of single-dose contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography [three-dimensional (3D) ceMRA] in abdominal and iliac arteries versus the reference standard intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (i.a.DSA) when indicating a therapy. Patients suspected of having abdominal or iliac artery stenosis were included in this study. A positive vote of the local Ethics Committe was given. After written informed consent was obtained, 37 patients were enrolled, of which 34 were available for image evaluation. Both 3D ceMRA and i.a. DSA were performed for each patient. The dosage for 3D ceMRA was 0.1 mmol/kg body weight in a 1.5-T scanner with a phased-array coil. The parameters of the 3D-FLASH sequence were as follows: TR/TE 4.6/1.8 ms, effective thickness 3.5 mm, matrix 512 x 200, flip angle 30 degrees , field of view 420 mm, TA 23 s, coronal scan orientation. Totally, 476 vessel segments were evaluated for stenosis degree by two radiologists in a consensus fashion in a blinded read. For each patient, a therapy was proposed, if clinically indicated. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy for stenoses > or = 50% were 68%, 92%, 44%, 97%, and 90%, respectively. In 13/34 patients, a discrepancy was found concerning therapy decisions based on MRA findings versus therapy decisions based on the reference standard DSA. The results showed that the used MRA imaging technique of abdominal and iliac arteries is not competitive to i.a. DSA, with a high rate of misinterpretation of the MRAs resulting in incorrect therapies. PMID:17278036

Schaefer, Philipp J; Schaefer, Fritz K W; Mueller-Huelsbeck, Stefan; Both, Markus; Heller, Martin; Jahnke, Thomas

239

Value of Single-Dose Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Angiography Versus Intraarterial Digital Subtraction Angiography in Therapy Indications in Abdominal and Iliac Arteries  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the study was to prove the value of single-dose contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography [three-dimensional (3D) ceMRA] in abdominal and iliac arteries versus the reference standard intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (i.a.DSA) when indicating a therapy. Patients suspected of having abdominal or iliac artery stenosis were included in this study. A positive vote of the local Ethics Committee was given. After written informed consent was obtained, 37 patients were enrolled, of which 34 were available for image evaluation. Both 3D ceMRA and i.a. DSA were performed for each patient. The dosage for 3D ceMRA was 0.1 mmol/kg body weight in a 1.5-T scanner with a phased-array coil. The parameters of the 3D-FLASH sequence were as follows: TR/TE 4.6/1.8 ms, effective thickness 3.5 mm, matrix 512 x 200, flip angle 30{sup o}, field of view 420 mm, TA 23 s, coronal scan orientation. Totally, 476 vessel segments were evaluated for stenosis degree by two radiologists in a consensus fashion in a blinded read. For each patient, a therapy was proposed, if clinically indicated. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy for stenoses {>=}50% were 68%, 92%, 44%, 97%, and 90%, respectively. In 13/34 patients, a discrepancy was found concerning therapy decisions based on MRA findings versus therapy decisions based on the reference standard DSA. The results showed that the used MRA imaging technique of abdominal and iliac arteries is not competitive to i.a. DSA, with a high rate of misinterpretation of the MRAs resulting in incorrect therapies.

Schaefer, Philipp J., E-mail: jp.schaefer@rad.uni-kiel.de; Schaefer, Fritz K. W.; Mueller-Huelsbeck, Stefan; Both, Markus; Heller, Martin; Jahnke, Thomas [University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein Campus Kiel, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany)

2007-06-15

240

Quantitative assessment of regional cerebral blood flow by dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MRI, without the need for arterial blood signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI), an arterial input function (AIF) is usually obtained from a time-concentration curve (TCC) of the cerebral artery. This study was aimed at developing an alternative technique for reconstructing AIF from TCCs of multiple brain regions. AIF was formulated by a multi-exponential function using four parameters, and the parameters were determined so that the AIF curves convolved with a model of tissue response reproduced the measured TCCs for 20 regions. Systematic simulations were performed to evaluate the effects of possible error sources. DSC-MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) studies were performed on 14 patients with major cerebral artery occlusion. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) images were calculated from DSC-MRI data, using our novel method alongside conventional AIF estimations, and compared with those from 15O-PET. Simulations showed that the calculated CBF values were sensitive to variations in the assumptions regarding cerebral blood volume. Nevertheless, AIFs were reasonably reconstructed for all patients. The difference in CBF values between DSC-MRI and PET was -2.2 ± 7.4 ml/100 g/min (r = 0.55, p < 0.01) for our method, versus -0.2 ± 8.2 ml/100 g/min (r = 0.47, p = 0.01) for the conventional method. The difference in the ratio of affected to unaffected hemispheres between DSC-MRI and PET was 0.07 ± 0.09 (r = 0.82, p < 0.01) for our method, versus 0.07 ± 0.09 (r = 0.83, p < 0.01) for the conventional method. The contrasts in CBF images from our method were the same as those from the conventional method. These findings suggest the feasibility of assessing CBF without arterial blood signals.

Enmi, Jun-ichiro; Kudomi, Nobuyuki; Hayashi, Takuya; Yamamoto, Akihide; Iguchi, Satoshi; Moriguchi, Tetsuaki; Hori, Yuki; Koshino, Kazuhiro; Zeniya, Tsutomu; Shah, Nadim Jon; Yamada, Naoaki; Iida, Hidehiro

2012-12-01

241

Early Increase of von Willebrand Factor Predicts Adverse Outcome in Unstable Coronary Artery Disease Beneficial Effects of Enoxaparin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—The pathogenesis of unstable angina and non-Q-wave myocardial infarction is still poorly understood, and early evaluation of prognosis remains difficult. We therefore studied the predictive value of 5 biological indicators of inflammation, thrombogenesis, vasoconstriction, and myocardial necrosis, and we examined the effects of enoxaparin and unfractionated heparin on these markers after 48 hours of treatment. Methods and Results—Sixty-eight patients with

Gilles Montalescot; Francois Philippe; Annick Ankri; Eric Vicaut; Etienne Bearez; Jean Ernest Poulard; Didier Carrie; Daniel Flammang; Albert Dutoit; Alain Carayon; Claude Jardel; Monique Chevrot; Jean Philippe Bastard; Frederique Bigonzi; Daniel Thomas

242

Effects of Human Cytomegalovirus Immediate-Early Proteins on p53-mediated Apoptosis in Coronary Artery Smooth Muscle Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Restenotic and atherosclerotic lesions often contain smooth muscle cells (SMCs), which display high rates of proliferation and apoptosis. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) may increase the incidence of restenosis and predispose to atherosclerosis. Although the mechanisms contributing to these processes are unclear, studies demonstrate that one of the immediate-early (IE) gene products of HCMV, IE2-84, binds to and inhibits p53 transcriptional activity.

Koichi Tanaka; Jian-Ping Zou; Kazuyo Takeda; Victor J. Ferrans; Gordon R. Sandford; Thomas M. Johnson; Toren Finkel; Stephen E. Epstein

2010-01-01

243

Improved early stroke detection: Wavelet-based perception enhancement of computerized tomography exams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonenhanced computerized tomography (CT) exams were used to detect acute stroke by notification of hypodense area. Infarction perception improvement by data denoising and local contrast enhancement in multi-scale domain was proposed. The wavelet-based image processing method enhanced the subtlest signs of hypodensity, which were often invisible in standard CT scan review. Thus improved detection efficiency of perceptual ischemic changes was

A. Przelaskowski; K. Sklinda; P. Bargie?; J. Walecki; M. Biesiadko-Matuszewska; M. Kazubek

2007-01-01

244

Early methylphenidate exposure enhances cocaine self-administration but not cocaine-induced conditioned place preference in young adult rats  

PubMed Central

Rationale Previous studies in rodents show that early exposure to methylphenidate alters later responsiveness to drugs of abuse. An interesting feature of these studies is that early methylphenidate treatment decreases the rewarding value of cocaine when measured by conditioned place preference (CPP), but the same treatment increases cocaine self-administration. Objective The goal of the present study was to examine the effects of early methylphenidate exposure on cocaine-induced responding using both reward paradigms. Methods Rats were treated with methylphenidate (0, 2, or 5 mg/kg) from postnatal day (PD) 11 to PD 20 and then cocaine-induced CPP or cocaine self-administration was measured in separate groups of rats in adulthood. The CPP procedure included eight days of acquisition training, eight days of extinction training, and a reinstatement test. Rats were conditioned with 0, 10 or 20 mg/kg cocaine. Reinstatement was assessed after a priming dose of cocaine (10 mg/kg). For the self-administration experiment, a jugular catheter was implanted and rats were trained to press a lever reinforced with cocaine (0.25 or 0.75 mg/kg/infusion) on a fixed ratio (FR) 1 schedule. Rats were gradually moved from an FR1 to an FR10 schedule and, after criterion was reached, rats were placed on a progressive ratio schedule for five days. Results Cocaine produced robust rewarding effects as determined by both the CPP and self-administration experiments; however, early methylphenidate exposure only enhanced the reinforcing effects of cocaine on the self-administration paradigm. Interestingly, this methylphenidate enhancement was only seen in male rats. Conclusions These data suggest that in males methylphenidate enhances the reinforcing value of cocaine, but not cocaine-associated cues.

Crawford, Cynthia A.; Baella, Shelley A.; Farley, Cristal M.; Herbert, Matthew S.; Horn, Leslie R.; Campbell, Rachel H.; Zavala, Arturo R.

2010-01-01

245

Acute helminth infection enhances early macrophage mediated control of mycobacterial infection.  

PubMed

Co-infection with mycobacteria and helminths is widespread in developing countries, but how this alters host immunological control of each pathogen is not comprehensively understood. In this study, we demonstrate that acute Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nb) murine infection reduce early pulmonary mycobacterial colonization. This Nb-associated reduction in pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis colony-forming units was associated with early and increased activation of pulmonary CD4 T cells and increased T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokine secretion. An accelerated and transient augmentation of neutrophils and alveolar macrophages (AMs) was also observed in co-infected animals. AMs displayed markers of both classical and alternative activation. Intranasal transfer of pulmonary macrophages obtained from donor mice 5 days after Nb infection significantly reduced pulmonary Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin clearance in recipient mice. These data demonstrate that early stage Nb infection elicits a macrophage response, which is protective during the early stages of subsequent mycobacterial infection. PMID:23250274

du Plessis, N; Kleynhans, L; Thiart, L; van Helden, P D; Brombacher, F; Horsnell, W G C; Walzl, G

2012-12-19

246

Evaluation of Optimal Scan Delay for Gadoxetate Disodium-Enhanced Hepatic Arterial Phase MRI Using MR Fluoroscopic Triggering and Slow Injection Technique.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to prospectively evaluate the optimal scan delay for gadoxetate disodium-enhanced hepatic arterial phase MRI of hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using MR fluoroscopic triggering and a slow-injection technique. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Sixty-three patients (37 men and 26 women; age range, 33-92 years; mean age, 68.2 years) underwent gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI; there were 33 hypervascular HCCs (size range, 8-57 mm; mean size, 19.8 mm) in 19 patients. The time from the start of contrast agent injection to its arrival in the abdominal aorta (time to arrival) and the time from contrast agent arrival to peak enhancement (time to peak) were determined using MR fluoroscopy using IV slow injection at 1 mL/s of contrast material and a saline chaser. All patients underwent four-phase whole-liver imaging with a 3D keyhole gradient-echo sequence during a single breath-hold immediately after confirmation of aortic peak enhancement. Delays from peak aortic enhancement to k-space filling were 5-9, 10-14, 15-19, and 20-28 seconds, respectively, in the four phases. Time to arrival, time to peak, and HCC-to-liver contrast were evaluated. RESULTS. The time to arrival (range, 11-24 seconds; mean, 16.2 seconds) and the time to peak (range, 3-10 seconds; mean, 6.8 seconds) showed considerable variation among patients. HCC-to-liver contrast peaked at the first phase in 58% of cases, at the second phase in 42% of cases, and at the third and fourth phases in 0% of cases. Mean HCC-to-liver contrast in the first and second phases was significantly higher than that in the third and fourth phases (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION. Optimal scan delays for imaging hypervascular HCCs with gadoxetate disodium-enhanced hepatic arterial phase MRI was 7-12 seconds after the peak aortic enhancement using a slow-injection protocol. PMID:23971449

Goshima, Satoshi; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Kondo, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Haruo; Kawada, Hiroshi; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Bae, Kyongtae T

2013-09-01

247

Enhanced production and action of cyclic ADP-ribose during oxidative stress in small bovine coronary arterial smooth muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies in our lab and by others have indicated that cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) as a novel second messenger is importantly involved in vasomotor response in various vascular beds. However, the mechanism regulating cADPR production and actions remains poorly understood. The present study determined whether changes in redox status influence the production and action of cADPR in coronary arterial smooth

Andrew Y. Zhang; Fan Yi; Eric G. Teggatz; Ai-Ping Zou; Pin-Lan Li

248

Early experiences of endoscopic procedures in general surgery assisted by a computer-enhanced surgical system  

Microsoft Academic Search

  We performed a variety of complete total endoscopic general surgical procedures, including colon resection, distal gastrectomy,\\u000a and splenectomy, successfully with the assistance of the da Vinci computer-enhanced surgical system. The robotic system allowed\\u000a us to manipulate the endoscopic instruments as effectively as during open surgery. It enhanced visualization of both the operative\\u000a field and precision of the necessary techniques, as

M. Hashizume; M. Shimada; M. Tomikawa; Y. Ikeda; I. Takahashi; R. Abe; F. Koga; N. Gotoh; K. Konishi; S. Maehara; K. Sugimachi

2002-01-01

249

Basic polyamino acids rich in arginine, lysine, or ornithine cause both enhancement of and refractoriness to formation of endothelium-derived nitric oxide in pulmonary artery and vein.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanism by which polyamino acids containing L-arginine, L-lysine or L-ornithine cause endothelium-dependent relaxation of bovine intrapulmonary artery and vein. Basic but not acidic or neutral polypeptides ranging in average molecular weights from 17 to 225 kDa elicited time- and concentration-dependent relaxation and cyclic GMP accumulation in precontracted rings of artery and vein by endothelium-dependent mechanisms. Vascular responses were markedly inhibited by oxyhemoglobin, methylene blue, or potassium. The basic polyamino acids stimulated the formation and/or release of an endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) identified as nitric oxide (NO) in perfused segments of both artery and vein as assessed by bioassay. The polyamino acids and A23187 released a similar endothelium-derived NO (EDNO) from artery and vein, as assessed by the similar half-life (3-5 seconds), antagonism by superoxide anion or oxyhemoglobin, enhancement by superoxide dismutase, and lack of influence by indomethacin. The basic polyamino acids elicited potent relaxant responses with EC50 values ranging from 3 x 10(-9) to 2 x 10(-7) M, and a direct correlation was obtained between molecular weight and relaxation potency irrespective of the basic amino acid incorporated. Prolonged contact of arterial or venous rings with basic polyamino acids resulted in the rapid development of marked refractoriness to relaxation and cyclic GMP formation on addition of polyamino acid. Moreover, refractoriness developed to the vascular responses of other endothelium-dependent vasodilators but not to glyceryl trinitrate or isoproterenol. The mechanism of refractory responses was attributed to interference with EDNO formation and release as assessed by bioassay and chemical assay. The hypothesis is forwarded that the basic polyamino acids serve as partial substrates for the enzyme system that catalyzes the conversion of L-arginine to NO. Prolonged contact between substrate and enzyme results in enzyme desensitization and the development of refractoriness or a form of tolerance to vasodilators whose action is mediated by EDNO. PMID:2492213

Ignarro, L J; Gold, M E; Buga, G M; Byrns, R E; Wood, K S; Chaudhuri, G; Frank, G

1989-02-01

250

Determination of time-course change rate for arterial xenon using the time course of tissue xenon concentration in xenon-enhanced computed tomography  

SciTech Connect

In calculating tissue blood flow (TBF) according to the Fick principle, time-course information on arterial tracer concentration is indispensable and has a considerable influence on the accuracy of calculated TBF. In TBF measurement by xenon-enhanced computed tomography (Xe-CT), nonradioactive xenon gas is administered by inhalation as a tracer, and end-tidal xenon is used as a substitute for arterial xenon. There has been the assumption that the time-course change rate for end-tidal xenon concentration (Ke) and that for arterial xenon concentration (Ka) are substantially equal. Respiratory gas sampling is noninvasive to the patient and Ke can be easily measured by exponential curve fitting to end-tidal xenon concentrations. However, it is pointed out that there would be a large difference between Ke and Ka in many cases. The purpose of this work was to develop a method of determining the Ka value using the time course of tissue xenon concentration in Xe-CT. The authors incorporated Ka into the Kety autoradiographic equation as a parameter to be solved, and developed a method of least-squares to obtain the solution for Ka from the time-course changes in xenon concentration in the tissue. The authors applied this method of least-squares to the data from Xe-CT abdominal studies performed on 17 patients; the solution for Ka was found pixel by pixel in the spleen, and its Ka map was created for each patient. On the one hand, the authors obtained the average value of the Ka map of the spleen as the calculated Ka (Ka{sub calc}) for each patient. On the other hand, the authors measured Ka (Ka{sub meas}) using the time-course changes in CT enhancement in the abdominal aorta for each patient. There was a good correlation between Ka{sub calc} and Ka{sub meas} (r=0.966, P<0.0001), and these two Ka values were close to each other (Ka{sub calc}=0.935xKa{sub meas}+0.089). This demonstrates that Ka{sub calc} would be close to the true Ka value. Accuracy of TBF by Xe-CT can be improved with use of the average value of the Ka map of an organ like the spleen that has a single blood supply (only arterial inflow)

Sase, Shigeru; Takahashi, Hideaki; Ikeda, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Minoru; Matsumoto, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Michihiro [Anzai Medical Co., Ltd., 3-9-15 Nishi-Shinagawa, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-0033 (Japan); Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, School of Medicine, St. Marianna University, 2-16-1 Miyamae-ku, Sugao, Kawasaki 216-5811 (Japan)

2008-06-15

251

Early iron deficiency enhances stimulus-response learning of adult rats in the context of competing spatial information.  

PubMed

Iron deficiency early in life results in neurocognitive deficits that persist into adulthood despite iron treatment. The hippocampus is particularly vulnerable to iron deficiency during the fetal and neonatal periods as evidenced by poorer hippocampus-mediated spatial recognition learning. However, the extent to which early iron deficiency alters interactions between hippocampus-based and extra-hippocampus based learning systems remains undetermined. The present study used an ambiguous maze-learning task to examine the learning process in iron sufficient young adult rats that had recovered from iron deficiency in the fetal and neonatal period. Animals were presented with a stimulus response-learning task in the context of spatial information; a procedure designed to elicit competition between dorsal striatum- and hippocampus-based systems respectively. Formerly iron deficient adult rats showed enhanced stimulus-response learning in the context of competing spatial/distal cue information, a finding suggestive of reduced hippocampal functional influence. The study provides evidence that early iron deficiency alters how different learning systems develop and ultimately interact in adulthood. The potential unbalancing of activity among major memory systems during early life has been postulated by others as a relevant factor underlying the developmental origins of certain psychiatric disorders. PMID:22229050

Schmidt, Adam T; Alvarez, Guillermo C; Grove, William M; Rao, Raghavendra; Georgieff, Michael K

2012-01-01

252

Early impact of prescription Omega-3 fatty acids on platelet biomarkers in patients with coronary artery disease and hypertriglyceridemia.  

PubMed

Background: Prescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters (PO-3A) have been tested for outcome benefits in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), arrhythmias and heart failure. Some evidence suggests that PO-3A may exert their benefit via inhibiting platelets. We tested the hypothesis that PO-3A may inhibit platelet activity in patients with documented stable CAD, beyond the antiplatelet properties of aspirin and statins. Methods: Thirty patients with documented CAD and triglycerides over 250 mg/dl treated with aspirin (70-160 mg/daily) and statins (simvastatin equivalence dose: 5-40 mg/daily) were randomized 1:1:1 to Omacor™ 1 g/day (DHA/EPA ratio 1.25:1.0), Omacor 2 g/day, or a placebo for 2 weeks. Platelet tests including aggregometry and flow cytometry and cartridge analyzer readings were performed at baseline and at 1 and 2 weeks following PO-3A therapy. Results: ADP-induced platelet aggregation (p = 0.037), GP IIb/IIIa antigen (p = 0.031) and activity (p = 0.024), and P-selectin (p = 0.041) were significantly reduced after PO-3A, while platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule (p = 0.09), vitronectin receptor (p = 0.16), formation of platelet-monocyte microparticles (p = 0.19) and the VerifyNow IIb/IIIa test (p = 0.27) only exhibited nonsignificant trends suggestive of reduced platelet activity. Finally, collagen- and arachidonic acid-induced aggregation, closure time with the PFA-100 device and expression of thrombospondin (CD36), GP Ib (CD42b), LAMP-3 (CD63), LAMP-1 (CD107a), CD40-ligand (CD154), GP37 (CD165), and PAR-1 receptor intact (SPAN 12) and cleaved (WEDE-15) epitopes were not affected by 2 weeks of PO-3A. Conclusion: Independently of the dose and already at 1 week, short-term therapy with PO-3A provided a modest reduction of platelet activity biomarkers, despite concomitant aspirin and statin therapy, when compared to a placebo. The effect of PO-3A is unique, differs from other known antiplatelet agents and suggests potential pleiotropism. These preliminary randomized data call for confirmation in prospective studies. PMID:21701167

Serebruany, Victor L; Miller, Michael; Pokov, Alex N; Lynch, Donald; Jensen, Jesper K; Hallén, Jonas; Atar, Dan

2011-06-22

253

Assessment of Early Tumor Response to Cytotoxic Chemotherapy with Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound in Human Breast Cancer Xenografts  

PubMed Central

There is a strong need to assess early tumor response to chemotherapy in order to avoid adverse effects from unnecessary chemotherapy and allow early transition to second-line therapy. This study was to quantify tumor perfusion changes with dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the evaluation of early tumor response to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Sixty nude mice bearing with MCF-7 breast cancer were administrated with either adriamycin or sterile saline. CEUS was performed on days 0, 2, 4 and 6 of the treatment, in which time-signal intensity (SI) curves were obtained from the intratumoral and depth-matched liver parenchyma. Four perfusion parameters including peak enhancement (PE), area under the curve of wash-in (WiAUC), wash-in rate (WiR) and wash-in perfusion index (WiPI) were calculated from perfusion curves and normalized with respect to perfusion of adjacent liver parenchyma. Histopathological analysis was conducted to evaluate tumor perfusion, tumor cell density, microvascular density (MVD) and proliferating cell density. Significant decreases of tumor normalized perfusion parameters (i.e., nPE, nWiAUC, nWiR and nWiPI) were noticed between adriamycin-treated and control groups (P<0.01) 2 days after therapy. There were significant differences of tumor volumes between control and treated groups on day 6 (P<0.001) while there were no significant differences in tumor volume on days 0, 2 and 4 (P>0.05). Significant decreases of tumor perfusion, tumor cell density, MVD and proliferating cell density were seen in adrianycin-treated group 2 days after therapy when compared to control group (P<0.001). Dynamic CEUS for quantification of tumor perfusion could be used for early detection of cancer response to cytotoxic chemotherapy prior to notable tumor shrinkage.

