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1

Radial artery in CABG: could the early results be comparable to internal mammary artery graft?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The accidental detection of patency of radial artery grafts, by Acar, which had been labeled as blocked 18 years earlier, has led to its revival as a conduit in coronary artery bypass surgery. We used radial artery as one of the grafts in 287 patients from February 1996 to June 1998. Here we present our early clinical experience and

Anil Bhan; Vivek Gupta; Shiv Kumar Choudhary; Rajesh Sharma; Balbir Singh; Rajiv Aggarwal; Balram Bhargava; Ashutosh V Sharma; Panangipalli Venugopal

1999-01-01

2

Enhancing the Early Student Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is concerned with identifying how the early student experience can be enhanced in order to improve levels of student retention and achievement. The early student experience is the focus of this project as the literature has consistently declared the first year to be the most critical in shaping persistence decisions. Programme managers…

Trotter, Eileen; Roberts, Carole A.

2006-01-01

3

Contrast-enhanced detection of arterial bleeding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility and usefulness of contrast agent to detect internal bleeding. In a model of acute femoral artery injury, bleeding sites were produced percutaneously in 9 rabbits, using an 18 G needle guided by Doppler and B-mode ultrasound. Imaging was performed pre- and post-injury and after i.v. injection of contrast agent (Optison) using B-mode, Color Doppler (CD), and Pulse Inversion. Gross and histological examination (light microscopy) of the injured blood vessel and the surrounding tissue were performed. Experiments with similar procedure were achieved in a pulsatile phantom with carotid arteries as targeted blood vessels in vitro. Bleeding sites could not be located in non-contrast B-mode sonography. After administration of contrast agent, injuries could be detected by the increased echogenicity of the extravasated blood flow. The resulted hematoma appeared as inhomogeneous hyper-echo region. Color mosaic patterns were observed in the surrounding tissue with CD. Cluster of cavities were found within hematoma upon microscopy, which may be due to aggregated microbubbles. Bleeding sites were recognized in all contrast studies by CD; compared with only 11% in non-contrast control. Contrast-enhanced sonography is a promising tool in detection and evaluation of internal bleeding.

Luo, Wenbo; Zderic, Vesna; Starr, Frank; Paun, Marla; Vaezy, Shahram

2005-04-01

4

Ultrasound enhancement of rabbit femoral artery thrombolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential of low-intensity, externally applied ultrasound to accelerate arterial thrombolysis in an animal model and to characterize potential effects of ultrasound exposure on vessel wall morphology. The femoral arteries of 32 rabbits were exposed, a flowprobe was positioned around the vessel, and a stenosis produced with two circumferential silk sutures to reduce flow by

P. N. Riggs; C. W. Francis; S. R. Bartos; D. P. Penney

1997-01-01

5

Microcalcifications in early intimal lesions of atherosclerotic human coronary arteries.  

PubMed

Although calcium (Ca) precipitation may play a pathogenic role in atherosclerosis, information on temporal patterns of microcalcifications in human coronary arteries, their relation to expression of calcification-regulating proteins, and colocalization with iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) is scarce. Human coronary arteries were analyzed post mortem with a proton microprobe for element concentrations and stained (immuno)histochemically for morphological and calcification-regulating proteins. Microcalcifications were occasionally observed in preatheroma type I atherosclerotic intimal lesions. Their abundance increased in type II, III, and IV lesions. Moreover, their appearance preceded increased expression of calcification-regulating proteins, such as osteocalcin and bone morphogenetic protein-2. In contrast, their presence coincided with increased expression of uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein (MGP), whereas the content of carboxylated MGP was increased in type III and IV lesions, indicating delayed posttranslational conversion of biologically inactive into active MGP. Ca/phosphorus ratios of the microcalcifications varied from 1.6 to 3.0, including amorphous Ca phosphates. Approximately 75% of microcalcifications colocalized with the accumulation of Fe and Zn. We conclude that Ca microprecipitation occurs in the early stages of atherosclerosis, inferring a pathogenic role in the sequel of events, resulting in overt atherosclerotic lesions. Microcalcifications may be caused by local events triggering the precipitation of Ca rather than by increased expression of calcification-regulating proteins. The high degree of colocalization with Fe and Zn suggests a mutual relationship between these trace elements and early deposition of Ca salts. PMID:21531376

Roijers, Ruben B; Debernardi, Nicola; Cleutjens, Jack P M; Schurgers, Leon J; Mutsaers, Peter H A; van der Vusse, Ger J

2011-06-01

6

CT Arterial Portography: Causes of Technical Failure and Variable Liver Enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. We studied the causes of technical failure and enhancement variability encountered during CT arterial portography. MATERIALS AND METHODS. CT arterial portograms and digital artenograms were obtained via the superior mesenteric artery before partial liver resection in 43 patients with malignant tumors. These studies were reviewed for causes of technical failure and variable enhancement. RESULTS. Eleven (26%) of 43 procedures

Erik K. Paulson; Mark E. Baker; David J. Hilleren; William P. Jones; Mark H. Knelson; Scott N. NadeF; Richard A. Leder; William C. Meyers

7

Effects of Enhanced External Counterpulsation on Carotid Circulation in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) is a noninvasive method previously shown to improve measures of myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease. However, the concomitant effects of EECP on large and small arterial properties have been poorly examined. In a randomized controlled study, we investigated whether arterial stiffness and resistance of the carotid circulation are altered by EECP. Methods:

Jaime Levenson; Alain Simon; Jean L. Megnien; Gilles Chironi; Jerome Gariepy; Marie G. Pernollet; Damian Craiem; Marie C. Iliou

2007-01-01

8

Gadolinium Enhanced MR-angiography Results in Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease: Positive Predictive Value Compared to Surgery  

PubMed Central

Background: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) represents systematic atherosclerosis of great vessels. PAD affects approximately 10-20 % of patients older than 60 years and is associated with high mortality and morbidity rate debilitating individuals’ life. Objectives: To compare the results of Gadolinium enhanced MR-Angiography and surgery in patients suspected to have peripheral arterial disease. Materials and Methods: In this prospective cohort study, 30 consecutive patients matching the inclusion criteria were enrolled and MR-Angiography was performed prior to surgery for each one. Results: 22 patients were male (73.3%) and the mean age was 60.3 ± 10.6 years in our study group. The most common artery for cut off and run off was superior femoral artery in both assessments. Proximal section of each artery was the most common anatomical section for cut off and run off. There was a same report of cut off artery by MR-Angiography and surgery (kappa coefficient of agreement was 0.96, P value < 0.001) and positive predictive value was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.83-0.99). Conclusions: According to our findings MR-angiography is an appropriate alternative imaging modality for patients suspected to have peripheral arterial disease and it facilitates the early diagnosis proposed by the clinical findings. Also beneficial characteristics of this method such as low exposure to ionizing radiation, repeatability, and low risk of contrast agent-induced nephropathy make it a modality of choice in patients with renal impairment.

Mirsharifi, Seyed Rasool; Noparast, Morteza; Khazravi, Mona; Ghanaati, Hossein; Shakiba, Majid; Sharifi, Amirsina

2014-01-01

9

Enhanced neointimal hyperplasia and carotid artery remodelling in sequestosome 1 deficient mice  

PubMed Central

Abstract Deficiency in the signal adaptor protein sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1/A170/p62) in mice is associated with mature-onset obesity, accompanied by insulin and leptin resistance. We previously established that redox sensitive transcription factor Nrf2 up-regulates SQSTM1 expression in response to atherogenic stimuli or laminar shear stress in vascular cells, and here examine the role of SQSTM1 in neointimal hyperplasia and vascular remodelling in vivo following carotid artery ligation. Neointimal hyperplasia was markedly enhanced at ligation sites after 3 weeks in SQSTM1–/– compared with wild-type (WT) mice. The intimal area and stenotic ratio were, respectively, 2.1- and 1.7-fold higher in SQSTM1?/– mice, indicating enhanced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). When aortic SMCs were isolated from WT and SQSTM1?/– mice and cultured in vitro, we found that SQSTM1–/– SMCs proliferated more rapidly in response to foetal calf serum (FCS) and attained 2–3-fold higher cell densities compared to WT SMCs. Moreover, migration of SQSTM1–/– SMCs was enhanced compared to WT SMCs. Early and late phases of p38MAPK activation in response to FCS stimulation were also more enhanced in SQSTM1–/– SMCs, and inhibitors of p38 and ERK1/2 signalling pathways significantly attenuated SMC proliferation. In summary, SQSTM1–/– mice exhibit enhanced neointimal hyperplasia and vascular remodelling following arterial ligation in vivo. The enhanced proliferation of SQSTM1–/– aortic SMCs in vitro highlights a novel role for SQSTM1 in suppressing smooth muscle proliferation following vascular injury. PMID:19780870

Sugimoto, Rika; Warabi, Eiji; Katayanagi, Satoru; Sakai, Satoshi; Uwayama, Junya; Yanagawa, Toru; Watanabe, Ayaka; Harada, Harumi; Kitamura, Kiyoshi; Noguchi, Noriko; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Siow, Richard CM; Mann, Giovanni E; Ishii, Tetsuro

2010-01-01

10

Differentiation of early hepatocellular carcinoma from benign hepatocellular nodules on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI  

PubMed Central

Objective To test new diagnostic criteria for the discrimination of early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from benign hepatocellular nodules on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI (Gd-EOB-MRI). Methods We retrospectively analysed 34 patients with 29 surgically diagnosed early HCCs and 31 surgically diagnosed benign hepatocellular nodules. Two radiologists reviewed Gd-EOB-MRI, including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and the signal intensity at each sequence, presence of arterial enhancement and washout were recorded. We composed new diagnostic criteria based on the lesion size and MRI findings, and then the diagnostic performance was compared with that of conventional imaging criteria with logistic regression and a generalised estimating equation method. Results A size cut-off value (?1.5 cm diameter) and MRI findings of T1 hypointensity, T2 hyperintensity, DWI hyperintensity on both low and high b-value images (b=50 and 800 s mm?2, respectively), arterial enhancement, late washout and hepatobiliary hypointensity were selected as the diagnostic criteria. When lesions were considered malignant if they satisfied three or more of the above criteria, the sensitivity was significantly higher than when making a diagnosis based on arterial enhancement and washout alone (58.6% vs 13.8%, respectively; p=0.0002), while the specificity was 100.0% for both criteria. Conclusion Our new diagnostic criteria on Gd-EOB-MRI may help to improve the discrimination of early HCC from benign hepatocellular nodules. PMID:22553295

Rhee, H; Kim, M-J; Park, M-S; Kim, K A

2012-01-01

11

Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Use of Delayed Contrast-Enhanced Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance in Risk Assessment  

PubMed Central

Background Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a severe and progressive disease. Its early diagnosis is the greatest clinical challenge. Objective To evaluate the presence and extension of the delayed myocardial contrast-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance, as well as to verify if the percentage of the myocardial fibrosis mass is a severity predictor. Methods Cross-sectional study with 30 patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension of groups I and IV, subjected to clinical, functional and hemodynamic evaluation, and to cardiac magnetic resonance. Results The mean age of patients was 52 years old, with female predominance (77%). Among the patients, 53% had right ventricular failure at diagnosis, and 90% were in functional class II/III. The mean of the 6-minute walk test was 395m. In hemodynamic study with right catheterism, the mean average pulmonary arterial pressure was 53.3mmHg, of the cardiac index of 2.1L/ min.m2, and median right atrial pressure was 13.5 mmHg. Delayed myocardial contrast enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance was found in 28 patients. The mean fibrosis mass was 9.9 g and the median percentage of fibrosis mass was 6.17%. The presence of functional class IV, right ventricular failure at diagnosis, 6-minute walk test < 300 meters and right atrial pressure ? 15 mmHg, with cardiac index < 2.0 L/ min.m2, there was a relevant association with the increased percentage of myocardial fibrosis. Conclusion The percentage of the myocardial fibrosis mass indicates a non-invasive marker with promising perspectives in identifying patients with high risk factors for pulmonary hypertension. PMID:23979779

Bessa, Luiz Gustavo Pignataro; Junqueira, Flávia Pegado; Bandeira, Marcelo Luiz da Silva; Garcia, Marcelo Iorio; Xavier, Sérgio Salles; Lavall, Guilherme; Torres, Diego; Waetge, Daniel

2013-01-01

12

Signal and image processing for early detection of coronary artery diseases: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today biomedical signals and image based detection are a basic step to diagnose heart diseases, in particular, coronary artery diseases. The goal of this work is to provide non-invasive early detection of Coronary Artery Diseases relying on analyzing images and ECG signals as a combined approach to extract features, further classify and quantify the severity of DCAD by using B-splines method. In an aim of creating a prototype of screening biomedical imaging for coronary arteries to help cardiologists to decide the kind of treatment needed to reduce or control the risk of heart attack.

Mobssite, Youness; Samir, B. Belhaouari; Mohamad Hani, Ahmed Fadzil B.

2012-09-01

13

Gadolinium-Enhanced 3D MR Angiography of Renal Artery Stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale and ObjectivesThe authors compared diagnostic accuracy of maximum intensity projection (MIP), multiplanar reformatting (MPR), and three-dimensional (3D) volume rendering (VR) in the evaluation of gadolinium-enhanced 3D magnetic resonance (MR) angiography of the renal arteries. They hypothesized that VR is as accurate as or more accurate than MIP and MPR at depicting renal artery stenosis.

Visveshwar Baskaran; F. Scott Pereles; Albert A Nemcek; James C Carr; Frank H Miller; John Ly; Elizabeth Krupinski; J. Paul Finn

2002-01-01

14

Renal artery stenosis: value of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renal artery stenosis is the most common cause of potentially curable secondary hypertension. For a long time, angiography has been considered the “gold standard” in screening for renal arterial occlusive disease, but it is expensive and invasive. Magnetic resonance angiography and spiral computed tomography are safer alternatives to angiography but are expensive and not widely available. Due to the fact

A. Drelich-Zbroja; T. Jargiello; G. Drelich; H. Lewandowska-Stanek; M. Szczerbo-Trojanowska

2004-01-01

15

Minimally Invasive Single-Vessel Coronary Artery Bypass With the Internal Thoracic Artery and Early Postoperative Angiography: Midterm Results of a Prospective Study in 120 Consecutive Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. This prospective study was undertaken to determine the role of the minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass with early postoperative angiog- raphy and midterm follow-up in 120 consecutive patients with single-vessel coronary artery disease. Methods. Minimal access (6 to 10 cm), without com- plete sternotomy and no cardiopulmonary bypass, was used. The lesions were located at the proximal left

Sergio A. Oliveira; Luiz Augusto; F. Lisboa; Luõ ´ s; Alberto O. Dallan; Salomon O. Rojas; Luiz F. Poli de Figueiredo

2010-01-01

16

Surface Roughness Detection of Arteries via Texture Analysis of Ultrasound Images for Early Diagnosis of Atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

There is a strong research interest in identifying the surface roughness of the carotid arterial inner wall via texture analysis for early diagnosis of atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study is to assess the efficacy of texture analysis methods for identifying arterial roughness in the early stage of atherosclerosis. Ultrasound images of common carotid arteries of 15 normal mice fed a normal diet and 28 apoE?/? mice fed a high-fat diet were recorded by a high-frequency ultrasound system (Vevo 2100, frequency: 40 MHz). Six different texture feature sets were extracted based on the following methods: first-order statistics, fractal dimension texture analysis, spatial gray level dependence matrix, gray level difference statistics, the neighborhood gray tone difference matrix, and the statistical feature matrix. Statistical analysis indicates that 11 of 19 texture features can be used to distinguish between normal and abnormal groups (p<0.05). When the 11 optimal features were used as inputs to a support vector machine classifier, we achieved over 89% accuracy, 87% sensitivity and 93% specificity. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity for the k-nearest neighbor classifier were 73%, 75% and 70%, respectively. The results show that it is feasible to identify arterial surface roughness based on texture features extracted from ultrasound images of the carotid arterial wall. This method is shown to be useful for early detection and diagnosis of atherosclerosis. PMID:24146940

Niu, Lili; Qian, Ming; Yang, Wei; Meng, Long; Xiao, Yang; Wong, Kelvin K. L.; Abbott, Derek; Liu, Xin; Zheng, Hairong

2013-01-01

17

Normal Postprandial Lipemia and Chylomicron Clearance in Offspring of Parents with Early Coronary Artery Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the importance of postprandial lipemia and delayed chy- lomicron clearance as early atherogenic risk factors, 60 male offspring of parents with early coronary artery disease (CAD) and 41 controls were administered a fat-rich meal containing vitamin A. There were no significant differences between CAD-positive (CAD1) offspring and CAD-negative controls for areas under the postprandial curves for triglyceride and

ARNOLD H. SLYPER; SVETLANA ZVEREVA; GORDON SCHECTMAN; RAYMOND G. HOFFMANN; JOAN PLEUSS; JOHN A. WALKER

2010-01-01

18

Early and midterm clinical outcome in patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction undergoing coronary artery surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPatients presenting with severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction undergoing coronary artery surgery are at increased risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality. The present study investigated early and midterm outcomes in a consecutive series of patients with severe LV dysfunction undergoing coronary surgery at our institution.

Raimondo Ascione; Pradeep Narayan; Chris A Rogers; Kelvin H. H Lim; Radek Capoun; Gianni D Angelini

2003-01-01

19

Is carotid artery intima-media thickening a reliable marker of early atherosclerosis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely believed that carotid artery intima-media thickening represents an early marker for the development of atheroma. It has been shown to be related to the all of the commonly accepted risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including left ventricular hypertrophy. However, carotid intima-media thickening might also be expected to occur in response to an increased tensile wall stress; if

J. Mayet; P. Patel; M. Starmans-Kool; N. Chapman; A. D. Hughes; SAMc G. Thom; A. V. Stanton

2000-01-01

20

Is Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickening a Reliable Marker of Early Atherosclerosis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background It is widely believed that carotid artery intimamedia thickening represents an early marker for the development of atheroma. However, carotid intima-media thickening might also be expected to occur in response to an increased tensile stress and decreased wall shear stress which may accompany physical exercise.Design, methods, and results In order to test this hypothesis 24 athletes (professional footballers) were

Jamil Mayet; Alice V. Stanton; Neil Chapman; Rodney A Foale; Alun D. Hughes; Simon A MG Thom

2002-01-01

21

Elimination of cardiopulmonary bypass improves early survival for multivessel coronary artery bypass patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery performed without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is currently increasing in clinical practice. Decreased morbidity associated with off-pump (OP) CABG in selected risk groups examined in relatively small, single institution groups has been the focus of most recent studies. The purpose of this study was to determine the independent impact of CPB on early survival

Mitchell J. Magee; Kathleen A. Jablonski; Sotiris C. Stamou; Albert J. Pfister; Todd M. Dewey; Mercedes K. C. Dullum; James R. Edgerton; Syma L. Prince; Tea E. Acuff; Paul J. Corso; Michael J. Mack

2002-01-01

22

Effect of Early and Delayed Recanalization on Infarct Pattern in Proximal Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To investigate the effect of early (<6 h) versus delayed (>6 h) recanalization on infarct pattern in acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. Methods: 35 patients with acute MCA occlusion (M1 segment; symptom onset <6 h) were analyzed. Stroke MRI was performed immediately after admission (day 0), and on days 1 and 7. In addition, vessel status was assessed

Marek Humpich; Oliver C. Singer; Richard du Mesnil de Rochemont; Christian Foerch; Heiner Lanfermann; Tobias Neumann-Haefelin

2006-01-01

23

128-Slice dual source coronary CTA: defining optimal arterial enhancement levels.  

PubMed

This study aims to correlate coronary artery enhancement levels with quality of vessel visualization and calcified plaque visualization using a 128-slice dual-source CT (DSCT) scanner. Coronary CT angiography exams from 52 patients, mean age of 55 years (range, 22-90) and mean weight of 184 lbs (range, 120-320 lbs), were reviewed retrospectively. Contrast infusion rates ranged from 4.5 to 7 mL/s (mean, 5.8 mL/s). Postcontrast density of the largest calcified plaque and postcontrast density of the left main (LM) and right coronary arteries (RCA) were recorded. Enhancement quality was graded as 1=suboptimal, 2=adequate for diagnosis, and 3=excellent. Pre- and postcontrast acquisitions were compared for calcified plaque conspicuity. The largest calcified plaque density was a mean of 862 HU (range, 376 to 1,384 HU) on the postcontrast scan. The mean LM and RCA coronary artery enhancement levels for studies of excellent enhancement quality (N=43) were 468 and 457 HU, respectively, higher than mean enhancement levels of 320 and 322 HU for adequate enhancement quality (N=8) (p<0.0001 and 0.009). One study was graded as a nondiagnostic enhancement quality. Twenty-five subjects had calcified plaque, 3/8 with adequate and 22/43 with excellent enhancement quality. At least one calcified plaque measuring <2 mm was isodense to contrast enhancement on axial images in 5/25; all five were in the highest enhancement quality group. High coronary artery enhancement quality using 128-DSCT is associated with mean proximal coronary artery enhancement levels over 400 HU. High levels of enhancement may obscure small, calcified plaques. PMID:24700078

Malayeri, Ashkan A; Zimmerman, Stefan L; Lake, Spencer T; Fishman, Elliot K; Johnson, Pamela T

2014-10-01

24

Mathematical Difficulty: Does Early Intervention Enhance Mathematical Performance?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need to ask educators about their opinions on the subject to what extent early intervention methods enhance mathematical performance is long overdue. The purpose of this quantitative research is to examine the extent to which teachers agree that early intervention methods enhance the mathematical performance of students with mathematical…

Graham, Jennifer

2008-01-01

25

Exercise training enhances multiple mechanisms of relaxation in coronary arteries from ischemic hearts  

PubMed Central

Exercise training of coronary artery disease patients is of considerable interest, since it has been shown to improve vascular function and, thereby, enhance blood flow into compromised myocardial regions. However, the mechanisms underlying exercise-induced improvements in vascular function have not been fully elucidated. We tested the hypothesis that exercise training increases the contribution of multiple mediators to endothelium-dependent relaxation of coronary arteries in the underlying setting of chronic coronary artery occlusion. To induce gradual occlusion, an ameroid constrictor was placed around the proximal left circumflex coronary artery in Yucatan miniature swine. At 8 wk postoperatively, pigs were randomly assigned to sedentary or exercise (treadmill, 5 days/wk) regimens for 14 wk. Exercise training significantly enhanced the contribution of nitric oxide, prostanoids, and large-conductance Ca2+-dependent K+ (BKCa) channels to endothelium-dependent, bradykinin-mediated relaxation in nonoccluded and collateral-dependent arteries. Combined nitric oxide synthase, prostanoid, and BKCa channel inhibition ablated the enhanced relaxation associated with exercise training. Exercise training significantly increased nitric oxide levels in response to bradykinin in endothelial cells isolated from nonoccluded and collateral-dependent arteries. Bradykinin treatment significantly increased PGI2 levels in all artery treatment groups and tended to be further enhanced after nitric oxide synthase inhibition in exercise-trained pigs. No differences were found in whole cell BKCa channel currents, BKCa channel protein levels, or arterial cyclic nucleotide levels. Although redundant, upregulation of parallel vasodilator pathways appears to contribute to enhanced endothelium-dependent relaxation, potentially providing a more refined control of blood flow after exercise training. PMID:23997097

Deer, Rachel R.

2013-01-01

26

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance assessment of ventricular function and myocardial scarring before and early after repair of anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery  

PubMed Central

Background In patients with anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) left ventricular (LV) dilatation and dysfunction evolves due to diminished myocardial perfusion caused by coronary steal phenomenon. Using late gadolinium enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance (LGE-CMR) imaging, myocardial scarring has been shown in ALCAPA patients late after repair, however the incidence of scarring before surgery and its impact on postoperative course after surgical repair remained unknown. Methods 8 ALCAPA-patients (mean age 10.0?±?5.8 months) underwent CMR before and early after (mean 4.9?±?2.5 months) coronary reimplantation procedures. CMR included functional analysis and LGE for detection of myocardial scars. Results LV dilatation (mean LVEDVI 171?±?94 ml/m2) and dysfunction (mean LV-EF 22?±?10 %) was present in all patients and improved significantly after surgery (mean LVEDV 68?±?42 ml/m2, p?=?0.02; mean LV-EF 58?±?19 %, p?artery and required resurgery. Conclusions Despite diminished myocardial perfusion and severely compromised LV function, myocardial scarring was preoperatively only infrequently present. Improvement of myocardial function was independent of new-onset scarring while the impact of preoperative scarring still needs to be defined. PMID:24387660

2014-01-01

27

Doppler Ultrasound Detection of Preclinical Changes in Foot Arteries in Early Stage of Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Summary Background There are few reports regarding the changes within the vessels in the initial stage of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to estimate the hemodynamic and morphological parameters in foot arteries in type 2 diabetes subjects and to compare these parameters to those obtained in a control group of healthy volunteers. Material/Methods Ultrasound B-mode, color Doppler and pulse wave Doppler imaging of foot arteries was conducted in 37 diabetic patients and 36 non-diabetic subjects to determine their morphological (total vascular diameter and flow lumen diameter) and functional parameters (spectral analysis). Results In diabetic patients, the overall vascular diameter and wall thickness were statistically significantly larger when compared to the control group in the right dorsalis pedis artery (P=0.01; P=0.001), left dorsalis pedis artery (P=0.007; P=0.006), right posterior tibial artery (P=0.005; P=0.0005), and left posterior tibial artery (P=0.007; P=0.0002). No significant differences were observed in both groups in flow lumen diameters and blood flow parameters (PSV, EDV, PI, RI). In the diabetic group, the level of HbA1c positively correlated with flow resistance index in the right dorsalis pedis artery (r=0.38; P=0.02), right posterior tibial artery (r=0.38; P=0.02) and left posterior tibial artery (r=0.42; P=0.009). The pulsatility index within the dorsalis pedis artery decreased with increased trophic skin changes (r=–0.431, P=0.009). Conclusions In the diabetic group, overall artery diameters larger than and flow lumina comparable to the control group suggest vessel wall thickening occurring in the early stage of diabetes. Doppler flow parameters are comparable in both groups. In the diabetic group, the level of HbA1c positively correlated with flow resistance index and negative correlation was observed between the intensity of trophic skin changes and the pulsatility index. PMID:25202434

Leoniuk, Jolanta; ?ukasiewicz, Adam; Szorc, Ma?gorzata; Sackiewicz, Izabela; Janica, Jacek; ?ebkowska, Urszula

2014-01-01

28

Prediction of early and late preeclampsia by flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery*  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the accuracy in the prediction of both early and late preeclampsia by flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery (FMD), a biophysical marker for endothelial dysfunction. Materials and Methods A total of 91 patients, considered at high risk for development of preeclampsia were submitted to brachial artery FMD between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation. Results Nineteen out of the selected patients developed preeclampsia, 8 in its early form and 11 in the late form. With a cut-off value of 6.5%, the FMD sensitivity for early preeclampsia prediction was 75.0%, with specificity of 73.3%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 32.4% and negative predictive value (NPV) of 91.9%. For the prediction of late preeclampsia, sensitivity = 83.3%, specificity = 73.2%, PPV = 34.4% and NPV = 96.2% were observed. And for the prediction of all associated forms of preeclampsia, sensitivity = 84.2%, specificity = 73.6%, PPV = 45.7% and NPV = 94.6% were observed. Conclusion FMD of the brachial artery is a test with good accuracy in the prediction of both early and late preeclampsia, which may represent a positive impact on the follow-up of pregnant women at high risk for developing this syndrome. PMID:25741086

Brandão, Augusto Henriques Fulgêncio; Evangelista, Aline Aarão; Martins, Raphaela Menin Franco; Leite, Henrique Vítor; Cabral, Antônio Carlos Vieira

2014-01-01

29

Lipoprotein lipase enhances the interaction of low density lipoproteins with artery-derived extracellular matrix proteoglycans.  

PubMed

The association of plasma low density lipoproteins (LDL) with arterial proteoglycans (PG) is of key importance in LDL retention and modification in the artery wall. Lipoprotein lipase (LpL), the rate-limiting enzyme for hydrolysis of lipoprotein triglyceride, is known to bind both LDL and arterial PG. In the presence of LpL, cellular internalization and degradation of LDL is enhanced by a pathway initiated by interaction of LDL with a cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan. To determine whether LpL enhances the binding of LDL to arterial chondroitin sulfate (CS)PG and dermatan sulfate (DS)PG, the major extracellular PG of the artery wall, a microtiter plate assay was used to study LpL-PG-LDL interactions. Binding of LDL to both CSPG and DSPG was increased in the presence of LpL but differential effects were seen for the two PG. LpL enhanced the binding of LDL to CSPG a maximum of 20% and to DSPG a maximum of 40%. Heparin displacement of PG binding suggested a greater binding strength for DSPG-LpL-LDL with 0.25 micrograms heparin required to displace 50% of DSPG compared to 0.01 micrograms to displace 50% of CSPG. The greater enhancement of DSPG-LDL interaction by LpL is of particular interest since increases in DSPG correlate with the accumulation of aortic cholesterol. These data suggest that lipoprotein lipase may enhance the interaction of plasma low density lipoprotein with arterial chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan and dermatan sulfate proteoglycan and thus facilitate low density lipoprotein retention in the artery wall. PMID:8371063

Edwards, I J; Goldberg, I J; Parks, J S; Xu, H; Wagner, W D

1993-07-01

30

Minimally invasive single-vessel coronary artery bypass with the internal thoracic artery and early postoperative angiography: midterm results of a prospective study in 120 consecutive patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. This prospective study was undertaken to determine the role of the minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass with early postoperative angiography and midterm follow-up in 120 consecutive patients with single-vessel coronary artery disease.Methods. Minimal access (6 to 10 cm), without complete sternotomy and no cardiopulmonary bypass, was used. The lesions were located at the proximal left anterior descending coronary

Sérgio A Oliveira; Luiz Augusto F Lisboa; Lu??s Alberto O Dallan; Salomon O Rojas; Luiz F Poli de Figueiredo

2002-01-01

31

Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Subarachnoid Haemorrhage and Vasospasm Enhances Endothelin Contraction in Rat Cerebral Arteries  

PubMed Central

Introduction Previous studies have suggested that cerebrospinal fluid from patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) leads to pronounced vasoconstriction in isolated arteries. We hypothesized that only cerebrospinal fluid from SAH patients with vasospasm would produce an enhanced contractile response to endothelin-1 in rat cerebral arteries, involving both endothelin ETA and ETB receptors. Methods Intact rat basilar arteries were incubated for 24 hours with cerebrospinal fluid from 1) SAH patients with vasospasm, 2) SAH patients without vasospasm, and 3) control patients. Arterial segments with and without endothelium were mounted in myographs and concentration-response curves for endothelin-1 were constructed in the absence and presence of selective and combined ETA and ETB receptor antagonists. Endothelin concentrations in culture medium and receptor expression were measured. Results Compared to the other groups, the following was observed in arteries exposed to cerebrospinal fluid from patients with vasospasm: 1) larger contractions at lower endothelin concentrations (p<0.05); 2) the increased endothelin contraction was absent in arteries without endothelium; 3) higher levels of endothelin secretion in the culture medium (p<0.05); 4) there was expression of ETA receptors and new expression of ETB receptors was apparent; 5) reduction in the enhanced response to endothelin after ETB blockade in the low range and after ETA blockade in the high range of endothelin concentrations; 6) after combined ETA and ETB blockade a complete inhibition of endothelin contraction was observed. Conclusions Our experimental findings showed that in intact rat basilar arteries exposed to cerebrospinal fluid from patients with vasospasm endothelin contraction was enhanced in an endothelium-dependent manner and was blocked by combined ETA and ETB receptor antagonism. Therefore we suggest that combined blockade of both receptors may play a role in counteracting vasospasm in patients with SAH. PMID:25629621

Assenzio, Barbara; Martin, Erica L.; Stankevicius, Edgaras; Civiletti, Federica; Fontanella, Marco; Boccaletti, Riccardo; Berardino, Maurizio; Mazzeo, AnnaTeresa; Ducati, Alessandro; Simonsen, Ulf; Mascia, Luciana

2015-01-01

32

Enhanced endoscopic detection of early colon cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enhanced endoscopic detection of small flat adenomas is becoming increasingly important as they have a reported 14 percent incidence of dysplasia when compared with 5 percent incidence in polypod adenomas of the same size. These lesions even when invasive do not show up against the translucent surrounding mucosa making endoscopic detection difficult. Dye spraying with indigo carmine makes their morphology

Gowra Balachandar; Eugene A. Trowers

1999-01-01

33

Early changes in venous arterial autografts: a scanning electron microscope study.  

PubMed

The use of autogenous vein as an arterial substitute has been advocated for many years. Methods of harvesting generally cause spasm of the vein and it has been shown that preventing the spasm by applying papaverine improves long-term patency. The present study was undertaken to see if the reported long-term patency of such grafts was associated with improved short-term appearance of the venous endothelium as viewed with the scanning electron microscope. Two groups of dogs were studied; those sacrificed at 3 hours and those at 24 hours after replacing excised segments of the carotid and femoral arteries with cephalic veins. One of the veins was removed in the standard manner allowing spasm followed by distension back to its pre-spasm state; in the other, spasm was prevented by the topical application of papaverine before removal. The study shows that venous endothelial integrity is preserved by the use of papaverine and this improved appearance of the endothelium persists for the first 24 hours after insertion into an arterial milieu. But the study also demonstrated that there was extensive activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes associated with the endothelium in the early hours after arterialization and that they appeared to have a deleterious effect on the endothelium. PMID:6825005

Shand, J E; Richardson, M; Belbeck, L W; Julian, J; Gunstensen, J

1983-03-01

34

Music listening enhances cognitive recovery and mood after middle cerebral artery stroke  

E-print Network

Music listening enhances cognitive recovery and mood after middle cerebral artery stroke Teppo Sa whether everyday music listening can facilitate the recovery of cognitive functions and mood after stroke (baseline), 3 months, and 6 months after the stroke. Fifty-four patients completed the study. Results showed

35

Impact of admission triglyceride for early outcome in diabetic patients with stable coronary artery disease  

PubMed Central

Background The role of triglyceride (TG) in predicting the outcomes in diabetic patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) has not been well investigated. Methods A total of 329 cases with stable angina pectoris (SAP) were prospectively enrolled and followed up for an average of 12 months. They were classified into the two groups according to the cut-off values of predicting early outcome of fasting TG level (low group <1.2 mmol/L, n?=?103; High group ?1.2 mmol/L, n?=?226). The relationship between the TG levels and early outcomes were evaluated. Results High TG group showed severer lipid profile and elevated inflammatory markers. During an average of 12-month follow-up, 47 out of 329 patients suffered from pre-specified outcomes. Area under the receivers operating characteristic curve suggested that TG, similar to serum Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), was a significant predictor of early outcome for diabetic patients with SAP (P?=?0.002). In Cox regression models, after adjusted age, gender, body mass index, other lipid parameters, fasting blood glucose, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, neutrophil count and HbA1C, TG remained as an independent predictor of adverse prognosis. Conclusions High level of fasting TG (?1.2 mmol/L) was an independent predictor for early outcome of diabetic patients with SAP as like as HBA1c and number of affected coronary arteries in the era of revascularization and statin therapeutics. PMID:24766776

2014-01-01

36

Insulin enhances the gain of arterial baroreflex control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity in humans  

PubMed Central

Recent animal studies indicate that insulin increases arterial baroreflex control of lumbar sympathetic nerve activity; however, the extent to which these findings can be extrapolated to humans is unknown. To begin to address this, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and arterial blood pressure were measured in 19 healthy subjects (27 ± 1 years) before, and for 120 min following, two common methodologies used to evoke sustained increases in plasma insulin: a mixed meal and a hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp. Weighted linear regression analysis between MSNA and diastolic blood pressure was used to determine the gain (i.e. sensitivity) of arterial baroreflex control of MSNA. Plasma insulin was significantly elevated within 30 min following meal intake (?34 ± 6 uIU ml?1; P < 0.05) and remained above baseline for up to 120 min. Similarly, after meal intake, arterial baroreflex-MSNA gain for burst incidence and total MSNA was increased and remained elevated for the duration of the protocol (e.g. burst incidence gain: ?3.29 ± 0.54 baseline vs.?5.64 ± 0.67 bursts (100 heart beats)?1 mmHg?1 at 120 min; P < 0.05). During the hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp, in which insulin was elevated to postprandial concentrations (?42 ± 6 ?IU ml?1; P < 0.05), while glucose was maintained constant, arterial baroreflex-MSNA gain was similarly enhanced (e.g. burst incidence gain: ?2.44 ± 0.29 baseline vs.?4.74 ± 0.71 bursts (100 heart beats)?1 mmHg?1 at 120 min; P < 0.05). Importantly, during time control experiments, with sustained fasting insulin concentrations, the arterial baroreflex-MSNA gain remained unchanged. These findings demonstrate, for the first time in healthy humans, that increases in plasma insulin enhance the gain of arterial baroreflex control of MSNA. PMID:20643774

Young, Colin N; Deo, Shekhar H; Chaudhary, Kunal; Thyfault, John P; Fadel, Paul J

2010-01-01

37

Early and late healing responses of normal canine artery to excimer laser irradiation.  

PubMed

Acute in vitro histologic studies have shown that the pulsed xenon chloride excimer laser causes precise microablation without the surrounding thermal tissue injury associated with frequently used continuous-wave lasers such as the argon, carbon dioxide, and neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet lasers. However, the in vivo healing response of artery wall to excimer laser injury is not known. Accordingly, a xenon chloride excimer laser (308 nm, 40 nsec pulse width, 39 mJ/mm2/pulse) was transmitted via a 600 micron fused silica fiber to create 420 craters of varying depths (30 to 270 micron) in 21 normal canine femoral and carotid arteries. At 2 hours, 2 days, 10 days, and 42 days after excimer laser ablation, the artery segments were perfusion fixed in situ and analyzed by light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. At 2 hours, craters were covered by a carpet of platelets and entrapped red blood cells. Fibrin and exposed collagen fibers were seen at the crater base. There was a sharp demarcation of the crater-artery wall interface without lateral laser tissue injury. At 2 days, adherent platelets persisted with thrombus covering the base of the craters. Early healing responses were present, consisting of polymorphonucleated leukocytes and new endothelial cells, which extended over the crater rims. At 10 days, no thrombi were seen, and healing continued with almost complete reendothelialization. Macrophages, fibroblasts, fibrin, and entrapped red blood cells were present below the reendothelialized surface. At 42 days, healing was complete with obliteration of the craters by fibrointimal ingrowth. The surface was completely covered by a smooth monolayer of axially aligned endothelial cells. There were no aneurysms or surface hyperplastic responses. These favorable healing responses in normal canine arteries suggest that pulsed lasers with high tissue absorption coefficients, such as the xenon chloride excimer laser, may be suitable energy sources for clinical laser angioplasty procedures. However, further studies in atherosclerotic animals are required before human clinical responses can be accurately predicted. PMID:3386289

Prevosti, L G; Leon, M B; Smith, P D; Dodd, J T; Bonner, R F; Robinowitz, M; Clark, R E; Virmani, R

1988-07-01

38

Ultrasound-enhanced drug delivery in a perfused ex vivo artery model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acoustically driven stable cavitation may improve treatments of diseases in which passive penetration of drug into the target tissue is poor. Examples include atherosclerosis, in which the endothelium can prevent penetration of therapeutics into the plaque, and ischemic stroke, in which pathologically low flow of blood impedes the delivery of intravenous drugs to the clot. Understanding the way in which ultrasound cavitation agents nucleate cavitation in flowing blood-mimicking solutions is an important step in optimizing ultrasound-enhanced drug delivery. The use of a perfused, living ex vivo artery model permitted study of this phenomenon while still providing information on arterial bioeffects. Cavitation-enhanced delivery of anti-ICAM-1-targeted echogenic liposomes into and beyond the ex vivo murine aortic endothelium was demonstrated using 1-MHz continuous wave ultrasound. Acoustic cavitation had no apparent effect on the health of the murine arterial tissue. A method of maximizing the energy of stable cavitation through the use of intermittent 120-kHz ultrasound with quiescent periods to allow contrast agent inflow was developed. Using this insonificaiton method, sonothrombolysis was studied in ex vivo porcine carotid arteries using a 120-kHz center frequency and 0.44 MPa peak-to-peak pressure amplitude. Clot mass loss was used as a metric of thrombolytic efficacy. Clots exposed to recombinant tissue plasminogen activator and the ultrasound contrast agent, DefinityRTM in flowing porcine plasma without ultrasound experienced 34% mass loss. When robust stable cavitation was induced via 120-kHz insonation, the mean clot mass loss rose to 83%, which constituted a significant improvement (n = 6, p<0.0001). Without DefinityRTM there was no thrombolytic enhancement by ultrasound exposure alone at the same insonation pressure (n = 6, p<0.0001). Significant loss of endothelium occurred in 64% of the porcine carotid arteries, possibly due to poor oxygen delivery by the low flow of plasma. However, no correlation was observed between arterial tissue damage and treatment type. In this perfused ex vivo artery model, acoustic stable cavitation was shown to enhance both the delivery of endothelium-targeted therapeutics into the arterial wall and the lysis of whole blood clots in the presence of rt-PA.

Hitchcock, Kathryn E.

39

Use of arterial to equilibrium enhancement washout to predict viability in liver cancers treated with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liver cancers are very common in Korea and Computed Tomography (CT) imaging is commonly used to diagnose them. This study improves the diagnosis of liver cancer by using a novel parametric image combining various phases of dynamic CT imaging. The objective of this study is to investigate the diagnostic value of arterial to equilibrium enhancement washout (AEEW) obtained by image registration and dynamic subtraction in predicting tumor viability in a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). Forty patients who had forty-seven iodized-oil defect areas (IODAs) in HCCs treated with TACE were included. These patients were divided into two groups, one group with viable tumors (n = 27) and the other group with non-viable tumors (n = 20) in the IODAs. All the patients underwent triple-phase CT before and after TACE. The attenuation differences of the IODAs between the arterial and the equilibrium phases were measured and compared between two groups. Quantitative AEEW color maps of the whole liver were created from the triple-phase CT image by using prototype research software. Two radiologists independently analyzed following two sets of image: one with standard tri-phase CT images and the other with tri-phase CT images and quantitative AEEW color map images. The diagnostic performances in terms of mean sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for identifying viable or non-viable tumors by using quantitative AEEW color map images in addition to tri-phase CT was larger than the performance obtained using tri-phase CT only. In conclusion, quantitative AEEW color map images improve the diagnostic performances of multiphasic CT for determining the viability of the IODA in a HCC treated with TACE.

Choi, Seung Joon; Kim, Hyung Sik; Kim, Jeong Ho; Choi, Hye Young; Park, Hyunjin

2013-04-01

40

Enhanced endoscopic detection of early colon cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enhanced endoscopic detection of small flat adenomas is becoming increasingly important as they have a reported 14 percent incidence of dysplasia when compared with 5% incidence in polypod adenomas of the same size. These lesions even when invasive do not show up against the translucent surrounding mucosa making endoscopic detection difficult. Dye spraying with indigo carmine makes their morphology clear, with well-circumscribed borders. Dye spraying and magnifying endoscopes can be used to observe pit patterns on the surface of the bowel. Combining dye spraying and high-resolution video endoscopy demonstrates well the colorectal epithelial surface. Scanning immersion video endoscopy visualizes the epithelial surface of the colorectal mucosa by high-resolution endoscopy after filling the lumen with water. Endoscopic ultrasound can be used to see if the lesion is intramucosal or not and assess the depth of invasion if malignancy is presented. Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy has the potential to detect colonic dysplasia in vivo. Combining such technologies with conventional colonoscopy can help in the surveillance of large areas of colonic mucosa for the presence of dysplasia. Guided biopsy can replace random biopsy based on information provided at the time of colonoscopic examination.

Balachandar, Gowra; Trowers, Eugene A.

1999-06-01

41

Enhanced neutrophil expression of annexin-1 in coronary artery disease.  

PubMed

The systemic inflammatory activity in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) is associated with a dysregulated cortisol response. Moreover, an aberrant activation status of neutrophils in CAD has been discussed; and the question of glucocorticoid resistance has been raised. The anti-inflammatory actions of glucocorticoids are mediated by annexin-1 (ANXA1). We investigated the expression of glucocorticoid receptors (GR) and ANXA1, as well as the exogenous effects of ANXA1 on neutrophils in CAD patients and related the data to diurnal salivary cortisol. Salivary cortisol levels were measured in the morning and evening during 3 consecutive days in 30 CAD patients and 30 healthy individuals. The neutrophil expression of GR and ANXA1 was determined by flow cytometry. The effect of exogenous ANXA1 was determined in a neutrophil stimulation assay. The patients showed a flattened diurnal cortisol pattern compared with healthy subjects, involving higher levels in the evening. The neutrophil expression of GR-total and GR-alpha was decreased, whereas the GR-beta expression did not differ compared with controls. The neutrophil expression of ANXA1 was significantly increased in patients. Ex vivo, ANXA1 impaired the leukotriene B(4)-induced neutrophil production of reactive oxygen species in patients but not in controls. Our findings indicate a persistent overactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in CAD patients but do not give any evidence for glucocorticoid resistance, as assessed by the neutrophil expression of GR and ANXA1. The altered neutrophil phenotype in CAD may thus represent a long-term response to disease-related activation. PMID:19850308

Särndahl, Eva; Bergström, Ida; Nijm, Johnny; Forslund, Tony; Perretti, Mauro; Jonasson, Lena

2010-03-01

42

A Novel Vascular Homing Peptide Strategy to Selectively Enhance Pulmonary Drug Efficacy in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension  

PubMed Central

A major limitation in the pharmacological treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is the lack of pulmonary vascular selectivity. Recent studies have identified a tissue-penetrating homing peptide, CARSKNKDC (CAR), which specifically homes to hypertensive pulmonary arteries but not to normal pulmonary vessels or other tissues. Some tissue-penetrating vascular homing peptides have a unique ability to facilitate transport of co-administered drugs into the targeted cells/tissues without requiring physical conjugation of the drug to the peptide (bystander effect). We tested the hypothesis that co-administered CAR would selectively enhance the pulmonary vascular effects of i.v. vasodilators in Sugen5416/hypoxia/normoxia-exposed PAH rats. Systemically administered CAR was predominantly detected in cells of remodeled pulmonary arteries. Intravenously co-administered CAR enhanced pulmonary, but not systemic, effects of the vasodilators, fasudil and imatinib, in PAH rats. CAR increased lung tissue imatinib concentration in isolated PAH lungs without increasing pulmonary vascular permeability. Sublingual CAR was also effective in selectively enhancing the pulmonary vasodilation by imatinib and sildenafil. Our results suggest a new paradigm in the treatment of PAH, using an i.v./sublingual tissue-penetrating homing peptide to selectively augment pulmonary vascular effects of nonselective drugs without the potentially problematic conjugation process. CAR may be particularly useful as an add-on therapy to selectively enhance the pulmonary vascular efficacy of any ongoing drug treatment in patients with PAH. PMID:24401613

Toba, Michie; Alzoubi, Abdallah; O’Neill, Kealan; Abe, Kohtaro; Urakami, Takeo; Komatsu, Masanobu; Alvarez, Diego; Järvinen, Tero A.H.; Mann, David; Ruoslahti, Erkki; McMurtry, Ivan F.; Oka, Masahiko

2015-01-01

43

Early arterial stasis during resin-based yttrium-90 radioembolization: incidence and preliminary outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study was conducted to determine the incidence of early stasis in radioembolization using resin yttrium-90 (Y-90) microspheres, to evaluate potential contributing factors, and to review initial imaging outcomes. Methods Patients in whom early stasis occurred were compared with those in whom complete delivery was achieved for tumour type and vascularity, tumour?:?normal liver ratio (T?:?N ratio) at technetium-99m-macroaggregated albumin (Tc-99m-MAA) angiography, previous intra-arterial therapy, and infusion site (left, right or whole liver). Tumour response was evaluated at 3 months and defined according to whether a partial response and stable disease versus progressive disease were demonstrated. Results A total of 71 patients underwent 128 Y-90 infusions in which 26 (20.3%) stasis events occurred. Hypervascular and hypovascular tumours had similar rates of stasis (17.4% versus 27.8%; P = NS). The mean ± standard deviation T?:?N ratio was 3.03 ± 1.54 and 3.66 ± 2.79 in patients with and without stasis, respectively (P = NS). Stasis occurred in 14 of 81 (17.3%) and 12 of 47 (25.5%) infusions following previous intra-arterial therapy and in therapy-naïve territories, respectively (P = NS). Early stasis occurred in 15 of 41 (36.6%) left, 10 of 65 (15.4%) right and one of 22 (4.5%) whole liver infusions (P < 0.001). Rates of partial response and stable disease were similar in the stasis (88.3%) and non-stasis (76.0%) groups (P = NS). Conclusions Early stasis occurred in approximately 20% of infusions with similar incidences in hyper-and hypovascular tumours. Whole-liver therapy reduced the incidence of stasis. Stasis did not appear to affect initial imaging outcomes. PMID:23782387

Piana, Peachy Mae; Bar, Voichita; Doyle, Laura; Anne, Rani; Sato, Takami; Eschelman, David J; McCann, Jeffrey W; Gonsalves, Carin F; Brown, Daniel B

2014-01-01

44

Arterial Blood Pressure Management during Carotid Endarterectomy and Early Cognitive Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Background A common practice during cross-clamp of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is to manage mean arterial pressure (MAP) above baseline to optimize collateral cerebral blood flow and reduce risk of ischemic stroke. Objective To determine whether MAP management ?20% above baseline during cross-clamp is associated with lower risk of early cognitive dysfunction, a subtler form of neurologic injury than stroke. Methods One hundred eighty-three patients undergoing CEA were enrolled in this ad hoc study. All patients had radial arterial catheters placed prior to induction of general anesthesia. MAP was managed at the discretion of the anesthesiologist. All patients were evaluated with a battery of neuropsychometric tests pre-operatively and 24hrs post-operatively. Results Overall, 28.4% of CEA patients exhibited early cognitive dysfunction (eCD). Significantly fewer patients with MAP ?20% above baseline during cross-clamp exhibited eCD than those managed <20% above (11.6% vs. 38.6%, P<0.001). In a multivariate logistic regression model, MAP ?20% above baseline during the cross-clamp period was associated with significantly lower risk of eCD (OR: 0.18 [0.07–0.40], P<0.001), while diabetes mellitus (OR: 2.73 [1.14–6.61], P=0.03) and each additional year of education (OR: 1.19 [1.06–1.34], P=0.003) were associated with significantly higher risk of eCD. Conclusion The observations of this study suggest MAP management ?20% above baseline during cross-clamp of the carotid artery may be associated with lower risk of eCD after CEA. More prospective work is necessary to determine whether MAP ?20% above baseline during cross-clamp can improve the safety of this commonly performed procedure. PMID:24335822

Heyer, Eric J.; Mergeche, Joanna L.; Anastasian, Zirka H.; Kim, Minjae; Mallon, Kaitlin A.; Connolly, E. Sander

2014-01-01

45

Adenosine stress thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging for detecting coronary artery disease at an early stage.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to evaluate the diagnostic value of adenosine thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging and to compare it with exercise stress thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging for detecting coronary artery disease (CAD) at an early stage. Forty-one patients suspected with CAD were randomly divided into two groups. In Group 1 (n=21) adenosine stress was undertaken; the exercise stress myocardial perfusion imaging was performed in Group 2 (n=20). Coronary angiography (CAG) was performed in each patient within 2 weeks before or after single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Adenosine stress group vs. exercise stress group, the sensitivity was 92.86% vs. 100.0%, specificity 57.14% vs. 60.0%, positive predictive value 81.25% vs. 71.43%, negative predictive value 80.0% vs. 100.0%, accuracy 80.95% vs. 80.0% respectively. Detection rates of vessels of coronary artery lesions were 66.67% in Group 1 and 72.22% in Group 2 (P> 0.05). The side effects were mild and transient. Our results demonstrated that adenosine stress myocardial perfusion imaging is a safe and reliable diagnostic method for an early stage of CAD. As a comparative sensitivity and accuracy with exercise stress thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging, adenosine stress testing may provide a feasible alternative pharmacological stress method in myocardial SPECT for detection of CAD. PMID:23694919

Chen, Gui-Bing; Wu, Hua; He, Xiao-Jiang; Huang, Jin-Xiong; Yu, Dan; Xu, Wei-Yi; Yu, Hao

2013-01-01

46

Reading Acquisition Enhances an Early Visual Process of Contour Integration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The acquisition of reading has an extensive impact on the developing brain and leads to enhanced abilities in phonological processing and visual letter perception. Could this expertise also extend to early visual abilities outside the reading domain? Here we studied the performance of illiterate, ex-illiterate and literate adults closely matched…

Szwed, Marcin; Ventura, Paulo; Querido, Luis; Cohen, Laurent; Dehaene, Stanislas

2012-01-01

47

Cytokine-Induced Mobilization of Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells Enhances Repair of Injured Arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—The existence of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEPCs) has previously been documented. These cells can be mobilized by cytokines and are recruited to sites of injury, where they may participate in tissue repair. In the present study, we examined the hypothesis that mobilization of CEPCs by exogenous granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhances repair of injured arteries by facilitating reendothelialization and

Deling Kong; Luis G. Melo; Massimiliano Gnecchi; Lunan Zhang; Gustavo Mostoslavsky; Chong C. Liew; Richard E. Pratt; Victor J. Dzau

2010-01-01

48

Role of Lipoxygenase Metabolites of Arachidonic Acid in Enhanced Pulmonary Artery Contractions of Female Rabbits  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary arterial hypertension is characterized by elevated pulmonary artery pressure and vascular resistance. In women the incidence is 4 fold greater than that in men. Studies suggest sustained vasoconstriction is a factor in increased vascular resistance. Possible vasoconstrictor mediators include arachidonic acid-derived lipoxygenase metabolites. Our studies in rabbits showed enhanced endothelium-dependent contractions to arachidonic acid in pulmonary arteries from females compared to males. Because treatment with a non-specific lipoxygenase inhibitor reduced contractions in females but not males, the present study identified which lipoxygenase isoform contributes to sex-specific pulmonary artery vasoconstriction. 15- and 5- but not 12-lipoxygenase protein expression was greater in females. Basal and A23187-stimulated release of 15-, 5- and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid from females and males was measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Only 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid synthesis was greater in females compared to males under both basal and stimulated conditions. Vascular contractions to 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid were enhanced in females compared to males (maximal contraction; 44 ± 6% vs 25 ± 3%). The specific 15-lipoxygenase inhibitor PD146176 (12 ?mol/L) decreased arachidonic acid-induced contractions in females (maximal contraction; 93 ± 4% vs 57 ± 10%). If male pulmonary arteries were incubated with estrogen (1 ?mol/L, 18 hrs), protein expression of 15-lipoxygenase, and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid production increased. Mechanisms to explain the increased incidence of pulmonary hypertension in women are not known. Results suggest the 15-lipoxygenase pathway is different between females and males and is regulated by estrogen. Understanding this novel sex-specific mechanism may provide insight into the increased incidence of pulmonary hypertension in females. PMID:21300669

Pfister, Sandra L.

2011-01-01

49

Disease of the left main coronary artery: early surgical results and their association with carotid artery stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES--To review the results of surgical revascularisation for left main coronary artery stenosis and the associated vascular pathology that is responsible for cerebrovascular complication. PATIENTS--60 patients (45 men, 15 women) (mean age 61.3 (39-79)) who underwent revascularisation for stenosis of the left main stem coronary artery (LMS) between January 1987 and August 1990 were compared with an age and sex

W T Vigneswaran; R N Sapsford; R D Stanbridge

1993-01-01

50

Impact of hepatic arterial hemodynamics in predicting early hepatic arterial thrombosis in pediatric recipients younger than three yr after living donor liver transplantation.  

PubMed

We used Doppler US to evaluate the changes in hepatic arterial hemodynamics that occur following LDLT in pediatric recipients, with a view to assessing the utility of these parameters in predicting early HAT. A retrospective review of 144 pediatric recipients (73 males, 71 females) who underwent routine Doppler US in the first week after LDLT was undertaken, and changes in hepatic arterial hemodynamics were assessed. The HARI and HAPSV were compared in patients with early HAT (defined as occurring in the first postoperative week) and a control group, and the utility of these parameters in predicting early HAT after LDLT was determined. A total of 11 pediatric recipients experienced early HAT, being diagnosed on average four and a half days after LDLT. HARI and HAPSV values were significantly different between the early HAT group and controls. HARI values <0.6 on the day before the onset of early HAT were able to predict HAT development with a sensitivity of 81.8% and specificity of 95.2%. This provides evidence for routine Doppler US examination in these patients and supports consideration of more intensive anticoagulation in these high-risk patients. PMID:25693722

Gu, Lihong; Fang, Hua; Li, Fenghua; Zhang, Shijun; Shen, Conghuan; Han, Longzhi

2015-05-01

51

Ca2+ sensitization and PKC contribute to exercise training-enhanced contractility in porcine collateral-dependent coronary arteries  

PubMed Central

Exercise training enhances endothelium-dependent coronary vasodilatation, improving perfusion and contractile function of collateral-dependent myocardium. Paradoxically, studies from our laboratory have revealed increased Ca2+-dependent basal active tone in collateral-dependent arteries of exercise-trained pigs. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that exercise training enhances agonist-mediated contractile responses of collateral-dependent arteries by promoting Ca2+ sensitization. Ameroid constrictors were surgically placed around the proximal left circumflex coronary (LCX) artery of female Yucatan miniature pigs. Eight weeks postoperatively, pigs were randomized into sedentary (pen confined) or exercise-training (treadmill run; 5 days/wk; 14 wk) groups. Arteries (?150 ?m luminal diameter) were isolated from the collateral-dependent and nonoccluded (left anterior descending artery supplied) myocardial regions, and measures of contractile tension or simultaneous tension and intracellular free Ca2+ concentration levels (fura-2) were completed. Exercise training enhanced contractile responses to endothelin-1 in collateral-dependent compared with nonoccluded arteries, an effect that was more pronounced in the presence of nitric oxide synthase inhibition (N?-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester; 100 ?M). Contractile responses to endothelin-1 were not altered by coronary occlusion alone. Exercise training produced increased tension at comparable levels of intracellular free Ca2+ concentration in collateral-dependent compared with nonoccluded arteries, indicative of exercise training-enhanced Ca2+ sensitization. Inhibition of PKC (calphostin C; 1 ?M), but not Rho-kinase (Y-27632, 10 ?M; or hydroxyfasudil, 30 ?M), abolished the training-enhanced endothelin-1-mediated contractile response. Exercise training also increased sensitivity to the PKC activator phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate in collateral-dependent compared with nonoccluded arteries. Taken together, these data reveal that exercise training enhances endothelin-1-mediated contractile responses in collateral-dependent coronary arteries likely via increased PKC-mediated Ca2+ sensitization. PMID:21297028

Robles, Juan Carlos; Sturek, Michael; Parker, Janet L.

