Sample records for early arterial enhancement

  1. Early Ureteral Luminal Enhancement on Computed Tomography in a Renal Trauma Patient: A Characteristic Sign of Communication between Artery and Collecting System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobumaro Ihara; Naobumi Yashiro; Kensuke Itoh; Takeshi Kasai

    We report the case of a 65-year-old man with blunt abdominal trauma following a fall from a three-meter-high roof. Contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography (CT) obtained in early phase showed intense contrast enhancement in the urinary tract as dense as artery. This finding was considered characteristic of traumatic communication between artery and collecting system. In cases of blunt abdominal trauma, contrast-enhanced

  2. The Autophagy Enhancer Spermidine Reverses Arterial Aging

    PubMed Central

    LaRocca, Thomas J.; Gioscia-Ryan, Rachel A.; Hearon, Christopher M.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2013-01-01

    Arterial aging, characterized by stiffening of large elastic arteries and the development of arterial endothelial dysfunction, increases cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We tested the hypothesis that spermidine, a nutrient associated with the anti-aging process autophagy, would improve arterial aging. Aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV), a measure of arterial stiffness, was ~20% greater in old (O, 28 months) compared with young C57BL6 mice (Y, 4 months, P < 0.05). Arterial endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD), a measure of endothelial function, was ~25% lower in O (P < 0.05 vs. Y) due to reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. These impairments were associated with greater arterial oxidative stress (nitrotyrosine), superoxide production, and protein cross-linking (advanced glycation end-products, AGEs) in O (all P < 0.05). Spermidine supplementation normalized aPWV, restored NO-mediated EDD and reduced nitrotyrosine, superoxide, AGEs and collagen in O. These effects of spermidine were associated with enhanced arterial expression of autophagy markers, and in vitro experiments demonstrated that vascular protection by spermidine was autophagy-dependent. Our results indicate that spermidine exerts a potent anti-aging influence on arteries by increasing NO bioavailability, reducing oxidative stress, modifying structural factors and enhancing autophagy. Spermidine may be a promising nutraceutical treatment for arterial aging and prevention of age-associated CVD. PMID:23612189

  3. Robotically enhanced coronary artery bypass surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yugal K. Mishra; H. Wasir; Malhotra Rajneesh; K. K. Sharma; Y. Mehta; N. Trehan

    2007-01-01

    Robotically enhanced telemanipulation surgery is a rapidly developing technique which enables totally endoscopic cardiac surgery\\u000a with utmost precision and perfection on both beating heart and arrested heart. Between December 2002 and September 2006, 268\\u000a patients underwent robotically enhanced coronary artery bypass surgery using the da Vinci telemanipulation system. Fourteen\\u000a patients underwent total endoscopic coronary artery bypass surgery. Of these 12

  4. Robotically enhanced totally endoscopic right internal thoracic coronary artery bypass to the right coronary artery.

    PubMed

    Aybek, T; Dogan, S; Andressen, E; Mierdl, S; Westphal, K; Moritz, A; Wimmer-Greinecker, G

    2000-01-01

    Computer-enhanced telemanipulation systems allow totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting. This report demonstrates the feasibility of a coronary artery anastomosis between the right internal thoracic artery and the right coronary artery using the daVinci surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Inc, Mountain View, CA). PMID:11178295

  5. In Vivo Volumetric Intravascular Ultrasound Visualization of Early/Inflammatory Arterial Atheroma Using Targeted Echogenic Immunoliposomes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunggun; Moody, Melanie R.; Laing, Susan T.; Kee, Patrick H.; Huang, Shao-Ling; Klegerman, Melvin E.; McPherson, David D.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to demonstrate three-dimensional (3D) visualization of early/inflammatory arterial atheroma using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and targeted echogenic immunoliposomes (ELIP). IVUS can be used as a molecular imaging modality with the use of targeted contrast agents for atheroma detection. Three-dimensional reconstruction of 2-dimensional IVUS images may provide improved atheroma visualization. Materials and Methods Atheroma were induced in arteries of Yucatan miniswine (n = 5) by endothelial cell denudation followed by a 4-week high cholesterol diet. The contralateral arteries were left intact and served as controls. Anti-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and generic gammaglobulin (IgG) conjugated ELIP were prepared. Arteries were imaged using IVUS before and after ELIP injection. Images were digitized, manually traced, segmented, and placed in tomographic sequence for 3D visualization. Atheroma brightness enhancement was compared and reported as mean gray scale values. Plaque volume was quantified both from IVUS and histologic images. Results Anti-ICAM-1 ELIP highlighting of the atheroma in all arterial segments was different compared with baseline (P < 0.05). There was no difference in the mean gray scale values with IgG-ELIP. Arterial 3D IVUS images allowed visualization of the entire plaque distribution. The highlighted plaque/atheroma volume with anti-ICAM-1 ELIP was greater than baseline (P < 0.01). Conclusion This study demonstrates specific highlighting of early/inflammatory atheroma in vivo using anti-ICAM-1 ELIP. Three-dimensional IVUS reconstruction provides good visualization of plaque distribution in the arterial wall. This novel methodology may help to detect and diagnose pathophysiologic development of all stages of atheroma formation in vivo and quantitate plaque volume for serial and long-term atherosclerotic treatment studies. PMID:20733507

  6. Accuracy of Normal-Dose Contrast-Enhanced MR Angiography in Assessing Renal Artery Stenosis and Accessory Renal Arteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael B. J. M. Korst; Frank B. M. Joosten; Cornelis T. Postma; Gerrit J. Jager; Johan K. Krabbe; Jelle O. Barentsz

    OBJECTIVE . The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of breath-hold con- trast-enhanced MR angiography in the assessment of renal artery stenosis and accessory renal arteries using a standard dose of gadolinium. SUBJECTS AND METHODS . Thirty-eight patients suspected of having renal artery stenosis underwent MR angiography and intraarterial digital subtraction angiography, which was the method of

  7. Contrast-Enhanced MRA of Carotid and Vertebral Arteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans-Martin Klein; Ricarda Buchal; Ulrike Achenbach; Stefan Domalski

    2008-01-01

    Purpose:  To assess the image quality of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) of the carotid artery with open 0.35-T\\u000a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), compared to a 1.5-T high-field system.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and Methods:  100 patients were retrospectively evaluated with CE-MRA for suspected carotid or vertebral artery disease. 50 patients were\\u000a investigated using an open-design 0.35-T MRI system, 50 were examined on a 1.5-T

  8. Tomografia cardiaca e calcio coronarico: passato, presente o futuro? Coronary artery calcium identified by multislice TC as marker of early coronary artery disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emilio Iori; Stefano Bendinelli; Pompilio Faggiano

    2003-01-01

    Coronary artery calcium identified by multi- slice TC as marker of early coronary artery disease. E. Iori, S. Bendinelli, P. Faggiano. Approximately one-half of acute myocardial infarc- tions occur in patients with no history of coronary artery disease (CAD), and nearly two-third are due to thrombo- sis occurred on mild to moderate coronary stenosis. So, early noninvasive identification of CAD

  9. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging of the vasa vasorum of carotid artery plaque

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ze-Zhou; Zhang, Yan-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The vasa vasorum of carotid artery plaque is a novel marker of accurately evaluating the vulnerability of carotid artery plaque, which was associated with symptomatic cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disease. The presence of ultrasound contrast agents in carotid artery plaque represents the presence of the vasa vasorum in carotid artery plaque because the ultrasound contrast agents are strict intravascular tracers. Therefore, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is a novel and safe imaging modality for evaluating the vasa vasorum in carotid artery plaque. However, there are some issues that needs to be assessed to embody fully the clinical utility of the vasa vasorum in carotid artery plaque with CEUS. PMID:26120382

  10. The arterial orifice level in the early human embryo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margot M. Bartelings; Adriana C. Gittenberger-de Groot

    1988-01-01

    The configuration of the upper myocardial border, considered by us to represent the arterial orifice level, has been studied microscopically and with the help of reconstruction techniques, in 7 human embryos ranging from 6 to 9.5 mm crown-rump length. In the 6 to 7 mm stage the arterial orifice level is not situated in one plane but has a curved

  11. Analysis of Turbulent flow in early stages of atherosclerosis of coronary artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaganagar, Kiran

    2005-11-01

    During the early stages of atherosclerotic heart disease, fatty material accumulates in the coronary artery resulting in development of streaks of plaque and creating high levels of turbulence, and with significantly modified flow parameters. Diagnostic measures performed during this early stage may not show any evidence of coronary artery disease, because the lumen of the coronary artery has not decreased in caliber. These streaks do not obstruct the flow of blood but alter the flow characteristics, even at this preclinical stage. This talk presents the preliminary results for the analysis of turbulent flow characteristics for a range of atherosclerotic plaque configurations in the left main coronary artery. For this purpose a CAD/medical imaging based direct-simulation (DNS) tool has been developed. The Navier-stokes equations are solved in the vertical vorticity-velocity formulation. The plaque is introduced using immersed body technique. The geometric acquisition of the artery geometry and plaque morphology is obtained using CAD based commercial software.

  12. Gadolinium-Enhanced MR Imaging in the Evaluation of Uterine Fibroids Treated with Uterine Artery Embolization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsuya Katsumori; Kazuhiro Nakajima; Mitsukuni Tokuhiro

    OBJECTIVE . The purpose of this study was to determine whether tumor volume reduc- tion can be predicted by the infarction rate of uterine fibroids as seen on gadolinium-enhanced MR images obtained immediately after uterine artery embolization. MATERIALS AND METHODS . In our study, 36 women with symptomatic uterine fi- broids successfully underwent uterine artery embolization. Unenhanced and enhanced MR

  13. Early Adaptive Responses of the Vascular Wall during Venous Arterialization in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kwei, Stephanie; Stavrakis, George; Takahas, Masaya; Taylor, George; Folkman, M. Judah; Gimbrone, Michael A.; García-Cardeña, Guillermo

    2004-01-01

    Venous arterialization occurs when a vein segment is transposed as a bypass graft into the arterial circulation, resulting in a structural and functional reorganization of the vascular wall in response to the new local biomechanical environment. Although the anatomical changes of venous arterialization have been well characterized, the molecular mechanisms of vascular remodeling remain incompletely understood. Here, we present a novel model of venous arterialization in mice wherein the external jugular vein is connected to the common carotid artery. The hemodynamic characteristics of the arterialized vein, as assessed by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, resemble features of the arterial circulation. Temporal analyses of the morphological changes in the venous segment at 1, 3, and 7 days after surgery demonstrate preservation of the endothelium at all time points and formation of multiple smooth muscle layers by day 7. Expression of endothelial E-selectin and VCAM-1 was documented at early time points, concomitant with the presence of neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages in the vascular wall. In addition, endothelium-dependent permeability was decreased in the arterialized vein when compared to the contralateral control vein. Thus, this novel mouse model of venous arterialization displays anatomical and cellular features present in other species, and should help to characterize the molecular mechanisms of this adaptive response of the vascular wall to changes in its biomechanical environment. PMID:14695322

  14. Busulphan-cyclophosphamide cause endothelial injury, remodeling of resistance arteries and enhanced expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Al-Hashmi, Sulaiman; Boels, Piet J M; Zadjali, Fahad; Sadeghi, Behnam; Sällström, Johan; Hultenby, Kjell; Hassan, Zuzana; Arner, Anders; Hassan, Moustapha

    2012-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation (SCT) is a curative treatment for malignant and non malignant diseases. However, transplantation-related complications including cardiovascular disease deteriorate the clinical outcome and quality of life. We have investigated the acute effects of conditioning regimen on the pharmacology, physiology and structure of large elastic arteries and small resistance-sized arteries in a SCT mouse model. Mesenteric resistance arteries and aorta were dissected from Balb/c mice conditioned with busulphan (Bu) and cyclophosphamide (Cy). In vitro isometric force development and pharmacology, in combination with RT-PCR, Western blotting and electron microscopy were used to study vascular properties. Compared with controls, mesenteric resistance arteries from the Bu-Cy group had larger internal circumference, showed enhanced endothelium mediated relaxation and increased expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Bu-Cy treated animals had lower mean blood pressure and signs of endothelial injury. Aortas of treated animals had a higher reactivity to noradrenaline. We conclude that short-term consequences of Bu-Cy treatment divergently affect large and small arteries of the cardiovascular system. The increased noradrenaline reactivity of large elastic arteries was not associated with increased blood pressure at rest. Instead, Bu-Cy treatment lowered blood pressure via augmented microvascular endothelial dependent relaxation, increased expression of vascular eNOS and remodeling toward a larger lumen. The changes in the properties of resistance arteries can be associated with direct effects of the compounds on vascular wall or possibly indirectly induced via altered translational activity associated with the reduced hematocrit and shear stress. This study contributes to understanding the mechanisms that underlie the early effects of conditioning regimen on resistance arteries and may help in designing further investigations to understand the late effects on vascular system. PMID:22303468

  15. Elevated Serum C-Reactive Protein Levels and Early Arterial Changes in Healthy Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikko J. Järvisalo; Aimo Harmoinen; Maarit Hakanen; Ulla Paakkunainen; Jorma Viikari; Jaakko Hartiala; Terho Lehtimäki; Olli Simell; Olli T. Raitakari

    Objective—Elevated serum concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) predicts cardiovascular events in adults. Because atherosclerosis begins in childhood, we undertook a study to determine whether changes in brachial artery endothelial function and the thickness of the carotid intima-media complex, 2 markers of early atherosclerosis, are related to CRP levels in healthy children. Methods and Results—Brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and carotid

  16. Signal and image processing for early detection of coronary artery diseases: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobssite, Youness; Samir, B. Belhaouari; Mohamad Hani, Ahmed Fadzil B.

    2012-09-01

    Today biomedical signals and image based detection are a basic step to diagnose heart diseases, in particular, coronary artery diseases. The goal of this work is to provide non-invasive early detection of Coronary Artery Diseases relying on analyzing images and ECG signals as a combined approach to extract features, further classify and quantify the severity of DCAD by using B-splines method. In an aim of creating a prototype of screening biomedical imaging for coronary arteries to help cardiologists to decide the kind of treatment needed to reduce or control the risk of heart attack.

  17. Early diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease can save limbs.

    PubMed

    Savill, Peter

    2012-10-01

    Prompt identification and management of patients with peripheral arterial disease can improve quality of life, save limbs and reduce cardiovascular events. The most common initial symptom is leg pain on exertion or intermittent claudication. More severe or critical limb ischaemia can present with pain at rest, ulceration, tissue loss and/or gangrene, In most patients the symptoms remain stable, but approximately 20% will develop limb threatening critical ischaemia. The incidence of peripheral arterial disease increases with age and up to 20% of people aged over 60 are affected to some degree. The incidence is also high in smokers, diabetes patients, and those with coronary disease. A focused history should identify the presence and severity of intermittent claudication and any critical limb ischaemia. Examination should concentrate on the palpation of lower limb arterial pulses and look for signs of critical ischaemia such as ulceration. The key primary care investigation in suspected peripheral arterial disease is measurement of the ankle brachial pressure index. Lifestyle interventions are a key component of management. NICE recommends that a supervised exercise programme is offered to all patients with intermittent claudication. Pharmacological therapy should always include an antiplatelet agent and statin. Vasoactive drugs such as naftidrofuryl oxalate should be considered for symptom control in intermittent claudication when exercise has not led to a satisfactory improvement and the patient prefers not to be referred for revascularisation. Patients with severe and inadequately controlled symptoms should be referred to secondary care with a view to further imaging to assess the appropriateness of revascularisation. PMID:23214272

  18. Exercise Does Not Attenuate Early Coronary Artery Disease Progression in a Pig Model

    PubMed Central

    Arce-Esquivel, Arturo A.; Kreutzer, Kurt V.; Rush, James W. E.; Turk, James R.; Laughlin, M. Harold

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to examine the effects of high fat (HF) diet and subsequent exercise training (Ex) on coronary arteries of an animal model of early stage coronary artery disease (CAD). We hypothesized that HF diet would induce early stage disease and promote a pro-atherogenic coronary phenotype, while Ex would blunt disease progression and induce a healthier anti-inflammatory environment reflected by increased expression of antioxidant capacity and decreased expression of inflammatory markers in both the macro and microvasculature of the coronary circulation. Methods Immunohistochemistry in left anterior descending (LAD) and right coronary arteries (RCA), and immunoblots in LAD and left ventricular (LV) arterioles were used to characterize effects of HF diet and Ex on the progression of coronary atherosclerosis. Results Our results revealed that HF diet promoted a pro-atherogenic coronary endothelial cell phenotype as evidenced by the endothelial expression of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers. Ex did not significantly alter any of these immunohistochemical markers in conduit arteries; however, Ex did increase antioxidant protein content in LV arterioles. Conclusions We conclude that, at this early stage of CAD, Ex did not seem to modify vascular cell phenotypes of conduit coronary arteries from pro- to a more favorable anti-atherogenic status; however, Ex increased antioxidant protein content in coronary arterioles. These findings also support the idea that endothelial phenotype expression follows different patterns in the macro and microvasculature of the coronary circulation. PMID:21685817

  19. Digital capillaroscopy as important tool for early diagnostics of arterial hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurfinkel, Yu. I.; Sasonko, M. L.; Priezzhev, A. V.

    2015-03-01

    The study is aimed to determine the digital capillaroscopy possibilities in early diagnostics of an arterial hypertension. A total of 123 adult persons were examined in the study. The first group consisted of 40 patients with prehypertension (BP 130-139/85-89 mm Hg). The second group included 36 patients with 1-2 stage of hypertension (mean systolic BP 152.7±12 mm Hg). Patients in both groups did not receive regular drug therapy. The group of volunteers (n=47) included healthy adults without signs of cardiovascular pathology. The capillary circulation was examined on the nailbed using the optical digital capillaroscope developed by the company "AET", Russia. Diameters of the arterial and venous segments, perivascular zone size, capillary blood velocity, the degree of arterial loops narrowing and the density of the capillary network were estimated. In patients with arterial hypertension and even in patients with prehypertension remodeling and rarefaction of capillaries and the expressed narrowing their arterial loops were manifested. The results of the study revealed the presence of abnormalities of microcirculation parameters in patients of both groups. The capillaries density in both groups of patients was significantly lower than in healthy persons. The significant narrowing of arterial loops was revealed in patients with both arterial hypertension and prehypertension, in comparison with healthy volunteers. Capillary blood velocity did not differ significantly between healthy volunteers group and the group of prehypertensive patients. However in patients with hypertension this parameter was significantly lower in comparison with control group.

  20. Early Effects of Arterial Hemodynamic Conditions on Human Saphenous Veins Perfused Ex Vivo

    E-print Network

    Chesler, Naomi C.

    and vascular cell proliferation12­14 as well as intimal hyperplasia.15 The role of MMPs in pathological graft of saphenous vein grafts. Using matched pairs of freshly isolated human saphenous vein, we analyzed the early effects of ex vivo hemodynamic conditions mimicking the venous (native) compared with arterial (graft

  1. Attenuation Correction and Normalisation for Quantification of Contrast Enhancement in Ultrasound Images of Carotid Arteries.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Wing Keung; Gujral, Dorothy M; Shah, Benoy N; Chahal, Navtej S; Bhattacharyya, Sanjeev; Cosgrove, David O; Eckersley, Robert J; Harrington, Kevin J; Senior, Roxy; Nutting, Christopher M; Tang, Meng-Xing

    2015-07-01

    An automated attenuation correction and normalisation algorithm was developed to improve the quantification of contrast enhancement in ultrasound images of carotid arteries. The algorithm first corrects attenuation artefact and normalises intensity within the contrast agent-filled lumen and then extends the correction and normalisation to regions beyond the lumen. The algorithm was first validated on phantoms consisting of contrast agent-filled vessels embedded in tissue-mimicking materials of known attenuation. It was subsequently applied to in vivo contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) images of human carotid arteries. Both in vitro and in vivo results indicated significant reduction in the shadowing artefact and improved homogeneity within the carotid lumens after the correction. The error in quantification of microbubble contrast enhancement caused by attenuation on phantoms was reduced from 55% to 5% on average. In conclusion, the proposed method exhibited great potential in reducing attenuation artefact and improving quantification in contrast-enhanced ultrasound of carotid arteries. PMID:25843515

  2. Altered calcium sensitivity contributes to enhanced contractility of collateral-dependent coronary arteries

    PubMed Central

    Heaps, Cristine L.; Parker, Janet L.; Sturek, Michael; Bowles, Douglas K.

    2012-01-01

    Coronary arteries distal to chronic occlusion exhibit enhanced vasoconstriction and impaired relaxation when compared with nonoccluded arteries. In the present study, we tested the hypotheses that an increase in peak Ca2+ channel current density and/or increased Ca2+ sensitivity contributes to altered contractility in collateral-dependent coronary arteries. Ameroid occluders were surgically placed around the proximal left circumflex coronary artery (LCX) of female miniature swine. Segments of epicardial arteries (?1 mm luminal diameter) were isolated from the LCX and nonoccluded left anterior descending (LAD) arteries 24 wks following Ameroid placement. Contractile responses to depolarization (10-100 mM KCl) were significantly enhanced in LCX compared with size-matched LAD arterial rings (EC50; LAD=41.7±2.3, LCX=34.3±2.7 mM). However, peak Ca2+ channel current was not altered in isolated smooth muscle cells from the LCX compared with LAD (?5.29±0.42 vs. ?5.68±0.55 pA/pF, respectively). Furthermore, while half-maximal activation of Ca2+ channel current occurred at nearly the same membrane potential in LAD and LCX, half-maximal inactivation was shifted to a more positive membrane potential in LCX cells. Simultaneous measures of contractile tension and intracellular free Ca2+ (fura-2) levels in arterial rings revealed that significantly more tension was produced per unit change in fura-2 ratio in the LCX compared with the LAD in response to KCl-induced membrane depolarization, but not during receptor-agonist stimulation with endothelin-1. Taken together, our data indicate that coronary arteries distal to chronic occlusion display increased Ca2+ sensitivity in response to high KCl-induced membrane-depolarization, independent of changes in whole-cell peak Ca2+ channel current. Unaltered Ca2+ sensitivity in endothelin-stimulated arterial rings suggests more than one mechanism regulates Ca2+ sensitization in coronary smooth muscle. PMID:14978011

  3. Prediction of early and late preeclampsia by flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery*

    PubMed Central

    Brandão, Augusto Henriques Fulgêncio; Evangelista, Aline Aarão; Martins, Raphaela Menin Franco; Leite, Henrique Vítor; Cabral, Antônio Carlos Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the accuracy in the prediction of both early and late preeclampsia by flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery (FMD), a biophysical marker for endothelial dysfunction. Materials and Methods A total of 91 patients, considered at high risk for development of preeclampsia were submitted to brachial artery FMD between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation. Results Nineteen out of the selected patients developed preeclampsia, 8 in its early form and 11 in the late form. With a cut-off value of 6.5%, the FMD sensitivity for early preeclampsia prediction was 75.0%, with specificity of 73.3%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 32.4% and negative predictive value (NPV) of 91.9%. For the prediction of late preeclampsia, sensitivity = 83.3%, specificity = 73.2%, PPV = 34.4% and NPV = 96.2% were observed. And for the prediction of all associated forms of preeclampsia, sensitivity = 84.2%, specificity = 73.6%, PPV = 45.7% and NPV = 94.6% were observed. Conclusion FMD of the brachial artery is a test with good accuracy in the prediction of both early and late preeclampsia, which may represent a positive impact on the follow-up of pregnant women at high risk for developing this syndrome. PMID:25741086

  4. Early and mid-term results of minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Pande, Shantanu; Agarwal, Surendra K.; Gupta, Devendra; Mohanty, Satayapriya; Kapoor, Aditya; Tewari, Satyendra; Bansal, Anubhav; Ambesh, Sushil P.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting (MICABG) is a less invasive method of performing surgical revascularization. This technique coupled with use of off pump technique of surgical revascularization makes it truly less invasive. This method is highly effective even in high-risk patients. Results of this procedure are comparable to standard off pump technique and are better than percutaneous coronary intervention utilizing drug-eluting stent. We present an early and mid-term result of the use of this technique. Method We enrolled 33 patients for analysis operated between 2008 and 2012. Operation was performed utilizing off-pump technique of coronary artery bypass grafting through a minimal invasive incision. Left internal mammary artery graft was done for single vessel disease and radial artery was utilized for other grafts if required. Median follow up of 2.5 years (6 months–4 years) is available. Results Median age was 58.5 years (41–77) and all were male. Single vessel disease was present in 7, double vessel in 14 and triple vessel disease in 12 patients. All the patients had normal left ventricular size and function. There was no operative and 30-day mortality. Conversion to median sternotomy to complete the operation was done in 6.6% (2 out of 33 patients). One patient had acute myocardial infarction and there were no deaths during follow up. Conclusion MICABG is a safe and effective method of revascularization in low risk candidates for coronary artery bypass grafting. PMID:24814114

  5. Computed tomography imaging of early coronary artery lesions in stable individuals with multiple cardiovascular risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xi; Huang, Hong; Liu, Hong; Zeng, Zhi-Yu; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence, extent, severity, and features of coronary artery lesions in stable patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: Seventy-seven patients with more than 3 cardiovascular risk factors were suspected of having coronary artery disease. Patients with high-risk factors and 39 controls with no risk factors were enrolled in the study. The related risk factors included hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, smoking history, and overweight. The characteristics of coronary lesions were identified and evaluated by 64-slice coronary computed tomography angiography. RESULTS: The incidence of coronary atherosclerosis was higher in the high-risk group than in the no-risk group. The involved branches of the coronary artery, the diffusivity of the lesion, the degree of stenosis, and the nature of the plaques were significantly more severe in the high-risk group compared with the no-risk group (all p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Among stable individuals with high-risk factors, early coronary artery lesions are common and severe. Computed tomography has promising value for the early screening of coronary lesions. PMID:26017789

  6. Intestinal plethora: An early sign of acute posttraumatic hepatic artery-portal vein arteriovenous fistula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salvatore J. A. Sclafani; Michael Herskowitz; Susan Rachlin

    1995-01-01

    Traumatic communications between the hepatic artery or its branches and the portal vein or its tributaries usually are clinically\\u000a occult until the late sequelae of portal hypertension, such as esophageal and mesenteric varices, ascites, or congestive heart\\u000a failure, become manifest. The authors describe the early diagnosis of such a lesion by computed tomography. The CT findings\\u000a included a hepatic hematoma

  7. Persistent renal enhancement after intra-arterial versus intravenous iodixanol administration

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Shinn-Huey; Wang, Zhen J.; Kuo, Jonathan; Cabarrus, Miguel; Fu, Yanjun; Aslam, Rizwan; Yee, Judy; Zimmet, Jeffrey M; Shunk, Kendrick; Elicker, Brett; Yeh, Benjamin M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To examine the clinical significance of persistent renal enhancement after iodixanol administration. Methods We retrospectively studied 166 consecutive patients who underwent non-enhanced abdominopelvic CT within 7 days after receiving intra-arterial (n=99) or intravenous (n=67) iodixanol. Renal attenuation was measured for each non-enhanced CT scan. Persistent renal enhancement was defined as CT attenuation > 55 Hounsfield units (HU). Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) was defined as a rise in serum creatinine ? 0.5mg/dL within 5 days after contrast administration. Results While the intensity and frequency of persistent renal enhancement was higher after intra-arterial (mean CT attenuation of 73.7HU, seen in 54 of 99 patients, or 55%) than intravenous contrast material administration (51.8HU, seen in 21 of 67, or 31% p < 0.005), a multivariate regression model showed that the independent predictors of persistent renal enhancement were a shorter time interval until the subsequent non-enhanced CT (p<0.001); higher contrast dose (p<0.001); higher baseline serum creatinine (p<0.01); and older age (p<0.05). The route of contrast administration was not a predictor of persistent renal enhancement in this model. Contrast-induced nephropathy was noted in 9 patients who received intra-arterial (9%) versus 3 who received intravenous iodixanol (4%), and was more common in patients with persistent renal enhancement (p<0.01). Conclusion Persistent renal enhancement at follow-up non-contrast CT suggests a greater risk for contrast-induced nephropathy, but the increased frequency of striking renal enhancement in patients who received intra-arterial rather than intravenous contrast material also reflects the larger doses of contrast and shorter time to subsequent follow-up CT scanning for such patients. PMID:21470810

  8. Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Subarachnoid Haemorrhage and Vasospasm Enhances Endothelin Contraction in Rat Cerebral Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Assenzio, Barbara; Martin, Erica L.; Stankevicius, Edgaras; Civiletti, Federica; Fontanella, Marco; Boccaletti, Riccardo; Berardino, Maurizio; Mazzeo, AnnaTeresa; Ducati, Alessandro; Simonsen, Ulf; Mascia, Luciana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have suggested that cerebrospinal fluid from patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) leads to pronounced vasoconstriction in isolated arteries. We hypothesized that only cerebrospinal fluid from SAH patients with vasospasm would produce an enhanced contractile response to endothelin-1 in rat cerebral arteries, involving both endothelin ETA and ETB receptors. Methods Intact rat basilar arteries were incubated for 24 hours with cerebrospinal fluid from 1) SAH patients with vasospasm, 2) SAH patients without vasospasm, and 3) control patients. Arterial segments with and without endothelium were mounted in myographs and concentration-response curves for endothelin-1 were constructed in the absence and presence of selective and combined ETA and ETB receptor antagonists. Endothelin concentrations in culture medium and receptor expression were measured. Results Compared to the other groups, the following was observed in arteries exposed to cerebrospinal fluid from patients with vasospasm: 1) larger contractions at lower endothelin concentrations (p<0.05); 2) the increased endothelin contraction was absent in arteries without endothelium; 3) higher levels of endothelin secretion in the culture medium (p<0.05); 4) there was expression of ETA receptors and new expression of ETB receptors was apparent; 5) reduction in the enhanced response to endothelin after ETB blockade in the low range and after ETA blockade in the high range of endothelin concentrations; 6) after combined ETA and ETB blockade a complete inhibition of endothelin contraction was observed. Conclusions Our experimental findings showed that in intact rat basilar arteries exposed to cerebrospinal fluid from patients with vasospasm endothelin contraction was enhanced in an endothelium-dependent manner and was blocked by combined ETA and ETB receptor antagonism. Therefore we suggest that combined blockade of both receptors may play a role in counteracting vasospasm in patients with SAH. PMID:25629621

  9. Enhancing Thinking Skills in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrey, Carol; Ghent, Kathryn; Kanira, Eleni

    2012-01-01

    A case study approach was adopted to investigate two thinking skills programmes for a maximum variation sample of five- to six-year-olds in four schools, in two local authorities (LAs), in England and Wales, using multiple methods. School staff interviewed felt that thinking skills programmes enhanced critical thinking skills and improved use of…

  10. Dietary nitrate supplementation enhances exercise performance in peripheral arterial disease

    PubMed Central

    Kenjale, Aarti A.; Ham, Katherine L.; Stabler, Thomas; Robbins, Jennifer L.; Johnson, Johanna L.; VanBruggen, Mitch; Privette, Grayson; Yim, Eunji; Kraus, William E.

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) results in a failure to adequately supply blood and oxygen (O2) to working tissues and presents as claudication pain during walking. Nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability is essential for vascular health and function. Plasma nitrite (NO2?) is a marker of vascular NO production but may also be a protected circulating “source” that can be converted to NO during hypoxic conditions, possibly aiding perfusion. We hypothesized that dietary supplementation of inorganic nitrate in the form of beetroot (BR) juice would increase plasma NO2? concentration, increase exercise tolerance, and decrease gastrocnemius fractional O2 extraction, compared with placebo (PL). This was a randomized, open-label, crossover study. At each visit, subjects (n = 8) underwent resting blood draws, followed by consumption of 500 ml BR or PL and subsequent blood draws prior to, during, and following a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise (CPX) test. Gastrocnemius oxygenation during the CPX was measured by near-infrared spectroscopy. There were no changes from rest for [NO2?] (152 ± 72 nM) following PL. BR increased plasma [NO2?] after 3 h (943 ± 826 nM; P ? 0.01). Subjects walked 18% longer before the onset of claudication pain (183 ± 84 s vs. 215 ± 99 s; P ? 0.01) and had a 17% longer peak walking time (467 ± 223 s vs. 533 ± 233 s; P ? 0.05) following BR vs. PL. Gastrocnemius tissue fractional O2 extraction was lower during exercise following BR (7.3 ± 6.2 vs. 10.4 ± 6.1 arbitrary units; P ? 0.01). Diastolic blood pressure was lower in the BR group at rest and during CPX testing (P ? 0.05). These findings support the hypothesis that NO2?-related NO signaling increases peripheral tissue oxygenation in areas of hypoxia and increases exercise tolerance in PAD. PMID:21454745

  11. HMGB1 enhances smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration in pulmonary artery remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huan-Liang; Peng, Li-Ping; Chen, Wen-Juan; Tang, Shu-Hai; Sun, Bao-Zhu; Wang, Chun-Ling; Huang, Rui; Xu, Zhi-Jie; Lei, Wei-Fu

    2014-01-01

    HMGB1 is a necessary and critical mediator of acute lung injury and can act as a chemoattractant and anti-apoptosis factor in injury or repair in diseases. In this study we sought to determine whether HMGB1 is involved in the remodeling of pulmonary artery and investigate the mechanism. A rat model of pulmonary artery remodeling was successful induced with LPS infusion and the increasing of pulmonary arteries media was obviously inhibited in rats treated with thrice inject of HMGB1 neutralizing antibody. The percent of areas of tunica media to total artery wall was (0.53±0.15), (0.81±0.10) and (0.59±0.11) in control, LPS and antibody group respectively (p<0.05). Meanwhile, treatment with HMGB1 neutralizing antibody not only decreased the level of HMGB1 mRNA and protein significantly, but inhibited the expression of PCAN and Bcl-2 as well. On the contrary, Bax, a gen which represented the apoptosis, revealed an absolutely reversed trend to Bcl-2 in pulmonary arteries. Experiments in vitro showed that HMGB1 could stimulate the proliferation of hPASMC in MTT test and increase the number of migrated cells in a concentration-dependent manner in chemotaxis assay using modified Boyden chambers. In conclusion, data from this study support the concept that HMGB1 is involved in the remodeling of pulmonary artery by enhancing proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cell. Inhibiting HMGB1 may be a new target to deal with the remodeling of pulmonary artery. PMID:25120760

  12. Characterizing early Alzheimer's disease and disease progression using hippocampal volume and arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ze

    2014-01-01

    Searching for biomarkers sensitive to early Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its progression has been a research priority for two decades. MRI has been increasingly used for this endeavor because of its capability of detecting both structural and functional brain patterns without injecting external contrast agent or radioactive tracers. Recent work has shown sensitivity of hippocampal volume and regional cerebral blood flow for differentiating prodromal AD from normal controls as well as AD. This review provides a summary for the existing literature describing the applications of either or both modalities in early AD studies as well as disease progression assessment. The various findings in the reviewed studies lead to a conclusion of assessing hippocampal volume and arterial spin labeling cerebral blood flow as potential markers for disease detection, and progression monitoring though longitudinal studies are still lacking to fully examine their sensitivity and specificity. PMID:25182742

  13. Early mobilization after protamine reversal of heparin following implantation of phosphorylcholine- coated stents in totally occluded coronary arteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karel K. J. Kuiper; Jan Erik Nordrehaug

    2000-01-01

    Immediate removal of the femoral artery sheath after coronary angioplasty may allow rapid mobilization and reduces the number of in-hospital days. We studied the early and 1-month clinical and angiographic follow-up of patients having heparin reversed with protamine after implantation of phosphorylcholine-coated metal (Divysio) stents, followed by removal of the femoral artery sheath. Fifty patients (37 men, mean age 59

  14. Arterial Blood Pressure Management during Carotid Endarterectomy and Early Cognitive Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Heyer, Eric J.; Mergeche, Joanna L.; Anastasian, Zirka H.; Kim, Minjae; Mallon, Kaitlin A.; Connolly, E. Sander

    2014-01-01

    Background A common practice during cross-clamp of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is to manage mean arterial pressure (MAP) above baseline to optimize collateral cerebral blood flow and reduce risk of ischemic stroke. Objective To determine whether MAP management ?20% above baseline during cross-clamp is associated with lower risk of early cognitive dysfunction, a subtler form of neurologic injury than stroke. Methods One hundred eighty-three patients undergoing CEA were enrolled in this ad hoc study. All patients had radial arterial catheters placed prior to induction of general anesthesia. MAP was managed at the discretion of the anesthesiologist. All patients were evaluated with a battery of neuropsychometric tests pre-operatively and 24hrs post-operatively. Results Overall, 28.4% of CEA patients exhibited early cognitive dysfunction (eCD). Significantly fewer patients with MAP ?20% above baseline during cross-clamp exhibited eCD than those managed <20% above (11.6% vs. 38.6%, P<0.001). In a multivariate logistic regression model, MAP ?20% above baseline during the cross-clamp period was associated with significantly lower risk of eCD (OR: 0.18 [0.07–0.40], P<0.001), while diabetes mellitus (OR: 2.73 [1.14–6.61], P=0.03) and each additional year of education (OR: 1.19 [1.06–1.34], P=0.003) were associated with significantly higher risk of eCD. Conclusion The observations of this study suggest MAP management ?20% above baseline during cross-clamp of the carotid artery may be associated with lower risk of eCD after CEA. More prospective work is necessary to determine whether MAP ?20% above baseline during cross-clamp can improve the safety of this commonly performed procedure. PMID:24335822

  15. Utility of Contrast-Enhanced Transabdominal Ultrasonography to Diagnose Early Chronic Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Azemoto, Nobuaki; Kumagi, Teru; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Hirooka, Masashi; Kuroda, Taira; Koizumi, Mitsuhito; Ohno, Yoshinori; Yamanishi, Hirofumi; Onji, Morikazu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to establish the relationship between the grade of chronic pancreatitis (CP) and pancreatic blood flow as measured by contrast-enhanced transabdominal ultrasonography (CEUS) and to diagnose early CP easily. Methods. This pilot study was conducted in 8 patients with CP, 7 patients with early CP, and 6 control participants. After injecting 0.015?mL/kg of perflubutane by manual bolus, values in one region of interest (ROI) in pancreatic parenchyma and one ROI including the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) were measured. Results. The ratio of blood flow in the SMA and pancreatic parenchyma increased with grade of CP and was significantly higher in patients with CP (5.41; 2.10–11.02) than in patients with early CP (2.46; 1.41–5.05) and control participants (2.32; 1.25–3.04) (P = 0.0279, P = 0.0142, resp.). The ratio of blood flow in the SMA and pancreatic parenchyma correlated with grade of CP (rs = 0.5904, P = 0.0048). Conclusion. The ratio of blood flow correlates with grade of CP on CEUS. This safe and convenient method may be useful to diagnose early CP. PMID:26090406

  16. Factors Associated With Early Atherosclerosis and Arterial Calcifications in Young Subjects With a Benign Phenotype of Obesity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luisa Gilardini; Lucia Pasqualinotto; Silvia Di Matteo; Katherine Caffetto; Marina Croci; Andrea Girola; Cecilia Invitti

    2011-01-01

    We assessed (i) the association between early arterial disease and factors linked to adiposity, dietary habits, and family in a young cohort of 151 obese children and adolescents with less than or equal to one cardiovascular (CV) risk factor, (ii) whether in subjects with carotid calcifications there was an imbalance of calcium–phosphorus homeostasis. Measurement included: carotid ultrasound, oral glucose tolerance

  17. Enhancer RNA facilitates NELF release from immediate early genes.

    PubMed

    Schaukowitch, Katie; Joo, Jae-Yeol; Liu, Xihui; Watts, Jonathan K; Martinez, Carlos; Kim, Tae-Kyung

    2014-10-01

    Enhancer RNAs (eRNAs) are a class of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) expressed from active enhancers, whose function and action mechanism are yet to be firmly established. Here we show that eRNAs facilitate the transition of paused RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) into productive elongation by acting as a decoy for the negative elongation factor (NELF) complex upon induction of immediate early genes (IEGs) in neurons. eRNAs are synthesized prior to the culmination of target gene transcription and interact with the NELF complex. Knockdown of eRNAs expressed at neuronal enhancers impairs transient release of NELF from the specific target promoters during transcriptional activation, coinciding with a decrease in target mRNA induction. The enhancer-promoter interaction was unaffected by eRNA knockdown. Instead, chromatin looping might enable eRNAs to act locally at a specific promoter. Our findings highlight the spatiotemporally regulated action mechanism of eRNAs during early transcriptional elongation. PMID:25263592

  18. Early Development of Arterial Spin Labeling to Measure Regional Brain Blood Flow by MRI

    PubMed Central

    Koretsky, Alan P.

    2014-01-01

    Two major avenues of work converged in the late 1980’s and early 1990’s to give rise to brain perfusion MRI. The development of anatomical brain MRI quickly had as a major goal the generation of angiograms using tricks to label flowing blood in macroscopic vessels. These ideas were aimed at getting information about microcirculatory flow as well. Over the same time course the development of in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy had as its primary goal the assessment of tissue function and in particular, tissue energetics. For this the measurement of the delivery of water to tissue was critical for assessing tissue oxygenation and viability. The measurement of the washin/washout of “freely” diffusible tracers by spectroscopic based techniques pointed the way for quantitative approaches to measure regional blood flow by MRI. These two avenues came together in the development of arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI techniques to measure regional cerebral blood flow. The early use of ASL to measure brain activation to help verify BOLD fMRI led to a rapid development of ASL based perfusion MRI. Today development and applications of regional brain blood flow measurements with ASL continues to be a major area of activity. PMID:22245338

  19. A nanostructured genosensor for the early diagnosis of systemic arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Rolim, Thalita; Cancino, Juliana; Zucolotto, Valtencir

    2015-02-01

    The rapid progress of nanomedicine, especially in areas related to medical imaging and diagnostics, has motivated the development of new nanomaterials that can be combined with biological materials for specific medical applications. One such area of research involves the detection of specific DNA sequences for the early diagnosis of genetic diseases, using nanoparticles-containing genosensors. Typical genosensors devices are based on the use of sensing electrodes - biorecognition platforms - containing immobilized capture DNA probes capable of hybridizing with specific target DNA sequences. In this paper we show that upon an appropriate design of the biorecognition platform, efficient sandwich-type genosensors based upon DNA-AuNPs nanocomplexes can be efficiently applied to the detection of a Systemic Arterial Hypertension (SAH) polymorphism located in intron 16 of the Angiotensin-converter enzyme (ACE) gene. Since SAH is intimately related to heart diseases, especially blood hypertension, its early detection is of great biomedical interest. The biorecognition platforms were assembled using mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMmix), which provided the immobilization of organized architectures with molecular control. Detection of the DNA target sequence at concentrations down to 1 nM was carried out using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). We show that the use of EIS combined with specific nanobiocomplexes represents an efficient method for the unambiguous detection of complementary DNA hybridization for preventative nanomedicine applications. PMID:25653060

  20. Clinical Predictors of Early Infarct-Related Artery Patency Following Thrombolytic Therapy: Importance of Body Weight, Smoking History, Infarct-Related Artery and Choice of Thrombolytic Regimen: The GUSTO-I Experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CONOR F. LUNDERGAN; JONATHAN S. REINER; FACC WILLIAM F. MCCARTHY; KARIN S. COYNE; ROBERT M. CALIFF

    Objectives. The purpose of this study was to determine patient characteristics that are a priori predictors of early infarct related artery patency following thrombolytic therapy, and to provide a paradigm which may identify patients who would be most likely to achieve restoration of normal (TIMI 3) coronary flow in response to thrombolytic therapy. Background. Restoration of infarct-related artery perfusion in

  1. Clinical predictors of early infarct-related artery patency following thrombolytic therapy: importance of body weight, smoking history, infarct-related artery and choice of thrombolytic regimen: the GUSTO-I experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Conor F Lundergan; Jonathan S Reiner; William F McCarthy; Karin S Coyne; Robert M Califf; Allan M Ross

    1998-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of this study was to determine patient characteristics that are a priori predictors of early infarct related artery patency following thrombolytic therapy, and to provide a paradigm which may identify patients who would be most likely to achieve restoration of normal (TIMI 3) coronary flow in response to thrombolytic therapy.Background. Restoration of infarct-related artery perfusion in acute

  2. The association between early arterial oxygenation in the ICU and mortality following cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Sutton, A D J; Bailey, M; Bellomo, R; Eastwood, G M; Pilcher, D V

    2014-11-01

    Many studies have been conducted to investigate the relationship between hyperoxia and mortality in cohorts of intensive care unit (ICU) patients with varied and often contradictory results. The impact of early hyperoxia post ischaemia remains uncertain in various ICU cohorts. We aimed to investigate the association between arterial oxygenation (PaO2) in the first 24 hours in ICU and mortality in patients following cardiac surgery, using a retrospective cohort study of data from the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society adult patient database. Participants were adults admitted to the ICU following cardiac surgery in Australia and New Zealand between 2003 and 2012. Patients were divided according to worst PaO2 level or alveolar-arterial O2 gradient in the 24 hours from admission. We defined 'hyperoxia' as PaO2 ?300 mmHg, 'hypoxia/poor O2 transfer' as either PaO2 <60 mmHg or ratio of PaO2 to fraction of inspired oxygen <300 and 'normoxia' as between hypoxia and hyperoxia. The primary outcome was mortality at hospital discharge. Secondary outcomes were ICU mortality and ICU and hospital length-of-stay. Of the 83,060 patients, 12,188 (14.7%) had hyperoxia, 54,420 (65.5%) had hypoxia/poor O2 transfer and 16,452 (19.8%) had normoxia. There was no association between hyperoxia and in-hospital or ICU mortality compared to normoxia. There was a small increased hospital and ICU length-of-stay for hyperoxic compared to normoxic patients. We concluded that there was no association between mortality and hyperoxia in the first 24 hours in ICU after cardiac surgery. PMID:25342405

  3. Time-Resolved Contrast-Enhanced MR Angiography of Renal Artery Stenosis: Diagnostic Accuracy and Interobserver Variability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Völk; Michael Strotzer; Markus Lenhart; Christoph Manke; Wolfgang R. Nitz; Johannes Seitz; Stefan Feuerbach; Johann Link

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to evaluate diagnostic accuracy and interob- server variability of time-resolved three-dimensional gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography in the detection of renal artery stenosis in comparison with intraarterial digital subtraction an- giography as the standard of reference. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Forty consecutive patients (age range, 25-81 years; mean, 62.9 ± 11.9 years) with suspected renal artery

  4. Low-dose intra-arterial contrast-enhanced MR aortography in patients based on a theoretically derived injection protocol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Potthast; A.-C. Schulte; G. M. Bongartz; R. Hügli; M. Aschwanden; D. Bilecen

    2005-01-01

    Multiple intra-arterial contrast agent injections are necessary during MR-guided endovascular interventions. In respect to the approved limits of maximum daily gadolinium dose, a low-dose injection protocol is mandatory. The objective of this study was to derive and apply a low-dose injection protocol for intra-arterial 3D contrast-enhanced MR aortography in patients. Injection rate (Qinj), concentration of injected gadolinium [Gd]inj and aortal

  5. Early Magnetic Resonance Imaging Prediction of Arterial Recanalization and Late Infarct Volume in Acute Carotid Artery Stroke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Hermier; Norbert Nighoghossian; Patrice Adeleine; Yves Berthezène; Laurent Derex; Hasan Yilmaz; Jean-François Dugor; Pascal Dardel; François Cotton; Frédéric Philippeau; Paul Trouillas; Jean-Claude Froment

    2003-01-01

    In patients with acute ischemic stroke, early recanalization may save tissue at risk for ischemic infarction, thus resulting in smaller infarcts and better clinical outcome. The hypothesis that clinical and diffusion- and perfusion-weighted imaging (DWI, PWI) parameters may have a predictive value for early recanalization and final infarct size was assessed. Twenty-nine patients were prospectively enrolled and underwent sequential magnetic

  6. Nonlinear Adaptive Speech Enhancement Inspired by Early Auditory Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amir Hussain; Tariq S. Durrani; Ali Alkulaibi; Nhamo Mtetwa

    2004-01-01

    \\u000a This paper presents non-linear adaptive speech enhancement schemes inspired by features of early auditory processing. A generic\\u000a multi-microphone sub-band adaptive (MMSBA) framework is described which allows for the manipulation of several factors that\\u000a may influence the intelligibility and perceived quality of the processed speech. The proposed framework supports inclusion\\u000a of: non-linear distribution of sub-bands (as in humans), cross-band effects such

  7. Use of Intra-Arterial Carbon-Dioxide-Enhanced Ultrasonography for Guidance of Radiofrequency Ablation and Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ohmoto, Kenji, E-mail: ohmotok@med.kawasaki-m.ac.jp; Yoshioka, Naoko; Tomiyama, Yasuyuki; Shibata, Norikuni; Kawase, Tomoya; Yoshida, Koji; Kuboki, Makoto; Yamamoto, Shinichiro [Kawasaki Medical School, Division of Hepatology, Department of Medicine (Japan)

    2006-12-15

    A 73-year-old man with hepatitis-C-related cirrhosis and an elevated alpha-fetoprotein level and tumor in segment 3 of his liver was referred for interventional radiologic treatment. He was not a candidate for surgical resection due to impaired liver function and his personal preferences. On conventional ultrasonography no lesion could be detected, but the tumor was clearly depicted by intra-arterial carbon-dioxide-enhanced ultrasonography. Radiofrequency ablation was performed safely and accurately under the guidance of carbon-dioxide-enhanced ultrasonography. By concomitant performance of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization with radiofrequency ablation, extensive necrosis was obtained and adequate tumor volume reduction achieved with only one treatment session.

  8. The vascular-disrupting agent, combretastatin-A4-phosphate, enhances neurogenic vasoconstriction in rat small arteries.

    PubMed

    Su, Junjing; Laursen, Britt E; Eskildsen-Helmond, Yvonne; Horsman, Michael R; Simonsen, Ulf

    2012-11-15

    Combretastatin-A4-phosphate (CA4P/CA4), an anti-cancer drug, induces tumour hypoxia by destabilizing the cytoskeleton in tumour endothelial cells. Hypertensive side effects have been observed. We hypothesized that CA4P/CA4 lead to endothelial dysfunction followed by increased vasoconstriction. Mesenteric small arteries and femoral arteries isolated from male Wistar rats were mounted in microvascular myographs for isometric tension recordings and electrical field stimulation (EFS). Immunoblotting of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was performed on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). CA4P failed per se to change vascular tone. In femoral arteries, endothelial cell removal, l-nitro-arginine (l-NNA, an inhibitor of eNOS) and CA4P enhanced phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction, while in mesenteric arteries only l-NNA leftward shifted concentration-response curves for phenylephrine. CA4P enhanced vasoconstriction induced by low frequency (0.5-4Hz) EFS in femoral arteries, but not in mesenteric arteries. Neurogenic contractions were inhibited by prazosin, an ?(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist. In mesenteric arteries, CA4P and l-NNA inhibited vasorelaxation induced by vanadate, a tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor. CA4P did not affect acetylcholine-induced relaxation. In HUVECs, CA4P increased phosphorylation at eNOS-Thr(495), a negative regulatory site, while the positive phosphorylation site eNOS-Ser(1177) was not affected. CA4 neither influenced the actions of phenylephrine, vanadate nor acetylcholine in femoral and mesenteric arteries. In conclusion, our findings suggest that CA4P, but not CA4, enhances sympathetic adrenergic vasoconstriction probably by increasing eNOS-Thr(495) phosphorylation, in a tissue selective manner. These findings encourage further investigation to show that the hypertension and regional organ ischemia induced by CA4P can be avoided by concomitant treatment with an ?(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist. PMID:22981665

  9. Dealing with Coronary Artery Disease in Early Encountering: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Mojalli, Mohammad; Karimi Moonaghi, Hossein; Khosravan, Shahla; Mohammadpure, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases is rising in industrial and developing countries. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is the most common cardiovascular disease. Thus, understanding the signs and risk factors of CAD from the patients’ perspective and their ways of dealing with this disease is of vital importance. Objectives: This qualitative study aimed to explore the Iranian patients’ viewpoints about CAD and how they dealt with it in their first encounter. Patients and Methods: This study was a qualitative content analysis conducted on 18 patients with CAD. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews. Initially, purposeful sampling was performed followed by maximum variety. Sampling continued until data saturation. Then, all the interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. After all, the data were analyzed by constant comparative analysis using MAXQUDA2010 software. Results: The themes manifested in this study included “invasion of disease” with subthemes of “warning signs” and “risk factors” and “confrontation strategies” with subthemes of “seeking for information”, “follow-up”, and “control measures”. Conclusions: The results of this study described the patients’ perceptions of CAD and how they dealt with this disorder in early encountering. Based on the results, physicians and nurses should focus on empowerment of patients by facilitating this process as well as by educating them with regards to dealing with CAD. PMID:25614861

  10. Early bilingualism enhances mechanisms of false-belief reasoning.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Agnes Melinda

    2009-01-01

    In their first years, children's understanding of mental states seems to improve dramatically, but the mechanisms underlying these changes are still unclear. Such 'theory of mind' (ToM) abilities may arise during development, or have an innate basis, developmental changes reflecting limitations of other abilities involved in ToM tasks (e.g. inhibition). Special circumstances such as early bilingualism may enhance ToM development or other capacities required by ToM tasks. Here we compare 3-year-old bilinguals and monolinguals on a standard ToM task, a modified ToM task and a control task involving physical reasoning. The modified ToM task mimicked a language-switch situation that bilinguals often encounter and that could influence their ToM abilities. If such experience contributes to an early consolidation of ToM in bilinguals, they should be selectively enhanced in the modified task. In contrast, if bilinguals have an advantage due to better executive inhibitory abilities involved in ToM tasks, they should outperform monolinguals on both ToM tasks, inhibitory demands being similar. Bilingual children showed an advantage on the two ToM tasks but not on the control task. The precocious success of bilinguals may be associated with their well-developed control functions formed during monitoring and selecting languages. PMID:19120412

  11. Early postoperative outcome and medium-term survival in 540 diabetic and 2239 nondiabetic patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zoltán Szabó; Erik Håkanson; Rolf Svedjeholm

    2002-01-01

    Background. An increasing proportion of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) are diabetics. Patient characteristics, early postoperative outcome, and midterm survival in diabetic patients after CABG were investigated.Methods. A total of 2779 consecutive patients undergoing isolated CABG during 1995 to 1999 were studied, 19.4% of whom had diabetes mellitus. Demographic and peri-procedural data were registered prospectively in a computerized

  12. Improved Method of Porcine Pancreas Procurement With Arterial Flush and Ductal Injection Enhances Islet Isolation Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Anazawa, T.; Balamurugan, A.N.; Papas, K.K.; Avgoustiniatos, E.S.; Ferrer, J.; Matsumoto, S.; Sutherland, D.E.R.; Hering, B.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Several pancreas procurement procedures have been used for porcine islet isolation; however, their impact on outcomes has not been extensively studied. We evaluated an advanced procurement technique for porcine islet isolation designed to reduce warm ischemia as well as to remove blood content and enhance cooling of the pancreas by implementing a vascular flush and ductal preservation. Method Pancreata procured from adult Landrace pigs were divided into 3 different surgical protocols: Pancreatectomy utilizing only surface cooling (group 1; n = 24); surface cooling and ductal injection with cold preservation solution before pancreatectomy (group 2; n = 12); or surface cooling, ductal injection, and an approach by selectively flushing through the celiac trunk and the superior mesenteric artery (group 3; n = 14). We assessed the islet isolation results and quality using in vitro and in vivo assays. Results Significantly higher overall per gram pancreas islet yields were obtained from group 3 pigs compared with the other groups. Measurements of islet viability after 7 days of culture, as assessed by oxygen consumption rate per DNA, showed that group 3 islets displayed the highest values. Sustained normoglycemia was observed in diabetic nude mice transplanted with 2000 islet equivalents from all 3 groups. Discussion This study demonstrated that an advanced pancreas procurement technique including ductal preservation and selective arterial flush with cold preservation solution provided significant improvements in porcine islet isolation outcomes. PMID:20692400

  13. Impact of occult renal impairment on early and late outcomes following coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Marui, Akira; Okabayashi, Hitoshi; Komiya, Tatsuhiko; Tanaka, Shiro; Furukawa, Yutaka; Kita, Toru; Kimura, Takeshi; Sakata, Ryuzo

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES High serum creatinine is considered an independent risk factor for poor outcomes following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). However, the impact of occult renal impairment (ORI), defined as an impaired glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with a normal serum creatinine (SCr) level, remains unclear. Thus, we sought to investigate the impact of ORI on outcomes after CABG. METHODS Among patients undergoing their first percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or CABG enrolled in the CREDO-Kyoto Registry (a registry of first-time PCI and CABG patients in Japan), 1842 patients with normal SCr levels undergoing CABG were enrolled in the study. Patients were divided into two groups based on preoperative estimated GFR calculated by the Cockcroft–Gault equation: 1339 patients with estimated GFR of ?60 ml/min/1.73 m2 (normal group) and 503 with estimated GFR of <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 (ORI group). RESULTS Preoperative estimated GFR differed between the groups (51.3 ± 6.6 vs 85.8 ± 23.0 ml/min/1.73 m2, P < 0.01). ORI was associated with high in-hospital mortality (3.2 vs 1.0%, P < 0.01) and need for dialysis (2.0 vs 0.2%, P < 0.01). In terms of long-term outcomes, ORI was associated with high mortality compared with the normal (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.72 [1.16–2.54], P < 0.01) and high incidence of composite cardiovascular events (death, stroke or myocardial infarction: 1.53 [1.16–2.02], P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS ORI was an independent risk factor for early and late death as well as cardiovascular events in patients undergoing CABG with normal SCr levels. A more accurate evaluation of renal function through a combination of SCr and estimated GFR is needed in patients with normal SCr levels. PMID:23793709

  14. Assessment of Renal Artery Stenosis: Comparison of Captopril Renography and Gadolinium-Enhanced Breath-Hold MR Angiography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. BONGERS; J. BAKKER; J. J. BEUTLER; F. J. A. BEEK; J. M. H. DE KLERK

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To determine the accuracy of captopril renography (CR) and gadolinium-enhanced breath-hold magnetic resonance (MR) angiography in the diagnosis of 50–99% renal artery stenosis (RAS).MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-three patients with possible RAS, of whom 53% had renal function impairment (creatinine >130?mol\\/l), were included.99mTc-mercaptoacetyl triglycine (MAG3) renography was performed after an oral dose of 25mg captopril. Gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography was performed

  15. Comparison of digital subtraction angiography with gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Thornton; J. O'Callaghan; J. Walshe; E. O'Brien; J. C. Varghese; M. J. Lee

    1999-01-01

    .   Renal artery stenosis (RAS) is a treatable cause of hypertension and renal failure for which no ideal screening technique\\u000a is currently available. We evaluated the use of dynamic gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) for the diagnosis\\u000a of RAS. Sixty-two patients with secondary hypertension were enrolled in the study. All patients had conventional renal angiography\\u000a and gadolinium enhanced MRA. The

  16. Influence of diabetes mellitus on early and late outcome after coronary artery bypass grafting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vinod H Thourani; William S Weintraub; Bernardo Stein; Suzanne S. P Gebhart; Joseph M Craver; Ellis L Jones; Robert A Guyton

    1999-01-01

    Background. Diabetes mellitus is an established independent risk factor for significant morbidity and mortality after coronary artery bypass grafting.Methods. The impact of diabetes on short- and long-term follow-up after coronary artery bypass grafting was studied by comparing the outcomes between 9,920 patients without diabetes mellitus and 2,278 patients with diabetes from 1978 to 1993.Results. Compared with nondiabetic patients, the group

  17. Mechanism of acetylcholine-induced constriction enhanced by endothelial removal in isolated, perfused canine basilar arteries.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, T; Cook, D A

    1995-06-01

    We examined the responses to intraluminally applied acetylcholine (ACh) in isolated and perfused canine basilar arteries by the stainless-steel cannula-inserting method. In control vessels with intact endothelium, ACh produced a slight vasodilatation followed by a long-lasting vasoconstriction in the absence of induced tone. Propranolol, a beta-adrenoceptor blocker, had no effect on the response to ACh. After endothelial removal with intraluminal saponin, the constrictor component of the response to ACh was significantly enhanced, and the constrictions to prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) and potassium chloride (KCl) were significantly potentiated. After exposure to extraluminal oxyhemoglobin, the ACh-induced constriction was significantly augmented, whereas the dilator component of the response to calcium ionophore A23187 was significantly attenuated. The enhanced constriction to ACh after endothelial removal was significantly blocked by OKY-046 (a thromboxane synthetase inhibitor) and nimodipine (a dihydropyridine calcium antagonist), but was slightly though not significantly suppressed by AA-861 (a lipoxygenase inhibitor). The response to PGF2 alpha was not altered by OKY-046 or AA-861. These results suggest that the potentiation of ACh-induced constriction after endothelial removal may be mediated in part by thromboxane A2 (TXA2), linked with extracellular calcium entry in smooth muscle cells (SMC). This mechanism might be involved in the pathogenesis of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). PMID:7564339

  18. Coronary and systemic arterial physiology and immunohistochemical markers related to early coronary arterial lesions in beagle dogs given the potassium channel opener, ZD6169, or the endothelin receptor antagonist, ZD1611.

    PubMed

    Jones, Huw Bowen; Björkman, Jan-Arne; Schofield, Jason

    2013-07-01

    We evaluated immunohistochemistry (von Willebrand Factor [vWF] or fibrinogen) and systemic and coronary arterial physiological parameters in beagle dogs to investigate early arterial lesions induced by the potassium channel opener, ZD6169, or the endothelin receptor antagonist, ZD1611. Dogs given an oral dose of ZD6169 (experiment 1) were terminated 1 day later and showed arterial and myocardial lesions. Minimal arterial lesions exhibited few condensed medial smooth muscle cells only, with others showing segmental medial necrosis occasionally with medial/adventitial acute inflammation. Intercellular immunostaining was seen in ostensibly normal tissue, where no pathology was present in conventionally stained sections. vWF and fibrinogen are valuable tools for detecting disruption of arterial integrity. In experiment 2, 2 dogs were given a single high dose of ZD6169 or ZD1611 and BP/HR monitored by conventional measures or telemetry. Substantially reduced systolic/diastolic BP and increased HR occurred within 10 min of ZD6169 infusion: ZD1611 caused minor BP decrease and HR increase. In experiment 3, both drugs given to anaesthetized dogs induced markedly exaggerated systolic phasic forward and reverse flow in left descending and right coronary arteries. Diastolic coronary artery flows were unaffected with ZD1611 and increased slightly with ZD6169. In both coronary arteries, the ZD1611-induced increase in flows paralleled decreased resistance. PMID:23125115

  19. The effect of gender on the early results of coronary artery bypass surgery in the younger patients' group

    PubMed Central

    Uncu, Hasan; Acipayam, Mehmet; Altinay, Levent; Do?an, Pinar; Davarc?, Isil; Özsöyler, ?brahim

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In this retrospective study, we aimed to determine the risk factors for coronary artery bypass surgery in patients under 45 years of age, and evaluate the early postoperative results and the effect of gender. Methods A total of 324 patients under 45 years of age who undergone on-pump coronary artery bypass surgery between April 12, 2004 and January 10, 2012 were included to the study. Patients divided into groups as follows: Group 1 consisted of 269 males (mean age 41.3), Group 2 consisted of 55 females (mean age 41.6). Preoperative risk factors, intraoperative and postoperative data and early mortality rates of the groups were compared. Results Smoking rate was significantly higher in Group 1. Diabetes mellitus incidence and body mass index were significantly higher in Group 2 (P values P=0.01; P=0.0001; P=0.04 respectively). The aortic cross-clamping and cardiopulmonary bypass time and number of grafts per patient were significantly higher in Group 1 (P values P=0.04; P=0.04; P=0.002 respectively). There were no deaths in either group. Conclusion We found that gender has no effect on early mortality rates of the coronary bypass surgery patients under 45 years. PMID:25714211

  20. Cutting-Balloon Angioplasty in Transplant Renal Artery Stenosis as First-Line Treatment in the Early Postoperative Period

    SciTech Connect

    Ucar, Adem, E-mail: ucaradem@yahoo.com [Istanbul University, Interventional Radiology Department, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Yahyayev, Aghakishi, E-mail: aghakishi@yahoo.com [Istanbul University, Radiology Department, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Bakkaloglu, Huseyin, E-mail: drhuseyin@yahoo.com [Istanbul University, Transplantlogy Department, General Surgery, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Agayev, Ayaz, E-mail: ayazagayev@gmail.com [Istanbul University, Radiology Department, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Aydin, Ali Emin, E-mail: alieminaydin@hotmail.com [Istanbul University, Transplantlogy Department, General Surgery, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Rozanes, Izzet, E-mail: rozanes@superonline.com [Istanbul University, Interventional Radiology Department, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine (Turkey)

    2011-02-15

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty has been successfully used for the treatment of transplant renal artery stenosis (RAS). Cutting-balloon angioplasty (CBA) is being used as a second option in pressure-resistant stenosis. It is thought that CBA is less traumatic and therefore restenosis occurs less frequently than in conventional angioplasty. This case report describes the unusual use of a cutting balloon in transplant RAS as a first option in the early postoperative period. Long-term follow-up data are also presented.

  1. Early occlusion of the non-infarct-related coronary artery following successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention in ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Pr?gowski, Jerzy; Bekta, Pawe?; Chmielak, Zbigniew; Witkowski, Adam

    2015-01-01

    We present a clinical case of early occlusion of the non-infarct-related artery (non-IRA) in a patient with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). Several hours after successful percutaneous treatment of the occluded right coronary artery the patient developed a second myocardial infarction, which was caused by acute occlusion of the left anterior descending artery, which had a significant lesion in the proximal segment. The lesion was diagnosed during the first catheterization, but was left untreated. We discuss the potential advantages and risks associated with the ad-hoc multivessel PCI strategy in STEMI.