Wang, Jian-Wei; Zheng, Wei; Liu, Ji-Bin; Chen, Yao; Cao, Long-Hui; Luo, Rong-Zhen; Li, An-Hua; Zhou, Jian-Hua

2013-01-01

254

Enhancing Early Numeracy by Promoting the Abstract Thought Involved in the Oddity Principle, Seriation, and Conservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although many students who enter kindergarten are cognitively ready to meet the demands of the kindergarten mathematics curriculum, some students arrive without the early abstract reasoning abilities necessary to benefit from the instruction provided. Those who do not possess key cognitive abilities, including understandings of conservation,…

Kidd, Julie K.; Pasnak, Robert; Gadzichowski, Marinka; Ferral-Like, Melissa; Gallington, Debbie

2008-01-01

255

Arterial Baroreflex Control of Cardiac Vagal Outflow in Older Individuals Can Be Enhanced by Aerobic Exercise Training  

PubMed Central

Maintained cardiac vagal function is critical to cardiovascular health in human aging. Aerobic exercise training has been thought an attractive intervention to increase cardiovagal baroreflex function however, the data are equivocal. Moreover, if regular exercise does reverse the age-related decline in cardiovagal baroreflex function, it is unknown how this might be achieved. Therefore, we assessed the effects of a 6-month aerobic training program on baroreflex gain and its mechanical and neural components in older individuals (5 women and 7 men, aged 55–71 years). We assessed baroreflex function using pharmacologic pressure changes (bolus nitroprusside followed by bolus phenylephrine) and estimated the integrated gain (?R-R interval/?systolic blood pressure) and mechanical (? diameter/? pressure) and neural (?R-R interval/? diameter) components via measurements of carotid artery diameter in previously sedentary older individuals before and after 6-months of aerobic training. There was a significant 26% increase in baroreflex gain that was directly related to the amount of exercise performed and that derived mainly from an increase in the neural component of the arterial baroreflex (p<0.05). We did find changes in the mechanical component but unlike integrated gain and the neural component, these were not related to the magnitude of the exercise stimulus. These results suggest that exercise training can have a powerful effect on cardiovagal baroreflex function, but a sufficient stimulus is necessary to produce the effect. Moreover, adaptations in the afferent efferent baroreflex control of cardiac vagal outflow may be crucial for the improvement in arterial baroreflex function in older humans.

Deley, Gaelle; Picard, Glen; Taylor, J. Andrew

2009-01-01

256

Temporal attention enhances early visual processing: a review and new evidence from event-related potentials.  

PubMed

Two fundamental cognitive functions, selective attention and processing of time, have been simultaneously explored in recent studies of temporal orienting of attention. A temporal-orienting procedure may consist of a temporal analogue to the Posner's paradigm, such that symbolic cues indicate the most probable moment for target arrival. Behavioral measures suggest that performance is improved for events appearing at expected vs. unexpected moments. However, there is no agreement on the locus of stimulus processing at which temporal attention operates. Thus, it remains unclear whether early perceptual or just late motor processes can be modulated. This article reviews current ERP research on temporal orienting, with an emphasis on factors that might determine the modulation of temporal orienting at early stages of processing. We conclude that: First, late components (N2 and P300) are consistently modulated by temporal orienting, which suggests attentional preparation of decision and/or motor processes. Second, early components (e.g., N1) seem to be modulated only when the task is highly demanding in perceptual processing. Hence, we conducted an ERP experiment which aimed to observe a modulation of early visual processing by using a perceptually demanding task, such as letter discrimination. The results show, for the first time, that targets appearing at attended moments elicited a larger P1 component than unattended targets. Moreover, temporal attention modulated the amplitude and latency of N2 and P300 components. This suggests that temporal orienting of attention not only modulates late motor processing, but also early visual processing when perceptually demanding tasks are used. PMID:16516173

Correa, Angel; Lupiįńez, Juan; Madrid, Eduardo; Tudela, Pķo

2006-03-03

257

Shadow enhancers flanking the HoxB cluster direct dynamic Hox expression in early heart and endoderm development.  

PubMed

The products of Hox genes function in assigning positional identity along the anterior-posterior body axis during animal development. In mouse embryos, Hox genes located at the 3' end of HoxA and HoxB complexes are expressed in nested patterns in the progenitors of the secondary heart field during early cardiogenesis and the combined activities of both of these clusters are required for proper looping of the heart. Using Hox bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), transposon reporters, and transgenic analyses in mice, we present the identification of several novel enhancers flanking the HoxB complex which can work over a long range to mediate dynamic reporter expression in the endoderm and embryonic heart during development. These enhancers respond to exogenously added retinoic acid and we have identified two retinoic acid response elements (RAREs) within these control modules that play a role in potentiating their regulatory activity. Deletion analysis in HoxB BAC reporters reveals that these control modules, spread throughout the flanking intergenic region, have regulatory activities that overlap with other local enhancers. This suggests that they function as shadow enhancers to modulate the expression of genes from the HoxB complex during cardiac development. Regulatory analysis of the HoxA complex reveals that it also has enhancers in the 3' flanking region which contain RAREs and have the potential to modulate expression in endoderm and heart tissues. Together, the similarities in their location, enhancer output, and dependence on retinoid signaling suggest that a conserved cis-regulatory cassette located in the 3' proximal regions adjacent to the HoxA and HoxB complexes evolved to modulate Hox gene expression during mammalian cardiac and endoderm development. This suggests a common regulatory mechanism, whereby the conserved control modules act over a long range on multiple Hox genes to generate nested patterns of HoxA and HoxB expression during cardiogenesis. PMID:24055171

Nolte, Christof; Jinks, Tim; Wang, Xinghao; Martinez Pastor, Marķa Teresa; Krumlauf, Robb

2013-09-18

258

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) immediate-early enhancer/promoter specificity during embryogenesis defines target tissues of congenital HCMV infection.  

PubMed Central

Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is a common cause of deafness and neurological disabilities. Many aspects of this prenatal infection, including which cell types are infected and how infection proceeds, are poorly understood. Transcription of HCMV immediate-early (IE) genes is required for expression of all other HCMV genes and is dependent on host cell transcription factors. Cell type-specific differences in levels of IE transcription are believed to underlie differences in infection permissivity. However, DNA transfection experiments have paradoxically suggested that the HCMV major IE enhancer/promoter is a broadly active transcriptional element with little cell type specificity. In contrast, we show here that expression of a lacZ gene driven by the HCMV major IE enhancer/promoter -524 to +13 segment is restricted in transgenic mouse embryos to sites that correlate with known sites of congenital HCMV infection in human fetuses. This finding suggests that the IE enhancer/promoter is a major determinant of HCMV infection sites in humans and that transcription factors responsible for its regulation are cell type-specifically conserved between humans and mice. The lacZ expression patterns of these transgenic embryos yield insight into congenital HCMV pathogenesis by providing a spatiotemporal map of the sets of vascular, neural, and epithelial cells that are likely targets of infection. These transgenic mice may constitute a useful model system for investigating IE enhancer/promoter regulation in vivo and for identifying factors that modulate active and latent HCMV infections in humans.

Koedood, M; Fichtel, A; Meier, P; Mitchell, P J

1995-01-01

259

Scan optimization of gadolinium contrast-enhanced three-dimensional MRA of peripheral arteries with multiple bolus injections and in vitro validation of stenosis quantification.  

PubMed

In this study, a T1-weighted three-dimensional (3D) spoiled gradient-echo scanning protocol was developed to image the complete arterial system of the pelvis and both legs along their entire length in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Three adjacent stations were to be acquired consecutively, with some overlap, to image the entire area of interest; per station one gadolinium (Gd) contrast bolus would be administered. In an in vitro phantom study, the scanning protocol was optimized. The optimal flip angle was found to be 50 degrees. Also, the optimal scan delay was chosen to be equal to the arrival time of the contrast bolus, thereby minimizing artifacts. Three contrast bolus injections showed sufficient enhancement of the vessels after image subtraction. Finally, stenosis quantification by manual caliper was performed by five observers in the magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) images and correlated with the percent diameter reduction determined by quantitative angiography from corresponding X-ray images. The MRA measurements were reproducible, and intra- and interobserver variabilities were statistically non-significant (p=0.54 and p=0.12, respectively). Stenosis quantification performed by four observers showed a good correlation with the X-ray-derived values (rp > 0.90, p < 0.02); the results from one observer were not significantly correlated. Five patients with proven peripheral disease were investigated with this new MRA scanning protocol, using standard hardware and software. The images were of good quality, which allowed adequate clinical evaluation; the original diagnoses obtained from X-ray examinations, were confirmed with MRA. In conclusion, peripheral arterial disease can be evaluated adequately with this magnetic resonance scanning protocol. PMID:9888398

Westenberg, J J; Wasser, M N; van der Geest, R J; Pattynama, P M; de Roos, A; Vanderschoot, J; Reiber, J H

1999-01-01

260

The Enhanced Home Visiting Pilot Project: How Early Head Start Programs Are Reaching out to Kith and Kin Caregivers--Final Interim Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In summer 2004, the Head Start Bureau funded 24 Early Head Start programs to implement the Enhanced Home Visiting Pilot Project, an initiative designed to support the quality of care that kith and kin caregivers provide to infants and toddlers enrolled in home-based Early Head Start programs. At the same time, an evaluation of these pilot programs…

Paulsell, Diane; Mekos, Debra; Del Grosso, Patricia; Banghart, Patti; Nogales, Renee

2006-01-01

261

Enhanced Handling and Positioning in Early Infancy Advances Development throughout the First Year  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Behaviors emerge, in part, from the interplay of infant abilities and caregiver-infant interactions. Cross-cultural and developmental studies suggest caregiver handling and positioning influence infant development. In this prospective, longitudinal study, the effects of 3 weeks of enhanced handling and positioning experiences provided to 14…

Lobo, Michele A.; Galloway, James C.

2012-01-01

262

A Report on the Technological Enhancements Project Evaluation: Deepening Early Learning Experiences through Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As part of the "Ready to Learn" Initiative, Education Development Center, Inc. (EDC), was charged with addressing the evaluation of Technological Enhancements for the outreach efforts of three producers: Out of the Blue's Super WHY! Technology Add-On; Sesame Workshop's The Electric Company School's Initiative Curriculum; and WordWorld's eBook…

Hupert, Naomi; Cervantes, Francisco; DeGroof, Emily

2010-01-01

263

Musical Training during Early Childhood Enhances the Neural Encoding of Speech in Noise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For children, learning often occurs in the presence of background noise. As such, there is growing desire to improve a child's access to a target signal in noise. Given adult musicians' perceptual and neural speech-in-noise enhancements, we asked whether similar effects are present in musically-trained children. We assessed the perception and…

Strait, Dana L.; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Hittner, Emily; Kraus, Nina

2012-01-01

264

Correlation of Early Reduction in the Apparent Diffusion Coefficient of Water with Blood Flow Reduction During Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in Rats  

PubMed Central

To determine the relationship between reductions in the apparent diffusion coefficient of water (ADC) and in cerebral blood flow (CBF) during focal ischemia, we used diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (D-MR) imaging and autoradiographic CBF analysis to examine rats subjected to 30 or 90 min of permanent middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. In the 30-min occlusion group (n = l0), the area with substantially reduced ADC (15% or more below the contralateral level [ADCJ15]) corresponded best to the area with CBF below 25 ml/lOO g/min and was significantly smaller than the area with CBF below 50 m1/100 g/min (CBF50), a level associated with reduced protein synthesis and delayed necrosis (40 ± 13% versus 74 ± 8% of the ischemic hemisphere; P < 0.OOOl). In the 90-min occlusion group (n = 6), the ADC15 area corresponded best to the CBF30 to CBF35 area and was again significantly smaller than the CBF50 area (54 ± 13% versus 73 ± 20%, P < 0.05). Thus, the area of substantially reduced ADC at 30 and 90 min represents only 53% and 74%, respectively, of the tissue at risk for infarction. These findings indicate a potential limitation in using early D-MR imaging to predict stroke outcome.

Mancuso, Anthony; Karibe, Hiroshi; Rooney, William D.; Zarow, Gregory J.; Graham, Steven H.; Weiner, Michael W.; Weinstein, Philip R.

2009-01-01

265

Early Time Points Perfusion Imaging: Theoretical Analysis of Correction Factors for relative cerebral blood flow Estimation Given Local Arterial Input Function  

PubMed Central

If local arterial input function (AIF) could be identified, we present a theoretical approach to generate a correction factor based on local AIF for the estimation of relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) under the framework of early time points perfusion imaging (ET). If C(t), the contrast agent bolus concentration signal time course, is used for rCBF estimation in ET, the correction factor for C(t) is the integral of its local AIF. The recipe to apply the correction factor is to divide C(t) by the integral of its local AIF to obtain the correct rCBF. By similar analysis, the correction factor for the maximum derivative (MD1) of C(t) is the maximum signal of AIF and the correction factor for the maximum second derivative (MD2) of C(t) is the maximum derivative of AIF. In the specific case of using normalized gamma-variate function as a model for AIF, the correction factor for C(t) (but not for MD1) at the time to reach the maximum derivative is relatively insensitive to the shape of the local AIF.

Kwong, Kenneth K.; Chesler, David A.

2011-01-01

266

Rho-kinase inhibitor inhibits both myosin phosphorylation-dependent and -independent enhancement of myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity in the bovine middle cerebral artery  

PubMed Central

The role of Rho kinase in Ca2+ sensitization of the contractile apparatus in smooth muscle was investigated in the bovine middle cerebral artery. U46619, a thromboxane A2 analog, induced a greater sustained contraction with a smaller [Ca2+]i elevation than that seen with 118 mM K+. The level of myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation obtained in the initial phase of the contraction was higher than that seen with 118 mM K+; thereafter, it gradually declined to a comparable level in the late phase. During the steady state of the U46619-induced contraction, Y27632 (10 ?M), a Rho-kinase inhibitor, partially inhibited [Ca2+]i, although it substantially inhibited tension and MLC phosphorylation. Wortmannin (10 ?M), an MLC kinase inhibitor, had no significant effect on [Ca2+]i, but it completely inhibited MLC phosphorylation and partially inhibited tension. The wortmannin-resistant tension development was thus not associated with MLC phosphorylation, and this component was completely inhibited by Y27632. In conclusion, U46619 enhanced Ca2+ sensitivity in a manner both dependent and independent of MLC phosphorylation in the bovine middle cerebral artery. Both mechanisms of Ca2+ sensitization can be inhibited by the Rho-kinase inhibitor.

Maeda, Yoshihisa; Hirano, Katsuya; Nishimura, Junji; Sasaki, Tomio; Kanaide, Hideo

2003-01-01

267

Comparison of cardiovascular magnetic resonance of late gadolinium enhancement and diastolic wall thickness to predict recovery of left ventricular function after coronary artery bypass surgery  

PubMed Central

Background The objective was to compare the value of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and end-diastolic wall thickness (EDWT) assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in predicting recovery of left ventricular function after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). Methods We enrolled patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular ejection fraction < 45% who were scheduled for CABG. Regional contractility was assessed by cine CMR at baseline and 4 months after CABG. EDWT and LGE were assessed at baseline. Predictors for improvement of regional contractility were analyzed. Results We studied 46 men and 4 women with an average age of 61 years. Baseline left ventricular ejection fraction was 37 ± 13%. A total of 2,020 myocardial segments were analyzed. Abnormal wall motion and the LGE area were detected in 1,446 segments (71.6%) and 1,196 segments (59.2%) respectively. Wall motion improvement was demonstrated in 481 of 1,227 segments (39.2%) that initially had wall motion abnormalities at baseline. Logistic regression analysis showed that the LGE area, EDWT and resting wall motion grade predicted wall motion improvement. Comparison of Receiver-Operator-Characteristic (ROC) curves demonstrated that the LGE area was the most important predictor (p < 0.001). Adding information from LGE to the EDWT can decrease the number of false predictions by EDWT alone from 483 to 127 segments. Conclusion LGE and EDWT are independent predictors for functional recovery after revascularization. However, LGE appears to be a more important factor and independent of EDWT.

Krittayaphong, Rungroj; Laksanabunsong, Pansak; Maneesai, Adisak; Saiviroonporn, Pairash; Udompunturak, Suthipol; Chaithiraphan, Vithaya

2008-01-01

268

Chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection may promote coronary artery disease in humans through enhancing secretion of interleukin-4  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory response, probably to a range of initiating causes. Chronic infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae (C.pn) has been suggested as one cause, but the nature of the association is controversial, in large part due to lack of an identified mechanism to link infection with the atherosclerotic process in man. This study examined 139 consecutive subjects with stable chest pain, with the aim of correlating the serological status of C.pn infection with the pattern of secretion of cytokines from CD4+ T lymphocytes. C.pn seropositive subjects secreted significantly more interleukin (IL)-4 than did those who were C.pn seronegative (P = 0·02). No significant difference was noted for secreted interferon (IFN)-?. The amount of secreted IL-4, but not of secreted IFN-?, correlated positively with the extent of coronary artery disease (P = 0·006). A similar correlation with secreted IL-4 was not identified with Helicobacter pylori infection. These results support the hypothesis that C.pn infection contributes to the inflammatory process responsible for coronary artery atherosclerosis. The method used to detect cytokine secretion involves ligation of CD40L on blood CD4+ T cells, which may have relevance to tissue events.

Clancy, R; Ren, Z; Pang, G; Fletcher, P; D'Este, C

2006-01-01

269

Emotional enhancement of perceptual priming is preserved in aging and early-stage Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perceptual priming for emotionally-negative and neutral scenes was tested in early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and healthy younger, middle-aged and older adults. In the study phase, participants rated the scenes for their arousal properties. In the test phase, studied and novel scenes were initially presented subliminally, and the exposure duration was gradually increased until a valence categorization was made. The

Kevin S. LaBar; Dana C. Torpey; Craig A. Cook; Stephanie R. Johnson; Lauren H. Warren; James R. Burke; Kathleen A. Welsh-Bohmer

2005-01-01

270

Heterosis manifestation during early Arabidopsis seedling development is characterized by intermediate gene expression and enhanced metabolic activity in the hybrids.  

PubMed

Heterosis-associated cellular and molecular processes were analyzed in seeds and seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana accessions Col-0 and C24 and their heterotic hybrids. Microscopic examination revealed no advantages in terms of hybrid mature embryo organ sizes or cell numbers. Increased cotyledon sizes were detectable 4 days after sowing. Growth heterosis results from elevated cell sizes and numbers, and is well established at 10 days after sowing. The relative growth rates of hybrid seedlings were most enhanced between 3 and 4 days after sowing. Global metabolite profiling and targeted fatty acid analysis revealed maternal inheritance patterns for a large proportion of metabolites in the very early stages. During developmental progression, the distribution shifts to dominant, intermediate and heterotic patterns, with most changes occurring between 4 and 6 days after sowing. The highest incidence of heterotic patterns coincides with establishment of size differences at 4 days after sowing. In contrast, overall transcript patterns at 4, 6 and 10 days after sowing are characterized by intermediate to dominant patterns, with parental transcript levels showing the largest differences. Overall, the results suggest that, during early developmental stages, intermediate gene expression and higher metabolic activity in the hybrids compared to the parents lead to better resource efficiency, and therefore enhanced performance in the hybrids. PMID:22487254

Meyer, Rhonda C; Witucka-Wall, Hanna; Becher, Martina; Blacha, Anna; Boudichevskaia, Anastassia; Dörmann, Peter; Fiehn, Oliver; Friedel, Svetlana; von Korff, Maria; Lisec, Jan; Melzer, Michael; Repsilber, Dirk; Schmidt, Renate; Scholz, Matthias; Selbig, Joachim; Willmitzer, Lothar; Altmann, Thomas

2012-06-12

271

Impaired Granulopoiesis, Myelodysplasia, and Early Lethality in CCAAT\\/Enhancer Binding Protein ? -deficient Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymorphonuclear leukocytes are essential for host defense to infectious diseases. CCAAT\\/enhancer binding protein ? (C\\/EBP? ) is preferentially expressed in granulocytes and lymphoid cells. Mice with a null mutation in C\\/EBP? develop normally and are fertile but fail to generate functional neutrophils and eosinophils. Opportunistic infections and tissue destruction lead to death by 3-5 months of age. Furthermore, end-stage mice

Ryuya Yamanaka; Carrolee Barlow; Julie Lekstrom-Himes; Lucio H. Castilla; Pu P. Liu; Michael Eckhaus; Thomas Decker; Anthony Wynshaw-Boris; Kleanthis G. Xanthopoulos

1997-01-01

272

Enhancing the passing moments: An educational criticism of family visits to an early childhood science exhibition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This educational criticism describes and interprets the nature of family visits to an early childhood science exhibition, Working Wonders, at The Science Centre in Calgary, Alberta. The specific exhibits are described and features that contributed to exhibit popularity are examined. Examples of visitors' interactions with each exhibit are given. The visit experiences of four families are described in detail and analyzed. Typical family visitors' reactions, expectations, and experiences are summarized. Because one of the mutual expectations of the granting agency, The Science Centre, and the adult visitors was that a visit to the exhibition would be educational, the family visits are examined for instances of learning and analyzed to determine the factors that influenced the learning. Constructivism forms the basis for understanding the process of learning during family visits. The analysis is supported by reference to research from the fields of museum studies, education, and environmental design. The analysis of the educational significance and potential of family visits to an early childhood exhibition leads to the conclusion that specific features may facilitate learning in such an environment. Those features are represented in a set of guidelines for the development and evaluation of early childhood exhibitions. The guidelines suggest attention must be given to the ambience of the space, the general layout of the space, the exhibits, the copy and graphics, additional programs and information, the subtle influences of the building and the staff, and the learning processes of young children, adults, and intergenerational groups. The guidelines suggest specific issues to consider to develop a space that is stimulating and memorable, responsive to the needs of the two distinct visitor groups (young children and adults), and conducive to learning.

Munroe, Elizabeth Ann

273

Associative conditioning with leg cycling and inspiratory resistance enhances the early exercise ventilatory response in humans.  