2011-01-01

52

ULTRASOUND-ENHANCED rt-PA THROMBOLYSIS IN AN EX VIVO PORCINE CAROTID ARTERY MODEL  

PubMed Central

Ultrasound is known to enhance recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) thrombolysis. In this study, occlusive porcine whole blood clots were placed in flowing plasma within living porcine carotid arteries. Ultrasonically induced stable cavitation was investigated as an adjuvant to rt-PA thrombolysis. Aged, retracted clots were exposed to plasma alone, plasma containing rt-PA (7.1 ± 3.8 ?g/mL) or plasma with rt-PA and Definity® ultrasound contrast agent (0.79 ± 0.47 ?L/mL) with and without 120-kHz continuous wave ultrasound at a peak-to-peak pressure amplitude of 0.44 MPa. An insonation scheme was formulated to promote and maximize stable cavitation activity by incorporating ultrasound quiescent periods that allowed for the inflow of Definity®-rich plasma. Cavitation was measured with a passive acoustic detector throughout thrombolytic treatment. Thrombolytic efficacy was measured by comparing clot mass before and after treatment. Average mass loss for clots exposed to rt-PA and Definity® without ultrasound (n = 7) was 34%, and with ultrasound (n = 6) was 83%, which constituted a significant difference (p < 0.0001). Without Definity® there was no thrombolytic enhancement by ultrasound exposure alone at this pressure amplitude (n = 5, p < 0.0001). In the low-oxygen environment of the ischemic artery, significant loss of endothelium occurred but no correlation was observed between arterial tissue damage and treatment type. Acoustic stable cavitation nucleated by an infusion of Definity® enhances rt-PA thrombolysis without apparent treatment-related damage in this ex vivo porcine carotid artery model. PMID:21723448

Hitchcock, Kathryn E.; Ivancevich, Nikolas M.; Haworth, Kevin J.; Caudell Stamper, Danielle N.; Vela, Deborah C.; Sutton, Jonathan T.; Pyne-Geithman, Gail J.; Holland, Christy K.

2014-01-01

53

Enhanced neurally evoked responses and inhibition of norepinephrine reuptake in rat mesenteric arteries after spinal transection.  

PubMed

In patients with high thoracic spinal lesions that remove most of the central drive to splanchnic preganglionic neurons, visceral or nociceptive stimuli below the lesion can provoke large increases in blood pressure (autonomic dysreflexia). We have examined the effects of T4 spinal transection on isometric contractions of mesenteric arteries isolated from spinalized rats. Nerve-evoked contractions involved synergistic roles for norepinephrine and ATP. At 7 wk after spinal transection, responses to perivascular stimulation at 1-5 Hz were enhanced fivefold, whereas the alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin (10 nM) produced a twofold larger reduction in contraction (to 20 pulses at 10 Hz) than in unoperated controls. In contrast, the reduction in nerve-evoked contractions by the P2-purinoceptor antagonist suramin (0.1 mM) and the responses to the P2-purinoceptor agonist alpha,beta-methylene ATP or to high K+ concentration did not greatly differ between groups, indicating that arteries from spinalized rats were not generally hyperreactive. Sensitivity to the alpha1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine was enhanced in arteries from spinalized rats, and the difference from controls was abolished by the norepinephrine uptake blocker desmethylimipramine. Sensitivity to the alpha1-adrenoceptor agonist methoxamine, which is not a substrate for the neuronal norepinephrine transporter, was similar among the groups. Thus the increased neurally evoked response after spinal transection appeared to be due to a reduction in neuronal uptake of released norepinephrine, a mechanism that did not explain the enhanced response of tail arteries after spinal transection that we previously reported. The findings provide further support for potentiated neurovascular responses contributing to the genesis of autonomic dysreflexia. PMID:16143650

Brock, James A; Yeoh, Melanie; McLachlan, Elspeth M

2006-01-01

54

The Feasibility of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound During Uterine Artery Embolization: A Pilot Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. To evaluate the feasibility of using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) during uterine artery embolization (UAE) in order to define the correct end-point of embolization with complete devascularization of all fibroids. Methods. In this prospective study of 10 consecutive women undergoing UAE, CEUS was performed in the angiographic suite during embolization. When the angiographic end-point, defined as the 'pruned-tree' appearance of the uterine arteries was reached, CEUS was performed while the angiographic catheters to both uterine arteries were kept in place. The decision whether or not to continue the embolization was based on the findings at CEUS. The results of CEUS were compared with those of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 1 day as well as 3 months following UAE. Results. CEUS was successfully performed in all women. In 4 cases injection of particles was continued based on the findings at CEUS despite angiographically complete embolization. CEUS imaging at completion of UAE correlated well with the findings at MRI. Conclusion. The use of CEUS during UAE is feasible and may increase the quality of UAE.

Dorenberg, Eric J., E-mail: eric.dorenberg@rikshospitalet.no; Jakobsen, Jarl A.; Brabrand, Knut; Hafsahl, Geir; Smith, Hans-Jorgen [Rikshospitalet-Radiumhospitalet Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Norway)

2007-09-15

55

Early results from an angiosome-directed open surgical technique for venous arterialization in patients with critical lower limb ischemia  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with critical lower limb ischemia without patent pedal arteries cannot be treated by the conventional arterial reconstruction. Venous arterialization has been suggested to improve limb salvage in this subgroup of patients but has not gained wide acceptance. We report our early experience after implementing deep and superficial venous arterialization of the lower limb. Materials and methods Ten patients with critical ischemia and without crural or pedal arteries available for conventional bypass surgery or angioplasty were treated with distal venous arterialization. Inflow was from the most distal unobstructed segment. Run-off was the dorsal pedal venous arch (n=5), the dorsal pedal venous arch and a concomitant vein of the posterior tibial artery (n=3), or the dorsal pedal venous arch and a concomitant vein of the common plantar artery (n=2) depending on the location of the ischemic lesion. Venous valves were destroyed using antegrade valvulotomes, guide wires, knob needles, or retrograde valvulotomes via an extra incision. Results Seven of the operated limbs were amputated after 23 (1–256) days (median [range]). The main reasons for amputation were lack of healing of either the original wound, of incisional wounds on the foot, or persisting pain at rest. In three cases, the bypass was open at the time of amputation. Two patients experienced complete wound healing after 231 and 342 days, respectively. By the end of follow-up, the last patient was ambulating with slow wound healing but without pain 309 days after surgery. Conclusion Venous arterialization may be used as a treatment of otherwise unsalveable limbs. The success rate is, however, limited. Technical optimization of the technique is warranted. PMID:24358432

Houlind, Kim; Christensen, Johnny; Hallenberg, Christian; Jepsen, Jørn M.

2013-01-01

56

Effects of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibition in Low-Risk Patients Early After Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Early after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG), activation of numerous neurohumoral and endogenous vasodilator systems occurs that could be influenced favorably by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Methods and Results—The Ischemia Management with Accupril post-bypass Graft via Inhibition of the coNverting Enzyme (IMAGINE) trial tested whether early initiation (7 days) of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor after CABG reduced cardiovascular events in stable

Jean L. Rouleau; Wayne J. Warnica; Richard Baillot; Pierre J. Block; Sidney Chocron; David Johnstone; Martin G. Myers; Cristina-Dana Calciu; Pierre Martineau; Christine Mormont; Wiek H. van Gilst

2010-01-01

57

Clinical significance, angiographic characteristics, and short-term outcomes in 30 patients with early coronary artery graft failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDespite technical advances in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), early postoperative myocardial ischaemia still remains\\u000a a challenging problem. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, clinical features, angiographic characteristics,\\u000a and management of early graft failure in the present CABG era.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a MethodsBetween January 1997 and December 2002, 1731 patients underwent CABG at our institution. Coronary angiography was performed

S. S. Virani; M. Alam; C. E. Mendoza; H. Arora; A. C. Ferreira; E. de Marchena

2009-01-01

58

Factors Associated With Early Atherosclerosis and Arterial Calcifications in Young Subjects With a Benign Phenotype of Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed (i) the association between early arterial disease and factors linked to adiposity, dietary habits, and family in a young cohort of 151 obese children and adolescents with less than or equal to one cardiovascular (CV) risk factor, (ii) whether in subjects with carotid calcifications there was an imbalance of calcium–phosphorus homeostasis. Measurement included: carotid ultrasound, oral glucose tolerance

Luisa Gilardini; Lucia Pasqualinotto; Silvia Di Matteo; Katherine Caffetto; Marina Croci; Andrea Girola; Cecilia Invitti

2011-01-01

59

Enhancer RNA facilitates NELF release from immediate early genes.  

PubMed

Enhancer RNAs (eRNAs) are a class of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) expressed from active enhancers, whose function and action mechanism are yet to be firmly established. Here we show that eRNAs facilitate the transition of paused RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) into productive elongation by acting as a decoy for the negative elongation factor (NELF) complex upon induction of immediate early genes (IEGs) in neurons. eRNAs are synthesized prior to the culmination of target gene transcription and interact with the NELF complex. Knockdown of eRNAs expressed at neuronal enhancers impairs transient release of NELF from the specific target promoters during transcriptional activation, coinciding with a decrease in target mRNA induction. The enhancer-promoter interaction was unaffected by eRNA knockdown. Instead, chromatin looping might enable eRNAs to act locally at a specific promoter. Our findings highlight the spatiotemporally regulated action mechanism of eRNAs during early transcriptional elongation. PMID:25263592

Schaukowitch, Katie; Joo, Jae-Yeol; Liu, Xihui; Watts, Jonathan K; Martinez, Carlos; Kim, Tae-Kyung

2014-10-01

60

Early Development of Arterial Spin Labeling to Measure Regional Brain Blood Flow by MRI  

PubMed Central

Two major avenues of work converged in the late 1980’s and early 1990’s to give rise to brain perfusion MRI. The development of anatomical brain MRI quickly had as a major goal the generation of angiograms using tricks to label flowing blood in macroscopic vessels. These ideas were aimed at getting information about microcirculatory flow as well. Over the same time course the development of in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy had as its primary goal the assessment of tissue function and in particular, tissue energetics. For this the measurement of the delivery of water to tissue was critical for assessing tissue oxygenation and viability. The measurement of the washin/washout of “freely” diffusible tracers by spectroscopic based techniques pointed the way for quantitative approaches to measure regional blood flow by MRI. These two avenues came together in the development of arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI techniques to measure regional cerebral blood flow. The early use of ASL to measure brain activation to help verify BOLD fMRI led to a rapid development of ASL based perfusion MRI. Today development and applications of regional brain blood flow measurements with ASL continues to be a major area of activity. PMID:22245338

Koretsky, Alan P.

2014-01-01

61

A nanostructured genosensor for the early diagnosis of systemic arterial hypertension.  

PubMed

The rapid progress of nanomedicine, especially in areas related to medical imaging and diagnostics, has motivated the development of new nanomaterials that can be combined with biological materials for specific medical applications. One such area of research involves the detection of specific DNA sequences for the early diagnosis of genetic diseases, using nanoparticles-containing genosensors. Typical genosensors devices are based on the use of sensing electrodes - biorecognition platforms - containing immobilized capture DNA probes capable of hybridizing with specific target DNA sequences. In this paper we show that upon an appropriate design of the biorecognition platform, efficient sandwich-type genosensors based upon DNA-AuNPs nanocomplexes can be efficiently applied to the detection of a Systemic Arterial Hypertension (SAH) polymorphism located in intron 16 of the Angiotensin-converter enzyme (ACE) gene. Since SAH is intimately related to heart diseases, especially blood hypertension, its early detection is of great biomedical interest. The biorecognition platforms were assembled using mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMmix), which provided the immobilization of organized architectures with molecular control. Detection of the DNA target sequence at concentrations down to 1 nM was carried out using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). We show that the use of EIS combined with specific nanobiocomplexes represents an efficient method for the unambiguous detection of complementary DNA hybridization for preventative nanomedicine applications. PMID:25653060

Rolim, Thalita; Cancino, Juliana; Zucolotto, Valtencir

2015-02-01

62

The association between early arterial oxygenation in the ICU and mortality following cardiac surgery.  

PubMed

Many studies have been conducted to investigate the relationship between hyperoxia and mortality in cohorts of intensive care unit (ICU) patients with varied and often contradictory results. The impact of early hyperoxia post ischaemia remains uncertain in various ICU cohorts. We aimed to investigate the association between arterial oxygenation (PaO2) in the first 24 hours in ICU and mortality in patients following cardiac surgery, using a retrospective cohort study of data from the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society adult patient database. Participants were adults admitted to the ICU following cardiac surgery in Australia and New Zealand between 2003 and 2012. Patients were divided according to worst PaO2 level or alveolar-arterial O2 gradient in the 24 hours from admission. We defined 'hyperoxia' as PaO2 ?300 mmHg, 'hypoxia/poor O2 transfer' as either PaO2 <60 mmHg or ratio of PaO2 to fraction of inspired oxygen <300 and 'normoxia' as between hypoxia and hyperoxia. The primary outcome was mortality at hospital discharge. Secondary outcomes were ICU mortality and ICU and hospital length-of-stay. Of the 83,060 patients, 12,188 (14.7%) had hyperoxia, 54,420 (65.5%) had hypoxia/poor O2 transfer and 16,452 (19.8%) had normoxia. There was no association between hyperoxia and in-hospital or ICU mortality compared to normoxia. There was a small increased hospital and ICU length-of-stay for hyperoxic compared to normoxic patients. We concluded that there was no association between mortality and hyperoxia in the first 24 hours in ICU after cardiac surgery. PMID:25342405

Sutton, A D J; Bailey, M; Bellomo, R; Eastwood, G M; Pilcher, D V

2014-11-01

63

Low-dose intra-arterial contrast-enhanced MR aortography in patients based on a theoretically derived injection protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple intra-arterial contrast agent injections are necessary during MR-guided endovascular interventions. In respect to the approved limits of maximum daily gadolinium dose, a low-dose injection protocol is mandatory. The objective of this study was to derive and apply a low-dose injection protocol for intra-arterial 3D contrast-enhanced MR aortography in patients. Injection rate (Qinj), concentration of injected gadolinium [Gd]inj and aortal

S. Potthast; A.-C. Schulte; G. M. Bongartz; R. Hügli; M. Aschwanden; D. Bilecen

2005-01-01

64

Brachial Artery Endothelial Responses during Early Recovery from an Exercise Bout in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease  

PubMed Central

This study examined the acute endothelial responses to an exercise bout in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. Nineteen males with CAD (63 ± 8 years) were assessed at rest and 15 minutes following a submaximal exercise bout (recovery). Brachial artery endothelial-dependent function was assessed using flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Brachial artery diameters and velocities were measured using Duplex ultrasound at baseline, and for 3 minutes following a 5-minute ischemic period. Endothelial-independent function was assessed using a 0.4?mg dose of nitroglycerin (NTG). FMD responses were unchanged from rest to recovery; however, there were 2 types of responses: negative and positive FMD responders. Post-hoc analysis revealed that positive responders had lower resting FMD compared to negative responders (3.2 ± 1.7 versus 6.0 ± 2.5%, P < 0.05). NTG-mediated dilation was reduced in recovery (22.0 ± 5.6 versus 14.4 ± 5.7%, P < 0.001 for rest versus recovery). In conclusion, acute endothelial-dependent responses to submaximal exercise are affected by the degree of resting endothelial dysfunction. The observation of attenuated NTG-mediated dilation during recovery is novel and warrants the investigation of possible mechanisms and clinical significance. Furthermore, it highlights the necessity of both endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent assessments when evaluating endothelial function changes with an intervention. PMID:24724088

Currie, Katharine D.; McKelvie, Robert S.; MacDonald, Maureen J.

2014-01-01

65

Vessel-selective, non-contrast enhanced, time-resolved MR angiography with vessel-selective arterial spin labeling technique (CINEMA-SELECT) in intracranial arteries.  

PubMed

We demonstrate the feasibility of the vessel-selective, non-contrast, time-resolved magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) technique, "contrast inherent inflow enhanced multi-phase angiography combining vessel-selective arterial spin labeling technique (CINEMA-SELECT)". This sequence consists of two major techniques: pulsed star labeling of arterial regions (PULSAR) and Look-Locker sampling. We hypothesize that this technique allows selective labeling of single intracranial arteries, consisting of high-resolution four-dimensional data with a wide coverage of the brain. In this study, a new vessel-selective, time-resolved angiographic technique is demonstrated that can produce individual angiograms non-invasively by labeling the principal arterial vessels proximal to the circle of Willis. Clear vessel delineation is achieved, and the separation of the three vessels is evident in healthy volunteers. This technique could play an important role in the assessment of the structure and hemodynamics of intracranial arteries without the use of contrast agents. PMID:23475783

Nakamura, Masanobu; Yoneyama, Masami; Tabuchi, Takashi; Takemura, Atsushi; Obara, Makoto; Tatsuno, Satoshi; Sawano, Seishi

2013-07-01

66

New phenotypic aspects of the decidual spiral artery wall during early post-implantation mouse pregnancy  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spiral artery (SA) wall remodeling (SAR) is ill-defined and clinically important. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SA muscular phenotype prior to and during SAR in mice is underexplored. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SA muscular wall consists of contractile and non-contractile components. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SA wall non-contractile component may be synthetic smooth muscle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Timing and extent of SA wall contractile component loss is revealed. -- Abstract: During pregnancy the walls of decidual spiral arteries (SAs) undergo clinically important structural modifications crucial for embryo survival/growth and maternal health. However, the mechanisms of SA remodeling (SAR) are poorly understood. Although an important prerequisite to this understanding is knowledge about the phenotype of SA muscular wall prior to and during the beginning of mouse SAR, this remains largely unexplored and was the main aim of this work. Using histological and immunohistochemical techniques, this study shows for the first time that during early mouse gestation, from embryonic day 7.5 (E7.5) to E10.5, the decidual SA muscular coat is not a homogeneous structure, but consists of two concentric layers. The first is a largely one cell-thick sub-endothelial layer of contractile mural cells (positive for {alpha}-smooth muscle actin, calponin and SM22{alpha}) with pericyte characteristics (NG2 positive). The second layer is thicker, and evidence is presented that it may be of the synthetic/proliferative smooth muscle phenotype, based on absence ({alpha}-smooth muscle actin and calponin) or weak (SM22{alpha}) expression of contractile mural cell markers, and presence of synthetic smooth muscle characteristics (expression of non-muscle Myosin heavy chain-IIA and of the cell proliferation marker PCNA). Importantly, immunohistochemistry and morphometrics showed that the contractile mural cell layer although prominent at E7.5-E8.5, becomes drastically reduced by E10.5 and is undetectable by E12.5. In conclusion, this study reveals novel aspects of the decidual SA muscular coat phenotype prior to and during early SAR that may have important implications for understanding the mechanisms of SAR.

Elia, Artemis; Charalambous, Fotini [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cyprus, University Campus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus)] [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cyprus, University Campus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Georgiades, Pantelis, E-mail: pgeor@ucy.ac.cy [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cyprus, University Campus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus)] [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cyprus, University Campus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus)

2011-12-09

67

Enhancing the pulse contour analysis-based arterial stiffness estimation using a novel photoplethysmographic parameter.  

PubMed

In this paper, we propose a novel method for enhancing pulse contour analysis-based arterial stiffness estimation using a simple and low-complexity photoplethysmographic parameter (P2Ocd). The method first eliminates baseline wanders in the digital volume pulse (DVP) by applying a simple morphological filter. The filtered DVP signal is then transformed into a slope sum function signal to simplify the pulse peak detection process by enhancing the upslope of the DVP signal while suppressing its downslope. An adaptive thresholding scheme is applied to detect pulse peaks from the transformed signal. Pulse onsets are then identified as the minimum values between consecutive pulse peaks. The P2Ocd is finally calculated by dividing the time interval between the pulse peak and the pulse onset by the pulse length. In order to assess the agreement of the P2Ocd with an established technique, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, we performed Bland-Altman and correlation analyses. Furthermore, we evaluated the P2Ocd-based arterial stiffness estimation in terms of prediction accuracy (% error rate) and repeatability (coefficient of variation). The results show that the proposed measurement agrees well with the established technique and shows a high repeatability; it also has a better predictive accuracy than that of conventional methods. In addition, we show that the proposed parameter further improves the predictive accuracy by combining it with age. The proposed method is therefore highly applicable to small ubiquitous healthcare applications. PMID:25561448

Jang, Dae-Geun; Park, Seung-Hun; Hahn, Minsoo

2015-01-01

68

Use of Intra-Arterial Carbon-Dioxide-Enhanced Ultrasonography for Guidance of Radiofrequency Ablation and Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization in Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

A 73-year-old man with hepatitis-C-related cirrhosis and an elevated alpha-fetoprotein level and tumor in segment 3 of his liver was referred for interventional radiologic treatment. He was not a candidate for surgical resection due to impaired liver function and his personal preferences. On conventional ultrasonography no lesion could be detected, but the tumor was clearly depicted by intra-arterial carbon-dioxide-enhanced ultrasonography. Radiofrequency ablation was performed safely and accurately under the guidance of carbon-dioxide-enhanced ultrasonography. By concomitant performance of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization with radiofrequency ablation, extensive necrosis was obtained and adequate tumor volume reduction achieved with only one treatment session.

Ohmoto, Kenji, E-mail: ohmotok@med.kawasaki-m.ac.jp; Yoshioka, Naoko; Tomiyama, Yasuyuki; Shibata, Norikuni; Kawase, Tomoya; Yoshida, Koji; Kuboki, Makoto; Yamamoto, Shinichiro [Kawasaki Medical School, Division of Hepatology, Department of Medicine (Japan)

2006-12-15

69

Erectile Dysfunction as a Predictor of Early Stage of Coronary Artery Disease  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background: Diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) in early stages is vital in decreasing mortality by reducing the risk factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between erectile dysfunction (ED) and CAD. Methods: A total of 200 patients were divided into four groups according to their angiography results: Group 1 (G1, n = 59): patients with one-vessel disease (1-VD); Group 2 (G2, n = 40): patients with two-vessel disease (2-VD); Group 3 (G3, n = 50): patients with three-vessel disease (3-VD); and controls (C, n = 51) without any coronary disease. The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) was completed for all the patients to assess their sexual function and ED in the last 6 months. Results: Mean age of the participants was 57.69 ± 12.466 years. The prevalence of ED in the CAD patients was significantly higher than that of the controls (75.16% vs. 60.8%; p value = 0.041). There was a significant direct correlation between the number of involved vessels in the CAD patients and ED severity (r: 0.183; p value = 0.010), and the ED rate increased with age. Conclusion: In conclusion, ED severity correlated with the number of involved vessels documented by coronary angiography. Consequently, ED may be considered a possible marker for the development of atherosclerosis and CAD.

Baharvand Ahmadi, Babak; Namdari, Mehrdad; Mobarakeh, Hirbod

2014-01-01

70

Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 Induces Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation  

PubMed Central

Introduction Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) is a progressively devastating disease characterized by excessive proliferation of the Pulmonary Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells (PASMCs). Studies suggest that PAH and cancers share an apoptosis-resistant state featuring excessive cell proliferation. The proliferation of cancer cells is mediated by increased expression of Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2), a mammalian histone methyltransferase that contributes to the epigenetic silencing of target genes. However, the role of EZH2 in PAH has not been studied. In this study, it is hypothesized that EZH2 could play a role in the proliferation of PASMCs. Methods In the present study, the expression patterns of EZH2 were investigated in normal and hypertensive mouse PASMCs. The effects of EZH2 overexpression on the proliferation of human PASMCs were tested. PASMCs were transfected with EZH2 or GFP using nucleofector system. After transfection, the cells were incubated for 48 hours at 37°C. Proliferation and cell cycle analysis were performed using flow cytometry. Apoptosis of PASMCs was determined using annexin V staining and cell migration was tested by wound healing assay. Results EZH2 protein expression in mouse PASMCs were correlated with an increase in right ventricular systolic pressure and Right Ventricular Hypertrophy (RVH). The overexpression of EZH2 in human PASMCs enhances proliferation, migration, and decrease in the rate of apoptosis when compared to GFP-transfected cells. In the G2/M phase of the EZH2 transfected cells, there was a 3.5 fold increase in proliferation, while there was a significant decrease in the rate of apoptosis of PASMCs, when compared to control. Conclusion These findings suggest that EZH2 plays a role in the migration and proliferation of PASMCs, which is a major hallmark in PAH. It also suggests that EZH2 could play a role in the development of PAH and can serve as a potential target for new therapies for PAH. PMID:22662197

Aljubran, Salman A.; Rajanbabu, Venugopal; Bao, Huynh; Mohapatra, Shyam M.; Lockey, Richard; Kolliputi, Narasaiah

2012-01-01

71

Differentiation of Heart Failure Related to Dilated Cardiomyopathy and Coronary Artery Disease Using Gadolinium-Enhanced Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Heart failure treatment depends partly on the underlying cause of the disease. We evaluated cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) for the problem of differentiating dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) from left ventricular (LV) dysfunction caused by coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods and Results—Late gadolinium enhancement with CMR was performed in 90 patients with heart failure and LV systolic dysfunction (63 patients with DCM

J. A. McCrohon; J. C. C. Moon; S. K. Prasad; W. J. McKenna; C. H. Lorenz; A. J. S. Coats; D. J. Pennell

2010-01-01

72

Does early coronary artery bypass surgery improve survival in non-ST acute myocardial infarction?  

PubMed Central

A best evidence topic was written according to a structured protocol. Lack of evidence exists regarding the optimal timing for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery after non-ST myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). While some authors address the importance of the timing of surgery alone, others take into account the extent of myocardial damage. The question addressed was whether early or late CABG surgery improves hospital mortality and cardiovascular events after NSTEMI in stable patients. Using a designated search strategy, 459 articles were found, of which seven represented the best available evidence. All of these studies were level 3 (retrospective cohort studies). Studies could be divided into those which assessed CABG outcome based on preoperative cardiac troponin I (cTnI) level as a measure of the extent of myocardial damage and those which considered only the timing after myocardial infarction. Outcome measures included short-term survival, hospital mortality, length of hospital stay and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs). The biggest retrospective study analysing postoperative outcomes based on the timing of surgery after NSTEMI concluded that operative mortality is higher when surgery is performed within 6 h of the event. After 6 h, mortality is similar at any timepoint after 6h of NSTEMI. While other smaller studies agree that there are fewer postoperative complications when surgery is performed after 48 h of the event, no consensus is found regarding mortality between early (less than 48 h) and late CABG surgery. Taking into account preoperative cTnI values, CABG has a higher incidence of MACEs and hospital mortality in patients with cTnI >0.15 ng/ml. When surgery is performed within 24 h of symptoms, preoperative cTnI >0.72 ng/ml is associated with worse outcomes. In view of the methodological limitations and level of evidence of the studies included, it appears that surgery may be safely performed in NSTEMI patients at any time after the first 6 h of the event in patients with cTnI <0.15 ng/ml, whereas in those patients with higher values of cTnI, waiting for cTnI to reduce before considering surgery seems to be a wise option in order to decrease the incidence of MACEs and hospital mortality. PMID:23575760

Dayan, Victor; Soca, Gerardo; Parma, Gabriel; Mila, Rafael

2013-01-01

73

Free Flap Transfer to Preserve Main Arterial Flow in Early Reconstruction of Open Fracture in the Lower Extremity  

PubMed Central

The selection of recipient vessels is crucial when reconstructing traumatized lower extremities using a free flap. When the dorsalis pedis artery and/or posterior tibial artery cannot be palpated, we utilize computed tomography angiography to verify the site of vascular injury prior to performing free flap transfer. For vascular anastomosis, we fundamentally perform end-to-side anastomosis or flow-through anastomosis to preserve the main arterial flow. In addition, in open fracture of the lower extremity, we utilize the anterolateral thigh flap for moderate soft tissue defects and the latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap for extensive soft tissue defects. The free flaps used in these two techniques are long and include a large-caliber pedicle, and reconstruction can be performed with either the anterior or posterior tibial artery. The preparation of recipient vessels is easier during the acute phase early after injury, when there is no influence of scarring. A free flap allows flow-through anastomosis and is thus optimal for open fracture of the lower extremity that requires simultaneous reconstruction of main vessel injury and soft tissue defect from the middle to distal thirds of the lower extremity.

Nemoto, Mitsuru; Ishikawa, Shinsuke; Kounoike, Natsuko; Sugimoto, Takayuki

2015-01-01

74

Arterial Ageing  

PubMed Central

Arterial ageing is characterized by age associated degeneration and sclerosis of the media layer of the large arteries. However, besides ageing, clinical conditions, which enhance oxidative stress and inflammation act to accelerate the degree of arterial ageing. In this review, we summarized the pathophysiology and contributing factors that accelerate arterial ageing. Among them, we focused on hypertension, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and vascular inflammation which are modifiable causes of the arterial ageing process. Also, novel treatment targets derived from the disease models such as the Hutchinson Gilford Progeria Syndrome were reviewed. PMID:23508642

Lee, Seung-Jun

2013-01-01

75

Preoperative factors as a predictor for early postoperative outcomes after repair of congenital transposition of the great arteries.  

PubMed

Transposition of the great arteries (TGA) requires early surgical repair during the neonatal period. Several preoperative factors have been identified for the postoperative poor outcome after arterial switch operation (ASO). However, the data remain uncertain an association. Therefore, we investigated the preoperative factors which affect the early postoperative outcomes. Between March 2005 and May 2012, a retrospective study was performed which included 126 infants with an ASO for TGA. Preoperative data included the vasoactive inotropic score (VIS) and baseline hemodynamics. Early postoperative outcomes included the duration of mechanical ventilation, the length of stay in the intensive care unit and hospital, and early mortality. Multivariate linear regression and receiver operating characteristics analysis were performed. The duration of mechanical ventilation was significantly correlated with the preoperative mechanical ventilator support and VIS, and CPB time. On multivariate linear regression analysis, a higher preoperative VIS, preoperative B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) level, and the CPB time were identified as independent risk factors for delayed mechanical ventilation. Preoperative VIS (OR 1.154, 95 % CI 1.024-1.300) and the CPB time (OR 1.034, 95 % CI 1.009-1.060) were independent parameters predicting early mortality. A preoperative VIS of 12.5 had the best combined sensitivity (83.3 %) and specificity (85.3 %) and an AUC of 0.852 (95 % CI 0.642-1.061) predicted early mortality. Our results suggest that preoperative VIS and BNP can predict the need for prolonged postoperative mechanical ventilation. Moreover, preoperative VIS may be used as a simple and feasible indicator for predicting early mortality. PMID:25330856

Kim, Jung-Won; Gwak, Mijeung; Shin, Won-Jung; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Yu, Jeong Jin; Park, Pyung-Hwan

2015-03-01

76

Vascular rings and pulmonary artery sling: early and mid-term results of surgical correction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The great majority of patients with complete vascular rings and pulmonary artery sling present before their first birthday.\\u000a This retrospective report summarises the surgical experience of a single institution with the majority of vascular ring group\\u000a presenting after infancy and having associated congenital cardiac anomalies. Possible reasons of delayed presentation of vascular\\u000a ring, the asymptomatic left pulmonary artery sling and

UK Chowdhury; B Airan; A Govil; R Sharma; A Bhan; SS Kothari; A Saxena; P Venugopal

2000-01-01

77

Hepatic Arterial Vasodilation Is Independent of Portal Hypertension in Early Stages of Cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Introduction The compensatory increase in hepatic arterial flow with a decrease in portal venous flow is known as the hepatic arterial buffer response. In cirrhosis with elevated portal pressure, the vascular resistance of the hepatic artery is decreased. Whether this lower resistance of the hepatic artery is a consequence of portal hypertension or not remains unknown. Study Aim The aim of the study was to investigate the hepatic arterial resistance and response to vasoconstriction in cirrhosis without portal hypertension (normal portal resistance). Methods Cirrhosis was induced by CCl4-inhalation for 8 weeks (8W, normal portal resistance) and for 12–14 weeks (12W, elevated portal resistance). Bivascular liver perfusion was performed at 8W or 12W and dose response curves of methoxamine were obtained in the presence or absence of LNMMA (nitric oxide synthase blocker). Vascular resistances of the hepatic artery (HAR), portal vein (PVR) and sinusoids (SVR) were measured. Western Blot (WB) and Immunohistochemistry (IHC) were done to measure eNOS and HIF 1a expression. Results HAR in both groups of cirrhotic animals (8W and 12W) were lower compared to controls. Dose response curves to methoxamine revealed lower HAR in both cirrhotic models (8W and 12W) regardless the magnitude of portal resistance. LNMMA corrected the dose response curves in cirrhosis (8W and 12W) to control. WB and IHC show increased protein expression of eNOS and HIF1a in 8W and 12W. Conclusion Hepatic arterial resistance is decreased in cirrhosis independent of portal resistance. Vasodilation of the hepatic artery in cirrhosis seems to be influenced by hypoxia rather than increase in portal resistance. Nitric oxide is the main vasodilator. PMID:25793622

Moeller, Miriam; Thonig, Antje; Pohl, Sabine; Ripoll, Cristina; Zipprich, Alexander

2015-01-01

78

Enhancing early engagement with mental health services by young people  

PubMed Central

International studies have shown that the prevalence of mental illness, and the fundamental contribution it make to the overall disease burden, is greatest in children and young people. Despite this high burden, adolescents and young adults are the least likely population group to seek help or to access professional care for mental health problems. This issue is particularly problematic given that untreated, or poorly treated, mental disorders are associated with both short- and long-term functional impairment, including poorer education and employment opportunities, potential comorbidity, including drug and alcohol problems, and a greater risk for antisocial behavior, including violence and aggression. This cycle of poor mental health creates a significant burden for the young person, their family and friends, and society as a whole. Australia is enviably positioned to substantially enhance the well-being of young people, to improve their engagement with mental health services, and – ultimately – to improve mental health. High prevalence but potentially debilitating disorders, such as depression and anxiety, are targeted by the specialized youth mental health service, headspace: the National Youth Mental Health Foundation and a series of Early Psychosis Prevention and Intervention Centres, will provide early intervention specialist services for low prevalence, complex illnesses. Online services, such as ReachOut.com by Inspire Foundation, Youthbeyondblue, Kids Helpline, and Lifeline Australia, and evidence-based online interventions, such as MoodGYM, are also freely available, yet a major challenge still exists in ensuring that young people receive effective evidence-based care at the right time. This article describes Australian innovation in shaping a comprehensive youth mental health system, which is informed by an evidence-based approach, dedicated advocacy and, critically, the inclusion of young people in service design, development, and ongoing evaluation to ensure that services can be continuously improved. PMID:25473320

Burns, Jane; Birrell, Emma

2014-01-01

79

Cutting-Balloon Angioplasty in Transplant Renal Artery Stenosis as First-Line Treatment in the Early Postoperative Period  

SciTech Connect

Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty has been successfully used for the treatment of transplant renal artery stenosis (RAS). Cutting-balloon angioplasty (CBA) is being used as a second option in pressure-resistant stenosis. It is thought that CBA is less traumatic and therefore restenosis occurs less frequently than in conventional angioplasty. This case report describes the unusual use of a cutting balloon in transplant RAS as a first option in the early postoperative period. Long-term follow-up data are also presented.

Ucar, Adem, E-mail: ucaradem@yahoo.com [Istanbul University, Interventional Radiology Department, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Yahyayev, Aghakishi, E-mail: aghakishi@yahoo.com [Istanbul University, Radiology Department, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Bakkaloglu, Huseyin, E-mail: drhuseyin@yahoo.com [Istanbul University, Transplantlogy Department, General Surgery, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Agayev, Ayaz, E-mail: ayazagayev@gmail.com [Istanbul University, Radiology Department, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Aydin, Ali Emin, E-mail: alieminaydin@hotmail.com [Istanbul University, Transplantlogy Department, General Surgery, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Rozanes, Izzet, E-mail: rozanes@superonline.com [Istanbul University, Interventional Radiology Department, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine (Turkey)

2011-02-15

80

Early extubation does not increase complication rates after coronary artery bypass graft surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: With the evolution of anesthesia and surgical procedures, fast track extubation has gained an increased interest, mainly based on the possibility of reducing health costs seemingly without compromising patient care. Aim: To compare two groups of patients submitted to a non-fast track extubation and a fast track extubation protocol after coronary artery bypass graft surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, regarding

J. Reis; J. C. MotaSUPbSU; P. Ponce; A. Costa-Pereira; M. Guerreiro

2002-01-01

81

Operational real-time GPS-enhanced earthquake early warning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Moment magnitudes for large earthquakes (Mw?7.0) derived in real time from near-field seismic data can be underestimated due to instrument limitations, ground tilting, and saturation of frequency/amplitude-magnitude relationships. Real-time high-rate GPS resolves the buildup of static surface displacements with the S wave arrival (assuming nonsupershear rupture), thus enabling the estimation of slip on a finite fault and the event's geodetic moment. Recently, a range of high-rate GPS strategies have been demonstrated on off-line data. Here we present the first operational system for real-time GPS-enhanced earthquake early warning as implemented at the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory (BSL) and currently analyzing real-time data for Northern California. The BSL generates real-time position estimates operationally using data from 62 GPS stations in Northern California. A fully triangulated network defines 170+ station pairs processed with the software trackRT. The BSL uses G-larmS, the Geodetic Alarm System, to analyze these positioning time series and determine static offsets and preevent quality parameters. G-larmS derives and broadcasts finite fault and magnitude information through least-squares inversion of the static offsets for slip based on a priori fault orientation and location information. This system tightly integrates seismic alarm systems (CISN-ShakeAlert, ElarmS-2) as it uses their P wave detections to trigger its processing; quality control runs continuously. We use a synthetic Hayward Fault earthquake scenario on real-time streams to demonstrate recovery of slip and magnitude. Reanalysis of the Mw7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake tests the impact of dynamic motions on offset estimation. Using these test cases, we explore sensitivities to disturbances of a priori constraints (origin time, location, and fault strike/dip).

Grapenthin, R.; Johanson, I. A.; Allen, R. M.

2014-10-01

82

Artery tortuosity syndrome exhibiting early-onset emphysema with novel compound heterozygous SLC2A10 mutations.  

PubMed

We report on a 2-year-old Japanese boy with early-onset pulmonary emphysema, exhibiting dysmorphic face, loose skin, and inguinal and Morgagni hernias. He was admitted to our hospital owing to refractory respiratory infection. On the basis of his clinical features, we investigated the SLC2A10 gene and identified novel compound heterozygous mutations of c.417T > A and c.692G > A, leading to the diagnosis of artery tortuosity syndrome (ATS). This syndrome is an extremely rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by tortuosity and elongation of the large and medium-sized arteries, hyperextensible skin, and diverse hernias, mostly reported from Europe and Middle Eastern countries, but not from Asia. Although chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, namely, emphysema, has not been well documented in ATS, it may be likely because TGF-beta up-regulation is known to be evoked by SLC2A10 mutations, resulting in reconstruction of pulmonary endothelial cells and emphysema. This is the first report of ATS associated with early-onset pulmonary emphysema, suggesting that patients with ATS may also require close attention for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:23494979

Takahashi, Yoshiko; Fujii, Katsunori; Yoshida, Akiko; Morisaki, Hiroko; Kohno, Yoichi; Morisaki, Takayuki

2013-04-01

83

Maternal alcohol consumption in pregnancy enhances arterial stiffness and alters vasodilator function that varies between vascular beds in fetal sheep.  

PubMed

While the impact of alcohol consumption by pregnant women on fetal neurodevelopment has received much attention, the effects on the cardiovascular system are not well understood. We hypothesised that repeated exposure to alcohol (ethanol) in utero would alter fetal arterial reactivity and wall stiffness, key mechanisms leading to cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Ethanol (0.75 g (kg body weight)(-1)) was infused intravenously into ewes over 1 h daily for 39 days in late pregnancy (days 95-133 of pregnancy, term ?147 days). Maternal and fetal plasma ethanol concentrations at the end of the hour were ?115 mg dl(-1), and then declined to apparent zero over 8 h. At necropsy (day 134), fetal body weight and fetal brain-body weight ratio were not affected by alcohol infusion. Small arteries (250-300 ?m outside diameter) from coronary, renal, mesenteric, femoral (psoas) and cerebral beds were isolated. Endothelium-dependent vasodilatation sensitivity was reduced 10-fold in coronary resistance arteries, associated with a reduction in endothelial nitric oxide synthase mRNA (P = 0.008). Conversely, vasodilatation sensitivity was enhanced 10-fold in mesenteric and renal resistance arteries. Arterial stiffness was markedly increased (P = 0.0001) in all five vascular beds associated with an increase in elastic modulus and, in cerebral vessels, with an increase in collagen I? mRNA. Thus, we show for the first time that fetal arteries undergo marked and regionally variable adaptations as a consequence of repeated alcohol exposure. These alcohol-induced vascular effects occurred in the apparent absence of fetal physical abnormalities or fetal growth restriction. PMID:24756643

Parkington, Helena C; Kenna, Kelly R; Sozo, Foula; Coleman, Harold A; Bocking, Alan; Brien, James F; Harding, Richard; Walker, David W; Morley, Ruth; Tare, Marianne

2014-06-15

84

Evaluation of renal arteries in living renal donors: comparison between MDCT angiography and gadolinium-enhanced 3D MR angiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The purpose of this study was to clarify and compare the accuracy of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) angiography\\u000a using multidetector-row helical CT (MDCT angiography) and gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography using three-dimensional Fourier\\u000a transformation gradient-echo sequence (3D MR angiography) for preoperative evaluation of renal arteries in living renal donors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  A total of 42 living renal donor candidates underwent both MDCT

Tonsok Kim; Takamichi Murakami; Satoru Takahashi; Masatoshi Hori; Shirou Takahara; Naotsugu Ichimaru; Akihiko Okuyama; Yoshifumi Narumi; Hironobu Nakamura

2006-01-01

85

The importance of (early) folate status to primary and secondary coronary artery disease prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Folate, methionine, betaine, choline, zinc and Vitamins B12, B6 and B2 are involved in one-carbon metabolism, which includes S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) substrated methylation. Inadequate enzyme activities and imbalances of substrates and cofactors in one-carbon metabolism, together referred to as the ‘methyldietary’ constituents, may cause homocysteine and S-adenosylhomocysteine accumulation. Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with many disorders including coronary artery disease (CAD). CAD at

Frits A. J. Muskiet

2005-01-01

86

Non-Contrast-Enhanced MR Angiography at 3 Tesla in Patients with Advanced Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic performance of ECG-gated non-contrast-enhanced quiescent interval single-shot (QISS) magnetic resonance angiography at a magnetic field strength of 3 Tesla in patients with advanced peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). Method and Materials A total of 21 consecutive patients with advanced PAOD (Fontaine stage IIb and higher) referred for peripheral magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) were included. Imaging was performed on a 3 T whole body MR. Image quality and stenosis diameter were evaluated in comparison to contrast-enhanced continuous table and TWIST MRA (CE-MRA) as standard of reference. QISS images were acquired with a thickness of 1.5 mm each (high-resolution QISS, HR-QISS). Two blinded readers rated the image quality and the degree of stenosis for both HR-QISS and CE-MRA in 26 predefined arterial vessel segments on 5-point Likert scales. Results With CE-MRA as the reference standard, HR-QISS showed high sensitivity (94.1%), specificity (97.8%), positive (95.1%), and negative predictive value (97.2%) for the detection of significant (?50%) stenosis. Interreader agreement for stenosis assessment of both HR-QISS and CE-MRA was excellent (?-values of 0.951 and 0.962, respectively). As compared to CR-MRA, image quality of HR-QISS was significantly lower for the distal aorta, the femoral and iliac arteries (each with p<0.01), while no significant difference was found in the popliteal (p?=?0.09) and lower leg arteries (p?=?0.78). Conclusion Non-enhanced ECG-gated HR-QISS performs very well in subjects with severe PAOD and is a good alternative for patients with a high risk of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. PMID:24608937

Nikolaou, Konstantin; Sommer, Wieland H.; Schmitt, Peter; Kazmierczak, Philipp M.; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Theisen, Daniel

2014-01-01

87

Access to Early Childhood Development: Strategies for Enhancing Social Integration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Access to early childhood education and social exclusion are issues currently of importance for policy and program development in Europe. This paper explores links between early education access and social exclusion in regard to profound and rapid changes in Europe that are forcing families to find new ways to remain integrated within their…

Wazir, Rekha; van Oudenhoven, Nico

88

Dynamic contrast–enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension  

PubMed Central

Abstract Dynamic contrast–enhanced (DCE) time-resolved magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is a technique whereby the passage of an intravenous contrast bolus can be tracked through the pulmonary vascular system. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of DCE-MR pulmonary blood transit times in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Seventy-nine patients diagnosed with PAH underwent pulmonary DCE imaging at 1.5 T using a time-resolved three-dimensional spoiled gradient echo sequence. The prognostic significance of two DCE parameters, full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the first-pass clearance curve and pulmonary transit time (PTT), along with demographic and invasive catheter measurements, was evaluated by univariate and bivariate Cox proportional hazards regression and Kaplan-Meier analysis. DCE-MR transit times were most closely correlated with cardiac index (CI) and pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) and were both found to be accurate for detecting reduced CI (FWHM area under the curve [AUC] at receiver operating characteristic analysis = 0.91 and PTT AUC = 0.92, respectively) and for detecting elevated PVRI (FWHM AUC = 0.88 and PTT AUC = 0.84, respectively). During the follow-up period, 25 patients died. Patients with longer measurements of FWHM (P = 0.0014) and PTT (P = 0.004) were associated with poor outcome at Kaplan-Meier analysis, and both parameters were strong predictors of adverse outcome from Cox proportional hazards analysis (P = 0.013 and 0.010, respectively). At bivariate analysis, DCE measurements predicted mortality independent of age, gender, and World Health Organization functional class; however, invasive hemodynamic indexes CI, PVRI, and DCE measurements were not independent of one another. In conclusion, DCE-MR transit times predict mortality in patients with PAH and are closely associated with clinical gold standards CI and PVRI. PMID:25006422

Condliffe, Robin; Marshall, Helen; Elliot, Charlie; Kiely, David G.; Wild, Jim M.

2014-01-01

89

Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.  

PubMed

Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) time-resolved magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is a technique whereby the passage of an intravenous contrast bolus can be tracked through the pulmonary vascular system. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of DCE-MR pulmonary blood transit times in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Seventy-nine patients diagnosed with PAH underwent pulmonary DCE imaging at 1.5 T using a time-resolved three-dimensional spoiled gradient echo sequence. The prognostic significance of two DCE parameters, full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the first-pass clearance curve and pulmonary transit time (PTT), along with demographic and invasive catheter measurements, was evaluated by univariate and bivariate Cox proportional hazards regression and Kaplan-Meier analysis. DCE-MR transit times were most closely correlated with cardiac index (CI) and pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) and were both found to be accurate for detecting reduced CI (FWHM area under the curve [AUC] at receiver operating characteristic analysis = 0.91 and PTT AUC = 0.92, respectively) and for detecting elevated PVRI (FWHM AUC = 0.88 and PTT AUC = 0.84, respectively). During the follow-up period, 25 patients died. Patients with longer measurements of FWHM (P = 0.0014) and PTT (P = 0.004) were associated with poor outcome at Kaplan-Meier analysis, and both parameters were strong predictors of adverse outcome from Cox proportional hazards analysis (P = 0.013 and 0.010, respectively). At bivariate analysis, DCE measurements predicted mortality independent of age, gender, and World Health Organization functional class; however, invasive hemodynamic indexes CI, PVRI, and DCE measurements were not independent of one another. In conclusion, DCE-MR transit times predict mortality in patients with PAH and are closely associated with clinical gold standards CI and PVRI. PMID:25006422

Swift, Andrew J; Telfer, Adam; Rajaram, Smitha; Condliffe, Robin; Marshall, Helen; Capener, Dave; Hurdman, Judith; Elliot, Charlie; Kiely, David G; Wild, Jim M

2014-03-01

90

Intermittent pneumatic leg compressions enhance muscle performance and blood flow in a model of peripheral arterial insufficiency  

PubMed Central

Despite the escalating prevalence in the aging population, few therapeutic options exist to treat patients with peripheral arterial disease. Application of intermittent pneumatic leg compressions (IPC) is regarded as a promising noninvasive approach to treat this condition, but the clinical efficacy, as well the mechanistic basis of action of this therapy, remain poorly defined. We tested the hypothesis that 2 wk of daily application of IPC enhances exercise tolerance by improving blood flow and promoting angiogenesis in skeletal muscle in a model of peripheral arterial insufficiency. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to bilateral ligation of the femoral artery and randomly allocated to treatment or sham groups. Animals were anesthetized daily and exposed to 1-h sessions of bilateral IPC or sham treatment for 14–16 consecutive days. A third group of nonligated rats was also studied. Marked increases in treadmill exercise tolerance (?33%, P < 0.05) and improved muscle performance in situ (?10%, P < 0.05) were observed in IPC-treated animals. Compared with sham-treated controls, blood flow measured with isotope-labeled microspheres during in situ contractions tended to be higher in IPC-treated animals in muscles composed of predominantly fast-twitch white fibers, such as the plantaris (?93%, P = 0.02). Capillary contacts per fiber and citrate synthase activity were not significantly altered by IPC treatment. Collectively, these data indicate that IPC improves exercise tolerance in a model of peripheral arterial insufficiency in part by enhancing blood flow to collateral-dependent tissues. PMID:22362398

Roseguini, Bruno T.; Arce-Esquivel, Arturo A.; Newcomer, Sean C.; Yang, Hsiao T.; Terjung, Ronald

2012-01-01

91

Vasodilatation of multiple cerebral arteries in early stage of stroke-like episode with MELAS.  

PubMed

We describe a patient with mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), with multiple cerebral vasodilatations in a stroke-like episode visualised by using magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and CT angiography (CTA). In the acute stroke-like episode stage, T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MRI showed high-intensity areas in the left occipital area. In addition, MRA and CTA revealed prominent dilatation of the left posterior cerebral artery and temporal branches of the middle cerebral artery with focal hyperperfusions using CT perfusion (CTP) that corresponded to the MRI. After 10 days, with the development of aphasia, MRI indicated the lesions had spread to the temporal and parietal regions, and this distribution was not confined to major vascular territories. The patient's symptoms gradually improved, accompanied by the attenuation of MRI, CTA, and CTP findings. These characteristic features along with the MRI changes that spread beyond vascular boundaries and the multiple cerebral vasodilatations prior to the development of clinical symptoms are not fully explained by the mitochondrial angiopathy or cytopathy theories. These findings provide further evidence supporting neuronal hyperexcitability in stroke-like episodes of MELAS. PMID:25128282

Minobe, Shoko; Matsuda, Akiko; Mitsuhashi, Tetsuya; Ishikawa, Motonao; Nishimura, Yoshiko; Shibata, Koichi; Ito, Eiichi; Goto, Yu-ichi; Nakaoka, Takashi; Sakura, Hiroshi

2015-02-01

92

Mitochondrial monoamine oxidase-A-mediated hydrogen peroxide generation enhances 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced contraction of rat basilar artery  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We evaluated the role(s) of monoamine oxidase (MAO)-mediated H2O2 generation on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-induced tension development of isolated basilar artery of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Basilar artery (endothelium-denuded) was isolated for tension measurement and Western blots. Enzymically dissociated single myocytes from basilar arteries were used for patch-clamp electrophysiological and confocal microscopic studies. KEY RESULTS Under resting tension, 5-HT elicited a concentration-dependent tension development with a greater sensitivity (with unchanged maximum tension development) in SHR compared with WKY (EC50: 28.4 ± 4.1 nM vs. 98.2 ± 9.4 nM). The exaggerated component of 5-HT-induced tension development in SHR was eradicated by polyethylene glycol-catalase, clorgyline and citalopram whereas exogenously applied H2O2 enhanced the 5-HT-elicited tension development in WKY. A greater protein expression of MAO-A was detected in basilar arteries from SHR than in those from WKY. In single myocytes and the entire basilar artery, 5-HT generated (clorgyline-sensitive) a greater amount of H2O2 in SHR compared with WKY. Whole-cell iberiotoxin-sensitive Ca2+-activated K+ (BKCa) amplitude measured in myocytes of SHR was approximately threefold greater than that in WKY (at +60 mV: 7.61 ± 0.89 pA·pF?1 vs. 2.61 ± 0.66 pA·pF?1). In SHR myocytes, 5-HT caused a greater inhibition (clorgyline-, polyethylene glycol-catalase- and reduced glutathione-sensitive) of BKCa amplitude than in those from WKY. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS 5-HT caused an increased generation of mitochondrial H2O2 via MAO-A-mediated 5-HT metabolism, which caused a greater inhibition of BKCa gating in basilar artery myocytes, leading to exaggerated basilar artery tension development in SHR. PMID:20977458

Poon, Christina Chui Wa; Seto, Sai Wang; Au, Alice Lai Shan; Zhang, Qian; Li, Rachel Wai Sum; Lee, Wayne Yuk Wai; Leung, George Pak Heng; Kong, Siu Kai; Yeung, John Hok Keung; Ngai, Sai Ming; Ho, Ho Pui; Lee, Simon Ming Yuen; Chan, Shun Wan; Kwan, Yiu Wa

2010-01-01

93

Music and Speech Listening Enhance the Recovery of Early Sensory Processing after Stroke  

E-print Network

that merely listening to music and speech after neural damage can induce long-term plastic changes in earlyMusic and Speech Listening Enhance the Recovery of Early Sensory Processing after Stroke Teppo of these skills after neural damage. Here, we studied the long-term effects of daily music and speech listening

94

VISUALISING EARLY PRODUCT DESIGN INFORMATION WITH ENHANCED CONCEPT MAPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors believe that an appropriate diagramming tool can be of substantial benefit to de- signers, especially in the early, pre-geometry stages of product development. We find no such tool to exist. We therefore introduce design schematics (DS) as such a tool. We outline the general benefits of diagramming and then consider the advantages and disadvantages of some existing diagramming

Filippo A. Salustri; Jayesh Parmar

95

Enhanced visualization of oral cavity for early inflamed tissue detection.  

PubMed

We describe a color image reconstruction method that enables both direct visualization and direct digital image acquisition from one oral tissue by using various light sources and color compensating filters. In this method, the image of the oral tissue with white light emitting diodes (LEDs) with blue color compensating filter has a larger color difference between the normal and inflamed tissues. The enhanced visualization comes from the white light color mixing between the red normal tissue and bluish white light from the LEDs. With our method, we evaluate the perceived tissue reflectance in each pixel of the image and color reproduction with different illuminated spectra. Our approach to enhancement of visually perceived color difference between normal and inflamed oral tissue involves optimization of illumination and observation conditions by allowing a significant optical contrast of illuminated spectrum to reach the observer's eyes. In comparison with a conventional daylight LED flashlight, a LED with blue filter as the illuminant for oral cavity detection enhances the color difference between normal and inflamed tissues by 32%. PMID:20589041

Wang, Hsiang-Chen; Chen, Yung-Tsan; Lin, Jui-Teng; Chiang, Chun-Ping; Cheng, Fang-Hsuan

2010-05-24

96

Early results of a reinforced biosynthetic ovine collagen vascular prosthesis for small arterial reconstruction.  

PubMed

The efficacy of a reinforced biosynthetic ovine collagen (RBOC) vascular prosthesis developed for small arterial reconstruction was assessed by examining 30 grafts in 29 patients with arteriosclerosis obliterans. The operative procedures performed were femorofemoral bypass in 2 patients, above-knee femoropopliteal bypass in 28 patients, and below-knee femoropopliteal bypass in 1 patient. Femoropopliteal bypass was simultaneously performed in two patients undergoing femorofemoral bypass using one or two grafts. The indications for surgery were intermittent claudication in 27 patients and to salvage the limb in 2 patients. The longest follow-up period was 49 months, and there were six graft failures, occurring 1, 1, 9, 17, 17, and 23 months after implantation, respectively; caused by compression of the graft from outside in two, infection in one, anastomotic intimal hyperplasia in one, and unknown factors in two. Thus, the primary cumulative patency rate for above-knee femoropopliteal bypass at 3 years was 83.7%, and the secondary patency rate was 91.2%. No aneurysmal change was observed. Moreover, the RBOC was able to be used without preclotting, and its handling and suturing characteristics were satisfactory. Our findings suggest that this vascular prosthesis may be an acceptable alternative for above-knee femoropopliteal bypass. PMID:8727947

Yoshida, H; Sasajima, T; Goh, K; Inaba, M; Otani, N; Kubo, Y

1996-01-01

97

Two functional polymorphisms of ROCK2 enhance arterial stiffening through inhibiting its activity and expression.  