  2. Interobserver Agreement in Assessing Early CT Signs of Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rudiger von Kummer; Rolf Holle; Ulrich Grzyska; Erich Hofmann; Olav Jansen; Dirk Petersen; Martin Schumacher; Klaus Sartor

    PURPOSE: To assess the reliability of detecting signs of hemispheric infarction on CT scans obtained within 6 hours of the onset of symptoms. METHODS: A neuroradiologist selected 12 normal and 33 abnormal CT studies showing the hyperdense middle cerebral artery sign (HMCAS) (n 5 10), brain swelling (n 5 22), and parenchymal hypodensity (n 5 33) from two series of

  3. Hepatic Arterial Infusion with Tumor Necrosis Factor-? Induces Early Hepatic Hyperperfusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Schäfer; J. Sperling; J. E. Slotta; O. Kollmar; M. K. Schilling; M. D. Menger; S. Richter

    2012-01-01

    Background: Hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) has been developed for high-dose regional chemotherapy of unresectable liver metastases or primary liver malignancies. While it is well known that high concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? damage tumor blood perfusion, there is no information on whether autochthonous liver perfusion is affected by HAI with TNF-?. Therefore, we investigated the effects of HAI with

  4. An Early Diagnosis of Gastroepiploic Arterial Aneurysm during a Routine Abdominal Ultrasound Study

    PubMed Central

    Casella, Giovanni; Sartirana, Adriana; Vandoni, Pietro; Di Bella, Camillo; Pagni, Fabio; Nobili, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Gastroepiploic arterial aneurysm (GEAA) is a rare condition, but the rupture risk is very high. We report the case of a patient with incidental finding of GEAA during US examination. The diagnosis was confirmed by a computed tomography and an angiographic study. A classic laparotomy with aneurysmectomy has been successfully performed. PMID:22606421

  5. Clinical significance, angiographic characteristics, and short-term outcomes in 30 patients with early coronary artery graft failure

    PubMed Central

    Virani, S.S.; Alam, M.; Mendoza, C.E.; Arora, H.; Ferreira, A.C.; de Marchena, E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite technical advances in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), early postoperative myocardial ischaemia still remains a challenging problem. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, clinical features, angiographic characteristics, and management of early graft failure in the present CABG era. Methods Between January 1997 and December 2002, 1731 patients underwent CABG at our institution. Coronary angiography was performed in patients with clinical evidence of early postoperative ischaemia (?3 months). Thirty of these patients with graft failure constituted the population of this study. Results Off-pump and on-pump CABG were almost evenly performed in these patients [n=16 (53%) and n=14 (47%) respectively]. Acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina were the leading indications for coronary angiography in the majority of patients [n=28 (93%)]. The most common cause of graft failure was occlusion / thrombosis [n=20 (67%)]. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was offered to the majority of patients [n=22 (73%)]. Of these patients, 14 underwent PCI to native coronary arteries, whereas eight underwent PCI to the culprit vessel. Three patients underwent reoperation, and five received medical management. Four patients (13%) died in hospital (two after redo CABG, one after unsuccessful PCI, and one patient managed medically). Two patients (7%) had nonfatal major complications (one non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction and one stroke). Conclusion Early graft failure generally presents as acute coronary syndrome. Graft occlusion/ thrombosis is the leading cause of ischaemia. Patients with graft failure can undergo PCI with a relatively low risk, but the need for redo CABG in associated with a high mortality. (Neth Heart J 2009;17:13-7.) PMID:19148333

  6. Artery tortuosity syndrome exhibiting early-onset emphysema with novel compound heterozygous SLC2A10 mutations.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoshiko; Fujii, Katsunori; Yoshida, Akiko; Morisaki, Hiroko; Kohno, Yoichi; Morisaki, Takayuki

    2013-04-01

    We report on a 2-year-old Japanese boy with early-onset pulmonary emphysema, exhibiting dysmorphic face, loose skin, and inguinal and Morgagni hernias. He was admitted to our hospital owing to refractory respiratory infection. On the basis of his clinical features, we investigated the SLC2A10 gene and identified novel compound heterozygous mutations of c.417T > A and c.692G > A, leading to the diagnosis of artery tortuosity syndrome (ATS). This syndrome is an extremely rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by tortuosity and elongation of the large and medium-sized arteries, hyperextensible skin, and diverse hernias, mostly reported from Europe and Middle Eastern countries, but not from Asia. Although chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, namely, emphysema, has not been well documented in ATS, it may be likely because TGF-beta up-regulation is known to be evoked by SLC2A10 mutations, resulting in reconstruction of pulmonary endothelial cells and emphysema. This is the first report of ATS associated with early-onset pulmonary emphysema, suggesting that patients with ATS may also require close attention for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:23494979

  7. Contrast-enhanced MR angiography vs intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography for carotid imaging: activity-based cost analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JeanMarie U-King-Im; William Hollingworth; Rikin A. Trivedi; Justin J. Cross; Nicholas J. Higgins; Martin J. Graves; Peter J. Kirkpatrick; Nagui M. Antoun; Jonathan H. Gillard

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the costs of performing contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE MRA) with intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (DSA) for the evaluation of carotid atherosclerotic disease. Activity-based cost analysis was used to identify the costs of performing each procedure. The variable direct costs of performing CE MRA and DSA were determined in 20 patients by using

  8. Maternal alcohol consumption in pregnancy enhances arterial stiffness and alters vasodilator function that varies between vascular beds in fetal sheep

    PubMed Central

    Parkington, Helena C; Kenna, Kelly R; Sozo, Foula; Coleman, Harold A; Bocking, Alan; Brien, James F; Harding, Richard; Walker, David W; Morley, Ruth; Tare, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    While the impact of alcohol consumption by pregnant women on fetal neurodevelopment has received much attention, the effects on the cardiovascular system are not well understood. We hypothesised that repeated exposure to alcohol (ethanol) in utero would alter fetal arterial reactivity and wall stiffness, key mechanisms leading to cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Ethanol (0.75 g (kg body weight)–1) was infused intravenously into ewes over 1 h daily for 39 days in late pregnancy (days 95–133 of pregnancy, term ?147 days). Maternal and fetal plasma ethanol concentrations at the end of the hour were ?115 mg dl?1, and then declined to apparent zero over 8 h. At necropsy (day 134), fetal body weight and fetal brain–body weight ratio were not affected by alcohol infusion. Small arteries (250–300 ?m outside diameter) from coronary, renal, mesenteric, femoral (psoas) and cerebral beds were isolated. Endothelium-dependent vasodilatation sensitivity was reduced 10-fold in coronary resistance arteries, associated with a reduction in endothelial nitric oxide synthase mRNA (P = 0.008). Conversely, vasodilatation sensitivity was enhanced 10-fold in mesenteric and renal resistance arteries. Arterial stiffness was markedly increased (P = 0.0001) in all five vascular beds associated with an increase in elastic modulus and, in cerebral vessels, with an increase in collagen I? mRNA. Thus, we show for the first time that fetal arteries undergo marked and regionally variable adaptations as a consequence of repeated alcohol exposure. These alcohol-induced vascular effects occurred in the apparent absence of fetal physical abnormalities or fetal growth restriction. PMID:24756643

  9. Cyclic AMP selectively enhances bradykinin receptor synthesis and expression in cultured arterial smooth muscle. Inhibition of angiotensin II and vasopressin response.

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, B S

    1994-01-01

    Bradykinin receptors on vascular smooth muscle may play an important role in regulating the endogenous effects of the vascular kallikrein-kinin system. The present study examined the effect of cyclic nucleotides on bradykinin-stimulated responses in cultured arterial smooth muscle cells. Short term stimulation (1 min) with cyclic AMP produced a variable inhibition of bradykinin-stimulated calcium mobilization which was lost in later passaged cells. However, long-term stimulation (24 h) produced a consistent increase in bradykinin-stimulated calcium mobilization in both early and late passaged cells. Further analysis demonstrated that chronic exposure to cAMP produced a twofold increase in both the number of cell surface bradykinin receptors and in bradykinin-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis. The increase in bradykinin receptors was time dependent (> 7 h) and blocked by protein synthesis inhibitors, suggesting that cAMP enhanced the synthesis of new bradykinin receptors. The increase in bradykinin receptor binding and calcium mobilization was also stimulated by cholera toxin, forskolin, and isobutylmethylxanthine, but not isoproterenol or prostaglandin E2. Of considerable interest, prolonged exposure to cAMP inhibited both angiotensin II and arginine vasopressin-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis and intracellular calcium mobilization. In summary, prolonged treatment with cAMP selectively stimulates the synthesis and expression of bradykinin receptors on arterial smooth muscle while decreasing the responsiveness to vasoconstrictor agonists such as angiotensin II and vasopressin. Images PMID:8200990

  10. Follow-up of true visceral artery aneurysm after coil embolization by three-dimensional contrast-enhanced MR angiography

    PubMed Central

    Koganemaru, Masamichi; Abe, Toshi; Nonoshita, Masaaki; Iwamoto, Ryoji; Kusumoto, Masashi; Kuhara, Asako; Kugiyama, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to evaluate the outcomes of coil embolization of true visceral artery aneurysms by three-dimensional contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) angiography. MATERIALS AND METHODS We used three-dimensional contrast-enhanced MR angiography, which included source images, to evaluate 23 patients (mean age, 60 years; range, 28–83 years) with true visceral artery aneurysms (splenic, n=15; hepatic, n=2; gastroduodenal, n=2; celiac, n=2; pancreaticoduodenal, n=1; gastroepiploic, n=1) who underwent coil embolization. Angiographic aneurysmal occlusion was revealed in all cases. Follow-up MR angiography was conducted with either a 1.5 or 3 Tesla system 3–25 months (mean, 18 months) after embolization. MR angiography was evaluated for aneurysmal occlusion, hemodynamic status, and complications. RESULTS Complete aneurysmal occlusion was determined in 22 patients (96%) on follow-up MR angiography (mean follow-up period, 18 months). Neck recanalization, which was observed at nine and 20 months after embolization, was confirmed in one of eight patients (13%) using a neck preservation technique. In this patient, a small neck recanalization covered by a coil mass was demonstrated. The complete hemodynamic status after embolization was determined in 21 patients (91%); the visualization of several collateral vessels, such as short gastric arteries, after parent artery occlusion was poor compared with that seen on digital subtraction angiography in the remaining two patients (9%). An asymptomatic localized splenic infarction was confirmed in one patient (4%). CONCLUSION Our study presents the follow-up results from three-dimensional contrast-enhanced MR angiography, which confirmed neck recanalization, the approximate hemodynamic status, and complications. This effective and less invasive method may be suitable for serial follow-up after coil embolization of true visceral aneurysms. PMID:24356294

  11. Transposition of great arteries. Early results of Mustard's operation in paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Sorland, S J; Tjonneland, S; Hall, K V

    1976-06-01

    Between May 1969 and June 1975, 43 patients with d-transposition of the great arteries, ranging in age from 2 months to 13 years (mean 19 months), underwent surgical correction. In the first 3 patients Mustard's original method was followed. Later a modified procedure was performed using a Teflon patch. Forty-two of the 43 patients had previously had 50 various palliative procedures, of which 30 were balloon atrial septostomy only. Five patients died in hospital (up to 5 weeks after operation). Of the 32 patients with simple repair of transposition of the great arteries (including 3 with ligation of a persistent ductus arteriosus), 3 died. One patient died as a result of complete AV block, one as a result of renal damage associated with unrelieved coarctation of the aorta, and one of cerebral infarction and peritonitis which probably were initiated preoperatively. Six patients who had additional surgery for pulmonary stenosis survived, including 3 patients who had closure of ventricur septal defect, including 2 who had debanding of the pulmonary artery, 2 died in a low cardiac output state. One infant operated on for subpulmonary stenosis developed permanent complete AV block and was successfully treated with a pacemaker. All the patients with combined operations had some problems postoperatively. The survivors improved greatly, but 2 patients died suddenly one, and one and a half years after the operation respectively. PMID:58661

  12. Test-bolus injection for optimization of arterial phase imaging during contrast-enhanced hepatic MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Yu, J S; Kim, K W; Jo, B J; Jeong, M G; Kim, J K; Hahm, J K; Lee, J T; Yoo, H S

    2000-08-01

    Contrast enhancement during the dynamic MR imaging is important for the detection and characterization of focal liver lesions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not a timing examination with a injection of a 1.0-mL bolus of gadopentetate dimeglumine into the antecubital vein followed by rapid dynamic scanning and measurement of signal intensity of the aorta could help to obtain proper arterial-dominant phase images for the characterization of focal hepatic lesions during subsequent multiphase dynamic MR imaging. The imaging delay to acquisition of the first gadolinium-enhanced image for multiphase dynamic MR imaging was set to equal the time to peak aortic enhancement during the test examination. The first contrast-enhanced images of 80 patients with 160 focal liver lesions (hepatocellular carcinoma, n = 79; cavernous hemangioma, n = 51; metastatic tumor, n = 30) were then retrospectively reviewed. Peak aortic enhancement occurred between 10 and 28 seconds (mean, 16.5 seconds +/- 3.1) after starting the infusion of contrast material in 80 patients during the test-examination. Depending on the findings of intrahepatic vascular enhancement on the full-scale dynamic images, hepatic arterial phase (n = 11, 14%) or sinusoid phase (n = 65, 81%) imaging was obtained during the first gadolinium-enhanced acquisition in 76 (95%) of 80 patients. Three different lesions were well characterized and easily distinguished from each other (p < .0001) on the first-phase images depending on their enhancement pattern. In the majority of patients, timing examination with test-bolus injection was helpful in obtaining qualified images for the characterization of various focal lesions. PMID:10992807

  13. Assessment of vessel permeability by combining dynamic contrast-enhanced and arterial spin labeling MRI.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ho-Ling; Chang, Ting-Ting; Yan, Feng-Xian; Li, Cheng-He; Lin, Yu-Shi; Wong, Alex M

    2015-06-01

    The forward volumetric transfer constant (K(trans)), a physiological parameter extracted from dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI, is weighted by vessel permeability and tissue blood flow. The permeability?×?surface area product per unit mass of tissue (PS) in brain tumors was estimated in this study by combining the blood flow obtained through pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (PCASL) and K(trans) obtained through DCE MRI. An analytical analysis and a numerical simulation were conducted to understand how errors in the flow and K(trans) estimates would propagate to the resulting PS. Fourteen pediatric patients with brain tumors were scanned on a clinical 3-T MRI scanner. PCASL perfusion imaging was performed using a three-dimensional (3D) fast-spin-echo readout module to determine blood flow. DCE imaging was performed using a 3D spoiled gradient-echo sequence, and the K(trans) map was obtained with the extended Tofts model. The numerical analysis demonstrated that the uncertainty of PS was predominantly dependent on that of K(trans) and was relatively insensitive to the flow. The average PS values of the whole tumors ranged from 0.006 to 0.217?min(-1), with a mean of 0.050?min(-1) among the patients. The mean K(trans) value was 18% lower than the PS value, with a maximum discrepancy of 25%. When the parametric maps were compared on a voxel-by-voxel basis, the discrepancies between PS and K(trans) appeared to be heterogeneous within the tumors. The PS values could be more than two-fold higher than the K(trans) values for voxels with high K(trans) levels. This study proposes a method that is easy to implement in clinical practice and has the potential to improve the quantification of the microvascular properties of brain tumors. PMID:25880892

  14. Enhanced expression of TLR4 in smooth muscle cells in human atherosclerotic coronary arteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazunori Otsui; Nobutaka Inoue; Seiichi Kobayashi; Rio Shiraki; Tomoyuki Honjo; Motonori Takahashi; Ken-ichi Hirata; Seinosuke Kawashima; Mitsuhiro Yokoyama

    2007-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an essential role in innate immunity as components of the primary defense system against microbial\\u000a infections. It has become evident that TLRs are also involved in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases. However,\\u000a the expression patterns of TLRs in the human coronary arteries of coronary artery disease (CAD) patients and the regulatory\\u000a mechanisms of their expression

  15. The usefulness of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in the early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma viability after transarterial chemoembolization: pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Youn Zoo; Park, So Yeon; Choi, Eun Hee; Baik, Soon Koo; Kwon, Sang Ok; Kim, Young Ju

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The therapeutic effect of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is usually assessed using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). However, dense lipiodol depositions can mask the enhancement of viable HCC tissue in MDCT. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) could be effective in detecting small areas of viability and patency in vessels. We investigated whether arterial enhancement in CEUS after treatment with TACE can be used to detect HCC viability earlier than when using MDCT. Methods Twelve patients received CEUS, MDCT, and gadoxetic-acid-enhanced dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline and 4 and 12 weeks after TACE. The definition of viable HCC was defined as MRI positivity after 4 or 12 weeks. Results Eight of the 12 patients showed MRI positivity at 4 or 12 weeks. All patients with positive CEUS findings at 4 weeks (n=8) showed MRI positivity and residual viable HCC at 4 or 12 weeks. Five of the eight patients with positive CEUS findings at 4 weeks had negative results on the 4-week MDCT scan. Four (50%) of these eight patients did not have MRI positivity at 4 weeks and were ultimately confirmed as having residual HCC tissue at the 12-week MRI. Kappa statistics revealed near-perfect agreement between CEUS and MRI (?=1.00) and substantial agreement between MDCT and MRI (?=0.67). Conclusions In the assessment of the response to TACE, CEUS at 4 weeks showed excellent results for detecting residual viable HCC, which suggests that CEUS can be used as an early additive diagnosis tool when deciding early additional treatment with TACE. PMID:26157754

  16. Intermittent pneumatic leg compressions enhance muscle performance and blood flow in a model of peripheral arterial insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Roseguini, Bruno T.; Arce-Esquivel, Arturo A.; Newcomer, Sean C.; Yang, Hsiao T.; Terjung, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Despite the escalating prevalence in the aging population, few therapeutic options exist to treat patients with peripheral arterial disease. Application of intermittent pneumatic leg compressions (IPC) is regarded as a promising noninvasive approach to treat this condition, but the clinical efficacy, as well the mechanistic basis of action of this therapy, remain poorly defined. We tested the hypothesis that 2 wk of daily application of IPC enhances exercise tolerance by improving blood flow and promoting angiogenesis in skeletal muscle in a model of peripheral arterial insufficiency. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to bilateral ligation of the femoral artery and randomly allocated to treatment or sham groups. Animals were anesthetized daily and exposed to 1-h sessions of bilateral IPC or sham treatment for 14–16 consecutive days. A third group of nonligated rats was also studied. Marked increases in treadmill exercise tolerance (?33%, P < 0.05) and improved muscle performance in situ (?10%, P < 0.05) were observed in IPC-treated animals. Compared with sham-treated controls, blood flow measured with isotope-labeled microspheres during in situ contractions tended to be higher in IPC-treated animals in muscles composed of predominantly fast-twitch white fibers, such as the plantaris (?93%, P = 0.02). Capillary contacts per fiber and citrate synthase activity were not significantly altered by IPC treatment. Collectively, these data indicate that IPC improves exercise tolerance in a model of peripheral arterial insufficiency in part by enhancing blood flow to collateral-dependent tissues. PMID:22362398

  17. Audiovestibular loss in anterior inferior cerebellar artery territory infarction: a window to early detection?

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung

    2012-02-15

    Acute audiovestibular loss is a common neurotological condition that is characterized by sudden onset of severe prolonged (lasting days) vertigo and hearing loss and is diagnosed by the presence of canal paresis to caloric stimulation and sensorineural hearing loss on pure tone audiogram. Before 2000, papers on anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) territory infarction focused mostly on associated brainstem and cerebellar findings, without a detailed description of neurotological findings. Since 2000, several reports have demonstrated that acute audiovestibular loss is an important sign for the diagnosis of AICA territory infarction. To date, at least eight subgroups of AICA infarction have been identified according to the pattern of neurotological presentations, among which the most common pattern of audiovestibular dysfunction is the combined loss of auditory and vestibular functions. Because audiovestibular loss may occur in isolation before ponto-cerebellar infarction involving AICA distribution, audiovestibular loss may serve as a window to prevent the progression of acute audiovestibular loss into more widespread areas of infarction in posterior circulation (mainly in the AICA territory). Clinician should keep in mind that acute audiovestibular loss may herald impending AICA territory infarction, especially when patients had basilar artery occlusive disease presumably close to the origin of the AICA on brain MRA, even if other central signs are absent and MRI does not demonstrate acute infarction. PMID:21996273

  18. Enhancing international collaboration among early-career researchers

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Jennifer K; Albada, Akke; Farahani, Mansoureh; Lithner, Maria; Neumann, Melanie; Sandhu, Harbinder; Shepherd, Heather L

    2010-01-01

    Objective The European Association of Communication in Healthcare (EACH) Early Career Researchers Network (ECRN) aims are to (1) promote international collaboration among young investigators and (2) provide a support network for future innovative communication research projects. In October 2009, Miami, USA at a workshop facilitated by the ECRN at the International Conference on Communication in Healthcare (ICCH) hosted by the American Academy of Communication in Healthcare we explored common facilitators and challenges faced by early career researchers in health communication research. Methods Attendees introduced themselves, their research area(s) of interest, and listed one facilitator and one barrier for their career development. EACH ECRN members then led a discussion of facilitators and challenges encountered in communication research projects and career development. We discussed potential collaboration opportunities, future goals, and activities. Results Having supportive collegial relationships, institutional support, job security, and funding are critical facilitators for early career investigators. Key challenges include difficulty with time management and prioritizing, limited resources, and contacts. Conclusion International collaboration among early career researchers is a feasible and effective means to address important challenges, by increasing opportunities for professional support and networking, problem-solving, discussion of data, and ultimately publishing. Practice Implications Future AACH-EACH Early Career Researcher Networks should continue to build collaborations by developing shared research projects, papers, and other scholarly products. PMID:20663630

  19. Use of Sonicated Albumin (Infoson) to Enhance Arterial Spectral and Color Doppler Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Abildgaard, Andreas; Egge, Tor S.; Klow, Nils-Einar; Jakobsen, Jarl A. [Department of Radiology, National Hospital, N-0027 Oslo (Norway)

    1996-04-15

    Purpose: To examine the effect of an ultrasound contrast medium (UCM), Infoson, on Doppler examination of stenotic arteries. Methods: Stenoses were created in the common carotid artery of six piglets, and examined with spectral Doppler and color Doppler imaging during UCM infusion in the left ventricle. Results: UCM caused a mean increase in recorded maximal systolic and end-diastolic velocities of 5% and 6%, respectively, while blood flow remained constant. Increased spectral intensity with UCM was accompanied by spectral broadening. Reduction of spectral intensity by adjustment of Doppler gain counteracted the velocity effects and the spectral broadening. With color Doppler, UCM caused dose-dependent color artifacts outside the artery. Flow in narrow stenoses could be visualized with UCM. Conclusion: The effects of UCM on velocity measurements were slight, and were related to changes in spectral intensity. With color Doppler, UCM may facilitate flow detection, but color artifacts may interfere.

  20. Review of Source Images is Necessary for the Evaluation of Gadolinium-Enhanced MR Angiography for Renal Artery Stenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wehrschuetz, M., E-mail: martin.wehrschuetz@klinikum-graz.at; Aschauer, M.; Portugaller, H.; Stix, A. [University Hospital Graz, Department of Radiology (Austria); Wehrschuetz-Sigl, E. [University Hospital Graz, Department of Angiology (Austria); Hausegger, K.; Ebner, F. [University Hospital Graz, Department of Radiology (Austria)

    2004-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess interobserver variability and accuracy in the evaluation of renal artery stenosis (RAS) with gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography (MRA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in patients with hypertension. The authors found that source images are more accurate than maximum intensity projection (MIP) for depicting renal artery stenosis. Two independent radiologists reviewed MRA and DSA from 38 patients with hypertension. Studies were postprocessed to display images in MIP and source images. DSA was the standard for comparison in each patient. For each main renal artery, percentage stenosis was estimated for any stenosis detected by the two radiologists. To calculate sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, MRA studies and stenoses were categorized as normal, mild (1-39%), moderate (40-69%) or severe ({>=}70%), or occluded. DSA stenosis estimates of 70% or greater were considered hemodynamically significant. Analysis of variance demonstrated that MIP estimates of stenosis were greater than source image estimates for both readers. Differences in estimates for MIP versus DSA reached significance in one reader. The interobserver variance for MIP, source images and DSA was excellent (0.80< {kappa}{<=} 0.90). The specificity of source images was high (97%) but less for MIP (87%); average accuracy was 92% for MIP and 98% for source images. In this study, source images are significantly more accurate than MIP images in one reader with a similar trend was observed in the second reader. The interobserver variability was excellent. When renal artery stenosis is a consideration, high accuracy can only be obtained when source images are examined.

  1. Early Recovery of Regional Performance in Salvaged Ischemic Myocardium following Coronary Artery Occlusion in the Dog

    PubMed Central

    Darsee, John R.; Kloner, Robert A.; Braunwald, Eugene

    1981-01-01

    Although numerous agents have been shown experimentally to protect ischemic myocardium, a critical unanswered question is whether function is preserved in the salvaged tissue. Accordingly, 38 openchest dogs had measurements of percent segment length shortening (%SS) and velocity of segment length shortening either in midmyocardial or subepicardial and subendocardial ischemic segments before and after 60 min of left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion during 5 h of reperfusion; 10 additional dogs were subjected to 3 h of coronary occlusion followed by 72 h of reperfusion. 15 min after coronary artery occlusion, radiolabeled microspheres were injected into the left atrium for measurement of regional myocardial blood flow, and dogs were treated with 1 mg/kg i.v. (n = 23) of an anti-inflammatory drug, flurbiprofen or an equal volume of saline (n = 25). The ischemic myocardium-at-risk for necrosis was determined by injecting methylene blue dye into the left atrium with the coronary artery reoccluded at the end of the reperfusion period, slicing the left ventricle into thin transverse sections, and measuring the areas of each slice that were not perfused (pink unstained tissue) by methylene blue. The quantity of necrotic tissue in each transverse section was measured by planimetry after incubation of the slices in triphenyltetrazolium chloride, and by direct histological examination in dogs with 72 h of reperfusion. Regional myocardial blood flow of the ischemic segments between the ultrasonic dimension crystals was similar in treated (0.34±0.03 ml/min per g) and control dogs (0.35±0.03 ml/min per g). In saline-treated control dogs subjected to a l-h coronary occlusion, 17.9±1.8% of the myocardium-at-risk became necrotic but in flurbiprofen-treated dogs none of the tissue became necrotic. In saline-treated dogs passive lengthening of the previously ischemic segments persisted through 5 h of reperfusion in all three regions of myocardium after a 1-h coronary occlusion. In flurbiprofen-treated dogs regional function returned to normal within 5 min of reperfusion in both the subendocardium (%SS preocclusion = 17.2±2.0%; 5 min reperfusion = 17.8±3.1%; P = NS) and in the midmyocardium (%SS preocclusion = 17.8±2.2%; 5 min reperfusion = 17.9±2.3%; P = NS) and was not significantly different after 5 h of reperfusion from what it was before coronary occlusion. In the subepicardium of treated dogs regional function began to improve within 15 min of drug administration even during coronary occlusion. Regional function was not different from preocclusion values after either 5 min or 5 h of reperfusion (%SS preocclusion = 21.0±2.4%; 5 min reperfusion = 20.6±3.8%; P = NS). In dogs subjected to 3 h of coronary occlusion and 72 h of reperfusion, the administration of flurbiprofen was also associated with significantly smaller infarcts and a significantly more rapid rate of functional recovery than in control dogs. Thus, it appears that flurbiprofen not only decreased the quantity of necrosis in tissue made ischemic after coronary occlusion and then reperfused, but also allowed more rapid recovery of segmental function in ischemic but nonnecrotic tissue and in tissue with patchy necrosis; such recovery did not occur in equally ischemic myocardium in untreated control dogs. Earlier functional recovery of reversibly injured tissue following prolonged periods of ischemia is an additional important role for agents that protect ischemic myocardium from necrosis. PMID:7019244

  2. Scatterometer Resolution Enhancement David S. Early,David G. Long

    E-print Network

    Long, David G.

    Sensing (MERS)Laboratory Brigham Young University,Electrical and ComputerEngineering Dept. 459 Clyde Building- construction (SIR) algorithm was originally developed to gen- erated enhanced resolution images from Seasat, the original surface is completely recoverable, at least in the noiseless case. There are three essential

  3. Effects of undernutrition in early pregnancy on systemic small artery function in late-gestation fetal sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Ozaki; Paul Hawkins; Hidenori Nishina; Clare Steyn; Lucilla Poston; Mark A. Hanson

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate functional development of small arteries from the skeletal circulation of fetal sheep and to determine whether maternal undernutrition affects responses to vasoconstrictive and vasodilatory agonists in arteries from the late-gestation fetus. Study Design: We investigated vasoconstrictive and vasodilatory responses of isolated small (approximately 300 ?m) arteries from the femoral vascular bed

  4. Early experience of Cued Speech enhances speechreading performance in deaf.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Mario; Peigneux, Philippe; Charlier, Brigitte; Neyrat, Charlotte; Leybaert, Jacqueline

    2012-02-01

    It is known that deaf individuals usually outperform normal hearing subjects in speechreading; however, the underlying reasons remain unclear. In the present study, speechreading performance was assessed in normal hearing participants (NH), deaf participants who had been exposed to the Cued Speech (CS) system early and intensively, and deaf participants exposed to oral language without Cued Speech (NCS). Results show a gradation in performance with highest performance in CS, then in NCS, and finally NH participants. Moreover, error analysis suggests that speechreading processing is more accurate in the CS group than in the other groups. Given that early and intensive CS has been shown to promote development of accurate phonological processing, we propose that the higher speechreading results in Cued Speech users are linked to a better capacity in phonological decoding of visual articulators. PMID:21995589

  5. Two functional polymorphisms of ROCK2 enhance arterial stiffening through inhibiting its activity and expression.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yi-Chu; Liu, Ping-Yen; Lin, Hsiu-Fen; Lin, Wen-Yi; Liao, James K; Juo, Suh-Hang H

    2015-02-01

    Derangement of Rho-associated kinases (ROCKs) has been related to coronary artery disease and stroke. ROCK2, rather than ROCK1, plays a predominant role in vascular contractility. The present study aims to test (1) the associations between ROCK2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and arterial stiffness, and (2) the molecular mechanism accounting for their effects. Stiffness parameters including beta (?), elasticity modulus (Ep) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) were obtained by carotid ultrasonography. Seven tagging SNPs of ROCK2 were initially genotyped in 856 subjects and significant SNPs were replicated in another group of 527 subjects. Two SNPs in complete linkage disequilibrium were found to be significantly associated with arterial stiffness. The major alleles of rs978906 (A allele) and rs9808232 (C allele) were associated with stiffer arteries. SNP rs978906 was predicted to influence microRNA(miR)-1183 binding to ROCK2, while rs9808232 causes amino acid substitution. To determine their functional impact, plasmid constructs carrying different alleles of the significant SNPs were created. Compared to rs978906G-allele constructs, cells transfected with rs978906A-allele constructs had higher baseline luciferase activities and were less responsive to miR-1183 changes. Oxidized-low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) suppressed miR-1183 levels and increased ROCK2 protein amounts. For rs9808232, cells transfected with C-allele constructs had significantly higher ROCK activities than those with A-allele constructs. Leukocyte ROCK activities were further measured in 52 healthy subjects. The average ROCK activity was highest in human subjects with CC genotype at rs9808232, followed by those with AC and lowest in AA. Taken together, the present study showed that two functional SNPs of ROCK2 increase susceptibility of arterial stiffness in the Chinese population. Non-synonymous SNP rs9808232 influences ROCK2 activity, while 3' UTR SNP rs978906 affects the ROCK2 protein synthesis by interfering miR-1183 binding. PMID:25481646

  6. Early Postnatal EEG Features of Perinatal Arterial Ischaemic Stroke with Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Low, Evonne; Mathieson, Sean R.; Stevenson, Nathan J.; Livingstone, Vicki; Ryan, C. Anthony; Bogue, Conor O.; Rennie, Janet M.; Boylan, Geraldine B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Stroke is the second most common cause of seizures in term neonates and is associated with abnormal long-term neurodevelopmental outcome in some cases. Objective To aid diagnosis earlier in the postnatal period, our aim was to describe the characteristic EEG patterns in term neonates with perinatal arterial ischaemic stroke (PAIS) seizures. Design Retrospective observational study. Patients Neonates >37 weeks born between 2003 and 2011 in two hospitals. Method Continuous multichannel video-EEG was used to analyze the background patterns and characteristics of seizures. Each EEG was assessed for continuity, symmetry, characteristic features and sleep cycling; morphology of electrographic seizures was also examined. Each seizure was categorized as electrographic-only or electroclinical; the percentage of seizure events for each seizure type was also summarized. Results Nine neonates with PAIS seizures and EEG monitoring were identified. While EEG continuity was present in all cases, the background pattern showed suppression over the infarcted side; this was quite marked (>50% amplitude reduction) when the lesion was large. Characteristic unilateral bursts of theta activity with sharp or spike waves intermixed were seen in all cases. Sleep cycling was generally present but was more disturbed over the infarcted side. Seizures demonstrated a characteristic pattern; focal sharp waves/spike-polyspikes were seen at frequency of 1–2 Hz and phase reversal over the central region was common. Electrographic-only seizure events were more frequent compared to electroclinical seizure events (78 vs 22%). Conclusions Focal electrographic and electroclinical seizures with ipsilateral suppression of the background activity and focal sharp waves are strong indicators of PAIS. Approximately 80% of seizure events were the result of clinically unsuspected seizures in neonates with PAIS. Prolonged and continuous multichannel video-EEG monitoring is advocated for adequate seizure surveillance. PMID:25051161

  7. Contrast-enhanced coronary artery visualization by dual-source computed tomography—Initial experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan Achenbach; Dieter Ropers; Axel Kuettner; Thomas Flohr; Bernd Ohnesorge; Herbert Bruder; Heike Theessen; Meri Karakaya; Werner G. Daniel; Werner Bautz; Willi A. Kalender; Katharina Anders

    2006-01-01

    Multi-detector computed tomography (CT) scanners, by virtue of their high temporal and spatial resolution, permit imaging of the coronary arteries. However, motion artifacts, especially in patients with higher heart rates, can impair image quality. We thus evaluated the performance of a new dual-source CT (DSCT) with a heart rate independent temporal resolution of 83ms for the visualization of the coronary

  8. Peptide-coated liposomal fasudil enhances site specific vasodilation in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Kamrun; Absar, Shahriar; Gupta, Nilesh; Kotamraju, Venkata Ramana; McMurtry, Ivan F; Oka, Masahiko; Komatsu, Masanobu; Nozik-Grayck, Eva; Ahsan, Fakhrul

    2014-12-01

    This study sought to develop a liposomal delivery system of fasudil--an investigational drug for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH)--that will preferentially accumulate in the PAH lungs. Liposomal fasudil was prepared by film-hydration method, and the drug was encapsulated by active loading. The liposome surface was coated with a targeting moiety, CARSKNKDC, a cyclic peptide; the liposomes were characterized for size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, and storage and nebulization stability. The in vitro drug release profiles and uptake by TGF-? activated pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC) and alveolar macrophages were evaluated. The pharmacokinetics were monitored in male Sprague-Dawley rats, and the pulmonary hemodynamics were studied in acute and chronic PAH rats. The size, polydispersity index (PDI), and zeta potential of the liposomes were 206-216 nm, 0.058-0.084, and -20-42.7 mV, respectively. The formulations showed minimal changes in structural integrity when nebulized with a commercial microsprayer. The optimized formulation was stable for >4 weeks when stored at 4 °C. Fasudil was released in a continuous fashion over 120 h with a cumulative release of 76%. Peptide-linked liposomes were taken up at a higher degree by TGF-? activated PASMCs; but alveolar macrophages could not engulf peptide-coated liposomes. The formulations did not injure the lungs; the half-life of liposomal fasudil was 34-fold higher than that of plain fasudil after intravenous administration. Peptide-linked liposomal fasudil, as opposed to plain liposomes, reduced the mean pulmonary arterial pressure by 35-40%, without influencing the mean systemic arterial pressure. This study establishes that CAR-conjugated inhalable liposomal fasudil offers favorable pharmacokinetics and produces pulmonary vasculature specific dilatation. PMID:25333706

  9. Congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries: imaging with contrast-enhanced, multidetector computed tomography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rainer Schmitt; Steffen Froehner; Juergen Brunn; Matthias Wagner; Horst Brunner; Oleg Cherevatyy; Frank Gietzen; Georgios Christopoulos; Sebastian Kerber; Franz Fellner

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate multidetector CT (MDCT) in detecting and characterizing anomalous coronary arteries. Forty-four patients with anomalies of the coronaries were selected from a total of 1758 individuals examined with ECG-gated 4- and 16-row MDCT including thinMIP, MPR and VRT post-processing. Twenty-eight patients showed origin and course anomalies of the central coronary segments, and in

  10. Early Gaseous Oxygen Enrichment to Enhance Magnetite Pellet Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ming; Cho, Hyeon Jeong; Pistorius, Petrus Christiaan

    2014-08-01

    It is suggested that oxygen enrichment in the gas atmosphere, during continuous heating of magnetite pellets, can cause pellets to be oxidized throughout their volumes, eliminating unoxidized cores. The peculiarities of the oxidation kinetics of magnetite concentrate imply that such oxygen enrichment might be particularly effective at lower temperatures. This suggestion was tested by developing and testing a mixed-control model for pellet oxidation (to allow the sizes of unreacted cores to be predicted), and by experimentally testing the effects of oxygen enrichment at relatively low temperatures ("early oxygen enrichment"). The results confirmed that the extents (depth) of oxidation and pellet strength were both improved significantly by applying oxygen enrichment up to 873 K (600 °C), as part of a heating cycle up to 1073 K (800 °C).

  11. Accumulation of intracellular chloride by (Na-K-Cl) co-transport in rat arterial smooth muscle is enhanced in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)/salt hypertension.

    PubMed

    Davis, J P; Chipperfield, A R; Harper, A A

    1993-03-01

    The accumulation of intracellular chloride above equilibrium by (Na-K-Cl) co-transport has been demonstrated in a variety of tissues, most recently in guinea-pig vas deferens. The depolarizing influence of the co-transporter on the membrane potential of arterial smooth muscle cells has been demonstrated in rat femoral artery. The inference is that the depolarisation of membrane potential seen in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)/salt hypertension is the result of increased chloride accumulation via (Na-K-Cl) co-transport, which is enhanced in hypertension. The questions addressed here are (i) whether chloride is accumulated above equilibrium in saphenous arterial smooth muscle cells from normotensive animals, and (ii) whether the accumulation is more pronounced in association with DOCA/salt hypertension. In arterial smooth muscle from DOCA/salt hypertensive animals, [Cl-]i was significantly elevated (P < 2 x 10(-9)) in comparison to arterial smooth muscle from normotensive control animals. The loop diuretic bumetanide caused a reversible hyperpolarization of Em and a fall in [Cl-]i and these effects were enhanced in hypertension. These results are consistent with an increase in the activity of the (Na-K-Cl) co-transporter in rat femoral arterial smooth muscle in DOCA/salt hypertension. A preliminary report of this work has been published. PMID:8510166

  12. Homologous region 1 of Plutella xylostella granulovirus functions as an enhancer for early gene expression.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuan; Zhang, Hong-Jie; Li, Lu-Lin

    2014-09-01

    Homologous regions (hrs) contained in genomes of baculoviruses have been shown to function as origins of viral DNA replication in alphabaculoviruses and betabaculoviruses, and as enhancers for early gene expression in alphabaculoviruses. The hr sequences of betabaculoviruses differ substantially from the ones of alphabaculoviruses. The enhancing property of betabaculovirus hrs has not been reported. In this study, transient assays were performed to investigate the effects of Plutella xylostella granulovirus (PlxyGV) hr1 on early gene expression of the virus. It was shown that hr1 stimulated reporter gene expression from the promoters of four early genes--ie1, dnapol, lef1, and lef9--independent of additional viral gene expression. The PlxyGV ie1 was shown to repress reporter gene expression from all four early gene promoters in a Trichoplusia ni cell line, both in the presence and absence of hr. PMID:24658824

  13. Toward early diagnosis of arteriosclerotic diseases: collaborative detection of carotid artery calcifications by computer and dentists on dental panoramic radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Chisako; Takahashi, Ryo; Hara, Takeshi; Hayashi, Tatsuro; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Zhou, Xiangrong; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    Several studies have reported the presence of carotid artery calcifications (CACs) on dental panoramic radiographs (DPRs) as a possible sign of arteriosclerotic diseases. However, CACs are not easily visible at the common window level for dental examinations, and dentists, in general, are not looking for CACs. Computerized detection of CACs may help dentists in referring patients with a risk of arteriosclerotic diseases to have a detailed examination at a medical clinic. Downside of our previous method was a relatively large number of false positives (FPs). In this study, we attempted to reduce FPs by including an additional feature and selecting effective features for the classifier. A hundred DPRs including 34 cases with calcifications were included. Initial candidates were detected by thresholding the output of top-hat operation. For each candidate, 10 features and a new feature characterizing the relative position of a CAC with reference to the lower mandible edge were determined. After the rule-based FP reduction, candidates were classified into CACs and FPs by a support vector machine. Based on the leave-one-out cross-validation evaluations, an average number of FPs was 3.1 per image at 90.4% sensitivity using seven features selected. Compared to our previous method, the number of FPs was reduced by 38% at the same sensitivity level. The proposed method has a potential in identifying patients with a risk of arteriosclerosis early via general dental examinations.

  14. Elastin-derived peptides stimulate trophoblast migration and invasion: a positive feedback loop to enhance spiral artery remodelling.

    PubMed

    Desforges, Michelle; Harris, Lynda K; Aplin, John D

    2015-01-01

    Elastin breakdown in the walls of uterine spiral arteries during early pregnancy facilitates their transformation into dilated, high-flow, low-resistance channels. Elastin-derived peptides (EDP) can influence cell migration, invasion and protease activity, and so we hypothesized that EDP released during elastolysis promote extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion and further elastin breakdown. Treatment of the trophoblast cell line SGHPL4 with the elastin-derived matrikine VGVAPG (1 ?g/ml) significantly increased total elastase activity, promoted migration in a wound healing assay and increased invasion through Matrigel-coated transwells compared with vehicle control (0.1% DMSO) or the scrambled sequence VVGPGA. Furthermore, treatment of first-trimester placental villous explants with this EDP significantly increased both the area of trophoblast outgrowth and distance of migration away from the villous tips. Primary first-trimester cytotrophoblast exposed to VGVAPG (1 ?g/ml) for 30 min showed increased phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and activation of the mitogen activated protein kinase pathway, events also associated with tumour cell migration and invasion. These in vitro observations suggest liberation of bioactive EDP during induction of elastolysis in the uterine spiral arteries may orchestrate a positive feedback loop that promotes EVT invasion and further elastin breakdown, contributing to the process of vascular remodelling. PMID:25245255

  15. Enhancement of Autophagy by Simvastatin through Inhibition of Rac1-mTOR Signaling Pathway in Coronary Arterial Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yu-Miao; Li, Xiang; Xu, Ming; Abais, Justine M.; Chen, Yang; Riebling, Christopher R.; Boini, Krishna M.; Li, Pin-Lan; Zhang, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims In addition to their action of lowering blood cholesterol levels, statins modulate biological characteristics and functions of arterial myocytes such as viability, proliferation, apoptosis, survival and contraction. The present study tested whether simvastatin, as a prototype statin, enhances autophagy in coronary arterial myocytes (CAMs) to thereby exert their beneficial effects in atherosclerosis. Methods and Results Using flow cytometry, we demonstrated that simvastatin significantly increased the autophagsome formation in CAMs. Western blot analysis confirmed that simvastatin significantly increased protein expression of typical autophagy markers LC3B and Beclin1 in these CAMs. Confocal microscopy further demonstrated that simvastatin increased fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes, which was blocked by autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine or silencing of Atg7 genes. Simvastatin reduced mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity, which was reversed by Rac1-GTPase overexpression and the mTOR agonist phosphatidic acid. Moreover, both Rac1-GTPase overexpression and activation of mTOR by phosphatidic acid drastically blocked simvastatin-induced autophagosome formation in CAMs. Interestingly, simvastatin increased protein expression of a contractile phenotype marker calponin in CAMs, which was blocked by autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. Simvastatin markedly reduced proliferation of CAMs under both control and proatherogenic stimulation. However, this inhibitory effect of simvastatin on CAM proliferation was blocked by by autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine or silencing of Atg7 genes. Lastly, animal experiments demonstrated that simvastatin increased protein expression of LC3B and calponin in mouse coronary arteries. Conclusion Our results indicate that simvastatin inhibits the Rac1-mTOR pathway and thereby increases autophagy in CAMs which may stabilize CAMs in the contractile phenotype to prevent proliferation and growth of these cells. PMID:23817226

  16. Aortic Counterpulsation May Improve Late Patency of the Occluded Coronary Artery in Patients With Early Failure of Thrombolytic Therapy 1 1 This study was supported in part by a research grant from Osaka Mishima Critical Care Medical Center, Osaka, Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AKIRA FUJIWARA

    1996-01-01

    Objectives. Using a prospective, randomized design, we tested our hypothesis that the augmentation of diastolic pressure by intraaortic balloon counterpulsation (IABP) would improve the late patency of the occluded coronary artery in patients with early failure of thrombolytic therapy.Background. Rescue angioplasty is often performed in patients in whom thrombolysis has failed, although 30% to 60% of the infarct-related arteries that

  17. Albumin therapy enhances collateral perfusion after laser-induced middle cerebral artery branch occlusion: a laser speckle contrast flow study

    PubMed Central

    DeFazio, Richard A; Zhao, Weizhao; Deng, Xiaolu; Obenaus, Andre; Ginsberg, Myron D

    2012-01-01

    Laser speckle contrast (LSC) was used to compare the extent of cortical ischemia in two inbred mouse strains that differed in their degree of collateral circulation, after laser occlusion of the distal middle cerebral artery, and after treatment with 25% albumin (ALB) or saline (control). Sequential LSC images acquired over ?90?minutes were coaligned, converted to relative flow, and normalized to baseline. After 3-day survival, infarction was quantified by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride or magnetic resonance imaging. In the sparsely collateralized BALB/c strain, mean flow fell to 13% to 14% and 33% to 34% of baseline in central (core) and peripheral (penumbral) regions of interest, and ALB treatment at 30?minutes enhanced perfusion in both regions by ?2-fold relative to saline, restoring flow to the benign-oligemic range centrally, and to the hyperemic range peripherally. The ALB-induced increment in parenchymal perfusion was disproportionate to the subtle flow increase in the occluded artery itself, suggesting that ALB improved collateral circulation. Cortical infarction in BALB/c mice was reduced 45% by ALB treatment. In contrast to BALB/c mice, the better-collateralized CD-1 strain developed milder ischemia, had smaller infarcts, and showed no differential benefit of ALB. We conclude that where native collateralization is insufficient (BALB/c strain), ALB treatment exerts a significant therapeutic effect after ischemia by augmenting collateral perfusion. PMID:22781334

  18. Experimental peripheral arterial disease: new insights into muscle glucose uptake, macrophage, and T?cell polarization during early and late stages

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrin, Maxime; Bouzourène, Karima; Poitry?Yamate, Carole; Mlynarik, Vladimir; Feihl, François; Aubert, Jean?François; Gruetter, Rolf; Mazzolai, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common disease with increasing prevalence, presenting with impaired walking ability affecting patient's quality of life. PAD epidemiology is known, however, mechanisms underlying functional muscle impairment remain unclear. Using a mouse PAD model, aim of this study was to assess muscle adaptive responses during early (1 week) and late (5 weeks) disease stages. Unilateral hindlimb ischemia was induced in ApoE?/? mice by iliac artery ligation. Ischemic limb perfusion and oxygenation (Laser Doppler imaging, transcutaneous oxygen pressure assessments) significantly decreased during early and late stage compared to pre?ischemia, however, values were significantly higher during late versus early phase. Number of arterioles and arteriogenesis?linked gene expression increased at later stage. Walking ability, evaluated by forced and voluntary walking tests, remained significantly decreased both at early and late phase without any significant improvement. Muscle glucose uptake ([18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography) significantly increased during early ischemia decreasing at later stage. Gene expression analysis showed significant shift in muscle M1/M2 macrophages and Th1/Th2 T cells balance toward pro?inflammatory phenotype during early ischemia; later, inflammatory state returned to neutrality. Muscular M1/M2 shift inhibition by a statin prevented impaired walking ability in early ischemia. High?energy phosphate metabolism remained unchanged (31?Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy). Results show that rapid transient muscular inflammation contributes to impaired walking capacity while increased glucose uptake may be a compensatory mechanisms preserving immediate limb viability during early ischemia in a mouse PAD model. With time, increased ischemic limb perfusion and oxygenation assure muscle viability although not sufficiently to improve walking impairment. Subsequent decreased muscle glucose uptake may partly contribute to chronic walking impairment. Early inflammation inhibition and/or late muscle glucose impairment prevention are promising strategies for PAD management. PMID:24744903

  19. Enhanced expression of transient receptor potential channels in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ying; Fantozzi, Ivana; Remillard, Carmelle V.; Landsberg, Judd W.; Kunichika, Naomi; Platoshyn, Oleksandr; Tigno, Donna D.; Thistlethwaite, Patricia A.; Rubin, Lewis J.; Yuan, Jason X.-J.

    2004-01-01

    Pulmonary vascular medial hypertrophy caused by excessive pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation is a major cause for the elevated pulmonary vascular resistance in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). Increased Ca2+ influx is an important stimulus for PASMC proliferation. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channel genes encode Ca2+ channels that are responsible for Ca2+ entry during cell proliferation. Normal human PASMC expressed multiple canonical TRP (TRPC) isoforms; TRPC6 was highly expressed and TRPC3 was minimally expressed. The protein expression of TRPC6 in normal PASMC closely correlated with the expression of Ki67, suggesting that TRPC6 expression is involved in the transition of PASMC from quiescent phase to mitosis. In lung tissues and PASMC from IPAH patients, the mRNA and protein expression of TRPC3 and -6 were much higher than in those from normotensive or secondary pulmonary hypertension patients. Inhibition of TRPC6 expression with TRPC6 small interfering RNA markedly attenuated IPAH-PASMC proliferation. These results demonstrate that expression of TRPC channels correlates with the progression of the cell cycle in PASMC. TRPC channel overexpression may be partially responsible for the increased PASMC proliferation and pulmonary vascular medial hypertrophy in IPAH patients. PMID:15358862

  20. Acidification of arterial blood enhances gastric mucosal injury induced by bile salts in dogs.

    PubMed

    Cheung, L Y; Toenjes, A A; Sonnenschein, L A

    1982-01-01

    The influence of intraarterial infusion of hydrochloric acid on gastric mucosal injury induced by topical bile salts was assessed in a canine ex vivo model. Exposure of the gastric mucosa to 5.0 mM sodium taurocholate in acid bathing solution alone resulted in a slight but not significant reduction in intramural pH of gastric mucosa and mild mucosal damage. When hydrochloric acid (0.1 N) was infused directly into the artery perfusing the stomach of the dogs, the intramural pH of gastric mucosa markedly decreased. The mucosal acidification was associated with severe ulcers in all test dogs that received intraarterial infusion of hydrochloric acid. The deleterious effect of intraarterial infusion of hydrochloric acid was not due to ischemia since the gastric blood flow remained relatively unchanged. The severe mucosal ulcerations were perhaps caused by the decrease in the ability of gastric blood to buffer the incoming luminal acid induced by topical bile salts. These results suggest that (1) the pH of arterial blood perfusing the stomach may also be an important determinant in the ability of the gastric mucosa to protect itself against acid injury, and (2) better management of systemic acid-base balance may contribute to a lower incidence of stress ulcers in critically ill patients. PMID:6797313

  1. The early clinical and angiographic outcome of sequential coronary artery bypass grafting with the off-pump technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharif Al-Ruzzeh; Shane George; Mahmoud Bustami; Koki Nakamura; Shahid Khan; Magdi Yacoub; Mohamed Amrani

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The emergence of the off-pump coronary artery bypass technique has made surgeons consider combining it with other techniques developed and learned with conventional coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass. One of these techniques is the construction of a sequential graft to bypass more than one coronary vessel. The purpose of this study is to review the outcome of

  2. Resting Enhanced Frequency Domain Analysis Improves Heart Rate Variability Sensitivity in Early and Late Diabetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. I. Vinik; B. Aysin; J. Colombo

    Background: The addition of frequency domain (FD) analysis of respiratory activity to FD of heart rate variability (HRV) is necessary to independently and simultaneously analyze both autonomic (ANS) branches non-invasively and quantitatively. This method has been presented as the enhanced FD analysis (EFDA) approach. Our clinical results have shown that EFDA improves FD heart rate variability (fdHRV) sensitivity in early

  3. Early life antibiotic-driven changes in microbiota enhance susceptibility to allergic asthma

    E-print Network

    Strynadka, Natalie

    Early life antibiotic-driven changes in microbiota enhance susceptibility to allergic asthma City, Quebec, Canada Allergic asthma rates have increased steadily in developed countries, arguing for an environmental aetiology. To assess the influence of gut microbiota on experimental murine allergic asthma, we

  4. Obstructive apneas induce early activation of mesenchymal stem cells and enhancement of endothelial wound healing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alba Carreras; Mauricio Rojas; Theodora Tsapikouni; Josep M Montserrat; Daniel Navajas; Ramon Farré

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim was to test the hypothesis that the blood serum of rats subjected to recurrent airway obstructions mimicking obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) induces early activation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and enhancement of endothelial wound healing. METHODS: We studied 30 control rats and 30 rats subjected to recurrent obstructive apneas (60 per hour, lasting 15 s

  5. Enhanced Visual Speech Perception in Individuals with Early-Onset Hearing Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auer, Edward T., Jr.; Bernstein, Lynne E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: L. E. Bernstein, M. E. Demorest, and P. E. Tucker (2000) demonstrated enhanced speechreading accuracy in participants with early-onset hearing loss compared with hearing participants. Here, the authors test the generalization of Bernstein et al.'s (2000) result by testing 2 new large samples of participants. The authors also investigated…

  6. Development of the Play Experience Model to Enhance Desirable Qualifications of Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panpum, Watchara; Soonthornrojana, Wimonrat; Nakunsong, Thatsanee

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to develop the play experience model and to study the effect of usage in play experience model for enhancing the early childhood's desirable qualification. There were 3 phases of research: 1) the document and context in experience management were studied, 2) the play experience model was developed, and 3) the…

  7. Early outcome of treatment of ostial de novo left anterior descending coronary artery lesions with drug-eluting stents.

    PubMed

    Tsagalou, Eleftheria; Stankovic, Goran; Stancovic, Goran; Iakovou, Ioannis; Melzi, Gloria; Cosgrave, John; Ge, Le; Michev, Iassen; Chieffo, Alaide; Airoldi, Flavio; Carlino, Mauro; Montorfano, Matteo; Colombo, Antonio

    2006-01-15

    We investigated early and mid-term clinical and angiographic outcomes of patients who had de novo ostial left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) lesions that were treated with drug-eluting stents (DESs) or bare metal stents (BMSs). We identified 43 consecutive patients who underwent percutaneous intervention for isolated de novo ostial LAD lesions with implantation of DESs and compared them with 43 patients who had similar lesions that were treated with BMSs. All stents were successfully implanted. There were no significant differences with respect to major in-hospital complications between the 2 groups. One patient in the BMS group died during hospitalization. Non-Q-wave myocardial infarction occurred in 2 patients (4.7%) in the DES and in 1 patient (2.3%) in the BMS group. At 9-month follow-up, 3 patients (7%) in the DES group and 11 (25.6%) in the BMS group underwent target lesion revascularization (p = 0.038); major adverse cardiac events were less frequent in the DES than in the BMS group (9.3% vs 32.6%, p = 0.015). Angiographic follow-up was available in 82% of patients in the DES group and 75% of those in the BMS group (p = 0.6) and showed lower binary restenotic rates (5.7% vs 31.3%, p = 0.01) and smaller late loss (0.30 +/- 0.81 vs 1.23 +/- 0.93 mm, p = 0.0001) in the DES group. In conclusion, DES implantation in de novo ostial LAD lesions appears safe and effective and is associated with a significant decrease in restenotic rates compared with historical experience with BMSs. PMID:16442360

  8. Enhancing early child care quality and learning for toddlers at risk: the responsive early childhood program.

    PubMed

    Landry, Susan H; Zucker, Tricia A; Taylor, Heather B; Swank, Paul R; Williams, Jeffrey M; Assel, Michael; Crawford, April; Huang, Weihua; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine; Lonigan, Christopher J; Phillips, Beth M; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L; de Villiers, Jill; de Villiers, Peter; Barnes, Marcia; Starkey, Prentice; Klein, Alice

    2014-02-01

    Despite reports of positive effects of high-quality child care, few experimental studies have examined the process of improving low-quality center-based care for toddler-age children. In this article, we report intervention effects on child care teachers' behaviors and children's social, emotional, behavioral, early literacy, language, and math outcomes as well as the teacher-child relationship. The intervention targeted the use of a set of responsive teacher practices, derived from attachment and sociocultural theories, and a comprehensive curriculum. Sixty-five childcare classrooms serving low-income 2- and 3-year-old children were randomized into 3 conditions: business-as-usual control, Responsive Early Childhood Curriculum (RECC), and RECC plus explicit social-emotional classroom activities (RECC+). Classroom observations showed greater gains for RECC and RECC+ teachers' responsive practices including helping children manage their behavior, establishing a predictable schedule, and use of cognitively stimulating activities (e.g., shared book reading) compared with controls; however, teacher behaviors did not differ for focal areas such as sensitivity and positive discipline supports. Child assessments demonstrated that children in the interventions outperformed controls in areas of social and emotional development, although children's performance in control and intervention groups was similar for cognitive skills (language, literacy, and math). Results support the positive impact of responsive teachers and environments providing appropriate support for toddlers' social and emotional development. Possible explanations for the absence of systematic differences in children's cognitive skills are considered, including implications for practice and future research targeting low-income toddlers. PMID:23772822

  9. COMING SOON -ENHANCEMENTS TO STUDENT ACCOUNT MANAGEMENT At the request of our students, some exciting new system enhancements will be introduced early this

    E-print Network

    Devoto, Stephen H.

    . It will be integrated with Wesleyan's student accounting system to provide real time updates to your student accountCOMING SOON - ENHANCEMENTS TO STUDENT ACCOUNT MANAGEMENT At the request of our students, some exciting new system enhancements will be introduced early this summer. These enhancements will provide more

  10. Busulphan-Cyclophosphamide Cause Endothelial Injury, Remodeling of Resistance Arteries and Enhanced Expression of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sulaiman Al-Hashmi; Piet J. M. Boels; Fahad Zadjali; Behnam Sadeghi; Johan Sällström; Kjell Hultenby; Zuzana Hassan; Anders Arner; Moustapha Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation (SCT) is a curative treatment for malignant and non malignant diseases. However, transplantation-related complications including cardiovascular disease deteriorate the clinical outcome and quality of life. We have investigated the acute effects of conditioning regimen on the pharmacology, physiology and structure of large elastic arteries and small resistance-sized arteries in a SCT mouse model. Mesenteric resistance arteries and

  11. Cerebrospinal Fluid Enhancement on Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery Images After Carotid Artery Stenting with Neuroprotective Balloon Occlusions: Hemodynamic Instability and Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption

    SciTech Connect

    Ogami, Ryo, E-mail: ogami.r@mazda.co.jp; Nakahara, Toshinori [Mazda Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery (Japan); Hamasaki, Osamu [Shimane Prefectural Central Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery (Japan); Araki, Hayato [Mazda Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery (Japan); Kurisu, Kaoru [Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Neurosurgery (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: A rare complication of carotid artery stenting (CAS), prolonged reversible neurological symptoms with delayed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space enhancement on fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images, is associated with blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. We prospectively identified patients who showed CSF space enhancement on FLAIR images. Methods: Nineteen patients-5 acute-phase and 14 scheduled-underwent 21 CAS procedures. Balloon catheters were navigated across stenoses, angioplasty was performed using a neuroprotective balloon, and stents were placed with after dilation under distal balloon protection. CSF space hyperintensity or obscuration on FLAIR after versus before CAS indicated CSF space enhancement. Correlations with clinical factors were examined. Results: CSF space was enhanced on FLAIR in 12 (57.1%) cases. Postprocedural CSF space enhancement was significantly related to age, stenosis rate, acute-stage procedure, and total occlusion time. All acute-stage CAS patients showed delayed enhancement. Only age was associated with delayed CSF space enhancement in scheduled CAS patients. Conclusions: Ischemic intolerance for severe carotid artery stenosis and temporary neuroprotective balloon occlusion, causing reperfusion injury, seem to be the main factors that underlie BBB disruption with delayed CSF space enhancement shortly after CAS, rather than sudden poststenting hemodynamic change. Our results suggest that factors related to hemodynamic instability or ischemic intolerance seem to be associated with post-CAS BBB vulnerability. Patients at risk for hemodynamic instability or with ischemic intolerance, which decrease BBB integrity, require careful management to prevent intracranial hemorrhagic and other post-CAS complications.

  12. Use of Thoracodorsal Artery Perforator Flaps to Enhance Outcomes in Alloplastic Breast Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Bank, Jonathan; Ledbetter, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Background: Use of the thoracodorsal artery perforator (TDAP) flap in combination with alloplastic devices has been proven to be a safe method of breast reconstruction. However, preoperative irradiation increases the complication rate and thus some consider preoperative radiotherapy a relative contraindication to alloplastic alone reconstruction. We evaluated the long-term outcomes of patients with preoperative radiotherapy who had delayed alloplastic reconstruction with a TDAP flap. Methods: A retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database was performed to identify patients who had received a Latissimus Dorsi (LD), a Muscle Sparing Latissimus Dorsi (MSLD), or a TDAP flap plus a tissue expander or implant between 2005 and 2012. Information regarding patients’ primary diagnosis, radiation history, prior breast reconstructions, and complications was collected and analyzed. Results: Sixteen patients who had a total of 16 breast reconstructions with an LD (6) or TDAP/MSLD1 flap (10). Demographic data, device type, co-morbidities and complications were analyzed. The rate of capsular contracture and size asymmetry were higher in the LD group, but there was no difference noted for major complications. Minor complications were also similar between the 2 groups. Conclusions: Patients who underwent irradiation before TDAP flap did not have a higher complication rate when compared with patients who had a full LD flap following radiation. By integrating well-vascularized, nonradiated tissue of a TDAP flap in reconstruction, overall complication rate may be minimized and the results are comparable to the generally accepted method of utilizing the entire latissimus dorsi muscle. PMID:25289333

  13. Prevention by insulin treatment of endothelial dysfunction but not enhanced noradrenaline-induced contractility in mesenteric resistance arteries from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, P. D.; Oon, B. B.; Thomas, C. R.; Poston, L.

    1994-01-01

    1. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (Wistar) were implanted with sustained release insulin pellets (release rate = 4 u day-1) or with placebo pellets (palmitic acid) from the onset of glycosuria. 2. Noradrenaline sensitivity, endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine and endothelium-independent relaxation to sodium nitroprusside were assessed in mesenteric resistance arteries from the insulin-treated (IT) diabetic animals and compared to placebo-implanted (PI) diabetics and age-matched controls. 3. Arteries from PI-diabetic rats (8-10 weeks) demonstrated an enhanced maximal response to noradrenaline compared to controls, which was not prevented by insulin treatment (control 2.65 +/- 0.17 mN mm-1, n = 18 arteries versus PI-diabetic 3.73 +/- 0.40 mM mm-1, n = 5, P < 0.05; control versus IT-diabetic 4.02 +/- 0.19 mN mm-1, n = 22, P < 0.001). Sensitivity to noradrenaline was similar between the three groups. 4. In the presence of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), IT and PI arteries were more sensitive to noradrenaline than control arteries (pEC50: control 5.75 +/- 0.08, n = 17, versus PI-diabetic 6.14 +/- 0.09, n = 8, P < 0.05; control versus IT-diabetic 6.38 +/- 0.08, n = 20, P < 0.001). 5. The maximum contractile response to depolarizing 125 mM K+ was significantly enhanced in IT-diabetic arteries but not PI-diabetic when compared to control arteries (maximum response: control 3.74 +/- 0.15 mN mm-1, n = 18, versus PI-diabetic 3.61 +/- 0.19 mN mm-1, n = 11, NS; control versus IT-diabetic 4.66 +/- 0.18 mN mm-1, n = 22, P < 0.001). 6. Endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine was profoundly impaired in the PI-diabetic arteries, but in the IT-diabetic arteries was not significantly different from controls (pEC50: control 7.64 +/- 0.19, n = 17, versus PI-diabetic 6.07 +/- 0.12, n = 8, P < 0.001; control versus IT-diabetic 7.36 +/- 0.09, n = 22, NS).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8012717

  14. Motor balance and coordination training enhances functional outcome in rat with transient middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Ding, Y; Li, J; Lai, Q; Rafols, J A; Luan, X; Clark, J; Diaz, F G

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if relatively complex motor training on Rota-rod involving balance and coordination plays an essential role in improving motor function in ischemic rats, as compared with simple locomotor exercise on treadmill. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats with (n=40) or without (n=40) ischemia were trained under each of three conditions: (1) motor balance and coordination training on Rota-rod; (2) simple exercise on treadmill; and (3) non-trained controls. Motor function was evaluated by a series of tests (foot fault placing, parallel bar crossing, rope and ladder climbing) before and at 14 or 28 days after training procedures in both ischemic and normal animals. Infarct volume in ischemic animals was determined with Nissl staining. Compared with both treadmill exercised and non-trained animals, Rota-rod-trained animals with or without ischemia significantly (P<0.01) improved motor performance of all tasks except for foot fault placing after 14 days of training, with normal rats having better performance. Animals trained for up to 28 days on the treadmill did not show significantly improved function. With regard to foot fault placing task, performance on foot placing was improved in ischemic rats across the three measurements at 0, 14 and 28 days regardless of training condition, while the normal group reached their best performance at the beginning of measurement. No significant differences in infarct volume were found in rats trained either with Rota-rod (47+/-4%; mean+/-S.E.), treadmill (45+/-5%) or non-exercised control (45+/-3%). In addition, no obvious difference could be detected in the location of the damage which included the dorso-lateral portion of the neostriatum and the frontoparietal cortex, the main regions supplied by the middle cerebral artery. The data suggest that complex motor training rather than simple exercise effectively improves functional outcome. PMID:14706778

  15. Enhanced response to AVP in the interlobular artery from the spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Frank H; Vågnes, Øyvind B; Iversen, Bjarne M

    2005-05-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) induces exaggerated intracellular free calcium (Cai2+) responses in preglomerular smooth muscle cells from young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) due to increased density of the AVP V1a receptor. The intention of the present paper was to examine the relative contribution of afferent arterioles (AA) and interlobular artery (ILA) in AVP- and norepinephrine-induced calcium signaling. The kidneys were perfused with agar solution in vivo, and thin cortical slices were enzyme digested to produce isolated agar-filled vascular fragments. Calcium responses were recorded in fura 2-loaded cells by Ca2+ imaging. Diameter changes were measured after AVP stimulation and mRNA for V1a was measured on isolated vessel fragments. SHR had a significantly higher baseline calcium ratio and lower resting diameter compared with normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). Stimulation with AVP (10(-7) M) in ILA fragments from SHR induced a ratio increase of 0.49 +/- 0.09, significantly higher than the ratio increase in AA from SHR (0.20 +/- 0.03, P < 0.01) and in ILA from WKY (0.24 +/- 0.03, P < 0.01). Stimulation with norepinephrine (10(-7) M) induced responses homogeneously distributed between the segments and strains. Nifedipine treatment or removal of external calcium (Cao2+) reduced the norepinephrine-induced peak response. Both norepinephrine- and AVP-induced sustained responses were abolished after Cao2+ removal in SHR and WKY (P < 0.01). Measurements of V1a receptor mRNA on isolated segments showed a threefold increase in ILA from SHR. The present findings indicate that the exaggerated Ca2+ and contractile response to AVP in SHR is mainly mediated through ILA vasoconstriction. PMID:15598845

  16. Natural History of the Early Repolarization Pattern in a Biracial Cohort: CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) Study

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Joseph A.; Ilkhanoff, Leonard; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Prineas, Ronald; Liu, Kiang; Ning, Hongyan; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this analysis was to determine the natural history and prospective association of cardiovascular risk factors with early repolarization (ER). Background ER is common and has been suggested to increase risk for cardiovascular mortality in middle-aged adults. Data are sparse regarding the natural history of ER from young adulthood to middle age. Methods We examined 5,069 participants (mean age 25 years at baseline; 40% black) from the CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) cohort over 20 years. Electrocardiograms were recorded at years 0 (Y0), 7 (Y7), and 20 (Y20) and coded as either definite, probable, possible, or no ER. Logistic regression was used to determine the association of cardiovascular risk factors with the presence of ER cross-sectionally and prospectively. Results A total of 941 of the 5,069 participants (18.6%) had definite ER at baseline, and only 119 of 2,505 participants (4.8%) at the Y20 examination still demonstrated the presence of ER. Younger age, black race, male sex, longer exercise duration and QRS duration, and lower body mass index (BMI), heart rate, QT index, and Cornell voltage were associated cross-sectionally with the presence of ER. Predictors of maintenance of ER from Y0 to Y20 were black race (odds ratio [OR]: 2.62; 95% CI; 1.61 to 4.25), BMI (OR: 0.62 per 1 SD; 95% CI: 0.40 to 0.94), serum triglyceride levels (OR: 0.66 per 1 SD; 95% CI: 0.45 to 0.98), and QRS duration (OR: 1.68 per 1 SD; 95% CI: 1.37 to 2.06) at baseline. Conclusions The prevalence of ER was significantly higher than previous estimates among asymptomatic young adults, and the majority of ER regressed by middle age. Black race, lower BMI, lower serum triglyceride levels, and longer QRS duration were independently associated with maintenance of ER over time. PMID:23428218

  17. Routine Use of Three-Dimensional Contrast-Enhanced Moving-Table MR Angiography in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease: Comparison with Selective Digital Subtraction Angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Deutschmann, Hannes A.; Schoellnast, Helmut; Portugaller, Horst R. [University Hospital Graz, Medical University Graz, Department of Radiology (Austria); Preidler, Klaus W. [Diagnostikum Graz Sued-West (Austria); Reittner, Pia [University Hospital Graz, Medical University Graz, Department of Radiology (Austria); Tillich, Manfred [Diagnostikum Graz Sued-West (Austria); Pilger, Ernst [University Hospital Graz, Medical University Graz, Department of Angiology (Austria); Szolar, Dieter H. M. [Diagnostikum Graz Sued-West (Austria)], E-mail: dieter.szolar@diagnostikum-graz.at

    2006-10-15

    Purpose. To compare the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced (CE) three-dimensional (3D) moving-table magnetic resonance (MR) angiography with that of selective digital subtraction angiography (DSA) for routine clinical investigation in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Methods. Thirty-eight patients underwent CE 3D moving-table MR angiography of the pelvic and peripheral arteries. A commercially available large-field-of-view adapter and a dedicated peripheral vascular phased-array coil were used. MR angiograms were evaluated for grade of arterial stenosis, diagnostic quality, and presence of artifacts. MR imaging results for each patient were compared with those of selective DSA. Results. Two hundred and twenty-six arterial segments in 38 patients were evaluated by both selective DSA and MR angiography. No complications related to MR angiography were observed. There was agreement in stenosis classification in 204 (90.3%) segments; MR angiography overgraded 16 (7%) segments and undergraded 6 (2.7%) segments. Compared with selective DSA, MR angiography provided high sensitivity and specificity and excellent interobserver agreement for detection of severe stenosis (97% and 95%, {kappa} = 0.9 {+-} 0.03) and moderate stenosis (96.5% and 94.3%, {kappa} = 0.9 {+-} 0.03). Conclusion. Compared with selective DSA, moving-table MR angiography proved to be an accurate, noninvasive method for evaluation of peripheral arterial occlusive disease and may thus serve as an alternative to DSA in clinical routine.