PubMed

Repeated trials of hypercapnic exercise [deltaPET CO2 = 7 (1) mmHg] augment the increase in inspired minute ventilation and tidal volume (V(T)) in the early phase of subsequent trials of unencumbered exercise alone. The increase in V(T) in the first 20 s of exercise was correlated to the increase in V(T) evoked during hypercapnic exercise trials, suggesting that the evoked increase in V(T) during conditioning may be a factor in mediating associative conditioning. To test this hypothesis, inspiratory resistive loading (IRL) was employed to evoke an increase in V(T) [deltaV(T) = 0.4 (0.1) I(BTPS)] during conditioning exercise trials [IRL + EX; deltaP(ET)CO2 = 2 (l) mmHg]. IRL + EX associative conditioning elicited a significant augmentation of the early minute ventilation (+46%) and V(T) (+100%) responses to subsequent unencumbered exercise. The latter was correlated to the evoked increase in V(T) during associative conditioning with IRL + EX. The results support the hypothesis that an evoked increase in V(T) during associative conditioning could be a factor in eliciting long-term modulation of minute ventilation in subsequent unencumbered exercise. The results further indicated that the modulation of ventilation early in exercise is not due to sensitisation to repeated trials of either IRL or exercise alone. Associative conditioning may shape the ventilatory response to exercise through a process of motor learning. Data are presented as mean (SEM) unless otherwise stated. PMID:15375661

Turner, Duncan; Stewart, Jamie D

2004-12-01

274

A promising method of enhancement for early detection of ischemic stroke  

PubMed Central

Background: Computed Tomography (CT) scan without contrast is the modality of choice for diagnosis of stroke. However, routine brain CT scan, with linear processing has some limitations in early diagnosis of ischemic stroke. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the sensitivity and specificity of processed CT images with conventional ones in early diagnosis of cerebrovascular attack (CVA). Patients and Methods: This was a self-controlled study conducted in a university referal hospital from 2010 to 2011. Seventy CT scans underwent a process using Laplacian Pyramid transform. Thirty five of participants were diagnosed with CVA while others had only headache and no ischemic stroke diagnosis based on the first and follow-up CT scans. A neuroradiologist made diagnosis with and without the help of processed CT scans. The McNemar and Wilcoxon analysis were used to compare the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of two methods. Results: The sensitivity (% 65.7 vs. %31.4, P value = 0.001), positive predictive value (% 85.2 vs. % 61, P value = 0.03) and negative predictive value (% 73.9% vs. %49, P value = 0.01) of the processed method were significantly higher than the routine one, while no difference was seen in specificity (% 88.6 vs. %77.1, P value = 0.15). Moreover, the accuracy of the processed method was significantly better than the linear one (P value < 0.001). Conclusions: It was concluded that nonlinear modified Laplacian Pyramid method can composed CT scans which can be more helpful in early detection of ischemic stroke.

Sajjadi, Mehdi; Karami, Mehdi; Amirfattahi, Rassoul; Bateni, Vahid; Ahamadzadeh, Mohammad R.; Ebrahimi, Bahareh

2012-01-01

275

Off-pump coronary artery bypass and avoidance of hypothermic cardiac arrest improves early left ventricular function in patients with systolic dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB) and beating-heart coronary artery bypass grafting (BH-CAB) performed with cardiopulmonary bypass support are used with increasing frequency in the treatment of coronary artery occlusive disease. The utility of OPCAB and BH-CAB in treating high-risk patients has been studied, but the effects of these procedures on ventricular function have not been thoroughly investigated. Methods:

George V. Letsou; Ying Xing Wu; Gary Grunkemeier; Murtuza M. Rampurwala; Larry Kaiser; Abhijit L. Salaskar

2011-01-01

276

Enhanced Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Pulmonary Arteries of Smokers and Patients with Moderate Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with hypertension in COPD might commence at moderate degrees structural and functional changes in the pulmonary circulation that of disease severity (4). commence at an early stage. To investigate whether vascular endo- In a previous study, we showed endothelial dysfunction thelial growth factor (VEGF) might be implicated as a mediator in in pulmonary

Salud Santos; Victor I. Peinado; Josep Ramirez; Jaime Morales-Blanhir; Ricardo Bastos; Josep Roca; Robert Rodriguez-Roisin; Joan A. Barbera

277

Early-season effects of solar UV-B enhancement on plant canopy structure, simulated photosynthesis and competition  

SciTech Connect

Mixed-species stands of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and wild oat (Avena fatua) were exposed to enhanced solar UV-B radiation simulating a 20% reduction in column ozone to assess the timing and seasonal development of the UV-B-induced alterations in competitive balance between these species. Results from two years of field studies revealed that UV-B enhancement did not significantly affect the magnitude or timing of seeding emergence of the combined-species LAI of 4-week old mixtures (near 2 for both years). The UV-B did, however, significantly increase (5-9%) the relative proportion of the mixture LAI contributed by wheat which then resulted in a 6-8% increase in its calculated relative light interception and canopy carbon gain. These findings, and others indicate that the effects of enhanced UV-B on competitive balance are realized very early during canopy development and suggest that UV-B-induced alterations in seedling growth may have peristent and significant consequences for light competition later in the growing season.

Barnes, P.W.; Flint, S.D.; Caldwell, M.M. (Southwest Texas State Univ., San Marcos, TX (United States))

1994-06-01

278

[Basilar artery occlusion due to embolism from the vertebral artery: three case reports].  

PubMed

Without early recanalization, it is well known that acute basilar artery occlusion almost always results in death or severe disability. We report three cases of basilar artery occlusion due to vertebral artery thrombo-embolism. In all cases, the cause of the strokes was artery to artery embolism from the vertebral artery origin. In case 1 and 3, despite complete occlusion of the vertebral artery origin, the thrombus was drained into the basilar artery through collateral flow from the external carotid artery. Atherosclerotic lesion of the vertebral artery origin is one of the main embolic sources of basilar artery, in which case, angioplasty or stent placement of the vertebral artery origin should be considered in addition to thrombolysis of the basilar artery. PMID:20628195

Kikuchi, Osamu; Ushikoshi, Satoshi; Kashiwazaki, Daina; Takagawa, Yuuya; Yokoyama, Yuka; Ajiki, Minoru; Asaoka, Katsuyuki; Kazumata, Ken; Itamoto, Kouji

2010-07-01

279

Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) of brain activity and applications to early detection of brain ischemia.  

PubMed

Divalent manganese ion (Mn2+) has been reported to be a useful contrast agent for functional MRI, through a technique named activity-induced manganese-dependent MRI (AIM). In AIM, signal enhancement is related to functional increases in calcium influx, and therefore AIM is, thus far, the only MRI method able to map brain activation in vivo independently of the surrogate hemodynamic changes used in functional MRI. Because of its high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and high sensitivity, AIM allows the use of multi-slice or three-dimensional MRI techniques to map functional activity at high spatial resolution. In the present review, we define AIM as a functional MRI tool based on the administration of divalent ionized manganese through an open or disrupted blood-brain barrier (BBB). The adequacy and efficacy of AIM in detecting neural activation is described in light of supporting experiments on inhibition of calcium channels, FOS expression, and on direct comparison to BOLD- and perfusion-based functional MRI. Two main applications of AIM, mapping brain activation in rat somatosensory cortex, as well stroke research based on the well-established middle cerebral artery occlusion model, are described in detail. Methodological problems associated with a strong dependence on anesthetic conditions, potential corruption due to disruption of the BBB, and unspecific increase of the baseline signal due to acoustical noise are discussed. Finally, recommended preparation methods and experimental protocols for AIM are introduced. PMID:15617055

Aoki, Ichio; Naruse, Shoji; Tanaka, Chuzo

2004-12-01

280

Novel polypyrrole-coated polylactide scaffolds enhance adipose stem cell proliferation and early osteogenic differentiation.  

PubMed

An electrically conductive polypyrrole (PPy) doped with a bioactive agent is an emerging functional biomaterial for tissue engineering. We therefore used chondroitin sulfate (CS)-doped PPy coating to modify initially electrically insulating polylactide resulting in novel osteogenic scaffolds. In situ chemical oxidative polymerization was used to obtain electrically conductive PPy coating on poly-96L/4D-lactide (PLA) nonwoven scaffolds. The coated scaffolds were characterized and their electrical conductivity was evaluated in hydrolysis. The ability of the coated and conductive scaffolds to enhance proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells (hASCs) under electrical stimulation (ES) in three-dimensional (3D) geometry was compared to the noncoated PLA scaffolds. Electrical conductivity of PPy-coated PLA scaffolds (PLA-PPy) was evident at the beginning of hydrolysis, but decreased during the first week of incubation due to de-doping. PLA-PPy scaffolds enhanced hASC proliferation significantly compared to the plain PLA scaffolds at 7 and 14 days. Furthermore, the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of the hASCs was generally higher in PLA-PPy seeded scaffolds, but due to patient variation, no statistical significance could be determined. ES did not have a significant effect on hASCs. This study highlights the potential of novel PPy-coated PLA scaffolds in bone tissue engineering. PMID:23126228

Pelto, Jani; Björninen, Miina; Pälli, Aliisa; Talvitie, Elina; Hyttinen, Jari; Mannerström, Bettina; Suuronen Seppanen, Riitta; Kellomäki, Minna; Miettinen, Susanna; Haimi, Suvi

2013-01-04

281

Enhanced access to early visual processing of perceptual simultaneity in autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

We compared judgements of the simultaneity or asynchrony of visual stimuli in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and typically-developing controls using Magnetoencephalography (MEG). Two vertical bars were presented simultaneously or non-simultaneously with two different stimulus onset delays. Participants with ASD distinguished significantly better between real simultaneity (0 ms delay between two stimuli) and apparent simultaneity (17 ms delay between two stimuli) than controls. In line with the increased sensitivity, event-related MEG activity showed increased differential responses for simultaneity versus apparent simultaneity. The strongest evoked potentials, observed over occipital cortices at about 130 ms, were correlated with performance differences in the ASD group only. Superior access to early visual brain processes in ASD might underlie increased resolution of visual events in perception. PMID:23239099

Falter, Christine M; Braeutigam, Sven; Nathan, Roger; Carrington, Sarah; Bailey, Anthony J

2013-08-01

282

Civilian arterial injuries.  

PubMed Central

During 1968-1973, 122 patients with 126 arterial injuries were treated. In 94 instances (90 patients), these injuries involved extremities. Systolic blood pressure was below 90 mm Hg upon admission in 55.6% of all patients and 37.7% of those with injuries to arteries of the extremities. The decision for operative exploration and repair of arteries of extremities was based largely on clinical grounds (shock, loss of pulse). Preoperative arteriography was needed infrequently, while operative angiography was nearly routine. Although several cases of late revascularization or traumatic thrombosis of renal artery have been reported, hypertension complicates the postoperative period, and early, aggressive approach is essential. Mortality was 10.6%, from aortic injuries. There were no deaths among patients with arterial injuries distal to inguinal ligament or thoracic outlet. The amputation rate from reconstruction failure was 1.1%, none occurring in the last 3 years of the series. The high patency rate and lack of evidence of pulmonary embolization suggest that associated venous injuries be repaired routinely. Arterial injuries represent ideal lesions (normal arterial wall with excellent run-in and run-off). Prompt treatment of shock and early, proper management of patients' mechanical disruptions will salvage many lives and most limbs. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4a. Fig. 4b. Fig. 4c. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10.

Bole, P V; Purdy, R T; Munda, R T; Moallem, S; Devanesan, J; Clauss, R H

1976-01-01

283

Pre radiotherapy calcium scores of the coronary arteries in a cohort of women with early stage breast cancer: A comparison with a cohort of healthy women  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeBreast cancer radiotherapy has been associated with an increased risk of cardiac toxicity. However, no data are available on the probability of developing coronary artery disease (CAD), specifically in the group of breast cancer patients when compared to that of healthy women. Therefore, baseline Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC) scores, as an accepted tool to predict CAD, were determined and compared

M. E. Mast; M. W. Heijenbrok; A. L. Petoukhova; A. N. Scholten; J. H. M. Schreur; H. Struikmans

284

Prediction of multivessel coronary artery disease and prognosis early after acute myocardial infarction by exercise electrocardiography and thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scanning  

SciTech Connect

Exercise electrocardiography and thallium scanning were performed a mean of 24 days after uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction in 103 patients, aged 36 to 60 years, who also underwent coronary angiography. The purpose of the study was to determine the ability of the noninvasive tests to predict multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD) and prognosis. Patients were followed up to document medical complications (incidence 12%: 3 deaths, 1 resuscitated cardiac arrest, 4 recurrent infarctions, 4 admissions with unstable angina) and combined events (medical events or bypass surgery, incidence 23%). The sensitivity, specificity and predictive accuracy for predicting multivessel CAD were 64%, 77% and 64% for a positive exercise electrocardiographic (ECG) response, 64%, 88% and 80% for a remote thallium defect, and 42%, 96% and 88% for a combination of the 2 tests. With 2 tests yielding negative findings the probability of multivessel CAD was 13%. No variable (positive exercise ECG response, remote thallium defect and presence of multivessel CAD) predicted medical events, although there were nonsignificant trends to more events in patients with any of those findings. The relative risk of combined events was 2.5 (p less than 0.05) for a positive exercise ECG response; 1.8 (NS) for a remote thallium defect; 2.6 (p less than 0.05) for multivessel CAD; and 3.1 (p less than 0.025) for both positive ECG response and remote defect. A combination of exercise electrocardiography and thallium scanning early after acute myocardial infarction helps to identify subsets of patients with high and low probabilities of multivessel CAD and combined medical or surgical events.

Abraham, R.D.; Freedman, S.B.; Dunn, R.F.; Newman, H.; Roubin, G.S.; Harris, P.J.; Kelly, D.T.

1986-09-01

285

Controls on early retention and late enhancement of microporosity in reefal gas reservoirs, offshore north Sumatra basin  

SciTech Connect

Chalky lime-matrix texture is pervasive in 300 m of coralgal and skeletal carbonates in the NSB-A (North Sumatra basin-A) gas field (lower-middle Miocene), offshore northern Sumatra. Much of the reservoir quality can be attributed to matrix with abundant intercrystalline, vuggy, and channel-form micropores. Matrix is composed of calcite microrhombs which are interpreted to have developed during stabilization of the precursor mud. On the same shelf, the smaller NSB-H oil field is composed of more than 45-m thick buildup of similar lithofacies which lack abundant microporosity. In both fields, early diagenesis included dissolution of aragonitic skeletal material, matrix neomorphism, and precipitation of nonluminescent calcite followed by zoned, luminescent calcite cements. Stable isotopes from matrix reflect a more open or water-dominated matrix diagenesis at NSB-H field. More active flushing of oversaturated, organically charged meteoric waters was responsible for thorough matrix cementation and microporosity occlusion at NSB-H field. Calcite cements show progressive enrichment of iron and manganese and depletion of magnesium and strontium during growth. The matrix at NSB-H field contains iron-rich dolomite. At A field, remnant matrix microporosity and intraparticle microporosity in calcitic skeletal material were greatly enhanced after all phases of cementation. Some pore-rimming cements are partially dissolved. At NSB-H field, late-phase dissolution is limited to the vicinity of open fractures where matrix-calcite and dolomite crystals are leached. Reservoir brines have a limey marine origin but are depleted in Ca and Mg relative to seawater, and carbon dioxide accounts for 31% of reservoir gas. If present brines are carbonate undersaturated, they may be substantially enhanced microporosity at NSB-A field. Late-stage dissolution is insignificant at NSB-H field due to the lack of early formed matrix microporosity.

Moshier, S.O.

1989-03-01

286

Enhanced Pain Perception Prior to Smoking Cessation is Associated with Early Relapse  

PubMed Central

Accumulated evidence suggests that nicotine induces analgesia, and endogenous pain regulatory mechanisms may be altered by chronic smoking. The extent to which individual differences in pain perception are related to smokers' ability to abstain from smoking has not been directly examined. Seventy-one smokers who were interested in quitting completed a pre-cessation laboratory session which included the cold pressor test (CPT). Pain ratings were collected during and after CPT. Also, mood changes, cardiovascular measures, and salivary cortisol samples were evaluated prior to, during, and after CPT. Participants attended 4 weekly follow-up assessment sessions after their quit day. Cox regression analysis revealed that higher pain ratings during and after CPT predicted greater risk for smoking relapse. These results remained significant after affective and physiological responses to CPT were controlled, suggesting that pain ratings prior to smoking cessation is potentially useful in identifying smokers who are at greater risk of early smoking relapse and may reflect underlying putative risk for nicotine dependence and relapse.

Nakajima, Motohiro; al'Absi, Mustafa

2012-01-01

287

Early life adversity reduces stress reactivity and enhances impulsive behavior: Implications for health behaviors.  

PubMed

Altered reactivity to stress, either in the direction of exaggerated reactivity or diminished reactivity, may signal a dysregulation of systems intended to maintain homeostasis and a state of good health. Evidence has accumulated that diminished reactivity to psychosocial stress may signal poor health outcomes. One source of diminished cortisol and autonomic reactivity is the experience of adverse rearing during childhood and adolescence. The Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project has examined a cohort of 426 healthy young adults with and without a family history of alcoholism. Regardless of family history, persons who had experienced high degrees of adversity prior to age 16 had a constellation of changes including reduced cortisol and heart rate reactivity, diminished cognitive capacity, and unstable regulation of affect, leading to behavioral impulsivity and antisocial tendencies. We present a model whereby this constellation of physiological, cognitive, and affective tendencies is consistent with altered central dopaminergic activity leading to changes in brain function that may foster impulsive and risky behaviors. These in turn may promote greater use of alcohol other drugs along with adopting poor health behaviors. This model provides a pathway from early life adversity to low stress reactivity that forms a basis for risky behaviors and poor health outcomes. PMID:23085387

Lovallo, William R

2012-10-17

288

Metabolic activity in early tendon repair can be enhanced by intermittent pneumatic compression.  

PubMed

Since Achilles tendon healing is protracted, more knowledge of metabolites known to meet the demands for biosynthesis and proliferation is needed. We hypothesized that essential metabolites, glutamate, glucose, lactate, pyruvate and glycerol, are present and upregulated in healing Achilles tendons. We moreover hypothesized that adjuvant intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC), which increases blood flow, upregulates metabolite concentrations. Twenty patients with acute Achilles tendon rupture were recruited, operated, and included. The control group, 15 patients, received plaster cast immobilization, while five patients received adjuvant foot IPC beneath the plaster cast. At 2 weeks postoperatively, microdialysis of the healing and contralateral intact Achilles tendons was followed by quantification of metabolites. Healing compared to intact tendons of the controls exhibited significantly increased concentrations (mM) of glutamate (60?±?14 vs 20?±?11), lactate (1.15?±?0.60 vs 0.64?±?0.35), and pyruvate (81?±?29 vs 35?±?25, ?M). Healing tendons of the IPC vs control group displayed higher levels of glutamate (84?±?15 vs 62?±?16) and glucose (3.44?±?0.62 vs 2.62?±?0.72); (P?early Achilles tendon repair entails and upregulates local essential metabolites. This metabolic response can, during tendon healing with plaster cast immobilization, be promoted by adjuvant IPC. PMID:22591506

Greve, K; Domeij-Arverud, E; Labruto, F; Edman, G; Bring, D; Nilsson, G; Ackermann, P W

2012-05-17

289

Enhanced pain perception prior to smoking cessation is associated with early relapse.  

PubMed

Accumulated evidence suggests that nicotine induces analgesia, and endogenous pain regulatory mechanisms may be altered by chronic smoking. The extent to which individual differences in pain perception are related to smokers' ability to abstain from smoking has not been directly examined. Seventy-one smokers who were interested in quitting completed a pre-cessation laboratory session which included the cold pressor test (CPT). Pain ratings were collected during and after CPT. Also, mood changes, cardiovascular measures, and salivary cortisol samples were evaluated prior to, during, and after CPT. Participants attended 4 weekly follow-up assessment sessions after their quit day. Cox regression analysis revealed that higher pain ratings during and after CPT predicted greater risk for smoking relapse. These results remained significant after affective and physiological responses to CPT were controlled, suggesting that pain ratings prior to smoking cessation are potentially useful in identifying smokers who are at greater risk of early smoking relapse and may reflect underlying putative risk for nicotine dependence and relapse. PMID:21816208

Nakajima, Motohiro; al'Absi, Mustafa

2011-08-02

290

ZD7288 Enhances Long-Term Depression at Early Postnatal Medial Perforant Path-Granule Cell Synapses  

PubMed Central

Hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated nonselective (HCN) channels modulate both membrane potential and resistance and play a significant role in synaptic plasticity. We compared the influence of HCN channels on long-term depression (LTD) at the medial perforant path-granule cell synapse in early postnatal (P9–15) and adult (P30–60) rats. LTD was elicited in P9–15 slices using low-frequency stimulation (LFS, 900 pulses, 1?Hz; 80 ± 4% of baseline). Application of the specific HCN channel blocker ZD7288 (10??M) before LFS significantly enhanced LTD (62 ± 4%; P < 0.01), showing HCN channels restrain LTD induction. However, when ZD7288 was applied after LFS, LTD was similar to control values and significantly different from the values obtained with ZD7288 application before LFS (81 ± 5%; P < 0.01), indicating that HCN channels do not modulate LTD expression. LTD in slices from adult rats were only marginally lower compared to those in P9–15 slices (85 ± 6%), but bath application of ZD7288 prior to LFS resulted in the same amount of LTD (85 ± 5%). HCN channels in adult tissue hence lose their modulatory effect. In conclusion, we found that HCN channels at the medial perforant path-granule cell synapse compromise LFS-associated induction, but not expression of LTD in early postnatal, but not in adult, rats.

Guli, Xiati; Tokay, Tursonjan; Rohde, Marco; Bender, Roland A.; Kohling, Rudiger; Kirschstein, Timo

2012-01-01

291

Enhanced dust heating in the bulges of early-type spiral galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stellar density and bar strength should affect the temperatures of the cool (T ~ 20-30 K) dust component in the inner regions of galaxies, which implies that the ratio of temperatures in the circumnuclear regions to the disk should depend on Hubble type. We investigate the differences between cool dust temperatures in the central 3 kpc and disk of 13 nearby galaxies by fitting models to measurements between 70 and 500 ?m. We attempt to quantify temperature trends in nearby disk galaxies, with archival data from Spitzer/MIPS and new observations with Herschel/SPIRE, which were acquired during the first phases of the Herschel observations for the KINGFISH (Key Insights on Nearby Galaxies: a Far-Infrared Survey with Herschel) sample. We fit single-temperature modified blackbodies to far-infrared and submillimeter measurements of the central and disk regions of galaxies to determine the temperature of the component(s) emitting at those wavelengths. We present the ratio of central-region-to-disk-temperatures of the cool dust component of 13 nearby galaxies as a function of morphological type. We find a significant temperature gradient in the cool dust component in all galaxies, with a mean center-to-disk temperature ratio of 1.15 ± 0.03. The cool dust temperatures in the central ~3 kpc of nearby galaxies are 23 (±3)% hotter for morphological types earlier than Sc, and only 9 (±3)% hotter for later types. The temperature ratio is also correlated with bar strength, with only strongly barred galaxies having a ratio over 1.2. The strong radiation field in the high stellar density of a galactic bulge tends to heat the cool dust component to higher temperatures, at least in early-type spirals with relatively large bulges, especially when paired with a strong bar. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by the European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

Engelbracht, C. W.; Hunt, L. K.; Skibba, R. A.; Hinz, J. L.; Calzetti, D.; Gordon, K. D.; Roussel, H.; Crocker, A. F.; Misselt, K. A.; Bolatto, A. D.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Appleton, P. N.; Armus, L.; Beirćo, P.; Brandl, B. R.; Croxall, K. V.; Dale, D. A.; Draine, B. T.; Dumas, G.; Gil de Paz, A.; Groves, B.; Hao, C.-N.; Johnson, B. D.; Koda, J.; Krause, O.; Leroy, A. K.; Meidt, S. E.; Murphy, E. J.; Rahman, N.; Rix, H.-W.; Sandstrom, K. M.; Sauvage, M.; Schinnerer, E.; Smith, J.-D. T.; Srinivasan, S.; Vigroux, L.; Walter, F.; Warren, B. E.; Wilson, C. D.; Wolfire, M. G.; Zibetti, S.

