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Sample records for early arterial enhancement

  1. Who might benefit from early aspirin after coronary artery surgery?

    PubMed

    Gukop, Philemon; Gutman, Nadav; Bilkhu, Rajdeep; Karapanagiotidis, Georgios T

    2014-09-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether early administration of aspirin might optimize vein graft patency. More than 250 papers were found using the reported search, of which 4 new papers in addition to the previous 7 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. Early postoperative aspirin administered within 6 h following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has been shown to be optimal for prevention of vein graft occlusion. Early aspirin has significant benefit in reducing vein graft occlusion, mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, renal failure and bowel infarction. The efficacy of early postoperative aspirin on vein graft patency diminishes the later it is administered. It has optimal benefit at 6 h, some benefit at 24 h and no benefit after 48 h post CABG. ACC/AHA, EACTS and ACCP have issued guidelines recommending administration of early aspirin or an alternative (clopidogrel, ticlopidine and indobufen) at 6 h or soon after bleeding has settled as the standard of care for optimization of vein graft patency. The ACCP guideline has also suggested that optimal prevention of cardiovascular complication should have higher value than prevention of postoperative bleeding. Several randomized, controlled studies, including a meta-analysis, have shown that early administration of aspirin following CABG is not associated with increased blood loss or transfusion requirement. Postoperative bleeding has been identified as a significant reason for non administration of early aspirin in a prospective study. It is essential to define/quantify the postoperative blood loss that precludes administration of early aspirin. This will enhance prompt administration in some cases and guide judgement, especially in patients with high-risk factors for vein graft thrombosis. Administration at 6 h is the optimal time to give aspirin as long as bleeding has settled. PMID:24871533

  2. Management of early hepatic artery occlusion after liver transplantation with failed rescue

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Chih-Yang; Ho, Cheng-Maw; Wu, Yao-Ming; Ho, Ming-Chih; Hu, Rey-Heng; Lee, Po-Huang

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic artery thrombosis is a serious complication after liver transplantation which often results in biliary complications, early graft loss, and patient death. It is generally thought that early hepatic artery thrombosis without urgent re-vascularization or re-transplantation almost always leads to mortality, especially if the hepatic artery thrombosis occurs within a few days after transplantation. This series presents 3 cases of early hepatic artery thrombosis after living donor liver transplantation, in which surgical or endovascular attempts at arterial re-vascularization failed. Unexpectedly, these 3 patients survived with acceptable graft function after 32 mo, 11 mo, and 4 mo follow-up, respectively. The literatures on factors affecting this devastating complication were reviewed from an anatomical perspective. The collective evidence from survivors indicated that modified nonsurgical management after liver transplantation with failed revascularization may be sufficient to prevent mortality from early hepatic artery occlusion. Re-transplantation may be reserved for selected patients with unrecovered graft function. PMID:26640351

  3. Liposomal nanoparticles encapsulating iloprost exhibit enhanced vasodilation in pulmonary arteries

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Pritesh P; Leber, Regina; Nagaraj, Chandran; Leitinger, Gerd; Lehofer, Bernhard; Olschewski, Horst; Olschewski, Andrea; Prassl, Ruth; Marsh, Leigh M

    2014-01-01

    Prostacyclin analogues are standard therapeutic options for vasoconstrictive diseases, including pulmonary hypertension and Raynaud’s phenomenon. Although effective, these treatment strategies are expensive and have several side effects. To improve drug efficiency, we tested liposomal nanoparticles as carrier systems. In this study, we synthesized liposomal nanoparticles tailored for the prostacyclin analogue iloprost and evaluated their pharmacologic efficacy on mouse intrapulmonary arteries, using a wire myograph. The use of cationic lipids, stearylamine, or 1,2-di-(9Z-octadecenoyl)-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) in liposomes promoted iloprost encapsulation to at least 50%. The addition of cholesterol modestly reduced iloprost encapsulation. The liposomal nanoparticle formulations were tested for toxicity and pharmacologic efficacy in vivo and ex vivo, respectively. The liposomes did not affect the viability of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Compared with an equivalent concentration of free iloprost, four out of the six polymer-coated liposomal formulations exhibited significantly enhanced vasodilation of mouse pulmonary arteries. Iloprost that was encapsulated in liposomes containing the polymer polyethylene glycol exhibited concentration-dependent relaxation of arteries. Strikingly, half the concentration of iloprost in liposomes elicited similar pharmacologic efficacy as nonencapsulated iloprost. Cationic liposomes can encapsulate iloprost with high efficacy and can serve as potential iloprost carriers to improve its therapeutic efficacy. PMID:25045260

  4. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging of the vasa vasorum of carotid artery plaque

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ze-Zhou; Zhang, Yan-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The vasa vasorum of carotid artery plaque is a novel marker of accurately evaluating the vulnerability of carotid artery plaque, which was associated with symptomatic cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disease. The presence of ultrasound contrast agents in carotid artery plaque represents the presence of the vasa vasorum in carotid artery plaque because the ultrasound contrast agents are strict intravascular tracers. Therefore, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is a novel and safe imaging modality for evaluating the vasa vasorum in carotid artery plaque. However, there are some issues that needs to be assessed to embody fully the clinical utility of the vasa vasorum in carotid artery plaque with CEUS. PMID:26120382

  5. Early Effects of Arterial Hemodynamic Conditions on Human Saphenous Veins Perfused Ex Vivo

    E-print Network

    Chesler, Naomi C.

    Early Effects of Arterial Hemodynamic Conditions on Human Saphenous Veins Perfused Ex Vivo Kreton of saphenous vein grafts. Using matched pairs of freshly isolated human saphenous vein, we analyzed the early.01) and MMP-2 (44 6%, P 0.005) levels relative to matched vein pairs maintained ex vivo under venous perfusion

  6. Early diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease can save limbs.

    PubMed

    Savill, Peter

    2012-10-01

    Prompt identification and management of patients with peripheral arterial disease can improve quality of life, save limbs and reduce cardiovascular events. The most common initial symptom is leg pain on exertion or intermittent claudication. More severe or critical limb ischaemia can present with pain at rest, ulceration, tissue loss and/or gangrene, In most patients the symptoms remain stable, but approximately 20% will develop limb threatening critical ischaemia. The incidence of peripheral arterial disease increases with age and up to 20% of people aged over 60 are affected to some degree. The incidence is also high in smokers, diabetes patients, and those with coronary disease. A focused history should identify the presence and severity of intermittent claudication and any critical limb ischaemia. Examination should concentrate on the palpation of lower limb arterial pulses and look for signs of critical ischaemia such as ulceration. The key primary care investigation in suspected peripheral arterial disease is measurement of the ankle brachial pressure index. Lifestyle interventions are a key component of management. NICE recommends that a supervised exercise programme is offered to all patients with intermittent claudication. Pharmacological therapy should always include an antiplatelet agent and statin. Vasoactive drugs such as naftidrofuryl oxalate should be considered for symptom control in intermittent claudication when exercise has not led to a satisfactory improvement and the patient prefers not to be referred for revascularisation. Patients with severe and inadequately controlled symptoms should be referred to secondary care with a view to further imaging to assess the appropriateness of revascularisation. PMID:23214272

  7. Signal and image processing for early detection of coronary artery diseases: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobssite, Youness; Samir, B. Belhaouari; Mohamad Hani, Ahmed Fadzil B.

    2012-09-01

    Today biomedical signals and image based detection are a basic step to diagnose heart diseases, in particular, coronary artery diseases. The goal of this work is to provide non-invasive early detection of Coronary Artery Diseases relying on analyzing images and ECG signals as a combined approach to extract features, further classify and quantify the severity of DCAD by using B-splines method. In an aim of creating a prototype of screening biomedical imaging for coronary arteries to help cardiologists to decide the kind of treatment needed to reduce or control the risk of heart attack.

  8. Intra-arterial contrast-enhanced spiral CT: adjunct to angiography for localizing obscure gastrointestinal bleed.

    PubMed

    Sreekumar, K P; Moorthy, Srikanth; Prabhu, Nirmal K; Pillai, Anil K

    2002-01-01

    We report two patients with obscure GI bleed in whom we performed intra-arterial contrast-enhanced spiral CT scan of abdomen with the angiography catheter in the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). The technique localized the lesions to the mid jejunum and distal duodenum. PMID:12546178

  9. Digital capillaroscopy as important tool for early diagnostics of arterial hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurfinkel, Yu. I.; Sasonko, M. L.; Priezzhev, A. V.

    2015-03-01

    The study is aimed to determine the digital capillaroscopy possibilities in early diagnostics of an arterial hypertension. A total of 123 adult persons were examined in the study. The first group consisted of 40 patients with prehypertension (BP 130-139/85-89 mm Hg). The second group included 36 patients with 1-2 stage of hypertension (mean systolic BP 152.7±12 mm Hg). Patients in both groups did not receive regular drug therapy. The group of volunteers (n=47) included healthy adults without signs of cardiovascular pathology. The capillary circulation was examined on the nailbed using the optical digital capillaroscope developed by the company "AET", Russia. Diameters of the arterial and venous segments, perivascular zone size, capillary blood velocity, the degree of arterial loops narrowing and the density of the capillary network were estimated. In patients with arterial hypertension and even in patients with prehypertension remodeling and rarefaction of capillaries and the expressed narrowing their arterial loops were manifested. The results of the study revealed the presence of abnormalities of microcirculation parameters in patients of both groups. The capillaries density in both groups of patients was significantly lower than in healthy persons. The significant narrowing of arterial loops was revealed in patients with both arterial hypertension and prehypertension, in comparison with healthy volunteers. Capillary blood velocity did not differ significantly between healthy volunteers group and the group of prehypertensive patients. However in patients with hypertension this parameter was significantly lower in comparison with control group.

  10. Surface Roughness Detection of Arteries via Texture Analysis of Ultrasound Images for Early Diagnosis of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Lili; Qian, Ming; Yang, Wei; Meng, Long; Xiao, Yang; Wong, Kelvin K. L.; Abbott, Derek; Liu, Xin; Zheng, Hairong

    2013-01-01

    There is a strong research interest in identifying the surface roughness of the carotid arterial inner wall via texture analysis for early diagnosis of atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study is to assess the efficacy of texture analysis methods for identifying arterial roughness in the early stage of atherosclerosis. Ultrasound images of common carotid arteries of 15 normal mice fed a normal diet and 28 apoE?/? mice fed a high-fat diet were recorded by a high-frequency ultrasound system (Vevo 2100, frequency: 40 MHz). Six different texture feature sets were extracted based on the following methods: first-order statistics, fractal dimension texture analysis, spatial gray level dependence matrix, gray level difference statistics, the neighborhood gray tone difference matrix, and the statistical feature matrix. Statistical analysis indicates that 11 of 19 texture features can be used to distinguish between normal and abnormal groups (p<0.05). When the 11 optimal features were used as inputs to a support vector machine classifier, we achieved over 89% accuracy, 87% sensitivity and 93% specificity. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity for the k-nearest neighbor classifier were 73%, 75% and 70%, respectively. The results show that it is feasible to identify arterial surface roughness based on texture features extracted from ultrasound images of the carotid arterial wall. This method is shown to be useful for early detection and diagnosis of atherosclerosis. PMID:24146940

  11. Sensitivity of Hyperdense Basilar Artery Sign on Non-Enhanced Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Marielle; Romero, Javier M.; Buhk, Jan-Hendrik; Cheng, Bastian; Herrmann, Jochen; Fiehler, Jens; Groth, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The hyperdense basilar artery sign (HBAS) is an indicator of vessel occlusion on non contrast-enhanced computer tomography (NECT) in acute stroke patients. Since basilar artery occlusion (BAO) is associated with a high mortality and morbidity, its early detection is of great clinical value. We sought to analyze the influence of density measurement as well as a normalized ratio of Hounsfield unit/hematocrit (HU/Hct) ratio on the detection of BAO on NECT in patients with suspected BAO. Materials and Methods 102 patients with clinically suspected BAO were examined with NECT followed immediately by Multidetector computed tomography Angiography. Two observers independently analyzed the images regarding the presence or absence of HBAS on NECT and performed HU measurements in the basilar artery. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to determine the optimal density threshold for BAO using attenuation measurements or HU/Hct ratio. Results Sensitivity of visual detection of the HBAS on NECT was relatively low 81% (95%-CI, 54–95%) while specificity was high 91% (95%-CI, 82–96%). The highest sensitivity was achieved by the combination of visual assessment and additional quantitative attenuation measurements applying a cut-off value of 46.5 HU with 94% sensitivity and 81% specificity for BAO. A HU/Hct ratio >1.32 revealed sensitivity of 88% (95%-CI, 60–98%) and specificity of 84% (95%-CI, 74–90%). Conclusion In patients with clinically suspected acute BAO the combination of visual assessment and additional attenuation measurement with a cut-off value of 46.5 HU is a reliable approach with high sensitivity in the detection of BAO on NECT. PMID:26479718

  12. Phasic disappearance of left circumflex coronary artery from an early complication of mitral valve surgery

    PubMed Central

    Devabhaktuni, Subodh; Sunkara, Nirmal; Ahsan, Chowdhury

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message LV pseudoaneurysm can be a late complication of mitral valve replacement. In our case, it was an early postoperative complication. This pseudoaneurysm was causing compression of LCX artery during systole, leading to presentation of NSTEMI two weeks after the surgery. PMID:26576286

  13. Doppler Ultrasound Detection of Preclinical Changes in Foot Arteries in Early Stage of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Leoniuk, Jolanta; ?ukasiewicz, Adam; Szorc, Ma?gorzata; Sackiewicz, Izabela; Janica, Jacek; ?ebkowska, Urszula

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background There are few reports regarding the changes within the vessels in the initial stage of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to estimate the hemodynamic and morphological parameters in foot arteries in type 2 diabetes subjects and to compare these parameters to those obtained in a control group of healthy volunteers. Material/Methods Ultrasound B-mode, color Doppler and pulse wave Doppler imaging of foot arteries was conducted in 37 diabetic patients and 36 non-diabetic subjects to determine their morphological (total vascular diameter and flow lumen diameter) and functional parameters (spectral analysis). Results In diabetic patients, the overall vascular diameter and wall thickness were statistically significantly larger when compared to the control group in the right dorsalis pedis artery (P=0.01; P=0.001), left dorsalis pedis artery (P=0.007; P=0.006), right posterior tibial artery (P=0.005; P=0.0005), and left posterior tibial artery (P=0.007; P=0.0002). No significant differences were observed in both groups in flow lumen diameters and blood flow parameters (PSV, EDV, PI, RI). In the diabetic group, the level of HbA1c positively correlated with flow resistance index in the right dorsalis pedis artery (r=0.38; P=0.02), right posterior tibial artery (r=0.38; P=0.02) and left posterior tibial artery (r=0.42; P=0.009). The pulsatility index within the dorsalis pedis artery decreased with increased trophic skin changes (r=–0.431, P=0.009). Conclusions In the diabetic group, overall artery diameters larger than and flow lumina comparable to the control group suggest vessel wall thickening occurring in the early stage of diabetes. Doppler flow parameters are comparable in both groups. In the diabetic group, the level of HbA1c positively correlated with flow resistance index and negative correlation was observed between the intensity of trophic skin changes and the pulsatility index. PMID:25202434

  14. Troubleshooting Arterial-Phase MR Images of Gadoxetate Disodium-Enhanced Liver

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Jimi; Yeh, Benjamin M.; Lee, Seung Soo; Kim, Kyoung Won; Wu, En-Haw; Wang, Z. Jane; Zhao, Li-qin; Chang, Wei Chou

    2015-01-01

    Gadoxetate disodium is a widely used magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent for liver MR imaging, and it provides both dynamic and hepatobiliary phase images. However, acquiring optimal arterial phase images at liver MR using gadoxetate disodium is more challenging than using conventional extracellular MR contrast agent because of the small volume administered, the gadolinium content of the agent, and the common occurrence of transient severe motion. In this article, we identify the challenges in obtaining high-quality arterial-phase images of gadoxetate disodium-enhanced liver MR imaging and present strategies for optimizing arterial-phase imaging based on the thorough review of recent research in this field. PMID:26576109

  15. Differential Diagnosis of Arterial Phase Enhanced Hepatic Inflammatory Lesions and Hepatocellular Carcinomas with Contrast-enhanced Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Yan, Kun; Wang, Song; Dai, Ying; Wu, Wei; Yin, Shan-Shan; Chen, Min-Hua

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the enhancement patterns of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) with SonoVue and determine the utility of this method for differential diagnosis between hepatic inflammatory lesions with arterial phase enhancement and hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). Twenty-three patients with arterial-enhanced inflammatory liver lesions and 46 HCC patients were included. These lesions had been subjected to CEUS examination and confirmed by pathologic results or imaging follow-up for at least 1 y. In the arterial phase of CEUS, 65.2% of the inflammatory lesions showed patchy (slight enhancement with poorly defined margins) or centripetal enhancement, whereas 89.1% of the HCC lesions showed homogeneous or heterogeneous enhancement (p < 0.001). Moreover, 82.6% of the inflammatory lesions had poorly defined margins, and 78.3% were irregular in shape at the peak, whereas 87.0% of the HCC lesions had well-defined margins and 76.1% were regular (both p < 0.001). Feeding vessels were more frequently visualized in HCCs (71.7%) than in inflammatory lesions (26.1%, p < 0.001). Additionally, 88.2% of the internal non-perfused areas in inflammatory lesions were regular in shape, while 68.0% of these areas in HCCs had an irregular shape (p < 0.001). CEUS pattern analysis provides important information for differentiating inflammatory liver lesions and HCCs and is helpful for improving diagnostic accuracy. PMID:26456578

  16. Diffuse Infantile Hepatic Hemangioendothelioma With Early Central Enhancement in an Adult

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Aisheng; Dong, Hui; Zuo, Changjing; He, Tianlin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Infantile hepatic hemangioendothelioma (IHH) is the most common vascular tumor of the liver in infancy. Adult with IHH is extremely rare. We presented a diffuse IHH in an adult patient with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings. A 39-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of a 2-year history of abnormal liver function tests and a 7-day history of jaundice. Physical examination revealed enlarged liver. Unenhanced abdominal CT showed enlargement of the liver with diffuse hypodensity. Enhanced CT on the arterial phase revealed multiple centrally enhanced lesions diffusely involved the enlarged liver. The enhanced areas of the lesions became larger on the portal phase and all the lesions became homogeneous enhanced on the delayed phase. These lesions showed heterogeneously hyperintense on T2-weighted image, hypointense on T1-weighted image, and early centrally enhanced on dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MRI, with complete tumor enhancement after 180?s. The patient underwent orthotopic liver transplantation. IHH type 2 was confirmed by pathology. The patient died of tumor recurrence in the liver 4 months after transplantation. Unlike the previously described imaging appearances of IHH, this case showed diffuse nodules with early central enhancement on CT and MRI. Considering the importance of the ability to differentiate IHH from other hepatic tumors, radiologists should be aware of these imaging appearances to establish knowledge of the entire spectrum of IHH. PMID:26705232

  17. Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Subarachnoid Haemorrhage and Vasospasm Enhances Endothelin Contraction in Rat Cerebral Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Assenzio, Barbara; Martin, Erica L.; Stankevicius, Edgaras; Civiletti, Federica; Fontanella, Marco; Boccaletti, Riccardo; Berardino, Maurizio; Mazzeo, AnnaTeresa; Ducati, Alessandro; Simonsen, Ulf; Mascia, Luciana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have suggested that cerebrospinal fluid from patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) leads to pronounced vasoconstriction in isolated arteries. We hypothesized that only cerebrospinal fluid from SAH patients with vasospasm would produce an enhanced contractile response to endothelin-1 in rat cerebral arteries, involving both endothelin ETA and ETB receptors. Methods Intact rat basilar arteries were incubated for 24 hours with cerebrospinal fluid from 1) SAH patients with vasospasm, 2) SAH patients without vasospasm, and 3) control patients. Arterial segments with and without endothelium were mounted in myographs and concentration-response curves for endothelin-1 were constructed in the absence and presence of selective and combined ETA and ETB receptor antagonists. Endothelin concentrations in culture medium and receptor expression were measured. Results Compared to the other groups, the following was observed in arteries exposed to cerebrospinal fluid from patients with vasospasm: 1) larger contractions at lower endothelin concentrations (p<0.05); 2) the increased endothelin contraction was absent in arteries without endothelium; 3) higher levels of endothelin secretion in the culture medium (p<0.05); 4) there was expression of ETA receptors and new expression of ETB receptors was apparent; 5) reduction in the enhanced response to endothelin after ETB blockade in the low range and after ETA blockade in the high range of endothelin concentrations; 6) after combined ETA and ETB blockade a complete inhibition of endothelin contraction was observed. Conclusions Our experimental findings showed that in intact rat basilar arteries exposed to cerebrospinal fluid from patients with vasospasm endothelin contraction was enhanced in an endothelium-dependent manner and was blocked by combined ETA and ETB receptor antagonism. Therefore we suggest that combined blockade of both receptors may play a role in counteracting vasospasm in patients with SAH. PMID:25629621

  18. Selective Down-regulation of KV2.1 Function Contributes to Enhanced Arterial Tone during Diabetes*

    E-print Network

    Scott, John D.

    Selective Down-regulation of KV2.1 Function Contributes to Enhanced Arterial Tone during Diabetes-regulated via AKAP150-CaN-dependent NFATc3 signaling during diabetes. Conclusion: Transcriptional suppression of KV2.1 contributes to enhanced arterial tone in diabetes. Significance: AKAP150-Ca

  19. Impact of admission triglyceride for early outcome in diabetic patients with stable coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of triglyceride (TG) in predicting the outcomes in diabetic patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) has not been well investigated. Methods A total of 329 cases with stable angina pectoris (SAP) were prospectively enrolled and followed up for an average of 12 months. They were classified into the two groups according to the cut-off values of predicting early outcome of fasting TG level (low group <1.2 mmol/L, n?=?103; High group ?1.2 mmol/L, n?=?226). The relationship between the TG levels and early outcomes were evaluated. Results High TG group showed severer lipid profile and elevated inflammatory markers. During an average of 12-month follow-up, 47 out of 329 patients suffered from pre-specified outcomes. Area under the receivers operating characteristic curve suggested that TG, similar to serum Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), was a significant predictor of early outcome for diabetic patients with SAP (P?=?0.002). In Cox regression models, after adjusted age, gender, body mass index, other lipid parameters, fasting blood glucose, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, neutrophil count and HbA1C, TG remained as an independent predictor of adverse prognosis. Conclusions High level of fasting TG (?1.2 mmol/L) was an independent predictor for early outcome of diabetic patients with SAP as like as HBA1c and number of affected coronary arteries in the era of revascularization and statin therapeutics. PMID:24766776

  20. Cardioprotective effects of early and late aerobic exercise training in experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Moreira-Gonçalves, Daniel; Ferreira, Rita; Fonseca, Hélder; Padrão, Ana Isabel; Moreno, Nuno; Silva, Ana Filipa; Vasques-Nóvoa, Francisco; Gonçalves, Nádia; Vieira, Sara; Santos, Mário; Amado, Francisco; Duarte, José Alberto; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F; Henriques-Coelho, Tiago

    2015-11-01

    Clinical studies suggest that aerobic exercise can exert beneficial effects in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We compared the impact of early or late aerobic exercise training on right ventricular function, remodeling and survival in experimental PAH. Male Wistar rats were submitted to normal cage activity (SED), exercise training in early (EarlyEX) and in late stage (LateEX) of PAH induced by monocrotaline (MCT, 60 mg/kg). Both exercise interventions resulted in improved cardiac function despite persistent right pressure-overload, increased exercise tolerance and survival, with greater benefits in EarlyEX+MCT. This was accompanied by improvements in the markers of cardiac remodeling (SERCA2a), neurohumoral activation (lower endothelin-1, brain natriuretic peptide and preserved vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA), metabolism and mitochondrial oxidative stress in both exercise interventions. EarlyEX+MCT provided additional improvements in fibrosis, tumor necrosis factor-alpha/interleukin-10 and brain natriuretic peptide mRNA, and beta/alpha myosin heavy chain protein expression. The present study demonstrates important cardioprotective effects of aerobic exercise in experimental PAH, with greater benefits obtained when exercise training is initiated at an early stage of the disease. PMID:26463598

  1. The effect of early external X-ray radiation on arterial restenosis post percutaneous transluminal angioplasty

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jun; Liu, Bujin; Yu, Huarong; Fu, Qining; Li, Fenghe; Zhao, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Arterial restenosis after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) significantly reduces its therapeutic efficacy in treating lower extremity atherosclerotic occlusive diseases (LEAOD). Early external X-ray external radiation has demonstrated positive effects on restenosis; however, effective dosing and the mechanism(s) underlying its efficacy remain unknown. This study explored the effect of early external X-ray radiation on preventing post-PTA restenosis in an iliac intimal injury model. Methods: Twenty rabbits underwent iliac intimal injury via PTA and received five different radiation doses: 0 Gy (n = 4), 3 Gy (n = 4), 6 Gy (n = 4), 9 Gy (n = 4), and 12 Gy (n = 4). Four rabbits were used as controls. All subjects were fed a high-fat diet prior to PTA and for an additional four-week period post-PTA and then sacrificed for immunohistochemical and Western blotting analysis. Results: Arterial stenosis was significantly improved post-PTA. Alpha smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) expression in the 0 Gy to 9 Gy groups was significantly increased post-PTA. Cytochrome C (Cyt C) expression was significantly increased post-PTA and was positively correlated with radiation intensity. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression was significantly increased post-PTA with the 0 Gy group showing significantly higher expression than the 3 Gy group. No significant differences were found in CD34 levels between the groups. Conclusions: Early external X-ray radiation at 6-24 Gy doses effectively restrained VSMC hyperplasia post-PTA, likely through inducing VSMC apoptosis via mitochondrial Cyt C release. However, this technique did not significantly affect the integrity of the vascular endothelium. Therefore, early external X-ray radiation shows promise in preventing post-PTA restenosis. PMID:26380003

  2. Effect of early external X-ray radiation on arterial restenosis post percutaneous transluminal angioplasty

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jun; Liu, Bujin; Yu, Huarong; Fu, Qining; Li, Fenghe; Zhao, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Arterial restenosis after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) significantly reduces its therapeutic efficacy in treating lower extremity atherosclerotic occlusive diseases (LEAOD). Early external X-ray external radiation has demonstrated positive effects on restenosis; however, effective dosing and the mechanism(s) underlying its efficacy remain unknown. This study explored the effect of early external X-ray radiation on preventing post-PTA restenosis in an iliac intimal injury model. Methods: Twenty rabbits underwent iliac intimal injury via PTA and received five different radiation doses: 0 Gy (n=4), 3 Gy (n=4), 6 Gy (n=4), 9 Gy (n=4), and 12 Gy (n=4). Four rabbits were used as controls. All subjects were fed a high-fat diet prior to PTA and for an additional four-week period post-PTA and then sacrificed for immunohistochemical and Western blotting analysis. Results: Arterial stenosis was significantly improved post-PTA. Alpha smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) expression in the 0 Gy to 9 Gy groups was significantly increased post-PTA. Cytochrome C (Cyt C) expression was significantly increased post-PTA and was positively correlated with radiation intensity. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression was significantly increased post-PTA with the 0 Gy group showing significantly higher expression than the 3 Gy group. No significant differences were found in CD34 levels between the groups. Conclusions: Early external X-ray radiation at 6-24 Gy doses effectively restrained VSMC hyperplasia post-PTA, likely through inducing VSMC apoptosis via mitochondrial Cyt C release. However, this technique did not significantly affect the integrity of the vascular endothelium. Therefore, early external X-ray radiation shows promise in preventing post-PTA restenosis. PMID:26628976

  3. Stenosis enhances role of platelets in growth of regional thrombus and intimal wall thickening in rat carotid arteries.

    PubMed

    Igawa, T; Nagamura, Y; Ozeki, Y; Itoh, H; Unemi, F

    1995-08-01

    The authors present the results of a study in which stenosis was induced, resulting in either thrombus or intimal wall thickening, in rat carotid arteries. At > or = 75% stenosis in mildly denuded arteries, an acute and occlusive thrombus formation was induced, but the thrombus was significantly reduced in thrombocytopenia. Thrombus formation near the site of stenosis decreased with decreasing degree of stenosis, whereas the percent formation in the distal region (percent total thrombus) increased. Numerous mural platelet microthrombi were noted at the distal region of the stenosed arteries. After chronic 50% stenosis of the carotid artery for 2 weeks, significant intimal thickening was observed, without any occlusive thrombus formation. The combination with mild denudation was critical in eliciting the effect of stenosis. The magnitude of intimal growth in the stenosed artery was marked by day 6 and plateaued thereafter, whereas it was slight in nonstenosed arteries. The 5-bromodeoxyuridine index of the cells of the medial layer at day 3 was significantly increased by the stenosis, and the effect was reversed in thrombocytopenia. Complete reendothelialization of the intimal surface was observed by 7 to 10 days after surgery in the stenosed arteries. These findings suggest that the introduction of stenosis in these arteries enhances the interaction of platelets with the damaged arterial walls under abnormal fluid shear and that this enhancement leads to acute and occlusive thrombus formation associated with more marked stenosis as well as to sustained increase of intimal wall thickness in less marked stenosis. PMID:7614718

  4. Mycotic Aneurysm of the Common Carotid Artery as a Presenting Symptom for Early Colorectal Malignancy.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yiu-Che; Cheng, Stephen W

    2016-01-01

    Mycotic carotid aneurysms are rare vascular conditions that are associated with high mortality if left untreated. We present a gentleman who had a progressively enlarging tender pulsatile swelling on the right side of neck. Emergency computed tomography scan showed a large mycotic aneurysm arising from the right common carotid artery, and he underwent emergency open exploration with interposition bypass graft. Bacteroides fragilis species, which signified gastrointestinal-related sepsis, was isolated from the thrombus culture. Subsequently search of systemic septic source showed an early rectal adenocarcinoma. This is the first case in the world's literature of a patient who had B. fragilis mycotic carotid aneurysm as a presenting complaint of his occult rectal malignancy. PMID:26363427

  5. Reading Acquisition Enhances an Early Visual Process of Contour Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szwed, Marcin; Ventura, Paulo; Querido, Luis; Cohen, Laurent; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2012-01-01

    The acquisition of reading has an extensive impact on the developing brain and leads to enhanced abilities in phonological processing and visual letter perception. Could this expertise also extend to early visual abilities outside the reading domain? Here we studied the performance of illiterate, ex-illiterate and literate adults closely matched…

  6. A unique chromatin signature uncovers early developmental enhancers in humans.

    PubMed

    Rada-Iglesias, Alvaro; Bajpai, Ruchi; Swigut, Tomek; Brugmann, Samantha A; Flynn, Ryan A; Wysocka, Joanna

    2011-02-10

    Cell-fate transitions involve the integration of genomic information encoded by regulatory elements, such as enhancers, with the cellular environment. However, identification of genomic sequences that control human embryonic development represents a formidable challenge. Here we show that in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), unique chromatin signatures identify two distinct classes of genomic elements, both of which are marked by the presence of chromatin regulators p300 and BRG1, monomethylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4me1), and low nucleosomal density. In addition, elements of the first class are distinguished by the acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27ac), overlap with previously characterized hESC enhancers, and are located proximally to genes expressed in hESCs and the epiblast. In contrast, elements of the second class, which we term 'poised enhancers', are distinguished by the absence of H3K27ac, enrichment of histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3), and are linked to genes inactive in hESCs and instead are involved in orchestrating early steps in embryogenesis, such as gastrulation, mesoderm formation and neurulation. Consistent with the poised identity, during differentiation of hESCs to neuroepithelium, a neuroectoderm-specific subset of poised enhancers acquires a chromatin signature associated with active enhancers. When assayed in zebrafish embryos, poised enhancers are able to direct cell-type and stage-specific expression characteristic of their proximal developmental gene, even in the absence of sequence conservation in the fish genome. Our data demonstrate that early developmental enhancers are epigenetically pre-marked in hESCs and indicate an unappreciated role of H3K27me3 at distal regulatory elements. Moreover, the wealth of new regulatory sequences identified here provides an invaluable resource for studies and isolation of transient, rare cell populations representing early stages of human embryogenesis. PMID:21160473

  7. Diffuse Infantile Hepatic Hemangioendothelioma With Early Central Enhancement in an Adult: A Case Report of CT and MRI Findings.

    PubMed

    Dong, Aisheng; Dong, Hui; Zuo, Changjing; He, Tianlin

    2015-12-01

    Infantile hepatic hemangioendothelioma (IHH) is the most common vascular tumor of the liver in infancy. Adult with IHH is extremely rare. We presented a diffuse IHH in an adult patient with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings.A 39-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of a 2-year history of abnormal liver function tests and a 7-day history of jaundice. Physical examination revealed enlarged liver. Unenhanced abdominal CT showed enlargement of the liver with diffuse hypodensity. Enhanced CT on the arterial phase revealed multiple centrally enhanced lesions diffusely involved the enlarged liver. The enhanced areas of the lesions became larger on the portal phase and all the lesions became homogeneous enhanced on the delayed phase. These lesions showed heterogeneously hyperintense on T2-weighted image, hypointense on T1-weighted image, and early centrally enhanced on dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MRI, with complete tumor enhancement after 180?s. The patient underwent orthotopic liver transplantation. IHH type 2 was confirmed by pathology. The patient died of tumor recurrence in the liver 4 months after transplantation.Unlike the previously described imaging appearances of IHH, this case showed diffuse nodules with early central enhancement on CT and MRI. Considering the importance of the ability to differentiate IHH from other hepatic tumors, radiologists should be aware of these imaging appearances to establish knowledge of the entire spectrum of IHH. PMID:26705232

  8. New phenotypic aspects of the decidual spiral artery wall during early post-implantation mouse pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Elia, Artemis; Charalambous, Fotini; Georgiades, Pantelis

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spiral artery (SA) wall remodeling (SAR) is ill-defined and clinically important. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SA muscular phenotype prior to and during SAR in mice is underexplored. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SA muscular wall consists of contractile and non-contractile components. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SA wall non-contractile component may be synthetic smooth muscle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Timing and extent of SA wall contractile component loss is revealed. -- Abstract: During pregnancy the walls of decidual spiral arteries (SAs) undergo clinically important structural modifications crucial for embryo survival/growth and maternal health. However, the mechanisms of SA remodeling (SAR) are poorly understood. Although an important prerequisite to this understanding is knowledge about the phenotype of SA muscular wall prior to and during the beginning of mouse SAR, this remains largely unexplored and was the main aim of this work. Using histological and immunohistochemical techniques, this study shows for the first time that during early mouse gestation, from embryonic day 7.5 (E7.5) to E10.5, the decidual SA muscular coat is not a homogeneous structure, but consists of two concentric layers. The first is a largely one cell-thick sub-endothelial layer of contractile mural cells (positive for {alpha}-smooth muscle actin, calponin and SM22{alpha}) with pericyte characteristics (NG2 positive). The second layer is thicker, and evidence is presented that it may be of the synthetic/proliferative smooth muscle phenotype, based on absence ({alpha}-smooth muscle actin and calponin) or weak (SM22{alpha}) expression of contractile mural cell markers, and presence of synthetic smooth muscle characteristics (expression of non-muscle Myosin heavy chain-IIA and of the cell proliferation marker PCNA). Importantly, immunohistochemistry and morphometrics showed that the contractile mural cell layer although prominent at E7.5-E8.5, becomes drastically reduced by E10.5 and is undetectable by E12.5. In conclusion, this study reveals novel aspects of the decidual SA muscular coat phenotype prior to and during early SAR that may have important implications for understanding the mechanisms of SAR.

  9. Use of Intra-Arterial Carbon-Dioxide-Enhanced Ultrasonography for Guidance of Radiofrequency Ablation and Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ohmoto, Kenji Yoshioka, Naoko; Tomiyama, Yasuyuki; Shibata, Norikuni; Kawase, Tomoya; Yoshida, Koji; Kuboki, Makoto; Yamamoto, Shinichiro

    2006-12-15

    A 73-year-old man with hepatitis-C-related cirrhosis and an elevated alpha-fetoprotein level and tumor in segment 3 of his liver was referred for interventional radiologic treatment. He was not a candidate for surgical resection due to impaired liver function and his personal preferences. On conventional ultrasonography no lesion could be detected, but the tumor was clearly depicted by intra-arterial carbon-dioxide-enhanced ultrasonography. Radiofrequency ablation was performed safely and accurately under the guidance of carbon-dioxide-enhanced ultrasonography. By concomitant performance of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization with radiofrequency ablation, extensive necrosis was obtained and adequate tumor volume reduction achieved with only one treatment session.

  10. Early Identification of Asymptomatic Pulmonary Embolism Proximal to the Subsegmental Arteries After Gynecologic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Okadome, Masao; Saito, Toshiaki; Shimamoto, Kumi; Ogahara, Rihoko; Akiyoshi, Hiromi; Fujimoto, Minoru; Shinozaki, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have assessed whether cases of asymptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE) in the early postoperative phase are subsegmental versus more proximal. In this study, we investigated whether asymptomatic PE occurring just after gynecologic surgery was subsegmental, and we examined the background characteristics of patients who experienced PE within 2 months postoperatively. All hospital records were reviewed, yielding a total of 2052 women who had undergone surgeries performed by the gynecologic oncology team between 2003 and 2013 in the National Kyushu Cancer Center. Asymptomatic and symptomatic postoperative PE cases diagnosed by multidetector computed tomography angiography or lung scan were identified; after excluding 2 cases of preoperative PE, there were 15 (0.73%) cases of postoperative PE among 2050 women. Of the 15 cases, 9 (60%) were diagnosed on postoperative day 1 or 2. Of the 9 women, 4 had no or minor symptoms/signs other than decreased oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry (Spo 2), and PE was segmental or more proximal in 3 cases. Only 1 of the 9 cases showed dyspnea. The remaining 4 cases showed dizziness or perspiration, suggesting PE. Univariate analysis showed age, operation time, hypertension, and preoperative d-dimer elevation to be associated with postoperative PE. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that a high (?1 µg/mL) preoperative d-dimer level was associated with postoperative PE (odds ratio, 6.331; 95% confidence interval, 1.567-25.589). Most asymptomatic PE cases occurring within 2 days postoperatively were segmental or more proximal. Identification of early, asymptomatic postoperative PE may be clinically significant because most of these emboli are proximal to the subsegmental arteries. PMID:25948635

  11. Dealing with Coronary Artery Disease in Early Encountering: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Mojalli, Mohammad; Karimi Moonaghi, Hossein; Khosravan, Shahla; Mohammadpure, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases is rising in industrial and developing countries. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is the most common cardiovascular disease. Thus, understanding the signs and risk factors of CAD from the patients’ perspective and their ways of dealing with this disease is of vital importance. Objectives: This qualitative study aimed to explore the Iranian patients’ viewpoints about CAD and how they dealt with it in their first encounter. Patients and Methods: This study was a qualitative content analysis conducted on 18 patients with CAD. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews. Initially, purposeful sampling was performed followed by maximum variety. Sampling continued until data saturation. Then, all the interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. After all, the data were analyzed by constant comparative analysis using MAXQUDA2010 software. Results: The themes manifested in this study included “invasion of disease” with subthemes of “warning signs” and “risk factors” and “confrontation strategies” with subthemes of “seeking for information”, “follow-up”, and “control measures”. Conclusions: The results of this study described the patients’ perceptions of CAD and how they dealt with this disorder in early encountering. Based on the results, physicians and nurses should focus on empowerment of patients by facilitating this process as well as by educating them with regards to dealing with CAD. PMID:25614861

  12. Pharmacogenomics of estrogens on changes in carotid artery intima-medial thickness and coronary arterial calcification: Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study.