  18. Persistently high venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide differences during early resuscitation are associated with poor outcomes in septic shock

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide difference (Pv-aCO2) may reflect the adequacy of blood flow during shock states. We sought to test whether the development of Pv-aCO2 during the very early phases of resuscitation is related to multi-organ dysfunction and outcomes in a population of septic shock patients resuscitated targeting the usual oxygen-derived and hemodynamic parameters. Methods We conducted a prospective observational study in a 60-bed mixed ICU in a University affiliated Hospital. 85 patients with a new septic shock episode were included. A Pv-aCO2 value ? 6 mmHg was considered to be high. Patients were classified in four predefined groups according to the Pv-aCO2 evolution during the first 6 hours of resuscitation: (1) persistently high Pv-aCO2 (high at T0 and T6); (2) increasing Pv-aCO2 (normal at T0, high at T6); (3) decreasing Pv-aCO2 (high at T0, normal at T6); and (4) persistently normal Pv-aCO2 (normal at T0 and T6). Multiorgan dysfunction at day-3 was compared for predefined groups and a Kaplan Meier curve was constructed to show the survival probabilities at day-28 using a log-rank test to evaluate differences between groups. A Spearman-Rho was used to test the agreement between cardiac output and Pv-aCO2. Finally, we calculated the mortality risk ratios at day-28 among patients attaining normal oxygen parameters but with a concomitantly increased Pv-aCO2. Results Patients with persistently high and increasing Pv-aCO2 at T6 had significant higher SOFA scores at day-3 (p < 0.001) and higher mortality rates at day-28 (log rank test: 19.21, p < 0.001) compared with patients who evolved with normal Pv-aCO2 at T6. Interestingly, a poor agreement between cardiac output and Pv-aCO2 was observed (r2 = 0.025, p < 0.01) at different points of resuscitation. Patients who reached a central venous saturation (ScvO)2 ? 70% or mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) ? 65% but with concomitantly high Pv-aCO2 at different developmental points (i.e., T0, T6 and T12) had a significant mortality risk ratio at day-28. Conclusion The persistence of high Pv-aCO2 during the early resuscitation of septic shock was associated with more severe multi-organ dysfunction and worse outcomes at day-28. Although mechanisms conducting to increase Pv-aCO2 during septic shock are insufficiently understood, Pv-aCO2 could identify a high risk of death in apparently resuscitated patients. PMID:24330804

  19. Delirium in early-stage alzheimer's disease: enhancing cognitive reserve as a possible preventive measure.

    PubMed

    Fick, Donna M; Kolanowski, Ann; Beattie, Elizabeth; McCrow, Judith

    2009-03-01

    Delirium is a disorder of acute onset with fluctuating symptoms and is character ized by inattention, disorganized thinking and altered levels of consciousness. The risk for delirium is greatest in individual with dementia, and the incidence of both is increasing worldwide because of the aging of our population. Although s clinical trials have tested interventions f delirium prevention in individuals without dementia, little is known about the m anisms for the prevention of delirium i early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD). Th purpose of this article is to explore ways o preventing delirium and slowing the ra of cognitive decline in early-stage AD enhancing cognitive reserve. An agenda for future research on interventions to prevent delirium in individuals with early-stage AD is also presented. PMID:19326827

  20. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase enhances isoflurane-induced protection against myocardial infarction during early reperfusion in vivo.

    PubMed

    Pagel, Paul S; Krolikowski, John G; Neff, Donald A; Weihrauch, Dorothee; Bienengraeber, Martin; Kersten, Judy R; Warltier, David C

    2006-05-01

    Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-beta protects against ischemia-reperfusion injury. Brief exposure to isoflurane before and during early reperfusion after coronary artery occlusion also protects against infarction. Whether GSK-beta mediates this action is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that GSK inhibition enhances isoflurane-induced postconditioning. Rabbits (n = 88; 6 to 7 per group) subjected to a 30-min coronary occlusion followed by 3 h reperfusion received saline, isoflurane (0.5 or 1.0 minimum alveolar concentration [MAC]) administered for 3 min before and 2 min after reperfusion, the selective GSK inhibitor SB216763 (SB21; 0.2 or 0.6 mg/kg), or 0.5 MAC isoflurane plus 0.2 mg/kg SB21. Other groups of rabbits pretreated with phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor wortmannin (0.6 mg/kg), 70-kDa ribosomal protein s6 kinase (p70s6K) inhibitor rapamycin (0.25 mg/kg), or mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opener atractyloside (5 mg/kg) received 0.6 mg/kg SB21 or 0.5 MAC isoflurane plus 0.2 mg/kg SB21. Additional groups received the mPTP inhibitor, cyclosporin A (5 mg/kg), plus 0.2 mg/kg SB21 with or without atractyloside pretreatment. Isoflurane (1.0 but not 0.5 MAC) and SB21 (0.6 but not 0.2 mg/kg) reduced (P < 0.05) infarct size (21% +/- 5%, 44% +/- 7%, 23% +/- 4%, and 46% +/- 2%, respectively, of left ventricular area at risk, mean+/- sd; triphenyltetrazolium staining) as compared with control (42% +/- 6%). Isoflurane (0.5 MAC) plus 0.2 mg/kg SB21 and cyclosporin A plus 0.2 mg/kg SB21 produced similar degrees of protection (24% +/- 4% and 27% +/- 6%, respectively). Atractyloside but not wortmannin or rapamycin abolished protection produced by 0.6 mg/kg SB21 and 0.5 MAC isoflurane plus 0.2 mg/kg SB21. Thus, GSK inhibition enhances isoflurane-induced protection against infarction during early reperfusion via a mPTP-dependent mechanism. PMID:16632807

  1. [Evaluation of the right internal iliac artery which is anastomosed to transplant renal artery using non-contrast enhanced MR angiography with electrocardiography-gated and 3D True SSFP time-spatial labeling inversion pulse sequence].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ayako; Shiratori, Yoko; Suzuki, Makoto; Ozasa, Masaya; Takeyama, Mamoru; Eshima, Mitsuhiro; Shinohara, Maiko; Yamamoto, Takao; Tajima, Tsuyoshi

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate whether electrocardiography-gated is useful in non-contrast-enhanced MRA with time-spatial labeling inversion pulse (Time-SLIP) in renal transplantation patients compared with respiration-triggered free-breathing. Simulation-based analyses of black blood time interval (BBTI) values for spatial selective inversion-recovery pulse and electrocardiography rates were performed, and confirmed on human subjects using a three-dimensional (3D) coherent steady-state free precession (SSFP) sequence on a 1.5 tesla Toshiba MRI scanner. Signal acquisition interval and BBTI values in which signal of a water tissue becomes the null point showed a strong correlation, and successfully suppressed signals from the background and provided better contrast between the arteries and the background. Because electrocardiography-gated non-contrast MRA does not depend on the respiration interval, providing a contrast stable, it was suggested to be an effective screening tool for evaluation of pelvic arteries. PMID:25994397

  2. Disseminated arterial calcification and enhanced myogenic response are associated with Abcc6 deficiency in a mouse model of pseudoxanthoma elasticum

    PubMed Central

    Kauffenstein, G; Pizard, A; Le Corre, Y; Vessières, E; Grimaud, L; Toutain, B; Labat, C; Mauras, Y; Gorgels, TG; Bergen, AA; Le Saux, O; Lacolley, P; Lefthériotis, G; Henrion, D; Martin, L

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is an inherited metabolic disorder due to ABCC6 gene mutations. It is characterized by progressive calcification and fragmentation of elastic fibers in the skin, retina and the arterial wall. Despite calcium accumulation in the arteries of PXE patients, functional consequences remain unknown. In the present study, we investigated arterial structure and function in Abcc6?/? mice, a model of the human disease. Approach and Results Arterial calcium accumulation was evaluated using alizarin red stain and atomic absorption spectrometry. Expression of genes involved in osteochondrogenic differenciation was measured by PCR. Elastic arterial properties were evaluated by carotid echo-tracking. Vascular reactivity was evaluated using wire and pressure myography and remodeling using histomorphometry. Arterial calcium accumulation was 1.5–2-fold higher in Abcc6?/? than in WT mice. Calcium accumulated locally leading to punctuate pattern. Old Abcc6?/? arteries expressed markers of both osteogenic (Runx2, osteopontin) and chondrogenic lineage (Sox9, type II collagen). Abcc6?/? arteries displayed slight increase in arterial stiffness and vasoconstrictor tone in vitro tended to be higher in response to phenylephrine and thromboxane A2. Pressure-induced (myogenic) tone was significantly higher in Abcc6?/? arteries than in WT. Arterial blood pressure was not significantly changed in Abcc6?/?, despite higher variability. Conclusions Scattered arterial calcium depositions are probably due to osteochondrogenic transdifferentiation of vascular cells. Lower elasticity and increased myogenic tone without major changes in agonist-dependent contraction evidenced in aged Abcc6?/? mice suggest a reduced control of local blood flow, which in turn may alter vascular homeostasis in the long term. PMID:24675664

  3. Detection of Coronary Artery Stenoses by Contrast-Enhanced, Retrospectively Electrocardiographically-Gated, Multislice Spiral Computed Tomography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan Achenbach; Tom Giesler; Dieter Ropers; Stefan Ulzheimer; Hans Derlien; Christoph Schulte; Evelyn Wenkel; Werner Moshage; Werner Bautz; Werner G. Daniel; Willi A. Kalender; Ulrich Baum

    Background—Multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) with retrospectively ECG-gated image reconstruction permits coronary artery visualization. We investigated the method's ability to identify high-grade coronary artery stenoses and occlusions. Methods and Results—A total of 64 consecutive patients were studied by MSCT (4 31 mm cross-sections, 500-ms rotation, table feed 1.5 mm\\/rotation, intravenous contrast agent, retrospectively ECG-gated image reconstruction). All coronary arteries and

  4. [A study of captopril enhancement of nitrate effect coronary arterial disease patients associated with heart failure].

    PubMed

    Han, Y L; Tong, M; Jing, Q M

    1994-07-01

    It is shown in a prospective study that the initial beneficial hemodynamic effect of nitroglycerine (NTG) significantly decreased after continuous 3-day infusion of this drug (10-50 micrograms/min) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients associated with acute left heart failure. The effect of ameliorating anginapectoris and improving heart function with isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) gradually decreased almost to pretreatment levels after oral administration of this drug (10-20mg, 4 times daily) for 3 weeks in anginapectoris patients associated with congestive heart failure (CHF) with accompanying increased level of plasma angiotensin II (AII) and body weight. However, when captopril (CPT, 12.5-25mg, 3 times daily) was combined with nitrates, the clinical effects were enhanced and maintained throughout the study, along with a decrease in the level of AII and body weight. In the hearts of rats perfused with CPT and NTG, the coronary flow (CF) significantly increased as compared with the flow when either drug was used alone. Enelapril (ENL, a non-sulfhydryl drug), however, did not show such effect. The above results indicate that repletion of sulfhydryl to vascular smooth muscle and antineurohumoral activation may be the potential mechanisms by which CPT reverses nitrate tolerance and enhances its clinical effects. PMID:7867440

  5. Predicting the extent and location of coronary artery disease during the early postinfarction period by quantitative thallium-201 scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, R.S.; Taylor, G.J.; Watson, D.D.; Stebbins, P.T.; Martin, R.P.; Crampton, R.S.; Beller, G.A.

    1981-05-01

    The ability of quantitative thallium-201 scintigraphy to predict the extent and location of coronary artery disease before hospital discharge after acute myocardial infarction was evaluated in 52 patients. All patients underwent coronary angiography and serial thallium-201 imaging either at rest (10 patients) or after submaximal exercise stress (42 patients; target heart rate 120 beats/min). Two or three vessel disease was designated if abnormal thallium-201 uptake or washout patterns, or both, were seen in two or three vascular segments, respectively. Thus, 2 weeks after myocardial infarction, exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy is useful for predicting the extent and location of coronary artery disease, particularly stenoses in the left anterior descending and right coronary arteries. Moreover, thallium-201 imaging at rest is reliable in assessing the extent of coronary disease in hospitalized patients who cannot undergo exercise testing because of unstable angina, uncompensated heart failure, poorly controlled arrhythmias or physical limitations.

  6. Noninvasive assessment of the brain redox status after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion using Overhauser-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Yamato, Mayumi; Shiba, Takeshi; Yamada, Ken-ichi; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Utsumi, Hideo

    2009-10-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the cell death that occurs after ischemia-reperfusion of the brain, which causes the production of reactive oxygen species and a decrease in antioxidants, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. However, the invasive methods used to collect much of this evidence are themselves stress inducing, which could skew the results. In this study, we aimed at demonstrating brain redox alterations after ischemia-reperfusion noninvasively, using Overhauser-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. The reduction rate of 3-methoxycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine-L-oxyl (methoxycarbonyl-PROXYL), a redox-sensitive contrast agent, was used as an index of the redox status in vivo. No changes were observed in the antioxidant concentration, the mitochondrial complex activity, or in the redox status image intensity after 3 h of reperfusion, following transient middle cerebral artery occlusion; however, after 24 h of reperfusion, the methoxycarbonyl-PROXYL reduction rate, calculated from continuous images, had decreased significantly. Concordantly, biochemical assays showed that the concentration of ascorbic acid in the ischemic hemisphere and the activity of mitochondrial complex II had also decreased. Thus, the noninvasive imaging of the brain redox alterations faithfully reflected changes in antioxidant levels and in mitochondrial complex II activity after ischemia-reperfusion. PMID:19553909

  7. Transplant Renal Artery Stenosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EBERHARD RITZ; SIMONA BRUNO; GIUSEPPE REMUZZI; PIERO RUGGENENTI

    2004-01-01

    Transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS) is a recog- nized, potentially curable cause of posttransplant arterial hy- pertension, allograft dysfunction, and graft loss. It usually occurs 3 mo to 2 yr after transplantation, but early or later presentations are not uncommon. The prevalence ranges widely from 1 to 23% in different series, reflecting the heter- ogeneous criteria used to establish the

  8. Posterior Circulation Acute Stroke Prognosis Early Computed Tomography Score Using Hypointense Vessels on Susceptibility Weighted Imaging Independently Predicts Outcome in Patients with Basilar Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Mundiyanapurath, S.; Möhlenbruch, M.; Ringleb, P. A.; Bösel, J.; Wick, W.; Bendszus, M.; Radbruch, A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Appearance of hypointense vessels on susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) has been reported to correlate with outcome in patients with ischemia of the anterior circulation. This study investigates the correlation between the appearance of hypointense vessels on SWI after recanalization therapy and outcome in patients with basilar artery occlusion. Methods Patients with basilar artery occlusion who were treated with endovascular recanalization or intravenous alteplase and received an MRI including SWI after therapy were retrieved from the hospital database for retrospective analysis. Posterior circulation Acute Stroke Prognosis Early Computed Tomography Score (pcASPECTS) was calculated based on regions displaying hypointense vessels on SWI and compared to lesions on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). Subsequently, SWI based pcASPECTS was correlated with outcome determined with modified Rankin Scale (mRS), categorized as favorable outcome (mRS 0-2) or unfavorable outcome (3-6). Results Twenty-two MRI of patients with basilar artery occlusion were analyzed. In seven out of eight areas of the pcASPECTS hypointense vessels on SWI were significantly correlated to areas of restricted diffusion on DWI. In univariate analysis median pcASPECTS on SWI was significantly higher in patients with favorable outcome (7.5 vs. 5, p=0.02). In a multivariate analysis pcASPECTS on SWI was an independent predictor of favorable outcome (OR 2.02; CI [1.02;3,99]; p=0.04). Conclusion pcASPECTS based on hypointense vessels on SWI after therapy predicts outcome in patients with basilar artery occlusion and might potentially be used as an additional imaging biomarker in the management of patients with stroke in the posterior circulation. This needs to be confirmed in larger prospective clinical trials. PMID:26176682

  9. Early decompressive surgery in malignant infarction of the middle cerebral artery: a pooled analysis of three randomised controlled trials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katayoun Vahedi; Jeannette Hofmeijer; Eric Juettler; Eric Vicaut; Bernard George; Ale Algra; G Johan Amelink; Peter Schmiedeck; Stefan Schwab; Peter M Rothwell; Marie-Germaine Bousser; H Bart van der Worp; Werner Hacke

    2007-01-01

    Summary Background Malignant infarction of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is associated with an 80% mortality rate. Non-randomised studies have suggested that decompressive surgery reduces this mortality without increasing the number of severely disabled survivors. To obtain suffi cient data as soon as possible to reliably estimate the eff ects of decompressive surgery, results from three European randomised controlled trials

  10. High Postoperative Serum Cortisol Level Is Associated with Increased Risk of Cognitive Dysfunction Early after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Dong-Liang; Li, Li-Huan; Wang, Dong-Xin; Li, Nan; Shan, Guo-Jin; Li, Jun; Yu, Qin-Jun; Shi, Chun-Xia

    2013-01-01

    Context Stress response induced by surgery is proposed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Objective To investigate the association between postoperative serum cortisol level and occurrence of cognitive dysfunction early after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Two teaching hospitals. Patients One hundred and sixth-six adult patients who were referred to elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery from March 2008 to December 2009. Intervention None. Main Outcome Measures Neuropsychological tests were completed one day before and seven days after surgery. Cognitive dysfunction was defined using the same definition as used in the ISPOCD1-study. Blood samples were obtained in the first postoperative morning for measurement of serum cortisol concentration. Multivariate Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between serum cortisol level and occurrence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Results Cognitive dysfunction occurred in 39.8% (66 of 166) of patients seven days after surgery. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that high serum cortisol level was significantly associated with the occurrence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (odds ratio [OR] 2.603, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.371-4.944, P = 0.003). Other independent predictors of early postoperative cognitive dysfunction included high preoperative New York Heart Association functional class (OR 0.402, 95% CI 0.207-0.782, P = 0.007), poor preoperative Grooved Pegboard test score of nondominant hand (OR 1.022, 95% CI 1.003-1.040, P = 0.020), use of penehyclidine as premedication (OR 2.565, 95% CI 1.109-5.933, P = 0.028), and occurrence of complications within seven days after surgery (OR 2.677, 95% CI 1.201-5.963, P = 0.016). Conclusions High serum cortisol level in the first postoperative morning was associated with increased risk of cognitive dysfunction seven days after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. PMID:24143249

  11. Low [Mg2+]e enhances arterial spontaneous tone via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in DOCA-salt hypertension.

    PubMed

    Northcott, Carrie A; Watts, Stephanie W

    2004-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) has been implicated in low extracellular Mg2+ concentration ( [Mg2+]e)-induced aortic contraction, and Mg2+ deficiency has been associated with hypertension. Moreover, arterial PI3K activity is increased in hypertensive deoxycorticosterone (DOCA)-salt rats. We hypothesized that low [Mg2+]e activates PI3K, eliciting enhanced vascular contraction, PI3K activity, and norepinephrine (NE)-induced contraction. Spontaneous tone was monitored in endothelium-denuded aortic strips from sham and DOCA-salt rats exposed to low Mg2+ (0.15 mmol/L), high Mg2+ (4.8 mmol/L), or normal (1.17 mmol/L) physiologic salt solution (PSS) in isolated tissue baths. LY294002 (20 micromol/L), a PI3K inhibitor, or vehicle was added (30 minutes), followed by NE (10(-9) to 3 x10(-5) mol/L). Low [Mg2+]e significantly enhanced tone in aortas from DOCA-salt and sham rats compared with normal PSS (DOCA-salt low [Mg2+]e, +51.5 +7.0 vs DOCA-salt normal PSS, +7.1 +1.4 % of initial phenylephrine [PE] contraction). LY294002 and incubation with high Mg2+ PSS decreased tone in aortas from DOCA-salt rats (low [Mg2+]e LY294002, --87.5 +8.8; normal PSS LY294002, -81.7 +13.7; and high [Mg2+]e, -31.2 +10.8 % of initial PE contraction). Low [Mg2+]e leftward-shifted NE-induced aortic contractions in sham and thus matched the shift observed with DOCA (-log EC50 mol/L: sham PSS, -7.7 +0.1; DOCA-salt PSS, -8.2 +0.1; sham low [Mg2+]e, -8.2 +0.1; and DOCA-salt low [Mg2+]e, -8.1 +0.1). Moreover, this shift was inhibited by LY294002. In conclusion, low [Mg2+]e might activate PI3K, leading to enhanced tone and agonist-induced contraction observed in aortas from DOCA-salt hypertensive rats. PMID:14638620

  12. Arterial embolism

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the artery (arterial bypass) to create a second source of blood supply Clot removal through a balloon catheter placed into the affected artery or through open surgery on the artery (embolectomy) Opening of the ...

  13. Coronary Arteries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and animations for grades K-6. The Coronary Arteries | Share Coronary Circulation The heart muscle, like every ... into two main coronary blood vessels (also called arteries). These coronary arteries branch off into smaller arteries, ...

  14. Orientation enhancement in early visual processing can explain time course of brightness contrast and White's illusion.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Subhajit; Sarkar, Sandip

    2013-06-01

    Dynamics of orientation tuning in V1 indicates that computational model of V1 should not only comprise of bank of static spatially oriented filters but also include the contribution for dynamical response facilitation or suppression along orientation. Time evolution of orientation response in V1 can emerge due to time- dependent excitation and lateral inhibition in the orientation domain. Lateral inhibition in the orientation domain suggests that Ernst Mach's proposition can be applied for the enhancement of initial orientation distribution that is generated due to interaction of visual stimulus with spatially oriented filters and subcortical temporal filter. Oriented spatial filtering that appears much early (<70 ms) in the sequence of visual information processing can account for many of the brightness illusions observed at steady state. It is therefore expected that time evolution of orientation response might be reflecting in the brightness percept over time. Our numerical study suggests that only spatio-temporal filtering at early phase can explain experimentally observed temporal dynamics of brightness contrast illusion. But, enhancement of orientation response at early phase of visual processing is the key mechanism that can guide visual system to predict the brightness by "Max-rule" or "Winner Takes All" (WTA) estimation and thus producing White's illusions at any exposure. PMID:23456306

  15. Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide to enhance MRA of the renal and coronary arteries: Studies in human patients

    SciTech Connect

    Stillman, A.E.; Wilke, N. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)] [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Li, D.; Haacke, E.M. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)] [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); McLachlan, S. [Advanced Magnetics, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)] [Advanced Magnetics, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Our goal was to determine the feasibility of using an intravascular MR contrast agent to improve 3D MRA. Three-dimensional TOF MRA was performed in nine patients both prior to and following the administration of an ultrasmall particle superparamagnetic iron oxide contrast agent (AMI 227). The lengths of both renal arteries were measured from the maximum intensity projection (MIP) images as well as the individual partitions. Seven of these patients also were studied by a 3D coronary artery MRA sequence. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) measurements of the right coronary artery were determined both prior to and following the administration of AMI 227. Statistical analysis of both renal artery lengths and right coronary SNR and CNR was performed using a one tailed paired t test comparing pre- and postcontrast images. The renal artery lengths significantly increased (right renal artery: 30%, p = 0.001; left renal artery: 25%, p < 0.008) when measured from the individual axial slice partitions. No significant increase in length was observed on the MIP images following contrast. In the right coronary artery, the SNR increased by an average of 80% (p = 0.008) and CNR increased by an average of 109% (p = 0.007). Increased background signal and superimposed venous structures reduced the measurable lengths of the renal arteries from the MIP images. These studies support the hypothesis that 3D MRA in the body will benefit from the use of intravascular contrast agents. Nevertheless, conventional MIP processing is unable to reveal the full advantage of the contrast improvement. 14 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Investigation of the Saturation Pulse Artifact in Non-Enhanced MR Angiography of the Lower Extremity Arteries at 7 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    Johst, Sören; Maderwald, Stefan; Fischer, Anja; Quick, Harald H.; Ladd, Mark E.; Orzada, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    When performing non-enhanced time-of-flight MR angiography of the lower extremity arteries at 7 T with cardiac triggering, the acquisition time is a crucial consideration. Therefore, in previous studies, saturation RF pulses were applied only every second TR. In the axial source images a slight artifact with an appearance similar to aliasing could be observed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the origin of this artifact. The reason for the artifact is supposed to be related to the two effective TRs during acquisition caused by the sparsely applied saturation RF pulse. Several sequence variants were simulated and implemented within the sequence source code to examine this hypothesis. An adaptation of the excitation flip angles for each TR as well as a correction factor for the k-space data was calculated. Additionally, a different ordering of the k-space data during acquisition was implemented as well as the combination of the latter with the k-space correction factor. The observations from the simulations were verified using both a static and a flow phantom and, finally, in a healthy volunteer using the same measurement setup as in previous volunteer and patient studies. Of all implemented techniques, only the reordering of the k-space was capable of suppressing the artifact almost completely at the cost of creating a ringing artifact. The phantom measurements showed the same results as the simulations and could thus confirm the hypothesis regarding the origin of the artifact. This was additionally verified in the healthy volunteer. The origin of the artifact could be confirmed to be the periodic signal variation caused by two effective TRs during acquisition. PMID:25785837

  17. Effects of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy on Employment Outcomes in Early Schizophrenia: Results from a 2-Year Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eack, Shaun M.; Hogarty, Gerard E.; Greenwald, Deborah P.; Hogarty, Susan S.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of psychosocial cognitive rehabilitation on employment outcomes in a randomized controlled trial for individuals with early course schizophrenia. Method: Early course schizophrenia outpatients (N = 58) were randomly assigned to cognitive enhancement therapy (CET) or an enriched supportive therapy (EST) control and…

  18. Coronary Artery Imaging in Children

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery problems in children usually have a significant impact on both short-term and long-term outcomes. Early and accurate diagnosis, therefore, is crucial but technically challenging due to the small size of the coronary artery, high heart rates, and limited cooperation of children. Coronary artery visibility on CT and MRI in children is considerably improved with recent technical advancements. Consequently, CT and MRI are increasingly used for evaluating various congenital and acquired coronary artery abnormalities in children, such as coronary artery anomalies, aberrant coronary artery anatomy specific to congenital heart disease, Kawasaki disease, Williams syndrome, and cardiac allograft vasculopathy. PMID:25741188

  19. Addendum to `numerical modeling of an enhanced very early time electromagnetic (VETEM) prototype system'

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cui, T.J.; Chew, W.C.; Aydiner, A.A.; Wright, D.L.; Smith, D.V.; Abraham, J.D.

    2000-01-01

    Two numerical models to simulate an enhanced very early time electromagnetic (VETEM) prototype system that is used for buried-object detection and environmental problems are presented. In the first model, the transmitting and receiving loop antennas accurately analyzed using the method of moments (MoM), and then conjugate gradient (CG) methods with the fast Fourier transform (FFT) are utilized to investigate the scattering from buried conducting plates. In the second model, two magnetic dipoles are used to replace the transmitter and receiver. Both the theory and formulation are correct and the simulation results for the primary magnetic field and the reflected magnetic field are accurate.

  20. Dietary l -arginine supplementation enhances the immune status in early-weaned piglets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bie Tan; Xinguo G. Li; Xiangfeng Kong; Ruilin Huang; Zheng Ruan; Kang Yao; Zeyuan Deng; Mingyong Xie; Izuru Shinzato; Yulong Yin; Guoyao Wu

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that dietary L-arginine supplementation enhances immunity in early weaned\\u000a piglets. Seventy piglets weaned at 7 days of age were assigned to five groups (14 pigs\\/group), representing supplementation\\u000a of 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8% l-arginine to a milk-based formula. On Day 7 after initiation of treatment, spleen weight in piglets supplemented with 0.2

  1. Early and late arterial healing response to catheter-induced laser, thermal, and mechanical wall damage in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Oomen, A; van Erven, L; Vandenbroucke, W V; Verdaasdonk, R M; Slager, C J; Thomsen, S L; Borst, C

    1990-01-01

    Pulsed lasers are being promoted for laser angioplasty because of their capacity to ablate obstructions without producing adjacent thermal tissue injury. The implicit assumption that thermal injury to the artery is to be avoided was tested. Thermal lesions were produced in the iliac arteries and aorta of normal rabbits by a) electrical spark erosion, b) the metal laser probe, and c) continuous wave neodymium-yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd-YAG) laser energy through the sapphire contact probe. High-energy doses were used to induce substantial damage without perforating the vessel wall. Thermal lesions (n = 77) were compared with mechanical lesions (n = 22) induced by oversized balloon dilation. Medial necrosis was induced by all four injury methods. Provided no extravascular contrast was observed after the injury, all damaged segments were patent after 1 to 56 days. The progression of healing with myointimal proliferation was remarkably similar for all injuries. At 56 days, the neointima measured up to 370 microns. In conclusion, provided no perforation with contrast extravasation occurred, the normal rabbit artery recovered well from transmural thermal injury. The wall healing response is largely nonspecific. PMID:2144035

  2. Pre-dawn stomatal opening does not substantially enhance early-morning photosynthesis in Helianthus annuus.

    PubMed

    Auchincloss, Lisa; Easlon, Hsien M; Levine, Diedre; Donovan, Lisa; Richards, James H

    2014-06-01

    Most C3 plant species have partially open stomata during the night especially in the 3-5 h before dawn. This pre-dawn stomatal opening has been hypothesized to enhance early-morning photosynthesis (A) by reducing diffusion limitations to CO2 at dawn. We tested this hypothesis in cultivated Helianthus annuus using whole-shoot gas exchange, leaf level gas exchange and modelling approaches. One hour pre-dawn low-humidity treatments were used to reduce pre-dawn stomatal conductance (g). At the whole-shoot level, a difference of pre-dawn g (0.40 versus 0.17 mol m(-2) s(-1)) did not significantly affect A during the first hour after dawn. Shorter term effects were investigated with leaf level gas exchange measurements and a difference of pre-dawn g (0.10 versus 0.04 mol m(-2) s(-1)) affected g and A for only 5 min after dawn. The potential effects of a wider range of stomatal apertures were explored with an empirical model of the relationship between A and intercellular CO2 concentration during the half-hour after dawn. Modelling results demonstrated that even extremely low pre-dawn stomatal conductance values have only a minimal effect on early-morning A for a few minutes after dawn. Thus, we found no evidence that pre-dawn stomatal opening enhances A. PMID:24895756

  3. Guanfacine enhances inhibitory control and attentional shifting in early abstinent cocaine-dependent individuals

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Helen; Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Sinha, Rajita

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Attenuation of adrenergic drive and cognitive enhancement, via stimulation of alpha2 pre- and post-synaptic receptors, may selectively enhance executive performance in early abstinent cocaine-dependent individuals. As these cognitive processes underpin important treatment-related behaviors, the alpha2 agonist, guanfacine HCl, may represent an effective pharmaco-therapeutic intervention. Methods Twenty-five early abstinent cocaine-dependent individuals were administered a battery of neurocognitive tasks on entry into treatment (baseline) and again following 3 weeks of either placebo or guanfacine treatment (up to 3 mg). Tasks included: Stop Signal, Stroop, 3-Dimentional Intra-dimensional/Extra-dimensional (IDED) task, Spatial Working Memory (SWM), Paired Associates Learning (PAL), Verbal Fluency and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). Results Compared with placebo, the guanfacine group demonstrated attenuated anxiety and negative affect as well as improved performance on selective executive tests. This included fewer directional errors on the stop signal task, fewer errors on the extra-dimensional shift component of the IDED task and better attentional switching during verbal fluency. Guanfacine did not improve strategic working memory or peripheral memory. Conclusion Guanfacine improves selective cognitive processes which may underlie salient treatment-related regulatory behaviors. Alpha2 agonists may therefore represent important agents for cocaine dependence. PMID:25567555

  4. A new technique for early detection of portal vein and arterial thromboses. Indwelling mesenteric venous catheterization and relevance to small bowel transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yamataka, A; Kawamoto, S; Ishikawa, M; Lancaster, J F; Miyano, T; Lynch, S V

    1993-09-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain whether, in an animal model, continuous monitoring of mesenteric venous pressure (MVP) via an indwelling mesenteric venous catheter could assist in early detection of thrombosis of the portal vein (PVT) and superior mesenteric artery (SMAT). The role of portography via the catheter was also studied in confirming these complications. An animal model of PVT and SMAT was developed in pigs. At laparotomy, a 20-cm jejunal loop was isolated and a heparin-coated catheter was inserted into a mesenteric vein of the isolated jejunum and connected to a pressure transducer. Conditions of PVT were simulated by progressive occlusion of the portal vein (PV) using a silastic tourniquet and those of SMAT by superior mesenteric artery (SMA) clamping. MVPs (mm Hg) were found to significantly increase with all degrees of PV occlusion (P < 0.01, Student's t test) and to significantly decrease after SMA occlusion (P < 0.01). Portography clearly demonstrated all degrees of PV stenosis after PV occlusion and stasis of contrast medium during SMA occlusion. The authors feel that this method enables rapid diagnosis of PVT and SMAT and may be useful in the monitoring of the therapy for these complications after small bowel transplantation. PMID:8212141

  5. Early and long-term outcome of surgically treated giant internal carotid artery aneurysms—comparison with smaller aneurysms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomasz Szmuda; Pawel Sloniewski

    Background  Internal carotid artery (ICA) is predominant localization of giant intracranial aneurysms (GIAs). The rupture of GIA is supposed\\u000a to be related to higher risk of poor clinical outcome. Although endovascular techniques are still being developed, they seem\\u000a to be unsatisfactory in the mean of GIAs.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Included in the retrospective analysis were 78 giant and 250 smaller surgically treated ICA aneurysms.

  6. On-versus Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: No Difference in Early Postoperative Kidney Function Based on TNF-? or C-Reactive Protein

    PubMed Central

    Nezami, Nariman; Djavadzadegan, Hassan; Tabatabaie-Adl, Haleh; Hamdi, Amir; Ghobadi, Kazem; Ghorashi, Sona; Hajhosseini, Babak

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims There are controversial data about renal function following off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The present study aimed to evaluate renal function changes 24 h after on- and off-pump CABG, as well as renal function correlated with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?). Methods Ninety patients with coronary artery disease referred to our center for CABG from July 2006 to November 2007 were enrolled in the study. Patients were equally and randomly divided in two groups, on- and off-pump. Serum levels of creatinine (Cr), blood urea nitrogen, creatinine clearance (CrCl), hs-CRP, and TNF-? were determined immediately before and 24 h after surgery. Results Cr and CrCl changes after surgery were not significantly different between the two groups; however, blood urea nitrogen levels after surgery were significantly higher in the on-pump group (p = 0.035). No statistically significant difference was noted between the two groups in terms of changes in levels of hs-CRP and TNF-? (p = 0.350 and 0.805, respectively). The changes in CrCl levels had no significant correlation with hs-CRP and TNF-?. Conclusions The early Cr and CrCl levels after surgery are not significantly different in on- and off-pump groups. The early renal function after on- or off-pump CABG is not correlated with the levels of inflammatory markers including hs-CRP and TNF-?. PMID:22969775

  7. Myocardial viability by contrast-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance in patients with coronary artery disease: comparison with gated single-photon emission tomography and FDG position emission tomography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yen-Wen Wu; Eiji Tadamura; Shotaro Kanao; Masaki Yamamuro; Akira Marui; Masashi Komeda; Masanao Toma; Takeshi Kimura; Kaori Togashi

    2007-01-01

    Background  The aim of this study was to assess the value of contrast-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in viability for\\u000a patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction (ejection fraction [EF] ?50%), comparing to gated\\u000a thallium-201 (201Tl) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods and Results  One hundred sixteen patients (EF 37.8 ± 16.2%) underwent

  8. Laser recanalisation of coronary arteries by metal-capped optical fibres: early clinical experience in patients with stable angina pectoris.

    PubMed Central

    Crea, F; Davies, G; McKenna, W J; Pashazadeh, M; Keogh, B; Kidner, P; Taylor, K M; Maseri, A

    1988-01-01

    The delivery of laser energy to the coronary circulation by bare optical fibres may cause perforation of the vessel. Experimental studies have shown that this complication can be avoided if the optical fibre is fitted with a metal cap to prevent the potentially dangerous forward projection of the laser beam. This study was performed to assess the feasibility and short term effects of percutaneous coronary laser recanalisation with these modified fibres. Recanalisation of a severe stenosis of the left anterior descending artery was attempted in six patients who were referred for coronary artery bypass grafting. Although the percutaneous technique was used, the laser procedure was performed during coronary bypass surgery before the start of cardiopulmonary bypass to minimise the effects of potential complications. A 1.5 mm diameter metal-capped fibre coupled to an argon laser was advanced percutaneously over a guide wire positioned across the stenosis. In the first patient the delivery of 152 J resulted in the gradual passage of the fibre through a 3 cm long stenosis. Repeat angiography showed a reduction in the severity of the stenosis. In the second patient the delivery of 112 J failed to allow fibre advancement; a further 80 J pulse caused perforation which was repaired. In the remaining four patients the delivery of laser energy in the attempt to traverse the stenosis was limited to less than 90 J. In two of the four patients the severity of stenosis was reduced. No further complications were seen. Percutaneous coronary laser recanalisation with metal-capped optical fibres is feasible but improvements of currently available technology are needed to increase the primary success rate. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 PMID:3342157

  9. Laser recanalisation of coronary arteries by metal-capped optical fibres: early clinical experience in patients with stable angina pectoris.

    PubMed

    Crea, F; Davies, G; McKenna, W J; Pashazadeh, M; Keogh, B; Kidner, P; Taylor, K M; Maseri, A

    1988-02-01

    The delivery of laser energy to the coronary circulation by bare optical fibres may cause perforation of the vessel. Experimental studies have shown that this complication can be avoided if the optical fibre is fitted with a metal cap to prevent the potentially dangerous forward projection of the laser beam. This study was performed to assess the feasibility and short term effects of percutaneous coronary laser recanalisation with these modified fibres. Recanalisation of a severe stenosis of the left anterior descending artery was attempted in six patients who were referred for coronary artery bypass grafting. Although the percutaneous technique was used, the laser procedure was performed during coronary bypass surgery before the start of cardiopulmonary bypass to minimise the effects of potential complications. A 1.5 mm diameter metal-capped fibre coupled to an argon laser was advanced percutaneously over a guide wire positioned across the stenosis. In the first patient the delivery of 152 J resulted in the gradual passage of the fibre through a 3 cm long stenosis. Repeat angiography showed a reduction in the severity of the stenosis. In the second patient the delivery of 112 J failed to allow fibre advancement; a further 80 J pulse caused perforation which was repaired. In the remaining four patients the delivery of laser energy in the attempt to traverse the stenosis was limited to less than 90 J. In two of the four patients the severity of stenosis was reduced. No further complications were seen. Percutaneous coronary laser recanalisation with metal-capped optical fibres is feasible but improvements of currently available technology are needed to increase the primary success rate. PMID:3342157

  10. Value of Single-Dose Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Angiography Versus Intraarterial Digital Subtraction Angiography in Therapy Indications in Abdominal and Iliac Arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, Philipp J., E-mail: jp.schaefer@rad.uni-kiel.de; Schaefer, Fritz K. W.; Mueller-Huelsbeck, Stefan; Both, Markus; Heller, Martin; Jahnke, Thomas [University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein Campus Kiel, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany)

    2007-06-15

    The objective of the study was to prove the value of single-dose contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography [three-dimensional (3D) ceMRA] in abdominal and iliac arteries versus the reference standard intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (i.a.DSA) when indicating a therapy. Patients suspected of having abdominal or iliac artery stenosis were included in this study. A positive vote of the local Ethics Committee was given. After written informed consent was obtained, 37 patients were enrolled, of which 34 were available for image evaluation. Both 3D ceMRA and i.a. DSA were performed for each patient. The dosage for 3D ceMRA was 0.1 mmol/kg body weight in a 1.5-T scanner with a phased-array coil. The parameters of the 3D-FLASH sequence were as follows: TR/TE 4.6/1.8 ms, effective thickness 3.5 mm, matrix 512 x 200, flip angle 30{sup o}, field of view 420 mm, TA 23 s, coronal scan orientation. Totally, 476 vessel segments were evaluated for stenosis degree by two radiologists in a consensus fashion in a blinded read. For each patient, a therapy was proposed, if clinically indicated. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy for stenoses {>=}50% were 68%, 92%, 44%, 97%, and 90%, respectively. In 13/34 patients, a discrepancy was found concerning therapy decisions based on MRA findings versus therapy decisions based on the reference standard DSA. The results showed that the used MRA imaging technique of abdominal and iliac arteries is not competitive to i.a. DSA, with a high rate of misinterpretation of the MRAs resulting in incorrect therapies.

  11. Multi-delay multi-parametric arterial spin-labeled perfusion MRI in acute ischemic stroke — Comparison with dynamic susceptibility contrast enhanced perfusion imaging?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Danny J.J.; Alger, Jeffry R.; Qiao, Joe X.; Gunther, Matthias; Pope, Whitney B.; Saver, Jeffrey L.; Salamon, Noriko; Liebeskind, David S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to present a multi-delay multi-parametric pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) protocol with background suppressed 3D GRASE (gradient and spin echo) readout for perfusion imaging in acute ischemic stroke. PCASL data at 4 post-labeling delay times (PLD = 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3 s) were acquired within 4.5 min in 24 patients (mean age 79.7 ± 11.4 years; 11 men) with acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke who also underwent dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) enhanced perfusion imaging. Arterial transit times (ATT) were estimated through the calculation of weighted delays across the 4 PLDs, which were included in the calculation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and arterial cerebral blood volume (CBV). Mean perfusion parameters derived using pCASL and DSC were measured within MCA territories and infarct regions identified on diffusion weighted MRI. The results showed highly significant correlations between pCASL and DSC CBF measurements (r > = 0.70, p < = 0.0001) and moderately significant correlations between pCASL and DSC CBV measurements (r > = 0.45, p < = 0.027) in both MCA territories and infarct regions. ASL ATT showed correlations with DSC time to the maximum of tissue residual function (Tmax)(r = 0.66, p = 0.0005) and mean transit time (MTT)(r = 0.59, p = 0.0023) in leptomeningeal MCA territories. The present study demonstrated the feasibility for noninvasive multi-parametric perfusion imaging using ASL for acute stroke imaging. PMID:24159561

  12. Improved Detection of Coronary Artery Disease by Stress Perfusion Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance With the Use of Delayed Enhancement Infarction Imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Igor Klem; John F. Heitner; Dipan J. Shah; Michael H. Sketch Jr; Victor Behar; Jonathan Weinsaft; Peter Cawley; Michele Parker; Michael Elliott; Robert M. Judd; Raymond J. Kim

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES We tested a pre-defined visual interpretation algorithm that combines cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) data from perfusion and infarction imaging for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). BACKGROUND Cardiovascular magnetic resonance can assess both myocardial perfusion and infarction with independent techniques in a single session. METHODS We prospectively enrolled 100 consecutive patients with suspected CAD scheduled for X-ray coronary

  13. Enhancement of plasmid DNA transformation efficiencies in early stationary phase yeast cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Tripp, Jennifer DeMars; Lilley, Jennifer L.; Wood, Whitney N.; Lewis, L. Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Chemical-based methods have been developed for transformation of DNA into log phase cells of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with high efficiency. Transformation of early stationary phase cells, e.g., cells grown in overnight liquid cultures or as colonies on plates, is less efficient than log phase cells but is simpler and more adaptable to high throughput projects. In this study we have tested different approaches for transformation of early stationary phase cell cultures and identified a method utilizing polyethylene glycol (PEG), lithium acetate and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as most efficient. Plasmid DNA transformations using this method could be improved modestly by allowing cells to recover from the chemical treatment in rich broth before plating to selective media. Strong increases in transformation efficiencies were observed when cells were treated briefly with dithiothreitol (DTT). Tests using several different yeast strain backgrounds indicated that DTT treatment could enhance transformation efficiencies by up to 40-fold. Evaluation of multiple parameters affecting the efficiency of the method led to development of an optimized protocol achieving >50,000 transformants per µg DNA in most backgrounds tested. PMID:23483586

  14. Enhancing early attachment: Design and pilot study of an intervention for primary health care dyads.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Francisca Figueroa; Vergara, Victoria Binda; Santelices, María Pía

    2012-11-16

    The attachment style of an infant with his caregiver can greatly influence his future development. Many interventions have been proposed to enhance early secure attachment styles, but few have characteristics that make them suitable for primary health care. The objective of the study wasto design a complex intervention for promoting secure attachment in dyads detected in Primary Health Care with altered patterns of attachment styles. The methodology proposed by the UK Medical Research Council was used: (1) theoretical phase: literature review; (2) modelling phase: the main components of the intervention were defined through qualitative research; and (3) exploration phase: pilot study of the preliminary intervention. The attachment style of the dyads was evaluated using the Massie-Campbell scale prior to and four months after the pilot intervention. The preliminary intervention was designed: a group workshop (five to seven dyads, with children aged between 6 and 12 months and two health care professional monitors) structured around various activities that specifically dealt with the skills associated with parental sensitivity and addressed relevant issues to child rearing. The intervention was then tested in a pilot study of 11 dyads in two primary health care centres. The analysis was done with nine dyads (two were lost in the second evaluation), and showed an improvement of 33 per cent in the secure attachment style in the dyads (not statistically significant). An original intervention is designed and proposed for dyads who have early indicators of altered styles of attachment in primary health care. PMID:23162050

  15. Conditional Cripto overexpression in satellite cells promotes myogenic commitment and enhances early regeneration.

    PubMed

    Prezioso, Carolina; Iaconis, Salvatore; Andolfi, Gennaro; Zentilin, Lorena; Iavarone, Francescopaolo; Guardiola, Ombretta; Minchiotti, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration mainly depends on satellite cells, a population of resident muscle stem cells. Despite extensive studies, knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying the early events associated with satellite cell activation and myogenic commitment in muscle regeneration remains still incomplete. Cripto is a novel regulator of postnatal skeletal muscle regeneration and a promising target for future therapy. Indeed, Cripto is expressed both in myogenic and inflammatory cells in skeletal muscle after acute injury and it is required in the satellite cell compartment to achieve effective muscle regeneration. A critical requirement to further explore the in vivo cellular contribution of Cripto in regulating skeletal muscle regeneration is the possibility to overexpress Cripto in its endogenous configuration and in a cell and time-specific manner. Here we report the generation and the functional characterization of a novel mouse model for conditional expression of Cripto, i.e., the Tg:DsRed (loxP/loxP) Cripto-eGFP mice. Moreover, by using a satellite cell specific Cre-driver line we investigated the biological effect of Cripto overexpression in vivo, and provided evidence that overexpression of Cripto in the adult satellite cell compartment promotes myogenic commitment and differentiation, and enhances early regeneration in a mouse model of acute injury. PMID:26052513

  16. Conditional Cripto overexpression in satellite cells promotes myogenic commitment and enhances early regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Prezioso, Carolina; Iaconis, Salvatore; Andolfi, Gennaro; Zentilin, Lorena; Iavarone, Francescopaolo; Guardiola, Ombretta; Minchiotti, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration mainly depends on satellite cells, a population of resident muscle stem cells. Despite extensive studies, knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying the early events associated with satellite cell activation and myogenic commitment in muscle regeneration remains still incomplete. Cripto is a novel regulator of postnatal skeletal muscle regeneration and a promising target for future therapy. Indeed, Cripto is expressed both in myogenic and inflammatory cells in skeletal muscle after acute injury and it is required in the satellite cell compartment to achieve effective muscle regeneration. A critical requirement to further explore the in vivo cellular contribution of Cripto in regulating skeletal muscle regeneration is the possibility to overexpress Cripto in its endogenous configuration and in a cell and time-specific manner. Here we report the generation and the functional characterization of a novel mouse model for conditional expression of Cripto, i.e., the Tg:DsRedloxP/loxPCripto-eGFP mice. Moreover, by using a satellite cell specific Cre-driver line we investigated the biological effect of Cripto overexpression in vivo, and provided evidence that overexpression of Cripto in the adult satellite cell compartment promotes myogenic commitment and differentiation, and enhances early regeneration in a mouse model of acute injury.

  17. Emphysema early diagnosis using X-ray diffraction enhanced imaging at synchrotron light source

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and emphysema is a common component of COPD. Currently, it is very difficult to detect early stage emphysema using conventional radiographic imaging without contrast agents, because the change in X-ray attenuation is not detectable with absorption-based radiography. Compared with the absorption-based CT, phase contrast imaging has more advantages in soft tissue imaging, because of its high spatial resolution and contrast. Methods In this article, we used diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) method to get the images of early stage emphysematous and healthy samples, then extract X-ray absorption, refraction, and ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) information from DEI images using multiple image radiography (MIR). We combined the absorption image with the USAXS image by a scatter plot. The critical threshold in the scatter plot was calibrated using the linear discriminant function in the pattern recognition. Results USAXS image was sensitive to the change of tissue micro-structure, it could show the lesions which were invisible in the absorption image. Combined with the absorption-based image, the USAXS information enabled better discrimination between healthy and emphysematous lung tissue in a mouse model. The false-color images demonstrated that our method was capable of classifying healthy and emphysematous tissues. Conclusion Here we present USAXS images of early stage emphysematous and healthy samples, where the dependence of the USAXS signal on micro-structures of biomedical samples leads to improved diagnosis of emphysema in lung radiographs. PMID:24952622

  18. Changes in early cortical visual processing predict enhanced reactivity in deaf individuals.

    PubMed

    Bottari, Davide; Caclin, Anne; Giard, Marie-Hélène; Pavani, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with profound deafness rely critically on vision to interact with their environment. Improvement of visual performance as a consequence of auditory deprivation is assumed to result from cross-modal changes occurring in late stages of visual processing. Here we measured reaction times and event-related potentials (ERPs) in profoundly deaf adults and hearing controls during a speeded visual detection task, to assess to what extent the enhanced reactivity of deaf individuals could reflect plastic changes in the early cortical processing of the stimulus. We found that deaf subjects were faster than hearing controls at detecting the visual targets, regardless of their location in the visual field (peripheral or peri-foveal). This behavioural facilitation was associated with ERP changes starting from the first detectable response in the striate cortex (C1 component) at about 80 ms after stimulus onset, and in the P1 complex (100-150 ms). In addition, we found that P1 peak amplitudes predicted the response times in deaf subjects, whereas in hearing individuals visual reactivity and ERP amplitudes correlated only at later stages of processing. These findings show that long-term auditory deprivation can profoundly alter visual processing from the earliest cortical stages. Furthermore, our results provide the first evidence of a co-variation between modified brain activity (cortical plasticity) and behavioural enhancement in this sensory-deprived population. PMID:21980501

  19. Accuracy of serial myocardial perfusion scintigraphy with /sup 201/Tl for prediction of graft patency early and late after coronary artery bypass surgery. A controlled prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Pfisterer, M.; Emmenegger, H.; Schmitt, H.E.; Mueller-Brand, J.; Hasse, J.; Graedel, E.; Laver, M.B.; Burckhardt, D.; Burkart, F.

    1982-11-01

    To assess the accuracy of serial myocardial perfusion scintigraphy with /sup 201/Tl to predict graft patency early and late coronary artery bypass surgery, rest and exercise /sup 201/Tl and coronary arteriography were performed preoperatively and 2 weeks and 1 year after operation. The scintigraphic results were compared with graft patency, symptoms, left ventricular function and physical work capacity in a consecutive series of 55 patients with a total of 154 grafts. Serial /sup 201/Tl had an 80% sensitivity, 88% specificity and 86% overall accuracy in detecting or excluding graft occlusion, which was predicted by reversible ischemia as well as persistent new scar segments. Occluded grafts were correctly localized by /sup 201/Tl scintigraphy in 61%. Postoperative apical /sup 201/Tl defects were frequent (two-thirds of cases), and were the result of intraoperative transapical venting of the left ventricle. After coronary bypass graft surgery, ejection fraction at rest was unchanged. Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and physical work capacity improved significantly. In the presence of new perfusion defects detected postoperatively, physical work capacity was reduced significantly. New /sup 201/Tl defects in addition to typical or atypical angina provided a high probability of graft occlusion, while in the absence of new /sup 201/Tl defects all grafts were patent in more than 90% of patients, all of whom had no or only atypical chest pain. We conclude that serial /sup 201/Tl imaging after coronary artery bypass surgery is an accurate noninvasive method that can be used routinely to assess graft function, to localize spatially occluded grafts and to identify patients with a high likelihood of graft occlusion who may need invasive studies.

  20. Risk Factors for Long-term Outcome of Drug-eluting Stenting in Adults with Early-onset Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    An, Guipeng; Du, Zhongqi; Meng, Xiao; Guo, Tao; Li, Guishuang; Chen, Yuguo; Li, Jifu; An, Fengshuang; Zhang, Yun; Li, Wenjing; Zhang, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective We lack data on the long-term outcome of drug-eluting stenting in patients with early-onset coronary artery disease (CAD). Here, we investigated the association of traditional risk factors and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) after drug-eluting stenting in patients with CAD who were < 50 years old. Methods We enrolled 437 consecutive CAD patients < 50 years old who underwent drug-eluting stenting and 132 subjects who were age- and sex-matched and angiographically shown to be disease free as controls. MACEs were analyzed in CAD patients for a median of 24 months [interquartile range 14-34 months]. Results Male patients accounted for 90.4% of cases. As compared with controls, patients with early-onset CAD had higher body mass index and rates of smoking, family history of CAD, and diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. During the hospital stay, 1 patient died, and the incidence of MACEs was 1.1%. At the end of follow-up, the overall death rate was 0.7%. MACEs were observed in 54 patients (12.4%). On Cox proportional hazard analyses, positive family history and diabetes were independent risk factors of MACEs (HR 2.61, 95% confidence interval 1.29-4.00, p = 0.002; and HR 2.48, 95% confidence interval 0.86-3.14, p = 0.004, respectively). Conclusions Drug-eluting stenting is a reliable treatment for patients with early-onset CAD. Positive family history of CAD and diabetes are independent risk factors of adverse cardiovascular events in this subgroup of patients after drug-eluting stent implantation. PMID:24904227

  1. A pilot study on enhancing positive coping behaviour in early adolescents using a school-based project.

    PubMed

    Fok, May Sin-Mai; Wong, Doris Yuk-Shim

    2005-12-01

    Early adolescence is a period of rapid cognitive, social, emotional and physical changes. During this period, early adolescents usually lack the ability to cope when they experience stress, which is usually family and school-related. If they cannot cope with such stress, they may fail to develop in a healthy manner and may develop habits harmful to their health such as substance abuse. To enhance positive behaviour in those in early adolescence coping with stress, a school-based project was implemented using focus group interviews, an open forum and follow-up interviews and journals. The objectives were to identify the stressors encountered by the students and their ability to cope, to develop and implement an educational activity to promote positive coping behaviour and to evaluate the effectiveness of the educational activity. The findings of the evaluation support the view that an early prevention programme for promoting positive coping behaviour to early adolescents is useful. PMID:16275667

  2. Bacteria Present in Carotid Arterial Plaques Are Found as Biofilm Deposits Which May Contribute to Enhanced Risk of Plaque Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Lanter, Bernard B.; Sauer, Karin

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Atherosclerosis, a disease condition resulting from the buildup of fatty plaque deposits within arterial walls, is the major underlying cause of ischemia (restriction of the blood), leading to obstruction of peripheral arteries, congestive heart failure, heart attack, and stroke in humans. Emerging research indicates that factors including inflammation and infection may play a key role in the progression of atherosclerosis. In the current work, atherosclerotic carotid artery explants from 15 patients were all shown to test positive for the presence of eubacterial 16S rRNA genes. Density gradient gel electrophoresis of 5 of these samples revealed that each contained 10 or more distinct 16S rRNA gene sequences. Direct microscopic observation of transverse sections from 5 diseased carotid arteries analyzed with a eubacterium-specific peptide nucleic acid probe revealed these to have formed biofilm deposits, with from 1 to 6 deposits per thin section of plaque analyzed. A majority, 93%, of deposits was located proximal to the internal elastic lamina and associated with fibrous tissue. In 6 of the 15 plaques analyzed, 16S rRNA genes from Pseudomonas spp. were detected. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms have been shown in our lab to undergo a dispersion response when challenged with free iron in vitro. Iron is known to be released into the blood by transferrin following interaction with catecholamine hormones, such as norepinephrine. Experiments performed in vitro showed that addition of physiologically relevant levels of norepinephrine induced dispersion of P. aeruginosa biofilms when grown under low iron conditions in the presence but not in the absence of physiological levels of transferrin. PMID:24917599

  3. Chronic hypoxia-induced upregulation of Ca2+-activated Cl- channel in pulmonary arterial myocytes: a mechanism contributing to enhanced vasoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hui; Xia, Yang; Paudel, Omkar; Yang, Xiao-Ru; Sham, James S K

    2012-08-01

    Chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (CHPH) is associated with altered expression and function of cation channels in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), but little is known for anion channels. The Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel (CaCC), recently identified as TMEM16A, plays important roles in pulmonary vascular function. The present study sought to determine the effects of chronic hypoxia (CH) on the expression and function of CaCCs in PASMCs, and their contributions to the vascular hyperreactivity in CHPH. Male Wistar rats were exposed to room air or 10% O(2) for 3–4 weeks to generate CHPH. CaCC current (I(CI.Ca)) elicited by caffeine-induced Ca(2+) release or by depolarization at a constant high [Ca(2+)](i) (500 or 750 nm) was significantly larger in PASMCs of CH rats compared to controls. The enhanced I(CI.Ca)) density in CH PASMCs was unrelated to changes in amplitude of Ca(2+) release, Ca(2+)-dependent activation, voltage-dependent properties or calcineurin-dependent modulation of CaCCs, but was associated with increased TMEM16A mRNA and protein expression. Maximal contraction induced by serotonin, an important mediator of CHPH, was potentiated in endothelium-denuded pulmonary arteries of CH rats. The enhanced contractile response was prevented by the CaCC blockers niflumic acid and T16A(inh)-A01, or by the L-type Ca(2+) channel antagonist nifedipine. The effects of niflumic acid and nifedipine were non-additive. Our results demonstrate for the first time that CH increases I(CI.Ca) density, which is attributable to an upregulation of TMEM16A expression in PASMCs. The augmented CaCC activity in PASMCs may potentiate membrane depolarization and L-type channel activation in response to vasoconstrictors and enhance pulmonary vasoreactivity in CHPH. PMID:22674716

  4. Elevated temperature enhances normal early embryonic development in the coral Platygyra acuta under low salinity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chui, Apple Pui Yi; Ang, Put

    2015-06-01

    To better understand the possible consequences of climate change on reef building scleractinian corals in a marginal environment, laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the interactive effects of changes in salinity and temperature on percent fertilization success and early embryonic development of the coral Platygyra acuta. In the present study, a salinity of 24 psu (ambient 32 psu) reduced fertilization success by 60 %. Normal embryonic development was reduced by >80 % at 26 psu (ambient 33 psu) with 100 % abnormal development at 22 psu under ambient temperature. Elevated temperature (+3 °C) above the ambient spawning temperature did not show any negative effects on fertilization success. However, there was a trend for more abnormal embryos to develop at elevated temperature in the 2 d of the spawning event. The interactive effects between salinity and temperature are statistically significant only on normal embryonic development of P. acuta, but not on its fertilization success. Salinity was revealed to be the main factor affecting both fertilization success and normal embryonic development. Interestingly, the much lower fertilization success (76 %) observed in the second day of spawning (Trial 2) under ambient temperature recovered to 99 % success under elevated (+3 °C) temperature conditions. Moreover, elevated temperature enhanced normal early embryonic development under lowered salinity (26 psu). This antagonistic interactive effect was consistently observed in two successive nights of spawning. Overall, our results indicate that, in terms of its fertilization success and embryonic development, P. acuta is the most tolerant coral species to reduced salinity thus far reported in the literature. Elevated temperature, at least that within the tolerable range of the corals, could apparently alleviate the potential negative effects from salinity stresses. This mitigating role of elevated temperature appears not to have been reported on corals before.

  5. The A enhancer of polyomavirus: protein-protein interactions for the differential early and late promoter function under nonreplicating conditions.

    PubMed

    Shivakumar, C V; Das, G C

    1998-01-01

    The A enhancer of the polyomavirus early promoter is a 110-bp domain located in the late region and it contains the major late RNA initiation site. The 'core' of this enhancer binds several cellular proteins, including proteins PEA1, PEA2 and PEA3. Another element, NF-D/YY1, is also located in this enhancer. The A enhancer is known to stimulate the early promoter, contains auxiliary elements for replication and serves as the initiator for late transcription. It may also be involved in early-to-late switch. We were interested in investigating how the A-core- and NF-D-binding proteins regulate early and late promoter activity under nonreplicating conditions and how the protein-protein interactions affect the function of the individual elements. By point mutational analysis, we show that, except for PEA1, all other proteins activate the early and late promoters differentially under nonreplicating conditions. All three core-binding proteins, and the protein bound to the NF-D site, are activators and have a combinatorial effect on early promoter activity. On late transcription, only PEA1 acts positively and inactivation of the NF-D site is without any effect. In contrast, PEA2 and PEA3 have a repressor-like activity under nonreplicating conditions, indicating that these two proteins might be involved in repressing late transcription, probably early in infection. By increasing the spacing between two consecutive elements, we further show that protein-protein interaction is important for enhancer function. Transactivation of the early promoter was affected by mutations in all four protein-binding sites. Responsiveness of these factors in regard to the late promoter was parallel to their intrinsic promoter strength. The effects of middle and large T antigens are parallel for both the early and the late promoter, suggesting that the pathway(s) for transactivation function of these oncoproteins may overlap downstream. This study with cloned viral promoter will be reflective of situations in vivo, at least partially, under nonreplicating conditions. PMID:9820844

  6. Early age strength enhancement of blended cement systems by CaCl{sub 2} and diethanol-isopropanolamine

    SciTech Connect

    Riding, Kyle, E-mail: kyleriding@yahoo.co [Department of Civil Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Silva, Denise A. [W.R. Grace and Co., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02140 (United States); Scrivener, Karen [Laboratory of Construction Materials, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 (Switzerland)

    2010-06-15

    The enhancement of the 1 day strength of cementitious systems by a combination of calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) and diethanol-isopropanolamine (DEIPA) was studied, particularly in blended cement systems. A combination of quantitative X-ray diffraction with Rietveld refinement (QXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/backscattered electron image analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and isothermal calorimetry were used to investigate the mechanism of strength enhancement by the additives. The additives were found to increase the early age mortar strength by enhancing the cement hydration, with the DEIPA enhancing primarily the aluminate hydration. DEIPA also affected the morphology of portlandite which was formed as thin plates. In parallel, the calcium-to-silica ratio of the C-S-H was found to increase with the use of DEIPA, possibly because of the inclusion of microcrystalline portlandite. After 48 h DEIPA was found to directly enhance the rate of reaction of granulated blast-furnace slag and fly ash.

  7. Early Time Points Perfusion Imaging: Theoretical Analysis of Correction Factors for relative cerebral blood flow Estimation Given Local Arterial Input Function

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, Kenneth K.; Chesler, David A.

    2011-01-01

    If local arterial input function (AIF) could be identified, we present a theoretical approach to generate a correction factor based on local AIF for the estimation of relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) under the framework of early time points perfusion imaging (ET). If C(t), the contrast agent bolus concentration signal time course, is used for rCBF estimation in ET, the correction factor for C(t) is the integral of its local AIF. The recipe to apply the correction factor is to divide C(t) by the integral of its local AIF to obtain the correct rCBF. By similar analysis, the correction factor for the maximum derivative (MD1) of C(t) is the maximum signal of AIF and the correction factor for the maximum second derivative (MD2) of C(t) is the maximum derivative of AIF. In the specific case of using normalized gamma-variate function as a model for AIF, the correction factor for C(t) (but not for MD1) at the time to reach the maximum derivative is relatively insensitive to the shape of the local AIF. PMID:21497658

  8. Arterial Baroreflex Control of Cardiac Vagal Outflow in Older Individuals Can Be Enhanced by Aerobic Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Deley, Gaelle; Picard, Glen; Taylor, J. Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Maintained cardiac vagal function is critical to cardiovascular health in human aging. Aerobic exercise training has been thought an attractive intervention to increase cardiovagal baroreflex function however, the data are equivocal. Moreover, if regular exercise does reverse the age-related decline in cardiovagal baroreflex function, it is unknown how this might be achieved. Therefore, we assessed the effects of a 6-month aerobic training program on baroreflex gain and its mechanical and neural components in older individuals (5 women and 7 men, aged 55–71 years). We assessed baroreflex function using pharmacologic pressure changes (bolus nitroprusside followed by bolus phenylephrine) and estimated the integrated gain (?R-R interval/?systolic blood pressure) and mechanical (? diameter/? pressure) and neural (?R-R interval/? diameter) components via measurements of carotid artery diameter in previously sedentary older individuals before and after 6-months of aerobic training. There was a significant 26% increase in baroreflex gain that was directly related to the amount of exercise performed and that derived mainly from an increase in the neural component of the arterial baroreflex (p<0.05). We did find changes in the mechanical component but unlike integrated gain and the neural component, these were not related to the magnitude of the exercise stimulus. These results suggest that exercise training can have a powerful effect on cardiovagal baroreflex function, but a sufficient stimulus is necessary to produce the effect. Moreover, adaptations in the afferent efferent baroreflex control of cardiac vagal outflow may be crucial for the improvement in arterial baroreflex function in older humans. PMID:19332656

  9. Lumen segmentation and motion estimation in B-mode and contrast-enhanced ultrasound images of the carotid artery in patients with atherosclerotic plaque.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Diego D B; Akkus, Zeynettin; van den Oord, Stijn C H; Schinkel, Arend F L; van der Steen, Antonius F W; Niessen, Wiro J; Bosch, Johan G; Klein, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    In standard B-mode ultrasound (BMUS), segmentation of the lumen of atherosclerotic carotid arteries and studying the lumen geometry over time are difficult owing to irregular lumen shapes, noise, artifacts, and echolucent plaques. Contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) improves lumen visualization, but lumen segmentation remains challenging owing to varying intensities, CEUS-specific artifacts and lack of tissue visualization. To overcome these challenges, we propose a novel method using simultaneously acquired BMUS&CEUS image sequences. Initially, the method estimates nonrigid motion (NME) from the image sequences, using intensity-based image registration. The motion-compensated image sequence is then averaged to obtain a single "epitome" image with improved signal-to-noise ratio. The lumen is segmented from the epitome image through an intensity joint-histogram classification and a graph-based segmentation. NME was validated by comparing displacements with manual annotations in 11 carotids. The average root mean square error (RMSE) was 112±73 ?m . Segmentation results were validated against manual delineations in the epitome images of two different datasets, respectively containing 11 (RMSE 191±43 ?m) and 10 (RMSE 351±176 ?m ) carotids. From the deformation fields, we derived arterial distensibility with values comparable to the literature. The average errors in all experiments were in the inter-observer variability range. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study exploiting combined BMUS&CEUS images for atherosclerotic carotid lumen segmentation. PMID:25423650

  10. Pregnancy-related rupture of arterial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Barrett, J M; Van Hooydonk, J E; Boehm, F H

    1982-09-01

    Over 50 per cent of ruptured arterial aneurysms in women under the age of 40 are pregnancy-related. The hemodynamic and endocrine changes of pregnancy appear to be the cause of arterial alterations which may lead to new aneurysm formation and/or weakening of preexisting aneurysms. The most commonly reported arteries to have aneurysms rupture during pregnancy are the aorta, cerebral arteries, splenic artery, renal artery, coronary artery, and ovarian artery. In many instances, the rupture of an arterial aneurysm will initially simulate other less serious disease processes, thus delaying the correct diagnosis until a catastrophic event occurs. Early diagnosis and treatment of a ruptured arterial aneurysm are imperative in order to give optimal chances of survival to the mother and fetus. PMID:6752786

  11. Correction of Non-Linear Propagation Artifact in Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Imaging of Carotid Arteries: Methods and in Vitro Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Yesna O; Eckersley, Robert J; Senior, Roxy; Lim, Adrian K P; Cosgrove, David; Tang, Meng-Xing

    2015-07-01

    Non-linear propagation of ultrasound creates artifacts in contrast-enhanced ultrasound images that significantly affect both qualitative and quantitative assessments of tissue perfusion. This article describes the development and evaluation of a new algorithm to correct for this artifact. The correction is a post-processing method that estimates and removes non-linear artifact in the contrast-specific image using the simultaneously acquired B-mode image data. The method is evaluated on carotid artery flow phantoms with large and small vessels containing microbubbles of various concentrations at different acoustic pressures. The algorithm significantly reduces non-linear artifacts while maintaining the contrast signal from bubbles to increase the contrast-to-tissue ratio by up to 11 dB. Contrast signal from a small vessel 600 ?m in diameter buried in tissue artifacts before correction was recovered after the correction. PMID:25935597

  12. Brain Single-photon Emission CT Studies Using 99mTc-HMPAO and 99mTc-ECD Early after Recanalization by Local Intraarterial Thrombolysis in Patients with Acute Embolic Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuniaki Ogasawara; Akira Ogawa; Masayuki Ezura; Hiromu Konno; Michiyasu Suzuki; Takashi Yoshimoto

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The brain distribution of 99mTc-hexamethylpropyleneam- ine oxime (HMPAO) correlates with regional brain perfusion, whereas 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) reflects not only perfusion but also the metabolic status of brain tissue. We compared 99mTc-ECD single-photon emission CT (SPECT) with 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT early after recanalization by local intraarterial thrombolysis (LIT) in patients with acute embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion.