PubMed

Derangement of Rho-associated kinases (ROCKs) has been related to coronary artery disease and stroke. ROCK2, rather than ROCK1, plays a predominant role in vascular contractility. The present study aims to test (1) the associations between ROCK2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and arterial stiffness, and (2) the molecular mechanism accounting for their effects. Stiffness parameters including beta (?), elasticity modulus (Ep) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) were obtained by carotid ultrasonography. Seven tagging SNPs of ROCK2 were initially genotyped in 856 subjects and significant SNPs were replicated in another group of 527 subjects. Two SNPs in complete linkage disequilibrium were found to be significantly associated with arterial stiffness. The major alleles of rs978906 (A allele) and rs9808232 (C allele) were associated with stiffer arteries. SNP rs978906 was predicted to influence microRNA(miR)-1183 binding to ROCK2, while rs9808232 causes amino acid substitution. To determine their functional impact, plasmid constructs carrying different alleles of the significant SNPs were created. Compared to rs978906G-allele constructs, cells transfected with rs978906A-allele constructs had higher baseline luciferase activities and were less responsive to miR-1183 changes. Oxidized-low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) suppressed miR-1183 levels and increased ROCK2 protein amounts. For rs9808232, cells transfected with C-allele constructs had significantly higher ROCK activities than those with A-allele constructs. Leukocyte ROCK activities were further measured in 52 healthy subjects. The average ROCK activity was highest in human subjects with CC genotype at rs9808232, followed by those with AC and lowest in AA. Taken together, the present study showed that two functional SNPs of ROCK2 increase susceptibility of arterial stiffness in the Chinese population. Non-synonymous SNP rs9808232 influences ROCK2 activity, while 3' UTR SNP rs978906 affects the ROCK2 protein synthesis by interfering miR-1183 binding. PMID:25481646

Liao, Yi-Chu; Liu, Ping-Yen; Lin, Hsiu-Fen; Lin, Wen-Yi; Liao, James K; Juo, Suh-Hang H

2015-02-01

98

Nitrogen-enhanced greenhouse warming on early Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early in Earth's history, the Sun provided less energy to the Earth than it does today. However, the Earth was not permanently glaciated, an apparent contradiction known as the faint young Sun paradox. By implication, the Earth must have been warmed by a stronger greenhouse effect or a lower planetary albedo. Here we use a radiative-convective climate model to show that more N2 in the atmosphere would have increased the warming effect of existing greenhouse gases by broadening their absorption lines. With the atmospheric CO2 and CH4 levels estimated for 2.5billion years ago, a doubling of the present atmospheric nitrogen (PAN) level would cause a warming of 4.4?C. Our new budget of Earth's geological nitrogen reservoirs indicates that there is a sufficient quantity of nitrogen in the crust (0.5 PAN) and mantle (>1.4 PAN) to have supported this, and that this nitrogen was previously in the atmosphere. In the mantle, N correlates with 40Ar, the daughter product of 40K, indicating that the source of mantle N is subducted crustal rocks in which NH4+ has been substituted for K+. We thus conclude that a higher nitrogen level probably helped warm the early Earth, and suggest that the effects of N2 should be considered in assessing the habitable zone for terrestrial planets.

Goldblatt, Colin; Claire, Mark W.; Lenton, Timothy M.; Matthews, Adrian J.; Watson, Andrew J.; Zahnle, Kevin J.

2009-12-01

99

Maternal History and Uterine Artery Doppler in the Assessment of Risk for Development of Early- and Late-Onset Preeclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction  

PubMed Central

Objective. To examine the value of one-step uterine artery Doppler at 20 weeks of gestation in the prediction pre-eclampsia (PE) and/or intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Methods. A prospective multicentre study that included all women with singleton pregnancies at 19–22 weeks of gestation (w). The mean pulsatility index (mPI) of both uterine arteries was calculated. Receiver-operating characteristics curves (ROC) were drawn to compare uterine artery Doppler and maternal risk factors for the prediction of early-onset PE and/or IUGR (before 32 w) and late-onset PE and/or IUGR. Results. 6,586 women were included in the study. Complete outcome data was recorded for 6,035 of these women (91.6%). PE developed in 75 (1.2%) and IUGR in 69 (1.1%) cases. Uterine Doppler mPI was 0.99 and the 90th centile was 1.40. For 10% false-positive rate, uterine Doppler mPI identified 70.6% of pregnancies that subsequently developed early-onset PE and 73.3% of pregnancies that developed early-onset IUGR. The test had a lower detection rate for the late-onset forms of the disease (23.5% for PE and 30% for IUGR). Maternal history has a low sensitivity in the detection of early-onset cases, although it is better at detecting late-onset PE. Conclusion. Uterine artery Doppler and maternal risk factors seem to select two different populations - early and late-onset PE which might suggest a different pathogenesis. PMID:19936122

Llurba, Elisa; Carreras, Elena; Gratacós, Eduard; Juan, Miquel; Astor, Judith; Vives, Angels; Hermosilla, Eduard; Calero, Ines; Millán, Pilar; García-Valdecasas, Bárbara; Cabero, Lluís

2009-01-01

100

The Relationships between Fatigue and Early Postoperative Recovery Outcomes Over Time in Elderly Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Surgery Patients  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Despite successful coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, some patients continue to experience fatigue following their surgery. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this secondary analysis study was to examine the relationships of fatigue and early recovery outcomes (psychosocial and physiological functioning, and physical activity) over time (6-weeks and 3-months) among older adult subjects, age 65 years and older, following CABG surgery. Comparison groups were those subjects who had fatigue at 3-weeks after surgery and non-fatigued subjects. DESIGN A prospective, comparative design was used for this secondary analysis study. SAMPLE Subjects in this study were drawn from the control group of subjects enrolled in the larger, parent study. Subjects (N=119) were dichotomized into fatigue (n=66) and non-fatigued (n=53) groups based on their 3-week self-report of postoperative fatigue. RESULTS At 6-weeks after surgery, fatigued subjects had significantly (p<.05) more impaired psychosocial functioning, [role-emotional (t=1.9), social (t=2.6), and mental (t=1.9) functioning], based Medical Outcome Study short form-36 (MOS SF-36). They had significantly (p<.005) higher anxiety (t= ?3.6) and depression (t= ?2.9) mean Hospital Anxiety and Depression subscale (HADS) scores. Anxiety (t= ?2.3, p<.05) remained significantly (p<.05) impaired at 3-months. At 6-weeks, role physical functioning, measured by the MOS SF-36, was significantly impaired (t=2.4, p<.01). There were no significant differences in physical activity variables as measured by a RT3® accelerometer and self-report diary. CONCLUSIONS Persistent fatigue can hamper early recovery following CABG surgery. Tailored interventions are needed to address fatigue management and improve patient outcomes. PMID:18620100

Barnason, Susan; Zimmerman, Lani; Nieveen, Janet; Schulz, Paula; Miller, Connie; Hertzog, Melody; Rasmussen, Doris

2008-01-01

101

Toward early diagnosis of arteriosclerotic diseases: collaborative detection of carotid artery calcifications by computer and dentists on dental panoramic radiographs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several studies have reported the presence of carotid artery calcifications (CACs) on dental panoramic radiographs (DPRs) as a possible sign of arteriosclerotic diseases. However, CACs are not easily visible at the common window level for dental examinations, and dentists, in general, are not looking for CACs. Computerized detection of CACs may help dentists in referring patients with a risk of arteriosclerotic diseases to have a detailed examination at a medical clinic. Downside of our previous method was a relatively large number of false positives (FPs). In this study, we attempted to reduce FPs by including an additional feature and selecting effective features for the classifier. A hundred DPRs including 34 cases with calcifications were included. Initial candidates were detected by thresholding the output of top-hat operation. For each candidate, 10 features and a new feature characterizing the relative position of a CAC with reference to the lower mandible edge were determined. After the rule-based FP reduction, candidates were classified into CACs and FPs by a support vector machine. Based on the leave-one-out cross-validation evaluations, an average number of FPs was 3.1 per image at 90.4% sensitivity using seven features selected. Compared to our previous method, the number of FPs was reduced by 38% at the same sensitivity level. The proposed method has a potential in identifying patients with a risk of arteriosclerosis early via general dental examinations.

Muramatsu, Chisako; Takahashi, Ryo; Hara, Takeshi; Hayashi, Tatsuro; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Zhou, Xiangrong; Fujita, Hiroshi

2014-03-01

102

Infarcts in the anterior choroidal artery territory. Anatomical distribution, clinical syndromes, presumed pathogenesis and early outcome.  

PubMed

From a prospective registry of all consecutive patients with a supratentorial ischaemic stroke, those with a compatible CT lesion were selected to study topographical relationship, clinical syndrome, vascular risk factors, signs of large-vessel disease or cardiogenic embolism, and mortality in cases with an infarct in the anterior choroidal artery (AChA) territory in comparison with other infarct subtypes. First we identified the area supplied by the AChA: in accordance with the consensus in the literature the posterior two-thirds of the posterior leg of the internal capsule was considered as certain AChA territory. After reviewing CT scans, all presumed small deep AChA territory infarcts were displayed in a schematic composite picture of super-imposed areas of infarction in different shades of grey. Infarcts that were located largely outside the generally included territory were presumed to belong to a different vascular territory. Thus, 77 small deep infarcts were considered to be located within, and 83 outside the AChA territory. Twenty-nine AChA infarcts extended from the internal capsule upwards into the posterior paraventricular corona radiata region. Furthermore, the composite representation of 26 infarcts restricted to the posterior part of the paraventricular corona radiata region showed almost complete overlap with the area occupied by AChA infarcts that extended upwards. We therefore concluded that the posterior paraventricular area is most likely supplied by the AChA. The frequency of a clinical lacunar or a cortical syndrome did not differ between small deep AChA and remaining small deep infarcts. Comparison of vascular risk factors by way of multivariate regression analysis only showed that a significant carotid stenosis was more frequent (adjusted odds ratio 8.87; 95% confidence interval 1.44-54.50), and a cardioembolic source was less frequent (odds ratio 0.24; 95% confidence interval 0.07-0.92) in AChA infarcts than in the other small deep infarcts. Carotid stenosis and cardiac embolism were less frequent in AChA infarcts than in superficial infarcts (odds ratio 0.33, 0.23, respectively; 95% confidence interval 0.15-0.74, 0.09-0.52, respectively). One month and one year mortality were lower in small deep infarcts compared with superficial infarcts, but most favourable in the AChA group. However, this was probably related to younger age in the AChA patients. Larger AChA infarcts were infrequent in our series; six of such cases did not differ in any respect from superficial infarcts. We conclude that the posterior paraventricular corona radiata region is most likely supplied by the AChA, and that AChA infarcts do not constitute a separate brain infarct entity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7922468

Hupperts, R M; Lodder, J; Heuts-van Raak, E P; Kessels, F

1994-08-01

103

Elastin-derived peptides stimulate trophoblast migration and invasion: a positive feedback loop to enhance spiral artery remodelling.  

PubMed

Elastin breakdown in the walls of uterine spiral arteries during early pregnancy facilitates their transformation into dilated, high-flow, low-resistance channels. Elastin-derived peptides (EDP) can influence cell migration, invasion and protease activity, and so we hypothesized that EDP released during elastolysis promote extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion and further elastin breakdown. Treatment of the trophoblast cell line SGHPL4 with the elastin-derived matrikine VGVAPG (1 ?g/ml) significantly increased total elastase activity, promoted migration in a wound healing assay and increased invasion through Matrigel-coated transwells compared with vehicle control (0.1% DMSO) or the scrambled sequence VVGPGA. Furthermore, treatment of first-trimester placental villous explants with this EDP significantly increased both the area of trophoblast outgrowth and distance of migration away from the villous tips. Primary first-trimester cytotrophoblast exposed to VGVAPG (1 ?g/ml) for 30 min showed increased phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and activation of the mitogen activated protein kinase pathway, events also associated with tumour cell migration and invasion. These in vitro observations suggest liberation of bioactive EDP during induction of elastolysis in the uterine spiral arteries may orchestrate a positive feedback loop that promotes EVT invasion and further elastin breakdown, contributing to the process of vascular remodelling. PMID:25245255

Desforges, Michelle; Harris, Lynda K; Aplin, John D

2015-01-01

104

Strain-Blood Pressure Index for Evaluation of Early Changes in Elasticity of Anterior Tibial Artery in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and value of strain-blood pressure index (SBPI) to assess early changes in elasticity of anterior tibial artery in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Material/Methods Eighty-one randomly selected in-patients with T2DM were divided into 2 groups – a vascular complication negative group (n=42) and a vascular complication positive group (n=39). Forty healthy volunteers were enrolled in a control group. Ultrasonographic scans using Xstrain™ technique were conducted for every patient to obtain the maximum circumferential strain (CSmax) of anterior tibial artery; patient blood pressure was also measured for calculating strain-blood pressure index (SBPI=CSmax/[(local pulse pressure)/local diastolic blood pressure] ×100%. Afterwards, SBPIs of various groups were comparatively analyzed. Results Differences in SBPIs among the 3 groups were statistically significant (control group > negative group > positive group, P<0.05). Conclusions SBPI could be used as a new indicator for the evaluation on the anterior tibial arterial elasticity of T2DM patients and it was able to reflect the early elasticity changes in anterior tibial arteries in T2DM patients with atherosclerosis. PMID:25418129

Zou, Chunpeng; Jiao, Yan; Zheng, Chao; Zhao, Yaping; Li, Xingwang

2014-01-01

105

Features of early gastric cancer and gastric adenoma by enhanced-magnification endoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Changes to the mucosal surface of early gastric carcinomas and gastric adenomas as viewed by enhanced-magnification endoscopy\\u000a with acetic acid have not been investigated thoroughly. Using this technology, we investigated the appearance of the gastric\\u000a surface patterns of neoplastic and surrounding nonneoplastic mucosa.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Forty-seven consecutive patients with early gastric carcinomas or gastric adenomas underwent enhanced-magnification endoscopy\\u000a following 1.5% acetic acid

Kyosuke Tanaka; Hideki Toyoda; Shigenori Kadowaki; Ryo Kosaka; Taizo Shiraishi; Ichiro Imoto; Hiroshi Shiku; Yukihiko Adachi

2006-01-01

106

Albumin therapy enhances collateral perfusion after laser-induced middle cerebral artery branch occlusion: a laser speckle contrast flow study  

PubMed Central

Laser speckle contrast (LSC) was used to compare the extent of cortical ischemia in two inbred mouse strains that differed in their degree of collateral circulation, after laser occlusion of the distal middle cerebral artery, and after treatment with 25% albumin (ALB) or saline (control). Sequential LSC images acquired over ?90?minutes were coaligned, converted to relative flow, and normalized to baseline. After 3-day survival, infarction was quantified by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride or magnetic resonance imaging. In the sparsely collateralized BALB/c strain, mean flow fell to 13% to 14% and 33% to 34% of baseline in central (core) and peripheral (penumbral) regions of interest, and ALB treatment at 30?minutes enhanced perfusion in both regions by ?2-fold relative to saline, restoring flow to the benign-oligemic range centrally, and to the hyperemic range peripherally. The ALB-induced increment in parenchymal perfusion was disproportionate to the subtle flow increase in the occluded artery itself, suggesting that ALB improved collateral circulation. Cortical infarction in BALB/c mice was reduced 45% by ALB treatment. In contrast to BALB/c mice, the better-collateralized CD-1 strain developed milder ischemia, had smaller infarcts, and showed no differential benefit of ALB. We conclude that where native collateralization is insufficient (BALB/c strain), ALB treatment exerts a significant therapeutic effect after ischemia by augmenting collateral perfusion. PMID:22781334

DeFazio, Richard A; Zhao, Weizhao; Deng, Xiaolu; Obenaus, Andre; Ginsberg, Myron D

2012-01-01

107

Reduced syndecan-4 expression in arterial smooth muscle cells with enhanced proliferation.  

PubMed

Syndecans, a family of cell surface heparan sulfate (HS) containing proteoglycans (PGs), are known regulators of many biological processes including inhibition of smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation. Cultured arterial SMCs from atherosclerosis-susceptible White Carneau (WC) pigeons have increased proliferation rates and significant reductions in total cell-surface HS relative to atherosclerosis-resistant Show Racer (SR) SMC. Using a specific syndecan-4 cDNA, 1.5- to 2.0-fold reductions in gene expression were observed in WC SMC compared to SR SMC. Immunolocalization studies demonstrated reduced cell surface syndecan-4 protein in WC cells. Gene induction demonstrated that the reduction in syndecan-4 expression in WC cells was not due to reduced mRNA stability. Studies using cycloheximide to superinduce gene expression indicated transcriptional suppression of syndecan-4 in WC cells. The results suggest that reduced cell surface HS PG in WC arterial SMC can be explained, in part, by reductions in syndecan-4 gene expression. Differential transcriptional regulation of syndecan-4 in WC and SR cells provides a system to explore regulation of the syndecan-4 gene as well as the potential mechanisms by which syndecan-4 can exert a specific antiproliferative effect. PMID:15596055

Bortoff, Katherine D; Wagner, William D

2005-02-01

108

Can contrast-enhanced ultrasound with second-generation contrast agents replace computed tomography angiography for distinguishing between occlusion and pseudo-occlusion of the internal carotid artery?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of contrast-enhanced ultrasound with a second-generation contrast agent in distinguishing between occlusion and pseudo-occlusion of the cervical internal carotid artery, comparing it with that of conventional Doppler ultrasound and the gold standard, computed tomography angiography. METHOD: Between June 2006 and June 2012, we screened 72 symptomatic vascular surgery outpatients at a public hospital. Among those patients, 78 cervical internal carotid arteries were previously classified as occluded by Doppler ultrasound (without contrast). The patients were examined again with Doppler ultrasound, as well as with contrast-enhanced ultrasound and computed tomography angiography. The diagnosis was based on the presence or absence of flow. RESULTS: Among the 78 cervical internal carotid arteries identified as occluded by Doppler ultrasound, occlusion was confirmed by computed tomography angiography in only 57 (73.1%), compared with 59 (77.5%) for which occlusion was confirmed by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (p>0.5 vs. computed tomography angiography). Comparing contrast-enhanced ultrasound with Doppler ultrasound, we found that the proportion of cervical internal carotid arteries classified as occluded was 24.4% higher when the latter was used (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that, in making the differential diagnosis between occlusion and pseudo-occlusion of the cervical internal carotid artery, contrast-enhanced ultrasound with a second-generation contrast agent is significantly more effective than conventional Doppler ultrasound and is equally as effective as the gold standard (computed tomography angiography). Our findings suggest that contrast-enhanced ultrasound could replace computed tomography angiography in this regard. PMID:25672421

Ventura, Carlos Augusto Pinto; da Silva, Erasmo Simão; Cerri, Giovanni Guido; Leão, Pedro Puech; Tachibana, Adriano; Chammas, Maria Cristina

2015-01-01

109

Early life antibiotic-driven changes in microbiota enhance susceptibility to allergic asthma  

E-print Network

Early life antibiotic-driven changes in microbiota enhance susceptibility to allergic asthma City, Quebec, Canada Allergic asthma rates have increased steadily in developed countries, arguing for an environmental aetiology. To assess the influence of gut microbiota on experimental murine allergic asthma, we

Strynadka, Natalie

110

Middle cerebral artery remodeling following transient brain ischemia is linked to early postischemic hyperemia: A target of uric acid treatment.  

PubMed

Ischemia impairs blood supply to the brain, and reperfusion is important to restore cerebral blood flow (CBF) and rescue neurons from cell death. However, reperfusion can induce CBF values exceeding the basal values before ischemia. This hyperemic effect has been associated with a worse ischemic brain damage, albeit the mechanisms that contribute to infarct expansion are not clear. In this study, we investigated the influence of early postischemic hyperemia on brain damage and middle cerebral artery (MCA) properties and the effect of treatment with the endogenous antioxidant uric acid (UA). The MCA was occluded for 90 min followed by 24 h reperfusion in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Cortical CBF increases at reperfusion beyond 20% of basal values were taken as indicative of hyperemia. UA (16 mg/kg) or vehicle (Locke's buffer) was administered intravenously 135 min after MCA occlusion. Hyperemic compared with nonhyperemic rats showed MCA wall thickening (sham: 22.4 ± 0.8 ?m; nonhyperemic: 23.1 ± 1.2 ?m; hyperemic: 27.8 ± 0.9 at 60 mmHg; P < 0.001, hyperemic vs. sham) involving adventitial cell proliferation, increased oxidative stress, and interleukin-18, and more severe brain damage. Thus MCA remodeling after ischemia-reperfusion takes place under vascular oxidative and inflammatory stress conditions linked to hyperemia. UA administration attenuated MCA wall thickening, induced passive lumen expansion, and reduced brain damage in hyperemic rats, although it did not increase brain UA concentration. We conclude that hyperemia at reperfusion following brain ischemia induces vascular damage that can be attenuated by administration of the endogenous antioxidant UA. PMID:25637543

Onetti, Yara; Dantas, Ana P; Pérez, Belén; Cugota, Roger; Chamorro, Angel; Planas, Anna M; Vila, Elisabet; Jiménez-Altayó, Francesc

2015-04-15

111

Computational simulations of hemodynamic changes within thoracic, coronary, and cerebral arteries following early wall remodeling in response to distal aortic coarctation  

PubMed Central

Mounting evidence suggests that the pulsatile character of blood pressure and flow within large arteries plays a particularly important role as a mechano-biological stimulus for wall growth and remodeling. Nevertheless, understanding better the highly coupled interactions between evolving wall geometry, structure, and properties and the hemodynamics will require significantly more experimental data. Computational fluid–solid-growth models promise to aid in the design and interpretation of such experiments and to identify candidate mechanobiological mechanisms for the observed arterial adaptations. Motivated by recent aortic coarctation models in animals, we used a computational fluid–solid interaction model to study possible local and systemic effects on the hemodynamics within the thoracic aorta and coronary, carotid, and cerebral arteries due to a distal aortic coarctation and subsequent spatial variations in wall adaptation. In particular, we studied an initial stage of acute cardiac compensation (i.e., maintenance of cardiac output) followed by early arterial wall remodeling (i.e., spatially varying wall thickening and stiffening). Results suggested, for example, that while coarctation increased both the mean and pulse pressure in the proximal vessels, the locations nearest to the coarctation experienced the greatest changes in pulse pressure. In addition, after introducing a spatially varying wall adaptation, pressure, left ventricular work, and wave speed all increased. Finally, vessel wall strain similarly experienced spatial variations consistent with the degree of vascular wall adaptation. PMID:22415052

Coogan, Jessica S.; Humphrey, Jay D.; Figueroa, C. Alberto

2012-01-01

112

COMING SOON -ENHANCEMENTS TO STUDENT ACCOUNT MANAGEMENT At the request of our students, some exciting new system enhancements will be introduced early this  

E-print Network

. It will be integrated with Wesleyan's student accounting system to provide real time updates to your student accountCOMING SOON - ENHANCEMENTS TO STUDENT ACCOUNT MANAGEMENT At the request of our students, some exciting new system enhancements will be introduced early this summer. These enhancements will provide more

Devoto, Stephen H.

113

3D GRASE pulsed arterial spin labeling at multiple inflow times in patients with long arterial transit times: comparison with dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI at 3 Tesla.  

PubMed

Pulsed arterial spin labeling (PASL) at multiple inflow times (multi-TIs) is advantageous for the measurement of brain perfusion in patients with long arterial transit times (ATTs) as in steno-occlusive disease, because bolus-arrival-time can be measured and blood flow measurements can be corrected accordingly. Owing to its increased signal-to-noise ratio, a combination with a three-dimensional gradient and spin echo (GRASE) readout allows acquiring a sufficient number of multi-TIs within a clinically feasible acquisition time of 5?minutes. We compared this technique with the clinical standard dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced imaging-magnetic resonance imaging in patients with unilateral stenosis >70% of the internal carotid or middle cerebral artery (MCA) at 3 Tesla. We performed qualitative (assessment by three expert raters) and quantitative (region of interest (ROI)/volume of interest (VOI) based) comparisons. In 43 patients, multi-TI PASL-GRASE showed perfusion alterations with moderate accuracy in the qualitative analysis. Quantitatively, moderate correlation coefficients were found for the MCA territory (ROI based: r=0.52, VOI based: r=0.48). In the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) territory, a readout related right-sided susceptibility artifact impaired correlation (ROI based: r=0.29, VOI based: r=0.34). Arterial transit delay artifacts were found only in 12% of patients. In conclusion, multi-TI PASL-GRASE can correct for arterial transit delay in patients with long ATTs. These results are promising for the transfer of ASL to the clinical practice. PMID:25407272

Martin, Steve Z; Madai, Vince I; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Federico C; Mutke, Matthias A; Bauer, Miriam; Herzig, Cornelius X; Hetzer, Stefan; Günther, Matthias; Sobesky, Jan

2015-03-01

114

ECG-Triggered Non-Contrast-Enhanced MR Angiography (TRANCE) versus Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA) in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease of the lower extremities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To prospectively determine the diagnostic value of electrocardiography-triggered non-contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance\\u000a angiography (TRANCE) of the lower extremities including the feet versus DSA.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  All 43 patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) underwent TRANCE before DSA. Quality of MRA\\u000a vessel depiction was rated by two independent radiologists on a 3-point scale. Arterial segments were graded for stenoses\\u000a using a 4-point

Andreas Gutzeit; Reto Sutter; Johannes M. Froehlich; Justus E. Roos; Thomas Sautter; Erik Schoch; Barbara Giger; Michael Wyss; Nicole Graf; Constantin von Weymarn; Regula Jenelten; Christoph A. Binkert; Klaus Hergan

2011-01-01

115

Milk production, plasma metabolite profiles and mammary arterial-venous differences of milk precursors in early lactation cows milked at different frequencies by an automatic milking system.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to clarify the effect of different milking frequencies under an automatic milking system (AMS) on milk yield, plasma metabolite profiles and mammary arterial-venous (A-V) differences of milk precursors by mammary tissues in early lactation cows. Twelve Holstein cows were divided into two and four times milking frequency treatments by AMS after calving to 50 days postpartum. Cows were given a partial mixed ration ad libitum and a concentrate diet at every milking. Dry matter intake increased similarly in both treatments with advancing postpartum days. Milk yield was greater (P?Arterial concentrations of glucose and glutamate were lower (P?arterial concentration of nonesterified fatty acids did not differ between treatments. Although mammary A-V differences of plasma concentration for most milk precursors did not differ between treatments, estimated plasma flow was higher (P?early lactating cows from day 20 postpartum onward. PMID:25474097

Astuti, Andriyani; Obitsu, Taketo; Sugino, Toshihisa; Taniguchi, Kohzo; Okita, Miki; Kurokawa, Yuzo

2014-12-01

116

Automatic assessment of coronary artery calcium score from contrast-enhanced 256-row coronary computed tomography angiography.  

PubMed

The coronary artery calcium score (CS), an independent predictor of cardiovascular events, can be obtained from a stand-alone nonenhanced computed tomography (CT) scan (CSCT) or as an additional nonenhanced procedure before contrast-enhanced coronary CT angiography (CCTA). We evaluated the accuracy of a novel fully automatic tool for computing CS from the CCTA examination. One hundred thirty-six consecutive symptomatic patients (aged 59 ± 11 years, 40% female) without known coronary artery disease who underwent both 256-row CSCT and CCTA were studied. Original scan reconstruction (slice thickness) was maintained (3 mm for CSCT and 0.67 mm for CCTA). CS was computed from CCTA by an automatic tool (COR Analyzer, rcadia Medical Imaging, Haifa, Israel) and compared with CS results obtained by standard assessment of nonenhanced CSCT (HeartBeat CS, Philips, Cleveland, Ohio). We also compared both methods for classification into 5 commonly used CS categories (0, 1 to 10, 11 to 100, 101 to 400, >400 Agatston units). All scans were of diagnostic quality. CS obtained by the COR Analyzer from CCTA classified 111 of 136 (82%) of patients into identical categories as CS by CSCT and 24 of remaining 25 into an adjacent category. Overall, CS values from CCTA showed high correlation with CS values from CSCT (Spearman rank correlation = 0.95, p <0.0001). In conclusion, CS values automatically computed from 256-row CCTA correlated highly with standard CS values obtained from nonenhanced CSCT. CS obtained directly from CCTA may obviate the need for an additional scan and attendant radiation. PMID:24169013

Rubinshtein, Ronen; Halon, David A; Gaspar, Tamar; Lewis, Basil S; Peled, Nathan

2014-01-01

117

Cerebrospinal Fluid Enhancement on Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery Images After Carotid Artery Stenting with Neuroprotective Balloon Occlusions: Hemodynamic Instability and Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: A rare complication of carotid artery stenting (CAS), prolonged reversible neurological symptoms with delayed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space enhancement on fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images, is associated with blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. We prospectively identified patients who showed CSF space enhancement on FLAIR images. Methods: Nineteen patients-5 acute-phase and 14 scheduled-underwent 21 CAS procedures. Balloon catheters were navigated across stenoses, angioplasty was performed using a neuroprotective balloon, and stents were placed with after dilation under distal balloon protection. CSF space hyperintensity or obscuration on FLAIR after versus before CAS indicated CSF space enhancement. Correlations with clinical factors were examined. Results: CSF space was enhanced on FLAIR in 12 (57.1%) cases. Postprocedural CSF space enhancement was significantly related to age, stenosis rate, acute-stage procedure, and total occlusion time. All acute-stage CAS patients showed delayed enhancement. Only age was associated with delayed CSF space enhancement in scheduled CAS patients. Conclusions: Ischemic intolerance for severe carotid artery stenosis and temporary neuroprotective balloon occlusion, causing reperfusion injury, seem to be the main factors that underlie BBB disruption with delayed CSF space enhancement shortly after CAS, rather than sudden poststenting hemodynamic change. Our results suggest that factors related to hemodynamic instability or ischemic intolerance seem to be associated with post-CAS BBB vulnerability. Patients at risk for hemodynamic instability or with ischemic intolerance, which decrease BBB integrity, require careful management to prevent intracranial hemorrhagic and other post-CAS complications.

Ogami, Ryo, E-mail: ogami.r@mazda.co.jp; Nakahara, Toshinori [Mazda Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery (Japan); Hamasaki, Osamu [Shimane Prefectural Central Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery (Japan); Araki, Hayato [Mazda Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery (Japan); Kurisu, Kaoru [Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Neurosurgery (Japan)

2011-10-15

118

Hybrid Coronary Revascularization Using Limited Incisional Full Sternotomy Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery in Multivessel Disease: Early Results  

PubMed Central

Background There are several modalities of coronary artery revascularization for multivessel coronary artery disease. Hybrid coronary revascularization (HCR) with minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass grafting was introduced for high-risk patients, and recently, many centers have been using it. Limited incisional full sternotomy coronary artery bypass (LIFCAB) involves left internal thoracic artery (LITA)-to-left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) anastomosis through a sternotomy with a minimal skin incision; it could be considered another technique for minimally invasive LITA-to-LAD anastomosis. Our center has performed HCR using LIFCAB, and in this paper, we report our short-term results, obtained in the past 3 years. Methods The medical records of 38 patients from May 2010 to June 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. The observation period after HCR was 1 to 37 months (average, 18.3±10.3 months). The patency of revascularization was confirmed with postoperative coronary angio-computerized tomography or coronary angiography. Results There were 3 superficial wound complications, but no mortalities. All the LITA-to-LAD anastomoses were patent in the immediate postoperative and follow-up studies, but stenosis was detected in 3 cases of percutaneous coronary intervention. Conclusion HCR using LIFCAB is safe and yields satisfactory results from the viewpoint of revascularization for multivessel disease. PMID:24782958

Kang, Joonkyu; Lee, Seok In; Moon, Mi Hyung; Kim, Hwan Wook; Jo, Gyun Hyun

2014-01-01

119

An arterial-specific enhancer of the human endothelin converting enzyme 1 (ECE1) gene is synergistically activated by Sox17, FoxC2, and Etv2.  

PubMed

Endothelin-converting enzyme-1 (Ece-1), a crucial component of the Endothelin signaling pathway, is required for embryonic development and is an important regulator of vascular tone, yet the transcriptional regulation of the ECE1 gene has remained largely unknown. Here, we define the activity and regulation of an enhancer from the human ECE1 locus in vivo. The enhancer identified here becomes active in endothelial progenitor cells shortly after their initial specification and is dependent on a conserved FOX:ETS motif, a composite binding site for Forkhead transcription factors and the Ets transcription factor Etv2, for activity in vivo. The ECE1 FOX:ETS motif is bound and cooperatively activated by FoxC2 and Etv2, but unlike other described FOX:ETS-dependent enhancers, ECE1 enhancer activity becomes restricted to arterial endothelium and endocardium by embryonic day 9.5 in transgenic mouse embryos. The ECE1 endothelial enhancer also contains an evolutionarily-conserved, consensus SOX binding site, which is required for activity in transgenic mouse embryos. Importantly, the ECE1 SOX site is bound and activated by Sox17, a transcription factor involved in endothelial cell differentiation and an important regulator of arterial identity. Moreover, the ECE1 enhancer is cooperatively activated by the combinatorial action of FoxC2, Etv2, and Sox17. Although Sox17 is required for arterial identity, few direct transcriptional targets have been identified in endothelial cells. Thus, this work has important implications for our understanding of endothelial specification and arterial subspecification. PMID:25179465

Robinson, Ashley S; Materna, Stefan C; Barnes, Ralston M; De Val, Sarah; Xu, Shan-Mei; Black, Brian L

2014-11-15

120

Early auditory enrichment with music enhances auditory discrimination learning and alters NR2B protein expression in rat auditory cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that the functional development of auditory system is substantially influenced by the structure of environmental acoustic inputs in early life. In our present study, we investigated the effects of early auditory enrichment with music on rat auditory discrimination learning. We found that early auditory enrichment with music from postnatal day (PND) 14 enhanced learning ability in

Jinghong Xu; Liping Yu; Rui Cai; Jiping Zhang; Xinde Sun

2009-01-01

121

Arterial stiffness and 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in young healthy volunteers: the early vascular ageing Aristotle University Thessaloniki Study (EVA-ARIS Study).  

PubMed

Differences in 24 h blood pressure (BP) monitoring parameters such as average 24 h BP, day to night BP ratio and BP variability could have an impact in arterial stiffness. The study hypothesis was that despite similar average BP values in ambulatory blood pressure monitoring subjects with increased 24 h BP variability may have increased arterial stiffness. The study population consisted of 115 consecutive young healthy volunteers. Carotid-femoral PWV was measured in all subjects. Clinic BP was measured and an appropriate cuff was fitted on the non-dominant arm of each subject for a 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring session. Waist to hip ratio as well as BMI was measured. Family history and smoking habits were recorded. In univariate analysis, estimated carotid-femoral PWV showed a significant correlation with age, weight, waist circumference, height, clinic systolic and diastolic BP, 24-h systolic and diastolic BP, 24-h pulse pressure, 24-h systolic and diastolic BP variability, daytime systolic and diastolic BP, daytime pulse pressure, daytime systolic and diastolic BP variability, nighttime systolic BP, nighttime pulse pressure and nighttime systolic BP variability. In multivariate regression analysis, age (B=0.95, P<0.001) and 24 h systolic BP variability (B=0.28, P<0.001) were independent determinanats of arterial stiffness. In conclusions, increased 24 h systolic BP variability is associated with arterial stiffness in young healthy volunteers. Pulse wave velocity in a young healthy population is useful to identify determinants of premature arterial stiffness, thus further elucidating the aspects of early vascular ageing. PMID:21840525

Kotsis, Vasilios; Stabouli, Stella; Karafillis, Ioannis; Papakatsika, Sofia; Rizos, Zoe; Miyakis, Spiros; Goulopoulou, Sofia; Parati, Gianfranco; Nilsson, Peter

2011-11-01

122

Polycomb Binding Precedes Early-Life Stress Responsive DNA Methylation at the Avp Enhancer  

PubMed Central

Early-life stress (ELS) in mice causes sustained hypomethylation at the downstream Avp enhancer, subsequent overexpression of hypothalamic Avp and increased stress responsivity. The sequence of events leading to Avp enhancer methylation is presently unknown. Here, we used an embryonic stem cell-derived model of hypothalamic-like differentiation together with in vivo experiments to show that binding of polycomb complexes (PcG) preceded the emergence of ELS-responsive DNA methylation and correlated with gene silencing. At the same time, PcG occupancy associated with the presence of Tet proteins preventing DNA methylation. Early hypothalamic-like differentiation triggered PcG eviction, DNA-methyltransferase recruitment and enhancer methylation. Concurrently, binding of the Methyl-CpG-binding and repressor protein MeCP2 increased at the enhancer although Avp expression during later stages of differentiation and the perinatal period continued to increase. Overall, we provide evidence of a new role of PcG proteins in priming ELS-responsive DNA methylation at the Avp enhancer prior to epigenetic programming consistent with the idea that PcG proteins are part of a flexible silencing system during neuronal development. PMID:24599304

Murgatroyd, Chris; Spengler, Dietmar

2014-01-01

123

Motor balance and coordination training enhances functional outcome in rat with transient middle cerebral artery occlusion.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to determine if relatively complex motor training on Rota-rod involving balance and coordination plays an essential role in improving motor function in ischemic rats, as compared with simple locomotor exercise on treadmill. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats with (n=40) or without (n=40) ischemia were trained under each of three conditions: (1) motor balance and coordination training on Rota-rod; (2) simple exercise on treadmill; and (3) non-trained controls. Motor function was evaluated by a series of tests (foot fault placing, parallel bar crossing, rope and ladder climbing) before and at 14 or 28 days after training procedures in both ischemic and normal animals. Infarct volume in ischemic animals was determined with Nissl staining. Compared with both treadmill exercised and non-trained animals, Rota-rod-trained animals with or without ischemia significantly (P<0.01) improved motor performance of all tasks except for foot fault placing after 14 days of training, with normal rats having better performance. Animals trained for up to 28 days on the treadmill did not show significantly improved function. With regard to foot fault placing task, performance on foot placing was improved in ischemic rats across the three measurements at 0, 14 and 28 days regardless of training condition, while the normal group reached their best performance at the beginning of measurement. No significant differences in infarct volume were found in rats trained either with Rota-rod (47+/-4%; mean+/-S.E.), treadmill (45+/-5%) or non-exercised control (45+/-3%). In addition, no obvious difference could be detected in the location of the damage which included the dorso-lateral portion of the neostriatum and the frontoparietal cortex, the main regions supplied by the middle cerebral artery. The data suggest that complex motor training rather than simple exercise effectively improves functional outcome. PMID:14706778

Ding, Y; Li, J; Lai, Q; Rafols, J A; Luan, X; Clark, J; Diaz, F G

2004-01-01

124

77 FR 13513 - Enhanced Prudential Standards and Early Remediation Requirements for Covered Companies  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

On January 5, 2012, the Board published in the Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking for public comment to implement the enhanced prudential standards required to be established under section 165 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act or Act) and the early remediation requirements established under section 166 of the Act. Due to the range and......

2012-03-07

125

Musicians' Enhanced Neural Differentiation of Speech Sounds Arises Early in Life: Developmental Evidence from Ages 3 to 30  

E-print Network

Musicians' Enhanced Neural Differentiation of Speech Sounds Arises Early in Life: Developmental; this training may generalize to speech processing given that adult musicians have enhanced neural-Muniz et al. 2012). We recently reported enhanced subcortical distinction of similar speech sounds (e

Kraus, Nina

126

Enhanced transcription and translation in clay hydrogel and implications for early life evolution  

PubMed Central

In most contemporary life forms, the confinement of cell membranes provides localized concentration and protection for biomolecules, leading to efficient biochemical reactions. Similarly, confinement may have also played an important role for prebiotic compartmentalization in early life evolution when the cell membrane had not yet formed. It remains an open question how biochemical reactions developed without the confinement of cell membranes. Here we mimic the confinement function of cells by creating a hydrogel made from geological clay minerals, which provides an efficient confinement environment for biomolecules. We also show that nucleic acids were concentrated in the clay hydrogel and were protected against nuclease, and that transcription and translation reactions were consistently enhanced. Taken together, our results support the importance of localized concentration and protection of biomolecules in early life evolution, and also implicate a clay hydrogel environment for biochemical reactions during early life evolution. PMID:24196527

Yang, Dayong; Peng, Songming; Hartman, Mark R.; Gupton-Campolongo, Tiffany; Rice, Edward J.; Chang, Anna Kathryn; Gu, Zi; Lu, G. Q. (Max); Luo, Dan

2013-01-01

127

Persistently high venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide differences during early resuscitation are associated with poor outcomes in septic shock  

PubMed Central

Introduction Venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide difference (Pv-aCO2) may reflect the adequacy of blood flow during shock states. We sought to test whether the development of Pv-aCO2 during the very early phases of resuscitation is related to multi-organ dysfunction and outcomes in a population of septic shock patients resuscitated targeting the usual oxygen-derived and hemodynamic parameters. Methods We conducted a prospective observational study in a 60-bed mixed ICU in a University affiliated Hospital. 85 patients with a new septic shock episode were included. A Pv-aCO2 value ? 6 mmHg was considered to be high. Patients were classified in four predefined groups according to the Pv-aCO2 evolution during the first 6 hours of resuscitation: (1) persistently high Pv-aCO2 (high at T0 and T6); (2) increasing Pv-aCO2 (normal at T0, high at T6); (3) decreasing Pv-aCO2 (high at T0, normal at T6); and (4) persistently normal Pv-aCO2 (normal at T0 and T6). Multiorgan dysfunction at day-3 was compared for predefined groups and a Kaplan Meier curve was constructed to show the survival probabilities at day-28 using a log-rank test to evaluate differences between groups. A Spearman-Rho was used to test the agreement between cardiac output and Pv-aCO2. Finally, we calculated the mortality risk ratios at day-28 among patients attaining normal oxygen parameters but with a concomitantly increased Pv-aCO2. Results Patients with persistently high and increasing Pv-aCO2 at T6 had significant higher SOFA scores at day-3 (p < 0.001) and higher mortality rates at day-28 (log rank test: 19.21, p < 0.001) compared with patients who evolved with normal Pv-aCO2 at T6. Interestingly, a poor agreement between cardiac output and Pv-aCO2 was observed (r2 = 0.025, p < 0.01) at different points of resuscitation. Patients who reached a central venous saturation (ScvO)2 ? 70% or mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) ? 65% but with concomitantly high Pv-aCO2 at different developmental points (i.e., T0, T6 and T12) had a significant mortality risk ratio at day-28. Conclusion The persistence of high Pv-aCO2 during the early resuscitation of septic shock was associated with more severe multi-organ dysfunction and worse outcomes at day-28. Although mechanisms conducting to increase Pv-aCO2 during septic shock are insufficiently understood, Pv-aCO2 could identify a high risk of death in apparently resuscitated patients. PMID:24330804

2013-01-01

128

Detection of Coronary Artery Stenoses by Contrast-Enhanced, Retrospectively Electrocardiographically-Gated, Multislice Spiral Computed Tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) with retrospectively ECG-gated image reconstruction permits coronary artery visualization. We investigated the method's ability to identify high-grade coronary artery stenoses and occlusions. Methods and Results—A total of 64 consecutive patients were studied by MSCT (4 31 mm cross-sections, 500-ms rotation, table feed 1.5 mm\\/rotation, intravenous contrast agent, retrospectively ECG-gated image reconstruction). All coronary arteries and

Stephan Achenbach; Tom Giesler; Dieter Ropers; Stefan Ulzheimer; Hans Derlien; Christoph Schulte; Evelyn Wenkel; Werner Moshage; Werner Bautz; Werner G. Daniel; Willi A. Kalender; Ulrich Baum

129

Gadolinium-Enhanced Angiography for Diagnosis and Interventional Treatment of Subclavian Artery Stenosis Prior to Fistula Creation  

SciTech Connect

We report the use of gadolinium-based contrast agent for both diagnostic and interventional subclavian angiography in two azotemic patients, presenting with an asymptomatic, high-grade stenosis of the left subclavian artery, ipsilateral to the site of choice for native fistula creation. Angiographic imaging performed with diluted gadolinium-based contrast material was clear enough to perform successful subclavian artery stenting, resulting in normalization of the arterial blood pressure in the afferent artery of the dialysis fistula. Clinically, no decrease in residual renal function and no other complication were noted immediately or a longer period after the interventional treatment.

Termote, Bruno; Maleux, Geert, E-mail: geert.maleux@uz.kuleuven.ac.be; Heye, Sam [University Hospitals, Department of Radiology (Belgium); Fourneau, Inge [University Hospitals, Department of Vascular Surgery (Belgium); Claes, Kathleen [University Hospitals, Department of Nephrology (Belgium)

2008-07-15

130

An enhanced automatic algorithm for estimation of respiratory variations in arterial pulse pressure during regions of abrupt hemodynamic changes.  

PubMed

We describe an improved automatic algorithm to estimate the pulse-pressure-variation (PPV) index from arterial blood pressure (ABP) signals. This enhanced algorithm enables for PPV estimation during periods of abrupt hemodynamic changes. Numerous studies have shown PPV to be one of most specific and sensitive predictors of fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients. The algorithm uses a beat detection algorithm to perform beat segmentation, kernel smoothers for envelope detection, and a suboptimal Kalman filter for PPV estimation and artifact removal. In this paper, we provide a detailed description of the algorithm and assess its performance on over 40 h of ABP signals obtained from 18 mechanically ventilated crossbred Yorkshire swine. The subjects underwent grade V liver injury after splenectomy, while receiving mechanical ventilation, and general anesthesia with isoflurane. All subjects in the database underwent a period of abrupt hemodynamic change after an induced grade V liver injury involving severe blood loss resulting in hemorrhagic shock, followed by fluid resuscitation with either 0.9% normal saline or lactated ringers solutions. Trained experts manually calculated PPV at five time instances during the period of abrupt hemodynamic changes. We report validation results comparing the proposed algorithm against a commercial system (pulse contour cardiac output, PICCO) with continuous PPV monitoring capabilities. Both systems were assessed during periods of abrupt hemodynamic changes against the "gold-standard" PPV, calculated and manually annotated by experts. Our results indicate that the proposed algorithm performs considerably better than the PICCO system during regions of abrupt hemodynamic changes. PMID:19535315

Aboy, Mateo; Crespo, Cristina; Austin, Daniel

2009-10-01

131

Nonrigid motion compensation in B-mode and contrast enhanced ultrasound image sequences of the carotid artery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we investigate nonrigid motion compensation in simultaneously acquired (side-by-side) B-mode ultrasound (BMUS) and contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) image sequences of the carotid artery. These images are acquired to study the presence of intraplaque neovascularization (IPN), which is a marker of plaque vulnerability. IPN quantification is visualized by performing the maximum intensity projection (MIP) on the CEUS image sequence over time. As carotid images contain considerable motion, accurate global nonrigid motion compensation (GNMC) is required prior to the MIP. Moreover, we demonstrate that an improved lumen and plaque differentiation can be obtained by averaging the motion compensated BMUS images over time. We propose to use a previously published 2D+t nonrigid registration method, which is based on minimization of pixel intensity variance over time, using a spatially and temporally smooth B-spline deformation model. The validation compares displacements of plaque points with manual trackings by 3 experts in 11 carotids. The average (+/- standard deviation) root mean square error (RMSE) was 99+/-74?m for longitudinal and 47+/-18?m for radial displacements. These results were comparable with the interobserver variability, and with results of a local rigid registration technique based on speckle tracking, which estimates motion in a single point, whereas our approach applies motion compensation to the entire image. In conclusion, we evaluated that the GNMC technique produces reliable results. Since this technique tracks global deformations, it can aid in the quantification of IPN and the delineation of lumen and plaque contours.

Carvalho, Diego D. B.; Akkus, Zeynettin; Bosch, Johan G.; van den Oord, Stijn C. H.; Niessen, Wiro J.; Klein, Stefan

2014-03-01

132

Enhanced Cellular Responses and Distinct Gene Profiles in Human Fetoplacental Artery Endothelial Cells under Chronic Low Oxygen1  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Fetoplacental endothelial cells are exposed to oxygen levels ranging from 2% to 8% in vivo. However, little is known regarding endothelial function within this range of oxygen because most laboratories use ambient air (21% O2) as a standard culture condition (SCN). We asked whether human umbilical artery endothelial cells (HUAECs) that were steadily exposed to the physiological chronic normoxia (PCN, 3% O2) for ?20–25 days differed in their proliferative and migratory responses to FGF2 and VEGFA as well as in their global gene expression compared with those in the SCN. We observed that PCN enhanced FGF2- and VEGFA-stimulated cell proliferation and migration. In oxygen reversal experiments (i.e., when PCN cells were exposed to SCN for 24 h and vice versa), we found that preexposure to 21% O2 decreased the migratory ability, but not the proliferative ability, of the PCN-HUAECs in response to FGF2 and VEGFA. These PCN-enhanced cellular responses were associated with increased protein levels of HIF1A and NOS3, but not FGFR1, VEGFR1, and VEGFR2. Microarray analysis demonstrated that PCN up-regulated 74 genes and down-regulated 86, 14 of which were directly regulated by hypoxia-inducible factors as evaluated using in silico analysis. Gene function analysis further indicated that the PCN-regulated genes were highly related to cell proliferation and migration, consistent with the results from our functional assays. Given that PCN significantly alters cellular responses to FGF2 and VEGFA as well as transcription in HUAECs, it is likely that we may need to reexamine the current cellular and molecular mechanisms controlling fetoplacental endothelial functions, which were largely derived from endothelial models established under ambient O2. PMID:24152727

Jiang, Yi-Zhou; Wang, Kai; Li, Yan; Dai, Cai-Feng; Wang, Ping; Kendziorski, Christina; Chen, Dong-Bao; Zheng, Jing

2013-01-01

133

Early decompressive surgery in malignant infarction of the middle cerebral artery: a pooled analysis of three randomised controlled trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background Malignant infarction of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is associated with an 80% mortality rate. Non-randomised studies have suggested that decompressive surgery reduces this mortality without increasing the number of severely disabled survivors. To obtain suffi cient data as soon as possible to reliably estimate the eff ects of decompressive surgery, results from three European randomised controlled trials

Katayoun Vahedi; Jeannette Hofmeijer; Eric Juettler; Eric Vicaut; Bernard George; Ale Algra; G Johan Amelink; Peter Schmiedeck; Stefan Schwab; Peter M Rothwell; Marie-Germaine Bousser; H Bart van der Worp; Werner Hacke

2007-01-01

134

Atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass grafting: does the type of procedure influence the early postoperative incidence?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Atrial fibrillation (AF), the common postoperative complication, has been observed after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in 7–40% of patients. Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), eliminated in off-pump operations (OPCABG) may decrease the incidence of AF, whereas the combination of CABG with heart valve replacement may result in more frequent postoperative atrial fibrillation. The aim of our study was to compare

J Siebert; L Anisimowicz; R Lango; J Rogowski; R Pawlaczyk; M Brzezinski; S Beta; M Narkiewicz

2001-01-01

135

Early Life Stress Enhancement of Limbic Epileptogenesis in Adult Rats: Mechanistic Insights  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to early postnatal stress is known to hasten the progression of kindling epileptogenesis in adult rats. Despite the significance of this for understanding mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) and its associated psychopathology, research findings regarding underlying mechanisms are sparse. Of several possibilities, one important candidate mechanism is early life ‘programming’ of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis by postnatal stress. Elevated corticosterone (CORT) in turn has consequences for neurogenesis and cell death relevant to epileptogenesis. Here we tested the hypotheses that MS would augment seizure-related corticosterone (CORT) release and enhance neuroplastic changes in the hippocampus. Methodology/Principal Findings Eight-week old Wistar rats, previously exposed on postnatal days 2–14 to either maternal separation stress (MS) or control brief early handling (EH), underwent rapid amygdala kindling. We measured seizure-induced serum CORT levels and post-kindling neurogenesis (using BrdU). Three weeks post-kindling, rats were euthanized for histology of the hippocampal CA3c region (pyramidal cell counts) and dentate gyrus (DG) (to count BrdU-labelled cells and measure mossy fibre sprouting). As in our previous studies, rats exposed to MS had accelerated kindling rates in adulthood. Female MS rats had heightened CORT responses during and after kindling (p<0.05), with a similar trend in males. In both sexes total CA3c pyramidal cell numbers were reduced in MS vs. EH rats post-kindling (p?=?0.002). Dentate granule cell neurogenesis in female rats was significantly increased post-kindling in MS vs. EH rats. Conclusions/Significance These data demonstrate that early life stress results in enduring enhancement of HPA axis responses to limbic seizures, with increased hippocampal CA3c cell loss and augmented neurogenesis, in a sex-dependent pattern. This implicates important candidate mechanisms through which early life stress may promote vulnerability to limbic epileptogenesis in rats as well as to human MTLE and its associated psychiatric disorders. PMID:21957442

Kumar, Gaurav; Jones, Nigel C.; Morris, Margaret J.; Rees, Sandra; O'Brien, Terence J.; Salzberg, Michael R.

2011-01-01

136

Enhanced mesenteric arterial responsiveness to angiotensin II is androgen receptor-dependent in prenatally protein-restricted adult female rat offspring.  

PubMed

Gestational protein restriction results in intrauterine growth restriction and hypertension in adult female growth-restricted rats. Enhanced vascular responsiveness to angiotensin II is observed, and blockade of the renin-angiotensin system abolishes hypertension in adult growth-restricted rats, suggesting that the renin-angiotensin system contributes to intrauterine growth restriction-induced hypertension. Moreover, growth-restricted adult rats have higher plasma testosterone levels, and antiandrogen treatment abolishes hypertension, indicating an important role for testosterone. We hypothesized that androgens may play a pivotal role in the enhanced responsiveness to Ang II and hypertension. Female offspring of pregnant rats fed 20% protein (control) or 6% protein diet (protein restricted), at 6 mo of age, were studied. Plasma testosterone and mean arterial pressure in protein-restricted offspring were significantly higher compared to controls. Flutamide treatment (10 mg/kg/day subcutaneously for 10 days) reduced mean arterial pressure in protein-restricted offspring but was without significant effect in controls. Vascular Agtr1/Agtr2 ratio was significantly higher in protein-restricted offspring, an effect that was reversed by flutamide. Flutamide treatment did not have any effect on Agtr1/Agtr2 ratio in controls. Enhanced contractile response to angiotensin II in mesenteric arteries was observed in protein-restricted offspring compared with control. Flutamide treatment reversed the enhanced contractile response to angiotensin II in protein-restricted offspring without significant effect in controls. Vascular reactivity to phenylephrine was similar between the control and protein-restricted offspring with and without flutamide treatment, suggesting that enhanced contractile response and flutamide's reversal effect is specific to angiotensin II. These results suggest that prenatally protein-restricted rats exhibit an enhanced responsiveness to angiotensin II that is testosterone-dependent. PMID:25550341

Sathishkumar, Kunju; Balakrishnan, Meena P; Yallampalli, Chandrasekhar

2015-02-01

137

Fully automated segmentation of carotid and vertebral arteries from contrast enhanced CTA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a method for segmenting and labeling the main head and neck vessels (common, internal, external carotid, vertebral) from a contrast enhanced computed tomography angiography (CTA) volume. First, an initial centerline of each vessel is extracted. Next, the vessels are segmented using 3D active objects initialized using the first step. Finally, the true centerline is identified by smoothly deforming it away from the segmented mask edges using a spline-snake. We focus particularly on the novel initial centerline extraction technique. It uses a locally adaptive front propagation algorithm that attempts to find the optimal path connecting the ends of the vessel, typically from the lowest image of the scan to the Circle of Willis in the brain. It uses a patient adapted anatomical model of the different vessels both to initialize and constrain this fast marching, thus eliminating the need for manual selection of seed points. The method is evaluated using data from multiple regions (USA, India, China, Israel) including a variety of scanners (10, 16, 40, 64-slice; Brilliance CT, Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, OH, USA), contrast agent dose, and image resolution. It is fully successful in over 90% of patients and only misses a single vessel in most remaining cases. We also demonstrate its robustness to metal and dental artifacts and anatomical variability. Total processing time is approximately two minutes with no user interaction, which dramatically improves the workflow over existing clinical software. It also reduces patient dose exposure by obviating the need to acquire an unenhanced scan for bone suppression as this can be done by applying the segmentation masks.

Cuisenaire, Olivier; Virmani, Sunny; Olszewski, Mark E.; Ardon, Roberto

2008-03-01

138

Osteogenic Matrix Cell Sheet Transplantation Enhances Early Tendon Graft to Bone Tunnel Healing in Rabbits  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine whether osteogenic matrix cell sheets (OMCS) could induce bone formation around grafted tendons, thereby enhancing early stage tendon to bone tunnel healing in skeletally mature male Japanese white rabbits. First, the osteogenic potential of rabbit OMCS was evaluated. Then, the OMCS were transplanted into the interface between the grafted tendon and the bone tunnel created at the tibia. Histological assessments and biomechanical tensile testing were performed after 3 weeks. The rabbit OMCS showed high alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, positive staining of ALP, and osteogenic potential when transplanted subcutaneously with beta tricalcium phosphate disks. Newly formed bony walls and positive collagen type I staining were seen around the grafted tendon with OMCS transplantation, whereas such bony walls were thinner or less frequent without OMCS transplantation. Micro-computed tomography images showed significantly higher bone volume in the OMCS transplantation group. The pullout strength was significantly higher with OMCS (0.74 ± 0.23?N/mm2) than without OMCS (0.58 ± 0.15?N/mm2). These results show that OMCS enhance early tendon to bone tunnel healing. This method can be applied to cases requiring early tendon to bone tunnel healing after ligament reconstruction surgery. PMID:24106718

Uematsu, Kota; Akahane, Manabu; Morita, Yusuke; Ogawa, Munehiro; Ueha, Tomoyuki; Shimizu, Takamasa; Kura, Tomohiko; Kawate, Kenji; Tanaka, Yasuhito

2013-01-01

139

Sustained multifocal attentional enhancement of stimulus processing in early visual areas predicts tracking performance.  

PubMed

Keeping track of multiple moving objects is an essential ability of visual perception. However, the mechanisms underlying this ability are not well understood. We instructed human observers to track five or seven independent randomly moving target objects amid identical nontargets and recorded steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) elicited by these stimuli. Visual processing of moving targets, as assessed by SSVEP amplitudes, was continuously facilitated relative to the processing of identical but irrelevant nontargets. The cortical sources of this enhancement were located to areas including early visual cortex V1-V3 and motion-sensitive area MT, suggesting that the sustained multifocal attentional enhancement during multiple object tracking already operates at hierarchically early stages of visual processing. Consistent with this interpretation, the magnitude of attentional facilitation during tracking in a single trial predicted the speed of target identification at the end of the trial. Together, these findings demonstrate that attention can flexibly and dynamically facilitate the processing of multiple independent object locations in early visual areas and thereby allow for tracking of these objects. PMID:23516299

Störmer, Viola S; Winther, Gesche N; Li, Shu-Chen; Andersen, Søren K

2013-03-20

140

Comparing the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced computed tomographic angiography and gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography for the assessment of hemodynamically significant transplant renal artery stenosis.  