    PubMed

    Miller, Virginia M; Jenkins, Gregory D; Biernacka, Joanna M; Heit, John A; Huggins, Gordon S; Hodis, Howard N; Budoff, Matthew J; Lobo, Rogerio A; Taylor, Hugh S; Manson, JoAnn E; Black, Dennis M; Naftolin, Frederick; Harman, S Mitchell; de Andrade, Mariza

    2016-01-01

    Prior to the initiation of menopausal hormone treatment (MHT), genetic variations in the innate immunity pathway were found to be associated with carotid artery intima-medial thickness (CIMT) and coronary arterial calcification (CAC) in women (n = 606) enrolled in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). Whether MHT might affect these associations is unknown. The association of treatment outcomes with variation in the same 764 candidate genes was evaluated in the same KEEPS participants 4 yr after randomization to either oral conjugated equine estrogens (0.45 mg/day), transdermal 17?-estradiol (50 ?g/day), each with progesterone (200 mg/day) for 12 days each month, or placebo pills and patch. Twenty SNPs within the innate immunity pathway most related with CIMT after 4 yr were not among those associated with CIMT prior to MHT. In 403 women who completed the study in their assigned treatment group, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the innate immunity pathway were found to alter the treatment effect on 4 yr change in CIMT (i.e., significant interaction between treatment and genetic variation in the innate immunity pathway; P < 0.001). No SNPs by treatment effects were observed with changes of CAC >5 Agatston units after 4 yr. Results of this study suggest that hormonal status may interact with genetic variants to influence cardiovascular phenotypes, specifically, the pharmacogenomic effects within the innate immunity pathway for CIMT. PMID:26508701

  13. Early bilingualism enhances mechanisms of false-belief reasoning.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Agnes Melinda

    2009-01-01

    In their first years, children's understanding of mental states seems to improve dramatically, but the mechanisms underlying these changes are still unclear. Such 'theory of mind' (ToM) abilities may arise during development, or have an innate basis, developmental changes reflecting limitations of other abilities involved in ToM tasks (e.g. inhibition). Special circumstances such as early bilingualism may enhance ToM development or other capacities required by ToM tasks. Here we compare 3-year-old bilinguals and monolinguals on a standard ToM task, a modified ToM task and a control task involving physical reasoning. The modified ToM task mimicked a language-switch situation that bilinguals often encounter and that could influence their ToM abilities. If such experience contributes to an early consolidation of ToM in bilinguals, they should be selectively enhanced in the modified task. In contrast, if bilinguals have an advantage due to better executive inhibitory abilities involved in ToM tasks, they should outperform monolinguals on both ToM tasks, inhibitory demands being similar. Bilingual children showed an advantage on the two ToM tasks but not on the control task. The precocious success of bilinguals may be associated with their well-developed control functions formed during monitoring and selecting languages. PMID:19120412

  14. Relation of subclinical coronary artery atherosclerosis to cerebral white matter disease in healthy subjects from families with early-onset coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Kral, Brian G; Nyquist, Paul; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Yousem, David; Yanek, Lisa R; Fishman, Elliot K; Becker, Lewis C; Becker, Diane M

    2013-09-15

    White matter disease (WMD) of the brain is associated with incident stroke. Similarly, subclinical calcified coronary artery plaque has been associated with incident coronary artery disease (CAD) events. Although atherogenesis in both vascular beds may share some common mechanisms, the extent to which subclinical CAD is associated with WMD across age ranges in subjects with a family history of early-onset CAD remains unknown. We screened 405 apparently healthy participants in the Genetic Study of Atherosclerotic Risk for CAD risk factors and for the presence of noncalcified and calcified coronary plaque using dual-source multidetector cardiac computed tomographic angiography. The presence and volumes of WMD were assessed by 3-Tesla brain magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were 60% women, 36% African-American, mean age 51.6 ± 10.6 years. The overall prevalence of coronary plaque was 43.0%. Subjects with coronary plaque had significantly greater WMD volumes (median 1,222 mm³, interquartile range 448 to 3,871) compared with those without coronary plaque (median 551 mm³, interquartile range 105 to 1,523, p <0.001). In multivariate regression analysis, adjusting for age, gender, race, traditional risk factors, total brain volume, and intrafamilial correlations, the presence of coronary plaque was independently associated with WMD volume (p = 0.05). This study shows a significant association between WMD and noncalcified and calcified coronary plaque in healthy subjects, independent of age and risk factors. In conclusion, these findings support the premise of possible shared causal pathways in 2 vascular beds in families at increased risk for early-onset vascular disease. PMID:23742943

  15. The effect of gender on the early results of coronary artery bypass surgery in the younger patients' group

    PubMed Central

    Uncu, Hasan; Acipayam, Mehmet; Altinay, Levent; Do?an, Pinar; Davarc?, Isil; Özsöyler, ?brahim

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In this retrospective study, we aimed to determine the risk factors for coronary artery bypass surgery in patients under 45 years of age, and evaluate the early postoperative results and the effect of gender. Methods A total of 324 patients under 45 years of age who undergone on-pump coronary artery bypass surgery between April 12, 2004 and January 10, 2012 were included to the study. Patients divided into groups as follows: Group 1 consisted of 269 males (mean age 41.3), Group 2 consisted of 55 females (mean age 41.6). Preoperative risk factors, intraoperative and postoperative data and early mortality rates of the groups were compared. Results Smoking rate was significantly higher in Group 1. Diabetes mellitus incidence and body mass index were significantly higher in Group 2 (P values P=0.01; P=0.0001; P=0.04 respectively). The aortic cross-clamping and cardiopulmonary bypass time and number of grafts per patient were significantly higher in Group 1 (P values P=0.04; P=0.04; P=0.002 respectively). There were no deaths in either group. Conclusion We found that gender has no effect on early mortality rates of the coronary bypass surgery patients under 45 years. PMID:25714211

  16. Cutting-Balloon Angioplasty in Transplant Renal Artery Stenosis as First-Line Treatment in the Early Postoperative Period

    SciTech Connect

    Ucar, Adem; Yahyayev, Aghakishi; Bakkaloglu, Huseyin; Agayev, Ayaz; Aydin, Ali Emin; Rozanes, Izzet

    2011-02-15

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty has been successfully used for the treatment of transplant renal artery stenosis (RAS). Cutting-balloon angioplasty (CBA) is being used as a second option in pressure-resistant stenosis. It is thought that CBA is less traumatic and therefore restenosis occurs less frequently than in conventional angioplasty. This case report describes the unusual use of a cutting balloon in transplant RAS as a first option in the early postoperative period. Long-term follow-up data are also presented.

  17. Cutting-balloon angioplasty in transplant renal artery stenosis as first-line treatment in the early postoperative period.

    PubMed

    Ucar, Adem; Yahyayev, Aghakishi; Bakkaloglu, Huseyin; Agayev, Ayaz; Aydin, Ali Emin; Rozanes, Izzet

    2011-02-01

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty has been successfully used for the treatment of transplant renal artery stenosis (RAS). Cutting-balloon angioplasty (CBA) is being used as a second option in pressure-resistant stenosis. It is thought that CBA is less traumatic and therefore restenosis occurs less frequently than in conventional angioplasty. This case report describes the unusual use of a cutting balloon in transplant RAS as a first option in the early postoperative period. Long-term follow-up data are also presented. PMID:20589375

  18. Intraindividual comparison of contrast-enhanced electron-beam computed tomography and navigator-echo-based magnetic resonance imaging for noninvasive coronary artery angiography.

    PubMed

    Nikolaou, Konstantin; Huber, Armin; Knez, Andreas; Becker, Christoph; Bruening, Roland; Reiser, Maximilian

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare contrast-enhanced electron-beam computed tomography (EBCT) and navigator-echo-based MRI of the coronary arteries in the same patient population. Both methods were assessed for visualization of the coronary arteries and their diagnostic accuracy in identifying significant coronary artery stenoses compared with conventional coronary angiography. Twenty patients with known coronary artery disease were examined with both contrast-enhanced EBCT and a respiratory-gated MRI sequence. A grading system was used to evaluate the image quality. Sensitivity and specificity for the detection of significant coronary artery stenoses was evaluated compared with conventional coronary angiography. With EBCT, 89% of the main coronary arteries could be completely visualised in the proximal and middle segments; with MRI, 83% were visualised. With EBCT the sensitivities for identifying significant (>/=50%) stenoses in proximal and middle vessel segments were 75% in the main stem, 88% in the left anterior descending coronary artery, 75% in the left circumflex coronary artery, and 90% in the right coronary artery. Respective sensitivities for MRI angiograms were 75, 82, 75 and 80%. With both modalities a sufficient image quality of the main coronary arteries can be obtained in most cases. The diagnostic capability for detecting significant stenoses is comparable for both methods. PMID:12111056

  19. Genetic polymorphisms associated with carotid artery intima-media thickness and coronary artery calcification in women of the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study

    PubMed Central

    Petterson, Tanya M.; Jeavons, Elysia N.; Lnu, Abhinita S.; Rider, David N.; Heit, John A.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Huggins, Gordon S.; Hodis, Howard N.; Budoff, Matthew J.; Santoro, Nanette; Hopkins, Paul N.; Lobo, Rogerio A.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Naftolin, Frederick; Taylor, Hugh S.; Harman, S. Mitchell; de Andrade, Mariza

    2013-01-01

    Menopausal hormone treatment (MHT) may limit progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD) but poses a thrombosis risk. To test targeted candidate gene variation for association with subclinical CVD defined by carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) and coronary artery calcification (CAC), 610 women participating in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS), a clinical trial of MHT to prevent progression of CVD, were genotyped for 13,229 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 764 genes from anticoagulant, procoagulant, fibrinolytic, or innate immunity pathways. According to linear regression, proportion of European ancestry correlated negatively, but age at enrollment and pulse pressure correlated positively with CIMT. Adjusting for these variables, two SNPs, one on chromosome 2 for MAP4K4 gene (rs2236935, ? = 0.037, P value = 2.36 × 10?06) and one on chromosome 5 for IL5 gene (rs739318, ? = 0.051, P value = 5.02 × 10?05), associated positively with CIMT; two SNPs on chromosome 17 for CCL5 (rs4796119, ? = ?0.043, P value = 3.59 × 10?05; rs2291299, ? = ?0.032, P value = 5.59 × 10?05) correlated negatively with CIMT; only rs2236935 remained significant after correcting for multiple testing. Using logistic regression, when we adjusted for waist circumference, two SNPs (rs11465886, IRAK2, chromosome 3, OR = 3.91, P value = 1.10 × 10?04; and rs17751769, SERPINA1, chromosome 14, OR = 1.96, P value = 2.42 × 10?04) associated positively with a CAC score of >0 Agatston unit; one SNP (rs630014, ABO, OR = 0.51, P value = 2.51 × 10?04) associated negatively; none remained significant after correcting for multiple testing. Whether these SNPs associate with CIMT and CAC in women randomized to MHT remains to be determined. PMID:23188791

  20. Maternal alcohol consumption in pregnancy enhances arterial stiffness and alters vasodilator function that varies between vascular beds in fetal sheep.

    PubMed

    Parkington, Helena C; Kenna, Kelly R; Sozo, Foula; Coleman, Harold A; Bocking, Alan; Brien, James F; Harding, Richard; Walker, David W; Morley, Ruth; Tare, Marianne

    2014-06-15

    While the impact of alcohol consumption by pregnant women on fetal neurodevelopment has received much attention, the effects on the cardiovascular system are not well understood. We hypothesised that repeated exposure to alcohol (ethanol) in utero would alter fetal arterial reactivity and wall stiffness, key mechanisms leading to cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Ethanol (0.75 g (kg body weight)(-1)) was infused intravenously into ewes over 1 h daily for 39 days in late pregnancy (days 95-133 of pregnancy, term ?147 days). Maternal and fetal plasma ethanol concentrations at the end of the hour were ?115 mg dl(-1), and then declined to apparent zero over 8 h. At necropsy (day 134), fetal body weight and fetal brain-body weight ratio were not affected by alcohol infusion. Small arteries (250-300 ?m outside diameter) from coronary, renal, mesenteric, femoral (psoas) and cerebral beds were isolated. Endothelium-dependent vasodilatation sensitivity was reduced 10-fold in coronary resistance arteries, associated with a reduction in endothelial nitric oxide synthase mRNA (P = 0.008). Conversely, vasodilatation sensitivity was enhanced 10-fold in mesenteric and renal resistance arteries. Arterial stiffness was markedly increased (P = 0.0001) in all five vascular beds associated with an increase in elastic modulus and, in cerebral vessels, with an increase in collagen I? mRNA. Thus, we show for the first time that fetal arteries undergo marked and regionally variable adaptations as a consequence of repeated alcohol exposure. These alcohol-induced vascular effects occurred in the apparent absence of fetal physical abnormalities or fetal growth restriction. PMID:24756643

  1. Enhancing early engagement with mental health services by young people

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Jane; Birrell, Emma

    2014-01-01

    International studies have shown that the prevalence of mental illness, and the fundamental contribution it make to the overall disease burden, is greatest in children and young people. Despite this high burden, adolescents and young adults are the least likely population group to seek help or to access professional care for mental health problems. This issue is particularly problematic given that untreated, or poorly treated, mental disorders are associated with both short- and long-term functional impairment, including poorer education and employment opportunities, potential comorbidity, including drug and alcohol problems, and a greater risk for antisocial behavior, including violence and aggression. This cycle of poor mental health creates a significant burden for the young person, their family and friends, and society as a whole. Australia is enviably positioned to substantially enhance the well-being of young people, to improve their engagement with mental health services, and – ultimately – to improve mental health. High prevalence but potentially debilitating disorders, such as depression and anxiety, are targeted by the specialized youth mental health service, headspace: the National Youth Mental Health Foundation and a series of Early Psychosis Prevention and Intervention Centres, will provide early intervention specialist services for low prevalence, complex illnesses. Online services, such as ReachOut.com by Inspire Foundation, Youthbeyondblue, Kids Helpline, and Lifeline Australia, and evidence-based online interventions, such as MoodGYM, are also freely available, yet a major challenge still exists in ensuring that young people receive effective evidence-based care at the right time. This article describes Australian innovation in shaping a comprehensive youth mental health system, which is informed by an evidence-based approach, dedicated advocacy and, critically, the inclusion of young people in service design, development, and ongoing evaluation to ensure that services can be continuously improved. PMID:25473320

  2. Early and late results of surgical correction of pulmonary artery sling.

    PubMed

    Dunn, J M; Gordon, I; Chrispin, A R; de Leval, M R; Stark, J

    1979-09-01

    Since 1976, we have operated on 4 children with pulmonary vascular sling. They were 5, 12, 19, and 54 months old. All patients were seen initially with severe stridor. Diagnosis was made by barium swallow in all 4. Each child was operated on through a left thoracotomy; the left pulmonary artery was dissected deep between the trachea and esophagus. Systemic heparinization and microsurgical techniques were used. All patients improved after operation. Radioisotope pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scans were performed 9, 9, 14, and 21 months after operation. Decreased ventilation was noted in the right upper lobe of one scan; the other three ventilation scans were normal. Perfusion scans showed good patency of both pulmonary arteries in all 4 patients. It is concluded that pulmonary vascular slings should be treated surgically as soon as diagnosed. Delayed operation can lead to severe tracheomalacia, as demonstrated in our 54-month-old patient. PMID:485624

  3. Early diagnosis and treatment of a posttraumatic pseudoaneurysm/dissection of the innominate artery.

    PubMed

    Azarcon, Fernando; Ghaleb, Melhelm

    2014-04-01

    A 25-year-old male developed a traumatic intimo-medial dissection and saccular pseudoaneurysm at the origin of the innominate artery following a motorcycle accident. On physical examination there was no perceivable trauma to the chest. In addition, there were no clinical symptoms that suggested this serious injury. The patient was managed with successful stent-graft placement on an elective basis. PMID:24495347

  4. Aspirin does not improve early arterial patency after streptokinase treatment for acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Norris, R M; White, H D; Cross, D B; Woo, K S; Maslowski, A H; Caruana, M P; Hart, H H; Williams, B

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the hypothesis that the magnitude of the life saving effect of aspirin in the second international study of infarct survival (ISIS-2) trial cannot be explained solely by prevention of late reocclusion of the infarct related artery. The aim of this study was to discover whether or not aspirin in combination with streptokinase had an adjuvant thrombolytic effect. DESIGN--Aspirin (150 mg) or placebo was given at the start of streptokinase infusion to 200 patients seen within six hours of the start of prolonged ischaemic cardiac pain and ST segment elevation. All patients received active aspirin at three hours. Patency of the infarct related artery was assessed non-invasively by the normalised rise of creatine kinase activity at three hours after starting streptokinase in these 200 patients and in a further 52 patients who had already taken aspirin within one week of the start of infarction. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Rise in creatine kinase activity from baseline to > or = 20% or < 20% of the peak rise of activity in blood taken at three hours after starting infusion of streptokinase. This correlates with patency or occlusion of the infarct related coronary artery at about 2.5 hours after starting streptokinase. RESULTS--Assessed in this way, patency of the infarct related artery was 60% in patients given aspirin, 63% in those given placebo, and 62% in patients who had already taken aspirin within one week of infarction. CONCLUSION--The magnitude of the life saving effect of aspirin remains unexplained. Further investigation is needed into the mechanism of action of antiplatelet treatment in relation to thrombolytic treatment. PMID:8343314

  5. Early and late results of re-operation for coronary artery disease: a 13-year experience.

    PubMed

    Osaka, S; Barratt-Boyes, B G; Brandt, P W; Kerr, A R; Whitlock, R M

    1988-07-01

    A second coronary artery bypass grafting procedure was performed for recurrent angina in 119 patients between 1970 and mid-1983. Angiographic findings were assessed and computerized using the Brandt myocardial scoring system. The myocardial score was similar prior to the first and second operations. Graft failure was the most common indication for re-operation, either alone (48%) or in combination with progression of coronary artery disease (29%) or incomplete revascularization (10%). Progression of coronary artery disease alone was an indication in 9% and previous incomplete revascularization alone in 4%. The completeness of revascularization at the end of operation was analysed using a new index, the myocardial score/graft coverage rate. This showed that revascularization was less complete at the second operation than at the first (P less than 0.0001). The hospital mortality at re-operation was 2.5% and the peri-operative myocardial infarction rate was 9.2%. The follow-up period was 54 months (range 10-160 months). Actuarial survival was 94% at 5 years and 74% at 10 years. The average onset of recurrent angina was earlier after the second operation than after the first (P = 0.001). Using a cumulative actuarial curve, survival at 8 years was 85%, a further 6% of patients had undergone a third or fourth operation, and a further 25% were in NYHA Classes III or IV. Therefore 54% achieved a good or excellent result. It was concluded that re-operation is a worthwhile procedure. PMID:3267082

  6. LOW CONCENTRATIONS OF SPHINGOSYLPHOSPHORYLCHOLINE ENHANCE PULMONARY ARTERY VASOREACTIVITY: ROLE OF PKC? AND Ca2+ ENTRY

    PubMed Central

    Snetkov, Vladimir A.; Thomas, Gavin D.; Teague, Bonnie; Leach, Richard M.; Shaifta, Yasin; Knock, Greg A.; Aaronson, Philip I.; Ward, Jeremy P.T.

    2007-01-01

    Sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) is a powerful vasoconstrictor, but in vitro its EC50 is ?100-fold more than plasma concentrations. We examined whether sub-contractile concentrations of SPC (?1 ?mol/l) modulated vasoreactivity of rat intrapulmonary arteries (IPA), using myography and measurement of intracellular [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i). SPC (1 ?mol/l) had no effect on force or [Ca2+]i on its own, but dramatically potentiated constrictions induced by ?25 mmol/l [K+], such that at 40 min force and [Ca2+]i (Fura PE3 340/380 ratio) were increased by 429 ± 96% and 134 ± 26% respectively. The potentiation was stereospecific, apparent at concentrations >100 nmol/l SPC, and independent of the endothelium, 2-APB-sensitive Ca2+ entry, and Rho kinase. It was abolished by the PLC inhibitor U73122, the broad spectrum PKC inhibitor Ro 31-8220 and the PKC? inhibitor rottlerin, but not by Gö6976, which is ineffective against PKC?. The potentiation could be attributed to enhancement of Ca2+ entry. SPC also potentiated the responses to PGF2? and U436619, which activate a 2-APB sensitive non-selective cation channel (NSCC) in IPA. In this case potentiation was partially inhibited by diltiazem, but abolished by 2-APB, Ro31-8220 and rottlerin. 1 ?mol/l SPC caused translocation of PKC? to the perinuclear region and cytoskeleton of cultured IPA smooth muscle cells. We present the novel finding that low, sub-contractile concentrations of SPC potentiate Ca2+ entry in IPA through both voltage-dependent and independent pathways, via a receptor-dependent mechanism involving PKC?. This has implications for the physiological role of SPC, especially in cardiovascular disease where SPC is reported to be elevated. PMID:18158336

  7. Osteoprotegerin is Associated With Endothelial Function and Predicts Early Carotid Atherosclerosis in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Morisawa, Taichirou; Nakagomi, Akihiro; Kohashi, Keiichi; Kosugi, Munenori; Kusama, Yoshiki; Atarashi, Hirotsugu; Shimizu, Wataru

    2015-12-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a soluble glycoprotein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily and is linked to vascular atherosclerosis and calcification. The carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) correlates with carotid atherosclerosis and is a significant predictor of cardiovascular events. The OPG levels are associated with the CIMT in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this pathway remain unclear. We investigated 114 CAD patients (89 men, 25 women; mean age: 68.7 ± 10.3 years) and measured the Gensini score (a marker of the extent of coronary atherosclerosis), the mean CIMT and the plasma levels of OPG and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA; a marker of endothelial function). Early carotid atherosclerosis was defined as a mean CIMT > 1.0 mm. Only 33 of the 114 patients (28.9%) had early carotid atherosclerosis. Patients with early carotid atherosclerosis had higher OPG levels than those without. The OPG levels were found to be significantly associated with ADMA (r = 0.191, P = 0.046) and the mean CIMT (r = 0.319, P = 0.001), but not with the Gensini score. A receiver operating curve analysis revealed the optimal cut-off value of the OPG levels for predicting early carotid atherosclerosis to be 100 pmol/L. A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed OPG ? 100 pmol/L to be significantly and independently associated with early carotid atherosclerosis (odds ratio: 2.98, 95% confidence interval: 1.22-7.20, P = 0.017). These data indicate that OPG is significantly associated with endothelial function and predicts early carotid atherosclerosis in patients with CAD. PMID:26549398

  8. Common Variants in Promoter of ADTRP Associate with Early-Onset Coronary Artery Disease in a Southern Han Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lei; Wu, Qiu-Ping; Tang, Shuang-Bo; Luo, Bin; Liu, Shui-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Shan; Li, Zhao-Hui; Quan, Li; Li, Yue; Shi, He; Lv, Guo-Li; Zhao, Jian; Cheng, Jian-Ding; Liu, Chao

    2015-01-01

    The first genome-wide association study for coronary artery disease (CAD) in the Han Chinese population, we reported recently, had identified rs6903956 in gene ADTRP on chromosome 6p24.1 as a novel susceptibility locus for CAD. The risk allele of rs6903956 was associated with decreased mRNA expression of ADTRP. To further study the correlation of ADTRP expression and CAD, in this study we evaluated the associations of eight common variants in the expression-regulating regions of ADTRP with CAD in the Southern Han Chinese population. Rs169790 in 3’UTR, rs2076189 in 5’UTR, four SNPs (rs2076188, rs7753407, rs11966356 and rs1018383) in promoter, and two SNPs (rs3734273, rs80355771) in the last intron of ADTRP were genotyped in 1716 CAD patients and 1572 controls. The correlations between these loci and total or early-onset CAD were investigated. None of these loci was discovered to associate with total CAD (P > 0.05). However, with early-onset CAD, significant both allelic and genotypic associations of rs7753407, rs11966356 and rs1018383 were identified, after adjustment for risk factors of age, gender, hypertension, diabetes, lipid profiles and smoking (adjusted P < 0.05). A haplotype AGCG (constructed by rs2076188, rs7753407, rs11966356 and rs1018383) was identified to protect subjects from early-onset CAD (OR = 0.332, 95% CI = 0.105–0.879, adjusted P = 0.010). Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay showed that the risk alleles of the associated loci were significantly associated with decreased expression of ADTRP mRNA. Moreover, the average level of ADTRP mRNA expression in early-onset CAD cases was significantly lower than that in controls. Our results provide new evidence supporting the association of ADTRP with the pathogenesis of early-onset CAD. PMID:26375920

  9. Resistance to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents is associated with arterial microcalcification in early hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Won, Hye Sung; Choi, Su Jin; Yun, Yu Seon; Shin, Ok-Ran; Ko, Yoon Ho; Kim, Young Soo; Yoon, Sun Ae; Kim, Young Ok

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between arterial microcalcification (AMiC) and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) hyporesponsiveness in hemodialysis patients. The presence of AMiC was confirmed by pathologic examination of von Kossa-stained arterial specimens acquired during vascular access surgery. We assessed the ESA hyporesponsiveness index (EHRI), defined as the weekly ESA dose per kilogram body weight divided by the hemoglobin level. AMiC was detected in 33 (40.2%) of 82 patients. Patients with diabetes had a higher incidence of AMiC than patients without diabetes. The serum levels of albumin and cholesterol were higher in patients without AMiC than in patients with AMiC. The serum levels of intact parathyroid hormone were lower in patients with AMiC than in patients without AMiC. The serum levels of phosphate and calcium-phosphorus product did not differ between the two groups. The mean EHRI value was higher in patients with AMiC than in patients without AMiC. In multivariate analyses, ESA hyporesponsiveness and diabetes showed a significant association with AMiC. In conclusion, ESA hyporesponsiveness may be a clinical relevant parameters related to AMiC in hemodialysis patients. PMID:24772434

  10. Clinical value of gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in surgery for hepatocellular carcinoma - with a special emphasis on early hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Gadoxetic acid- or gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (EOB-MRI) achieves excellent lesion detection and characterization for both hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in arterial phase imaging and hypovascular early HCC (small well-differentiated HCC of the vaguely nodular type) in hepatobiliary phase imaging, and has become an indispensable imaging modality in the treatment of HCC. Early HCCs have been detected more frequently since the introduction of EOB-MRI into daily clinical practice. Early HCC is known to progress to conventional hypervascular HCC, and many risk factors have been identified for the hypervascularization of early HCC including the diameter of the tumor, presence of fat, and imaging findings of EOB-MRI. The rate of the development of hypervascular HCC was previously reported to be high in patients with chronic liver disease and early HCC. The presence of early HCC is regarded as a predictor for the recurrence of HCC following hepatic resection. On the other hand, although early HCC itself is currently not regarded as a target lesion for hepatic resection, early HCC at high risk of hypervascularity needs to be treated by local ablation therapy. If concomitant early HCC with progressed HCC is at high risk of hypervascularization and the functional liver reserve of a patient is sufficient, its simultaneous treatment at the time of hepatic resection for progressed HCC is recommended. Further studies on larger numbers of patients are needed before this strategy is adopted.

  11. Dropout Prevention: A Case for Enhanced Early Literacy Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denti, Louis G.; Guerin, Gilbert

    1999-01-01

    Reviews research on high school dropouts and elementary school literacy needs. Looks at elements of successful early-intervention programs (including schools and parents, school structure issues, and promising practices in early reading instruction). Offers recommendations for teacher and administrator preparation and professional development.…

  12. NEW RESEARCH Early Life Stress and Trauma and Enhanced

    E-print Network

    in this article is available online. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD & ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY 800 www the relationships between structural brain char- acteristics and early life stress in adults. However, there is limited evidence for functional brain variation associated with early life stress in children. We

  13. Review of Source Images is Necessary for the Evaluation of Gadolinium-Enhanced MR Angiography for Renal Artery Stenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wehrschuetz, M. Aschauer, M.; Portugaller, H.; Stix, A.; Wehrschuetz-Sigl, E.; Hausegger, K.; Ebner, F.

    2004-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess interobserver variability and accuracy in the evaluation of renal artery stenosis (RAS) with gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography (MRA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in patients with hypertension. The authors found that source images are more accurate than maximum intensity projection (MIP) for depicting renal artery stenosis. Two independent radiologists reviewed MRA and DSA from 38 patients with hypertension. Studies were postprocessed to display images in MIP and source images. DSA was the standard for comparison in each patient. For each main renal artery, percentage stenosis was estimated for any stenosis detected by the two radiologists. To calculate sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, MRA studies and stenoses were categorized as normal, mild (1-39%), moderate (40-69%) or severe ({>=}70%), or occluded. DSA stenosis estimates of 70% or greater were considered hemodynamically significant. Analysis of variance demonstrated that MIP estimates of stenosis were greater than source image estimates for both readers. Differences in estimates for MIP versus DSA reached significance in one reader. The interobserver variance for MIP, source images and DSA was excellent (0.80< {kappa}{<=} 0.90). The specificity of source images was high (97%) but less for MIP (87%); average accuracy was 92% for MIP and 98% for source images. In this study, source images are significantly more accurate than MIP images in one reader with a similar trend was observed in the second reader. The interobserver variability was excellent. When renal artery stenosis is a consideration, high accuracy can only be obtained when source images are examined.

  14. The usefulness of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in the early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma viability after transarterial chemoembolization: pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Youn Zoo; Park, So Yeon; Choi, Eun Hee; Baik, Soon Koo; Kwon, Sang Ok; Kim, Young Ju

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The therapeutic effect of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is usually assessed using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). However, dense lipiodol depositions can mask the enhancement of viable HCC tissue in MDCT. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) could be effective in detecting small areas of viability and patency in vessels. We investigated whether arterial enhancement in CEUS after treatment with TACE can be used to detect HCC viability earlier than when using MDCT. Methods Twelve patients received CEUS, MDCT, and gadoxetic-acid-enhanced dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline and 4 and 12 weeks after TACE. The definition of viable HCC was defined as MRI positivity after 4 or 12 weeks. Results Eight of the 12 patients showed MRI positivity at 4 or 12 weeks. All patients with positive CEUS findings at 4 weeks (n=8) showed MRI positivity and residual viable HCC at 4 or 12 weeks. Five of the eight patients with positive CEUS findings at 4 weeks had negative results on the 4-week MDCT scan. Four (50%) of these eight patients did not have MRI positivity at 4 weeks and were ultimately confirmed as having residual HCC tissue at the 12-week MRI. Kappa statistics revealed near-perfect agreement between CEUS and MRI (?=1.00) and substantial agreement between MDCT and MRI (?=0.67). Conclusions In the assessment of the response to TACE, CEUS at 4 weeks showed excellent results for detecting residual viable HCC, which suggests that CEUS can be used as an early additive diagnosis tool when deciding early additional treatment with TACE. PMID:26157754

  15. Effects of Aspirin Responsiveness and Platelet Reactivity on Early Vein Graft Thrombosis after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gluckman, Tyler J.; McLean, Rhondalyn C.; Schulman, Steven P.; Kickler, Thomas S.; Shapiro, Edward P.; Conte, John V.; McNicholas, Kathleen W.; Segal, Jodi B.; Rade, Jeffrey J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine if an incomplete response to and/or inadequate antiplatelet effect of aspirin contribute to saphenous vein graft (SVG) occlusion after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Background Thrombosis is the predominant cause of early SVG occlusion. Aspirin, which inhibits cyclooxygenase-1 activity and thromboxane generation in platelets, reduces early SVG occlusion by half. Methods Aspirin-responsiveness and platelet reactivity were characterized 3 days and 6 months after CABG in 229 subjects on aspirin monotherapy by; platelet aggregation to arachidonic acid, ADP, collagen and epinephrine; PFA-100 closure time (CT) using collagen/epinephrine (CEPI) and collagen/ADP (CADP) agonist cartridges; VerifyNow Aspirin assay, and; urine levels of 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 (UTXB2). SVG patency was determined 6 months after surgery by computed tomography coronary angiography. Results Inhibited arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation, indicative of aspirin-mediated cyclooxygenase-1 suppression, occurred in 95% and >99% of subjects 3 days and 6 months after surgery, respectively. Despite this, 73% and 31% of subjects at these times had elevated UTXB2. Among tested parameters, only UTXB2 and PFA-100 CADP CT measured 6 months after surgery correlated with outcome. By multivariate analysis, CADP CT ?88 seconds (OR 2.85, P=0.006), target vessel diameter ?1.5 mm (OR 2.38, P=0.01) and UTXB2 ?450 pg/mg creatinine (OR 2.59, P=0.015) correlated with SVG occlusion. CADP CT and UTXB2 in combination further identified subjects at particularly high- and low-risk for SVG occlusion. Conclusions Aspirin-insensitive thromboxane generation measured by UTXB2 and shear-dependent platelet hyper-reactivity measured by PFA-100 CADP CT are novel independent risk factors for early SVG thrombosis after CABG surgery. PMID:21349398

  16. Peptide-coated liposomal fasudil enhances site specific vasodilation in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Kamrun; Absar, Shahriar; Gupta, Nilesh; Kotamraju, Venkata Ramana; McMurtry, Ivan F; Oka, Masahiko; Komatsu, Masanobu; Nozik-Grayck, Eva; Ahsan, Fakhrul

    2014-12-01

    This study sought to develop a liposomal delivery system of fasudil--an investigational drug for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH)--that will preferentially accumulate in the PAH lungs. Liposomal fasudil was prepared by film-hydration method, and the drug was encapsulated by active loading. The liposome surface was coated with a targeting moiety, CARSKNKDC, a cyclic peptide; the liposomes were characterized for size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, and storage and nebulization stability. The in vitro drug release profiles and uptake by TGF-? activated pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC) and alveolar macrophages were evaluated. The pharmacokinetics were monitored in male Sprague-Dawley rats, and the pulmonary hemodynamics were studied in acute and chronic PAH rats. The size, polydispersity index (PDI), and zeta potential of the liposomes were 206-216 nm, 0.058-0.084, and -20-42.7 mV, respectively. The formulations showed minimal changes in structural integrity when nebulized with a commercial microsprayer. The optimized formulation was stable for >4 weeks when stored at 4 °C. Fasudil was released in a continuous fashion over 120 h with a cumulative release of 76%. Peptide-linked liposomes were taken up at a higher degree by TGF-? activated PASMCs; but alveolar macrophages could not engulf peptide-coated liposomes. The formulations did not injure the lungs; the half-life of liposomal fasudil was 34-fold higher than that of plain fasudil after intravenous administration. Peptide-linked liposomal fasudil, as opposed to plain liposomes, reduced the mean pulmonary arterial pressure by 35-40%, without influencing the mean systemic arterial pressure. This study establishes that CAR-conjugated inhalable liposomal fasudil offers favorable pharmacokinetics and produces pulmonary vasculature specific dilatation. PMID:25333706

  17. Arterial Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Avolio, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Stiffness of large arteries has been long recognized as a significant determinant of pulse pressure. However, it is only in recent decades, with the accumulation of longitudinal data from large and varied epidemiological studies of morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease, that it has emerged as an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk. This has generated substantial interest in investigations related to intrinsic causative and associated factors responsible for the alteration of mechanical properties of the arterial wall, with the aim to uncover specific pathways that could be interrogated to prevent or reverse arterial stiffening. Much has been written on the haemodynamic relevance of arterial stiffness in terms of the quantification of pulsatile relationships of blood pressure and flow in conduit arteries. Indeed, much of this early work regarded blood vessels as passive elastic conduits, with the endothelial layer considered as an inactive lining of the lumen and as an interface to flowing blood. However, recent advances in molecular biology and increased technological sophistication for the detection of low concentrations of biochemical compounds have elucidated the highly important regulatory role of the endothelial cell affecting vascular function. These techniques have enabled research into the interaction of the underlying passive mechanical properties of the arterial wall with the active cellular and molecular processes that regulate the local environment of the load-bearing components. This review addresses these emerging concepts. PMID:26587425

  18. Elastin-derived peptides stimulate trophoblast migration and invasion: a positive feedback loop to enhance spiral artery remodelling.

    PubMed

    Desforges, Michelle; Harris, Lynda K; Aplin, John D

    2015-01-01

    Elastin breakdown in the walls of uterine spiral arteries during early pregnancy facilitates their transformation into dilated, high-flow, low-resistance channels. Elastin-derived peptides (EDP) can influence cell migration, invasion and protease activity, and so we hypothesized that EDP released during elastolysis promote extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion and further elastin breakdown. Treatment of the trophoblast cell line SGHPL4 with the elastin-derived matrikine VGVAPG (1 ?g/ml) significantly increased total elastase activity, promoted migration in a wound healing assay and increased invasion through Matrigel-coated transwells compared with vehicle control (0.1% DMSO) or the scrambled sequence VVGPGA. Furthermore, treatment of first-trimester placental villous explants with this EDP significantly increased both the area of trophoblast outgrowth and distance of migration away from the villous tips. Primary first-trimester cytotrophoblast exposed to VGVAPG (1 ?g/ml) for 30 min showed increased phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and activation of the mitogen activated protein kinase pathway, events also associated with tumour cell migration and invasion. These in vitro observations suggest liberation of bioactive EDP during induction of elastolysis in the uterine spiral arteries may orchestrate a positive feedback loop that promotes EVT invasion and further elastin breakdown, contributing to the process of vascular remodelling. PMID:25245255

  19. Enhanced secretion of tissue plasminogen activator by simultaneous use of retinoic acid and ascorbic acid from tissue cultured gastroepiploic artery.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Atsuto; Suzuki, Kazuya; Urano, Tetsumei; Aoki, Katsunori; Takada, Yumiko; Kazui, Teruhisa; Takada, Akikazu

    2002-02-01

    Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is a key enzyme in the fibrinolysis system and the regulation of its expression has been extensively studied in cultured vascular endothelial cells. Many kinds of supplements including growth factors are needed, however, to keep endothelial cells viable, which leads the culture condition far from the physiological milieu. Using a new device of amorphous calcium phosphate coated culture plate, we succeeded in culturing ring-cut gastroepiploic artery in a basic medium of RPMI 1640 containing 10% fetal calf serum. The overall normal vessel architecture and the antigenicity of von Willebrand factor, tPA and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) were retained for at least 9 days. tPA was constantly secreted into the conditioned medium at least up to day 12. Employing this organ culture technique, we analyzed the effects of two well-known profibrinolytic vitamins of retinoic acid (Vit. A) and ascorbic acid (Vit. C) on the release of tPA and PAI-1. The cultured artery responded well and the tPA secretion was enhanced by factors of 1.5 fold by Vit. A, 1.7 fold by Vit C and 3.2 fold by their combination, whereas none of these stimuli increased PAI-1 secretion. These results suggested that the cultured ring-cut artery retained functional endothelial cells for at least 9 days and was suitable in analyzing the regulatory mechanism of protein synthesis and secretion from the vascular wall. Using this method, vitamins A and C were shown to lead the intravascular condition to a profibrinolytic state. PMID:11883720

  20. Relative importance of patient, procedural and anatomic risk factors for early vein graft thrombosis after coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    PubMed Central

    MCLEAN, R. C.; NAZARIAN, S. M.; GLUCKMAN, T. J.; SCHULMAN, S. P.; THIEMANN, D. R.; SHAPIRO, E. P.; CONTE, J. V.; THOMPSON, J. B.; SHAFIQUE, I.; MCNICHOLAS, K. W.; VILLINES, T. C.; LAWS, K. M.; RADE, J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of the present study was to investigate the relative importance of a wide array of patient demographic, procedural, anatomic and perioperative variables as potential risk factors for early saphenous vein graft (SVG) thrombosis after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Methods The patency of 611 SVGs in 291 patients operated on at four different hospitals enrolled in the Reduction in Graft Occlusion Rates (RIGOR) study was assessed six months after CABG surgery by multidetector computed tomography coronary angiography or clinically-indicated coronary angiography. The odds of graft occlusion versus patency were analyzed using multilevel multivariate logistic regression with clustering on patient. Results SVG failure within six months of CABG surgery was predominantly an all-or-none phenomenon with 126 (20.1%) SVGs totally occluded, 485 (77.3%) widely patent and only 16 (2.5%) containing high-grade stenoses. Target vessel diameter ?1.5 mm (adjusted OR 2.37, P=0.003) and fetnale gender (adjusted OR 2.46, P=0.01) were strongly associated with early SVG occlusion. In a subgroup analysis of 354 SVGs in which intraoperative graft blood flow was measured, lower mean flow was also significantly associated with SVG occlusion when analyzed as a continuous variable (adjusted OR 0.984, P=0.006) though not when analyzed dichotomously, <40 mL/min versus ?40 mL/min (adjusted OR 1.86, P=0.08). Conclusion Small target vessel diameter, female gender and low mean graft blood flow are significant risk factors for SVG thrombosis within six months of CABG surgery in patients on postoperative aspirin therapy. This information may be useful in guiding revascularization strategies in selected patients. PMID:22051997

  1. The Relationships between Fatigue and Early Postoperative Recovery Outcomes Over Time in Elderly Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Barnason, Susan; Zimmerman, Lani; Nieveen, Janet; Schulz, Paula; Miller, Connie; Hertzog, Melody; Rasmussen, Doris

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Despite successful coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, some patients continue to experience fatigue following their surgery. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this secondary analysis study was to examine the relationships of fatigue and early recovery outcomes (psychosocial and physiological functioning, and physical activity) over time (6-weeks and 3-months) among older adult subjects, age 65 years and older, following CABG surgery. Comparison groups were those subjects who had fatigue at 3-weeks after surgery and non-fatigued subjects. DESIGN A prospective, comparative design was used for this secondary analysis study. SAMPLE Subjects in this study were drawn from the control group of subjects enrolled in the larger, parent study. Subjects (N=119) were dichotomized into fatigue (n=66) and non-fatigued (n=53) groups based on their 3-week self-report of postoperative fatigue. RESULTS At 6-weeks after surgery, fatigued subjects had significantly (p<.05) more impaired psychosocial functioning, [role-emotional (t=1.9), social (t=2.6), and mental (t=1.9) functioning], based Medical Outcome Study short form-36 (MOS SF-36). They had significantly (p<.005) higher anxiety (t= ?3.6) and depression (t= ?2.9) mean Hospital Anxiety and Depression subscale (HADS) scores. Anxiety (t= ?2.3, p<.05) remained significantly (p<.05) impaired at 3-months. At 6-weeks, role physical functioning, measured by the MOS SF-36, was significantly impaired (t=2.4, p<.01). There were no significant differences in physical activity variables as measured by a RT3® accelerometer and self-report diary. CONCLUSIONS Persistent fatigue can hamper early recovery following CABG surgery. Tailored interventions are needed to address fatigue management and improve patient outcomes. PMID:18620100

  2. Enhancer repertoires are reshaped independently of early priming and heterochromatin dynamics during B cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Choukrallah, Mohamed-Amin; Song, Shuang; Rolink, Antonius G.; Burger, Lukas; Matthias, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    A widely accepted model posits that activation of enhancers during differentiation goes through a priming step prior to lineage commitment. To investigate the chronology of enhancer repertoire establishment during hematopoiesis, we monitored epigenome dynamics during three developmental stages representing hematopoietic stem cells, B-cell progenitors and mature B-cells. We find that only a minority of enhancers primed in stem cells or progenitors become active at later stages. Furthermore, most enhancers active in differentiated cells were not primed in earlier stages. Thus, the enhancer repertoire is reshaped dynamically during B-cell differentiation and enhancer priming in early stages does not appear to be an obligate step for enhancer activation. Furthermore, our data reveal that heterochromatin and Polycomb-mediated silencing have only a minor contribution in shaping enhancer repertoires during cell differentiation. Together, our data revisit the prevalent model about epigenetic reprogramming during hematopoiesis and give insights into the formation of gene regulatory networks. PMID:26477271

  3. Enhancer repertoires are reshaped independently of early priming and heterochromatin dynamics during B cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Choukrallah, Mohamed-Amin; Song, Shuang; Rolink, Antonius G; Burger, Lukas; Matthias, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    A widely accepted model posits that activation of enhancers during differentiation goes through a priming step prior to lineage commitment. To investigate the chronology of enhancer repertoire establishment during hematopoiesis, we monitored epigenome dynamics during three developmental stages representing hematopoietic stem cells, B-cell progenitors and mature B-cells. We find that only a minority of enhancers primed in stem cells or progenitors become active at later stages. Furthermore, most enhancers active in differentiated cells were not primed in earlier stages. Thus, the enhancer repertoire is reshaped dynamically during B-cell differentiation and enhancer priming in early stages does not appear to be an obligate step for enhancer activation. Furthermore, our data reveal that heterochromatin and Polycomb-mediated silencing have only a minor contribution in shaping enhancer repertoires during cell differentiation. Together, our data revisit the prevalent model about epigenetic reprogramming during hematopoiesis and give insights into the formation of gene regulatory networks. PMID:26477271

  4. Impaired LRP6-TCF7L2 Activity Enhances Smooth Muscle Cell Plasticity and Causes Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Roshni; Zhang, Jiasheng; Go, Gwang-Woong; Narayanan, Anand; Nottoli, Timothy P; Mani, Arya

    2015-10-27

    Mutations in Wnt-signaling coreceptor LRP6 have been linked to coronary artery disease (CAD) by unknown mechanisms. Here, we show that reduced LRP6 activity in LRP6(R611C) mice promotes loss of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) differentiation, leading to aortic medial hyperplasia. Carotid injury augmented these effects and led to partial to total vascular obstruction. LRP6(R611C) mice on high-fat diet displayed dramatic obstructive CAD and exhibited an accelerated atherosclerotic burden on LDLR knockout background. Mechanistically, impaired LRP6 activity leads to enhanced non-canonical Wnt signaling, culminating in diminished TCF7L2 and increased Sp1-dependent activation of PDGF signaling. Wnt3a administration to LRP6(R611C) mice improved LRP6 activity, led to TCF7L2-dependent VSMC differentiation, and rescued post-carotid-injury neointima formation. These findings demonstrate the critical role of intact Wnt signaling in the vessel wall, establish a causal link between impaired LRP6/TCF7L2 activities and arterial disease, and identify Wnt signaling as a therapeutic target against CAD. PMID:26489464

  5. Comprehensive Population-Averaged Arterial Input Function for Dynamic Contrast–Enhanced vMagnetic Resonance Imaging of Head and Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Onxley, Jennifer D.; Yoo, David S.; Muradyan, Naira; MacFall, James R.; Brizel, David M.; Craciunescu, Oana I.