  13. Improved prediction of early-onset coronary artery disease using APOE ?4, BChE-K, PPAR?2 Pro12 and ENOS T-786C in a polygenic model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bassam A. Nassar; Kenneth Rockwood; Susan A. Kirkland; Thomas P. Ransom; Sultan Darvesh; Kathleen MacPherson; David E. Johnstone; Blair J. O'Neill; Iqbal R. Bata; Pantelis Andreou; Julie S. Jeffery; Jafna L. Cox

    2006-01-01

    Objectives:Coronary artery disease (CAD) is often polygenic due to multiple mutations that contribute small effects to susceptibility. Since most prior studies only evaluated the contribution of single candidate genes, we therefore looked at a combination of genes in predicting early-onset CAD [apolipoprotein E (APOE) ?4, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) K, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?2 (PPAR?2) Pro12Ala and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (ENOS)

  14. Early Career Boot Camp: a novel mechanism for enhancing early career development for psychologists in academic healthcare.

    PubMed

    Foran-Tuller, Kelly; Robiner, William N; Breland-Noble, Alfiee; Otey-Scott, Stacie; Wryobeck, John; King, Cheryl; Sanders, Kathryn

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a pilot mentoring program for Early Career Psychologists (ECPs) working in Academic Health Centers (AHCs) and synthesize the lessons learned to contribute to future ECP and AHC career development training programs. The authors describe an early career development model, named the Early Career Boot Camp. This intensive experience was conducted as a workshop meant to build a supportive network and to provide mentorship and survival tools for working in AHCs. Four major components were addressed: professional effectiveness, clinical supervision, strategic career planning, and academic research. Nineteen attendees who were currently less than 5 years post completion of doctoral graduate programs in psychology participated in the program. The majority of boot camp components were rated as good to excellent, with no component receiving below average ratings. Of the components offered within the boot camp, mentoring and research activities were rated the strongest, followed by educational activities, challenges in AHCS, and promotion and tenure. The article describes the purpose, development, implementation, and assessment of the program in detail in an effort to provide an established outline for future organizations to utilize when mentoring ECPs. PMID:22327238

  15. Music and Speech Listening Enhance the Recovery of Early Sensory Processing after Stroke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teppo Särkämö; Elina Pihko; Sari Laitinen; Anita Forsblom; Seppo Soinila; Mikko Mikkonen; Taina Autti; Heli M. Silvennoinen; Jaakko Erkkilä; Matti Laine; Isabelle Peretz; Marja Hietanen; Mari Tervaniemi

    2010-01-01

    Our surrounding auditory environment has a dramatic influence on the development of basic auditory and cognitive skills, but little is known about how it influences the recovery of these skills after neural damage. Here, we studied the long-term effects of daily music and speech listening on auditory sensory memory after middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke. In the acute recovery phase,

  16. The effect of Helium-enhanced stellar populations on the ultraviolet upturn phenomenon of early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Chul; Yoon, Suk-Jin; Lee, Young-Wook

    2015-03-01

    We present new population synthesis models (Chung et al. 2011) for quiescent early-type galaxies (ETGs) with UV-upturn phenomenon using relatively metal-poor and helium-enhanced subpopulations in the model. We find that the presence of helium-enhanced subpopulations in ETGs can naturally reproduce the strong UV-upturns observed in giant elliptical galaxies (Figure 1. left panel), without invoking unrealistically old ages (Park & Lee 1997). Our models with helium-enhanced subpopulations also predict that the well-known Burstein relation can be explained by the fraction of helium-enhanced subpopulation, the mean age, and the mean metallicity of the underlying stellar populations (Figure 1. right panel).

  17. THE EFFECT OF HELIUM-ENHANCED STELLAR POPULATIONS ON THE ULTRAVIOLET-UPTURN PHENOMENON OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Chul; Yoon, Suk-Jin; Lee, Young-Wook, E-mail: ywlee2@yonsei.ac.kr [Center for Galaxy Evolution Research and Department of Astronomy, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-20

    Recent observations and modeling of globular clusters (GCs) with multiple populations strongly indicate the presence of super-helium-rich subpopulations in old stellar systems. Motivated by this, we have constructed new population synthesis models with and without helium-enhanced subpopulations to investigate their impact on the UV-upturn phenomenon of quiescent early-type galaxies (ETGs). We find that our models with helium-enhanced subpopulations can naturally reproduce the strong UV-upturns observed in giant elliptical galaxies assuming an age similar to that of old GCs in the Milky Way. The major source of far-UV (FUV) flux, in this model, is relatively metal-poor and helium-enhanced hot horizontal-branch stars and their progeny. The Burstein et al. relation of the FUV - V color with metallicity is also explained either by the variation of the fraction of helium-enhanced subpopulations or by the spread in mean age of stellar populations in ETGs.

  18. Enhancing Early Intervention Services to Infants and Toddlers and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossetti, Louis M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses early intervention issues that all members of the early intervention team should become familiar with, including epidemiology; who should provide intervention services; and the importance of early identification and caregiver involvement for the efficacy of intervention services. (JDD)

  19. Contrast-agent-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: early detection of neoplastic lesions of the CNS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvlin, Mark J.; Rosa, Louis; Rajan, Sunder S.; Francisco, John

    1991-06-01

    Even though the intrinsic soft tissue contrast sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) affords excellent visualization of anatomic detail, certain pathologic processes may be diagnosed earlier with the administration of a contrast-enhancing agent. At present there is one agent, gadopentetate dimeglumine, GdDTPA, that has received FDA approval for use in the MR scanning of the brain and spine in human patients. This paramagnetic chelate distributes throughout the extracellular fluid space as dictated by capillary permeability so that abnormal vascularity and sites of blood-CNS barrier breakdown are highlighted. Primary neoplastic disease, metastases, meningeal extension, residual and recurrent tumor have been found to be better distinguished in MR images acquired after administration of GdDTPA. Routine administration of GdDTPA for cranial imaging has resulted in the discovery of otherwise occult lesions in approximately 3 of patients. Although the clinical utility and high therapeutic safety index of the first approved magnetic resonance contrast agent, GdDTPA, have been well established, other contrast agents, having different physical, chemical and biological properties, may offer improved sensitivity and bio-specificity. Agents currently being evaluated in vivo include: low osmolal paramagnetic chelates, superparamagnetic particles, metalloporphyrins, liposome encapsulated agents, perfluorocarbons, intravascular macromolecular chelate complexes and labeled monoclonal antibodies. Concurrent with advances in the development of new compounds, innovations in scanning hardware, pulse sequence design and image post-processing are helping to extend the efficacy of contrast media. Additional clinical experience will indicate which contrast agents and which MR techniques can best facilitate the early detection of specific neoplastic lesions.

  20. One-Year Durability of the Effects of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy on Functional Outcome in Early Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Eack, Shaun M.; Greenwald, Deborah P.; Hogarty, Susan S.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive rehabilitation is an effective intervention for addressing cognitive impairments in patients with schizophrenia. Previous research has shown that the early application of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET) can improve neurocognitive and-social cognitive deficits in the early course of the disorder, and ultimately reduce the substantial functional disability that these patients experience. However, the lasting effects of CET on functional outcome in early course schizophrenia patients remain unknown. In this study, 58 patients in the early course of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder treated with two years of either CET or an Enriched Supportive Therapy (EST) control were followed-up one year after the completion of treatment to examine the durability of CET effects on functional outcome. At one-year post-treatment, a high (72%) retention rate was observed in both treatments. Results from intent-to-treat analyses employing linear mixed-effects models indicated that CET effects on functional outcome were broadly maintained one-year post-treatment, and that patients receiving CET continued to demonstrate highly significant differential functional benefits compared to patients treated with EST. These findings support the durability of CET effects on functional outcome in the early course of schizophrenia, and point to the potential of cognitive rehabilitation to have a lasting impact on the early trajectory of the disorder. PMID:20472402

  1. Inflammatory Gene Load Is Associated With Enhanced Inflammation and Early Carotid Atherosclerosis in Smokers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paula Jerrard-Dunne; Matthias Sitzer; Paul Risley; Alexandra Buehler; Stefan von Kegler; Hugh S. Markus

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose—Smoking acts as a pro-inflammatory stimulus. Inflammation may provide a key mechanism by which smoking causes atherosclerosis. If so, then the degree to which an individual mounts an inflammatory response is likely to influence atherosclerosis severity. This study examined the impact of inflammatory gene polymorphisms and gene-smoking interactions on common carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), a measure of

  2. Early Phase Arterial Reaction Following Drug-Eluting and Bare-Metal Stent Implantation in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Nishio, Ryo; Shinke, Toshiro; Morino, Yoshihiro; Tanabe, Kengo; Furuya, Jungo; Takizawa, Kaname; Ako, Junya; Kozuma, Ken; Hibi, Kiyoshi; Ishii, Hideki; Hirohata, Atsushi; Otsuka, Yoritaka; Otake, Hiromasa; Takaya, Tomofumi; Hirata, Ken-Ichi

    2015-07-13

    The early phase arterial reaction after implantation of second-generation drug-eluting stents (2nd DES) and baremetal stents (BMS) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) remains unclear.The MECHANISM pilot study is a multi-center prospective registry that enrolled 24 STEMI patients (from 11 centers) who had undergone implantation of everolimus-eluting (n = 6), biolimus A9-eluting (n = 6) or zotarolimus-eluting stents (n = 6), or BMS (n = 6). Scheduled optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed 2 weeks after implantation, and images were independently analyzed at a core laboratory in a blinded fashion. Intra-stent thrombus was quantitatively analyzed in terms of the maximal area and the percentage of cross-sections with thrombus (the numbers of cross-section with thrombus × 100 divided by total number of cross-sections within the stented segment). More than 90% of struts were already covered 2 weeks after the index procedure, regardless of the stent type. There were no differences in stent diameter, minimal lumen diameter, minimal lumen area, neointimal thickness, or the frequencies of malapposed and uncovered struts among the 4 groups. The quantity of intra-stent thrombus also did not differ among the 4 groups.The results of this pilot study suggest that the 2-week vascular responses seem to be similar among 2nd DES and BMS in STEMI patients. Considering the possible advantage of 2nd DES in the prevention of restenosis, 2nd DES are a feasible option for the treatment of patients with STEMI. PMID:26118594

  3. Effects of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy on Employment Outcomes in Early Schizophrenia: Results From a Two-Year Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Eack, Shaun M.; Hogarty, Gerard E.; Greenwald, Deborah P.; Hogarty, Susan S.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of psychosocial cognitive rehabilitation on employment outcomes in a randomized controlled trial for individuals with early course schizophrenia. Method Early course schizophrenia outpatients (N = 58) were randomly assigned to Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET) or an Enriched Supportive Therapy (EST) control and treated for two years. Comprehensive data on cognition and employment were collected annually. Results Individuals treated with CET were significantly more likely to be competitively employed, had greater earnings from employment, and were more satisfied with their employment status by the end of treatment compared to EST recipients. Mediator analyses revealed that improvements in both social and non-social cognition mediated the CET effects on employment. Conclusion CET can help facilitate employment in early schizophrenia, by addressing the cognitive impairments that limit functioning in the disorder. Inclusion of cognitive rehabilitation in social work practice can support more optimal functional recovery from schizophrenia. PMID:23885163

  4. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    MedlinePLUS

    Acute renal arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... kidneys need a good blood supply. The main artery to the kidney is called the renal artery. ...

  5. No evidence for an enhanced role of endothelial nitric oxide in the maintenance of arterial blood pressure in the IUGR sheep fetus.

    PubMed

    Dyer, J L; McMillen, I C; Warnes, K E; Morrison, J L

    2009-08-01

    The fetus makes a number of physiological adaptations to a restriction of placental substrate supply, including a decrease in body growth and an increase in peripheral vasoconstriction which maintains mean arterial pressure (MAP) and supports a redistribution of cardiac output to key fetal organs. It is not known, however, whether chronic restriction of placental substrate supply results in an enhanced or diminished role for vasodilators such as endothelial nitric oxide in the regulation of MAP. We hypothesised that there is an increased contribution of NO to blood pressure regulation in growth restricted fetuses and that a 2h infusion of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) would result in an augmented rise in MAP in chronically hypoxemic, placentally restricted (PR, n=8) fetuses compared to controls (n=6) in late gestation. There was no difference in the increase in fetal MAP and decrease in HR during l-NAME infusion between Control and PR fetuses. In the PR group, fetuses with lower mean gestational PaO(2) had a lower increase in MAP during l-NAME infusion. Thus we have found no evidence for an enhanced role of NO in the maintenance of MAP in the chronically hypoxemic IUGR fetus. PMID:19515421

  6. Three-dimensional isotropic contrast-enhanced MR angiography of the carotid artery using sensitivity-encoding and random elliptic centric k-space filling: technique optimization.

    PubMed

    Riedy, G; Golay, X; Melhem, E R

    2005-09-01

    We present a study that helped optimize a three-dimensional isotropic contrast-enhanced MR angiographic (CE-MRA) technique, using sensitivity encoding (SENSE) and random elliptic centric k-space filling. Two-dimensional gradient-echo sequence (TR/TE/flip angle 3.4/0.97/40 degrees ) was used to generate time-intensity curves in porcine carotid arteries for a fixed dose of Gd-DTPA (0.02 mmol/kg) at the following intravenous injection rates: 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 3.0 ml/s. The time of contrast arrival and time to peak were recorded. Based on the time-intensity curves, three-dimensional high-resolution isotropic (1 mm3) CE-MRA sequence (TR/TE/flip angle: 4.9/2.4/30 degrees ), using SENSE (reduction factor of 2) and random elliptic centric k-space filling, was initiated twice for each of the above injection rates: first at the time of contrast arrival and second at the time of peak contrast. The three-dimensional CE-MRA images were analyzed for artifacts, signal-to-noise ratio, and venous contamination. For the three-dimensional CE-MRA acquisitions that were initiated at the time of contrast arrival, there was a gradual improvement in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the carotid arteries with increasing injection rate. The same trend was not observed for the acquisitions that were initiated at the time of peak contrast. SENSE combined with random elliptic k-space acquisition in CE-MRA allows for higher SNR with fewer ringing artifacts at faster contrast injection rates. PMID:16012823

  7. Carotid Artery Atherosclerosis: Effect of Intensive Lipid Therapy on the Vasa Vasorum—Evaluation by Using Dynamic Contrast-enhanced MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Li; Chen, Huijun; Chu, Baocheng; Underhill, Hunter R.; Neradilek, Moni Blazej; Hatsukami, Thomas S.; Yuan, Chun; Zhao, Xue-Qiao

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether short-term, intensive lipid therapy leads to changes in microvascular characteristics, as measured by using dynamic contrast material–enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods: Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained for this HIPAA-compatible study. Subjects with established coronary artery disease or carotid artery stenosis of 15% or greater determined by using ultrasonography and with levels of apolipoprotein B of 120 mg/dL (1.2 g/L) or greater were enrolled in an ongoing study (clinical trial NCT00715273). All received intensive lipid therapy to achieve targeted high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and underwent serial serum monitoring including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HsCRP) level measurements. Carotid artery MR imaging examinations including morphologic and DCE MR images were obtained at baseline and 1 year after treatment. In subjects with advanced lesions (>2 mm thick), MR image analysis was performed, including measurement of lipid-rich necrotic core size and kinetic modeling of DCE MR images to assess changes in the transfer constant (Ktrans). The differences in Ktrans between baseline and 1-year follow-up were compared by using the Wilcoxon signed rank test, and associations were assessed by using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Results: Twenty-eight subjects with interpretable DCE MR imaging results at both baseline and 1-year follow-up were included. After 1 year of treatment, a significant reduction was found in mean Ktrans (0.085 min?1 ± 0.037 [standard deviation] to 0.067 min?1 ± 0.028, P = .02). Reduction in Ktrans was not significantly correlated with observed reductions in lipid-rich necrotic core size or reductions in HsCRP level. Conclusion: These findings suggest that DCE MR imaging may be a useful imaging method for the assessment of the therapeutic response of the vasa vasorum in patients with atherosclerotic plaque. Clinical trial registration no. NCT00715273. © RSNA, 2011 PMID:21493792

  8. Real-Time 12-Lead High-Frequency QRS Electrocardiography for Enhanced Detection of Myocardial Ischemia and Coronary Artery Disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Kulecz, Walter B.; DePalma, Jude L.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Wilson, John S.; Rahman, M. Atiar; Bungo, Michael W.

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have shown that diminution of the high-frequency (HF; 150-250 Hz) components present within the central portion of the QRS complex of an electrocardiogram (ECG) is a more sensitive indicator for the presence of myocardial ischemia than are changes in the ST segments of the conventional low-frequency ECG. However, until now, no device has been capable of displaying, in real time on a beat-to-beat basis, changes in these HF QRS ECG components in a continuously monitored patient. Although several software programs have been designed to acquire the HF components over the entire QRS interval, such programs have involved laborious off-line calculations and postprocessing, limiting their clinical utility. We describe a personal computer-based ECG software program developed recently at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) that acquires, analyzes, and displays HF QRS components in each of the 12 conventional ECG leads in real time. The system also updates these signals and their related derived parameters in real time on a beat-to-beat basis for any chosen monitoring period and simultaneously displays the diagnostic information from the conventional (low-frequency) 12-lead ECG. The real-time NASA HF QRS ECG software is being evaluated currently in multiple clinical settings in North America. We describe its potential usefulness in the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia and coronary artery disease.

  9. Enhancing Research and Practice in Early Childhood through Formative and Design Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Barbara A.; Reinking, David

    2011-01-01

    This article describes formative and design experiments and how they can advance research and instructional practices in early childhood education. We argue that this relatively new approach to education research closes the gap between research and practice, and it addresses limitations that have been identified in early childhood research. We…

  10. Enhancing the Early Childhood Development System in Yakutia (Russia): Meeting the Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotnik, Jure; Shmis, Tigran

    2011-01-01

    The Yakutia Republic is currently working to update its early childhood development (ECD) system. Its goal is to ensure a high quality environment for early learning and child care and to enable higher enrolment levels. Currently, a high priority for the Government of Yakutia is to increase access to pre-school education, given the significant…

  11. Improving Early Adaptation Following Long Duration Spaceflight by Enhancing Vestibular Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Kofman, Igor; DeDios, Yiri E.; Galvan, Raquel; Miller, Chris; Peters, Brian; Cohen, Helen; Jeevarajan, Jerome; Reschke, Millard; Wood, Scott; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Crewmember adapted to the microgravity state may need to egress the vehicle within a few minutes for safety and operational reasons after g-transitions. The transition from one sensorimotor state to another consists of two main mechanisms: strategic and plastic-adaptive and have been demonstrated in astronauts returning after long duration space flight. Strategic modifications represent "early adaptation" -immediate and transitory changes in control that are employed to deal with short-term changes in the environment. If these modifications are prolonged then plastic-adaptive changes are evoked that modify central nervous system function, automating new behavioral responses. More importantly, this longer term adaptive recovery mechanism was significantly associated with their strategic ability to recover on the first day after return to Earth G. We are developing a method based on stochastic resonance (SR) to enhance information transfer by improving the brain's ability to detect vestibular signals especially when combined with balance training exercises for rapid improvement in functional skill, for standing and mobility. The countermeasure to improve post-flight balance and locomotor disturbances is a stimulus delivery system that is wearable/portable providing low imperceptible levels of white noise based binaural bipolar electrical stimulation of the vestibular system (stochastic vestibular stimulation, SVS). The techniques for improving signal detection using SVS may thus provide additional information to improve such strategic abilities and thus help in significantly reducing the number of days required to recover functional performance to preflight levels after long duration space flight. We have conducted a series of studies to document the efficacy of SVS stimulation on balance/locomotion tasks on unstable surfaces and motion tracking tasks during intra-vestibular system conflicts. In an initial study, we showed that SVS improved overall balance performance while standing on an unstable surface indicating that SVS may be sufficient to provide a comprehensive countermeasure approach for improving postural stability. In a second study, we showed that SVS improved locomotor performance on a treadmill mounted on an oscillating platform indicating that SVS may also be used to maximize locomotor performance during walking in unstable environments. In a third study, SVS was evaluated during an otolith-canal conflict scenario in a variable radius centrifuge at low frequency of oscillation (0.1 Hz) on both eye movements and perceptual responses (using a joystick) to track imposed oscillations. The variable radius centrifuge provides a selective tilting sensation that is detectable only by the otolith organs providing conflicting information from the canal organs of the vestibular system (intra-vestibular conflict). Results show that SVS significantly reduced the timing difference between both the eye movement responses as well as the perceptual tracking responses with respect to the imposed tilt sensations. These results indicate that SVS can improve performance in sensory conflict scenarios like that experienced during space flight. Such a SR countermeasure will act synergistically along with the pre-and in-flight adaptability training protocols providing an integrated, multi-disciplinary countermeasure capable of fulfilling multiple requirements making it a comprehensive and cost effective countermeasure approach to enhance sensorimotor capabilities following long-duration space flight.

  12. Early homogeneously enhancing hemangioma versus hepatocellular carcinoma: differentiation using quantitative analysis of multiphasic dynamic magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Jeong, M G; Yu, J S; Kim, K W; Jo, B J; Kim, J K

    1999-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of quantitative analysis of multiphasic dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in differentiating early homogeneously enhancing hemangiomas from hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Four-phased dynamic MR imaging at 10 sec (first phase of dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, P1), 35 sec (second phase, P2), 60 sec (third phase, P3) and 300 sec (delay phase, P4) immediately after intravenous administration of 0.1 mmol/kg Gadolinium-DTPA was obtained with 1.5-T unit with breath-hold multisection FLASH (fast low angle-shot) sequence (TR/TE, 113-130 msec/4.1 msec; flip angle, 80 degrees). Thirty-three HCCs and 18 hemangiomas, homogeneously enhanced on P1, were included in the study. The images were evaluated quantitatively (SNR, signal-to-noise ratio; and CNR, contrast- to- noise ratio of lesions). Quantitatively, mean CNR was higher for hemangiomas than for HCCs on all phases, and the difference in CNRs between hemangioma and HCCs was statistically significant on P3 and P4 (p < 0.0001). When the cutoff for CNR was set at a value of 7.00 on P3 and 1.00 on P4, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 94.4%, 93.9%, and 94.1% on P3, and 94.4%, 81.8%, and 86.3% on P4, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in SNRs between HCC and hemangioma. The differential diagnosis between early, homogeneously enhancing hemangiomas and HCCs was more confidently made with CNRs of lesions on P3 and P4 in dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging. PMID:10412337

  13. Enhancing Drought Early Warning System for Sustainable Water Resources and Agricultural Management through Apllication of Space Science - Nigeria in Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okpara, J. N.; Akeh, L. E.; Anuforom, A. C.; Aribo, P. B.; Olayanju, S. O.

    Enhancing Drought Early Warning System for Sustainable Water Resources and Agriculture Management through Application of Space Science - Nigeria in Perspective BY J N Okpara L E Akeh Anuforom P B Aribo and S O Olayanju Directorate of Applied Meteorological Services Nigerian Meteorological Agency NIMET P M B 615 Garki Abuja Nigeria e-mail underline Juddy Okpara yahoo co uk and underline tonycanuforom yahoo com underline Abstract This paper attempts to highlight the importance of drought early warning system in water resources and agricultural management in Nigeria Various studies have shown that the negative impacts of droughts and other forms of extreme weather phenomena can be substantially reduced by providing early warning on any impending weather extremes X-rayed in this study are the various techniques presently used by the Nigerian Meteorological Agency NIMET in generating information for meteorological Early Warning System EWS which are based on models that make use of ground-based raingauge data and sea surface temperatures SST Komuscu standardized precipitation index SPI inclusive These methods are often limited by such factors as network density of stations limited communication infrastructure human inefficiency etc NIMET is therefore embarking on the development of a new Satellite Agrometeorological Information System SAMIS-Nigeria for famine and drought early warning The system combines satellite data with raingauge data to give a range of

  14. Early methylphenidate exposure enhances cocaine self-administration but not cocaine-induced conditioned place preference in young adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Cynthia A.; Baella, Shelley A.; Farley, Cristal M.; Herbert, Matthew S.; Horn, Leslie R.; Campbell, Rachel H.; Zavala, Arturo R.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Previous studies in rodents show that early exposure to methylphenidate alters later responsiveness to drugs of abuse. An interesting feature of these studies is that early methylphenidate treatment decreases the rewarding value of cocaine when measured by conditioned place preference (CPP), but the same treatment increases cocaine self-administration. Objective The goal of the present study was to examine the effects of early methylphenidate exposure on cocaine-induced responding using both reward paradigms. Methods Rats were treated with methylphenidate (0, 2, or 5 mg/kg) from postnatal day (PD) 11 to PD 20 and then cocaine-induced CPP or cocaine self-administration was measured in separate groups of rats in adulthood. The CPP procedure included eight days of acquisition training, eight days of extinction training, and a reinstatement test. Rats were conditioned with 0, 10 or 20 mg/kg cocaine. Reinstatement was assessed after a priming dose of cocaine (10 mg/kg). For the self-administration experiment, a jugular catheter was implanted and rats were trained to press a lever reinforced with cocaine (0.25 or 0.75 mg/kg/infusion) on a fixed ratio (FR) 1 schedule. Rats were gradually moved from an FR1 to an FR10 schedule and, after criterion was reached, rats were placed on a progressive ratio schedule for five days. Results Cocaine produced robust rewarding effects as determined by both the CPP and self-administration experiments; however, early methylphenidate exposure only enhanced the reinforcing effects of cocaine on the self-administration paradigm. Interestingly, this methylphenidate enhancement was only seen in male rats. Conclusions These data suggest that in males methylphenidate enhances the reinforcing value of cocaine, but not cocaine-associated cues. PMID:20848087

  15. Arterial embolism

    PubMed Central

    Lyaker, Michael R.; Tulman, David B.; Dimitrova, Galina T.; Pin, Richard H.; Papadimos, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Surgical and intensive care patients are at a heightened risk for arterial embolization due to pre-existing conditions such as age, hypercoagulability, cardiac abnormalities and atherosclerotic disease. Most arterial emboli are clots that originate in the heart and travel to distant vascular beds where they cause arterial occlusion, ischemia, and potentially infarction. Other emboli form on the surface of eroded arterial plaque or within its lipid core. Thromboemboli are large clots that dislodge from the surface of athesclerotic lesions and occlude distal arteries causing immediate ischemia. Atheroemboli, which originate from fracturing the lipid core tend to cause a process of organ dysfunction and systemic inflammation, termed cholesterol embolization syndrome. The presentation of arterial emboli depends on the arterial bed that is affected. The most common manifestations are strokes and acute lower limb ischemia. Less frequently, emboli target the upper extremities, mesenteric or renal arteries. Treatment involves rapid diagnosis, which may be aided by precise imaging studies and restoration of blood flow. The type of emboli, duration of presentation, and organ system affected determines the treatment course. Long-term therapy includes supportive medical care, identification of the source of embolism and prevention of additional emboli. Patients who experienced arterial embolism as a result of clots formed in the heart should be anticoagulated. Arterial emboli from atherosclerotic disease of the aorta or other large arteries should prompt treatment to reduce the risk for atherosclerotic progression, such as anti-platelet therapy and the use of statin drugs. The use of anticoagulation and surgical intervention to reduce the risk of arterial embolization from atherosclerotic lesions is still being studied. PMID:23724391

  16. Modes of memory: Early electrophysiological markers of repetition suppression and recognition enhancement

    E-print Network

    Wagner, Anthony

    Modes of memory: Early electrophysiological markers of repetition suppression and recognition,b and CHRISTOPH S. HERRMANNa a Institute of Psychology, Department of Biological Psychology, Otto, Saarbru¨ cken, Germany Abstract Different forms of perceptual memory have opposite physiological effects

  17. In vivo Mn-enhanced MRI for early tumor detection and growth rate analysis in a mouse medulloblastoma model.

    PubMed

    Suero-Abreu, Giselle A; Praveen Raju, G; Aristizábal, Orlando; Volkova, Eugenia; Wojcinski, Alexandre; Houston, Edward J; Pham, Diane; Szulc, Kamila U; Colon, Daniel; Joyner, Alexandra L; Turnbull, Daniel H

    2014-12-01

    Mouse models have increased our understanding of the pathogenesis of medulloblastoma (MB), the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor that often forms in the cerebellum. A major goal of ongoing research is to better understand the early stages of tumorigenesis and to establish the genetic and environmental changes that underlie MB initiation and growth. However, studies of MB progression in mouse models are difficult due to the heterogeneity of tumor onset times and growth patterns and the lack of clinical symptoms at early stages. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is critical for noninvasive, longitudinal, three-dimensional (3D) brain tumor imaging in the clinic but is limited in resolution and sensitivity for imaging early MBs in mice. In this study, high-resolution (100 ?m in 2 hours) and high-throughput (150 ?m in 15 minutes) manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) protocols were optimized for early detection and monitoring of MBs in a Patched-1 (Ptch1) conditional knockout (CKO) model. The high tissue contrast obtained with MEMRI revealed detailed cerebellar morphology and enabled detection of MBs over a wide range of stages including pretumoral lesions as early as 2 to 3 weeks postnatal with volumes close to 0.1 mm(3). Furthermore, longitudinal MEMRI allowed noninvasive monitoring of tumors and demonstrated that lesions within and between individuals have different tumorigenic potentials. 3D volumetric studies allowed quantitative analysis of MB tumor morphology and growth rates in individual Ptch1-CKO mice. These results show that MEMRI provides a powerful method for early in vivo detection and longitudinal imaging of MB progression in the mouse brain. PMID:25499213

  18. In Vivo Mn-Enhanced MRI for Early Tumor Detection and Growth Rate Analysis in a Mouse Medulloblastoma Model12

    PubMed Central

    Suero-Abreu, Giselle A.; Praveen Raju, G.; Aristizábal, Orlando; Volkova, Eugenia; Wojcinski, Alexandre; Houston, Edward J.; Pham, Diane; Szulc, Kamila U.; Colon, Daniel; Joyner, Alexandra L.; Turnbull, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    Mouse models have increased our understanding of the pathogenesis of medulloblastoma (MB), the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor that often forms in the cerebellum. A major goal of ongoing research is to better understand the early stages of tumorigenesis and to establish the genetic and environmental changes that underlie MB initiation and growth. However, studies of MB progression in mouse models are difficult due to the heterogeneity of tumor onset times and growth patterns and the lack of clinical symptoms at early stages. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is critical for noninvasive, longitudinal, three-dimensional (3D) brain tumor imaging in the clinic but is limited in resolution and sensitivity for imaging early MBs in mice. In this study, high-resolution (100 ?m in 2 hours) and high-throughput (150 ?m in 15 minutes) manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) protocols were optimized for early detection and monitoring of MBs in a Patched-1 (Ptch1) conditional knockout (CKO) model. The high tissue contrast obtained with MEMRI revealed detailed cerebellar morphology and enabled detection of MBs over a wide range of stages including pretumoral lesions as early as 2 to 3 weeks postnatal with volumes close to 0.1 mm3. Furthermore, longitudinal MEMRI allowed noninvasive monitoring of tumors and demonstrated that lesions within and between individuals have different tumorigenic potentials. 3D volumetric studies allowed quantitative analysis of MB tumor morphology and growth rates in individual Ptch1-CKO mice. These results show that MEMRI provides a powerful method for early in vivo detection and longitudinal imaging of MB progression in the mouse brain. PMID:25499213

  19. Comparative studies on mammalian Hoxc8 early enhancer sequence reveal a baleen whale-specific deletion of a cis-acting element

    PubMed Central

    Shashikant, Cooduvalli S.; Kim, Chang B.; Borbély, Marc A.; Wang, Wayne C. H.; Ruddle, Frank H.

    1998-01-01

    Variations in regulatory regions of developmental control genes have been implicated in the divergence of axial morphologies. To find potentially significant changes in cis-regulatory regions, we compared nucleotide sequences and activities of mammalian Hoxc8 early enhancers. The nucleotide sequence of the early enhancer region is extremely conserved among mammalian clades, with five previously described cis-acting elements, A–E, being invariant. However, a 4-bp deletion within element C of the Hoxc8 early enhancer sequence is observed in baleen whales. When assayed in transgenic mouse embryos, a baleen whale enhancer (unlike other mammalian enhancers) directs expression of the reporter gene to more posterior regions of the neural tube but fails to direct expression to posterior mesoderm. We suggest that regulation of Hoxc8 in baleen whales differs from other mammalian species and may be associated with variation in axial morphology. PMID:9860988

  20. Combined contrast-enhanced ultrasound and rt-PA treatment is safe and improves impaired microcirculation after reperfusion of middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Nedelmann, Max; Ritschel, Nouha; Doenges, Simone; Langheinrich, Alexander C; Acker, Till; Reuter, Peter; Yeniguen, Mesut; Pukropski, Jan; Kaps, Manfred; Mueller, Clemens; Bachmann, Georg; Gerriets, Tibo

    2010-10-01

    In monitoring of recanalization and in sonothrombolysis, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is applied in extended time protocols. As extended use may increase the probability of unwanted effects, careful safety evaluation is required. We investigated the safety profile and beneficial effects of CEUS in a reperfusion model. Wistar rats were subjected to filament occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA). Reperfusion was established after 90?minutes, followed by recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) treatment and randomization to additional CEUS (contrast agent: SonoVue; 60?minutes). Blinded outcome evaluation consisted of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), neurologic assessment, and histology and, in separate experiments, quantitative 3D nano-computed tomography (CT) angiography (900?nm(3) voxel size). Nano-CT revealed severely compromised microcirculation in untreated animals after MCA reperfusion. The rt-PA partially improved hemispheric perfusion. Impairment was completely reversed in animals receiving rt-PA and CEUS. This combination was more effective than treatment with either CEUS without rt-PA or rt-PA and ultrasound or ultrasound alone. In MRI experiments, CEUS and rt-PA treatment resulted in a significantly reduced ischemic lesion volume and edema formation. No unwanted effects were detected on MRI, histology, and intracranial temperature assessment. This study shows that CEUS and rt-PA is safe in the situation of reperfusion and displays beneficial effects on the level of the microvasculature. PMID:20531462

  1. Combined contrast-enhanced ultrasound and rt-PA treatment is safe and improves impaired microcirculation after reperfusion of middle cerebral artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Nedelmann, Max; Ritschel, Nouha; Doenges, Simone; Langheinrich, Alexander C; Acker, Till; Reuter, Peter; Yeniguen, Mesut; Pukropski, Jan; Kaps, Manfred; Mueller, Clemens; Bachmann, Georg; Gerriets, Tibo

    2010-01-01

    In monitoring of recanalization and in sonothrombolysis, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is applied in extended time protocols. As extended use may increase the probability of unwanted effects, careful safety evaluation is required. We investigated the safety profile and beneficial effects of CEUS in a reperfusion model. Wistar rats were subjected to filament occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA). Reperfusion was established after 90?minutes, followed by recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) treatment and randomization to additional CEUS (contrast agent: SonoVue; 60?minutes). Blinded outcome evaluation consisted of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), neurologic assessment, and histology and, in separate experiments, quantitative 3D nano-computed tomography (CT) angiography (900?nm3 voxel size). Nano-CT revealed severely compromised microcirculation in untreated animals after MCA reperfusion. The rt-PA partially improved hemispheric perfusion. Impairment was completely reversed in animals receiving rt-PA and CEUS. This combination was more effective than treatment with either CEUS without rt-PA or rt-PA and ultrasound or ultrasound alone. In MRI experiments, CEUS and rt-PA treatment resulted in a significantly reduced ischemic lesion volume and edema formation. No unwanted effects were detected on MRI, histology, and intracranial temperature assessment. This study shows that CEUS and rt-PA is safe in the situation of reperfusion and displays beneficial effects on the level of the microvasculature. PMID:20531462

  2. Enhancing peer cultures of academic effort and achievement in early adolescence: promotive effects of the SEALS intervention.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Jill V; Farmer, Thomas W; Lambert, Kerrylin; Gravelle, Maggie

    2014-01-01

    Peer cultures of effort and achievement influence early adolescents' academic adjustment. A randomized controlled trials design was used to test the extent to which aspects of peer cultures of effort and achievement were enhanced following teachers' participation in the Supporting Early Adolescents' Learning and Social Success (SEALS) intervention. Observational and survey data from teachers (N = 188) and survey data from 6th-graders (N = 2,453) in 36 rural schools across the United States were analyzed. Results indicated that in SEALS versus matched control schools, social prominence was more favorably associated with effort and school valuing, and peer group injunctive norms were more supportive of effort and achievement. Findings indicate that aspects of peer cultures respond to the school context and provide evidence of the efficacy of the SEALS model. PMID:23647418

  3. The Enhanced Home Visiting Pilot Project: How Early Head Start Programs Are Reaching out to Kith and Kin Caregivers--Final Interim Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsell, Diane; Mekos, Debra; Del Grosso, Patricia; Banghart, Patti; Nogales, Renee

    2006-01-01

    In summer 2004, the Head Start Bureau funded 24 Early Head Start programs to implement the Enhanced Home Visiting Pilot Project, an initiative designed to support the quality of care that kith and kin caregivers provide to infants and toddlers enrolled in home-based Early Head Start programs. At the same time, an evaluation of these pilot programs…

  4. Evaluation of meglumine gadoterate-enhanced MR angiography (MRA) compared with time-of-flight MRA in the diagnosis of clinically significant non-coronary arterial disease: a pooled analysis of data from two clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Shah, D J; Lim, T-H

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We analysed pooled data from two clinical trials to assess the diagnostic accuracy and safety of meglumine gadoterate (Gd-DOTA)-enhanced MR angiography (MRA) relative to those of non-enhanced time-of-flight (TOF) MRA for non-coronary arterial disease. Both techniques were compared with X-ray angiography as the gold standard. Methods Patients were of both sexes, were aged at least 18 years and had suspected non-coronary arterial disease. Each patient was his/her own control and underwent TOF MRA followed by Gd-DOTA-enhanced MRA, and then X-ray angiography. MRA was performed at 1.5 T (USA study) or 3 T (Republic of Korea study). The primary criterion used to evaluate efficacy was the degree to which the MRA examination agreed with X-ray angiography in assessing non-coronary arterial lesions. The performance of Gd-DOTA over TOF was assessed using a one-sided paired t-test. We also evaluated the specificity, sensitivity, image quality, examination duration and clinical safety of both MRA procedures. Results In total, 192 patients were enrolled and received Gd-DOTA. In the intent-to-treat population (n=162), within-patient accuracy was significantly greater for Gd-DOTA than for TOF (85.8±19.8% agreement between Gd-DOTA and X-ray angiography compared with 78.3±24.9% agreement between TOF and X-ray angiography; p=0.0001). The sensitivity, specificity, image quality and examination duration were also better for Gd-DOTA than for TOF. There were no serious drug-related adverse events. Conclusion We conclude that Gd-DOTA-enhanced MRA is a safe and accurate procedure for detecting arterial stenosis at both 1.5 T and 3 T. PMID:22167518

  5. Integrated cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with coronary magnetic resonance angiography, stress-perfusion, and delayed-enhancement imaging for the detection of occult coronary artery disease in asymptomatic individuals.

    PubMed

    Song, Kyoung Doo; Kim, Sung Mok; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Jung, Wooin; Lee, Sang-Chol; Chang, Sung-A; Choi, Yoon Ho; Sung, Jidong

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of using coronary magnetic resonance angiography (CMRA) with stress-perfusion and delayed-enhancement MRI as a screening tool for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) in asymptomatic subjects. Three hundred and forty-one self-referred asymptomatic subjects were enrolled in this study. Cardiac MR imaging was performed using a 1.5-T scanner with a 32-channel cardiac coil. Coronary artery stenosis, regional wall motion abnormalities, myocardial perfusion abnormalities, and delayed myocardial enhancement were analyzed. The occurrence of new chest pain and cardiac events was assessed in 332 subjects (97.3 %) over an average 29 ± 6 months (range, 18-39 months) follow-up period. A total of 3296 (82.4 %) of 4000 coronary artery segments examined exhibited diagnostic image quality on combined whole-heart and volume-targeted CMRA. Combined MRI detected significant CADs in 13 (3.8 %) of 341 subjects. Among these, 11 subjects (84.6 %) had both coronary artery stenosis (?50 % by diameter) on CMRA and stress-perfusion defects in corresponding areas. Five of the 13 subjects showed evidence of old myocardial infarctions on delayed-enhancement MRI. Three subjects (0.9 %) underwent percutaneous coronary intervention after CAD was detected on cardiac MRI. There were no cardiac events during the follow-up period in subjects who complied with follow-up. Normal stress-perfusion and delayed-enhancement MRI lead to excellent outcomes when used to predict future cardiac events in asymptomatic subjects. Coronary MRA correlates well with stress-perfusion MRI for detecting significant CAD and helps exclude CAD in asymptomatic individuals. PMID:25916321

  6. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... HEALTH Carotid Artery Disease What are the carotid arteries? The carotid arteries are the bloodd vessels that ... the back of the brain. What is carotid artery disease? Carotid artery disease is defined by the ...

  7. A model-constrained Monte Carlo method for blind arterial input function estimation in dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI: I. Simulations.

    PubMed

    Schabel, Matthias C; Fluckiger, Jacob U; DiBella, Edward V R

    2010-08-21

    Widespread adoption of quantitative pharmacokinetic modeling methods in conjunction with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has led to increased recognition of the importance of obtaining accurate patient-specific arterial input function (AIF) measurements. Ideally, DCE-MRI studies use an AIF directly measured in an artery local to the tissue of interest, along with measured tissue concentration curves, to quantitatively determine pharmacokinetic parameters. However, the numerous technical and practical difficulties associated with AIF measurement have made the use of population-averaged AIF data a popular, if sub-optimal, alternative to AIF measurement. In this work, we present and characterize a new algorithm for determining the AIF solely from the measured tissue concentration curves. This Monte Carlo blind estimation (MCBE) algorithm estimates the AIF from the subsets of D concentration-time curves drawn from a larger pool of M candidate curves via nonlinear optimization, doing so for multiple (Q) subsets and statistically averaging these repeated estimates. The MCBE algorithm can be viewed as a generalization of previously published methods that employ clustering of concentration-time curves and only estimate the AIF once. Extensive computer simulations were performed over physiologically and experimentally realistic ranges of imaging and tissue parameters, and the impact of choosing different values of D and Q was investigated. We found the algorithm to be robust, computationally efficient and capable of accurately estimating the AIF even for relatively high noise levels, long sampling intervals and low diversity of tissue curves. With the incorporation of bootstrapping initialization, we further demonstrated the ability to blindly estimate AIFs that deviate substantially in shape from the population-averaged initial guess. Pharmacokinetic parameter estimates for K(trans), k(ep), v(p) and v(e) all showed relative biases and uncertainties of less than 10% for measurements having a temporal sampling rate of 4 s and a concentration measurement noise level of sigma = 0.04 mM. A companion paper discusses the application of the MCBE algorithm to DCE-MRI data acquired in eight patients with malignant brain tumors. PMID:20679691

  8. A model-constrained Monte Carlo method for blind arterial input function estimation in dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI: I. Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schabel, Matthias C.; Fluckiger, Jacob U.; DiBella, Edward V. R.

    2010-08-01

    Widespread adoption of quantitative pharmacokinetic modeling methods in conjunction with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has led to increased recognition of the importance of obtaining accurate patient-specific arterial input function (AIF) measurements. Ideally, DCE-MRI studies use an AIF directly measured in an artery local to the tissue of interest, along with measured tissue concentration curves, to quantitatively determine pharmacokinetic parameters. However, the numerous technical and practical difficulties associated with AIF measurement have made the use of population-averaged AIF data a popular, if sub-optimal, alternative to AIF measurement. In this work, we present and characterize a new algorithm for determining the AIF solely from the measured tissue concentration curves. This Monte Carlo blind estimation (MCBE) algorithm estimates the AIF from the subsets of D concentration-time curves drawn from a larger pool of M candidate curves via nonlinear optimization, doing so for multiple (Q) subsets and statistically averaging these repeated estimates. The MCBE algorithm can be viewed as a generalization of previously published methods that employ clustering of concentration-time curves and only estimate the AIF once. Extensive computer simulations were performed over physiologically and experimentally realistic ranges of imaging and tissue parameters, and the impact of choosing different values of D and Q was investigated. We found the algorithm to be robust, computationally efficient and capable of accurately estimating the AIF even for relatively high noise levels, long sampling intervals and low diversity of tissue curves. With the incorporation of bootstrapping initialization, we further demonstrated the ability to blindly estimate AIFs that deviate substantially in shape from the population-averaged initial guess. Pharmacokinetic parameter estimates for Ktrans, kep, vp and ve all showed relative biases and uncertainties of less than 10% for measurements having a temporal sampling rate of 4 s and a concentration measurement noise level of ? = 0.04 mM. A companion paper discusses the application of the MCBE algorithm to DCE-MRI data acquired in eight patients with malignant brain tumors.

  9. Enhancing Potato System Sustainability: Microclimate, Early Blight and Late Blight Potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop and soil management may modify canopy and below ground microclimate; however, their effects on potential development and control of early and late blight are not well documented. Crop management systems (Status Quo (SQ), Soil Conserving (SC), Soil Improving (SI), Disease Suppressive (DS), and ...

  10. Enhancing Student Services at Owens Community College: Early Results from the Opening Doors Demonstration in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrivener, Susan; Pih, Michael

    2007-01-01

    MDRC launched Opening Doors in 2003 to study the effects of community college programs designed to help students persist in school and earn a credential. This report presents early results from the Opening Doors program at Owens Community College in Toledo, Ohio, which operated from 2004 through 2006. The two-semester program served students whose…

  11. Enhancing the Australian Early Childhood Teacher Education Curriculum about Very Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garvis, Susanne; Lemon, Narelle

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that the care and education of infants and toddlers is an under-represented area in early childhood teacher education. This is also the case in Australia, meaning that pre-service teachers have few opportunities for learning about infants and toddlers and thus tend to have limited theoretical and practical knowledge about…

  12. Genetic Enhancement of Cold Tolerance in Sorghum: Mapping of QTL's for early season cold tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum is known for its drought tolerance and overall adaptation to high temperature. However, it generally lacks cold tolerance and is vulnerable to cooler temperature specifically during stand establishment in early season planting from April to May in most areas of the US sorghum belt. Stand e...

  13. Enhancing Language and Early Literacy Development of Lowest Performing Preschoolers: Yes We Can!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcon, Rebecca A.

    2009-01-01

    This discussion article takes a closer look at 5 Early Reading First projects in this special issue. It first explores what needed to be in place before these projects could help teachers individualize instructional support for children. The way in which each project sought to provide effective instruction for all children is then discussed,…

  14. Enhancing Alphabet Knowledge Instruction: Research Implications and Practical Strategies for Early Childhood Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Cindy D.; Clark, Sarah K.; Reutzel, D. Ray

    2013-01-01

    Alphabet knowledge is consistently recognized as the strongest, most durable predictor of later literacy achievement. Recent research offers practical implications for increased effectiveness of teaching alphabet knowledge to young children. In this article, we outline Enhanced Alphabet Knowledge instruction (EAK), a method of practical…

  15. A Report on the Technological Enhancements Project Evaluation: Deepening Early Learning Experiences through Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hupert, Naomi; Cervantes, Francisco; DeGroof, Emily

    2010-01-01

    As part of the "Ready to Learn" Initiative, Education Development Center, Inc. (EDC), was charged with addressing the evaluation of Technological Enhancements for the outreach efforts of three producers: Out of the Blue's Super WHY! Technology Add-On; Sesame Workshop's The Electric Company School's Initiative Curriculum; and WordWorld's eBook…

  16. The Role of an Early Intervention on Enhancing the Quality of Mother-Infant Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendland-Carro, Jaqueline; Piccinini, Cesar A.; Millar, W. Stuart

    1999-01-01

    Evaluated an intervention designed to influence mothers' sensitive responsiveness toward their infant by presenting information about the newborn's competence to interact and promoting affectionate handling and interaction. Found that the enhancement group showed greater frequency of co-occurrences involving vocal exchanges, looking to the…

  17. Feeling happy enhances early spatial encoding of peripheral information automatically: electrophysiological time-course and neural sources.

    PubMed

    Vanlessen, Naomi; Rossi, Valentina; De Raedt, Rudi; Pourtois, Gilles

    2014-09-01

    Previous research has shown that positive mood may broaden attention, although it remains unclear whether this effect has a perceptual or a postperceptual locus. In this study, we addressed this question using high-density event-related potential methods. We randomly assigned participants to a positive or a neutral mood condition. Then they performed a demanding oddball task at fixation (primary task ensuring fixation) and a localization task of peripheral stimuli shown at three positions in the upper visual field (secondary task) concurrently. While positive mood did not influence behavioral performance for the primary task, it did facilitate stimulus localization on the secondary task. At the electrophysiological level, we found that the amplitude of the C1 component (reflecting an early retinotopic encoding of the stimulus in V1) was enhanced in the positive, as compared with the neutral, mood group. Importantly, this effect appeared to be largely automatic, because it occurred regardless of the task relevance of the peripheral stimulus and prior to top-down gain control effects seen at the level of the subsequent P1 component. This early effect was also observed irrespective of a change of the target-related P300 component (primary task) by positive mood. These results suggest that positive mood can automatically boost the spatial encoding of peripheral stimuli early on following stimulus onset. This effect can eventually underlie the broadening of spatial attention, which has been associated with this specific mood state. PMID:24570275

  18. Seed-specific overexpression of antioxidant genes in Arabidopsis enhances oxidative stress tolerance during germination and early seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Xi, Dong-Mei; Liu, Wu-Shuang; Yang, Guo-Dong; Wu, Chang-Ai; Zheng, Cheng-Chao

    2010-09-01

    Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants play important roles in the tolerance of abiotic stress. To increase the resistance of seeds to oxidative stress, At2S3 promoter from Arabidopsis was used to achieve overexpression of the antioxidants in a seed-specific manner. This promoter was shown to be capable of driving the target gene to have a high level of expression in seed-related organs, including siliques, mature seeds, and early seedlings, thus making its molecular farming applications in plants possible. Subsequently, genes encoding Mn-superoxide dismutase (MSD1), catalase (CAT1), and homogentisate phytyltransferase (HPT1, responsible for the first committed reaction in the tocopherol biosynthesis pathway) were overexpressed in Arabidopsis under the control of the At2S3 promoter. Double overexpressers co-expressing two enzymes and triple overexpressers were produced by cross pollination. Mn-SOD and total CAT activities, as well as gamma-tocopherol content, significantly increased in the corresponding overproduction lines. Moreover, single MSD1-transgene, double, and triple overexpressers displayed remarkably enhanced oxidative stress tolerance compared to wild type during seed germination and early seedling growth. Interestingly, an increase in the total CAT activity was also observed in the single MSD1-transgenic lines as a result of MSD1 overexpression. Together, the combined increase in Mn-SOD and CAT activities in seeds plays an essential role in the improvement of antioxidant capacity at early developmental stage in Arabidopsis. PMID:20691023

  19. Relaxing effects of cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP-enhancing agents on the long-lasting contraction to endothelin-1 in the porcine coronary artery.

    PubMed

    Lillest?l, I K; Helle, K B; Aardal, S

    1998-12-01

    In the coronary circulation, endothelin-1 (ET-1) evokes spasms which are difficult to treat when the endothelial integrity is compromised. This study compares several classes of relaxing agents on already established contractions to ET-1 in an in vitro model using ring segments of the porcine left descending coronary artery (pLAD). All segments were precontracted with 10 nmol/L ET-1. The calcium channel blocker isradipine was 300 times more potent than verapamil, but was only a partial relaxant; the maximal relaxation obtained was 52 +/- 2% (n = 6). Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was an equally potent relaxant of the ET-1 contraction; however, it too was an incomplete relaxant, maximal relaxation being < 60%. A 50% relaxation of the ET-1 contraction was obtained with 0.28 +/- 0.24 mumol/L ANP, n = 4 (IC50). Comparison of cyclic nucleotide analogues revealed a 30 times higher potency for 8-bromo-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP)(IC50 44 +/- 11 mumol/L, n = 6) than for 8-bromo-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (8-Bi-cAMP) (IC50 1600 mumol/L, n = 6). The cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor milrinone, a PDE 3-inhibitor with an IC50 2.4 +/- 1.8 mumol/L, (n = 6) was 10 times more potent than rolipram (PDE 4-inhibitor), zaprinast (PDE 5-inhibitor) and vinpocentine (PDE 1-inhibitor). Withdrawal of these analogues and inhibitors from segments continuously exposed to 10 nmol/l ET-1 revealed that vinpocentine and 8-Br-cGMP were irreversible relaxants, in contrast to milrinone and 8-Br-cAMP. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that cGMP-enhancing agents, such as the naturally occurring ANP, the calcium channel blocker isradipine, and the synthetic inhibitor of PDE 3, were the most effective relaxants of ET-1 evoked contractions in pLAD in vitro. PMID:10088199

  20. Enhanced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma expression in monocyte/macrophages from coronary artery disease patients and possible gender differences.

    PubMed

    Amoruso, Angela; Bardelli, Claudio; Fresu, Luigia G; Palma, Alessandra; Vidali, Matteo; Ferrero, Valeria; Ribichini, Flavio; Vassanelli, Corrado; Brunelleschi, Sandra

    2009-11-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) activation reduces inflammation and atherosclerosis, but recent evidence raised concerns about its beneficial clinical effects. However, the effects of gender on PPAR expression and basal cytokine release have not been investigated. In the present study, we evaluated PPAR-gamma and -alpha expression, as well as cytokine release, in monocyte/macrophages from 15 male and 15 female patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) in comparison with healthy controls. Both expression and activation of PPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma proteins were evaluated by Western blot and electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Gene expression was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction; cytokine release was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Monocyte/macrophages of CAD patients yielded a constitutively enhanced (approximately 10-fold; p < 0.001) protein expression of PPAR-gamma, but not PPAR-alpha, compared with healthy controls. Evaluation of PPAR-gamma gene expression showed a 60-fold increase in monocytes from CAD patients, compared with healthy donors. Moreover, monocytes spontaneously released higher amounts of proinflammatory cytokines than macrophages. It is interesting that monocytes from CAD females expressed significantly higher levels of PPAR-gamma protein compared with male patients (p < 0.05) and showed the lowest basal release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha. These results indicate that the expression of PPAR-gamma is significantly higher in CAD patients than in healthy donors and that, together with cytokine release, it seems to be gender-related. In fact, CAD women demonstrated the highest PPAR-gamma expression and the lowest cytokine release. Such differences may, in part, modulate the response to PPAR-gamma activators. PMID:19644041

  1. Impaired Granulopoiesis, Myelodysplasia, and Early Lethality in CCAAT\\/Enhancer Binding Protein ? -deficient Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryuya Yamanaka; Carrolee Barlow; Julie Lekstrom-Himes; Lucio H. Castilla; Pu P. Liu; Michael Eckhaus; Thomas Decker; Anthony Wynshaw-Boris; Kleanthis G. Xanthopoulos

    1997-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes are essential for host defense to infectious diseases. CCAAT\\/enhancer binding protein ? (C\\/EBP? ) is preferentially expressed in granulocytes and lymphoid cells. Mice with a null mutation in C\\/EBP? develop normally and are fertile but fail to generate functional neutrophils and eosinophils. Opportunistic infections and tissue destruction lead to death by 3-5 months of age. Furthermore, end-stage mice

  2. Coronary arteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Wielopolski; R. J. M. van Geuns; P. J. de Feyter; M. Oudkerk

    1998-01-01

    .   Conventional coronary angiography (CA) is the standard of excellence for the evaluation of coronary artery disease. However,\\u000a non-invasive imaging modalities have developed that can play an important clinical role in the diagnosis. Magnetic resonance\\u000a imaging (MRI) can offer a comprehensive evaluation of the heart and the coronary arteries by virtue of its high soft tissue\\u000a contrast capabilities, double-oblique tomographic

  3. A promising method of enhancement for early detection of ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Sajjadi, Mehdi; Karami, Mehdi; Amirfattahi, Rassoul; Bateni, Vahid; Ahamadzadeh, Mohammad R.; Ebrahimi, Bahareh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Computed Tomography (CT) scan without contrast is the modality of choice for diagnosis of stroke. However, routine brain CT scan, with linear processing has some limitations in early diagnosis of ischemic stroke. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the sensitivity and specificity of processed CT images with conventional ones in early diagnosis of cerebrovascular attack (CVA). Patients and Methods: This was a self-controlled study conducted in a university referal hospital from 2010 to 2011. Seventy CT scans underwent a process using Laplacian Pyramid transform. Thirty five of participants were diagnosed with CVA while others had only headache and no ischemic stroke diagnosis based on the first and follow-up CT scans. A neuroradiologist made diagnosis with and without the help of processed CT scans. The McNemar and Wilcoxon analysis were used to compare the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of two methods. Results: The sensitivity (% 65.7 vs. %31.4, P value = 0.001), positive predictive value (% 85.2 vs. % 61, P value = 0.03) and negative predictive value (% 73.9% vs. %49, P value = 0.01) of the processed method were significantly higher than the routine one, while no difference was seen in specificity (% 88.6 vs. %77.1, P value = 0.15). Moreover, the accuracy of the processed method was significantly better than the linear one (P value < 0.001). Conclusions: It was concluded that nonlinear modified Laplacian Pyramid method can composed CT scans which can be more helpful in early detection of ischemic stroke. PMID:23826011

  4. Enhancing the passing moments: An educational criticism of family visits to an early childhood science exhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munroe, Elizabeth Ann

    This educational criticism describes and interprets the nature of family visits to an early childhood science exhibition, Working Wonders, at The Science Centre in Calgary, Alberta. The specific exhibits are described and features that contributed to exhibit popularity are examined. Examples of visitors' interactions with each exhibit are given. The visit experiences of four families are described in detail and analyzed. Typical family visitors' reactions, expectations, and experiences are summarized. Because one of the mutual expectations of the granting agency, The Science Centre, and the adult visitors was that a visit to the exhibition would be educational, the family visits are examined for instances of learning and analyzed to determine the factors that influenced the learning. Constructivism forms the basis for understanding the process of learning during family visits. The analysis is supported by reference to research from the fields of museum studies, education, and environmental design. The analysis of the educational significance and potential of family visits to an early childhood exhibition leads to the conclusion that specific features may facilitate learning in such an environment. Those features are represented in a set of guidelines for the development and evaluation of early childhood exhibitions. The guidelines suggest attention must be given to the ambience of the space, the general layout of the space, the exhibits, the copy and graphics, additional programs and information, the subtle influences of the building and the staff, and the learning processes of young children, adults, and intergenerational groups. The guidelines suggest specific issues to consider to develop a space that is stimulating and memorable, responsive to the needs of the two distinct visitor groups (young children and adults), and conducive to learning.

  5. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic (SERS) study of saliva in the early detection of oral cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kho, Kiang W.; Malini, Olivo; Shen, Ze Xiang; Soo, Khee Chee

    2005-03-01

    Worldwide, oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer for both sexes. In Singapore, the 5-year survival rate of oral cancer is about 50%. The high mortality rate has been attributed to the difficulties in detecting the disease in an early treatable stage. Currently, the standard screening procedures for oral cancer are histopathology examination of biopsied tissues and exfoliative cytological assessment. These techniques, unfortunately, are low in sensitivity. In this study, we exploit the high amplification factor of SERS to investigate on the possibility of utilising molecular vibrational information from saliva samples to detect oral cancer early. All raw saliva samples were centrifuged at 13,000 krpm for 5 minutes to remove unwanted particles prior to SERS measurements. The purified saliva samples were then applied directly on gold particle films, followed by excitation with a 633 nm HeNe laser. SERS spectrum can be obtained in less than 2 minutes for each sample. We have studied the saliva spectra acquired from 5 normal individuals and 5 patients with oral cancer. In addition, we also observe new peaks at 1097 cm-1 and 1627 cm-1 in some of the abnormal samples. These peaks are not present in the spectra acquired from the normal samples. Preliminary measurements will be presented. This study may lead to the development of a sensitive and portable diagnostics system for oral cancer.

  6. Hardening of the arteries

    MedlinePLUS

    Atherosclerosis; Arteriosclerosis; Plaque buildup - arteries ... Hardening of the arteries often occurs with aging. As you grow older, plaque buildup narrows your arteries and makes them stiffer. These changes ...

  7. Relation between butyrylcholinesterase K variant, paraoxonase 1 (PON1) Q and R and apolipoprotein E ?4 genes in early-onset coronary artery disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bassam A Nassar; Sultan Darvesh; Lisa D Bevin; Kenneth Rockwood; Susan A Kirkland; Blair J O’Neill; Iqbal R Bata; David E Johnstone

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: The common K variant of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE-K), an enzyme which metabolizes acetylcholine and organophosphates, has been associated with Alzheimer’s disease, especially in the presence of the apolipoprotein E ?4 allele (APOE-?4). Although APOE-?4 has been associated with the development of coronary artery disease (CAD), an association between the BChE-K variant and CAD has not been explored. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1),

  8. Cationic surface charge enhances early regional deposition of liposomes after intracarotid injection.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Shailendra; Singh-Moon, Rajinder; Wang, Mei; Chaudhuri, Durba B; Ellis, Jason A; Bruce, Jeffrey N; Bigio, Irving J; Straubinger, Robert M

    2014-12-01

    Rapid first pass uptake of drugs is necessary to increase tissue deposition after intraarterial (IA) injection. Here we tested whether brain tissue deposition of a nanoparticulate liposomal carrier could be enhanced by coordinated manipulation of liposome surface charge and physiological parameters, such as IA injection during transient cerebral hypoperfusion (TCH). Different degrees of blood-brain barrier disruption were induced by focused ultrasound in three sets of Sprague-Dawley rats. Brain tissue retention was then compared for anionic, cationic, and charge-neutral liposomes after IA injection combined with TCH. The liposomes contained a non-exchangeable carbocyanine membrane optical label that could be quantified using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) or visualized by multispectral imaging. Real-time concentration-time curves in brain were obtained after each liposomal injection. Having observed greater tissue retention of cationic liposomes compared to other liposomes in all three groups, we tested uptake of cationic liposomes in C6 tumor bearing rats. DRS and multispectral imaging of postmortem sections revealed increased liposomal uptake by the C6 brain tumor as compared to non-tumor contralateral hemisphere. We conclude that regional deposition of liposomes can be enhanced without BBB disruption using IA injection of cationic liposomal formulations in healthy and C6 tumor bearing rats. PMID:25195130

  9. Novel Polypyrrole-Coated Polylactide Scaffolds Enhance Adipose Stem Cell Proliferation and Early Osteogenic Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Pelto, Jani; Björninen, Miina; Pälli, Aliisa; Talvitie, Elina; Hyttinen, Jari; Mannerström, Bettina; Suuronen Seppanen, Riitta; Kellomäki, Minna; Miettinen, Susanna; Haimi, Suvi

    2013-01-01

    An electrically conductive polypyrrole (PPy) doped with a bioactive agent is an emerging functional biomaterial for tissue engineering. We therefore used chondroitin sulfate (CS)-doped PPy coating to modify initially electrically insulating polylactide resulting in novel osteogenic scaffolds. In situ chemical oxidative polymerization was used to obtain electrically conductive PPy coating on poly-96L/4D-lactide (PLA) nonwoven scaffolds. The coated scaffolds were characterized and their electrical conductivity was evaluated in hydrolysis. The ability of the coated and conductive scaffolds to enhance proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells (hASCs) under electrical stimulation (ES) in three-dimensional (3D) geometry was compared to the noncoated PLA scaffolds. Electrical conductivity of PPy-coated PLA scaffolds (PLA-PPy) was evident at the beginning of hydrolysis, but decreased during the first week of incubation due to de-doping. PLA-PPy scaffolds enhanced hASC proliferation significantly compared to the plain PLA scaffolds at 7 and 14 days. Furthermore, the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of the hASCs was generally higher in PLA-PPy seeded scaffolds, but due to patient variation, no statistical significance could be determined. ES did not have a significant effect on hASCs. This study highlights the potential of novel PPy-coated PLA scaffolds in bone tissue engineering. PMID:23126228

  10. Hepatic Arterial Phase on Gadoxetic Acid-Enhanced Liver MR Imaging: A Randomized Comparison of 0.5 mL/s and 1 mL/s Injection Rates

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Mo; Heo, Suk Hee; Kim, Jin Woong; Lim, Hyo Soon; Shin, Sang Soo; Kang, Heoung Keun

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare gadoxetic acid injection rates of 0.5 mL/s and 1 mL/s for hepatic arterial-phase magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods In this prospective study, 101 consecutive patients with suspected focal liver lesions were included and randomly divided into two groups. Each group underwent dynamic liver MR imaging using a 3.0-T scanner after an intravenous injection of gadoxetic acid at rates of either 0.5 mL/s (n = 50) or 1 mL/s (n = 51). Arterial phase images were analyzed after blinding the injection rates. The signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of the liver, aorta, portal vein, hepatic vein, spleen, and pancreas were measured. The contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) of the hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) were calculated. Finally, two experienced radiologists were independently asked to identify, if any, HCCs in the liver on the images and score the image quality in terms of the presence of artifacts and the proper enhancement of the liver, aorta, portal vein, hepatic vein, hepatic artery, spleen, pancreas, and kidney. Results The SNRs were not significantly different between the groups (p = 0.233-0.965). The CNRs of the HCCs were not significantly different (p = 0.597). The sensitivity for HCC detection and the image quality scores were not significantly different between the two injection rates (p = 0.082-1.000). Conclusion Image quality and sensitivity for hepatic HCCs of arterial-phase gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR were not significantly improved by reducing the contrast injection rate to 0.5 mL/s compared with 1 mL/s. PMID:25246821

  11. Accurate early positions for Swift GRBS: enhancing X-ray positions with UVOT astrometry

    E-print Network

    M. R. Goad; L. G. Tyler; A. P. Beardmore; P. A. Evans; S. R. Rosen; J. P. Osborne; R. L. C. Starling; F. E. Marshall; V. Yershov; D. N. Burrows; N. Gehrels; P. Roming; A. Moretti; M. Capalbi; J. E. Hill; J. Kennea; S. Koch; D. Vanden Berk

    2007-08-07

    Here we describe an autonomous way of producing more accurate prompt XRT positions for Swift-detected GRBs and their afterglows, based on UVOT astrometry and a detailed mapping between the XRT and UVOT detectors. The latter significantly reduces the dominant systematic error -- the star-tracker solution to the World Coordinate System. This technique, which is limited to times when there is significant overlap between UVOT and XRT PC-mode data, provides a factor of 2 improvement in the localisation of XRT refined positions on timescales of less than a few hours. Furthermore, the accuracy achieved is superior to astrometrically corrected XRT PC mode images at early times (for up to 24 hours), for the majority of bursts, and is comparable to the accuracy achieved by astrometrically corrected X-ray positions based on deep XRT PC-mode imaging at later times (abridged).