2010-07-01

292

Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI-Based Early Detection of Acute Renal Transplant Rejection.  

PubMed

A novel framework for the classification of acute rejection versus nonrejection status of renal transplants from 2-D dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is proposed. The framework consists of four steps. First, kidney objects are segmented from adjacent structures with a level set deformable boundary guided by a stochastic speed function that accounts for a fourth-order Markov-Gibbs random field model of the kidney/background shape and appearance. Second, a Laplace-based nonrigid registration approach is used to account for local deformations caused by physiological effects. Namely, the target kidney object is deformed over closed, equispaced contours (iso-contours) to closely match the reference object. Next, the cortex is segmented as it is the functional kidney unit that is most affected by rejection. To characterize rejection, perfusion is estimated from contrast agent kinetics using empirical indexes, namely, the transient phase indexes (peak signal intensity, time-to-peak, and initial up-slope), and a steady-phase index defined as the average signal change during the slowly varying tissue phase of agent transit. We used a kn-nearest neighbor classifier to distinguish between acute rejection and nonrejection. Performance of our method was evaluated using the receiver operating characteristics (ROC). Experimental results in 50 subjects, using a combinatoric kn-classifier, correctly classified 92% of training subjects, 100% of the test subjects, and yielded an area under the ROC curve that approached the ideal value. Our proposed framework thus holds promise as a reliable noninvasive diagnostic tool. PMID:23797240

Khalifa, Fahmi; Beache, Garth M; El-Ghar, Mohamed Abou; El-Diasty, Tarek; Gimel'farb, Georgy; Kong, Maiying; El-Baz, Ayman

2013-06-19

293

Effect of enhanced external counterpulsation on inflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules in patients with angina pectoris and angiographic coronary artery disease.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease is associated with chronic low-level inflammation, as evidenced by elevated circulating proinflammatory cytokines. Experimental evidence suggests that inflammation can be suppressed under conditions of high shear stress. This study was conducted to examine the effects of enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP), a noninvasive therapy that increases endothelial shear stress, on circulating levels of inflammatory biomarkers and adhesion molecules in patients with angina pectoris. Twenty-one patients were randomly assigned to either 35 1-hour treatments at cuff pressures of 300 mm Hg (EECP; n=12) or 75 mm Hg (sham; n=9). Plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 were measured before and after 35 1-hour sessions of treatment or sham. Patients in the EECP group demonstrated reductions in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (6.9+/-2.7 vs 4.9+/-2.5 pg/ml, p<0.01; -29%) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (254.9+/-55.9 vs 190.4+/-47.6 pg/ml, p<0.01; -19%) after treatment, whereas there was no change in the sham group. Changes in soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 were not observed in either group. In conclusion, 35 sessions of EECP decreased circulating levels of proinflammatory biomarkers in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease. PMID:18237588

Casey, Darren P; Conti, C Richard; Nichols, Wilmer W; Choi, Calvin Y; Khuddus, Matheen A; Braith, Randy W

2007-12-11

294

Combined contrast-enhanced ultrasound and rt-PA treatment is safe and improves impaired microcirculation after reperfusion of middle cerebral artery occlusion  

PubMed Central

In monitoring of recanalization and in sonothrombolysis, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is applied in extended time protocols. As extended use may increase the probability of unwanted effects, careful safety evaluation is required. We investigated the safety profile and beneficial effects of CEUS in a reperfusion model. Wistar rats were subjected to filament occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA). Reperfusion was established after 90?minutes, followed by recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) treatment and randomization to additional CEUS (contrast agent: SonoVue; 60?minutes). Blinded outcome evaluation consisted of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), neurologic assessment, and histology and, in separate experiments, quantitative 3D nano-computed tomography (CT) angiography (900?nm3 voxel size). Nano-CT revealed severely compromised microcirculation in untreated animals after MCA reperfusion. The rt-PA partially improved hemispheric perfusion. Impairment was completely reversed in animals receiving rt-PA and CEUS. This combination was more effective than treatment with either CEUS without rt-PA or rt-PA and ultrasound or ultrasound alone. In MRI experiments, CEUS and rt-PA treatment resulted in a significantly reduced ischemic lesion volume and edema formation. No unwanted effects were detected on MRI, histology, and intracranial temperature assessment. This study shows that CEUS and rt-PA is safe in the situation of reperfusion and displays beneficial effects on the level of the microvasculature.

Nedelmann, Max; Ritschel, Nouha; Doenges, Simone; Langheinrich, Alexander C; Acker, Till; Reuter, Peter; Yeniguen, Mesut; Pukropski, Jan; Kaps, Manfred; Mueller, Clemens; Bachmann, Georg; Gerriets, Tibo

2010-01-01

295

Thromboembolism in pulmonary artery sarcoma.  

PubMed

Pulmonary artery sarcoma, although rare, must be considered in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism. Clinically and radiologically, it may imitate pulmonary embolism, making diagnosis difficult and delaying treatment. Patients often have no symptom resolution despite therapeutic anticoagulation. Visualization of filling defects within a pulmonary artery on contrast-enhanced CT cannot reliably differentiate between pulmonary thromboembolism and malignant lesions like leiomyosarcoma. FDG PET-CT offers the potential for identification of malignant lesions. The authors report a case with pulmonary artery thromboembolism due to thrombi formed on a pulmonary artery leiomyosarcoma. Integrated FDG PET-CT showed no FDG-uptake along the major part of the filling defect within the right main pulmonary artery suggesting blood clot and increased uptake along the posterior wall of the right main pulmonary artery and the left lower lobar artery suggesting malignancy. PMID:19300057

Farsad, Mohsen; Pernter, Patrizia; Triani, Antonio; Osele, Luzian; Wiedermann, Christian J

2009-04-01

296

Hyperhomocysteinemia and arterial aneurysm.  

PubMed

Hyperhomocysteinemia (HCY) is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. Arterial aneurysm has rarely been described in association with heterozygous HCY. Here we report two cases of this association. Case 1 was 32-Year-old man who presented with distal trophic manifestations of the lower extremities. Upon investigation, occlusive arterial disease with fusiform aneurysm of both popliteal arteries and occlusion of the left cubital artery were found. Laboratory findings indicated HCY due to homozygous methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency. Case 2 was 38-year-old man with no history of trauma who presented with repeated ischemic events involving the right hand in association with isolated aneurysm of the right cubital artery. Histological study demonstrated extensive dystrophic changes in the aneurysmal vessel wall, including sclerohyalin deposits. The only abnormality was homozygous MTHFR deficiency. Pathologic changes induced by HCY in vessel walls may be implicated in early arterial aneurysm. The association of anatomic lesions, young age, and absence of other causes suggests that the relationship between HCY and arterial aneurysm observed in these two patients was not coincidental. PMID:11904817

Cacoub, P; Sbai, A; Brocheriou, I; Kaloustian, E; Cohen, G; Kieffer, E; Piette, J C

2002-01-17

297

Early Detection of Lewis Lung Carcinoma Tumor Control by Irradiation Using Diffusion-Weighted and Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the correlation between diffusion-weighted (DW) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) derived parameters and radioresponsiveness of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) tumor. Materials and Methods LLC tumor growth in C57BL/6 mouse limb was used for the experiment. The tumors were irradiated with 10 Gy×5, or 30 Gy×2 vs. sham irradiation. Fourteen tumors were subjected to DW-MRI and DCE-MRI pre-radiotherapy and weekly imaging after radiotherapy. The temporal changes in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and DCE-MRI derived parameters (Ktrans, kep, ve, and vp) were correlated with tumor size, and were histologically compared with CD31 staining of resected tumors. Results The 10 Gy×5 dose inhibited tumor growth for a week, while 30 Gy×2 controlled tumor growth for a 3-week observation period. One week after radiotherapy (week 2), irradiated tumors showed significantly higher values of ADC than untreated ones (10 Gy×5, p?=?0.004; 30 Gy×2, p?=?0.01). Significantly higher values of ve were shown earlier by 30 Gy×2 vs. sham (p?=?0.01) and 10 Gy×5 vs. sham irradiation (p?=?0.05). Sustained higher ve from 10 Gy×5 compared to sham irradiated tumors was evident at week 3 (p?=?0.016) and week 4 (p?=?0.046). A 13.8% early increase in ADC for 30 Gy×2 tumor group (p?=?0.002) and a 16.5% increase for 10 Gy×5 group were noted (p?=?0.01) vs. sham irradiation (which showed a 2.2% decrease). No differences were found for Ktrans, kep, or vp. Both radiotherapy groups demonstrated significant reduction in microvessel counts. Conclusion Early increase in ADC and ve correlated with tumor control by irradiation.

Cheng, Jason Chia-Hsien; Yuan, Ang; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Lu, Yi-Chien; Cho, Kuan-Hung; Wu, Jian-Kuen; Wu, Chien-Jang; Chang, Yeun-Chung; Yang, Pan-Chyr

2013-01-01

298

Use of early-phase dynamic spiral computed tomography for the primary screening of multiple trauma.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of early-phase dynamic spiral computed tomography (CT) of the whole body for screening multiple trauma was compared with that of conventional incremental CT. Thirty-six patients with suspected blunt hemorrhagic injuries were prospectively assigned to undergo either standard uniphasic incremental CT or spiral CT enhanced during the early arterial phase. In comparison with incremental CT, the wider scan coverage in spiral CT resulted in the detection of more injuries. Spiral CT showed an excellent enhancement of both the arteries and parenchyma with a reduced volume of contrast material, however, more contrast artifacts were observed. All extravasations detected in spiral CT were from the arteries and required subsequent interventions including transcatheter embolization. Primary screening with early-phase dynamic spiral CT for hemorrhagic multiple trauma was found to be useful for determining the applications of subsequent angiographic intervention as well as evaluating lesions caused by injury. PMID:12369027

Okamoto, Ken; Norio, Hirofumi; Kaneko, Naoyuki; Sakamoto, Toshihisa; Kaji, Tatsumi; Okada, Yoshiaki

2002-10-01

299

In vivo evaluation of retinal and callosal projections in early postnatal development and plasticity using manganese-enhanced MRI and diffusion tensor imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rodents are an excellent model for understanding the development and plasticity of the visual system. In this study, we explored the feasibility of Mn-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 7T for in vivo and longitudinal assessments of the retinal and callosal pathways in normal neonatal rodent brains and after early postnatal visual impairments. Along the retinal

Kevin C. Chan; Joe S. Cheng; Shujuan Fan; Iris Y. Zhou; Jian Yang; Ed X. Wu

300

Pregnancy-Specific Enhancement of Agonist-Stimulated ERK1\\/2 Signaling in Uterine Artery Endothelial Cells Increases Ca21 Sensitivity of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase as well as Cytosolic Phospholipase A2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uterine artery endothelial cells (UAEC) from pregnant ewes (P- UAEC) demonstrate generally enhanced ability to couple growth fac- tor and G protein-coupled receptors to the ERK-1\\/2 signaling pathway and stimulate NO production independently of elevated (Ca21). Herein we investigate the signaling and vasodilator responses to ATP, an agonist that also elevates (Ca21)i in both NP and P-UAEC, to determine the

TAO DI; JEREMY A. SULLIVAN; RONALD R. MAGNESS; LUBO ZHANG; IAN M. BIRD

301

Whole-body three-dimensional contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) angiography with parallel imaging techniques on a multichannel MR system for the detection of various systemic arterial diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a 1.5-T magnetic resonance (MR) imager equipped with 32 receiving channels and integrated parallel acquisition techniques,\\u000a 37 patients underwent whole-body three-dimensional (3D) contrast-enhanced MR angiography (WB 3D CE MRA). The patients included\\u000a had clinically documented or suspected peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD, n = 19), Takayasu arteritis (n = 8), polyarteritis nodosa (n = 1), type-B dissection (n =

Jiang Lin; Bin Chen; Jian-Hua Wang; Meng-Su Zeng; Yi-Xiang Wang

2006-01-01

302

Early molecular imaging of interstitial changes in patients after myocardial infarction: Comparison with delayed contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging  

PubMed Central

Introduction The clinical feasibility of noninvasive imaging of interstitial alterations after myocardial infarction (MI) was assessed using a technetium-99m-labeled RGD imaging peptide (RIP). In experimental studies, RIP has been shown to target integrins associated with collagen-producing myofibroblasts (MFB). Methods and Results Ten patients underwent myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) within the first week after MI. At 3 and 8 weeks after MI, RIP was administered intravenously and SPECT images acquired for interstitial imaging. RIP imaging was compared to initial MPI and to the extent of scar formation defined by late gadolinium-enhanced (LGE) cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging 1 year after MI. RIP uptake was observed in 7 of the 10 patients at both 3 and 8 weeks. Although, RIP uptake corresponded to areas of perfusion defects, it usually extended beyond the infarct zone to a variable extent; 2 of 7 patients showed tracer uptake throughout myocardium. In all positive cases, RIP uptake was similar to the extent of scar observed at 1 year by LGE-CMR imaging. Conclusion This study demonstrates that RGD-based imaging early after MI may predict the eventual extent of scar formation, which often exceeds initial MPI deficit but colocalizes with LGE in CMR imaging performed subsequently.

Verjans, Johan; Wolters, Sander; Laufer, Ward; Schellings, Mark; Lax, Michelle; Lovhaug, Dagfinn; Boersma, Hendrikus; Kemerink, Gerrit; Schalla, Simon; Gordon, Paul; Teule, Jaap

2010-01-01

303

Presenilin enhancer-2 gene: identification of a novel promoter mutation in a patient with early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

?-Secretase proteins complex cleaves the amyloid precursor protein (APP) to generate amyloid-? (A?) peptides. Considerable evidence suggests that alterations in genes encoding these proteins exert their influence on the pathogenesis of familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD). Presenilin enhancer-2 gene (PEN-2) is a necessary component of the ?-Secretase complex. Recently, it has been shown that PEN-2 mutations could be involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We performed a mutational screening of all PEN-2 coding and promoter regions in a FAD cohort derived from Southern Italy. Four hundred and fifty-two subjects (FAD: 97; Controls: 355) were recruited for this study. We identified for the first time in a key region necessary for the promoter activity a novel 3 bp deletion in a subject with early-FAD. Our genetic data demonstrate that the mutant allele may influence the transcriptional activity of the PEN-2 gene. Although the effective role of the PEN-2 promoter deletion in AD is not entirely clear, these findings might lead to more studies on its functional and genetic role. PMID:22055974

Andreoli, Virginia; Trecroci, Francesca; La Russa, Antonella; Cittadella, Rita; Liguori, Maria; Spadafora, Patrizia; Caracciolo, Manuela; Di Palma, Gemma; Colica, Carmela; Gambardella, Antonio; Quattrone, Aldo

2011-11-01

304

Emergency management of spontaneous coronary artery dissection.  

PubMed

Six cases of spontaneous coronary arteries dissection are reported. In one patient, triple vessel spontaneous coronary artery dissection was identified. Another patient presented spontaneous left main coronary artery dissection. In one case we found the spontaneous dissection of the left anterior descending artery associated with distal aortic arch dissection. These conditions are very rare and may present a surgical dilemma. Causative factors and underlying pathology are clarified. Prompt diagnosis and surgical intervention is safe and effective. Early recognition of left main coronary artery dissection or three-vessel dissection is essential because urgent coronary artery bypass grafting may be life saving. PMID:11887053

Bonacchi, M; Prifti, E; Giunti, G; Frati, G; Leacche, M; Brancaccio, G; Sani, G

2002-04-01

305

Three-Dimensional Micro-MRI Analysis of Cerebral Artery Development in Mouse Embryos  

PubMed Central

Vascular system development involves a complex, three-dimensional branching process that is critical for normal embryogenesis. In the brain, the arterial systems appear to develop in a stereotyped fashion, but no detailed quantitative analyses of the mouse embryonic cerebral arteries have been described. In this study, a gadolinium-based contrast perfusion method was developed to selectively enhance the cerebral arteries in fixed mouse embryos. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance micro-imaging (micro-MRI) data were acquired simultaneously from multiple embryos staged between 10 and 17 days of gestation, and a variety of image analysis methods was used to extract and analyze the cerebral arterial patterns. The results show that the primary arterial branches in the mouse brain are very similar between individuals, with the patterns established early and growth occurring by extension of the segments, while maintaining the underlying vascular geometry. To investigate the utility of this method for mutant mouse phenotype analysis, contrast-enhanced micro-MRI data were acquired from Gli2-/- mutant embryos and their wild-type littermates, showing several previously unreported vascular phenotypes in Gli2-/- embryos, including the complete absence of the basilar artery. These results demonstrate that contrast-enhanced micro-MRI provides a powerful tool for analyzing vascular phenotypes in a variety of genetically engineered mice.

Berrios-Otero, Cesar A.; Wadghiri, Youssef Zaim; Nieman, Brian J.; Joyner, Alexandra L.; Turnbull, Daniel H.

2010-01-01

306

Popliteal artery war injuries.  

PubMed

The early postoperative results of 44 surgically treated popliteal arterial injuries from the Yugoslav civil war are reported. Of these patients, 41 (93%) were males and three (7%) were females, average age was 28 (range 6-45) years. Twenty patients (45%) had gunshot wounds and 24 (55%) explosive wounds. Twelve (28%) suffered isolated vascular damage, while 32 (72%) suffered concomitant bone fractures. Isolated arterial lesions were found in 24 (55%) cases, and concomitant arterial and venous lesions in 20 (45%). Twenty-four (55%) had primary reconstructions after haemostasis in the initial war hospital, and 20 (45%) secondary reconstructions after inadequate primary reconstruction in a regional war hospital. Artery procedures included 19 reverse saphenous vein graft interpositions, 10 reverse saphenous vein bypasses, 12 'in situ' saphenous vein bypasses and five lateral subcutaneous saphenous vein bypasses. The early graft patency rate was 100%, and limb salvage 72%. Major amputation was performed in 28%. Concomitant bone fractures, secondary reconstructions, secondary haemorrhage from an infected graft, and explosion wounds significantly increased the amputation rate (P < 0.01). Eleven amputations were performed after an anatomic, and only one after an extra-anatomic reconstruction (P < 0.01). The authors recommend an in situ or lateral subcutaneous reconstruction in cases of complicated popliteal artery injuries, such as concomitant bone fractures accompanied by massive soft tissue damage, and this type of reconstruction should also be used if infection is present or the procedure is delayed. PMID:9158121

Davidovi?, L; Lotina, S; Kosti?, D; Velimirovi?, D; Duki?, P; Cinara, I; Vranes, M; Markovi?, M

1997-02-01

307

Grafted human neural stem cells enhance several steps of endogenous neurogenesis and improve behavioral recovery after middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats.  

PubMed

Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) in subventricular zone (SVZ) produce new striatal neurons during several months after stroke, which may contribute to recovery. Intracerebral grafts of NSPCs can exert beneficial effects after stroke through neuronal replacement, trophic actions, neuroprotection, and modulation of inflammation. Here we have explored whether human fetal striatum-derived NSPC-grafts influence striatal neurogenesis and promote recovery in stroke-damaged brain. T cell-deficient rats were subjected to 1h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Human fetal NSPCs or vehicle were implanted into ipsilateral striatum 48 h after MCAO, animals were assessed behaviorally, and perfused at 6 or 14 weeks. Grafted human NSPCs survived in all rats, and a subpopulation had differentiated to neuroblasts or mature neurons at 6 and 14 weeks. Numbers of proliferating cells in SVZ and new migrating neuroblasts and mature neurons were higher, and numbers of activated microglia/macrophages were lower in the ischemic striatum of NSPC-grafted compared to vehicle-injected group both at 6 and 14 weeks. A fraction of grafted NSPCs projected axons from striatum to globus pallidus. The NSPC-grafted rats showed improved functional recovery in stepping and cylinder tests from 6 and 12 weeks, respectively. Our data show, for the first time, that intrastriatal implants of human fetal NSPCs exert a long-term enhancement of several steps of striatal neurogensis after stroke. The grafts also suppress striatal inflammation and ameliorate neurological deficits. Our findings support the idea that combination of NSPC transplantation and stimulation of neurogenesis from endogenous NSPCs may become a valuable strategy for functional restoration after stroke. PMID:23276704

Mine, Yutaka; Tatarishvili, Jemal; Oki, Koichi; Monni, Emanuela; Kokaia, Zaal; Lindvall, Olle

2012-12-28

308

Modulator Factor-Binding Sequence of the Sea Urchin Early Histone H2A Promoter Acts as an Enhancer Element  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sea urchin early H2A histone gene, like the other four members of the repeating units, is transiently expressed during very early development. To investigate the mechanisms underlying the faithful expression of the early H2A gene, we focused our attention on the modulator element. We showed by DNase I cleavage protection patterns that the modulator includes the upstream sequence element

Franco Palla; Celestino Bonura; Letizia Anello; Linda di Gaetano; Giovanni Spinelli

1994-01-01

309

Science Education in Early Childhood Teacher Education: Putting Forward a Case to Enhance Student Teachers' Confidence and Competence  

Microsoft Academic Search

New Zealand is moving towards increased qualification requirements for early childhood educators. There is an underlying assumption that there is a correlation between quality early childhood education, teacher qualifications and quality practices in teaching and learning. Two fields of literature, early childhood pedagogy and science specific pedagogy, are reviewed briefly to provide a framework with which to consider why student

Dawn Garbett

2003-01-01

310

Total arterial myocardial revascularization.  