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To generate a population-averaged arterial input function (PA-AIF) for quantitative analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI data in head and neck cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Twenty patients underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI during concurrent chemoradiation therapy. Imaging consisted of 2 baseline scans 1 week apart (B1/B2) and 1 scan after 1 week of chemoradiation therapy (Wk1). Regions of interest (ROIs) in the right and left carotid arteries were drawn on coronal images. Plasma concentration curves of all ROIs were averaged and fit to a biexponential decay function to obtain the final PA-AIF (AvgAll). Right-sided and left-sided ROI plasma concentration curves were averaged separately to obtain side-specific AIFs (AvgRight/AvgLeft). Regions of interest were divided by time point to obtain time-point-specific AIFs (AvgB1/AvgB2/AvgWk1). The vascular transfer constant (K{sub trans}) and the fractional extravascular, extracellular space volume (V{sub e}) for primaries and nodes were calculated using the AvgAll AIF, the appropriate side-specific AIF, and the appropriate time-point-specific AIF. Median K{sub trans} and V{sub e} values derived from AvgAll were compared with those obtained from the side-specific and time-point-specific AIFs. The effect of using individual AIFs was also investigated. Results: The plasma parameters for AvgAll were a{sub 1,2} = 27.11/17.65 kg/L, m{sub 1,2} = 11.75/0.21 min{sup ?1}. The coefficients of repeatability (CRs) for AvgAll versus AvgLeft were 0.04 min{sup ?1} for K{sub trans} and 0.02 for V{sub e}. For AvgAll versus AvgRight, the CRs were 0.08 min{sup ?1} for K{sub trans} and 0.02 for V{sub e}. When AvgAll was compared with AvgB1/AvgB2/AvgWk1, the CRs were slightly higher: 0.32/0.19/0.78 min{sup ?1}, respectively, for K{sub trans}; and 0.07/0.08/0.09 for V{sub e}. Use of a PA-AIF was not significantly different from use of individual AIFs. Conclusion: A PA-AIF for head and neck cancer was generated that accounts for differences in right carotid artery versus left carotid artery, day-to-day fluctuations, and early treatment-induced changes. The small CRs obtained for K{sub trans} and V{sub e} indicate that side-specific AIFs are not necessary. However, a time-point-specific AIF may improve pharmacokinetic accuracy.

  6. Photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence for early breast cancer biomarker detection.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Brian T; Zangar, Richard C

    2012-08-01

    Photonic crystal surfaces offer a compelling platform for improving the sensitivity of surface-based fluorescent assays used in disease diagnostics. Through the complementary processes of photonic crystal enhanced excitation and enhanced extraction, a periodic dielectric-based nanostructured surface can simultaneously increase the electric field intensity experienced by surface-bound fluorophores and increase the collection efficiency of emitted fluorescent photons. Through the ability to inexpensively fabricate photonic crystal surfaces over substantial surface areas, they are amenable to single-use applications in biological sensing, such as disease biomarker detection in serum. In this review, we will describe the motivation for implementing high-sensitivity, multiplexed biomarker detection in the context of breast cancer diagnosis. We will summarize recent efforts to improve the detection limits of such assays though the use of photonic crystal surfaces. Reduction of detection limits is driven by low autofluorescent substrates for photonic crystal fabrication, and detection instruments that take advantage of their unique features. PMID:22736539

  7. Correction of Arterial Input Function in Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI of the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hesheng; Cao, Yue

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To develop a post-processing method to correct saturation of arterial input function (AIF) in T1-weighted DCE-MRI for quantification of hepatic perfusion. Materials and Methods The saturated AIF is corrected by parameterizing the first pass of the AIF as a smooth function with a single peak and minimizing a least squares error in fitting the liver DCE-MRI data to a dual-input single-compartment model. Sensitivities of the method to the degree of saturation in the AIF first-pass peak and the image contrast-to-noise ratio were assessed. The method was also evaluated by correlating portal venous perfusion with an independent overall liver function measurement. Results The proposed method corrects the distorted AIF with a saturation ratio up to 0.45. The corrected AIF improves hepatic arterial perfusion by ?23.4% and portal venous perfusion by 26.9% in a study of 12 patients with liver cancers. The correlation between the mean voxelwise portal venous perfusion and overall liver function measurement was improved by using the corrected AIFs (R2=0.67) compared with the saturated AIFs (R2=0.39). Conclusion The method is robust for correcting AIF distortion, and has the potential to improve quantification of hepatic perfusion for assessment of liver tissue response to treatment in patients with hepatic cancers. PMID:22392876

  8. Experimental peripheral arterial disease: new insights into muscle glucose uptake, macrophage, and T?cell polarization during early and late stages

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrin, Maxime; Bouzourène, Karima; Poitry?Yamate, Carole; Mlynarik, Vladimir; Feihl, François; Aubert, Jean?François; Gruetter, Rolf; Mazzolai, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common disease with increasing prevalence, presenting with impaired walking ability affecting patient's quality of life. PAD epidemiology is known, however, mechanisms underlying functional muscle impairment remain unclear. Using a mouse PAD model, aim of this study was to assess muscle adaptive responses during early (1 week) and late (5 weeks) disease stages. Unilateral hindlimb ischemia was induced in ApoE?/? mice by iliac artery ligation. Ischemic limb perfusion and oxygenation (Laser Doppler imaging, transcutaneous oxygen pressure assessments) significantly decreased during early and late stage compared to pre?ischemia, however, values were significantly higher during late versus early phase. Number of arterioles and arteriogenesis?linked gene expression increased at later stage. Walking ability, evaluated by forced and voluntary walking tests, remained significantly decreased both at early and late phase without any significant improvement. Muscle glucose uptake ([18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography) significantly increased during early ischemia decreasing at later stage. Gene expression analysis showed significant shift in muscle M1/M2 macrophages and Th1/Th2 T cells balance toward pro?inflammatory phenotype during early ischemia; later, inflammatory state returned to neutrality. Muscular M1/M2 shift inhibition by a statin prevented impaired walking ability in early ischemia. High?energy phosphate metabolism remained unchanged (31?Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy). Results show that rapid transient muscular inflammation contributes to impaired walking capacity while increased glucose uptake may be a compensatory mechanisms preserving immediate limb viability during early ischemia in a mouse PAD model. With time, increased ischemic limb perfusion and oxygenation assure muscle viability although not sufficiently to improve walking impairment. Subsequent decreased muscle glucose uptake may partly contribute to chronic walking impairment. Early inflammation inhibition and/or late muscle glucose impairment prevention are promising strategies for PAD management. PMID:24744903

  9. Endothelin-1 contributes to endothelial dysfunction and enhanced vasoconstriction through augmented superoxide production in penile arteries from insulin-resistant obese rats: role of ETA and ETB receptors

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, A; Martínez, P; Muñoz, M; Benedito, S; García-Sacristán, A; Hernández, M; Prieto, D

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose We assessed whether endothelin-1 (ET-1) inhibits NO and contributes to endothelial dysfunction in penile arteries in a model of insulin resistance-associated erectile dysfunction (ED). Experimental Approach Vascular function was assessed in penile arteries, from obese (OZR) and lean (LZR) Zucker rats, mounted in microvascular myographs. Changes in basal and stimulated levels of superoxide (O2?) were detected by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence and ET receptor expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. Key Results ET-1 stimulated acute O2? production that was blunted by tempol and the NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin, but markedly enhanced in obese animals. ET-1 inhibited the vasorelaxant effects of ACh and of the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine in arteries from both LZR and OZR. Selective ETA (BQ123) or ETB receptor (BQ788) antagonists reduced both basal and ET-1-stimulated superoxide generation and reversed ET-1-induced inhibition of NO-mediated relaxations in OZR, while only BQ-123 antagonized ET-1 actions in LZR. ET-1-induced vasoconstriction was markedly enhanced by NO synthase blockade and reduced by endothelium removal and apocynin. In endothelium-denuded penile arteries, apocynin blunted augmented ET-1-induced contractions in OZR. Both ETA and ETB receptors were expressed in smooth muscle and the endothelial layer and up-regulated in arteries from OZR. Conclusions and Implications ET-1 stimulates ETA-mediated NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS generation, which inhibits endothelial NO bioavailability and contributes to ET-1-induced contraction in healthy penile arteries. Enhanced vascular expression of ETB receptors contributes to augmented ROS production, endothelial dysfunction and increased vasoconstriction in erectile tissue from insulin-resistant obese rats. Hence, antagonism of ETB receptors might improve the ED associated with insulin-resistant states. PMID:25091502

  10. Dual-mode microwave system to enhance early detection of cancer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, K. L.; El-Mahdi, A. M.; Shaeffer, J.

    1981-01-01

    A dual-mode microwave system has been developed that will permit early detection of cancer. The system combines the use of the passive microwave radiometer with an active transmitter. The active transmitter will provide localized heating to enhance early detection by taking advantage of the differential heating (i.e., tumor temperature with respect to surrounding tissue) associated with the thermal characteristics of tumors.

  11. Cerebrospinal Fluid Enhancement on Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery Images After Carotid Artery Stenting with Neuroprotective Balloon Occlusions: Hemodynamic Instability and Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption

    SciTech Connect

    Ogami, Ryo Nakahara, Toshinori; Hamasaki, Osamu; Araki, Hayato; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: A rare complication of carotid artery stenting (CAS), prolonged reversible neurological symptoms with delayed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space enhancement on fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images, is associated with blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. We prospectively identified patients who showed CSF space enhancement on FLAIR images. Methods: Nineteen patients-5 acute-phase and 14 scheduled-underwent 21 CAS procedures. Balloon catheters were navigated across stenoses, angioplasty was performed using a neuroprotective balloon, and stents were placed with after dilation under distal balloon protection. CSF space hyperintensity or obscuration on FLAIR after versus before CAS indicated CSF space enhancement. Correlations with clinical factors were examined. Results: CSF space was enhanced on FLAIR in 12 (57.1%) cases. Postprocedural CSF space enhancement was significantly related to age, stenosis rate, acute-stage procedure, and total occlusion time. All acute-stage CAS patients showed delayed enhancement. Only age was associated with delayed CSF space enhancement in scheduled CAS patients. Conclusions: Ischemic intolerance for severe carotid artery stenosis and temporary neuroprotective balloon occlusion, causing reperfusion injury, seem to be the main factors that underlie BBB disruption with delayed CSF space enhancement shortly after CAS, rather than sudden poststenting hemodynamic change. Our results suggest that factors related to hemodynamic instability or ischemic intolerance seem to be associated with post-CAS BBB vulnerability. Patients at risk for hemodynamic instability or with ischemic intolerance, which decrease BBB integrity, require careful management to prevent intracranial hemorrhagic and other post-CAS complications.

  12. [Isoliquiritigenin relaxes the cerebral basilar artery by enhancing BKCa current in spontaneously hypertensive rat: role of sGC/cGMP].

    PubMed

    Tian, Wei-Wei; Zhao, Lei; Ma, Ke-Tao; Li, Li; Si, Jun-Qiang

    2015-06-25

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of isoliquiritigenin (ISL) on the cerebral basilar artery in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The change of SHR systolic pressure was measured by tail artery pressure measurement instrument before and after ISL intervention. After perfusion with 1 × 10(-5) mol/L phenylephrine (PE), 1 × 10(-5) mol/L PE + 1 × 10(-4) mol/L ISL and 1 × 10(-5) mol/L PE, the diameter of the cerebral basilar artery separated from SHR was measured by pressure myograph. The current of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BKCa) channel of SHR single vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) was recorded by whole-cell patch-clamp technique and the cGMP levels of basilar artery was evaluated by ELISA. The results showed that 1) after intervention with ISL for 14 days, the systolic pressure of SHR was decreased from (218.3 ± 1.6) mmHg to (119.2 ± 1.9) mmHg (P < 0.01), but there was no difference in systolic pressure between ISL-treated SHR and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat; 2) 1 × 10(-4) mol/L ISL relaxed the SHR cerebral basilar artery (P < 0.01); 3) ISL significantly increased the outward current density of VSMC from SHR cerebral basilar artery (P < 0.01, n = 6), and the effect could be reversed by 1 × 10(-3) mol/L TEA (a BKCa channel inhibitor), but 3 × 10(-4) mol/L 4-AP (a Kv channel inhibitor) had no effect on the enhanced current density induced by ISL in VSMC; 4) 1 × 10(-5) mol/L Methylene blue (a sGC inhibitor) significantly inhibited the ISL-enhanced current density in VSMC (P < 0.05, n = 6); 5) ISL significantly increased the cGMP level of SHR basilar artery (P < 0.05, n = 6). The results suggest that the role of the ISL in relaxing the SHR cerebral basilar artery may be related to its effect in enhancing BKCa current by increasing the levels of cGMP in the VSMC. PMID:26109306

  13. Development of the Play Experience Model to Enhance Desirable Qualifications of Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panpum, Watchara; Soonthornrojana, Wimonrat; Nakunsong, Thatsanee

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to develop the play experience model and to study the effect of usage in play experience model for enhancing the early childhood's desirable qualification. There were 3 phases of research: 1) the document and context in experience management were studied, 2) the play experience model was developed, and 3) the…

  14. 78 FR 13294 - Enhanced Prudential Standards and Early Remediation Requirements for Foreign Banking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    On December 28, 2012, the Board published in the Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to implement the enhanced prudential standards required to be established under section 165 of the Dodd-Frank Act and the early remediation requirements established under section 166 of the Act for foreign banking organizations and foreign nonbank financial companies supervised by the Board. Due to......

  15. Music and Speech Listening Enhance the Recovery of Early Sensory Processing after Stroke

    E-print Network

    on the development of basic auditory and cognitive skills, but little is known about how it influences the recovery of these skills after neural damage. Here, we studied the long-term effects of daily music and speech listeningMusic and Speech Listening Enhance the Recovery of Early Sensory Processing after Stroke Teppo

  16. Enhancing early child care quality and learning for toddlers at risk: the responsive early childhood program.

    PubMed

    Landry, Susan H; Zucker, Tricia A; Taylor, Heather B; Swank, Paul R; Williams, Jeffrey M; Assel, Michael; Crawford, April; Huang, Weihua; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine; Lonigan, Christopher J; Phillips, Beth M; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L; de Villiers, Jill; de Villiers, Peter; Barnes, Marcia; Starkey, Prentice; Klein, Alice

    2014-02-01

    Despite reports of positive effects of high-quality child care, few experimental studies have examined the process of improving low-quality center-based care for toddler-age children. In this article, we report intervention effects on child care teachers' behaviors and children's social, emotional, behavioral, early literacy, language, and math outcomes as well as the teacher-child relationship. The intervention targeted the use of a set of responsive teacher practices, derived from attachment and sociocultural theories, and a comprehensive curriculum. Sixty-five childcare classrooms serving low-income 2- and 3-year-old children were randomized into 3 conditions: business-as-usual control, Responsive Early Childhood Curriculum (RECC), and RECC plus explicit social-emotional classroom activities (RECC+). Classroom observations showed greater gains for RECC and RECC+ teachers' responsive practices including helping children manage their behavior, establishing a predictable schedule, and use of cognitively stimulating activities (e.g., shared book reading) compared with controls; however, teacher behaviors did not differ for focal areas such as sensitivity and positive discipline supports. Child assessments demonstrated that children in the interventions outperformed controls in areas of social and emotional development, although children's performance in control and intervention groups was similar for cognitive skills (language, literacy, and math). Results support the positive impact of responsive teachers and environments providing appropriate support for toddlers' social and emotional development. Possible explanations for the absence of systematic differences in children's cognitive skills are considered, including implications for practice and future research targeting low-income toddlers. PMID:23772822

  17. Polymorphisms in IL-10 and INF-? genes are associated with early atherosclerosis in coronary but not in carotid arteries: A study of 122 autopsy cases of young adults

    PubMed Central

    Esperança, José Carlos P.; Miranda, William R.R.; Netto, José B.; Lima, Fabiane S.; Baumworcel, Leonardo; Chimelli, Leila; Silva, Rosane; Ürményi, Turán P.; Cabello, Pedro H.; Rondinelli, Edson; Faffe, Débora S.

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a complex disease, involving both genetic and environmental factors. However, the influence of genetic variations on its early development remains unclear. This study examined the association of 12 different polymorphisms with atherosclerosis severity in anterior descending coronary (DA, n = 103) and carotid arteries (CA, n = 66) of autopsied young adults (< 30 years old). Histological sections (H-E) were classified according to the American Heart Association. Polymorphisms in ACE, TNF-? (? 308G/A and ? 238 G/A), IFN-? (+ 874 A/T), MMP-9 (? 1562 C/T), IL-10 (? 1082 A/G and ? 819 C/T), NOS3 (894 G/T), ApoA1 (rs964184), ApoE (E2E3E4 isoforms), and TGF-? (codons 25 and 10) genes were genotyped by gel electrophoresis or automatic DNA sequencing. Firearm projectile or car accident was the main cause of death, and no information about classical risk factors was available. Histological analysis showed high prevalence of type III atherosclerotic lesions in both DA (69%) and CA (39%) arteries, while severe type IV and V lesions were observed in 14% (DA) and 33% (CA). Allele frequencies and genotype distributions were determined. Among the polymorphisms studied, IFN-? and IL-10 (? 1082 A/G) were related to atherosclerosis severity in DA artery. No association between genotypes and lesion severity was found in CA. In conclusion, we observed that the high prevalence of early atherosclerosis in young adults is associated with IFN-? (p < 0.001) and IL-10 (p = 0.013) genotypes. This association is blood vessel dependent. Our findings suggest that the vascular system presents site specialization, and specific genetic variations may provide future biomarkers for early disease identification. PMID:26674973

  18. Gadolinium-Enhanced Angiography for Diagnosis and Interventional Treatment of Subclavian Artery Stenosis Prior to Fistula Creation

    SciTech Connect

    Termote, Bruno; Maleux, Geert Heye, Sam; Fourneau, Inge; Claes, Kathleen

    2008-07-15

    We report the use of gadolinium-based contrast agent for both diagnostic and interventional subclavian angiography in two azotemic patients, presenting with an asymptomatic, high-grade stenosis of the left subclavian artery, ipsilateral to the site of choice for native fistula creation. Angiographic imaging performed with diluted gadolinium-based contrast material was clear enough to perform successful subclavian artery stenting, resulting in normalization of the arterial blood pressure in the afferent artery of the dialysis fistula. Clinically, no decrease in residual renal function and no other complication were noted immediately or a longer period after the interventional treatment.

  19. ETS factors regulate Vegf-dependent arterial specification

    PubMed Central

    Wythe, Joshua D.; Dang, Lan T. H.; Devine, W. Patrick; Boudreau, Emilie; Artap, Stanley T.; He, Daniel; Schachterle, William; Stainier, Didier Y.R.; Oettgen, Peter; Black, Brian L.; Bruneau, Benoit G.; Fish, Jason E.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Vegf signaling specifies arterial fate during early vascular development by inducing the transcription of Delta-like 4 (Dll4), the earliest Notch ligand gene expressed in arterial precursor cells (aPCs). Dll4 expression precedes that of Notch receptors in arteries, and factors that direct its arterial-specific expression are not known. To identify the transcriptional program that initiates arterial Dll4 expression we characterized an arterial-specific and Vegf-responsive enhancer of Dll4. Our findings demonstrate that Notch signaling is not required for initiation of Dll4 expression in arteries, and suggest that Notch instead functions as a maintenance factor. Importantly, we find that Vegf signaling activates MAP kinase (MAPK)-dependent ETS factors in the arterial endothelium to drive expression of Dll4, as well as Notch4. These findings identify a Vegf/MAPK-dependent transcriptional pathway that specifies arterial identity by activating Notch signaling components, and illustrate how signaling cascades can modulate broadly expressed transcription factors to achieve tissue-specific transcriptional outputs. PMID:23830865

  20. Coronary Arteries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and animations for grades K-6. The Coronary Arteries | Share Coronary Circulation The heart muscle, like every ... into two main coronary blood vessels (also called arteries). These coronary arteries branch off into smaller arteries, ...

  1. Enhancement of dynein-mediated autophagosome trafficking and autophagy maturation by ROS in mouse coronary arterial myocytes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ming; Li, Xiao-Xue; Chen, Yang; Pitzer, Ashley L; Zhang, Yang; Li, Pin-Lan

    2014-11-01

    Dynein-mediated autophagosome (AP) trafficking was recently demonstrated to contribute to the formation of autophagolysosomes (APLs) and autophagic flux process in coronary arterial myocytes (CAMs). However, it remains unknown how the function of dynein as a motor protein for AP trafficking is regulated under physiological and pathological conditions. The present study tested whether the dynein-mediated autophagy maturation is regulated by a redox signalling associated with lysosomal Ca(2+) release machinery. In primary cultures of CAMs, reactive oxygen species (ROS) including H2 O2 and O2 (-.) (generated by xanthine/xanthine oxidase) significantly increased dynein ATPase activity and AP movement, which were accompanied by increased lysosomal fusion with AP and APL formation. Inhibition of dynein activity by (erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine) (EHNA) or disruption of the dynein complex by dynamitin (DCTN2) overexpression blocked ROS-induced dynein activation, AP movement and APL formation, and resulted in an accumulation of AP along with a failed breakdown of AP. Antagonism of nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP)-mediated Ca(2+) signalling with NED-19 and PPADS abolished ROS-enhanced lysosomal Ca(2+) release and dynein activation in CAMs. In parallel, all these changes were also enhanced by overexpression of NADPH oxidase-1 (Nox1) gene in CAMs. Incubation with high glucose led to a marked O2 (-.) production compared with normoglycaemic CAMs, while Nox1 inhibitor ML117 abrogated this effect. Moreover, ML117 and NED-19 and PPADS significantly suppressed dynein activity and APL formation caused by high glucose. Taken together, these data suggest that ROS function as important players to regulate dynein-dependent AP trafficking leading to efficient autophagic maturation in CAMs. PMID:24912985

  2. Posterior Circulation Acute Stroke Prognosis Early Computed Tomography Score Using Hypointense Vessels on Susceptibility Weighted Imaging Independently Predicts Outcome in Patients with Basilar Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Mundiyanapurath, S.; Möhlenbruch, M.; Ringleb, P. A.; Bösel, J.; Wick, W.; Bendszus, M.; Radbruch, A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Appearance of hypointense vessels on susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) has been reported to correlate with outcome in patients with ischemia of the anterior circulation. This study investigates the correlation between the appearance of hypointense vessels on SWI after recanalization therapy and outcome in patients with basilar artery occlusion. Methods Patients with basilar artery occlusion who were treated with endovascular recanalization or intravenous alteplase and received an MRI including SWI after therapy were retrieved from the hospital database for retrospective analysis. Posterior circulation Acute Stroke Prognosis Early Computed Tomography Score (pcASPECTS) was calculated based on regions displaying hypointense vessels on SWI and compared to lesions on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). Subsequently, SWI based pcASPECTS was correlated with outcome determined with modified Rankin Scale (mRS), categorized as favorable outcome (mRS 0-2) or unfavorable outcome (3-6). Results Twenty-two MRI of patients with basilar artery occlusion were analyzed. In seven out of eight areas of the pcASPECTS hypointense vessels on SWI were significantly correlated to areas of restricted diffusion on DWI. In univariate analysis median pcASPECTS on SWI was significantly higher in patients with favorable outcome (7.5 vs. 5, p=0.02). In a multivariate analysis pcASPECTS on SWI was an independent predictor of favorable outcome (OR 2.02; CI [1.02;3,99]; p=0.04). Conclusion pcASPECTS based on hypointense vessels on SWI after therapy predicts outcome in patients with basilar artery occlusion and might potentially be used as an additional imaging biomarker in the management of patients with stroke in the posterior circulation. This needs to be confirmed in larger prospective clinical trials. PMID:26176682

  3. Polycomb binding precedes early-life stress responsive DNA methylation at the Avp enhancer.

    PubMed

    Murgatroyd, Chris; Spengler, Dietmar

    2014-01-01

    Early-life stress (ELS) in mice causes sustained hypomethylation at the downstream Avp enhancer, subsequent overexpression of hypothalamic Avp and increased stress responsivity. The sequence of events leading to Avp enhancer methylation is presently unknown. Here, we used an embryonic stem cell-derived model of hypothalamic-like differentiation together with in vivo experiments to show that binding of polycomb complexes (PcG) preceded the emergence of ELS-responsive DNA methylation and correlated with gene silencing. At the same time, PcG occupancy associated with the presence of Tet proteins preventing DNA methylation. Early hypothalamic-like differentiation triggered PcG eviction, DNA-methyltransferase recruitment and enhancer methylation. Concurrently, binding of the Methyl-CpG-binding and repressor protein MeCP2 increased at the enhancer although Avp expression during later stages of differentiation and the perinatal period continued to increase. Overall, we provide evidence of a new role of PcG proteins in priming ELS-responsive DNA methylation at the Avp enhancer prior to epigenetic programming consistent with the idea that PcG proteins are part of a flexible silencing system during neuronal development. PMID:24599304

  4. Negative regulatory sequences in the EIa-inducible enhancer of the adenovirus-2 early EIIa promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Jalinot, P; Kédinger, C

    1986-01-01

    The adenovirus type 2 early EIIa (EIIaE) transcriptional control region exhibits an EIa-dependent enhancer activity (Imperiale et al., 1985, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82, 381-385). We have determined the sequence requirements for this enhancer activity by analysing the enhancing capacity of the entire EIIa promoter region, or portions of it, when inserted approximately 400 bp upstream of the rabbit beta-globin gene. Globin-specific transcription efficiency from the resulting recombinants was measured after transfection into HeLa cells, both in the presence and absence of the EIa products. It was found that the minimal EIIa element with bidirectional, EIa-dependent enhancer activity extends between -111 and -27 relative to the EIIaE major startsite (+1). Furthermore an extensive deletion analysis revealed, within this element, three functionally distinct regions: a central region between about -90 and -70, corresponding to an essential EIIaE upstream promoter element, and two flanking control elements (about 20 bp each) which, in the absence of the EIa products, exert a negative effect on the enhancer activity. Deletion of either one of these control elements renders the EIIaE enhancer activity constitutive, suggesting that the EIa products stimulate the EIIaE enhancer by relieving the negative control mediated by these sequences. Images PMID:3008095

  5. Lactulose enhances neuroplasticity to improve cognitive function in early hepatic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Nan; Liu, He; Jiang, Yao; Zheng, Ji; Li, Dong-mei; Ji, Chao; Liu, Yan-yong; Zuo, Ping-ping

    2015-01-01

    Lactulose is known to improve cognitive function in patients with early hepatic encephalopathy; however, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the behavioral and neurochemical effects of lactulose in a rat model of early hepatic encephalopathy induced by carbon tetrachloride. Immunohistochemistry showed that lactulose treatment promoted neurogenesis and increased the number of neurons and astrocytes in the hippocampus. Moreover, lactulose-treated rats showed shorter escape latencies than model rats in the Morris water maze, indicating that lactulose improved the cognitive impairments caused by hepatic encephalopathy. The present findings suggest that lactulose effectively improves cognitive function by enhancing neuroplasticity in a rat model of early hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:26604907

  6. Lactulose enhances neuroplasticity to improve cognitive function in early hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Nan; Liu, He; Jiang, Yao; Zheng, Ji; Li, Dong-Mei; Ji, Chao; Liu, Yan-Yong; Zuo, Ping-Ping

    2015-09-01

    Lactulose is known to improve cognitive function in patients with early hepatic encephalopathy; however, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the behavioral and neurochemical effects of lactulose in a rat model of early hepatic encephalopathy induced by carbon tetrachloride. Immunohistochemistry showed that lactulose treatment promoted neurogenesis and increased the number of neurons and astrocytes in the hippocampus. Moreover, lactulose-treated rats showed shorter escape latencies than model rats in the Morris water maze, indicating that lactulose improved the cognitive impairments caused by hepatic encephalopathy. The present findings suggest that lactulose effectively improves cognitive function by enhancing neuroplasticity in a rat model of early hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:26604907

  7. Magnetic field enriched surface enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy for early malaria diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, Clement; Liu, Quan

    2012-01-01

    Hemozoin is a by-product of malaria infection in erythrocytes, which has been explored as a biomarker for early malaria diagnosis. We report magnetic field-enriched surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERRS) of ?--hematin crystals, which are the equivalent of hemozoin biocrystals in spectroscopic features, by using magnetic nanoparticles with iron oxide core and silver shell (Fe3O4@Ag). The external magnetic field enriches ?--hematin crystals and enhances the binding between ?--hematin crystals and magnetic nanoparticles, which provides further improvement in SERRS signals. The magnetic field-enriched SERRS signal of ?--hematin crystals shows approximately five orders of magnitude enhancement in the resonance Raman signal, in comparison to about three orders of magnitude improvement in the SERRS signal without the influence of magnetic field. The improvement has led to a ?--hematin detection limit at a concentration of 5 nM (roughly equivalent to 30 parasites/?l at the early stages of malaria infection), which demonstrates the potential of magnetic field-enriched SERRS technique in early malaria diagnosis.

  8. Investigation of the Saturation Pulse Artifact in Non-Enhanced MR Angiography of the Lower Extremity Arteries at 7 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    Johst, Sören; Maderwald, Stefan; Fischer, Anja; Quick, Harald H.; Ladd, Mark E.; Orzada, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    When performing non-enhanced time-of-flight MR angiography of the lower extremity arteries at 7 T with cardiac triggering, the acquisition time is a crucial consideration. Therefore, in previous studies, saturation RF pulses were applied only every second TR. In the axial source images a slight artifact with an appearance similar to aliasing could be observed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the origin of this artifact. The reason for the artifact is supposed to be related to the two effective TRs during acquisition caused by the sparsely applied saturation RF pulse. Several sequence variants were simulated and implemented within the sequence source code to examine this hypothesis. An adaptation of the excitation flip angles for each TR as well as a correction factor for the k-space data was calculated. Additionally, a different ordering of the k-space data during acquisition was implemented as well as the combination of the latter with the k-space correction factor. The observations from the simulations were verified using both a static and a flow phantom and, finally, in a healthy volunteer using the same measurement setup as in previous volunteer and patient studies. Of all implemented techniques, only the reordering of the k-space was capable of suppressing the artifact almost completely at the cost of creating a ringing artifact. The phantom measurements showed the same results as the simulations and could thus confirm the hypothesis regarding the origin of the artifact. This was additionally verified in the healthy volunteer. The origin of the artifact could be confirmed to be the periodic signal variation caused by two effective TRs during acquisition. PMID:25785837

  9. Carotid Endothelial VCAM-1 Is an Early Marker of Carotid Atherosclerosis and Predicts Coronary Artery Disease in Swine

    PubMed Central

    Masseau, I.; Bowles, D. K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim was to determine if endothelial VCAM-1 (eVCAM-1) expression in the common carotid artery (CCA) would correlate with predictive markers of atherosclerotic disease, would precede reduction of markers of endothelial cell function and would predict coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods and results Carotid arterial segments (bifurcation, proximal and distal CCA) were harvested from 14 and 24 month-old male castrated familial hypercholesterolemic (FH) swine, a model of spontaneous atherosclerosis. Quantification of local expression of eVCAM-1, intimal macrophage accumulation, oxidative stress, intima-media (I/M) ratio, intima-media thickness (IMT), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and phosphorylated eNOS (p-eNOS) in selected regions of the carotids revealed a relationship between local inflammation and atheroscle-rotic plaque progression. Importantly, inflammation was not uniform throughout the CCA. Endo-thelial VCAM-1 expression was the greatest at the bifurcation and increased with age. Finally, eV-CAM-1 best estimated the severity of CAD compared to blood levels of glucose, hypercholestero-lemia, carotid IMT, and p-eNOS. Conclusion Our data suggested that eVCAM-1 was closely associated with atherosclerotic plaque progression and preceded impairment of EDD. Thus, this study supported the use of carotid VCAM-1 targeting agents to estimate the severity of CAD.

  10. Early enhancer establishment and regulatory locus complexity shape transcriptional programs in hematopoietic differentiation.

    PubMed

    González, Alvaro J; Setty, Manu; Leslie, Christina S

    2015-11-01

    We carried out an integrative analysis of enhancer landscape and gene expression dynamics during hematopoietic differentiation using DNase-seq, histone mark ChIP-seq and RNA sequencing to model how the early establishment of enhancers and regulatory locus complexity govern gene expression changes at cell state transitions. We found that high-complexity genes-those with a large total number of DNase-mapped enhancers across the lineage-differ architecturally and functionally from low-complexity genes, achieve larger expression changes and are enriched for both cell type-specific and transition enhancers, which are established in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and maintained in one differentiated cell fate but lost in others. We then developed a quantitative model to accurately predict gene expression changes from the DNA sequence content and lineage history of active enhancers. Our method suggests a new mechanistic role for PU.1 at transition peaks during B cell specification and can be used to correct assignments of enhancers to genes. PMID:26390058

  11. 18FDG PET-CT imaging detects arterial inflammation and early atherosclerosis in HIV-infected adults with cardiovascular disease risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Persistent vascular inflammation has been implicated as an important cause for a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in HIV-infected adults. In several populations at high risk for CVD, vascular 18Fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG) uptake quantified using 3D-positron emission-computed tomography (PET-CT) has been used as a molecular level biomarker for the presence of metabolically active proinflammatory macrophages in rupture-prone early atherosclerotic plaques. We hypothesized that 18FDG PET-CT imaging would detect arterial inflammation and early atherosclerosis in HIV-infected adults with modest CVD risk. Methods We studied 9 HIV-infected participants with fully suppressed HIV viremia on antiretroviral therapy (8 men, median age 52?yrs, median BMI 29?kg/m2, median CD4 count 655 cells/?L, 33% current smokers) and 5 HIV-negative participants (4 men, median age 44?yrs, median BMI 25?kg/m2, no current smokers). Mean Framingham Risk Scores were higher for HIV-infected persons (9% vs. 2%, p?arteries and the aorta was compared between the two groups. Results Right and left carotid 18FDG uptake was greater (P?artery 18FDG PET-CT imaging detected differences in vascular inflammation and early atherosclerosis between HIV-infected adults with CVD risk factors and healthy HIV-seronegative controls. These findings confirm the utility of this molecular level imaging approach for detecting and quantifying glucose uptake into inflammatory macrophages present in metabolically active, rupture-prone atherosclerotic plaques in HIV infected adults; a population with increased CVD risk. PMID:22726233

  12. Pax7 is regulated by cMyb during early neural crest development through a novel enhancer

    PubMed Central

    Vadasz, Stephanie; Marquez, Jonathan; Tulloch, Maria; Shylo, Natalia A.; García-Castro, Martín I.

    2013-01-01

    The neural crest (NC) is a migratory population of cells unique to vertebrates that generates many diverse derivatives. NC cells arise during gastrulation at the neural plate border (NPB), which is later elevated as the neural folds (NFs) form and fuse in the dorsal region of the closed neural tube, from where NC cells emigrate. In chick embryos, Pax7 is an early marker, and necessary component of NC development. Unlike other early NPB markers, which are co-expressed in lateral ectoderm, medial neural plate or posterior-lateral mesoderm, Pax7 early expression seems more restricted to the NPB. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling early Pax7 expression remain poorly understood. Here, we identify a novel enhancer of Pax7 in avian embryos that replicates the expression of Pax7 associated with early NC development. Expression from this enhancer is found in early NPB, NFs and early emigrating NC, but unlike Pax7, which is also expressed in mesodermal derivatives, this enhancer is not active in somites. Further analysis demonstrates that cMyb is able to interact with this enhancer and modulates reporter and endogenous early Pax7 expression; thus, cMyb is identified as a novel regulator of Pax7 in early NC development. PMID:23942518

  13. Extent of Contrast Enhancement on Non-Enhanced Computed Tomography after Intra-Arterial Thrombectomy for Acute Infarction on Anterior Circulation: As a Predictive Value for Malignant Brain Edema

    PubMed Central

    Song, Seung Yoon; Rhee, Jong Ju; Lee, Jong Won; Hur, Jin Woo; Lee, Hyun Koo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the use of contrast enhancement (especially its extent) predicts malignant brain edema after intra-arterial thrombectomy (IAT) in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods We reviewed the records of patients with acute ischemic stroke who underwent IAT for occlusion of the internal carotid artery or the middle cerebral artery between January 2012 and March 2015. To estimate the extent of contrast enhancement (CE), we used the contrast enhancement area ratio (CEAR)-i.e., the ratio of the CE to the area of the hemisphere, as noted on immediate non-enhanced brain computed tomography (NECT) post-IAT. Patients were categorized into two groups based on the CEAR values being either greater than or less than 0.2. Results A total of 39 patients were included. Contrast enhancement was found in 26 patients (66.7%). In this subgroup, the CEAR was greater than 0.2 in 7 patients (18%) and less than 0.2 in the other 19 patients (48.7%). On univariate analysis, both CEAR ?0.2 and the presence of subarachnoid hemorrhage were significantly associated with progression to malignant brain edema (p<0.001 and p=0.004), but on multivariate analysis, only CEAR ?0.2 showed a statistically significant association (p=0.019). In the group with CEAR ?0.2, the time to malignant brain edema was shorter (p=0.039) than in the group with CEAR <0.2. Clinical functional outcomes, based on the modified Rankin scale, were also significantly worse in patients with CEAR ?0.2 (p=0.003) Conclusion The extent of contrast enhancement as noted on NECT scans obtained immediately after IAT could be predictive of malignant brain edema and a poor clinical outcome. PMID:26587184

  14. Renal Infarction Caused by Isolated Spontaneous Renal Artery Intramural Hematoma.

    PubMed

    Park, Sihyung; Lee, Ga Hee; Jin, Kyubok; Park, Kang Min; Kim, Yang Wook; Park, Bong Soo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Acute renal infarction is an uncommon condition resulting from an obstruction or a decrease in renal arterial blood flow. Isolated spontaneous renal artery intramural hematoma is a rare cause of renal infarction. CASE REPORT A 46-year-old healthy man presented to our emergency room because of sudden onset of severe right flank pain. An enhanced abdominal computed tomography scan showed a low-attenuated lesion in the lateral portion of the right kidney but no visible thromboembolisms in the main vessels. Computed tomography angiography revealed acute infarction resulting from intramural hematoma of the anterior segmental artery of the right kidney, with distal occlusion. CONCLUSIONS The rarity and non-specific clinical presentation of renal infarction often lead to a delayed diagnosis that may result in impaired renal function. Clinical suspicion is important in the early diagnosis, and intramural hematoma of the renal artery should be considered the cause of renal infarction even in healthy patients without predisposing factors. PMID:26596500

  15. Early Detection of Therapeutic Response to Hepatic Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy of Liver Metastases from Colorectal Cancer Using Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Marugami, Nagaaki; Tanaka, Toshihiro Kitano, Satoru; Hirohashi, Shinji; Nishiofuku, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Aki; Sakaguchi, Hiroshi; Matsuoka, Masaki; Otsuji, Toshio; Takahama, Junko; Higashiura, Wataru; Kichikawa, Kimihiko

    2009-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) is useful for early detection of the response of hepatic colorectal metastases to hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The subjects were 12 patients with hepatic colorectal metastases. The indwelling catheter for HAIC was placed in the hepatic artery, and 1000 mg/m{sup 2} 5-FU was given repeatedly once a week. DWI was performed before and 9 days after HAIC. The minimum and mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values (minADC and meanADC) were measured. The relative change in ADC values (%ADC) and the relative change in tumor size on follow-up CT after 3 months (reduction ratio) were determined. Liver metastases were divided into two groups, responder and nonresponder. The correlation between %ADC and reduction ratio was determined, and %ADC was compared between the two groups. Eleven patients successfully completed HAIC over the 3-month period; 48 metastatic lesions were evaluated. Positive correlations were observed for relative change between %minADC and reduction ratio (r = 0.709) and between %meanADC and reduction ratio (r = 0.536). Both %minADC and %meanADC were significantly greater in the responder group than in the nonresponder group. With the threshold determined as < 3.5%, the receiver-operating curve analysis showed higher sensitivity and specificity values for %minADC (100% and 92.6%, respectively) than for %meanADC (66.7% and 74.1%, respectively). In conclusion, the relative change in minimum ADC values on DWI may be useful for early detection of the response of liver metastases to HAIC with 5-FU.