  12. An early rehabilitation intervention to enhance recovery during hospital admission for an exacerbation of chronic respiratory disease: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Johanna E A; Hussain, Syed F; Harvey-Dunstan, Theresa C; Bankart, M John; Chaplin, Emma J; Vincent, Emma E; Chimera, Rudo; Morgan, Mike D; Singh, Sally J; Steiner, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether an early rehabilitation intervention initiated during acute admission for exacerbations of chronic respiratory disease reduces the risk of readmission over 12 months and ameliorates the negative effects of the episode on physical performance and health status. Design Prospective, randomised controlled trial. Setting An acute cardiorespiratory unit in a teaching hospital and an acute medical unit in an affiliated teaching district general hospital, United Kingdom. Participants 389 patients aged between 45 and 93 who within 48 hours of admission to hospital with an exacerbation of chronic respiratory disease were randomised to an early rehabilitation intervention (n=196) or to usual care (n=193). Main outcome measures The primary outcome was readmission rate at 12 months. Secondary outcomes included number of hospital days, mortality, physical performance, and health status. The primary analysis was by intention to treat, with prespecified per protocol analysis as a secondary outcome. Interventions Participants in the early rehabilitation group received a six week intervention, started within 48 hours of admission. The intervention comprised prescribed, progressive aerobic, resistance, and neuromuscular electrical stimulation training. Patients also received a self management and education package. Results Of the 389 participants, 320 (82%) had a primary diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 233 (60%) were readmitted at least once in the following year (62% in the intervention group and 58% in the control group). No significant difference between groups was found (hazard ratio 1.1, 95% confidence interval 0.86 to 1.43, P=0.4). An increase in mortality was seen in the intervention group at one year (odds ratio 1.74, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 2.88, P=0.03). Significant recovery in physical performance and health status was seen after discharge in both groups, with no significant difference between groups at one year. Conclusion Early rehabilitation during hospital admission for chronic respiratory disease did not reduce the risk of subsequent readmission or enhance recovery of physical function following the event over 12 months. Mortality at 12 months was higher in the intervention group. The results suggest that beyond current standard physiotherapy practice, progressive exercise rehabilitation should not be started during the early stages of the acute illness. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN05557928. PMID:25004917

  13. Enhanced Glycogen Storage of a Subcellular Hot Spot in Human Skeletal Muscle during Early Recovery from Eccentric Contractions

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Joachim; Farup, Jean; Rahbek, Stine Klejs; de Paoli, Frank Vincenzo; Vissing, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Unaccustomed eccentric exercise is accompanied by muscle damage and impaired glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis during subsequent recovery. Recently, it was shown that the role and regulation of glycogen in skeletal muscle are dependent on its subcellular localization, and that glycogen synthesis, as described by the product of glycogen particle size and number, is dependent on the time course of recovery after exercise and carbohydrate availability. In the present study, we investigated the subcellular distribution of glycogen in fibers with high (type I) and low (type II) mitochondrial content during post-exercise recovery from eccentric contractions. Analysis was completed on five male subjects performing an exercise bout consisting of 15 x 10 maximal eccentric contractions. Carbohydrate-rich drinks were subsequently ingested throughout a 48 h recovery period and muscle biopsies for analysis included time points 3, 24 and 48 h post exercise from the exercising leg, whereas biopsies corresponding to prior to and at 48 h after the exercise bout were collected from the non-exercising, control leg. Quantitative imaging by transmission electron microscopy revealed an early (post 3 and 24 h) enhanced storage of intramyofibrillar glycogen (defined as glycogen particles located within the myofibrils) of type I fibers, which was associated with an increase in the number of particles. In contrast, late in recovery (post 48 h), intermyofibrillar, intramyofibrillar and subsarcolemmal glycogen in both type I and II fibers were lower in the exercise leg compared with the control leg, and this was associated with a smaller size of the glycogen particles. We conclude that in the carbohydrate-supplemented state, the effect of eccentric contractions on glycogen metabolism depends on the subcellular localization, muscle fiber’s oxidative capacity, and the time course of recovery. The early enhanced storage of intramyofibrillar glycogen after the eccentric contractions may entail important implications for muscle function and fatigue resistance. PMID:25996774

  14. Enhanced Glycogen Storage of a Subcellular Hot Spot in Human Skeletal Muscle during Early Recovery from Eccentric Contractions.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Joachim; Farup, Jean; Rahbek, Stine Klejs; de Paoli, Frank Vincenzo; Vissing, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Unaccustomed eccentric exercise is accompanied by muscle damage and impaired glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis during subsequent recovery. Recently, it was shown that the role and regulation of glycogen in skeletal muscle are dependent on its subcellular localization, and that glycogen synthesis, as described by the product of glycogen particle size and number, is dependent on the time course of recovery after exercise and carbohydrate availability. In the present study, we investigated the subcellular distribution of glycogen in fibers with high (type I) and low (type II) mitochondrial content during post-exercise recovery from eccentric contractions. Analysis was completed on five male subjects performing an exercise bout consisting of 15 x 10 maximal eccentric contractions. Carbohydrate-rich drinks were subsequently ingested throughout a 48 h recovery period and muscle biopsies for analysis included time points 3, 24 and 48 h post exercise from the exercising leg, whereas biopsies corresponding to prior to and at 48 h after the exercise bout were collected from the non-exercising, control leg. Quantitative imaging by transmission electron microscopy revealed an early (post 3 and 24 h) enhanced storage of intramyofibrillar glycogen (defined as glycogen particles located within the myofibrils) of type I fibers, which was associated with an increase in the number of particles. In contrast, late in recovery (post 48 h), intermyofibrillar, intramyofibrillar and subsarcolemmal glycogen in both type I and II fibers were lower in the exercise leg compared with the control leg, and this was associated with a smaller size of the glycogen particles. We conclude that in the carbohydrate-supplemented state, the effect of eccentric contractions on glycogen metabolism depends on the subcellular localization, muscle fiber's oxidative capacity, and the time course of recovery. The early enhanced storage of intramyofibrillar glycogen after the eccentric contractions may entail important implications for muscle function and fatigue resistance. PMID:25996774

  15. Early bone growth on the surface of titanium implants in rat femur is enhanced by an amorphous diamond coating

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose Amorphous diamond (AD) is a durable and compatible biomaterial for joint prostheses. Knowledge regarding bone growth on AD-coated implants and their early-stage osseointegration is poor. We investigated bone growth on AD-coated cementless intramedullary implants implanted in rats. Titanium was chosen as a reference due to its well-known performance. Materials and methods We placed AD-coated and non-coated titanium implants (Ra ? 0.2 ?m) into the femoral bone marrow of 25 rats. The animals were divided in 2 groups according to implant coating and they were killed after 4 or 12 weeks. The osseointegration of the implants was examined from hard tissue specimens by measuring the new bone formation on their surface. Results 4 weeks after the operation, the thickness of new bone in the AD-coated group was greater than that in the non-coated group (15.3 (SD 7.1) ?m vs. 7.6 (SD 6.0) ?m). 12 weeks after the operation, the thickness of new bone was similar in the non-coated group and in the AD-coated group. Interpretation We conclude that AD coating of femoral implants can enhance bone ongrowth in rats in the acute, early stage after the operation and might be an improvement over earlier coatings. PMID:21504369

  16. Enhanced susceptibility to Leishmania infection in resistant mice in the absence of immediate early response gene X-1.

    PubMed

    Akilov, Oleg E; Ustyugova, Irina V; Zhi, Liang; Hasan, Tayyaba; Wu, Mei X

    2009-12-15

    Immediate early response gene X-1 (IEX-1) is a stress-inducible gene abundantly expressed in macrophages and T cells following various stimuli. To explore a potential role for IEX-1 in control of the susceptibility to Leishmania major infection, the inflammatory response during cutaneous leishmaniasis was evaluated in 129Sv/C57BL/6-resistant mice in the presence or absence of IEX-1. Null mutation of IEX-1 enhanced the susceptibility of the mice to L. major infection, and aggravated inflammatory responses in comparison with wild-type control mice. The excessive inflammation was not ascribed to a Th2-biased immune response or a defect in Th1 polarization, but rather to an elevated level of IL-17 production by both gammadelta T and CD4(+) cells, concomitant with an increase of the neutrophil recruitment early in the infection. The lack of IEX-1 also suppressed TNF-alpha production in both macrophages and T cells, resulting in a high intralesional load of parasites and delayed healing of the lesion, both of which were reversed by TNF-alpha treatment. These findings indicate the crucial role of IL-17 and TNF-alpha in determining the outcome of L. major infection beyond a balance between Th1- and Th2-mediated immune responses. PMID:19923449

  17. Oral acetate supplementation after prolonged moderate intensity exercise enhances early muscle glycogen resynthesis in horses.

    PubMed

    Waller, Amanda P; Geor, Raymond J; Spriet, Lawrence L; Heigenhauser, George J F; Lindinger, Michael I

    2009-08-01

    Oral acetate supplementation enhances glycogen synthesis in some mammals. However, while acetate is a significant energy source for skeletal muscle at rest in horses, its effects on glycogen resynthesis are unknown. We hypothesized that administration of an oral sodium acetate-acetic acid solution with a typical grain and hay meal after glycogen-depleting exercise would result in a rapid appearance of acetate in blood with rapid uptake by skeletal muscle. It was further hypothesized that acetate taken up by muscle would be converted to acetyl CoA (and acetylcarnitine), which would be metabolized to CO2 and water via the tricarboxylic acid cycle, generating ATP within the mitochondria and thereby allowing glucose taken up by muscle to be preferentially incorporated into glycogen. Gluteus medius biopsies and jugular venous blood were sampled from nine exercise-conditioned horses on two separate occasions, at rest and for 24 h following a competition exercise test (CET) designed to simulate the speed and endurance test of a 3 day event. After the CETs, horses were allowed water ad libitum and either 8 l of a hypertonic sodium acetate-acetic acid solution via nasogastric gavage followed by a typical hay-grain meal (acetate treatment) or a hay-grain meal alone (control treatment). The CET significantly decreased muscle glycogen concentration by 21 and 17% in the acetate and control treatments, respectively. Acetate supplementation resulted in a rapid and sustained increase in plasma [acetate]. Skeletal muscle [acetyl CoA] and [acetylcarnitine] were increased at 4 h of recovery in the acetate treatment, suggesting substantial tissue extraction of the supplemented acetate. Acetate supplementation also resulted in an enhanced rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis during the initial 4 h of the recovery period compared with the control treatment; however, by 24 h of recovery there was no difference in glycogen replenishment between trials. It is concluded that oral acetate could be an alternative energy source in the horse. PMID:19429643

  18. Arterial stiffness, central hemodynamics, and cardiovascular risk in hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Palatini, Paolo; Casiglia, Edoardo; G?sowski, Jerzy; G?uszek, Jerzy; Jankowski, Piotr; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof; Saladini, Francesca; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Van Bortel, Luc; Wojciechowska, Wiktoria; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes several scientific contributions at the recent Satellite Symposium of the European Society of Hypertension, held in Milan, Italy. Arterial stiffening and its hemodynamic consequences can be easily and reliably measured using a range of noninvasive techniques. However, like blood pressure (BP) measurements, arterial stiffness should be measured carefully under standardized patient conditions. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity has been proposed as the gold standard for arterial stiffness measurement and is a well recognized predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcome. Systolic BP and pulse pressure in the ascending aorta may be lower than pressures measured in the upper limb, especially in young individuals. A number of studies suggest closer correlation of end-organ damage with central BP than with peripheral BP, and central BP may provide additional prognostic information regarding cardiovascular risk. Moreover, BP-lowering drugs can have differential effects on central aortic pressures and hemodynamics compared with brachial BP. This may explain the greater beneficial effect provided by newer antihypertensive drugs beyond peripheral BP reduction. Although many methodological problems still hinder the wide clinical application of parameters of arterial stiffness, these will likely contribute to cardiovascular assessment and management in future clinical practice. Each of the abovementioned parameters reflects a different characteristic of the atherosclerotic process, involving functional and/or morphological changes in the vessel wall. Therefore, acquiring simultaneous measurements of different parameters of vascular function and structure could theoretically enhance the power to improve risk stratification. Continuous technological effort is necessary to refine our methods of investigation in order to detect early arterial abnormalities. Arterial stiffness and its consequences represent the great challenge of the twenty-first century for affluent countries, and “de-stiffening” will be the goal of the next decades. PMID:22174583

  19. Early quantitative coronary angiography of saphenous vein grafts for coronary artery bypass grafting harvested by means of open versus endoscopic saphenectomy: a prospective randomized trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. P Perrault; H Jeanmart; L Bilodeau; J Lespérance; J.-F Tanguay; D Bouchard; P Pagé; M Carrier

    2004-01-01

    ObjectiveEndoscopic saphenectomy is associated with a decreased incidence of wound complications without an increase in histologic trauma or endothelial dysfunction in published reports. Concern remains about the patency of saphenous vein grafts harvested endoscopically and the development of early intimal hyperplasia. The purpose of this study was to compare early quantitative coronary analysis of saphenous vein grafts used for coronary

  20. May 2012 Arterial

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    May 2012 Arterial Transitway Corridors Study: Results and Conclusions about Arterial Bus Rapid Transit #12;Arterial Transitway Corridors Study of "Arterial BRT" concept from Met Council TPP ­ Concept/feasibility study led by Metro

  1. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting? Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is ... bypass multiple coronary arteries during one surgery. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Figure A shows the location of ...

  2. Otx2 and Oct4 Drive Early Enhancer Activation during Embryonic Stem Cell Transition from Naive Pluripotency

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shen-Hsi; Kalkan, Tüzer; Morissroe, Claire; Marks, Hendrik; Stunnenberg, Hendrik; Smith, Austin; Sharrocks, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are unique in that they have the capacity to differentiate into all of the cell types in the body. We know a lot about the complex transcriptional control circuits that maintain the naive pluripotent state under self-renewing conditions but comparatively less about how cells exit from this state in response to differentiation stimuli. Here, we examined the role of Otx2 in this process in mouse ESCs and demonstrate that it plays a leading role in remodeling the gene regulatory networks as cells exit from ground state pluripotency. Otx2 drives enhancer activation through affecting chromatin marks and the activity of associated genes. Mechanistically, Oct4 is required for Otx2 expression, and reciprocally, Otx2 is required for efficient Oct4 recruitment to many enhancer regions. Therefore, the Oct4-Otx2 regulatory axis actively establishes a new regulatory chromatin landscape during the early events that accompany exit from ground state pluripotency. PMID:24931607

  3. Suppressive and enhancing effects in early visual cortex during illusory shape perception: A comment on Kok and de Lange (2014)

    PubMed Central

    Moors, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    In a recent functional magnetic resonance imaging study, Kok and de Lange (2014) observed that BOLD activity for a Kanizsa illusory shape stimulus, in which pacmen-like inducers elicit an illusory shape percept, was either enhanced or suppressed relative to a nonillusory control configuration depending on whether the spatial profile of BOLD activity in early visual cortex was related to the illusory shape or the inducers, respectively. The authors argued that these findings fit well with the predictive coding framework, because top-down predictions related to the illusory shape are not met with bottom-up sensory input and hence the feedforward error signal is enhanced. Conversely, for the inducing elements, there is a match between top-down predictions and input, leading to a decrease in error. Rather than invoking predictive coding as the explanatory framework, the suppressive effect related to the inducers might be caused by neural adaptation to perceptually stable input due to the trial sequence used in the experiment.

  4. Enhanced pain perception prior to smoking cessation is associated with early relapse.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Motohiro; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2011-09-01

    Accumulated evidence suggests that nicotine induces analgesia, and endogenous pain regulatory mechanisms may be altered by chronic smoking. The extent to which individual differences in pain perception are related to smokers' ability to abstain from smoking has not been directly examined. Seventy-one smokers who were interested in quitting completed a pre-cessation laboratory session which included the cold pressor test (CPT). Pain ratings were collected during and after CPT. Also, mood changes, cardiovascular measures, and salivary cortisol samples were evaluated prior to, during, and after CPT. Participants attended 4 weekly follow-up assessment sessions after their quit day. Cox regression analysis revealed that higher pain ratings during and after CPT predicted greater risk for smoking relapse. These results remained significant after affective and physiological responses to CPT were controlled, suggesting that pain ratings prior to smoking cessation are potentially useful in identifying smokers who are at greater risk of early smoking relapse and may reflect underlying putative risk for nicotine dependence and relapse. PMID:21816208

  5. Enhanced evolution by stochastically variable modification of epigenetic marks in the early embryo

    PubMed Central

    Branciamore, Sergio; Rodin, Andrei S.; Riggs, Arthur D.; Rodin, Sergei N.

    2014-01-01

    Evolution by gene duplication is generally accepted as one of the crucial driving forces for the gain of new complexity and functions, but the formation of pseudogenes remains a problem for this mechanism. Here we expand on earlier ideas that epigenetic modifications can drive neo- and subfunctionalization in evolution by gene duplication. We explore the effects of stochastic epigenetic modifications on the evolution (and thus development) of complex organisms in a constant environment. Modeling is done both using a modified genetic drift analytical treatment and computer simulations, which were found to agree. A transposon silencing model is also explored. Some key assumptions made include (i) stochastic, incomplete removal (or addition) of repressive epigenetic marks takes place during a window(s) of opportunity in the zygote and early embryo; (ii) there is no statistical variation of the marks after the window closes; and (iii) the genes affected are sensitive to dosage. Our genetic drift treatment takes into account that after gene duplication the prevailing case upon which selection operates is a duplicate/singlet heterozygote; to the best of our knowledge, this has not been considered in previous treatments. We conclude from our modeling that stochastic epigenetic modifications, with rates consistent with experimental observation, can both increase the rate of gene fixation and decrease pseudogenization, thus dramatically improving the efficacy of evolution by gene duplication. We also find that a transposon silencing model is advantageous for fixation of recessive genes in diploid organisms, especially with large effective population sizes. PMID:24733912

  6. Early life adversity reduces stress reactivity and enhances impulsive behavior: Implications for health behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Lovallo, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Altered reactivity to stress, either in the direction of exaggerated reactivity or diminished reactivity, may signal a dysregulation of systems intended to maintain homeostasis and a state of good health. Evidence has accumulated that diminished reactivity to psychosocial stress may signal poor health outcomes. One source of diminished cortisol and autonomic reactivity is the experience of adverse rearing during childhood and adolescence. The Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project has examined a cohort of 426 healthy young adults with and without a family history of alcoholism. Regardless of family history, persons who had experienced high degrees of adversity prior to age 16 had a constellation of changes including reduced cortisol and heart rate reactivity, diminished cognitive capacity, and unstable regulation of affect, leading to behavioral impulsivity and antisocial tendencies. We present a model whereby this constellation of physiological, cognitive, and affective tendencies is consistent with altered central dopaminergic activity leading to changes in brain function that may foster impulsive and risky behaviors. These in turn may promote greater use of alcohol other drugs along with adopting poor health behaviors. This model provides a pathway from early life adversity to low stress reactivity that forms a basis for risky behaviors and poor health outcomes. PMID:23085387

  7. Enhancement of early cervical cancer diagnosis with epithelial layer analysis of fluorescence lifetime images.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jun; Fu, Chit Yaw; Ng, Beng Koon; Liu, Lin Bo; Lim-Tan, Soo Kim; Lee, Caroline Guat Lay

    2015-01-01

    This work reports the use of layer analysis to aid the fluorescence lifetime diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) from H&E stained cervical tissue sections. The mean and standard deviation of lifetimes in single region of interest (ROI) of cervical epithelium were previously shown to correlate to the gold standard histopathological classification of early cervical cancer. These previously defined single ROIs were evenly divided into layers for analysis. A 10-layer model revealed a steady increase in fluorescence lifetime from the inner to the outer epithelial layers of healthy tissue sections, suggesting a close association with cellular maturity. The shorter lifetime and minimal lifetime increase towards the epithelial surface of CIN-affected regions are in good agreement with the absence of cellular maturation in CIN. Mean layer lifetimes in the top-half cervical epithelium were used as feature vectors for extreme learning machine (ELM) classifier discriminations. It was found that the proposed layer analysis technique greatly improves the sensitivity and specificity to 94.6% and 84.3%, respectively, which can better supplement the traditional gold standard cervical histopathological examinations. PMID:25966026

  8. Vaccination Enhances Early Immune Responses in White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei after Secondary Exposure to Vibrio alginolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yong-Chin; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Morni, Wan Zabidii W.; Putra, Dedi Fazriansyah; Huang, Chien-Lun; Li, Chang-Che; Hsieh, Jen-Fang

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent work suggested that the presence of specific memory or some form of adaptive immunity occurs in insects and shrimp. Hypervariable pattern recognition molecules, known as Down syndrome cell adhesion molecules, are able to mount specific recognition, and immune priming in invertebrates. In the present study, we attempted to understand the immune response pattern of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei which received primary (PE) and secondary exposure (SE) to Vibrio alginolyticus. Methodology Immune parameters and proliferation of haematopoietic tissues (HPTs) of shrimp which had received PE and SE to V. alginolyticus were measured. In the PE trial, the immune parameters and proliferation of HPTs of shrimp that received heat-killed V. alginolyticus (HVa) and formalin-inactivated V. alginolyticus (FVa) were measured. Mortality, immune parameters and proliferation of HPTs of 7-day-HVa-PE shrimp (shrimp that received primary exposure to HVa after 7 days) and 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp (shrimp that received primary exposure to FVa after 7 days) following SE to live V. alginolyticus (LVa) were measured. Phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency were examined for the 7?35-day-HVa-PE and FVa-PE shrimp. Results HVa-receiving shrimp showed an earlier increase in the immune response on day 1, whereas FVa-receiving shrimp showed a late increase in the immune response on day 5. The 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp showed enhancement of immunity when encountering SE to LVa, whereas 7-day-HVa-PE shrimp showed a minor enhancement in immunity. 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp showed higher proliferation and an HPT mitotic index. Both phagocytic activity and clearance maintained higher for both HVa-PE and FVa-PE shrimp after 28 days. Conclusions HVa- and FVa-receiving shrimp showed the bacteria agglutinated prior to being phagocytised. FVa functions as a vaccine, whereas HVa functions as an inducer and can be used as an immune adjuvant. A combined mixture of FVa and HVa can serve as a “vaccine component” to modulate the immunity of shrimp. PMID:23894531

  9. Engineered microporosity: enhancing the early regenerative potential of decellularized temporomandibular joint discs.

    PubMed

    Juran, Cassandra M; Dolwick, M Franklin; McFetridge, Peter S

    2015-02-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc is susceptible to numerous pathologies that may lead to structural degradation and jaw dysfunction. The limited treatment options and debilitating nature of severe temporomandibular disorders has been the primary driving force for the introduction and development of TMJ disc tissue engineering as an approach to alleviate this important clinical issue. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of laser micropatterning (LMP) ex vivo-derived TMJ disc scaffolds to enhance cellular integration, a major limitation to the development of whole tissue implant technology. LMP was incorporated into the decellularized extracellular matrix scaffold structure using a 40 W CO2 laser ablation system to drill an 8×16 pattern with a bore diameter of 120??m through the scaffold thickness. Disc scaffolds were seeded with human neonatal-derived umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells differentiated into chondrocytes at a density of 900 cells per mm(2) and then assessed on days 1, 7, 14, and 21 of culture. Results derived from histology, PicoGreen DNA quantification, and cellular metabolism assays indicate that the LMP scaffolds improve cellular remodeling compared to the unworked scaffold over the 21-day culture period. Mechanical analysis further supports the use of the LMP showing the compressive properties of the LMP constructs closely represent native disc mechanics. The addition of an artificial path of infiltration by LMP culminated in improved chondrocyte adhesion, dispersion, and migration after extended culture aiding in recapitulating the native TMJ disc characteristics. PMID:25319941

  10. Engineered Microporosity: Enhancing the Early Regenerative Potential of Decellularized Temporomandibular Joint Discs

    PubMed Central

    Juran, Cassandra M.; Dolwick, M. Franklin

    2015-01-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc is susceptible to numerous pathologies that may lead to structural degradation and jaw dysfunction. The limited treatment options and debilitating nature of severe temporomandibular disorders has been the primary driving force for the introduction and development of TMJ disc tissue engineering as an approach to alleviate this important clinical issue. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of laser micropatterning (LMP) ex vivo-derived TMJ disc scaffolds to enhance cellular integration, a major limitation to the development of whole tissue implant technology. LMP was incorporated into the decellularized extracellular matrix scaffold structure using a 40 W CO2 laser ablation system to drill an 8×16 pattern with a bore diameter of 120??m through the scaffold thickness. Disc scaffolds were seeded with human neonatal-derived umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells differentiated into chondrocytes at a density of 900 cells per mm2 and then assessed on days 1, 7, 14, and 21 of culture. Results derived from histology, PicoGreen DNA quantification, and cellular metabolism assays indicate that the LMP scaffolds improve cellular remodeling compared to the unworked scaffold over the 21-day culture period. Mechanical analysis further supports the use of the LMP showing the compressive properties of the LMP constructs closely represent native disc mechanics. The addition of an artificial path of infiltration by LMP culminated in improved chondrocyte adhesion, dispersion, and migration after extended culture aiding in recapitulating the native TMJ disc characteristics. PMID:25319941

  11. P fimbriae and other adhesins enhance intestinal persistence of Escherichia coli in early infancy.

    PubMed Central

    Adlerberth, I.; Svanborg, C.; Carlsson, B.; Mellander, L.; Hanson, L. A.; Jalil, F.; Khalil, K.; Wold, A. E.

    1998-01-01

    Resident and transient Escherichia coli strains were identified in the rectal flora of 22 Pakistani infants followed from birth to 6 months of age. All strains were tested for O-antigen expression, adhesin specificity (P fimbriae, other mannose-resistant adhesins or type 1 fimbriae) and adherence to the colonic cell line HT-29. Resident strains displayed higher mannose-resistant adherence to HT-29 cells, and expressed P fimbriae (P = 0.0036) as well as other mannose-resistant adhesins (P = 0.012) more often than transient strains. In strains acquired during the first month of life, P fimbriae were 12 times more frequent in resident than in transient strains (P = 0.0006). The O-antigen distribution did not differ between resident and transient strains, and none of the resident P-fimbriated strains belonged to previously recognized uropathogenic clones. The results suggest that adhesins mediating adherence to intestinal epithelial cells, especially P fimbriae, enhance the persistence of E. coli in the large intestine of infants. PMID:10030709

  12. Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Generating Excess Early Double-Stranded RNA Transiently Activates Protein Kinase R and Triggers Enhanced Innate Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Wolferstätter, Michael; Schweneker, Marc; Späth, Michaela; Lukassen, Susanne; Klingenberg, Marieken; Brinkmann, Kay; Wielert, Ursula; Lauterbach, Henning; Hochrein, Hubertus; Chaplin, Paul; Suter, Mark

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is an important molecular pattern associated with viral infection and is detected by various extra- and intracellular recognition molecules. Poxviruses have evolved to avoid producing dsRNA early in infection but generate significant amounts of dsRNA late in infection due to convergent transcription of late genes. Protein kinase R (PKR) is activated by dsRNA and triggers major cellular defenses against viral infection, including protein synthesis shutdown, apoptosis, and type I interferon (IFN-I) production. The poxviral E3 protein binds and sequesters viral dsRNA and is a major antagonist of the PKR pathway. We found that the highly replication-restricted modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) engineered to produce excess amounts of dsRNA early in infection showed enhanced induction of IFN-? in murine and human cells in the presence of an intact E3L gene. IFN-? induction required a minimum overlap length of 300 bp between early complementary transcripts and was strongly PKR dependent. Excess early dsRNA produced by MVA activated PKR early but transiently in murine cells and induced enhanced systemic levels of IFN-?, IFN-?, and other cytokines and chemokines in mice in a largely PKR-dependent manner. Replication-competent chorioallantois vaccinia virus Ankara (CVA) generating excess early dsRNA also enhanced IFN-I production and was apathogenic in mice even at very high doses but showed no in vitro host range defect. Thus, genetically adjuvanting MVA and CVA to generate excess early dsRNA is an effective method to enhance innate immune stimulation by orthopoxvirus vectors and to attenuate replicating vaccinia virus in vivo. IMPORTANCE Efficient cellular sensing of pathogen-specific components, including double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), is an important prerequisite of an effective antiviral immune response. The prototype poxvirus vaccinia virus (VACV) and its derivative modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) produce dsRNA as a by-product of viral transcription. We found that inhibition of cellular dsRNA recognition established by the virus-encoded proteins E3 and K3 can be overcome by directing viral overexpression of dsRNA early in infection without compromising replication of MVA in permissive cells. Early dsRNA induced transient activation of the cellular dsRNA sensor protein kinase R (PKR), resulting in enhanced production of interferons and cytokines in cells and mice. Enhancing the capacity of MVA to activate the innate immune system is an important approach to further improve the immunogenicity of this promising vaccine vector. PMID:25297997

  13. Enhanced characterization of contractility in cardiomyocytes during early drug safety assessment.

    PubMed

    Butler, Larissa; Cros, Caroline; Oldman, Karen L; Harmer, Alex R; Pointon, Amy; Pollard, Christopher E; Abi-Gerges, Najah

    2015-06-01

    We sought to investigate whether drug-induced changes in contractility were affected by pacing rates that represent the range of heart rates encountered in vivo. Using the cell geometry measurement system (IonOptix), we paced dog cardiomyocytes at different cycle lengths (CLs) of 2000, 1000, 500, and 333.3?ms, before and after exposure to 13 inotropic drugs. Time course data using vehicle control (0.1% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)) demonstrated stability of the system at all CLs tested. Seven positive inotropes (eg isoproterenol) exerted rate-dependent increases in sarcomere shortening (Sarc. short.; maximal effect at a CL of 333.3?ms [0.1?µM isoproterenol increased Sarc. short. by 41.1% and 145.9% at 2000 and 333.3?ms, respectively]). Omecamtiv mecarbil showed an atypical profile (increased Sarc. short. at 2000?ms [106.9%] and decreased at 333.3?ms [IC50?=?0.64?µM]). Four negative inotropes (eg flecainide) showed rate-independent inhibition of Sarc. short. (IC50s: 3.3?µM [2000 ms] versus 2.3?µM [333.3 ms]). The remaining negative inotropes, verapamil, and BTS (N-benzyl-p-toluene sulphonamide) produced an increase (IC50s: 3.9?µM [2000 ms] versus 0.043?µM [333.3ms]) and decrease (IC50s: 18.3?µM [2000 ms] versus 34.0?µM [333.3ms]) in potency, respectively. Negative inotropes (eg flecainide, BTS, and verapamil) decreased the area of the Ca(2+) transient versus Sarc. short. hysteresis loop, although rate dependency was seen with verapamil only. Positive inotropes (eg isoproterenol and levosimendan) induced a rate-dependent increase in the area, however Omecamtiv mecarbil increased and decreased the area at CLs of 2000 and 333.3?ms, respectively. Thus, the use of different pacing rates may improve the detection of inotropes in early drug discovery and illustrate the potential for finger-printing different mechanisms of action. PMID:25820236

  14. Rapid and early ?-fetoprotein and des-?-carboxy prothrombin responses to initial arterial infusion chemotherapy predict treatment outcomes of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    OYAMA, KENJI; KODA, MASAHIKO; SUGIHARA, TAKAAKI; KISHINA, MANABU; MIYOSHI, KENICHI; OKAMOTO, TOSHIAKI; HODOTSUKA, MASANORI; FUJISE, YUKI; MATONO, TOMOMITSU; TOKUNAGA, SHIHO; OKAMOTO, KINYA; HOSHO, KEIKO; OKANO, JUNICHI; MURAWAKI, YOSHIKAZU

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to predict the effects of transarterial infusion (TAI) chemotherapy based on early changes in ?-fetoprotein (AFP) and des-?-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Seventy-four patients who underwent TAI with cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil, mitomycin C and epirubicin for advanced HCC were enrolled. Antitumor responses were evaluated 6 months after TAI. Rapid and early responses were defined as the ratio of AFP or DCP after 1 week and 1 month compared to baseline. A total of 5, 10, 17 and 42 patients had complete response (CR), partial response (PR), stable disease (SD) or progressive disease (PD), respectively. Early AFP response was significantly lower in the CR+PR compared to the SD+PD groups (P<0.01). The early DCP response was significantly lower in the CR+PR compared to the SD+PD. The sensitivity and specificity of rapid and early AFP responses in the CR+PR were 0.78 and 0.72, and 0.80 and 0.73, respectively, and those of rapid and early DCP responses were 0.67 and 0.65, and 0.77 and 0.71, respectively. The combination of AFP and DCP responses had higher specificity compared to AFP or DCP alone responses. Patients were divided into responder and non-responder groups to evaluate the prediction of survival outcome. Early responders of AFP, DCP and AFP+DCP, who were divided based on the cut-off values of CR+PR survived significantly longer than the non-responders (P<0.05). In conclusion, rapid or early responses of AFP and/or DCP levels 1 and 4 weeks after TAI chemotherapy helped to predict the treatment effects.

  15. Porcine marginal mass islet autografts resist metabolic failure over time and are enhanced by early treatment with liraglutide.

    PubMed

    Emamaullee, Juliet A; Merani, Shaheed; Toso, Christian; Kin, Tatsuya; Al-Saif, Faisal; Truong, Wayne; Pawlick, Rena; Davis, Joy; Edgar, Ryan; Lock, Jennifer; Bonner-Weir, Susan; Knudsen, Lotte B; Shapiro, A M James

    2009-05-01

    Although insulin independence is maintained in most islet recipients at 1 yr after transplant, extended follow-up has revealed that many patients will eventually require insulin therapy. Previous studies have shown that islet autografts are prone to chronic failure in large animals and humans, suggesting that nonimmunological events contribute to islet graft functional decay. Early intervention with therapies that promote graft stability should provide a measurable benefit over time. In this study, the efficacy of the long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 analog liraglutide was explored in a porcine marginal mass islet autograft transplant model. Incubation with liraglutide enhanced porcine islet survival and function after prolonged culture. Most vehicle-treated (83%) and liraglutide-treated (80%) animals became insulin independent after islet autotransplantation. Although liraglutide therapy did not improve insulin independence rates or blood glucose levels after transplant, a significant increase in insulin secretion and acute-phase insulin response was observed in treated animals. Surprisingly, no evidence for deterioration of graft function was observed in any of the transplanted animals over more than 18 months of follow-up despite significant weight gain; in fact, an enhanced response to glucose developed over time even in control animals. Histological analysis showed that intraportally transplanted islets remained highly insulin positive, retained alpha-cells, and did not form amyloid deposits. This study demonstrates that marginal mass porcine islet autografts have stable long-term function, even in the presence of an increasing metabolic demand. These results are discrepant with previous large animal studies and suggest that porcine islets may be resistant to metabolic failure. PMID:19131571

  16. The enhanced value of combining conventional and 'omics' analyses in early assessment of drug-induced hepatobiliary injury

    SciTech Connect

    Ellinger-Ziegelbauer, Heidrun, E-mail: heidrun.ellinger-ziegelbauer@bayerhealthcare.com [Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Wuppertal (Germany); Adler, Melanie [University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany); Amberg, Alexander [Sanofi aventis R and D, Disposition, Safety and Animal Research, Frankfurt (Germany); Brandenburg, Arnd [Genedata AG, Basel (Switzerland); Callanan, John J. [UCD School of Biomolecular and Biomedical Science and School of Agriculture, Food Science and Veterinary Medicine, UCD Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Dublin (Ireland); Connor, Susan [MetaPro (United Kingdom); Fountoulakis, Michael [Hoffmann-La Roche AG, Basel (Switzerland); Gmuender, Hans [Genedata AG, Basel (Switzerland); Gruhler, Albrecht [Novo Nordisk A/S, Maaloev (Denmark); Hewitt, Philip [Merck KGaA Darmstadt (Germany); Hodson, Mark [MetaPro (United Kingdom); Matheis, Katja A. [Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH and Co. KG, Biberach (Germany); McCarthy, Diane [Bio-Rad, Laboratories, Hercules, CA (United States); Raschke, Marian; Riefke, Bjoern [Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Berlin (Germany); Schmitt, Christina S. [Merck KGaA Darmstadt (Germany); Sieber, Max [University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany); Sposny, Alexandra [Merck KGaA Darmstadt (Germany); Suter, Laura [Hoffmann-La Roche AG, Basel (Switzerland); Sweatman, Brian [MetaPro (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    The InnoMed PredTox consortium was formed to evaluate whether conventional preclinical safety assessment can be significantly enhanced by incorporation of molecular profiling ('omics') technologies. In short-term toxicological studies in rats, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics data were collected and analyzed in relation to routine clinical chemistry and histopathology. Four of the sixteen hepato- and/or nephrotoxicants given to rats for 1, 3, or 14 days at two dose levels induced similar histopathological effects. These were characterized by bile duct necrosis and hyperplasia and/or increased bilirubin and cholestasis, in addition to hepatocyte necrosis and regeneration, hepatocyte hypertrophy, and hepatic inflammation. Combined analysis of liver transcriptomics data from these studies revealed common gene expression changes which allowed the development of a potential sequence of events on a mechanistic level in accordance with classical endpoint observations. This included genes implicated in early stress responses, regenerative processes, inflammation with inflammatory cell immigration, fibrotic processes, and cholestasis encompassing deregulation of certain membrane transporters. Furthermore, a preliminary classification analysis using transcriptomics data suggested that prediction of cholestasis may be possible based on gene expression changes seen at earlier time-points. Targeted bile acid analysis, based on LC-MS metabonomics data demonstrating increased levels of conjugated or unconjugated bile acids in response to individual compounds, did not provide earlier detection of toxicity as compared to conventional parameters, but may allow distinction of different types of hepatobiliary toxicity. Overall, liver transcriptomics data delivered mechanistic and molecular details in addition to the classical endpoint observations which were further enhanced by targeted bile acid analysis using LC/MS metabonomics.

  17. Preradiotherapy Calcium Scores of the Coronary Arteries in a Cohort of Women With Early-Stage Breast Cancer: A Comparison With a Cohort of Healthy Women

    SciTech Connect

    Mast, Mirjam E., E-mail: m.mast@mchaaglanden.nl [Radiotherapy Centre West, The Hague (Netherlands); Heijenbrok, Mark W. [Department of Radiology, Medical Center Haaglanden, The Hague (Netherlands); Petoukhova, Anna L. [Radiotherapy Centre West, The Hague (Netherlands); Scholten, Astrid N. [Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden (Netherlands); Schreur, Joop H.M. [Department of Cardiology, Medical Center Haaglanden, The Hague (Netherlands); Struikmans, Henk [Radiotherapy Centre West, The Hague (Netherlands); Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: Breast cancer radiotherapy has been associated with an increased risk of cardiac toxicity. However, no data are available on the probability of developing coronary artery disease (CAD) in breast cancer patients when compared with healthy women. Therefore, baseline coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores, as an accepted tool to predict CAD, were determined and compared with the CAC scores of a healthy, asymptomatic cohort, the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. Methods and Materials: Eighty consecutive patients with ductal carcinoma in situ or infiltrative breast cancer referred for radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery were included in our study. Their cardiovascular risk profile was registered, and a 64 multislice CT scan was performed. The CAC scores of an unselected (Caucasian only) Radiotherapy Centre West (RCWEST) cohort, as well as of those of a selected (comorbidity and race adjusted) RCWEST cohort, were determined. The scores of both cohorts were compared with those of the female (Caucasian only) MESA cohort. Results: For the unselected RCWEST cohort (n = 62) we found significant (p < .01) higher scores for women in the 55-64 age category compared with those of the MESA cohort. In the selected cohort (n = 55) the CAC scores of the women in the age category 55-64 were significantly (p = .02) higher compared with the MESA cohort. No significant differences were noted in the other age categories. Conclusion: Both cohorts revealed that CAC scores in the 55-64 age category were significantly higher than the CAC scores in the asymptomatic (female) MESA population. These data suggest that breast cancer patients bear a higher risk of developing coronary heart disease before the start of radiotherapy. Therefore, measures to decrease cardiac dose further in breast cancer radiotherapy are even more important.

  18. Gallium-67 uptake in the lung of asbestos exposed sheep: early association with enhanced macrophage-derived fibronectin accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Begin, R.; Bisson, G.; Lambert, R.; Cote, Y.; Fabi, D.; Martel, M.; Lamoureux, G.; Rola-Pleszczynski, M.; Boctor, M.; Dalle, D.

    1986-04-01

    To evaluate the time course and mechanisms of enhanced /sup 67/Ga lung uptake in asbestosis, we exposed two groups of sheep every 2 wk to either 100 ml saline (controls) or 100 mg UICC chrysotile fibers in 100 ml saline. The sheep were evaluated periodically by pulmonary function tests (PFT), thoracic radiograph (TR), /sup 67/Ga lung scan, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and transbronchial lung biopsy (TLB). By month 24 of the study, 9/15 exposed sheep had developed the initial alveolitis and had significant changes in PFT, TR, and TLB. The other six exposed sheep differed from controls only by a 75% increase in BAL fibronectin until month 30, where significant changes in albumin occurred and /sup 67/Ga scan score increased. The nine sheep with alveolitis had significant sustained increases in /sup 67/Ga scan and BAL levels from month 6, associated with a 150% increase in BAL fibronectin and other parameters of disease activity changed from month 18 to 30. We concluded that in the sheep model of asbestosis, significant changes in /sup 67/Ga scan, /sup 67/Ga BAL counts, and excessive elevation of BAL fibronectin preceded other parameters of disease activity. The data suggest that excessively activated macrophages are primarily responsible for the early /sup 67/Ga lung uptake.

  19. Coronary arteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Wielopolski; R. J. M. van Geuns; P. J. de Feyter; M. Oudkerk

    2000-01-01

    .   Coronary angiography (CA) is presently considered the gold standard for the assessment of the coronary arteries. However,\\u000a the presence of ionizing radiation, its invasiveness and the small associated risk of morbidity prompted long ago the development\\u000a of more patient-friendly imaging modalities. A promising technique, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), has been regarded as\\u000a the major modality in the coming decade.

  20. Chronic hypoxia upregulates pulmonary arterial ASIC1: a novel mechanism of enhanced store-operated Ca2+ entry and receptor-dependent vasoconstriction

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Lindsay M.; Walker, Benjimen R.; Resta, Thomas C.

    2012-01-01

    Acid-sensing ion channel 1 (ASIC1) is a newly characterized contributor to store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle (VSM). Since SOCE is implicated in elevated basal VSM intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and augmented vasoconstriction in chronic hypoxia (CH)-induced pulmonary hypertension, we hypothesized that ASIC1 contributes to these responses. To test this hypothesis, we examined effects of the specific pharmacologic ASIC1a inhibitor, psalmotoxin 1 (PcTX1), on vasoconstrictor and vessel wall [Ca2+]i responses to UTP and KCl (depolarizing stimulus) in fura-2-loaded, pressurized small pulmonary arteries from control and CH (4 wk at 0.5 atm) Wistar rats. PcTX1 had no effect on basal vessel wall [Ca2+]i, but attenuated vasoconstriction and increases in vessel wall [Ca2+]i to UTP in arteries from control and CH rats; normalizing responses between groups. In contrast, responses to the depolarizing stimulus, KCl, were unaffected by CH exposure or PcTX1. Upon examining potential Ca2+ influx mechanisms, we found that PcTX1 prevented augmented SOCE following CH. Exposure to CH resulted in a significant increase in pulmonary arterial ASIC1 protein. This study supports a novel role of ASIC1 in elevated receptor-stimulated vasoconstriction following CH which is likely mediated through increased ASIC1 expression and SOCE. PMID:22205392

  1. Chronic hypoxia upregulates pulmonary arterial ASIC1: a novel mechanism of enhanced store-operated Ca2+ entry and receptor-dependent vasoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, Nikki L; Herbert, Lindsay M; Walker, Benjimen R; Resta, Thomas C

    2012-03-15

    Acid-sensing ion channel 1 (ASIC1) is a newly characterized contributor to store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle (VSM). Since SOCE is implicated in elevated basal VSM intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) and augmented vasoconstriction in chronic hypoxia (CH)-induced pulmonary hypertension, we hypothesized that ASIC1 contributes to these responses. To test this hypothesis, we examined effects of the specific pharmacologic ASIC1a inhibitor, psalmotoxin 1 (PcTX1), on vasoconstrictor and vessel wall [Ca(2+)](i) responses to UTP and KCl (depolarizing stimulus) in fura-2-loaded, pressurized small pulmonary arteries from control and CH (4 wk at 0.5 atm) Wistar rats. PcTX1 had no effect on basal vessel wall [Ca(2+)](i), but attenuated vasoconstriction and increases in vessel wall [Ca(2+)](i) to UTP in arteries from control and CH rats; normalizing responses between groups. In contrast, responses to the depolarizing stimulus, KCl, were unaffected by CH exposure or PcTX1. Upon examining potential Ca(2+) influx mechanisms, we found that PcTX1 prevented augmented SOCE following CH. Exposure to CH resulted in a significant increase in pulmonary arterial ASIC1 protein. This study supports a novel role of ASIC1 in elevated receptor-stimulated vasoconstriction following CH which is likely mediated through increased ASIC1 expression and SOCE. PMID:22205392

  2. VEGFR2-Targeted Ultrasound Imaging Agent Enhances the Detection of Ovarian Tumors at Early Stage in Laying Hens, a Preclinical Model of Spontaneous Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Barua, Animesh; Yellapa, Aparna; Bahr, Janice M; Machado, Sergio A; Bitterman, Pincas; Basu, Sanjib; Sharma, Sameer; Abramowicz, Jacques S

    2015-07-01

    Tumor-associated neoangiogenesis (TAN) is an early event in ovarian cancer (OVCA) development. Increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) by TAN vessels presents a potential target for early detection by ultrasound imaging. The goal of this study was to examine the suitability of VEGFR2-targeted ultrasound contrast agents in detecting spontaneous OVCA in laying hens. Effects of VEGFR2-targeted contrast agents in enhancing the intensity of ultrasound imaging from spontaneous ovarian tumors in hens were examined in a cross-sectional study. Enhancement in the intensity of ultrasound imaging was determined before and after injection of VEGFR2-targeted contrast agents. All ultrasound images were digitally stored and analyzed off-line. Following scanning, ovarian tissues were collected and processed for histology and detection of VEGFR2-expressing microvessels. Enhancement in visualization of ovarian morphology was detected by gray-scale imaging following injection of VEGFR2-targeted contrast agents. Compared with pre-contrast, contrast imaging enhanced the intensities of ultrasound imaging significantly (p < 0.0001) irrespective of the pathological status of ovaries. In contrast to normal hens, the intensity of ultrasound imaging was significantly (p < 0.0001) higher in hens with early stage OVCA and increased further in hens with late stage OVCA. Higher intensities of ultrasound imaging in hens with OVCA were positively correlated with increased (p < 0.0001) frequencies of VEGFR2-expressing microvessels. The results of this study suggest that VEGFR2-targeted contrast agents enhance the visualization of spontaneous ovarian tumors in hens at early and late stages of OVCA. The laying hen may be a suitable model to test new imaging agents and develop targeted therapeutics. PMID:25294846

  3. Negative associations between arterial stiffness parameter evaluated by cardio-ankle vascular index and serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration in early-stage atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Homma, Satoki; Kato, Kiyoe; Hayashi, Junichi; Yamamoto, Minoru

    2015-02-01

    The cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), calculated values from cardio-ankle pulse wave velocity and blood pressure, corresponds predominantly to the stiffness of the aorta and peripheral arteries of the lower limbs. However, the reported associations between CAVI and serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels remain inconsistent. A cross-sectional study of 1878 consecutive patients (mean age: 59.2 years) who underwent general health checkup showed a negative association between CAVI and serum LDL-C or non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) concentrations with age-adjusted correlation and multiple regression analysis. Using the similar analyses divided by the status of risk factors and degree of maximum carotid intima-media thickness (maxIMT), negative correlations between CAVI and LDL-C or non-HDL-C levels were observed only in nonrisk groups including nondiabetics patients or patients with maxIMT <1.0 mm, in those with expected low extent of advanced atherosclerotic lesions. In contrast, such a correlation was not found in each comparable risk-loaded group. PMID:24402322

  4. Science Education in Early Childhood Teacher Education: Putting Forward a Case to Enhance Student Teachers' Confidence and Competence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dawn Garbett

    2003-01-01

    New Zealand is moving towards increased qualification requirements for early childhood educators. There is an underlying assumption that there is a correlation between quality early childhood education, teacher qualifications and quality practices in teaching and learning. Two fields of literature, early childhood pedagogy and science specific pedagogy, are reviewed briefly to provide a framework with which to consider why student

  5. Endovascular Treatment of a Coronary Artery Bypass Graft to Pulmonary Artery Fistula with Coil Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Nielson, Jeffery L., E-mail: nielson@uhrad.com; Kang, Preet S. [University Hospitals of Cleveland and Veterans Administration Medical Center-Cleveland, Case Western Reserve University, Departments of Radiology (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Fistula formation between a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)and the pulmonary arterial circulation represents a rare cause of recurrent angina in patients following bypass grafting. Therapy has traditionally involved surgical ligation by open thoracotomy. We describe a case of left internal mammary artery-left upper lobe pulmonary artery fistula presenting as early recurrent angina following CABG. The fistula was embolized using platinum coils, resulting in symptomatic relief and improvement in myocardial perfusion on cardiac perfusion scintigraphy. Coil embolization should be considered a therapeutic option in patients with coronary-pulmonary steal syndrome.

  6. C-Reactive Protein Frequently Colocalizes With the Terminal Complement Complex in the Intima of Early Atherosclerotic Lesions of Human Coronary Arteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Torzewski; Michael Torzewski; David E. Bowyer; Margit Frohlich; Wolfgang Koenig; Johannes Waltenberger; Colin Fitzsimmons; Vinzenz Hombach

    There is increasing evidence that complement activation may play a role in atherogenesis. Complement proteins have been demonstrated to be present in early atherosclerotic lesions of animals and humans, and cholesterol-induced atherosclerotic lesion formation is reduced in complement-deficient animals. Potential complement activators in atherosclerotic lesions are now a subject matter of debate. C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase protein that

  7. A Caliber Persistent Artery (Dieulafoy’s Lesion) which is Associated with an Early-Stage Gastric Stump Cancer Following a Distal Gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Gurzu, Simona; Copotoiu, Constantin; Azamfirei, Leonard; Jung, Ioan

    2013-01-01

    A 75–years old man was hospitalized with symptoms which suggested gastric cancer. Thirty-eight years ago, he had undergone a Billroth-II gastric reconstruction for a peptic ulcer. At the present admission, he had presented with an eight-month history of recurrent haematemesis, epigastric pain, vomiting, and fatigue. The emergent endoscopy showed a type 0-IIc (superficial depressed) early gastric stump cancer in the anastomotic area and total removal of the gastric remnant and the jejunal segment was performed. The histological examination of the surgical specimen showed a gastric adenocarcinoma that invaded the mucosa and the submucosa, without lymph node metastases (pT1bN0 stage). Besides the tumour, enlarged vessels were observed in the submucosa and the muscularis propria, some of which were thrombotic. The surrounding normal gastric wall also presented submucosal oversized vascular spaces, some of which were protruding through the muscularis mucosae in the mucosal layer. Based on these characteristics and the recurrent haematemesis, a final diagnosis of early gastric stump carcinoma which was associated with Dieulafoy’s lesion was made. This association has not yet been reported in the literature and it allowed us to diagnose the gastric stump cancer in a very early stage. PMID:24086889

  8. A Caliber Persistent Artery (Dieulafoy's Lesion) which is Associated with an Early-Stage Gastric Stump Cancer Following a Distal Gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Gurzu, Simona; Copotoiu, Constantin; Azamfirei, Leonard; Jung, Ioan

    2013-08-01

    A 75-years old man was hospitalized with symptoms which suggested gastric cancer. Thirty-eight years ago, he had undergone a Billroth-II gastric reconstruction for a peptic ulcer. At the present admission, he had presented with an eight-month history of recurrent haematemesis, epigastric pain, vomiting, and fatigue. The emergent endoscopy showed a type 0-IIc (superficial depressed) early gastric stump cancer in the anastomotic area and total removal of the gastric remnant and the jejunal segment was performed. The histological examination of the surgical specimen showed a gastric adenocarcinoma that invaded the mucosa and the submucosa, without lymph node metastases (pT1bN0 stage). Besides the tumour, enlarged vessels were observed in the submucosa and the muscularis propria, some of which were thrombotic. The surrounding normal gastric wall also presented submucosal oversized vascular spaces, some of which were protruding through the muscularis mucosae in the mucosal layer. Based on these characteristics and the recurrent haematemesis, a final diagnosis of early gastric stump carcinoma which was associated with Dieulafoy's lesion was made. This association has not yet been reported in the literature and it allowed us to diagnose the gastric stump cancer in a very early stage. PMID:24086889

  9. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... brain with blood. If you have carotid artery disease, the arteries become narrow, usually because of atherosclerosis. ... one of the causes of stroke. Carotid artery disease often does not cause symptoms, but there are ...

  10. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Carotid Artery Disease? Carotid (ka-ROT-id) artery disease is ... blood to your face, scalp, and neck. Carotid Arteries Figure A shows the location of the right ...

  11. Carotid Artery Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    Carotid Artery Screening What is carotid artery screening? Who should consider heart screening – and why? How are the procedures ... more information about heart screening? What is carotid artery screening? Screening examinations are tests performed to find ...

  12. The immediate-early enhancer element of herpes simplex virus type 1 can replace a regulatory region of the c-Ha-ras1 oncogene required for transformation.

    PubMed Central

    Puga, A; Gomez-Marquez, J; Brayton, P R; Cantin, E M; Long, L K; Barbacid, M; Notkins, A L

    1985-01-01

    A 0.8-kilobase SacI DNA fragment in the distal 5'-noncoding region of the c-Ha-ras1 oncogene hybridized to high guanine X cytosine sites of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) DNA restriction fragments. Nucleotide sequence comparisons localized one of these sites to the intergenic region of HSV between the immediate-early genes coding for IEmRNA-3 and IEmRNA-4/5 that has enhancer-type activity. We tested the possibility that the HSV-1 enhancer and the upstream c-Ha-ras1 SacI fragment were functionally related by assaying for the capacity of recombinant plasmids in which the HSV-1 enhancer replaced the oncogene 0.8-kilobase SacI fragment to transform NIH/3T3 cells. Deletion of the 0.8-kilobase SacI fragment abolished the biological activity of c-Ha-ras1, but its replacement by the HSV-1 enhancer fully restored it. These results confirm the enhancer properties of the HSV-1 immediate-early intergenic region and suggest that c-Ha-ras1 sequences contained within the 0.8-kilobase SacI fragment plays a role in the transcriptional activation of the oncogene. PMID:2987541

  13. Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement for Chronic Pain and Prescription Opioid Misuse: Results from an Early Stage Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Eric L.; Manusov, Eron G.; Froeliger, Brett; Kelly, Amber; Williams, Jaclyn M.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Opioid pharmacotherapy is now the leading treatment for chronic pain, a problem that affects nearly one-third of the United States population. Given the dramatic rise in prescription opioid misuse and opioid-related mortality, novel behavioral interventions are needed. The purpose of this study was to conduct an early stage randomized controlled trial of Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE), a multimodal intervention designed to simultaneously target mechanisms underpinning chronic pain and opioid misuse. Method Chronic pain patients (N=115; mean age = 48±14; 68% female) were randomized to 8 weeks of MORE or a Support Group (SG). Outcomes were measured at pre- and post-treatment, and at 3-month follow-up. The Brief Pain Inventory assessed changes in pain severity and interference. Changes in opioid use disorder status were measured by the Current Opioid Misuse Measure. Desire for opioids, stress, nonreactivity, reinterpretation of pain sensations, and reappraisal were also evaluated. Results MORE participants reported significantly greater reductions in pain severity (p = .038) and interference (p = .003) than SG participants, which were maintained by 3-month follow-up and mediated by increased nonreactivity and reinterpretation of pain sensations. Compared with SG participants, participants in MORE evidenced significantly less stress arousal (p = .034) and desire for opioids (p = .027), and were significantly more likely to no longer meet criteria for opioid use disorder immediately following treatment (p = .05); however, these effects were not sustained at follow-up. Conclusions Findings demonstrate preliminary feasibility and efficacy of MORE as a treatment for co-occurring prescription opioid misuse and chronic pain. PMID:24491075

  14. Interleukin6 Promoter Polymorphism Modulates the Effects of Heavy Alcohol Consumption on Early Carotid Artery Atherosclerosis The Carotid Atherosclerosis Progression Study (CAPS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paula Jerrard-Dunne; Matthias Sitzer; Paul Risley; Donata A. Steckel; Alexandra Buehler; Stefan von Kegler; Hugh S. Markus

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose—A J-shaped relationship has been demonstrated between alcohol and both clinical cardiovas- cular events and carotid atherosclerosis. A similar J-shaped relationship has been found between alcohol intake and inflammatory markers. If inflammation were on the intermediate causal pathway between alcohol intake and atherosclerosis, then genetic determinants of enhanced inflammation would be expected to modify this relationship. Methods—In a

  15. Angioplasty and stent placement - peripheral arteries

    MedlinePLUS

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty - peripheral artery; PTA - peripheral artery; Angioplasty - peripheral arteries; iliac artery-angioplasty; fermoral artery-angioplasty; popliteal artery-angioplasty; tibial artery-angioplasty; peroneal artery- ...

  16. Influence of an Early Recovery Telehealth Intervention on Physical Activity and Functioning following Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery (CABS) among Older Adults with High Disease Burden

    PubMed Central

    Barnason, Susan; Zimmerman, Lani; Schulz, Paula; Tu, Chunhao

    2009-01-01

    Background Older adults with poor functioning preoperatively are at risk for delayed recovery and more impaired outcomes following CABS. Purpose To determine if a 6-week early recovery telehealth intervention, designed to improve self-efficacy and management related to symptoms following CABS, was effective in improving outcomes (physical activity, physiological and psychological functioning) for older adults (> 65 years old) with higher disease burden. Design A descriptive, repeated measures experimental design was used. Follow-up data was collected at 3- and 6-weeks and 3-months after CABS. Sample Subjects were drawn from a larger randomized clinical trial (RCT). Parent study subjects who had high disease burden preoperatively [physical component score of <50 on the Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 (MOS SF-36) and a RISKO score of > 6], were included (N=55); with 23 subjects in the early recovery intervention group and 31 subjects in the usual care group (n=31). Subjects ranged from 65–85 years old (M=71.6 + 5.1). Findings There was a significant main effect by group [F(1,209)=4.66, p<.05), the intervention group had a least square means of 27.9 kcal/kg/day of energy expenditure compared to the usual care group of 26.6 kcal/kg/day per the RT3® accelerometer. Both groups had significantly improved physical [F(2,171)=3.26, p<.05] and role-physical [F(2,171)=6.64, p<.005] functioning over time. Conclusions The subgroup of CABS subjects with high disease burden was responsive to an early recovery telehealth intervention. Improving patients’ physical activity and functioning can reduce morbidity and mortality associated with poor functioning after cardiac events. PMID:19944870

  17. The effect of excess expression of GFP in a novel heart-specific green fluorescence zebrafish regulated by nppa enhancer at early embryonic development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen Huang; Yun Deng; Wei Dong; Wuzhou Yuan; Yongqi Wan; Xiaoyan Mo; Yongqing Li; Zequn Wang; Yuequn Wang; Karen Ocorr; Bo Zhang; Shuo Lin; Xiushan Wu

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the impalpable effect of GFP in homozygous heart-specific GFP-positive zebrafish during the early stage,\\u000a the researchers analyzed the heart function of morphology and physiology at the first 3 days after fertilization. This zebrafish\\u000a line was produced by a large-scale Tol2 transposon mediated enhancer trap screen that generated a transgenic zebrafish with\\u000a a heart-specific expression of green fluorescent

  18. Carbon-Enhanced Metal-poor Stars, the Cosmic Microwave Background, and the Stellar Initial Mass Function in the Early Universe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason Tumlinson

    2007-01-01

    The characteristic mass of stars at early times may have been higher than today's, owing to the cosmic microwave background (CMB). This study proposes that (1) the testable predictions of this ``CMB-IMF'' hypothesis are an increase in the fraction of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars with declining metallicity and an increase from younger to older populations at a single metallicity (e.g.,

  19. Surface?enhanced Raman spectral biomarkers correlate with Ankle Brachial Index and characterize leg muscle biochemical composition of patients with peripheral arterial disease

    PubMed Central

    Cluff, Kim; Kelly, Abby M.; Koutakis, Panagiotis; He, Xiang N.; Huang, Xi; Lu, Yong Feng; Pipinos, Iraklis I.; Casale, George P.; Subbiah, Jeyamkondan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is characterized by atherosclerotic blockages of the arteries supplying the lower extremities, which cause a progressive accumulation of ischemic injury to the skeletal muscles of the lower limbs. This injury includes altered metabolic processes, damaged organelles, and compromised bioenergetics in the affected muscles. The objective of this study was to explore the association of Raman spectral signatures of muscle biochemistry with the severity of atherosclerosis in the legs as determined by the Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) and clinical presentation. We collected muscle biopsies from the gastrocnemius (calf muscle) of five patients with clinically diagnosed claudication, five patients with clinically diagnosed critical limb ischemia (CLI), and five control patients who did not have PAD. A partial least squares regression (PLSR) model was able to predict patient ABI with a correlation coefficient of 0.99 during training and a correlation coefficient of 0.85 using a full cross?validation. When using the first three PLS factor scores in combination with linear discriminant analysis, the discriminant model was able to correctly classify the control, claudicating, and CLI patients with 100% accuracy, using a full cross?validation procedure. Raman spectroscopy is capable of detecting and measuring unique biochemical signatures of skeletal muscle. These signatures can discriminate control muscles from PAD muscles and correlate with the ABI and clinical presentation of the PAD patient. Raman spectroscopy provides novel spectral biomarkers that may complement existing methods for diagnosis and monitoring treatment of PAD patients. PMID:25247767

  20. Epidemiologic guidance with coronary artery calcium scoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Raggi; Leslee J. Shaw

    2008-01-01

    The importance of screening for subclinical coronary artery disease is reinforced by the detection gap existing between the\\u000a currently used risk stratification tools and the persistently elevated rates of cardiovascular disease in Western countries.\\u000a Medicare data clearly indicate the extremely high cost of caring for patients with end-stage diseases, and early detection\\u000a may curb some of these expenses. Coronary artery

  1. Enhanced expressions of endometrial tumour necrosis factor alpha and its receptors during early pregnancy in bonnet monkeys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gracy X. Rosario; Geetanjali Sachdeva; Dhananjay D. Manjramkar; Chander P. Puri

    2005-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), a pro-inflammatory cytokine may play an active role in stimulating inflammatory reactions during pregnancy. However, the expression of endometrial TNF-? has not been investigated especially during early pregnancy, a phenomenon invariably accompanied by inflammatory reaction. In the present study, the endometrial expressions of TNF-? and its receptors (TNFR1 and TNFR2) during early pregnancy, when the

  2. The history of arterial revascularization: from Kolesov to Tector and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Galvin, Sean D.

    2013-01-01

    Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is the one of the most effective revascularization strategies for patients with obstructive coronary artery disease. Total arterial revascularization using one or both internal thoracic and radial arteries has been shown to improve early outcomes and reduce long-term cardiovascular morbidity. Although CABG has evolved from an experimental procedure in the early 1900’s to become one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures, there is still significant variation in grafting strategies amongst surgeons. We review the history and development of CABG with a particular emphasis on the early pioneers and the evolution of arterial grafting. PMID:23977617

  3. Long term efficacy and safety of cyclosporin versus parenteral gold in early rheumatoid arthritis: a three year study of radiographic progression, renal function, and arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kvien, T; Zeidler, H; Hannonen, P; Wollheim, F; Forre, O; Hafstrom, I; Kaltwasser, J; Leirisalo-Repo, M; Manger, B; Laasonen, L; Prestele, H; Kurki, P

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To compare the three year safety and efficacy of cyclosporin and parenteral gold in the treatment of early, active, severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to study the reversibility of cyclosporin associated renal dysfunction in patients who discontinued cyclosporin treatment. Methods: The patients continued to receive cyclosporin or parenteral gold in an 18 month open extension to an 18 month randomised, parallel group study. The main efficacy variable was blinded evaluation of radiographic progression of joint damage. Safety variables included serum creatinine, calculated creatinine clearance, and blood pressure. Results: Radiographic progression during follow up was similar in both groups. About 60% of the patients in the intention to treat groups (n=272) and about half of the patients in the completer groups (n=114) had definite radiographic progression in joint damage (increases >6 in the Larsen-Dale score), and about one in three also had substantial progression (>18 increase in Larsen-Dale score). Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly increased in the cyclosporin group compared with the gold group, and 12/139 (9%) versus 3/139 (2%) (p=0.03) had notably raised blood pressure. The mean serum creatinine increased by 28% at the treatment end point in the cyclosporin group as compared with 7% in the gold group. The mean calculated creatinine clearance was reduced by 16% and increased by 1% in the cyclosporin and gold groups, respectively, at the end of the study. At the final follow up visit after discontinuation of cyclosporin (at least three months after treatment was stopped) the mean serum creatinine was increased by 15% and creatinine clearance reduced by 16%. Sustained increases in serum creatinine at this post-treatment end point were mostly seen in patients with a raised serum creatinine during treatment of at least 50%. Conclusion: Three year changes in radiographic damage during cyclosporin and parenteral gold were similar in patients with early, active RA. Abnormal renal function and raised blood pressure were often seen in the cyclosporin treated patients. PMID:12006323

  4. Single umbilical artery.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Shanthi; Hariprasath, Sangeetha; Anandan, Gunasekaran; Solomon, P John; Vijayakumar, V

    2015-04-01

    The umbilical cord usually contains two arteries and one vein. The vein carries the oxygenated blood from the placenta to the fetus. The arteries carry the deoxygenated blood and the waste products from the fetus to the placenta. Occasionally, primary agenesis or secondary atrophy of one of the arteries occurs resulting in single umbilical artery. PMID:26015760

  5. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... when the carotid arteries become blocked and the brain does not get enough oxygen. Carotid artery disease increases the risk of stroke in 3 ways: By fatty deposits called plaque severely narrowing the carotid arteries. By a blood clot becoming wedged in a carotid artery narrowed by ...

  6. Facts About Peripheral Arterial

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    Facts About Peripheral Arterial Disease (P.A.D.) for African Americans One in every 20 Americans arterial disease, or P.A.D., develops when your arteries become clogged with plaque--fatty deposits that limit blood flow to your limbs, especially your legs. Just like clogged arteries in the heart, clogged

  7. Five cases of axillary lymph node metastatic breast cancer on contrast-enhanced sonography.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Tomoyuki; Nishioka, Makiko; Nakata, Norio; Fukuda, Kunihiko; Kato, Kumiko

    2015-06-01

    This study was performed to determine the importance of contrast-enhanced sonography for axillary lymph node metastatic breast cancer. Contrast-enhanced sonographic findings in 5 patients with breast cancer and axillary lymph node metastasis are discussed, and imaging-pathologic correlations are also presented in 3 cases. In all 5 cases, lymph nodes showed a perfusion defect in the late phase. Rapid arterial enhancement and wash-out were observed in 2 cases in which we performed second injections. Contrast-enhanced sonography may be effective for identifying metastatic lesions in lymph nodes, especially in the early stages. PMID:26014334

  8. Vapor resistant arteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor); Dussinger, Peter M. (Inventor); Buchko, Matthew T. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A vapor block resistant liquid artery structure for heat pipes. A solid tube artery with openings is encased in the sintered material of a heat pipe wick. The openings are limited to that side of the artery which is most remote from the heat source. The liquid in the artery can thus exit the artery through the openings and wet the sintered sheath, but vapor generated at the heat source is unlikely to move around the solid wall of the artery and reverse its direction in order to penetrate the artery through the openings. An alternate embodiment uses finer pore size wick material to resist vapor entry.