PubMed

The superiority of the internal thoracic artery (ITA) compared with venous conduits in terms of late graft patency is nowadays well documented. The inferior epigastric artery (IEA) was recently proposed as an alternative conduit for coronary artery surgery with good early clinical and angiographic results. To improve the benefits from myocardial revascularization, we expanded the use of these arterial conduits. From June 1988 to December 1991, 615 patients underwent coronary surgery in our institute. In 138 of them (22.4%) we performed total arterial myocardial revascularization placing 2 or more coronary anastomoses. An average of 2.37 anastomoses per patient were placed with the maximum number of 6 in one case. Only one patient died of cardiac related causes (0.72%). Perioperative morbidity included myocardial infarction and sternal dehiscence in 5 patients each (3.6%). No stroke or reoperation for bleeding occurred. No rectus muscle necrosis was recorded. Accurate preoperative planning of graft placement allows for the performance of as many as 6 distal anastomoses using bilateral ITA and single IEA grafts only, thus completely revascularizing most of the hearts with three-vessel disease. In our series this procedure was not reflected in an increase in the perioperative morbidity. We choose an elective total arterial revascularization in younger (under 65 years) patients who, while showing a lower incidence of complications in our study, are likely to derive the highest benefits from the good durability of ITA and hopefully IEA grafts. PMID:8442986

Paolini, G; Mariani, M A; Benussi, S; Zuccari, M; Di Credico, G; Gallorini, C; Grossi, A

1993-01-01

311

Early tumor progression associated with enhanced EGFR signaling with bortezomib, cetuximab, and radiotherapy for head and neck cancer  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE A phase I clinical trial and molecular correlative studies were performed to evaluate preclinical evidence for combinatorial activity of proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor cetuximab, and radiation therapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Patients with radiotherapy-naļve stage IV or recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) were studied. Escalating doses of bortezomib (0.7, 1.0 and 1.3 mg/m2) were given intravenously twice weekly on days 1, 4, 8, 11, every 21 days, with weekly cetuximab beginning 1 week prior and concurrently with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), delivered in 2Gy fractions to 70-74 Gy. Molecular effects were examined in serial serum and SCCHN tumor specimens, and the cell line UMSCC-1. RESULTS Seven patients were accrued before the study was terminated when 5/6 previously untreated patients with favorable prognosis oropharyngeal SCCHN progressed within 1 year (PFS =4.8 months; 95% CI, 2.6-6.9). Three patients each received bortezomib 0.7 or 1.0 mg/m2, without dose-limiting toxicities; 1 patient treated at 1.3 mg/m2 was taken off study due to recurring cetuximab infusion reaction and progressive disease. Expected grade 3 toxicities included radiation mucositis (n=4), dermatitis (n=1), and rash (n=1). SCCHN-related cytokines increased in serial serum specimens of patients developing progressive disease (P=0.029). Bortezomib antagonized cetuximab- and radiation-induced cytotoxicity, degradation of EGFR, and enhanced prosurvival signal pathway activation in SCCHN tumor biopsies and UMSCC-1. CONCLUSIONS Combining bortezomib with cetuximab and radiation therapy demonstrated unexpected early progression, evidence for EGFR stabilization, increased prosurvival signaling and SCCHN cytokine expression, warranting avoidance of this combination.

Argiris, Athanassios; Duffy, Austin G.; Kummar, Shivaani; Simone, Nicole L.; Arai, Yoshio; Kim, Seungwon W.; Rudy, Susan. F.; Kannabiran, Vishnu. R.; Yang, Xinping; Jang, Minyoung; Chen, Zhong; Suksta, Nanette; Cooley-Zgela, Theresa; Ramanand, Susmita G.; Ahsan, Aarif; Nyati, Mukesh. K.; Wright, John J.; Van Waes, Carter

2011-01-01

312

Pro-osteogenic topographical cues promote early activation of osteoprogenitor differentiation via enhanced TGF?, Wnt, and Notch signaling.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES: Titanium implant surfaces with modified topographies have improved osteogenic properties in vivo. However, the molecular mechanisms remain obscure. This study explored the signaling pathways responsible for the pro-osteogenic properties of micro-roughened (SLA) and chemically/nanostructurally (modSLA) modified titanium surfaces on human alveolar bone-derived osteoprogenitor cells (BCs) in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The activation of stem cell signaling pathways (TGF?/BMP, Wnt, FGF, Hedgehog, Notch) was investigated following early exposure (24 and 72 h) of BCs to SLA and modSLA surfaces in the absence of osteogenic cell culture supplements. RESULTS: Key regulatory genes from the TGF?/BMP (TGFBR2, BMPR2, BMPR1B, ACVR1B, SMAD1, SMAD5), Wnt (Wnt/?-catenin and Wnt/Ca(2+) ) (FZD1, FZD3, FZD5, LRP5, NFATC1, NFATC2, NFATC4, PYGO2, LEF1) and Notch (NOTCH1, NOTCH2, NOTCH4, PSEN1, PSEN2, PSENEN) pathways were upregulated on the modified surfaces. These findings correlated with a higher expression of osteogenic markers bone sialoprotein (IBSP) and osteocalcin (BGLAP), and bone differentiation factors BMP2, BMP6, and GDF15, as observed on the modified surfaces. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that the activation of the pro-osteogenic cell signaling pathways by modSLA and SLA surfaces leads to enhanced osteogenic differentiation as evidenced after 7 and 14 days culture in osteogenic media and provides a mechanistic insight into the superior osseointegration on the modified surfaces observed in vivo. PMID:23600707

Chakravorty, Nishant; Hamlet, Stephen; Jaiprakash, Anjali; Crawford, Ross; Oloyede, Adekunle; Alfarsi, Mohammed; Xiao, Yin; Ivanovski, Saso

2013-04-21

313

Arterial embolism.  

PubMed

Surgical and intensive care patients are at a heightened risk for arterial embolization due to pre-existing conditions such as age, hypercoagulability, cardiac abnormalities and atherosclerotic disease. Most arterial emboli are clots that originate in the heart and travel to distant vascular beds where they cause arterial occlusion, ischemia, and potentially infarction. Other emboli form on the surface of eroded arterial plaque or within its lipid core. Thromboemboli are large clots that dislodge from the surface of athesclerotic lesions and occlude distal arteries causing immediate ischemia. Atheroemboli, which originate from fracturing the lipid core tend to cause a process of organ dysfunction and systemic inflammation, termed cholesterol embolization syndrome. The presentation of arterial emboli depends on the arterial bed that is affected. The most common manifestations are strokes and acute lower limb ischemia. Less frequently, emboli target the upper extremities, mesenteric or renal arteries. Treatment involves rapid diagnosis, which may be aided by precise imaging studies and restoration of blood flow. The type of emboli, duration of presentation, and organ system affected determines the treatment course. Long-term therapy includes supportive medical care, identification of the source of embolism and prevention of additional emboli. Patients who experienced arterial embolism as a result of clots formed in the heart should be anticoagulated. Arterial emboli from atherosclerotic disease of the aorta or other large arteries should prompt treatment to reduce the risk for atherosclerotic progression, such as anti-platelet therapy and the use of statin drugs. The use of anticoagulation and surgical intervention to reduce the risk of arterial embolization from atherosclerotic lesions is still being studied. PMID:23724391

Lyaker, Michael R; Tulman, David B; Dimitrova, Galina T; Pin, Richard H; Papadimos, Thomas J

2013-01-01

314

Dual-phase multi-detector computed tomography assesses jeopardised and infarcted myocardium subtending infarct-related artery early after acute myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:To investigate dual-phase multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) for assessing extent and severity of jeopardised and infarcted myocardium subtended by infarct-related artery (IRA), and its indication for revascularisation after acute myocardial infarction (AMI).Designs, setting and patients:Prospective, single-centre study included 107 patients with uncomplicated post-AMI 3–7 days, who met criteria and underwent dual-phase 64-slice MDCT. IRA, culprit lesion and extent of jeopardised\\/infarcted

K-R Chiou; W-C Huang; N-J Peng; Y-L Huang; S-H Hsiao; K-H Chen; M-T Wu

2009-01-01

315

Inhibition of VCAM-1 expression in the arterial wall is shared by structurally different antioxidants that reduce early atherosclerosis in NZW rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously established that probucol de- creases basal expression of VCAM-1 in the aorta of WHHL rabbits and inhibits the up-regulation of VCAM-1 expres- sion that normally accompanies atherogenesis. To deter- mine whether this effect is shared by other antioxidants in vivo, we now investigated whether a structurally unrelated antioxidant, vitamin E, also inhibits arterial VCAM-1 expres- sion and whether

Joachim Fruebis; Mercedes Silvestre; Diane Shelton; Claudio Napoli; Wulf Palinski

316

Very Early Risk Stratification Using Combined ECG and Biochemical Assessment in Patients With Unstable Coronary Artery Disease (A Thrombin Inhibition in Myocardial Ischemia (TRIM) Substudy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—The diagnostic capability of troponin T (TnT), troponin I (TnI), myoglobin, and creatine kinase (CK)-MB mass for detection of myocardial injury seems evident. Newer studies have found these sensitive markers to carry independent prognostic information in patients with unstable coronary artery disease as well. ST-segment depression in the admission ECG is known to be an important indicator of poor outcome

Lene Holmvang; Michael S. Luscher; Peter Clemmensen; Kristian Thygesen; Peer Grande

317

A model-constrained Monte Carlo method for blind arterial input function estimation in dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI: II. In vivo results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate quantification of pharmacokinetic model parameters in tracer kinetic imaging experiments requires correspondingly accurate determination of the arterial input function (AIF). Despite significant effort expended on methods of directly measuring patient-specific AIFs in modalities as diverse as dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), dynamic positron emission tomography (PET), and perfusion computed tomography (CT), fundamental and technical difficulties have made consistent and reliable achievement of that goal elusive. Here, we validate a new algorithm for AIF determination, the Monte Carlo blind estimation (MCBE) method (which is described in detail and characterized by extensive simulations in a companion paper), by comparing AIFs measured in DCE-MRI studies of eight brain tumor patients with results of blind estimation. Blind AIFs calculated with the MCBE method using a pool of concentration-time curves from a region of normal brain tissue were found to be quite similar to the measured AIFs, with statistically significant decreases in fit residuals observed in six of eight patients. Biases between the blind and measured pharmacokinetic parameters were the dominant source of error. Averaged over all eight patients, the mean biases were +7% in K trans, 0% in kep, -11% in vp and +10% in ve. Corresponding uncertainties (median absolute deviation from the best fit line) were 0.0043?min-1 in K trans, 0.0491 min-1 in kep, 0.29% in vp and 0.45% in ve. The use of a published population-averaged AIF resulted in larger mean biases in three of the four parameters (-23% in K trans, -22% in kep, -63% in vp), with the bias in ve unchanged, and led to larger uncertainties in all four parameters (0.0083 min-1 in K trans, 0.1038 min-1 in kep, 0.31% in vp and 0.95% in ve). When blind AIFs were calculated from a region of tumor tissue, statistically significant decreases in fit residuals were observed in all eight patients despite larger deviations of these blind AIFs from the measured AIFs. The observed decrease in root-mean-square fit residuals between the normal brain and tumor tissue blind AIFs suggests that the local blood supply in tumors is measurably different from that in normal brain tissue and that the proposed method is able to discriminate between the two. We have shown the feasibility of applying the MCBE algorithm to DCE-MRI data acquired in brain, finding generally good agreement with measured AIFs and decreased biases and uncertainties relative to the use of a population-averaged AIF. These results demonstrate that the MCBE algorithm is a useful alternative to direct AIF measurement in cases where acquisition of high-quality arterial input function data is difficult or impossible.

Schabel, Matthias C.; DiBella, Edward V. R.; Jensen, Randy L.; Salzman, Karen L.

2010-08-01

318

Early quantitative coronary angiography of saphenous vein grafts for coronary artery bypass grafting harvested by means of open versus endoscopic saphenectomy: a prospective randomized trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveEndoscopic saphenectomy is associated with a decreased incidence of wound complications without an increase in histologic trauma or endothelial dysfunction in published reports. Concern remains about the patency of saphenous vein grafts harvested endoscopically and the development of early intimal hyperplasia. The purpose of this study was to compare early quantitative coronary analysis of saphenous vein grafts used for coronary

L. P Perrault; H Jeanmart; L Bilodeau; J Lespérance; J.-F Tanguay; D Bouchard; P Pagé; M Carrier

2004-01-01

319

Traumatic carotid artery dissection.  

PubMed

Traumatic carotid artery dissections are uncommon and potentially devastating injuries that often have a delayed presentation. Soldiers often engage in leisure, training, and combat activities that place them at risk for sustaining an injury that causes a carotid artery dissection. To compound matters, spontaneous dissections are being more frequently recognized as well. Clinicians must be thorough in their history taking and maintain an elevated level of suspicion for this injury when presented with neurologic symptoms suggestive of head and neck pathology. This case study illustrates the difficulties encountered in arriving at a timely, correct diagnosis and offers treatment plan options. We hope that this case study will facilitate the early recognition and treatment of carotid artery dissections in the future. PMID:23764161

Hostettler, Cathy; Williams, Thomas; McKnight, Christine; Sanchez, Angela; Diggs, Georgette

2013-01-01

320

Comparative study of fat-suppressed Gd-enhanced MRI of hands in the early stage of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and non-RA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The object of this work was to evaluate the usefulness of fat-suppressed gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging\\u000a (MRI) for the diagnosis of early-stage rheumatoid arthritis. Forty wrists of patients who had suffered from stiff or swollen\\u000a hands for 1–12 months were examined prospectively by MRI. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was proven in 21 patients, and the other\\u000a 19 patients were not

Tomoko Matsumoto; Toshiyuki Tsurumoto; Hiroyuki Shindo; Masataka Uetani

2001-01-01

321

Widespread DNA hypomethylation at gene enhancer regions in placentas associated with early-onset pre-eclampsia.  

PubMed

Pre-eclampsia is a serious complication of pregnancy that can affect both maternal and fetal outcomes. Early-onset pre-eclampsia (EOPET) is a severe form of pre-eclampsia that is associated with altered physiological characteristics and gene expression in the placenta. DNA methylation is a relatively stable epigenetic modification to DNA that can reflect gene expression, and can provide insight into the mechanisms underlying such expression changes. This case-control study focused on DNA methylation and gene expression of whole chorionic villi samples from 20 EOPET placentas and 20 gestational age-matched controls from pre-term births. DNA methylation was also assessed in placentas affected by late-onset pre-eclampsia (LOPET) and normotensive intrauterine growth restriction (nIUGR). The Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip was used to assess DNA methylation at >480 000 cytosine-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) sites. The Illumina HT-12v4 Expression BeadChip was used to assess gene expression of >45 000 transcripts in a subset of cases and controls. DNA methylation analysis by pyrosequencing was used to follow-up the initial findings in four genes with a larger cohort of cases and controls, including nIUGR and LOPET placentas. Bioinformatic analysis was used to identify overrepresentation of gene ontology categories and transcription factor binding motifs. We identified 38 840 CpG sites with significant (false discovery rate <0.01) DNA methylation alterations in EOPET, of which 282 had >12.5% methylation difference compared with the controls. Significant sites were enriched at the enhancers and low CpG density regions of the associated genes and the majority (74.5%) of these sites were hypomethylated in EOPET. EOPET, but not associated clinical features, such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), presented a distinct DNA methylation profile. CpG sites from four genes relevant to pre-eclampsia (INHBA, BHLHE40, SLC2A1 and ADAM12) showed different extent of changes in LOPET and nIUGR. Genome-wide expression in a subset of samples showed that some of the gene expression changes were negatively correlated with DNA methylation changes, particularly for genes that are responsible for angiogenesis (such as EPAS1 and FLT1). Results could be confounded by altered cell populations in abnormal placentas. Larger sample sizes are needed to fully address the possibility of sub-profiles of methylation within the EOPET cohort. Based on DNA methylation profiling, we conclude that there are widespread DNA methylation alterations in EOPET that may be associated with changes in placental function. This property may provide a useful tool for early screening of such placentas. This study identifies DNA methylation changes at many loci previously reported to have altered gene expression in EOPET placentas, as well as in novel biologically relevant genes we confirmed to be differentially expressed. These results may be useful for DNA- methylation-based non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of at-risk pregnancies. PMID:23770704

Blair, John D; Yuen, Ryan K C; Lim, Brendan K; McFadden, Deborah E; von Dadelszen, Peter; Robinson, Wendy P

2013-06-13

322

Widespread DNA hypomethylation at gene enhancer regions in placentas associated with early-onset pre-eclampsia  

PubMed Central

Pre-eclampsia is a serious complication of pregnancy that can affect both maternal and fetal outcomes. Early-onset pre-eclampsia (EOPET) is a severe form of pre-eclampsia that is associated with altered physiological characteristics and gene expression in the placenta. DNA methylation is a relatively stable epigenetic modification to DNA that can reflect gene expression, and can provide insight into the mechanisms underlying such expression changes. This case–control study focused on DNA methylation and gene expression of whole chorionic villi samples from 20 EOPET placentas and 20 gestational age-matched controls from pre-term births. DNA methylation was also assessed in placentas affected by late-onset pre-eclampsia (LOPET) and normotensive intrauterine growth restriction (nIUGR). The Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip was used to assess DNA methylation at >480 000 cytosine-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) sites. The Illumina HT-12v4 Expression BeadChip was used to assess gene expression of >45 000 transcripts in a subset of cases and controls. DNA methylation analysis by pyrosequencing was used to follow-up the initial findings in four genes with a larger cohort of cases and controls, including nIUGR and LOPET placentas. Bioinformatic analysis was used to identify overrepresentation of gene ontology categories and transcription factor binding motifs. We identified 38 840 CpG sites with significant (false discovery rate <0.01) DNA methylation alterations in EOPET, of which 282 had >12.5% methylation difference compared with the controls. Significant sites were enriched at the enhancers and low CpG density regions of the associated genes and the majority (74.5%) of these sites were hypomethylated in EOPET. EOPET, but not associated clinical features, such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), presented a distinct DNA methylation profile. CpG sites from four genes relevant to pre-eclampsia (INHBA, BHLHE40, SLC2A1 and ADAM12) showed different extent of changes in LOPET and nIUGR. Genome-wide expression in a subset of samples showed that some of the gene expression changes were negatively correlated with DNA methylation changes, particularly for genes that are responsible for angiogenesis (such as EPAS1 and FLT1). Results could be confounded by altered cell populations in abnormal placentas. Larger sample sizes are needed to fully address the possibility of sub-profiles of methylation within the EOPET cohort. Based on DNA methylation profiling, we conclude that there are widespread DNA methylation alterations in EOPET that may be associated with changes in placental function. This property may provide a useful tool for early screening of such placentas. This study identifies DNA methylation changes at many loci previously reported to have altered gene expression in EOPET placentas, as well as in novel biologically relevant genes we confirmed to be differentially expressed. These results may be useful for DNA- methylation-based non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of at-risk pregnancies.

Blair, John D.; Yuen, Ryan K.C.; Lim, Brendan K.; McFadden, Deborah E.; von Dadelszen, Peter; Robinson, Wendy P.

2013-01-01

323

NOS Inhibition Enhances Myogenic Tone by Increasing Rho-Kinase Mediated Ca2+ Sensitivity in the Male but Not the Female Gerbil Spiral Modiolar Artery  

PubMed Central

Cochlear blood flow regulation is important to prevent hearing loss caused by ischemia and oxidative stress. Cochlear blood supply is provided by the spiral modiolar artery (SMA). The myogenic tone of the SMA is enhanced by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) blocker L-NG-Nitro-Arginine (LNNA) in males, but not in females. Here, we investigated whether this gender difference is based on differences in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and/or the Ca2+ sensitivity of the myofilaments. Vascular diameter, myogenic tone, cytosolic Ca2+, and Ca2+ sensitivity were evaluated in pressurized SMA segments isolated from male and female gerbils using laser-scanning microscopy and microfluorometry. The gender difference of the LNNA-induced tone was compared, in the same vessel segments, to tone induced by 150 mM K+ and endothelin-1, neither of which showed an apparent gender-difference. Interestingly, LNNA-induced tone in male SMAs was observed in protocols that included changes in intramural pressure, but not when the intramural pressure was held constant. LNNA in male SMAs did not increase the global Ca2+ concentration in smooth muscle cells but increased the Ca2+ sensitivity. This increase in the Ca2+ sensitivity was abolished in the presence of the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor ODQ or by extrinsic application of either the nitric oxide (NO)-donor DEA-NONOate or the cGMP analog 8-pCPT-cGMP. The rho-kinase blocker Y27632 decreased the basal Ca2+ sensitivity and abolished the LNNA-induced increase in Ca2+ sensitivity in male SMAs. Neither LNNA nor Y27632 changed the Ca2+ sensitivity in female SMAs. The data suggest that the gender difference in LNNA-induced tone is based on a gender difference in the regulation of rho-kinase mediated Ca2+ sensitivity. Rho-kinase and NO thus emerge as critical factors in the regulation of cochlear blood flow. The larger role of NO-dependent mechanisms in male SMAs predicts greater restrictions on cochlear blood flow under conditions of impaired endothelial cell function.

Wangemann, Philine

2013-01-01

324

Spontaneous resolution of post-traumatic pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm: Report of two cases  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary artery aneurysm is a rare clinical entity with congenital or mycotic origin being most common causes. Post-traumatic pulmonary pseudoaneurysms are extremely rare. Unless diagnosed early and properly managed, these can be fatal. Only few cases have been reported in the literature with most (except the one) being diagnosed much later after the initial injury and managed surgically. Only one case has been reported following blunt trauma injury, which was diagnosed immediately using computed tomography scan and managed conservatively. Here, we report two cases of pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm one following gunshot injury and other following blunt injury which was diagnosed on contrast enhanced computed tomography chest and managed conservatively.

Goel, Sandeep; Kumar, Atin; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Gupta, Amit

2013-01-01

325

Enhanced contractility in pregnancy is associated with augmented TRPC3, L-type, and T-type voltage-dependent calcium channel function in rat uterine radial artery.  