  16. Associative Learning during Early Adulthood Enhances Later Memory Retention in Honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Arenas, Andrés; Fernández, Vanesa M.; Farina, Walter M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Cognitive experiences during the early stages of life play an important role in shaping the future behavior in mammals but also in insects, in which precocious learning can directly modify behaviors later in life depending on both the timing and the rearing environment. However, whether olfactory associative learning acquired early in the adult stage of insects affect memorizing of new learning events has not been studied yet. Methodology Groups of adult honeybee workers that experienced an odor paired with a sucrose solution 5 to 8 days or 9 to 12 days after emergence were previously exposed to (i) a rewarded experience through the offering of scented food, or (ii) a non-rewarded experience with a pure volatile compound in the rearing environment. Principal Findings Early rewarded experiences (either at 1–4 or 5–8 days of adult age) enhanced retention performance in 9–12-day-conditioned bees when they were tested at 17 days of age. The highest retention levels at this age, which could not be improved with prior rewarded experiences, were found for memories established at 5–8 days of adult age. Associative memories acquired at 9–12 days of age showed a weak effect on retention for some pure pre-exposed volatile compounds; whereas the sole exposure of an odor at any younger age did not promote long-term effects on learning performance. Conclusions The associative learning events that occurred a few days after adult emergence improved memorizing in middle-aged bees. In addition, both the timing and the nature of early sensory inputs interact to enhance retention of new learning events acquired later in life, an important matter in the social life of honeybees. PMID:19956575

  17. Enhancing Peer Cultures of Academic Effort and Achievement in Early Adolescence: Promotive Effects of the Seals Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamm, Jill V.; Farmer, Thomas W.; Lambert, Kerrylin; Gravelle, Maggie

    2014-01-01

    Peer cultures of effort and achievement influence early adolescents' academic adjustment. A randomized controlled trials design was used to test the extent to which aspects of peer cultures of effort and achievement were enhanced following teachers' participation in the Supporting Early Adolescents' Learning and Social Success…

  18. Effects of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy on Employment Outcomes in Early Schizophrenia: Results from a 2-Year Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eack, Shaun M.; Hogarty, Gerard E.; Greenwald, Deborah P.; Hogarty, Susan S.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of psychosocial cognitive rehabilitation on employment outcomes in a randomized controlled trial for individuals with early course schizophrenia. Method: Early course schizophrenia outpatients (N = 58) were randomly assigned to cognitive enhancement therapy (CET) or an enriched supportive therapy (EST) control and…

  19. Addendum to `numerical modeling of an enhanced very early time electromagnetic (VETEM) prototype system'

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cui, T.J.; Chew, W.C.; Aydiner, A.A.; Wright, D.L.; Smith, D.V.; Abraham, J.D.

    2000-01-01

    Two numerical models to simulate an enhanced very early time electromagnetic (VETEM) prototype system that is used for buried-object detection and environmental problems are presented. In the first model, the transmitting and receiving loop antennas accurately analyzed using the method of moments (MoM), and then conjugate gradient (CG) methods with the fast Fourier transform (FFT) are utilized to investigate the scattering from buried conducting plates. In the second model, two magnetic dipoles are used to replace the transmitter and receiver. Both the theory and formulation are correct and the simulation results for the primary magnetic field and the reflected magnetic field are accurate.

  20. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Spontaneous Rupture of the Omental Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Yamagami, Takuji; Morishita, Hiroyuki; Iida, Shigeharu; Tazoe, Jun; Asai, Shunsuke; Masui, Koji; Ikeda, Jun; Nagata, Akihiro; Sato, Osamu; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2011-02-15

    We encountered a rare case of spontaneous rupture of the omental artery. A 25-year-old man without any episode of abdominal trauma or bleeding disorders came to the emergency unit with left upper abdominal pain. Hematoma with extravasation of the greater omentum and a hemoperitoneum was confirmed on abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Bleeding from the omental artery was suspected based on these findings. Transcatheter arterial embolization was successfully performed after extravasation of the omental artery, which arises from the left gastroepiploic artery, was confirmed on arteriography. Partial ometectomy was performed 10 days after transcatheter arterial embolization, revealing that the hematoma measured 10 cm in diameter in the greater omentum. Pathological examination showed rupture of the branch of an omental artery without abnormal findings, such as an aneurysm or neoplasm. Thus, we diagnosed him with spontaneous rupture of the omental artery. The patient recovered and was discharged from the hospital 10 days after the surgery, with a favorable postoperative course.

  1. Value of Single-Dose Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Angiography Versus Intraarterial Digital Subtraction Angiography in Therapy Indications in Abdominal and Iliac Arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, Philipp J. Schaefer, Fritz K. W.; Mueller-Huelsbeck, Stefan; Both, Markus; Heller, Martin; Jahnke, Thomas

    2007-06-15

    The objective of the study was to prove the value of single-dose contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography [three-dimensional (3D) ceMRA] in abdominal and iliac arteries versus the reference standard intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (i.a.DSA) when indicating a therapy. Patients suspected of having abdominal or iliac artery stenosis were included in this study. A positive vote of the local Ethics Committee was given. After written informed consent was obtained, 37 patients were enrolled, of which 34 were available for image evaluation. Both 3D ceMRA and i.a. DSA were performed for each patient. The dosage for 3D ceMRA was 0.1 mmol/kg body weight in a 1.5-T scanner with a phased-array coil. The parameters of the 3D-FLASH sequence were as follows: TR/TE 4.6/1.8 ms, effective thickness 3.5 mm, matrix 512 x 200, flip angle 30{sup o}, field of view 420 mm, TA 23 s, coronal scan orientation. Totally, 476 vessel segments were evaluated for stenosis degree by two radiologists in a consensus fashion in a blinded read. For each patient, a therapy was proposed, if clinically indicated. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy for stenoses {>=}50% were 68%, 92%, 44%, 97%, and 90%, respectively. In 13/34 patients, a discrepancy was found concerning therapy decisions based on MRA findings versus therapy decisions based on the reference standard DSA. The results showed that the used MRA imaging technique of abdominal and iliac arteries is not competitive to i.a. DSA, with a high rate of misinterpretation of the MRAs resulting in incorrect therapies.

  2. Spontaneous Early Recanalization after Acute Innominate Artery Thromboembolic Occlusion Secondary to Abrupt Aspirin and Statin Discontinuation A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, C-K; Lee, J-T; Wu, Y-C; Peng, G-S

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Statin and antiplatelet drugs are widely used for prevention of ischaemic stroke and other cardiovascular diseases in high-risk patients. We report a rare case of a 49-year old man with a history of myocardial infarction and hyperlipidaemia who suffered an acute occlusion of his innominate artery (IA) accompanied by subclavian steal syndrome and cerebral infarction, on day seven after abrupt cessation of aspirin and statin, as confirmed by magnetic resonance and computed tomographic angiography of head and neck, and colour-coded Duplex ultrasonography (CCDU). Aspirin and atorvastatin were immediately re-started on admission. Spontaneous recanalization of IA was shown on repeat CCDU and digital subtraction angiography on day 10 after stroke onset. This case serves as a reminder that abrupt discontinuation of both aspirin and statin in patients with previous history of cardiovascular disease may increase the risk of ischaemic stroke. PMID:25781297

  3. Guanfacine enhances inhibitory control and attentional shifting in early abstinent cocaine-dependent individuals

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Helen; Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Sinha, Rajita

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Attenuation of adrenergic drive and cognitive enhancement, via stimulation of alpha2 pre- and post-synaptic receptors, may selectively enhance executive performance in early abstinent cocaine-dependent individuals. As these cognitive processes underpin important treatment-related behaviors, the alpha2 agonist, guanfacine HCl, may represent an effective pharmaco-therapeutic intervention. Methods Twenty-five early abstinent cocaine-dependent individuals were administered a battery of neurocognitive tasks on entry into treatment (baseline) and again following 3 weeks of either placebo or guanfacine treatment (up to 3 mg). Tasks included: Stop Signal, Stroop, 3-Dimentional Intra-dimensional/Extra-dimensional (IDED) task, Spatial Working Memory (SWM), Paired Associates Learning (PAL), Verbal Fluency and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). Results Compared with placebo, the guanfacine group demonstrated attenuated anxiety and negative affect as well as improved performance on selective executive tests. This included fewer directional errors on the stop signal task, fewer errors on the extra-dimensional shift component of the IDED task and better attentional switching during verbal fluency. Guanfacine did not improve strategic working memory or peripheral memory. Conclusion Guanfacine improves selective cognitive processes which may underlie salient treatment-related regulatory behaviors. Alpha2 agonists may therefore represent important agents for cocaine dependence. PMID:25567555

  4. Enhanced musical rhythmic perception in Turkish early and late learners of German

    PubMed Central

    Roncaglia-Denissen, M. Paula; Schmidt-Kassow, Maren; Heine, Angela; Vuust, Peter; Kotz, Sonja A.

    2013-01-01

    As language rhythm relies partly on general acoustic properties, such as intensity and duration, mastering two languages with distinct rhythmic properties (i.e., stress position) may enhance musical rhythm perception. We investigated whether competence in a second language (L2) with different rhythmic properties than a L1 affects musical rhythm aptitude. Turkish early (TELG) and late learners (TLLG) of German were compared to German late L2 learners of English (GLE) regarding their musical rhythmic aptitude. While Turkish and German present distinct linguistic rhythm and metric properties, German and English are rather similar in this regard. To account for inter-individual differences, we measured participants' short-term and working memory (WM) capacity, melodic aptitude, and time they spent listening to music. Both groups of Turkish L2 learners of German perceived rhythmic variations significantly better than German L2 learners of English. No differences were found between early and late learners' performance. Our findings suggest that mastering two languages with different rhythmic properties enhances musical rhythm perception, providing further evidence of shared cognitive resources between language and music. PMID:24065946

  5. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and ankle-brachial index are complementary tools for transcranial Doppler ultrasonography in early diagnosis of intracranial arterial stenosis/occlusion in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Zhenghao; Zhou, Jingjing; Yi, Li; Zhang, Qian; Li, Li

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study was to explore whether brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and ankle-brachial index (ABI) are suitable to serve as complementary tools for TCD in early diagnosis of intracranial arterial stenosis/occlusion in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). A total of 52 patients with AIS onset and 52 age-matched healthy controls were included in this study. All participants received TCD detection, and baPWV and ABI were measured. Computed topography (CT)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was applied to confirm diagnosis. TCD data from all participants was collected and reviewed to diagnose stenosis and occlusion of the major intracranial arteries. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and logistic regression analysis were used to assess and compare the diagnostic accuracy of the various diagnostic approaches. We found that a combination of TCD with either baPWV or ABI, or a combination of the three provided a significantly higher area under the curve (AUC) in detecting stenosis or occlusion in various intracranial arteries, excluding the anterior cerebral artery (ACA), when compared to TCD alone, thereby demonstrating that these combined approaches provide improved diagnostic accuracy. In conclusion, our findings suggest that both baPWV and ABI are suitable complementary tools for TCD in early diagnosis of intracranial arterial stenosis/occlusion in AIS patients and that these combinations may assist in facilitating the diagnostic process associated with this disease. PMID:26671137

  6. Effect of Warfarin Treatment on Survival of Patients With Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) in the Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-Term PAH Disease Management (REVEAL)

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Ioana R.; Roberts, Kari E.; Miller, Dave P.; Sen, Ginny P.; Selej, Mona; Benton, Wade W.; Hill, Nicholas S.

    2015-01-01

    Background— Long-term anticoagulation is recommended in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). In contrast, limited data support anticoagulation in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) associated with systemic sclerosis (SSc-PAH). We assessed the effect of warfarin anticoagulation on survival in IPAH and SSc-PAH patients enrolled in Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-term PAH Disease Management (REVEAL), a longitudinal registry of group I PAH. Methods and Results— Patients who initiated warfarin on study (n=187) were matched 1:1 with patients never on warfarin, by enrollment site, etiology, and diagnosis status. Descriptive analyses were conducted to compare warfarin users and nonusers by etiology. Survival analyses with and without risk adjustment were performed from the time of warfarin initiation or a corresponding quarterly update in matched pairs to avoid immortal time bias. Time-varying covariate models were used as sensitivity analyses. Mean warfarin treatment was 1 year; mean international normalized ratios were 1.9 (IPAH) and 2.0 (SSc-PAH). Two-thirds of patients initiating warfarin discontinued treatment before the last study assessment. There was no survival difference with warfarin in IPAH patients (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.37; P=0.21) or in SSc-PAH patients (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.60; P=0.15) in comparison with matched controls. However, SSc-PAH patients receiving warfarin within the previous year (hazard ratio, 1.57; P=0.031) or any time postbaseline (hazard ratio, 1.49; P=0.046) had increased mortality in comparison with warfarin-naïve patients. Conclusions— No significant survival advantage was observed in IPAH patients who started warfarin. In SSc-PAH patients, long-term warfarin was associated with poorer survival than in patients not receiving warfarin, even after adjusting for confounders. Clinical Trial Registration— URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00370214. PMID:26510696

  7. Self-Reported Menopausal Symptoms, Coronary Artery Calcification and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Recently Menopausal Women Screened for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS)

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Erin Foran; He, Yunxiao; Black, Dennis M.; Brinton, Eliot A.; Budoff, Mathew J.; Cedars, Marcelle I.; Hodis, Howard N.; Lobo, Rogerio A.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Merriam, George R.; Miller, Virginia M.; Naftolin, Fredrick; Pal, Lubna; Santoro, Nanette; Zhang, Heping; Harman, S. Mitchell; Taylor, Hugh S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether self-reported menopausal symptoms are associated with measures of subclinical atherosclerosis. Setting Multi-center, randomized controlled trial. Patients Recently menopausal women (n=868) screened for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). Design Cross sectional analysis. Interventions None Main Outcome Measures Baseline menopausal symptoms (hot flashes, dyspareunia, vaginal dryness, night sweats, palpitations, mood swings, depression, insomnia, irritability), serum estradiol (E2) levels and measures of atherosclerosis were assessed. Atherosclerosis was quantified using Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC) Agatston scores (n=771) and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (CIMT). Logistic regression model of menopausal symptoms and E2 was used to predict CAC. Linear regression model of menopausal symptoms and E2 was used to predict CIMT. Correlation between length of time in menopause with menopausal symptoms, estradiol (E2), CAC, and CIMT were assessed. Results In early menopausal women screened for KEEPS, neither E2 nor climacteric symptoms predicted the extent of subclinical atherosclerosis. Palpitations (p=0.09) and depression (p=0.07) approached significance as predictors of CAC. Other symptoms of insomnia, irritability, dyspareunia, hot flashes, mood swings, night sweats, and vaginal dryness were not associated with CAC. Women with significantly elevated CAC scores were excluded from further participation in KEEPS; in women meeting inclusion criteria, neither baseline menopausal symptoms nor E2 predicted CIMT. Years since menopause onset correlated with CIMT, dyspareunia, vaginal dryness and E2. Conclusions Self-reported symptoms in recently menopausal women are not strong predictors of subclinical atherosclerosis. Continued follow-up of this population will be performed to determine if baseline or persistent symptoms in the early menopause are associated with progression of cardiovascular disease. PMID:23312232

  8. Exercise training enhances insulin-stimulated nerve arterial vasodilation in rats with insulin-treated experimental diabetes.

    PubMed

    Olver, T Dylan; McDonald, Matthew W; Grisé, Kenneth N; Dey, Adwitia; Allen, Matti D; Medeiros, Philip J; Lacefield, James C; Jackson, Dwayne N; Rice, Charles L; Melling, C W James; Noble, Earl G; Shoemaker, J Kevin

    2014-06-15

    Insulin stimulates nerve arterial vasodilation through a nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) mechanism. Experimental diabetes reduces vasa nervorum NO reactivity. Studies investigating hyperglycemia and nerve arterial vasodilation typically omit insulin treatment and use sedentary rats resulting in severe hyperglycemia. We tested the hypotheses that 1) insulin-treated experimental diabetes and inactivity (DS rats) will attenuate insulin-mediated nerve arterial vasodilation, and 2) deficits in vasodilation in DS rats will be overcome by concurrent exercise training (DX rats; 75-85% VO2 max, 1 h/day, 5 days/wk, for 10 wk). The baseline index of vascular conductance values (VCi = nerve blood flow velocity/mean arterial blood pressure) were similar (P ? 0.68), but peak VCi and the area under the curve (AUCi) for the VCi during a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp (EHC; 10 mU·kg(-1)·min(-1)) were lower in DS rats versus control sedentary (CS) rats and DX rats (P ? 0.01). Motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) was lower in DS rats versus CS rats and DX rats (P ? 0.01). When compared with DS rats, DX rats expressed greater nerve endothelial NOS (eNOS) protein content (P = 0.04). In a separate analysis, we examined the impact of diabetes in exercise-trained rats alone. When compared with exercise-trained control rats (CX), DX rats had a lower AUCi during the EHC, lower MNCV values, and lower sciatic nerve eNOS protein content (P ? 0.03). Therefore, vasa nervorum and motor nerve function are impaired in DS rats. Such deficits in rats with diabetes can be overcome by concurrent exercise training. However, in exercise-trained rats (CX and DX groups), moderate hyperglycemia lowers vasa nervorum and nerve function. PMID:24740656

  9. Bacteria Present in Carotid Arterial Plaques Are Found as Biofilm Deposits Which May Contribute to Enhanced Risk of Plaque Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Lanter, Bernard B.; Sauer, Karin

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Atherosclerosis, a disease condition resulting from the buildup of fatty plaque deposits within arterial walls, is the major underlying cause of ischemia (restriction of the blood), leading to obstruction of peripheral arteries, congestive heart failure, heart attack, and stroke in humans. Emerging research indicates that factors including inflammation and infection may play a key role in the progression of atherosclerosis. In the current work, atherosclerotic carotid artery explants from 15 patients were all shown to test positive for the presence of eubacterial 16S rRNA genes. Density gradient gel electrophoresis of 5 of these samples revealed that each contained 10 or more distinct 16S rRNA gene sequences. Direct microscopic observation of transverse sections from 5 diseased carotid arteries analyzed with a eubacterium-specific peptide nucleic acid probe revealed these to have formed biofilm deposits, with from 1 to 6 deposits per thin section of plaque analyzed. A majority, 93%, of deposits was located proximal to the internal elastic lamina and associated with fibrous tissue. In 6 of the 15 plaques analyzed, 16S rRNA genes from Pseudomonas spp. were detected. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms have been shown in our lab to undergo a dispersion response when challenged with free iron in vitro. Iron is known to be released into the blood by transferrin following interaction with catecholamine hormones, such as norepinephrine. Experiments performed in vitro showed that addition of physiologically relevant levels of norepinephrine induced dispersion of P. aeruginosa biofilms when grown under low iron conditions in the presence but not in the absence of physiological levels of transferrin. PMID:24917599

  10. Determination of time-course change rate for arterial xenon using the time course of tissue xenon concentration in xenon-enhanced computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Sase, Shigeru; Takahashi, Hideaki; Ikeda, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Minoru; Matsumoto, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Michihiro

    2008-06-15

    In calculating tissue blood flow (TBF) according to the Fick principle, time-course information on arterial tracer concentration is indispensable and has a considerable influence on the accuracy of calculated TBF. In TBF measurement by xenon-enhanced computed tomography (Xe-CT), nonradioactive xenon gas is administered by inhalation as a tracer, and end-tidal xenon is used as a substitute for arterial xenon. There has been the assumption that the time-course change rate for end-tidal xenon concentration (Ke) and that for arterial xenon concentration (Ka) are substantially equal. Respiratory gas sampling is noninvasive to the patient and Ke can be easily measured by exponential curve fitting to end-tidal xenon concentrations. However, it is pointed out that there would be a large difference between Ke and Ka in many cases. The purpose of this work was to develop a method of determining the Ka value using the time course of tissue xenon concentration in Xe-CT. The authors incorporated Ka into the Kety autoradiographic equation as a parameter to be solved, and developed a method of least-squares to obtain the solution for Ka from the time-course changes in xenon concentration in the tissue. The authors applied this method of least-squares to the data from Xe-CT abdominal studies performed on 17 patients; the solution for Ka was found pixel by pixel in the spleen, and its Ka map was created for each patient. On the one hand, the authors obtained the average value of the Ka map of the spleen as the calculated Ka (Ka{sub calc}) for each patient. On the other hand, the authors measured Ka (Ka{sub meas}) using the time-course changes in CT enhancement in the abdominal aorta for each patient. There was a good correlation between Ka{sub calc} and Ka{sub meas} (r=0.966, P<0.0001), and these two Ka values were close to each other (Ka{sub calc}=0.935xKa{sub meas}+0.089). This demonstrates that Ka{sub calc} would be close to the true Ka value. Accuracy of TBF by Xe-CT can be improved with use of the average value of the Ka map of an organ like the spleen that has a single blood supply (only arterial inflow)

  11. [ANALYSIS OF THE ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME GENE POLYMORPHISM AND ARTERIAL HYPOTENSION IN PREMATURE INFANTS WITH EARLY ONSET BACTERIAL INFECTIONS].

    PubMed

    Kovaleva, E; Pokhylko, V; Chernyavskaya, Yu; Kalyuzka, E; Poltoropavlov, V

    2015-11-01

    The rate of neonatal sepsis is not reduced varying inversely proportional to the gestational age at birth, and may reach 60% in the most immature infants. The high mortality rate of this disease and adverse neurological effects are associated with the development of cardiovascular changes and shock. The main leadership role in the regulation of blood pressure and blood volume in the body plays a renin-angiotensin system. Synthesis of angiotensin-converting enzyme is regulated by the ACE gene. The aim of the study was to identify and analyze the associations between the development of arterial hypotension in premature infants and insertion-deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the ACE gene. We conducted a prospective cohort study, which included 118 prematurely born children with early onset bacterial infections (n=57 with clinical manifestations in the form of hypotension, n=61 without hypotension). Both groups were genotyped to determine the insertion-deletion polymorphism ACE gene. We compared the clinical, laboratory and instrumental parameters in premature infants with hypotension and II, ID, DD genotype of the ACE gene. Also an analysis of the associations between different genotypes of ACE gene and the development of arterial hypotension in prematurely born children was conducted. The distribution of neonates in relation to the three polymorphic variants of ACE gene with respect to I/D polymorphism was identical among the study groups. The study found that children with a variety of I/D polymorphic variants of ACE gene had no significant differences in hemodynamic parameters. The rate of hemodynamic support use did not differ in both groups. The study of the associations between the ACE gene polymorphism and major ultrasound, Doppler indices that characterized both systemic and organ hemodynamics, revealed no significant differences in mean values ??of all the criteria that have been studied. It can be concluded no effect of I/D polymorphism of ACE gene on the occurrence of hemodynamic disorders in premature born children with early onset bacterial infections. PMID:26656553

  12. A magnetic-field enriched surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy strategy towards the early diagnosis of malaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, Clement; Liu, Quan

    2012-03-01

    Early malaria diagnosis is important because malaria disease can develop into fatal illness within hours upon the appearance of the first symptom. The low concentration of the diagnosis biomarker, hemozoin, at the early stage of malaria disease makes early diagnosis difficult. In this paper, we present a magnetic field-enriched surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERRS) strategy for the sensitive detection of ? - hematin crystals, which is equivalent to hemozoin in the characteristics of Raman spectrum, by using magnetic nanoparticles. We observe several orders of magnitude enhancement in the SERRS signal of enriched ? - hematin in comparison to the Raman signal of ? - hematin in the cases of SERRS alone or magnetic enrichment alone, showing the great potential of this method towards early malaria diagnosis.

  13. A magnetic-field enriched surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy strategy towards the early diagnosis of malaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, Yuen; Liu, Quan

    2012-02-01

    Early malaria diagnosis is important because malaria disease can develop into fatal illness within hours upon the appearance of the first symptom. The low concentration of the diagnosis biomarker, hemozoin, at the early stage of malaria disease makes early diagnosis difficult. In this paper, we present a magnetic field-enriched surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERRS) strategy for the sensitive detection of ? - hematin crystals, which is equivalent to hemozoin in the characteristics of Raman spectrum, by using magnetic nanoparticles. We observe several orders of magnitude enhancement in the SERRS signal of enriched ? - hematin in comparison to the Raman signal of ? - hematin in the cases of SERRS alone or magnetic enrichment alone, showing the great potential of this method towards early malaria diagnosis.

  14. Conditional Cripto overexpression in satellite cells promotes myogenic commitment and enhances early regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Prezioso, Carolina; Iaconis, Salvatore; Andolfi, Gennaro; Zentilin, Lorena; Iavarone, Francescopaolo; Guardiola, Ombretta; Minchiotti, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration mainly depends on satellite cells, a population of resident muscle stem cells. Despite extensive studies, knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying the early events associated with satellite cell activation and myogenic commitment in muscle regeneration remains still incomplete. Cripto is a novel regulator of postnatal skeletal muscle regeneration and a promising target for future therapy. Indeed, Cripto is expressed both in myogenic and inflammatory cells in skeletal muscle after acute injury and it is required in the satellite cell compartment to achieve effective muscle regeneration. A critical requirement to further explore the in vivo cellular contribution of Cripto in regulating skeletal muscle regeneration is the possibility to overexpress Cripto in its endogenous configuration and in a cell and time-specific manner. Here we report the generation and the functional characterization of a novel mouse model for conditional expression of Cripto, i.e., the Tg:DsRedloxP/loxPCripto-eGFP mice. Moreover, by using a satellite cell specific Cre-driver line we investigated the biological effect of Cripto overexpression in vivo, and provided evidence that overexpression of Cripto in the adult satellite cell compartment promotes myogenic commitment and differentiation, and enhances early regeneration in a mouse model of acute injury. PMID:26052513

  15. Lumen segmentation and motion estimation in B-mode and contrast-enhanced ultrasound images of the carotid artery in patients with atherosclerotic plaque.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Diego D B; Akkus, Zeynettin; van den Oord, Stijn C H; Schinkel, Arend F L; van der Steen, Antonius F W; Niessen, Wiro J; Bosch, Johan G; Klein, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    In standard B-mode ultrasound (BMUS), segmentation of the lumen of atherosclerotic carotid arteries and studying the lumen geometry over time are difficult owing to irregular lumen shapes, noise, artifacts, and echolucent plaques. Contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) improves lumen visualization, but lumen segmentation remains challenging owing to varying intensities, CEUS-specific artifacts and lack of tissue visualization. To overcome these challenges, we propose a novel method using simultaneously acquired BMUS&CEUS image sequences. Initially, the method estimates nonrigid motion (NME) from the image sequences, using intensity-based image registration. The motion-compensated image sequence is then averaged to obtain a single "epitome" image with improved signal-to-noise ratio. The lumen is segmented from the epitome image through an intensity joint-histogram classification and a graph-based segmentation. NME was validated by comparing displacements with manual annotations in 11 carotids. The average root mean square error (RMSE) was 112±73 ?m . Segmentation results were validated against manual delineations in the epitome images of two different datasets, respectively containing 11 (RMSE 191±43 ?m) and 10 (RMSE 351±176 ?m ) carotids. From the deformation fields, we derived arterial distensibility with values comparable to the literature. The average errors in all experiments were in the inter-observer variability range. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study exploiting combined BMUS&CEUS images for atherosclerotic carotid lumen segmentation. PMID:25423650

  16. Enhanced steroid dosing reduces seizures during antiparasitic treatment for cysticercosis and early after

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzales, Isidro; Lescano, Andres G.; Bustos, Javier A.; Pretell, E. Javier; Saavedra, Herbert; Nash, Theodore E.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective Neurocysticercosis is a major cause of seizures and epilepsy in endemic countries. Antiparasitic treatment of brain cysts leads to seizures due to the host’s inflammatory reaction, requiring concomitant steroids. We hypothesized that increased steroid dosing will reduce treatment-associated seizures. Methods Open-label randomized trial comparing 6 mg/d dexamethasone for 10 days (conventional) with 8 mg/d for 28 days followed by a 2 week taper (enhanced) in neurocysticercosis patients receiving albendazole. Follow up included active seizure surveillance and brain imaging. Study outcomes were seizure days and patients with seizures, both measured in days 11-42. Additional analyses compared days 1-10, 11-21, 22-32, 33-42, 43-60, and 61-180. Results Thirty-two individuals were randomized into each arm, two did not complete follow up. From days 11 to 42, 59 partial and 6 generalized seizure days occurred in 20 individuals, non-significantly fewer in the enhanced arm (12 versus 49, p=0.114). The numbers of patients with seizures in this period showed similar non-significant differences. In the enhanced steroid arm there were significantly fewer days and individuals with seizures during antiparasitic treatment (days 1-10: 4 versus 17, p=0.004, and 1 versus 10, p=0.003, number needed to treat 4.6, relative risk 0.1013, 95%CI: 0.01 – 0.74) and early after dexamethasone cessation (days 11-21: 6 versus 27, p=0.014, and 4 versus 12, p=0.021, NNT 4.0, RR 0.33, 95%CI: 0.12 – 0.92) but not after day 21. There were no significant differences in antiparasitic efficacy or relevant adverse events. Significance Increased dexamethasone dosing results in fewer seizures for the first 21 days during and early after antiparasitic treatment for viable parenchymal neurocysticercosis but not during the first 11-42 days, which was the primary predetermined time of analysis. PMID:25092547

  17. Effect of anti-platelet factor-4/heparin antibody induction on early saphenous vein graft occlusion after coronary artery bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    GLUCKMAN, T. J.; SEGAL, J. B.; SCHULMAN, S. P.; SHAPIRO, E. P.; KICKLER, T. S.; PRECHEL, M. M.; CONTE, J. V.; WALENGA, J. M.; SHAFIQUE, I.; RADE, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background Antibodies to complexes of heparin and platelet factor 4 (PF4) are capable of causing heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). Recent evidence suggests that anti-PF4/heparin antibodies may be prothrombogenic even in the absence of thrombocytopenia and clinically-recognized HIT. Objectives To determine if induction of anti-PF4/heparin antibodies is an independent risk factor for early saphenous vein graft (SVG) occlusion or adverse clinical outcome after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Patients/Methods Anti-PF4/heparin antibody titers were measured in 368 patients prior to and then 4 days, 6 weeks and 6 months after CABG surgery. Serotonin release assay (SRA) and antibody isotype analysis were also performed on 6-week samples. SVG patency was determined in 297 patients 6 months after surgery by multidetector computed tomography coronary angiography. Results Six weeks after surgery, 52% of patients were anti-PF4/heparin seropositive and 9% were SRA positive. Six months after surgery, neither the percentage of occluded SVG (19% vs. 20%, P = NS), the percentage of patients with an occluded SVG (33% vs. 33%, P = NS) nor the incidence of adverse clinical events (21% vs. 24%, P = NS) differed between seropositive and seronegative groups. Neither IgG isotype nor SRA positivity was additionally predictive of SVG occlusion or adverse clinical outcome. Conclusion Induction of anti-PF4/heparin antibodies, even those capable of heparin-dependent platelet activation, is not independently associated with early SVG occlusion or adverse clinical outcomes after CABG surgery. PMID:19552638

  18. Vasodilator responses of rat isolated tail artery enhanced by oxygen- dependent, photochemical release of nitric oxide from iron-sulphur-nitrosyls.

    PubMed Central

    Flitney, F. W.; Megson, I. L.; Thomson, J. L.; Kennovin, G. D.; Butler, A. R.

    1996-01-01

    1. The vasodilator properties and photochemical decomposition of two synthetic iron-sulphur-nitrosyl clusters (cluster A: [Fe4S4(NO)4], tetranitrosyl-tetra-mu 3-sulphido-tetrahedro-tetrairon; and B:[Fe4S3 (NO)7]-1, heptanitrosyl-tri-mu 3-thioxotetraferrate(-1)) have been investigated. Experiments were carried out on isolated, internally-perfused segments of rat tail artery. 2. Bolus injections (10 microliters) of A or B ( > 0.25 mM) delivered into the internal perfusate generated sustained (or S-type) vasodilator responses, characterized by a persistent plateau of reduced tone due to NO released from clusters which enter and become trapped within endothelial cells. Clusters were therefore irradiated with visible laser light (lambda = 457.9 or 514.5 nm) either (a) in solution, while passing through a glass tube en route to the artery; or (b) when retained within the endothelium, by illuminating the artery directly during the plateau of an S-type response. Irradiation produced an additional vasodilator response, the magnitude of which depended upon wavelength and laser beam energy. 3. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (100 microM), had no effect on light-induced vasodilator responses. However, they were (a) blocked entirely by adding oxyhaemoglobin (5 microM) to the internal perfusate; and (b) greatly enhanced by the enzyme superoxide dismutase (150 u ml-1). 4. Photolysis of cluster B was measured by absorption spectroscopy and by detecting NO released with an electrochemical sensor. The photochemical reaction was found to be oxygen-dependent. The half-time for inactivation of cluster-derived NO was measured by interposing different lengths of tubing (i.e. time delays) between the photolysis tube and NO sensor. The steady-state probe current decayed exponentially with increasing delay time, with a t 1/2 of 21 s. The amplitudes of vasodilator responses of the tail artery also decreased exponentially by increasing the time delay (t 1/2 = 58 s). Superoxide dismutase (150 u ml-1) prevented this from happening, showing that "inactivation' of cluster-derived NO was caused by reaction with superoxide anions formed during photolysis. 5. We conclude that potentiation of vasodilator responses to iron-sulphur-nitrosyl clusters by visible light is due to an oxygen-dependent photochemical reaction which accelerates the release of ligated nitrosyl groups as free NO. Based on our measurements, we estimate that ca 100 pM NO is sufficient to produce a just-detectable additional vasodilatation and that the ED50 dose is ca 3.7 nM. PMID:8730753

  19. Multiple giant aneurysms and stenoses of the coronary and systemic arteries in an infant with kawasaki disease at the early stage of convalescent period.

    PubMed

    Ekici, Filiz; Varan, Birgül; Kocaba?, Abdullah; Erdo?an, ?lkay; Emino?lu, Sancar; Akta?, Do?ukan

    2014-05-01

    Myocardial infarction and systemic arterial aneurysms are rarely seen during the course of the Kawasaki disease (KD). Herein, we report the case of a 4-month-old Turkish infant who was diagnosed with KD on the 17th day of the illness. On admission, echocardiogram showed multiple coronary arterial aneurysms (CAAs) and massive pericardial effusion. He was given intravenous immunoglobulin, aspirin and anticoagulant drugs. However, the aneurysms progressed to "super giant" CAAs, multiple huge coronary arterial thromboses developed recurrently and caused myocardial ischemia. Furthermore, the conventional angiography revealed multiple giant aneurysms and stenoses in the subclavian, celiac, and iliac arteries, besides CAAs. PMID:24528198

  20. Diagnosis and monitoring of middle cerebral artery occlusion with contrast-enhanced transcranial color-coded real-time sonography in patients with inadequate acoustic bone windows.

    PubMed

    Postert, T; Braun, B; Federlein, J; Przuntek, H; Köster, O; Büttner, T

    1998-03-01

    Transcranial color-coded real-time sonography (TCCS) is an emerging diagnostic technique that allows noninvasive imaging of intracranial vessels within parenchymal structures. However, in some patients, transcranial ultrasound is particularly hindered by insufficient ultrasound penetration through the temporal bone. The present study evaluates whether or not application of an echo-contrast agent in ultrasound-refractory patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA) trunk occlusion enhances image acquisition enough to yield accurate diagnoses. Contrast-enhanced (CE) TCCS examinations, computed tomography scans and angiographic studies were performed in 20 patients with clinical symptoms suggestive of MCA occlusion within 12 h of the onset of symptoms. For comparison, 20 control persons without history or clinical signs for cerebrovascular diseases were examined using CE-TCCS. In none of the patients or control subjects did unenhanced TCCS investigations depict any color-coded vascular signal of an intracranial vessel. After application of 9 mL of 400 mg/mL galactose-based microbubbles, CE-TCCS was performed. In subjects with MCA occlusion, CE-TCCS examinations were repeated within 24 h, 48 h and 5 days after stroke. In stroke patients (n = 20), CE-TCCS showed an occluded MCA main stem in 11 patients, and this vessel was clearly demonstrable on the unaffected side. On the affected side, the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) and anterior cerebral artery (ACA) could be visualized in 8 of 11 subjects; in 3 patients, at least 1 of these vessels was detectable. Angiographic studies confirmed the diagnosis of MCA trunk occlusion in all 11 individuals. In follow-up investigations, 3 stroke patients had angiographic and CE-TCCS examinations consistent with vessel reperfusion. Nine stroke patients had a patent MCA shown in angiographic and CE-TCCS examinations. In the control group, the MCA trunk could be visualized in all subjects by CE-TCCS. CE-TCCS is a sensitive and specific ultrasound method for the diagnosis of MCA trunk occlusion that overcomes the anatomical hindrance of inadequate acoustic bone window. This technique may help to identify patients suitable for thrombolytic therapies and monitor their response. PMID:9587989

  1. Plasma Levels of MicroRNA-499 Provide an Early Indication of Perioperative Myocardial Infarction in Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Youxiu; Du, Juan; Cao, Xiaoqing; Wang, Yang; Huang, Yaohua; Hu, Shengshou; Zheng, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies indicated that microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) were important for many biological and pathological processes, and they might be potential biomarkers for cardiovascular diseases. The present study aims to determine the release patterns of miRNAs in cardiac surgery and to analyze the ability of miRs to provide early prediction of perioperative myocardial infarction (PMI) in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Methodology/Principal Findings Thirty on-pump CABG patients were recruited in this study; and miR-499, miR-133a and miR-133b, cardiac troponin I (cTnI) were selected for measurement. Serial plasma samples were collected at seven perioperative time points (preoperatively, and 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours after declamping) and were tested for cTnI and miRs levels. Importantly, miR levels peaked as early as 1–3 hours, whereas cTnI levels peaked at 6 hours after declamping. Peak plasma concentrations of miRs correlated significantly with cTnI (miR-499, r?=?0.583, P?=?0.001; miR-133a, r?=?0.514, P?=?0.006; miR-133b, r?=?0.437, P?=?0.05), indicating the degree of myocardial damage. In addition, 30 off-pump CABG patients were recruited; miR-499 and miR-133a levels were tested, which were significantly lower in off-pump group than in on-pump group. A prospective cohort of CABG patients (n?=?120) was recruited to study the predictive power of miRs for PMI. The diagnosis of PMI strictly adhered to the principles of universal definition of myocardial infarction. The data analysis revealed that miR-499 had higher sensitivity and specificity than cTnI, and indicated that miR-499 could be an independent risk factor for PMI. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that circulating miR-499 is a novel, early biomarker for identifying perioperative myocardial infarction in cardiac surgery. PMID:25111390

  2. Elevated temperature enhances normal early embryonic development in the coral Platygyra acuta under low salinity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chui, Apple Pui Yi; Ang, Put

    2015-06-01

    To better understand the possible consequences of climate change on reef building scleractinian corals in a marginal environment, laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the interactive effects of changes in salinity and temperature on percent fertilization success and early embryonic development of the coral Platygyra acuta. In the present study, a salinity of 24 psu (ambient 32 psu) reduced fertilization success by 60 %. Normal embryonic development was reduced by >80 % at 26 psu (ambient 33 psu) with 100 % abnormal development at 22 psu under ambient temperature. Elevated temperature (+3 °C) above the ambient spawning temperature did not show any negative effects on fertilization success. However, there was a trend for more abnormal embryos to develop at elevated temperature in the 2 d of the spawning event. The interactive effects between salinity and temperature are statistically significant only on normal embryonic development of P. acuta, but not on its fertilization success. Salinity was revealed to be the main factor affecting both fertilization success and normal embryonic development. Interestingly, the much lower fertilization success (76 %) observed in the second day of spawning (Trial 2) under ambient temperature recovered to 99 % success under elevated (+3 °C) temperature conditions. Moreover, elevated temperature enhanced normal early embryonic development under lowered salinity (26 psu). This antagonistic interactive effect was consistently observed in two successive nights of spawning. Overall, our results indicate that, in terms of its fertilization success and embryonic development, P. acuta is the most tolerant coral species to reduced salinity thus far reported in the literature. Elevated temperature, at least that within the tolerable range of the corals, could apparently alleviate the potential negative effects from salinity stresses. This mitigating role of elevated temperature appears not to have been reported on corals before.