PubMed

To compare diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) for the assessment of hemodynamically significant transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS). After institutional review board approval, records of 27 patients with TRAS confirmed on digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 13 patients had MRA and 14 had CTA before DSA. Two board-certified fellowship-trained radiologists, one each from interventional radiology and body imaging blindly reviewed the DSA and CTA or MRA data, respectively. Sensitivity (SN), specificity (SP), positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of MRA and CTA were estimated using 50% stenosis as the detection threshold for significant TRAS. These parameters were compared between modalities using the Fisher exact test. Bias between MRA or CTA imaging and DSA was tested using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Two patients were excluded from the MRA group owing to susceptibility artifacts obscuring the TRAS. The correlation between MRA and DSA measurements of stenosis was r = 0.57 (95% CI:-0.02, 0.87; P = 0.052) and between CTA and DSA measurements was r = 0.63 (95% CI: 0.14, 0.87; P = 0.015); the difference between the 2 techniques was not significant (P = 0.7). Both imaging modalities tended to underestimate the degree of stenosis when compared with DSA. MRA group (SN and SP: 56% and 100%, respectively) and CTA group (SN and SP: 81% and 67%, respectively). There were no significant differences in detection performance between modalities (P>0.3 for all measures). We did not find that either modality had any advantage over the other in terms of measuring or detecting significant stenosis. Accordingly, MRA may be preferred over CTA after positive color Doppler ultrasound screening when not contraindicated owing to lack of ionizing radiation or nephrotoxic iodinated contrast. However, susceptibility of artifacts owing to surgical clips at the anastomosis may limit diagnostic utility of MRA as found in 2 of 13 patients. Trend towards no significant difference between the CTA and enhanced MRA in the detection of hemodynamically significant TRAS. PMID:24948209

Gaddikeri, Santhosh; Mitsumori, Lee; Vaidya, Sandeep; Hippe, Daniel S; Bhargava, Puneet; Dighe, Manjiri K

2014-01-01

141

Coronary Arteries  

MedlinePLUS

... and animations for grades K-6. The Coronary Arteries | Share Coronary Circulation The heart muscle, like every ... into two main coronary blood vessels (also called arteries). These coronary arteries branch off into smaller arteries, ...

142

Low level laser irradiation precondition to create friendly milieu of infarcted myocardium and enhance early survival of transplanted bone marrow cells  

PubMed Central

Abstract We suggested that low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) precondition prior to cell transplantation might remodel the hostile milieu of infarcted myocardium and subsequently enhance early survival and therapeutic potential of implanted bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Therefore, in this study we wanted to address: (1) whether LLLI pre-treatment change the local cardiac micro-environment after myocardial infarction (MI) and (2) whether the LLLI preconditions enhance early cell survival and thus improve therapeutic angiogenesis and heart function. MI was induced by left anterior descending artery ligation in female rats. A 635 nm, 5 mW diode laser was performed with energy density of 0.96 J/cm2 for 150 sec. for the purpose of myocardial precondition. Three weeks later, qualified rats were randomly received with LLLI precondition (n= 26) or without LLLI precondition (n= 27) for LLLI precondition study. Rats that received thoracotomy without coronary ligation were served as sham group (n= 24). In the cell survival study, rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: serum-free culture media injection (n= 8), LLLI precondition and culture media injection (n= 8), 2 million male BMSCs transplantation without LLLI pre-treatment (n= 26) and 2 million male BMSCs transplantation with LLLI precondition (n= 25) group, respectively. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the infarcted myocardium were evaluated by Western blotting, real-time PCR and colorimetry, respectively, at 1 hr, 1 day and 1 week after laser irradiation. Cell survival was assayed with quantitative real-time PCR to identify Y chromosome gene and apoptosis was assayed with transferase-mediated dUTP end labelling staining. Capillary density, myogenic differentiation and left ventricular function were tested by immunohistochemistry and echocardiography, respectively, at 1 week. After LLLI precondition, increased VEGF and GRP78 expression, as well as the enhanced SOD activity and inhibited MDA production, was observed. Compared with BMSC transplantation and culture media injection group, although there was no difference in the improved heart function and myogenic differentiation, LLLI precondition significantly enhanced early cell survival rate by 2-fold, decreased the apoptotic percentage of implanted BMSCs in infarcted myocardium and thus increased the number of newly formed capillaries. Taken together, LLLI precondition could be a novel non-invasive approach for intraoperative cell transplantation to enhance cell early survival and therapeutic potential. PMID:19725921

Zhang, Hao; Hou, Jian-feng; Shen, Ya; Wang, Wei; Wei, Ying-jie; Hu, Shengshou

2010-01-01

143

Contrast-enhanced breath-hold three-dimensional magnetic resonance angiography in the evaluation of renal arteries: optimization of technique and pitfalls.  

PubMed

The authors describe the optimization of a contrast-enhanced, breath-held, three-dimensional magnetic resonance angiography (CE-BH-3DMRA) technique in the assessment of the renal arteries and compare its utility with conventional x-ray angiography (XRA). Signal optimization using specific pulse sequence parameters was based on the patient's circulatory conditions, injection rate, and pulse sequence timing. Fifty-one patients (27 M, 24 F; mean age 69.7 years) were evaluated with CE-BH-3DMRA and XRA. All patients had an MR angiogram 3 months either before or after XRA. A test bolus study was performed for accurate assessment of transit time in each patient. A total of 51 patients (115 vessels) were studied in which the sensitivity and specificity for all renal artery stenoses including the proximal and mid-renal arterial segments were 96% and 92%, respectively. In-stent stenosis could only be diagnosed by quantifying flow beyond the stent using an additional triggered phase contrast cine pulse sequence. A total of 11 accessory renal arteries were correctly identified. In addition, fibromuscular dysplasia in two patients and stents in three patients were correctly identified on MRA. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2000;12:912-923. PMID:11105030

Shetty, A N; Bis, K G; Kirsch, M; Weintraub, J; Laub, G

2000-12-01

144

Investigation of the Saturation Pulse Artifact in Non-Enhanced MR Angiography of the Lower Extremity Arteries at 7 Tesla  

PubMed Central

When performing non-enhanced time-of-flight MR angiography of the lower extremity arteries at 7 T with cardiac triggering, the acquisition time is a crucial consideration. Therefore, in previous studies, saturation RF pulses were applied only every second TR. In the axial source images a slight artifact with an appearance similar to aliasing could be observed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the origin of this artifact. The reason for the artifact is supposed to be related to the two effective TRs during acquisition caused by the sparsely applied saturation RF pulse. Several sequence variants were simulated and implemented within the sequence source code to examine this hypothesis. An adaptation of the excitation flip angles for each TR as well as a correction factor for the k-space data was calculated. Additionally, a different ordering of the k-space data during acquisition was implemented as well as the combination of the latter with the k-space correction factor. The observations from the simulations were verified using both a static and a flow phantom and, finally, in a healthy volunteer using the same measurement setup as in previous volunteer and patient studies. Of all implemented techniques, only the reordering of the k-space was capable of suppressing the artifact almost completely at the cost of creating a ringing artifact. The phantom measurements showed the same results as the simulations and could thus confirm the hypothesis regarding the origin of the artifact. This was additionally verified in the healthy volunteer. The origin of the artifact could be confirmed to be the periodic signal variation caused by two effective TRs during acquisition. PMID:25785837

Johst, Sören; Maderwald, Stefan; Fischer, Anja; Quick, Harald H.; Ladd, Mark E.; Orzada, Stephan

2015-01-01

145

Addendum to `numerical modeling of an enhanced very early time electromagnetic (VETEM) prototype system'  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two numerical models to simulate an enhanced very early time electromagnetic (VETEM) prototype system that is used for buried-object detection and environmental problems are presented. In the first model, the transmitting and receiving loop antennas accurately analyzed using the method of moments (MoM), and then conjugate gradient (CG) methods with the fast Fourier transform (FFT) are utilized to investigate the scattering from buried conducting plates. In the second model, two magnetic dipoles are used to replace the transmitter and receiver. Both the theory and formulation are correct and the simulation results for the primary magnetic field and the reflected magnetic field are accurate.

Cui, T.J.; Chew, W.C.; Aydiner, A.A.; Wright, D.L.; Smith, D.V.; Abraham, J.D.

2000-01-01

146

Enhancing Peer Cultures of Academic Effort and Achievement in Early Adolescence: Promotive Effects of the Seals Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Peer cultures of effort and achievement influence early adolescents' academic adjustment. A randomized controlled trials design was used to test the extent to which aspects of peer cultures of effort and achievement were enhanced following teachers' participation in the Supporting Early Adolescents' Learning and Social Success…

Hamm, Jill V.; Farmer, Thomas W.; Lambert, Kerrylin; Gravelle, Maggie

2014-01-01

147

Effects of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy on Employment Outcomes in Early Schizophrenia: Results from a 2-Year Randomized Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the effects of psychosocial cognitive rehabilitation on employment outcomes in a randomized controlled trial for individuals with early course schizophrenia. Method: Early course schizophrenia outpatients (N = 58) were randomly assigned to cognitive enhancement therapy (CET) or an enriched supportive therapy (EST) control and…

Eack, Shaun M.; Hogarty, Gerard E.; Greenwald, Deborah P.; Hogarty, Susan S.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.

2011-01-01

148

Coronary Artery Imaging in Children  

PubMed Central

Coronary artery problems in children usually have a significant impact on both short-term and long-term outcomes. Early and accurate diagnosis, therefore, is crucial but technically challenging due to the small size of the coronary artery, high heart rates, and limited cooperation of children. Coronary artery visibility on CT and MRI in children is considerably improved with recent technical advancements. Consequently, CT and MRI are increasingly used for evaluating various congenital and acquired coronary artery abnormalities in children, such as coronary artery anomalies, aberrant coronary artery anatomy specific to congenital heart disease, Kawasaki disease, Williams syndrome, and cardiac allograft vasculopathy. PMID:25741188

2015-01-01

149

Imaging vascular function for early stage clinical trials using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

Many therapeutic approaches to cancer affect the tumour vasculature, either indirectly or as a direct target. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has become an important means of investigating this action, both pre-clinically and in early stage clinical trials. For such trials, it is essential that the measurement process (i.e. image acquisition and analysis) can be performed effectively and with consistency among contributing centres. As the technique continues to develop in order to provide potential improvements in sensitivity and physiological relevance, there is considerable scope for between-centre variation in techniques. A workshop was convened by the Imaging Committee of the Experimental Cancer Medicine Centres (ECMC) to review the current status of DCE-MRI and to provide recommendations on how the technique can best be used for early stage trials. This review and the consequent recommendations are summarised here. Key Points • Tumour vascular function is key to tumour development and treatment • Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) can assess tumour vascular function • Thus DCE-MRI with pharmacokinetic models can assess novel treatments • Many recent developments are advancing the accuracy of and information from DCE-MRI • Establishing common methodology across multiple centres is challenging and requires accepted guidelines. PMID:22562143

Leach, M O; Morgan, B; Tofts, P S; Buckley, D L; Huang, W; Horsfield, M A; Chenevert, T L; Collins, D J; Jackson, A; Lomas, D; Whitcher, B; Clarke, L; Plummer, R; Judson, I; Jones, R; Alonzi, R; Brunner, T; Koh, D M; Murphy, P; Waterton, J C; Parker, G; Graves, M J; Scheenen, T W J; Redpath, T W; Orton, M; Karczmar, G; Huisman, H; Barentsz, J; Padhani, A

2012-07-01

150

Enhanced musical rhythmic perception in Turkish early and late learners of German  

PubMed Central

As language rhythm relies partly on general acoustic properties, such as intensity and duration, mastering two languages with distinct rhythmic properties (i.e., stress position) may enhance musical rhythm perception. We investigated whether competence in a second language (L2) with different rhythmic properties than a L1 affects musical rhythm aptitude. Turkish early (TELG) and late learners (TLLG) of German were compared to German late L2 learners of English (GLE) regarding their musical rhythmic aptitude. While Turkish and German present distinct linguistic rhythm and metric properties, German and English are rather similar in this regard. To account for inter-individual differences, we measured participants' short-term and working memory (WM) capacity, melodic aptitude, and time they spent listening to music. Both groups of Turkish L2 learners of German perceived rhythmic variations significantly better than German L2 learners of English. No differences were found between early and late learners' performance. Our findings suggest that mastering two languages with different rhythmic properties enhances musical rhythm perception, providing further evidence of shared cognitive resources between language and music. PMID:24065946

Roncaglia-Denissen, M. Paula; Schmidt-Kassow, Maren; Heine, Angela; Vuust, Peter; Kotz, Sonja A.

2013-01-01

151

18FDG PET-CT imaging detects arterial inflammation and early atherosclerosis in HIV-infected adults with cardiovascular disease risk factors  

PubMed Central

Background Persistent vascular inflammation has been implicated as an important cause for a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in HIV-infected adults. In several populations at high risk for CVD, vascular 18Fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG) uptake quantified using 3D-positron emission-computed tomography (PET-CT) has been used as a molecular level biomarker for the presence of metabolically active proinflammatory macrophages in rupture-prone early atherosclerotic plaques. We hypothesized that 18FDG PET-CT imaging would detect arterial inflammation and early atherosclerosis in HIV-infected adults with modest CVD risk. Methods We studied 9 HIV-infected participants with fully suppressed HIV viremia on antiretroviral therapy (8 men, median age 52?yrs, median BMI 29?kg/m2, median CD4 count 655 cells/?L, 33% current smokers) and 5 HIV-negative participants (4 men, median age 44?yrs, median BMI 25?kg/m2, no current smokers). Mean Framingham Risk Scores were higher for HIV-infected persons (9% vs. 2%, p?arteries and the aorta was compared between the two groups. Results Right and left carotid 18FDG uptake was greater (P?artery 18FDG PET-CT imaging detected differences in vascular inflammation and early atherosclerosis between HIV-infected adults with CVD risk factors and healthy HIV-seronegative controls. These findings confirm the utility of this molecular level imaging approach for detecting and quantifying glucose uptake into inflammatory macrophages present in metabolically active, rupture-prone atherosclerotic plaques in HIV infected adults; a population with increased CVD risk. PMID:22726233

2012-01-01

152

Aprotinin does not decrease early graft patency after coronary artery bypass grafting despite reducing postoperative bleeding and use of donated blood.  

PubMed

Forty-five male patients with planned coronary artery bypass operation were randomized in a double blind fashion to receive either 6 million kallikrein inactivator units of aprotinin (high-dose group), 2 million kallikrein inactivator units of aprotinin (low-dose group), or placebo (control group). Postoperative bleeding was significantly decreased in both aprotinin groups in comparison to that in the control group (590 ml [290 to 1800 ml] high-dose group and 650 ml [280 to 1900 ml] low-dose group versus 920 ml (350 to 2700 ml) control group, p < 0.001). There was no difference between the two aprotinin groups. The need for postoperative blood transfusion was significantly lower in the aprotinin groups (1.46 [0 to 4] blood units high-dose group and 1.65 [0 to 5] blood units low-dose group versus 2.43 [0 to 7] blood units control group, p < 0.05). All patients underwent coronary angiography between the seventh and twelfth postoperative day. No difference was found among the three groups in patency of vein grafts-93.8% in the high-dose group, 94.5% in the low-dose groups, and 93.3% in the control group. Therefore, aprotinin significantly reduced postoperative bleeding and transfusion requirement after coronary artery bypass grafting without influencing early graft patency. PMID:7510351

Havel, M; Grabenwöger, F; Schneider, J; Laufer, G; Wollenek, G; Owen, A; Simon, P; Teufelsbauer, H; Wolner, E

1994-03-01

153

The role of an early intervention on enhancing the quality of mother-infant interaction.  

PubMed

The study examines an intervention designed to influence mothers' sensitive responsiveness toward their infant by presenting information about the newborn's competence to interact and promoting affectionate handling and interaction with the infant. Thirty-six primiparous mothers and their newborn infants participated in the study. On day 2/3 after delivery, mother-infant dyads were assigned to either: (1) an experimental group that received an intervention program designed to enhance mother-infant interaction; or (2) a control group that was presented with an intervention that emphasized basic caregiving skills. One month later an observation was undertaken in the home to assess mother-infant synchronous and asynchronous co-occurrences during free-play and infant bathing. The enhancement group showed a reliably greater frequency of co-occurrences involving vocal exchanges, looking to the partner, and physical contact. There also were differences in mothers' responsiveness to infant crying and involuntary responses. The findings show that even a modest videotaped early intervention can enhance mothers' sensitive responsiveness to the infant. PMID:10368917

Wendland-Carro, J; Piccinini, C A; Millar, W S

1999-01-01

154

Correcting saturation effects of the arterial input function in dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MRI: a Monte Carlo simulation.  

PubMed

To prevent systematic errors in quantitative brain perfusion studies using dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI), a reliable determination of the arterial input function (AIF) is essential. We propose a novel algorithm for correcting distortions of the AIF caused by saturation of the peak amplitude and discuss its relevance for longitudinal studies. The algorithm is based on the assumption that the AIF can be separated into a reliable part at low contrast agent concentrations and an unreliable part at high concentrations. This unreliable part is reconstructed, applying a theoretical framework based on a transport-diffusion theory and using the bolus-shape in the tissue. A validation of the correction scheme is tested by a Monte Carlo simulation. The input of the simulation was a wide range of perfusion, and the main aim was to compare this input to the determined perfusion parameters. Another input of the simulation was an AIF template derived from in vivo measurements. The distortions of this template was modeled via a Rician distribution for image intensities. As for a real DSC-MRI experiment, the simulation returned the AIF and the tracer concentration-dependent signal in the tissue. The novel correction scheme was tested by deriving perfusion parameters from the simulated data for the corrected and the uncorrected case. For this analysis, a common truncated singular value decomposition approach was applied. We find that the saturation effect caused by Rician-distributed noise leads to an overestimation of regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral blood volume, as compared to the input parameter. The aberration can be amplified by a decreasing signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) or an increasing tracer concentration. We also find that the overestimation can be successfully eliminated by the proposed saturation-correction scheme. In summary, the correction scheme will allow DSC-MRI to be expanded towards higher tracer concentrations and lower SNR and will help to increase the measurement to measurement reproducibility for longitudinal studies. PMID:17462846

Brunecker, Peter; Villringer, Arno; Schultze, Jörg; Nolte, Christian H; Jungehülsing, Gerhard Jan; Endres, Matthias; Steinbrink, Jens

2007-11-01

155

Predicting the extent and location of coronary artery disease during the early postinfarction period by quantitative thallium-201 scintigraphy  

SciTech Connect

The ability of quantitative thallium-201 scintigraphy to predict the extent and location of coronary artery disease before hospital discharge after acute myocardial infarction was evaluated in 52 patients. All patients underwent coronary angiography and serial thallium-201 imaging either at rest or after submaximal exercise stress. Two or three vessel disease was designated if abnormal thallium-201 uptake or washout patterns, or both, were seen in two or three vascular segments, respectively. Of 156 vessels analyzed in the 52 patients, 91 stenoses of 70 percent or greater were found by angiography. Seventy-four of these were predicted by scintigraphy. The specificity of scintigraphy for identifying vessel stenoses was 92 percent. Sensitivity for detecting and localizing stenoses supplying an infarct zone was 96 percent compared with 62 percent for stenoses supplying myocardium remote from the acute infarct. Perfusion abnormalities were more frequently seen in the distribution of vessels with severe stenoses than in those with moderate stenoses. Scintigraphy detected a greater proportion of left anterior descending and right coronary arterial stenoses than circumflex stenoses. In the 42 patients who underwent submaximal exercise testing, multivariate analysis of 23 clinical and laboratory variables identified multiple thallium-201 defects as the best predictor of multivessel disease. The predictive accuracy of exercise-induced S-T segment depression was only 45 percent compared with 88 percent for thallium-201 scintigraphy. Thallium-201 imaging at rest is reliable in assessing the extent of coronary disease in hospitalized patients who cannot undergo exercise testing because of unstable angina, uncompensated heart failure, poorly controlled arrhythmias or physical limitations.

Gibson, R.S.; Taylor, G.J.; Watson, D.D.; Stebbins, P.T.; Martin, R.P.; Crampton, R.S.; Beller, G.A.

1981-05-01

156

Comparison of arterial blood supply to the testicles in the preoperative and early postoperative period in patients undergoing subinguinal varicocelectomy.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective. Varicocele, which is the abnormal dilatation of internal spermatic veins, is known as the most surgically correctable cause of male infertility. In the evaluation of testicular arterial and venous blood supply, the scrotal colour Doppler ultrasound (CDU) is a valuable diagnostic method. The aim of this study was to investigate how the testicular blood flow is affected after varicocelectomy, and the place of scrotal CDU in the follow-up after varicocelectomy. Material and methods. Thirty male patients who were diagnosed with left-sided varicocele were prospectively included in the study. Before the varicocelectomy, semen analyses were carried out, and peak systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity (EDV), resistive index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) were measured by CDU. In the third postoperative month, scrotal CDU and semen analysis were performed again and compared with the preoperative results. Results. The arterial flow parameters PSV and EDV increased significantly, and the resistance parameters RI and PI decreased significantly, compared with the preoperative values. Sperm concentration, progressive motility and normal morphology improved in the postoperative semen analysis compared with the preoperative results. The increases in all three parameters were statistically significant. No statistically significant difference in vascular parameters was seen between the patients with improved and unimproved semen analysis. Conclusions. As confirmed by the results of semen analysis and CDU, testicular blood flow increases after varicocelectomy, resulting in the recovery of the haemodynamics of the testicle. CDU, which is generally used for diagnosis in the varicocele, can also be a valuable method of determining treatment success after surgery. PMID:25196362

Ener, Kemal; Uçgül, Yusuf Emre; Okulu, Emrah; Aldemir, Mustafa; I?ik, Evren; Kayigil, Onder; Ozcan, Muhammet Fuat

2014-09-01

157

Kugel's Artery  

PubMed Central

In this study, we tried to resolve the confusion in the literature regarding the existence and course of Kugel's artery. With the aid of a new technique, we studied 100 human hearts ex vivo by radiography and by direct observation through dissection, to demonstrate anatomical and postmortem angiographic findings of Kugel's artery. Kugel's artery was found in only 6 hearts out of 100 (6%). It originated from the proximal left circumflex artery and ended in the right coronary artery in 2 cases; from the right coronary artery and ended in the same artery in 2 cases; from the left circumflex artery and ended in the same artery in 1 case; and from the right coronary artery through the sinus node artery, ending in the left circumflex artery, in 1 case. In all 100 hearts, an anastomotic network of small atrial branches was found in the same area (lower portion of the interatrial septum), connecting the large vessels indirectly. Branches of the sinus node artery in all hearts, and of the atrioventricular node artery in 66 hearts, participated in this network. Our procedure showed the detailed course of Kugel's artery and its course independent from the atrioventricular node artery and from the anastomotic network. In conclusion, in all cases an anastomotic network of small atrial branches courses through the lower interatrial septum and connects indirectly the proximal and distal ends of the larger coronary arteries. Kugel's artery provides an additional direct arterial anastomosis in the same area in 6% of the hearts. PMID:15562847

Nerantzis, Christos E.; Marianou, Soultana K.; Koulouris, Spyridon N.; Agapitos, Emmanouil B.; Papaioannou, John A.; Vlahos, Lampros J.

2004-01-01

158

Heat stress enhances arterial baroreflex control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity via increased sensitivity of burst gating, not burst area, in humans  

PubMed Central

The relationship between muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and diastolic blood pressure has been used to describe two sites for arterial baroreflex control of MSNA. By determining both the likelihood of occurrence for sympathetic bursts and the area of each burst for a given diastolic blood pressure, both a ‘gating’ and an ‘area’ control site has been described in normothermic humans. Assessing the effect of heat stress on these mechanisms will improve the understanding of baroreflex control of arterial blood pressure under this thermal condition. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that heat stress enhances arterial baroreflex control of burst gating and area. In 10 normotensive subjects (age, 32 ± 2 years; mean ± s.e.m), MSNA (peroneal) was assessed using standard microneurographic techniques. Five minute periods of data were examined during normothermic and whole-body heating conditions. The burst incidence (i.e. number of sympathetic bursts per 100 cardiac cycles) and the area of each burst were determined for each cardiac cycle and were placed into 3 mmHg intervals of diastolic blood pressure. During normotheric conditions, there was a moderate, negative relationship between burst incidence and diastolic blood pressure (slope = ?2.49 ± 0.38; r2 = 0.73 ± 0.06; mean ± s.e.m), while area per burst relative to diastolic blood pressure exhibited a less strong relationship (slope = ?1.13 ± 0.46; r2 = 0.45 ± 0.09). During whole-body heating there was an increase in the slope of the relationship between burst incidence and diastolic blood pressure (slope = ?4.69 ± 0.44; r2 = 0.84 ± 0.03) compared to normothermia (P < 0.05), while the relationship between area per burst and diastolic blood pressure was unchanged (slope = ?0.92 ± 0.29; r2 = 0.41 ± 0.08) (P = 0.50). The primary finding of this investigation is that, at rest, whole-body heating enhanced arterial baroreflex control of MSNA through increased sensitivity of a ‘gating’ mechanism, as indicated by an increase in the slope of the relationship between burst incidence and diastolic blood pressure. This occurrence is likely to afford protection against potential decreases in arterial blood pressure in an effort to preserve orthostatic tolerance during heat stress. PMID:16581857

Keller, D M; Cui, J; Davis, S L; Low, D A; Crandall, C G

2006-01-01

159

Arterial stick  

MedlinePLUS

... venous blood) mainly in its content of dissolved gases . Testing arterial blood shows the makeup of the ... arteries. Blood samples are mainly taken to measure gases in the arteris. Abnormal results may point to ...

160

Quantitative assessment of regional cerebral blood flow by dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MRI, without the need for arterial blood signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI), an arterial input function (AIF) is usually obtained from a time-concentration curve (TCC) of the cerebral artery. This study was aimed at developing an alternative technique for reconstructing AIF from TCCs of multiple brain regions. AIF was formulated by a multi-exponential function using four parameters, and the parameters were determined so that the AIF curves convolved with a model of tissue response reproduced the measured TCCs for 20 regions. Systematic simulations were performed to evaluate the effects of possible error sources. DSC-MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) studies were performed on 14 patients with major cerebral artery occlusion. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) images were calculated from DSC-MRI data, using our novel method alongside conventional AIF estimations, and compared with those from 15O-PET. Simulations showed that the calculated CBF values were sensitive to variations in the assumptions regarding cerebral blood volume. Nevertheless, AIFs were reasonably reconstructed for all patients. The difference in CBF values between DSC-MRI and PET was -2.2 ± 7.4 ml/100 g/min (r = 0.55, p < 0.01) for our method, versus -0.2 ± 8.2 ml/100 g/min (r = 0.47, p = 0.01) for the conventional method. The difference in the ratio of affected to unaffected hemispheres between DSC-MRI and PET was 0.07 ± 0.09 (r = 0.82, p < 0.01) for our method, versus 0.07 ± 0.09 (r = 0.83, p < 0.01) for the conventional method. The contrasts in CBF images from our method were the same as those from the conventional method. These findings suggest the feasibility of assessing CBF without arterial blood signals.

Enmi, Jun-ichiro; Kudomi, Nobuyuki; Hayashi, Takuya; Yamamoto, Akihide; Iguchi, Satoshi; Moriguchi, Tetsuaki; Hori, Yuki; Koshino, Kazuhiro; Zeniya, Tsutomu; Shah, Nadim Jon; Yamada, Naoaki; Iida, Hidehiro

2012-12-01

161

Enhancement of plasmid DNA transformation efficiencies in early stationary-phase yeast cell cultures.  

PubMed

Chemical-based methods have been developed for transformation of DNA into log-phase cells of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with high efficiency. Transformation of early stationary-phase cells, e.g. cells grown in overnight liquid cultures or as colonies on plates, is less efficient than log-phase cells but is simpler and more adaptable to high-throughput projects. In this study we have tested different approaches for transformation of early stationary-phase cell cultures and identified a method utilizing polyethylene glycol (PEG), lithium acetate and dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) as the most efficient. Plasmid DNA transformations using this method could be improved modestly by allowing cells to recover from the chemical treatment in rich broth before plating to selective media. Strong increases in transformation efficiencies were observed when cells were treated briefly with dithiothreitol (DTT). Tests using several different yeast strain backgrounds indicated that DTT treatment could enhance transformation efficiencies by up to 40-fold. Evaluation of multiple parameters affecting the efficiency of the method led to development of an optimized protocol achieving > 50 000 transformants/µg DNA in most backgrounds tested. PMID:23483586

Tripp, Jennifer DeMars; Lilley, Jennifer L; Wood, Whitney N; Lewis, L Kevin

2013-05-01

162

Enhancing early literacy skills for preschool children: bringing a professional development model to scale.  

PubMed

A quasi-experimental, statewide intervention targeting preschool teachers' enhancement of children's language and early literacy was evaluated. Across 2 years and 20 Head Start sites, 750 teachers participated (500 target, 250 control), with 370 classrooms randomly selected to conduct pre- and posttest assessments (10 randomly selected children per class). The inability to randomize children to classrooms was addressed by examining children's performance for teachers who were control teachers in Year 1 and target teachers in Year 2. We also compared teachers with 2 years of training with teachers with 1 year of training and with control teachers. Greater gains were found for children in target classrooms than for those in control classrooms for all skills, but particularly for language skills, in Year 2, and this varied by program site. The presence of a research-based early literacy curriculum, higher levels of teacher education, and full-day versus half-day programs were significant moderators of intervention effectiveness. The challenges of implementing a statewide initiative across programs that varied in their readiness to implement a cognitively rich experience for preschool children are discussed. PMID:16895156

Landry, Susan H; Swank, Paul R; Smith, Karen E; Assel, Michael A; Gunnewig, Susan B

2006-01-01

163

Complementary tumor vascularity imaging in a single PET-CT routine using FDG early dynamic blood flow and contrast-enhanced CT texture analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A feasibility study of improved PET-CT tumor imaging approach is presented. A single PET-CT routine includes three different techniques: 18F-FDG early dynamic blood flow intended for perfusion assessment; standard late 18F-FDG uptake; and high-resolution contrast-enhanced CT enabling tissue texture analysis. Both PET protocols utilize the same single standard radiotracer dose administration. Quantitative volumetric arterial perfusion maps are derived from the reconstructed dynamic PET images corresponding to successive acquisition time intervals of 3 seconds only. For achieving high accuracy, the analysis algorithm differentiates the first-pass arterial flow from other interfering dynamic effects, and a noise reduction scheme based on adaptive total-variation minimization aims to provide appreciable quantitative map in physical conditions of high noise and low spatial resolution. The CT texture analysis comprises a practical and robust method for generating volumetric tissue irregularity maps. A local map value is represented by the entropy function which is derived from a weighted co-occurrence matrix histogram of the corresponding image voxel three-dimensional vicinity. Unique entropy scaling scheme and parameter optimization process, as well as appropriate scaling for varying image noise levels and contrast agent concentrations, improve the results toward quantitative absolute measure with respect to diverse scanning conditions and key analysis parameters. Representative imaging results are demonstrated on several clinical cases involving different organs and cancer types. In these cases, significant tumor characterization relative to the normal surrounding tissues is seen on the quantitative maps of all three imaging techniques. This proof of concept can lead the way to a new practical diagnostic imaging application.

Carmi, Raz; Yefremov, Nikolay; Bernstine, Hanna; Groshar, David

2014-03-01

164

Time-Efficient Myocardial Contrast Partition Coefficient Measurement from Early Enhancement with Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

PubMed Central

Objective Our purpose was to validate an early enhancement time point for accurately measuring the myocardial contrast partition coefficient (lambda) using dynamic-equilibrium magnetic resonance imaging. Materials and Methods The pre- and post-contrast longitudinal relaxation rates (reciprocal of T1) of the interventricular septum (R1m) and blood pool (R1b) were obtained from fifteen healthy volunteers and three diabetic patients with hypertension using two optimized T1 mapping sequences (modified Look-Locker inversion recovery) on a 3-Tesla magnetic resonance scanner. Reference lambda values were calculated as the slope of the regression line of R1m versus R1b at dynamic equilibrium (multi-point regression method). The simplified pre-/post-enhancement two-acquisition method (two-point method) was used to calculate lambda by relating the change in R1m and R1b using different protocols according to the acquisition stage of the post-enhancement data point. The agreement with the referential method was tested by calculating Pearson's correlation coefficient and the intra-class correlation coefficient. Results The lambda values measured by the two-point method increased (from 0.479±0.041 to 0.534±0.043) over time from 6 to 45 minutes after contrast and exhibited good correlation with the reference at each time point (r?0.875, p<0.05). The intra-class correlation coefficient on absolute agreement with the reference lambda was 0.946, 0.929 and 0.922 at the 6th, 7th and 8th minutes and dropped from 0.878 to 0.403 from the 9th minute on. Conclusions The time-efficient two-point method at 6–8 minutes after the Gd-DTPA bolus injection exhibited good agreement with the multi-point regression method and can be applied for accurate lambda measurement in normal myocardium. PMID:24667489

Zhang, Shi-Jun; Wang, Yi-Xiang; Yuan, Jing; Jin, Jiyang; Wang, Yuan-Cheng; Chang, Di; Weng, Dehe; Greiser, Andreas; Ju, Shenghong

2014-01-01

165

Clinical markers, management, and long-term follow-up of early ischemia after coronary artery bypass grafting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In summary, cardial infarction within 1 year after coronary bypass is associated with a high incidence of significant angiographic abnormalities. Early angiography is necessary to identify high-risk patients who could undergo revascularization. Patients with other markers of ischemia should have a noninvasive approach (stress imaging test) as initial evaluation, before coronary angiography is considered. When technically feasible, coronary angioplasty can

Carlos X. Pimentel; Srinivas N. Paranandi; David M. Goodhart; Shelly K. Sapp; Bruce W. Lytle; Conrad C. Simpfendorfer

1995-01-01

166

Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Spontaneous Rupture of the Omental Artery  

SciTech Connect

We encountered a rare case of spontaneous rupture of the omental artery. A 25-year-old man without any episode of abdominal trauma or bleeding disorders came to the emergency unit with left upper abdominal pain. Hematoma with extravasation of the greater omentum and a hemoperitoneum was confirmed on abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Bleeding from the omental artery was suspected based on these findings. Transcatheter arterial embolization was successfully performed after extravasation of the omental artery, which arises from the left gastroepiploic artery, was confirmed on arteriography. Partial ometectomy was performed 10 days after transcatheter arterial embolization, revealing that the hematoma measured 10 cm in diameter in the greater omentum. Pathological examination showed rupture of the branch of an omental artery without abnormal findings, such as an aneurysm or neoplasm. Thus, we diagnosed him with spontaneous rupture of the omental artery. The patient recovered and was discharged from the hospital 10 days after the surgery, with a favorable postoperative course.

Matsumoto, Tomohiro, E-mail: t-matsu@koto.kpu-m.ac.jp [Kyoto First Red Cross Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Yamagami, Takuji [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science (Japan); Morishita, Hiroyuki; Iida, Shigeharu; Tazoe, Jun; Asai, Shunsuke; Masui, Koji [Kyoto First Red Cross Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Ikeda, Jun [Kyoto First Red Cross Hospital, Departments of Surgery and Emergency (Japan); Nagata, Akihiro [Kyoto First Red Cross Hospital, Department of Pathology (Japan); Sato, Osamu [Kyoto First Red Cross Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Nishimura, Tsunehiko [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science (Japan)

2011-02-15

167

Determination of time-course change rate for arterial xenon using the time course of tissue xenon concentration in xenon-enhanced computed tomography  

SciTech Connect

In calculating tissue blood flow (TBF) according to the Fick principle, time-course information on arterial tracer concentration is indispensable and has a considerable influence on the accuracy of calculated TBF. In TBF measurement by xenon-enhanced computed tomography (Xe-CT), nonradioactive xenon gas is administered by inhalation as a tracer, and end-tidal xenon is used as a substitute for arterial xenon. There has been the assumption that the time-course change rate for end-tidal xenon concentration (Ke) and that for arterial xenon concentration (Ka) are substantially equal. Respiratory gas sampling is noninvasive to the patient and Ke can be easily measured by exponential curve fitting to end-tidal xenon concentrations. However, it is pointed out that there would be a large difference between Ke and Ka in many cases. The purpose of this work was to develop a method of determining the Ka value using the time course of tissue xenon concentration in Xe-CT. The authors incorporated Ka into the Kety autoradiographic equation as a parameter to be solved, and developed a method of least-squares to obtain the solution for Ka from the time-course changes in xenon concentration in the tissue. The authors applied this method of least-squares to the data from Xe-CT abdominal studies performed on 17 patients; the solution for Ka was found pixel by pixel in the spleen, and its Ka map was created for each patient. On the one hand, the authors obtained the average value of the Ka map of the spleen as the calculated Ka (Ka{sub calc}) for each patient. On the other hand, the authors measured Ka (Ka{sub meas}) using the time-course changes in CT enhancement in the abdominal aorta for each patient. There was a good correlation between Ka{sub calc} and Ka{sub meas} (r=0.966, P<0.0001), and these two Ka values were close to each other (Ka{sub calc}=0.935xKa{sub meas}+0.089). This demonstrates that Ka{sub calc} would be close to the true Ka value. Accuracy of TBF by Xe-CT can be improved with use of the average value of the Ka map of an organ like the spleen that has a single blood supply (only arterial inflow)

Sase, Shigeru; Takahashi, Hideaki; Ikeda, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Minoru; Matsumoto, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Michihiro [Anzai Medical Co., Ltd., 3-9-15 Nishi-Shinagawa, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-0033 (Japan); Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, School of Medicine, St. Marianna University, 2-16-1 Miyamae-ku, Sugao, Kawasaki 216-5811 (Japan)

2008-06-15

168

Post-stimulus potentiation of transmission in pelvic ganglia enhances sympathetic dilatation of guinea-pig uterine artery in vitro.  

PubMed

Vasodilatation produced by stimulation of preganglionic neurones in lumbar and sacral pathways to pelvic ganglia was studied using an in vitro preparation of guinea-pig uterine artery and associated nerves in a partitioned bath allowing selective drug application to the ganglia or artery. Arterial diameter was monitored using real time video imaging. Vasodilatations produced by hypogastric nerve stimulation (HN; 300 pulses, 10 Hz) were significantly larger and longer in duration than with pelvic nerve stimulation (N = 18). Stimulation of ipsilateral lumbar splanchnic nerves or ipsilateral third lumbar ventral roots also produced prolonged vasodilatations. Blockade of ganglionic nicotinic receptors (0.1-1 mM hexamethonium) delayed the onset and sometimes reduced the peak amplitude of dilatations, but slow dilatations persisted in 16 of 18 preparations. These dilatations were not reduced further by 3 microM capsaicin applied to the artery and ganglia, or ganglionic application of 1 microM hyoscine, 30-100 microM suramin or 10 microM CNQX. Dilatations were reduced slightly by ganglionic application of NK1 and NK3 receptor antagonists (SR140333, SR142801; 1 microM), but were reduced significantly by bathing the ganglia in 0.5 mM Ca2+ and 10 mM Mg2+. Intracellular recordings of paracervical ganglion neurones revealed fast excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in all neurones on HN stimulation (300 pulses, 10 Hz), and slow EPSPs (3-12 mV amplitude) in 25 of 37 neurones. Post-stimulus action potential discharge associated with slow EPSPs occurred in 16 of 37 neurones (firing rate 9.4 +/- 1.5 Hz). Hexamethonium (0.1-1 mM) abolished fast EPSPs. Hexamethonium and hyoscine (1 microM) did not reduce slow EPSPs and associated post-stimulus firing in identified vasodilator neurones (with VIP immunoreactivity) or non-vasodilator paracervical neurones. These results demonstrate a predominantly sympathetic origin of autonomic pathways producing pelvic vasodilatation in females. Non-cholinergic mediators of slow transmission in pelvic ganglia produce prolonged firing of postganglionic neurones and long-lasting dilatations of the uterine artery. This mechanism would facilitate maintenance of pelvic vasodilatation on stimulation of preganglionic neurones during sexual activity. PMID:15802294

Morris, Judy L; Gibbins, Ian L; Jobling, Phillip

2005-07-01

169

Increased salt intake during early ontogenesis lead to development of arterial hypertension in salt-resistant Wistar rats.  

PubMed

A direct relationship exists between salt consumption and hypertension. Increased sodium intake does not automatically lead to a rise in blood pressure (BP) because of marked intra-individual variability in salt sensitivity. Wistar rats are a salt-resistant strain and increased salt intake in adults does not induce hypertension. Mechanisms regulating BP develop during early ontogenesis and increased sodium consumption by pregnant females leads to an increase in BP of their offspring, but early postnatal stages have not been sufficiently analyzed in salt-resistant strains of rats. The aim of this work was to study the effects of increased salt during early ontogeny on cardiovascular characteristics of Wistar rats. We used 16 control (C; 8 males + 8 females) rats fed with a standard diet (0.2% sodium) and 16 experimental (S; 8 males + 8 females) rats fed with a diet containing 0.8% sodium. BP was measured weekly and plasma renin activity, aldosterone and testosterone concentrations were assayed by radioimmunoassay after the experiment in 16-week-old animals. In the kidney, AT1 receptors were determined by the western blot. BP was higher in the S as compared with the C rats and did not differ between males and females. The relative left ventricle mass was increased in S as compared with C males and no differences were recorded in females. No significant differences between groups were found in hormonal parameters and AT1 receptors. Results indicate that moderately increased salt intake during postnatal ontogeny results in a BP rise even in salt-resistant rats. PMID:25050593

Svitok, Pavel; Molcan, Lubos; Vesela, Anna; Kruzliak, Peter; Moravcik, Roman; Zeman, Michal

2015-01-01

170

Surface-enhanced Raman sensors: early history and the development of sensors for quantitative biowarfare agent and glucose detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a powerful technique for the sensitive and selective detection of low-concentration analytes. This paper includes a discussion of the early history of SERS, the concepts that must be appreciated to optimize the intensity of SERS and the development of SERS- based sensors. In order to achieve the lowest limits of detection, both the relationship between

Christy L. Haynes; Chanda Ranjit Yonzon; Xiaoyu Zhang; Richard P. Van Duyne

2005-01-01

171

-ENHANCED INTEGRATED LICK/IDS SPECTRAL INDICES AND MILKY WAY AND M31 GLOBULAR CLUSTERS AND EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES  

E-print Network

-ENHANCED INTEGRATED LICK/IDS SPECTRAL INDICES AND MILKY WAY AND M31 GLOBULAR CLUSTERS AND EARLY fraction Z) and compare to Milky Way globular clusters that have independently estimated mean [Fe/H] and [/Fe]. Comparison of our models with observations of Milky Way and M31 globular clusters in index

Lee, Hyun-chul

172

How Will This Help Me? Evaluating an Accredited Programme to Enhance the Early Professional Development of Newly Qualified Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on the evaluation of an accredited programme to enhance the early professional development of newly qualified teachers within the Black Country region of the English West Midlands. Newly qualified teachers participating in the accredited programme, their induction tutors, newly qualified teachers not participating in the…

Rhodes, Christopher; Nevill, Alan; Allan, Jo

2005-01-01

173

Musical training during early childhood enhances the neural encoding of speech Dana L. Strait a,b  

E-print Network

Musical training during early childhood enhances the neural encoding of speech in noise Dana L: Auditory Brainstem ABR Speech in noise Attention Memory Musicians Children Development a b s t r a c to improve a child's access to a target signal in noise. Given adult musicians' perceptual and neural speech

174

Early age strength enhancement of blended cement systems by CaCl{sub 2} and diethanol-isopropanolamine  

SciTech Connect

The enhancement of the 1 day strength of cementitious systems by a combination of calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) and diethanol-isopropanolamine (DEIPA) was studied, particularly in blended cement systems. A combination of quantitative X-ray diffraction with Rietveld refinement (QXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/backscattered electron image analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and isothermal calorimetry were used to investigate the mechanism of strength enhancement by the additives. The additives were found to increase the early age mortar strength by enhancing the cement hydration, with the DEIPA enhancing primarily the aluminate hydration. DEIPA also affected the morphology of portlandite which was formed as thin plates. In parallel, the calcium-to-silica ratio of the C-S-H was found to increase with the use of DEIPA, possibly because of the inclusion of microcrystalline portlandite. After 48 h DEIPA was found to directly enhance the rate of reaction of granulated blast-furnace slag and fly ash.

Riding, Kyle, E-mail: kyleriding@yahoo.co [Department of Civil Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Silva, Denise A. [W.R. Grace and Co., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02140 (United States); Scrivener, Karen [Laboratory of Construction Materials, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 (Switzerland)

2010-06-15

175

Enhanced normalisation of CD4/CD8 ratio with early antiretroviral therapy in primary HIV infection  

PubMed Central

Introduction Despite normalization of total CD4 counts, ongoing immune dysfunction is noted amongst those on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Low CD4/CD8 ratio is associated with a high risk of AIDS and non-AIDS events and may act as a marker of immune senescence [1]. This ratio is improved by ART although normalization is uncommon (~7%) [2]. The probability of normalization of CD4 count is improved with immediate ART initiation in primary HIV infection (PHI) [3]. We examined whether CD4/CD8 ratio similarly normalized in immediate vs. deferred ART at PHI. Material and Methods Using data from the SPARTAC trial and the UK Register of HIV Seroconverters, we examined the effect of ART with time (continuous) from HIV seroconversion (SC) on CD4/CD8 ratio (?1) adjusted for sex, risk group, ethnicity, enrolment from an African site and both CD4 count and age at ART initiation. We also examined that effect by dichotomizing HIV duration at ART initiation (ART started within six months of SC: early ART; ART initiated>six months after SC: deferred). We also considered time to CD4 count normalization (?900 cells/mm3). Results In total, 353 initiated ART with median (IQR) 97.9 (60.5, 384.5) days from estimated seroconversion; 253/353 early ART, 100 deferred ART. At one year after starting ART, 114/253 (45%) early ART had normalized CD4/8 ratio, compared with 11/99 (11%) in the deferred group, whilst 83/253 (33%) of early ART had normalized CD4 counts, compared with 3/99 (3%) in the deferred group. Individuals initiating within six months of PHI were significantly more likely to reach normal ratio than those initiating later (HR, 95% CI 2.96, 1.75 – 5.01, p<0.001). The longer after SC ART was initiated, the reduced likelihood of achieving normalization of CD4/CD8 ratio (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96 – 0.99 for each 30-day increase). CD4 count at ART initiation was also associated with normalization, as expected (HR 1.002, 95% CI 1.001 – 1.002, p<0.001). There was an association between normal CD4/CD8 ratio and being virally suppressed (<400 copies HIV RNA/ml) p<0.001. CD4 count normalization was also significantly more likely for those initiating early (HR 5.00, 95% CI 1.52 – 16.41, p=0.008). Conclusions The likelihood of achieving normalization of CD4/CD8 ratios was increased if ART was initiated within six months of PHI. Higher CD4/CD8 ratio may reflect a more “normal” immune phenotype conferring enhanced prognosis and predict post-treatment control. PMID:25393989

Thornhill, John; Inshaw, Jamie; Oomeer, Soonita; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Cooper, David; Ramjee, Gita; Schechter, Mauro; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Fox, Julie; Maria Miro, Jose; Weber, Jonathan; Babiker, Abdel; Porter, Kholoud; Fidler, Sarah

2014-01-01

176

Early treatment response to sorafenib for rabbit VX2 orthotic liver tumors: evaluation by quantitative contrast-enhanced ultrasound.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to investigate the application of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and its quantification analysis for the prediction of early treatment response of sorafenib on rabbit VX2 liver tumor model. Rabbits were implanted VX2 tumor mass to establish a liver tumor model. Fourteen days after tumor implantation, rabbits presented with single liver tumor were randomly divided into two groups. Rabbits in treatment group were given by gavage once a day for 14 days with sorafenib suspension at a dose of 30 mg/kg, whereas rabbits in control group were given saline by gavage of the same volume. CEUS was performed before treatment and 3, 7, 14 days after treatment for the analysis of tumor size, enhancement pattern, and necrosis range. The time intensity curve (TIC) was used to obtain quantitative parameters of enhancement patterns. Before sorafenib administration, tumor volumes ranged from 0.24 to 0.75 cm(3) (mean 0.49?±?0.18 cm(3)) in treatment group and 0.24 to 0.44 cm(3) (mean 0.30?±?0.12 cm(3)) in control group. The dynamic enhancement patterns of tumors were homogeneous hyper-enhancement (n?=?8), heterogeneous hyper-enhancement (n?=?4), and peripheral rim-like enhancement (n?=?2). All tumors of the treatment group presented with peripheral rim-like enhancement with large necrotic area after sorafenib administration, whereas tumors of the control group showed heterogeneous hyper-enhancement (n?=?5) and peripheral rim-like enhancement (n?=?2). There was a significant difference in area under the curve (AUC) before and after sorafenib treatment (P?=?0.045). CEUS may be of value in the evaluation of early therapeutic response after sorafenib administration. PMID:25448880

Kong, Wen-Tao; Yuan, Hai-Xia; Cai, Hao; Wang, Wen-Ping; Tang, Yang; Zhang, Xiao-Long

2014-12-01

177

Numerical modeling of an enhanced very early time electromagnetic (VETEM) prototype system  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In this paper, two numerical models are presented to simulate an enhanced very early time electromagnetic (VETEM) prototype system, which is used for buried-object detection and environmental problems. Usually, the VETEM system contains a transmitting loop antenna and a receiving loop antenna, which run on a lossy ground to detect buried objects. In the first numerical model, the loop antennas are accurately analyzed using the Method of Moments (MoM) for wire antennas above or buried in lossy ground. Then, Conjugate Gradient (CG) methods, with the use of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) or MoM, are applied to investigate the scattering from buried objects. Reflected and scattered magnetic fields are evaluated at the receiving loop to calculate the output electric current. However, the working frequency for the VETEM system is usually low and, hence, two magnetic dipoles are used to replace the transmitter and receiver in the second numerical model. Comparing these two models, the second one is simple, but only valid for low frequency or small loops, while the first modeling is more general. In this paper, all computations are performed in the frequency domain, and the FFT is used to obtain the time-domain responses. Numerical examples show that simulation results from these two models fit very well when the frequency ranges from 10 kHz to 10 MHz, and both results are close to the measured data.

Cui, T.J.; Chew, W.C.; Aydiner, A.A.; Wright, D.L.; Smith, D.V.; Abraham, J.D.

2000-01-01

178

Chromatin Remodeling by the T Cell Receptor (Tcr)-? Gene Enhancer during Early T Cell Development  

PubMed Central

Gene targeting studies have shown that T cell receptor (TCR)-? gene expression and recombination are inhibited after deletion of an enhancer (E?) located at the 3? end of the ?500-kb TCR-? locus. Using knockout mouse models, we have measured, at different regions throughout the TCR-? locus, the effects of E? deletion on molecular parameters believed to reflect epigenetic changes associated with the control of gene activation, including restriction endonuclease access to chromosomal DNA, germline transcription, DNA methylation, and histone H3 acetylation. Our results demonstrate that, in early developing thymocytes, E? contributes to major chromatin remodeling directed to an ?25-kb upstream domain comprised of the D?-J? locus regions. Accordingly, treatment of E?-deleted thymocytes with the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A relieved the block in TCR-? gene expression and promoted recombination within the D?-J? loci. Unexpectedly, however, epigenetic processes at distal V? genes on the 5? side of the locus and at the 3? proximal V?14 gene appear to be less dependent on E?, suggesting that E? activity is confined to a discrete region of the TCR-? locus. These findings have implications with respect to the developmental control of TCR-? gene recombination, and the process of allelic exclusion at this locus. PMID:10974029

Mathieu, Noëlle; Hempel, William M.; Spicuglia, Salvatore; Verthuy, Christophe; Ferrier, Pierre

2000-01-01

179

A Case Study of the Use of Internet Photobook Technology to Enhance Early Childhood "Scientist" Identity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many influences on a child's identity. Photobook technology purposefully prepared around science explorations presents a modern opportunity to repeatedly trigger memories that reinforce the "me, as scientist" viewpoint. Semi-structured interviews at 6 and 8 years of age were conducted with a child who was the subject of a photobook of everyday science activities to gain insights into his thinking about the nature of science and how he interprets his younger self participating. Interview data were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using dimensions from the previously established parameters for the nature of science. The child's statements about his participation in the photos were matched to these dimensions to consider how he sees himself "doing science" through his early years. Preliminary findings suggest that the child recognizes elements of science and regards himself as an active participant. In both interviews, the child reinforces these views by the opportunity to revisit the experiences in the photobook. Affective components may motivate further science involvement as well: the child enjoyed the time and attention that the photos and discussion provided; the child took pride in being the subject of a book. This case study suggests that there is a fertile field of research to investigate how, for whom, and in what ways internet photobook technology may enhance a child's developing identity as capable science explorer.

Katz, Phyllis

2011-10-01

180

Long-term inhibition of RhoA attenuates vascular contractility by enhancing endothelial NO production in an intact rabbit mesenteric artery.  

PubMed

RhoA plays a critical role in regulating NO production in cultured endothelial cells. To determine its role in in situ endothelial cells, we investigated the effects of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors and a RhoA-binding domain of Rho-kinase (RB) on vascular contractility in the isolated rabbit mesenteric artery. Ex vivo treatment of the strips with 3x10(-5) mol/L simvastatin and fluvastatin for approximately 24 to 30 hours significantly attenuated the contractile response to phenylephrine and high K+ in the presence of endothelium. The addition of N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and the removal of endothelium abolished the attenuation of the contractile response. The cotreatment with geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate prevented the statin-induced attenuation of the contractile response, whereas geranylgeranyl transferase inhibitor mimicked the effect of simvastatin. Treatment with simvastatin enhanced the bradykinin-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation in the mesenteric artery, whereas it had no effect on the bradykinin-induced [Ca2+]i elevation in endothelial cells of the aortic valves. Introduction of RB to the strips using a cell-penetrating peptide of Tat protein (TATHA-RB) attenuated the contractile responses in a NO-dependent manner. However, a Rac1/Cdc42-binding fragment of p21-activated protein kinase, RB without Tat peptide or TATHA-protein A had no effect. The in vivo treatment of rabbit with simvastatin and TATHA-RB attenuated the contractility in a NO-dependent manner. Simvastatin and TATHA-RB significantly upregulated eNOS in the rabbit mesenteric artery. The present study provides the first evidence that RhoA plays a physiological role in suppressing NO production in in situ endothelial cells. PMID:15817883

Shiga, Noriko; Hirano, Katsuya; Hirano, Mayumi; Nishimura, Junji; Nawata, Hajime; Kanaide, Hideo

2005-05-13

181

Arterial Baroreflex Control of Cardiac Vagal Outflow in Older Individuals Can Be Enhanced by Aerobic Exercise Training  

PubMed Central

Maintained cardiac vagal function is critical to cardiovascular health in human aging. Aerobic exercise training has been thought an attractive intervention to increase cardiovagal baroreflex function however, the data are equivocal. Moreover, if regular exercise does reverse the age-related decline in cardiovagal baroreflex function, it is unknown how this might be achieved. Therefore, we assessed the effects of a 6-month aerobic training program on baroreflex gain and its mechanical and neural components in older individuals (5 women and 7 men, aged 55–71 years). We assessed baroreflex function using pharmacologic pressure changes (bolus nitroprusside followed by bolus phenylephrine) and estimated the integrated gain (?R-R interval/?systolic blood pressure) and mechanical (? diameter/? pressure) and neural (?R-R interval/? diameter) components via measurements of carotid artery diameter in previously sedentary older individuals before and after 6-months of aerobic training. There was a significant 26% increase in baroreflex gain that was directly related to the amount of exercise performed and that derived mainly from an increase in the neural component of the arterial baroreflex (p<0.05). We did find changes in the mechanical component but unlike integrated gain and the neural component, these were not related to the magnitude of the exercise stimulus. These results suggest that exercise training can have a powerful effect on cardiovagal baroreflex function, but a sufficient stimulus is necessary to produce the effect. Moreover, adaptations in the afferent efferent baroreflex control of cardiac vagal outflow may be crucial for the improvement in arterial baroreflex function in older humans. PMID:19332656

Deley, Gaelle; Picard, Glen; Taylor, J. Andrew

2009-01-01

182

Basic fibroblast growth factor enhances the coupling of intimal hyperplasia and proliferation of vasa vasorum in injured rat arteries.  

PubMed Central

Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is mitogenic for smooth muscle cells (SMC) and angiogenic. We examined the in vivo effects of bFGF in balloon denuded carotid arteries of laboratory rats. bFGF was administered continuously from polymer-based devices at 34 ng/d into the periadventitial space of rat carotid arteries for 2 wk. Intimal hyperplasia was not observed in the absence of injury or with lipopolysaccharide induced endothelial dysfunction. Different degrees of vascular injury produced proportionally more intimal hyperplasia. bFGF increased the intimal hyperplastic response 1.3-fold with severe vascular injury, and 2.4-fold with more mild injury. Increased cell proliferation, not extracellular matrix production, accounted for these effects. Cell density was unchanged for the control and bFGF-treated groups, and the number of proliferating intimal cells at 2 wk rose to an amount equivalent to the increase in mass; 1.9- and 4.0-fold for severe and lesser injury, respectively. The relative ability of heparin to reduce SMC proliferation was not altered by the presence of bFGF.bFGF also induced profound angiogenesis within and surrounding the polymeric releasing device, and in the vasa vasorum immediately around the injured arteries. bFGF's effect on vasa was linearly related to the amount of SMC proliferation within the blood vessel. Thus, the in vivo mitogenic and angiogenic potential of bFGF are coupled, and may be similarly modulated by the products of local injury and/or factors in the vessel wall. Images PMID:1371124

Edelman, E R; Nugent, M A; Smith, L T; Karnovsky, M J

1992-01-01

183

Lumen Segmentation and Motion Estimation in B-mode and Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Images of the Carotid Artery in Patients with Atherosclerotic Plaque.  