PubMed

In pregnancy, ?-adrenoceptor-mediated vasoconstriction is augmented in uterine radial arteries and is accompanied by underlying changes in smooth muscle (SM) Ca(2+) activity. This study aims to determine the Ca(2+) entry channels associated with altered vasoconstriction in pregnancy, with the hypothesis that augmented vasoconstriction involves transient receptor potential canonical type-3 (TRPC3) and L- and T-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels. Immunohistochemistry showed TRPC3, L-type Cav1.2 (as the ?1C subunit), T-type Cav3.1 (?1G), and Cav3.2 (?1H) localization to the uterine radial artery SM. Fluorescence intensity of TRPC3, Cav1.2, and Cav3.2 was increased, and Cav3.1 decreased in radial artery SM from pregnant rats. Western blot analysis confirmed increased TRPC3 protein expression in the radial artery from pregnant rats. Pressure myography incorporating pharmacological intervention to examine the role of these channels in uterine radial arteries showed an attenuation of phenylephrine (PE)-induced constriction with Pyr3 {1-[4-[(2,3,3-trichloro-1-oxo-2-propen-1-yl)amino]phenyl]-5-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylic acid}-mediated TRPC3 inhibition or with nifedipine-mediated L-type channel block alone in vessels from pregnant rats; both effects of which were diminished in radial arteries from nonpregnant rats. Combined TRPC3 and L-type inhibition attenuated PE-induced constriction in radial arteries, and the residual vasoconstriction was reduced and abolished with T-type channel block with NNC 55-0396 in arteries from nonpregnant and pregnant rats, respectively. With SM Ca(2+) stores depleted and in the presence of PE, nifedipine, and NNC 55-0396, blockade of TRPC3 reversed PE-induced constriction. These data suggest that TRPC3 channels act synergistically with L- and T-type channels to modulate radial artery vasoconstriction, with the mechanism being augmented in pregnancy. PMID:23948776

Senadheera, Sevvandi; Bertrand, Paul P; Grayson, T Hilton; Leader, Leo; Tare, Marianne; Murphy, Timothy V; Sandow, Shaun L

2013-08-15

326

Arterial input function of an optical tracer for dynamic contrast enhanced imaging can be determined from pulse oximetry oxygen saturation measurements.  

PubMed

In many cases, kinetic modeling requires that the arterial input function (AIF)--the time-dependent arterial concentration of a tracer--be characterized. A straightforward method to measure the AIF of red and near-infrared optical dyes (e.g., indocyanine green) using a pulse oximeter is presented. The method is motivated by the ubiquity of pulse oximeters used in both preclinical and clinical applications, as well as the gap in currently available technologies to measure AIFs in small animals. The method is based on quantifying the interference that is observed in the derived arterial oxygen saturation (SaO?) following a bolus injection of a light-absorbing dye. In other words, the change in SaO? can be converted into dye concentration knowing the chromophore-specific extinction coefficients, the true arterial oxygen saturation, and total hemoglobin concentration. A simple error analysis was performed to highlight potential limitations of the approach, and a validation of the method was conducted in rabbits by comparing the pulse oximetry method with the AIF acquired using a pulse dye densitometer. Considering that determining the AIF is required for performing quantitative tracer kinetics, this method provides a flexible tool for measuring the arterial dye concentration that could be used in a variety of applications. PMID:23190567

Elliott, Jonathan T; Wright, Eric A; Tichauer, Kenneth M; Diop, Mamadou; Morrison, Laura B; Pogue, Brian W; Lee, Ting-Yim; St Lawrence, Keith

2012-11-29

327

Early Anticipation of Candidacy for Intra-Arterial Reperfusion Therapy Based on Baseline Clinical Stroke Subtypes: Comparison with Multiparametric MRI Taken within 4.5 Hours from Stroke Onset  

PubMed Central

Background The decision to proceed with intra-arterial (IA) reperfusion therapy is typically made late in the course of in-hospital treatment for acute ischemic stroke. Early anticipation of candidacy for IA reperfusion therapy based on clinical stroke subtypes would be useful for guiding stroke management. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the clinical Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project (OCSP) classification and MRI results taken within a 4.5-hour time window from stroke onset, with the hypothesis that the persistence of major arterial occlusion and extended ischemic penumbra, key criteria for proceeding with IA reperfusion therapy, would be distinctive between the clinical stroke subtypes. Methods A total of 161 patients with acute ischemic stroke in the anterior circulation were included in this study. All patients were treated with intravenous alteplase, and MRI scans were performed following alteplase initiation. Prior to treatment, the patients were categorized, based on the OCSP classification scheme, as having total anterior circulation infarcts (TACI), partial anterior circulation infarcts (PACI), or lacunar infarcts (LACI). The relationship between OCSP subtypes, MRI parameters, and clinical variables was analyzed. Results Overall, 40/161 patients (24.8%) were candidates for IA rescue reperfusion. With respect to the classification, 30/69 TACI (43.5%), 6/33 PACI (18.2%), and 4/59 LACI patients (6.8%) were candidates (p < 0.001). Major arterial occlusion was found in 56/161 patients (34.8%), and 46/69 TACI (66.7%), 6/33 PACI (18.2%), and 4/59 LACI patients (6.8%) had a major arterial occlusion (p < 0.001). A perfusion-diffusion mismatch greater than 20% was found in 85/161 patients (52.8%). More specifically, 40/69 TACI (58.0%), 25/33 PACI (75.8%), and 20/59 LACI patients (33.9%) had a perfusion-diffusion mismatch (p < 0.001). However, in terms of the total area of mismatch, 66.0% of patients with ASPECTSDWI-PWI ?2 (Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score) were classified as TACI patients (p < 0.001) and of the patients with ASPECTSDWI-PWI ?3, 74.3% were classified as TACI patients (p < 0.001). Relative to candidates for IA rescue reperfusion, the clinical TACI group showed 75.0% sensitivity, 67.8% specificity, a positive predictive value of 43.5%, and a negative predictive value of 89.1%. Conclusions In this study, patients classified as having clinical TACI were significantly more likely to be candidates for IA rescue reperfusion. Additionally, they incurred a higher incidence of persistent major arterial occlusion and had a penumbra area that was significantly larger than normal. Therefore, clinical OCSP can be used as an ‘early warning system’ for IA reperfusion candidacy, which can allow for advanced preparation of IA therapy and theoretically shorten treatment time and reduce infarction.

Kim, Yong-Won; Kang, Dong-Hun; Hwang, Yang-Ha; Kim, Yong-Sun; Park, Sung-Pa

2013-01-01

328

Dose comparison of single versus double dose in contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography of the renal arteries: intra-individual cross-over blinded trial using Gd-DTPA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was planned as an open-label, single-centre trial with blinded evaluations by two independent radiologists, aimed\\u000a at the intra-individual comparison of single-dose and double-dose Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRA in the renal arterial territory. Ten\\u000a healthy volunteers were included in the study. Renal MRAs were carried out on a clinical 1.5-T MR system using a body phased-array\\u000a coil. Images were acquired with

J. T. Heverhagen; C. L. Wright; P. Schmalbrock; M. V. Knopp

2009-01-01

329

Science Education in Early Childhood Teacher Education: Putting Forward a Case to Enhance Student Teachers' Confidence and Competence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New Zealand is moving towards increased qualification requirements for early childhood educators. There is an underlying assumption that there is a correlation between quality early childhood education, teacher qualifications and quality practices in teaching and learning. Two fields of literature, early childhood pedagogy and science specific pedagogy, are reviewed briefly to provide a framework with which to consider why student teachers' attitudes, misunderstandings and misconceptions in science can limit their ability and willingness to create quality teaching and learning opportunities. The study reported in this paper highlights, in general, that early childhood student teachers' subject knowledge in science was poor. It also emerged that the student teachers were unaware of how little they knew and how this might affect their ability to provide appropriate science experiences for young children.

Garbett, Dawn

2003-08-01

330

Neighborhood contexts experienced by young Mexican-American women: enhancing our understanding of risk for early childbearing.  

PubMed

Young Mexican-American women are disproportionately affected by teen pregnancy and early childbearing. While many of the studies that have investigated this population's high risk for early childbearing have focused predominantly on micro-level factors, a growing body of research has demonstrated the importance of neighborhood-level factors in shaping risk for this outcome. In order to elucidate the role of neighborhood context with regards to early childbearing among adolescent Mexican-American women, it is important to understand what these young women consider to be their neighborhood context and how they experience these contexts. This study utilized a mixed-methods design incorporating participatory photography, photo-elicitation, and focus groups in order to gain a more nuanced understanding of how neighborhood context is conceptualized and experienced by Mexican-American young women, and how these experiences may influence risk for early childbearing. Major findings include: (1) participants view the blocks on which they live as their neighborhood, but their exposure to neighborhood context extends beyond these blocks and includes the transient spaces they move through daily; and (2) within their neighborhood contexts, participants are influenced by experiences of discrimination and the presence of gangs and violence. These findings point to the importance of neighborhood-level factors in the lives of adolescent Mexican-American women, and may be used to inform future studies looking at the role of neighborhood context in shaping risk for early childbearing among this population. PMID:22143409

Richardson, Dawn M; Nuru-Jeter, Amani M

2012-02-01

331

Quantitative in vivo measurement of early axonal transport deficits in a triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease using manganese-enhanced MRI  

PubMed Central

Impaired axonal transport has been linked to the pathogenic processes of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in which axonal swelling and degeneration are prevalent. The development of non-invasive neuroimaging methods to quantitatively assess in vivo axonal transport deficits would be enormously valuable to visualize early, yet subtle, changes in the AD brain, to monitor the disease progression and to quantify the effect of drug intervention. A triple transgenic mouse model of AD closely resembles human AD neuropathology. In this study, we investigated age-dependent alterations in the axonal transport rate in a longitudinal assessment of the triple transgenic mouse olfactory system, using fast multi-sliced T1 mapping with manganese-enhanced MRI. The data show that impairment in axonal transport is a very early event in AD pathology in these mice, preceding both deposition of A? plaques and formation of Tau fibrils.

Kim, Jieun; Choi, In-Young; Michaelis, Mary L.; Lee, Phil

2011-01-01

332

Vygotskian perspectives on using dramatic play to enhance children's development and balance creativity with structure in the early childhood classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

What kind of environmental and administrative factors support the balance between child?centred and teacher?directed practices in the early childhood classroom? What specific aspects of children's development are nurtured by this pedagogy? These and other pedagogical issues are addressed in this article as it describes how a particular curriculum on dramatic play was initiated, implemented and developed with a group of

Amita Gupta

2009-01-01

333

Enhancing Student Services at Lorain County Community College: Early Results from the Opening Doors Demonstration in Ohio  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 2003, MDRC and a consortium of funders launched the Opening Doors demonstration to test reforms in six community colleges aimed at helping students stay in school and earn credentials. This report presents early results from the Opening Doors program at Lorain County Community College in Elyria, Ohio. The program provided intensive advising…

Scrivener, Susan; Au, Jenny

2007-01-01

334

Vygotskian Perspectives on Using Dramatic Play to Enhance Children's Development and Balance Creativity with Structure in the Early Childhood Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What kind of environmental and administrative factors support the balance between child-centred and teacher-directed practices in the early childhood classroom? What specific aspects of children's development are nurtured by this pedagogy? These and other pedagogical issues are addressed in this article as it describes how a particular curriculum…

Gupta, Amita

2009-01-01

335

Cotransplantation of stroma results in enhancement of engraftment and early expression of donor hematopoietic stem cells in utero  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although promising, clinical and experimental efforts at in utero hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation currently are limited by minimal donor cell engraftment and lack of early donor cell expression after transplantation. We reasoned that cotransplantation of stromal elements (ST) might condition the fetal microenvironment for the engraftment of donor HSC and facilitate precocious bone marrow (BM) hematopoiesis. In this study

Graēa Almeida-Porada; Alan W. Flake; Hudson A. Glimp; Esmail D. Zanjani

1999-01-01

336

[Retrospective assessment of influence of pre-and intra-operative risk factors on early and late surgical results in patients with coronary heart disease and severly impaired left ventricle function who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting].  

PubMed

Aim of the study was to evaluate retrospectively recent and late results of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with ischaemic heart disease and severe left ventricular dysfunction. 146 patients (125 men, 21 women) aged 58.4 +/- 8.4 years, with angina (Canadian Cardiac Society--CCS class > or = 1), heart failure (New York Heart Association--NYHA class > or = 1), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF < or = 30%), multi-vessel coronary disease were included to the study. All patients underwent CABG. Peri-operative mortality was 6.1%, in-hospital mortality was 8.2%, 1-year survival was 86.5% and 4-year survival--80%. It was shown that CABG improves angina, dyspnoea and LVEF in patients with coronary heart disease and depressed left ventricle function (LVEF < or = 30%). Selected parameters like: unstable angina requiring intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) preoperatively, recent heart infarction, cerebrovascular disease, severly depressed left ventricle function (LVEF < or = 20%), mitral regurgitation and Cleveland score > or = 10 pts significantly influence early surgical results (up to 30 days after surgery). It was shown that independent parameters predicting long-term survival and risk of major cardiac events were: negative dobutamine stress test, significant mitral valve incompetence and Cleveland score > or = 10 pts. Use of crystalloid cardioplegia increases early risk of CABG however none of methods of myocardial protection affects long-term surgical results. The outcomes of procedures using blood cardioplegia or intermittent cross clamp and ventricular fibrillation are comparable. PMID:15765754

Janas, Robert; Gburek, Tadeusz; Cisowski, Marek; Wilczy?ski, Miros?aw; Bia?kowska, Bozena; Bochenek, Andrzej

2004-01-01

337

Axillary artery transection after shoulder dislocation.  

PubMed

Axillary artery transection after shoulder dislocation without bone fracture is extremely rare. Early diagnosis, use of the occlusion balloon for proximal control of axillary artery bleeding, and surgical treatment are important to avoid morbidity and mortality. A 74-year old man presented with a complete transection of axillary artery associated with anterior dislocation of the shoulder without bone fracture. Left axillary artery transection was seen on angiography. An angioplasty balloon was used to prevent bleeding from the subclavian artery. The brachial plexus was compressed by a hematoma. Axillary artery repair was performed with an autologous reversed saphenous vein graft interposition. The patient had palpable distal pulses postoperatively. Motor function was significantly improved but still impaired in the postoperative period. Follow-up at 3 months showed good function of the left arm.Successful management of axillary artery injuries requires prompt diagnosis and surgical treatment. Neurologic injury may affect the functional outcome of the limb. PMID:23849653

Ergüne?, Kazim; Yazman, Serkan; Yetkin, Ufuk; Cak?r, Volkan; Gurbuz, Ali

2013-07-10

338

Early and Intermediate Outcomes After Repair of Pulmonary Atresia With Ventricular Septal Defect and Major Aortopulmonary Collateral Arteries Experience With 85 Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect (VSD) and major aortopulmonary collaterals (MAPCAs) is a complex lesion with marked heterogeneity of pulmonary blood supply. Traditional management has involved staged unifocalization of pulmonary blood supply. Our approach has been to perform early 1-stage complete unifocalization in almost all patients. Methods and Results—Since 1992, 85 patients with pulmonary atresia, VSD, and MAPCAs have

V. Mohan Reddy; Doff B. McElhinney; Zahid Amin; Phillip Moore; Andrew J. Parry; David F. Teitel; Frank L. Hanley

2010-01-01

339

A Caliber Persistent Artery (Dieulafoy's Lesion) which is Associated with an Early-Stage Gastric Stump Cancer Following a Distal Gastrectomy  

PubMed Central

A 75–years old man was hospitalized with symptoms which suggested gastric cancer. Thirty-eight years ago, he had undergone a Billroth-II gastric reconstruction for a peptic ulcer. At the present admission, he had presented with an eight-month history of recurrent haematemesis, epigastric pain, vomiting, and fatigue. The emergent endoscopy showed a type 0-IIc (superficial depressed) early gastric stump cancer in the anastomotic area and total removal of the gastric remnant and the jejunal segment was performed. The histological examination of the surgical specimen showed a gastric adenocarcinoma that invaded the mucosa and the submucosa, without lymph node metastases (pT1bN0 stage). Besides the tumour, enlarged vessels were observed in the submucosa and the muscularis propria, some of which were thrombotic. The surrounding normal gastric wall also presented submucosal oversized vascular spaces, some of which were protruding through the muscularis mucosae in the mucosal layer. Based on these characteristics and the recurrent haematemesis, a final diagnosis of early gastric stump carcinoma which was associated with Dieulafoy’s lesion was made. This association has not yet been reported in the literature and it allowed us to diagnose the gastric stump cancer in a very early stage.

Gurzu, Simona; Copotoiu, Constantin; Azamfirei, Leonard; Jung, Ioan

2013-01-01

340

Enhanced detection of early-stage oral cancer in vivo by optical coherence tomography using multimodal delivery of gold nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contrast in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images can be enhanced by utilizing surface plasmon resonant gold nanoparticles. To improve the poor in vivo transport of gold nanoparticles through biological barriers, an efficient delivery strategy is needed. In this study, the improved penetration and distribution of gold nanoparticles were achieved by microneedle and ultrasound, respectively, and it was demonstrated that this multimodal delivery of antibody-conjugated PEGylated gold nanoparticles enhanced the contrast in in vivo OCT images of oral dysplasia in a hamster model.

Kim, Chang Soo; Wilder-Smith, Petra; Ahn, Yeh-Chan; Liaw, Lih-Huei L.; Chen, Zhongping; Kwon, Young Jik

2009-05-01

341

Fast 3D coronary artery contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography with magnetization transfer contrast, fat suppression and parallel imaging as applied on an anthropomorphic moving heart phantom.  

PubMed

A magnetic resonance sequence for high-resolution imaging of coronary arteries in a very short acquisition time is presented. The technique is based on fast low-angle shot and uses fat saturation and magnetization transfer contrast prepulses to improve image contrast. GeneRalized Autocalibrating Partially Parallel Acquisitions (GRAPPA) is implemented to shorten acquisition time. The sequence was tested on a moving anthropomorphic silicone heart phantom where the coronary arteries were filled with a gadolinium contrast agent solution, and imaging was performed at varying heart rates using GRAPPA. The clinical relevance of the phantom was validated by comparing the myocardial relaxation times of the phantom's homogeneous silicone cardiac wall to those of humans. Signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio were higher when parallel imaging was used, possibly benefiting from the acquisition of one partition per heartbeat. Another advantage of parallel imaging for visualizing the coronary arteries is that the entire heart can be imaged within a few breath-holds. PMID:16916707

Irwan, Roy; Rüssel, Iris K; Sijens, Paul E

2006-04-27

342

Chronic hypoxia upregulates pulmonary arterial ASIC1: a novel mechanism of enhanced store-operated Ca2+ entry and receptor-dependent vasoconstriction  

PubMed Central

Acid-sensing ion channel 1 (ASIC1) is a newly characterized contributor to store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle (VSM). Since SOCE is implicated in elevated basal VSM intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and augmented vasoconstriction in chronic hypoxia (CH)-induced pulmonary hypertension, we hypothesized that ASIC1 contributes to these responses. To test this hypothesis, we examined effects of the specific pharmacologic ASIC1a inhibitor, psalmotoxin 1 (PcTX1), on vasoconstrictor and vessel wall [Ca2+]i responses to UTP and KCl (depolarizing stimulus) in fura-2-loaded, pressurized small pulmonary arteries from control and CH (4 wk at 0.5 atm) Wistar rats. PcTX1 had no effect on basal vessel wall [Ca2+]i, but attenuated vasoconstriction and increases in vessel wall [Ca2+]i to UTP in arteries from control and CH rats; normalizing responses between groups. In contrast, responses to the depolarizing stimulus, KCl, were unaffected by CH exposure or PcTX1. Upon examining potential Ca2+ influx mechanisms, we found that PcTX1 prevented augmented SOCE following CH. Exposure to CH resulted in a significant increase in pulmonary arterial ASIC1 protein. This study supports a novel role of ASIC1 in elevated receptor-stimulated vasoconstriction following CH which is likely mediated through increased ASIC1 expression and SOCE.

Herbert, Lindsay M.; Walker, Benjimen R.; Resta, Thomas C.

2012-01-01

343

Chronic hypoxia upregulates pulmonary arterial ASIC1: a novel mechanism of enhanced store-operated Ca2+ entry and receptor-dependent vasoconstriction.  

PubMed

Acid-sensing ion channel 1 (ASIC1) is a newly characterized contributor to store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle (VSM). Since SOCE is implicated in elevated basal VSM intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) and augmented vasoconstriction in chronic hypoxia (CH)-induced pulmonary hypertension, we hypothesized that ASIC1 contributes to these responses. To test this hypothesis, we examined effects of the specific pharmacologic ASIC1a inhibitor, psalmotoxin 1 (PcTX1), on vasoconstrictor and vessel wall [Ca(2+)](i) responses to UTP and KCl (depolarizing stimulus) in fura-2-loaded, pressurized small pulmonary arteries from control and CH (4 wk at 0.5 atm) Wistar rats. PcTX1 had no effect on basal vessel wall [Ca(2+)](i), but attenuated vasoconstriction and increases in vessel wall [Ca(2+)](i) to UTP in arteries from control and CH rats; normalizing responses between groups. In contrast, responses to the depolarizing stimulus, KCl, were unaffected by CH exposure or PcTX1. Upon examining potential Ca(2+) influx mechanisms, we found that PcTX1 prevented augmented SOCE following CH. Exposure to CH resulted in a significant increase in pulmonary arterial ASIC1 protein. This study supports a novel role of ASIC1 in elevated receptor-stimulated vasoconstriction following CH which is likely mediated through increased ASIC1 expression and SOCE. PMID:22205392

Jernigan, Nikki L; Herbert, Lindsay M; Walker, Benjimen R; Resta, Thomas C

2011-12-28

344

Enhanced detection of early-stage oral cancer in vivo by optical coherence tomography using multimodal delivery of gold nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrast in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images can be enhanced by utilizing surface plasmon resonant gold nanoparticles. To improve the poor in vivo transport of gold nanoparticles through biological barriers, an efficient delivery strategy is needed. In this study, the improved penetration and distribution of gold nanoparticles were achieved by microneedle and ultrasound, respectively, and it was demonstrated that this

Chang Soo Kim; Petra Wilder-Smith; Yeh-Chan Ahn; Lih-Huei L. Liaw; Zhongping Chen; Young Jik Kwon

2009-01-01

345

Diagnosis of early-stage rheumatoid arthritis: usefulness of unenhanced and gadolinium-enhanced MR images at 3 T.  