  3. -ENHANCED INTEGRATED LICK/IDS SPECTRAL INDICES AND MILKY WAY AND M31 GLOBULAR CLUSTERS AND EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    E-print Network

    Lee, Hyun-chul

    -ENHANCED INTEGRATED LICK/IDS SPECTRAL INDICES AND MILKY WAY AND M31 GLOBULAR CLUSTERS AND EARLY fraction Z) and compare to Milky Way globular clusters that have independently estimated mean [Fe/H] and [/Fe]. Comparison of our models with observations of Milky Way and M31 globular clusters in index

  4. Early age strength enhancement of blended cement systems by CaCl{sub 2} and diethanol-isopropanolamine

    SciTech Connect

    Riding, Kyle; Silva, Denise A.; Scrivener, Karen

    2010-06-15

    The enhancement of the 1 day strength of cementitious systems by a combination of calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) and diethanol-isopropanolamine (DEIPA) was studied, particularly in blended cement systems. A combination of quantitative X-ray diffraction with Rietveld refinement (QXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/backscattered electron image analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and isothermal calorimetry were used to investigate the mechanism of strength enhancement by the additives. The additives were found to increase the early age mortar strength by enhancing the cement hydration, with the DEIPA enhancing primarily the aluminate hydration. DEIPA also affected the morphology of portlandite which was formed as thin plates. In parallel, the calcium-to-silica ratio of the C-S-H was found to increase with the use of DEIPA, possibly because of the inclusion of microcrystalline portlandite. After 48 h DEIPA was found to directly enhance the rate of reaction of granulated blast-furnace slag and fly ash.

  5. Enhanced normalisation of CD4/CD8 ratio with early antiretroviral therapy in primary HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Thornhill, John; Inshaw, Jamie; Oomeer, Soonita; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Cooper, David; Ramjee, Gita; Schechter, Mauro; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Fox, Julie; Maria Miro, Jose; Weber, Jonathan; Babiker, Abdel; Porter, Kholoud; Fidler, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Despite normalization of total CD4 counts, ongoing immune dysfunction is noted amongst those on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Low CD4/CD8 ratio is associated with a high risk of AIDS and non-AIDS events and may act as a marker of immune senescence [1]. This ratio is improved by ART although normalization is uncommon (~7%) [2]. The probability of normalization of CD4 count is improved with immediate ART initiation in primary HIV infection (PHI) [3]. We examined whether CD4/CD8 ratio similarly normalized in immediate vs. deferred ART at PHI. Material and Methods Using data from the SPARTAC trial and the UK Register of HIV Seroconverters, we examined the effect of ART with time (continuous) from HIV seroconversion (SC) on CD4/CD8 ratio (?1) adjusted for sex, risk group, ethnicity, enrolment from an African site and both CD4 count and age at ART initiation. We also examined that effect by dichotomizing HIV duration at ART initiation (ART started within six months of SC: early ART; ART initiated>six months after SC: deferred). We also considered time to CD4 count normalization (?900 cells/mm3). Results In total, 353 initiated ART with median (IQR) 97.9 (60.5, 384.5) days from estimated seroconversion; 253/353 early ART, 100 deferred ART. At one year after starting ART, 114/253 (45%) early ART had normalized CD4/8 ratio, compared with 11/99 (11%) in the deferred group, whilst 83/253 (33%) of early ART had normalized CD4 counts, compared with 3/99 (3%) in the deferred group. Individuals initiating within six months of PHI were significantly more likely to reach normal ratio than those initiating later (HR, 95% CI 2.96, 1.75 – 5.01, p<0.001). The longer after SC ART was initiated, the reduced likelihood of achieving normalization of CD4/CD8 ratio (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96 – 0.99 for each 30-day increase). CD4 count at ART initiation was also associated with normalization, as expected (HR 1.002, 95% CI 1.001 – 1.002, p<0.001). There was an association between normal CD4/CD8 ratio and being virally suppressed (<400 copies HIV RNA/ml) p<0.001. CD4 count normalization was also significantly more likely for those initiating early (HR 5.00, 95% CI 1.52 – 16.41, p=0.008). Conclusions The likelihood of achieving normalization of CD4/CD8 ratios was increased if ART was initiated within six months of PHI. Higher CD4/CD8 ratio may reflect a more “normal” immune phenotype conferring enhanced prognosis and predict post-treatment control. PMID:25393989

  6. Detection of buried targets using a new enhanced very early time electromagnetic (VETEM) prototype system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cui, T.J.; Chew, W.C.; Aydiner, A.A.; Wright, D.L.; Smith, D.V.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, numerical simulations of a new enhanced very early time electromagnetic (VETEM) prototype system are presented, where a horizontal transmitting loop and two horizontal receiving loops are used to detect buried targets, in which three loops share the same axis and the transmitter is located at the center of receivers. In the new VETEM system, the difference of signals from two receivers is taken to eliminate strong direct-signals from the transmitter and background clutter and furthermore to obtain a better SNR for buried targets. Because strong coupling exists between the transmitter and receivers, accurate analysis of the three-loop antenna system is required, for which a loop-tree basis function method has been utilized to overcome the low-frequency breakdown problem. In the analysis of scattering problem from buried targets, a conjugate gradient (CG) method with fast Fourier transform (FFT) is applied to solve the electric field integral equation. However, the convergence of such CG-FFT algorithm is extremely slow at very low frequencies. In order to increase the convergence rate, a frequency-hopping approach has been used. Finally, the primary, coupling, reflected, and scattered magnetic fields are evaluated at receiving loops to calculate the output electric current. Numerous simulation results are given to interpret the new VETEM system. Comparing with other single-transmitter-receiver systems, the new VETEM has better SNR and ability to reduce the clutter.

  7. A Case Study of the Use of Internet Photobook Technology to Enhance Early Childhood "Scientist" Identity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Phyllis

    2011-10-01

    There are many influences on a child's identity. Photobook technology purposefully prepared around science explorations presents a modern opportunity to repeatedly trigger memories that reinforce the "me, as scientist" viewpoint. Semi-structured interviews at 6 and 8 years of age were conducted with a child who was the subject of a photobook of everyday science activities to gain insights into his thinking about the nature of science and how he interprets his younger self participating. Interview data were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using dimensions from the previously established parameters for the nature of science. The child's statements about his participation in the photos were matched to these dimensions to consider how he sees himself "doing science" through his early years. Preliminary findings suggest that the child recognizes elements of science and regards himself as an active participant. In both interviews, the child reinforces these views by the opportunity to revisit the experiences in the photobook. Affective components may motivate further science involvement as well: the child enjoyed the time and attention that the photos and discussion provided; the child took pride in being the subject of a book. This case study suggests that there is a fertile field of research to investigate how, for whom, and in what ways internet photobook technology may enhance a child's developing identity as capable science explorer.

  8. Prediction of multivessel coronary artery disease and prognosis early after acute myocardial infarction by exercise electrocardiography and thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, R.D.; Freedman, S.B.; Dunn, R.F.; Newman, H.; Roubin, G.S.; Harris, P.J.; Kelly, D.T.

    1986-09-01

    Exercise electrocardiography and thallium scanning were performed a mean of 24 days after uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction in 103 patients, aged 36 to 60 years, who also underwent coronary angiography. The purpose of the study was to determine the ability of the noninvasive tests to predict multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD) and prognosis. Patients were followed up to document medical complications (incidence 12%: 3 deaths, 1 resuscitated cardiac arrest, 4 recurrent infarctions, 4 admissions with unstable angina) and combined events (medical events or bypass surgery, incidence 23%). The sensitivity, specificity and predictive accuracy for predicting multivessel CAD were 64%, 77% and 64% for a positive exercise electrocardiographic (ECG) response, 64%, 88% and 80% for a remote thallium defect, and 42%, 96% and 88% for a combination of the 2 tests. With 2 tests yielding negative findings the probability of multivessel CAD was 13%. No variable (positive exercise ECG response, remote thallium defect and presence of multivessel CAD) predicted medical events, although there were nonsignificant trends to more events in patients with any of those findings. The relative risk of combined events was 2.5 (p less than 0.05) for a positive exercise ECG response; 1.8 (NS) for a remote thallium defect; 2.6 (p less than 0.05) for multivessel CAD; and 3.1 (p less than 0.025) for both positive ECG response and remote defect. A combination of exercise electrocardiography and thallium scanning early after acute myocardial infarction helps to identify subsets of patients with high and low probabilities of multivessel CAD and combined medical or surgical events.

  9. Glycosylated hemoglobin A1c as a marker predicting the severity of coronary artery disease and early outcome in patients with stable angina

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Glycosylated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) has been widely recognized as a marker for predicting the severity of diabetes mellitus (DM) and several cardiovascular diseases. However, whether HbA1c could predict the severity and clinical outcomes in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) remains largely unknown. We determine relationship of HbA1c with severity and outcome in patients with stable CAD. Methods We enrolled 1433 patients with stable angina who underwent coronary angiography and were followed up for an average 12 months. The patients were classified into three groups by tertiles of baseline HbA1c level (low group <5.7%, n?=?483; intermediate group 5.7 - 6.3%, n?=?512; high group >6.3%, n?=?438). The relationships between the plasma HbA1c and severity of CAD and early clinical outcomes were evaluated. Results High HbA1c was associated with three-vessel disease. Area under the receivers operating characteristic curve (AUC?=?0.67, 95% CI: 0.63-0.71, P?

  10. Carotid Artery Atherosclerosis: Effect of Intensive Lipid Therapy on the Vasa Vasorum—Evaluation by Using Dynamic Contrast-enhanced MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Li; Chen, Huijun; Chu, Baocheng; Underhill, Hunter R.; Neradilek, Moni Blazej; Hatsukami, Thomas S.; Yuan, Chun; Zhao, Xue-Qiao

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether short-term, intensive lipid therapy leads to changes in microvascular characteristics, as measured by using dynamic contrast material–enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods: Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained for this HIPAA-compatible study. Subjects with established coronary artery disease or carotid artery stenosis of 15% or greater determined by using ultrasonography and with levels of apolipoprotein B of 120 mg/dL (1.2 g/L) or greater were enrolled in an ongoing study (clinical trial NCT00715273). All received intensive lipid therapy to achieve targeted high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and underwent serial serum monitoring including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HsCRP) level measurements. Carotid artery MR imaging examinations including morphologic and DCE MR images were obtained at baseline and 1 year after treatment. In subjects with advanced lesions (>2 mm thick), MR image analysis was performed, including measurement of lipid-rich necrotic core size and kinetic modeling of DCE MR images to assess changes in the transfer constant (Ktrans). The differences in Ktrans between baseline and 1-year follow-up were compared by using the Wilcoxon signed rank test, and associations were assessed by using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Results: Twenty-eight subjects with interpretable DCE MR imaging results at both baseline and 1-year follow-up were included. After 1 year of treatment, a significant reduction was found in mean Ktrans (0.085 min?1 ± 0.037 [standard deviation] to 0.067 min?1 ± 0.028, P = .02). Reduction in Ktrans was not significantly correlated with observed reductions in lipid-rich necrotic core size or reductions in HsCRP level. Conclusion: These findings suggest that DCE MR imaging may be a useful imaging method for the assessment of the therapeutic response of the vasa vasorum in patients with atherosclerotic plaque. Clinical trial registration no. NCT00715273. © RSNA, 2011 PMID:21493792

  11. Intra-Section Analysis of Human Coronary Arteries Reveals a Potential Role for Micro-Calcifications in Macrophage Recruitment in the Early Stage of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Chatrou, Martijn L. L.; Cleutjens, Jack P.; van der Vusse, Ger J.; Roijers, Ruben B.; Mutsaers, Peter H. A.; Schurgers, Leon J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Vascular calcification is associated with poor cardiovascular outcome. Histochemical analysis of calcification and the expression of proteins involved in mineralization are usually based on whole section analysis, thereby often ignoring regional differences in atherosclerotic lesions. At present, limited information is available about factors involved in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Aim of This Study This study investigates the intra-section association of micro-calcifications with markers for atherosclerosis in randomly chosen section areas of human coronary arteries. Moreover, the possible causal relationship between calcifying vascular smooth muscle cells and inflammation was explored in vitro. Technical Approach To gain insights into the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, we performed analysis of the distribution of micro-calcifications using a 3-MeV proton microbeam. Additionally, we performed systematic analyses of 30 to 40 regions of 12 coronary sections obtained from 6 patients including histology and immuno-histochemistry. Section areas were classified according to CD68 positivity. In vitro experiments using human vascular smooth muscle cells (hVSMCs) were performed to evaluate causal relationships between calcification and inflammation. Results From each section multiple areas were randomly chosen and subsequently analyzed. Depositions of calcium crystals at the micrometer scale were already observed in areas with early pre-atheroma type I lesions. Micro-calcifications were initiated at the elastica interna concomitantly with upregulation of the uncarboxylated form of matrix Gla-protein (ucMGP). Both the amount of calcium crystals and ucMGP staining increased from type I to IV atherosclerotic lesions. Osteochondrogenic markers BMP-2 and osteocalcin were only significantly increased in type IV atheroma lesions, and at this stage correlated with the degree of calcification. From atheroma area type III onwards a considerable number of CD68 positive cells were observed in combination with calcification, suggesting a pro-inflammatory effect of micro-calcifications. In vitro, invasion assays revealed chemoattractant properties of cell-culture medium of calcifying vascular smooth muscle cells towards THP-1 cells, which implies pro-inflammatory effect of calcium deposits. Additionally, calcifying hVSMCs revealed a pro-inflammatory profile as compared to non-calcifying hVSMCs. Conclusion Our data indicate that calcification of VSMCs is one of the earliest events in the genesis of atherosclerosis, which strongly correlates with ucMGP staining. Our findings suggest that loss of calcification inhibitors and/or failure of inhibitory capacity is causative for the early precipitation of calcium, with concomitant increased inflammation followed by osteochondrogenic transdifferentiation of VSMCs. PMID:26555788

  12. Real-Time 12-Lead High-Frequency QRS Electrocardiography for Enhanced Detection of Myocardial Ischemia and Coronary Artery Disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Kulecz, Walter B.; DePalma, Jude L.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Wilson, John S.; Rahman, M. Atiar; Bungo, Michael W.

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have shown that diminution of the high-frequency (HF; 150-250 Hz) components present within the central portion of the QRS complex of an electrocardiogram (ECG) is a more sensitive indicator for the presence of myocardial ischemia than are changes in the ST segments of the conventional low-frequency ECG. However, until now, no device has been capable of displaying, in real time on a beat-to-beat basis, changes in these HF QRS ECG components in a continuously monitored patient. Although several software programs have been designed to acquire the HF components over the entire QRS interval, such programs have involved laborious off-line calculations and postprocessing, limiting their clinical utility. We describe a personal computer-based ECG software program developed recently at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) that acquires, analyzes, and displays HF QRS components in each of the 12 conventional ECG leads in real time. The system also updates these signals and their related derived parameters in real time on a beat-to-beat basis for any chosen monitoring period and simultaneously displays the diagnostic information from the conventional (low-frequency) 12-lead ECG. The real-time NASA HF QRS ECG software is being evaluated currently in multiple clinical settings in North America. We describe its potential usefulness in the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia and coronary artery disease.

  13. Modes of memory: Early electrophysiological markers of repetition suppression and recognition enhancement

    E-print Network

    Wagner, Anthony

    with task-irrelevant item repetitions. Stimulus repetition suppressed early evoked gamma responsesModes of memory: Early electrophysiological markers of repetition suppression and recognition. Whereas repetition priming often leads to suppression of brain responses, explicit recognition has been

  14. Three-Dimensional Micro-MRI Analysis of Cerebral Artery Development in Mouse Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Berrios-Otero, Cesar A.; Wadghiri, Youssef Zaim; Nieman, Brian J.; Joyner, Alexandra L.; Turnbull, Daniel H.

    2010-01-01

    Vascular system development involves a complex, three-dimensional branching process that is critical for normal embryogenesis. In the brain, the arterial systems appear to develop in a stereotyped fashion, but no detailed quantitative analyses of the mouse embryonic cerebral arteries have been described. In this study, a gadolinium-based contrast perfusion method was developed to selectively enhance the cerebral arteries in fixed mouse embryos. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance micro-imaging (micro-MRI) data were acquired simultaneously from multiple embryos staged between 10 and 17 days of gestation, and a variety of image analysis methods was used to extract and analyze the cerebral arterial patterns. The results show that the primary arterial branches in the mouse brain are very similar between individuals, with the patterns established early and growth occurring by extension of the segments, while maintaining the underlying vascular geometry. To investigate the utility of this method for mutant mouse phenotype analysis, contrast-enhanced micro-MRI data were acquired from Gli2-/- mutant embryos and their wild-type littermates, showing several previously unreported vascular phenotypes in Gli2-/- embryos, including the complete absence of the basilar artery. These results demonstrate that contrast-enhanced micro-MRI provides a powerful tool for analyzing vascular phenotypes in a variety of genetically engineered mice. PMID:19859945

  15. Folic Acid Enhances Early Functional Recovery in a Piglet Model of Pediatric Head Injury

    PubMed Central

    Naim, Maryam Y.; Friess, Stuart; Smith, Colin; Ralston, Jill; Ryall, Karen; Helfaer, Mark A.; Margulies, Susan S.

    2011-01-01

    For stroke and spinal cord injury, folic acid supplementation has been shown to enhance neurodevelopment and to provide neuroprotection. We hypothesized that folic acid would reduce brain injury and improve neurological outcome in a neonatal piglet model of traumatic brain injury (TBI), using 4 experimental groups of 3- to 5-day-old female piglets. Two groups were intubated, anesthetized and had moderate brain injury induced by rapid axial head rotation without impact. One group of injured (Inj) animals received folic acid (Fol; 80 ?g/kg) by intraperitoneal (IP) injection 15 min following injury, and then daily for 6 days (Inj + Fol; n = 7). The second group of injured animals received an IP injection of saline (Sal) at the same time points (Inj + Sal; n = 8). Two uninjured (Uninj) control groups (Uninj + Fol, n = 8; Uninj + Sal, n = 7) were intubated, anesthetized and received folic acid (80 ?g/kg) or saline by IP injection at the same time points as the injured animals following a sham procedure. Animals underwent neurobehavioral and cognitive testing on days 1 and 4 following injury to assess behavior, memory, learning and problem solving. Serum folic acid and homocysteine levels were collected prior to injury and again before euthanasia. The piglets were euthanized 6 days following injury, and their brains were perfusion fixed for histological analysis. Folic acid levels were significantly higher in both Fol groups on day 6. Homocysteine levels were not affected by treatment. On day 1 following injury, the Inj + Fol group showed significantly more exploratory interest, and better motor function, learning and problem solving compared to the Inj + Sal group. Inj + Fol animals had a significantly lower cognitive composite dysfunction score compared to all other groups on day 1. These functional improvements were not seen on day 4 following injury. Axonal injury measured by ?-amyloid precursor protein staining 6 days after injury was not affected by treatment. These results suggest that folic acid may enhance early functional recovery in this piglet model of pediatric head injury. This is the first study to describe the application of complex functional testing to assess an intervention outcome in a swine model of TBI. PMID:21212637

  16. Early implementation of Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS(®)) protocol - Compliance improves outcomes: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    P?dziwiatr, Micha?; Kisialeuski, Mikhail; Wierdak, Mateusz; Stanek, Maciej; Natkaniec, Micha?; Mat?ok, Maciej; Major, Piotr; Ma?czak, Piotr; Budzy?ski, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    Enhanced Recovery After Surgery protocol in colorectal surgery allows shortening length of hospital stay and reducing complication rate. Despite the clear guidelines and conclusive evidence their full implementation and putting them into daily practice meets certain difficulties, especially in the early stage. The aim of the study was to analyse the course of implementation of the ERAS protocol into daily practice on the basis of adherence to the protocol. Group included 92 patients (43F/49M) with colorectal cancer submitted to laparoscopic resection during the years 2013-2014. Perioperative care in all of them based on ERAS protocol consisting of 16 items. Its principles and discharge criteria were based on the guidelines of the ERAS Society guidelines. The entire analysed group of patients was divided into 3 subgroups (30 patients) depending on the time from ERAS protocol implementation. We analysed the compliance with the protocol and its influence on length of hospital stay, postoperative complications and readmission rate in different subgroups. The average compliance with the protocol differed significantly between groups and was 65% in group 1, 83.9% in group 2 and 89.6% in group 3. The compliance with subsequent protocol elements was different. The length of stay and complication rate was statistically different in analysed subgroups. The whole group demonstrated an inverse correlation between compliance and length of stay. This analysis leads to the conclusion that the introduction of the ERAS protocol is a gradual process, and its compliance at the level of 80% or more requires at least 30 patients and the period of about 6 months. The initial derogation from the assumed proceedings is inevitable and should not discourage further action. Particular emphasis in the initial stage should be put on continuous training of personnel of all specialties and continuous evaluation of the results. PMID:26231994

  17. Visual orientation processing in autism spectrum disorder: No sign of enhanced early cortical function.

    PubMed

    Shafai, Fakhri; Armstrong, Kimberly; Iarocci, Grace; Oruc, Ipek

    2015-11-01

    It has been suggested that enhanced perceptual processing underlies some of the social difficulties associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). While a variety of visual tasks have been reported in which individuals with ASD outperform neurotypical individuals in control groups, the precise origin of such effects within the visual pathway remains unclear. It has recently been established that visual acuity is intact yet unremarkable in ASD. This suggests that the earliest levels of retinal processing are an unlikely candidate as the source of differences. The next potential levels for divergent visual processing are those involved in processing simple aspects of visual stimuli, such as orientation and spatial frequency, considered to be functions of early visual cortex. Here we focused on the basic processing of orientation. In three experiments, we assessed three basic aspects of orientation processing-discrimination, veridical perception, and detection-in participants with ASD in comparison to age-, gender-, and IQ-matched adults without ASD. Each experiment allowed for both qualitative and quantitative comparisons between the two groups. These provided a dense array of data indicating that participants with ASD perceive orientation of low-level stimuli in a qualitatively (as well as quantitatively) similar manner to participants without ASD in control groups, with no evidence of superior processing in detection, precision, or accuracy aspects of orientation perception. These results suggest that the source for altered perceptual abilities should be sought elsewhere, possibly in specific subgroups of people with ASD, other aspects of low-level vision such as spatial frequency, or subsequent levels of visual processing. PMID:26605847

  18. Coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Peter A

    2007-05-01

    Coronary heart disease is the most common cause of death in the general population and in patients with ESRD. The principles of cardiovascular risk assessment and management apply to both populations. Advances in noninvasive coronary artery imaging have improved early detection of subclinical disease. The goals of medical management of coronary disease are to modify the natural history of disease and to improve the symptoms of angina. Coronary revascularization poses a different risk and benefit equation in the ESRD population. In stable ESRD with multivessel coronary artery disease, coronary bypass surgery, despite the upfront risks of stroke, myocardial infarction, and chest wound infection, seems to be a favored approach. In patients with ESRD and acute coronary syndromes, percutaneous coronary intervention on the target vessel has been associated with the most favorable outcomes. This article explores the clinical issues with respect to coronary artery disease in patients with ESRD. PMID:17699471

  19. Peripheral Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) Peripheral artery disease (PAD) refers to ... is peripheral artery disease treated? What is peripheral artery disease (PAD)? Peripheral artery disease, or PAD, refers ...

  20. Effects of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy on Employment Outcomes in Early Schizophrenia: Results From a Two-Year Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Eack, Shaun M.; Hogarty, Gerard E.; Greenwald, Deborah P.; Hogarty, Susan S.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of psychosocial cognitive rehabilitation on employment outcomes in a randomized controlled trial for individuals with early course schizophrenia. Method Early course schizophrenia outpatients (N = 58) were randomly assigned to Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET) or an Enriched Supportive Therapy (EST) control and treated for two years. Comprehensive data on cognition and employment were collected annually. Results Individuals treated with CET were significantly more likely to be competitively employed, had greater earnings from employment, and were more satisfied with their employment status by the end of treatment compared to EST recipients. Mediator analyses revealed that improvements in both social and non-social cognition mediated the CET effects on employment. Conclusion CET can help facilitate employment in early schizophrenia, by addressing the cognitive impairments that limit functioning in the disorder. Inclusion of cognitive rehabilitation in social work practice can support more optimal functional recovery from schizophrenia. PMID:23885163

  1. Fish-Free Diet in Patients with Phenylketonuria Is Not Associated with Early Atherosclerotic Changes and Enhanced Platelet Activation

    PubMed Central

    Htun, Patrik; Nee, Jens; Ploeckinger, Ursula; Eder, Klaus; Geisler, Tobias; Gawaz, Meinrad; Bocksch, Wolfgang; Fateh-Moghadam, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Since patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) have to follow a lifelong restriction of natural protein to lower phenylalanine-intake, they never eat fish. This diet may lead to a chronic deficit of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids with the risk of early atherosclerotic changes. The aim of the study was to analyse the fatty acid profile of PKU patients and to correlate the results with surrogate markers of early atherosclerotic changes [enhanced carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and ß-stiffness index] and platelet activation. Methods In 43 PKU patients and in 58 healthy controls we prospectively examined the fatty acid profile, CIMT, ß-stiffness index and platelet activation (flow cytometric determination of markers of platelet activation). CIMT was measured bilaterally by ultrasound. CIMT mean was defined as the mean value of the sum of CIMT left and CIMT right. Results Despite of lower HDL-cholesterol and higher triglyceride concentrations in the PKU group, there was no significant difference in the omega-6 or omega-3 fatty acid profile, CIMT, ß-stiffness index between both groups. Platelet activation was not enhanced in the PKU group. Conclusions Fish-free diet does not induce early atherosclerotic changes or enhanced platelet activation in PKU patients. PMID:26291823

  2. [The biological reaction of inflammation, methylglyoxal of blood plasma, functional and structural alterations in elastic type arteries at the early stage of hypertension disease].

    PubMed

    Titov, V N; Dmitriev, V A; Oshchepkov, E V; Balakhonova, T V; Tripoten', M I; Shiriaeva, Iu K

    2012-08-01

    The article deals with studying of the relationship between biologic reaction of inflammation with glycosylation reaction and content of methylglyoxal in blood serum. The positive correlation between pulse wave velocity and content of methylglyoxal, C-reactive protein in intercellular medium and malleolar brachial index value was established. This data matches the experimental results concerning involvement of biological reaction of inflammation into structural changes of elastic type arteries under hypertension disease, formation of arteries' rigidity and increase of pulse wave velocity. The arterial blood pressure is a biological reaction of hydrodynamic pressure which is used in vivo by several biological functions: biological function of homeostasis, function of endoecology, biological function of adaptation and function of locomotion. The biological reaction of hydrodynamic (hydraulic) pressure is a mode of compensation of derangement of several biological functions which results in the very high rate of hypertension disease in population. As a matter of fact, hypertension disease is a syndrome of lingering pathological compensation by higher arterial blood pressure of the biological functions derangements occurring in the distal section at the level of paracrine cenoses of cells. The arterial blood pressure is a kind of in vivo integral indicator of deranged metabolism. The essential hypertension disease pathogenically is a result of the derangement of three biological functions: biological function of homeostasis, biological function of trophology - nutrition (biological reaction of external feeding - exotrophia) and biological function of endoecology. In case of "littering" of intercellular medium in vivo with nonspecific endogenic flogogens a phylogenetically earlier activation of biological reactions of excretion, inflammation and hydrodynamic arterial blood pressure occur. In case of derangement of biological function of homeostasis, decreasing of perfusion even in single paracrine cenoses and derangement of biological function of endoecology ("purity" of intercellular medium) the only response always will be the increase of arterial blood pressure. PMID:23097982

  3. Enhancing the Early Childhood Development System in Yakutia (Russia): Meeting the Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotnik, Jure; Shmis, Tigran

    2011-01-01

    The Yakutia Republic is currently working to update its early childhood development (ECD) system. Its goal is to ensure a high quality environment for early learning and child care and to enable higher enrolment levels. Currently, a high priority for the Government of Yakutia is to increase access to pre-school education, given the significant…

  4. Enhancing Research and Practice in Early Childhood through Formative and Design Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Barbara A.; Reinking, David

    2011-01-01

    This article describes formative and design experiments and how they can advance research and instructional practices in early childhood education. We argue that this relatively new approach to education research closes the gap between research and practice, and it addresses limitations that have been identified in early childhood research. We…

  5. Improving Early Adaptation Following Long Duration Spaceflight by Enhancing Vestibular Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Kofman, Igor; DeDios, Yiri E.; Galvan, Raquel; Miller, Chris; Peters, Brian; Cohen, Helen; Jeevarajan, Jerome; Reschke, Millard; Wood, Scott; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Crewmember adapted to the microgravity state may need to egress the vehicle within a few minutes for safety and operational reasons after g-transitions. The transition from one sensorimotor state to another consists of two main mechanisms: strategic and plastic-adaptive and have been demonstrated in astronauts returning after long duration space flight. Strategic modifications represent "early adaptation" -immediate and transitory changes in control that are employed to deal with short-term changes in the environment. If these modifications are prolonged then plastic-adaptive changes are evoked that modify central nervous system function, automating new behavioral responses. More importantly, this longer term adaptive recovery mechanism was significantly associated with their strategic ability to recover on the first day after return to Earth G. We are developing a method based on stochastic resonance (SR) to enhance information transfer by improving the brain's ability to detect vestibular signals especially when combined with balance training exercises for rapid improvement in functional skill, for standing and mobility. The countermeasure to improve post-flight balance and locomotor disturbances is a stimulus delivery system that is wearable/portable providing low imperceptible levels of white noise based binaural bipolar electrical stimulation of the vestibular system (stochastic vestibular stimulation, SVS). The techniques for improving signal detection using SVS may thus provide additional information to improve such strategic abilities and thus help in significantly reducing the number of days required to recover functional performance to preflight levels after long duration space flight. We have conducted a series of studies to document the efficacy of SVS stimulation on balance/locomotion tasks on unstable surfaces and motion tracking tasks during intra-vestibular system conflicts. In an initial study, we showed that SVS improved overall balance performance while standing on an unstable surface indicating that SVS may be sufficient to provide a comprehensive countermeasure approach for improving postural stability. In a second study, we showed that SVS improved locomotor performance on a treadmill mounted on an oscillating platform indicating that SVS may also be used to maximize locomotor performance during walking in unstable environments. In a third study, SVS was evaluated during an otolith-canal conflict scenario in a variable radius centrifuge at low frequency of oscillation (0.1 Hz) on both eye movements and perceptual responses (using a joystick) to track imposed oscillations. The variable radius centrifuge provides a selective tilting sensation that is detectable only by the otolith organs providing conflicting information from the canal organs of the vestibular system (intra-vestibular conflict). Results show that SVS significantly reduced the timing difference between both the eye movement responses as well as the perceptual tracking responses with respect to the imposed tilt sensations. These results indicate that SVS can improve performance in sensory conflict scenarios like that experienced during space flight. Such a SR countermeasure will act synergistically along with the pre-and in-flight adaptability training protocols providing an integrated, multi-disciplinary countermeasure capable of fulfilling multiple requirements making it a comprehensive and cost effective countermeasure approach to enhance sensorimotor capabilities following long-duration space flight.

  6. Enhancing Drought Early Warning System for Sustainable Water Resources and Agricultural Management through Apllication of Space Science - Nigeria in Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okpara, J. N.; Akeh, L. E.; Anuforom, A. C.; Aribo, P. B.; Olayanju, S. O.

    Enhancing Drought Early Warning System for Sustainable Water Resources and Agriculture Management through Application of Space Science - Nigeria in Perspective BY J N Okpara L E Akeh Anuforom P B Aribo and S O Olayanju Directorate of Applied Meteorological Services Nigerian Meteorological Agency NIMET P M B 615 Garki Abuja Nigeria e-mail underline Juddy Okpara yahoo co uk and underline tonycanuforom yahoo com underline Abstract This paper attempts to highlight the importance of drought early warning system in water resources and agricultural management in Nigeria Various studies have shown that the negative impacts of droughts and other forms of extreme weather phenomena can be substantially reduced by providing early warning on any impending weather extremes X-rayed in this study are the various techniques presently used by the Nigerian Meteorological Agency NIMET in generating information for meteorological Early Warning System EWS which are based on models that make use of ground-based raingauge data and sea surface temperatures SST Komuscu standardized precipitation index SPI inclusive These methods are often limited by such factors as network density of stations limited communication infrastructure human inefficiency etc NIMET is therefore embarking on the development of a new Satellite Agrometeorological Information System SAMIS-Nigeria for famine and drought early warning The system combines satellite data with raingauge data to give a range of

  7. Arterial embolism

    MedlinePLUS

    ... There may be signs of tissue death or gangrene. Tests to diagnose arterial embolism or reveal the ... or permanent kidney failure Tissue death ( necrosis ) and gangrene Transient ischemic attack (TIA)

  8. Arterial Catheterization

    MedlinePLUS

    ... mechanical ventilator (respirator; breathing machine) settings. The blood oxygen pres- sure measures from an arterial line give more de- tailed information than that from a pulse oximeter (a sensor that is clipped on to a patient’s finger, ...

  9. Enhanced Virus Clearance by Early Inducible Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus-Neutralizing Antibodies in Immunoglobulin-Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Seiler, Peter; Kalinke, Ulrich; Rülicke, Thomas; Bucher, Etienne M.; Böse, Christian; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.; Hengartner, Hans

    1998-01-01

    Following infection of mice with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), virus-neutralizing antibodies appear late, after 30 to 60 days. Such neutralizing antibodies play an important role in protection against reinfection. To analyze whether a neutralizing antibody response which developed earlier could contribute to LCMV clearance during the acute phase of infection, we generated transgenic mice expressing LCMV-neutralizing antibodies. Transgenic mice expressing the immunoglobulin ? heavy chain of the LCMV-neutralizing monoclonal antibody KL25 (H25 transgenic mice) mounted LCMV-neutralizing immunoglobulin M (IgM) serum titers within 8 days after infection. This early inducible LCMV-neutralizing antibody response significantly improved the host’s capacity to clear the infection and did not cause an enhancement of disease after intracerebral (i.c.) LCMV infection. In contrast, mice which had been passively administered LCMV-neutralizing antibodies and transgenic mice exhibiting spontaneous LCMV-neutralizing IgM serum titers (HL25 transgenic mice expressing the immunoglobulin ? heavy and the ? light chain) showed an enhancement of disease after i.c. LCMV infection. Thus, early-inducible LCMV-neutralizing antibodies can contribute to viral clearance in the acute phase of the infection and do not cause antibody-dependent enhancement of disease. PMID:9499083

  10. Carotid artery surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Carotid endarterectomy; CAS surgery; Carotid artery stenosis - surgery; Endarterectomy - carotid artery ... through the catheter around the blocked area during surgery. Your carotid artery is opened. The surgeon removes ...

  11. In Vivo Mn-Enhanced MRI for Early Tumor Detection and Growth Rate Analysis in a Mouse Medulloblastoma Model12

    PubMed Central

    Suero-Abreu, Giselle A.; Praveen Raju, G.; Aristizábal, Orlando; Volkova, Eugenia; Wojcinski, Alexandre; Houston, Edward J.; Pham, Diane; Szulc, Kamila U.; Colon, Daniel; Joyner, Alexandra L.; Turnbull, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    Mouse models have increased our understanding of the pathogenesis of medulloblastoma (MB), the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor that often forms in the cerebellum. A major goal of ongoing research is to better understand the early stages of tumorigenesis and to establish the genetic and environmental changes that underlie MB initiation and growth. However, studies of MB progression in mouse models are difficult due to the heterogeneity of tumor onset times and growth patterns and the lack of clinical symptoms at early stages. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is critical for noninvasive, longitudinal, three-dimensional (3D) brain tumor imaging in the clinic but is limited in resolution and sensitivity for imaging early MBs in mice. In this study, high-resolution (100 ?m in 2 hours) and high-throughput (150 ?m in 15 minutes) manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) protocols were optimized for early detection and monitoring of MBs in a Patched-1 (Ptch1) conditional knockout (CKO) model. The high tissue contrast obtained with MEMRI revealed detailed cerebellar morphology and enabled detection of MBs over a wide range of stages including pretumoral lesions as early as 2 to 3 weeks postnatal with volumes close to 0.1 mm3. Furthermore, longitudinal MEMRI allowed noninvasive monitoring of tumors and demonstrated that lesions within and between individuals have different tumorigenic potentials. 3D volumetric studies allowed quantitative analysis of MB tumor morphology and growth rates in individual Ptch1-CKO mice. These results show that MEMRI provides a powerful method for early in vivo detection and longitudinal imaging of MB progression in the mouse brain. PMID:25499213

  12. Arterial endothelial function measurement method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Maltz, Jonathan S; Budinger, Thomas F

    2014-03-04

    A "relaxoscope" (100) detects the degree of arterial endothelial function. Impairment of arterial endothelial function is an early event in atherosclerosis and correlates with the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. An artery (115), such as the brachial artery (BA) is measured for diameter before and after several minutes of either vasoconstriction or vasorelaxation. The change in arterial diameter is a measure of flow-mediated vasomodification (FMVM). The relaxoscope induces an artificial pulse (128) at a superficial radial artery (115) via a linear actuator (120). An ultrasonic Doppler stethoscope (130) detects this pulse 10-20 cm proximal to the point of pulse induction (125). The delay between pulse application and detection provides the pulse transit time (PTT). By measuring PTT before (160) and after arterial diameter change (170), FMVM may be measured based on the changes in PTT caused by changes in vessel caliber, smooth muscle tone and wall thickness.

  13. Mechanisms of Functional Improvement in a Two-Year Trial of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy for Early Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Eack, Shaun M.; Pogue-Geile, Michael F.; Greenwald, Deborah P.; Hogarty, Susan S.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cognitive rehabilitation has emerged as an effective treatment for addressing cognitive impairments and functional disability in schizophrenia; however, the degree to which changes in various social and non-social cognitive processes translate into improved functioning during treatment remains unclear. This research sought to identify the neurocognitive and social-cognitive mechanisms of functional improvement during a two-year trial of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET) for early course schizophrenia. Method Patients in the early course of schizophrenia were randomly assigned to CET (n = 31) or an Enriched Supportive Therapy control (n = 27) and treated for up to two years. A comprehensive neurocognitive assessment battery and the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) were completed annually, along with measures of functioning. Mediator analyses using mixed-effects growth models were conducted to examine the effects of neurocognitive and social-cognitive improvement on functional change. Results Two-year improvement in neurocognition and the emotion management branch of the MSCEIT were found to be significantly related to improved functional outcome in early course schizophrenia patients. Neurocognitive improvement, primarily in executive functioning, and social-cognitive change in emotion management also mediated the robust effects of CET on functioning. Conclusions Improvements in neurocognition and social cognition that result from cognitive rehabilitation are both significant mediators of functional improvement in early course schizophrenia. Cognitive rehabilitation programs for schizophrenia may need to target deficits in both social and non-social cognition to achieve an optimal functional response. PMID:20860867

  14. Early visual processing is enhanced in the midluteal phase of the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Lusk, Bethany R; Carr, Andrea R; Ranson, Valerie A; Bryant, Richard A; Felmingham, Kim L

    2015-12-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) studies have revealed an early attentional bias in processing unpleasant emotional images in women. Recent neuroimaging data suggests there are significant differences in cortical emotional processing according to menstrual phase. This study examined the impact of menstrual phase on visual emotional processing in women compared to men. ERPs were recorded from 28 early follicular women, 29 midluteal women, and 27 men while they completed a passive viewing task of neutral and low- and high- arousing pleasant and unpleasant images. There was a significant effect of menstrual phase in early visual processing, as midluteal women displayed significantly greater P1 amplitude at occipital regions to all visual images compared to men. Both midluteal and early follicular women displayed larger N1 amplitudes than men (although this only reached significance for the midluteal group) to the visual images. No sex or menstrual phase differences were apparent in later N2, P3, or LPP. A condition effect demonstrated greater P3 and LPP amplitude to highly-arousing unpleasant images relative to all other stimuli conditions. These results indicate that women have greater early automatic visual processing compared to men, and suggests that this effect is particularly strong in women in the midluteal phase at the earliest stage of visual attention processing. Our findings highlight the importance of considering menstrual phase when examining sex differences in the cortical processing of visual stimuli. PMID:26366674

  15. Fiber optic probe enabled by surface-enhanced Raman scattering for early diagnosis of potential acute rejection of kidney transplant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Jingmao; Chen, Hui; Tolias, Peter; Du, Henry

    2014-06-01

    We have explored the use of a fiber-optic probe with surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensing modality for early, noninvasive and, rapid diagnosis of potential renal acute rejection (AR) and other renal graft dysfunction of kidney transplant patients. Multimode silica optical fiber immobilized with colloidal Ag nanoparticles at the distal end was used for SERS measurements of as-collected urine samples at 632.8 nm excitation wavelength. All patients with abnormal renal graft function (3 AR episodes and 2 graft failure episodes) who were clinically diagnosed independently show common unique SERS spectral features in the urines collected just one day after transplant. SERS-based fiber-optic probe has excellent potential to be a bedside tool for early diagnosis of kidney transplant patients for timely medical intervention of patients at high risk of transplant dysfunction.