PubMed

In standard B-mode ultrasound (BMUS), segmentation of the lumen of atherosclerotic carotid arteries and studying the lumen geometry over time are difficult owing to irregular lumen shapes, noise, artifacts, and echolucent plaques. Contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) improves lumen visualization, but lumen segmentation remains challenging owing to varying intensities, CEUS-specific artifacts and lack of tissue visualization. To overcome these challenges, we propose a novel method using simultaneously acquired BMUS&CEUS image sequences. Initially, the method estimates nonrigid motion (NME) from the image sequences, using intensity-based image registration. The motion-compensated image sequence is then averaged to obtain a single 'epitome' image with improved signal-to-noise ratio. The lumen is segmented from the epitome image through an intensity joint-histogram classification and a graph-based segmentation. NME was validated by comparing displacements with manual annotations in eleven carotids. The average root-mean-squareerror (RMSE) was 112 73 ?m. Segmentation results were validated against manual delineations in the epitome images of two different datasets, respectively containing eleven (RMSE 191 43 ?m) and ten (RMSE 351 176 ?m) carotids. From the deformation fields, we derived arterial distensibility with values comparable to the literature. The average errors in all experiments were in the inter-observer variability range. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study exploiting combined BMUS&CEUS images for atherosclerotic carotid lumen segmentation. PMID:25423650

Dias Bispo Carvalho, Diego; Akkus, Zeynettin; van den Oord, Stijn; Schinkel, Arend; van der Steen, Ton; Niessen, Wiro; Bosch, Hans; Klein, Stefan

2014-11-21

184

Predictors and outcomes of early coronary angiography in patients with prior coronary artery bypass surgery presenting with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

Introduction The best strategy in patients with prior coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) who present with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) remains less well defined. We compare the characteristics, therapeutic interventions and outcomes of patients with prior CABG presenting with NSTEMI. Methods All patients who presented to our hospital during 2007–2012 with available electronic records were analysed retrospectively. Outcomes were compared between patients who underwent coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus those who were treated medically. Results A total of 117 patients were analysed. Of that, 79 patients were managed medically while 38 underwent early angiography, of which only 11 (9.5%) received PCI. Patients treated medically (did not undergo angiography) were older (74±10 vs70±8; p=0.05). ECG changes were the only independent predictor for early angiography (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.99; p=0.05) while recurrent chest pain (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.97; p=0.05) predicted PCI on multivariate analysis. The PCI group had higher Global Registry of Acute Cardiac Events (GRACE) score (176±29 vs 150±31; p=0.01). No significant difference was found in readmission rates, morbidity (unstable angina pectoris, NSTEMI, ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), or combination) or mortality at 12?months between the groups who underwent angiography, PCI, or treated medically on univariate and multivariate analysis. Conclusions The opportunity to intervene in prior CABG patients presenting with NSTEMI is often low. Initial medical management may be a reasonable option in carefully selected patients particularly in the absence of ongoing symptoms, ECG changes or very high GRACE scores. Further studies are required to evaluate the safety of non-invasive strategies in managing this population. PMID:25332800

Asrar ul Haq, Muhammad; Rudd, Nima; Mian, Mueed; Castles, Anastasia; Mogilevski, Tamara; Mutha, Vivek; Van Gaal, William J

2014-01-01

185

Music and Speech Listening Enhance the Recovery of Early Sensory Processing after Stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our surrounding auditory environment has a dramatic influence on the development of basic auditory and cognitive skills, but little is known about how it influences the recovery of these skills after neural damage. Here, we studied the long-term effects of daily music and speech listening on auditory sensory memory after middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke. In the acute recovery phase,

Teppo Särkämö; Elina Pihko; Sari Laitinen; Anita Forsblom; Seppo Soinila; Mikko Mikkonen; Taina Autti; Heli M. Silvennoinen; Jaakko Erkkilä; Matti Laine; Isabelle Peretz; Marja Hietanen; Mari Tervaniemi

2010-01-01

186

Chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection may promote coronary artery disease in humans through enhancing secretion of interleukin-4  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory response, probably to a range of initiating causes. Chronic infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae (C.pn) has been suggested as one cause, but the nature of the association is controversial, in large part due to lack of an identified mechanism to link infection with the atherosclerotic process in man. This study examined 139 consecutive subjects with stable chest pain, with the aim of correlating the serological status of C.pn infection with the pattern of secretion of cytokines from CD4+ T lymphocytes. C.pn seropositive subjects secreted significantly more interleukin (IL)-4 than did those who were C.pn seronegative (P = 0·02). No significant difference was noted for secreted interferon (IFN)-?. The amount of secreted IL-4, but not of secreted IFN-?, correlated positively with the extent of coronary artery disease (P = 0·006). A similar correlation with secreted IL-4 was not identified with Helicobacter pylori infection. These results support the hypothesis that C.pn infection contributes to the inflammatory process responsible for coronary artery atherosclerosis. The method used to detect cytokine secretion involves ligation of CD40L on blood CD4+ T cells, which may have relevance to tissue events. PMID:17034570

Clancy, R; Ren, Z; Pang, G; Fletcher, P; D'Este, C

2006-01-01

187

Assessing the end-organ in peripheral arterial occlusive disease—from contrast—enhanced ultrasound to blood-oxygen-level-dependent MR imaging  

PubMed Central

Peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) is a result of atherosclerotic disease which is currently the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. Patients with PAOD may present with intermittent claudication or symptoms related to critical limb ischemia. PAOD is associated with increased mortality rates. Stenoses and occlusions are usually detected by macrovascular imaging, including ultrasound and cross-sectional methods. From a pathophysiological view these stenoses and occlusions are affecting the microperfusion in the functional end-organs, such as the skin and skeletal muscle. In the clinical arena new imaging technologies enable the evaluation of the microvasculature. Two technologies currently under investigation for this purpose on the end-organ level in PAOD patients are contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) MR imaging (MRI). The following article is providing an overview about these evolving techniques with a specific focus on skeletal muscle microvasculature imaging in PAOD patients. PMID:24834413

Partovi, Sasan; Jacobi, Bjoern; Fergus, Nathan; Schulte, Anja-Carina; Robbin, Mark R.; Bilecen, Deniz; Staub, Daniel

2014-01-01

188

The effect of Helium-enhanced stellar populations on the ultraviolet upturn phenomenon of early-type galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new population synthesis models (Chung et al. 2011) for quiescent early-type galaxies (ETGs) with UV-upturn phenomenon using relatively metal-poor and helium-enhanced subpopulations in the model. We find that the presence of helium-enhanced subpopulations in ETGs can naturally reproduce the strong UV-upturns observed in giant elliptical galaxies (Figure 1. left panel), without invoking unrealistically old ages (Park & Lee 1997). Our models with helium-enhanced subpopulations also predict that the well-known Burstein relation can be explained by the fraction of helium-enhanced subpopulation, the mean age, and the mean metallicity of the underlying stellar populations (Figure 1. right panel).

Chung, Chul; Yoon, Suk-Jin; Lee, Young-Wook

2015-03-01

189

Contrast-agent-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: early detection of neoplastic lesions of the CNS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Even though the intrinsic soft tissue contrast sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) affords excellent visualization of anatomic detail, certain pathologic processes may be diagnosed earlier with the administration of a contrast-enhancing agent. At present there is one agent, gadopentetate dimeglumine, GdDTPA, that has received FDA approval for use in the MR scanning of the brain and spine in human patients. This paramagnetic chelate distributes throughout the extracellular fluid space as dictated by capillary permeability so that abnormal vascularity and sites of blood-CNS barrier breakdown are highlighted. Primary neoplastic disease, metastases, meningeal extension, residual and recurrent tumor have been found to be better distinguished in MR images acquired after administration of GdDTPA. Routine administration of GdDTPA for cranial imaging has resulted in the discovery of otherwise occult lesions in approximately 3 of patients. Although the clinical utility and high therapeutic safety index of the first approved magnetic resonance contrast agent, GdDTPA, have been well established, other contrast agents, having different physical, chemical and biological properties, may offer improved sensitivity and bio-specificity. Agents currently being evaluated in vivo include: low osmolal paramagnetic chelates, superparamagnetic particles, metalloporphyrins, liposome encapsulated agents, perfluorocarbons, intravascular macromolecular chelate complexes and labeled monoclonal antibodies. Concurrent with advances in the development of new compounds, innovations in scanning hardware, pulse sequence design and image post-processing are helping to extend the efficacy of contrast media. Additional clinical experience will indicate which contrast agents and which MR techniques can best facilitate the early detection of specific neoplastic lesions.

Carvlin, Mark J.; Rosa, Louis; Rajan, Sunder S.; Francisco, John

1991-06-01

190

Extensive complement-dependent enhancement of HIV-1 by autologous non-neutralising antibodies at early stages of infection  

PubMed Central

Background Non-neutralising antibodies to the envelope glycoprotein are elicited during acute HIV-1 infection and are abundant throughout the course of disease progression. Although these antibodies appear to have negligible effects on HIV-1 infection when assayed in standard neutralisation assays, they have the potential to exert either inhibitory or enhancing effects through interactions with complement and/or Fc receptors. Here we report that non-neutralising antibodies produced early in response to HIV-1 infection can enhance viral infectivity. Results We investigated this complement-mediated antibody-dependent enhancement (C'-ADE) of early HIV infection by carrying out longitudinal studies with primary viruses and autologous sera derived sequentially from recently infected individuals, using a T cell line naturally expressing the complement receptor 2 (CR2; CD21). The C'-ADE was consistently observed and in some cases achieved infection-enhancing levels of greater than 350-fold, converting a low-level infection to a highly destructive one. C'-ADE activity declined as a neutralising response to the early virus emerged, but later virus isolates that had escaped the neutralising response demonstrated an increased capacity for enhanced infection by autologous antibodies. Moreover, sera with autologous enhancing activity were capable of C'ADE of heterologous viral isolates, suggesting the targeting of conserved epitopes on the envelope glycoprotein. Ectopic expression of CR2 on cell lines expressing HIV-1 receptors was sufficient to render them sensitive to C'ADE. Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that non-neutralising antibodies to the HIV-1 envelope that arise during acute infection are not 'passive', but in concert with complement and complement receptors may have consequences for HIV-1 dissemination and pathogenesis. PMID:21401915

2011-01-01

191

Arterial embolism  

MedlinePLUS

... a clot. Emboli means there is more than one clot or piece of plaque. When the clot travels ... embolism. An arterial embolism may be caused by one or more clots. The clots can get stuck in an artery ...

192

Enhancing Social Acceptance of Early Adolescents with Physical Disabilities: effects of role salience, peer interaction, and academic support interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study designed and field-tested the effectiveness of a school-based program for enhancing the social acceptance of early adolescents (i.e., ages 11 to 14 years) with physical disabilities attending ordinary Zimbabwean schools (N=218; Mean age 12.49, SD=1.87 years). Actual (i.e., peer) social acceptance and perceived (i.e., self) social acceptance were considered and for same-gender and opposite-gender groups. The program involved

Elias Mpofu

2003-01-01

193

Early Re-Do Surgery for Glioblastoma Is a Feasible and Safe Strategy to Achieve Complete Resection of Enhancing Tumor  

PubMed Central

Background Complete resection of enhancing tumor as assessed by early (<72 hours) postoperative MRI is regarded as the optimal result in glioblastoma surgery. As yet, there is no consensus on standard procedure if post-operative imaging reveals unintended tumor remnants. Objective The current study evaluated the feasibility and safety of an early re-do surgery aimed at completing resections with the aid of 5-ALA fluorescence and neuronavigation after detection of enhancing tumor remnants on post-operative MRI. Methods From October 2008 to October 2012 a single center institutional protocol offered a second surgery within one week to patients with unintentional incomplete glioblastoma resection. We report on the feasibility of the use 5-ALA fluorescence guidance, the extent of resection (EOR) rates and complications of early re-do surgery. Results Nine of 151 patients (6%) with glioblastoma resections had an unintentional tumor remnant with a volume >0.175 cm3. 5-ALA guided re-do surgery completed the resection (CRET) in all patients without causing neurological deficits, infections or other complications. Patients who underwent a re-do surgery remained hospitalized between surgeries, resulting in a mean length of hospital stay of 11 days (range 7-15), compared to 9 days for single surgery (range 3-23; p=0.147). Conclusion Our early re-do protocol led to complete resection of all enhancing tumor in all cases without any new neurological deficits and thus provides a similar oncological result as intraoperative MRI (iMRI). The repeated use of 5-ALA induced fluorescence, used for identification of small remnants, remains highly sensitive and specific in the setting of re-do surgery. Early re-do surgery is a feasible and safe strategy to complete unintended subtotal resections. PMID:24348904

Schucht, Philippe; Murek, Michael; Jilch, Astrid; Seidel, Kathleen; Hewer, Ekkehard; Wiest, Roland; Raabe, Andreas; Beck, Jürgen

2013-01-01

194

Early accelerated senescence of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in premature coronary artery disease patients in a developing country - a case control study  

PubMed Central

Background The decreased number and senescence of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are considered markers of vascular senescence associated with aging, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease (CAD) in elderly. In this study, we explore the role of vascular senescence in premature CAD (PCAD) in a developing country by comparing the numerical status and senescence of circulating EPCs in PCAD patients to controls. Methods EPCs were measured by flow cytometry in 57 patients with angiographically documented CAD, and 57 controls without evidence of CAD, recruited from random patients???50 years of age at All India Institute of Medical Sciences. EPC senescence as determined by telomere length (EPC-TL) and telomerase activity (EPC-TA) was studied by real time polymerase chain reaction (q PCR) and PCR– ELISA respectively. Result The number of EPCs (0.18% Vs. 0.039% of total WBCs, p?early accelerated vascular cell senescence may play an important mechanistic role in CAD epidemic in developing countries like India where PCAD burden is markedly higher compared to developed countries. PMID:24245738

2013-01-01

195

Prediction of multivessel coronary artery disease and prognosis early after acute myocardial infarction by exercise electrocardiography and thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scanning  

SciTech Connect

Exercise electrocardiography and thallium scanning were performed a mean of 24 days after uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction in 103 patients, aged 36 to 60 years, who also underwent coronary angiography. The purpose of the study was to determine the ability of the noninvasive tests to predict multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD) and prognosis. Patients were followed up to document medical complications (incidence 12%: 3 deaths, 1 resuscitated cardiac arrest, 4 recurrent infarctions, 4 admissions with unstable angina) and combined events (medical events or bypass surgery, incidence 23%). The sensitivity, specificity and predictive accuracy for predicting multivessel CAD were 64%, 77% and 64% for a positive exercise electrocardiographic (ECG) response, 64%, 88% and 80% for a remote thallium defect, and 42%, 96% and 88% for a combination of the 2 tests. With 2 tests yielding negative findings the probability of multivessel CAD was 13%. No variable (positive exercise ECG response, remote thallium defect and presence of multivessel CAD) predicted medical events, although there were nonsignificant trends to more events in patients with any of those findings. The relative risk of combined events was 2.5 (p less than 0.05) for a positive exercise ECG response; 1.8 (NS) for a remote thallium defect; 2.6 (p less than 0.05) for multivessel CAD; and 3.1 (p less than 0.025) for both positive ECG response and remote defect. A combination of exercise electrocardiography and thallium scanning early after acute myocardial infarction helps to identify subsets of patients with high and low probabilities of multivessel CAD and combined medical or surgical events.

Abraham, R.D.; Freedman, S.B.; Dunn, R.F.; Newman, H.; Roubin, G.S.; Harris, P.J.; Kelly, D.T.

1986-09-01

196

Identification of factors mediating the developmental regulation of the early acting –3.9 kb chicken lysozyme enhancer element  

PubMed Central

The chicken lysozyme gene –3.9 kb enhancer forms a DNase I hypersensitive site (DHS) early in macrophage differentiation, but not in more primitive multipotent myeloid precursor cells. A nucleosome becomes precisely positioned across the enhancer in parallel with DHS formation. In transfection assays, the 5?-part of the –3.9 kb element has ubiquitous enhancer activity. The 3?-part has no stimulatory activity, but is necessary for enhancer repression in lysozyme non-expressing cells. Recent studies have shown that the chromatin fine structure of this region is affected by inhibition of histone deacetylase activity after Trichostatin A (TSA) treatment, but only in lysozyme non-expressing cells. These results indicated a developmental modification of chromatin structure from a dynamic, but inactive, to a stabilised, possibly hyperacetylated, active state. Here we have identified positively and negatively acting transcription factors binding to the –3.9 kb enhancer and determined their contribution to enhancer activity. Furthermore, we examined the influence of TSA treatment on enhancer activity in macrophage cells and lysozyme non-expressing cells, including multipotent macrophage precursors. Interestingly, TSA treatment was able to restore enhancer activity fully in macrophage precursor cells, but not in non-macrophage lineage cells. These results suggest (i) that the transcription factor complement of multipotent progenitor cells is similar to that of lysozyme-expressing cells and (ii) that developmental regulation of the –3.9 kb enhancer is mediated by the interplay of repressing and activating factors that respond to or initiate changes in the chromatin acetylation state. PMID:11713304

Lefevre, Pascal; Kontaraki, Joanna; Bonifer, Constanze

2001-01-01

197

Improving Early Adaptation Following Long Duration Spaceflight by Enhancing Vestibular Information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crewmember adapted to the microgravity state may need to egress the vehicle within a few minutes for safety and operational reasons after g-transitions. The transition from one sensorimotor state to another consists of two main mechanisms: strategic and plastic-adaptive and have been demonstrated in astronauts returning after long duration space flight. Strategic modifications represent "early adaptation" -immediate and transitory changes in control that are employed to deal with short-term changes in the environment. If these modifications are prolonged then plastic-adaptive changes are evoked that modify central nervous system function, automating new behavioral responses. More importantly, this longer term adaptive recovery mechanism was significantly associated with their strategic ability to recover on the first day after return to Earth G. We are developing a method based on stochastic resonance (SR) to enhance information transfer by improving the brain's ability to detect vestibular signals especially when combined with balance training exercises for rapid improvement in functional skill, for standing and mobility. The countermeasure to improve post-flight balance and locomotor disturbances is a stimulus delivery system that is wearable/portable providing low imperceptible levels of white noise based binaural bipolar electrical stimulation of the vestibular system (stochastic vestibular stimulation, SVS). The techniques for improving signal detection using SVS may thus provide additional information to improve such strategic abilities and thus help in significantly reducing the number of days required to recover functional performance to preflight levels after long duration space flight. We have conducted a series of studies to document the efficacy of SVS stimulation on balance/locomotion tasks on unstable surfaces and motion tracking tasks during intra-vestibular system conflicts. In an initial study, we showed that SVS improved overall balance performance while standing on an unstable surface indicating that SVS may be sufficient to provide a comprehensive countermeasure approach for improving postural stability. In a second study, we showed that SVS improved locomotor performance on a treadmill mounted on an oscillating platform indicating that SVS may also be used to maximize locomotor performance during walking in unstable environments. In a third study, SVS was evaluated during an otolith-canal conflict scenario in a variable radius centrifuge at low frequency of oscillation (0.1 Hz) on both eye movements and perceptual responses (using a joystick) to track imposed oscillations. The variable radius centrifuge provides a selective tilting sensation that is detectable only by the otolith organs providing conflicting information from the canal organs of the vestibular system (intra-vestibular conflict). Results show that SVS significantly reduced the timing difference between both the eye movement responses as well as the perceptual tracking responses with respect to the imposed tilt sensations. These results indicate that SVS can improve performance in sensory conflict scenarios like that experienced during space flight. Such a SR countermeasure will act synergistically along with the pre-and in-flight adaptability training protocols providing an integrated, multi-disciplinary countermeasure capable of fulfilling multiple requirements making it a comprehensive and cost effective countermeasure approach to enhance sensorimotor capabilities following long-duration space flight.

Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Kofman, Igor; DeDios, Yiri E.; Galvan, Raquel; Miller, Chris; Peters, Brian; Cohen, Helen; Jeevarajan, Jerome; Reschke, Millard; Wood, Scott; Bloomberg, Jacob

2014-01-01

198

Enhancing the Early Childhood Development System in Yakutia (Russia): Meeting the Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Yakutia Republic is currently working to update its early childhood development (ECD) system. Its goal is to ensure a high quality environment for early learning and child care and to enable higher enrolment levels. Currently, a high priority for the Government of Yakutia is to increase access to pre-school education, given the significant…

Kotnik, Jure; Shmis, Tigran

2011-01-01

199

Acute arterial occlusion - kidney  

MedlinePLUS

Acute renal arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... kidneys need a good blood supply. The main artery to the kidney is called the renal artery. ...

200

Real-Time 12-Lead High-Frequency QRS Electrocardiography for Enhanced Detection of Myocardial Ischemia and Coronary Artery Disease  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several studies have shown that diminution of the high-frequency (HF; 150-250 Hz) components present within the central portion of the QRS complex of an electrocardiogram (ECG) is a more sensitive indicator for the presence of myocardial ischemia than are changes in the ST segments of the conventional low-frequency ECG. However, until now, no device has been capable of displaying, in real time on a beat-to-beat basis, changes in these HF QRS ECG components in a continuously monitored patient. Although several software programs have been designed to acquire the HF components over the entire QRS interval, such programs have involved laborious off-line calculations and postprocessing, limiting their clinical utility. We describe a personal computer-based ECG software program developed recently at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) that acquires, analyzes, and displays HF QRS components in each of the 12 conventional ECG leads in real time. The system also updates these signals and their related derived parameters in real time on a beat-to-beat basis for any chosen monitoring period and simultaneously displays the diagnostic information from the conventional (low-frequency) 12-lead ECG. The real-time NASA HF QRS ECG software is being evaluated currently in multiple clinical settings in North America. We describe its potential usefulness in the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia and coronary artery disease.

Schlegel, Todd T.; Kulecz, Walter B.; DePalma, Jude L.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Wilson, John S.; Rahman, M. Atiar; Bungo, Michael W.

2004-01-01

201

Differentiation of Leptomeningeal and Vascular Enhancement on Post-contrast FLAIR MRI Sequence: Role in Early Detection of Infectious Meningitis  

PubMed Central

Objective: To qualitatively and quantitatively differentiate leptomeningeal and vascular enhancement on Post-contrast Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (PCFLAIR) sequence compared to post-contrast T1-weighted (PCT1W) sequence with fat suppression (FS) and evaluate its role in early detection of infectious meningitis. Materials and Methods: Thirty-one patients with diagnosis of meningitis were evaluated with pre and post-contrast FLAIR and T1-weighted sequences with fat suppression (FS). Qualitative assessment was done by two observers for presence, absence or equivocal status of leptomeningeal enhancement. Further, quantitative estimation of single pixel signal intensities (SPSI) for meningeal and vascular enhancement was undertaken. A statistical comparison was performed using Kappa coefficient and t-test. Results: The overall qualitative accuracy was 90.3% for PCFLAIR compared to 54.8% for PCT1W with FS sequence. PCFLAIR was found to be 100% accurate in the detection of tubercular and pyogenic meningitis and 70% accurate in the detection of viral meningitis while PCT1W with FS sequence showed the corresponding accuracy to be 76.2% and 0% respectively. Both observers rated PCFLAIR images better than PCT1W with FS at detecting meningitis (p<0.05). The quantitative assessment revealed that the SPSI difference between the average meningeal and vascular enhancement on PCFLAIR was significantly greater than that on PCT1W with FS sequence (t= 6.31, p<0.01). Conclusion: PCFLAIR sequence has insignificant component of vascular enhancement compared to meningeal enhancement. This makes meningeal inflammation easily discernable and aids in early detection of infectious meningitis. PMID:25738054

Ahmad, Armeen; Azad, Sheenam

2015-01-01

202

Enhancing Drought Early Warning System for Sustainable Water Resources and Agricultural Management through Apllication of Space Science - Nigeria in Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enhancing Drought Early Warning System for Sustainable Water Resources and Agriculture Management through Application of Space Science - Nigeria in Perspective BY J N Okpara L E Akeh Anuforom P B Aribo and S O Olayanju Directorate of Applied Meteorological Services Nigerian Meteorological Agency NIMET P M B 615 Garki Abuja Nigeria e-mail underline Juddy Okpara yahoo co uk and underline tonycanuforom yahoo com underline Abstract This paper attempts to highlight the importance of drought early warning system in water resources and agricultural management in Nigeria Various studies have shown that the negative impacts of droughts and other forms of extreme weather phenomena can be substantially reduced by providing early warning on any impending weather extremes X-rayed in this study are the various techniques presently used by the Nigerian Meteorological Agency NIMET in generating information for meteorological Early Warning System EWS which are based on models that make use of ground-based raingauge data and sea surface temperatures SST Komuscu standardized precipitation index SPI inclusive These methods are often limited by such factors as network density of stations limited communication infrastructure human inefficiency etc NIMET is therefore embarking on the development of a new Satellite Agrometeorological Information System SAMIS-Nigeria for famine and drought early warning The system combines satellite data with raingauge data to give a range of

Okpara, J. N.; Akeh, L. E.; Anuforom, A. C.; Aribo, P. B.; Olayanju, S. O.

203

Gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: A potential utility for the evaluation of regional liver function impairment following transcatheter arterial chemoembolization  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed to evaluate regional liver function impairment following transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE), assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enhanced by gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA). Additionally, this study evaluated the associations between signal intensity and various clinical factors. A prospective study was conducted between March 2012 and May 2013 with a total of 35 patients. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI was performed 3–5 days after TACE therapy. The signal to noise ratio (SNR) was subsequently calculated for healthy liver tissue regions and peritumoral regions, prior to and 20 min after Gd-EOB-DTPA administration. The correlation between clinical factors and relative SNR was assessed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient or Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. Prior to Gd-EOB-DTPA administration, the SNR values showed no significant difference (t=1.341, P=0.191) in healthy liver tissue regions (50.53±15.99; range, 11.25–83.46) compared with peritumoral regions (49.81±15.85; range, 12.34–81.53). On measuring at 20 min following Gd-EOB-DTPA administration, the SNR in healthy liver tissue regions (82.55±33.33; range, 31.45–153.02) was significantly higher (t=3.732, P<0.001) compared with that in peritumoral regions (75.77±27.41; range, 31.42–144.49). The relative SNR in peritumoral regions correlated only with the quantity of iodized oil used during TACE therapy (r=0.528, P=0.003); the age, gender, diameter and blood supply of the tumor, or Child-Pugh class of the patient did not correlate with relative SNR. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI may be an effective way to evaluate regional liver function impairment following TACE therapy. PMID:25663880

XIAO, YU-DONG; PAUDEL, RAMCHANDRA; LIU, HUAN; ZHANG, BIN; MA, CONG; ZHOU, SHUN-KE

2015-01-01

204

Early methylphenidate exposure enhances cocaine self-administration but not cocaine-induced conditioned place preference in young adult rats  

PubMed Central

Rationale Previous studies in rodents show that early exposure to methylphenidate alters later responsiveness to drugs of abuse. An interesting feature of these studies is that early methylphenidate treatment decreases the rewarding value of cocaine when measured by conditioned place preference (CPP), but the same treatment increases cocaine self-administration. Objective The goal of the present study was to examine the effects of early methylphenidate exposure on cocaine-induced responding using both reward paradigms. Methods Rats were treated with methylphenidate (0, 2, or 5 mg/kg) from postnatal day (PD) 11 to PD 20 and then cocaine-induced CPP or cocaine self-administration was measured in separate groups of rats in adulthood. The CPP procedure included eight days of acquisition training, eight days of extinction training, and a reinstatement test. Rats were conditioned with 0, 10 or 20 mg/kg cocaine. Reinstatement was assessed after a priming dose of cocaine (10 mg/kg). For the self-administration experiment, a jugular catheter was implanted and rats were trained to press a lever reinforced with cocaine (0.25 or 0.75 mg/kg/infusion) on a fixed ratio (FR) 1 schedule. Rats were gradually moved from an FR1 to an FR10 schedule and, after criterion was reached, rats were placed on a progressive ratio schedule for five days. Results Cocaine produced robust rewarding effects as determined by both the CPP and self-administration experiments; however, early methylphenidate exposure only enhanced the reinforcing effects of cocaine on the self-administration paradigm. Interestingly, this methylphenidate enhancement was only seen in male rats. Conclusions These data suggest that in males methylphenidate enhances the reinforcing value of cocaine, but not cocaine-associated cues. PMID:20848087

Crawford, Cynthia A.; Baella, Shelley A.; Farley, Cristal M.; Herbert, Matthew S.; Horn, Leslie R.; Campbell, Rachel H.; Zavala, Arturo R.

2010-01-01

205

The Enhancer Landscape during Early Neocortical Development Reveals Patterns of Dense Regulation and Co-option  

PubMed Central

Genetic studies have identified a core set of transcription factors and target genes that control the development of the neocortex, the region of the human brain responsible for higher cognition. The specific regulatory interactions between these factors, many key upstream and downstream genes, and the enhancers that mediate all these interactions remain mostly uncharacterized. We perform p300 ChIP-seq to identify over 6,600 candidate enhancers active in the dorsal cerebral wall of embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) mice. Over 95% of the peaks we measure are conserved to human. Eight of ten (80%) candidates tested using mouse transgenesis drive activity in restricted laminar patterns within the neocortex. GREAT based computational analysis reveals highly significant correlation with genes expressed at E14.5 in key areas for neocortex development, and allows the grouping of enhancers by known biological functions and pathways for further studies. We find that multiple genes are flanked by dozens of candidate enhancers each, including well-known key neocortical genes as well as suspected and novel genes. Nearly a quarter of our candidate enhancers are conserved well beyond mammals. Human and zebrafish regions orthologous to our candidate enhancers are shown to most often function in other aspects of central nervous system development. Finally, we find strong evidence that specific interspersed repeat families have contributed potentially key developmental enhancers via co-option. Our analysis expands the methodologies available for extracting the richness of information found in genome-wide functional maps. PMID:24009522

Chung, Tisha; Tuteja, Geetu; Guturu, Harendra; Schaar, Bruce T.; Bejerano, Gill

2013-01-01

206

Musicians' enhanced neural differentiation of speech sounds arises early in life: developmental evidence from ages 3 to 30.  

PubMed

The perception and neural representation of acoustically similar speech sounds underlie language development. Music training hones the perception of minute acoustic differences that distinguish sounds; this training may generalize to speech processing given that adult musicians have enhanced neural differentiation of similar speech syllables compared with nonmusicians. Here, we asked whether this neural advantage in musicians is present early in life by assessing musically trained and untrained children as young as age 3. We assessed auditory brainstem responses to the speech syllables /ba/ and /ga/ as well as auditory and visual cognitive abilities in musicians and nonmusicians across 3 developmental time-points: preschoolers, school-aged children, and adults. Cross-phase analyses objectively measured the degree to which subcortical responses differed to these speech syllables in musicians and nonmusicians for each age group. Results reveal that musicians exhibit enhanced neural differentiation of stop consonants early in life and with as little as a few years of training. Furthermore, the extent of subcortical stop consonant distinction correlates with auditory-specific cognitive abilities (i.e., auditory working memory and attention). Results are interpreted according to a corticofugal framework for auditory learning in which subcortical processing enhancements are engendered by strengthened cognitive control over auditory function in musicians. PMID:23599166

Strait, Dana L; O'Connell, Samantha; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Kraus, Nina

2014-09-01

207

In Vivo Mn-Enhanced MRI for Early Tumor Detection and Growth Rate Analysis in a Mouse Medulloblastoma Model12  

PubMed Central

Mouse models have increased our understanding of the pathogenesis of medulloblastoma (MB), the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor that often forms in the cerebellum. A major goal of ongoing research is to better understand the early stages of tumorigenesis and to establish the genetic and environmental changes that underlie MB initiation and growth. However, studies of MB progression in mouse models are difficult due to the heterogeneity of tumor onset times and growth patterns and the lack of clinical symptoms at early stages. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is critical for noninvasive, longitudinal, three-dimensional (3D) brain tumor imaging in the clinic but is limited in resolution and sensitivity for imaging early MBs in mice. In this study, high-resolution (100 ?m in 2 hours) and high-throughput (150 ?m in 15 minutes) manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) protocols were optimized for early detection and monitoring of MBs in a Patched-1 (Ptch1) conditional knockout (CKO) model. The high tissue contrast obtained with MEMRI revealed detailed cerebellar morphology and enabled detection of MBs over a wide range of stages including pretumoral lesions as early as 2 to 3 weeks postnatal with volumes close to 0.1 mm3. Furthermore, longitudinal MEMRI allowed noninvasive monitoring of tumors and demonstrated that lesions within and between individuals have different tumorigenic potentials. 3D volumetric studies allowed quantitative analysis of MB tumor morphology and growth rates in individual Ptch1-CKO mice. These results show that MEMRI provides a powerful method for early in vivo detection and longitudinal imaging of MB progression in the mouse brain. PMID:25499213

Suero-Abreu, Giselle A.; Praveen Raju, G.; Aristizábal, Orlando; Volkova, Eugenia; Wojcinski, Alexandre; Houston, Edward J.; Pham, Diane; Szulc, Kamila U.; Colon, Daniel; Joyner, Alexandra L.; Turnbull, Daniel H.

2014-01-01

208

[The biological reaction of inflammation, methylglyoxal of blood plasma, functional and structural alterations in elastic type arteries at the early stage of hypertension disease].  

PubMed

The article deals with studying of the relationship between biologic reaction of inflammation with glycosylation reaction and content of methylglyoxal in blood serum. The positive correlation between pulse wave velocity and content of methylglyoxal, C-reactive protein in intercellular medium and malleolar brachial index value was established. This data matches the experimental results concerning involvement of biological reaction of inflammation into structural changes of elastic type arteries under hypertension disease, formation of arteries' rigidity and increase of pulse wave velocity. The arterial blood pressure is a biological reaction of hydrodynamic pressure which is used in vivo by several biological functions: biological function of homeostasis, function of endoecology, biological function of adaptation and function of locomotion. The biological reaction of hydrodynamic (hydraulic) pressure is a mode of compensation of derangement of several biological functions which results in the very high rate of hypertension disease in population. As a matter of fact, hypertension disease is a syndrome of lingering pathological compensation by higher arterial blood pressure of the biological functions derangements occurring in the distal section at the level of paracrine cenoses of cells. The arterial blood pressure is a kind of in vivo integral indicator of deranged metabolism. The essential hypertension disease pathogenically is a result of the derangement of three biological functions: biological function of homeostasis, biological function of trophology - nutrition (biological reaction of external feeding - exotrophia) and biological function of endoecology. In case of "littering" of intercellular medium in vivo with nonspecific endogenic flogogens a phylogenetically earlier activation of biological reactions of excretion, inflammation and hydrodynamic arterial blood pressure occur. In case of derangement of biological function of homeostasis, decreasing of perfusion even in single paracrine cenoses and derangement of biological function of endoecology ("purity" of intercellular medium) the only response always will be the increase of arterial blood pressure. PMID:23097982

Titov, V N; Dmitriev, V A; Oshchepkov, E V; Balakhonova, T V; Tripoten', M I; Shiriaeva, Iu K

2012-08-01

209

Alterations of Voltage-Dependent Calcium Channel Currents in Basilar Artery Smooth Muscle Cells at Early Stage of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in a Rabbit Model  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the changes in the currents of voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) in smooth muscle cells of basilar artery in a rabbit model of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into five groups: sham (C), normal (N), 24 hours (S1), 48 hours (S2) and 72 hours (S3) after SAH. Non-heparinized autologous arterial blood (1ml/kg) was injected into the cisterna magna to create SAH after intravenous anesthesia, and 1 ml/kg of saline was injected into cisterna magna in the sham group. Rabbits in group N received no injections. Basilar artery in S1, S2, S3 group were isolated at 24, 48, 72 hours after SAH. Basilar artery in group C was isolated at 72 hours after physiological saline injection. Basilar artery smooth muscle cells were isolated for all groups. Whole-cell patch-clamp technique was utilized to record cell membrane capacitance and VDCCs currents. The VDCCs antagonist nifedipine was added to the bath solution to block the Ca++ channels currents. Results There were no significant differences in the number of cells isolated, the cell size and membrane capacitance among all the five groups. VDCC currents in the S1–S3 groups had higher amplitudes than those in control and sham groups. The significant change of current amplitude was observed at 72 hours after SAH, which was higher than those of 24 and 48 hours. The VDCCs were shown to expression in human artery smooth muscle cells. Conclusions The changes of activation characteristics and voltage-current relationship at 72 hours after SAH might be an important event which leads to a series of molecular events in the microenvironment of the basilar artery smooth muscle cells. This may be the key time point for potential therapeutic intervention against subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:24392110

Shi, Xianqing; Fu, Yongjian; Liao, Daqing; Chen, Yanfang; Liu, Jin

2014-01-01

210

Early Iron Deficiency Enhances Stimulus-response Learning of Adult Rats in the Context of Competing Spatial Information  

PubMed Central

Iron deficiency early in life results in neurocognitive deficits that persist into adulthood despite iron treatment. The hippocampus is particularly vulnerable to iron deficiency during the fetal and neonatal periods as evidenced by poorer hippocampus-mediated spatial recognition learning. However, the extent to which early iron deficiency alters interactions between hippocampus-based and extra-hippocampus based learning systems remains undetermined. The present study used an ambiguous maze-learning task to examine the learning process in iron sufficient young adult rats that had recovered from iron deficiency in the fetal and neonatal period. Animals were presented with a stimulus response-learning task in the context of spatial information; a procedure designed to elicit competition between dorsal striatum- and hippocampus-based systems respectively. Formerly iron deficient adult rats showed enhanced stimulus-response learning in the context of competing spatial/distal cue information, a finding suggestive of reduced hippocampal functional influence. The study provides evidence that early iron deficiency alters how different learning systems develop and ultimately interact in adulthood. The potential unbalancing of activity among major memory systems during early life has been postulated by others as a relevant factor underlying the developmental origins of certain psychiatric disorders. PMID:22229050

Schmidt, Adam T.; Alvarez, Guillermo C.; Grove, William M.; Rao, Raghavendra; Georgieff, Michael K.

2011-01-01

211

Fiber optic probe enabled by surface-enhanced Raman scattering for early diagnosis of potential acute rejection of kidney transplant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have explored the use of a fiber-optic probe with surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensing modality for early, noninvasive and, rapid diagnosis of potential renal acute rejection (AR) and other renal graft dysfunction of kidney transplant patients. Multimode silica optical fiber immobilized with colloidal Ag nanoparticles at the distal end was used for SERS measurements of as-collected urine samples at 632.8 nm excitation wavelength. All patients with abnormal renal graft function (3 AR episodes and 2 graft failure episodes) who were clinically diagnosed independently show common unique SERS spectral features in the urines collected just one day after transplant. SERS-based fiber-optic probe has excellent potential to be a bedside tool for early diagnosis of kidney transplant patients for timely medical intervention of patients at high risk of transplant dysfunction.

Chi, Jingmao; Chen, Hui; Tolias, Peter; Du, Henry

2014-06-01

212

Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor Stars, the Cosmic Microwave Background, and the Stellar IMF in the Early Universe  

E-print Network

The characteristic mass of stars at early times may have been higher than today owing to the cosmic microwave background (CMB). This study proposes that (1) the testable predictions of this "CMB-IMF" hypothesis are an increase in the fraction of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars with declining metallicity and an increase from younger to older populations at a single metallicity (e.g. disk to halo), and (2) these signatures are already seen in recent samples of CEMP stars and can be better tested with anticipated data. The expected spatial variation may explain discrepancies of CEMP frequency among published surveys. The ubiquity and time dependence of the CMB will substantially alter the reconstruction of star formation histories in the Local Group and early Universe.

Jason Tumlinson

2007-06-20

213

Transfection of HGF gene enhances endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) function and improves EPC transplant efficiency for balloon-induced arterial injury in hypercholesterolemic rats.  

PubMed

Risk factors for coronary heart disease can reduce the number of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and impair EPC function, thus hindering their utility in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, we began exploring the feasibility of genetic modification of EPCs with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) to counter the effects of these risk factors and enhance the biological functions of EPCs. The effects of HGF transfection on proliferation, migration and angiogenesis of EPCs were investigated. Additionally, the role of ERK1/2 in this process was evaluated through the observation of ERK1/2 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation as well as by pharmacological analysis. Finally, we evaluated the effect of HGF-transfected EPCs (HGF-EPCs) on neointima formation after balloon-induced arterial injury in hypercholesterolemic rats. Our data showed that EPCs transfected with the HGF gene released high levels of soluble HGF protein, which were maintained for at least nine days. Transfection with HGF also enhanced the proliferative, migratory and angiogenic capabilities of EPCs, and promoted the activation of ERK1/2 without affecting its expression. ERK1/2 blockade by the chemical inhibitor PD98059 partially inhibited these effects. In hypercholesterolemic rats, HGF-EPCs homed to the site of vascular injury at a significantly higher rate than did EPCs without the exogenous HGF gene. Furthermore, systemically applied HGF-EPCs were more effective in decreasing neointima formation and increasing re-endothelialization. These data suggest that gene delivery combined with EPC transplant may be a practical and promising therapy for the prevention of neointimal formation after vascular injury. PMID:19577663

Song, Ming-Bao; Yu, Xue-Jun; Zhu, Guang-Xu; Chen, Jian-Fei; Zhao, Gang; Huang, Lan

2009-01-01

214

Genetic Enhancement of Cold Tolerance in Sorghum: Mapping of QTL's for early season cold tolerance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sorghum is known for its drought tolerance and overall adaptation to high temperature. However, it generally lacks cold tolerance and is vulnerable to cooler temperature specifically during stand establishment in early season planting from April to May in most areas of the US sorghum belt. Stand e...

215

Enhancing the Australian Early Childhood Teacher Education Curriculum about Very Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown that the care and education of infants and toddlers is an under-represented area in early childhood teacher education. This is also the case in Australia, meaning that pre-service teachers have few opportunities for learning about infants and toddlers and thus tend to have limited theoretical and practical knowledge about…

Garvis, Susanne; Lemon, Narelle

2015-01-01

216

Brief Report: Can Metrics of Reporting Bias Enhance Early Autism Screening Measures?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of the current study was to develop and pilot the utility of two simple internal response bias metrics, over-reporting and under-reporting, in terms of additive clinical value within common screening practices for early detection of autism spectrum disorder risk. Participants were caregivers and children under 36 months of age (n = 145)…

Taylor, Cora M.; Vehorn, Alison; Noble, Hylan; Weitlauf, Amy S.; Warren, Zachary E.

2014-01-01

217

Evaluation of meglumine gadoterate-enhanced MR angiography (MRA) compared with time-of-flight MRA in the diagnosis of clinically significant non-coronary arterial disease: a pooled analysis of data from two clinical trials  

PubMed Central

Objectives We analysed pooled data from two clinical trials to assess the diagnostic accuracy and safety of meglumine gadoterate (Gd-DOTA)-enhanced MR angiography (MRA) relative to those of non-enhanced time-of-flight (TOF) MRA for non-coronary arterial disease. Both techniques were compared with X-ray angiography as the gold standard. Methods Patients were of both sexes, were aged at least 18 years and had suspected non-coronary arterial disease. Each patient was his/her own control and underwent TOF MRA followed by Gd-DOTA-enhanced MRA, and then X-ray angiography. MRA was performed at 1.5 T (USA study) or 3 T (Republic of Korea study). The primary criterion used to evaluate efficacy was the degree to which the MRA examination agreed with X-ray angiography in assessing non-coronary arterial lesions. The performance of Gd-DOTA over TOF was assessed using a one-sided paired t-test. We also evaluated the specificity, sensitivity, image quality, examination duration and clinical safety of both MRA procedures. Results In total, 192 patients were enrolled and received Gd-DOTA. In the intent-to-treat population (n=162), within-patient accuracy was significantly greater for Gd-DOTA than for TOF (85.8±19.8% agreement between Gd-DOTA and X-ray angiography compared with 78.3±24.9% agreement between TOF and X-ray angiography; p=0.0001). The sensitivity, specificity, image quality and examination duration were also better for Gd-DOTA than for TOF. There were no serious drug-related adverse events. Conclusion We conclude that Gd-DOTA-enhanced MRA is a safe and accurate procedure for detecting arterial stenosis at both 1.5 T and 3 T. PMID:22167518

Shah, D J; Lim, T-H

2012-01-01

218

Association of Physical Activity in Childhood and Early Adulthood With Carotid Artery Elasticity 21 Years Later: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study  

PubMed Central

Background Decreased arterial elasticity is a risk factor for several cardiovascular outcomes. Longitudinal data on the effect of physical activity in youth on adult arterial elasticity are limited. The aim of this study was to determine the long?term effects of physical activity in children and young adults on carotid artery elasticity after 21 years of follow?up. Methods and Results Participants were 1417 children (aged 9 to 15 years) and 999 young adults (aged 18 to 24 years) from the prospective Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Participants had questionnaire measures of leisure?time physical activity available from 1986 and ultrasound?derived indices of carotid artery elasticity measured in 2007. Carotid artery elasticity indices were distensibility (%/10 mm Hg), Young's elastic modulus (kPa), and stiffness index (unitless). Physical activity at age 18 to 24 years was directly associated with distensibility (?=0.068, P=0.014) and inversely with Young's elastic modulus (?=?0.057, P=0.0037) and indirectly with stiffness index (?=?0.050, P=0.0028) 21 years later in males and females. The associations remained after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, systolic blood pressure, serum lipids and insulin, and 21?year change in physical activity. At age 9 to 15 years, the favorable association, remaining after adjustment, was found in males (distensibility [?=0.097, P=0.010], Young's elastic modulus [?=?0.060, P=0.028], and stiffness index [?=?0.062, P=0.007]) but not in females (P=0.70, P=0.85, and P=0.91, respectively). Conclusions Leisure?time physical activity in boys and young adults is associated with carotid artery elasticity later in life, suggesting that higher levels of physical activity in youth may benefit future cardiovascular health. PMID:24755150

Pälve, Kristiina S.; Pahkala, Katja; Magnussen, Costan G.; Koivistoinen, Teemu; Juonala, Markus; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Viikari, Jorma S. A.; Raitakari, Olli T.

2014-01-01

219

Arterial calcifications  

PubMed Central

Abstract Arterial calcifications as found with various imaging techniques, like plain X-ray, computed tomography or ultrasound are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The prevalence of arterial calcification increases with age and is stimulated by several common cardiovascular risk factors. In this review, the clinical importance of arterial calcification and the currently known proteins involved are discussed. Arterial calcification is the result of a complex interplay between stimulating (bone morphogenetic protein type 2 [BMP-2], RANKL) and inhibitory (matrix Gla protein, BMP-7, osteoprotegerin, fetuin-A, osteopontin) proteins. Vascular calcification is especially prevalent and related to adverse outcome in patients with renal insufficiency and diabetes mellitus. We address the special circumstances and mechanisms in these patient groups. Treatment and prevention of arterial calcification is possible by the use of specific drugs. However, it remains to be proven that reduction of vascular calcification in itself leads to a reduced cardiovascular risk. PMID:20716128

Rennenberg, Roger J M W; Schurgers, Leon J; Kroon, Abraham A; Stehouwer, Coen D A

2010-01-01

220

Enhanced early-life nutrition promotes hormone production and reproductive development in Holstein bulls.  

PubMed

Holstein bull calves often reach artificial insemination centers in suboptimal body condition. Early-life nutrition is reported to increase reproductive performance in beef bulls. The objective was to determine whether early-life nutrition in Holstein bulls had effects similar to those reported in beef bulls. Twenty-six Holstein bull calves were randomly allocated into 3 groups at approximately 1 wk of age to receive a low-, medium-, or high-nutrition diet, based on levels of energy and protein, from 2 to 31 wk of age. Calves were on their respective diets until 31 wk of age, after which they were all fed a medium-nutrition diet. To evaluate secretion profiles and concentrations of blood hormones, a subset of bulls was subjected to intensive blood sampling every 4 wk from 11 to 31 wk of age. Testes of all bulls were measured once a month; once scrotal circumference reached 26cm, semen collection was attempted (by electroejaculation) every 2 wk to confirm puberty. Bulls were maintained until approximately 72 wk of age and then slaughtered at a local abattoir. Testes were recovered and weighed. Bulls fed the high-nutrition diet were younger at puberty (high=324.3 d, low=369.3 d) and had larger testes for the entire experimental period than bulls fed the low-nutrition diet. Bulls fed the high-nutrition diet also had an earlier and more substantial early rise in LH than those fed the low-nutrition diet and had increased concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) earlier than the bulls fed the low-nutrition diet. Furthermore, we detected a temporal association between increased IGF-I concentrations and an early LH rise in bulls fed the high-nutrition diet. Therefore, we inferred that IGF-I had a role in regulating the early gonadotropin rise (in particular, LH) and thus reproductive development of Holstein bulls. Overall, these results support our hypothesis that Holstein bull calves fed a high-nutrition diet reach puberty earlier and have larger testes than those fed a low-nutrition diet, and they provide clear evidence that nutritional modulation of Holstein bull calves during early life has profound effects on reproductive development. PMID:25497791

Dance, Alysha; Thundathil, Jacob; Wilde, Randy; Blondin, Patrick; Kastelic, John

2015-02-01

221

A Report on the Technological Enhancements Project Evaluation: Deepening Early Learning Experiences through Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of the "Ready to Learn" Initiative, Education Development Center, Inc. (EDC), was charged with addressing the evaluation of Technological Enhancements for the outreach efforts of three producers: Out of the Blue's Super WHY! Technology Add-On; Sesame Workshop's The Electric Company School's Initiative Curriculum; and WordWorld's eBook…

Hupert, Naomi; Cervantes, Francisco; DeGroof, Emily

2010-01-01

222

The probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 enhances early gastrointestinal maturation in young turkey poults  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Concerns over the use of antibiotics as growth promoters has led to interest in finding alternative growth promoters such as natural compounds and probiotics. Supplementing feed with probiotics has shown to enhance the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development of chickens and turkeys. The human pro...

223

Musical Training during Early Childhood Enhances the Neural Encoding of Speech in Noise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For children, learning often occurs in the presence of background noise. As such, there is growing desire to improve a child's access to a target signal in noise. Given adult musicians' perceptual and neural speech-in-noise enhancements, we asked whether similar effects are present in musically-trained children. We assessed the perception and…

Strait, Dana L.; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Hittner, Emily; Kraus, Nina

2012-01-01

224

The Role of an Early Intervention on Enhancing the Quality of Mother-Infant Interaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated an intervention designed to influence mothers' sensitive responsiveness toward their infant by presenting information about the newborn's competence to interact and promoting affectionate handling and interaction. Found that the enhancement group showed greater frequency of co-occurrences involving vocal exchanges, looking to the…

Wendland-Carro, Jaqueline; Piccinini, Cesar A.; Millar, W. Stuart

1999-01-01

225

Detection of early carious lesions using contrast enhancement with coherent light scattering (speckle imaging)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, dental caries still represent one of the chronic diseases with the highest prevalence and present in most countries. The interaction between light and teeth (absorption, scattering and fluorescence) is intrinsically connected to the constitution of the dental tissue. Decay induced mineral loss introduces a shift in the optical properties of the affected tissue; therefore, study of these properties may produce novel techniques aimed at the early diagnosis of carious lesions. Based on the optical properties of the enamel, we demonstrate the application of first-order spatial statistics in laser speckle imaging, allowing the detection of carious lesions in their early stages. A highlight of this noninvasive, non-destructive, real time and cost effective approach is that it allows a dentist to detect a lesion even in the absence of biofilm or moisture.

Deana, A. M.; Jesus, S. H. C.; Koshoji, N. H.; Bussadori, S. K.; Oliveira, M. T.

2013-07-01

226

Climatic effects of enhanced CO2 levels in Mars early atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented of one-dimensional radiation convection modeling of the early Mars atmosphere. Up to 5 bars of CO2 would have been required to raise the surface temperature (orbitally and globally averaged) above the freezing point, although at the equator at perihelion, 1 bar would have sufficed. Such an atmospheric CO2 invertory, the author argued, is not inconsistent with any known constraint on Mars' degassed volatile inventory.

Kasting, James F.

1987-01-01

227

Early Detection of Cerebral Arterial Occlusion on Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Predictive Value of the Baseline NIHSS Score and Impact on Neurological Outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of a thrombus on initial arteriography is directly related to the baseline NIHSS score. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) offers a noninvasive and rapid assessment of large cerebral vessel patency. We aimed at evaluating (1) the baseline NIHSS score as a tool for predicting the likelihood of an occluded artery on MRA and (2) the course of stroke within

L. Derex; N. Nighoghossian; M. Hermier; P. Adeleine; J. C. Froment; P. Trouillas

2002-01-01

228

High Calcium Bioglass Enhances Differentiation and Survival of Endothelial Progenitor Cells, Inducing Early Vascularization in Critical Size Bone Defects  

PubMed Central

Early vascularization is a prerequisite for successful bone healing and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC), seeded on appropriate biomaterials, can improve vascularization. The type of biomaterial influences EPC function with bioglass evoking a vascularizing response. In this study the influence of a composite biomaterial based on polylactic acid (PLA) and either 20 or 40% bioglass, BG20 and BG40, respectively, on the differentiation and survival of EPCs in vitro was investigated. Subsequently, the effect of the composite material on early vascularization in a rat calvarial critical size defect model with or without EPCs was evaluated. Human EPCs were cultured with ?-TCP, PLA, BG20 or BG40, and seeding efficacy, cell viability, cell morphology and apoptosis were analysed in vitro. BG40 released the most calcium, and improved endothelial differentiation and vitality best. This effect was mimicked by adding an equivalent amount of calcium to the medium and was diminished in the presence of the calcium chelator, EGTA. To analyze the effect of BG40 and EPCs in vivo, a 6-mm diameter critical size calvarial defect was created in rats (n?=?12). Controls (n?=?6) received BG40 and the treatment group (n?=?6) received BG40 seeded with 5×105 rat EPCs. Vascularization after 1 week was significantly improved when EPCs were seeded onto BG40, compared to implanting BG40 alone. This indicates that Ca2+ release improves EPC differentiation and is useful for enhanced early vascularization in critical size bone defects. PMID:24244419

Nguyen Ngoc, Christina; Meier, Simon; Nau, Christoph; Schaible, Alexander; Marzi, Ingo; Henrich, Dirk

2013-01-01

229

Elastography and Contrast-enhanced Ultrasonography in the Early Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in an Experimental Model of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis  

PubMed Central

Background/objective The early detection of focal hepatic lesions using ultrasound scanning is challenging, and this challenge becomes even greater in the presence of diffuse parenchymal disease. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of elastography and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in the early detection of hepatocellular lesions in an experimental rat model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Methods B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography was performed weekly in 30 rats divided into a NASH group (n = 20) and a group without liver disease (n = 10). The animals underwent elastography and CEUS and were then euthanized. Liver nodules were assessed by histopathology. Results Doppler mapping results of lesions with vascularization were considered indicative of malignancy, with a sensitivity of 29% before and 71% after contrast injection. The specificity was 71% before and 96% after CEUS. Elastograms of positive lesions showed areas of high stiffness, which were indicative of malignancy. This malignancy was confirmed by the histologic evaluation, with a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 60%. After CEUS analysis, 4 nodules were identified that were not observed on B-mode ultrasonography. Early wash-in was significantly associated with malignancy (sensitivity of 88% and specificity of 67%). Conclusions Both techniques allow for the correct diagnosis of well-differentiated to moderately differentiated hepatocellular carcinomas with good accuracy in an experimental rat model of NASH. PMID:25755482

Carvalho, Cibele F.; Chammas, Maria C.; Souza de Oliveira, Claudia P.M.; Cogliati, Bruno; Carrilho, Flair J.; Cerri, Giovanni G.

2013-01-01

230

Enhancing the Design Process for Complex Space Systems through Early Integration of Risk and Variable-Fidelity Modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An important enabler of the new national Vision for Space Exploration is the ability to rapidly and efficiently develop optimized concepts for the manifold future space missions that this effort calls for. The design of such complex systems requires a tight integration of all the engineering disciplines involved, in an environment that fosters interaction and collaboration. The research performed under this grant explored areas where the space systems design process can be enhanced: by integrating risk models into the early stages of the design process, and by including rapid-turnaround variable-fidelity tools for key disciplines. Enabling early assessment of mission risk will allow designers to perform trades between risk and design performance during the initial design space exploration. Entry into planetary atmospheres will require an increased emphasis of the critical disciplines of aero- and thermodynamics. This necessitates the pulling forward of EDL disciplinary expertise into the early stage of the design process. Radiation can have a large potential impact on overall mission designs, in particular for the planned nuclear-powered robotic missions under Project Prometheus and for long-duration manned missions to the Moon, Mars and beyond under Project Constellation. This requires that radiation and associated risk and hazards be assessed and mitigated at the earliest stages of the design process. Hence, RPS is another discipline needed to enhance the engineering competencies of conceptual design teams. Researchers collaborated closely with NASA experts in those disciplines, and in overall space systems design, at Langley Research Center and at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This report documents the results of this initial effort.

Mavris, Dimitri; Osburg, Jan

2005-01-01

231

Developmental enhancers revealed by extensive DNA methylome maps of zebrafish early embryos.  