PubMed

Forty-one consecutive unclassified arthritis patients with polyarthralgia including wrist joint were evaluated with 3-T MRI as possible early-stage rheumatoid arthritis (RA). After prospective follow-up, 21 of 41 patients fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. Synovitis was detected in all 21 RA patients (sensitivity=100%) with postcontrast MRI and in 14 patients (67%) with unenhanced MRI when none of them fulfilled ACR diagnostic criteria. Fat-suppressed intermediate-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE) image showed high detection rate of synovitis and bone erosion, whereas FIESTA image clearly delineated joint fluid and bone trabeculae. MRI at 3 T is a potentially powerful tool for discriminating and managing early-stage RA patients. PMID:23465990

Aoki, Takatoshi; Yamashita, Yoshiko; Saito, Kazuyoshi; Tanaka, Yoshiya; Korogi, Yukunori

2012-08-20

346

Peripheral immune challenge with viral mimic during early postnatal period robustly enhances anxiety-like behavior in young adult rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflammatory factors associated with immune challenge during early brain development are now firmly implicated in the etiologies\\u000a of schizophrenia, autism and mood disorders later in life. In rodent models, maternal injections of inflammagens have been\\u000a used to induce behavioral, anatomical and biochemical changes in offspring that are congruent with those found in human diseases.\\u000a Here, we studied whether inflammatory challenge

Gregory W. Konat; Brent E. Lally; Anastasia A. Toth; Adrienne K. Salm

347

Arterial grafts: clinical classification and pharmacological management  

PubMed Central

In comparison with standard saphenous vein grafts, use of the internal mammary artery (IMA) as a coronary artery bypass graft has achieved superior long-term results. This is related to the differences in the biological characteristics between the venous and arterial grafts. However, even arterial grafts are not uniform in their biological characteristics. The variation in the perioperative behavior of the grafts and in their long-term patency may be related to different characteristics. These factors should be taken into account in the use of arterial grafts, some of which are subjected to more active pharmacological intervention during and after the operation to obtain satisfactory results. To better understand the biological behavior of the grafts, their common features and their differences, a clinical classification may be useful for a practicing surgeon. Based on experimental studies of their vasoreactivity combined with anatomical, physiological and embryological considerations, we have proposed a functional classification for arterial grafts that may be useful clinically. Our classification suggests that there are three types of arterial grafts: Type I—somatic arteries; Type II—splanchnic arteries; and Type III—limb arteries. Type I arteries have enhanced endothelial function and release more nitric oxide and other relaxing factors. Type II arteries, such as the gastro-epiploic artery, and Type III arteries, such as the radial artery (RA), have higher pharmacological reactivity to vasoconstrictors. This classification explains why the IMA has the best long-term patency. Because Type II and III arteries are prone to spasms due to higher contractility, they require more active pharmacological interventions. Furthermore, the harvesting technique of the conduits, including the saphenous vein and IMA, are described and discussed in this article. Prevention of spasms using two cocktails of medications (verapamil + nitroglycerin and nicardipine + nitroglycerin) during harvesting of the conduits is described. These solutions have been demonstrated to be clinically effective.

2013-01-01

348

[Aneurysms of the carotid arteries].  

PubMed

The aim of the paper is the presentation of the treatment of aneurysms of the extracranial carotid artery and review of literature. Aneurysms of extracranial carotid arteries (common carotid artery, external carotid artery and cervical part of the internal carotid artery) are very rate [1, 2]. In 1979 McCollum from the Baylor University (Houston, Texas) reported 37 cases over a 21-year period [3]. Moreau from France reported 38 cases over a 24-year period [4]. Mayo clinic experience includes 25 cases in the 40-year period [5]. According to Schechter 835 extracranial carotid artery aneurysms were reported in literature until 1977. These and the other aneurysms of the extracranial carotid artery can be partially or completely thrombosed, can cause distal embolization, or compression of adjacent structures, and can be ruptured [4, 9]. Therefore, the mortality rate in non operated patients with carotid artery aneurysm is 70% [10]. Over the period from January 1, 1985 to December 31, 1996 at the Centre of Vascular Surgery within the Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases of the Serbian Clinical Centre in Belgrade, 12 patients with 13 extracranial carotid artery aneurysms were treated. Nine of them (75%) were males and 3 (25%) females, average age 58.22 (21-82) years. There were two traumatic (gunshot wounds) and one anastomotic (after carotid subclavian bypass with PTFE graft) pseudoaneurysms, and 10 true atherosclerotic aneurysm. Three (23%) aneurysms were on the common and 9 (77%) on the cervical part of the internal carotid artery. Two (15%) aneurysms were in the form of asymptomatic pulsatile neck mass, 7 (54%) with CVI or TIA, three (23%) with compression of the cranial nerves and one (8%) was ruptured. Twelve (92%) patients were treated surgically, while one asymptomatic aneurysm in a 82-year old female patient was not operated due to high risk. The intraoperative findings revealed one complete and 11 partial thromboses of the aneurysmal sac. In 3 patients with fusiform aneurysms, thrombectomy and aneurysmorrhaphy were performed. One traumatic pseudoaneurysm was treated with aneurysmectomy and lateral suture of the artery. In 3 patients aneurysmectomy and end to end anastomosis were done, while in three aneurysmectomy and saphenous vein graft interposition. In case of ruptured aneurysm of the internal carotid artery aneurysmetomy and arterial ligature were carried out, while in case of anastomotic pseudoaneurysm after carotid subclavian bypass, aneurysmectomy and new carotid subclavian bypass with PTFE graft, were performed. During the study no intrahospital mortality was recorded. One patient died 5 years after the operation due to myocardial infarction. The mean follow-up period was 4 years and 2 months (6 months to 11 years). The early and late potency rates were 100%. Two (17%) CVI and two transient cranial nerve paresies were noticed immediately after the operation. In literature male/female ration in patients with extracranial carotid artery aneurysms is 2:1 [2, 4, 7], but in our study it was 5:1. One (10%) of our patients had a bilateral carotid artery aneurysm. According to literature data the incidence of bilateral localization of extracranial carotid artery aneurysms with atherosclerotic origin is 21% [1]. Of 12 surgically treated aneurysms in our study, 9 were of atherosclerotic origin, two were traumatic and one anastomotic pseudoaneurysms. Today, most of true extracranial carotid artery aneurysms are of atherosclerotic origin [7, 20-25]. However, true extracranial carotid artery aneurysms can be developed due to: infection of the arterial wall (mycotic forms) [26-37]; nonspecific [23] or irradiation arteritis [38], fibromuscular dysplasia [4, 8, 15, 16, 39]. The most frequent types of false extracranial carotid artery aneurysms are traumatic pseudoaneurysms [32, 50-54] and anastomotic pseudoaneurysms [53, 59, 60]. There are also dissecting extracranial carotid artery aneurysms developed after isolated spontaneous d PMID:9265235

Lotina, S; Davidovi?, L; Kosti?, D; Sterni?, N; Velimirovi?, D; Stojanov, P; Cvetkovi?, S; Soski?, Lj

349

Popliteal artery injury in Kuwait.  

PubMed

While there is an abundant literature on popliteal artery injury secondary to penetrating trauma, few reports deal with popliteal artery injury caused by severe blunt trauma with or without fracture. Eight cases of popliteal artery injury are described. Seven of the patients had sustained blunt trauma, usually resulting also in damage to bone and soft tissues. The popliteal vein was involved in five of the injuries. The time lag between causal trauma and vascular repair averaged 25 hours. Delay was due mainly to failure to consult the vascular surgeon at an early stage. Leg amputation was necessary in two cases. Two patients died. The importance of early recognition of the vascular injury and appropriate surgical measures was illustrated in this small series of patients from a developing Middle Eastern country. Adequate fasciotomy, venous repair, use of intraoperative Doppler and repeated postoperative débridement are discussed in connection with management. PMID:6495974

Abu-Nema, T; Ayyash, K; Shanabo, A; Eklöf, B

1984-01-01

350

Viscoelastic Properties of Normal and Atherosclerotic Carotid Arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: remodelling of the arterial wall occurs with ageing, even in the absence of atherosclerotic risk factors. With increasing age, arteries dilate, thicken, and get stiffer. The aim of this study was to correlate carotid artery stiffness with wall thickness and plaque presence between healthy individuals and patients with early and advanced atherosclerosis. Methods: twenty healthy volunteers, 40 carotid segments

N Labropoulos; M Ashraf Mansour; SS Kang; DS Oh; J Buckman; WH Baker

2000-01-01

351

Peripheral Artery Disease  

MedlinePLUS

Peripheral Artery Disease • Overview Peripheral artery disease, or P.A.D., refers to arterial disease that occurs outside of the heart or brain. In P.A.D., the arteries that carry oxygenated blood throughout the body become ...

352

Randomized clinical trial with an enteral arginine-enhanced formula in early postsurgical head and neck cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Patients with head and neck cancer undergoing surgery have a high incidence of postoperative complications. The aim of our study was to investigate whether postoperative nutrition of head and neck cancer patients using an arginine-enhanced formula could improve nutritional variables as well as clinical outcomes.Design: Randomized clinical trial.Setting: Tertiary care.Subjects: A population of 90 patients with oral and laryngeal

D A de Luis; O Izaola; L Cuellar; M C Terroba; R Aller

2004-01-01

353

White Spot Syndrome Virus Annexes a Shrimp STAT To Enhance Expression of the Immediate-Early Gene ie1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 30 August 2006\\/Accepted 12 October 2006 Although the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) signaling pathway is part of the antiviral response in arthropods such as Drosophila, here we show that white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) uses a shrimp STAT as a transcription factor to enhance viral gene expression in host cells. In a series of deletion

Wang-Jing Liu; Yun-Shiang Chang; Andrew H.-J. Wang; Guang-Hsiung Kou; Chu-Fang Lo

2007-01-01

354

A functional analysis of the genes Enhancer of split and HLH-m5 during early neurogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the functional domains of the proteins encoded by E(spl) and HLH-m5, two genes of the Enhancer of split complex [E(SPL)-C] of Drosophila melanogaster, a number of variants have been made by in vitro mutagenesis, transformed into the germ line of the wild-type, and genetically combined with a chromosomal deletion lacking four of the genes of the E(SPL)-C. All

Kyria Tietze; Herbert Schrons; José A. Campos-Ortega; Elisabeth Knust

1993-01-01

355

Gallium67 uptake in the lung of asbestos exposed sheep: early association with enhanced macrophage-derived fibronectin accumulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the time course and mechanisms of enhanced ā¶ā·Ga lung uptake in asbestosis, we exposed two groups of sheep every 2 wk to either 100 ml saline (controls) or 100 mg UICC chrysotile fibers in 100 ml saline. The sheep were evaluated periodically by pulmonary function tests (PFT), thoracic radiograph (TR), ā¶ā·Ga lung scan, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and transbronchial

R. Begin; G. Bisson; R. Lambert; Y. Cote; D. Fabi; M. Martel; G. Lamoureux; M. Rola-Pleszczynski; M. Boctor; D. Dalle

1986-01-01

356

Feeding Artery of Laryngeal and Hypopharyngeal Cancers: Role of the Superior Thyroid Artery in Superselective Intraarterial Chemotherapy  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to elucidate the role of the superior thyroid artery in intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy for laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers. Thirty-nine patients with laryngeal cancer and 29 patients with hypopharyngeal cancer underwent intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy. We performed a retrospective analysis of the feeding arteries confirmed by computed tomography during selective arteriography and compared the results with the extent of the tumors. In 14 of 39 laryngeal and 15 of 29 hypopharyngeal cancers, the tumor did not cross the midline (group 1). In the remaining 25 and 14 cancers, respectively, the tumor crossed the midline or located in the center (group 2). For 13 of 14 laryngeal and 7 of 15 hypopharyngeal cancers in group 1 and for 6 of 25 laryngeal cancers in group 2, the entire tumor was contrast enhanced by the ipsilateral superior thyroid and/or superior laryngeal artery. For 12 of 25 laryngeal and 1 of 14 hypopharyngeal cancers in group 2, the entire tumor was contrast enhanced by the bilateral superior thyroid artery. For the other patients, infusion via the other arterial branches such as the inferior thyroid and the lingual arteries were needed to achieve contrast enhancement of the entire tumor. Superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy for laryngeal cancer from the superior thyroid artery is appropriate, whereas that for hypopharyngeal cancer is less sufficient. To accomplish contrast enhancement of the entire tumor, additional intra-arterial infusion from other arteries such as the inferior thyroid artery is often necessary.

Terayama, Noboru, E-mail: tera@rad.m.kanazawa-u.ac.jp; Sanada, Junichiro; Matsui, Osamu; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Kawashima, Hiroko; Yamashiro, Masashi; Takanaka, Tsuyoshi; Kumano, Tomoyasu; Yoshizaki, Tomokazu [Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Department of Radiology (Japan); Furukawa, Mitsuru [Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Department of Otorhinolaryngology (Japan)

2006-08-15

357

The hr5 transcriptional enhancer stimulates early expression from the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus genome but is not required for virus replication.  

PubMed Central

Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) contains five homologous regions (hr1 through hr5) interspersed throughout its genome. Analysis of plasmid transfections indicates that the hrs function as transcriptional enhancers and possible origins of viral DNA replication. The role of these repetitive elements in regulating expression from the AcMNPV genome was examined by constructing a series of recombinant viruses that tested the effect of hr5 on expression of the adjacent p35 gene (p35). When embedded within the viral genome, hr5 stimulated transcription from the early p35 promoter in a position- and orientation-independent manner. Moreover, hr5 and the upstream activating region of p35 were functionally interchangeable. A 28-bp imperfect palindrome, repeated six times within hr5, was the minimal sequence required for p35 promoter activation. hr5 also stimulated another early AcMNPV promoter but not a late promoter or a host-derived promoter, suggesting that enhancement is promoter specific during infection. To investigate its role during AcMNPV replication, hr5 was deleted from its normal position within the viral genome. The resulting hr5 mutants exhibited no apparent defects in replication, as judged by production of budded virus and levels of very late gene expression, even though steady-state levels of p35 RNA were reduced. These results indicated for the first time that hr5 functions as a transcriptional enhancer within the viral genome. However, the element is not required for AcMNPV replication in cultured cells. Thus, loss of one of five possible origins of DNA replication is not deleterious to viral growth. Since p26 was removed from the hr5 deletion mutants, this gene is also nonessential for viral replication. Images

Rodems, S M; Friesen, P D

1993-01-01

358

Phospholipase A 2 activation as a therapeutic approach for cognitive enhancement in early-stage Alzheimer disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Alzheimer disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia in the elderly and has no known cure. Evidence suggests that reduced\\u000a activity of specific subtypes of intracellular phospholipases A2 (cPLA2 and iPLA2) is an early event in AD and may contribute to memory impairment and neuropathology in the disease.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  The objective of this study was to review the literature focusing

Evelin L. Schaeffer; Orestes V. Forlenza; Wagner F. Gattaz

2009-01-01

359

Early exposure to haptic feedback enhances performance in surgical simulator training: a prospective randomized crossover study in surgical residents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  In the literature of skill acquisition and transfer of skills, it often is assumed that the rate of skill acquisition depends\\u000a on what has been learned in a similar context (i.e., surgical simulators providing haptic feedback). This study aimed to analyze\\u000a whether the addition of haptic feedback early in the training phase for image-guided surgical simulation improves performance.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A randomized

P. Ström; L. Hedman; L. Särnå; A. Kjellin; T. Wredmark; L. Felländer-Tsai

2006-01-01

360

Enhancing self-belief with EMDR: developing a sense of mastery in the early phase of treatment.  

PubMed

Deep inside each of us is a seed that holds our vision of truth, peace, and happiness. Our early childhood attachments, societal influences, and innate capacity determine how well that seed is nurtured and the deepest inner vision is set free. This article is about the ways that vision becomes clouded by attachment deficits, trauma, and subsequent symptoms. The deep inner wish to heal allows for transformation, and approaches like Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing, and hypnotherapy can assist in creating a more rapid acceleration of trauma resolution and transformation of self. PMID:11824218

Shapiro, S

2001-01-01

361

Surgical Management of Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection, which causes acute coronary syndrome and can result in sudden death, is rare; but its true incidence is underestimated, since most patients die suddenly, without diagnosis. The aim of this study was to show the importance of prompt diagnosis and treatment. In reviewing the records of 5,000 consecutive patients who underwent coronary angiography between January 2001 and August 2006, we found 6 cases of spontaneous coronary artery dissection (an incidence rate of 0.12%). Five patients presented with left main coronary artery dissection and 1 patient, with right coronary artery dissection. Angioplasty with stenting failed in the patient with right coronary artery dissection. Coronary artery bypass surgery was performed in all patients. The patient with right coronary artery dissection died of sepsis on the 30th postoperative day. The other 5 patients (83.3%) are still free of symptoms, and they had negative results on stress tests at the 6- and 12-month follow-up visits after coronary artery bypass surgery. The clinical presentation of spontaneous left main coronary artery dissection was similar to that of atherosclerotic disease. However, early diagnosis of spontaneous coronary artery dissection by means of coronary angiography is of paramount importance, because urgent coronary artery bypass grafting can be lifesaving.

Unal, Mehmet; Korkut, Ali Kubilay; Kosem, Mesut; Ertunc, Vedat; Ozcan, Mustafa; Caglar, Nizamettin

2008-01-01

362

Surgical management of spontaneous coronary artery dissection.  

PubMed

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection, which causes acute coronary syndrome and can result in sudden death, is rare; but its true incidence is underestimated, since most patients die suddenly, without diagnosis. The aim of this study was to show the importance of prompt diagnosis and treatment. In reviewing the records of 5,000 consecutive patients who underwent coronary angiography between January 2001 and August 2006, we found 6 cases of spontaneous coronary artery dissection (an incidence rate of 0.12%). Five patients presented with left main coronary artery dissection and 1 patient, with right coronary artery dissection. Angioplasty with stenting failed in the patient with right coronary artery dissection. Coronary artery bypass surgery was performed in all patients. The patient with right coronary artery dissection died of sepsis on the 30th postoperative day. The other 5 patients (83.3%) are still free of symptoms, and they had negative results on stress tests at the 6- and 12-month follow-up visits after coronary artery bypass surgery. The clinical presentation of spontaneous left main coronary artery dissection was similar to that of atherosclerotic disease. However, early diagnosis of spontaneous coronary artery dissection by means of coronary angiography is of paramount importance, because urgent coronary artery bypass grafting can be lifesaving. PMID:19156232

Unal, Mehmet; Korkut, Ali Kubilay; Kosem, Mesut; Ertunc, Vedat; Ozcan, Mustafa; Caglar, Nizamettin

2008-01-01

363

[Acute basilar artery thrombosis].  

PubMed

Acute basilar artery thrombosis (ABT) has been largely considered a neurological catastrophe. With conventional treatment, only around 20% of patients achieve functional independence. An early presumptive diagnosis is essential to avoid treatment delay. Either multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography angiography source images may represent valid non-invasive tools to confirm ABT and evaluate ischemic tissue viability. The main determinant of ABT outcome is early recanalization but the most effective therapeutic option remains to be clarified. The BASICS prospective registry showed no superiority of intra-arterial over intravenous thrombolysis. Therefore, in the absence of contraindications, intravenous thrombolysis should be started as soon as possible and can be used as the main therapy when interventional procedures are not available. However, recent case series have reported high rates of functional independence (50%) after staged escalation therapy (ultra-early intravenous thrombolysis followed by on-demand endovascular mechanical thrombectomy). These results represent a hope for patients and neurologists and reinforce the need for innovation and research in this field. PMID:21129593

Arenillas Lara, J F

2010-10-01

364

Trial participants' experiences of early enhanced speech and language therapy after stroke compared with employed visitor support: a qualitative study nested within a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To explore trial participants’ experiences of the process and outcomes of early, enhanced speech and language therapy after stroke with support from an employed visitor. Design: Qualitative study nested within a randomized controlled trial. Participants: Twney-two people who, after stroke, had a diagnosis of aphasia (12), dysarthria (5) or both (5) and who participated in the ACT NoW study. Setting: Eight English NHS usual care settings. Method: Individual interviews. Thematic content analysis assisted by a bespoke data transformation protocol for incorporating non-verbal and semantically ambiguous data. Results: Participants highly regarded regular and sustained contact with someone outside of immediate family/friends who engaged them in deliberate activities/communication in the early months after stroke. Participants identified differences in the process of intervention between speech and language therapists and employed visitors. But no major discriminations were made between the impact or value of this contact according to whether provided by a speech and language therapist or employed visitor. Participant-defined criteria for effectiveness of contact included: impact on mood and confidence, self-recognition of progress and the meeting of individual needs. Conclusions: As in the randomized controlled trial, participants reported no evidence of added benefit of early communication therapy beyond that from attention control. The findings do not imply that regular contact with any non-professional can have beneficial effects for someone with aphasia or dysarthria in the early weeks following a stroke. The study points to specific conditions that would have to be met for contact to have a positive effect.

Gomersall, Timothy; Bowen, Audrey

2013-01-01

365

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in abdominal trauma.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence supports a role for contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the assessment of blunt abdominal trauma. Accurate definition of organ injury can be demonstrated, as well as extension to solid organ capsule and even vascular injury. Low-dose contrast is needed for renal imaging, to avoid obscuration of deeper structures from intense cortical enhancement. The liver should be evaluated in the arterial phase for active bleeding and in the late phase for lacerations. The spleen is best assessed in the delayed phase, thereby limiting misinterpretation of early heterogeneous contrast uptake. Typical sonographic features of traumatic injuries of the solid abdominal organs are described. Although contrast-enhanced computed tomography is the gold standard modality for imaging abdominal organ traumatic injury, contrast-enhanced ultrasound has developed a role in the emergency setting, particularly in low-energy injuries and in follow-up of traumatic injuries. PMID:21934507

Afaq, Asim; Harvey, Chris; Aldin, Zaid; Leen, Edward; Cosgrove, David

2012-06-01

366

Extracellular Methemoglobin Mediated Early ROS Spike Triggers Osmotic Fragility and RBC Destruction: An Insight into the Enhanced Hemolysis During Malaria.  

PubMed

Malaria infection is known to cause severe hemolysis due to production of abnormal RBCs and enhanced RBC destruction through apoptosis. Infected RBC lysis exposes uninfected RBC to the large amount of pro-oxidant molecules such as methemoglobin. Methemoglobin (MetHb) exposure dose dependently makes RBCs susceptible to osmotic stress and causes hemolysis. MetHb mediated oxidative stress in RBC correlated well with osmotic fragility and hemolysis. Interestingly, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) spike at 15 min was responsible for the observed effects on RBC cells. Two natural antioxidants N-acetyl cysteine and mannitol protected the RBC from MetHb-mediated defects, which clearly indicated involvement of oxidative stress in the process. MetHb due to its pseudo-peroxidase activity produces ROS in the external microenvironment. Therefore, classical peroxidase inhibitors were tested to probe peroxidase activity mediated ROS production with defects in RBCs. Clotrimazole (CLT), which irreversibly inactivates the MetHb (CLT-MetHb) and abolishes peroxidase activity, did not produce significant ROS outside RBC and was inefficient to cause osmotic fragility and hemolysis. Hence, initiating a chain reaction, MetHb released from ruptured RBC produces significant ROS in the external microenvironment to make RBC membrane leaky and enhanced hemolysis. Together data presented in the current work explored the role of MetHb in accelerated humorless during malaria which could be responsible for severe outcomes of pathological disorders. PMID:23543627

Balaji, S N; Trivedi, Vishal

2011-11-08

367

Targeted Deletion of FGL2 Leads to Increased Early Viral Replication and Enhanced Adaptive Immunity in a Murine Model of Acute Viral Hepatitis Caused by LCMV WE  

PubMed Central

Mounting effective innate and adaptive immune responses are critical for viral clearance and the generation of long lasting immunity. It is known that production of inhibitory factors may result in the inability of the host to clear viruses, resulting in chronic viral persistence. Fibrinogen-like protein 2 (FGL2) has been identified as a novel effector molecule of CD4+CD25+ Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells that inhibits immune activity by binding to FC?RIIB expressed primarily on antigen presenting cells (APC). In this study, we show that infection of mice with Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus WE (LCMV WE) leads to increased plasma levels of FGL2, which were detected as early as 2 days post-infection (pi) and persisted until day 50 pi. Mice deficient in FGL2 (fgl2?/?) had increased viral titers of LCMV WE in the liver early p.i but cleared the virus by day 12 similar to wild type mice. Dendritic cells (DC) isolated from the spleens of LCMV WE infected fgl2?/? had increased expression of the DC maturation markers CD80 and MHC Class II compared to wild type (fgl2+/+). Frequencies of CD8+ and CD4+ T cells producing IFN? in response to ex vivo peptide re-stimulation isolated from the spleen and lymph nodes were also increased in LCMV WE infected fgl2 ?/? mice. Increased frequencies of CD8+ T cells specific for LCMV tetramers GP33 and NP396 were detected within the liver of fgl2?/? mice. Plasma from fgl2?/? mice contained higher titers of total and neutralizing anti-LCMV antibody. Enhanced anti-viral immunity in fgl2?/? mice was associated with increased levels of serum alanine transaminase (ALT), hepatic necrosis and inflammation following LCMV WE infection. These data demonstrate that targeting FGL2 leads to early increased viral replication but enhanced anti-viral adaptive T & B cell responses. Targeting FGL2 may enhance the efficacy of current anti-viral therapies for hepatotropic viruses.