  16. Hemodynamic effects of proximal supra-aortic artery stenosis on anterior cerebral artery.

    PubMed

    López-Hernández, Nicolás; García-Escrivá, Alejandro; Ballenilla, Federico; Gallego-Leon, Jose Ignacio

    2015-05-01

    Alternating flow in the anterior cerebral artery is a rare finding, associated with innominate artery stenosis. We present a series of four patients with this finding on transcranial color coded sonography, under basal conditions. In all of these patients, vascular studies detected an ipsilateral proximal stenosis, three in the innominate artery and, for the first time, one at the left common carotid artery origin. Successful angioplasties with stenting were performed, resulting for the first time in the normalization of orthograde flow in all cases. We conclude that an early systolic hemodynamic compromise in the first segment of the anterior cerebral artery, in the form of alternating flow, is an indirect indicator of ipsilateral proximal stenosis in the supra-aortic arteries, either in the innominate artery or at the origin of the left common carotid artery. PMID:25641601

  17. Enhancing the Australian Early Childhood Teacher Education Curriculum about Very Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garvis, Susanne; Lemon, Narelle

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that the care and education of infants and toddlers is an under-represented area in early childhood teacher education. This is also the case in Australia, meaning that pre-service teachers have few opportunities for learning about infants and toddlers and thus tend to have limited theoretical and practical knowledge about…

  18. Enhancing Potato System Sustainability: Microclimate, Early Blight and Late Blight Potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop and soil management may modify canopy and below ground microclimate; however, their effects on potential development and control of early and late blight are not well documented. Crop management systems (Status Quo (SQ), Soil Conserving (SC), Soil Improving (SI), Disease Suppressive (DS), and ...

  19. Enhancing Potato System Sustainability: Microclimate, Early Blight and Late Blight Potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop and soil management may modify canopy and below ground microclimate; however, their effects on potential development and control of early and late blight are not well documented. Crop management systems (Status Quo (SQ), Soil Conserving (SC), Soil Improving (SI), Disease Suppressive (DS), and c...

  20. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    MedlinePLUS

    Acute arterial occlusion of the kidney is a sudden, severe blockage of the artery that supplies blood to the kidney. ... The kidneys need a good blood supply. The main artery to the kidney is called the renal artery. Reduced ...

  1. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting? Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is ... bypass multiple coronary arteries during one surgery. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Figure A shows the location of ...

  2. Early-Onset Osteoarthritis, Charcot-Marie-Tooth Like Neuropathy, Autoimmune Features, Multiple Arterial Aneurysms and Dissections: An Unrecognized and Life Threatening Condition

    PubMed Central

    Aubart, Mélodie; Gobert, Delphine; Aubart-Cohen, Fleur; Detaint, Delphine; Hanna, Nadine; d’Indya, Hyacintha; Lequintrec, Janine-Sophie; Renard, Philippe; Vigneron, Anne-Marie; Dieudé, Philippe; Laissy, Jean-Pierre; Koch, Pierre; Muti, Christine; Roume, Joelle; Cusin, Veronica; Grandchamp, Bernard; Gouya, Laurent; LeGuern, Eric; Papo, Thomas; Boileau, Catherine; Jondeau, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Background Severe osteoarthritis and thoracic aortic aneurysms have recently been associated with mutations in the SMAD3 gene, but the full clinical spectrum is incompletely defined. Methods All SMAD3 gene mutation carriers coming to our centre and their families were investigated prospectively with a structured panel including standardized clinical workup, blood tests, total body computed tomography, joint X-rays. Electroneuromyography was performed in selected cases. Results Thirty-four SMAD3 gene mutation carriers coming to our centre were identified and 16 relatives were considered affected because of aortic surgery or sudden death (total 50 subjects). Aortic disease was present in 72%, complicated with aortic dissection, surgery or sudden death in 56% at a mean age of 45 years. Aneurysm or tortuosity of the neck arteries was present in 78%, other arteries were affected in 44%, including dissection of coronary artery. Overall, 95% of mutation carriers displayed either aortic or extra-aortic arterial disease. Acrocyanosis was also present in the majority of patients. Osteoarticular manifestations were recorded in all patients. Joint involvement could be severe requiring surgery in young patients, of unusual localization such as tarsus or shoulder, or mimicking crystalline arthropathy with fibrocartilage calcifications. Sixty eight percent of patients displayed neurological symptoms, and 9 suffered peripheral neuropathy. Electroneuromyography revealed an axonal motor and sensory neuropathy in 3 different families, very evocative of type II Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT2) disease, although none had mutations in the known CMT2 genes. Autoimmune features including Sjogren’s disease, rheumatoid arthritis, Hashimoto’s disease, or isolated autoantibodies- were found in 36% of patients. Interpretation SMAD3 gene mutations are associated with aortic dilatation and osteoarthritis, but also autoimmunity and peripheral neuropathy which mimics type II Charcot-Marie-Tooth. PMID:24804794

  3. Late Rather Than Early Onset Bubbles in the Pulmonary Artery During Altitude Exposures Correlate Better with the Onset of "Pain-Only" Decompression Illness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conkin, J.; Gernhardt, M. L.; Powell, M. R.

    2005-01-01

    Mechanistic insight about "pain-only" decompression illness (DCI) is limited given indirect information about venous gas emboli (VGE) detected in the pulmonary artery with Doppler ultrasound. However, we show that VGE first detected late in an altitude exposure are closely associated with subsequent symptom onset. Knowing that VGE occur late is an indication that a symptom will occur soon, but this is not a sufficient condition to guarantee that a symptom will occur.

  4. [In hospital observation of patients with acute coronary syndrome without ST elevation and multivessels coronary artery disease treated with early invasive strategy. Comparison of results of percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery by-pass grafting].

    PubMed

    Szygu?a-Jurkiewicz, Bozena; Wilczek, Krzysztof; Szafron, Bartosz; Przybylski, Roman; Chudzik, Bartosz; Osuch, Marcin; Zebala, Marian; Polo?ski, Lech

    2004-08-01

    Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) without persistent ST-segment elevation are the main cause of hospitalization, morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to compare clinical and angiographic parameters as well as in-hospital results of treating 307 consecutive patients with ACS without persistent ST-segment elevation with either PCI or CABG. Inclusion criteria were: rest angina within the last 24 hours, ST-segment depression (> 0.5 mm), T-wave inversion (> 1 mm) in at least two leads, positive serum cardiac markers. PCI was performed in 75.9% of patients and 24.1% of patients underwent CABG. Both groups did not differ as to age, sex, history of diabetes, arterial hypertension, heart failure, smoking and ejection fraction. Positive troponin was significantly more frequent in the PCI group. 51% of PCI patients and 80% of CABG patients had complete revascularization (p = 0.00001). Independent predictors of in-hospital death in the CABG group were: inability to determine culprit vessel during coronary angiography due to lesions' severity (OR 13.65; 95% CI 9.40-15.20; p = 0.007) and heart failure (OR 15.58; 95% CI 12.29-18.01; p = 0.003). In the PCI group these independent predictors were: Braunwald's IIIC unstable angina (OR 5.48; 95% CI 3.10-7.17; p = 0.04) and diabetes (OR 2.22; 95% CI 1.07-3.90; p = 0.003). In-hospital mortality rate was significantly higher in the CABG group (8.1% vs 1.7% p < 0.01). Patients with multivessel coronary artery disease and ACS without ST-segment elevation treated with PCI have better in-hospital outcome than patients assigned to CABG, but the rate of complete revascularization is lower. PMID:15675265

  5. A Report on the Technological Enhancements Project Evaluation: Deepening Early Learning Experiences through Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hupert, Naomi; Cervantes, Francisco; DeGroof, Emily

    2010-01-01

    As part of the "Ready to Learn" Initiative, Education Development Center, Inc. (EDC), was charged with addressing the evaluation of Technological Enhancements for the outreach efforts of three producers: Out of the Blue's Super WHY! Technology Add-On; Sesame Workshop's The Electric Company School's Initiative Curriculum; and WordWorld's eBook…

  6. The probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 enhances early gastrointestinal maturation in young turkey poults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concerns over the use of antibiotics as growth promoters has led to interest in finding alternative growth promoters such as natural compounds and probiotics. Supplementing feed with probiotics has shown to enhance the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development of chickens and turkeys. The human pro...

  7. Enhancing Alphabet Knowledge Instruction: Research Implications and Practical Strategies for Early Childhood Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Cindy D.; Clark, Sarah K.; Reutzel, D. Ray

    2013-01-01

    Alphabet knowledge is consistently recognized as the strongest, most durable predictor of later literacy achievement. Recent research offers practical implications for increased effectiveness of teaching alphabet knowledge to young children. In this article, we outline Enhanced Alphabet Knowledge instruction (EAK), a method of practical…

  8. Musical Training during Early Childhood Enhances the Neural Encoding of Speech in Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strait, Dana L.; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Hittner, Emily; Kraus, Nina

    2012-01-01

    For children, learning often occurs in the presence of background noise. As such, there is growing desire to improve a child's access to a target signal in noise. Given adult musicians' perceptual and neural speech-in-noise enhancements, we asked whether similar effects are present in musically-trained children. We assessed the perception and…

  9. Do reaction time measures enhance diagnosis of early-stage dementia of the Alzheimer type.

    PubMed

    Storandt, Martha; Beaudreau, Sherry

    2004-01-01

    Reaction times (RT) typically are slower in demented individuals than in healthy older people, but it is unclear if this deficit is useful in diagnosing Alzheimer's disease, particularly in its early stages. In this study we compared 131 nondemented, 73 very mildly demented, and 45 mildly demented individuals on simple, choice, and choice with distraction RT tasks. Less than half of the demented individuals could be classified correctly using the RT measures in a discriminant function analysis. In addition, the RT measures did not add significantly to correct classification achieved by a previously identified brief battery of standard neuropsychological tests including immediate prose recall, confrontation naming, and digit symbol substitution (Storandt & Hill, 1989); that battery identified 81% of the very mild group and 96% of the mild group as demented. Although substantial slowing of RT may occur in some people in the early stages of dementia, it is far from universal, whereas deficits in other cognitive functions are. PMID:14670384

  10. Interpersonal Psychotherapy With a Parenting Enhancement Adapted for In-Home Delivery in Early Head Start

    PubMed Central

    Beeber, Linda S.; Schwartz, Todd A.; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Canuso, Regina; Lewis, Virginia; Matsuda, Yui

    2015-01-01

    Formidable barriers prevent low-income mothers from accessing evidence-based treatment for depressive symptoms that compromise their ability to provide sensitive, responsive parenting for their infant or toddler. Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), an evidence-based psychotherapy for depression, was tailored for in-home delivery to mothers navigating economic hardship and other intense stressors, and for Latina mothers with limited English language proficiency. Psychiatric-mental health nurses delivered the adapted IPT in randomized clinical trials that were conducted in partnership with Early Head Start (EHS). The authors discuss the results of these studies and the impacts on EHS staff members and programs, and they provide additional implications for current early childhood-focused programs.

  11. Detection of early carious lesions using contrast enhancement with coherent light scattering (speckle imaging)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deana, A. M.; Jesus, S. H. C.; Koshoji, N. H.; Bussadori, S. K.; Oliveira, M. T.

    2013-07-01

    Currently, dental caries still represent one of the chronic diseases with the highest prevalence and present in most countries. The interaction between light and teeth (absorption, scattering and fluorescence) is intrinsically connected to the constitution of the dental tissue. Decay induced mineral loss introduces a shift in the optical properties of the affected tissue; therefore, study of these properties may produce novel techniques aimed at the early diagnosis of carious lesions. Based on the optical properties of the enamel, we demonstrate the application of first-order spatial statistics in laser speckle imaging, allowing the detection of carious lesions in their early stages. A highlight of this noninvasive, non-destructive, real time and cost effective approach is that it allows a dentist to detect a lesion even in the absence of biofilm or moisture.

  12. High Calcium Bioglass Enhances Differentiation and Survival of Endothelial Progenitor Cells, Inducing Early Vascularization in Critical Size Bone Defects

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen Ngoc, Christina; Meier, Simon; Nau, Christoph; Schaible, Alexander; Marzi, Ingo; Henrich, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Early vascularization is a prerequisite for successful bone healing and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC), seeded on appropriate biomaterials, can improve vascularization. The type of biomaterial influences EPC function with bioglass evoking a vascularizing response. In this study the influence of a composite biomaterial based on polylactic acid (PLA) and either 20 or 40% bioglass, BG20 and BG40, respectively, on the differentiation and survival of EPCs in vitro was investigated. Subsequently, the effect of the composite material on early vascularization in a rat calvarial critical size defect model with or without EPCs was evaluated. Human EPCs were cultured with ?-TCP, PLA, BG20 or BG40, and seeding efficacy, cell viability, cell morphology and apoptosis were analysed in vitro. BG40 released the most calcium, and improved endothelial differentiation and vitality best. This effect was mimicked by adding an equivalent amount of calcium to the medium and was diminished in the presence of the calcium chelator, EGTA. To analyze the effect of BG40 and EPCs in vivo, a 6-mm diameter critical size calvarial defect was created in rats (n?=?12). Controls (n?=?6) received BG40 and the treatment group (n?=?6) received BG40 seeded with 5×105 rat EPCs. Vascularization after 1 week was significantly improved when EPCs were seeded onto BG40, compared to implanting BG40 alone. This indicates that Ca2+ release improves EPC differentiation and is useful for enhanced early vascularization in critical size bone defects. PMID:24244419

  13. Enhancing the Design Process for Complex Space Systems through Early Integration of Risk and Variable-Fidelity Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavris, Dimitri; Osburg, Jan

    2005-01-01

    An important enabler of the new national Vision for Space Exploration is the ability to rapidly and efficiently develop optimized concepts for the manifold future space missions that this effort calls for. The design of such complex systems requires a tight integration of all the engineering disciplines involved, in an environment that fosters interaction and collaboration. The research performed under this grant explored areas where the space systems design process can be enhanced: by integrating risk models into the early stages of the design process, and by including rapid-turnaround variable-fidelity tools for key disciplines. Enabling early assessment of mission risk will allow designers to perform trades between risk and design performance during the initial design space exploration. Entry into planetary atmospheres will require an increased emphasis of the critical disciplines of aero- and thermodynamics. This necessitates the pulling forward of EDL disciplinary expertise into the early stage of the design process. Radiation can have a large potential impact on overall mission designs, in particular for the planned nuclear-powered robotic missions under Project Prometheus and for long-duration manned missions to the Moon, Mars and beyond under Project Constellation. This requires that radiation and associated risk and hazards be assessed and mitigated at the earliest stages of the design process. Hence, RPS is another discipline needed to enhance the engineering competencies of conceptual design teams. Researchers collaborated closely with NASA experts in those disciplines, and in overall space systems design, at Langley Research Center and at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This report documents the results of this initial effort.

  14. Renal Infarction Caused by Isolated Spontaneous Renal Artery Intramural Hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sihyung; Lee, Ga Hee; Jin, Kyubok; Park, Kang Min; Kim, Yang Wook; Park, Bong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 46 Final Diagnosis: Renal infarction Symptoms: Flank pain Medication: — Clinical Procedure: CT Specialty: Nephrology Objective: Rare disease Background: Acute renal infarction is an uncommon condition resulting from an obstruction or a decrease in renal arterial blood flow. Isolated spontaneous renal artery intramural hematoma is a rare cause of renal infarction. Case Report: A 46-year-old healthy man presented to our emergency room because of sudden onset of severe right flank pain. An enhanced abdominal computed tomography scan showed a low-attenuated lesion in the lateral portion of the right kidney but no visible thromboembolisms in the main vessels. Computed tomography angiography revealed acute infarction resulting from intramural hematoma of the anterior segmental artery of the right kidney, with distal occlusion. Conclusions: The rarity and non-specific clinical presentation of renal infarction often lead to a delayed diagnosis that may result in impaired renal function. Clinical suspicion is important in the early diagnosis, and intramural hematoma of the renal artery should be considered the cause of renal infarction even in healthy patients without pre-disposing factors. PMID:26596500

  15. Feeding Artery of Laryngeal and Hypopharyngeal Cancers: Role of the Superior Thyroid Artery in Superselective Intraarterial Chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Terayama, Noboru Sanada, Junichiro; Matsui, Osamu; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Kawashima, Hiroko; Yamashiro, Masashi; Takanaka, Tsuyoshi; Kumano, Tomoyasu; Yoshizaki, Tomokazu; Furukawa, Mitsuru

    2006-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the role of the superior thyroid artery in intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy for laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers. Thirty-nine patients with laryngeal cancer and 29 patients with hypopharyngeal cancer underwent intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy. We performed a retrospective analysis of the feeding arteries confirmed by computed tomography during selective arteriography and compared the results with the extent of the tumors. In 14 of 39 laryngeal and 15 of 29 hypopharyngeal cancers, the tumor did not cross the midline (group 1). In the remaining 25 and 14 cancers, respectively, the tumor crossed the midline or located in the center (group 2). For 13 of 14 laryngeal and 7 of 15 hypopharyngeal cancers in group 1 and for 6 of 25 laryngeal cancers in group 2, the entire tumor was contrast enhanced by the ipsilateral superior thyroid and/or superior laryngeal artery. For 12 of 25 laryngeal and 1 of 14 hypopharyngeal cancers in group 2, the entire tumor was contrast enhanced by the bilateral superior thyroid artery. For the other patients, infusion via the other arterial branches such as the inferior thyroid and the lingual arteries were needed to achieve contrast enhancement of the entire tumor. Superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy for laryngeal cancer from the superior thyroid artery is appropriate, whereas that for hypopharyngeal cancer is less sufficient. To accomplish contrast enhancement of the entire tumor, additional intra-arterial infusion from other arteries such as the inferior thyroid artery is often necessary.

  16. Three-dimensional Pseudo-continuous Arterial Spin Label Non-contrast Enhanced Perfusion Imaging of Head and Neck Tumors with High-field MR System.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Duan, Miao; Zhou, Hai-Long; Shi, Kai-Ning; Sun, Zhao-Yong; Bai, Chun-Mei; Jia, Ning; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Xing-Ming; Hu, Ke; Zhang, Zhu-Hua; Jin, Zheng-Yu

    2015-10-31

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility of three-dimensional pseudo-continuous arterial spin label (3D pCASL) non-contrast enhanced perfusion imaging applied to head and neck tumors in high-field MR and detect the effects of different postlabeling delay (PLD) time on image quality and the reliability of repeated measurements of tumor blood flow (BF) in different 3D pCASL groups. Methods In this prospective study,all the 25 patients received neck 3D pCASL non-contrast enhanced perfusion examinations in a 3.0 T MR system by using an 8-channel head and neck joint coil. Conventional T1-weighted(TIWI) and T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) were performed firstly. Finally,three 3D pCASL with different PLD time[ASL1(PLD1=1525 ms),ASL2(PLD2=2025 ms),ASL3(PLD3=2525 ms)]were acquired. Patients' perfusion-weighted images acquired from different 3D pCASL sequences underwent the analysis of signal to noise ratio (SNR) and contrast noise ratio (CNR) for tumors. Two observers performed the qualitative assessments on spiral artifacts and vascular artifacts of perfusion-weighted images from different 3D pCASL sequences. Blood flow (BF) of tumors from different 3D pCASL sequences were measured by the two observers respectively for the first time and by observer 2 for the second time. Results Seventeen enrolled patients (age:50.1±12.7 years,M/F=10:7) with histopathologic Results underwent the evaluation of image quality and measurements of BF values. The SNRs and CNRs of ASL1,ASL2,and ASL3 showed a descending trendency. SNRs (P=0.011)and CNRs(P=0.009) of ASL1 were significant higher than those of ASL3. There was no significant difference of scores of spiral artifacts among the three ASL groups (P=0.932). The scores of vascular artifacts of ASL1,ASL2,and ASL3 showed a descending trendency,also. And scores of ASL1 was significant higher than that of ASL3(P=0.000). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of intre-and intraobserver were high (ICC>0.9). Although the BF values of ASL1,ASL2,and ASL3 showed an ascending trendency,there was no significant difference among the three groups (P=0.977). Conclusion s The 3D pCASL no-contrast enhanced perfusion MR imaging can be used for head and neck tumor. The image quality of perfusion weighted images and reliability of BF measurements were satisfied. The 3D pCASL series with PLD of 1525 ms and 2025 ms have better image quality than PLD of 2525 ms. And BF values do not show significant statistic difference among the three groups. Therefore,3D pCASL series with PLD of 1525 ms and 2025 ms are more suitable for the perfusion imaging of head and neck tumors.
    . PMID:26564509

  17. Arterial input function of an optical tracer for dynamic contrast enhanced imaging can be determined from pulse oximetry oxygen saturation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Jonathan T.; Wright, Eric A.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Diop, Mamadou; Morrison, Laura B.; Pogue, Brian W.; Lee, Ting-Yim; St. Lawrence, Keith

    2012-12-01

    In many cases, kinetic modeling requires that the arterial input function (AIF)—the time-dependent arterial concentration of a tracer—be characterized. A straightforward method to measure the AIF of red and near-infrared optical dyes (e.g., indocyanine green) using a pulse oximeter is presented. The method is motivated by the ubiquity of pulse oximeters used in both preclinical and clinical applications, as well as the gap in currently available technologies to measure AIFs in small animals. The method is based on quantifying the interference that is observed in the derived arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) following a bolus injection of a light-absorbing dye. In other words, the change in SaO2 can be converted into dye concentration knowing the chromophore-specific extinction coefficients, the true arterial oxygen saturation, and total hemoglobin concentration. A simple error analysis was performed to highlight potential limitations of the approach, and a validation of the method was conducted in rabbits by comparing the pulse oximetry method with the AIF acquired using a pulse dye densitometer. Considering that determining the AIF is required for performing quantitative tracer kinetics, this method provides a flexible tool for measuring the arterial dye concentration that could be used in a variety of applications.

  18. Musical training during early childhood enhances the neural encoding of speech in noise.

    PubMed

    Strait, Dana L; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Hittner, Emily; Kraus, Nina

    2012-12-01

    For children, learning often occurs in the presence of background noise. As such, there is growing desire to improve a child's access to a target signal in noise. Given adult musicians' perceptual and neural speech-in-noise enhancements, we asked whether similar effects are present in musically-trained children. We assessed the perception and subcortical processing of speech in noise and related cognitive abilities in musician and nonmusician children that were matched for a variety of overarching factors. Outcomes reveal that musicians' advantages for processing speech in noise are present during pivotal developmental years. Supported by correlations between auditory working memory and attention and auditory brainstem response properties, we propose that musicians' perceptual and neural enhancements are driven in a top-down manner by strengthened cognitive abilities with training. Our results may be considered by professionals involved in the remediation of language-based learning deficits, which are often characterized by poor speech perception in noise. PMID:23102977

  19. Enhanced algal abundance in northwest Ontario (Canada) lakes during the warmer early-to mid-Holocene period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Moumita; Leavitt, Peter R.; Cumming, Brian F.

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates regional changes in primary producers in boreal head-water lakes during the warmer early-to-mid-Holocene (EMH) period, across the present-day boreal forest in northwest Ontario, a region that is adjacent to the prairie-forest ecotone. We quantified changes in algal abundance and composition over the Holocene period using pigments, spectrally-inferred chlorophyll a and diatom assemblages in well-dated sediment cores from three lakes. All three indicators showed a coherent pattern of enhanced primary producers in two of the study lakes (Gall Lake and Lake 239) during the EMH, whereas only diatom assemblages suggested higher levels of nutrients in Meekin Lake. Overall, this study supports a regional pattern of enhanced primary producers during the EMH, likely as a function of lower water-levels and warmer temperatures. Elevated concentrations of cyanobacterial pigments also occurred in two of the three lakes during the EMH, whereas pigments from purple-sulphur bacteria provide evidence of enhanced deep-water anoxia in one lake. These findings suggest that future climatic warming in boreal regions could include regional eutrophication and associated increases in cyanobacteria.

  20. NOS Inhibition Enhances Myogenic Tone by Increasing Rho-Kinase Mediated Ca2+ Sensitivity in the Male but Not the Female Gerbil Spiral Modiolar Artery

    PubMed Central

    Wangemann, Philine

    2013-01-01

    Cochlear blood flow regulation is important to prevent hearing loss caused by ischemia and oxidative stress. Cochlear blood supply is provided by the spiral modiolar artery (SMA). The myogenic tone of the SMA is enhanced by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) blocker L-NG-Nitro-Arginine (LNNA) in males, but not in females. Here, we investigated whether this gender difference is based on differences in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and/or the Ca2+ sensitivity of the myofilaments. Vascular diameter, myogenic tone, cytosolic Ca2+, and Ca2+ sensitivity were evaluated in pressurized SMA segments isolated from male and female gerbils using laser-scanning microscopy and microfluorometry. The gender difference of the LNNA-induced tone was compared, in the same vessel segments, to tone induced by 150 mM K+ and endothelin-1, neither of which showed an apparent gender-difference. Interestingly, LNNA-induced tone in male SMAs was observed in protocols that included changes in intramural pressure, but not when the intramural pressure was held constant. LNNA in male SMAs did not increase the global Ca2+ concentration in smooth muscle cells but increased the Ca2+ sensitivity. This increase in the Ca2+ sensitivity was abolished in the presence of the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor ODQ or by extrinsic application of either the nitric oxide (NO)-donor DEA-NONOate or the cGMP analog 8-pCPT-cGMP. The rho-kinase blocker Y27632 decreased the basal Ca2+ sensitivity and abolished the LNNA-induced increase in Ca2+ sensitivity in male SMAs. Neither LNNA nor Y27632 changed the Ca2+ sensitivity in female SMAs. The data suggest that the gender difference in LNNA-induced tone is based on a gender difference in the regulation of rho-kinase mediated Ca2+ sensitivity. Rho-kinase and NO thus emerge as critical factors in the regulation of cochlear blood flow. The larger role of NO-dependent mechanisms in male SMAs predicts greater restrictions on cochlear blood flow under conditions of impaired endothelial cell function. PMID:23301097

  1. Enhancing the passing moments: An educational criticism of family visits to an early childhood science exhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munroe, Elizabeth Ann

    This educational criticism describes and interprets the nature of family visits to an early childhood science exhibition, Working Wonders, at The Science Centre in Calgary, Alberta. The specific exhibits are described and features that contributed to exhibit popularity are examined. Examples of visitors' interactions with each exhibit are given. The visit experiences of four families are described in detail and analyzed. Typical family visitors' reactions, expectations, and experiences are summarized. Because one of the mutual expectations of the granting agency, The Science Centre, and the adult visitors was that a visit to the exhibition would be educational, the family visits are examined for instances of learning and analyzed to determine the factors that influenced the learning. Constructivism forms the basis for understanding the process of learning during family visits. The analysis is supported by reference to research from the fields of museum studies, education, and environmental design. The analysis of the educational significance and potential of family visits to an early childhood exhibition leads to the conclusion that specific features may facilitate learning in such an environment. Those features are represented in a set of guidelines for the development and evaluation of early childhood exhibitions. The guidelines suggest attention must be given to the ambience of the space, the general layout of the space, the exhibits, the copy and graphics, additional programs and information, the subtle influences of the building and the staff, and the learning processes of young children, adults, and intergenerational groups. The guidelines suggest specific issues to consider to develop a space that is stimulating and memorable, responsive to the needs of the two distinct visitor groups (young children and adults), and conducive to learning.

  2. Emotion-associated tones attract enhanced attention at early auditory processing: magnetoencephalographic correlates.

    PubMed

    Bröckelmann, Ann-Kathrin; Steinberg, Christian; Elling, Ludger; Zwanzger, Peter; Pantev, Christo; Junghöfer, Markus

    2011-05-25

    Emotionally significant objects and events in our environment attract attention based on their motivational relevance for survival. Such kind of emotional attention is thought to lead to affect-specific amplified processing that closely resembles effects of directed attention. Although there has been extensive research on prioritized processing of visual emotional stimuli, the spatio-temporal dynamics of motivated attention mechanisms in auditory processing are less clearly understood. We investigated modulatory effects of emotional attention at early auditory processing stages using time-sensitive whole-head magnetoencephalography. A novel associative learning procedure involving multiple conditioned stimuli (CSs) per affective category was introduced to specifically test whether affect-specific modulation can proceed in a rapid and highly differentiating fashion in humans. Auditory evoked fields (AEFs) were recorded in response to 42 different ultrashort, click-like sounds before and after affective conditioning with pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral auditory scenes. As hypothesized, emotional attention affected neural click tone processing at time intervals of the P20-50m (20-50 ms) and the N1m (100-130 ms), two early AEF components sensitive to directed selective attention (Woldorff et al., 1993). Distributed source localization revealed amplified processing of tones associated with aversive or pleasant compared with neutral auditory scenes at auditory sensory, frontal and parietal cortex regions. Behavioral tests did not indicate any awareness for the contingent CS-UCS (unconditioned stimulus) relationships in the participants, suggesting affective associative learning in absence of contingency awareness. Our findings imply early and highly differentiating affect-specific modulation of auditory stimulus processing supported by neural mechanisms and circuitry comparable with those reported for directed auditory attention. PMID:21613493

  3. Enhanced tocopherol levels during early germination events in Chamaerops humilis var. humilis seeds.

    PubMed

    Siles, Laura; Alegre, Leonor; Tijero, Verónica; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2015-10-01

    Most angiosperms accumulate vitamin E in the form of tocopherols in seeds, exerting a protective antioxidant role. However, several palm trees principally accumulate tocotrienols, rather than tocopherols, in seeds, as it occurs in other monocots. To unravel the protective role of either tocopherols or tocotrienols against lipid peroxidation during seed germination in Chamaerops humilis var. humilis; seed viability, natural and induced germination capacity, seed water content, malondialdehyde levels (as an indicator of the extent of lipid peroxidation) and vitamin E levels (including both tocopherols and tocotrienols) were examined at various germination phases in a simulated, natural seed bank. At the very early stages of germination (operculum removal), malondialdehyde levels increased 2.8-fold, to decrease later up to 74%, thus indicating a transient lipid peroxidation at early stages of germination. Tocopherol levels were absent in quiescent seeds and did not increase during operculum removal, but increased later presumably dampening malondialdehyde accumulation. Thereafter, tocopherols continued increasing, while lipid peroxidation levels decreased. By contrast, tocotrienols levels remained constant or even decreased as germination progressed, showing no correlation with lipid peroxidation levels. We hypothesize that despite their high tocotrienol content, seeds synthesize tocopherols during germination to protect lipids from peroxidation events. PMID:26241488

  4. Prognostic Significance of Regional Arterial Stiffness for Stroke in Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kubozono, Takuro; Ohishi, Mitsuru

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease. It has been reported that arterial stiffness is related to cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in hypertensive patients and that the physiological evaluation of arterial stiffness may assist clinicians in the early detection of atherosclerosis. Summary It has been demonstrated that increased arterial stiffness is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease, including stroke. Arterial stiffness is associated with structural changes in the brain. However, the stiffness responses of muscular arteries are different from those of elastic arteries, and so the impact of arterial stiffness and the conclusions to be drawn may be different depending on the region in which the measurement is taken. Key Messages In this review, we summarize the current literature describing the association between arterial stiffness, including carotid-femoral and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and cardio-ankle vascular index, and cardiovascular disease, specifically stroke. We discuss the utility and prognostic significance of regional arterial stiffness measurements.

  5. Novel Polypyrrole-Coated Polylactide Scaffolds Enhance Adipose Stem Cell Proliferation and Early Osteogenic Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Pelto, Jani; Björninen, Miina; Pälli, Aliisa; Talvitie, Elina; Hyttinen, Jari; Mannerström, Bettina; Suuronen Seppanen, Riitta; Kellomäki, Minna; Miettinen, Susanna; Haimi, Suvi

    2013-01-01

    An electrically conductive polypyrrole (PPy) doped with a bioactive agent is an emerging functional biomaterial for tissue engineering. We therefore used chondroitin sulfate (CS)-doped PPy coating to modify initially electrically insulating polylactide resulting in novel osteogenic scaffolds. In situ chemical oxidative polymerization was used to obtain electrically conductive PPy coating on poly-96L/4D-lactide (PLA) nonwoven scaffolds. The coated scaffolds were characterized and their electrical conductivity was evaluated in hydrolysis. The ability of the coated and conductive scaffolds to enhance proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells (hASCs) under electrical stimulation (ES) in three-dimensional (3D) geometry was compared to the noncoated PLA scaffolds. Electrical conductivity of PPy-coated PLA scaffolds (PLA-PPy) was evident at the beginning of hydrolysis, but decreased during the first week of incubation due to de-doping. PLA-PPy scaffolds enhanced hASC proliferation significantly compared to the plain PLA scaffolds at 7 and 14 days. Furthermore, the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of the hASCs was generally higher in PLA-PPy seeded scaffolds, but due to patient variation, no statistical significance could be determined. ES did not have a significant effect on hASCs. This study highlights the potential of novel PPy-coated PLA scaffolds in bone tissue engineering. PMID:23126228

  6. EXCESS OPTICAL ENHANCEMENT OBSERVED WITH ARCONS FOR EARLY CRAB GIANT PULSES

    SciTech Connect

    Strader, M. J.; Mazin, B. A.; Spiro Jaeger, G. V.; Gwinn, C. R.; Meeker, S. R.; Szypryt, P.; Van Eyken, J. C.; Marsden, D.; Walter, A. B.; Ulbricht, G.; Johnson, M. D.; O'Brien, K.; Stoughton, C.; Bumble, B.

    2013-12-10

    We observe an extraordinary link in the Crab pulsar between the enhancement of an optical pulse and the timing of the corresponding giant radio pulse. At optical through infrared wavelengths, our observations use the high time resolution of ARray Camera for Optical to Near-IR Spectrophotometry, a unique superconducting energy-resolving photon-counting array at the Palomar 200 inch telescope. At radio wavelengths, we observe with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope and the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument backend. We see an 11.3% ± 2.5% increase in peak optical flux for pulses that have an accompanying giant radio pulse arriving near the peak of the optical main pulse, in contrast to a 3.2% ± 0.5% increase when an accompanying giant radio pulse arrives soon after the optical peak. We also observe that the peak of the optical main pulse is 2.8% ± 0.8% enhanced when there is a giant radio pulse accompanying the optical interpulse. We observe no statistically significant spectral differences between optical pulses accompanied by and not accompanied by giant radio pulses. Our results extend previous observations of optical-radio correlation to the time and spectral domains. Our refined temporal correlation suggests that optical and radio emission are indeed causally linked, and the lack of spectral differences suggests that the same mechanism is responsible for all optical emission.

  7. Lithium-isotope evidence for enhanced silicate weathering during OAE 1a (Early Aptian Selli event)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechler, Maria; Pogge von Strandmann, Philip A. E.; Jenkyns, Hugh C.; Prosser, Giacomo; Parente, Mariano

    2015-12-01

    An abrupt rise in temperature, forced by a massive input of CO2 into the atmosphere, is commonly invoked as the main trigger for Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs). Global warming initiated a cascade of palaeoenvironmental perturbations starting with increased continental weathering and an accelerated hydrological cycle that delivered higher loads of nutrients to coastal areas, stimulating biological productivity. The end-result was widespread anoxia and deposition of black shales: the hallmarks of OAEs. In order to assess the role of weathering as both an OAE initiator and terminator (via CO2 sequestration) during the Early Aptian OAE 1a (Selli Event, ?120 Ma) the isotopic ratio of lithium isotopes was analysed in three sections of shallow-marine carbonates from the Pacific and Tethyan realms and one basinal pelagic section from the Tethyan domain. Because the isotopic composition of lithium in seawater is largely controlled by continental silicate weathering and high- and low-temperature alteration of basaltic material, a shift to lighter ?7Li values is expected to characterize OAEs. The studied sections illustrate this phenomenon: ?7Li values decrease to a minimum coincident with the negative carbon-isotope excursion that effectively records the onset of OAE 1a. A second negative ?7Li excursion occurs coeval with the minimum in strontium isotopes after the event. The striking similarity to the strontium-isotope record argues for a common driver. The formation and destruction (weathering) of an oceanic LIP could account for the parallel trend in both isotope systems. The double-spike in lithium isotopes is probably related to a change in weathering congruencies. Such a chemostratigraphy is consistent with the hypothesis that an increase in silicate weathering, in conjunction with organic-carbon burial, led to drawdown of atmospheric CO2 during the early Aptian OAE 1a.

  8. Diabetes mellitus-induced enhancement of prostaglandin F2 alpha-responses is inhibited by lipoxygenase- but not cyclooxygenase-inhibitors in mesenteric veins and arteries of mouse and rat.

    PubMed

    Kimura, I; Hata, Y; Islam, M A; Kimura, M

    1994-02-01

    The mechanisms responsible for diabetes mellitus-induced enhancement of prostaglandin (PG) F2 alpha response were investigated in vascular smooth muscles isolated from diabetic mice and rats. Streptozocin (150 mg/kg, i.v. bolus, 6 week-elapsed)-ddY mice and (60 mg/kg, i.v. bolus)-Wistar rats and genetically diabetic GK-rats were used. The responses to PGF2 alpha were enhanced in small blood vessels such as mesenteric arteries (diabetic rats) and veins (diabetic mice) and they were reduced in large blood vessels such as the aorta and vena cava (diabetic rats). The enhanced response to PGF2 alpha in diabetic blood vessels was significantly inhibited by nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) (0.03 mM) and phenidone (0.05 mM), lipoxygenase inhibitors, cycloheximide (1 mg/kg, i.v.), a protein synthesis inhibitor and actinomycin D (2.8 mg/kg, i.v.), a RNA polymerase inhibitor, but neither inhibited by cyclooxygenase inhibitors, a thromboxane antagonist, nor Ca2+ antagonists. The PGF2 alpha response was also enhanced with aging alone, whereas the extent of enhancement was less than that with diabetes mellitus, and not significantly blocked by NDGA. These results demonstrate that diabetes mellitus-induced imbalance in the regulation of the eicosanoid metabolic pathways (suppressed cyclooxygenase and accelerated lipoxygenase) may cause the enhancement of PGF2 alpha-induced responses in small blood vessels. PMID:8028231

  9. Controls on early retention and late enhancement of microporosity in reefal gas reservoirs, offshore north Sumatra basin

    SciTech Connect

    Moshier, S.O.

    1989-03-01

    Chalky lime-matrix texture is pervasive in 300 m of coralgal and skeletal carbonates in the NSB-A (North Sumatra basin-A) gas field (lower-middle Miocene), offshore northern Sumatra. Much of the reservoir quality can be attributed to matrix with abundant intercrystalline, vuggy, and channel-form micropores. Matrix is composed of calcite microrhombs which are interpreted to have developed during stabilization of the precursor mud. On the same shelf, the smaller NSB-H oil field is composed of more than 45-m thick buildup of similar lithofacies which lack abundant microporosity. In both fields, early diagenesis included dissolution of aragonitic skeletal material, matrix neomorphism, and precipitation of nonluminescent calcite followed by zoned, luminescent calcite cements. Stable isotopes from matrix reflect a more open or water-dominated matrix diagenesis at NSB-H field. More active flushing of oversaturated, organically charged meteoric waters was responsible for thorough matrix cementation and microporosity occlusion at NSB-H field. Calcite cements show progressive enrichment of iron and manganese and depletion of magnesium and strontium during growth. The matrix at NSB-H field contains iron-rich dolomite. At A field, remnant matrix microporosity and intraparticle microporosity in calcitic skeletal material were greatly enhanced after all phases of cementation. Some pore-rimming cements are partially dissolved. At NSB-H field, late-phase dissolution is limited to the vicinity of open fractures where matrix-calcite and dolomite crystals are leached. Reservoir brines have a limey marine origin but are depleted in Ca and Mg relative to seawater, and carbon dioxide accounts for 31% of reservoir gas. If present brines are carbonate undersaturated, they may be substantially enhanced microporosity at NSB-A field. Late-stage dissolution is insignificant at NSB-H field due to the lack of early formed matrix microporosity.