PubMed

DNA methylation undergoes dynamic changes during development and cell differentiation. Recent genome-wide studies discovered that tissue-specific differentially methylated regions (DMRs) often overlap tissue-specific distal cis-regulatory elements. However, developmental DNA methylation dynamics of the majority of the genomic CpGs outside gene promoters and CpG islands has not been extensively characterized. Here, we generate and compare comprehensive DNA methylome maps of zebrafish developing embryos. From these maps, we identify thousands of developmental stage-specific DMRs (dsDMRs) across zebrafish developmental stages. The dsDMRs contain evolutionarily conserved sequences, are associated with developmental genes and are marked with active enhancer histone posttranslational modifications. Their methylation pattern correlates much stronger than promoter methylation with expression of putative target genes. When tested in vivo using a transgenic zebrafish assay, 20 out of 20 selected candidate dsDMRs exhibit functional enhancer activities. Our data suggest that developmental enhancers are a major target of DNA methylation changes during embryogenesis. PMID:25697895

Lee, Hyung Joo; Lowdon, Rebecca F; Maricque, Brett; Zhang, Bo; Stevens, Michael; Li, Daofeng; Johnson, Stephen L; Wang, Ting

2015-01-01

232

Enhancing the passing moments: An educational criticism of family visits to an early childhood science exhibition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This educational criticism describes and interprets the nature of family visits to an early childhood science exhibition, Working Wonders, at The Science Centre in Calgary, Alberta. The specific exhibits are described and features that contributed to exhibit popularity are examined. Examples of visitors' interactions with each exhibit are given. The visit experiences of four families are described in detail and analyzed. Typical family visitors' reactions, expectations, and experiences are summarized. Because one of the mutual expectations of the granting agency, The Science Centre, and the adult visitors was that a visit to the exhibition would be educational, the family visits are examined for instances of learning and analyzed to determine the factors that influenced the learning. Constructivism forms the basis for understanding the process of learning during family visits. The analysis is supported by reference to research from the fields of museum studies, education, and environmental design. The analysis of the educational significance and potential of family visits to an early childhood exhibition leads to the conclusion that specific features may facilitate learning in such an environment. Those features are represented in a set of guidelines for the development and evaluation of early childhood exhibitions. The guidelines suggest attention must be given to the ambience of the space, the general layout of the space, the exhibits, the copy and graphics, additional programs and information, the subtle influences of the building and the staff, and the learning processes of young children, adults, and intergenerational groups. The guidelines suggest specific issues to consider to develop a space that is stimulating and memorable, responsive to the needs of the two distinct visitor groups (young children and adults), and conducive to learning.

Munroe, Elizabeth Ann

233

A promising method of enhancement for early detection of ischemic stroke  

PubMed Central

Background: Computed Tomography (CT) scan without contrast is the modality of choice for diagnosis of stroke. However, routine brain CT scan, with linear processing has some limitations in early diagnosis of ischemic stroke. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the sensitivity and specificity of processed CT images with conventional ones in early diagnosis of cerebrovascular attack (CVA). Patients and Methods: This was a self-controlled study conducted in a university referal hospital from 2010 to 2011. Seventy CT scans underwent a process using Laplacian Pyramid transform. Thirty five of participants were diagnosed with CVA while others had only headache and no ischemic stroke diagnosis based on the first and follow-up CT scans. A neuroradiologist made diagnosis with and without the help of processed CT scans. The McNemar and Wilcoxon analysis were used to compare the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of two methods. Results: The sensitivity (% 65.7 vs. %31.4, P value = 0.001), positive predictive value (% 85.2 vs. % 61, P value = 0.03) and negative predictive value (% 73.9% vs. %49, P value = 0.01) of the processed method were significantly higher than the routine one, while no difference was seen in specificity (% 88.6 vs. %77.1, P value = 0.15). Moreover, the accuracy of the processed method was significantly better than the linear one (P value < 0.001). Conclusions: It was concluded that nonlinear modified Laplacian Pyramid method can composed CT scans which can be more helpful in early detection of ischemic stroke. PMID:23826011

Sajjadi, Mehdi; Karami, Mehdi; Amirfattahi, Rassoul; Bateni, Vahid; Ahamadzadeh, Mohammad R.; Ebrahimi, Bahareh

2012-01-01

234

Early-season effects of solar UV-B enhancement on plant canopy structure, simulated photosynthesis and competition  

SciTech Connect

Mixed-species stands of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and wild oat (Avena fatua) were exposed to enhanced solar UV-B radiation simulating a 20% reduction in column ozone to assess the timing and seasonal development of the UV-B-induced alterations in competitive balance between these species. Results from two years of field studies revealed that UV-B enhancement did not significantly affect the magnitude or timing of seeding emergence of the combined-species LAI of 4-week old mixtures (near 2 for both years). The UV-B did, however, significantly increase (5-9%) the relative proportion of the mixture LAI contributed by wheat which then resulted in a 6-8% increase in its calculated relative light interception and canopy carbon gain. These findings, and others indicate that the effects of enhanced UV-B on competitive balance are realized very early during canopy development and suggest that UV-B-induced alterations in seedling growth may have peristent and significant consequences for light competition later in the growing season.

Barnes, P.W.; Flint, S.D.; Caldwell, M.M. (Southwest Texas State Univ., San Marcos, TX (United States))

1994-06-01

235

Added Value of Arterial Enhancement Fraction Color Maps for the Characterization of Small Hepatic Low-Attenuating Lesions in Patients with Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the added value of arterial enhancement fraction (AEF) color maps for the differentiation of small metastases from hepatic benign lesions. Subjects and Methods We retrospectively analyzed 46 patients with colorectal cancer who underwent multiphasic liver CT imaging and had low-attenuating liver lesions smaller than 3 cm (123 total lesions; metastasis: benign = 32:91). AEF color maps of the liver were created from multiphasic liver CT images using dedicated software. Two radiologists independently reviewed multiphasic CT image sets alone and in combination with image sets with AEF color maps using a five-point scale. The additional diagnostic value of the color maps was assessed by means of receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results The area under the ROC curve (Az) increased when multiphasic CT images were combined with AEF color map analysis as compared with evaluation based only on multiphasic CT images (from 0.698 to 0.897 for reader 1, and from 0.825 to 0.945 for reader 2; P < 0.001 and 0.002, respectively). The increase Az was especially significant for lesions less than 1 cm (from 0.702 to 0.888 for reader 1, and from 0.768 to 0.958 for reader 2; P = 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively). The mean AEF of tumor-adjacent parenchyma (35.07 ± 27.2) was significantly higher than that of tumor-free liver parenchyma (27.3 ± 20.6) (P = 0.04). Conclusions AEF color mapping can improve the diagnostic performance for small hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer and may allow for the elimination of additional examinations. PMID:25706878

Park, Mina; Chung, Yong Eun; Kim, Kyung Ah; Chung, Woo-Suk; Lee, Hye Sun; Han, Kyung Hwa; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Kim, Ki Whang

2015-01-01

236

Early maternal deprivation enhances voluntary alcohol intake induced by exposure to stressful events later in life.  

PubMed

In the present study, we aimed to assess the impact of early life stress, in the form of early maternal deprivation (MD, 24?h on postnatal day, pnd, 9), on voluntary alcohol intake in adolescent male and female Wistar rats. During adolescence, from pnd 28 to pnd 50, voluntary ethanol intake (20%, v/v) was investigated using the two-bottle free choice paradigm. To better understand the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption, voluntary alcohol intake was also evaluated following additional stressful events later in life, that is, a week of alcohol cessation and a week of alcohol cessation combined with exposure to restraint stress. Female animals consumed more alcohol than males only after a second episode of alcohol cessation combined with restraint stress. MD did not affect baseline voluntary alcohol intake but increased voluntary alcohol intake after stress exposure, indicating that MD may render animals more vulnerable to the effects of stress on alcohol intake. During adolescence, when animals had free access to alcohol, MD animals showed lower body weight gain but a higher growth rate than control animals. Moreover, the higher growth rate was accompanied by a decrease in food intake, suggesting an altered metabolic regulation in MD animals that may interact with alcohol intake. PMID:25821601

Peñasco, Sara; Mela, Virginia; López-Moreno, Jose Antonio; Viveros, María-Paz; Marco, Eva M

2015-01-01

237

Early Maternal Deprivation Enhances Voluntary Alcohol Intake Induced by Exposure to Stressful Events Later in Life  

PubMed Central

In the present study, we aimed to assess the impact of early life stress, in the form of early maternal deprivation (MD, 24?h on postnatal day, pnd, 9), on voluntary alcohol intake in adolescent male and female Wistar rats. During adolescence, from pnd 28 to pnd 50, voluntary ethanol intake (20%, v/v) was investigated using the two-bottle free choice paradigm. To better understand the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption, voluntary alcohol intake was also evaluated following additional stressful events later in life, that is, a week of alcohol cessation and a week of alcohol cessation combined with exposure to restraint stress. Female animals consumed more alcohol than males only after a second episode of alcohol cessation combined with restraint stress. MD did not affect baseline voluntary alcohol intake but increased voluntary alcohol intake after stress exposure, indicating that MD may render animals more vulnerable to the effects of stress on alcohol intake. During adolescence, when animals had free access to alcohol, MD animals showed lower body weight gain but a higher growth rate than control animals. Moreover, the higher growth rate was accompanied by a decrease in food intake, suggesting an altered metabolic regulation in MD animals that may interact with alcohol intake.

Peñasco, Sara; Mela, Virginia; López-Moreno, Jose Antonio; Viveros, María-Paz; Marco, Eva M.

2015-01-01

238

Novel Polypyrrole-Coated Polylactide Scaffolds Enhance Adipose Stem Cell Proliferation and Early Osteogenic Differentiation  

PubMed Central

An electrically conductive polypyrrole (PPy) doped with a bioactive agent is an emerging functional biomaterial for tissue engineering. We therefore used chondroitin sulfate (CS)-doped PPy coating to modify initially electrically insulating polylactide resulting in novel osteogenic scaffolds. In situ chemical oxidative polymerization was used to obtain electrically conductive PPy coating on poly-96L/4D-lactide (PLA) nonwoven scaffolds. The coated scaffolds were characterized and their electrical conductivity was evaluated in hydrolysis. The ability of the coated and conductive scaffolds to enhance proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells (hASCs) under electrical stimulation (ES) in three-dimensional (3D) geometry was compared to the noncoated PLA scaffolds. Electrical conductivity of PPy-coated PLA scaffolds (PLA-PPy) was evident at the beginning of hydrolysis, but decreased during the first week of incubation due to de-doping. PLA-PPy scaffolds enhanced hASC proliferation significantly compared to the plain PLA scaffolds at 7 and 14 days. Furthermore, the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of the hASCs was generally higher in PLA-PPy seeded scaffolds, but due to patient variation, no statistical significance could be determined. ES did not have a significant effect on hASCs. This study highlights the potential of novel PPy-coated PLA scaffolds in bone tissue engineering. PMID:23126228

Pelto, Jani; Björninen, Miina; Pälli, Aliisa; Talvitie, Elina; Hyttinen, Jari; Mannerström, Bettina; Suuronen Seppanen, Riitta; Kellomäki, Minna; Miettinen, Susanna; Haimi, Suvi

2013-01-01

239

Accurate early positions for Swift GRBS: enhancing X-ray positions with UVOT astrometry  

E-print Network

Here we describe an autonomous way of producing more accurate prompt XRT positions for Swift-detected GRBs and their afterglows, based on UVOT astrometry and a detailed mapping between the XRT and UVOT detectors. The latter significantly reduces the dominant systematic error -- the star-tracker solution to the World Coordinate System. This technique, which is limited to times when there is significant overlap between UVOT and XRT PC-mode data, provides a factor of 2 improvement in the localisation of XRT refined positions on timescales of less than a few hours. Furthermore, the accuracy achieved is superior to astrometrically corrected XRT PC mode images at early times (for up to 24 hours), for the majority of bursts, and is comparable to the accuracy achieved by astrometrically corrected X-ray positions based on deep XRT PC-mode imaging at later times (abridged).

M. R. Goad; L. G. Tyler; A. P. Beardmore; P. A. Evans; S. R. Rosen; J. P. Osborne; R. L. C. Starling; F. E. Marshall; V. Yershov; D. N. Burrows; N. Gehrels; P. Roming; A. Moretti; M. Capalbi; J. E. Hill; J. Kennea; S. Koch; D. Vanden Berk

2007-08-07

240

Passive surveillance for I. scapularis ticks: enhanced analysis for early detection of emerging Lyme disease risk.  

PubMed

Lyme disease (LD) is emerging in Canada because of the northward expansion of the geographic range of the tick vector Ixodes scapularis (Say). Early detection of emerging areas of LD risk is critical to public health responses, but the methods to do so on a local scale are lacking. Passive tick surveillance has operated in Canada since 1990 but this method lacks specificity for identifying areas where tick populations are established because of dispersion of ticks from established LD risk areas by migratory birds. Using data from 70 field sites in Quebec visited previously, we developed a logistic regression model for estimating the risk of I. scapularis population establishment based on the number of ticks submitted in passive surveillance and a model-derived environmental suitability index. Sensitivity-specificity plots were used to select an optimal threshold value of the linear predictor from the model as the signal for tick population establishment. This value was used to produce an "Alert Map" identifying areas where the passive surveillance data suggested ticks were establishing in Quebec. Alert Map predictions were validated by field surveillance at 76 sites: the prevalence of established I. scapularis populations was significantly greater in areas predicted as high-risk by the Alert map (29 out of 48) than in areas predicted as moderate-risk (4 out of 30) (P < 0.001). This study suggests that Alert Maps created using this approach can provide a usefully rapid and accurate tool for early identification of emerging areas of LD risk at a geographic scale appropriate for local disease control and prevention activities. PMID:22493860

Koffi, Jules K; Leighton, Patrick A; Pelcat, Yann; Trudel, Louise; Lindsay, L Robbin; Milord, François; Ogden, Nicholas H

2012-03-01

241

Early-Onset Osteoarthritis, Charcot-Marie-Tooth Like Neuropathy, Autoimmune Features, Multiple Arterial Aneurysms and Dissections: An Unrecognized and Life Threatening Condition  

PubMed Central

Background Severe osteoarthritis and thoracic aortic aneurysms have recently been associated with mutations in the SMAD3 gene, but the full clinical spectrum is incompletely defined. Methods All SMAD3 gene mutation carriers coming to our centre and their families were investigated prospectively with a structured panel including standardized clinical workup, blood tests, total body computed tomography, joint X-rays. Electroneuromyography was performed in selected cases. Results Thirty-four SMAD3 gene mutation carriers coming to our centre were identified and 16 relatives were considered affected because of aortic surgery or sudden death (total 50 subjects). Aortic disease was present in 72%, complicated with aortic dissection, surgery or sudden death in 56% at a mean age of 45 years. Aneurysm or tortuosity of the neck arteries was present in 78%, other arteries were affected in 44%, including dissection of coronary artery. Overall, 95% of mutation carriers displayed either aortic or extra-aortic arterial disease. Acrocyanosis was also present in the majority of patients. Osteoarticular manifestations were recorded in all patients. Joint involvement could be severe requiring surgery in young patients, of unusual localization such as tarsus or shoulder, or mimicking crystalline arthropathy with fibrocartilage calcifications. Sixty eight percent of patients displayed neurological symptoms, and 9 suffered peripheral neuropathy. Electroneuromyography revealed an axonal motor and sensory neuropathy in 3 different families, very evocative of type II Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT2) disease, although none had mutations in the known CMT2 genes. Autoimmune features including Sjogren’s disease, rheumatoid arthritis, Hashimoto’s disease, or isolated autoantibodies- were found in 36% of patients. Interpretation SMAD3 gene mutations are associated with aortic dilatation and osteoarthritis, but also autoimmunity and peripheral neuropathy which mimics type II Charcot-Marie-Tooth. PMID:24804794

Aubart, Mélodie; Gobert, Delphine; Aubart-Cohen, Fleur; Detaint, Delphine; Hanna, Nadine; d’Indya, Hyacintha; Lequintrec, Janine-Sophie; Renard, Philippe; Vigneron, Anne-Marie; Dieudé, Philippe; Laissy, Jean-Pierre; Koch, Pierre; Muti, Christine; Roume, Joelle; Cusin, Veronica; Grandchamp, Bernard; Gouya, Laurent; LeGuern, Eric; Papo, Thomas; Boileau, Catherine; Jondeau, Guillaume

2014-01-01

242

Late Rather Than Early Onset Bubbles in the Pulmonary Artery During Altitude Exposures Correlate Better with the Onset of "Pain-Only" Decompression Illness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mechanistic insight about "pain-only" decompression illness (DCI) is limited given indirect information about venous gas emboli (VGE) detected in the pulmonary artery with Doppler ultrasound. However, we show that VGE first detected late in an altitude exposure are closely associated with subsequent symptom onset. Knowing that VGE occur late is an indication that a symptom will occur soon, but this is not a sufficient condition to guarantee that a symptom will occur.

Conkin, J.; Gernhardt, M. L.; Powell, M. R.

2005-01-01

243

Is social isolation\\/alienation confounded with, and non-independent of, emotional distress in its association with early onset of coronary artery disease?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both emotional distress (ED) and social isolation\\/alienation (SI\\/A) have been found to prospectively predict adverse cardiac events, but few studies have tested the confounding\\/redundancy of these measures as correlates\\/predictors of outcomes. In this study, 163 patients with documented coronary artery disease (CAD) were interviewed for multiple indices of SI\\/A and administered the Symptom Checklist 90 – Revised (SCL90R). A spouse

Mark Ketterer; Benjamin Rose; Walter Knysz; Amjad Farha; Sangita Deveshwar; John Schairer; Steven J. Keteyian

2011-01-01

244

The management of pulmonary atresia, ventricular septal defect, and multiple aorta pulmonary collateral arteries by definitive single stage repair in early infancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The management of infants and children with pulmonary atresia, ventricular septal defect, and multiple aorta pulmonary collateral arteries (PA\\/VSD\\/MAPCA) has proven to be challenging. Therapeutic approaches have included staged unifocalization, shunting, coiling of collateral vessels, and heart\\/lung transplantation. Results have been variable and frustrating. Hoping to take advantage of growth potential in pulmonary segments supplied by MAPCA, a more

Gary K Lofland

2000-01-01

245

The effects of disopyramide phosphate on early post-coronary artery ligation dysrhythmias and on epicardial ST-segment elevation in anaesthetized dogs.  

PubMed Central

1 The antidysrhythmic, haemodynamic and metabolic effects of intravenously administered disopyramide phosphate (1 to 5 mg/kg) have been studied in greyhounds, anaesthetized with trichloroethylene. 2 In doses of 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg, disopyramide significantly reduced the ventricular dysrhythmias that occur in the initial 30-min period following acute coronary artery ligation. None of the disopyramide-treated animals developed ventricular fibrillations. 3 The metabolic consequences of coronary artery ligation, assessed by local coronary venous sampling from the ischaemic area, were not modified by disopyramide except that K+ egress was prevented. 4 There was evidence for substantial disopyramide-induced myocardial depression (decreased cardiac output and left ventricular dP/drmax with elevated ventricular filling pressure and pulmonary oedema and shunting) and it is suggested that great care be taken when the drug is administered intravenously in conditions where cardiac function is already compromised. Disopyramide also reduced myocardial blood flow. 5 In chloralose-anaesthetized mongrel dogs, disopyramide (2.5 mg/kg) significantly reduced the ST-segment elevation (assessed from epicardial recordings) that resulted from short (3 min) coronary artery occlusions. This could indicate a reduction in the extent and severity of myocardial injury or simply reflect decreased K+ efflux (since locally administered K+ itself increased ST-segment elevation). PMID:465877

Marshall, R. J.; Parratt, J. R.

1979-01-01

246

GR144053, a fibrinogen receptor antagonist, enhances the suppression of neointima formation by losartan, an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, in the injured carotid artery of hamster  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated the inhibitory effect of losartan, a type 1 angiotensin II receptor (AT1) antagonist, and of combined treatment with losartan and GR144053, a fibrinogen receptor (GPIIb/IIIa) antagonist, on neointima formation subsequent to vascular injury in the hamster carotid artery. Vascular injury was achieved by a roughened-tip 2F catheter and the neointimal area was measured up to 2 weeeks inducing the injury. Compared to non-treated hamsters (intimal area (IA)/internal elastic laminal area (IELA) ratio = 60.3±5.9%, n=12), losartan dissolved in drinking water (1, 3 and 10?mg?kg?1 per day, n=8 each) reduced neointimal area dose-dependently, a significant decrease (IA/IELA=39.7±5.6%) being attained with the highest dose when it was administered from 1 day before injury. However, neointima formation was not prevented even with the highest dose of losartan when the administration was started after injury. When the administration of GR144053 (1.0?mg?kg?1 per hour) via an implanted osmotic pump was started 30?min before the injury and continued for the next 2 weeks, no suppression of neointima formation was observed, although platelet aggregation evoked ex vivo by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) at the end of treatment period was efficiently inhibited. In separate experiments in which 5-bromo-2-deoxy-Uridine (BrdU) was used to test smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation 1 and 7 days after injury, the ratio of SMC proliferation in the injured area was only slightly decreased by losartan when its administration was started after the injury, despite the marked reduction of SMC proliferation when treatment was started before the injury. Treatment with GR144053 as indicated above also significantly decreased the SMC proliferating index 1 day after the injury. To examine the potential benefit of the coadministration of the GPIIb/IIIa antagonist with the AT1 receptor antagonist, GR144053 (1.0?mg?kg?1 per hour) was combined with post-injury treatment with losartan (10?mg?kg?1 per day). This markedly reduced the proliferation of SMCs and significantly decreased the neointimal area (IA/IELA=31.2±4.6%) measured 2 weeks following the catheterization. According to the results of a time-dependent study in which GR144053 was given in combination with post injury treatment with losartan for 1, 3, 7 or 14 days, neointima formation could be reduced by treatment with GR144053 for just 7 days. In conclusion, GR144053, a fibrinogen receptor antagonist, enhanced the inhibitory effect of losartan, an AT1 receptor antagonist, on neointima formation in the damaged carotid artery of hamsters. PMID:9480031

Matsuno, Hiroyuki; Kozawa, Osamu; Niwa, Masayuki; Kaida, Takehiro; Hayashi, Hideharu; Uematsu, Toshihiko

1997-01-01

247

Hepatic Arterial Phase on Gadoxetic Acid-Enhanced Liver MR Imaging: A Randomized Comparison of 0.5 mL/s and 1 mL/s Injection Rates  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare gadoxetic acid injection rates of 0.5 mL/s and 1 mL/s for hepatic arterial-phase magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods In this prospective study, 101 consecutive patients with suspected focal liver lesions were included and randomly divided into two groups. Each group underwent dynamic liver MR imaging using a 3.0-T scanner after an intravenous injection of gadoxetic acid at rates of either 0.5 mL/s (n = 50) or 1 mL/s (n = 51). Arterial phase images were analyzed after blinding the injection rates. The signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of the liver, aorta, portal vein, hepatic vein, spleen, and pancreas were measured. The contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) of the hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) were calculated. Finally, two experienced radiologists were independently asked to identify, if any, HCCs in the liver on the images and score the image quality in terms of the presence of artifacts and the proper enhancement of the liver, aorta, portal vein, hepatic vein, hepatic artery, spleen, pancreas, and kidney. Results The SNRs were not significantly different between the groups (p = 0.233-0.965). The CNRs of the HCCs were not significantly different (p = 0.597). The sensitivity for HCC detection and the image quality scores were not significantly different between the two injection rates (p = 0.082-1.000). Conclusion Image quality and sensitivity for hepatic HCCs of arterial-phase gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR were not significantly improved by reducing the contrast injection rate to 0.5 mL/s compared with 1 mL/s. PMID:25246821

Kim, Sung Mo; Heo, Suk Hee; Kim, Jin Woong; Lim, Hyo Soon; Shin, Sang Soo; Kang, Heoung Keun

2014-01-01

248

Arterial endothelial function measurement method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A "relaxoscope" (100) detects the degree of arterial endothelial function. Impairment of arterial endothelial function is an early event in atherosclerosis and correlates with the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. An artery (115), such as the brachial artery (BA) is measured for diameter before and after several minutes of either vasoconstriction or vasorelaxation. The change in arterial diameter is a measure of flow-mediated vasomodification (FMVM). The relaxoscope induces an artificial pulse (128) at a superficial radial artery (115) via a linear actuator (120). An ultrasonic Doppler stethoscope (130) detects this pulse 10-20 cm proximal to the point of pulse induction (125). The delay between pulse application and detection provides the pulse transit time (PTT). By measuring PTT before (160) and after arterial diameter change (170), FMVM may be measured based on the changes in PTT caused by changes in vessel caliber, smooth muscle tone and wall thickness.

Maltz, Jonathan S; Budinger, Thomas F

2014-03-04

249

Early life adversity reduces stress reactivity and enhances impulsive behavior: implications for health behaviors.  

PubMed

Altered reactivity to stress, either in the direction of exaggerated reactivity or diminished reactivity, may signal a dysregulation of systems intended to maintain homeostasis and a state of good health. Evidence has accumulated that diminished reactivity to psychosocial stress may signal poor health outcomes. One source of diminished cortisol and autonomic reactivity is the experience of adverse rearing during childhood and adolescence. The Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project has examined a cohort of 426 healthy young adults with and without a family history of alcoholism. Regardless of family history, persons who had experienced high degrees of adversity prior to age 16 had a constellation of changes including reduced cortisol and heart rate reactivity, diminished cognitive capacity, and unstable regulation of affect, leading to behavioral impulsivity and antisocial tendencies. We present a model whereby this constellation of physiological, cognitive, and affective tendencies is consistent with altered central dopaminergic activity leading to changes in brain function that may foster impulsive and risky behaviors. These in turn may promote greater use of alcohol other drugs along with adopting poor health behaviors. This model provides a pathway from early life adversity to low stress reactivity that forms a basis for risky behaviors and poor health outcomes. PMID:23085387

Lovallo, William R

2013-10-01

250

Enhanced pain perception prior to smoking cessation is associated with early relapse.  

PubMed

Accumulated evidence suggests that nicotine induces analgesia, and endogenous pain regulatory mechanisms may be altered by chronic smoking. The extent to which individual differences in pain perception are related to smokers' ability to abstain from smoking has not been directly examined. Seventy-one smokers who were interested in quitting completed a pre-cessation laboratory session which included the cold pressor test (CPT). Pain ratings were collected during and after CPT. Also, mood changes, cardiovascular measures, and salivary cortisol samples were evaluated prior to, during, and after CPT. Participants attended 4 weekly follow-up assessment sessions after their quit day. Cox regression analysis revealed that higher pain ratings during and after CPT predicted greater risk for smoking relapse. These results remained significant after affective and physiological responses to CPT were controlled, suggesting that pain ratings prior to smoking cessation are potentially useful in identifying smokers who are at greater risk of early smoking relapse and may reflect underlying putative risk for nicotine dependence and relapse. PMID:21816208

Nakajima, Motohiro; al'Absi, Mustafa

2011-09-01

251

Enhanced evolution by stochastically variable modification of epigenetic marks in the early embryo  

PubMed Central

Evolution by gene duplication is generally accepted as one of the crucial driving forces for the gain of new complexity and functions, but the formation of pseudogenes remains a problem for this mechanism. Here we expand on earlier ideas that epigenetic modifications can drive neo- and subfunctionalization in evolution by gene duplication. We explore the effects of stochastic epigenetic modifications on the evolution (and thus development) of complex organisms in a constant environment. Modeling is done both using a modified genetic drift analytical treatment and computer simulations, which were found to agree. A transposon silencing model is also explored. Some key assumptions made include (i) stochastic, incomplete removal (or addition) of repressive epigenetic marks takes place during a window(s) of opportunity in the zygote and early embryo; (ii) there is no statistical variation of the marks after the window closes; and (iii) the genes affected are sensitive to dosage. Our genetic drift treatment takes into account that after gene duplication the prevailing case upon which selection operates is a duplicate/singlet heterozygote; to the best of our knowledge, this has not been considered in previous treatments. We conclude from our modeling that stochastic epigenetic modifications, with rates consistent with experimental observation, can both increase the rate of gene fixation and decrease pseudogenization, thus dramatically improving the efficacy of evolution by gene duplication. We also find that a transposon silencing model is advantageous for fixation of recessive genes in diploid organisms, especially with large effective population sizes. PMID:24733912

Branciamore, Sergio; Rodin, Andrei S.; Riggs, Arthur D.; Rodin, Sergei N.

2014-01-01

252

Early life adversity reduces stress reactivity and enhances impulsive behavior: Implications for health behaviors  

PubMed Central

Altered reactivity to stress, either in the direction of exaggerated reactivity or diminished reactivity, may signal a dysregulation of systems intended to maintain homeostasis and a state of good health. Evidence has accumulated that diminished reactivity to psychosocial stress may signal poor health outcomes. One source of diminished cortisol and autonomic reactivity is the experience of adverse rearing during childhood and adolescence. The Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project has examined a cohort of 426 healthy young adults with and without a family history of alcoholism. Regardless of family history, persons who had experienced high degrees of adversity prior to age 16 had a constellation of changes including reduced cortisol and heart rate reactivity, diminished cognitive capacity, and unstable regulation of affect, leading to behavioral impulsivity and antisocial tendencies. We present a model whereby this constellation of physiological, cognitive, and affective tendencies is consistent with altered central dopaminergic activity leading to changes in brain function that may foster impulsive and risky behaviors. These in turn may promote greater use of alcohol other drugs along with adopting poor health behaviors. This model provides a pathway from early life adversity to low stress reactivity that forms a basis for risky behaviors and poor health outcomes. PMID:23085387

Lovallo, William R.

2012-01-01

253

Brief Report: Can Metrics of Reporting Bias Enhance Early Autism Screening Measures?  

PubMed Central

The goal of the current study was to develop and pilot the utility of two simple internal response bias metrics, over-reporting and under-reporting, in terms of additive clinical value within common screening practices for early detection of autism spectrum disorder risk. Participants were caregivers and children under 36 months of age (n = 145) participating in first-time diagnostic appointments across our clinical research center due to developmental concerns. Caregivers were asked to complete the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (MCHAT) as well as a questionnaire embedding six response bias indicator questions. These questions were items that in previous clinical studies had been endorsed by an overwhelming majority of parents within clinically identified populations. Results indicated that removal of self-reports indicative of potential response bias dramatically reduced both false positives and false negatives on the MCHAT within this sample. This suggests that future work developing internal metrics of response bias may be promising in addressing limits of current screening measures and practices. PMID:24682706

Vehorn, Alison; Noble, Hylan; Weitlauf, Amy S.; Warren, Zachary E.

2014-01-01

254

The scavenger receptor CD36 downmodulates the early inflammatory response while enhancing bacterial phagocytosis during pneumococcal pneumonia.  

PubMed

CD36 is a scavenger receptor that exhibits pleiotropic functions, including adhesion to thrombospondin, inhibition of angiogenesis, transport of long-chain fatty acids, and clearance of apoptotic cells. In addition, it has been implicated in the host immune response because it acts as a coreceptor for TLR2 and plays a role in Staphylococcus aureus infection. However, its role in other Gram-positive bacterial infections is unclear. In this study, using mice deficient in CD36, we sought to examine the role of CD36 in pneumococcal pneumonia, a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We show that CD36 is expressed on both alveolar macrophages and respiratory epithelial cells. Early in infection, CD36(-/-) mice have an exaggerated inflammatory response compared with wild-type littermate controls. In vitro studies using CD36(-/-) primary cells confirm the enhanced early inflammation in response to S. pneumoniae and its lipoteichoic acid, demonstrate that S. pneumoniae binds to cells via its phosphocholine residues, and suggest a role for CD36 in reducing inflammation induced by the phosphocholine residues of pneumococcal lipoteichoic acid. Later in infection, although CD36(-/-) mice exhibit impaired bacterial clearance, owing to a decreased capacity of CD36(-/-) macrophages to phagocytose S. pneumoniae, minor effects on mortality occur, in comparison with those in wild-type littermate control mice. These data show that CD36 contributes to the pulmonary host response during S. pneumoniae infection by virtue of its ability to act as a phagocytic receptor and as a modulator of the early innate immune response. PMID:23610144

Sharif, Omar; Matt, Ulrich; Saluzzo, Simona; Lakovits, Karin; Haslinger, Isabella; Furtner, Tanja; Doninger, Bianca; Knapp, Sylvia

2013-06-01

255

Hemodynamic Effects of Proximal Supra-aortic Artery Stenosis on Anterior Cerebral Artery.  

PubMed

Alternating flow in the anterior cerebral artery is a rare finding, associated with innominate artery stenosis. We present a series of four patients with this finding on transcranial color coded sonography, under basal conditions. In all of these patients, vascular studies detected an ipsilateral proximal stenosis, three in the innominate artery and, for the first time, one at the left common carotid artery origin. Successful angioplasties with stenting were performed, resulting for the first time in the normalization of orthograde flow in all cases. We conclude that an early systolic hemodynamic compromise in the first segment of the anterior cerebral artery, in the form of alternating flow, is an indirect indicator of ipsilateral proximal stenosis in the supra-aortic arteries, either in the innominate artery or at the origin of the left common carotid artery. PMID:25641601

López-Hernández, Nicolás; García-Escrivá, Alejandro; Ballenilla, Federico; Gallego-Leon, Jose Ignacio

2015-05-01

256

Vaccination Enhances Early Immune Responses in White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei after Secondary Exposure to Vibrio alginolyticus  

PubMed Central

Background Recent work suggested that the presence of specific memory or some form of adaptive immunity occurs in insects and shrimp. Hypervariable pattern recognition molecules, known as Down syndrome cell adhesion molecules, are able to mount specific recognition, and immune priming in invertebrates. In the present study, we attempted to understand the immune response pattern of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei which received primary (PE) and secondary exposure (SE) to Vibrio alginolyticus. Methodology Immune parameters and proliferation of haematopoietic tissues (HPTs) of shrimp which had received PE and SE to V. alginolyticus were measured. In the PE trial, the immune parameters and proliferation of HPTs of shrimp that received heat-killed V. alginolyticus (HVa) and formalin-inactivated V. alginolyticus (FVa) were measured. Mortality, immune parameters and proliferation of HPTs of 7-day-HVa-PE shrimp (shrimp that received primary exposure to HVa after 7 days) and 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp (shrimp that received primary exposure to FVa after 7 days) following SE to live V. alginolyticus (LVa) were measured. Phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency were examined for the 7?35-day-HVa-PE and FVa-PE shrimp. Results HVa-receiving shrimp showed an earlier increase in the immune response on day 1, whereas FVa-receiving shrimp showed a late increase in the immune response on day 5. The 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp showed enhancement of immunity when encountering SE to LVa, whereas 7-day-HVa-PE shrimp showed a minor enhancement in immunity. 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp showed higher proliferation and an HPT mitotic index. Both phagocytic activity and clearance maintained higher for both HVa-PE and FVa-PE shrimp after 28 days. Conclusions HVa- and FVa-receiving shrimp showed the bacteria agglutinated prior to being phagocytised. FVa functions as a vaccine, whereas HVa functions as an inducer and can be used as an immune adjuvant. A combined mixture of FVa and HVa can serve as a “vaccine component” to modulate the immunity of shrimp. PMID:23894531

Lin, Yong-Chin; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Morni, Wan Zabidii W.; Putra, Dedi Fazriansyah; Huang, Chien-Lun; Li, Chang-Che; Hsieh, Jen-Fang

2013-01-01

257

Otx2 and Oct4 Drive Early Enhancer Activation during Embryonic Stem Cell Transition from Naive Pluripotency  

PubMed Central

Summary Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are unique in that they have the capacity to differentiate into all of the cell types in the body. We know a lot about the complex transcriptional control circuits that maintain the naive pluripotent state under self-renewing conditions but comparatively less about how cells exit from this state in response to differentiation stimuli. Here, we examined the role of Otx2 in this process in mouse ESCs and demonstrate that it plays a leading role in remodeling the gene regulatory networks as cells exit from ground state pluripotency. Otx2 drives enhancer activation through affecting chromatin marks and the activity of associated genes. Mechanistically, Oct4 is required for Otx2 expression, and reciprocally, Otx2 is required for efficient Oct4 recruitment to many enhancer regions. Therefore, the Oct4-Otx2 regulatory axis actively establishes a new regulatory chromatin landscape during the early events that accompany exit from ground state pluripotency. PMID:24931607

Yang, Shen-Hsi; Kalkan, Tüzer; Morissroe, Claire; Marks, Hendrik; Stunnenberg, Hendrik; Smith, Austin; Sharrocks, Andrew D.

2014-01-01

258

Engineered Microporosity: Enhancing the Early Regenerative Potential of Decellularized Temporomandibular Joint Discs  

PubMed Central

The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc is susceptible to numerous pathologies that may lead to structural degradation and jaw dysfunction. The limited treatment options and debilitating nature of severe temporomandibular disorders has been the primary driving force for the introduction and development of TMJ disc tissue engineering as an approach to alleviate this important clinical issue. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of laser micropatterning (LMP) ex vivo-derived TMJ disc scaffolds to enhance cellular integration, a major limitation to the development of whole tissue implant technology. LMP was incorporated into the decellularized extracellular matrix scaffold structure using a 40 W CO2 laser ablation system to drill an 8×16 pattern with a bore diameter of 120??m through the scaffold thickness. Disc scaffolds were seeded with human neonatal-derived umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells differentiated into chondrocytes at a density of 900 cells per mm2 and then assessed on days 1, 7, 14, and 21 of culture. Results derived from histology, PicoGreen DNA quantification, and cellular metabolism assays indicate that the LMP scaffolds improve cellular remodeling compared to the unworked scaffold over the 21-day culture period. Mechanical analysis further supports the use of the LMP showing the compressive properties of the LMP constructs closely represent native disc mechanics. The addition of an artificial path of infiltration by LMP culminated in improved chondrocyte adhesion, dispersion, and migration after extended culture aiding in recapitulating the native TMJ disc characteristics. PMID:25319941

Juran, Cassandra M.; Dolwick, M. Franklin

2015-01-01

259

Arterial grafts: clinical classification and pharmacological management  

PubMed Central

In comparison with standard saphenous vein grafts, use of the internal mammary artery (IMA) as a coronary artery bypass graft has achieved superior long-term results. This is related to the differences in the biological characteristics between the venous and arterial grafts. However, even arterial grafts are not uniform in their biological characteristics. The variation in the perioperative behavior of the grafts and in their long-term patency may be related to different characteristics. These factors should be taken into account in the use of arterial grafts, some of which are subjected to more active pharmacological intervention during and after the operation to obtain satisfactory results. To better understand the biological behavior of the grafts, their common features and their differences, a clinical classification may be useful for a practicing surgeon. Based on experimental studies of their vasoreactivity combined with anatomical, physiological and embryological considerations, we have proposed a functional classification for arterial grafts that may be useful clinically. Our classification suggests that there are three types of arterial grafts: Type I—somatic arteries; Type II—splanchnic arteries; and Type III—limb arteries. Type I arteries have enhanced endothelial function and release more nitric oxide and other relaxing factors. Type II arteries, such as the gastro-epiploic artery, and Type III arteries, such as the radial artery (RA), have higher pharmacological reactivity to vasoconstrictors. This classification explains why the IMA has the best long-term patency. Because Type II and III arteries are prone to spasms due to higher contractility, they require more active pharmacological interventions. Furthermore, the harvesting technique of the conduits, including the saphenous vein and IMA, are described and discussed in this article. Prevention of spasms using two cocktails of medications (verapamil + nitroglycerin and nicardipine + nitroglycerin) during harvesting of the conduits is described. These solutions have been demonstrated to be clinically effective. PMID:23977630

2013-01-01

260

Proinflammation: the key to arterial aging.  

PubMed

Arterial aging is the major contributing factor to increases in the incidence and prevalence of cardiovascular disease, due mainly to the presence of chronic, low-grade, 'sterile' arterial inflammation. Inflammatory signaling driven by the angiotensin II cascade perpetrates adverse age-associated arterial structural and functional remodeling. The aged artery is characterized by endothelial disruption, enhanced vascular smooth muscle cell (VMSC) migration and proliferation, extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition, elastin fracture, and matrix calcification/amyloidosis/glycation. Importantly, the molecular mechanisms of arterial aging are also relevant to the pathogenesis of hypertension and atherosclerosis. Age-associated arterial proinflammation is to some extent mutable, and interventions to suppress or delay it may have the potential to ameliorate or retard age-associated arterial diseases. PMID:24365513

Wang, Mingyi; Jiang, Liqun; Monticone, Robert E; Lakatta, Edward G

2014-02-01

261

Location of foot arteries using infrared images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work are presented the results of localization of foot arteries, in a young group of participants by using infrared thermal images, these are the dorsal, posterior tibial and anterior tibial arteries. No inclusion criteria were considered, that causes that no strong statistical data about the influence of the age in the arterial localization. It was achieved to solve the confusion when veins present a heat distribution similar to the artery and in the position of this. it contributes to enhance the rate of location of arteries. In general it is possible to say that the use of infrared thermal images is a good technique to find the foot arteries and can be applied in its characterization in a future. The procedure proposed is a non-invasive technique, and in certain fashion does not requires specialized personnel to achieve locate the arteries. It is portable, safe, and relatively economical.

Villasenor-Mora, Carlos; González-Vega, Arturo; Martín Osmany Falcón, Antonio; Benítez Ferro, Jesús Francisco Guillemo; Córdova Fraga, Teodoro

2014-11-01

262

Realistic neutron energy spectrum and a possible enhancement of reaction rates in the early Universe plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A plasma-kinetic model to properly describe the behavior of neutrons in the primordial plasma during the epoch of big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) is formulated. For the first time, this model is applied to calculate the realistic energy distribution function of these neutrons and examine their main characteristics. The fact that the realistic neutron distribution departs from a conventional Maxwellian function is obtained; its high-energy tail is essentially enhanced by nonthermal neutrons produced in the T(d,n)4He and D(d,n)3He reactions. The fraction of these neutrons ?n' in the total neutron component is at a level of 10-2%-10-3%, while their effective temperature Tn' reaches several MeV and exceeds the plasma temperature in the BBN epoch by about a factor of 102. The nonthermal neutron influence on individual reactions is examined on the example of the threshold D(n,2n)p, Li7(n,nt)He4, and Be7(n,nHe3)He4 processes. We show that at plasma temperatures T9?1.2 the nonthermal neutrons strongly maintain these reactions, increasing their rates by orders of magnitude as compared with the respective Maxwellian estimates. Note that the obtained phenomenon has a general nature. It may manifest in other nuclear systems and becomes a natural supplement of nonthermal effects triggered by dark matter decay, which has been extensively studied elsewhere. An important question remains—to what extent such fast particles may affect chain reaction kinetics in the plasma and change the predictions of standard BBN.

Nakao, Yasuyuki; Tsukida, Kazuki; Voronchev, Victor T.

2011-09-01

263

Early feeding of an energy dense diet during acute shigellosis enhances growth in malnourished children.  

PubMed

In a controlled clinical trial, we examined the effect of the short-term feeding of an energy-dense milk cereal formula in malnourished children with clinically severe dysentery due to acute shigellosis. Seventy-five malnourished children, aged 12-48 mo, passing blood or blood with mucous in the stool for < or = 96 h, were offered a hospital diet. In addition, study children (n = 36) were offered a milk-cereal formula with an energy of 5 kJ/g (an 11% protein diet); similarly, control children (n = 39) were offered a milk-cereal formula with an energy content of 2.5 kJ/g (an 11% protein diet). Patients were admitted to the metabolic ward of the Clinical Research and Service Centre, Dhaka, at the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh. Patients were studied for 10 hospital days and were then followed up at home after 30 d. After 10 d of dietary intervention, children in the study group had a significantly greater increase vs. controls in weight-for-age (6 vs. 3%, P < 0.001) and in weight-for-height (7 vs. 3%, P < 0.001). Serum prealbumin concentrations were significantly higher (study vs. control) after 5 d (0.214 vs. 0.170 g/L, P = 0.01) and after 10 d (0.244 vs. 0.193 g/L, P = 0.006) of the study. Greater weight-for-age was sustained at home 1 mo after discharge (8 vs. 5%, P = 0.005) from the hospital. Similarly, higher weight-for-height was sustained 1 mo after discharge (8 vs. 5%, P = 0.01). During their stay at home, there was no dietary intervention. The results of this study suggest that short-term feeding of an energy-dense diet enhances growth in malnourished children with acute dysentery due to shigellosis. PMID:9040543

Mazumder, R N; Hoque, S S; Ashraf, H; Kabir, I; Wahed, M A

1997-01-01

264

NOS Inhibition Enhances Myogenic Tone by Increasing Rho-Kinase Mediated Ca2+ Sensitivity in the Male but Not the Female Gerbil Spiral Modiolar Artery  

PubMed Central

Cochlear blood flow regulation is important to prevent hearing loss caused by ischemia and oxidative stress. Cochlear blood supply is provided by the spiral modiolar artery (SMA). The myogenic tone of the SMA is enhanced by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) blocker L-NG-Nitro-Arginine (LNNA) in males, but not in females. Here, we investigated whether this gender difference is based on differences in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and/or the Ca2+ sensitivity of the myofilaments. Vascular diameter, myogenic tone, cytosolic Ca2+, and Ca2+ sensitivity were evaluated in pressurized SMA segments isolated from male and female gerbils using laser-scanning microscopy and microfluorometry. The gender difference of the LNNA-induced tone was compared, in the same vessel segments, to tone induced by 150 mM K+ and endothelin-1, neither of which showed an apparent gender-difference. Interestingly, LNNA-induced tone in male SMAs was observed in protocols that included changes in intramural pressure, but not when the intramural pressure was held constant. LNNA in male SMAs did not increase the global Ca2+ concentration in smooth muscle cells but increased the Ca2+ sensitivity. This increase in the Ca2+ sensitivity was abolished in the presence of the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor ODQ or by extrinsic application of either the nitric oxide (NO)-donor DEA-NONOate or the cGMP analog 8-pCPT-cGMP. The rho-kinase blocker Y27632 decreased the basal Ca2+ sensitivity and abolished the LNNA-induced increase in Ca2+ sensitivity in male SMAs. Neither LNNA nor Y27632 changed the Ca2+ sensitivity in female SMAs. The data suggest that the gender difference in LNNA-induced tone is based on a gender difference in the regulation of rho-kinase mediated Ca2+ sensitivity. Rho-kinase and NO thus emerge as critical factors in the regulation of cochlear blood flow. The larger role of NO-dependent mechanisms in male SMAs predicts greater restrictions on cochlear blood flow under conditions of impaired endothelial cell function. PMID:23301097

Wangemann, Philine

2013-01-01

265

NOS inhibition enhances myogenic tone by increasing rho-kinase mediated Ca2+ sensitivity in the male but not the female gerbil spiral modiolar artery.  

PubMed

Cochlear blood flow regulation is important to prevent hearing loss caused by ischemia and oxidative stress. Cochlear blood supply is provided by the spiral modiolar artery (SMA). The myogenic tone of the SMA is enhanced by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) blocker L-N(G)-nitro-arginine (LNNA) in males, but not in females. Here, we investigated whether this gender difference is based on differences in the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration and/or the Ca(2+) sensitivity of the myofilaments. Vascular diameter, myogenic tone, cytosolic Ca(2+), and Ca(2+) sensitivity were evaluated in pressurized SMA segments isolated from male and female gerbils using laser-scanning microscopy and microfluorometry. The gender difference of the LNNA-induced tone was compared, in the same vessel segments, to tone induced by 150 mM K(+) and endothelin-1, neither of which showed an apparent gender-difference. Interestingly, LNNA-induced tone in male SMAs was observed in protocols that included changes in intramural pressure, but not when the intramural pressure was held constant. LNNA in male SMAs did not increase the global Ca(2+) concentration in smooth muscle cells but increased the Ca(2+) sensitivity. This increase in the Ca(2+) sensitivity was abolished in the presence of the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor ODQ or by extrinsic application of either the nitric oxide (NO)-donor DEA-NONOate or the cGMP analog 8-pCPT-cGMP. The rho-kinase blocker Y27632 decreased the basal Ca(2+) sensitivity and abolished the LNNA-induced increase in Ca(2+) sensitivity in male SMAs. Neither LNNA nor Y27632 changed the Ca(2+) sensitivity in female SMAs. The data suggest that the gender difference in LNNA-induced tone is based on a gender difference in the regulation of rho-kinase mediated Ca(2+) sensitivity. Rho-kinase and NO thus emerge as critical factors in the regulation of cochlear blood flow. The larger role of NO-dependent mechanisms in male SMAs predicts greater restrictions on cochlear blood flow under conditions of impaired endothelial cell function. PMID:23301097

Reimann, Katrin; Krishnamoorthy, Gayathri; Wangemann, Philine

2013-01-01

266

Surgical treatment of pulmonary artery sarcoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Pulmonary artery sarcomas are rare and usually fatal tumors. The diagnosis is difficult and delayed in most cases. Newer imaging techniques could allow early diagnosis in patients with symptoms of pulmonary vascular obstruction. Surgical resection improves clinical symptoms and offers the only chance of cure. We report the case histories of 7 patients with primary pulmonary artery sarcomas treated

Eckhard Mayer; Jörg Kriegsmann; Andreas Gaumann; Hans Ulrich Kauczor; Manfred Dahm; Ulrich Hake; Franz Xaver Schmid; Hellmut Oelert

2001-01-01

267

Arterial input function of an optical tracer for dynamic contrast enhanced imaging can be determined from pulse oximetry oxygen saturation measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many cases, kinetic modeling requires that the arterial input function (AIF)—the time-dependent arterial concentration of a tracer—be characterized. A straightforward method to measure the AIF of red and near-infrared optical dyes (e.g., indocyanine green) using a pulse oximeter is presented. The method is motivated by the ubiquity of pulse oximeters used in both preclinical and clinical applications, as well as the gap in currently available technologies to measure AIFs in small animals. The method is based on quantifying the interference that is observed in the derived arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) following a bolus injection of a light-absorbing dye. In other words, the change in SaO2 can be converted into dye concentration knowing the chromophore-specific extinction coefficients, the true arterial oxygen saturation, and total hemoglobin concentration. A simple error analysis was performed to highlight potential limitations of the approach, and a validation of the method was conducted in rabbits by comparing the pulse oximetry method with the AIF acquired using a pulse dye densitometer. Considering that determining the AIF is required for performing quantitative tracer kinetics, this method provides a flexible tool for measuring the arterial dye concentration that could be used in a variety of applications.

Elliott, Jonathan T.; Wright, Eric A.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Diop, Mamadou; Morrison, Laura B.; Pogue, Brian W.; Lee, Ting-Yim; St. Lawrence, Keith

2012-12-01

268

May 2012 Arterial  

E-print Network

May 2012 Arterial Transitway Corridors Study: Results and Conclusions about Arterial Bus Rapid Transit #12;Arterial Transitway Corridors Study of "Arterial BRT" concept from Met Council TPP ­ Concept/feasibility study led by Metro

Minnesota, University of

269

Peripheral Arterial Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... the legs. Normal Artery and Artery With Plaque Buildup The illustration shows how P.A.D. can ... artery. Figure B shows an artery with plaque buildup that's partially blocking blood flow. The inset image ...

270

Carotid artery surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... artery surgery is a procedure to restore proper blood flow to the brain. The carotid artery brings needed ... these arteries on each side of your neck. Blood flow in this artery can become partly or totally ...

271

Feeding Artery of Laryngeal and Hypopharyngeal Cancers: Role of the Superior Thyroid Artery in Superselective Intraarterial Chemotherapy  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to elucidate the role of the superior thyroid artery in intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy for laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers. Thirty-nine patients with laryngeal cancer and 29 patients with hypopharyngeal cancer underwent intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy. We performed a retrospective analysis of the feeding arteries confirmed by computed tomography during selective arteriography and compared the results with the extent of the tumors. In 14 of 39 laryngeal and 15 of 29 hypopharyngeal cancers, the tumor did not cross the midline (group 1). In the remaining 25 and 14 cancers, respectively, the tumor crossed the midline or located in the center (group 2). For 13 of 14 laryngeal and 7 of 15 hypopharyngeal cancers in group 1 and for 6 of 25 laryngeal cancers in group 2, the entire tumor was contrast enhanced by the ipsilateral superior thyroid and/or superior laryngeal artery. For 12 of 25 laryngeal and 1 of 14 hypopharyngeal cancers in group 2, the entire tumor was contrast enhanced by the bilateral superior thyroid artery. For the other patients, infusion via the other arterial branches such as the inferior thyroid and the lingual arteries were needed to achieve contrast enhancement of the entire tumor. Superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy for laryngeal cancer from the superior thyroid artery is appropriate, whereas that for hypopharyngeal cancer is less sufficient. To accomplish contrast enhancement of the entire tumor, additional intra-arterial infusion from other arteries such as the inferior thyroid artery is often necessary.

Terayama, Noboru, E-mail: tera@rad.m.kanazawa-u.ac.jp; Sanada, Junichiro; Matsui, Osamu; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Kawashima, Hiroko; Yamashiro, Masashi; Takanaka, Tsuyoshi; Kumano, Tomoyasu; Yoshizaki, Tomokazu [Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Department of Radiology (Japan); Furukawa, Mitsuru [Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Department of Otorhinolaryngology (Japan)

2006-08-15

272

Arterial Catheterization  

MedlinePLUS

... to better monitor blood pressure and/or blood gases. ? Blood clots— If blood clots form on the tips of arterial catheters, the clots can block blood flow. If another blood vessel does not carry blood to the area beyond the clot, this can cause the loss ...

273

The enhanced value of combining conventional and 'omics' analyses in early assessment of drug-induced hepatobiliary injury  

SciTech Connect

The InnoMed PredTox consortium was formed to evaluate whether conventional preclinical safety assessment can be significantly enhanced by incorporation of molecular profiling ('omics') technologies. In short-term toxicological studies in rats, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics data were collected and analyzed in relation to routine clinical chemistry and histopathology. Four of the sixteen hepato- and/or nephrotoxicants given to rats for 1, 3, or 14 days at two dose levels induced similar histopathological effects. These were characterized by bile duct necrosis and hyperplasia and/or increased bilirubin and cholestasis, in addition to hepatocyte necrosis and regeneration, hepatocyte hypertrophy, and hepatic inflammation. Combined analysis of liver transcriptomics data from these studies revealed common gene expression changes which allowed the development of a potential sequence of events on a mechanistic level in accordance with classical endpoint observations. This included genes implicated in early stress responses, regenerative processes, inflammation with inflammatory cell immigration, fibrotic processes, and cholestasis encompassing deregulation of certain membrane transporters. Furthermore, a preliminary classification analysis using transcriptomics data suggested that prediction of cholestasis may be possible based on gene expression changes seen at earlier time-points. Targeted bile acid analysis, based on LC-MS metabonomics data demonstrating increased levels of conjugated or unconjugated bile acids in response to individual compounds, did not provide earlier detection of toxicity as compared to conventional parameters, but may allow distinction of different types of hepatobiliary toxicity. Overall, liver transcriptomics data delivered mechanistic and molecular details in addition to the classical endpoint observations which were further enhanced by targeted bile acid analysis using LC/MS metabonomics.

Ellinger-Ziegelbauer, Heidrun, E-mail: heidrun.ellinger-ziegelbauer@bayerhealthcare.com [Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Wuppertal (Germany); Adler, Melanie [University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany); Amberg, Alexander [Sanofi aventis R and D, Disposition, Safety and Animal Research, Frankfurt (Germany); Brandenburg, Arnd [Genedata AG, Basel (Switzerland); Callanan, John J. [UCD School of Biomolecular and Biomedical Science and School of Agriculture, Food Science and Veterinary Medicine, UCD Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Dublin (Ireland); Connor, Susan [MetaPro (United Kingdom); Fountoulakis, Michael [Hoffmann-La Roche AG, Basel (Switzerland); Gmuender, Hans [Genedata AG, Basel (Switzerland); Gruhler, Albrecht [Novo Nordisk A/S, Maaloev (Denmark); Hewitt, Philip [Merck KGaA Darmstadt (Germany); Hodson, Mark [MetaPro (United Kingdom); Matheis, Katja A. [Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH and Co. KG, Biberach (Germany); McCarthy, Diane [Bio-Rad, Laboratories, Hercules, CA (United States); Raschke, Marian; Riefke, Bjoern [Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Berlin (Germany); Schmitt, Christina S. [Merck KGaA Darmstadt (Germany); Sieber, Max [University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany); Sposny, Alexandra [Merck KGaA Darmstadt (Germany); Suter, Laura [Hoffmann-La Roche AG, Basel (Switzerland); Sweatman, Brian [MetaPro (United Kingdom)

2011-04-15

274

Detection of neuroendocrine tumours in the small intestines using contrast-enhanced multiphase Ga-68 DOTATOC PET/CT: the potential role of arterial hyperperfusion  

PubMed Central

Background Interpretation of small intestinal neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) by Ga-68 DOTATOC PET/CT can be difficult. The potential benefit of arterial hyperperfusion for the detection of NETs was evaluated. Methods Between 2006 and 2009, 320 consecutive Ga-68 DOTATOC PET/CT examinations, performed for NETs, revealed 40 lesions suggesting intestinal NETs in 25 patients. Two groups of lesions were distinguished: epigastric lesions evaluable in the arterial and venous CT scan (Group 1) and hypogastrial lesions evaluable in the venous CT scan only (Group 2). Lesions were jointly rated by two radiologists and a nuclear medicine physician. Maximum standard uptake values (SUVmax) of lesions and background were assessed. The reference standard was histology (available for 28 lesions) or follow-up (for a mean of 22.9 months). Results PET detected all suspicious lesions but was false positive in 3 lesions. In Group 1 the arterial scan performed significantly better than the venous scan (p = 0.008). Diagnostic performance was better in Group 1 than in Group 2 (p < 0.001). SUVmax of true positive lesions were significantly higher than background SUVmax (p < 0.001) and SUVmax of false positive lesions (p = 0.005). Conclusions The arterial phase of multiphase Ga-68 DOTATOC PET/CT might improve the localization of intestinal NETs and, thereby, improve the overall diagnostic accuracy of this modality in the assessment of intestinal NETs by adding information about lesion perfusion not available when only venous CT is performed. PMID:24991201

Schreiter, Nils F.; Maurer, Martin; Pape, Ulrich-Frank; Hamm, Bernd; Brenner, Winfried; Froeling, Vera

2014-01-01

275

Preradiotherapy Calcium Scores of the Coronary Arteries in a Cohort of Women With Early-Stage Breast Cancer: A Comparison With a Cohort of Healthy Women  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Breast cancer radiotherapy has been associated with an increased risk of cardiac toxicity. However, no data are available on the probability of developing coronary artery disease (CAD) in breast cancer patients when compared with healthy women. Therefore, baseline coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores, as an accepted tool to predict CAD, were determined and compared with the CAC scores of a healthy, asymptomatic cohort, the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. Methods and Materials: Eighty consecutive patients with ductal carcinoma in situ or infiltrative breast cancer referred for radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery were included in our study. Their cardiovascular risk profile was registered, and a 64 multislice CT scan was performed. The CAC scores of an unselected (Caucasian only) Radiotherapy Centre West (RCWEST) cohort, as well as of those of a selected (comorbidity and race adjusted) RCWEST cohort, were determined. The scores of both cohorts were compared with those of the female (Caucasian only) MESA cohort. Results: For the unselected RCWEST cohort (n = 62) we found significant (p < .01) higher scores for women in the 55-64 age category compared with those of the MESA cohort. In the selected cohort (n = 55) the CAC scores of the women in the age category 55-64 were significantly (p = .02) higher compared with the MESA cohort. No significant differences were noted in the other age categories. Conclusion: Both cohorts revealed that CAC scores in the 55-64 age category were significantly higher than the CAC scores in the asymptomatic (female) MESA population. These data suggest that breast cancer patients bear a higher risk of developing coronary heart disease before the start of radiotherapy. Therefore, measures to decrease cardiac dose further in breast cancer radiotherapy are even more important.