  9. The Role of CT Angiography of Coronaries in Early Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Plaques in Albanian People with No History of Cardiovascular Disease in Correlation with Traditional Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Allajbeu, Iris; Hajro, Edjon; Temali, Indrit; Cekrezi, Bledi; Preza, Krenar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the role of CT angiography of coronaries (CTAC) in the diagnosis of subclinical atherosclerosis by detection of coronary artery plaques (CAP) in a group of consecutive albanian individuals with no history of coronary artery disease (CAD) or acute coronary syndrome and to investigate the relation between the prevalence of CAP, traditional risk factors and the expected 10-year risk of fatal cardiovascular event (CVE) based on our own experience. Method and Technique: This is a prospective study including 456 patients with no history of CAD who underwent CTAC in our hospital from September 2009 to March 2013. Risk estimation of fatal CVE was assessed using Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) and then CT scan was performed with a 64 detector CT, including Ca Score and angiography of coronaries with iv contrast. Results: From 456 patients 61.4% were low risk and 32.9% were at intermediate risk according to SCORE. The prevalence of CAP diagnosed by CTAC was calculated as 55.7 % overall. Though the presence and severity of CAP increased significantly with the increase of SCORE, it was found to be 44.1% in the low risk patients and 80% in the intermediate risk group, with a presence of 17% and 25% of stenotic plaques (>50%) respectively. Significant correlation was found between all traditional risk factors and CAP. Conclusion: Although a direct relation between the prevalence of CAP, risk factors and the related 10-year risk of fatal CVE was found, there was a significant prevalence of CAP in low –intermediate risk group with a considerable presence of stenotic lesions. Also 8.3% of patients with no risk factors and 18% of the patients with Ca score 0 had CAP in CT angiography, one resulting with severe stenosis. Our results suggest once more that CT angiography is a reliable, very accurate noninvasive technique for the diagnosis of early CAD, especially in the low-intermediate risk patients compared to the traditional evaluation schemes and Ca score, thus should be considered in this group as a diagnostic guide for optimal therapy planning. PMID:25126008

  10. Early fluid loading in acute respiratory distress syndrome with septic shock deteriorates lung aeration without impairing arterial oxygenation: a lung ultrasound observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The study was designed to assess the impact of fluid loading on lung aeration, oxygenation and hemodynamics in patients with septic shock and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Methods During a 1-year period, a prospective observational study was performed in 32 patients with septic shock and ARDS. Cardiorespiratory parameters were measured using Swan Ganz (n?=?29) or PiCCO catheters (n?=?3). Lung aeration and regional pulmonary blood flows were measured using bedside transthoracic ultrasound. Measurements were performed before (T0), at the end of volume expansion (T1) and 40 minutes later (T2), consisting of 1-L of saline over 30 minutes during the first 48 h following onset of septic shock and ARDS. Results Lung ultrasound score increased by 23% at T2, from 13 at baseline to 16 (P?Early fluid loading transitorily improves hemodynamics and oxygenation and worsens lung aeration. Aeration changes can be detected at the bedside by transthoracic lung ultrasound, which may serve as a safeguard against excessive fluid loading. PMID:24887155

  11. Use of mental health telemetry to enhance identification and predictive value of early changes during augmentation treatment of major depression.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Ayal; Kreindler, David; Reis, Catherine; Levitt, Anthony J

    2013-12-01

    Standard clinical trial methodology in depression does not allow for careful examination of early changes in symptom intensity. The purpose of this study was to use daily "Mental Health Telemetry" (MHT) to prospectively record change in depressive and anxiety symptoms for depressed patients receiving augmentation treatment, and determine the extent and predictive capacity of early changes. We report results of a 6-week, open-label study of the addition of quetiapine XR (range, 50-300 mg) for adult patients (n = 26) with major depressive disorder who were nonresponsive to antidepressant treatment. In addition to regular study visits, all participants completed daily, wirelessly transmitted self-report ratings of symptoms on a Smartphone. Daily and 3-day moving average mean scores were calculated, and associations between early symptom change and eventual response to treatment were determined. Improvement in depressive and anxiety symptoms was identified as early as day 1 of treatment. Of the total decline in depression severity over 6 weeks, 9% was present at day 1, 28% at day 2, 39% at days 3 and 4, 65% at day 7, and 80% at day 10. Self-report rating of early improvement (?20%) in depressive symptoms at day 7 significantly predicted responder status at week 6 (P = 0.03). Clinician-rated depressive and anxiety symptoms only became significantly associated with responder status at day 14. In conclusion, very early changes in depressive symptoms were identified using MHT, early changes accounted for most of total change, and MHT-recorded improvement as early as day 7 significantly predicted response to treatment at study end point. PMID:24100787

  12. Early and long-term outcome of elective stenting of the infarct-related artery in patients with viability in the infarct-area: Rationale and design of the Viability-guided Angioplasty after acute Myocardial Infarction-trial (The VIAMI-trial)

    PubMed Central

    van Loon, Ramon B; Veen, Gerrit; Kamp, Otto; Bronzwaer, Jean GF; Visser, Cees A; Visser, Frans C

    2004-01-01

    Background Although percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is becoming the standard therapy in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), to date most patients, even in developed countries, are reperfused with intravenous thrombolysis or do not receive a reperfusion therapy at all. In the post-lysis period these patients are at high risk for recurrent ischemic events. Early identification of these patients is mandatory as this subgroup could possibly benefit from an angioplasty of the infarct-related artery. Since viability seems to be related to ischemic adverse events, we initiated a clinical trial to investigate the benefits of PCI with stenting of the infarct-related artery in patients with viability detected early after acute myocardial infarction. Methods The VIAMI-study is designed as a prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Patients who are hospitalized with an acute myocardial infarction and who did not have primary or rescue PCI, undergo viability testing by low-dose dobutamine echocardiography (LDDE) within 3 days of admission. Consequently, patients with demonstrated viability are randomized to an invasive or conservative strategy. In the invasive strategy patients undergo coronary angiography with the intention to perform PCI with stenting of the infarct-related coronary artery and concomitant use of abciximab. In the conservative group an ischemia-guided approach is adopted (standard optimal care). The primary end point is the composite of death from any cause, reinfarction and unstable angina during a follow-up period of three years. Conclusion The primary objective of the VIAMI-trial is to demonstrate that angioplasty of the infarct-related coronary artery with stenting and concomitant use of abciximab results in a clinically important risk reduction of future cardiac events in patients with viability in the infarct-area, detected early after myocardial infarction. PMID:15538946

  13. Quantitative in vivo measurement of early axonal transport deficits in a triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease using manganese-enhanced MRI

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jieun; Choi, In-Young; Michaelis, Mary L.; Lee, Phil

    2011-01-01

    Impaired axonal transport has been linked to the pathogenic processes of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in which axonal swelling and degeneration are prevalent. The development of non-invasive neuroimaging methods to quantitatively assess in vivo axonal transport deficits would be enormously valuable to visualize early, yet subtle, changes in the AD brain, to monitor the disease progression and to quantify the effect of drug intervention. A triple transgenic mouse model of AD closely resembles human AD neuropathology. In this study, we investigated age-dependent alterations in the axonal transport rate in a longitudinal assessment of the triple transgenic mouse olfactory system, using fast multi-sliced T1 mapping with manganese-enhanced MRI. The data show that impairment in axonal transport is a very early event in AD pathology in these mice, preceding both deposition of A? plaques and formation of Tau fibrils. PMID:21338698

  14. Cooled artery extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artery vapor trap. A heat pipe artery is constructed with an extension protruding from the evaporator end of the heat pipe beyond the active area of the evaporator. The vapor migrates into the artery extension because of gravity or liquid displacement, and cooling the extension condenses the vapor to liquid, thus preventing vapor lock in the working portion of the artery by removing vapor from within the active artery. The condensed liquid is then transported back to the evaporator by the capillary action of the artery extension itself or by wick located within the extension.

  15. A Mammalian Conserved Element Derived from SINE Displays Enhancer Properties Recapitulating Satb2 Expression in Early-Born Callosal Projection Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Akiko; Sasaki, Takeshi; Yan, Kuo; Tarabykin, Victor; Vigier, Lisa; Sumiyama, Kenta; Hirakawa, Mika; Nishihara, Hidenori; Pierani, Alessandra; Okada, Norihiro

    2011-01-01

    Short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs) are highly repeated sequences that account for a significant proportion of many eukaryotic genomes and are usually considered “junk DNA”. However, we previously discovered that many AmnSINE1 loci are evolutionarily conserved across mammalian genomes, suggesting that they may have acquired significant functions involved in controlling mammalian-specific traits. Notably, we identified the AS021 SINE locus, located 390 kbp upstream of Satb2. Using transgenic mice, we showed that this SINE displays specific enhancer activity in the developing cerebral cortex. The transcription factor Satb2 is expressed by cortical neurons extending axons through the corpus callosum and is a determinant of callosal versus subcortical projection. Mouse mutants reveal a crucial function for Sabt2 in corpus callosum formation. In this study, we compared the enhancer activity of the AS021 locus with Satb2 expression during telencephalic development in the mouse. First, we showed that the AS021 enhancer is specifically activated in early-born Satb2+ neurons. Second, we demonstrated that the activity of the AS021 enhancer recapitulates the expression of Satb2 at later embryonic and postnatal stages in deep-layer but not superficial-layer neurons, suggesting the possibility that the expression of Satb2 in these two subpopulations of cortical neurons is under genetically distinct transcriptional control. Third, we showed that the AS021 enhancer is activated in neurons projecting through the corpus callosum, as described for Satb2+ neurons. Notably, AS021 drives specific expression in axons crossing through the ventral (TAG1?/NPY+) portion of the corpus callosum, confirming that it is active in a subpopulation of callosal neurons. These data suggest that exaptation of the AS021 SINE locus might be involved in enhancement of Satb2 expression, leading to the establishment of interhemispheric communication via the corpus callosum, a eutherian-specific brain structure. PMID:22174821

  16. Screening for Carotid Artery Stenosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2014 Task Force FINAL | 1 Screening for Carotid Artery Stenosis The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task ... for you. What is carotid artery stenosis? Carotid artery stenosis is the narrowing of the arteries that ...

  17. Expanding the use of the internal mammary artery to improve patency in coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Tector, A J; Schmahl, T M; Canino, V R

    1986-01-01

    To improve the early and late benefits from coronary artery bypass grafting, we have expanded the use of the internal mammary artery by bypassing three or more coronary arteries with mammary grafts. Experience with higher power magnification and the use of the single internal mammary artery are necessary prerequisites of this procedure. The first 100 patients who had three or more mammary artery-coronary artery anastomoses are reviewed. Eighty-six patients received three mammary-coronary anastomoses, 13 received four, and one received six. An average of 3.2 internal mammary artery grafts and 1.7 saphenous vein grafts per patient were placed. Twenty-five of 27 mammary grafts were open on postoperative graft visualization. There were no early deaths and only one patient died late of complications of gangrene of the lower extremities. None of the patients had significant left ventricular failure and only three had perioperative myocardial infarctions. None of the patients complain of angina and 58 of 59 postoperative stress tests were normal. This procedure should significantly reduce the late closure of bypass grafts and the complications thereof, including the need for reoperation. PMID:3484531

  18. Impact of Early Discharge After Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery on Rates of Hospital Readmission and Death fn1 fn1 This study was supported by Research Grants HS06503 and HS08805-02 from the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, Rockville, Maryland and was presented in part at the 45th Annual Scientific Session of the American College of Cardiology, Orlando, Florida, March 1996

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia A. Cowper; Eric D. Peterson; Elizabeth R. DeLong; James G. Jollis; Lawrence H. Muhlbaier; Daniel B. Mark

    1997-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined the impact of early hospital discharge on short-term clinical outcomes of elderly patients treated with coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) in the United States in 1992.Background. Protocols that encourage earlier discharge of patients who have had CABG have been implemented across the country. Although delivery of efficient care benefits both patients and providers, premature discharge

  19. Coronary artery disease

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... cholesterol and cells and other substances in the wall of the artery forming a plaque. If this ... heart muscle and cause angina. If the inner wall of a coronary artery becomes damaged, the inner ...

  20. Carotid artery disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... artery disease may be a stroke or a transient ischemic attack (TIA). A TIA is a small ... Major complications of carotid artery disease are: Transient ischemic ... vessel to the brain. It causes the same symptoms as stroke. ...

  1. Peripheral Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that can help detect areas of restricted blood flow through an artery. Catheter angiography (www.radiologyinfo.org/ ... contrast agent and x-rays to show blood flow in the arteries in the legs and to ...

  2. Transit & Arterial Performance

    E-print Network

    Bertini, Robert L.

    Transit & Arterial Performance Michael Wolfe & Mathew Berkow A Study of the Barbur Boulevard arterial performance in a corridor using both advance and system loop data · Ultimately, marry the two data

  3. Radial Artery Catheterization

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Name Password Sign In Cardiology Patient Page Radial Artery Catheterization Nicholas R. Balaji , MD ; Pinak B. Shah , ... procedures. Previous Section Next Section Advantages of Radial Artery Catheterization Any catheter placement into a blood vessel ...

  4. Coronary Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. It is the leading cause of death ... both men and women. CAD happens when the arteries that supply blood to heart muscle become hardened ...

  5. Coronary Artery Bypass

    MedlinePLUS

    ... procedures performed each year in the United States. Arteries can become clogged over time by the buildup ... bypass" around a section of clogged or diseased artery. The surgery involves using a section of blood ...

  6. Enhanced detection of early-stage oral cancer in vivo by optical coherence tomography using multimodal delivery of gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang Soo; Wilder-Smith, Petra; Ahn, Yeh-Chan; Liaw, Lih-Huei L; Chen, Zhongping; Kwon, Young Jik

    2009-01-01

    Contrast in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images can be enhanced by utilizing surface plasmon resonant gold nanoparticles. To improve the poor in vivo transport of gold nanoparticles through biological barriers, an efficient delivery strategy is needed. In this study, the improved penetration and distribution of gold nanoparticles were achieved by microneedle and ultrasound, respectively, and it was demonstrated that this multimodal delivery of antibody-conjugated PEGylated gold nanoparticles enhanced the contrast in in vivo OCT images of oral dysplasia in a hamster model. PMID:19566301

  7. Enhanced detection of early-stage oral cancer in vivo by optical coherence tomography using multimodal delivery of gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang Soo; Wilder-Smith, Petra; Ahn, Yeh-Chan; Liaw, Lih-Huei L.; Chen, Zhongping; Kwon, Young Jik

    2009-05-01

    Contrast in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images can be enhanced by utilizing surface plasmon resonant gold nanoparticles. To improve the poor in vivo transport of gold nanoparticles through biological barriers, an efficient delivery strategy is needed. In this study, the improved penetration and distribution of gold nanoparticles were achieved by microneedle and ultrasound, respectively, and it was demonstrated that this multimodal delivery of antibody-conjugated PEGylated gold nanoparticles enhanced the contrast in in vivo OCT images of oral dysplasia in a hamster model.

  8. Visceral Artery Aneurysms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Chiesa; D. Astore; G. Guzzo; S. Frigerio; Y. Tshomba; R. Castellano; M. R. Liberato de Moura; G. Melissano

    2005-01-01

    Visceral artery aneurysms (VAA) frequently present as life-threatening emergencies. The purpose of this study was to review our experience with VAA treatment. Between 1988 and April 2002, 31 VAA were treated in 28 patients (14 males, 14 females) with average age of 55?±?15 years. The most common locations were the splenic artery (16) and the hepatic artery (7). Three patients

  9. Imaging the vertebral artery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keng Yeow Tay; Jean Marie U-King-Im; Rikin A. Trivedi; Nicholas J. Higgins; Justin J. Cross; John R. Davies; Peter L. Weissberg; Nagui M. Antoun; Jonathan H. Gillard

    2005-01-01

    Although conventional intraarterial digital subtraction angiography remains the gold standard method for imaging the vertebral artery, noninvasive modalities such as ultrasound, multislice computed tomographic angiography and magnetic resonance angiography are constantly improving and are playing an increasingly important role in diagnosing vertebral artery pathology in clinical practice. This paper reviews the current state of vertebral artery imaging from an evidence-based

  10. Facts About Peripheral Arterial

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    Facts About Peripheral Arterial Disease (P.A.D.) One in every 20 Americans over the age of 50 has P.A.D., a condition that raises the risk for heart attack and stroke. Peripheral arterial disease, or P.A.D., develops when your arteries become clogged with plaque--fatty deposits that limit blood flow to your legs. Just

  11. Medicago truncatula plants overexpressing the early nodulin gene enod40 exhibit accelerated mycorrhizal colonization and enhanced formation of arbuscules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Staehelin; Celine Charon; Thomas Boller; Martin Crespi; Ádám Kondorosi

    2001-01-01

    The mutualistic symbiosis between flowering plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is extremely abundant in terrestrial ecosystems. In this symbiosis, obligately biotrophic fungi colonize the root of the host plants, which can benefit from these fungi by enhanced access to mineral nutrients in the soil, especially phosphorus. One of the main goals of research on this symbiosis is to find plant

  12. Ocean Warming Enhances Malformations, Premature Hatching, Metabolic Suppression and Oxidative Stress in the Early Life Stages of a Keystone Squid

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Rui; Pimentel, Marta S.; Boavida-Portugal, Joana; Teixeira, Tatiana; Trübenbach, Katja; Diniz, Mário

    2012-01-01

    Background The knowledge about the capacity of organisms’ early life stages to adapt to elevated temperatures is very limited but crucial to understand how marine biota will respond to global warming. Here we provide a comprehensive and integrated view of biological responses to future warming during the early ontogeny of a keystone invertebrate, the squid Loligo vulgaris. Methodology/Principal Findings Recently-spawned egg masses were collected and reared until hatching at present day and projected near future (+2°C) temperatures, to investigate the ability of early stages to undergo thermal acclimation, namely phenotypic altering of morphological, behavioural, biochemical and physiological features. Our findings showed that under the projected near-future warming, the abiotic conditions inside the eggs promoted metabolic suppression, which was followed by premature hatching. Concomitantly, the less developed newborns showed greater incidence of malformations. After hatching, the metabolic burst associated with the transition from an encapsulated embryo to a planktonic stage increased linearly with temperature. However, the greater exposure to environmental stress by the hatchlings seemed to be compensated by physiological mechanisms that reduce the negative effects on fitness. Heat shock proteins (HSP70/HSC70) and antioxidant enzymes activities constituted an integrated stress response to ocean warming in hatchlings (but not in embryos). Conclusions/Significance The stressful abiotic conditions inside eggs are expected to be aggravated under the projected near-future ocean warming, with deleterious effects on embryo survival and growth. Greater feeding challenges and the lower thermal tolerance limits of the hatchlings are strictly connected to high metabolic demands associated with the planktonic life strategy. Yet, we found some evidence that, in the future, the early stages might support higher energy demands by adjusting some cellular functional properties to increase their thermal tolerance windows. PMID:22701620

  13. Traumatic transection of the innominate artery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Devendran Veerasingam; Mihai Vioreanu; Martin O’ Donohue; James F. McCarthy

    2003-01-01

    A case of transection of the origin of the innominate artery with an associated head injury following blunt thoracic injury is presented. The patient had been the unrestrained driver in a road traffic accident. Investigation demonstrated embolic damage to the brain parenchyma. Early surgical repair employing cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermic circulatory arrest was successfully performed without extension of the neurological

  14. Inflammation, Atherosclerosis, and Coronary Artery Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Göran K. Hansson

    2005-01-01

    ecent research has shown that inflammation plays a key role in coronary artery disease (CAD) and other manifestations of atherosclerosis. Immune cells dominate early atherosclerotic lesions, their effector molecules accelerate progression of the lesions, and activation of inflammation can elicit acute coronary syndromes. This review highlights the role of inflammation in the pathogen- esis of atherosclerotic CAD. It will recount

  15. Early-life reproduction is associated with increased mortality risk but enhanced lifetime fitness in pre-industrial humans.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Adam D; Nenko, Ilona; Lummaa, Virpi

    2015-04-01

    The physiology of reproductive senescence in women is well understood, but the drivers of variation in senescence rates are less so. Evolutionary theory predicts that early-life investment in reproduction should be favoured by selection at the cost of reduced survival and faster reproductive senescence. We tested this hypothesis using data collected from preindustrial Finnish church records. Reproductive success increased up to age 25 and was relatively stable until a decline from age 41. Women with higher early-life fecundity (ELF; producing more children before age 25) subsequently had higher mortality risk, but high ELF was not associated with accelerated senescence in annual breeding success. However, women with higher ELF experienced faster senescence in offspring survival. Despite these apparent costs, ELF was under positive selection: individuals with higher ELF had higher lifetime reproductive success. These results are consistent with previous observations in both humans and wild vertebrates that more births and earlier onset of reproduction are associated with reduced survival, and with evolutionary theory predicting trade-offs between early reproduction and later-life survival. The results are particularly significant given recent increases in maternal ages in many societies and the potential consequences for offspring health and fitness. PMID:25740893

  16. Jet pump assisted artery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A procedure for priming an arterial heat pump is reported; the procedure also has a means for maintaining the pump in a primed state. This concept utilizes a capillary driven jet pump to create the necessary suction to fill the artery. Basically, the jet pump consists of a venturi or nozzle-diffuser type constriction in the vapor passage. The throat of this venturi is connected to the artery. Thus vapor, gas, liquid, or a combination of the above is pumped continuously out of the artery. As a result, the artery is always filled with liquid and an adequate supply of working fluid is provided to the evaporator of the heat pipe.

  17. External artery heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor); Ernst, Donald M. (Inventor); Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An improved heat pipe with an external artery. The longitudinal slot in the heat pipe wall which interconnects the heat pipe vapor space with the external artery is completely filled with sintered wick material and the wall of the external artery is also covered with sintered wick material. This added wick structure assures that the external artery will continue to feed liquid to the heat pipe evaporator even if a vapor bubble forms within and would otherwise block the liquid transport function of the external artery.

  18. An early pharyngeal muscle enhancer from the Caenorhabditis elegans ceh-22 gene is targeted by the Forkhead factor PHA4

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomas Vilimas; Alin Abraham; Peter G Okkema

    2004-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans pharyngeal muscle development involves ceh-22, an NK-2 family homeobox gene related to genes controlling heart development in other species. ceh-22 is the earliest known gene expressed in the pharyngeal muscles and is likely regulated directly by factors specifying pharyngeal muscle fate. We have previously implicated the ceh-22 distal enhancer in initiating ceh-22 expression. Here we analyze the distal

  19. An alternative estimation of the RF-enhanced plasma temperature during SPEAR artificial heating experiments: Early results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vickers, H.; Baddeley, L.

    2011-11-01

    RF heating of the F region plasma at high latitudes has long been known to produce electron temperature increases that can vary from tens to hundreds of percent above the background, unperturbed level. In contrast, artificial ionospheric modification experiments conducted using the Space Plasma Exploration by Active Radar (SPEAR) heating facility on Svalbard have often failed to produce obvious enhancements in the electron temperatures when measured using the European Incoherent Scatter Svalbard radar (ESR), colocated with the heater. Contamination of the ESR ion line spectra by the zero-frequency purely growing mode (PGM) feature is known to persist at varying amplitudes throughout SPEAR heating, and such spectral features can lead to significant temperature underestimations when the incoherent scatter spectra are analyzed using conventional methods. In this study, we present the first results of applying a recently developed technique to correct the PGM-contaminated spectra to SPEAR-enhanced ESR spectra and derive an alternative estimate of the SPEAR-heated electron temperature. We discuss how the effectiveness of the spectrum corrections can be affected by the data variance, estimated over the integration period. The subsequent electron temperatures, inferred from corrected spectra, range from a few tens to a few hundred Kelvin above the average background temperature. These temperatures are found to be in reasonable agreement with the theoretical “enhanced” temperature, calculated for the peak of the stationary temperature perturbation profile, when realistic absorption effects are accounted for.

  20. Early peritoneal lavage with ulinastatin improves outcome and enhances multi-organ protection in a model of severe acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    FENG, CONG; SU, XUAN; ZHOU, XUAN; WANG, LI-LI; LI, BEI; CHEN, LI; LV, FA-QIN; LI, TAN-SHI

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of early peritoneal lavage with ulinastatin on the outcome of a rat model of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). A total of 80 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into the following groups: Sham-operated (C), SAP model (M), saline lavage (SL), intravenous ulinastatin (IU), early ulinastatin lavage (EUL) and late ulinastatin lavage (LUL). Intraperitoneal lavage or injection were performed immediately subsequent to the establishment of the SAP model in groups SL, IU and EUL and 3 h later in group LUL. Intraperitoneal lavage with or without ulinastatin was performed for 3 h. The survival time of the rats in groups C, M, EUL and LUL was recorded over a 12-h period and the median survival time was calculated. At 3 h after the induction of SAP, histopathological analyses were performed and the biochemical parameters of groups C, M, SL, IU and EUL were assessed. Groups EUL and LUL exhibited an increased median survival time compared with Group M, with the survival time of the rats in group EUL markedly longer than that in the group LUL rats. Group SL, IU and EUL rats were found to have reduced plasma activities of amylase, lipase, aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase, with the biggest change observed in the group EUL rats. Furthermore, the intervention in groups SL and EUL was more effective at reducing creatinine and urea levels than that in group IU. Rats in group EUL exhibited a greater inhibition of the SAP-induced increase in troponin T levels than rats in groups SL and IU. The pathological severity scores of the pancreas, liver, kidney and lung in group EUL were significantly lower than those in groups M and better than those in groups SL and IU. In conclusion, early intraperitoneal lavage with ulinastatin significantly improves the median survival time and protects multi-organ function in an SAP model. PMID:25780405

  1. Angioplasty and stent placement - peripheral arteries - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty - peripheral artery - discharge; PTA - peripheral artery - discharge; Angioplasty - peripheral artery - discharge; Balloon angioplasty - periperhal artiery - discharge

  2. The 2014 Mw 6.0 Napa Earthquake, California: Observations from Real-time GPS-enhanced Earthquake Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johanson, I. A.; Grapenthin, R.; Allen, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, progress has been made to demonstrate feasibility and benefits of including real-time GPS (rtGPS) in earthquake early warning and rapid response systems. While most concepts have yet to be integrated into operational environments, the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory is currently running an rtGPS based finite fault inversion scheme in true real-time, which is triggered by the seismic-based ShakeAlert system and then sends updated earthquake alerts to a test receiver. The Geodetic Alarm System (G-larmS) was online and responded to the 2014 Mw6.0 South Napa earthquake in California. We review G-larmS' performance during this event and for 13 aftershocks, and we present rtGPS observations and real-time modeling results for the main shock. The first distributed slip model and a magnitude estimate of Mw5.5 were available 24 s after the event origin time, which could be reduced to 14 s after a bug fix (~8 s S-wave travel time, ~6 s data latency). The system continued to re-estimate the magnitude once every second: it increased to Mw5.9 3 s after the first alert and stabilized at Mw5.8 after 15 s. G-larmS' solutions for the subsequent small magnitude aftershocks demonstrate that Mw~6.0 is the current limit for alert updates to contribute back to the seismic-based early warning system.

  3. The 2014 Mw 6.0 Napa earthquake, California: Observations from real-time GPS-enhanced earthquake early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grapenthin, Ronni; Johanson, Ingrid; Allen, Richard M.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, progress has been made to demonstrate feasibility and benefits of including real-time GPS (rtGPS) in earthquake early warning and rapid response systems. Most concepts, however, have yet to be integrated into operational environments. The Berkeley Seismological Laboratory runs an rtGPS-based finite fault inversion scheme in real time. This system (G-larmS) detected the 2014 Mw 6.0 South Napa earthquake in California. We review G-larmS' performance during this event and 13 aftershocks and present rtGPS observations and real-time modeling results for the main shock. The first distributed slip model and magnitude estimates were available 24s after the event origin time, which, after optimizations, was reduced to 14s (?8s S wave travel time, ?6s data latency). G-larmS' solutions for the aftershocks (that had no measurable surface displacements) demonstrate that, in combination with the seismic early warning magnitude, Mw 6.0 is our current resolution limit.

  4. The KEEP ON GOING Protein of Arabidopsis Recruits the ENHANCED DISEASE RESISTANCE1 Protein to Trans-Golgi Network/Early Endosome Vesicles1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yangnan; Innes, Roger W.

    2011-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ENHANCED DISEASE RESISTANCE1 (EDR1) gene confer enhanced resistance to powdery mildew infection, enhanced senescence, and enhanced programmed cell death under both abiotic and biotic stress conditions. All edr1-mediated phenotypes can be suppressed by a specific missense mutation (keg-4) in the KEEP ON GOING (KEG) gene, which encodes a multidomain protein that includes a RING E3 ligase domain, a kinase domain, ankyrin repeats, and HERC2-like (for HECT and RCC1-like) repeats. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying this suppression are poorly understood. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy and fluorescent protein fusions, we determined that KEG localizes to trans-Golgi network/early endosome (TGN/EE) vesicles. Both the keg-4 mutation, which is located in the carboxyl-terminal HERC2-like repeats, and deletion of the entire HERC2-like repeats reduced endosomal localization of KEG and increased localization to the endoplasmic reticulum and cytosol, indicating that the HERC2-like repeats facilitate the TGN/EE targeting of KEG. EDR1 colocalized with KEG to the TGN/EE when coexpressed but localized primarily to the endoplasmic reticulum when expressed alone. Yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation analyses revealed that EDR1 and KEG physically interact. Deletion of the HERC2-like repeats abolished the interaction between KEG and EDR1 as well as the KEG-induced TGN/EE localization of EDR1, indicating that the recruitment of EDR1 to the TGN/EE is based on a direct interaction between EDR1 and KEG mediated by the HERC2-like repeats. Collectively, these data suggest that EDR1 and KEG function together to regulate endocytic trafficking and/or the formation of signaling complexes on TGN/EE vesicles during stress responses. PMID:21343429

  5. The KEEP ON GOING protein of Arabidopsis recruits the ENHANCED DISEASE RESISTANCE1 protein to trans-Golgi network/early endosome vesicles.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yangnan; Innes, Roger W

    2011-04-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ENHANCED DISEASE RESISTANCE1 (EDR1) gene confer enhanced resistance to powdery mildew infection, enhanced senescence, and enhanced programmed cell death under both abiotic and biotic stress conditions. All edr1-mediated phenotypes can be suppressed by a specific missense mutation (keg-4) in the KEEP ON GOING (KEG) gene, which encodes a multidomain protein that includes a RING E3 ligase domain, a kinase domain, ankyrin repeats, and HERC2-like (for HECT and RCC1-like) repeats. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying this suppression are poorly understood. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy and fluorescent protein fusions, we determined that KEG localizes to trans-Golgi network/early endosome (TGN/EE) vesicles. Both the keg-4 mutation, which is located in the carboxyl-terminal HERC2-like repeats, and deletion of the entire HERC2-like repeats reduced endosomal localization of KEG and increased localization to the endoplasmic reticulum and cytosol, indicating that the HERC2-like repeats facilitate the TGN/EE targeting of KEG. EDR1 colocalized with KEG to the TGN/EE when coexpressed but localized primarily to the endoplasmic reticulum when expressed alone. Yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation analyses revealed that EDR1 and KEG physically interact. Deletion of the HERC2-like repeats abolished the interaction between KEG and EDR1 as well as the KEG-induced TGN/EE localization of EDR1, indicating that the recruitment of EDR1 to the TGN/EE is based on a direct interaction between EDR1 and KEG mediated by the HERC2-like repeats. Collectively, these data suggest that EDR1 and KEG function together to regulate endocytic trafficking and/or the formation of signaling complexes on TGN/EE vesicles during stress responses. PMID:21343429

  6. Effect of Enhanced External Counterpulsation (EECP) on Inflammatory Cytokines and Adhesion Molecules in Patients with Angina Pectoris and Angiographic Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Darren P.; Conti, C. Richard; Nichols, Wilmer W.; Choi, Calvin Y.; Khuddus, Matheen A.; Braith, Randy W.

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is associated with chronic low-level inflammation, as evidenced by elevated circulating proinflammatory cytokines. Experimental evidence suggests that inflammation can be suppressed under conditions of high shear stress. We examined the effects of enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP), a non-invasive therapy that increases endothelial shear stress, on circulating levels of inflammatory biomarkers and adhesion molecules in patients with angina pectoris. Twenty-one patients were randomly assigned to either 35 1-hour treatments at cuff pressures of 300 mmHg (EECP; n= 12) or at 75 mmHg (SHAM; n=9). Plasma tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) were measured before and after 35 1-hour sessions of treatment or SHAM. Patients in the EECP group demonstrated reductions in TNF-? (6.9 ± 2.7 vs. 4.9 ± 2.5 pg/ml, P < 0.01; -29%) and MCP-1 (254.9 ± 55.9 vs. 190.4 ± 47.6 pg/ml, P < 0.01; -19%) following treatment, whereas, there was no change in the SHAM group. Changes in sVCAM-1 were not observed in either group. In conclusion, 35 sessions of EECP decreases circulating levels of proinflammatory biomarkers in patients with symptomatic CAD. PMID:18237588

  7. Helical carbon nanotubes enhance the early immune response and inhibit macrophage-mediated phagocytosis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Walling, Brent E; Kuang, Zhizhou; Hao, Yonghua; Estrada, David; Wood, Joshua D; Lian, Feifei; Miller, Lou Ann; Shah, Amish B; Jeffries, Jayme L; Haasch, Richard T; Lyding, Joseph W; Pop, Eric; Lau, Gee W

    2013-01-01

    Aerosolized or aspirated manufactured carbon nanotubes have been shown to be cytotoxic, cause pulmonary lesions, and demonstrate immunomodulatory properties. CD-1 mice were used to assess pulmonary toxicity of helical carbon nanotubes (HCNTs) and alterations of the immune response to subsequent infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in mice. HCNTs provoked a mild inflammatory response following either a single exposure or 2X/week for three weeks (multiple exposures) but were not significantly toxic. Administering HCNTs 2X/week for three weeks resulted in pulmonary lesions including granulomas and goblet cell hyperplasia. Mice exposed to HCNTs and subsequently infected by P. aeruginosa demonstrated an enhanced inflammatory response to P. aeruginosa and phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages was inhibited. However, clearance of P. aeruginosa was not affected. HCNT exposed mice depleted of neutrophils were more effective in clearing P. aeruginosa compared to neutrophil-depleted control mice, accompanied by an influx of macrophages. Depletion of systemic macrophages resulted in slightly inhibited bacterial clearance by HCNT treated mice. Our data indicate that pulmonary exposure to HCNTs results in lesions similar to those caused by other nanotubes and pre-exposure to HCNTs inhibit alveolar macrophage phagocytosis of P. aeruginosa. However, clearance was not affected as exposure to HCNTs primed the immune system for an enhanced inflammatory response to pulmonary infection consisting of an influx of neutrophils and macrophages. PMID:24324555

  8. Helical Carbon Nanotubes Enhance the Early Immune Response and Inhibit Macrophage-Mediated Phagocytosis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Walling, Brent E.; Kuang, Zhizhou; Hao, Yonghua; Estrada, David; Wood, Joshua D.; Lian, Feifei; Miller, Lou Ann; Shah, Amish B.; Jeffries, Jayme L.; Haasch, Richard T.; Lyding, Joseph W.; Pop, Eric; Lau, Gee W.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosolized or aspirated manufactured carbon nanotubes have been shown to be cytotoxic, cause pulmonary lesions, and demonstrate immunomodulatory properties. CD-1 mice were used to assess pulmonary toxicity of helical carbon nanotubes (HCNTs) and alterations of the immune response to subsequent infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in mice. HCNTs provoked a mild inflammatory response following either a single exposure or 2X/week for three weeks (multiple exposures) but were not significantly toxic. Administering HCNTs 2X/week for three weeks resulted in pulmonary lesions including granulomas and goblet cell hyperplasia. Mice exposed to HCNTs and subsequently infected by P. aeruginosa demonstrated an enhanced inflammatory response to P. aeruginosa and phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages was inhibited. However, clearance of P. aeruginosa was not affected. HCNT exposed mice depleted of neutrophils were more effective in clearing P. aeruginosa compared to neutrophil-depleted control mice, accompanied by an influx of macrophages. Depletion of systemic macrophages resulted in slightly inhibited bacterial clearance by HCNT treated mice. Our data indicate that pulmonary exposure to HCNTs results in lesions similar to those caused by other nanotubes and pre-exposure to HCNTs inhibit alveolar macrophage phagocytosis of P. aeruginosa. However, clearance was not affected as exposure to HCNTs primed the immune system for an enhanced inflammatory response to pulmonary infection consisting of an influx of neutrophils and macrophages. PMID:24324555

  9. Early maladaptive schema-related impairment and co-occurring current major depressive episode-related enhancement of mental state decoding ability in borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Unoka, Zsolt Szabolcs; Fogd, Dóra; Seres, Imola; Kéri, Szabolcs; Csukly, Gábor

    2015-04-01

    Disturbed interpersonal relationships specific to borderline personality disorder (BPD) suggest biased processing of social information. The goal of this study was to examine alterations in mental state decoding (MSD) and their associations with early maladaptive schemas (EMS) that may lead to the misinterpretation of incoming information. In addition, the authors' aim was to evaluate the effects of a co-occurring current major depressive episode (MDE) on the MSD performance of BPD patients. Seventy-eight BPD patients (34 with MDE) and 76 matched healthy controls (HC) were assessed for Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) and the level of EMS. The authors found that impairment in the total RMET performance, as well as specific impairment regarding the recognition of positive and neutral items, was associated with EMS, and enhanced vigilance to negative mental states was characteristic to BPD with MDE. Results suggest that MSD ability is altered in two independent ways in BPD. PMID:24932871

  10. Embryos of Robertsonian Translocation Carriers Exhibit a Mitotic Interchromosomal Effect That Enhances Genetic Instability during Early Development

    PubMed Central

    Alfarawati, Samer; Fragouli, Elpida; Colls, Pere; Wells, Dagan

    2012-01-01

    Balanced chromosomal rearrangements represent one of the most common forms of genetic abnormality affecting approximately 1 in every 500 (0.2%) individuals. Difficulties processing the abnormal chromosomes during meiosis lead to an elevated risk of chromosomally abnormal gametes, resulting in high rates of miscarriage and/or children with congenital abnormalities. It has also been suggested that the presence of chromosome rearrangements may also cause an increase in aneuploidy affecting structurally normal chromosomes, due to disruption of chromosome alignment on the spindle or disturbance of other factors related to meiotic chromosome segregation. The existence of such a phenomenon (an inter-chromosomal effect—ICE) remains controversial, with different studies presenting contradictory data. The current investigation aimed to demonstrate conclusively whether an ICE truly exists. For this purpose a comprehensive chromosome screening technique, optimized for analysis of minute amounts of tissue, was applied to a unique collection of samples consisting of 283 oocytes and early embryos derived from 44 patients carrying chromosome rearrangements. A further 5,078 oocytes and embryos, derived from chromosomally normal individuals of identical age, provided a robust control group for comparative analysis. A highly significant (P?=?0.0002) increase in the rate of malsegregation affecting structurally normal chromosomes was observed in association with Robertsonian translocations. Surprisingly, the ICE was clearly detected in early embryos from female carriers, but not in oocytes, indicating the possibility of mitotic rather than the previously suggested meiotic origin. These findings have implications for our understanding of genetic stability during preimplantation development and are of clinical relevance for patients carrying a Robertsonian translocation. The results are also pertinent to other situations when cellular mechanisms for maintaining genetic fidelity are relaxed and chromosome rearrangements are present (e.g. in tumors displaying chromosomal instability). PMID:23133396

  11. Coronary artery surgery: indications and recent experience.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, P. S.; Coltart, D. J.; Jenkins, B. S.; Webb-Peploe, M. M.; Braimbridge, M. V.; Williams, B. T.

    1978-01-01

    The comprehensive experience of coronary artery surgery in a Cardiothoracic Unit over a 31-month period is reviewed. Hospital mortality for elective bypass grafting was 3.9% overall and 2.5% in those with good pre-operative left ventricular function. Major influences on hospital mortality were pre-operative left ventricular function, extent of coronary artery disease and extent of the surgical procedure undertaken in terms of number of aortocoronary grafts inserted, coronary endarterectomy and particularly concomitant valve surgery or aneurysm resection. Follow-up experience shows 74% of grafted patients to be symptom-free and 85% symptomatically improved one year after surgery with 70% symptom-free and 80% improved at two years. Early post-operative deaths appear related to early graft closure and recurrence of symptoms postoperatively to late graft closure or progression of coronary disease in the native circulation. The study provides a guide to the relative risks of coronary artery surgery for symptomatic coronary artery disease and expected symptomatic results in the early follow-up period. PMID:310999

  12. Numerical simulation of arterial dissection during balloon angioplasty of atherosclerotic coronary arteries

    PubMed Central

    Badel, Pierre; Avril, Stéphane; Sutton, Michael A.; Lessner, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Balloon angioplasty is a standard clinical treatment for symptomatic coronary artery disease. In this procedure, controlled damage is applied intraluminally to the wall of a stenotic artery. Dissection of the coronary artery is a commonly observed clinical complication of angioplasty; however, not all dissections can be detected angioscopically. This work focuses on studying the dissection mechanisms triggered during the early stages of angioplasty in an atherosclerotic coronary artery, addressing the problem by means of a parametric study based on a simplified finite element model and cohesive interface modeling. Our results emphasize the presence of several damage mechanisms, at different locations, that are triggered near the very beginning of the process and evolve competitively, depending on both geometry and material properties of the atherosclerotic vessel. Small-scale damage was evidenced, which would not be detectable by angiography or intravascular ultrasound, but could potentially be sufficient to stimulate smooth muscle cell activation, promoting late-onset complications such as restenosis. PMID:24480707

  13. Early Therapy Evaluation of Combined Cetuximab and Irinotecan in Orthotopic Pancreatic Tumor Xenografts by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunki; Folks, Karri D.; Guo, Lingling; Sellers, Jeffery C.; Fineberg, Naomi S.; Stockard, Cecil R.; Grizzle, William E.; Buchsbaum, Donald J.; Morgan, Desiree E.; George, James F.; Zinn, Kurt R.

    2014-01-01

    Early pancreatic cancer response following cetuximab and/or irinotecan therapies was measured by serial dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) before and during therapy. Groups 1 to 4 (n = 6/group) of SCID mice bearing orthotopic pancreatic adenocarcinoma xenografts expressing luciferase were treated with phosphate-buffered saline, cetuximab, irinotecan, or cetuximab combined with irinotecan, respectively, twice weekly for 3 weeks. DCE-MRI was performed on days 0, 1, 2, and 3 after therapy initiation, whereas anatomic magnetic resonance imaging was performed on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 6, and 13. Bioluminescence imaging was performed on days 0 and 21. At day 21, all tumors were collected for further histologic analyses (Ki-67 and CD31 staining), whereas tumor dimensions were measured by calipers. The Ktrans values in the 0.5 mm–thick peripheral tumor region were calculated, and the changes in Ktrans during the 3 days posttherapy were compared to tumor volume changes, bioluminescent signal changes, and histologic findings. The Ktrans changes in the peripheral tumor region after 3 days of therapy were linearly correlated with 21-day decreases in tumor volume (p < .001), bioluminescent signal (p = .050), microvessel densities (p = .002), and proliferating cell densities (p = .001). This study supports the clinical use of DCE-MRI for pancreatic cancer patients for early assessment of an anti–epidermal growth factor receptor therapy combined with chemotherapy. PMID:21496446

  14. NOTE: Characterizing early contrast uptake of ductal carcinoma in situ with high temporal resolution dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of the breast: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, S. A.; Fan, X.; Medved, M.; Abe, H.; Shimauchi, A.; Yang, C.; Zamora, M.; Foxley, S.; Olopade, O. I.; Karczmar, G. S.; Newstead, G. M.

    2010-10-01

    Improvements in the reliable diagnosis of preinvasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) are needed. In this study, we present a new characterization of early contrast kinetics of DCIS using high temporal resolution (HiT) DCE-MRI and compare it with other breast lesions and normal parenchyma. Forty patients with mammographic calcifications suspicious for DCIS were selected for HiT imaging using T1-weighted DCE-MRI with ~7 s temporal resolution for 90 s post-contrast injection. Pixel-based and whole-lesion kinetic curves were fit to an empirical mathematical model (EMM) and several secondary kinetic parameters derived. Using the EMM parameterized and fitted concentration time curve for subsequent analysis allowed for calculation of kinetic parameters that were less susceptible to fluctuations due to noise. The parameters' initial area under the curve (iAUC) and contrast concentration at 1 min (C1 min) provided the highest diagnostic accuracy in the task of distinguishing pathologically proven DCIS from normal tissue. There was a trend for DCIS lesions with solid architectural pattern to exhibit a negative slope at 1 min (i.e. increased washout rate) compared to those with a cribriform pattern (p < 0.04). This pilot study demonstrates the feasibility of quantitative analysis of early contrast kinetics at high temporal resolution and points to the potential for such an analysis to improve the characterization of DCIS.

  15. A point-of-care testing system with Love-wave sensor and immunogold staining enhancement for early detection of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yingchang; Zhang, Xi; An, Chao; Ran, Chunxue; Ying, Kejing; Wang, Ping

    2014-12-01

    It has been reported that detection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is available for studies of pulmonary diseases, especially lung disease. In order to detect lung cancer (LC) at early stage, a point-of-care testing system suitable for measurement of tumor markers in EBC is developed. The assay, based on gold nanoparticle sandwich immunoassay and subsequent gold staining, was performed on a Love-wave sensor packaged inside a chip cartridge. Benefit from high sensitivity of Love-wave sensor, oriented immobilization of coating antibodies and immunogold staining enhancement, the present immunosensor could provide a sensitive, specific and rapid measurement. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), neuron specific enolase (NSE) and squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC) in EBC collected from 17 patients with LC and 13 healthy volunteers were detected by this system. Results were compared with commercial chemiluminescence immunoassay and showed high correlation between two methods. Additionally, it revealed significantly statistical differences existing between two groups of subjects. These results indicate that the present system is suitable for detection of tumor markers in EBC and could be used as assistant tools for early detection of LC. PMID:25158626

  16. The origin variability of the iliolumbar artery and iatrogenic sciatica.

    PubMed

    Al Talalwah, Waseem; Al Dorazi, Shorok Ali; Soames, Roger

    2015-07-01

    The iliolumbar artery (ILA) is a standard branch from the posterior trunk of the internal iliac artery. It is the only pelvic artery ascending from pelvic cavity. Current study comprises 171 cadavers dissection to assess the origin variability of ILA. The present study identified the incidence of the ILA origin variability in Caucasian population which also clarified the iliolumbar variability in males and females. The current study shows that the ILA arises from the common iliac artery in 2 %, from the external iliac artery in 0.3 % and from the internal iliac artery in 13.8 % either from its dorsal or dorsomedial aspects in 1 and 12.8 %, respectively. The common, external and internal iliac arteries are defined as a high (early) origin and occurred in 16.1 %. The posterior trunk of the internal iliac artery is the most common origin of the ILA found to be in 77.9 %. Occasionally, it also arose from the superior gluteal artery (0.7 %) and the sciatic artery (0.3 %). Furthermore, the ILA arises from the anterior trunk indirectly as from the inferior gluteal artery in 0.3 %. The ILA arising from the superior or inferior gluteal artery or from the sciatic artery is defined as a low (delayed) origin and occurred in 1.3 %. In contrast, the ILA was 4.7 %. Consequently, variability of the ILA leads to vascular variability of the lumbosacral trunk of the sciatic nerve. Clinicians have to be aware of these variations to avoid unnecessary ligation to prevent sciatic neuropathy. PMID:25269394

  17. About Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)

    MedlinePLUS

    About Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) Updated:Sep 15,2014 Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a narrowing of the peripheral arteries to ... was last reviewed on 8/05/2014. Peripheral Artery Disease • Home • About Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) • Why ...

  18. The mitochondrion-located protein OsB12D1 enhances flooding tolerance during seed germination and early seedling growth in rice.

    PubMed

    He, Dongli; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Pingfang

    2014-01-01

    B12D belongs to a function unknown subgroup of the Balem (Barley aleurone and embryo) proteins. In our previous work on rice seed germination, we identified a B12D-like protein encoded by LOC_Os7g41350 (named OsB12D1). OsB12D1 pertains to an ancient protein family with an amino acid sequence highly conserved from moss to angiosperms. Among the six OsB12Ds, OsB12D1 is one of the major transcripts and is primarily expressed in germinating seed and root. Bioinformatics analyses indicated that OsB12D1 is an anoxic or submergence resistance-related gene. RT-PCR results showed OsB12D1 is induced remarkably in the coleoptiles or roots by flooding during seed germination and early seedling growth. The OsB12D1-overexpressed rice seeds could protrude radicles in 8 cm deep water, further exhibiting significant flooding tolerance compared to the wild type. Moreover, this tolerance was not affected by the gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol. OsB12D1 was identified in the mitochondrion by subcellular localization analysis and possibly enhances electron transport through mediating Fe and oxygen availability under flooded conditions. This work indicated that OsB12D1 is a promising gene that can help to enhance rice seedling establishment in farming practices, especially for direct seeding. PMID:25089878

  19. Interleukin-6 receptor enhances early colonization of the murine omentum by upregulation of a mannose family receptor, LY75, in ovarian tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Giridhar, Premkumar Vummidi; Funk, Holly M; Gallo, Catherine A; Porollo, Aleksey; Mercer, Carol A; Plas, David R; Drew, Angela F

    2011-12-01

    One of the earliest metastatic events in human ovarian cancer, tumor spread to the omentum, may be influenced by expression of interleukin 6 (IL6) and its cognate receptor (IL6R?). Previous reports have shown that IL6 and IL6R? expression is elevated in the serum and ascites of patients with ovarian cancer and that this can influence in vitro processes such as cell survival, proliferation and migration. In this study, overexpression of IL6R?, and to a lesser extent IL6, enhanced tumor growth on the omentum. Moreover, adherence to plastic and to peritoneal extracellular matrix components was enhanced in tumor cells overexpressing IL6 or IL6R?. Host production of IL6 and IL6R? was also sufficient to influence tumor adherence to the omentum. Expression of LY75/CD205/DEC205, a collagen-binding mannose family receptor, was directly influenced by IL6R? expression. Blocking LY75 with antibody reduced the adherence of tumor cells overexpressing IL6R? to matrices in vitro and to the omentum. The association between IL6R? expression and LY75 expression has not been previously reported, and the promotion of cellular adherence is a novel role for LY75. These studies indicate that overexpression of LY75 may be an additional mechanism by which IL6 signaling influences the progression of ovarian cancer, and suggests that blocking LY75 could be a valuable clinical strategy for reducing the early metastasis of ovarian cancer. PMID:21887537

  20. Regulation of desmocollin gene expression in the epidermis: CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins modulate early and late events in keratinocyte differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Conrad; Zhu, Kuichun; Merritt, Anita; Picton, Rhian; Youngs, Denise; Garrod, David; Chidgey, Martyn

    2004-01-01

    Desmocollins (Dscs) are desmosomal cadherins that exhibit differentiation-specific patterns of expression in the epidermis. Dsc3 expression is strongest in basal cell layers, whereas Dsc1 is largely confined to upper, terminally differentiating strata. To understand better the processes by which Dsc expression is regulated in the epidermis, we have isolated Dsc3 and Dsc1 5'-flanking DNAs and analysed their activity in primary keratinocytes. In the present study, we found that transcription factors of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein family play a role in the regulation of expression of both Dscs and, in so doing, implicate this class of transcription factors in both early and late events in keratinocyte differentiation. We show that Dscs are differentially regulated by C/EBP (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein) family members, with Dsc3 expression being activated by C/EBPbeta but not C/EBPalpha, and the reverse being the case for Dsc1. Expression of both Dscs is activated by another family member, C/EBPdelta. These results show for the first time how desmosomal cadherin gene expression is regulated and provide a mechanism for the control of other differentiation-specific genes in the epidermis. PMID:15030314

  1. Sperm capacitation combined with removal of the sperm acrosome and plasma membrane enhances paternal nucleus remodelling and early development of bovine androgenetic embryos.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yao; Zhang, Hualin; Ahmad, Sibtain; Bai, Liya; Wang, Xiaomin; Huo, Lijun; Zhang, Xin; Li, Wengong; Li, Xiang; Yang, Liguo

    2013-01-01

    The androgenetic embryo is a useful model for functional analysis of the paternal genome during embryogenesis. However, few studies have focused on the factors involved in the suppressed developmental competence of such embryos or why sperm cloning-derived androgenetic embryos fail to develop beyond the morula stage in large domestic animals. To overcome this developmental failure, we tried to improve sperm decondensation, as well as to enhance embryonic development by sperm capacitation and removal of the acrosome and plasma membrane before injection of the spermatozoa. Before injection of the spermatozoa, we quantified the effects of sperm capacitation combined with sperm pretreatment on the acrosome and plasma membrane status. We also evaluated sperm decondensation potential, sperm viability and chromatin integrity. Immunostaining data showed that the sperm acrosome and plasma membrane could be more efficiently removed after capacitation. Dithiothreitol-induced sperm decondensation potential was improved with capacitation and removal of the acrosome and plasma membrane. Although most spermatozoa lost viability after pretreatment, their chromatin remained integrated. The patterns of paternal chromatin remodelling within uncleaved androgenetic embryos and the nucleus morphology of cleaved embryos indicated that capacitation combined with membrane disruption could make injected spermatozoa decondense synchronously not only with each other, but also with the developmental pace of the ooplasm. We successfully produced androgenetic blastocysts, and efficiency increased with sperm pretreatment. In conclusion, sperm decondensation and the early development of androgenetic embryos were enhanced with sperm capacitation and removal of the acrosome and plasma membrane prior to sperm injection. PMID:22950979

  2. The Mitochondrion-Located Protein OsB12D1 Enhances Flooding Tolerance during Seed Germination and Early Seedling Growth in Rice

    PubMed Central

    He, Dongli; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Pingfang

    2014-01-01

    B12D belongs to a function unknown subgroup of the Balem (Barley aleurone and embryo) proteins. In our previous work on rice seed germination, we identified a B12D-like protein encoded by LOC_Os7g41350 (named OsB12D1). OsB12D1 pertains to an ancient protein family with an amino acid sequence highly conserved from moss to angiosperms. Among the six OsB12Ds, OsB12D1 is one of the major transcripts and is primarily expressed in germinating seed and root. Bioinformatics analyses indicated that OsB12D1 is an anoxic or submergence resistance-related gene. RT-PCR results showed OsB12D1 is induced remarkably in the coleoptiles or roots by flooding during seed germination and early seedling growth. The OsB12D1-overexpressed rice seeds could protrude radicles in 8 cm deep water, further exhibiting significant flooding tolerance compared to the wild type. Moreover, this tolerance was not affected by the gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol. OsB12D1 was identified in the mitochondrion by subcellular localization analysis and possibly enhances electron transport through mediating Fe and oxygen availability under flooded conditions. This work indicated that OsB12D1 is a promising gene that can help to enhance rice seedling establishment in farming practices, especially for direct seeding. PMID:25089878

  3. Adiponectin and Arterial Stiffness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Azra Mahmud; John Feely

    2005-01-01

    Background: Adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory adipocytokine, is reduced in hypertension, diabetes, and coronary artery disease (CAD). Arterial stiffness, as aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) in hypertension and diabetes, and as augmentation index (AIx) in CAD, is independently associated with cardiovascular mortality. We explored the relationship between adiponectin and arterial stiffness in essential hypertension.Methods: Seventy-six untreated patients, 34 women, aged 47 ±

  4. Vertebral artery stump syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T N; Raymond, J; Mahmoud, M; Weill, A; Roy, D; Guilbert, F

    2008-01-01

    After occlusion of flow in an artery, further ischaemic episodes are not expected due to lack of a flow conduit to carry the embolus. In the carotid stump syndrome, ongoing ischaemic events may continue due to collateral flow via the external carotid artery. We report two patients presenting with posterior circulation strokes after documented vertebral artery occlusion, due to a vertebral stump syndrome. Their presentation, the pathophysiology of cervico-vertebral anastomoses and management are described. PMID:18079301

  5. Elastomeric PGS Scaffolds in Arterial Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kee-Won; Wang, Yadong

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading cause of mortality in the US and especially, coronary artery disease increases with an aging population and increasing obesity1. Currently, bypass surgery using autologous vessels, allografts, and synthetic grafts are known as a commonly used for arterial substitutes2. However, these grafts have limited applications when an inner diameter of arteries is less than 6 mm due to low availability, thrombotic complications, compliance mismatch, and late intimal hyperplasia3,4. To overcome these limitations, tissue engineering has been successfully applied as a promising alternative to develop small-diameter arterial constructs that are nonthrombogenic, robust, and compliant. Several previous studies have developed small-diameter arterial constructs with tri-lamellar structure, excellent mechanical properties and burst pressure comparable to native arteries5,6. While high tensile strength and burst pressure by increasing collagen production from a rigid material or cell sheet scaffold, these constructs still had low elastin production and compliance, which is a major problem to cause graft failure after implantation. Considering these issues, we hypothesized that an elastometric biomaterial combined with mechanical conditioning would provide elasticity and conduct mechanical signals more efficiently to vascular cells, which increase extracellular matrix production and support cellular orientation. The objective of this report is to introduce a fabrication technique of porous tubular scaffolds and a dynamic mechanical conditioning for applying them to arterial tissue engineering. We used a biodegradable elastomer, poly (glycerol sebacate) (PGS)7 for fabricating porous tubular scaffolds from the salt fusion method. Adult primary baboon smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were seeded on the lumen of scaffolds, which cultured in our designed pulsatile flow bioreactor for 3 weeks. PGS scaffolds had consistent thickness and randomly distributed macro- and micro-pores. Mechanical conditioning from pulsatile flow bioreactor supported SMC orientation and enhanced ECM production in scaffolds. These results suggest that elastomeric scaffolds and mechanical conditioning of bioreactor culture may be a promising method for arterial tissue engineering. PMID:21505410

  6. Selective Enhancing Effect of Early Mitotic Inhibitor 1 (Emi1) Depletion on the Sensitivity of Doxorubicin or X-ray Treatment in Human Cancer Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Natsumi; Nakajima, Nakako Izumi; Tsunematsu, Takaaki; Ogawa, Ikuko; Kawai, Hidehiko; Hirayama, Ryoichi; Fujimori, Akira; Yamada, Akiko; Okayasu, Ryuichi; Ishimaru, Naozumi; Takata, Takashi; Kudo, Yasusei

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy and radiation in addition to surgery has proven useful in a number of different cancer types, but the effectiveness in normal tissue cannot be avoided in these therapies. To improve the effectiveness of these therapies selectively in cancer tissue is important for avoiding side effects. Early mitotic inhibitor 1 (Emi1) is known to have the function to inhibit anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome ubiquitin ligase complex, which ubiquitylates the cell cycle-related proteins. It recently has been shown that Emi1 knockdown prevents transition from S to G2 phase by down-regulating geminin via anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome activation. At present, anticancer drugs for targeting DNA synthesis to interfere with rapidly dividing cells commonly are used. As Emi1 depletion interferes with completion of DNA synthesis in cancer cells, we thought that Emi1 knockdown might enhance the sensitivity for anticancer agents. Here, we confirmed that Emi1 siRNA induced polyploidy for preventing transition from S to G2 phase in several cancer cell lines. Then, we treated Emi1 depleted cells with doxorubicin. Interestingly, increased apoptotic cells were observed after doxorubicin treatment in Emi1 siRNA-treated cancer cells. In addition, Emi1 depletion enhanced the sensitivity of x-ray irradiation in cancer cells. Importantly, synergistic effect of Emi1 knockdown in these combination therapies was not observed in normal cells. These results suggest that Emi1 siRNA can be a useful tool for enhancing of sensitivity of cancer cells to anticancer reagents and radiation. PMID:23645673

  7. Arterial waveform analysis.

    PubMed

    Esper, Stephen A; Pinsky, Michael R

    2014-12-01

    The bedside measurement of continuous arterial pressure values from waveform analysis has been routinely available via indwelling arterial catheterization for >50 years. Invasive blood pressure monitoring has been utilized in critically ill patients, in both the operating room and critical care units, to facilitate rapid diagnoses of cardiovascular insufficiency and monitor response to treatments aimed at correcting abnormalities before the consequences of either hypo- or hypertension are seen. Minimally invasive techniques to estimate cardiac output (CO) have gained increased appeal. This has led to the increased interest in arterial waveform analysis to provide this important information, as it is measured continuously in many operating rooms and intensive care units. Arterial waveform analysis also allows for the calculation of many so-called derived parameters intrinsically created by this pulse pressure profile. These include estimates of left ventricular stroke volume (SV), CO, vascular resistance, and during positive-pressure breathing, SV variation, and pulse pressure variation. This article focuses on the principles of arterial waveform analysis and their determinants, components of the arterial system, and arterial pulse contour. It will also address the advantage of measuring real-time CO by the arterial waveform and the benefits to measuring SV variation. Arterial waveform analysis has gained a large interest in the overall assessment and management of the critically ill and those at a risk of hemodynamic deterioration. PMID:25480767

  8. Significance of hyperattenuating and contrast-enhancing hepatic nodules detected in the cirrhotic liver during arterial phase helical CT in pre–liver transplant patients: radiologic–histopathologic correlation of explanted livers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. Freeny; M. Grossholz; K. Kaakaji; U. P. Schmiedl

    2003-01-01

    Background: Hyperattenuating nodules detected by arterial phase helical computed tomography (HCT) in patients with cirrhosis usually\\u000a are believed to represent hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). We correlated HCT morphology of hyperattenuating hepatic nodules\\u000a detected during arterial phase scans with the histopathology of explanted livers of patients with hepatic cirrhosis undergoing\\u000a liver transplantation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: Three hundred fifty-four patients had arterial and portal phase

  9. Enhanced sensitivity of aged fibrotic hearts to angiotensin II- and hypokalemia-induced early afterdepolarization-mediated ventricular arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Bapat, Aneesh; Nguyen, Thao P.; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Sovari, Ali A.; Fishbein, Michael C.; Weiss, James N.

    2012-01-01

    Unlike young hearts, aged hearts are highly susceptible to early afterdepolarization (EAD)-mediated ventricular fibrillation (VF). This differential may result from age-related structural remodeling (fibrosis) or electrical remodeling of ventricular myocytes or both. We used optical mapping and microelectrode recordings in Langendorff-perfused hearts and patch-clamp recordings in isolated ventricular myocytes from aged (24–26 mo) and young (3–4 mo) rats to assess susceptibility to EADs and VF during either oxidative stress with ANG II (2 ?M) or ionic stress with hypokalemia (2.7 mM). ANG II caused EAD-mediated VF in 16 of 19 aged hearts (83%) after 32 ± 7 min but in 0 of 9 young hearts (0%). ANG II-mediated VF was suppressed with KN-93 (Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase inhibitor) and the reducing agent N-acetylcysteine. Hypokalemia caused EAD-mediated VF in 11 of 11 aged hearts (100%) after 7.4 ± 0.4 min. In 14 young hearts, however, VF did not occur in 6 hearts (43%) or was delayed in onset (31 ± 22 min, P < 0.05) in 8 hearts (57%). In patch-clamped myocytes, ANG II and hypokalemia (n = 6) induced EADs and triggered activity in both age groups (P = not significant) at a cycle length of >0.5 s. When myocytes of either age group were coupled to a virtual fibroblast using the dynamic patch-clamp technique, EADs arose in both groups at a cycle length of <0.5 s. Aged ventricles had significantly greater fibrosis and reduced connexin43 gap junction density compared with young hearts. The lack of differential age-related sensitivity at the single cell level in EAD susceptibility indicates that increased ventricular fibrosis in the aged heart plays a key role in increasing vulnerability to VF induced by oxidative and ionic stress. PMID:22467308

  10. Living with Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Carotid Artery Disease If you have carotid artery disease, you can take steps to manage the ... treatment plan, and getting ongoing care. Having carotid artery disease raises your risk of having a stroke . ...

  11. Measuring How Elastic Arteries Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMont, M. Edwin; MacGillivray, Patrick S.; Davison, Ian G.; McConnell, Colin J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a procedure used to measure force and pressure in elastic arteries. Discusses the physics of the procedure and recommends the use of bovine arteries. Explains the preparation of the arteries for the procedure. (DDR)

  12. Off-pump versus on-pump coronary artery bypass surgery for the treatment of left main with triple coronary artery disease ? ? This work was supported by the Fund of Social Development in Jiangsu province(NO: BS2006013)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhibing Qiu; Xin Chen; Ming Xu; Kaihu Shi; Yinshuo Jiang; Liqiong Xiao

    2008-01-01

    ObjectiveTo obtain early results of off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting(OPCAB) in patients with significant left main coronary artery(LMCA) and triple vessels stenosis by comparing with those of a similar group undergoing conventional coronary artery bypass surgery(CCAB).

  13. Enhanced early-latency electromagnetic activity in the left premotor cortex is associated with successful phonetic categorization.

    PubMed

    Alho, Jussi; Sato, Marc; Sams, Mikko; Schwartz, Jean-Luc; Tiitinen, Hannu; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P

    2012-05-01

    Sensory-motor interactions between auditory and articulatory representations in the dorsal auditory processing stream are suggested to contribute to speech perception, especially when bottom-up information alone is insufficient for purely auditory perceptual mechanisms to succeed. Here, we hypothesized that the dorsal stream responds more vigorously to auditory syllables when one is engaged in a phonetic identification/repetition task subsequent to perception compared to passive listening, and that this effect is further augmented when the syllables are embedded in noise. To this end, we recorded magnetoencephalography while twenty subjects listened to speech syllables, with and without noise masking, in four conditions: passive perception; overt repetition; covert repetition; and overt imitation. Compared to passive listening, left-hemispheric N100m equivalent current dipole responses were amplified and shifted posteriorly when perception was followed by covert repetition task. Cortically constrained minimum-norm estimates showed amplified left supramarginal and angylar gyri responses in the covert repetition condition at ~100ms from stimulus onset. Longer-latency responses at ~200ms were amplified in the covert repetition condition in the left angular gyrus and in all three active conditions in the left premotor cortex, with further enhancements when the syllables were embedded in noise. Phonetic categorization accuracy and magnitude of voice pitch change between overt repetition and imitation conditions correlated with left premotor cortex responses at ~100 and ~200ms, respectively. Together, these results suggest that the dorsal stream involvement in speech perception is dependent on perceptual task demands and that phonetic categorization performance is influenced by the left premotor cortex. PMID:22361165

  14. Enhancement of chondrocyte autophagy is an early response in the degenerative cartilage of the temporomandibular joint to biomechanical dental stimulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mian; Zhang, Jing; Lu, Lei; Qiu, Zhong-Ying; Zhang, Xu; Yu, Shi-Bin; Wu, Yao-Ping; Wang, Mei-Qing

    2013-04-01

    Autophagy is a cell protective mechanism for maintaining cellular homeostasis. The present study aimed to investigate whether autophagy is enhanced in the biomechanically induced degenerative cartilage of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and the potential role of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 3 (MAP4K3) and mammalian Target of rapamycin (mTOR) in this observation. To induce degenerative changes in the TMJs, rats were subjected to biomechanical dental stimulation by moving 4 molars away from their original position as we previously reported. The ultrastructure of autophagosome was observed by transmission electron microscopy. The number of lysosomes was analyzed by flow cytometry. The expression levels of Beclin1 and LC3 and the involvement of MAP4K3 activity were detected by immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR and western blot. The activity of the mTOR pathway indicated by p-mTOR and p-p70S6 K was assayed by western blot. TMJ degeneration, characterized by irregular cell arrangement and cell-free area, was induced in the experimental groups. Under transmission electron microscopy, we observed the presence of autophagosomes, small patches of condensed chromatin, abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. The number of lysosomes and the expression levels of Beclin1 and LC3 increased, while the activity of mTOR and the expression level of MAP4K3 decreased in the experimental groups. Cartilage in TMJ which was induced to be degenerative biomechanically exhibited autophagy accompanied by reduced mTOR and MAP4K3 activity. PMID:23386193

  15. Two Genetically and Molecularly Distinct Functions Involved in Early Neurogenesis Reside within the Enhancer of Split Locus of Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Delidakis, C.; Preiss, A.; Hartley, D. A.; Artavanis-Tsakonas, S.