Khattar, Ramzi; Luft, Olga; Yavorska, Nataliya; Shalev, Itay; Phillips, M. James; Adeyi, Oyedele; Gao, Darrin; Bartczak, Agata; Urbanellis, Peter; Shyu, Wendy; Zhang, Jianhua; Manuel, Justin; Levy, Gary A.; Selzner, Nazia

2013-01-01

368

In vivo evaluation of retinal and callosal projections in early postnatal development and plasticity using manganese-enhanced MRI and diffusion tensor imaging.  

PubMed

The rodents are an excellent model for understanding the development and plasticity of the visual system. In this study, we explored the feasibility of Mn-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 7 T for in vivo and longitudinal assessments of the retinal and callosal pathways in normal neonatal rodent brains and after early postnatal visual impairments. Along the retinal pathways, unilateral intravitreal Mn2+ injection resulted in Mn2+ uptake and transport in normal neonatal visual brains at postnatal days (P) 1, 5 and 10 with faster Mn2+ clearance than the adult brains at P60. The reorganization of retinocollicular projections was also detected by significant Mn2+ enhancement by 2%-10% in the ipsilateral superior colliculus (SC) of normal neonatal rats, normal adult mice and adult rats after neonatal monocular enucleation (ME) but not in normal adult rats or adult rats after monocular deprivation (MD). DTI showed a significantly higher fractional anisotropy (FA) by 21% in the optic nerve projected from the remaining eye of ME rats compared to normal rats at 6 weeks old, likely as a result of the retention of axons from the ipsilaterally uncrossed retinal ganglion cells, whereas the anterior and posterior retinal pathways projected from the enucleated or deprived eyes possessed lower FA after neonatal binocular enucleation (BE), ME and MD by 22%-56%, 18%-46% and 11%-15% respectively compared to normal rats, indicative of neurodegeneration or immaturity of white matter tracts. Along the visual callosal pathways, intracortical Mn2+ injection to the visual cortex of BE rats enhanced a larger projection volume by about 74% in the V1/V2 transition zone of the contralateral hemisphere compared to normal rats, without apparent DTI parametric changes in the splenium of corpus callosum. This suggested an adaptive change in interhemispheric connections and spatial specificity in the visual cortex upon early blindness. The results of this study may help determine the mechanisms of axonal uptake and transport, microstructural reorganization and functional activities in the living visual brains during development, diseases, plasticity and early interventions in a global and longitudinal setting. PMID:21985904

Chan, Kevin C; Cheng, Joe S; Fan, Shujuan; Zhou, Iris Y; Yang, Jian; Wu, Ed X

2011-10-01

369

Embryos of robertsonian translocation carriers exhibit a mitotic interchromosomal effect that enhances genetic instability during early development.  

PubMed

Balanced chromosomal rearrangements represent one of the most common forms of genetic abnormality affecting approximately 1 in every 500 (0.2%) individuals. Difficulties processing the abnormal chromosomes during meiosis lead to an elevated risk of chromosomally abnormal gametes, resulting in high rates of miscarriage and/or children with congenital abnormalities. It has also been suggested that the presence of chromosome rearrangements may also cause an increase in aneuploidy affecting structurally normal chromosomes, due to disruption of chromosome alignment on the spindle or disturbance of other factors related to meiotic chromosome segregation. The existence of such a phenomenon (an inter-chromosomal effect--ICE) remains controversial, with different studies presenting contradictory data. The current investigation aimed to demonstrate conclusively whether an ICE truly exists. For this purpose a comprehensive chromosome screening technique, optimized for analysis of minute amounts of tissue, was applied to a unique collection of samples consisting of 283 oocytes and early embryos derived from 44 patients carrying chromosome rearrangements. A further 5,078 oocytes and embryos, derived from chromosomally normal individuals of identical age, provided a robust control group for comparative analysis. A highly significant (P?=?0.0002) increase in the rate of malsegregation affecting structurally normal chromosomes was observed in association with Robertsonian translocations. Surprisingly, the ICE was clearly detected in early embryos from female carriers, but not in oocytes, indicating the possibility of mitotic rather than the previously suggested meiotic origin. These findings have implications for our understanding of genetic stability during preimplantation development and are of clinical relevance for patients carrying a Robertsonian translocation. The results are also pertinent to other situations when cellular mechanisms for maintaining genetic fidelity are relaxed and chromosome rearrangements are present (e.g. in tumors displaying chromosomal instability). PMID:23133396

Alfarawati, Samer; Fragouli, Elpida; Colls, Pere; Wells, Dagan

2012-10-25

370

Embryos of Robertsonian Translocation Carriers Exhibit a Mitotic Interchromosomal Effect That Enhances Genetic Instability during Early Development  

PubMed Central

Balanced chromosomal rearrangements represent one of the most common forms of genetic abnormality affecting approximately 1 in every 500 (0.2%) individuals. Difficulties processing the abnormal chromosomes during meiosis lead to an elevated risk of chromosomally abnormal gametes, resulting in high rates of miscarriage and/or children with congenital abnormalities. It has also been suggested that the presence of chromosome rearrangements may also cause an increase in aneuploidy affecting structurally normal chromosomes, due to disruption of chromosome alignment on the spindle or disturbance of other factors related to meiotic chromosome segregation. The existence of such a phenomenon (an inter-chromosomal effect—ICE) remains controversial, with different studies presenting contradictory data. The current investigation aimed to demonstrate conclusively whether an ICE truly exists. For this purpose a comprehensive chromosome screening technique, optimized for analysis of minute amounts of tissue, was applied to a unique collection of samples consisting of 283 oocytes and early embryos derived from 44 patients carrying chromosome rearrangements. A further 5,078 oocytes and embryos, derived from chromosomally normal individuals of identical age, provided a robust control group for comparative analysis. A highly significant (P?=?0.0002) increase in the rate of malsegregation affecting structurally normal chromosomes was observed in association with Robertsonian translocations. Surprisingly, the ICE was clearly detected in early embryos from female carriers, but not in oocytes, indicating the possibility of mitotic rather than the previously suggested meiotic origin. These findings have implications for our understanding of genetic stability during preimplantation development and are of clinical relevance for patients carrying a Robertsonian translocation. The results are also pertinent to other situations when cellular mechanisms for maintaining genetic fidelity are relaxed and chromosome rearrangements are present (e.g. in tumors displaying chromosomal instability).

Alfarawati, Samer; Fragouli, Elpida; Colls, Pere; Wells, Dagan

2012-01-01

371

Extracranial-intracranial arterial bypass for treatment of occlusion of the internal carotid artery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracranial-intracranial arterial bypass was frequently utilized in the 1970s and early 1980s to treat patients with atherosclerotic\\u000a occlusive carotid arterial lesions not amenable to extracranial arterial revascularization procedures. After a large randomized\\u000a trial reported in 1985 that there was no benefit of surgery in these patients, the procedure was generally abandoned as a\\u000a treatment for symptomatic atherosclerotic cerebrovascular disease. In

Robert L. Grubb

2004-01-01

372

MRI-based Selection for Intra-arterial Stroke Therapy: Value of Pre-treatment DWI Lesion Volume in Selecting Acute Stroke Patients Who Will Benefit from Early Recanalization  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Recent studies demonstrate that an acute diffusion weighted imaging(DWI) lesion volume >70cm3 predicts poor outcome in stroke patients. We sought to determine if this threshold could identify patients treated with intra-arterial therapy(IAT) who would do poorly despite reperfusion. In patients with initial infarcts <70cm3, we sought to determine what effect recanalization and time to recanalization had on infarct growth and functional outcome. Methods We retrospectively studied 34 consecutive anterior circulation stroke patients who underwent pre-treatment DWI and perfusion weighted imaging(PWI) and subsequent IAT. Recanalization success and time to recanalization were recorded. Initial DWI and MTT lesion and final infarct volumes were determined. Patients were stratified based on initial infarct volume, recanalization status and time to recanalization. Statistical tests were performed to assess differences in clinical and imaging outcomes. Good clinical outcome was defined as a 3-month mRS?2. Results Among patients with initial infarcts >70cm3, all had poor outcomes despite a 50% recanalization rate, with mean infarct growth of 114cm3. These patients also had the largest MTT volumes(p<0.04). Patients with initial infarct volumes <70cm3 who recanalized early had the best clinical outcomes(p<0.008) with a 64% rate of mRS?2 and the least infarct growth(p<0.03), with mean growth of 18cm3. Conclusion This study supports the use of an acute DWI lesion volume threshold as an imaging selection criterion for IAT. It also confirms the importance of early reperfusion in selected patients.

Yoo, Albert J.; Verduzco, Luis A.; Schaefer, Pamela W.; Hirsch, Joshua A.; Rabinov, James D.; Gonzalez, R. Gilberto

2009-01-01

373

Enhanced oscillatory activity in the hippocampal-prefrontal network is related to short-term memory function after early-life seizures  

PubMed Central

Neurological insults during development are associated with later impairments in learning and memory. Although remedial training can help restore cognitive function, the neural mechanisms of this recovery in memory systems are largely unknown. To examine this issue we measured electrophysiological oscillatory activity in the hippocampus (both CA3 and CA1) and prefrontal cortex of adult rats that had experienced repeated seizures in the first weeks of life, while they were remedially trained on a delayed-nonmatch-to-sample memory task. Seizure-exposed rats showed initial difficulties learning the task but performed similar to control rats after extra training. Whole-session analyses illustrated enhanced theta power in all three structures while seizure rats learned response tasks prior to the memory task. Whilst performing the memory task, dynamic oscillation patterns revealed that prefrontal cortex theta power was increased among seizure-exposed rats. This enhancement appeared after the first memory training steps using short delays and plateaued at the most difficult steps which included both short and long delays. Further, seizure rats showed enhanced CA1-prefrontal theta coherence in correct trials compared to incorrect trials when long delays were imposed, suggesting increased hippocampal-prefrontal synchrony for the task in this group when memory demand was high. Seizure-exposed rats also showed heightened gamma power and coherence among all three structures during the trials. Our results demonstrate the first evidence of hippocampal-prefrontal enhancements following seizures in early development. Dynamic compensatory changes in this network and interconnected circuits may underpin cognitive rehabilitation following other neurological insults to higher cognitive systems.

Kleen, Jonathan K.; Wu, Edie X.; Holmes, Gregory L.; Scott, Rod C.; Lenck-Santini, Pierre-Pascal

2011-01-01

374

Enhanced oscillatory activity in the hippocampal-prefrontal network is related to short-term memory function after early-life seizures.  

PubMed

Neurological insults during development are associated with later impairments in learning and memory. Although remedial training can help restore cognitive function, the neural mechanisms of this recovery in memory systems are largely unknown. To examine this issue, we measured electrophysiological oscillatory activity in the hippocampus (both CA3 and CA1) and prefrontal cortex of adult rats that had experienced repeated seizures in the first weeks of life, while they were remedially trained on a delayed-nonmatch-to-sample memory task. Seizure-exposed rats showed initial difficulties learning the task but performed similarly to control rats after extra training. Whole-session analyses illustrated enhanced theta power in all three structures while seizure rats learned response tasks before the memory task. While performing the memory task, dynamic oscillation patterns revealed that prefrontal cortex theta power was increased among seizure-exposed rats. This enhancement appeared after the first memory-training steps using short delays and plateaued at the most difficult steps, which included both short and long delays. Further, seizure rats showed enhanced CA1-prefrontal cortex theta coherence in correct trials compared with incorrect trials when long delays were imposed, suggesting increased hippocampal-prefrontal cortex synchrony for the task in this group when memory demand was high. Seizure-exposed rats also showed heightened gamma power and coherence among all three structures during the trials. Our results demonstrate the first evidence of hippocampal-prefrontal enhancements following seizures in early development. Dynamic compensatory changes in this network and interconnected circuits may underpin cognitive rehabilitation following other neurological insults to higher cognitive systems. PMID:22031886

Kleen, Jonathan K; Wu, Edie X; Holmes, Gregory L; Scott, Rod C; Lenck-Santini, Pierre-Pascal

2011-10-26

375

Late Spontaneous Recanalization of Chronic Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion  

PubMed Central

Early spontaneous recanalization of the middle cerebral artery in acute ischemic phase artery is not uncommon, whereas the late spontaneous recanalization of chronic occluded artery is a very rare phenomenon and exact incidence and the timing of this event have not been quantified. We present a case in which late spontaneous recanalization of long-lasting middle cerebral artery occlusion occurred in the absence of surgical, endovascular and thrombolytic treatments.

Ryu, Chang-Woo; Koh, Jun-Seok; Kim, Gook Ki

2012-01-01

376

Effect of Enalapril on Endothelial Function in Young Insulin-Dependent Diabetic Patients: A Randomized, Double-Blind Study 1 1 This study was supported by a grant from Merck Sharp and Dohme Ltd., Hertfordshire, England, United Kingdom. Ms. Donald is supported by a grant from the Coronary Artery Disease Research Foundation (CORDA), London, England, United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We sought to determine whether 6 months of treatment with the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor enalapril can improve conduit artery endothelial function in young subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM).Background. Endothelial dysfunction is an early event in atherogenesis and has been demonstrated in young subjects with IDDM. ACE inhibitors have been shown to enhance conduit artery endothelial function in

Michael J Mullen; Peter Clarkson; Ann E Donald; Hyeyoung Thomson; Sara A Thorne; Amanda J Powe; Takashi Furuno; Teresa Bull; John E Deanfield

1998-01-01

377

Nanomolar ouabain increases NCX1 expression and enhances Ca2+ signaling in human arterial myocytes: a mechanism that links salt to increased vascular resistance?  

PubMed

The mechanisms by which NaCl raises blood pressure (BP) in hypertension are unresolved, but much evidence indicates that endogenous ouabain is involved. In rodents, arterial smooth muscle cell (ASMC) Na(+) pumps with an ?(2)-catalytic subunit (ouabain EC(50) ?1.0 nM) are crucial for some hypertension models, even though ?80% of ASMC Na(+) pumps have an ?(1)-subunit (ouabain EC(50) ? 5 ?M). Human ?(1)-Na(+) pumps, however, have high ouabain affinity (EC(50) ? 10-20 nM). We used immunoblotting, immunocytochemistry, and Ca(2+) imaging (fura-2) to examine the expression, distribution, and function of Na(+) pump ?-subunit isoforms in human arteries and primary cultured human ASMCs (hASMCs). hASMCs express ?(1)- and ?(2)-Na(+) pumps. Further, ?(2)-, but not ?(1)-, pumps are confined to plasma membrane microdomains adjacent to sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), where they colocalize with Na/Ca exchanger-1 (NCX1) and C-type transient receptor potential-6 (receptor-operated channels, ROCs). Prolonged inhibition (72 h) with 100 nM ouabain (blocks nearly all ?(1)- and ?(2)-pumps) was toxic to most cultured hASMCs. Treatment with 10 nM ouabain (72 h), however, increased NCX1 and sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase expression and augmented ATP (10 ?M)-induced SR Ca(2+) release in 0 Ca(2+), ouabain-free media, and Ca(2+) influx after external Ca(2+) restoration. The latter was likely mediated primarily by ROCs and store-operated Ca(2+) channels. These hASMC protein expression and Ca(2+) signaling changes are comparable with previous observations on myocytes isolated from arteries of many rat hypertension models. We conclude that the same structurally and functionally coupled mechanisms (?(2)-Na(+) pumps, NCX1, ROCs, and the SR) regulate Ca(2+) homeostasis and signaling in hASMCs and rodent ASMCs. These ouabain/endogenous ouabain-modulated mechanisms underlie the whole body autoregulation associated with increased vascular resistance and elevation of BP in human, salt-sensitive hypertension. PMID:22842068

Linde, Cristina I; Antos, Laura K; Golovina, Vera A; Blaustein, Mordecai P

2012-07-27

378

Nanomolar ouabain increases NCX1 expression and enhances Ca2+ signaling in human arterial myocytes: a mechanism that links salt to increased vascular resistance?  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms by which NaCl raises blood pressure (BP) in hypertension are unresolved, but much evidence indicates that endogenous ouabain is involved. In rodents, arterial smooth muscle cell (ASMC) Na+ pumps with an ?2-catalytic subunit (ouabain EC50 ?1.0 nM) are crucial for some hypertension models, even though ?80% of ASMC Na+ pumps have an ?1-subunit (ouabain EC50 ? 5 ?M). Human ?1-Na+ pumps, however, have high ouabain affinity (EC50 ? 10–20 nM). We used immunoblotting, immunocytochemistry, and Ca2+ imaging (fura-2) to examine the expression, distribution, and function of Na+ pump ?-subunit isoforms in human arteries and primary cultured human ASMCs (hASMCs). hASMCs express ?1- and ?2-Na+ pumps. Further, ?2-, but not ?1-, pumps are confined to plasma membrane microdomains adjacent to sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), where they colocalize with Na/Ca exchanger-1 (NCX1) and C-type transient receptor potential-6 (receptor-operated channels, ROCs). Prolonged inhibition (72 h) with 100 nM ouabain (blocks nearly all ?1- and ?2-pumps) was toxic to most cultured hASMCs. Treatment with 10 nM ouabain (72 h), however, increased NCX1 and sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase expression and augmented ATP (10 ?M)-induced SR Ca2+ release in 0 Ca2+, ouabain-free media, and Ca2+ influx after external Ca2+ restoration. The latter was likely mediated primarily by ROCs and store-operated Ca2+ channels. These hASMC protein expression and Ca2+ signaling changes are comparable with previous observations on myocytes isolated from arteries of many rat hypertension models. We conclude that the same structurally and functionally coupled mechanisms (?2-Na+ pumps, NCX1, ROCs, and the SR) regulate Ca2+ homeostasis and signaling in hASMCs and rodent ASMCs. These ouabain/endogenous ouabain-modulated mechanisms underlie the whole body autoregulation associated with increased vascular resistance and elevation of BP in human, salt-sensitive hypertension.

Linde, Cristina I.; Antos, Laura K.; Golovina, Vera A.

2012-01-01

379

Bilateral renal artery dissection following extreme exertion.  

PubMed

Dissection of a renal artery is rare and is usually associated with underlying arterial disease. Bilateral renal artery dissection following extreme exertion is exceptionally uncommon, and thus presents a diagnostic challenge. We report a case of a middle-aged, otherwise healthy man who presented to the hospital with left flank pain after a long bicycling trip. Initial laboratory tests and urinalysis were normal. Careful review of a contrast-enhanced computed tomography angiogram (CTA) with 3D reconstruction revealed bilateral segmental renal artery dissection and thrombosis with corresponding renal infarcts. He was treated medically and rapidly recovered. PMID:21955870

Baroudi, S; Bastani, B; Balci, N; Bieneman, B K; Sobti, P; Kudva, G C

2011-10-01

380

Monolateral type I proatlantal artery with bilateral absence of vertebral arteries: description of a case and review of the literature.  

PubMed

We report a case of a patient with right type I proatlantal intersegmental artery associated with right fetal posterior cerebral artery and absence of both vertebral arteries and of the left posterior communicating artery. We also describe the clinical relevance of these findings for this patient. A 56-year-old woman with vertigo and tinnitus underwent contrast enhanced Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) of the supra-aortic arteries using a 1.5 Tesla scanner. Maximum intensity projection and volume rendering reconstructions were obtained. MRA demonstrated the persistence of an anastomotic artery between the right internal carotid artery and basilar artery, passing through the foramen magnum, suggesting a type I proatlantal intersegmental artery. The examination also showed the absence of both vertebral arteries and the presence of a right fetal-type posterior cerebral artery. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a type I proatlantal intersegmental artery associated with an omolateral fetal-type posterior cerebral artery and the absence of both vertebral arteries and of the left posterior communicating artery. This condition requires a watchful monitoring of the patient and has to be considered in case of surgical procedures of the carotid arteries. PMID:23468000

Montechiari, M; Iadanza, A; Falini, A; Politi, L S

2013-03-07

381

The Mineral Content of the Arterial Wall of Infants and its Relation to Arterial Calcinosis in Childhood (Der Mineralgehalt der Kindlichen Arterienwand und Seine Beziehung zur Kindlichen Arterienkalzinose).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Calcifications of the inner elastic membrane are the earliest occurring changes in human arteries, and detectable even in infancy. The pathogenesis of this early form of arterial calcinosis is not explained. It possibly is concerned with a phenomenon simi...

G. Brandt K. B. Kortmann

1973-01-01

382

Arterial Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a High blood pressure (BP) is a very important cardiovascular (CV) risk factor and is often labeled the “silent killer” because\\u000a arterial hypertension will lead to serious CV events such as ischemic heart disease, stroke, and heart failure. Moreover,\\u000a uncontrolled essential hypertension also leads to renal insufficiency, which accelerates the process of blood pressure elevation\\u000a (1, 2). There is a shift

Daniel A. Duprez

383

Coronary arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Coronary angiography (CA) is presently considered the gold standard for the assessment of the coronary arteries. However,\\u000a the presence of ionizing radiation, its invasiveness and the small associated risk of morbidity prompted long ago the development\\u000a of more patient-friendly imaging modalities. A promising technique, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), has been regarded as\\u000a the major modality in the coming decade.