  10. Enhanced Glycogen Storage of a Subcellular Hot Spot in Human Skeletal Muscle during Early Recovery from Eccentric Contractions

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Joachim; Farup, Jean; Rahbek, Stine Klejs; de Paoli, Frank Vincenzo; Vissing, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Unaccustomed eccentric exercise is accompanied by muscle damage and impaired glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis during subsequent recovery. Recently, it was shown that the role and regulation of glycogen in skeletal muscle are dependent on its subcellular localization, and that glycogen synthesis, as described by the product of glycogen particle size and number, is dependent on the time course of recovery after exercise and carbohydrate availability. In the present study, we investigated the subcellular distribution of glycogen in fibers with high (type I) and low (type II) mitochondrial content during post-exercise recovery from eccentric contractions. Analysis was completed on five male subjects performing an exercise bout consisting of 15 x 10 maximal eccentric contractions. Carbohydrate-rich drinks were subsequently ingested throughout a 48 h recovery period and muscle biopsies for analysis included time points 3, 24 and 48 h post exercise from the exercising leg, whereas biopsies corresponding to prior to and at 48 h after the exercise bout were collected from the non-exercising, control leg. Quantitative imaging by transmission electron microscopy revealed an early (post 3 and 24 h) enhanced storage of intramyofibrillar glycogen (defined as glycogen particles located within the myofibrils) of type I fibers, which was associated with an increase in the number of particles. In contrast, late in recovery (post 48 h), intermyofibrillar, intramyofibrillar and subsarcolemmal glycogen in both type I and II fibers were lower in the exercise leg compared with the control leg, and this was associated with a smaller size of the glycogen particles. We conclude that in the carbohydrate-supplemented state, the effect of eccentric contractions on glycogen metabolism depends on the subcellular localization, muscle fiber’s oxidative capacity, and the time course of recovery. The early enhanced storage of intramyofibrillar glycogen after the eccentric contractions may entail important implications for muscle function and fatigue resistance. PMID:25996774

  11. Rapid and early ?-fetoprotein and des-?-carboxy prothrombin responses to initial arterial infusion chemotherapy predict treatment outcomes of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    OYAMA, KENJI; KODA, MASAHIKO; SUGIHARA, TAKAAKI; KISHINA, MANABU; MIYOSHI, KENICHI; OKAMOTO, TOSHIAKI; HODOTSUKA, MASANORI; FUJISE, YUKI; MATONO, TOMOMITSU; TOKUNAGA, SHIHO; OKAMOTO, KINYA; HOSHO, KEIKO; OKANO, JUNICHI; MURAWAKI, YOSHIKAZU

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to predict the effects of transarterial infusion (TAI) chemotherapy based on early changes in ?-fetoprotein (AFP) and des-?-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Seventy-four patients who underwent TAI with cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil, mitomycin C and epirubicin for advanced HCC were enrolled. Antitumor responses were evaluated 6 months after TAI. Rapid and early responses were defined as the ratio of AFP or DCP after 1 week and 1 month compared to baseline. A total of 5, 10, 17 and 42 patients had complete response (CR), partial response (PR), stable disease (SD) or progressive disease (PD), respectively. Early AFP response was significantly lower in the CR+PR compared to the SD+PD groups (P<0.01). The early DCP response was significantly lower in the CR+PR compared to the SD+PD. The sensitivity and specificity of rapid and early AFP responses in the CR+PR were 0.78 and 0.72, and 0.80 and 0.73, respectively, and those of rapid and early DCP responses were 0.67 and 0.65, and 0.77 and 0.71, respectively. The combination of AFP and DCP responses had higher specificity compared to AFP or DCP alone responses. Patients were divided into responder and non-responder groups to evaluate the prediction of survival outcome. Early responders of AFP, DCP and AFP+DCP, who were divided based on the cut-off values of CR+PR survived significantly longer than the non-responders (P<0.05). In conclusion, rapid or early responses of AFP and/or DCP levels 1 and 4 weeks after TAI chemotherapy helped to predict the treatment effects. PMID:26137283

  12. Pulmonary Artery Denervation Reduces Pulmonary Artery Pressure and Induces Histological Changes in an Acute Porcine Model of Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Nadine D.; Chang, William; Watson, Oliver; Swift, Andrew J.; Condliffe, Robin; Elliot, Charlie A.; Kiely, David G.; Suvarna, S. Kim; Gunn, Julian; Lawrie, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Background— Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a devastating disease with high morbidity and mortality and limited treatment options. Recent studies have shown that pulmonary artery denervation improves pulmonary hemodynamics in an experimental model and in an early clinical trial. We aimed to evaluate the nerve distribution around the pulmonary artery, to determine the effect of radiofrequency pulmonary artery denervation on acute pulmonary hypertension induced by vasoconstriction, and to demonstrate denervation of the pulmonary artery at a histological level. Methods and Results— Histological evaluation identified a circumferential distribution of nerves around the proximal pulmonary arteries. Nerves were smaller in diameter, greater in number, and located in closer proximity to the luminal aspect of the pulmonary arterial wall beyond the pulmonary artery bifurcation. To determine the effect of pulmonary arterial denervation acute pulmonary hypertension was induced in 8 pigs by intravenous infusion of thromboxane A2 analogue. Animals were assigned to either pulmonary artery denervation, using a prototype radiofrequency catheter and generator, or a sham procedure. Pulmonary artery denervation resulted in reduced mean pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance and increased cardiac output. Ablation lesions on the luminal surface of the pulmonary artery were accompanied by histological and biochemical alteration in adventitial nerves and correlated with improved hemodynamic parameters. Conclusions— Pulmonary artery denervation offers the possibility of a new treatment option for patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Further work is required to determine the long-term efficacy and safety. PMID:26553697

  13. Astrocyte differentiation is enhanced in chick embryos treated with ethanol during early neuroembryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, N; Grove, J; Vernadakis, A

    1995-09-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of ethanol administered to chick embryos, on the maturation of astrocytes, using glutamine synthetase (GS) activity as an astrocyte marker. Ethanol (50 mM) was administered in ovo via the air sac, embryos were sacrificed at various days of embryonic development and GS activity was determined in cerebral hemispheres and cerebellum. We found that in both cerebral hemispheres and cerebellum, GS activity was higher in the ethanol-treated embryos, as compared to controls, during the embryonic periods, E6 to E10 in the cerebral hemispheres and E10 to E14 in the cerebellum. These periods are characterized by increased neuronal differentiation in these CNS areas. The increase in GS activity in the ethanol-treated embryos is speculated to reflect either a transient reactive gliosis and/or an enhancement in the differentiation of radial glia, immature glia, to more mature astrocytes. PMID:8570019

  14. Modification of the Early Gene Enhancer-promoter Improves the Oncolytic Potency of Adenovirus 11

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Han Hsi; Jiang, Guozhong; Gangeswaran, Rathi; Wang, Pengju; Wang, Jiwei; Yuan, Ming; Wang, Hexiao; Bhakta, Vipul; Müller, Heike; Lemoine, Nicholas R; Wang, Yaohe

    2012-01-01

    Oncolytic adenoviruses based on serotype 5 (Ad5) have several shortcomings, including the downregulation of its receptor in cancer cells, high prevalence of neutralizing antibodies and hepatotoxicity. Another adenoviral serotype, Ad11, could overcome these obstacles. Here, we show that human cancer cell lines express higher levels of the Ad11 receptor CD46, resulting in much better infectivity than Ad5. Surprisingly, only 36% (9/25) of the cell lines were more sensitive to Ad11- than to Ad5-mediated cytotoxicity. Investigations revealed that it was the transcription of Ad11 E1A, not CD46 expression or virus infectivity, which determined the cell's sensitivity to Ad11 killing. Ad11 E1A mRNA levels have an effect on viral DNA replication, structural protein synthesis and infectious particle production. To test the hypothesis that increased E1A transcription would lead to improved Ad11 replication in Ad5-sensitive (but Ad11-less sensitive) cells, two Ad11 mutants (Ad11-Ad5-P and Ad11-Ad5-EP) were constructed where either the E1A promoter or enhancer-promoter, respectively, was replaced by that of Ad5. Ad11-Ad5-EP demonstrated increased E1A mRNA levels and replication, together with enhanced oncolytic potency in vitro and in vivo. This effect was found in both the Ad5-sensitive and Ad11-sensitive cancer cells, broadening the range of tumors that could be effectively killed by Ad11-Ad5-EP. PMID:22086234

  15. Spontaneous Isolated Celiac Artery and Superior Mesenteric Artery Dissections: A Rare Case

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Sonay; Ergun, Elif; Fatihoglu, Erdem; Durhan, Gamze; Kosar, Pinar Nercis

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Arterial dissection is defined as the cleavage of the arterial wall by an intramural hematoma. Reports of dissection of the celiac and/or superior mesenteric artery are rare; as far as we know, only 24 cases of spontaneous isolated celiac trunk dissection, and 71 cases of spontaneous isolated superior mesenteric artery dissection have been reported. Case Report The case presents a 48-year-old male with a sudden-onset epigastric pain. A Computed Tomography Angiography of the thoracoabdominal aorta was applied and dissections of both the celiac artery and SMA were determined. A conservative therapeutic approach was preferred and the patient was discharged with anticoagulant and antihypertensive therapy. Conclusions Although rare, spontaneous isolated celiac artery and superior mesenteric artery dissections must be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of the epigastric pain in the emergency room. Contrast-enhanced Computed Tomography Angiography examination is the method of choice in the diagnosis. PMID:26543511

  16. Clinical validation of surface-enhanced Raman scattering-based immunoassays in the early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Chon, Hyangah; Wang, Rui; Lee, Sangyeop; Bang, So-Young; Lee, Hye-Soon; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Hong, Sung Hyun; Yoon, Young Ho; Lim, Dong Woo; deMello, Andrew J; Choo, Jaebum

    2015-11-01

    We assessed the clinical feasibility of conducting immunoassays based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) in the early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). An autoantibody against citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) was used as a biomarker, magnetic beads conjugated with CCP were used as substrates, and the SERS nanotags were comprised of anti-human IgG-conjugated hollow gold nanospheres (HGNs). We were able to determine the anti-CCP serum levels successfully by observing the distinctive Raman intensities corresponding to the SERS nanotags. At high concentrations of anti-CCP (>25 U/mL), the results obtained from the SERS assay confirmed those obtained via an ELISA-based assay. Nevertheless, quantitation via our SERS-based assay is significantly more accurate at low concentrations (<25 U/mL). In this study, we compared the results of an anti-CCP assay of 74 clinical blood samples obtained from the SERS-based assay to that of a commercial ELISA kit. The results of the anti-CCP-positive group (n?=?31, >25 U/mL) revealed a good correlation between the ELISA and SERS-based assays. However, in the anti-CCP-negative group (n?=?43, <25 U/mL), the SERS-based assay was shown to be more reproducible. Accordingly, we suggest that SERS-based assays are novel and potentially useful tools in the early diagnosis of RA. PMID:26362159

  17. ZD7288 Enhances Long-Term Depression at Early Postnatal Medial Perforant Path-Granule Cell Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Guli, Xiati; Tokay, Tursonjan; Rohde, Marco; Bender, Roland A.; Köhling, Rüdiger; Kirschstein, Timo

    2012-01-01

    Hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated nonselective (HCN) channels modulate both membrane potential and resistance and play a significant role in synaptic plasticity. We compared the influence of HCN channels on long-term depression (LTD) at the medial perforant path-granule cell synapse in early postnatal (P9–15) and adult (P30–60) rats. LTD was elicited in P9–15 slices using low-frequency stimulation (LFS, 900 pulses, 1?Hz; 80 ± 4% of baseline). Application of the specific HCN channel blocker ZD7288 (10??M) before LFS significantly enhanced LTD (62 ± 4%; P < 0.01), showing HCN channels restrain LTD induction. However, when ZD7288 was applied after LFS, LTD was similar to control values and significantly different from the values obtained with ZD7288 application before LFS (81 ± 5%; P < 0.01), indicating that HCN channels do not modulate LTD expression. LTD in slices from adult rats were only marginally lower compared to those in P9–15 slices (85 ± 6%), but bath application of ZD7288 prior to LFS resulted in the same amount of LTD (85 ± 5%). HCN channels in adult tissue hence lose their modulatory effect. In conclusion, we found that HCN channels at the medial perforant path-granule cell synapse compromise LFS-associated induction, but not expression of LTD in early postnatal, but not in adult, rats. PMID:22792490

  18. ElarmS Earthquake Early Warning System Enhancements and Performance Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henson, I. H.; Neuhauser, D. S.; Allen, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    ElarmS is an earthquake early warning system that contributes alerts to CISN ShakeAlert, a prototype end-to-end earthquake early warning system being developed and tested by the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN). ElarmS is one of several systems that contribute to CISN ShakeAlert. The UC Berkeley ElarmS system consists of multiple continuous-waveform processors and trigger-association processors running at three geographical locations and communicating via the Apache ActiveMQ Messaging system. With performance monitoring tools, we review the system component latencies and earthquake hypocenter estimations. Statistics are presented for hypocenter and origin time accuracy and alert times latencies for the previous year by geographic regions. We are also testing the ElarmS system by replaying the raw waveform data for historical earthquakes of interest. This allows us to check the signal detection algorithm, the trigger associator and the magnitude estimator. Over the last year, ElarmS successfully alerted on all significant earthquakes (M>=4.5, 10 earthquakes) and generated no false alarms. This includes events in Los Angeles, Santa Rosa, offshore Eureka, and the southern Sierra. The magnitude estimates were within 0.5 magnitude units in all cases. The largest event was the M6.8 event offshore of Eureka. The initial ElarmS magnitude estimate was M6.3 with a location 7 km from the true (offshore) location. ElarmS also alerted on all of the larger (M>=4.5) aftershocks. The speed of the alert depends on the quality of the seismic network around the epicenter. For the M5.1 Los Angeles Le Habra event the alert was 4.2 sec after the origin time, this is typical for events in the LA region. For the Santa Rosa event the alert was 6.8 sec after the origin time, 10.8 for the southern Sierra event, and 25.7 for the (offshore) Eureka earthquake. Comparing the performance of ElarmS across the state for a wider range of magnitudes (M>=3) the effect of variable seismic network quality is very apparent. The performance is good to excellent in the SF Bay and LA areas where station coverage is densest. In the greater SF Bay Area of the 38 M>=3.0 events reported by the ANSS, 5 were missed (all in the Geysers Geothermal Area) and there were no false events. In the LA region, of the 35 M>=3.0 events, 4 were missed and there were 2 false events.

  19. Enhanced release of IgE-dependent early phase mediators from nasal polyp tissue

    PubMed Central

    Patou, Joke; Holtappels, Gabriele; Affleck, Karen; Gevaert, Philippe; Perez-Novo, Claudina; Van Cauwenberge, Paul; Bachert, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Background The mast cell is a crucial effector cell in allergic rhinitis and other inflammatory diseases. During the acute allergic reaction preformed mediators such as histamine, but also de novo produced mediators such as leukotrienes (LTC4/D4/E4) and prostaglandins (PGD2) are released. Mast cells represent targets for therapeutic intervention, and thus a human ex-vivo model to stimulate mast cells taken from mucosal sites would be instrumental for drug intervention studies. We have aimed to activate mast cells within ex-vivo human nasal tissue by IgE/anti-IgE specific (? chain specific) stimulations and in this respect to test the usability of nasal polyps versus inferior turbinates Methods Biopsy samples were collected from patients with nasal polyps and inferior turbinates from patients who underwent sinus or septal surgery. Tissue fragments were primed with IgE 1 ?g/ml for 60 minutes and then stimulated for 30 minutes with tissue culture medium (negative control), anti-IgE 10 ?g/ml, anti-IgE 30 ?g/ml and ionomycin 10 ?M (positive control). Histamine, leukotrienes and PGD2 were measured in supernatants. To help provide an understanding of the extent of the response, the number of tryptase and Fc?RI? positive cells was evaluated by means of immunohistochemistry and the Fc?RI?-chain was measured by means of quantitative PCR in the nasal polyp and inferior turbinate tissues. Finally, the correlation between IgE concentrations in the nasal tissue and the release of mediators was analysed. Results Stimulations with anti-IgE on IgE-primed nasal tissue fragments lead to a concentration-dependent release of histamine, leukotrienes and PGD2. The release of these early phase mediators was significantly higher in nasal polyps compared to inferior turbinates, although tryptase, Fc?RI? positive cells and Fc?RI?-chain transcripts were equally present in both groups. No correlation was found between baseline concentrations of IgE, and the release of histamine, LTC4/LTD4/LTE4 and PGD2 after stimulation. Conclusion This human nasal challenge model mimics the allergic early phase reaction. The release of histamine, cys-leukotrienes and PGD2 was significantly higher in nasal polyps versus inferior turbinates, however, this observation could not be explained by differences in mast cell or Fc?RI+ cell numbers. PMID:19379488

  20. Enhancement of Early Cervical Cancer Diagnosis with Epithelial Layer Analysis of Fluorescence Lifetime Images

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Jun; Fu, Chit Yaw; Ng, Beng Koon; Liu, Lin Bo; Lim-Tan, Soo Kim; Lee, Caroline Guat Lay

    2015-01-01

    This work reports the use of layer analysis to aid the fluorescence lifetime diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) from H&E stained cervical tissue sections. The mean and standard deviation of lifetimes in single region of interest (ROI) of cervical epithelium were previously shown to correlate to the gold standard histopathological classification of early cervical cancer. These previously defined single ROIs were evenly divided into layers for analysis. A 10-layer model revealed a steady increase in fluorescence lifetime from the inner to the outer epithelial layers of healthy tissue sections, suggesting a close association with cellular maturity. The shorter lifetime and minimal lifetime increase towards the epithelial surface of CIN-affected regions are in good agreement with the absence of cellular maturation in CIN. Mean layer lifetimes in the top-half cervical epithelium were used as feature vectors for extreme learning machine (ELM) classifier discriminations. It was found that the proposed layer analysis technique greatly improves the sensitivity and specificity to 94.6% and 84.3%, respectively, which can better supplement the traditional gold standard cervical histopathological examinations. PMID:25966026

  1. Brief Report: Can Metrics of Reporting Bias Enhance Early Autism Screening Measures?

    PubMed Central

    Vehorn, Alison; Noble, Hylan; Weitlauf, Amy S.; Warren, Zachary E.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to develop and pilot the utility of two simple internal response bias metrics, over-reporting and under-reporting, in terms of additive clinical value within common screening practices for early detection of autism spectrum disorder risk. Participants were caregivers and children under 36 months of age (n = 145) participating in first-time diagnostic appointments across our clinical research center due to developmental concerns. Caregivers were asked to complete the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (MCHAT) as well as a questionnaire embedding six response bias indicator questions. These questions were items that in previous clinical studies had been endorsed by an overwhelming majority of parents within clinically identified populations. Results indicated that removal of self-reports indicative of potential response bias dramatically reduced both false positives and false negatives on the MCHAT within this sample. This suggests that future work developing internal metrics of response bias may be promising in addressing limits of current screening measures and practices. PMID:24682706

  2. Early life adversity reduces stress reactivity and enhances impulsive behavior: Implications for health behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Lovallo, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Altered reactivity to stress, either in the direction of exaggerated reactivity or diminished reactivity, may signal a dysregulation of systems intended to maintain homeostasis and a state of good health. Evidence has accumulated that diminished reactivity to psychosocial stress may signal poor health outcomes. One source of diminished cortisol and autonomic reactivity is the experience of adverse rearing during childhood and adolescence. The Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project has examined a cohort of 426 healthy young adults with and without a family history of alcoholism. Regardless of family history, persons who had experienced high degrees of adversity prior to age 16 had a constellation of changes including reduced cortisol and heart rate reactivity, diminished cognitive capacity, and unstable regulation of affect, leading to behavioral impulsivity and antisocial tendencies. We present a model whereby this constellation of physiological, cognitive, and affective tendencies is consistent with altered central dopaminergic activity leading to changes in brain function that may foster impulsive and risky behaviors. These in turn may promote greater use of alcohol other drugs along with adopting poor health behaviors. This model provides a pathway from early life adversity to low stress reactivity that forms a basis for risky behaviors and poor health outcomes. PMID:23085387

  3. Early-Stage Imaging of Nanocarrier-Enhanced Chemotherapy Response in Living Subjects by Scalable Photoacoustic Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Conventional evaluation methods of chemotherapeutic efficacy such as tissue biopsy and anatomical measurement are either invasive with potential complications or dilatory to capture the rapid pathological changes. Here, a sensitive and resolution-scalable photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) with theranostic nanoformulation was developed to noninvasively monitor the therapy response in a timely manner. Ultrasmall graphene oxide nanosheets were designed as both drug-loading vehicle and photoacoustic signal amplifier to the tumor. With the signal enhancement by the injected contrast agents, the subtle microvascular changes of the chemotherapy response in tumor were advantagely revealed by our PAM system, which was much earlier than the morphological measurement by standard imaging techniques. High tumor uptake of the enhanced nanodrug with Cy5.5 labeling was validated by fluorescence imaging. At different observation scales, PAM offered unprecedented sensitivity of optical absorption and high spatial resolution over optical imaging. Our studies demonstrate the PAM system with synergistic theranostic strategy to be a multiplexing platform for tumor diagnosis, drug delivery, and chemotherapy response monitoring at a very early stage and in an effective way. PMID:25406986

  4. Preradiotherapy Calcium Scores of the Coronary Arteries in a Cohort of Women With Early-Stage Breast Cancer: A Comparison With a Cohort of Healthy Women

    SciTech Connect

    Mast, Mirjam E.; Heijenbrok, Mark W.; Petoukhova, Anna L.; Scholten, Astrid N.; Schreur, Joop H.M.; Struikmans, Henk

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: Breast cancer radiotherapy has been associated with an increased risk of cardiac toxicity. However, no data are available on the probability of developing coronary artery disease (CAD) in breast cancer patients when compared with healthy women. Therefore, baseline coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores, as an accepted tool to predict CAD, were determined and compared with the CAC scores of a healthy, asymptomatic cohort, the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. Methods and Materials: Eighty consecutive patients with ductal carcinoma in situ or infiltrative breast cancer referred for radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery were included in our study. Their cardiovascular risk profile was registered, and a 64 multislice CT scan was performed. The CAC scores of an unselected (Caucasian only) Radiotherapy Centre West (RCWEST) cohort, as well as of those of a selected (comorbidity and race adjusted) RCWEST cohort, were determined. The scores of both cohorts were compared with those of the female (Caucasian only) MESA cohort. Results: For the unselected RCWEST cohort (n = 62) we found significant (p < .01) higher scores for women in the 55-64 age category compared with those of the MESA cohort. In the selected cohort (n = 55) the CAC scores of the women in the age category 55-64 were significantly (p = .02) higher compared with the MESA cohort. No significant differences were noted in the other age categories. Conclusion: Both cohorts revealed that CAC scores in the 55-64 age category were significantly higher than the CAC scores in the asymptomatic (female) MESA population. These data suggest that breast cancer patients bear a higher risk of developing coronary heart disease before the start of radiotherapy. Therefore, measures to decrease cardiac dose further in breast cancer radiotherapy are even more important.

  5. Vaccination Enhances Early Immune Responses in White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei after Secondary Exposure to Vibrio alginolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yong-Chin; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Morni, Wan Zabidii W.; Putra, Dedi Fazriansyah; Huang, Chien-Lun; Li, Chang-Che; Hsieh, Jen-Fang

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent work suggested that the presence of specific memory or some form of adaptive immunity occurs in insects and shrimp. Hypervariable pattern recognition molecules, known as Down syndrome cell adhesion molecules, are able to mount specific recognition, and immune priming in invertebrates. In the present study, we attempted to understand the immune response pattern of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei which received primary (PE) and secondary exposure (SE) to Vibrio alginolyticus. Methodology Immune parameters and proliferation of haematopoietic tissues (HPTs) of shrimp which had received PE and SE to V. alginolyticus were measured. In the PE trial, the immune parameters and proliferation of HPTs of shrimp that received heat-killed V. alginolyticus (HVa) and formalin-inactivated V. alginolyticus (FVa) were measured. Mortality, immune parameters and proliferation of HPTs of 7-day-HVa-PE shrimp (shrimp that received primary exposure to HVa after 7 days) and 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp (shrimp that received primary exposure to FVa after 7 days) following SE to live V. alginolyticus (LVa) were measured. Phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency were examined for the 7?35-day-HVa-PE and FVa-PE shrimp. Results HVa-receiving shrimp showed an earlier increase in the immune response on day 1, whereas FVa-receiving shrimp showed a late increase in the immune response on day 5. The 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp showed enhancement of immunity when encountering SE to LVa, whereas 7-day-HVa-PE shrimp showed a minor enhancement in immunity. 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp showed higher proliferation and an HPT mitotic index. Both phagocytic activity and clearance maintained higher for both HVa-PE and FVa-PE shrimp after 28 days. Conclusions HVa- and FVa-receiving shrimp showed the bacteria agglutinated prior to being phagocytised. FVa functions as a vaccine, whereas HVa functions as an inducer and can be used as an immune adjuvant. A combined mixture of FVa and HVa can serve as a “vaccine component” to modulate the immunity of shrimp. PMID:23894531

  6. Engineered microporosity: enhancing the early regenerative potential of decellularized temporomandibular joint discs.

    PubMed

    Juran, Cassandra M; Dolwick, M Franklin; McFetridge, Peter S

    2015-02-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc is susceptible to numerous pathologies that may lead to structural degradation and jaw dysfunction. The limited treatment options and debilitating nature of severe temporomandibular disorders has been the primary driving force for the introduction and development of TMJ disc tissue engineering as an approach to alleviate this important clinical issue. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of laser micropatterning (LMP) ex vivo-derived TMJ disc scaffolds to enhance cellular integration, a major limitation to the development of whole tissue implant technology. LMP was incorporated into the decellularized extracellular matrix scaffold structure using a 40 W CO2 laser ablation system to drill an 8×16 pattern with a bore diameter of 120??m through the scaffold thickness. Disc scaffolds were seeded with human neonatal-derived umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells differentiated into chondrocytes at a density of 900 cells per mm(2) and then assessed on days 1, 7, 14, and 21 of culture. Results derived from histology, PicoGreen DNA quantification, and cellular metabolism assays indicate that the LMP scaffolds improve cellular remodeling compared to the unworked scaffold over the 21-day culture period. Mechanical analysis further supports the use of the LMP showing the compressive properties of the LMP constructs closely represent native disc mechanics. The addition of an artificial path of infiltration by LMP culminated in improved chondrocyte adhesion, dispersion, and migration after extended culture aiding in recapitulating the native TMJ disc characteristics. PMID:25319941

  7. Engineered Microporosity: Enhancing the Early Regenerative Potential of Decellularized Temporomandibular Joint Discs

    PubMed Central

    Juran, Cassandra M.; Dolwick, M. Franklin

    2015-01-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc is susceptible to numerous pathologies that may lead to structural degradation and jaw dysfunction. The limited treatment options and debilitating nature of severe temporomandibular disorders has been the primary driving force for the introduction and development of TMJ disc tissue engineering as an approach to alleviate this important clinical issue. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of laser micropatterning (LMP) ex vivo-derived TMJ disc scaffolds to enhance cellular integration, a major limitation to the development of whole tissue implant technology. LMP was incorporated into the decellularized extracellular matrix scaffold structure using a 40 W CO2 laser ablation system to drill an 8×16 pattern with a bore diameter of 120??m through the scaffold thickness. Disc scaffolds were seeded with human neonatal-derived umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells differentiated into chondrocytes at a density of 900 cells per mm2 and then assessed on days 1, 7, 14, and 21 of culture. Results derived from histology, PicoGreen DNA quantification, and cellular metabolism assays indicate that the LMP scaffolds improve cellular remodeling compared to the unworked scaffold over the 21-day culture period. Mechanical analysis further supports the use of the LMP showing the compressive properties of the LMP constructs closely represent native disc mechanics. The addition of an artificial path of infiltration by LMP culminated in improved chondrocyte adhesion, dispersion, and migration after extended culture aiding in recapitulating the native TMJ disc characteristics. PMID:25319941

  8. Improving theatre efficiency and utilisation through early identification of trauma patients and enhanced communication between teams

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Simon; Saithna, Adnan; Bethune, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Surgical departments are increasingly put under pressure to improve services, cut waiting lists, increase efficiency and save money. At a district general hospital in the west-midlands we approached the challenge of improving efficiency and optimising the services available in our orthopaedic theatres. Data was collected on: anaesthetic start times, operation start and finish times, and reasons for delay in our trauma theatre over a period from October 2014 to January 2015. During this period a change was implemented to improve the start time of the first operation of each day in the trauma theatre. Through adaptation of a method developed by Javed S et al, a patient was pre-selected by the on-call team and given the name the “golden patient” the day before they were due to be operated upon. This nominated patient would then be fixed at the start of the trauma theatre list the following day. The list would only then change if a “life or limb threatening” case was admitted overnight. The on-call team would prioritise that this patient was optimised for theatre and the theatre staff would ensure the surgical instruments were prepared. A PDSA cycle method was used, collecting data on 80 orthopaedic trauma cases during the period, and demonstrated a 59 minute (95% CI 45-72) improvement in start times from 10:49 AM to 9:50 AM with a p-value of 0.00024 with the intervention of early allocation of the first patient on the trauma list. A relatively simple intervention tool designed to improve communication within and between health-care teams can have a significant impact on the efficiency of a complex environment such as a trauma theatre. PMID:26734340

  9. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Carotid Artery Disease? Carotid artery disease is a disease in ... blood to your face, scalp, and neck. Carotid Arteries Figure A shows the location of the right ...

  10. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... brain with blood. If you have carotid artery disease, the arteries become narrow, usually because of atherosclerosis. ... one of the causes of stroke. Carotid artery disease often does not cause symptoms, but there are ...

  11. Enhancing hippocampal blood flow after cerebral ischemia and vasodilating basilar arteries: in vivo and in vitro neuroprotective effect of antihypertensive DDPH

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Li; Li, Qin; Wang, Wei-ting; Chen, Yu-hua; Guo, Lian-jun

    2015-01-01

    1-(2,6-Dimethylphenoxy)-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenylethylamino)-propane hydrochloride (DDPH) is a novel antihypertensive agent based on structural characteristics of mexiletine and verapamine. We investigated the effect of DDPH on vasodilatation and neuroprotection in a rat model of cerebral ischemia in vivo, and a rabbit model of isolated basilar arteries in vitro. Our results show that DDPH (10 mg/kg) significantly increased hippocampal blood flow in vivo in cerebral ischemic rats, and exerted dose-dependent relaxation of isolated basilar arteries contracted by histamine or KCl in the in vitro rabbit model. DDPH (3 × 10–5 M) also inhibited histamine-stimulated extracellular calcium influx and intracellular calcium release. Our findings suggest that DDPH has a vasodilative effect both in vivo and in vitro, which mediates a neuroprotective effect on ischemic nerve tissue. PMID:26170819

  12. Three-dimensional Dynamic Contrast-enhanced US Imaging for Early Antiangiogenic Treatment Assessment in a Mouse Colon Cancer Model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huaijun; Hristov, Dimitre; Qin, Jiale; Tian, Lu; Willmann, Jürgen K

    2015-11-01

    Purpose To evaluate feasibility and reproducibility of three-dimensional (3D) dynamic contrast material-enhanced (DCE) ultrasonographic (US) imaging by using a clinical matrix array transducer to assess early antiangiogenic treatment effects in human colon cancer xenografts in mice. Materials and Methods Animal studies were approved by the Institutional Administrative Panel on Laboratory Animal Care at Stanford University. Three-dimensional DCE US imaging with two techniques (bolus and destruction-replenishment) was performed in human colon cancer xenografts (n = 38) by using a clinical US system and transducer. Twenty-one mice were imaged twice to assess reproducibility. Seventeen mice were scanned before and 24 hours after either antiangiogenic (n = 9) or saline-only (n = 8) treatment. Data sets of 3D DCE US examinations were retrospectively segmented into consecutive 1-mm imaging planes to simulate two-dimensional (2D) DCE US imaging. Six perfusion parameters (peak enhancement [PE], area under the time-intensity curve [AUC], time to peak [TTP], relative blood volume [rBV], relative blood flow [rBF], and blood flow velocity) were measured on both 3D and 2D data sets. Percent area of blood vessels was quantified ex vivo with immunofluorescence. Statistical analyses were performed with the Wilcoxon rank test by calculating intraclass correlation coefficients and by using Pearson correlation analysis. Results Reproducibility of both 3D DCE US imaging techniques was good to excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.73-0.86). PE, AUC, rBV, and rBF significantly decreased (P ? .04) in antiangiogenic versus saline-treated tumors. rBV (r = 0.74; P = .06) and rBF (r = 0.85; P = .02) correlated with ex vivo percent area of blood vessels, although the statistical significance of rBV was not reached, likely because of small sample size. Overall, 2D DCE-US overestimated and underestimated treatment effects from up to 125-fold to170-fold compared with 3D DCE US imaging. If the central tumor plane was assessed, treatment response was underestimated up to threefold or overestimated up to 57-fold on 2D versus 3D DCE US images. Conclusion Three-dimensional DCE US imaging with a clinical matrix array transducer is feasible and reproducible to assess tumor perfusion in human colon cancer xenografts in mice and allows for assessment of early treatment response after antiangiogenic therapy. (©) RSNA, 2015. PMID:26020439

  13. The enhanced value of combining conventional and 'omics' analyses in early assessment of drug-induced hepatobiliary injury

    SciTech Connect

    Ellinger-Ziegelbauer, Heidrun; Adler, Melanie; Amberg, Alexander; Brandenburg, Arnd; Callanan, John J.; Connor, Susan; Fountoulakis, Michael; Gmuender, Hans; Gruhler, Albrecht; Hodson, Mark; Matheis, Katja A.; McCarthy, Diane; Raschke, Marian; Riefke, Bjoern; Schmitt, Christina S.; Sieber, Max; Sposny, Alexandra; Suter, Laura; Sweatman, Brian

    2011-04-15

    The InnoMed PredTox consortium was formed to evaluate whether conventional preclinical safety assessment can be significantly enhanced by incorporation of molecular profiling ('omics') technologies. In short-term toxicological studies in rats, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics data were collected and analyzed in relation to routine clinical chemistry and histopathology. Four of the sixteen hepato- and/or nephrotoxicants given to rats for 1, 3, or 14 days at two dose levels induced similar histopathological effects. These were characterized by bile duct necrosis and hyperplasia and/or increased bilirubin and cholestasis, in addition to hepatocyte necrosis and regeneration, hepatocyte hypertrophy, and hepatic inflammation. Combined analysis of liver transcriptomics data from these studies revealed common gene expression changes which allowed the development of a potential sequence of events on a mechanistic level in accordance with classical endpoint observations. This included genes implicated in early stress responses, regenerative processes, inflammation with inflammatory cell immigration, fibrotic processes, and cholestasis encompassing deregulation of certain membrane transporters. Furthermore, a preliminary classification analysis using transcriptomics data suggested that prediction of cholestasis may be possible based on gene expression changes seen at earlier time-points. Targeted bile acid analysis, based on LC-MS metabonomics data demonstrating increased levels of conjugated or unconjugated bile acids in response to individual compounds, did not provide earlier detection of toxicity as compared to conventional parameters, but may allow distinction of different types of hepatobiliary toxicity. Overall, liver transcriptomics data delivered mechanistic and molecular details in addition to the classical endpoint observations which were further enhanced by targeted bile acid analysis using LC/MS metabonomics.

  14. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? expressed by bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells regulates early B-cell lymphopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Satoshi; Miura, Yasuo; Yao, Hisayuki; Satake, Sakiko; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Tamura, Akihiro; Hishita, Terutoshi; Ichinohe, Tatsuo; Hirai, Hideyo; Takaor-Kondo, Akifumi; Maekawa, Taira

    2014-03-01

    The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? (C/EBP?) regulates the differentiation of a variety of cell types. Here, the role of C/EBP? expressed by bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMMSCs) in B-cell lymphopoiesis was examined. The size of the precursor B-cell population in bone marrow was reduced in C/EBP?-knockout (KO) mice. When bone marrow cells from C/EBP?-KO mice were transplanted into lethally irradiated wild-type (WT) mice, which provide a normal bone marrow microenvironment, the size of the precursor B-cell population was restored to a level equivalent to that generated by WT bone marrow cells. In coculture experiments, BMMSCs from C/EBP?-KO mice did not support the differentiation of WT c-Kit(+) Sca-1(+) Lineage(-) hematopoietic stem cells (KSL cells) into precursor B cells, whereas BMMSCs from WT mice did. The impaired differentiation of KSL cells correlated with the reduced production of CXCL12/stromal cell-derived factor-1 by the cocultured C/EBP?-deficient BMMSCs. The ability of C/EBP?-deficient BMMSCs to undergo osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation was also defective. The survival of leukemic precursor B cells was poorer when they were cocultured with C/EBP?-deficient BMMSCs than when they were cocultured with WT BMMSCs. These results indicate that C/EBP? expressed by BMMSCs plays a crucial role in early B-cell lymphopoiesis. PMID:24115241

  15. Gallium-67 uptake in the lung of asbestos exposed sheep: early association with enhanced macrophage-derived fibronectin accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Begin, R.; Bisson, G.; Lambert, R.; Cote, Y.; Fabi, D.; Martel, M.; Lamoureux, G.; Rola-Pleszczynski, M.; Boctor, M.; Dalle, D.

    1986-04-01

    To evaluate the time course and mechanisms of enhanced /sup 67/Ga lung uptake in asbestosis, we exposed two groups of sheep every 2 wk to either 100 ml saline (controls) or 100 mg UICC chrysotile fibers in 100 ml saline. The sheep were evaluated periodically by pulmonary function tests (PFT), thoracic radiograph (TR), /sup 67/Ga lung scan, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and transbronchial lung biopsy (TLB). By month 24 of the study, 9/15 exposed sheep had developed the initial alveolitis and had significant changes in PFT, TR, and TLB. The other six exposed sheep differed from controls only by a 75% increase in BAL fibronectin until month 30, where significant changes in albumin occurred and /sup 67/Ga scan score increased. The nine sheep with alveolitis had significant sustained increases in /sup 67/Ga scan and BAL levels from month 6, associated with a 150% increase in BAL fibronectin and other parameters of disease activity changed from month 18 to 30. We concluded that in the sheep model of asbestosis, significant changes in /sup 67/Ga scan, /sup 67/Ga BAL counts, and excessive elevation of BAL fibronectin preceded other parameters of disease activity. The data suggest that excessively activated macrophages are primarily responsible for the early /sup 67/Ga lung uptake.

  16. Expression of Rice Chitinase Gene in Genetically Engineered Tomato Confers Enhanced Resistance to Fusarium Wilt and Early Blight

    PubMed Central

    Jabeen, Nyla; Chaudhary, Zubeda; Gulfraz, Muhammad; Rashid, Hamid; Mirza, Bushra

    2015-01-01

    This is the first study reporting the evaluation of transgenic lines of tomato harboring rice chitinase (RCG3) gene for resistance to two important fungal pathogens Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) causing fusarium wilt and Alternaria solani causing early blight (EB). In this study, three transgenic lines TL1, TL2 and TL3 of tomato Solanum lycopersicum Mill. cv. Riogrande genetically engineered with rice chitinase (RCG 3) gene and their R1 progeny was tested for resistance to Fol by root dip method and A. solani by detached leaf assay. All the R0 transgenic lines were highly resistant to these fungal pathogens compared to non-transgenic control plants. The pattern of segregation of three independent transformant for Fol and A. solani was also studied. Mendelian segregation was observed in transgenic lines 2 and 3 while it was not observed in transgenic line 1. It was concluded that introduction of chitinase gene in susceptible cultivar of tomato not only enhanced the resistance but was stably inherited in transgenic lines 2 and 3. PMID:26361473

  17. Influence of an Early Recovery Telehealth Intervention on Physical Activity and Functioning following Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery (CABS) among Older Adults with High Disease Burden

    PubMed Central

    Barnason, Susan; Zimmerman, Lani; Schulz, Paula; Tu, Chunhao

    2009-01-01

    Background Older adults with poor functioning preoperatively are at risk for delayed recovery and more impaired outcomes following CABS. Purpose To determine if a 6-week early recovery telehealth intervention, designed to improve self-efficacy and management related to symptoms following CABS, was effective in improving outcomes (physical activity, physiological and psychological functioning) for older adults (> 65 years old) with higher disease burden. Design A descriptive, repeated measures experimental design was used. Follow-up data was collected at 3- and 6-weeks and 3-months after CABS. Sample Subjects were drawn from a larger randomized clinical trial (RCT). Parent study subjects who had high disease burden preoperatively [physical component score of <50 on the Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 (MOS SF-36) and a RISKO score of > 6], were included (N=55); with 23 subjects in the early recovery intervention group and 31 subjects in the usual care group (n=31). Subjects ranged from 65–85 years old (M=71.6 + 5.1). Findings There was a significant main effect by group [F(1,209)=4.66, p<.05), the intervention group had a least square means of 27.9 kcal/kg/day of energy expenditure compared to the usual care group of 26.6 kcal/kg/day per the RT3® accelerometer. Both groups had significantly improved physical [F(2,171)=3.26, p<.05] and role-physical [F(2,171)=6.64, p<.005] functioning over time. Conclusions The subgroup of CABS subjects with high disease burden was responsive to an early recovery telehealth intervention. Improving patients’ physical activity and functioning can reduce morbidity and mortality associated with poor functioning after cardiac events. PMID:19944870

  18. Vapor resistant arteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor); Dussinger, Peter M. (Inventor); Buchko, Matthew T. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A vapor block resistant liquid artery structure for heat pipes. A solid tube artery with openings is encased in the sintered material of a heat pipe wick. The openings are limited to that side of the artery which is most remote from the heat source. The liquid in the artery can thus exit the artery through the openings and wet the sintered sheath, but vapor generated at the heat source is unlikely to move around the solid wall of the artery and reverse its direction in order to penetrate the artery through the openings. An alternate embodiment uses finer pore size wick material to resist vapor entry.