    1991-01-01

    Molecular correlation of the genetic aspects of the function of the neurogenic gene Enhancer of split [E(spl)] has previously been hampered by the densely transcribed nature of the chromosomal region within which it resides. We present data indicating that two distinct molecular species contribute to E(spl) function. Analysis of new E(spl) alleles has allowed us to define two complementing functions within the locus. Subsequent phenotypic analysis of different E(spl) deficiencies combined with P element-transformed constructs has demonstrated that these two functions correspond to: (1) a family of helix-loop-helix (HLH) protein-encoding genes and (2) the single copy gene E(spl) m9/10, whose product shares homology with G-protein ? subunits. The zygotically active E(spl) HLH genes can, at least partially, substitute for one another's functions and their total copy number determines the activity of the locus. E(spl) m9/10 acts synergistically with the E(spl) HLH genes and other neurogenic genes in the process of neurogenesis. The maternal component of E(spl) m9/10 has the most pronounced effect in neurogenesis, while its zygotic component is predominantly required during postembryonic development. The lethality of trans-heterozygotes of null E(spl) deficiency alleles with a strong Delta point mutation is a result of the concomitant reduction in activity of both E(spl) HLH and m9/10 functions. Immunocytochemical localization of the E(spl) m9/10 protein has revealed that it is a ubiquitously distributed nuclear component in embryonic, larval and imaginal tissues. PMID:1752423

  16. Early onset and enhanced growth of autochthonous mammary carcinomas in C3-deficient Her2/neu transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Bandini, Silvio; Curcio, Claudia; Macagno, Marco; Quaglino, Elena; Arigoni, Maddalena; Lanzardo, Stefania; Hysi, Albana; Barutello, Giuseppina; Consolino, Lorena; Longo, Dario Livio; Musiani, Piero; Forni, Guido; Iezzi, Manuela; Cavallo, Federica

    2013-01-01

    Aside from its classical role in fighting infections, complement is an important, although poorly understood, component of the tumor microenvironment. In particular, the tumor growth-regulatory activities of complement remain under debate. To assess the role of the complement system in the progression of autochthonous mammary carcinomas, we have crossed complement component 3 (C3)-deficient (C3?/?) BALB/c male mice with BALB/c females expressing the activated rat Her2/neu oncogene (neuT). Although neuT transgenic mice develop spontaneous mammary cancers with 100% penetrance, a significantly shorter tumor latency (i.e., earlier onset of the first palpable tumor), a higher frequency of multiple tumors (multiplicity), and a dramatic increase in the tumor growth rate were found in neuT-C3?/? animals. The accelerated tumor onset observed in neuT-C3?/? mice was paralleled by an earlier onset of spontaneous lung metastases and by an increase in Her2 expression levels, primarily on the surface of tumor cells. The percentage of immune cells infiltrating neuT carcinomas was similar in C3-deficient and C3-proficient mice, with the exception of a significant increase in the frequency of regulatory T cells in neuT-C3?/? tumors. Of particular interest, the enhanced immunosuppression imparted by C3 deficiency clearly influenced the immunogenic phenotype of autochthonous mammary tumors as neuT-C3?/? malignant cells transplanted into syngeneic immunocompetent hosts gave rise to lesions with a significantly delayed kinetics and reduced incidence as compared with cells obtained from neuT C3-proficient tumors. Finally, increased blood vessel permeability was evident in neuT-C3?/? tumors, although a similar number of tumor vessels was found in neuT and neuT-C3?/? lesions. Altogether, these data suggest that complement plays a crucial role in the immunosurveillance and, possibly, the immunoediting of Her2-driven autochthonous mammary tumors. PMID:24228231

  17. Regulation of a human cytomegalovirus immediate-early gene (US3) by a silencer-enhancer combination.

    PubMed Central

    Thrower, A R; Bullock, G C; Bissell, J E; Stinski, M F

    1996-01-01

    The US3 open reading frame of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is transcribed at immediate-early (IE) times after infection. Upstream of the US3 promoter, between -84 and -259 bp relative to the transcription start site, there are five copies of an 18-bp repeat, referred to as 5R2. Between -340 and -560 bp there are seven copies of a 10-bp dyad repeat, referred to as 7R1. We investigated the roles of these repeats in transcription from the US3 promoter in human foreskin fibroblast or HeLa cells. In transient transfection assays, the region containing 5R2 up-regulated transcription and was responsive to the p65 subunit of NF-kappa B. The DNA region containing 7R1 down-regulated transcription from either the US3 promoter or a heterologous promoter in a position- and orientation-independent manner. Mutational analysis and transient transfections indicated that DNA containing the 10-bp dyad or one-half of the dyad was sufficient to cause repression of downstream gene expression. DNA probes containing one or more copies of the pentanucleotide sequence TGTCG specifically bound cellular proteins, as demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays and cold-competition electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Two different DNA-protein complexes were detected with DNA probes containing one or two copies of the pentanucleotide. In HCMV-infected cell nuclear extracts, one of the DNA-protein complexes was present in amounts inversely proportional to the amount of US3 transcription. Its formation was affected by dephosphorylation of the DNA-binding protein(s). Transient dephosphorylation of the cellular repressor protein may occur during HCMV infection. Repression of US3 transcription may relate to the number of pentanucleotides and the cellular proteins that bind to it. Twenty-one copies of a TRTCG motif (R = purine) were found clustered upstream of the US3 gene and also in the modulator upstream of the HCMV IE1 and IE2 genes. PMID:8523597

  18. The arterial blood supply of the temporomandibular joint: an anatomical study and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Caradonna, Carola; Caradonna, Domenico; Anastasi, Giuseppe; Milardi, Demetrio; Favaloro, Angelo; De Pietro, Anita; Angileri, Tommaso Maurizio; Caradonna, Luigi; Cutroneo, Giuseppina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to analyze three-dimensional images of the arterial supply to the temporomandibular joint. Materials and Methods Ten patients (five men and five women, mean age 36 years) without signs or symptoms of temporomandibular disorders, who underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomographic (CT) scanning with intravenous contrast, were studied. The direct volume rendering technique of CT images was used, and a data set of images to visualize the vasculature of the human temporomandibular joint in three dimensions was created. After elaboration of the data through post-processing, the arterial supply of the temporomandibular joint was studied. Results The analysis revealed the superficial temporal artery, the anterior tympanic artery, the deep temporal artery, the auricular posterior artery, the transverse facial artery, the middle meningeal artery, and the maxillary artery with their branches as the main arterial sources for the lateral and medial temporomandibular joint. Conclusion The direct volume rendering technique was found to be successful in the assessment of the arterial supply to the temporomandibular joint. The superficial temporal artery and maxillary artery ran along the lateral and medial sides of the condylar neck, suggesting that these arteries are at increased risk during soft-tissue procedures such as an elective arthroplasty of the temporomandibular joint. PMID:23525363

  19. Anatomical variations of the carotid-vertebral arteries: "double-vessel" sign on Doppler ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Kantarci, Fatih; Ozbayrak, Mustafa; Gulsen, Fatih; Besirli, Kazim; Mihmanli, Ismail

    2011-10-01

    We describe the "double-vessel" sign and its relevance for the diagnosis of carotid and vertebral arterial anatomical variations in a series of four patients with stroke. In these four patients, two arteries could be seen at the expected location of the common carotid artery (CCA), leading to the diagnosis of anatomical variations including separate origin of internal and external carotid artery from the aortic arch on the left side and from the brachiocephalic trunk and the subclavian artery on the right side, early bifurcation of the CCA on both sides, and an aberrant course of the vertebral artery on the left side. The presence of two arteries at the expected location of the CCA should raise the suspicion of carotid or vertebral arterial variations. PMID:21469149

  20. Aneurysm-osteoarthritis syndrome with visceral and iliac artery aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    van der Linde, Denise; Verhagen, Hence J. M.; Moelker, Adriaan; van de Laar, Ingrid M. B. H.; Van Herzeele, Isabelle; De Backer, Julie; Dietz, Harry C.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Aneurysms-osteoarthritis syndrome (AOS), caused by SMAD3 mutations, is a recently described autosomal-dominant syndrome characterized by arterial aneurysms, tortuosity, and aortic dissections in combination with osteoarthritis. Our objective was to evaluate the AOS-related vascular consequences in the visceral and iliac arteries and raise awareness for this aggressive syndrome among vascular specialists. Methods All AOS patients were monitored regularly according to our clinical AOS protocol. The study included those with one or more visceral aneurysms or tortuosity, or both. Clinical and surgical data were obtained from record abstraction. Results The study included 17 AOS patients (47% men) aged 47 ± 13 years. A total of 73 aneurysms were encountered, of which 46 were located in the abdomen. The common iliac artery was most commonly affected (37%), followed by the superior mesenteric artery (15%), celiac trunk (11%), and splenic artery (9%). Rapid aneurysm growth ?1 year was found in three arteries (gastric, hepatic, and vertebral artery). Furthermore, arterial tortuosity was noted in 94% of patients. Four patients underwent six elective (endo) vascular interventions for aneurysms in the iliac, hepatic, gastric, or splenic artery, without major perioperative or postoperative complications. Conclusions AOS predisposes patients to widespread visceral and iliac artery aneurysms and extreme arterial tortuosity. Early elective aneurysm repair should be considered because the risk of aneurysm rupture is estimated to be very high and elective (endo) vascular interventions were not complicated by fragility of arterial tissue. Given the aggressive behavior of AOS, it is of utmost importance that vascular specialists are aware of this new syndrome. PMID:22975338

  1. Building an immune-mediated coagulopathy consensus: early recognition and evaluation to enhance post-surgical patient safety

    PubMed Central

    Ness, Paul; Creer, Michael; Rodgers, George M; Naoum, Joseph J; Renkens, Kenneth; Voils, Stacy A; Alexander, W Allan

    2009-01-01

    Topical hemostats, fibrin sealants, and surgical adhesives are regularly used in a variety of surgical procedures involving multiple disciplines. Generally, these adjuncts to surgical hemostasis are valuable means for improving wound visualization, reducing blood loss or adding tissue adherence; however, some of these agents are responsible for under-recognized adverse reactions and outcomes. Bovine thrombin, for example, is a topical hemostat with a long history of clinical application that is widely used alone or in combination with other hemostatic agents. Hematologists and coagulation experts are aware that these agents can lead to development of an immune-mediated coagulopathy (IMC). A paucity of data on the incidence of IMC contributes to under-recognition and leaves many surgeons unaware that this clinical entity, originating from normal immune responses to foreign antigen exposure, requires enhanced post-operative vigilance and judicious clinical judgment to achieve best outcomes. Postoperative bleeding may result from issues such as loosened ties or clips or the occurrence of a coagulopathy due to hemodilution, vitamin K deficiency, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) or post-transfusion, post-shock coagulopathic states. Other causes, such as liver disease, may be ruled out by a careful patient history and common pre-operative liver function tests. Less common are coagulopathies secondary to pathologic immune responses. Such coagulopathies include those that may result from inherent patient problems such as patients with an immune dysfunction related to systemic lupus erythrematosus (SLE) or lymphoma that can invoke antibodies against native coagulation factors. Medical interventions may also provoke antibody formation in the form of self-directed anti-coagulation factor antibodies, that result in problematic bleeding; it is these iatrogenic post-operative coagulopathies, including those associated with bovine thrombin exposure and its clinical context, that this panel was convened to address. The RETACC panel's goal was to attain a logical consensus by reviewing the scientific evidence surrounding IMC and to make recommendations for the clinical recognition, diagnosis and evaluation, and clinical management of these complications. In light of the under-recognition and under-reporting of IMC, and given the associated morbidity, utilization of health care resources, and potential economic impact to hospitals, the panel engaged in a detailed review of peer-reviewed reports of bovine thrombin associated IMC. From that clinical knowledge base, recommendations were developed to guide clinicians in the recognition, diagnosis, and management of this challenging condition. PMID:19463180

  2. Infusing Early Childhood Mental Health into Early Intervention Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabert, John C.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the process of enhancing early childhood mental health awareness and skills in non-mental health staff. The author describes a pilot training model, conducted the U.S. Army's Early Intervention Services, that involved: (a) increasing early childhood mental health knowledge through reflective readings, (b) enhancing

  3. Coronary artery stent (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with a balloon catheter and expands when the balloon is inflated. The stent is then left there to help keep the artery open. ... with a balloon catheter and expands when the balloon is inflated. The stent is then left there to help keep the artery open.

  4. Arterial Pressure Analog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heusner, A. A.; Tracy, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a simple hydraulic analog which allows students to explore some physical aspects of the cardiovascular system and provides them with a means to visualize and conceptualize these basic principles. Simulates the behavior of arterial pressure in response to changes in heart rate, stroke volume, arterial compliance, and peripheral…

  5. Partial aortic occlusion and cerebral venous steal: venous effects of arterial manipulation in acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Pranevicius, Osvaldas; Pranevicius, Mindaugas; Liebeskind, David S

    2011-05-01

    Acute ischemic stroke therapy emphasizes early arterial clot lysis or removal. Partial aortic occlusion has recently emerged as an alternative hemodynamic approach to augment cerebral perfusion in acute ischemic stroke. The exact mechanism of cerebral flow augmentation with partial aortic occlusion remains unclear and may involve more than simple diversion of arterial blood flow from the lower body to cerebral collateral circulation. The cerebral venous steal hypothesis suggests that even a small increase in tissue pressure in the ischemic area will divert blood flow to surrounding regions with lesser tissue pressures. This may cause no-reflow (absence of flow after restoration of arterial patency) in the ischemic core and "luxury perfusion" in the surrounding regions. Such maldistribution may be reversed with increased venous pressure titrated to avoid changes in intracranial pressure. We propose that partial aortic occlusion enhances perfusion in the brain by offsetting cerebral venous steal. Partial aortic occlusion redistributes blood volume into the upper part of the body, manifested by an increase in central venous pressure. Increased venous pressure recruits the collapsed vascular network and, by eliminating cerebral venous steal, corrects perifocal perfusion maldistribution analogous to positive end-expiratory pressure recruitment of collapsed airways to decrease ventilation/perfusion mismatch in the lungs. PMID:21441149

  6. Superdominant Right Coronary Artery with Double Posterior Descending Artery

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, Monika; Mittal, S. R.

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery anomalies are rare entities. All angiographers and cardiac surgeons need to be familiar with these anatomic variants for proper surgical revasularisation in the presence of coronary artery disease. We report here an interesting case of superdominant right coronary artery with double posterior descending artery. PMID:25838874

  7. Ischemic arterial events and atherosclerosis in patients with systemic sclerosis: a population-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction While microvascular disease is well described in systemic sclerosis (SSc), it is still unclear whether the occurrence of ischemic macrovascular events and atherosclerosis is enhanced among patients with SSc. Methods In this study, 111 SSc patients (74% of prevalent cases in Stockholm County) and 105 age- and sex-comparable population controls were investigated. Previous ischemic arterial events were tabulated. As surrogate measures of atherosclerosis, plaque occurrence and intima-media thickness (IMT) were determined with carotid ultrasound and the ankle-brachial index (ABI) was calculated. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors were recorded and we also measured biomarkers indicating systemic inflammation and endothelial activation/dysfunction. Results Mean age was 62 ± 12 years for patients and controls. Ischemic arterial events were more common, due to increased occurrence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and ischemic peripheral vascular disease (IPVD), in the patient group (12% vs. 4%, P = 0.03 and 9% vs. 0%, P = 0.003 respectively). On a group level, there was no difference regarding the occurrence of ischemic cerebrovascular disease, the frequency of plaques, IMT or ABI between SSc patients and controls. Subgroup analyses revealed that patients with anticentromere antibodies (ACA+) had more plaques and more ischemic arterial events compared to other SSc patients (67% vs. 39% and 32% vs. 11%; P = 0.006 and P = 0.01, respectively) and compared to controls (67% vs. 41% and 32% vs. 7%, P = 0.02 and P = 0.0003, respectively). Biomarkers of inflammation/endothelial activation were generally increased among SSc patients. Conclusions Patients with SSc are at enhanced risk for IHD and IPVD. The ACA+ SSc subgroup was particularly affected with both ischemic arterial events and premature atherosclerosis. The microvascular vulnerability of ACA+ patients is previously well documented. We demonstrate that ACA+ SSc patients have an enhanced risk of macrovascular injury as well. This group should be followed closely and modifiable cardiovascular risk factors should be treated at an early stage. PMID:23945149

  8. Determinants of an elevated pulmonary arterial pressure in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sakao, Seiichiro; Voelkel, Norbert F; Tanabe, Nobuhiro; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2015-01-01

    Given the difficulty of diagnosing early-stage pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) due to the lack of signs and symptoms, and the risk of an open lung biopsy, the precise pathological features of presymptomatic stage lung tissue remain unknown. It has been suggested that the maximum elevation of the mean pulmonary arterial pressure (P pa) is achieved during the early symptomatic stage, indicating that the elevation of the mean P pa is primarily driven by the pulmonary vascular tone and/or some degree of pulmonary vascular remodeling completed during this stage. Recently, the examination of a rat model of severe PAH suggested that the severe PAH may be primarily determined by the presence of intimal lesions and/or the vascular tone in the early stage. Human data seem to indicate that intimal lesions are essential for the severely increased pulmonary arterial blood pressure in the late stage of the disease.However, many questions remain. For instance, how does the pulmonary hemodynamics change during the course of the disease, and what drives the development of severe PAH? Although it is generally acknowledged that both pulmonary vascular remodeling and the vascular tone are important determinants of an elevated pulmonary arterial pressure, which is the root cause of the time-dependent progression of the disease? Here we review the recent histopathological concepts of PAH with respect to the progression of the lung vascular disease. PMID:26150101

  9. Early discharge in the thrombolytic era: An analysis of criteria for uncomplicated infarction from the global utilization of streptokinase and tPA for occluded coronary arteries (GUSTO) trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Kristin Newby; Robert M. Califf; Alan Guerci; W. Douglas Weaver; Jacques Col; John H. Horgan; Daniel B. Mark; Amanda Stebbins; Frans Van de Werf; Joel M. Gore; Eric J. Topol

    1996-01-01

    Objectives. This study sought to readdress the definition of uncomplicated myocardial infarction and to apply clinical criteria for early discharge of such patients in the thrombolytic era.Background. Previous studies proposed early hospital discharge at day 7 to 10 after acute myocardial infarction. The potential for earlier discharge of patients with uncomplicated infarction after thrombolysis remains undemonstrated.Methods. We defined “uncomplicated infarction”

  10. Neonatal pulmonary artery thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Mangesh; Sapre, Ashish; Garekar, Swati; Kulkarni, Snehal

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary artery thrombosis in neonates is a rare entity. We describe two neonates with this diagnosis; their presentation, evaluation, and management. These cases highlight the importance of this differential diagnosis when evaluating the cyanotic neonate. PMID:22529601

  11. Neonatal pulmonary artery thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Jadhav, Mangesh; Sapre, Ashish; Garekar, Swati; Kulkarni, Snehal

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary artery thrombosis in neonates is a rare entity. We describe two neonates with this diagnosis; their presentation, evaluation, and management. These cases highlight the importance of this differential diagnosis when evaluating the cyanotic neonate. PMID:22529601

  12. Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Atherosclerosis Coronary Heart Disease Heart Attack Smoking and Your ... in the body's arteries, the condition is called atherosclerosis (ATH-er-o-skler-O-sis). Over time, ...

  13. Peripheral artery bypass - leg

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Libby P. Peripheral arterial diseases. IN: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, eds Braunwald's Heart ... of noncorononary obstructive vascular disease. IN: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, eds. Braunwald's Heart ...

  14. Acute and prolonged treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin therapy in patients with unstable coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Husted, S; Kher, A

    2000-12-01

    Unstable angina and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (MI) are known as unstable coronary artery disease (UCAD). They are syndromes that share a common pathobiology and represent a frequently encountered and potentially life-threatening medical condition. Acute-phase treatment with aspirin is associated with a significant reduction in death and non-fatal MI in patients with UCAD. This benefit is enhanced by the addition of unfractionated heparin (UFH) to the treatment strategy; however, UFH requires careful monitoring and titration. In contrast, low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs), produced by chemical or enzymatic depolymerization of UFH, yield a predictable and consistent pharmacokinetic profile and anticoagulant response making them an attractive alternative treatment to UFH in patients with UCAD. In several studies, acute-phase treatment with LMWH has been shown to be at least as effective and safe as UFH. The optimal duration of treatment with LMWH is an important question that has been influenced by the observation that reactivation of coagulation occurs following the early and abrupt discontinuation of heparin treatment. In early trials, such as FRISC (Fragmin during instability in coronary artery disease) and FRIC (Fragmin in unstable coronary artery disease), the results of extended treatment were inconclusive; however, the trial populations included patients of relatively low risk and used a once-daily dosing regimen. In the TIMI 11B (Thrombolysis in myocardial infarction) extended treatment beyond the few days of acute treatment with enoxaparin did not add to the beneficial LMWH effect, but in this study 40% of the high-risk patients did not continue on extended treatment. The findings derived from the FRISC II trial, which used a twice-daily dose of dalteparin sodium, suggest a benefit for up to 45 days with extended treatment in high-risk UCAD patients. Although an early invasive treatment strategy is particularly beneficial, patients in whom early revascularization is not possible should be considered for extended treatment with dalteparin sodium awaiting percutaneous coronary intervention. PMID:11209983

  15. Adapted Transfer Function Design for Coronary Artery Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaßer, Sylvia; Oeltze, Steffen; Hennemuth, Anja; Wilhelmsen, Skadi; Preim, Bernhard

    We present an approach for adapted transfer function (TF) specification to highlight pathologic changes of the coronary artery vessel wall based on contrast medium-enhanced computed tomography (CT) datasets. The TFs are combined with common visualization techniques for the evaluation of coronary arteries in CT image data. The presented mapping of CT values in Hounsfield Units (HU) to optical properties such as color and opacity leads to a different color coding for different plaque types.

  16. Total endoscopic off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Falk, V; Diegeler, A; Walther, T; Jacobs, S; Raumans, J; Mohr, F W

    2000-01-01

    Two cases of totally endoscopic off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (TECAB) of the left internal thoracic artery to the left anterior descending artery using the da Vincitrade mark telemanipulation system (Intuitive Surgical, Mountain View, CA) are described. A new articulating endoscopic stabilizer with cleats was developed to enable endoscopic anchoring of silastic vessel loops for vascular occlusion. Newly created attachments for irrigation and suction, along with active robotic enhanced assistance by a second surgical console, permitted our group to perform for the first time a truly endoscopic bypass grafting without any thoracotomy. PMID:11064543

  17. Renal artery stenosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen C. Textor; Michael A. McKusick

    2001-01-01

    Opinion statement  Renal artery stenosis (RAS) can accelerate or generate progressive hypertension and renal dysfunction. The goals for treating\\u000a patients with RAS are to reduce cardiovascu-lar morbidity and mortality attributable to elevated arterial pressure and to\\u000a preserve renal function beyond critical stenosis. Recent, randomized trials with current anti-hypertensive agents indicate\\u000a that many patients with RAS can be managed for years without

  18. Rotational vertebral artery syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Marti; Stefan Hegemann; Hans-Christian von Büdingen; Ralf W. Baumgartner; Dominik Straumann

    2008-01-01

    Whether the rotational vertebral artery syndrome (RVAS), consisting of attacks of vertigo, nystagmus and tinnitus elicited\\u000a by head-rotation induced compression of the dominant vertebral artery (VA), reflects ischemic dysfunction of uni- or bilateral\\u000a peripheral or central vestibular structures, is still debated. We report on a patient with bilateral high-grade carotid stenoses,\\u000a in whom rightward headrotation led to RVAS symptoms including

  19. Visceral artery aneurysms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jade S. Hiramoto; Louis M. Messina

    2005-01-01

    Optional statement  Visceral artery aneurysms are an uncommon form of vascular disease, yet are important to the practicing vascular surgeon because\\u000a of the potential for rupture or erosion into an adjacent viscus, resulting in life-threatening hemorrhage. Many visceral artery\\u000a aneurysms still present with rupture, which often results in the death of the patient. An aggressive approach to the diagnosis\\u000a and management

  20. Coronary artery bypass grafting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenji Takazawa; Yasuyuki Hosoda; Taira Yamamoto; Shiori Kawasaki; Shiro Sasaguri

    1999-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze the long-term results of coronary artery bypass grafting in Japanese patients who were\\u000a followed more than 10 years after surgery, and, without resorting to actuarial methods, to determine the factors that influence\\u000a long-term survival.Subjects and Methods: From January 1984 through December 1986, 376 patients received coronary artery bypass grafting at the

  1. Sildenafil Citrate Therapy for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nazzareno Galiè; Hossein A. Ghofrani; Adam Torbicki; Robyn J. Barst; Lewis J. Rubin; David Badesch; Thomas Fleming; Tamiza Parpia; Gary Burgess; Angelo Branzi; Friedrich Grimminger; Marcin Kurzyna; Gérald Simonneau

    2010-01-01

    background Sildenafil inhibits phosphodiesterase type 5, an enzyme that metabolizes cyclic guan- osine monophosphate, thereby enhancing the cyclic guanosine monophosphate- mediated relaxation and growth inhibition of vascular smooth-muscle cells, including those in the lung. methods In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we randomly assigned 278 patients with symptomatic pulmonary arterial hypertension (either idiopathic or associated with con- nective-tissue disease or with

  2. Surgical management of peritonitis secondary to acute superior mesenteric artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis of acute arterial mesenteric ischemia in the early stages is now possible using modern computed tomography with intravenous contrast enhancement and imaging in the arterial and/or portal phase. Most patients have acute superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion, and a large proportion of these patients will develop peritonitis prior to mesenteric revascularization, and explorative laparotomy will therefore be necessary to evaluate the extent and severity of intestinal ischemia, and to perform bowel resections. The establishment of a hybrid operating room in vascular units in hospitals is most important to be able to perform successful intestinal revascularization. This review outlines current frontline surgical strategies to improve survival and minimize bowel morbidity in patients with peritonitis secondary to acute SMA occlusion. Explorative laparotomy needs to be performed first. Curative treatment is based upon intestinal revascularization followed by bowel resection. If no vascular imaging has been carried out, SMA angiography is performed. In case of embolic occlusion of the SMA, open embolectomy is performed followed by angiography. In case of thrombotic occlusion, the occlusive lesion can be recanalized retrograde from an exposed SMA, the guidewire snared from either the femoral or brachial artery, and stented with standard devices from these access sites. Bowel resections and sometimes gall bladder removal due to transmural infarctions are performed at initial laparotomy, leaving definitive bowel reconstructions to a planned second look laparotomy, according to the principles of damage control surgery. Patients with peritonitis secondary to acute SMA occlusion should be managed by both the general and vascular surgeon, and a hybrid revascularization approach is of utmost importance to improve outcomes. PMID:25110423

  3. Effects of storage solutions on in vitro vasoreactivity of radial artery conduits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. C. F. Chong; P. J. L. Ong; C. Hayward; N. Moat; P. Collins

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: Surgical preparation of coronary conduits for coronary artery bypass grafting may affect their early and long-term patency; one mechanism may involve endothelial damage. We investigated the effect of 3 commonly used solutions—Ringer's solution, normal saline solution, and heparinized whole blood—on in vitro endothelial and contractile functions of the human radial artery. Methods: Radial artery segments were harvested, cut into

  4. Effect of aspirin on acute changes in peripheral arterial stiffness and endothelial function following exertional heat stress in firefighters: The factorial group results of the Enhanced Firefighter Rehab Trial.

    PubMed

    Olafiranye, Oladipupo; Hostler, David; Winger, Daniel G; Wang, Li; Reis, Steven E

    2015-06-01

    Peripheral arterial stiffness and endothelial function, which are independent predictors of cardiac events, are abnormal in firefighters. We examined the effects of aspirin on peripheral arterial stiffness and endothelial function in firefighters. Fifty-two firefighters were randomized to receive daily 81 mg aspirin or placebo for 14 days before treadmill exercise in thermal protection clothing, and a single dose of 325 mg aspirin or placebo immediately following exertion. Peripheral arterial augmentation index adjusted for a heart rate of 75 (AI75) and reactive hyperemia index (RHI) were determined immediately before, and 30, 60, and 90 minutes after exertion. Low-dose aspirin was associated with lower AI75 (-15.25±9.25 vs -8.08±10.70, p=0.014) but not RHI. On repeated measures analysis, treatment with low-dose aspirin before, but not single-dose aspirin after exertion, was associated with lower AI75 following exertional heat stress (p=0.018). Low-dose aspirin improved peripheral arterial stiffness and wave reflection but not endothelial function in firefighters. PMID:25939657

  5. Early Development in the Peritoneal Cavity of CD49dhigh Th1 Memory Phenotype CD4+ T Cells with Enhanced B Cell Helper Activity.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hana; Park, Chanho; Lee, Jae-Ghi; Shin, Sang Hyuck; Lee, Joo Hee; Kho, Inseong; Kang, KyeongJin; Cha, Hoon-Suk; Kim, Tae Jin

    2015-07-15

    The Th cells that regulate peritoneal B-1 cell functions have not yet been well characterized. To address this question, we investigated peritoneal CD4(+) T cells, observed a high frequency of the conjugates of B-CD4(+) T cells in the peritoneal cavity, and identified a population of CD49d(high)CD4(+) T cells that constituted about half of all CD4(+) T cells in the peritoneal cavity, but were rarely found in other compartments. Peritoneal CD49d(high)CD4(+) T cells were CD44(high)CD62L(low); expressed integrin ?4?1 and CXCR3; and rapidly secreted IFN-?, TNF-?, and IL-2, showing features of proinflammatory Th1 cells. Peritoneal CD49d(high)CD4(+) T cells developed spontaneously, were detected at the age of 12 d, and showed stem cell-like properties. Their development was observed in mice deficient for signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein, but not in athymic nude mice and mice lacking in expression of MHC class II on thymic epithelial cells. Peritoneal CD49d(high)CD4(+) T cells were more resistant to irradiation and more sensitive to NAD-induced cell death than CD49d(low)CD4(+) T cells. Notably, peritoneal CD49d(high)CD4(+) T cells also showed some characteristics of follicular Th cells, such as the expression of programmed cell death 1, ICOS, IL-21, and CXCR5. Moreover, peritoneal CD49d(high)CD4(+) T cells enhanced the secretion of IgM Abs by B-1a cells and IgG Abs by splenic B cells. These data suggest that peritoneal CD49d(high)CD4(+) T cells may be innate-like CD4(+) T cells, which develop early and have a dual capacity to support both humoral and cellular immunity. PMID:26056253

  6. Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome: clinical diagnostic value of dynamic enhanced MSCT

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pei-Yuan; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Xia; Liu, Xin-Jiang; Chen, Liang; Wang, Xu; Wang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the clinical diagnostic value of dynamic enhanced multislice computed tomography (MSCT) for Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome (FHCS). [Subjects and Methods] This study retrospectively analyzed the clinical features and manifestations of scanning and dynamic enhanced MSCT in 19 patients with FHCS. [Results] MSCT scans showed different degrees of liver capsule thickness in the lesion area: seven cases of sub-capsular effusion and three cases with a small amount of pleural effusion; thickness of the liver capsular arterial phase showing significant enhancement in 17 cases, and slight enhancement in two; portal venous and delayed phase enhancement decreased with no clear boundary of the liver parenchyma; and adjacent hepatic parenchymal involvement in five cases, in which the arterial phase appeared to have patchy or triangular enhancement, and unclear portal vein and delayed phase imaging findings. MSCT revealed pelvic inflammatory disease in 14 cases, peritonitis in two, endometritis combined with bilateral ovarian abscesses in two, and a tube-ovarian abscess in one. [Conclusion] Dynamic enhanced MSCT can accurately display liver capsule lesions and possible pelvic inflammatory diseases related to FHCS, suggest the infection source, and have high application value for making early, accurate diagnoses and improved prognosis. PMID:26180288

  7. Safety of Chemotherapeutic Infusion or Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Supplied Exclusively by the Cystic Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Beomsik, E-mail: kangbs98@gmail.com; Kim, Hyo-Cheol, E-mail: angiointervention@gmail.com; Chung, Jin Wook, E-mail: chungjw@snu.ac.kr; Hur, Saebeom, E-mail: hurz21@gmail.com; Joo, Seung-Moon, E-mail: huchi79@gmail.com; Jae, Hwan Jun, E-mail: jhj@radiol.snu.ac.kr; Park, Jae Hyung, E-mail: parkjh4803@gmail.com [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the safety of chemotherapeutic infusion or chemoembolization by way of the cystic artery in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) supplied exclusively by the cystic artery. Methods: Between Jan 2002 and Dec 2011, we performed chemotherapeutic infusion or chemoembolization using iodized oil for the treatment of 27 patients with HCC supplied exclusively by the cystic artery. Computed tomography (CT) scans, digital subtraction angiograms, and medical records were retrospectively reviewed by consensus. Results: The cystic artery originated from the main right hepatic artery in 24 (89 %) patients, from the right anterior hepatic artery in 2 (7 %) patients, and from the left hepatic artery in 1 (4 %) patient. Selective catheterization of the cystic artery was achieved in all patients. Superselection of tumor-feeding vessels from the cystic artery was achieved in 7 patients (26 %). Chemotherapeutic infusion was performed in 18 patients (67 %), and chemoembolization was performed in 9 patients (33 %). There were no major complications and only 2 minor complications, including vasovagal syncope and nausea with vomiting. Individual tumor response supplied exclusively by the cystic artery at the follow-up enhanced CT scan were complete response (n = 16), partial response (n = 3), and stable disease (n = 8). Conclusion: HCC supplied exclusively by the cystic artery can be safely treated without severe complications by chemotherapeutic infusion or chemoembolization using iodized oil through the cystic artery.

  8. Understanding Arteries | Coronary Artery Disease | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Coronary Artery Disease Understanding Arteries Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents Below: ... the arteries and veins are healthy. A Healthy Artery An artery is a muscular tube. It has ...

  9. Image-Based Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling in Realistic Arterial Geometries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID A. STEINMAN

    2002-01-01

    Local hemodynamics are an important factor in ath- erosclerosis, from the development of early lesions, to the as- sessment of stroke risk, to determining the ultimate fate of a mature plaque. Until recently, our understanding of arterial fluid dynamics and their relationship to atherosclerosis was limited by the use of idealized or averaged artery models. Recent advances in medical imaging,

  10. Image-Based Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling in Realistic Arterial Geometries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Steinman

    2002-01-01

    Local hemodynamics are an important factor in atherosclerosis, from the development of early lesions, to the assessment of stroke risk, to determining the ultimate fate of a mature plaque. Until recently, our understanding of arterial fluid dynamics and their relationship to atherosclerosis was limited by the use of idealized or averaged artery models. Recent advances in medical imaging, computerized image

  11. [Laparoscopic ligation of the internal iliac artery in bleeding cervix carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Skret, A; Obrzut, B; Stachurski, J

    1995-01-01

    Laparoscopic ligation of internal iliac artery was performed in two patients with bleeding from stage II cervical cancer. The hemostatic effect, shortening of convalescence and early initiation of radiotherapy was obtained. Additionally, during procedure the lymph node sampling was performed. Laparoscopy appeared to be an alternative procedure to abdominal or extraperitoneal ligation of internal iliac artery. PMID:7483884

  12. Pathomechanisms and the diagnosis of arterial hypertension in pediatric renal allograft recipients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rainer Büscher; Udo Vester; A.-M. Wingen; Peter F. Hoyer

    2004-01-01

    Arterial hypertension is common in pediatric renal allograft recipients. While the causes are multifactorial, including chronic graft rejection, immunosuppressive therapy, and renal vascular disorders, the effect of hypertension on renal allograft function is detrimental. As in adults, if not treated early and aggressively, hypertension may lead to cardiovascular damage and graft failure. Pathophysiological changes in the arteries and kidney after

  13. Relation between Vascular Resistance and Intimal Thickness in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    So-Yeon Choi; Seung-Jea Tahk; Zhe-Xun Lian; Myeong-Ho Yoon; Jong-Hoon Koh; Joon-Han Shin; Han-Soo Kim; Byung-il William Choi

    Background:The intimal thickening of coronary artery was understood as an early process in the beginning of atherosclerosis. However, the implication of intimal thickening as a morphologic change of coronary artery disease, on the coronary vascular hemodynamics has not been explored. Methods:To evaluate the effect of intimal thickening on the coronary vascular hemodynamics, we studied the extent of intimal thickening on

  14. Brachial Artery Access for Percutaneous Renal Artery Interventions

    SciTech Connect

    Kaukanen, Erkki T.; Manninen, Hannu I.; Matsi, Pekka J.; Soeder, Heini K. [Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio University Hospital, SF-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    1997-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the suitability of transbrachial access for endovascular renal artery interventions. Methods: During 37 consecutive endovascular renal artery interventions, the transbrachial approach was used on nine patients (mean age 63 years; range 41-76 years) for 11 renal artery procedures on native kidneys and one percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) on a transplanted kidney. The reason for using transbrachial access was a steep aorta-renal angle in five, and severe aorta-iliac atherosclerosis in the remaining patients. In addition to the intervention catheter in the left brachial artery, an additional nonselective catheter for controlling the procedure was inserted transfemorally (six patients) or via the contralateral brachial artery. Results: Eleven interventions (six PTAs, five stents) were successfully completed. The one failure resulted from impenetrable subclavian artery stenosis. The only major complication was a brachial artery pseudoaneurysm requiring surgical treatment. Conclusion: Transbrachial access is an effective and relatively safe technique for renal artery interventions when transfemoral access is not possible.

  15. THE RECOGNITION AND MANAGEMENT OF PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL INJURIES.

    PubMed

    GOLDMAN, B S; FIROR, W B; KEY, J A

    1965-05-29

    Early recognition of limb ischemia may allow prompt, effective therapy for peripheral arterial injuries. A review of cases of peripheral arterial trauma at the Toronto General Hospital since 1953 revealed that 50% of the injuries were not immediately recognized. An expanding hematoma, pulsatile hemorrhage or the onset of a bruit and thrill signifies arterial damage in penetrating wounds. Ischemia may be difficult to recognize in patients with soft tissue or skeletal trauma, but the presence of distal pallor, coolness, paresis, cyanosis, anesthesia, poor capillary refill and disproportionate pain indicates significant arterial damage and necessitates surgical exploration. The diagnosis of arterial "spasm" in such instances is untenable and can only be made after direct inspection, or on the return of pulses after reduction of a fracture or release of a tight cast. Restoration of arterial continuity by end-to-end anastomosis is the recommended technique for all arterial injuries, since after ligation of even minor vessels, ischemia may ensue, and amputation may occasionally be necessary. PMID:14285303

  16. Total arterial coronary revascularization—patient selection, stenoses, conduits, targets

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Graft patency determines prognosis in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Numerous reports over the past 20 years have documented superior patencies and prognosis when multiple arterial grafts are used, yet less than 10% of CABG have multiple arterial grafts. Several conduits have been proposed, with varying degrees of success. Saphenous vein grafts (SVG) begin to fail with intimal hypertrophy and then atheroma after 5 years, with patency rates of 50% to 60% at 10 years, and <30% at 15 years. In contrast, left internal thoracic artery (LITA) patency is >95% at 10 years and >90% at 20 years. The radial artery is extremely versatile and can reach all territories, but is muscular and vulnerable to spasm and competitive flow. Similarly, the right gastroepiploic artery is also muscular, and is best suited to the posterior descending coronary artery, especially in reoperations and is also affected by competitive flow. In addition, bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting (BITA) grafts and total arterial revascularization (TACR) can be performed with identical perioperative mortality (1%) and perioperative morbidity to LITA + SVG. Importantly, survival is superior—85% to 90% at 10 years versus 75% to 80% respectively. BITA/TACR patients also suffer fewer late cardiac events and reoperations, with superior results for older patients, those requiring urgent surgery, diabetics, patients with renal dysfunction and in reoperations. Contraindications to BITA include obesity, insulin dependent diabetics, and severe chronic obstructive airways disease. As such, arterial grafts have better patencies and clinical results. BITA/TACR is often underutilized, but can be achieved in the majority of patients. Opportunities exist to enhance BITA/TACR use in CABG to the potential benefit of our patients. PMID:23977629

  17. Skeletonized coronary arteries: pathophysiological and clinical aspects of vascular calcification.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Carlos V; Oranges, Marcelo; Brunaldi, Vitor; de M Soeiro, Alexandre; Torres, Tatiana Andreucci; Nicolau, José Carlos; Ramires, José Antonio F

    2011-01-01

    The role of calcification in coronary artery disease is gaining importance, both in research studies and in clinical application. Calcified plaque has long been considered to be the most important atherosclerotic plaque within the arterial tree and frequently presents a challenge for percutaneous intervention. Current investigations have shown that plaque calcification has a dynamic course that is closely related to the magnitude of vascular inflammation. Numerous inflammatory factors synthesized during the early stages of atherosclerosis induce the expression and activation of osteoblast-like cells localized in the arterial wall that produce calcium. There is no doubt that the role of these factors in calcification associated with coronary artery disease could be a crucial strategic point in prevention and treatment. A number of diagnostic imaging methods have been developed in recent years, but their performance needs to be improved. In this context, we undertook an update on coronary calcification, focusing on physiopathology, clinical implications, and imaging techniques. PMID:21490939

  18. Skeletonized coronary arteries: pathophysiological and clinical aspects of vascular calcification

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Carlos V; Oranges, Marcelo; Brunaldi, Vitor; de M Soeiro, Alexandre; Torres, Tatiana Andreucci; Nicolau, José Carlos; Ramires, José Antonio F

    2011-01-01

    The role of calcification in coronary artery disease is gaining importance, both in research studies and in clinical application. Calcified plaque has long been considered to be the most important atherosclerotic plaque within the arterial tree and frequently presents a challenge for percutaneous intervention. Current investigations have shown that plaque calcification has a dynamic course that is closely related to the magnitude of vascular inflammation. Numerous inflammatory factors synthesized during the early stages of atherosclerosis induce the expression and activation of osteoblast-like cells localized in the arterial wall that produce calcium. There is no doubt that the role of these factors in calcification associated with coronary artery disease could be a crucial strategic point in prevention and treatment. A number of diagnostic imaging methods have been developed in recent years, but their performance needs to be improved. In this context, we undertook an update on coronary calcification, focusing on physiopathology, clinical implications, and imaging techniques. PMID:21490939

  19. Arterial desaturation in healthy untrained subjects

    E-print Network

    Rhodes, Jann

    1988-01-01

    ) had examined arterial blood gas tensions during exercise by analyzing blood drawn directly from the radial and brachial arteries. He recorded a mean arterial saturation value of 95. 6% in 15 normal subjects at rest and an exercise arterial...

  20. Arterial wall lymphangiogenesis is increased in the human iliac atherosclerotic arteries: involvement of CCR7 receptor.

    PubMed

    Grzegorek, Irmina; Drozdz, Katarzyna; Chmielewska, Magdalena; Gomulkiewicz, Agnieszka; Jablonska, Karolina; Piotrowska, Aleksandra; Karczewski, Maciej; Janczak, Dariusz; Podhorska-Okolow, Marzena; Dziegiel, Piotr; Szuba, Andrzej

    2014-12-01

    Twenty-six iliac artery segments were divided in two groups: atherosclerotic (A) and nonatherosclerotic (NA). Expression of LYVE-1, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, and CCR7 receptor were studied with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot (WB). IHC was performed on 26 samples of iliac arteries obtained from deceased 19 organ donors. The samples were divided into an atherosclerotic group (A) [subjects with history of cardiovascular disease (hypertension, ischemic heart disease) or/and diabetes] (n=16), and a nonatherosclerotic group (NA) [subjects without any known cardiovascular diseases or cardiovascular risk factors] (n=10). WB was performed on 19 iliac artery segments obtained from two groups, based on clinical data: an atherosclerotic group (A) [patients with atherosclerosis, who underwent surgery for lower limb ischemia] (n=10), and a nonatherosclerotic group (NA) [deceased organ donors without cardiovascular diseases/risk factors (n=9)]. Expression of LYVE-1, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, and CCR-7 was increased in atherosclerotic arteries. Positive correlations between LYVE-1 and VEGF-C expression in the intima-media complex assessed by IHC: (r=0.54; p=0.005) and WB: (r=0.47; p=0.005) were found. Positive correlations between expression of CCR-7 and other markers were observed. Lymphangiogenesis is enhanced within the atherosclerotic arterial wall. Our results confirm lymphatic system activation with increased lymphangiogenesis and lymphocyte/macrophage trafficking in atherosclerosis. PMID:25318003

  1. Characterization of focal hepatic masses by dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging: findings in 311 lesions.

    PubMed

    Quillin, S P; Atilla, S; Brown, J J; Borrello, J A; Yu, C Y; Pilgram, T K

    1997-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the overall accuracy of known enhancement patterns for the characterization of a large series of focal hepatic masses on dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) images. Breath-hold T1-weighted images of the liver acquired before intravenous gadolinium administration and serially over 6-10 min after contrast injection were acquired in < 25 a using FLASH or rapid spin-echo pulse sequences. A total of 311 proven focal hepatic masses in 128 patients were analyzed, including 192 malignant lesions (166 metastases and 26 hepatomas) and 119 benign lesions (48 cavernous hemangiomas, 45 hepatic cysts, and 26 other abnormalities). The lesions were evaluated for a variety of characteristics independently by two reviewers who were blinded to results. Cavernous hemangiomas showed early peripheral nodular enhancement (80% sensitivity and 99% specificity) and hepatic cysts showed no enhancement (100% sensitivity and 95% specificity). Hepatic metastases showed variable, moderate enhancement (47% by one reviewer and 74% by the other). Metastatic lesions from hypervascular primary neoplasms displayed peak enhancement during the hepatic artery dominant (bolus) phase, while other malignant neoplasms showed later peak enhancement (72% sensitivity and 77% specificity). Five metastatic foci with early homogeneous enhancement showed a delayed peripheral washout of contrast (rim sign), while no nonmetastatic foci displayed this finding (3% sensitivity and 100% specificity). Characteristic enhancement patterns of focal hepatic lesions were described in a large series of patients. This study confirms results of previous investigators who have shown that early nodular peripheral enhancement was highly specific for hemangiomas and lack of enhancement was highly specific for hepatic cysts. Hypervascular metastatic foci show earlier peak enhancement than other malignant lesions. Some (2-3%) metastatic lesions display a peripheral washout of contrast on serial images, with 100% specificity. PMID:9201674

  2. Aortic Arch Variation: A Unique Case with Anomalous Origin of Both Vertebral Arteries as Additional Branches of the Aortic Arch Distal to Left Subclavian Artery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vaishali B. Goray; Anagha R. Joshi; Ashwin Garg; Suleman Merchant; Bhupinder Yadav; Pravin Maheshwari

    Summary: We present the case of bilateral anomalous origin of both vertebral arteries (VAs) in a 20-year-old male patient who presented for routine contrast-enhanced CT follow-up examination of the chest. Contrast-enhanced CT revealed abnormal origins of both the VAs from the aortic arch distal to the origin of the left subclavian artery. Fol- lowing this, CT angiography was performed, which

  3. Carotid Artery Stenosis Associated with Increased Mortality in Patients who Underwent Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: A Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    da Rosa, Marcelo P.; Schwendler, Ricardo; Lopes, Rodrigo; Portal, Vera L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Vascular disease resulting from arteriosclerosis is a severe worldwide health risk. Early diagnosis and intervention is important to control adverse cerebral and cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to assess the potential predictors of mortality in patients submitted to coronary bypass surgery. Methods: Cohort study included asymptomatic cerebrovascular disease patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting admitted to the cardiology reference center. All patients were submitted to carotid artery ultrasound assessment prior to surgery and were followed up during the entire in-hospital postoperative period. Carotid artery stenosis was considered clinically significant when cross sectional area ?50%. Significance was set at p <0.05. Logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of mortality. Results: Of 455 patients with a mean age of 62.2 years 65.6% were males. The prevalence of carotid artery stenosis was 18.7%. It was absent in 3.6% of the patients, below 50% in 77.8%, between 50 and 69% in 11.6%, and between 70 and 99% in 6.9%. The carotid artery was occluded in 0.2% of the sample. An overall mortality of 12%, affecting 35 men (P=0.001) with stenosis ?50%. After logistic regression analysis, carotid artery stenosis ?50% was confirmed as being an independent predictor of mortality (P=0.005). Conclusion: In this series carotid artery stenosis showed a high prevalence in the sample assessed and was an independent predictor of mortality. PMID:24093050

  4. Brachial Artery Injury Accompanying Closed Elbow Dislocations

    PubMed Central

    Harnarayan, Patrick; Cawich, Shamir O.; Harnanan, Dave; Budhooram, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Brachial artery injuries from elbow dislocations are uncommon, but they may lead to disastrous consequences if the diagnosis is delayed. Presentation of case We report a case of a patient who sustained a fall onto the elbow, with dislocation and brachial artery injury, despite an ipsilateral radial pulse being palpable. Discussion Clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for brachial injury when patients present with a fall onto the elbow coupled with signs suggestive of fracture-dislocation, nerve injury and/or signs of limb ischemia. Frank ischamia, however, is uncommon as there is a rich collateral anastomosis in the upper limb. Conclusion A high index of suspicion should be maintained in order to make the diagnosis early. Exploration with excision of the injured segment and reverse vein interposition grafting is the treatment of choice in these cases. PMID:25644552

  5. All about Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    All About Peripheral Arterial Disease American Diabetes Association? ? 1–800–DIABETES (342–2383)? ? www.diabetes.org ©2009 ... Diabetes Association, Inc. 2/14 Toolkit No. 25: All About Peripheral Arterial Disease continued have PAD. The ...

  6. Peripheral Arterial Disease and Claudication

    MedlinePLUS

    ... arterial disease (PAD) is a problem with blood flow in the arteries, especially those in the legs. ... commonly your legs, don’t get enough blood flow. The most common complaint of people who have ...

  7. Peripheral Artery Disease and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Peripheral Artery Disease & Diabetes Updated:Oct 7,2014 People with diabetes are at higher risk of developing peripheral artery disease (PAD) . And individuals with PAD are four ...

  8. Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sign In Cardiology Patient Page Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease Emile R. Mohler III , MD From the ... with rest? If yes, you may have peripheral artery disease (PAD). This disease of the blood circulation ...

  9. Cutaneous markers of coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Shridhar; Jhamb, Rajat

    2010-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is rapidly increasing in prevalence across the world and particularly in south Asians at a relatively younger age. As atherosclerosis starts in early childhood, the process of risk evaluation must start quite early. The present review addresses the issue of cutaneous markers associated with atherosclerosis, and the strengths and weaknesses of the markers in identifying early coronary atherosclerosis. A diligent search for such clinical markers, namely xanthelasma, xanthoma, arcus juvenilis, acanthosis nigricans, skin tags, ear lobe crease, nicotine stains, premature graying in smokers, hyperpigmented hands in betel quid sellers, central obesity, and signs of peripheral vascular disease may prove to be a rewarding exercise in identifying asymptomatic CAD in high risk individuals. PMID:21160602

  10. Harvesting the radial artery

    PubMed Central

    Osterday, Robert M.; Brodman, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    The radial artery (RA) has emerged as an important arterial graft for coronary bypass surgery. With improving five-year patency rates and increasing uptake, great attention has been focused on the optimal conduit harvesting technique. We herein present our approach to RA harvesting. Prerequisites of a successful harvest include adherence to important anatomical landmarks, protection of the sensory innervation to the volar forearm, and meticulous handling of the RA branches. Regardless of the harvesting methodology chosen, adherence to a “no-touch” technique will optimize the patency and durability of the RA conduit. PMID:23977633

  11. A High-Resolution Multi-Proxy Lake Sediment Record from Torfdalsvatn Suggests an Enhanced Temperature Gradient Between North and South Iceland During the Early Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florian, Christopher; Geirsdóttir, Áslaug; Miller, Gifford; Axford, Yarrow

    2015-04-01

    Torfdalsvatn (66° 3'41.73"N, 20°23'14.26"W) is a relatively small (0.4 km2) and shallow (z=5.8 m) lake on the Skagi Peninsula of northern Iceland approximately 0.5 km from the modern coastline. This location is ideal for comparison with the many marine core records from the North Iceland Shelf that record variability in the northern extent of the warm Irminger Current, one of the primary controls on regional climate. To develop a record of north Iceland Holocene terrestrial climate, we analyzed a 8.4 m sediment core at 15-30 year resolution from approximately 12 ka to present using multiple proxies including sedimentary pigments, organic carbon flux, carbon to nitrogen ratio and stable isotopes, as well as biogenic silica measured by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR-S). Results show gradual warming during the early Holocene, with stable soil development and peak aquatic productivity not occurring until after 8 ka. Increased aquatic productivity and a stable terrestrial environment between 6 and 2 ka indicate peak Holocene warmth in this interval. Aquatic productivity abruptly decreases at 1.8 ka associated with an increase in minerogenic material from landscape destabilization in the catchment with the onset of late Holocene cooling. At 1ka, the proportion of terrestrially-derived organic matter deposited in the lake sediment increases, indicating significant destabilization of soil horizons due to continued cooling and potential human settlement. This record is in good agreement with composite north Iceland chironomid-inferred July air temperatures from Axford et al. (2007), which show peak summer temperatures occurring between approximately 5 and 2 ka. The time of peak warmth at Torfdalsvatn is associated with peak biogenic carbonate concentration in the marine core MD99-2269, indicating an influx of warm Irminger waters. This is in contrast with Holocene climate records obtained from lakes in south and west Iceland, implying that there was an enhanced climate gradient between south and north Iceland during much of the Holocene. A comparison of the data from this core with other high-resolution regional climate records can lead to a better understanding of the relationship between marine and terrestrial climate, as well as the differences in climate histories between north and south Iceland.

  12. Expression of early placenta insulin-like growth factor in breast cancer cells provides an autocrine loop that predominantly enhances invasiveness and motility.

    PubMed

    Brandt, B; Kemming, D; Packeisen, J; Simon, R; Helms, M; Feldmann, U; Matuschek, A; Kersting, C; Hinrichs, B; Bidart, J-M; Bellet, D; Bartkowiak, K; Dankbar, N; Dittmar, T; Sauter, G; Boecker, W; Buerger, H

    2005-12-01

    Early placenta insulin-like growth factor (EPIL) is expressed by a subpopulation of the Her2-positive SKBR3 breast cancer cell line displaying high motility and transendothelial invasiveness in vitro, as recently shown by our group. As a consequence of this, we established cellular models by generating an EPIL-overexpressing SKBR3 cell line, knocked down EPIL by adding specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) to those cells and produced EPIL-enriched and depleted serum-free culture media. EPIL-expressing cells as well as EPIL-induced SKBR3 cells acquired a high capacity for transendothelial invasiveness. We observed a thin and outspread morphology caused by enhanced formation of lamellipodia, i.e. protrusions in the initial phase of motility. In parallel, Her2-positive MDAHer2 breast cancer cells also showed increased invasiveness when induced by EPIL-conditioned medium. A downstream signaling impact of EPIL could be observed in the form of reduced phosphorylation of Her2, erk1/2 and akt, while phospholipase Cgamma1 phophorylation remained unaffected. As an in vivo model for highly motile tumor cells, Paget's disease of the nipple showed simultaneous EPIL and Her2 expression upon immunohistochemical examination using specific antibodies. Such experimental data have been translated to a clinical setting by using a prognostic tissue microarray established from 603 breast cancer cases. Survival data analysis found a significant association between expression levels of EPIL and 5-year overall survival that was dose dependent: EPIL (negative) 84%, EPIL (moderately positive) 77%, EPIL (strongly positive) 48% (P < 0.005). One particular subgroup (7.6% of the cases with full clinical records) that comprised tumors simultaneously expressing EPIL and Her2 represented patients with the poorest 5-year overall survival. The results suggested that EPIL might be a cancer cell-produced growth factor that influences lateral Her2 signaling. Moreover, EPIL may be induced by factors apart from Her2 and may independently provide signaling for cancer invasion and motility. PMID:16322324

  13. Adapting Japanese Lesson Study to Enhance the Teaching and Learning of Geometry and Spatial Reasoning in Early Years Classrooms: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Joan; Hawes, Zachary; Naqvi, Sarah; Caswell, Beverly

    2015-01-01

    Increased efforts are needed to meet the demand for high quality mathematics in early years classrooms. Despite the foundational role of geometry and spatial reasoning for later mathematics success, the strand receives inadequate instructional time and is limited to concepts of static geometry. Moreover, early years teachers typically lack both…

  14. Risk of continuing planned surgery after endovascular repair of subclavian artery injury: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, O-Sun; Kim, Won-Sung; Hong, Jung-Min; Cho, Hyun-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Endovascular repair with covered stents has been widely used to treat subclavian and axillary artery injuries and has produced promising early results. The possibility of a thromboembolism occurring in cerebral arteries during an endovascular procedure should be a cause for concern. In the case of endovascular management of arterial traumas, a prompt and sufficient period for check-up of the patient's neurological signs is needed, even if it requires postponing elective intervention for the patient's safety. We report a rare case of liver transplantation immediately after endovascular repair of an iatrogenic subclavian arterial injury to describe the risk of continuing planned surgery without neurologic assessment. PMID:25237452

  15. Case report - Vascular thoracic Traumatic transection of the innominate artery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Devendran Veerasingam; Mihai Vioreanu; Martin O' Donohue; James F. McCarthy

    A case of transection of the origin of the innominate artery with an associated head injury following blunt thoracic injury is presented. The patient had been the unrestrained driver in a road traffic accident. Investigation demonstrated embolic damage to the brain parenchyma. Early surgical repair employing cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermic circulatory arrest was successfully performed without extension of the neurological

  16. Closed cervical spine trauma associated with bilateral vertebral artery injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Kloen; J. D. Patterson; B. I. Wintman; R. M. Ozuna; G. W. Brick

    1999-01-01

    Bilateral vertebral artery injuries in closed cervical spine injuries are uncommon, but early recognition and treatment are important to prevent neurological deterioration. A case of bilateral vertebral injuries in a 35-year-old motor vehicle accident victim is presented, and the current literature is reviewed.

  17. Uterine artery embolization - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2012:chap 18. Moss J, Cooper K, Khaund A, Murray L, Murray G, Wu O, et al. Randomised comparison of uterine artery embolisation (UAE) with ... doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2011.02952.x. Epub 2011 Apr ...

  18. Cervicocerebral arterial dissection.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Matt B; Chacon, Marcus R; Aleu, Aitziber

    2008-01-01

    Dissection of the cervicocerebral arteries is an infrequent occurrence but is a leading cause of stroke in young and otherwise healthy patients. A brief review of the history, pathogenesis, and management is presented. The proper management for stroke prevention in dissection is unclear as there have been no randomized, controlled trials performed; small trials are under way. PMID:18195650

  19. Hipertensão arterial na infância

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cláudia Maria Salgado; João Thomaz de Abreu Carvalhaes

    2003-01-01

    Objective: to critically review recent medical literature, focusing on practical features that are relevant for diagnosis and outpatient treatment of pediatric hypertension. Sources of data: classic articles and systematic review of recent literature through electronic search of Medline and Lilacs databases over the last 10 years, using the key words arterial hypertension, newborns, infants, preschool, children and adolescents. Those articles

  20. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liubov Ben-Noun

    1999-01-01

    Long-term psychosocial outcomes were examined in 132 patients 7 to 22 years M = 9.4 years after coronary artery bypass grafting. The control group comprised 145 medically treated patients with coronary heart disease of 7 to 22 year duration M = 9.2. Significantly more medically than surgically treated patients were scored in the clinically significant range for anxiety, and for

  1. Ruptured extracranial vertebral artery aneurysm associated with neurofibromatosis type 1. Case report.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Hisaya; Matsui, Shusuke; Yamashita, Shuhei; Kamiya, Mika; Yamashita, Tae; Akai, Kyo; Watanabe, Kenichi; Namba, Hiroki

    2012-01-01

    A 31-year-old man presented with a ruptured right extracranial vertebral artery aneurysm associated with neurofibromatosis type 1, manifesting as acute onset of right neck and shoulder pain, and right supraclavicular mass. Three-dimensional computed tomography angiography showed a large aneurysm involving the right extracranial vertebral artery associated with a pseudoaneurysm. The aneurysm was successfully treated by transarterial endovascular trapping with detachable coils. Extracranial vertebral artery aneurysm is rare, but the mortality of ruptured cases is extremely high, so early diagnosis and early treatment are important. The present case shows that endovascular treatment was very effective. PMID:22729080

  2. Superficial brachioradial artery (radial artery originating from the axillary artery): a case report and embryological background

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Folia Morphol; M. Konarik; J. Knize; V. Baca; D. Kachlik

    A case of anomalous terminal branching of the axillary artery, concerning the variant called superficial brachioradial artery (arteria brachioradialis superfi- cialis) was described, with special regard to its embryological origin. The left upper limb of a male cadaver was dissected in successive steps from the axillary fossa distally to the palmar region. A variant artery, stemming from the end of

  3. Long-Term implications of early onset in bipolar disorder: data from the first 1000 participants in the systematic treatment enhancement program for bipolar disorder (STEP-BD)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy H. Perlis; Sachiko Miyahara; Lauren B. Marangell; Stephen R. Wisniewski; Michael Ostacher; Melissa P. DelBello; Charles L. Bowden; Gary S. Sachs; Andrew A. Nierenberg

    2004-01-01

    BackgroundEarly onset of mood symptoms in bipolar disorder has been associated with poor outcome in many studies; however, the factors that might contribute to poor outcome have not been adequately investigated.

  4. Occupational True Aneurysm of the Ulnar Artery: A Case Report of Hypothenar Hammer Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A 32-year-old male patient was admitted to the hospital with a pulsing mass of the right palm. He was an electrical construction engineer who frequently used a screwdriver. Computed tomography (CT) examination revealed a 22- × 30-mm saccular aneurysm of the right ulnar artery. The ulnar artery aneurysm was resected, and we could perform direct anastomosis of the ulnar artery. The dilated true aneurysm was compatible with a traumatic origin. A postoperative enhanced CT examination showed smooth reconstruction of the palmar arch. An occupational true aneurysm of the ulnar artery could be treated by resection and direct anastomosis. PMID:24130624

  5. Chronic hypoxia selectively enhances L- and T-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel activity in pulmonary artery by upregulating Cav1.2 and Cav3.2

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Jun; Yamamura, Aya; Zimnicka, Adriana M.; Voiriot, Guillaume; Smith, Kimberly A.; Tang, Haiyang; Ayon, Ramon J.; Choudhury, Moumita S. R.; Ko, Eun A.; Wang, Jun; Wang, Chen; Makino, Ayako

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (HPH) is characterized by sustained pulmonary vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling, both of which are mediated by pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) contraction and proliferation, respectively. An increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) is a major trigger for pulmonary vasoconstriction and an important stimulus for cell proliferation in PASMCs. Ca2+ influx through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCC) is an important pathway for the regulation of [Ca2+]cyt. The potential role for L- and T-type VDCC in the development of HPH is still unclear. Using a hypoxic-induced pulmonary hypertension mouse model, we undertook this study to identify if VDCC in pulmonary artery (PA) are functionally upregulated and determine which type of VDCC are altered in HPH. Mice subjected to chronic hypoxia developed pulmonary hypertension within 4 wk, and high-K+- and U-46619-induced contraction of PA was greater in chronic hypoxic mice than that in normoxic control mice. Additionally, we demonstrate that high-K+- and U-46619-induced Ca2+ influx in PASMC is significantly increased in the hypoxic group. The VDCC activator, Bay K8864, induced greater contraction of the PA of hypoxic mice than in that of normoxic mice in isometric force measurements. L-type and T-type VDCC blockers significantly attenuated absolute contraction of the PA in hypoxic mice. Chronic hypoxia did not increase high-K+- and U-46619-induced contraction of mesenteric artery (MA). Compared with MA, PA displayed higher expression of calcium channel voltage-dependent L-type ?1C-subunit (Cav1.2) and T-type ?1H-subunit (Cav3.2) upon exposure to chronic hypoxia. In conclusion, both L-type and T-type VDCC were functionally upregulated in PA, but not MA, in HPH mice, which could result from selectively increased expression of Cav1.2 and Cav3.2. PMID:23686856

  6. Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis: current status.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon Hyo; Lerman, Lilach O

    2015-05-01

    Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) remains a major cause of secondary hypertension and kidney failure. Randomized prospective trials show that medical treatment should constitute the main therapeutic approach in ARAS. Regardless of intensive treatment and adequate blood pressure control, however, renal and extrarenal complications are not uncommon. Yet, the precise mechanisms, accurate detection, and optimal treatment in ARAS remain elusive. Strategies oriented to early detection and targeting these pathogenic pathways might prevent development of clinical end points. Here, we review the results of recent clinical trials, current understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms, novel imaging techniques to assess kidney damage in ARAS, and treatment options. PMID:25908472

  7. Enhanced Early Head Start with Employment Services: 42-Month Impacts from the Kansas and Missouri Sites of the Enhanced Services for the Hard-to-Employ Demonstration and Evaluation Project. OPRE Report 2012-05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsueh, JoAnn; Farrell, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    MDRC is conducting the Enhanced Services for the Hard-to-Employ Demonstration and Evaluation Project under a contract with the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). As part of the multisite Enhanced Services for the Hard-to-Employ Demonstration and Evaluation Project, MDRC,…

  8. Postoperative coronary artery spasm after mitral valve replacement?

    PubMed Central

    Pragliola, Claudio; Gaudino, Mario; Farina, Piero; Massetti, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Postoperative coronary artery spasm is an infrequent life-threatening event after cardiac surgery which can occur without an underlying coronary disease Presentation of case We report a documented case of a 67-year-old man with normal coronary arteries submitted to mitral valve replacement. Immediately after surgery he had a ST elevation in the inferior leads, and an inferior wall hypokinesia at the trans-oesophageal echo. A coronary angiography demonstrated a focal spasm in the right coronary artery which was successfully treated by intracoronary injection of nitrates. The following postoperative course was uneventful and the left ventricular function returned to normal. Discussion A coronary artery spasm should be suspected whenever a postoperative infarction occurs after valvular surgery especially in absence of associated coronary artery disease. In this cases postoperative coronary angiography allows both the diagnosis and the treatment. Conclusion This case-report summarizes the findings of this rare and potentially life-threatening cause of early postoperative ischemia and highlights the role of early coronary angiography in the cases of suspected myocardial infarction after cardiac surgery PMID:25680533

  9. Measures to Increase the Number of Mammary Artery Coronary Artery Anastomoses

    PubMed Central

    Tector, Alfred J.; Schmahl, Terence M.; Canino, Vincent R.

    1986-01-01

    Patients with single internal mammary artery (IMA) grafts along with saphenous vein grafts have been found to have fewer coronary events and longer survival after operation. To reduce bypass graft failure from intimal hyperplasia and atherosclerosis, as well as to improve results, three or more IMA grafts were placed in 215 patients from October 1982 through May 1985. Careful planning helped in bypassing the maximum number of coronary artery obstructions with arterial conduits. By using bilateral IMA grafts, sequential, and Y grafts, the number of IMA coronary artery anastomoses increases and the need for saphenous vein grafts decreases. Meticulous dissection and preparation of the entire IMA and proper construction of the anastomosis are essentials for these procedures to be successful. Two of the 215 patients died early and four died late. Ninety-five percent of the postoperative stress tests were negative and 92% of the 39 IMA grafts visualized in 13 patients studied postoperatively were patent. We found this to be a safe, challenging procedure that improved late bypass conduit success and prolonged survival. Images PMID:15226842

  10. Serum Malondialdehyde and Coronary Artery Disease in Hemodialysis Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hae Hyuk Jung; Dae Hee Choi; Sang Hyun Lee

    2004-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: It has been suggested that enhanced oxidative stress participates in the acceleration of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), which is a marker of lipid peroxidation, and the severity of CAD in ESRD patients. Methods: We conducted a

  11. Distal Embolic Protection for Renal Arterial Interventions

    SciTech Connect

    Dubel, Gregory J., E-mail: gdubel@lifespan.org; Murphy, Timothy P. [Brown University Medical School, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Distal or embolic protection has intuitive appeal for its potential to prevent embolization of materials generated during interventional procedures. Distal protection devices (DPDs) have been most widely used in the coronary and carotid vascular beds, where they have demonstrated the ability to trap embolic materials and, in some cases, to reduce complications. Given the frequency of chronic kidney disease in patients with renal artery stenosis undergoing stent placement, it is reasonable to propose that these devices may play an important role in limiting distal embolization in the renal vasculature. Careful review of the literature reveals that atheroembolization does occur during renal arterial interventions, although it often goes undetected. Early experience with DPDs in the renal arteries in patients with suitable anatomy suggests retrieval of embolic materials in approximately 71% of cases and renal functional improvement/stabilization in 98% of cases. The combination of platelet inhibition and a DPD may provide even greater benefit. Given the critical importance of renal functional preservation, it follows that everything that can be done to prevent atheroembolism should be undertaken including the use of DPDs when anatomically feasible. The data available at this time support a beneficial role for these devices.