Mast, Mirjam E., E-mail: m.mast@mchaaglanden.nl [Radiotherapy Centre West, The Hague (Netherlands); Heijenbrok, Mark W. [Department of Radiology, Medical Center Haaglanden, The Hague (Netherlands); Petoukhova, Anna L. [Radiotherapy Centre West, The Hague (Netherlands); Scholten, Astrid N. [Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden (Netherlands); Schreur, Joop H.M. [Department of Cardiology, Medical Center Haaglanden, The Hague (Netherlands); Struikmans, Henk [Radiotherapy Centre West, The Hague (Netherlands); Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden (Netherlands)

2012-07-01

276

Development of fluorescent reporter tagged RIB gene cassettes for replicative transformation, early expression, and enhanced riboflavin production in Eremothecium ashbyi.  

PubMed

Eremothecium ashbyi is a riboflavin overproducing filamentous fungus in which the metabolic pathways have not been genetically characterized. Two genes of the riboflavin biosynthetic (RIB) pathway, RIB1 and RIB3, which encode GTP-cyclohydrolase II (GCH II) and 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate (DHBP) synthase respectively, were selected for the present study. The two RIB genes under their native promoters were obtained from Ashbya gossypii genomic library. Yeast enhanced green fluorescent protein (yEGFP) and mCherry genes were tagged to the C-terminal ends of RIB1 and RIB3 genes to analyse the functionality of the RIB transgenes in E. ashbyi. Shuttle vectors with the reporter tagged RIB genes contained the Escherichia coli kan(R) gene and Saccharomyces cerevisiae ARS element. On transformation with these plasmids, the ARS element was found to be functional in E. ashbyi. The E. ashbyi transcription factors could recognize the Ashbya RIB gene promoters and express the reporter tagged RIB genes as cytoplasmic proteins, in early cell development. Replicative transformants carrying RIB1-mCherry plasmids showed 2.95 times more GCH II activity and 2.44 times more riboflavin production when compared to untransformed. This is the first report of genetic transformation of E. ashbyi and is of significance as the first step towards genetic engineering of this genus. PMID:23063183

Sengupta, Sudeshna; Kaufmann, Andreas; Chandra, T S

2012-10-01

277

Axonal regeneration in early stages of sciatic nerve crush injury is enhanced by ?7nAChR in rats.  

PubMed

This study investigated the role of alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (?7nAChR) in axonal regeneration after crush injury to the rat sciatic nerve. The time course of ?7nAChR expression following injury was assessed by immunohistochemistry and western blotting, and local inflammation, as indicated by the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Axonal regeneration was evaluated by the pinch-test, morphometric analysis, and by measuring growth-associated protein 43 expressions. Local ?7nAChR expression increased on day 1, peaked on day 3, and remained elevated on day 5 following nerve injuries. Prominent ?7nAChR immunoreactivity was observed in Schwann cells, endothelial cells of the capillaries, and a small number of inflammatory cells. Application of the selective ?7nAChR agonist PNU-282987 decreased TNF-? level and enhanced axonal regeneration, but this effect was blocked by concomitant treatment with methyllycaconitine, a ?7nAChR antagonist. The results indicate that the local expression of ?7nAChR is increased during the early stages of sciatic nerve injury, and application of a ?7nAChR agonist promotes axonal regeneration by suppression of TNF-?-mediated inflammation. The ?7nAChR can act as a neuroprotective agent and ?7nAChR activation may be a useful therapeutic strategy to treat peripheral nerve injury. PMID:25370336

Wang, Dewei; Wang, Xuming; Geng, Shuo; Bi, Zhenggang

2015-03-01

278

Popliteal Artery Pseudoaneurysm Following Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty  

PubMed Central

An early diagnosis of popliteal artery pseudoaneurysm-a sequela of popliteal artery trauma-is difficult owing to its late presentation following total knee arthroplasty. The incidence of a popliteal artery pseudoaneurysm with a hematoma presenting only a peripheral nerve injury after total knee arthroplasty is also uncommon in the absence of common diagnostic features such as a pulsatile swelling with an audible bruit on auscultation. In the present report, we describe popliteal artery pseudoaneurysm following total knee arthroplasty. PMID:24944978

Shin, Young-Soo; Hwang, Yeok-Gu; Savale, Abhijit Prakash

2014-01-01

279

Low Molecular Weight Heparin (Enoxaparin) versus Dextran in the Prevention of Early Occlusion Following Arterial Bypass Surgery Distal to the Groin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim to compare the effect of perioperative dextran and low molecular weight heparin on early graft patency after femorodistal bypass surgery. Design prospective randomised multicentre study. Patients and methods three hundred and fourteen patients were randomised to dextran 70 or the low molecular weight heparin enoxaparin during and after femorodistal bypass surgery. Patency was evaluated at days 1, 5–7, 30

K. Logason

2001-01-01

280

Arterial Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a High blood pressure (BP) is a very important cardiovascular (CV) risk factor and is often labeled the “silent killer” because\\u000a arterial hypertension will lead to serious CV events such as ischemic heart disease, stroke, and heart failure. Moreover,\\u000a uncontrolled essential hypertension also leads to renal insufficiency, which accelerates the process of blood pressure elevation\\u000a (1, 2). There is a shift

Daniel A. Duprez

281

Phenoxybenzamine treatment is insufficient to prevent spasm in the radial artery: the effect of other vasodilators  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesAfter its reintroduction as an arterial graft in coronary artery surgery, the radial artery is now established as an alternative arterial conduit, with good early and midterm patency. However, because of the concern about its vasospasticity, numerous vasodilator strategies have been used. Recently the use of the irreversible ?-adrenergic antagonist phenoxybenzamine has been proposed. Although this treatment is effective in

Alan R Conant; Michael J Shackcloth; Aung Y Oo; Michael R Chester; Alec W. M Simpson; Walid C Dihmis

2003-01-01

282

Bcl2 enhances neurogenesis and inhibits apoptosis of newborn neurons in adult rat brain following a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine whether Bcl-2 could influence adult neurogenesis and prevent apoptosis of newborn neurons, we injected Bcl-2 expressing plasmid into the lateral ventricle of rat brain immediately following a 30-min occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO). We found that Bcl-2 increased neural progenitor cells (BrdU+-DCX+) in the ipsilateral striatum, newborn immature neurons (BrdU+-Tuj-1+) and newborn mature neurons (BrdU+-MAP-2+) in

Rong Zhang; Yu-Yu Xue; Shi-Duo Lu; Yao Wang; Ling-Mei Zhang; Ya-Lin Huang; Armando P. Signore; Jun Chen; Feng-Yan Sun

2006-01-01

283

Negative associations between arterial stiffness parameter evaluated by cardio-ankle vascular index and serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration in early-stage atherosclerosis.  

PubMed

The cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), calculated values from cardio-ankle pulse wave velocity and blood pressure, corresponds predominantly to the stiffness of the aorta and peripheral arteries of the lower limbs. However, the reported associations between CAVI and serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels remain inconsistent. A cross-sectional study of 1878 consecutive patients (mean age: 59.2 years) who underwent general health checkup showed a negative association between CAVI and serum LDL-C or non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) concentrations with age-adjusted correlation and multiple regression analysis. Using the similar analyses divided by the status of risk factors and degree of maximum carotid intima-media thickness (maxIMT), negative correlations between CAVI and LDL-C or non-HDL-C levels were observed only in nonrisk groups including nondiabetics patients or patients with maxIMT <1.0 mm, in those with expected low extent of advanced atherosclerotic lesions. In contrast, such a correlation was not found in each comparable risk-loaded group. PMID:24402322

Homma, Satoki; Kato, Kiyoe; Hayashi, Junichi; Yamamoto, Minoru

2015-02-01

284

Early and Intermediate Outcomes After Repair of Pulmonary Atresia With Ventricular Septal Defect and Major Aortopulmonary Collateral Arteries Experience With 85 Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect (VSD) and major aortopulmonary collaterals (MAPCAs) is a complex lesion with marked heterogeneity of pulmonary blood supply. Traditional management has involved staged unifocalization of pulmonary blood supply. Our approach has been to perform early 1-stage complete unifocalization in almost all patients. Methods and Results—Since 1992, 85 patients with pulmonary atresia, VSD, and MAPCAs have

V. Mohan Reddy; Doff B. McElhinney; Zahid Amin; Phillip Moore; Andrew J. Parry; David F. Teitel; Frank L. Hanley

2010-01-01

285

Carotid Artery Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... brain with blood. If you have carotid artery disease, the arteries become narrow, usually because of atherosclerosis. ... one of the causes of stroke. Carotid artery disease often does not cause symptoms, but there are ...

286

Carotid Artery Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Carotid Artery Disease? Carotid (ka-ROT-id) artery disease is ... blood to your face, scalp, and neck. Carotid Arteries Figure A shows the location of the right ...

287

Peripheral artery disease - legs  

MedlinePLUS

... affected artery or arteries for moderate-to-severe cases that are not candidates for surgery. Medicine to ... Most cases of peripheral artery disease of the legs can be controlled without surgery. Although surgery provides good symptom ...

288

Coronary artery disease  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

The coronary arteries supply blood to the heart muscle itself. Damage to or blockage of a coronary artery can result in injury to the heart. Normally, blood flows through a coronary artery unimpeded. However, if ...

289

Endovascular Treatment of a Coronary Artery Bypass Graft to Pulmonary Artery Fistula with Coil Embolization  

SciTech Connect

Fistula formation between a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)and the pulmonary arterial circulation represents a rare cause of recurrent angina in patients following bypass grafting. Therapy has traditionally involved surgical ligation by open thoracotomy. We describe a case of left internal mammary artery-left upper lobe pulmonary artery fistula presenting as early recurrent angina following CABG. The fistula was embolized using platinum coils, resulting in symptomatic relief and improvement in myocardial perfusion on cardiac perfusion scintigraphy. Coil embolization should be considered a therapeutic option in patients with coronary-pulmonary steal syndrome.

Nielson, Jeffery L., E-mail: nielson@uhrad.com; Kang, Preet S. [University Hospitals of Cleveland and Veterans Administration Medical Center-Cleveland, Case Western Reserve University, Departments of Radiology (United States)

2006-04-15

290

The Angio-Seal arterial closure device for early ambulation after elective percutaneous coronary intervention in patients receiving low-dose enoxaparin.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of use of the Angio-Seal vascular closure device deployment for early ambulation (2 h) after elective percutaneous coronary intervention in 143 consecutive patients receiving either intravenous low-dose enoxaparin (0.5 mg/kg) or unfractionated heparin (UFH). The initial success rate of Angio-Seal(trade mark) deployment was 98.6%, with no significant difference between the UFH group (98.9%) and the enoxaparin group (98.0%). In-hospital and clinic outcomes were evaluated in the 141 patients with successful Angio-Seal deployment. During hospitalization, there were no deaths, myocardial infarction, urgent target vessel revascularization or bleeding events in either group; three patients in the UFH group and none in the enoxaparin group had minor vascular complications (differences not significant). In clinic follow-up, two patients in the UFH group and none in the enoxaparin group had major vascular complications (differences not significant). Routine use of the Angio-Seal(trade mark) for early ambulation in patients receiving intravenous low-dose enoxaparin compared with UFH provides promising efficacy and safety for daily practice. PMID:18831904

Lai, Y-C; Kao, H-L; Lin, Y-H; Lin, M-S; Ho, Y-L; Chao, C-L

2008-01-01

291

Angioplasty and stent placement - peripheral arteries  

MedlinePLUS

Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty - peripheral artery; PTA - peripheral artery; Angioplasty - peripheral arteries; iliac artery-angioplasty; fermoral artery-angioplasty; popliteal artery-angioplasty; tibial artery-angioplasty; peroneal artery- ...

292

CT during arterial portography.  

PubMed

CT during arterial portography (CTAP) is based on portal enhancement of the liver by infusion of contrast material through the superior mesenteric or splenic artery. This technique provides high degrees of enhancement of the portal vein and intrahepatic vessels, allowing reliable segmental localisation of tumours and accurate assessment of relationships between tumours and intrahepatic vessels. Because of its invasiveness, CTAP must be limited to patients for whom non-invasive preoperative imaging suggests resectable tumour. In the majority of cases, CTAP is performed in patients with hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer, but other types of hepatic tumour (either primary or secondary) and pancreatic tumour may be an indication for CTAP. Visualisation of non-tumorous perfusion defects is a limitation of this technique, but such defects have been well described and have characteristic locations and appearance. In difficult cases, correlation with sonographic, CT and MRI findings helps characterise portal perfusion defects. CTAP is the most sensitive technique for the detection of intrahepatic tumours, and the recent use of spiral technology shows promise in the performance of CTAP. CTAP data can be viewed as multiplanar and three-dimensional reconstructions that allow preoperative planning of the extent of resection and determination of the volume of the remaining liver after resection. PMID:8798005

Soyer, P

1996-01-01

293

Human Cytomegalovirus Tegument Proteins ppUL82 (pp71) and ppUL35 Interact and Cooperatively Activate the Major Immediate-Early Enhancer  

PubMed Central

The tegument protein ppUL82 (pp71) of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has previously been shown to activate the immediate-early transcription of HCMV and to enhance the infectivity of viral DNA. This is concordant with its localization adjacent to promyelocytic leukemia oncogenic domains (PODs) immediately after infection. In a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified the tegument protein ppUL35 as an interacting partner of ppUL82. The interaction could be confirmed in transfected and infected cells. The domain responsible for interaction was narrowed down to amino acids 447 to 516 within ppUL35, thus allowing both forms of ppUL35 to interact with ppUL82. Immunofluorescence experiments showed a relocalization of ppUL35 from a diffuse nuclear pattern when expressed alone to PODs when expressed together with ppUL82. In accordance with this observation and the role of ppUL82 as a transactivator, we observed a cooperative activation of the HCMV major immediate-early enhancer but not of heterologous viral enhancer elements. These results suggest an important role for this interaction in the stimulation of viral immediate-early gene expression and viral infection. PMID:15308743

Schierling, Karina; Stamminger, Thomas; Mertens, Thomas; Winkler, Michael

2004-01-01

294

Acute transplant renal artery thrombosis due to distal renal artery stenosis: A case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background: Acute renal artery thrombosis is a devastating complication of renal transplantation that can result in graft loss if not detected early. Surgical and technical errors are the major cause of renal artery thrombosis. In this article, for the first time, we are reporting a case of acute renal artery thrombosis that developed early post-transplantation due to distal renal artery stenosis. Case Presentation: A 71-year-old woman presented with nausea, vomiting and decreased urine output 7 days after a deceased donor kidney transplant. Doppler ultrasound showed absent renal and venous flow in the transplanted kidney. Transplant renal artery angiogram showed renal artery thrombosis. Catheterization and thrombectomy were done in the occluded renal artery. After thrombectomy, renal angiogram showed distal renal artery stenosis which was dilated by stenting. Post-stenting angiogram showed good blood flow in the entire renal arterial system. However, the patient,s kidney function did not improve within next 24 hours and the patient eventually lost the kidney. Kidney biopsy showed widespread kidney infarction with no evidence of rejection. Conclusions: Our case shows that renal artery thrombosis can develop due to distal renal artery stenosis and if not detected early could result in graft loss. PMID:25093158

Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Kazem; Yatavelli, Rajini Kanth; Kumar, Ajay; Singh, Neeraj

2014-01-01

295

Widespread DNA hypomethylation at gene enhancer regions in placentas associated with early-onset pre-eclampsia  

PubMed Central

Pre-eclampsia is a serious complication of pregnancy that can affect both maternal and fetal outcomes. Early-onset pre-eclampsia (EOPET) is a severe form of pre-eclampsia that is associated with altered physiological characteristics and gene expression in the placenta. DNA methylation is a relatively stable epigenetic modification to DNA that can reflect gene expression, and can provide insight into the mechanisms underlying such expression changes. This case–control study focused on DNA methylation and gene expression of whole chorionic villi samples from 20 EOPET placentas and 20 gestational age-matched controls from pre-term births. DNA methylation was also assessed in placentas affected by late-onset pre-eclampsia (LOPET) and normotensive intrauterine growth restriction (nIUGR). The Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip was used to assess DNA methylation at >480 000 cytosine-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) sites. The Illumina HT-12v4 Expression BeadChip was used to assess gene expression of >45 000 transcripts in a subset of cases and controls. DNA methylation analysis by pyrosequencing was used to follow-up the initial findings in four genes with a larger cohort of cases and controls, including nIUGR and LOPET placentas. Bioinformatic analysis was used to identify overrepresentation of gene ontology categories and transcription factor binding motifs. We identified 38 840 CpG sites with significant (false discovery rate <0.01) DNA methylation alterations in EOPET, of which 282 had >12.5% methylation difference compared with the controls. Significant sites were enriched at the enhancers and low CpG density regions of the associated genes and the majority (74.5%) of these sites were hypomethylated in EOPET. EOPET, but not associated clinical features, such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), presented a distinct DNA methylation profile. CpG sites from four genes relevant to pre-eclampsia (INHBA, BHLHE40, SLC2A1 and ADAM12) showed different extent of changes in LOPET and nIUGR. Genome-wide expression in a subset of samples showed that some of the gene expression changes were negatively correlated with DNA methylation changes, particularly for genes that are responsible for angiogenesis (such as EPAS1 and FLT1). Results could be confounded by altered cell populations in abnormal placentas. Larger sample sizes are needed to fully address the possibility of sub-profiles of methylation within the EOPET cohort. Based on DNA methylation profiling, we conclude that there are widespread DNA methylation alterations in EOPET that may be associated with changes in placental function. This property may provide a useful tool for early screening of such placentas. This study identifies DNA methylation changes at many loci previously reported to have altered gene expression in EOPET placentas, as well as in novel biologically relevant genes we confirmed to be differentially expressed. These results may be useful for DNA- methylation-based non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of at-risk pregnancies. PMID:23770704

Blair, John D.; Yuen, Ryan K.C.; Lim, Brendan K.; McFadden, Deborah E.; von Dadelszen, Peter; Robinson, Wendy P.

2013-01-01

296

Surface?enhanced Raman spectral biomarkers correlate with Ankle Brachial Index and characterize leg muscle biochemical composition of patients with peripheral arterial disease  

PubMed Central

Abstract Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is characterized by atherosclerotic blockages of the arteries supplying the lower extremities, which cause a progressive accumulation of ischemic injury to the skeletal muscles of the lower limbs. This injury includes altered metabolic processes, damaged organelles, and compromised bioenergetics in the affected muscles. The objective of this study was to explore the association of Raman spectral signatures of muscle biochemistry with the severity of atherosclerosis in the legs as determined by the Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) and clinical presentation. We collected muscle biopsies from the gastrocnemius (calf muscle) of five patients with clinically diagnosed claudication, five patients with clinically diagnosed critical limb ischemia (CLI), and five control patients who did not have PAD. A partial least squares regression (PLSR) model was able to predict patient ABI with a correlation coefficient of 0.99 during training and a correlation coefficient of 0.85 using a full cross?validation. When using the first three PLS factor scores in combination with linear discriminant analysis, the discriminant model was able to correctly classify the control, claudicating, and CLI patients with 100% accuracy, using a full cross?validation procedure. Raman spectroscopy is capable of detecting and measuring unique biochemical signatures of skeletal muscle. These signatures can discriminate control muscles from PAD muscles and correlate with the ABI and clinical presentation of the PAD patient. Raman spectroscopy provides novel spectral biomarkers that may complement existing methods for diagnosis and monitoring treatment of PAD patients. PMID:25247767

Cluff, Kim; Kelly, Abby M.; Koutakis, Panagiotis; He, Xiang N.; Huang, Xi; Lu, Yong Feng; Pipinos, Iraklis I.; Casale, George P.; Subbiah, Jeyamkondan

2014-01-01

297

Interference of the Simian Virus 40 Origin of Replication by the Cytomegalovirus Immediate Early Gene Enhancer: Evidence for Competition of Active Regulatory Chromatin Conformation in a Single Domain  

PubMed Central

Replication origins are often found closely associated with transcription regulatory elements in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. To examine the relationship between these two elements, we studied the effect of a strong promoter-enhancer on simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA replication. The human cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate early gene enhancer-promoter was found to exert a strong inhibitory effect on SV40 origin-based plasmid replication in Cos-1 cells in a position- and dose-dependent manner. Deletion analysis indicated that the effect was exerted by sequences located in the enhancer portion of the CMV sequence, thus excluding the mechanism of origin occlusion by transcription. Insertion of extra copies of the SV40 origin only partially alleviated the inhibition. Analysis of nuclease-sensitive cleavage sites of chromatin containing the transfected plasmids indicate that the chromatin was cleaved at one of the regulatory sites in the plasmids containing more than one regulatory site, suggesting that only one nuclease-hypersensitive site existed per chromatin. A positive correlation was found between the degree of inhibition of DNA replication and the decrease of P1 cleavage frequency at the SV40 origin. The CMV enhancer was also found to exhibit an inhibitory effect on the CMV enhancer-promoter driving chloramphenicol acetyltransferase expression in a dose-dependent manner. Together these results suggest that inhibition of SV40 origin-based DNA replication by the CMV enhancer is due to intramolecular competition for the formation of active chromatin structure. PMID:10805748

Chen, Peng-Hui; Tseng, Wen-Bin; Chu, Yi; Hsu, Ming-Ta

2000-01-01

298

A rare cause of upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage: Ruptured cystic artery pseudoaneurysm with concurrent cholecystojejunal fistula.  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION Cystic artery pseudoaneurysms and cholecystoenteric fistulae represent two rare complications of gallstone disease. PRESENTATION OF CASE An 86 year old male presented to the emergency department with obstructive jaundice, RUQ pain and subsequent upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Upper GI endoscopy revealed bleeding from the medial wall of the second part of the duodenum and a contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan revealed a cystic artery pseudoaneurysm, concurrent cholecystojejunal fistula and gallstone ileus. This patient was successfully managed surgically with open subtotal cholecystectomy, pseudoaneurysm resection and fistula repair. DISCUSSION To date there are very few cases describing haemobilia resulting from a bleeding cystic artery pseudoaneurysm. This report is the first to describe upper gastrointestinal bleeding as a consequence of two synchronous rare pathologies: a ruptured cystic artery pseudoaneurysm causing haemobilia and bleeding through a concurrent cholecystojejunal fistula. CONCLUSION Through this case, we stress the importance of accurate and early diagnosis through ultra- sonography, endoscopy, and contrast-enhanced CT imaging and emphasise that haemobilia should be included in the differential diagnosis of anyone presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We have demonstrated the success of surgical management alone in the treatment of such a case, but accept that consideration of combined therapeutic approach with angiography be given in the first instance, when available and clinically indicated. PMID:24394852

Glaysher, Michael A; Cruttenden-Wood, David; Szentpali, Karoly

2014-01-01

299

Carotid Artery Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... away from the heart to the head and brain. Located on each side of the neck, these arteries can easily be felt pulsating by ... arteries, are located along the back of the neck adjacent to the spine, and supply blood to the back of the brain. What is carotid artery disease? Carotid artery disease ...

300

Facts About Peripheral Arterial  

E-print Network

Facts About Peripheral Arterial Disease (P.A.D.) for African Americans One in every 20 Americans arterial disease, or P.A.D., develops when your arteries become clogged with plaque--fatty deposits that limit blood flow to your limbs, especially your legs. Just like clogged arteries in the heart, clogged

Bandettini, Peter A.

301

Early fluid loading in acute respiratory distress syndrome with septic shock deteriorates lung aeration without impairing arterial oxygenation: a lung ultrasound observational study  

PubMed Central

Introduction The study was designed to assess the impact of fluid loading on lung aeration, oxygenation and hemodynamics in patients with septic shock and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Methods During a 1-year period, a prospective observational study was performed in 32 patients with septic shock and ARDS. Cardiorespiratory parameters were measured using Swan Ganz (n?=?29) or PiCCO catheters (n?=?3). Lung aeration and regional pulmonary blood flows were measured using bedside transthoracic ultrasound. Measurements were performed before (T0), at the end of volume expansion (T1) and 40 minutes later (T2), consisting of 1-L of saline over 30 minutes during the first 48 h following onset of septic shock and ARDS. Results Lung ultrasound score increased by 23% at T2, from 13 at baseline to 16 (P?Early fluid loading transitorily improves hemodynamics and oxygenation and worsens lung aeration. Aeration changes can be detected at the bedside by transthoracic lung ultrasound, which may serve as a safeguard against excessive fluid loading. PMID:24887155

2014-01-01

302

Vapor resistant arteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A vapor block resistant liquid artery structure for heat pipes. A solid tube artery with openings is encased in the sintered material of a heat pipe wick. The openings are limited to that side of the artery which is most remote from the heat source. The liquid in the artery can thus exit the artery through the openings and wet the sintered sheath, but vapor generated at the heat source is unlikely to move around the solid wall of the artery and reverse its direction in order to penetrate the artery through the openings. An alternate embodiment uses finer pore size wick material to resist vapor entry.

Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor); Dussinger, Peter M. (Inventor); Buchko, Matthew T. (Inventor)

1989-01-01

303

Science Education in Early Childhood Teacher Education: Putting Forward a Case to Enhance Student Teachers' Confidence and Competence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New Zealand is moving towards increased qualification requirements for early childhood educators. There is an underlying assumption that there is a correlation between quality early childhood education, teacher qualifications and quality practices in teaching and learning. Two fields of literature, early childhood pedagogy and science specific pedagogy, are reviewed briefly to provide a framework with which to consider why student teachers' attitudes, misunderstandings and misconceptions in science can limit their ability and willingness to create quality teaching and learning opportunities. The study reported in this paper highlights, in general, that early childhood student teachers' subject knowledge in science was poor. It also emerged that the student teachers were unaware of how little they knew and how this might affect their ability to provide appropriate science experiences for young children.

Garbett, Dawn

2003-08-01

304

Ocean Warming Enhances Malformations, Premature Hatching, Metabolic Suppression and Oxidative Stress in the Early Life Stages of a Keystone Squid  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe knowledge about the capacity of organisms’ early life stages to adapt to elevated temperatures is very limited but crucial to understand how marine biota will respond to global warming. Here we provide a comprehensive and integrated view of biological responses to future warming during the early ontogeny of a keystone invertebrate, the squid Loligo vulgaris.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsRecently-spawned egg masses were

Rui Rosa; Marta S. Pimentel; Joana Boavida-Portugal; Tatiana Teixeira; Katja Trübenbach; Mário Diniz

2012-01-01

305

Neighborhood contexts experienced by young Mexican-American women: enhancing our understanding of risk for early childbearing.  

PubMed

Young Mexican-American women are disproportionately affected by teen pregnancy and early childbearing. While many of the studies that have investigated this population's high risk for early childbearing have focused predominantly on micro-level factors, a growing body of research has demonstrated the importance of neighborhood-level factors in shaping risk for this outcome. In order to elucidate the role of neighborhood context with regards to early childbearing among adolescent Mexican-American women, it is important to understand what these young women consider to be their neighborhood context and how they experience these contexts. This study utilized a mixed-methods design incorporating participatory photography, photo-elicitation, and focus groups in order to gain a more nuanced understanding of how neighborhood context is conceptualized and experienced by Mexican-American young women, and how these experiences may influence risk for early childbearing. Major findings include: (1) participants view the blocks on which they live as their neighborhood, but their exposure to neighborhood context extends beyond these blocks and includes the transient spaces they move through daily; and (2) within their neighborhood contexts, participants are influenced by experiences of discrimination and the presence of gangs and violence. These findings point to the importance of neighborhood-level factors in the lives of adolescent Mexican-American women, and may be used to inform future studies looking at the role of neighborhood context in shaping risk for early childbearing among this population. PMID:22143409

Richardson, Dawn M; Nuru-Jeter, Amani M

2012-02-01

306

Functioning pancreas graft with thromboses of splenic and superior mesenteric arteries after simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation: a case report.  

PubMed

Graft thrombosis is the most common cause of early graft loss after pancreas transplantation. The grafted pancreas is difficult to salvage after complete thrombosis, especially arterial thrombosis, and graft pancreatectomy is required. We describe a patient presenting with a functioning pancreas graft with thromboses of the splenic artery (SA) and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) after simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPK). A 37-year-old woman with a 20-year history of type 1 diabetes mellitus underwent SPK. The pancreaticoduodenal graft was implanted in the right iliac fossa with enteric drainage. A Carrel patch was anastomosed to the recipient's right common iliac artery, and the graft gastroduodenal artery was anastomosed to the common hepatic artery using an arterial I-graft. The donor portal vein was anastomosed to the recipient's inferior vena cava. Four days after surgery, graft thromboses were detected by Doppler ultrasound without increases in the serum amylase and blood glucose levels. Contrast enhanced computed tomography revealed thromboses in the SA, splenic vein and SMA. Selective angiography showed that blood flow was interrupted in the SA and SMA. However, pancreatic graft perfusion was maintained by the I-graft in the head of the pancreas and the transverse pancreatic artery in the body and tail of the pancreas. We performed percutaneous direct thrombolysis and adjuvant thrombolytic therapy. However, we had to stop the thrombolytic therapy because of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Thereafter, the postoperative course was uneventful and the pancreas graft was functioning with a fasting blood glucose level of 75 mg/dL, HbA1c of 5.1%, and serum C-peptide level of 1.9 ng/mL at 30 months post-transplantation. PMID:24767399

Matsumoto, I; Shinzeki, M; Asari, S; Goto, T; Shirakawa, S; Ajiki, T; Fukumoto, T; Ku, Y

2014-04-01

307

Tips of laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy: superior mesenteric artery first approach (with video).  

PubMed

In previous reports of laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy, the Kocher maneuver with a wide mobilization of the right colonic flexure is carried out in the early phase, and dissection of the superior mesenteric artery is performed in the last phase of resection. This report describes laparoscopic superior mesenteric artery first approach, in which the superior mesenteric artery is dissected in the early phase of resection. Through the ligament of Treitz, the retroperitoneum is widely opened and the superior mesenteric artery is isolated just superior to the left renal vein. The periarterial connective tissue and nerve plexuses surrounding the superior mesenteric artery are dissected longitudinally to identify the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery, which is then tied and divided. The superior mesenteric artery first approach and early ligation of the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery is considered to be a feasible, safe, and effective method for performing pure laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy. PMID:24307512

Cho, Akihiro; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Kainuma, Osamu

2014-03-01

308

Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species enhance AMP-activated protein kinase activation in the endothelium of patients with coronary artery disease and diabetes.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to determine whether the endothelial dysfunction associated with CAD (coronary artery disease) and T2D (Type 2 diabetes mellitus) is concomitant with elevated mtROS (mitochondrial reactive oxygen species) production in the endothelium and establish if this, in turn, regulates the activity of endothelial AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase). We investigated endothelial function, mtROS production and AMPK activation in saphenous veins from patients with advanced CAD. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation was impaired in patients with CAD and T2D relative to those with CAD alone. Levels of mitochondrial H(2)O(2) and activity of AMPK were significantly elevated in primary HSVECs (human saphenous vein endothelial cells) from patients with CAD and T2D compared with those from patients with CAD alone. Incubation with the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, MitoQ(10) significantly reduced AMPK activity in HSVECs from patients with CAD and T2D but not in cells from patients with CAD alone. Elevated mtROS production in the endothelium of patients with CAD and T2D increases AMPK activation, supporting a role for the kinase in defence against oxidative stress. Further investigation is required to determine whether pharmacological activators of AMPK will prove beneficial in the attenuation of endothelial dysfunction in patients with CAD and T2D. PMID:23057846

Mackenzie, Ruth M; Salt, Ian P; Miller, William H; Logan, Angela; Ibrahim, Hagar A; Degasperi, Andrea; Dymott, Jane A; Hamilton, Carlene A; Murphy, Michael P; Delles, Christian; Dominiczak, Anna F

2013-03-01

309

Transfection of HGF gene enhances endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) function and improves EPC transplant efficiency for balloon-induced arterial injury in hypercholesterolemic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk factors for coronary heart disease can reduce the number of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and impair EPC function, thus hindering their utility in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, we began exploring the feasibility of genetic modification of EPCs with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) to counter the effects of these risk factors and enhance the biological

Ming-Bao Song; Xue-Jun Yu; Guang-Xu Zhu; Jian-Fei Chen; Gang Zhao; Lan Huang

2009-01-01

310

Enhancements to and Characterization of the Very Early Time Electromagnetic (VETEM) Prototype Instrument and Applications to Shallow Subsurface Imaging at Sites in the DOE Complex  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research is to enhance the state-of-the-art in electromagnetic imaging of the shallow subsurface in electrically conductive media where groundpenetrating radar (GPR) provides insufficient penetration and time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) systems provide insufficient resolution. This objective is being pursued by instrumentation enhancements to the existing very early time electromagnetic (VETEM) system coupled with physical and numerical modeling. Success in this endeavor will improve the speed and accuracy of waste pit and trench location and characterization, and could have additional applications to shallow DNAPL and LNAPL spill and cleanup monitoring, clay barrier integrity assessment, and landfill stabilization monitoring. This could result in significant savings in time and money during characterization, remediation, and decommissioning of facilities.

Wright, David L.; Chew, Weng Cho

2000-06-01

311

Using Information from an Early Intervention Program to Enhance Literacy Goals on the Individualized Education Program (IEP)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act requires that an Individualized Education Program (IEP) be developed for each child that receives special education services. To develop the most effective IEP, information is gathered from everyone who has worked with the child. In many schools the child receives early intervention services prior to…

O'Connor, Evelyn A.; Yasik, Anastasia E.

2007-01-01

312

Enhanced production of IL-8 in chronic but not in early ileal lesions of Crohn's disease (CD)  

PubMed Central

Distinct Th1/Th2 patterns have been observed during the evolution of CD. The aim of this study was to compare neutrophil involvement and IL-8 mRNA and protein expression during early recurrent lesions and chronic phases of CD. Twenty-nine patients with CD having ileocolonic resection with anastomosis were studied. Biopsies were obtained during surgery from the non-inflamed ileal mucosa and from chronic ileal lesions. Endoscopic ileal biopsies were also taken from early recurrent ileal lesions occurring 3 months after surgery. Neutrophil counts were performed and mucosal IL-8 levels were evaluated by competitive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Early recurrent ileal lesions were characterized by low neutrophil counts and IL-8 production at the mRNA and protein levels compared with the ileal chronic lesions. The main cellular sources of IL-8 in the early recurrent lesions were neutrophils, while in chronic lesions the majority of IL-8-stained cells were CD3+ T cells and macrophages. These results confirmed that the nature of the inflammatory infiltrate and the expression of cytokine profiles may differ between the acute and chronic phases of CD. PMID:11091272

Brandt, E; Colombel, J-F; Ectors, N; Gambiez, L; Emilie, D; Geboes, K; Capron, M; Desreumaux, P

2000-01-01

313

Cooled artery extension  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An artery vapor trap. A heat pipe artery is constructed with an extension protruding from the evaporator end of the heat pipe beyond the active area of the evaporator. The vapor migrates into the artery extension because of gravity or liquid displacement, and cooling the extension condenses the vapor to liquid, thus preventing vapor lock in the working portion of the artery by removing vapor from within the active artery. The condensed liquid is then transported back to the evaporator by the capillary action of the artery extension itself or by wick located within the extension.

Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor)

1990-01-01

314

Thioredoxin h overexpressed in barley seeds enhances selenite resistance and uptake during germination and early seedling development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uptake, distribution and metabolism of selenite were examined in germinating homozygous barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) grain with thioredoxin  h overexpressed in starchy endosperm. Results were related to the null segregant in which the transgene had segregated out during crossing. Compared with the null segregant, the homozygote showed enhanced germination and root and shoot growth in the presence of

Yong-Bum Kim; Carlos Garbisu; Ingrid J. Pickering; Roger C. Prince; Graham N. George; Myeong-Je Cho; Joshua H. Wong; Bob B. Buchanan

2003-01-01

315

Screening for Carotid Artery Stenosis  

MedlinePLUS

... you. What is carotid artery stenosis? Carotid artery stenosis is the narrowing of the arteries that run along each side of the neck. These arteries provide blood flow to the brain. Over time, plaque (a fatty, ...

316

Traumatic Axillary Artery Dissection with Radial Artery Embolism  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a case of pathologically proven traumatic arterial dissection, presenting as complete occlusion of the axillary artery with radial artery embolism. Occlusion of the axillary artery by traumatic dissection mimicked transection and radial artery embolism mimicked congenital absence of the radial artery on the initial angiogram, but these were correctly diagnosed with the following sonogram.

Chung, Hwan-Hoon; Cha, Sang Hoon, E-mail: shcha123@naver.com; Cho, Sung Bum; Kim, Jung Hyuck; Lee, Seung Hwa [Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jae Seung [Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang Woo [KonKuk University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of)

2006-04-15

317

pitkin(D), a novel gain-of-function enhancer of position-effect variegation, affects chromatin regulation during oogenesis and early embryogenesis in Drosophila.  

PubMed Central

The vast majority of the >100 modifier genes of position-effect variegation (PEV) in Drosophila have been identified genetically as haplo-insufficient loci. Here, we describe pitkin(Dominant) (ptn(D)), a gain-of-function enhancer mutation of PEV. Its exceptionally strong enhancer effect is evident as elevated spreading of heterochromatin-induced gene silencing along euchromatic regions in variegating rearrangements. The ptn(D) mutation causes ectopic binding of the SU(VAR)3-9 heterochromatin protein at many euchromatic sites and, unlike other modifiers of PEV, it also affects stable position effects. Specifically, it induces silencing of white+ transgenes inserted at a wide variety of euchromatic sites. ptn(D) is associated with dominant female sterility. +/+ embryos produced by ptn(D)/+ females mated with wild-type males die at the end of embryogenesis, whereas the ptn(D)/+ sibling embryos arrest development at cleavage cycle 1-3, due to a combined effect of maternally provided mutant product and an early zygotic lethal effect of ptn(D). This is the earliest zygotic effect of a mutation so far reported in Drosophila. Germ-line mosaics show that ptn+ function is required for normal development in the female germ line. These results, together with effects on PEV and white+ transgenes, are consistent with the hypothesis that the ptn gene plays an important role in chromatin regulation during development of the female germ line and in early embryogenesis. PMID:11238407

Kuhfittig, S; Szabad, J; Schotta, G; Hoffmann, J; Máthé, E; Reuter, G

2001-01-01

318

Dietary supplementation with Astragalus polysaccharide enhances ileal digestibilities and serum concentrations of amino acids in early weaned piglets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) on growth performance, apparent ileal digestibilities (AID) of amino acids (AA), and their serum concentrations\\u000a in early weaned piglets. In Exp. 1, 60 pigs were weaned at 21 days of age (BW 7.35 ± 0.23 kg) and allocated to three treatments\\u000a (20 pigs\\/treatment), representing supplementing 0.0% (control), 0.02% colistin

F. G. Yin; Y. L. Liu; Y. L. Yin; X. F. Kong; R. L. Huang; T. J. Li; G. Y. Wu; Yongqing Hou

2009-01-01

319

Action Plan to enhance self-management and early detection of exacerbations in COPD patients; a multicenter RCT  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Early detection of exacerbations by COPD patients initiating prompt interventions has shown to be clinically relevant. Until now, research failed to identify the effectiveness of a written individualized Action Plan (AP) to achieve this. METHODS\\/DESIGN: The current multicenter, single-blind RCT with a follow-up period of 6 months, evaluates the hypothesis that individualized AP's reduce exacerbation recovery time. Patients are

Jaap CA Trappenburg; Lieselotte Koevoets; Gerdien H de Weert-van Oene; Evelyn M Monninkhof; Jean Bourbeau; Thierry Troosters; Theo JM Verheij; Jan-Willem J Lammers; Augustinus JP Schrijvers

2009-01-01

320

Ocean Warming Enhances Malformations, Premature Hatching, Metabolic Suppression and Oxidative Stress in the Early Life Stages of a Keystone Squid  

PubMed Central

Background The knowledge about the capacity of organisms’ early life stages to adapt to elevated temperatures is very limited but crucial to understand how marine biota will respond to global warming. Here we provide a comprehensive and integrated view of biological responses to future warming during the early ontogeny of a keystone invertebrate, the squid Loligo vulgaris. Methodology/Principal Findings Recently-spawned egg masses were collected and reared until hatching at present day and projected near future (+2°C) temperatures, to investigate the ability of early stages to undergo thermal acclimation, namely phenotypic altering of morphological, behavioural, biochemical and physiological features. Our findings showed that under the projected near-future warming, the abiotic conditions inside the eggs promoted metabolic suppression, which was followed by premature hatching. Concomitantly, the less developed newborns showed greater incidence of malformations. After hatching, the metabolic burst associated with the transition from an encapsulated embryo to a planktonic stage increased linearly with temperature. However, the greater exposure to environmental stress by the hatchlings seemed to be compensated by physiological mechanisms that reduce the negative effects on fitness. Heat shock proteins (HSP70/HSC70) and antioxidant enzymes activities constituted an integrated stress response to ocean warming in hatchlings (but not in embryos). Conclusions/Significance The stressful abiotic conditions inside eggs are expected to be aggravated under the projected near-future ocean warming, with deleterious effects on embryo survival and growth. Greater feeding challenges and the lower thermal tolerance limits of the hatchlings are strictly connected to high metabolic demands associated with the planktonic life strategy. Yet, we found some evidence that, in the future, the early stages might support higher energy demands by adjusting some cellular functional properties to increase their thermal tolerance windows. PMID:22701620

Rosa, Rui; Pimentel, Marta S.; Boavida-Portugal, Joana; Teixeira, Tatiana; Trübenbach, Katja; Diniz, Mário

2012-01-01

321

Early-life reproduction is associated with increased mortality risk but enhanced lifetime fitness in pre-industrial humans.  

PubMed

The physiology of reproductive senescence in women is well understood, but the drivers of variation in senescence rates are less so. Evolutionary theory predicts that early-life investment in reproduction should be favoured by selection at the cost of reduced survival and faster reproductive senescence. We tested this hypothesis using data collected from preindustrial Finnish church records. Reproductive success increased up to age 25 and was relatively stable until a decline from age 41. Women with higher early-life fecundity (ELF; producing more children before age 25) subsequently had higher mortality risk, but high ELF was not associated with accelerated senescence in annual breeding success. However, women with higher ELF experienced faster senescence in offspring survival. Despite these apparent costs, ELF was under positive selection: individuals with higher ELF had higher lifetime reproductive success. These results are consistent with previous observations in both humans and wild vertebrates that more births and earlier onset of reproduction are associated with reduced survival, and with evolutionary theory predicting trade-offs between early reproduction and later-life survival. The results are particularly significant given recent increases in maternal ages in many societies and the potential consequences for offspring health and fitness. PMID:25740893

Hayward, Adam D; Nenko, Ilona; Lummaa, Virpi

2015-04-01

322

Arterial blood sample (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... rather than a vein is to measure blood gases. Because arterial blood is oxygenated blood flowing directly from the heart, analysis of arterial blood can determine the chemistry of the blood before it is used by ...

323

Peripheral artery bypass - leg  

MedlinePLUS

... of the artery that is blocked. After moving skin and tissue out of the way, the surgeron will place clamps at each end of the blocked section of artery. The graft is then sewn in place. The surgeon will ...

324

Coronary Artery Anomalies  

MedlinePLUS

... terms: CAA, anomalous coronary artery (ACA), sudden cardiac arrest, sudden cardiac death A coronary artery anomaly (CAA) ... exercise Sudden cardiac death (also called sudden cardiac arrest) is the most dangerous symptom of a CAA. ...

325

Radial Artery Catheterization  

MedlinePLUS

... Name Password Sign In Cardiology Patient Page Radial Artery Catheterization Nicholas R. Balaji , MD ; Pinak B. Shah , ... procedures. Previous Section Next Section Advantages of Radial Artery Catheterization Any catheter placement into a blood vessel ...

326

Carotid Artery Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... cerebrovascular disease, stroke, transient ischemic attacks (TIA) Carotid artery disease is a form of disease that affects ... to the brain by the 2 large carotid arteries in the front of your neck and by ...

327

Coronary Artery Disease  

MedlinePLUS

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. It is the leading cause of death ... both men and women. CAD happens when the arteries that supply blood to heart muscle become hardened ...

328

Transit & Arterial Performance  

E-print Network

Transit & Arterial Performance Michael Wolfe & Mathew Berkow A Study of the Barbur Boulevard arterial performance in a corridor using both advance and system loop data · Ultimately, marry the two data

Bertini, Robert L.

329

Extracardiac coronary arterial anastomoses.  

PubMed

The collateral arterial circulation of the heart has been extensively studied. However, less attention has been paid to extracardiac anastomoses, which may also be of significant clinical importance. In this review, we will describe the most common types of these anastomoses, which include bronchial to coronary arteries and internal thoracic to coronary arteries. In a much lesser degree, anastomoses between coronary arteries and pericardiacophrenic branches of the internal thoracic arteries, anterior mediastinal arteries, intercostal arteries, and esophageal arterial branches have also been described. Knowledge of the likely morphology and function of the anastomoses, therefore, could prove helpful in the clinical evaluation of patients with myocardial ischemia, particularly when selecting candidates for myocardial revascularization. PMID:21322035

Loukas, Marios; Hanna, Michael; Chen, Justin; Tubbs, R Shane; Anderson, Robert H

2011-03-01

330

VEGF acts through novel, pregnancy-enhanced receptor signaling pathways to stimulate eNOS activity in uterine artery endothelial cells  

PubMed Central

During pregnancy, VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) regulates in part endothelial angiogenesis and vasodilation. Herein we examine the relative roles of VEGFR (VEGF receptors) and associated signaling pathways mediating the effects of VEGF165 on eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase) activation. Despite equal expression levels of VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 in UAEC (uterine artery endothelial cells) from NP (nonpregnant) vs P (pregnant) sheep, VEGF165 activates eNOS at a greater level in P- vs NP-UAEC, independently of Akt activation. The selective VEGFR-1 agonist PlGF-1 (placental growth factor) elicits only a modest activation of eNOS in P-UAEC compared to VEGF165, while the VEGFR-2 kinase inhibitor blocks VEGF165-stimulated eNOS activation, suggesting VEGF165 predominantly activates eNOS via VEGFR-2. Although VEGF165 also activates ERK-1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase), this is not necessary for eNOS activation since U0126 blocks ERK-1/2 phosphorylation but not eNOS activation, and VEGFR-2 kinase inhibitor inhibits eNOS activation but not ERK-1/2 phosphorylation. Furthermore, the inability of PlGF to activate ERK-1/2 and the ability of the VEGFR-2 selective agonist VEGF-E to activate ERK-1/2 and eNOS suggest again that both eNOS and ERK-1/2 activation occur predominately via VEGFR-2. The lack of VEGF165-stimulated Akt phosphorylation is consistent with a lack of robust phosphorylation of Ser-1179-eNOS. Although VEGF165-stimulated eNOS phosphorylation is observed at Ser-617 and Ser-635, pregnancy does not significantly alter this response. Our finding that VEGF165 activation of eNOS is completely inhibited by wortmannin but not LY294002 implies a downstream kinase, possibly a wortmannin-selective PI3-kinase, is acting between the VEGFR-2 and eNOS independently of Akt. PMID:18816248

Grummer, Mary A.; Sullivan, Jeremy A.; Magness, Ronald R.; Bird, Ian M.

2009-01-01

331

White Spot Syndrome Virus Annexes a Shrimp STAT To Enhance Expression of the Immediate-Early Gene ie1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 30 August 2006\\/Accepted 12 October 2006 Although the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) signaling pathway is part of the antiviral response in arthropods such as Drosophila, here we show that white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) uses a shrimp STAT as a transcription factor to enhance viral gene expression in host cells. In a series of deletion

Wang-Jing Liu; Yun-Shiang Chang; Andrew H.-J. Wang; Guang-Hsiung Kou; Chu-Fang Lo

2007-01-01

332

Facts About Peripheral Arterial  

E-print Network

Facts About Peripheral Arterial Disease (P.A.D.) One in every 20 Americans over the age of 50 has P.A.D., a condition that raises the risk for heart attack and stroke. Peripheral arterial disease, or P.A.D., develops when your arteries become clogged with plaque--fatty deposits that limit blood flow to your legs. Just

Bandettini, Peter A.

333

Brief pretreatment of radial artery conduits with phenoxybenzamine prevents vasoconstriction long term  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Radial artery bypass conduits are prone to early vasospasm or “string sign” with use of vasopressor therapy intraoperatively and postoperatively, causing increased resistance in coronary artery grafts. Current intraoperative treatment with papaverine fails to provide sustained inhibition of vasoconstriction. We tested the hypothesis that a 30-minute pretreatment of radial artery segments with the ?-adrenergic antagonist phenoxybenzamine (PB) or the

Daniel A Velez; Cullen D Morris; Satoshi Muraki; Jason M Budde; Rachel N Otto; Zhi-Qing Zhao; Robert A Guyton; Jakob Vinten-Johansen

2001-01-01

334

Interposition saphenous vein bypass graft between the common and intracranial internal carotid arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

22 common carotid to intracranial internal carotid artery bypass grafts with interposition saphenous vein were performed in 20 patients over a four year period. The distal anastomosis was end-to-end on the internal carotid artery at a site between the ophthalmic and posterior communicating arteries. Early occlusion (rendered patent with Urokinase) occurred in one graft resulting in fatal infarction. Flow included

Michael K Morgan; Jeffrey Brennan; M. Jerome Day

1996-01-01

335

Divided Attention Can Enhance Early-Phase Memory Encoding: The Attentional Boost Effect and Study Trial Duration.  

PubMed

Divided attention during encoding typically produces marked reductions in later memory. The attentional boost effect (ABE) is a surprising variation on this phenomenon. In this paradigm, each study stimulus (e.g., a word) is presented along with a target or a distractor (e.g., different colored circles) in a detection task. Later memory is better for stimuli co-occurring with targets. The present experiments indicate that the ABE arises during an early phase of memory encoding that involves initial stimulus perception and comprehension rather than at a later phase entailing controlled, elaborative rehearsal. Experiment 1 demonstrated that the ABE was robust at a short study duration (700 ms) and did not increase with increasing study trial durations (1,500 ms and 4,000 ms). Furthermore, the target condition is boosted to the level of memory performance in a full-attention condition for the short duration but not the long duration. Both results followed from the early-phase account. This account also predicts that for very short study times (limiting the influence of late-phase controlled encoding and thus minimizing the usual negative effect of divided attention), the target condition will produce better memory than will the full-attention condition. Experiment 2 used a study time of 400 ms and found that words presented with targets lead to greater recognition accuracy than do either words presented with distractors or words in the full-attention condition. Consistent with the early-phase account, a divided attention condition actually produced superior memory than did the full-attention condition, a very unusual but theoretically predicted result. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25181494

Mulligan, Neil W; Spataro, Pietro

2014-09-01

336

Early peritoneal lavage with ulinastatin improves outcome and enhances multi-organ protection in a model of severe acute pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of early peritoneal lavage with ulinastatin on the outcome of a rat model of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). A total of 80 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into the following groups: Sham-operated (C), SAP model (M), saline lavage (SL), intravenous ulinastatin (IU), early ulinastatin lavage (EUL) and late ulinastatin lavage (LUL). Intraperitoneal lavage or injection were performed immediately subsequent to the establishment of the SAP model in groups SL, IU and EUL and 3 h later in group LUL. Intraperitoneal lavage with or without ulinastatin was performed for 3 h. The survival time of the rats in groups C, M, EUL and LUL was recorded over a 12-h period and the median survival time was calculated. At 3 h after the induction of SAP, histopathological analyses were performed and the biochemical parameters of groups C, M, SL, IU and EUL were assessed. Groups EUL and LUL exhibited an increased median survival time compared with Group M, with the survival time of the rats in group EUL markedly longer than that in the group LUL rats. Group SL, IU and EUL rats were found to have reduced plasma activities of amylase, lipase, aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase, with the biggest change observed in the group EUL rats. Furthermore, the intervention in groups SL and EUL was more effective at reducing creatinine and urea levels than that in group IU. Rats in group EUL exhibited a greater inhibition of the SAP-induced increase in troponin T levels than rats in groups SL and IU. The pathological severity scores of the pancreas, liver, kidney and lung in group EUL were significantly lower than those in groups M and better than those in groups SL and IU. In conclusion, early intraperitoneal lavage with ulinastatin significantly improves the median survival time and protects multi-organ function in an SAP model. PMID:25780405

FENG, CONG; SU, XUAN; ZHOU, XUAN; WANG, LI-LI; LI, BEI; CHEN, LI; LV, FA-QIN; LI, TAN-SHI

2015-01-01

337

Phospholipase A 2 activation as a therapeutic approach for cognitive enhancement in early-stage Alzheimer disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Alzheimer disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia in the elderly and has no known cure. Evidence suggests that reduced\\u000a activity of specific subtypes of intracellular phospholipases A2 (cPLA2 and iPLA2) is an early event in AD and may contribute to memory impairment and neuropathology in the disease.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  The objective of this study was to review the literature focusing

Evelin L. Schaeffer; Orestes V. Forlenza; Wagner F. Gattaz

2009-01-01

338

Early drotrecogin alpha (activated) administration in severe sepsis is associated with lower mortality: a retrospective analysis of the Canadian ENHANCE cohort  

PubMed Central

Introduction Early multimodal treatment of severe sepsis, including the use of drotrecogin alfa (activated) (DrotAA) when indicated, is considered essential for optimum outcome. However, predicting which infected patients will progress to severe sepsis and the need for aggressive intervention continues to be problematic. We therefore wished to explore whether there were any potential early markers that might predict improved survival in response to early use of DrotAA in patients with severe sepsis. In particular, in the dynamic setting of severe sepsis, we postulated that changes in markers reflecting evolving rather than baseline clinical status might guide therapy. Methods Data on a cohort of 305 Canadian patients from the open label ENHANCE trial of DrotAA in severe sepsis was retrospectively analyzed to search for potential clinical predictors of outcome in severe sepsis. Patients received a 96-hour infusion of DrotAA and were followed for 28 days. The association between time to treatment and mortality within subgroups defined by dynamic changes in various potential markers was explored. Results Mortality at 28 days was 22.6% and the variables of age, time to treatment, and early changes in serum creatinine and platelet count were identified by logistic regression as independent predictors of mortality. Across all age ranges, 28-day mortality was lower when DrotAA was administered within 24 hours of first sepsis-induced organ dysfunction compared to administration after 24 hours for both subgroups of patients defined by changes in platelet count and creatinine within the first day. Conclusions These findings suggest that when indicated, treatment with DrotAA should be initiated as soon as possible, regardless of age. Trial Registration Previous trial registration number: NCT00568893 PMID:19457240

Hodder, Richard V; Hall, Richard; Russell, James A; Fisher, Harold N; Lee, Bobbie

2009-01-01

339

[Successful embolectomy of the superior mesenteric artery].  

PubMed

Successful embolectomy of the superior mesenteric artery in a 75-year-old man is reported. The decisive points in early diagnosis are discussed and the specific diagnostic methods for the correct decision are presented. The fulminant evolution of the disease leaves little time in which to decide. Early embolectomy brings about complete cure. It is a life-saving operation and there are no contraindications. PMID:734427

Zingher, E; Kaiser, A; Vogt, B

1978-12-16

340

Inflammation, Atherosclerosis, and Coronary Artery Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

ecent research has shown that inflammation plays a key role in coronary artery disease (CAD) and other manifestations of atherosclerosis. Immune cells dominate early atherosclerotic lesions, their effector molecules accelerate progression of the lesions, and activation of inflammation can elicit acute coronary syndromes. This review highlights the role of inflammation in the pathogen- esis of atherosclerotic CAD. It will recount

Göran K. Hansson

2005-01-01

341

Platelets, Arterial Thrombosis and Cerebral Ischemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atherosclerosis is a systemic disease that starts early in life, asymptomatically progressing though adulthood, until clinically manifested. In the last few years, experimental, clinical and pathological investigation has led us to a better knowledge of the pathophysiology of atherothrombotic disease. Atherothrombosis is the result of atherosclerosis progression, and its potentially life-threatening clinical consequences include coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease and

Lina Badimon; Gemma Vilahur

2007-01-01

342

Jet pump assisted artery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A procedure for priming an arterial heat pump is reported; the procedure also has a means for maintaining the pump in a primed state. This concept utilizes a capillary driven jet pump to create the necessary suction to fill the artery. Basically, the jet pump consists of a venturi or nozzle-diffuser type constriction in the vapor passage. The throat of this venturi is connected to the artery. Thus vapor, gas, liquid, or a combination of the above is pumped continuously out of the artery. As a result, the artery is always filled with liquid and an adequate supply of working fluid is provided to the evaporator of the heat pipe.

1975-01-01

343

External artery heat pipe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved heat pipe with an external artery. The longitudinal slot in the heat pipe wall which interconnects the heat pipe vapor space with the external artery is completely filled with sintered wick material and the wall of the external artery is also covered with sintered wick material. This added wick structure assures that the external artery will continue to feed liquid to the heat pipe evaporator even if a vapor bubble forms within and would otherwise block the liquid transport function of the external artery.

Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor); Ernst, Donald M. (Inventor); Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor)

1989-01-01

344

Differences in histamine H1 and H2 receptor responses in several rabbit arteries  

SciTech Connect

Responses of helically cut segments from six different rabbit arteries to the selective histamine H1 receptor agonist 2-pyridylethylamine (PEA) and, in strips contracted by 10-4 M phenylephrine, to the selective histamine H2 agonist dimaprit have been determined. 10-3 M PEA contracted the renal artery, 96 +/- 2%; mesenteric artery, 92 +/- 2%; coeliac artery, 88 +/- 11% aorta 75 +/- 4%' ear artery 64 +/- 10% and pulmonary artery 48 +/- 5% of the maximal contraction to norepinephrine. 10-3 M dimaprit relaxed the phenylephrine contracted ear artery 48 +/- 8%; renal artery, 43 +/- 8%; coeliac artery 41 +/- 8%; mesenteric artery 36 +/- 5%; aorta 16 +/- 3%; and pulmonary artery 11 +/- 1% of the initial contractile tension. Strips in which histamine H1 receptors are blocked by 7 X 10-6 M mepyramine which are contracted by phenylephrine are partially relaxed by histamine. Cooling these strips markedly enhanced relaxations of the mesenteric and coeliac arteries but not those of the other four vessels. Exposure of the strips to dibenamine potentiated relaxations of all of the arteries except the ear artery and pulmonary artery. Thus there is heterogeneity among the arteries in their responses to histamine H1 and H2 receptor activation.

Robinson, C.P.; Maxson, S.

1982-06-01

345

The history of chemical enrichment and the sites of early nucleosynthesis: CNO abundances of galactic carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation focuses on abundance analyses of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) Galactic halo stars. Different methods for determining carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and also some barium abundances are described. The study of these abundances in such stars serves to investigate the means by which the Universe became enriched in metals. Due to the different kinds of CEMP stars observed in the Milky Way, it can only be assumed that there is certainly more than one method of carbon-enhancement at early times. Complete abundance analyses for as many of these archaeological relics as possible are needed in order to constrain the astrophysical sites of early carbon production. There are three main parts of this dissertation. The first part describes new techniques to determine oxygen abundances from spectra of the near-infrared molecular CO bands. With the near-IR OSIRIS spectrograph on the SOAR 4.1-m telescope, 57 CEMP stars were observed. A wide range of oxygen abundances were estimated, and the results were statistically compared to high-resolution estimates for both carbon-enhanced and carbon-normal metal-poor stars. Abundance patterns of the sample stars were compared to yield predictions for very metal-poor asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. The majority of the sample exhibit patterns consistent with CEMP stars having s-process-element enhancements, and thus have very likely been polluted by carbon- and oxygen-enhanced material transferred from a metal-poor AGB companion. The second part delineates a new survey effort implemented in order to identify new CEMP stars. For the initial pilot study, a new selection technique was developed based solely on the strength of the CH G band at 4300 A. This technique eliminated previous temperature and metallicity biases present in other CEMP surveys. Observations of the pilot sample were carried out with the Goodman HTS spectrograph on the SOAR 4.1-m telescope. Of the over 120 candidate stars observed, over 35% were found to be CEMP stars. The selection technique was then improved to include a second index for the strength of the G band, and the survey was continued on both the SOAR and Gemini telescopes. After this extension, the success rate of this program increased to 50%. The final part of this dissertation contains details of a pilot study of known metal-poor stars using the X-Shooter spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope (VLT). With three spectrograph arms (near-ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared), this instrument was used to calculate carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and barium abundances for a sample of 27 CEMP stars. The broad spectral range of this instrument is unprecedented, and it is an efficient way to estimate abundances for several pertinent species in just one exposure per star. Of the 27 stars, many proved to be enhanced in carbon. The majority appear to be consistent with s-process-element enhancement, but there was one extremely metal-poor star which falls into the rare family of CEMP stars with no neutron-capture-element enhancement.

Kennedy, Catherine R.

346

Helical Carbon Nanotubes Enhance the Early Immune Response and Inhibit Macrophage-Mediated Phagocytosis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Aerosolized or aspirated manufactured carbon nanotubes have been shown to be cytotoxic, cause pulmonary lesions, and demonstrate immunomodulatory properties. CD-1 mice were used to assess pulmonary toxicity of helical carbon nanotubes (HCNTs) and alterations of the immune response to subsequent infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in mice. HCNTs provoked a mild inflammatory response following either a single exposure or 2X/week for three weeks (multiple exposures) but were not significantly toxic. Administering HCNTs 2X/week for three weeks resulted in pulmonary lesions including granulomas and goblet cell hyperplasia. Mice exposed to HCNTs and subsequently infected by P. aeruginosa demonstrated an enhanced inflammatory response to P. aeruginosa and phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages was inhibited. However, clearance of P. aeruginosa was not affected. HCNT exposed mice depleted of neutrophils were more effective in clearing P. aeruginosa compared to neutrophil-depleted control mice, accompanied by an influx of macrophages. Depletion of systemic macrophages resulted in slightly inhibited bacterial clearance by HCNT treated mice. Our data indicate that pulmonary exposure to HCNTs results in lesions similar to those caused by other nanotubes and pre-exposure to HCNTs inhibit alveolar macrophage phagocytosis of P. aeruginosa. However, clearance was not affected as exposure to HCNTs primed the immune system for an enhanced inflammatory response to pulmonary infection consisting of an influx of neutrophils and macrophages. PMID:24324555

Walling, Brent E.; Kuang, Zhizhou; Hao, Yonghua; Estrada, David; Wood, Joshua D.; Lian, Feifei; Miller, Lou Ann; Shah, Amish B.; Jeffries, Jayme L.; Haasch, Richard T.; Lyding, Joseph W.; Pop, Eric; Lau, Gee W.

2013-01-01

347

Gibberellic acid (GA3) enhance seed water uptake, germination and early seedling growth in sugar beet under salt stress.  

PubMed

The study was carried out to assess whether water uptake could be improved in sugar beet seeds and salt tolerance at the germination and early seedling stage by soaking the seeds for 10 h in distilled water (control), 100, 150 and 200 mg L(-1) GA3. Electrical Conductivity (EC) values of the NaCl solution were 0.0 (control), 4.7, 9.4 and 14.1 dS n(-1) NaCl. Priming increased the final germination percentage and the germination rate (1/t 50, where t 50 is the time to 50% of germination) under saline condition. Water uptake of primed seeds also increased significantly with increasing concentration of GA3 as compared to control. Priming also alleviated the adverse effect of salt stress on sugar beet in terms of roots and shoots lengths and fresh weights of plants, roots and shoots. PMID:19069553

Jamil, Muhammad; Rha, Eui Shik

2007-02-15

348

Vascular adaptation in athletes: is there an 'athlete's artery'?  

PubMed

Whilst the existence of a specific phenotype characterized as 'athlete's heart' is generally acknowledged, the question of whether athletes exhibit characteristic vascular adaptations has not been specifically addressed. To do so in this symposium, studies which have assessed the size, wall thickness and function of elastic, large muscular and smaller resistance arteries in athletes have been reviewed. Notwithstanding the caveats pertaining to cross-sectional comparisons between athletes and 'matched' control subjects, these studies reveal increased conduit artery size, including enlargement of epicardial arteries and those supplying skeletal muscle. Evidence that peak limb blood flow responses are enhanced in athletes further suggests that resistance arteries undergo increases in total cross-sectional area. Such increases can be localized to those arteries supplying active muscle leading to speculation, supported by exercise training studies in humans and animal and cellular data, that arterial enlargement is associated with repetitive episodic increases in arterial shear stress which elicit endothelium-mediated remodelling. Such structural remodelling at conduit and resistance artery level may play a role in accommodating the substantial increase in cardiac output apparent in endurance athletes; arterial pressure is not increased at rest or during exercise in athletes (versus control subjects). Arterial wall remodelling also occurs in athletes but, in contrast to the impact of shear stress on remodelling of arterial lumenal dimensions, the impact of endurance athletic status on wall thickness may be a systemic, rather than localized, phenomenon. Finally, the question of whether the arteries of athletes exhibit enhanced function is moot. Somewhat paradoxically, measures of conduit and resistance artery endothelial function may not be enhanced, compared with healthy control subjects. This may relate to the inherent difficulty of improving arterial function which is already normal, or the time course and transient nature of functional change. It may also relate to the impact of compensatory structural remodelling, as arterial lumen size and wall thickness both affect functional responsiveness. In summary, there is clear evidence for an impact of athletic status on arterial structure and function, at least with respect to the impact of endurance training. Arterial adaptation may, to some extent, emulate that evident in the hearts of endurance athletes, and it is tempting to speculate that similar mechanisms may be at play. PMID:22179421

Green, Daniel J; Spence, Angela; Rowley, Nicola; Thijssen, Dick H J; Naylor, Louise H

2012-03-01

349

Angioplasty and stent placement - peripheral arteries - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty - peripheral artery - discharge; PTA - peripheral artery - discharge; Angioplasty - peripheral artery - discharge; Balloon angioplasty - periperhal artiery - discharge

350

Early Maladaptive Schema-Related Impairment and Co-occurring Current Major Depressive Episode-Related Enhancement of Mental State Decoding Ability in Borderline Personality Disorder.  

PubMed

Disturbed interpersonal relationships specific to borderline personality disorder (BPD) suggest biased processing of social information. The goal of this study was to examine alterations in mental state decoding (MSD) and their associations with early maladaptive schemas (EMS) that may lead to the misinterpretation of incoming information. In addition, the authors' aim was to evaluate the effects of a co-occurring current major depressive episode (MDE) on the MSD performance of BPD patients. Seventy-eight BPD patients (34 with MDE) and 76 matched healthy controls (HC) were assessed for Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) and the level of EMS. The authors found that impairment in the total RMET performance, as well as specific impairment regarding the recognition of positive and neutral items, was associated with EMS, and enhanced vigilance to negative mental states was characteristic to BPD with MDE. Results suggest that MSD ability is altered in two independent ways in BPD. PMID:24932871

Unoka, Zsolt Szabolcs; Fogd, Dóra; Seres, Imola; Kéri, Szabolcs; Csukly, Gábor

2015-04-01

351

Branched-chain amino acids increase arterial blood ammonia in spite of enhanced intrinsic muscle ammonia metabolism in patients with cirrhosis and healthy subjects.  

PubMed

Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are used in attempts to reduce blood ammonia in patients with cirrhosis and intermittent hepatic encephalopathy based on the hypothesis that BCAA stimulate muscle ammonia detoxification. We studied the effects of an oral dose of BCAA on the skeletal muscle metabolism of ammonia and amino acids in 14 patients with cirrhosis and in 7 healthy subjects by combining [(13)N]ammonia positron emission tomography (PET) of the thigh muscle with measurements of blood flow and arteriovenous (A-V) concentrations of ammonia and amino acids. PET was used to measure the metabolism of blood-supplied ammonia and the A-V measurements were used to measure the total ammonia metabolism across the thigh muscle. After intake of BCAA, blood ammonia increased more than 30% in both groups of subjects (both P < 0.05). Muscle clearance of blood-supplied ammonia (PET) was unaffected (P = 0.75), but the metabolic removal rate (PET) increased significantly because of increased blood ammonia in both groups (all P < 0.05). The total ammonia clearance across the leg muscle (A-V) increased by more than 50% in both groups, and the flux (A-V) of ammonia increased by more than 45% (all P < 0.05). BCAA intake led to a massive glutamine release from the muscle (cirrhotic patients, P < 0.05; healthy subjects, P = 0.12). In conclusion, BCAA enhanced the intrinsic muscle metabolism of ammonia but not the metabolism of blood-supplied ammonia in both the patients with cirrhosis and in the healthy subjects. PMID:21636533

Dam, Gitte; Keiding, Susanne; Munk, Ole Lajord; Ott, Peter; Buhl, Mads; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Bak, Lasse Kristoffer; Waagepetersen, Helle Sønderby; Schousboe, Arne; Møller, Niels; Sørensen, Michael

2011-08-01

352

A point-of-care testing system with Love-wave sensor and immunogold staining enhancement for early detection of lung cancer.  

PubMed

It has been reported that detection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is available for studies of pulmonary diseases, especially lung disease. In order to detect lung cancer (LC) at early stage, a point-of-care testing system suitable for measurement of tumor markers in EBC is developed. The assay, based on gold nanoparticle sandwich immunoassay and subsequent gold staining, was performed on a Love-wave sensor packaged inside a chip cartridge. Benefit from high sensitivity of Love-wave sensor, oriented immobilization of coating antibodies and immunogold staining enhancement, the present immunosensor could provide a sensitive, specific and rapid measurement. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), neuron specific enolase (NSE) and squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC) in EBC collected from 17 patients with LC and 13 healthy volunteers were detected by this system. Results were compared with commercial chemiluminescence immunoassay and showed high correlation between two methods. Additionally, it revealed significantly statistical differences existing between two groups of subjects. These results indicate that the present system is suitable for detection of tumor markers in EBC and could be used as assistant tools for early detection of LC. PMID:25158626

Zou, Yingchang; Zhang, Xi; An, Chao; Ran, Chunxue; Ying, Kejing; Wang, Ping

2014-12-01

353

Early Therapy Evaluation of Combined Cetuximab and Irinotecan in Orthotopic Pancreatic Tumor Xenografts by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

PubMed Central

Early pancreatic cancer response following cetuximab and/or irinotecan therapies was measured by serial dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) before and during therapy. Groups 1 to 4 (n = 6/group) of SCID mice bearing orthotopic pancreatic adenocarcinoma xenografts expressing luciferase were treated with phosphate-buffered saline, cetuximab, irinotecan, or cetuximab combined with irinotecan, respectively, twice weekly for 3 weeks. DCE-MRI was performed on days 0, 1, 2, and 3 after therapy initiation, whereas anatomic magnetic resonance imaging was performed on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 6, and 13. Bioluminescence imaging was performed on days 0 and 21. At day 21, all tumors were collected for further histologic analyses (Ki-67 and CD31 staining), whereas tumor dimensions were measured by calipers. The Ktrans values in the 0.5 mm–thick peripheral tumor region were calculated, and the changes in Ktrans during the 3 days posttherapy were compared to tumor volume changes, bioluminescent signal changes, and histologic findings. The Ktrans changes in the peripheral tumor region after 3 days of therapy were linearly correlated with 21-day decreases in tumor volume (p < .001), bioluminescent signal (p = .050), microvessel densities (p = .002), and proliferating cell densities (p = .001). This study supports the clinical use of DCE-MRI for pancreatic cancer patients for early assessment of an anti–epidermal growth factor receptor therapy combined with chemotherapy. PMID:21496446

Kim, Hyunki; Folks, Karri D.; Guo, Lingling; Sellers, Jeffery C.; Fineberg, Naomi S.; Stockard, Cecil R.; Grizzle, William E.; Buchsbaum, Donald J.; Morgan, Desiree E.; George, James F.; Zinn, Kurt R.

2014-01-01

354

Community Engagement to Enhance Child Survival and Early Development in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: An Evidence Review  

PubMed Central

As part of a broader evidence summit, USAID and UNICEF convened a literature review of effective means to empower communities to achieve behavioral and social changes to accelerate reductions in under-5 mortality and optimize early child development. The authors conducted a systematic review of the effectiveness of community mobilization and participation that led to behavioral change and one or more of the following: child health, survival, and development. The level and nature of community engagement was categorized using two internationally recognized models and only studies where the methods of community participation could be categorized as collaborative or shared leadership were eligible for analysis. The authors identified 34 documents from 18 countries that met the eligibility criteria. Studies with shared leadership typically used a comprehensive community action cycle, whereas studies characterized as collaborative showed clear emphasis on collective action but did not undergo an initial process of community dialogue. The review concluded that programs working collaboratively or achieving shared leadership with a community can lead to behavior change and cost-effective sustained transformation to improve critical health behaviors and reduce poor health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. Overall, community engagement is an understudied component of improving child outcomes. PMID:25207448

Farnsworth, S. Katherine; Böse, Kirsten; Fajobi, Olaoluwa; Souza, Patricia Portela; Peniston, Anne; Davidson, Leslie L.; Griffiths, Marcia; Hodgins, Stephen

2014-01-01

355

Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography to assess early activity of cetuximab in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck  

PubMed Central

Background Cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody targeting the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR), has demonstrated activity in various tumor types. Using dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT), we investigated the early activity of cetuximab monotherapy in previously untreated patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Methods Treatment-naïve patients with SCCHN received cetuximab for 2 weeks before curative surgery. Treatment activity was evaluated by DCE-CT at baseline and before surgery. Tumor vascular and interstitial characteristics were evaluated using the Brix two-compartment kinetic model. Modifications of the perfusion parameters (blood flow Fp, extravascular space ve, vascular space vp, and transfer constant PS) were assessed between both time points. DCE data were compared to FDG-PET and histopathological examination obtained simultaneously. Plasmatic vascular markers were investigated at different time points. Results Fourteen patients had evaluable DCE-CT parameters at both time points. A significant increase in the extravascular extracellular space ve accessible to the tracer was observed but no significant differences were found for the other kinetic parameters (Fp, vp or PS). Significant correlations were found between DCE parameters and the other two modalities. Plasmatic VEGF, PDGF-BB and IL-8 decreased as early as 2 hours after cetuximab infusion. Conclusions Early activity of cetuximab on tumor interstitial characteristics was detected by DCE-CT. Modifications of plasmatic vascular markers are not sufficient to confirm anti-angiogenic cetuximab activity in vivo. Further investigation is warranted to determine to what extent DCE-CT parameters are modified and to evaluate whether they are able to predict treatment outcome.

Schmitz, Sandra; Rommel, Denis; Michoux, Nicolas; Lhommel, Renaud; Hanin, François-Xavier; Duprez, Thierry; Machiels, Jean-Pascal

2015-01-01

356

YAC128 Huntington's disease transgenic mice show enhanced short-term hippocampal synaptic plasticity early in the course of the disease.  

PubMed

Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the gene encoding the protein huntingtin. The disease progresses over decades, but often patients develop cognitive impairments that precede the onset of the classical motor symptoms. Similar to the disease progression in humans, the yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) 128 HD mouse model also exhibits cognitive dysfunction that precedes the onset of the neuropathological and motor impairments characteristic of HD. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate whether short- and long-term synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus, two related biological models of learning and memory processes, were altered in YAC128 mice in early stages of disease progression. We show that the YAC128 hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) displays marked reductions in paired-pulse depression both at 3 and 6 months of age. In addition, significantly enhanced post-tetanic and short-term potentiation are apparent in YAC128 mice after high-frequency stimulation at this time. Early and late forms of long-term plasticity were not altered at this stage. Together these findings indicate that there may be elevated neurotransmitter release in response to synaptic stimulation in YAC128 mice during the initial phase of disease progression. These abnormalities in short-term plasticity detected at this stage in YAC128 HD transgenic mice indicate that aberrant information processing at the level of the synapses may contribute, at least in part, to the early onset of cognitive deficits that are characteristic of this devastating neurodegenerative disorder. PMID:24949563

Ghilan, Mohamed; Bostrom, Crystal A; Hryciw, Brett N; Simpson, Jessica M; Christie, Brian R; Gil-Mohapel, Joana

2014-09-18

357

The mitochondrion-located protein OsB12D1 enhances flooding tolerance during seed germination and early seedling growth in rice.  

PubMed

B12D belongs to a function unknown subgroup of the Balem (Barley aleurone and embryo) proteins. In our previous work on rice seed germination, we identified a B12D-like protein encoded by LOC_Os7g41350 (named OsB12D1). OsB12D1 pertains to an ancient protein family with an amino acid sequence highly conserved from moss to angiosperms. Among the six OsB12Ds, OsB12D1 is one of the major transcripts and is primarily expressed in germinating seed and root. Bioinformatics analyses indicated that OsB12D1 is an anoxic or submergence resistance-related gene. RT-PCR results showed OsB12D1 is induced remarkably in the coleoptiles or roots by flooding during seed germination and early seedling growth. The OsB12D1-overexpressed rice seeds could protrude radicles in 8 cm deep water, further exhibiting significant flooding tolerance compared to the wild type. Moreover, this tolerance was not affected by the gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol. OsB12D1 was identified in the mitochondrion by subcellular localization analysis and possibly enhances electron transport through mediating Fe and oxygen availability under flooded conditions. This work indicated that OsB12D1 is a promising gene that can help to enhance rice seedling establishment in farming practices, especially for direct seeding. PMID:25089878

He, Dongli; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Pingfang

2014-01-01

358

The Mitochondrion-Located Protein OsB12D1 Enhances Flooding Tolerance during Seed Germination and Early Seedling Growth in Rice  

PubMed Central

B12D belongs to a function unknown subgroup of the Balem (Barley aleurone and embryo) proteins. In our previous work on rice seed germination, we identified a B12D-like protein encoded by LOC_Os7g41350 (named OsB12D1). OsB12D1 pertains to an ancient protein family with an amino acid sequence highly conserved from moss to angiosperms. Among the six OsB12Ds, OsB12D1 is one of the major transcripts and is primarily expressed in germinating seed and root. Bioinformatics analyses indicated that OsB12D1 is an anoxic or submergence resistance-related gene. RT-PCR results showed OsB12D1 is induced remarkably in the coleoptiles or roots by flooding during seed germination and early seedling growth. The OsB12D1-overexpressed rice seeds could protrude radicles in 8 cm deep water, further exhibiting significant flooding tolerance compared to the wild type. Moreover, this tolerance was not affected by the gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol. OsB12D1 was identified in the mitochondrion by subcellular localization analysis and possibly enhances electron transport through mediating Fe and oxygen availability under flooded conditions. This work indicated that OsB12D1 is a promising gene that can help to enhance rice seedling establishment in farming practices, especially for direct seeding. PMID:25089878

He, Dongli; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Pingfang

2014-01-01

359

Subversion of early innate antiviral responses during antibody-dependent enhancement of Dengue virus infection induces severe disease in immunocompetent mice.  

PubMed

Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease caused by one of four serotypes of Dengue virus (DENV-1-4). Epidemiologic and observational studies demonstrate that the majority of severe dengue cases, dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS), occurs predominantly in either individuals with cross-reactive immunity following a secondary heterologous infection or in infants with primary DENV infections born from dengue-immune mothers, suggesting that B-cell-mediated and antibody responses impact on disease evolution. We demonstrate here that B cells play a pivotal role in host responses against primary DENV infection in mice. After infection, ?MT(-/-) mice showed increased viral loads followed by severe disease manifestation characterized by intense thrombocytopenia, hemoconcentration, cytokine production and massive liver damage that culminated in death. In addition, we show that poly and monoclonal anti-DENV-specific antibodies can sufficiently increase viral replication through a suppression of early innate antiviral responses and enhance disease manifestation, so that a mostly non-lethal illness becomes a fatal disease resembling human DHF/DSS. Finally, treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin containing anti-DENV antibodies confirmed the potential enhancing capacity of subneutralizing antibodies to mediate virus infection and replication and induce severe disease manifestation of DENV-infected mice. Thus, our results show that humoral responses unleashed during DENV infections can exert protective or pathological outcomes and provide insight into the pathogenesis of this important human pathogen. PMID:24723052

Costa, Vivian V; Fagundes, Caio T; Valadão, Deborah F; Ávila, Thiago V; Cisalpino, Daniel; Rocha, Rebeca F; Ribeiro, Lucas S; Ascenção, Fernando R; Kangussu, Lucas M; Celso, M Q; Astigarraga, Ruiz G; Gouveia, Frederico L; Silva, Tarcília A; Bonaventura, Daniela; Sampaio, Divaldo de Almeida; Leite, Ana Cristina L; Teixeira, Mauro M; Souza, Danielle G

2014-08-01

360

Regulation of desmocollin gene expression in the epidermis: CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins modulate early and late events in keratinocyte differentiation.  

PubMed Central

Desmocollins (Dscs) are desmosomal cadherins that exhibit differentiation-specific patterns of expression in the epidermis. Dsc3 expression is strongest in basal cell layers, whereas Dsc1 is largely confined to upper, terminally differentiating strata. To understand better the processes by which Dsc expression is regulated in the epidermis, we have isolated Dsc3 and Dsc1 5'-flanking DNAs and analysed their activity in primary keratinocytes. In the present study, we found that transcription factors of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein family play a role in the regulation of expression of both Dscs and, in so doing, implicate this class of transcription factors in both early and late events in keratinocyte differentiation. We show that Dscs are differentially regulated by C/EBP (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein) family members, with Dsc3 expression being activated by C/EBPbeta but not C/EBPalpha, and the reverse being the case for Dsc1. Expression of both Dscs is activated by another family member, C/EBPdelta. These results show for the first time how desmosomal cadherin gene expression is regulated and provide a mechanism for the control of other differentiation-specific genes in the epidermis. PMID:15030314

Smith, Conrad; Zhu, Kuichun; Merritt, Anita; Picton, Rhian; Youngs, Denise; Garrod, David; Chidgey, Martyn

2004-01-01

361

A splicing enhancer in the E4 coding region of human papillomavirus type 16 is required for early mRNA splicing and polyadenylation as well as inhibition of premature late gene expression.  

PubMed

Successful inhibition of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) late gene expression early in the life cycle is essential for persistence of infection, the highest risk factor for cervical cancer. Our study aimed to locate regulatory RNA elements in the early region of HPV-16 that influence late gene expression. For this purpose, subgenomic HPV-16 expression plasmids under control of the strong human cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter were used. An exonic splicing enhancer that firmly supported the use of the E4 3' splice site at position 3358 in the early region of the HPV-16 genome was identified. The enhancer was mapped to a 65-nucleotide AC-rich sequence located approximately 100 nucleotides downstream of the position 3358 3' splice site. Deletion of the enhancer caused loss of both splicing at the upstream position 3358 3' splice site and polyadenylation at the early polyadenylation signal, pAE. Direct splicing occurred at the competing L1 3' splice site at position 5639 in the late region. Optimization of the position 3358 3' splice site restored splicing to that site and polyadenylation at pAE. Additionally, a sequence of 40 nucleotides with a negative effect on late mRNA production was located immediately downstream of the enhancer. As the E4 3' splice site is employed by both early and late mRNAs, the enhancer constitutes a key regulator of temporal HPV-16 gene expression, which is required for early mRNA production as well as for the inhibition of premature late gene expression. PMID:16140776

Rush, Margaret; Zhao, Xiaomin; Schwartz, Stefan

2005-09-01

362

Sequential delivery of BMP-2 and IGF-1 using a chitosan gel with gelatin microspheres enhances early osteoblastic differentiation  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to develop and characterize a chitosan gel/gelatin microspheres (MSs) dual delivery system for sequential release of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) to enhance osteoblast differentiation in vitro. We made and characterized the delivery system based on its degree of cross-linking, degradation, and release kinetics. We also evaluated the cytotoxicity of the delivery system and the effect of growth factors on cell response using pre-osteoblast W-20-17 mouse bone marrow stromal cells. IGF-1 was first loaded into MSs, and then the IGF-1 containing MSs were encapsulated into the chitosan gel which contained BMP-2. Cross-linking of gelatin with glyoxal via Schiff bases significantly increased thermal stability and decreased the solubility of the MSs, leading to a significant decrease in the initial release of IGF-1. Encapsulation of the MSs into the chitosan gel generated polyelectrolyte complexes by intermolecular interactions, which further affected the release kinetics of IGF-1. This combinational delivery system provided an initial release of BMP-2 followed by a slow and sustained release of IGF-1. Significantly greater alkaline phosphatase activity was found in W-20-17 cells treated with the sequential delivery system than other treatments (p<0.05) after a week of culture. PMID:22293583

Kim, Sungwoo; Kang, Yunqing; Krueger, Chad A.; Sen, Milan; Holcomb, John B.; Chen, Di; Wenke, Joseph C.; Yang, Yunzhi

2012-01-01

363

Increased Arterial Stiffness and Impaired Endothelial Function in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundNonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease both in the general and pediatric population and has been associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Arterial function and early atherosclerotic changes are markers of cardiovascular disease and independent predictors of the corresponding risk. Through a global approach, we investigated the relationships between NAFLD and functional arterial changes and early

Charalambos Vlachopoulos; Emanuel Manesis; Katerina Baou; George Papatheodoridis; John Koskinas; Dina Tiniakos; Konstantinos Aznaouridis; Athanasios Archimandritis; Christodoulos Stefanadis

2010-01-01

364

Early Embryogenesis-Specific Expression of the Rice Transposon Ping Enhances Amplification of the MITE mPing  

PubMed Central

Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are numerically predominant transposable elements in the rice genome, and their activities have influenced the evolution of genes. Very little is known about how MITEs can rapidly amplify to thousands in the genome. The rice MITE mPing is quiescent in most cultivars under natural growth conditions, although it is activated by various stresses, such as tissue culture, gamma-ray irradiation, and high hydrostatic pressure. Exceptionally in the temperate japonica rice strain EG4 (cultivar Gimbozu), mPing has reached over 1000 copies in the genome, and is amplifying owing to its active transposition even under natural growth conditions. Being the only active MITE, mPing in EG4 is an appropriate material to study how MITEs amplify in the genome. Here, we provide important findings regarding the transposition and amplification of mPing in EG4. Transposon display of mPing using various tissues of a single EG4 plant revealed that most de novo mPing insertions arise in embryogenesis during the period from 3 to 5 days after pollination (DAP), and a large majority of these insertions are transmissible to the next generation. Locus-specific PCR showed that mPing excisions and insertions arose at the same time (3 to 5 DAP). Moreover, expression analysis and in situ hybridization analysis revealed that Ping, an autonomous partner for mPing, was markedly up-regulated in the 3 DAP embryo of EG4, whereas such up-regulation of Ping was not observed in the mPing-inactive cultivar Nipponbare. These results demonstrate that the early embryogenesis-specific expression of Ping is responsible for the successful amplification of mPing in EG4. This study helps not only to elucidate the whole mechanism of mPing amplification but also to further understand the contribution of MITEs to genome evolution. PMID:24921928

Teramoto, Shota; Tsukiyama, Takuji; Okumoto, Yutaka; Tanisaka, Takatoshi

2014-01-01

365

Growth performance of early-weaned pigs is enhanced by feeding epidermal growth factor-expressing Lactococcus lactis fermentation product.  

PubMed

We have previously generated epidermal growth factor expressing Lactococcus lactis (EGF-LL) using bioengineering approach, and shown that feeding newly-weaned piglets EGF-LL improves digestive function. To address concerns over the use of genetically modified organisms (GMO), the objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of feeding the EGF-LL fermentation product, after removal of the genetically modified EGF-LL, on growth performance and intestine development of newly-weaned piglets. One hundred and twenty newly-weaned piglets were fed ad libitum according to a 2-phase feeding program. Four pens were assigned to each of three treatments: (1) complete EGF-LL fermentation product (Ferm), (2) supernatant of EGF-LL fermentation product, after removal of EGF-LL (Supern), or (3) blank M17GE media (Control). EGF-LL or its fermented supernatant was administrated to piglets in the first 3 weeks post-weaning; their growth performance was monitored throughout treatment, and for the following week. Daily body weight gain (254.8g vs. 200.5g) and Gain:Feed (0.541kg/kg vs. 0.454kg/kg) of pigs on the Supern group were significantly improved compared to that of Control, although no difference was observed between the Ferm and Control pigs. Intestinal sucrase activity was increased in Supern- compared to Control group (166.3±62.1 vs. 81.4±56.5nmol glucose released/mg protein; P<0.05). The lack of growth response with Ferm pigs may be attributed to an overload of bacteria (daily dose included 4.56×10(10)CFU/kg BW/day EGF-LL). These results suggest that GMO-free EGF-LL fermentation product is effective in increasing growth performance of early-weaned piglets. PMID:24445174

Bedford, Andrea; Huynh, Evanna; Fu, Molei; Zhu, Cuilan; Wey, Doug; de Lange, Cornelis; Li, Julang

2014-03-10

366

Selective Enhancing Effect of Early Mitotic Inhibitor 1 (Emi1) Depletion on the Sensitivity of Doxorubicin or X-ray Treatment in Human Cancer Cells*  

PubMed Central

Chemotherapy and radiation in addition to surgery has proven useful in a number of different cancer types, but the effectiveness in normal tissue cannot be avoided in these therapies. To improve the effectiveness of these therapies selectively in cancer tissue is important for avoiding side effects. Early mitotic inhibitor 1 (Emi1) is known to have the function to inhibit anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome ubiquitin ligase complex, which ubiquitylates the cell cycle-related proteins. It recently has been shown that Emi1 knockdown prevents transition from S to G2 phase by down-regulating geminin via anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome activation. At present, anticancer drugs for targeting DNA synthesis to interfere with rapidly dividing cells commonly are used. As Emi1 depletion interferes with completion of DNA synthesis in cancer cells, we thought that Emi1 knockdown might enhance the sensitivity for anticancer agents. Here, we confirmed that Emi1 siRNA induced polyploidy for preventing transition from S to G2 phase in several cancer cell lines. Then, we treated Emi1 depleted cells with doxorubicin. Interestingly, increased apoptotic cells were observed after doxorubicin treatment in Emi1 siRNA-treated cancer cells. In addition, Emi1 depletion enhanced the sensitivity of x-ray irradiation in cancer cells. Importantly, synergistic effect of Emi1 knockdown in these combination therapies was not observed in normal cells. These results suggest that Emi1 siRNA can be a useful tool for enhancing of sensitivity of cancer cells to anticancer reagents and radiation. PMID:23645673

Shimizu, Natsumi; Nakajima, Nakako Izumi; Tsunematsu, Takaaki; Ogawa, Ikuko; Kawai, Hidehiko; Hirayama, Ryoichi; Fujimori, Akira; Yamada, Akiko; Okayasu, Ryuichi; Ishimaru, Naozumi; Takata, Takashi; Kudo, Yasusei

2013-01-01

367

Prostacyclin therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension.  

PubMed

In pulmonary arterial hypertension, the blood vessels that carry blood between the heart and lungs are constricted, making it difficult for the heart to pump blood through the lungs. Prostacyclin, a prostanoid metabolized from endogenous arachidonic acid through the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway, is a potent vasodilator that has been identified as one of the most effective drugs for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Currently, prostacyclin and its analogues are widely used in the clinical management of pulmonary arterial hypertension patients. However, the mortality rate associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension has not been significantly reduced within the past 5 years. More powerful therapeutic approaches are needed. This article briefly reviews the current management of pulmonary arterial hypertension to identify the problems associated with present therapies; then it focuses on the emerging technology of prostacyclin synthase gene therapy and cell-based therapy using native stem cells and engineered stem cells with enhanced prostacyclin production capacity. By using the recent advances in technology and the molecular understanding of prostacyclin synthesis, researchers are prepared to make significant advances in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. PMID:20844610

Ruan, Cheng-Huai; Dixon, Richard A F; Willerson, James T; Ruan, Ke-He

2010-01-01

368

Primary pulmonary artery rhabdomyosarcoma.  

PubMed

A 69-year-old woman presented with a 4-month history of dyspnoea and radiating upper-right quadrant pain and oedema in her lower extremities for more than 20 days. The ultrasonographic study of the heart revealed the adherence of a substantive hypoechoic mass (73 x 34 mm) to the antelateral wall of the pulmonary artery and resultant pulmonary stenosis. Computed tomographic imaging of the pulmonary artery revealed an irregularly shaped filling defect (approximately 41 x 39 x 59 mm) in the main pulmonary artery. The boundary of the defect was irregular, but demarcation with healthy tissue was clear. After surgical treatment, the histologic and immunohistochemical assays revealed a primary pulmonary artery rhabdomyosarcoma. Pulmonary artery rhabdomyosarcomas are usually misdiagnosed as other pulmonary artery obstructive diseases. There should be a greater focus of clinical attention and resection is the appropriate surgical treatment for such malignant tumours. PMID:21744714

Si, Daoyuan; Zhang, Bomin; Zhang, Xiuhe; Zhang, Mingqiu; Ni, Lujia; Yang, Ping

2011-06-01

369

About Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)  

MedlinePLUS

About Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) Updated:Sep 15,2014 Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a narrowing of the peripheral arteries to ... was last reviewed on 8/05/2014. Peripheral Artery Disease • Home • About Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) • Why ...

370

Numerical simulation of arterial dissection during balloon angioplasty of atherosclerotic coronary arteries  

PubMed Central

Balloon angioplasty is a standard clinical treatment for symptomatic coronary artery disease. In this procedure, controlled damage is applied intraluminally to the wall of a stenotic artery. Dissection of the coronary artery is a commonly observed clinical complication of angioplasty; however, not all dissections can be detected angioscopically. This work focuses on studying the dissection mechanisms triggered during the early stages of angioplasty in an atherosclerotic coronary artery, addressing the problem by means of a parametric study based on a simplified finite element model and cohesive interface modeling. Our results emphasize the presence of several damage mechanisms, at different locations, that are triggered near the very beginning of the process and evolve competitively, depending on both geometry and material properties of the atherosclerotic vessel. Small-scale damage was evidenced, which would not be detectable by angiography or intravascular ultrasound, but could potentially be sufficient to stimulate smooth muscle cell activation, promoting late-onset complications such as restenosis. PMID:24480707

Badel, Pierre; Avril, Stéphane; Sutton, Michael A.; Lessner, Susan M.

2014-01-01

371

Microsurgical Revascularization of the Ophthalmic Artery  

PubMed Central

We have developed and performed a microsurgical arterial anastomosis to revascularize the ophthalmic artery in patients with ischemic visual loss, resulting in improvement in visual function. A detailed description of the surgical procedure is discussed as well as the indications for surgery in these cases. An ischemic etiology of visual impairment was predicted by binocular fundus reflectometry, a noninvasive technique to indicate ocular perfusion abnormalities. Encouraging early results suggest that such a revascularization procedure may provide a therapeutic option for a particular group of patients with progressive ischemic visual loss. ImagesFigure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9 PMID:17170958

Friedlander, Lewis D.; Barrow, Daniel L.; BaKay, Roy A.E.

1995-01-01

372

Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  The clinical diagnosis of renal artery stenosis relies on a high index of suspicion and confirmation by noninvasive imaging\\u000a modalities. There are three distinct clinical syndromes associated with renal artery stenosis: renin-dependent hypertension,\\u000a essential hypertension, and ischemic nephropathy. Clinical features that should heighten suspicion for renal artery stenosis\\u000a include abrupt-onset or accelerated hypertension at any age, unexplained acute or

Robert D. Safian

2003-01-01

373

Bipolar supernumerary renal artery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variations of renal arteries are considered critical issues that surgeons should have thorough envision and appreciation\\u000a of the condition. Variations of these vessels may influences urological, renal transplantation and laparoscopic surgeries.\\u000a We present a case of bilateral accessory renal artery with a striking pre-hilar branching pattern encountered upon digital\\u000a subtraction angiography (DSA) for imaging of the renal arteries of

Abolhassan B. Shakeri; R. Shane Tubbs; Mohammadali M. Shoja; Parham Pezeshk; Ramin M. Farahani; Amir A. Khaki; Fatemeh Ezzati; Farshad Seyednejad

2007-01-01

374

Celiac Artery Compression Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Celiac artery compression syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by episodic abdominal pain and weight loss. It is the result of external compression of celiac artery by the median arcuate ligament. We present a case of celiac artery compression syndrome in a 57-year-old male with severe postprandial abdominal pain and 30-pound weight loss. The patient eventually responded well to surgical division of the median arcuate ligament by laparoscopy. PMID:23653867

Muqeetadnan, Mohammed; Amer, Syed; Rahman, Ambreen; Nusrat, Salman; Hassan, Syed

2013-01-01

375

The origin variability of the iliolumbar artery and iatrogenic sciatica.  

PubMed

The iliolumbar artery (ILA) is a standard branch from the posterior trunk of the internal iliac artery. It is the only pelvic artery ascending from pelvic cavity. Current study comprises 171 cadavers dissection to assess the origin variability of ILA. The present study identified the incidence of the ILA origin variability in Caucasian population which also clarified the iliolumbar variability in males and females. The current study shows that the ILA arises from the common iliac artery in 2 %, from the external iliac artery in 0.3 % and from the internal iliac artery in 13.8 % either from its dorsal or dorsomedial aspects in 1 and 12.8 %, respectively. The common, external and internal iliac arteries are defined as a high (early) origin and occurred in 16.1 %. The posterior trunk of the internal iliac artery is the most common origin of the ILA found to be in 77.9 %. Occasionally, it also arose from the superior gluteal artery (0.7 %) and the sciatic artery (0.3 %). Furthermore, the ILA arises from the anterior trunk indirectly as from the inferior gluteal artery in 0.3 %. The ILA arising from the superior or inferior gluteal artery or from the sciatic artery is defined as a low (delayed) origin and occurred in 1.3 %. In contrast, the ILA was 4.7 %. Consequently, variability of the ILA leads to vascular variability of the lumbosacral trunk of the sciatic nerve. Clinicians have to be aware of these variations to avoid unnecessary ligation to prevent sciatic neuropathy. PMID:25269394

Al Talalwah, Waseem; Al Dorazi, Shorok Ali; Soames, Roger

2014-10-01

376

Arterial waveform analysis.  

PubMed

The bedside measurement of continuous arterial pressure values from waveform analysis has been routinely available via indwelling arterial catheterization for >50 years. Invasive blood pressure monitoring has been utilized in critically ill patients, in both the operating room and critical care units, to facilitate rapid diagnoses of cardiovascular insufficiency and monitor response to treatments aimed at correcting abnormalities before the consequences of either hypo- or hypertension are seen. Minimally invasive techniques to estimate cardiac output (CO) have gained increased appeal. This has led to the increased interest in arterial waveform analysis to provide this important information, as it is measured continuously in many operating rooms and intensive care units. Arterial waveform analysis also allows for the calculation of many so-called derived parameters intrinsically created by this pulse pressure profile. These include estimates of left ventricular stroke volume (SV), CO, vascular resistance, and during positive-pressure breathing, SV variation, and pulse pressure variation. This article focuses on the principles of arterial waveform analysis and their determinants, components of the arterial system, and arterial pulse contour. It will also address the advantage of measuring real-time CO by the arterial waveform and the benefits to measuring SV variation. Arterial waveform analysis has gained a large interest in the overall assessment and management of the critically ill and those at a risk of hemodynamic deterioration. PMID:25480767

Esper, Stephen A; Pinsky, Michael R

2014-12-01

377

Building an immune-mediated coagulopathy consensus: early recognition and evaluation to enhance post-surgical patient safety  

PubMed Central

Topical hemostats, fibrin sealants, and surgical adhesives are regularly used in a variety of surgical procedures involving multiple disciplines. Generally, these adjuncts to surgical hemostasis are valuable means for improving wound visualization, reducing blood loss or adding tissue adherence; however, some of these agents are responsible for under-recognized adverse reactions and outcomes. Bovine thrombin, for example, is a topical hemostat with a long history of clinical application that is widely used alone or in combination with other hemostatic agents. Hematologists and coagulation experts are aware that these agents can lead to development of an immune-mediated coagulopathy (IMC). A paucity of data on the incidence of IMC contributes to under-recognition and leaves many surgeons unaware that this clinical entity, originating from normal immune responses to foreign antigen exposure, requires enhanced post-operative vigilance and judicious clinical judgment to achieve best outcomes. Postoperative bleeding may result from issues such as loosened ties or clips or the occurrence of a coagulopathy due to hemodilution, vitamin K deficiency, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) or post-transfusion, post-shock coagulopathic states. Other causes, such as liver disease, may be ruled out by a careful patient history and common pre-operative liver function tests. Less common are coagulopathies secondary to pathologic immune responses. Such coagulopathies include those that may result from inherent patient problems such as patients with an immune dysfunction related to systemic lupus erythrematosus (SLE) or lymphoma that can invoke antibodies against native coagulation factors. Medical interventions may also provoke antibody formation in the form of self-directed anti-coagulation factor antibodies, that result in problematic bleeding; it is these iatrogenic post-operative coagulopathies, including those associated with bovine thrombin exposure and its clinical context, that this panel was convened to address. The RETACC panel's goal was to attain a logical consensus by reviewing the scientific evidence surrounding IMC and to make recommendations for the clinical recognition, diagnosis and evaluation, and clinical management of these complications. In light of the under-recognition and under-reporting of IMC, and given the associated morbidity, utilization of health care resources, and potential economic impact to hospitals, the panel engaged in a detailed review of peer-reviewed reports of bovine thrombin associated IMC. From that clinical knowledge base, recommendations were developed to guide clinicians in the recognition, diagnosis, and management of this challenging condition. PMID:19463180

Ness, Paul; Creer, Michael; Rodgers, George M; Naoum, Joseph J; Renkens, Kenneth; Voils, Stacy A; Alexander, W Allan

2009-01-01

378

Spontaneous Rupture of the Omental Artery Treated by Transcatheter Arterial Embolization  

PubMed Central

Intra-abdominal hemorrhage caused by omental artery rupture is a rare condition. There are few reports on the treatment of omental artery rupture with only transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE). A 27-year-old man presented to our emergency room with upper abdominal pain that suddenly occurred during sleep. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed fluid collection in the peritoneal cavity and a left subphrenic hematoma with extravasation. Celiac angiography revealed extravasation from the omental artery, which arose from the proximal left gastroepiploic artery. A microcatheter was advanced into the left gastroepiploic artery and around the culprit artery bifurcation, which was embolized by inserting coils. The postoperative course was uneventful without worsening of anemia or abdominal symptoms. The patient was discharged after the absence of extravasation was confirmed by contrast-enhanced CT. Although surgical therapy has often been performed for omental bleeding, TAE, which is less invasive and has the advantage of simultaneous diagnosis and treatment, should be attempted as the first-choice therapy. PMID:23316406

Matsuoka, Yujiro; Yasutake, Tsuyoshi; Abe, Hiroyuki; Sugiyama, Kazuhiro; Oyama, Kazuyuki

2012-01-01

379

[Bilateral internal carotid artery stenoses in a patient with meningovascular neurosyphilis].  

PubMed

We report a 37-year-old man with cerebral infarction due to meningovascular neurosyphilis. He developed right hemiplegia and motor aphasia preceded by left retroorbital pain lasting a month. Bilateral tonic pupils were also observed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disclosed cerebral infarction in the distribution of perforating branches of the left middle cerebral artery. Abnormal enhancement was absent in the meninges on T1-weighted MRI examination. SPECT study with I-123 iodoamphetamine showed decreased perfusion in the area of the left middle cerebral artery on early phase. A delayed SPECT 4 hour later demonstrated redistribution of the cerebral blood flow in the area of its cortical branches. On cerebral angiograms, marked stenoses were disclosed at the supraclinoid segments of the bilateral internal carotid arteries as well as the M1 segment of the left middle cerebral artery. These stenoses were associated with increased collateral circulations on the left side. Atherosclerosis was not apparent, on angiography. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed pleocytosis and positive TPHA. The CSF/serum ratio of TPHA was 1/16. Oligoclonal IgG band was present in the CSF. CSF IgG index was elevated. These findings were consistent with meningovascular neurosyphilis. Causes of angiitis other than syphilis were excluded. A test for antibodies against human immunodeficiency virus was negative. The clinical course of his recovery was similar to that in patients with atherosclerotic thrombosis. The stenosis of the right internal carotid artery demonstrated by angiography could not be expected from the clinical manifestations and SPECT study.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8261700

Ohya, Y; Matsumura, T; Kojima, S; Kuroiwa, Y; Shiozawa, R

1993-08-01

380

Prevalence and prognostic value of perfusion defects detected by stress technetium-99m sestamibi myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography in asymptomatic patients with diabetes mellitus and no known coronary artery disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetics. Early diagnosis of CAD and identification of high-risk subgroups, followed by appropriate therapy, may therefore enhance survival. This study sought to determine the value of stress myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with technetium-99m sestamibi to detect perfusion defects and predict cardiac events in asymptomatic

Andrea De Lorenzo; Ronaldo S. L Lima; Aristarco G Siqueira-Filho; Mauricio R Pantoja

2002-01-01

381

Neurofibromatosis Type 1: Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Ruptured Occipital Arterial Aneurysms  

SciTech Connect

Two cases of ruptured aneurysms in the posterior cervical regions associated with type-1 neurofibromatosis treated by transcatheter embolization are reported. Patients presented with acute onset of swelling and pain in the affected areas. Emergently performed contrast-enhanced CT demonstrated aneurysms and large hematomas widespread in the posterior cervical regions. Angiography revealed aneurysms and extravasations of the occipital artery. Patients were successfully treated by percutaneous transcatheter arterial microcoil embolization. Transcatheter arterial embolization therapy was found to be an effective method for treating aneurysmal rupture in the posterior cervical regions occurring in association with type-1 neurofibromatosis. A literature review revealed that rupture of an occipital arterial aneurysm, in the setting of neurofibromatosis type 1, has not been reported previously.

Kanematsu, Masayuki; Kato, Hiroki; Kondo, Hiroshi; Goshima, Satoshi; Tsuge, Yusuke; Kojima, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Haruo [Gifu University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan)

2011-02-15

382

Measuring How Elastic Arteries Function.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a procedure used to measure force and pressure in elastic arteries. Discusses the physics of the procedure and recommends the use of bovine arteries. Explains the preparation of the arteries for the procedure. (DDR)

DeMont, M. Edwin; MacGillivray, Patrick S.; Davison, Ian G.; McConnell, Colin J.

1997-01-01

383

Living with Carotid Artery Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Carotid Artery Disease If you have carotid artery disease, you can take steps to manage the ... treatment plan, and getting ongoing care. Having carotid artery disease raises your risk of having a stroke . ...

384

Idiopathic arterial calcification in infancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An infant with idiopathic arterial calcification is presented. The disease was diagnosed during the life of the patient as an aortogram demonstrated a stenosis of the left coronary artery and complete occlusion of the right coronary artery.

J. M. Retbi; A. Casasoprana; J. C. Gabilan; M. Dehan; J. Rosenstein-Retbi

1978-01-01

385

Early enhancement of fluid transport in rabbit proximal straight tubules after loss of contralateral renal excretory function.  

PubMed Central

To assess the renal functional adaptation to reduced excretory capacity, we studied whole kidney and single nephron function in anesthetized volume-replete rabbits after unilateral (left kidney) nephrectomy (UNX), ureteral obstruction (UO), or ureteroperitoneostomy (UP). At 24 h, despite the absence of measurable hypertrophy of the contralateral (right) kidney, these procedures significantly increased p-aminohippurate clearance (45-54%) and inulin clearance (CIN) (64-110%) compared with sham-operated control animals. In each group, whole kidney sodium reabsorption increased in proportion to the rise in CIN. To determine whether the intrinsic transport capacity of proximal tubule segments is altered by these maneuvers, we measured fluid volume reabsorption rate (Jv) in isolated superficial proximal straight tubule (PST) segments perfused in vitro, comparing each control tubule (obtained by biopsy of the left kidney immediately before an experimental maneuver) with a corresponding tubule segment obtained 24 h or 7 d later from the contralateral kidney. Control tubule Jv in sham-24 h animals averaged 0.48 +/- 0.04 nl/(min X mm). Jv did not change significantly at 24 h or 7 d after sham maneuvers but increased significantly at 24 h after UNX [delta Jv = 0.13 +/- 0.03 nl/(min X mm)], UO [delta Jv = 0.10 +/- 0.04 nl/(min X mm)], and UP [delta Jv = 0.13 +/- 0.04 nl/(min X mm)]. Jv remained increased by similar amounts at 7 d after UNX and UO. To evaluate whether an increase in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) might be the stimulus to this augmentation in Jv values, methylprednisolone (MP) (15 mg/kg per d) was administered daily to sham-operated animals, a maneuver which induced a 73% rise in CIN by day 5. This procedure also produced a significant increase in Jv in PST at 5 d [delta Jv = 0.16 +/- 0.05 nl/(min X mm)]. The increase in Jv evident in each group at 5 or 7 d was paralleled by an equivalent change in tubule cell volume and apparent tubule luminal surface area in UNX-7d and MP-5d; no such increments in these indices, or in apparent tubule serosal surface area were evident at 24 h in any group. Thus, a 50% reduction in renal excretory function in the rabbit provokes adjustments in renal plasma flow rate and GFR in the contralateral kidney, which are evident by 24 h. The concurrent change in Jv in PST is closely related to CIN or some associated hemodynamic process, but does not appear to require an increase in tubule cell volume or apparent surface area. The ability to detect these small in vivo changes in Jv may derive from the enhanced sensitivity of paired-kidney experiments using tubule segments obtained by renal biopsy. PMID:6886008

Tabei, K; Levenson, D J; Brenner, B M

1983-01-01

386

Conformable amplified lead zirconate titanate sensors with enhanced piezoelectric response for cutaneous pressure monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to measure subtle changes in arterial pressure using devices mounted on the skin can be valuable for monitoring vital signs in emergency care, detecting the early onset of cardiovascular disease and continuously assessing health status. Conventional technologies are well suited for use in traditional clinical settings, but cannot be easily adapted for sustained use during daily activities. Here we introduce a conformal device that avoids these limitations. Ultrathin inorganic piezoelectric and semiconductor materials on elastomer substrates enable amplified, low hysteresis measurements of pressure on the skin, with high levels of sensitivity (~0.005?Pa) and fast response times (~0.1?ms). Experimental and theoretical studies reveal enhanced piezoelectric responses in lead zirconate titanate that follow from integration on soft supports as well as engineering behaviours of the associated devices. Calibrated measurements of pressure variations of blood flow in near-surface arteries demonstrate capabilities for measuring radial artery augmentation index and pulse pressure velocity.

Dagdeviren, Canan; Su, Yewang; Joe, Pauline; Yona, Raissa; Liu, Yuhao; Kim, Yun-Soung; Huang, Yongan; Damadoran, Anoop R.; Xia, Jing; Martin, Lane W.; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.

2014-08-01

387

Conformable amplified lead zirconate titanate sensors with enhanced piezoelectric response for cutaneous pressure monitoring.  

PubMed

The ability to measure subtle changes in arterial pressure using devices mounted on the skin can be valuable for monitoring vital signs in emergency care, detecting the early onset of cardiovascular disease and continuously assessing health status. Conventional technologies are well suited for use in traditional clinical settings, but cannot be easily adapted for sustained use during daily activities. Here we introduce a conformal device that avoids these limitations. Ultrathin inorganic piezoelectric and semiconductor materials on elastomer substrates enable amplified, low hysteresis measurements of pressure on the skin, with high levels of sensitivity (~0.005?Pa) and fast response times (~0.1?ms). Experimental and theoretical studies reveal enhanced piezoelectric responses in lead zirconate titanate that follow from integration on soft supports as well as engineering behaviours of the associated devices. Calibrated measurements of pressure variations of blood flow in near-surface arteries demonstrate capabilities for measuring radial artery augmentation index and pulse pressure velocity. PMID:25092496

Dagdeviren, Canan; Su, Yewang; Joe, Pauline; Yona, Raissa; Liu, Yuhao; Kim, Yun-Soung; Huang, YongAn; Damadoran, Anoop R; Xia, Jing; Martin, Lane W; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

2014-01-01

388

Assessment of the Early Effects of 5,6-Dimethylxanthenone-4-Acetic Acid Using Macromolecular Contrast Media-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Ectopic Versus Orthotopic Tumors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the early effects of a vascular disrupting agent (VDA) in ectopic and orthotopic tumors by using macromolecular contrast media (MMCM)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MMCM-MRI). Methods and Materials: The MMCM-MRI of ectopic and orthotopic MCA205 murine fibrosarcomas was performed using the intravascular contrast agent albumin-(gadopentetate dimeglumine){sub 35}. Change in longitudinal relaxation rate ({delta}R1) was measured 24 hours after treatment with 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA; 30 mg/kg) and used to compute tumor vascular volume and permeability. Correlative histologic and immunohistochemical evaluation was carried out, along with measurement of tumor necrosis factor {alpha} and vascular endothelial growth factor levels in whole tumor extracts using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Orthotopic tumors showed higher vascular volume (p < 0.05) than ectopic tumors before treatment. Twenty-four hours after DMXAA treatment, a significant (p < 0.0001), but differential, decrease in {delta}R1 (70% in ectopic and 50% in orthotopic tumors) was observed compared with baseline estimates. Consistent with this observation, greater levels of tumor necrosis factor {alpha}, an important mediator of the antivascular activity of DMXAA, were measured in ectopic tumors 3 hours posttreatment compared with orthotopic tumors (p < 0.05). Immunohistochemical (CD31) and histologic (hematoxylin and eosin) sections of ectopic and orthotopic tumors showed highly tumor-selective vascular damage after treatment with the presence of viable surrounding normal tissue. Conclusions: The MMCM-MRI provided early quantitative estimates of change in tumor perfusion after VDA treatment that showed good correlation with cytokine induction. Differences in the response of ectopic and orthotopic tumors highlight the influence of the host microenvironment in modulating the activity of VDAs.

Seshadri, Mukund [Preclinical Imaging Resource, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States)], E-mail: mukund.seshadri@roswellpark.org; Bellnier, David A. [Department of Cell Stress Biology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Cheney, Richard T. [Department of Pathology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States)

2008-11-15

389

Assessment of the Early Effects of 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid using Macromolecular Contrast Media Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Ectopic versus Orthotopic tumors  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the early effects of a vascular disrupting agent (VDA) in ectopic and orthotopic tumors using macromolecular contrast media-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MMCM-MRI). Methods and Materials MMCM-MRI of ectopic and orthotopic MCA205 murine fibrosarcomas was performed using the intravascular contrast agent, albumin-(Gd-DTPA)35. Change in longitudinal relaxation rate (?R1) was measured 24 hours after treatment with 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA; 30 mg/kg) and used to compute tumor vascular volume and permeability. Correlative histology and immunohistochemistry was carried out along with measurement of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in whole tumor extracts using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results Orthotopic tumors exhibited higher vascular volume (P<0.05) than ectopic tumors prior to treatment. Twenty-four hours after DMXAA treatment, a significant (P<0.0001) but differential reduction in ?R1 (70% in ectopic and 50% in orthotopic tumors) was observed compared to baseline estimates. Consistent with this observation, higher levels of TNF-?, an important mediator of the antivascular activity of DMXAA were measured in ectopic tumors three hours post treatment compared to orthotopic tumors (P<0.05). Immunohistochemical (CD31) and histological (H&E) sections of ectopic and orthotopic tumors showed a highly tumor selective vascular damage following treatment with the presence of viable surrounding normal tissue. Conclusions MMCM-MRI provided early quantitative estimates of change in tumor perfusion following VDA treatment that showed good correlation with cytokine induction. Differences in the response of ectopic and orthotopic tumors highlight the influence of host microenvironment in modulating the activity of VDAs. PMID:18954713

Seshadri, Mukund; Bellnier, David A.; Cheney, Richard T.

2008-01-01