  12. Hybrid Repair of Proximal Subclavian Artery Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Kazuki; Fukuda, Tetsuya; Iba, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Hiroaki; Minatoya, Kenji; Kobayashi, Junjiro

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Conventional open repair for proximal subclavian artery aneurysms (SCAAs) requires cardiopulmonary bypass. However, patients with proximal SCAA can be treated with hybrid repair. Methods: Between 2007 and 2012, we performed hybrid repair to treat six consecutive patients with proximal SCAA (three left SCAAs, one right aberrant SCAA, two right SCAAs). Their median age was 73.5 [70–87] years, and the size of their aneurysm was 33.5 [30–45] mm. Thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR) only was used for one patient with left SCAA, TEVAR and supra-aortic bypass for two with left SCAA and one with right aberrant SCAA, and endovascular repair with reconstruction of the vertebral artery using the saphenous vein graft (SVG) for two with right SCAA. Results: The follow-up duration was 3.7 [0.2–6.8] years. There was no 30-day mortality and only one early complication consisting of a minor stroke after TEVAR for shaggy aorta. Two late deaths occurred, one caused by cerebral infarction due to occlusion of SVG to the dominant vertebral artery 2 months after the operation and the other by aortic dissection 5 years postoperatively. Conclusions: Hybrid repair can be a less-invasive alternative for proximal SCAA. Revascularization of neck vessels and TEVAR should be performed very carefully to prevent neurologic complications.

  13. Vascular smooth cell proliferation in perfusion culture of porcine carotid arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Dan; Lin, Peter H.; Yao Qizhi [Molecular Surgeon Research Center, Division of Vascular Surgery and Endovascular Therapy, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine and Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center, One Baylor Plaza, Mail Stop: NAB-2010, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Chen Changyi [Molecular Surgeon Research Center, Division of Vascular Surgery and Endovascular Therapy, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine and Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center, One Baylor Plaza, Mail Stop: NAB-2010, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)], E-mail: jchen@bcm.tmc.edu

    2008-08-08

    Objective of this study was to develop a novel in vitro artery culture system to study vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation of porcine carotid arteries in response to injury, basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2), and FGF2 conjugated with cytotoxin saporin (SAP). Perfusion-cultured porcine carotid arteries remained contractile in response to norepinephrine and relaxant to acetylcholine for up to 96 h. SMC proliferation of cultured arteries was detected by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation in both non-injured and balloon-injured arteries. In the inner layer of the vessel wall near the lumen, SMC proliferation were less than 10% in uninjured vessels, 66% in injured vessels, 80% in injured vessels with FGF2 treatment, and 5% in injured vessels with treatment of FGF2-SAP. Thus, the cultured porcine carotid arteries were viable; and the injury stimulated SMC proliferation, which was significantly enhanced by FGF2 and inhibited by FGF2-SAP.

  14. Brachial artery pseudoaneurysm.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Katie; Radwan, Rami; Shingler, Guy; Davies, Chris

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case of an elderly man who presented with an upper arm swelling that had developed following a humeral fracture 8?months previously. The swelling was painless but associated with significantly diminished motor function of his right hand and concurrent paraesthaesia. On examination, a large pulsatile mass was identified and CT angiography confirmed the presence of an 11×7?cm brachial artery pseudoaneurysm. The patient underwent surgical repair in which a fragment of the humerus was found to have punctured the brachial artery resulting in a pseudoaneurysm. The patient had an uncomplicated postoperative period and was discharged 2?days later having regained some motor function in his right hand. PMID:24859555

  15. Peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Aronow, Wilbert S

    2007-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in the elderly can be: 1) asymptomatic, 2) associated with intermittent claudication, or 3) cause critical limb ischemia. Persons with PAD are at increased risk for all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and mortality from coronary artery disease (CAD). Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and hypothyroidism should be treated, and smoking should be stopped. Statins reduce the incidence of intermittent claudication and increase exercise duration until the onset of intermittent claudication in persons with PAD and hypercholesterolemia. Antiplatelet drugs (eg, aspirin, clopidogrel, angiotensin-converting enzyme [ACE] inhibitors, statins) should be given to all persons with PAD. Beta blockers should be given if CAD is present. Exercise rehabilitation programs and cilostazol lengthen exercise time until leg pain develops. Chelation therapy has no scientific basis and should be avoided. Revascularization or amputation may be indicated in some cases. PMID:17223718

  16. Exercise-Induced Arterial Adaptations in Elite Judo Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Karagounis, Panagiotis; Maridaki, Maria; Papaharalampous, Xenofon; Prionas, Giorgos; Baltopoulos, Panagiotis

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine exercise-induced arterial adaptations in elite Judo male and female athletes. 27 male Judo athletes (age 24.06 ± 2 years), 11 female Judoka (age 24.27 ± 1 years), 27 sedentary healthy men (age 24.01 ± 2 years) and 11 women (age 24.21 ± 1 years) participated in the current study. The examined vessels included brachial, radial, ulnar, popliteal, anterior and posterior tibial arteries. The experimental parameters were recorded with the use of Duplex ultrasound at rest. Diastolic diameter and blood mean flow velocity of the examined arteries in Judo athletes were found to be both significantly increased (p < 0.05) compared to the findings of the control groups. In male Judo athletes the brachial (p < 0.001), radial (p < 0.001), and anterior tibial artery (p < 0.001) presented the highest difference on the diastolic diameter, compared with the control male group. In female Judo athletes, ulnar (p < 0.001), radial (p < 0.001), and brachial (p < 0.001) arteries illustrated the highest diastolic diameter. The highest blood mean flow velocity was recorded in ulnar (p < 0.001) and popliteal arteries (p < 0.001) of the Judo athletes groups. Recording differences between the two genders, male participants presented larger arteries than females. Conclusively, Judo has been found to be a highly demanding physical sport, involving upper and lower limbs leading to significant arterial adaptations. Obtaining vascular parameters provide a useful tool to the medical team, not only in the direction of enhancement of the efficacy of physical training, but in unknown so far parameters that may influence athletic performance of both male and female elite Judokas. Key points Judo athletes demonstrated a general homogenous increase of the arterial functionality of the upper and lower limbs compared to the control groups. Diastolic diameter found to be significantly increased in male and female Judo athletes, highlighting the effects of exercise training on the vascular system. Judo athletes had had statistically significant increase of the blood mean flow velocity in all examined arteries, compared with the relevant control group. The current study underscores the impact of Judo training on the structure and the function of the arterial system. Clinically, the increased arterial parameters in elite Judo athletes may be essential elements for improved athletic performance. Sports medicine practitioners should give special concern to the vascular functionality for several physiological and medical tests. PMID:24150007

  17. Branch retinal artery occlusion after thyroid artery interventional embolization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng Wen; Xuemei Chen; Ruiduan Liao

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report a case of branch retinal artery occlusion after thyroid artery interventional embolization.METHODS: A 33-year-old man with hyperthyroidism complained of visual loss and scotoma in the left eye after thyroid artery interventional embolization. He underwent a full ophthalmologic examination, including fluorescein angiography.RESULTS: Visual acuity was 20\\/25, with inferior and superior scotomas present in the left eye. Fluorescein angiography

  18. Distal Shift of Arterial Pressure Wave Reflection Sites with Aging

    PubMed Central

    Sugawara, Jun; Hayashi, Koichiro; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2010-01-01

    An early return of reflected waves, the backward propagation of the arterial pressure wave from the periphery to the heart, is associated with the augmentation of central pulse pressure and cardiovascular risks. The location of arterial pressure wave reflection, along with arterial stiffening, have a major influence on the timing of the reflected wave. To determine the influence of aging on the location of a major reflection site, arterial length (via three-dimensional artery tracing of magnetic resonance imaging) and central (carotid-femoral) and peripheral (femoral-ankle) pulse wave velocity were measured in 208 adults varying in age. The major reflection site was detected by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and the reflected wave transit time (via carotid arterial pressure wave analysis). The length from the aortic valve to the major reflection site (e.g., effective reflecting length) significantly increased with aging. The effective reflecting length normalized by the arterial length demonstrated that the major reflection sites located between the aortic bifurcation and femoral site in most of the subjects. The normalized effective reflecting length did not alter with aging until 65-year-old and increased remarkably thereafter in men and women. The effective reflecting length was significantly and positively associated with the difference between central and peripheral pulse wave velocity (r=0.76). This correlation remained significant even when the influence of aortic pulse wave velocity was partial out (r=0.35). These results suggest that the major reflection site shifts distally with aging partly due to the closer matching of impedance provided by central and peripheral arterial stiffness. PMID:20876449

  19. Spontaneous Dissection of the Superior Mesenteric Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon, Patrick J. [Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego Medical Center, 200 West Arbor Drive, San Diego, CA 92103 (United States); Esther, James B. [Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, West Campus, CC308E, One Deaconess Road, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Sheldon, Elana L. [Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego Medical Center, 200 West Arbor Drive, San Diego, CA 92103 (United States); Sparks, Steven R. [Department of Surgery, University of California San Diego Medical Center, 200 West Arbor Drive, San Diego, CA 92103 (United States); Brophy, David P. [Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, West Campus, CC308E, One Deaconess Road, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Oglevie, Steven B. [Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego Medical Center, 200 West Arbor Drive, San Diego, CA 92103 (United States)

    2001-09-15

    Spontaneous dissection of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is a rare occurrence, especially when not associated with aortic dissection [1]. Currently, only 28 cases appear to have been reported. Due to the scarcity of cases in the literature, the natural history of isolated, spontaneous SMA dissection is unclear. CT has been reported to be useful for the initial diagnosis of SMA dissection [2-5]. We present two recent cases of spontaneous SMA dissection in which enhanced spiral CT was instrumental in following the disease process and guiding clinical decision making.

  20. A Perplexing Presentation of Entrapment of the Brachial Artery

    PubMed Central

    Cevirme, Deniz; Aksoy, Eray; Adademir, Taylan; Sunar, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    A 45-year-old male being otherwise healthy presented acute onset of right upper extremity ischemia. On physical examination, axillary artery could be palpated whereas the brachial artery could not be palpated below the level of the antecubital fossa, including radial and ulnar artery pulses. Pulses were also inaudible with pocket-ultrasound below the level of the brachial artery bifurcation. The patient was initially diagnosed to have acute thromboembolic occlusion and given 5000?IU intravenous heparin. The patient was taken to the operating room. We noticed that the ischemic symptoms disappeared within a couple of minutes just before we began the operation. However, ischemic symptoms reappeared six hours later and computed tomography angiography showed lack of enhancement below the elbow crease. We were taking the patient to the operating room for the second time when the symptoms recovered in a few minutes, again. The operation was not canceled anymore. In the operation, the brachial artery was found anomalously perforating and it was entrapped by the bicipital aponeurosis. The artery was relieved by resecting the aponeurosis and there was no need for any other intervention. The patient had no more recurrence of symptoms postoperatively. PMID:26185707

  1. Simple exposure of the internal thoracic artery for minimally invasive coronary artery bypass

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Inderjit S.

    2000-01-01

    A simple method is described for harvesting a pedicle of internal thoracic artery for minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting with the use of a small scapular retractor. The technique has been used successfully in 39 patients. All patients were followed up early postoperatively by angiography, and the patency rate was 96%. Follow-up angiography (mean [and standard error] 9.6 [4.8] months) was carried out in 63% of the patients, demonstrating a cumulative patency rate of 95.4% with no evidence of steal. None of the patients died and there were no cases of myocardial infarction perioperatively. Recurrent angina developed in 2 patients. This technique is safe, effective and inexpensive. PMID:10812351

  2. The Role and Practice of Interpersonal Relationships in European Early Education Settings: Sites for Enhancing Social Inclusion, Personal Growth and Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutnick, Peter; Brighi, Antonella; Avgitidou, Sofia; Genta, Maria Luisa; Hannikainen, Maritta; Karlsson-Lohmander, Maelis; Ruiz, Rosario Ortega; Rautamies, Erja; Colwell, Jennifer; Tsalagiorgou, Eleni; Mazzanti, Chiara; Nicoletti, Sandra; Sansavini, Alessandra; Guarini, Annalisa; Romera, Eva; Monks, Claire; Lofqvist, Monica

    2007-01-01

    This study sought to identify and compare the characteristics of the social pedagogic context of cognitive activities in a sample of early education settings in six European countries (England, Finland, Greece, Italy, Spain and Sweden). Previous research concerning the social context within which cognitive/learning activities take place has…

  3. FINAL REPORT. ENHANCEMENTS TO AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE VERY EARLY TIME ELECTROMAGNETIC (VETEM) PROTOTYPE INSTRUMENT AND APPLICATIONS TO SHALLOW SUBSURFACE IMAGING AT SITES IN THE DOE COMPLEX

    EPA Science Inventory

    The central aim of the Very Early Time Electromagnetic (VETEM) EMSP project was to improve the state-of-the-art of electromagnetic imaging of the shallow (0 to about 5 m)subsurface through electrically conductive soils. In addition, we aimed to demonstrate the utility of the new ...

  4. Building Their Futures: How Early Head Start Programs Are Enhancing the Lives of Infants and Toddlers in Low-Income Families. Volume I: Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, John M.; Kisker, Ellen Eliason; Ross, Christine M.; Schochet, Peter Z.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Boller, Kimberly; Paulsell, Diane; Fuligni, Allison Sidle; Berlin, Lisa J.

    Early Head Start began with 68 programs in 1995 and today, almost 650 programs serve some 55,000 low-income families with infants and toddlers. This two-generation program provides high-quality child and family development services, a focus on staff development, and a commitment to community partnerships. A rigorous national evaluation, including…

  5. The Hypolipidemic and Pleiotropic Effects of Rosuvastatin Are Not Enhanced by Its Association with Zinc and Selenium Supplementation in Coronary Artery Disease Patients: A Double Blind Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Sena-Evangelista, Karine Cavalcanti Maurício; Pedrosa, Lucia Fatima Campos; Paiva, Maria Sanali Moura Oliveira; Dias, Paula Cristina Silveira; Ferreira, Diana Quitéria Cabral; Cozzolino, Sílvia Maria Franciscato; Faulin, Tanize Espírito Santo; Abdalla, Dulcinéia Saes Parra

    2015-01-01

    Objective Statins treatment may modify the levels of zinc and selenium, minerals that can improve vascular function and reduce oxidative damage and inflammation in atherosclerotic patients. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of rosuvastatin, alone or associated with zinc and selenium supplementation, on lipid profile, antioxidant enzymes and mineral status in coronary artery disease patients. Material and Methods A double-blind randomized clinical trial was performed in which patients (n = 76) were treated with 10 mg rosuvastatin over 4 months associated or not with zinc (30 mg/d) and selenium (150 ?g/d) supplementation. The following parameters were analyzed before and after the intervention: anthropometric measurements, lipid profile, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), electronegative low density lipoprotein (LDL(-)) concentrations, activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), zinc and selenium concentrations in blood plasma and erythocytes. Significance was determined using an ? of 5% (two-tailed). Results We found that rosuvastatin therapy was efficient in reducing total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and hs-CRP independently of mineral supplementation. Neither treatment was associated with significant changes in LDL(-). Similarly, the antioxidant enzymes GPx and SOD activity were unchanged by treatments. Neither treatment was associated with significant differences in concentrations of zinc or selenium in blood plasma and erythocytes of studied groups. Conclusion Rosuvastatin treatment did not affect zinc and selenium levels in coronary artery disease patients. The zinc and selenium supplementation at doses used in this study did not change lipid profile or SOD and GPx activity in patients receiving rosuvastatin. Further studies should be focused on testing alternative doses and supplements in different populations to contribute for a consensus on the ideal choice of antioxidants to be used as possible complementary therapies in atherosclerotic patients. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01547377 PMID:25785441

  6. Pulmonary arterial hypertension in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Obi?an, Sarah G; Cleary, Kirsten L

    2014-08-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a medical condition characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure and secondary right heart failure. Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a subset of pulmonary hypertension, which is characterized by an underlying disorder of the pulmonary arterial vasculature. Pulmonary hypertension can also occur secondarily to structural cardiac disease, autoimmune disorders, and toxic exposures. Although pregnancies affected by pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary arterial hypertension are rare, the pathophysiology exacerbated by pregnancy confers both high maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. In light of new treatment modalities and the use of a multidisciplinary approach to care, maternal outcomes may be improving. PMID:25037519

  7. [Coronary artery disease in women].

    PubMed

    Niemelä, Matti; Kervinen, Kari; Romppanen, Hannu; Vikman, Saila

    2009-01-01

    Although the rate of coronary artery disease mortality has decreased over the last decades, it is still the leading cause of death in Finland. Coronary artery disease appears in women with a delay of ten years as compared with men. For women, diabetes and smoking increase the risk of developing the disease more than for men. Women's coronary arteries are smaller in size, which previously impaired the results of invasive treatment. Treatment outcome with current techniques is equal independently of gender. In spite of this, women in an acute attack of coronary artery disease are less frequently directed to coronary angiography. PMID:19432079

  8. Carotid and vertebral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Mokin, Maxim; Dumont, Travis M; Kass-Hout, Tareq; Levy, Elad I

    2013-03-01

    Extracranial carotid artery disease is commonly seen in patients presenting with stroke symptoms. It is also a frequent incidental finding in patients undergoing evaluation as part of a routine examination in the outpatient setting. Several diagnostic imaging modalities are currently available. Treatment strategies include medical and surgical management. Multiple randomized trials conducted over the past decade have laid a foundation for guidelines on the management of extracranial carotid disease. Evaluation and treatment of patients with vertebral artery stenosis is less understood. We review the evidence for the detection and treatment of patients with extracranial carotid artery and vertebral artery disease. PMID:23402465

  9. Intrasplenic Arterial Aneurysms during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Abu-khalaf, Mahmoud M. S.; Al-Ameer, Sokiyna M.; Smadi, Moath M.; Qatawneh, Ayman; Smara, Osama A.; Hadidy, Azmy T.

    2015-01-01

    Splenic artery aneurysms account for about 60% of all visceral aneurysms. Pregnancy is a risk factor for splenic artery aneurysms rupture with high maternal mortality and fetal loss. Intrasplenic arterial aneurysms are extremely rare and have not been reported to be associated with pregnancy. This report presents a 34-year-old woman during the second trimester, admitted with severe left upper quadrant and left shoulder pain. She had two uncomplicated intrasplenic aneurysms. Splenectomy was done. She delivered a full term healthy girl. This is the first report of acute abdomen during pregnancy caused by intrasplenic artery aneurysms with maternal and fetal survival. PMID:25810934

  10. Weight loss and mild physical activity improve small and large arterial elasticity and lower blood pressure in obese patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yifat Goldberg; Marina Shargorodsky; Dov Gavish; Reuven Zimlichman

    2005-01-01

    Background: Decreased arterial elasticity is an early marker of vascular damage, it estimates its’ severity and is of predictive value for cardiovascular events.Obesity is a major component of the metabolic syndrome and weight loss has been shown to lower cardiovascular event rate. The mechanisms for this effect are complex and multifactorial.The purpose of our study was to evaluate arterial elasticity

  11. Non-invasive assessment of hemodynamics in adolescents with arterial tonometry and Doppler ultrasound during a conventional stress test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Matthys; D. Vanhercke; S. Van Aken; K. De Groote; I. Coomans; P. Verdonck

    2002-01-01

    Aiming to improve early diagnosis of people at cardiovascular risk, we are developing a custom set-up to allow an adequate hemodynamic analysis of heart function and arterial circulation properties, based on non-invasive acquisition of pressure (arterial tonometry) and flow (Doppler ultrasound techniques) waveforms. In an experimental setting 15 healthy volunteers were examined on a custom made supine bicycle. Able to

  12. Mild renal insufficiency is associated with reduced coronary flow in patients with non-obstructive coronary artery disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A R Chade; D Brosh; S T Higano; R J Lennon; L O Lerman; A Lerman

    2006-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have increased risk for cardiovascular events. However, the association between these pathophysiological processes is unclear. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the association between early CKD and coronary microvascular disease in patients with normal or mildly diseased coronary arteries. A total of 605 patients with normal or mildly diseased coronary arteries based on

  13. [Arterial blood pressure circadian rhythm: significance and clinical implications].

    PubMed

    Gonzalez Rodriguez, E; Hernandez, A; Dibner, C; Koehler Ballan, B; Pechère-Bertschi, A

    2012-09-12

    Arterial blood pressure circadian rhythm: significance and clinical implications Arterial blood pressure exhibits a circadian rhythm characterized by a decrease during the sleep period and a steep increase in the early morning hours that can be characterized by 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). The absence of a nocturnal dipping or an excessive morning surge, commonly observed in hypertensive patients, is associated with an increased cardiovascular and renal risk. Numerous studies show that a better control of nocturnal blood pressure can be obtained by the administration of anti-hypertensive medication at the evening time, improving microalbuminuria, left heart hypertrophy, or arterial intima-media thickness, but only one study has so far demonstrated a decrease of major cardiovascular events. In this context, the decision on restoring or not the nocturnal dipping should be left to the judgement of the clinician, and applied in an individual manner to each patient. PMID:23029984

  14. Complete transposition of great arteries with coarctation of aorta.

    PubMed Central

    Milanesi, O; Thiene, G; Bini, R M; Pellegrino, P A

    1982-01-01

    Complete transposition of the great arteries with ventricular septal defect and coarctation or atresia of the aortic arch is a relatively rare anatomoclinical entity and in general not well understood. This association accounted for six out of 50 cases (12%) of our clinical experience and six out of 64 cases (9%) of the post-mortem series of complete transposition. Relevant clinical manifestations were cyanosis, early and pronounced congestive heart failure, with a decrease in amplitude of femoral pulses and, in the most severe cases, isolated left ventricular hypertrophy on the electrocardiogram. Inlet or outlet right ventricular obstruction and pulmonary artery dextroposition are the pathological substrates of unequal partitioning of the blood stream in favour of the pulmonary artery and ductus arteriosus, probably accounting for fetal underdevelopment of the aortic arch. The medical and surgical prognosis of these cases is definitely poor. Images PMID:7171404

  15. Surgical Treatment for Profunda Femoris Artery Aneurysms: Five Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Igari, Kimihiro; Kudo, Toshifumi; Toyofuku, Takahiro; Inoue, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Profunda femoris artery aneurysm (PFAA) is an extremely rare entity, with most cases being asymptomatic, which makes obtaining an early diagnosis difficult. We herein report a case series of PFAA, in which more than half of the PFAAs, which presented with no clinical symptoms, were discovered incidentally. All PFAAs were treated surgically with aneurysmectomy with or without vascular reconstruction. In cases involving a patent superficial femoral artery (SFA), graft replacement of the profunda femoris artery (PFA) is not mandatory; however, preserving the blood flow of the PFA is necessary to maintain lower extremity perfusion in patients with occlusion of the SFA. Therefore, the treatment of PFAAs should include appropriate management of both the aneurysmectomy and graft replacement, if possible. PMID:26064769

  16. Surgical Treatment for Profunda Femoris Artery Aneurysms: Five Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Igari, Kimihiro; Toyofuku, Takahiro; Inoue, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Profunda femoris artery aneurysm (PFAA) is an extremely rare entity, with most cases being asymptomatic, which makes obtaining an early diagnosis difficult. We herein report a case series of PFAA, in which more than half of the PFAAs, which presented with no clinical symptoms, were discovered incidentally. All PFAAs were treated surgically with aneurysmectomy with or without vascular reconstruction. In cases involving a patent superficial femoral artery (SFA), graft replacement of the profunda femoris artery (PFA) is not mandatory; however, preserving the blood flow of the PFA is necessary to maintain lower extremity perfusion in patients with occlusion of the SFA. Therefore, the treatment of PFAAs should include appropriate management of both the aneurysmectomy and graft replacement, if possible.

  17. How Can Carotid Artery Disease Be Prevented?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can Carotid Artery Disease Be Prevented? Taking action to control your risk factors can help prevent or delay carotid artery disease and stroke . Your risk for carotid artery ...

  18. Who Needs Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Who Needs Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting? Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is used to treat people ... or after a heart attack to treat blocked arteries. Your doctor may recommend CABG if other treatments, ...

  19. Facts about Transposition of the Great Arteries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Policy Makers Facts about Transposition of the Great Arteries Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... What We Know About Transposition of the Great Arteries How often does transposition of the great arteries ...

  20. How Is Carotid Artery Disease Treated?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Carotid Artery Disease Treated? Treatments for carotid artery disease may ... plaque removed and normal blood flow restored. Carotid Artery Angioplasty and Stenting Doctors use a procedure called ...

  1. Angioplasty and stent placement - carotid artery - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... angioplasty and stenting - discharge; CAS - discharge; Endarterectomy - carotid artery - discharge; Angioplasty - carotid artery - discharge ... were done to open a narrowed or blocked artery that supplies blood to your brain. Your health ...

  2. What Is Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG)?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Medical Illustrations: Jill Rhead, MA What is Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG)? What Can Happen When Blockages ... Condition be Like After CABG? WHAT IS CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFTING (CABG)? Coronary artery bypass grafting or " ...

  3. Coronary artery ectasia in Egyptian patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed Central

    Waly, H M; Elayda, M A; Lee, V V; el-Said, G; Reul, G J; Hall, R J

    1997-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective study of 45 Egyptian patients with coronary artery ectasia who underwent coronary bypass grafting at our institution between 1980 and 1995. We examined the anatomic distribution and type of coronary ectasia and its association with coronary risk factors in these patients, and evaluated the severity of their coronary artery disease. We compared these findings with those from a group of 230 Egyptian patients who did not have coronary ectasia. These patients also underwent coronary artery bypass grafting between 1980 and 1995 at our institution. Obesity was present in 60% of the patients who had coronary artery ectasia, compared with 42% of patients who did not have ectasia (P < 0.01). Coronary artery ectasia was not related to any coronary risk factors other than obesity. However, patients who had ectasia did have a higher rate of triple-vessel coronary artery disease than did patients without ectasia (82% vs 67%, P < 0.05). Of the coronary vessels affected by ectasia, 43% were left anterior descending arteries. Diffuse disease was noted in 84% of all ectatic segments. We conclude that in this patient population, 2 conditions had a positive correlation with coronary ectasia: obesity and the severity of coronary artery disease. Images PMID:9456489

  4. Use of a Collagen-Based Device for Closure of Low Brachial Artery Punctures

    SciTech Connect

    Belenky, A. [Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson and Glolda Campuses, Petah Tiqwa, Sakler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Department of Interventional Radiology (Israel)], E-mail: atareli@hotmail.com; Aranovich, D.; Greif, F. [Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson and Glolda Campuses, Petah Tiqwa, Sakler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Department of Surgery (Israel); Bachar, G. [Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson and Glolda Campuses, Petah Tiqwa, Sakler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Department of Radiology (Israel); Bartal, G. [Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Israel); Atar, E. [Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson and Glolda Campuses, Petah Tiqwa, Sakler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Department of Interventional Radiology (Israel)

    2007-04-15

    Purpose. To report our experience with the Angioseal vascular closure device for hemostasis of distal brachial artery puncture. Methods. Between September 2003 and August 2005, 64 Angioseal vascular closure devices were inserted in 64 patients (40 men, 24 women; mean age 65 years) immediately after diagnostic or therapeutic arterial angiographies performed through a 5 Fr to 7 Fr sheath via the distal brachial artery. Ultrasound examination of the brachial artery preceded the angiography in all cases and only arteries wider than 4 mm were closed by the Angioseal. In cases of a sonographically evident thin subcutaneous space of the cubital fossa, tissue tumescence, using 1% Lidocaine, was performed prior to the arterial closure. Results. The deployment success rate was 100%. No major complications were encountered; only 2 patients developed puncture site hematoma, and these were followed conservatively. Conclusions. Closure of low brachial artery punctures with the Angioseal is simple and safe. No additional manual compression is required. We recommend its use after brachial artery access interventions, through appropriately wide arteries, to improve early patient ambulation and potentially reduce possible puncture site complications.

  5. Uterine artery embolisation

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Rajeev

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of study Fibroids are commonest benign tumour of the uterus. It presents with bleeding per vagina in most of the cases. Surgical treatment consists of myomectomy or hysterectomy with or without salpingo oophrectomy, with its inherent morbidity, prolonged hospital stay and psychosocial problems. Surgery is not the best option especially in unmarried and nullipara. Materials and methods Thirty-five patients were subjected to uterine artery embolisation (UAE). Mean age was 35.51 ± 7.36 years. Two patients were suffering from advanced carcinoma of cervix, 32 had fibroid of uterus, one had endometriosis. Three patients were unmarried, three did not have any issue, three had associated haemodynamically significant cardiac disorders, one had polycystic renal disease, and one had hypernephroma. Four patients had multiple fibroids. The UAE was done through contralateral femoral artery puncture, bilaterally, with the help of Judkin's right coronary catheter. Ultrasound was repeated after 3 months. Results The UAE was successful in all patients. Mean procedural time was 75 minutes. Hospital stay was 1 day only. Bleeding stopped in all 35 patients. One patient had recurrence of bleeding after 2 months and underwent surgery. Fibroids disappeared in eight patients, decreased in size by > 75% in 11 patients, and by 50–75% in six patients. Five patients did not report back with ultrasound. Two patients had normal delivery after UAE. Conclusion Uterine artery embolisation is effective therapy to stop uterine bleeding. It is effective in controlling the symptoms in uterine fibroids and also decreases the size of fibroids. Hospital stay is only 1 day. PMID:22664816

  6. An Ecological Analysis of the Effects of Deviant Peer Clustering on Sexual Promiscuity, Problem Behavior, and Childbearing from Early Adolescence to Adulthood: An Enhancement of the Life History Framework

    PubMed Central

    Dishion, Thomas J.; Ha, Thao; Véronneau, Marie-Hélène

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes the inclusion of peer relationships in a life history perspective on adolescent problem behavior. Longitudinal analyses were used to examine deviant peer clustering as the mediating link between attenuated family ties, peer marginalization, and social disadvantage in early adolescence and sexual promiscuity in middle adolescence and childbearing by early adulthood. Specifically, 998 youth and their families were assessed at age 11 years and periodically through age 24 years. Structural equation modeling revealed that the peer-enhanced life history model provided a good fit to the longitudinal data, with deviant peer clustering strongly predicting adolescent sexual promiscuity and other correlated problem behaviors. Sexual promiscuity, as expected, also strongly predicted the number of children by age 22–24 years. Consistent with a life history perspective, family social disadvantage directly predicted deviant peer clustering and number of children in early adulthood, controlling for all other variables in the model. These data suggest that deviant peer clustering is a core dimension of a fast life history strategy, with strong links to sexual activity and childbearing. The implications of these findings are discussed with respect to the need to integrate an evolutionary-based model of self-organized peer groups in developmental and intervention science. PMID:22409765

  7. Expression of early placenta insulin-like growth factor in breast cancer cells provides an autocrine loop that predominantly enhances invasiveness and motility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Brandt; D Kemming; J Packeisen; R Simon; M Helms; U Feldmann; A Matuschek; C Kersting; B Hinrichs; J-M Bidart; D Bellet; K Bartkowiak; N Dankbar; T Dittmar; G Sauter; W Boecker; H Buerger

    2005-01-01

    Early placenta insulin-like growth factor (EPIL) is expressed by a subpopulation of the Her2-positive SKBR3 breast cancer cell line displaying high motility and transendothelial invasiveness in vitro, as recently shown by our group. As a consequence of this, we established cellular models by generating an EPIL-overexpressing SKBR3 cell line, knocked down EPIL by adding specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) to

  8. Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes Associated with the Natural History of Early Repolarization in a Young, Biracial Cohort Followed to Middle Age: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Ilkhanoff, Leonard; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Prineas, Ronald J.; Walsh, Joseph A.; Ning, Hongyan; Liu, Kiang; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Jacobs, David R.; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Early repolarization (ER), a common electrocardiographic phenotype, has been associated with increased mortality risk in middle-aged adults. Data are sparse on long-term follow-up and outcomes associated with ER in younger adults. Methods and Results We prospectively examined 5,039 participants (mean age 25 years at baseline, 40% black) from the CARDIA cohort over 23 years. Twelve-lead electrocardiograms were recorded and analyzed at Years 0, 7 and 20 and coded as definite or probable ER using a standardized algorithm. Cox regression was used, and models were adjusted for important baseline and clinical covariates. Kaplan-Meier curves were created for presence of ER and total mortality and cardiovascular (CV) mortality. Participants with ER were more likely to be black, male, smoke, have higher systolic blood pressure, lower heart rate, and BMI, and also higher exercise duration, and longer PR, QRS and QT intervals. ER was associated with total mortality (HR1.77, 1.38–2.28, p<0.01), and CV mortality (HR 1.59, 1.01–2.50, p=0.04) in unadjusted analyses, but adjustment for age, sex, and race attenuated associations almost completely. Sex-race stratified analyses showed no significant associations between ER and outcome for any of the subgroups except blacks. Conclusions The presence of ER at any time point over 23 years of follow-up was not associated with adverse outcomes. Black race and male sex confound the unadjusted association of ER and outcomes, with no race-sex interactions noted. Further studies are necessary to understand the factors associated with heightened risk of death in those who maintain ER into and beyond middle age. PMID:24759868

  9. Spontaneous renal artery dissection with renal infarction

    PubMed Central

    Leray-Moraguès, Hélène; Chenine, Leila; Vernhet-Kovacsik, Hélène

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous renal artery dissection (SRAD) is a rare entity, which often presents diagnostic difficulties because of its non-specific clinical presentation. We report six cases complicated with renal infarction, occurring in middle-aged male patients without risk factors, illustrating the difficulty and delay for diagnosing SRAD. Ultrasound and Doppler imaging were not sensitive enough to confirm the diagnosis, and contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography was used to correct the diagnosis and allow the clinicians to propose appropriate treatment. We conclude that considering the urgency in diagnosing and treating SRAD, contrast enhanced abdominal tomography and/or abdominal magnetic resonance imaging should be proposed as soon as a suspicion of SRAD is evoked by the clinical presentation.

  10. Angiographic Embolisation in Arterial Trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. M. Naidoo; P. D. Corr; J. V. Robbs; J. Maharaj; R. Nair

    2000-01-01

    Objectives to evaluate the use of endovascular occlusion in the treatment of arterial trauma.Methods records of patients with penetrating arterial injuries treated by endovascular occlusive techniques were culled from the computerised database of the vascular service. Results the study period spanned 7 years. Forty-two patients were studied with injuries to the cervicofacial vessels (24), lower limb (16) and upper limb

  11. Pseudoaneurysm of the vertebral artery.

    PubMed Central

    Schittek, A

    1999-01-01

    Pseudoaneurysms of the vertebral artery are rare. Their treatment depends on the location, size, cause, and coexisting injuries. The surgical management of a 22-year-old man who had a large pseudoaneurysm in the 1st portion of the right vertebral artery is described, and an additional 144 cases from the medical literature are briefly reviewed. Images PMID:10217474

  12. Quantification of breast arterial calcification using full field digital mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Molloi, Sabee; Xu Tong; Ducote, Justin; Iribarren, Carlos [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente, Oakland, California 94697 (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Breast arterial calcification is commonly detected on some mammograms. Previous studies indicate that breast arterial calcification is evidence of general atherosclerotic vascular disease and it may be a useful marker of coronary artery disease. It can potentially be a useful tool for assessment of coronary artery disease in women since mammography is widely used as a screening tool for early detection of breast cancer. However, there are currently no available techniques for quantification of calcium mass using mammography. The purpose of this study was to determine whether it is possible to quantify breast arterial calcium mass using standard digital mammography. An anthropomorphic breast phantom along with a vessel calcification phantom was imaged using a full field digital mammography system. Densitometry was used to quantify calcium mass. A calcium calibration measurement was performed at each phantom thickness and beam energy. The known (K) and measured (M) calcium mass on 5 and 9 cm thickness phantoms were related by M=0.964K-0.288 mg (r=0.997 and SEE=0.878 mg) and M=1.004K+0.324 mg (r=0.994 and SEE=1.32 mg), respectively. The results indicate that accurate calcium mass measurements can be made without correction for scatter glare as long as careful calcium calibration is made for each breast thickness. The results also indicate that composition variations and differences of approximately 1 cm between calibration phantom and breast thickness introduce only minimal error in calcium measurement. The uncertainty in magnification is expected to cause up to 5% and 15% error in calcium mass for 5 and 9 cm breast thicknesses, respectively. In conclusion, a densitometry technique for quantification of breast arterial calcium mass was validated using standard full field digital mammography. The results demonstrated the feasibility and potential utility of the densitometry technique for accurate quantification of breast arterial calcium mass using standard digital mammography.

  13. Quantification of breast arterial calcification using full field digital mammography

    PubMed Central

    Molloi, Sabee; Xu, Tong; Ducote, Justin; Iribarren, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Breast arterial calcification is commonly detected on some mammograms. Previous studies indicate that breast arterial calcification is evidence of general atherosclerotic vascular disease and it may be a useful marker of coronary artery disease. It can potentially be a useful tool for assessment of coronary artery disease in women since mammography is widely used as a screening tool for early detection of breast cancer. However, there are currently no available techniques for quantification of calcium mass using mammography. The purpose of this study was to determine whether it is possible to quantify breast arterial calcium mass using standard digital mammography. An anthropomorphic breast phantom along with a vessel calcification phantom was imaged using a full field digital mammography system. Densitometry was used to quantify calcium mass. A calcium calibration measurement was performed at each phantom thickness and beam energy. The known (K) and measured (M) calcium mass on 5 and 9 cm thickness phantoms were related by M=0.964K?0.288 mg (r=0.997 and SEE=0.878 mg) and M=1.004K+0.324 mg (r=0.994 and SEE=1.32 mg), respectively. The results indicate that accurate calcium mass measurements can be made without correction for scatter glare as long as careful calcium calibration is made for each breast thickness. The results also indicate that composition variations and differences of approximately 1 cm between calibration phantom and breast thickness introduce only minimal error in calcium measurement. The uncertainty in magnification is expected to cause up to 5% and 15% error in calcium mass for 5 and 9 cm breast thicknesses, respectively. In conclusion, a densitometry technique for quantification of breast arterial calcium mass was validated using standard full field digital mammography. The results demonstrated the feasibility and potential utility of the densitometry technique for accurate quantification of breast arterial calcium mass using standard digital mammography. PMID:18491538

  14. MAPping Out Arteries and Veins

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ryan E. Lamont (Canada; University of Calgary, Calgary AB REV)

    2006-10-03

    Growing evidence suggests that a genetic program specifies the identity of arteries and veins before the onset of circulation. A signaling cascade involving sonic hedgehog (Shh), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2), homeobox proteins Foxc1 and Foxc2, the Notch receptor, and the downstream transcription factor gridlock is required for expression of arterial markers, whereas only a single transcription factor, COUP-TFII (chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter–transcription factor II), has previously been implicated in maintaining venous fate. Recent work has now implicated two competing pathways downstream of VEGFR2 in arterial versus venous specification: Activation of the phospholipase C–? (PLC-?)–mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway acts in arterial specification, whereas the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)–Akt pathway acts to allow a venous fate by inhibition of the PLC-?–MAPK pathway. Here, we review this work and discuss how activation of the MAPK signaling cascade could stimulate an arterial fate.

  15. Prospective coronary angioscopy assessment of allograft coronary artery disease in human cardiac transplant recipients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Ashit; Ventura, Hector O.; Collins, Tyrone J.; Ramee, Stephen R.; White, Christopher J.

    1993-09-01

    Annual angiographic assessment to determine the presence or progression of allograft coronary artery disease (CAD) has been unable to modify the natural history of this disease. Coronary angioscopy is a sensitive method to detect the early presence of coronary artery disease and in a retrospective analysis severity of CAD by angioscopy correlated with the time since transplantation. The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate progression of coronary artery disease over a one year period in 40 cardiac transplant recipients. The progression of coronary artery disease as assessed by angioscopy is directly related to time after transplantation and therefore angioscopy may be the method of choice for detection and evaluation of therapeutic regimens to control allograft coronary artery disease.

  16. A Review of Genetics, Arterial Stiffness, and Blood Pressure in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jennifer L.; Duprez, Daniel A.; Barac, Ana; Rich, Stephen S.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension in African Americans in the United States is amongst the highest in the world and increasing. The identification of genes and pathways regulating blood pressure in African Americans has been challenging. An early predictor of hypertension is arterial stiffness. The prevalence of arterial stiffness is significantly higher in African Americans compared to Caucasians. Approximately 20% of the variance in arterial stiffness is estimated to be heritable. Identifying genes and biological pathways regulating arterial stiffness may provide insight into the genetics underlying the increased risk of hypertension in African Americans. This paper reviews the genetic findings to date in the area of arterial stiffness and blood pressure in African Americans with an emphasis on the current limitations and new efforts to move the field forward. PMID:22492025

  17. Luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence of peripheral blood leukocytes as an early indicator of graft take after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in patients with acute myelogenous leukaemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allan Rajamäki; Esa-Matti Lilius; Jukka Nikoskelainen; Jaana Proskin; Toivo T. Salmi; Auli Toivanen

    1988-01-01

    The luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) of peripheral blood leukocytes was studied daily in five patients with acute myelogenous\\u000a leukaemia (AML) in first remission, who were undergoing allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The CL was measured\\u000a after stimulation of leukocytes with opsonized zymosan in highly diluted whole blood. All patients had an undetectable CL\\u000a level on day +7, post BMT, simultaneously with

  18. A Crucial Role for Cytokinins in Pea ABR17-mediated Enhanced Germination and Early Seedling Growth of Arabidopsis thaliana under Saline and Low-temperature Stresses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjeeva Srivastava; R. J. Neil Emery; Muhammad H. Rahman; Nat N. V. Kav

    2007-01-01

    The role of cytokinins (CKs) in mediating the previously observed ABR17-mediated enhancement of germination of Arabidopsis thaliana under salinity and low-temperature stresses has been evaluated. We determined the endogenous concentrations of CK in the\\u000a three transgenic and wild-type seedlings, which indicated that the transgenic seedlings had higher endogenous concentrations\\u000a of CK. Furthermore, the relative levels of expression of ABR17 cDNA

  19. Meningiomas with Vertebrobasilar Artery Encasement

    PubMed Central

    Sekhar, Laligam N.; Javed, Tariq

    1993-01-01

    Seventeen patients with petroelival and foramen magnum meningiomas encasing the vertebral or basilar arteries and their branches were surgically excised over a 3-year period. All six cases with vertebral artery encasement were totally excised. One vertebral artery was occluded, one was repaired, and one was replaced with a vein graft. None of the patients had a permanent major neurologic deficit. In one patient with vertebral and basilar artery encasement, a hypoplastic vertebral artery was occluded and the tumor was totally excised. She had a transient worsening of hemiparesis, presumably due to the dissection of tumor from the brainstem. Among the ten patients with encasement of the basilar artery and branches, injury to the basilar artery occurred in two patients, both were repaired. Injuries to one superior cerebellar artery, one anterior inferior cerebellar artery, and one perforating vessel could not be repaired. Three patients sustained major neurologic deficits, but only in two did this result in permanent functional deterioration. Three of the ten patients had a gross total resection, five had subtotal resection (90% or more of tumor volume), and two had resection of 70% of the tumor volume. Eight patients had improvement in their Karnofsky scores. None showed recurrence or regrowth on follow-up ranging from 2 to 6 years. Greater difficulty with dissection was experienced in previously operated patients, and in patients who did not have an arachnoid plane between the brainstem and the tumor. Magnetic resonance imaging was the most useful preoperative test. It is concluded that meningiomas with vertebrobasilar artery encasement can be removed successfully with modern skull base surgery techniques. The surgeon needs to exercise caution and judgment in deciding how far the removal of these lesions should be pursued. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10 PMID:17170896

  20. Arterial Aging: a Journey into Subclinical Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mingyi; Monticone, Robert E.; Lakatta, Edward G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Age-associated arterial alterations in cells, matrix, and biomolecules are the foundation for the initiation and progression of cardiovascular diseases in older persons. This review focuses on the latest advances on the intertwining of aging and disease within the arterial wall at the cell and molecular levels. Recent findings Endothelial dysfunction, VSMC proliferation/invasion/secretion, matrix fragmentation, collagenization and glycation are characteristics of an age-associated arterial phenotype that creates a microenvironment enriched with reactive oxygen species (ROS) for the pathogenesis of arterial disease. This niche creates an age-associated arterial secretory phenotype (AAASP), which is orchestrated by the concerted effects of numerous age-modified Ang II signaling molecules. Most of these biomolecular, cell, and matrix modifications that comprise the AASP can be elicited by experimental hypertension or atherosclerosis at a younger age. The arterial AAASP also shares features of a senescence associated secretory phenotype (SASP) identified in other mesenchymocytes, i.e. fibroblasts. Summary A subclinical AAASP evolves during aging. Targeting this subclinical AAASP may reduce the incidence and progression of the quintessential age-associated arterial diseases, i.e. hypertension and atherosclerosis. PMID:20040868

  1. The existence of a local 5-hydroxytryptaminergic system in peripheral arteries

    PubMed Central

    Ni, W; Geddes, T J; Priestley, J R C; Szasz, T; Kuhn, D M; Watts, S W

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: 5-HT is a vasoconstrictor exhibiting enhanced effects in systemic arteries from subjects with cardiovascular disease. The effect of endogenous 5-HT on arteries is controversial, because the concentration of free circulating 5-HT is low and a 5-hydroxytryptaminergic system has not been identified in peripheral arteries. We hypothesized that a local 5-hydroxytryptaminergic system (including 5-HT synthesis, metabolism, uptake and release) with physiological function exists in peripheral arteries. Experimental approach: The presence of key components of a 5-hydroxytryptaminergic system in rat aorta and superior mesenteric artery was examined using western blot analyses, immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry. The function of the rate-limiting enzyme in 5-HT biosynthesis, tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), and 5-HT transporter was tested by measuring enzyme activity and 5-HT uptake, respectively. Isometric contraction of arterial strips was used to demonstrate the function of released endogenous 5-HT in arterial tissues. Key results: mRNA for TPH-1 was present in arteries, with low levels of TPH protein and TPH activity. Expression and function of MAO A (5-HT metabolizing enzyme) was supported by immunohistochemistry, western analyses and the elevation of concentrations of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HT metabolite) after exposure to exogenous 5-HT. The 5-HT transporter was localized to the plasma membrane of freshly isolated aortic smooth muscle cells. Peripheral arteries actively took up 5-HT in a time-dependent and 5-HT transporter-dependent manner. The 5-HT transporter substrate, (+)-fenfluramine, released endogenous 5-HT from peripheral arteries, which potentiated noradrenaline-induced arterial contraction. Conclusions and implications: This study revealed the existence of a local 5-hydroxytryptaminergic system in peripheral arteries. PMID:18414394

  2. [Acute peripheral arterial occlusive disease].

    PubMed

    Schumann, Romy; Rieger, Johannes; Ludwig, Malte

    2007-06-15

    Acute lower limb ischemia is not infrequently associated with limb loss 10-30%) or death of the affected patient (15-30%). Thus, acute lower limb ischemia is an emergency. There are two categories of acute arterial occlusion: embolism (70-80%) and thrombosis (20-30%). Early diagnosis is a prerequisite for optimal management. Initial clinical examination is the crucial point: it makes the diagnosis of acute ischemia, localizes the level of occlusion, collects etiologic information and allows for assessing the local and general impact of ischemia on the patient. If sensation and motor function are present, viability of the limb is not threatened (incomplete limb ischemia), and good results can be obtained by utilizing anticoagulation and delayed elective revascularization, if the latter is indicated. If the patient, however, presents symptoms of a complete limb ischemia (paralysis or anesthesia is present), then ultimate limb loss is likely. Most patients present with subtle findings and lack classic symptoms, which makes the diagnosis difficult. The standard office-based tests to determine the presence of acute peripheral vascular disease are calculation of the ankle-brachial index and color duplex sonography. Up to now, digital subtraction angiography is used as standard of reference for definitive localization of the occlusion before revascularization. Magnetic resonance arteriography may be helpful when symptoms or findings do not correlate with the noninvasive ultrasound methods. Therapeutic choices are high-dose heparin therapy, surgical removal of the clot, mechanical interventional thrombectomy, and/or catheter-directed thrombolysis - the ultimate choice being dependent on the particular status of the patient. Patients with severe ischemia require immediate surgical intervention. In patients with contraindications to surgical management or incomplete ischemia, interventional revascularization is the therapy of primary choice. Successful outcome is dependent on careful clinical assessment and a prompt multidisciplinary approach to revascularization. PMID:17571221

  3. Early Childhood Screening Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luehr, Ruth Ellen; Hoxie, Ann

    The goal of Minnesota's Early Childhood Screening (ECS) program is to identify normal aspects of a child's health and development while sorting out potential problems that need further evaluation. In addition, all parents are linked to resources in the school and community to enhance their child's development and their own parenting skills. This…

  4. Endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffening, and intima-media thickening in large arteries from HIV-1 transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Laura; Parker, Ivana; Sutliff, Roy L.; Platt, Manu O.; Gleason, Rudolph L.

    2015-01-01

    HIV patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) exhibit elevated incidence of cardiovascular disease, including a higher risk of myocardial infarction and prevalence of atherosclerotic lesions, as well as increases in markers of subclinical atherosclerosis including increased carotid artery intima-media thickness, increased arterial stiffness, and impaired flow-mediated dilation. Both HAART and HIV-infection are independent risk factors for atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction. Studies implicate the HIV proteins tat, gp120, vpu, and nef in early on-set atherosclerosis. The objective of this study was to quantify the role of expression of HIV-1 proteins on the vascular function, biomechanics, and geometry of common carotid arteries and aortas. This study employed NL4-3? gag/pol transgenic mice (HIV-Tg), which contain the genetic sequence for the HIV-1 proteins env, tat, nef, rev, vif, vpr, and vpu but lacks the gag and pol genes and reports that HIV-Tg mice have impaired aortic endothelial function, increased carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT), and increased arterial stiffness. Further, HIV-Tg arteries show decreased elastin content, increased cathepsin K and cathepsin S activity, and increased mechanical residual stress. Thus, mice that express HIV proteins exhibit pre-clinical markers of atherosclerosis and these markers correlate with changes in markers of vascular remodeling. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that HIV-proteins, independent of HAART treatment or HIV infection, could play a role in of the development of cardiovascular disease. PMID:23180031

  5. Enhanced Cytomegalovirus Infection in Atherosclerotic Human Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Nerheim, Pamela L.; Meier, Jeffery L.; Vasef, Mohammad A.; Li, Wei-Gen; Hu, Ling; Rice, James B.; Gavrila, Daniel; Richenbacher, Wayne E.; Weintraub, Neal L.

    2004-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a possible co-factor in atherogenesis and vascular occlusion, but its ability to actively infect medium and large blood vessels is unclear. A vascular explant model was adapted to investigate CMV infection in human coronary artery, internal mammary artery (IMA), and saphenous vein (SV). Vascular explants were inoculated with CMV Towne or low-passage clinical isolate and examined in situ for CMV cytopathic effect and immediate-early and early antigens, as indicators of active infection. At 5 to 7 days after inoculation, we found that CMV Towne actively infected eight of eight different atherosclerotic blood vessel explants (coronary artery, n = 4; SV and IMA grafts, n = 4), whereas it only infected 2 of 14 nonatherosclerotic blood vessel explants (SV, n = 10; IMA, n = 4) (P = 0.001). The CMV clinical isolate actively infected none of six sets of nonatherosclerotic SV explants at 5 to 7 days after inoculation. The active CMV infections involved adventitial and, less frequently, intimal cells. A small subset of infected cells in atherosclerotic tissue expresses the endothelial cell marker CD31. Smooth muscle cells residing in both atherosclerotic and nonatherosclerotic blood vessels were free of active CMV infections even after all vascular tissue layers were exposed to the virus. In contrast, active CMV Towne infection was evident at 2 days after inoculation in smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells previously isolated from the SV tissues. We conclude that active CMV infection is enhanced in atherosclerotic blood vessels compared to atherosclerosis-free vascular equivalents, and this viral activity is restricted to subpopulations of intimal and adventitial cells. PMID:14742264

  6. Leukocyte adhesion in aorta and femoral artery in vivo is mediated by LFA-1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Schramm; M. D. Menger; H.-J. Schaefers; H. Thorlacius

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Cytokine-induced recruitment of leukocytes is an early feature during arterial injury and atherosclerotic plaque formation. The aim of this study was to analyze the role of the ? 2-integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1; CD11a\\/CD18) in cytokine-triggered firm leukocyte adhesion to arterial endothelium in vivo. Material and Methods: Intravital fluorescence microscopy was used to study leukocyte firm adhesion in the

  7. Concomitant surgical procedures for coronary artery disease and intraperitoneal double cancers: Report of a case

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahiko Taniguchi; Wataru Kamiike; Toshiki Takahashi; Kazuhiro Iwase; Namiko Ishikawa; Toyokazu Aono; Norihide Fukushima; Keishi Kadoba; Kazuhiro Taniguchi; Hikaru Matsuda

    1997-01-01

    Concomitant surgical procedures for coronary artery disease and double cancers are reported. A 61-year-old man with severe\\u000a triple-vessel coronary disease was found to have early gastric cancer and advanced rectal cancer. We successfully performed\\u000a a concomitant coronary artery bypass graft using an extracorporeal ultrafiltration membrane and curative surgery for both\\u000a cancers. Concomitant surgery thus appears to be a benefical and

  8. Enhanced early sensory outcome after nerve repair as a result of immediate post-operative re-learning: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rosén, B; Vikström, P; Turner, S; McGrouther, D A; Selles, R W; Schreuders, T A R; Björkman, A

    2015-07-01

    We assessed the use of guided plasticity training to improve the outcome in the first 6 months after nerve repair. In a multicentre randomized controlled trial, 37 adults with median or ulnar nerve repair at the distal forearm were randomized to intervention, starting the first week after surgery with sensory and motor re-learning using mirror visual feedback and observation of touch, or to a control group with re-learning starting when reinnervation could be detected. The primary outcome at 3 and 6 months post-operatively was discriminative touch (shape texture identification test, part of the Rosen score). At 6 months, discriminative touch was significantly better in the early intervention group. Improvement of discriminative touch between 3 and 6 months was also significantly greater in that group. There were no significant differences in motor function, pain or in the total score. We conclude that early re-learning using guided plasticity may have a potential to improve the outcomes after nerve repair. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE II. PMID:25294735

  9. Artery phantoms for intravascular optical coherence tomography: healthy arteries.

    PubMed

    Bisaillon, Charles-Étienne; Dufour, Marc L; Lamouche, Guy

    2011-09-01

    We present a method to make phantoms of coronary arteries for intravascular optical coherence tomography (IV-OCT). The phantoms provide a calibrated OCT response similar to the layered structure of arteries. The optical properties of each layer are achieved with specific concentrations of alumina and carbon black in a silicone matrix. This composition insures high durability and also approximates the elastic properties of arteries. The phantoms are fabricated in a tubular shape by the successive deposition and curing of liquid silicone mixtures on a lathe setup. PMID:21991552

  10. Middle Meningeal Artery Arising from the Basilar Artery

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Mohamed M.; Fusco, Matthew R.; Dolati, Parviz; Reddy, Arra S.; Ogilvy, Christopher S.; Thomas, Ajith J.

    2014-01-01

    Various anomalies for the origin of the middle meningeal artery (MMA) have been described in the literature. However, origin of the MMA from the basilar trunk is an extremely rare variant. We report on a 54-year-old female who presented with frequent headaches; magnetic resonance imaging showed a right parietal meningioma. The abnormal origin of the middle meningeal artery from the basilar artery was diagnosed by angiography performed for preoperative embolization of the tumor. We report on the case with a review of the embryologic basis, possible explanations for this aberrant origin, and its clinical implications. PMID:25599045

  11. Fibulin-5 null mice with decreased arterial compliance maintain normal systolic left ventricular function, but not diastolic function during maturation.

    PubMed

    Le, Victoria P; Stoka, Kellie V; Yanagisawa, Hiromi; Wagenseil, Jessica E

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The large arteries serve as compliant vessels that store energy during systole and return it during diastole. This function is made possible by the elastic fibers in the arterial wall that are assembled during late embryonic and early postnatal development from various proteins, including fibulin-5. Mice and humans with insufficient amounts of fibulin-5 have reduced arterial compliance as adults. Reduced compliance of the large arteries is correlated with hypertension, reduced cardiac function, and an increased risk of death from cardiac and cardiovascular disease. The goal of this study was to quantify arterial compliance, blood pressure, and left ventricular (LV) function from early postnatal development to young adulthood in fibulin-5 null (Fbln5-/-) mice to determine the effects of reduced arterial compliance during this critical period of elastic fiber assembly. We find that ascending aorta compliance is reduced as early as postnatal day (P) 7 and carotid artery compliance is reduced by P21 in Fbln5-/- mice. We did not find significant increases in systolic blood pressure by P60, but pulse pressures are increased by P21 in Fbln5-/- mice. LV systolic function, as measured by ejection fraction and fractional shortening, is unaffected in Fbln5-/- mice. However, LV diastolic function, as measured by tissue Doppler imaging, is compromised at all ages in Fbln5-/- mice. We propose that Fbln5-/- mice represent a suitable model for further studies to determine mechanistic relationships between arterial compliance and LV diastolic function. PMID:24760511

  12. Right coronary artery arising as a terminal extension of the left circumflex artery (a rare coronary artery anomaly)

    PubMed Central

    Tanr?verdi, Halil; ?eleci, Deniz; Kuru, Ömür; Semiz, Ender

    2007-01-01

    A single coronary artery is a very rare type of coronary artery anomaly that may present in various forms. A patient is presented in whom the right coronary artery coursed as the terminal branch of the left circumflex artery. This is the second case of this anomaly in the literature. PMID:17622398

  13. [Contribution of arterial spin labeling to the diagnosis of sudden and transient neurological deficit].

    PubMed

    Yger, M; Villain, N; Belkacem, S; Bertrand, A; Rosso, C; Crozier, S; Samson, Y; Dormont, D

    2015-02-01

    MRI is the gold standard exploration for sudden transient neurological events. If diffusion MRI is negative, there may be a diagnostic doubt between transient ischemic attack and other causes of transient neurological deficit. We illustrate how sequence arterial spin labeling (ASL), which evaluates cerebral perfusion, contributes to the exploration of transient neurological events. An ASL sequence was performed in seven patients with a normal diffusion MRI explored for a transient deficit. Cortical hyperperfusion not systematized to an arterial territory was found in three and hypoperfusion systematized to an arterial territory in four. ASL helped guide early management of these patients. PMID:25555846

  14. Pulmonary arterial remodeling revealed by microfocal x-ray tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karau, Kelly L.; Molthen, Robert C.; Johnson, Roger H.; Dhyani, Anita H.; Haworth, Steven T.; Dawson, Christopher A.

    2001-05-01

    Animal models and micro-CT imaging are useful for understanding the functional consequences of, and identifying the genes involved in, the remodeling of vascular structures that accompanies pulmonary vascular disease. Using a micro-CT scanner to image contrast-enhanced arteries in excised lungs from fawn hooded rats (a strain genetically susceptible to hypoxia induced pulmonary hypertension), we found that portions of the pulmonary arterial tree downstream from a given diameter were morphometrically indistinguishable. This 'self-consistency' property provided a means for summarizing the pulmonary arterial tree architecture and mechanical properties using a parameter vector obtained from measurements of the contiguous set of vessel segments comprising the longest (principal) pathway and its branches over a range of vascular pressures. This parameter vector was used to characterize the pulmonary vascular remodeling that occurred in rats exposed to a hypoxic (11.5% oxygen) environment and provided the input to a hemodynamic model relating structure to function. The major effect of the remodeling was a longitudinally (pulmonary artery to arterioles) uniform decrease in vessel distensibility that resulted in a 90% increase in arterial resistance. Despite the almost uniform change in vessel distensibility, over 50% of the resistance increase was attributable to vessels with unstressed diameters less than 125 microns.

  15. Total arterial revascularization with internal mammary artery or radial artery pi graft configuration.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yongzhi; Sun, Zongquan; Paterson, Hugh S

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the clinical use of pi graft in total arterial revascularization and its outcomes, a retrospective analysis of 23 patients out of 1000 patients undergoing total arterial coronary bypass surgery with a pi graft between September 1994 and December 2004 was performed. In the selected patients for the management of triple vessel disease with middle diagonal/intermediate ramus disease such that a skip with the left internal mammary artery (LIMA) or radial artery (RA), the main stem of pi graft, to the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) will not work and the right internal mammary artery (RIMA) or right gastroepiploic artery (RGEA) cannot pick up the diagonal/intermediate ramus, hence the LAD and diagonal/intermediate ramus were grafted with a mini Y graft using the distal segment of LIMA, RIMA, RA or RGEA, together with the bilateral internal mammary artery (BIMA) or LIMA-RA T graft to compose pi graft. Twenty-three patients (18 males, 5 females) underwent the pi graft procedure. There were no deaths or episodes of myocardial infarction, stroke, and deep sternal wound infection. One patient required reopening for controlling bleeding. Until the end of 2004, during a mean follow-up of 81.0 +/- 28.4 months, no angina needing re-intervention or operative therapy or coronary related death occurred. In conclusion, in patients with specific coronary artery anatomy/stenosis, the BIMA (sometimes LIMA with RA or RGEA) pi graft can be successfully performed for total arterial revascularization with good midterm outcomes. PMID:16463678

  16. Episodic Enhanced Carbon Sequestration and Redox Conditions in a Late Barremian-Early Aptian Restricted Marine Basin: El Pui Section, Organyà Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-hernandez, Y.; Maurrasse, F. J.

    2013-05-01

    A major episode of intensified carbon sequestration (TOC) and enhanced redox conditions in the lower Cretaceous is associated with the well-known Oceanic Anoxic Event 1a (OAE1a) worldwide. Increased TOC values (up to 3.0wt%) concurrent with positive excursions in ?13C (up to 2.5‰) have been documented in different areas in the Late Barremian as well as in the middle Aptian prior to, and after OAE-1a, respectively. Such indicators imply that environmental conditions conducive to increased carbon sequestration (although less intense) developed in isolated basins not synchronous with major global forcing mechanisms recorded in the major events. In this study, geochemical analyses: organic (TOC; ?13C; biomarker analysis), and inorganic: (trace and major element concentrations, and clay mineralogy) reveal the occurrence of intermittent reducing conditions in a restricted marine basin from the latest Barremian to the lower Aptian that led to enhanced C sequestration. We also document later occurrence of OAE-1a in the basin sedimentary succession, and the impact of regional physiographic conditions in the local expression of the global event. Temporal behavior in the concentration of major elements (Al, Si and Ti) reveals variations in sedimentation patterns and nutrient availability controlled by fluctuation in terrigenous fluxes from continental runoffs. Such fluctuations controlled primary producers (both Prokaryotes: cyanobacteria; and Eukaryotes: nanno-phytoplankton) that constitute the calcareous and organic matter (OM) components of the matrix where their relative abundance co-varies with the intensity of terrigenous fluxes. The presence of benthic fauna also responded to episodic alterations in the oxygen levels with lower abundance or absence at dysoxic to anoxic intervals. Oxygen depleted levels are associated with enhanced primary productivity as indicated by positive excursions in the ?13C-org and trace element indices.

  17. Quantitative low mechanical index contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasound for the differential diagnosis of chronic pseudotumoral pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Second-generation intravenous blood-pool ultrasound contrast agents are increasingly used in endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for characterization of microvascularization, differential diagnosis of benign and malignant focal lesions, as well as improved staging and guidance of therapeutic procedures. Methods The aim of our study was to prospectively compare the vascularisation patterns in chronic pseudotumoral pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer using quantitative low mechanical index (MI) contrast-enhanced EUS. We included 51 patients with chronic pseudotumoral pancreatitis (n?=?19) and pancreatic cancer (n?=?32). Perfusion imaging started with a bolus injection of Sonovue (2.4?ml), followed by analysis in the early arterial (wash-in) and late venous (wash-out) phase. Perfusion analysis was performed by post-processing of the raw data (time intensity curve [TIC] analysis). TIC analysis was performed inside the tumor and the pancreatic parenchyma, with depiction of the dynamic vascular pattern generated by specific software. Statistical analysis was performed on raw data extracted from the TIC analysis. Final diagnosis was based on a combination of EUS-FNA, surgery and follow-up of minimum 6?months in negative cases. Results The sensitivity and specificity of low MI contrast enhanced EUS using TIC were sensitivity and specificity of low MI contrast enhanced EUS using TIC analysis were 93.75% (95% CI?=?77.77 - 98.91%) and 89.47% (95% CI?=?65.46 - 98.15%), respectively. Pseudotumoral chronic pancreatitis showed in the majority of cases a hypervascular appearance in the early arterial phase of contrast-enhancement, with a dynamic enhancement pattern similar with the rest of the parenchyma. Statistical analysis of the resulting series of individual intensities revealed no statistically relevant differences (p?=?.78). Pancreatic adenocarcinoma was usually a hypovascular lesion, showing low contrast-enhancement during the early arterial and also during the late venous phase of contrast-enhancement, also lower than the normal surrounding parenchyma. We found statistically significant differences in values during TIC analysis (p?enhanced EUS technique is expected to improve the differential diagnosis of focal pancreatic lesions. However, further multicentric randomized studies will confirm the exact role of the technique and its place in imaging assessment of focal pancreatic lesions. PMID:23286918

  18. Plasma Cholesterol–Induced Lesion Networks Activated before Regression of Early, Mature, and Advanced Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Björkegren, Johan L. M.; Hägg, Sara; Jain, Rajeev K.; Cedergren, Cecilia; Shang, Ming-Mei; Rossignoli, Aránzazu; Takolander, Rabbe; Melander, Olle; Hamsten, Anders; Michoel, Tom; Skogsberg, Josefin

    2014-01-01

    Plasma cholesterol lowering (PCL) slows and sometimes prevents progression of atherosclerosis and may even lead to regression. Little is known about how molecular processes in the atherosclerotic arterial wall respond to PCL and modify responses to atherosclerosis regression. We studied atherosclerosis regression and global gene expression responses to PCL (?80%) and to atherosclerosis regression itself in early, mature, and advanced lesions. In atherosclerotic aortic wall from Ldlr?/?Apob100/100Mttpflox/floxMx1-Cre mice, atherosclerosis regressed after PCL regardless of lesion stage. However, near-complete regression was observed only in mice with early lesions; mice with mature and advanced lesions were left with regression-resistant, relatively unstable plaque remnants. Atherosclerosis genes responding to PCL before regression, unlike those responding to the regression itself, were enriched in inherited risk for coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction, indicating causality. Inference of transcription factor (TF) regulatory networks of these PCL-responsive gene sets revealed largely different networks in early, mature, and advanced lesions. In early lesions, PPARG was identified as a specific master regulator of the PCL-responsive atherosclerosis TF-regulatory network, whereas in mature and advanced lesions, the specific master regulators were MLL5 and SRSF10/XRN2, respectively. In a THP-1 foam cell model of atherosclerosis regression, siRNA targeting of these master regulators activated the time-point-specific TF-regulatory networks and altered the accumulation of cholesterol esters. We conclude that PCL leads to complete atherosclerosis regression only in mice with early lesions. Identified master regulators and related PCL-responsive TF-regulatory networks will be interesting targets to enhance PCL-mediated regression of mature and advanced atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:24586211

  19. Pediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dan-Chen; Zhang, Hong-Da; Jing, Zhi-Cheng

    2013-12-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) can cause morbidity and mortality in children. Although adult and pediatric PAH share many similarities, many differences have been found in children. Thus, a new classification for pediatric pulmonary hypertensive vascular disease has been proposed. Both child and adult gene mutation carriers with PAH tend to have worse prognoses. Pediatric patients present with better preserved functional class, and parents should pay high attention to any children with unexplained shortness of breath, fatigue or syncope, as symptoms of PAH in children are often misleading. Right heart catheterization is necessary for diagnosis. Although there are few medications approved for pediatric PAH and evidence-based treatment algorithms for children are still lacking, the survival of pediatric patients has been improved significantly since targeted therapies approved for adults were introduced to pediatric patients. PAH in children is unique, and further studies are needed to have a better understanding of it. PMID:24163011

  20. Effects of fluid recirculation on mass transfer from the arterial surface to flowing blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhi-Guo; Zhang, Xi-Wen; Liu, Ying-Xi

    2012-06-01

    The effect of disturbed flow on the mass transfer from arterial surface to flowing blood was studied numerically, and the results were compared with that of our previous work. The arterial wall was assumed to be viscoelastic and the blood was assumed to be incompressible and non-Newtonian fluid, which is more close to human arterial system. Numerical results indicated that the mass transfer from the arterial surface to flowing blood in regions of disturbed flow is positively related with the wall shear rates and it is significantly enhanced in regions of disturbed flow with a local minimum around the reattachment point which is higher than the average value of the downstream. Therefore, it may be implied that the accumulation of cholesterol or lipids within atheromatous plaques is not caused by the reduced efflux of cholesterol or lipids, but by the infiltration of the LDL (low-density lipoprotein) from the flowing blood to the arterial wall.