  19. A Genome-Wide RNAi Screen for Enhancers of par Mutants Reveals New Contributors to Early Embryonic Polarity in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Diane G.; Hoose, Wendy A.; Kemphues, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    The par genes of Caenorhabditis elegans are essential for establishment and maintenance of early embryo polarity and their homologs in other organisms are crucial polarity regulators in diverse cell types. Forward genetic screens and simple RNAi depletion screens have identified additional conserved regulators of polarity in C. elegans; genes with redundant functions, however, will be missed by these approaches. To identify such genes, we have performed a genome-wide RNAi screen for enhancers of lethality in conditional par-1 and par-4 mutants. We have identified 18 genes for which depletion is synthetically lethal with par-1 or par-4, or both, but produces little embryo lethality in wild type. Fifteen of the 18 genes identified in our screen are not previously known to function in C. elegans embryo polarity and 11 of them also increase lethality in a par-2 mutant. Among the strongest synthetic lethal genes, polarity defects are more apparent in par-2 early embryos than in par-1 or par-4, except for strd-1(RNAi), which enhances early polarity phenotypes in all three mutants. One strong enhancer of par-1 and par-2 lethality, F25B5.2, corresponds to nop-1, a regulator of actomyosin contractility for which the molecular identity was previously unknown. Other putative polarity enhancers identified in our screen encode cytoskeletal and membrane proteins, kinases, chaperones, and sumoylation and deubiquitylation proteins. Further studies of these genes should give mechanistic insight into pathways regulating establishment and maintenance of cell polarity. PMID:22887819

  20. The history of arterial revascularization: from Kolesov to Tector and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Galvin, Sean D.

    2013-01-01

    Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is the one of the most effective revascularization strategies for patients with obstructive coronary artery disease. Total arterial revascularization using one or both internal thoracic and radial arteries has been shown to improve early outcomes and reduce long-term cardiovascular morbidity. Although CABG has evolved from an experimental procedure in the early 1900’s to become one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures, there is still significant variation in grafting strategies amongst surgeons. We review the history and development of CABG with a particular emphasis on the early pioneers and the evolution of arterial grafting. PMID:23977617

  1. A rare case of unilateral variations of forearm arteries: anatomy, embryology and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Kumka, Myroslava; Purkiss, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    This study documents the existence and topographic anatomy of a rare case of variant forearm arteries found in the left upper limb of a 68-year-old male cadaver. The arteries of the arm followed typical courses, but both the radial and ulnar arteries in the forearm followed a superficial course. The common interosseous artery and recurrent ulnar arteries branched from the radial, not the ulnar, artery. The radial artery was larger than the ulnar artery and was the major source of blood supply to the forearm. Clinical implications for single superficial forearm arteries are reviewed. A person with both superficial radial and superficial ulnar arteries would be at a substantially increased risk of injury or iatrogenic effects that could compromise blood supply to the hand. This study will enhance clinician’s awareness of potential arterial variations, so they can provide adequate assessment, diagnosis and treatment of upper limb lesions. PMID:26500359

  2. Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement for Chronic Pain and Prescription Opioid Misuse: Results from an Early Stage Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Eric L.; Manusov, Eron G.; Froeliger, Brett; Kelly, Amber; Williams, Jaclyn M.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Opioid pharmacotherapy is now the leading treatment for chronic pain, a problem that affects nearly one-third of the United States population. Given the dramatic rise in prescription opioid misuse and opioid-related mortality, novel behavioral interventions are needed. The purpose of this study was to conduct an early stage randomized controlled trial of Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE), a multimodal intervention designed to simultaneously target mechanisms underpinning chronic pain and opioid misuse. Method Chronic pain patients (N=115; mean age = 48±14; 68% female) were randomized to 8 weeks of MORE or a Support Group (SG). Outcomes were measured at pre- and post-treatment, and at 3-month follow-up. The Brief Pain Inventory assessed changes in pain severity and interference. Changes in opioid use disorder status were measured by the Current Opioid Misuse Measure. Desire for opioids, stress, nonreactivity, reinterpretation of pain sensations, and reappraisal were also evaluated. Results MORE participants reported significantly greater reductions in pain severity (p = .038) and interference (p = .003) than SG participants, which were maintained by 3-month follow-up and mediated by increased nonreactivity and reinterpretation of pain sensations. Compared with SG participants, participants in MORE evidenced significantly less stress arousal (p = .034) and desire for opioids (p = .027), and were significantly more likely to no longer meet criteria for opioid use disorder immediately following treatment (p = .05); however, these effects were not sustained at follow-up. Conclusions Findings demonstrate preliminary feasibility and efficacy of MORE as a treatment for co-occurring prescription opioid misuse and chronic pain. PMID:24491075

  3. JC virus promoter/enhancers contain TATA box-associated Spi-B-binding sites that support early viral gene expression in primary astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Leslie J.; Moore, Lisa D.; Mirsky, Matthew M.

    2012-01-01

    JC virus (JCV) is the aetiological agent of the demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, an AIDS defining illness and serious complication of mAb therapies. Initial infection probably occurs in childhood. In the working model of dissemination, virus persists in the kidney and lymphoid tissues until immune suppression/modulation causes reactivation and trafficking to the brain where JCV replicates in oligodendrocytes. JCV infection is regulated through binding of host factors such as Spi-B to, and sequence variation in the non-coding control region (NCCR). Although NCCR sequences differ between sites of persistence and pathogenesis, evidence suggests that the virus that initiates infection in the brain disseminates via B-cells derived from latently infected haematopoietic precursors in the bone marrow. Spi-B binds adjacent to TATA boxes in the promoter/enhancer of the PML-associated JCV Mad-1 and Mad-4 viruses but not the non-pathogenic, kidney-associated archetype. The Spi-B-binding site of Mad-1/Mad-4 differs from that of archetype by a single nucleotide, AAAAGGGAAGGGA to AAAAGGGAAGGTA. Point mutation of the Mad-1 Spi-B site reduced early viral protein large T-antigen expression by up to fourfold. Strikingly, the reverse mutation in the archetype NCCR increased large T-antigen expression by 10-fold. Interestingly, Spi-B protein binds the NCCR sequence flanking the viral promoter/enhancer, but these sites are not essential for early viral gene expression. The effect of mutating Spi-B-binding sites within the JCV promoter/enhancer on early viral gene expression strongly suggests a role for Spi-B binding to the viral promoter/enhancer in the activation of early viral gene expression. PMID:22071512

  4. Cooled artery extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artery vapor trap. A heat pipe artery is constructed with an extension protruding from the evaporator end of the heat pipe beyond the active area of the evaporator. The vapor migrates into the artery extension because of gravity or liquid displacement, and cooling the extension condenses the vapor to liquid, thus preventing vapor lock in the working portion of the artery by removing vapor from within the active artery. The condensed liquid is then transported back to the evaporator by the capillary action of the artery extension itself or by wick located within the extension.

  5. The Contribution of Arterial Calcification to Peripheral Arterial Disease in Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum

    PubMed Central

    Leftheriotis, Georges; Kauffenstein, Gilles; Hamel, Jean François; Abraham, Pierre; Le Saux, Olivier; Willoteaux, Serge; Henrion, Daniel; Martin, Ludovic

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims The contribution of arterial calcification (AC) in peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and arterial wall compressibility is a matter of debate. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), an inherited metabolic disease due to ABCC6 gene mutations, combines elastic fiber fragmentation and calcification in various soft tissues including the arterial wall. Since AC is associated with PAD, a frequent complication of PXE, we sought to determine the role of AC in PAD and arterial wall compressibility in this group of patients. Methods and Results Arterial compressibility and patency were determined by ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI) in a cohort of 71 PXE patients (mean age 48±SD 14 yrs, 45 women) and compared to 30 controls without PAD. Lower limb arterial calcification (LLAC) was determined by non-contrast enhanced helicoidal CT-scan. A calcification score (Ca-score) was computed for the femoral, popliteal and sub-popliteal artery segments of both legs. Forty patients with PXE had an ABI<0.90 and none had an ABI>1.40. LLAC increased with age, significantly more in PXE subjects than controls. A negative association was found between LLAC and ABI (r?=??0.363, p?=?0.002). The LLAC was independently associated with PXE and age, and ABI was not linked to cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions The presence of AC was associated with PAD and PXE without affecting arterial compressibility. PAD in PXE patients is probably due to proximal obstructive lesions developing independently from cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:24800819

  6. Coronary Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. It is the leading cause of death ... both men and women. CAD happens when the arteries that supply blood to heart muscle become hardened ...

  7. Coronary artery disease

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... heart muscle itself. Damage to or blockage of a coronary artery can result in injury to the heart. Normally, blood flows through a coronary artery unimpeded. However, a process called atherosclerosis ...

  8. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cerebrovascular disease, stroke, transient ischemic attacks (TIA) Carotid artery disease is a form of disease that affects ... to the brain by the 2 large carotid arteries in the front of your neck and by ...

  9. Early and long-term outcome of elective stenting of the infarct-related artery in patients with viability in the infarct-area: Rationale and design of the Viability-guided Angioplasty after acute Myocardial Infarction-trial (The VIAMI-trial)

    PubMed Central

    van Loon, Ramon B; Veen, Gerrit; Kamp, Otto; Bronzwaer, Jean GF; Visser, Cees A; Visser, Frans C

    2004-01-01

    Background Although percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is becoming the standard therapy in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), to date most patients, even in developed countries, are reperfused with intravenous thrombolysis or do not receive a reperfusion therapy at all. In the post-lysis period these patients are at high risk for recurrent ischemic events. Early identification of these patients is mandatory as this subgroup could possibly benefit from an angioplasty of the infarct-related artery. Since viability seems to be related to ischemic adverse events, we initiated a clinical trial to investigate the benefits of PCI with stenting of the infarct-related artery in patients with viability detected early after acute myocardial infarction. Methods The VIAMI-study is designed as a prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Patients who are hospitalized with an acute myocardial infarction and who did not have primary or rescue PCI, undergo viability testing by low-dose dobutamine echocardiography (LDDE) within 3 days of admission. Consequently, patients with demonstrated viability are randomized to an invasive or conservative strategy. In the invasive strategy patients undergo coronary angiography with the intention to perform PCI with stenting of the infarct-related coronary artery and concomitant use of abciximab. In the conservative group an ischemia-guided approach is adopted (standard optimal care). The primary end point is the composite of death from any cause, reinfarction and unstable angina during a follow-up period of three years. Conclusion The primary objective of the VIAMI-trial is to demonstrate that angioplasty of the infarct-related coronary artery with stenting and concomitant use of abciximab results in a clinically important risk reduction of future cardiac events in patients with viability in the infarct-area, detected early after myocardial infarction. PMID:15538946

  10. Systematic analysis on the relationship between luminal enhancement, convolution kernel, plaque density, and luminal diameter of coronary artery stenosis: a CT phantom study.

    PubMed

    Morsbach, Fabian; Berger, Nicole; Desbiolles, Lotus; Poropat, Tadea; Leschka, Sebastian; Alkadhi, Hatem; Stolzmann, Paul

    2013-06-01

    To systematically investigate into the relationships between luminal enhancement, convolution kernel, plaque density, and stenosis severity in coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography. A coronary phantom including 63 stenoses (stenosis severity, 10-90%; plaque densities, -100 to 1,000 HU) was loaded with increasing solutions of contrast material (luminal enhancement, 0-700 HU) and scanned in an anthropomorphic chest. CT data was acquired with prospective triggering using 64-section dual-source CT; reconstructions were performed with soft-tissue (B26f) and sharp convolution kernels (B46f). Two blinded and independent readers quantitatively assessed luminal diameter and CT number of plaque using electronic calipers. Measurement bias between phantom dimensions and CT measurements were calculated. Multivariate linear regression models identified predictors of bias. Inter- and intra-reader agreements of luminal diameter and CT number measurements were excellent (ICCs > 0.91, p < 0.01, each). Measurement bias of luminal diameter and plaque density was significantly (p < 0.01, each) lower (-12% and 58 HU, respectively) with B46f as opposed to B26f, especially in plaque densities >200 HU. Measurement bias was significantly (p < 0.01, each) correlated (? = 0.37-55 and ? = -0.70-85) with the differences between luminal enhancement and plaque density. In multivariate models, bias of luminal diameter assessment with CT was correlated with plaque density (? = 0.09, p < 0.05). Convolution kernel (? = -0.29 and -0.38), stenosis severity (? = -0.45 and -0.38), and luminal enhancement (? = -0.11 and -0.29) represented independent (p < 0.05,each) predictors of measurement bias of luminal diameter and plaque number, respectively. Significant independent relationships exist between luminal enhancement, convolution kernel, plaque density, and luminal diameter, which have to be taken into account when performing, evaluating, and interpreting coronary CT angiography. PMID:23329389

  11. Science Education in Early Childhood Teacher Education: Putting Forward a Case to Enhance Student Teachers' Confidence and Competence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbett, Dawn

    2003-08-01

    New Zealand is moving towards increased qualification requirements for early childhood educators. There is an underlying assumption that there is a correlation between quality early childhood education, teacher qualifications and quality practices in teaching and learning. Two fields of literature, early childhood pedagogy and science specific pedagogy, are reviewed briefly to provide a framework with which to consider why student teachers' attitudes, misunderstandings and misconceptions in science can limit their ability and willingness to create quality teaching and learning opportunities. The study reported in this paper highlights, in general, that early childhood student teachers' subject knowledge in science was poor. It also emerged that the student teachers were unaware of how little they knew and how this might affect their ability to provide appropriate science experiences for young children.

  12. Jet pump assisted artery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A procedure for priming an arterial heat pump is reported; the procedure also has a means for maintaining the pump in a primed state. This concept utilizes a capillary driven jet pump to create the necessary suction to fill the artery. Basically, the jet pump consists of a venturi or nozzle-diffuser type constriction in the vapor passage. The throat of this venturi is connected to the artery. Thus vapor, gas, liquid, or a combination of the above is pumped continuously out of the artery. As a result, the artery is always filled with liquid and an adequate supply of working fluid is provided to the evaporator of the heat pipe.

  13. External artery heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor); Ernst, Donald M. (Inventor); Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An improved heat pipe with an external artery. The longitudinal slot in the heat pipe wall which interconnects the heat pipe vapor space with the external artery is completely filled with sintered wick material and the wall of the external artery is also covered with sintered wick material. This added wick structure assures that the external artery will continue to feed liquid to the heat pipe evaporator even if a vapor bubble forms within and would otherwise block the liquid transport function of the external artery.

  14. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in mouse tumors at 11.7 T: comparison of three contrast agents with different molecular weights to assess the early effects of combretastatin A4.

    PubMed

    Fruytier, A-C; Magat, J; Neveu, M-A; Karroum, O; Bouzin, C; Feron, O; Jordan, B; Cron, G O; Gallez, B

    2014-11-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI is useful to assess the early effects of drugs acting on tumor vasculature, namely anti-angiogenic and vascular disrupting agents. Ultra-high-field MRI allows higher-resolution scanning for DCE-MRI while maintaining an adequate signal-to-noise ratio. However, increases in susceptibility effects, combined with decreases in longitudinal relaxivity of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GdCAs), make DCE-MRI more challenging at high field. The aim of this work was to explore the feasibility of using DCE-MRI at 11.7 T to assess the tumor hemodynamics of mice. Three GdCAs possessing different molecular weights (gadoterate: 560 Da, 0.29 mmol Gd/kg; p846: 3.5 kDa, 0.10 mmol Gd/kg; and p792: 6.47 kDa, 0.15 mmol Gd/kg) were compared to see the influence of the molecular weight in the highlight of the biologic effects induced by combretastatin A4 (CA4). Mice bearing transplantable liver tumor (TLT) hepatocarcinoma were divided into two groups (n = 5-6 per group and per GdCA): a treated group receiving 100 mg/kg CA4, and a control group receiving vehicle. The mice were imaged at 11.7 T with a T1 -weighted FLASH sequence 2 h after the treatment. Individual arterial input functions (AIFs) were computed using phase imaging. These AIFs were used in the Extended Tofts Model to determine K(trans) and vp values. A separate immunohistochemistry study was performed to assess the vascular perfusion and the vascular density. Phase imaging was used successfully to measure the AIF for the three GdCAs. In control groups, an inverse relationship between the molecular weight of the GdCA and K(trans) and vp values was observed. K(trans) was significantly decreased in the treated group compared with the control group for each GdCA. DCE-MRI at 11.7 T is feasible to assess tumor hemodynamics in mice. With K(trans) , the three GdCAs were able to track the early vascular effects induced by CA4 treatment. PMID:25323069

  15. Neighborhood contexts experienced by young Mexican-American women: enhancing our understanding of risk for early childbearing.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Dawn M; Nuru-Jeter, Amani M

    2012-02-01

    Young Mexican-American women are disproportionately affected by teen pregnancy and early childbearing. While many of the studies that have investigated this population's high risk for early childbearing have focused predominantly on micro-level factors, a growing body of research has demonstrated the importance of neighborhood-level factors in shaping risk for this outcome. In order to elucidate the role of neighborhood context with regards to early childbearing among adolescent Mexican-American women, it is important to understand what these young women consider to be their neighborhood context and how they experience these contexts. This study utilized a mixed-methods design incorporating participatory photography, photo-elicitation, and focus groups in order to gain a more nuanced understanding of how neighborhood context is conceptualized and experienced by Mexican-American young women, and how these experiences may influence risk for early childbearing. Major findings include: (1) participants view the blocks on which they live as their neighborhood, but their exposure to neighborhood context extends beyond these blocks and includes the transient spaces they move through daily; and (2) within their neighborhood contexts, participants are influenced by experiences of discrimination and the presence of gangs and violence. These findings point to the importance of neighborhood-level factors in the lives of adolescent Mexican-American women, and may be used to inform future studies looking at the role of neighborhood context in shaping risk for early childbearing among this population. PMID:22143409

  16. Purification and functional characterization of a cellular transcription factor that binds to an enhancer element within the adenovirus early EIIa promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Jalinot, P; Wintzerith, M; Gaire, M; Hauss, C; Egly, J M; Kédinger, C

    1988-01-01

    The adenovirus EIa-inducible early EIIa (EIIaE) promoter is comprised of several sequence elements essential for constitutive and induced expression. We report here the purification of the host-cell factor that interacts with the major upstream element of this promoter, extending between positions -90 and -70 with respect to the main EIIaE cap site and exhibiting enhancer properties. The purified factor, which corresponds to a 40- to 43-kDa polypeptide, specifically binds to its recognition site and stimulates EIIaE promoter activity when added to an in vitro transcription system, reconstituted from purified factors and RNA polymerase. The implication of this factor in the control of the other adenovirus early genes is discussed. Images PMID:2965812

  17. Effect of Enhanced External Counterpulsation and Cardiac Rehabilitation on Quality of Life, Plasma Nitric Oxide, Endothelin 1 and High Sensitive CRP in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Shakouri, Seyed Kazem; Razavi, Zeynab; Eslamian, Fariba; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Ghaffari, Samad

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) on plasma nitric oxide (NO), Endothelin 1 (ET1), high sensitive C-reactive protein (HSCRP) and quality of life (QoL) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods We conducted a pilot randomized clinical trial in order to evaluate plasma NO, ET1, HSCRP and QoL before and after twenty sessions of EECP (group A) and cardiac rehabilitation (CR, group B) in 42 patients with CAD (21 in each group). Results Forty-two patients (33 male and 9 female) were included in the study. The mean age was 58.2±10 years. The mean HSCRP was 1.52±0.7 in the EECP group and it was reduced to 1.27±0.4 after intervention. The reduction in HSCRP was not statistically significant in EECP and CR groups with p=0.33 and p=0.27, respectively. There was not significant improvement of NO, ET1, and QoL in the EECP and CR groups shortly after therapy (p>0.05). Conclusion Although the short-term EECP treatment in CAD patients improved HSCRP, NO, ET1, and QoL compared with the baseline those improvements are not statistically significant. Further studies are necessary with large study groups and more sessions. PMID:25932415

  18. Enhancements to and Characterization of the Very Early Time Electromagnetic (VETEM) Prototype Instrument and Applications to Shallow Subsurface Imaging at Sites in the DOE Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, David L.; Chew, Weng Cho

    2000-06-01

    The objective of this research is to enhance the state-of-the-art in electromagnetic imaging of the shallow subsurface in electrically conductive media where groundpenetrating radar (GPR) provides insufficient penetration and time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) systems provide insufficient resolution. This objective is being pursued by instrumentation enhancements to the existing very early time electromagnetic (VETEM) system coupled with physical and numerical modeling. Success in this endeavor will improve the speed and accuracy of waste pit and trench location and characterization, and could have additional applications to shallow DNAPL and LNAPL spill and cleanup monitoring, clay barrier integrity assessment, and landfill stabilization monitoring. This could result in significant savings in time and money during characterization, remediation, and decommissioning of facilities.

  19. Enhanced production of IL-8 in chronic but not in early ileal lesions of Crohn's disease (CD)

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, E; Colombel, J-F; Ectors, N; Gambiez, L; Emilie, D; Geboes, K; Capron, M; Desreumaux, P

    2000-01-01

    Distinct Th1/Th2 patterns have been observed during the evolution of CD. The aim of this study was to compare neutrophil involvement and IL-8 mRNA and protein expression during early recurrent lesions and chronic phases of CD. Twenty-nine patients with CD having ileocolonic resection with anastomosis were studied. Biopsies were obtained during surgery from the non-inflamed ileal mucosa and from chronic ileal lesions. Endoscopic ileal biopsies were also taken from early recurrent ileal lesions occurring 3 months after surgery. Neutrophil counts were performed and mucosal IL-8 levels were evaluated by competitive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Early recurrent ileal lesions were characterized by low neutrophil counts and IL-8 production at the mRNA and protein levels compared with the ileal chronic lesions. The main cellular sources of IL-8 in the early recurrent lesions were neutrophils, while in chronic lesions the majority of IL-8-stained cells were CD3+ T cells and macrophages. These results confirmed that the nature of the inflammatory infiltrate and the expression of cytokine profiles may differ between the acute and chronic phases of CD. PMID:11091272

  20. Vygotskian Perspectives on Using Dramatic Play to Enhance Children's Development and Balance Creativity with Structure in the Early Childhood Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Amita

    2009-01-01

    What kind of environmental and administrative factors support the balance between child-centred and teacher-directed practices in the early childhood classroom? What specific aspects of children's development are nurtured by this pedagogy? These and other pedagogical issues are addressed in this article as it describes how a particular curriculum…

  1. Ruptured visceral artery aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Chiaradia, M; Novelli, L; Deux, J-F; Tacher, V; Mayer, J; You, K; Djabbari, M; Luciani, A; Rahmouni, A; Kobeiter, H

    2015-01-01

    Visceral artery aneurysms are rare but their estimated mortality due to rupture ranges between 25 and 70%. Treatment of visceral artery aneurysm rupture is usually managed by interventional radiology. Specific embolization techniques depend on the location, affected organ, locoregional arterial anatomy, and interventional radiologist skill. The success rate following treatment by interventional radiology is greater than 90%. The main complication is recanalization of the aneurysm, showing the importance of post-therapeutic monitoring, which should preferably be performed using MR imaging. PMID:26054246

  2. Spatial attention triggered by eye gaze enhances and speeds up visual processing in upper and lower visual fields beyond early

    E-print Network

    Rossion, Bruno

    Spatial attention triggered by eye gaze enhances and speeds up visual processing in upper and lower of a lateralized visual target is faster when preceded by a face gazing to the location of this stimulus. Here we, and was preceded by a central face orienting its gaze obliquely to one of the four possible corner locations

  3. Ocean Warming Enhances Malformations, Premature Hatching, Metabolic Suppression and Oxidative Stress in the Early Life Stages of a Keystone Squid

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Rui; Pimentel, Marta S.; Boavida-Portugal, Joana; Teixeira, Tatiana; Trübenbach, Katja; Diniz, Mário

    2012-01-01

    Background The knowledge about the capacity of organisms’ early life stages to adapt to elevated temperatures is very limited but crucial to understand how marine biota will respond to global warming. Here we provide a comprehensive and integrated view of biological responses to future warming during the early ontogeny of a keystone invertebrate, the squid Loligo vulgaris. Methodology/Principal Findings Recently-spawned egg masses were collected and reared until hatching at present day and projected near future (+2°C) temperatures, to investigate the ability of early stages to undergo thermal acclimation, namely phenotypic altering of morphological, behavioural, biochemical and physiological features. Our findings showed that under the projected near-future warming, the abiotic conditions inside the eggs promoted metabolic suppression, which was followed by premature hatching. Concomitantly, the less developed newborns showed greater incidence of malformations. After hatching, the metabolic burst associated with the transition from an encapsulated embryo to a planktonic stage increased linearly with temperature. However, the greater exposure to environmental stress by the hatchlings seemed to be compensated by physiological mechanisms that reduce the negative effects on fitness. Heat shock proteins (HSP70/HSC70) and antioxidant enzymes activities constituted an integrated stress response to ocean warming in hatchlings (but not in embryos). Conclusions/Significance The stressful abiotic conditions inside eggs are expected to be aggravated under the projected near-future ocean warming, with deleterious effects on embryo survival and growth. Greater feeding challenges and the lower thermal tolerance limits of the hatchlings are strictly connected to high metabolic demands associated with the planktonic life strategy. Yet, we found some evidence that, in the future, the early stages might support higher energy demands by adjusting some cellular functional properties to increase their thermal tolerance windows. PMID:22701620

  4. Living with Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Carotid Artery Disease If you have carotid artery disease, you can take steps to manage the ... treatment plan, and getting ongoing care. Having carotid artery disease raises your risk of having a stroke . ...

  5. Measuring How Elastic Arteries Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMont, M. Edwin; MacGillivray, Patrick S.; Davison, Ian G.; McConnell, Colin J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a procedure used to measure force and pressure in elastic arteries. Discusses the physics of the procedure and recommends the use of bovine arteries. Explains the preparation of the arteries for the procedure. (DDR)

  6. Intrauterine growth restriction delays cardiomyocyte maturation and alters coronary artery function in the fetal sheep

    PubMed Central

    Bubb, Kristen J; Cock, Megan L; Black, M Jane; Dodic, Miodrag; Boon, Wee-Ming; Parkington, Helena C; Harding, Richard; Tare, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    There is now extensive evidence suggesting that intrauterine perturbations are linked with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Human epidemiological studies, supported by animal models, have demonstrated an association between low birth weight, a marker of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and adult cardiovascular disease. However, little is known of the early influence of IUGR on the fetal heart and vessels. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of late gestational IUGR on coronary artery function and cardiomyocyte maturation in the fetus. IUGR was induced by placental embolization in fetal sheep from 110 to 130 days of pregnancy (D110–130); term ?D147; control fetuses received saline. At necropsy (D130), wire and pressure myography was used to test endothelial and smooth muscle function, and passive mechanical wall properties, respectively, in small branches of left descending coronary arteries. Myocardium was dissociated for histological analysis of cardiomyocytes. At D130, IUGR fetuses (2.7 ± 0.1 kg) were 28% lighter than controls (3.7 ± 0.3 kg; P = 0.02). Coronary arteries from IUGR fetuses had enhanced responsiveness to the vasoconstrictors, angiotensin II and the thromboxane analogue U46619, than controls (P < 0.01). Endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxations were not different between groups. Coronary arteries of IUGR fetuses were more compliant (P = 0.02) than those of controls. The incidence of cardiomyocyte binucleation was lower in the left ventricles of IUGR fetuses (P = 0.02), suggestive of retarded cardiomyocyte maturation. We conclude that late gestational IUGR alters the reactivity and mechanical wall properties of coronary arteries and cardiomyocyte maturation in fetal sheep, which could have lifelong implications for cardiovascular function. PMID:17124269

  7. Neurofibromatosis Type 1: Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Ruptured Occipital Arterial Aneurysms

    SciTech Connect

    Kanematsu, Masayuki; Kato, Hiroki; Kondo, Hiroshi; Goshima, Satoshi; Tsuge, Yusuke; Kojima, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Haruo

    2011-02-15

    Two cases of ruptured aneurysms in the posterior cervical regions associated with type-1 neurofibromatosis treated by transcatheter embolization are reported. Patients presented with acute onset of swelling and pain in the affected areas. Emergently performed contrast-enhanced CT demonstrated aneurysms and large hematomas widespread in the posterior cervical regions. Angiography revealed aneurysms and extravasations of the occipital artery. Patients were successfully treated by percutaneous transcatheter arterial microcoil embolization. Transcatheter arterial embolization therapy was found to be an effective method for treating aneurysmal rupture in the posterior cervical regions occurring in association with type-1 neurofibromatosis. A literature review revealed that rupture of an occipital arterial aneurysm, in the setting of neurofibromatosis type 1, has not been reported previously.

  8. Trial participants’ experiences of early enhanced speech and language therapy after stroke compared with employed visitor support: a qualitative study nested within a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Gomersall, Timothy; Bowen, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To explore trial participants’ experiences of the process and outcomes of early, enhanced speech and language therapy after stroke with support from an employed visitor. Design: Qualitative study nested within a randomized controlled trial. Participants: Twney-two people who, after stroke, had a diagnosis of aphasia (12), dysarthria (5) or both (5) and who participated in the ACT NoW study. Setting: Eight English NHS usual care settings. Method: Individual interviews. Thematic content analysis assisted by a bespoke data transformation protocol for incorporating non-verbal and semantically ambiguous data. Results: Participants highly regarded regular and sustained contact with someone outside of immediate family/friends who engaged them in deliberate activities/communication in the early months after stroke. Participants identified differences in the process of intervention between speech and language therapists and employed visitors. But no major discriminations were made between the impact or value of this contact according to whether provided by a speech and language therapist or employed visitor. Participant-defined criteria for effectiveness of contact included: impact on mood and confidence, self-recognition of progress and the meeting of individual needs. Conclusions: As in the randomized controlled trial, participants reported no evidence of added benefit of early communication therapy beyond that from attention control. The findings do not imply that regular contact with any non-professional can have beneficial effects for someone with aphasia or dysarthria in the early weeks following a stroke. The study points to specific conditions that would have to be met for contact to have a positive effect. PMID:22837542

  9. Arterial Pressure Analog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heusner, A. A.; Tracy, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a simple hydraulic analog which allows students to explore some physical aspects of the cardiovascular system and provides them with a means to visualize and conceptualize these basic principles. Simulates the behavior of arterial pressure in response to changes in heart rate, stroke volume, arterial compliance, and peripheral…

  10. Transcutaneous axillary artery cannulation.

    PubMed

    Kucukarslan, Nezihi; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Sungun, Mutasim; Yilmaz, Ahmet Turan

    2005-01-01

    The axillary artery may be an alternative cannulation site for patients with diffused atherosclerosis, aortic dissection, and aneurysm. There are different techniques for axillary artery cannulation that can be performed easily with a transcutaneous approach. Small incision necessity, less dissection, and good wound healing are other advantages of this technique. PMID:16183565

  11. Coronary artery stent (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with a balloon catheter and expands when the balloon is inflated. The stent is then left there to help keep the artery open. ... with a balloon catheter and expands when the balloon is inflated. The stent is then left there to help keep the artery open.

  12. The arterial blood supply of the temporomandibular joint: an anatomical study and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Caradonna, Carola; Caradonna, Domenico; Anastasi, Giuseppe; Milardi, Demetrio; Favaloro, Angelo; De Pietro, Anita; Angileri, Tommaso Maurizio; Caradonna, Luigi; Cutroneo, Giuseppina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to analyze three-dimensional images of the arterial supply to the temporomandibular joint. Materials and Methods Ten patients (five men and five women, mean age 36 years) without signs or symptoms of temporomandibular disorders, who underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomographic (CT) scanning with intravenous contrast, were studied. The direct volume rendering technique of CT images was used, and a data set of images to visualize the vasculature of the human temporomandibular joint in three dimensions was created. After elaboration of the data through post-processing, the arterial supply of the temporomandibular joint was studied. Results The analysis revealed the superficial temporal artery, the anterior tympanic artery, the deep temporal artery, the auricular posterior artery, the transverse facial artery, the middle meningeal artery, and the maxillary artery with their branches as the main arterial sources for the lateral and medial temporomandibular joint. Conclusion The direct volume rendering technique was found to be successful in the assessment of the arterial supply to the temporomandibular joint. The superficial temporal artery and maxillary artery ran along the lateral and medial sides of the condylar neck, suggesting that these arteries are at increased risk during soft-tissue procedures such as an elective arthroplasty of the temporomandibular joint. PMID:23525363

  13. Vitamin A supplementation enhances Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) early juvenile's immunocompetence: New insights on potential underlying pathways.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Ignacio; López-Joven, Carmen; Andree, Karl B; Roque, Ana; Gisbert, Enric

    2015-10-01

    Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) has been considered since the 1990's to be a promising flatfish species for diversifying European marine aquaculture. However, pathogen outbreaks leading to high mortality rates can impair Senegalese sole commercial production at the weaning phase. Different approaches have been shown to improve fish immunocompetence; with this in mind the objective of the work described herein was to determine whether increased levels of dietary vitamin A (VA) improve the immune response in early juveniles of Senegalese sole. For this purpose, Senegalese sole were reared and fed with Artemia metanauplii containing increased levels of VA (37,000; 44,666; 82,666 and 203,000 total VA IU Kg(-1)) from 6 to 60 days post-hatch (early juvenile stage). After an induced bacterial infection with a 50% lethal dose of Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae, survival rate, as well as underlying gene expression of specific immune markers (C1inh, C3, C9, Lgals1, Hamp, LysC, Prdx1, Steap4 and Transf) were evaluated. Results showed that fish fed higher doses of dietary VA were more resistant to the bacterial challenge. The lower mortality was found to be related with differential expression of genes involved in the complement system and iron availability. We suggest that feeding metamorphosed Senegalese sole with 203,000 total VA IU Kg(-1) might be an effective, inexpensive and environmentally friendly method to improve Senegalese sole immunocompetence, thereby improving survival of juveniles and reducing economic losses. PMID:26272637

  14. Aneurysm-osteoarthritis syndrome with visceral and iliac artery aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    van der Linde, Denise; Verhagen, Hence J. M.; Moelker, Adriaan; van de Laar, Ingrid M. B. H.; Van Herzeele, Isabelle; De Backer, Julie; Dietz, Harry C.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Aneurysms-osteoarthritis syndrome (AOS), caused by SMAD3 mutations, is a recently described autosomal-dominant syndrome characterized by arterial aneurysms, tortuosity, and aortic dissections in combination with osteoarthritis. Our objective was to evaluate the AOS-related vascular consequences in the visceral and iliac arteries and raise awareness for this aggressive syndrome among vascular specialists. Methods All AOS patients were monitored regularly according to our clinical AOS protocol. The study included those with one or more visceral aneurysms or tortuosity, or both. Clinical and surgical data were obtained from record abstraction. Results The study included 17 AOS patients (47% men) aged 47 ± 13 years. A total of 73 aneurysms were encountered, of which 46 were located in the abdomen. The common iliac artery was most commonly affected (37%), followed by the superior mesenteric artery (15%), celiac trunk (11%), and splenic artery (9%). Rapid aneurysm growth ?1 year was found in three arteries (gastric, hepatic, and vertebral artery). Furthermore, arterial tortuosity was noted in 94% of patients. Four patients underwent six elective (endo) vascular interventions for aneurysms in the iliac, hepatic, gastric, or splenic artery, without major perioperative or postoperative complications. Conclusions AOS predisposes patients to widespread visceral and iliac artery aneurysms and extreme arterial tortuosity. Early elective aneurysm repair should be considered because the risk of aneurysm rupture is estimated to be very high and elective (endo) vascular interventions were not complicated by fragility of arterial tissue. Given the aggressive behavior of AOS, it is of utmost importance that vascular specialists are aware of this new syndrome. PMID:22975338

  15. Conformable amplified lead zirconate titanate sensors with enhanced piezoelectric response for cutaneous pressure monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagdeviren, Canan; Su, Yewang; Joe, Pauline; Yona, Raissa; Liu, Yuhao; Kim, Yun-Soung; Huang, Yongan; Damadoran, Anoop R.; Xia, Jing; Martin, Lane W.; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.

    2014-08-01

    The ability to measure subtle changes in arterial pressure using devices mounted on the skin can be valuable for monitoring vital signs in emergency care, detecting the early onset of cardiovascular disease and continuously assessing health status. Conventional technologies are well suited for use in traditional clinical settings, but cannot be easily adapted for sustained use during daily activities. Here we introduce a conformal device that avoids these limitations. Ultrathin inorganic piezoelectric and semiconductor materials on elastomer substrates enable amplified, low hysteresis measurements of pressure on the skin, with high levels of sensitivity (~0.005?Pa) and fast response times (~0.1?ms). Experimental and theoretical studies reveal enhanced piezoelectric responses in lead zirconate titanate that follow from integration on soft supports as well as engineering behaviours of the associated devices. Calibrated measurements of pressure variations of blood flow in near-surface arteries demonstrate capabilities for measuring radial artery augmentation index and pulse pressure velocity.

  16. Identification and functional characterization of novel transcriptional enhancers involved in regulating human GLI3 expression during early development.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Saneela; Minhas, Rashid; Ali, Shahid; Lambert, Nicholas; Kawakami, Yasuhiko; Elgar, Greg; Azam, Syed Sikandar; Abbasi, Amir Ali

    2015-10-01

    The zinc-finger transcription factor GLI3 acts as a primary transducer of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling in a context-dependent combinatorial fashion. GLI3 participates in the patterning and growth of many organs, including the central nervous system (CNS) and limbs. Previously, we reported a subset of human intronic cis-regulators controlling many known aspects of endogenous Gli3 expression in mouse and zebrafish. Here we demonstrate in a transgenic zebrafish assay the potential of two novel tetrapod-teleost conserved non-coding elements (CNEs) docking within GLI3 intronic intervals (intron 3 and 4) to induce reporter gene expression at known sites of endogenous Gli3 transcription in embryonic domains such as the central nervous system (CNS) and limbs. Interestingly, the cell culture based assays reveal harmony with the context dependent dual nature of intra-GLI3 conserved elements. Furthermore, a transgenic zebrafish assay of previously reported limb-specific GLI3 transcriptional enhancers (previously tested in mice and chicken limb buds) induced reporter gene expression in zebrafish blood precursor cells and notochord instead of fin. These results demonstrate that the appendage-specific activity of a subset of GLI3-associated enhancers might be a tetrapod innovation. Taken together with our recent data, these results suggest that during the course of vertebrate evolution Gli3 expression control acquired a complex cis-regulatory landscape for spatiotemporal patterning of CNS and limbs. Comparative data from fish and mice suggest that the functional aspects of a subset of these cis-regulators have diverged significantly between these two lineages. PMID:26464005

  17. Early Therapy Evaluation of Combined Cetuximab and Irinotecan in Orthotopic Pancreatic Tumor Xenografts by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunki; Folks, Karri D.; Guo, Lingling; Sellers, Jeffery C.; Fineberg, Naomi S.; Stockard, Cecil R.; Grizzle, William E.; Buchsbaum, Donald J.; Morgan, Desiree E.; George, James F.; Zinn, Kurt R.

    2014-01-01

    Early pancreatic cancer response following cetuximab and/or irinotecan therapies was measured by serial dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) before and during therapy. Groups 1 to 4 (n = 6/group) of SCID mice bearing orthotopic pancreatic adenocarcinoma xenografts expressing luciferase were treated with phosphate-buffered saline, cetuximab, irinotecan, or cetuximab combined with irinotecan, respectively, twice weekly for 3 weeks. DCE-MRI was performed on days 0, 1, 2, and 3 after therapy initiation, whereas anatomic magnetic resonance imaging was performed on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 6, and 13. Bioluminescence imaging was performed on days 0 and 21. At day 21, all tumors were collected for further histologic analyses (Ki-67 and CD31 staining), whereas tumor dimensions were measured by calipers. The Ktrans values in the 0.5 mm–thick peripheral tumor region were calculated, and the changes in Ktrans during the 3 days posttherapy were compared to tumor volume changes, bioluminescent signal changes, and histologic findings. The Ktrans changes in the peripheral tumor region after 3 days of therapy were linearly correlated with 21-day decreases in tumor volume (p < .001), bioluminescent signal (p = .050), microvessel densities (p = .002), and proliferating cell densities (p = .001). This study supports the clinical use of DCE-MRI for pancreatic cancer patients for early assessment of an anti–epidermal growth factor receptor therapy combined with chemotherapy. PMID:21496446

  18. Chronic pulmonary artery dissection associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary artery dissection is a complication associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension. This complication is described as acute in onset and is frequently fatal without intervention. We describe a patient with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension and chest pain found to have an unsuspected chronic pulmonary artery dissection on postmortem examination. Chronic pulmonary artery dissection should be considered in patients with chest pain and worsening dyspnea, as the frequency this condition may be underestimated. PMID:24618553

  19. YAC128 Huntington's disease transgenic mice show enhanced short-term hippocampal synaptic plasticity early in the course of the disease.

    PubMed

    Ghilan, Mohamed; Bostrom, Crystal A; Hryciw, Brett N; Simpson, Jessica M; Christie, Brian R; Gil-Mohapel, Joana

    2014-09-18

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the gene encoding the protein huntingtin. The disease progresses over decades, but often patients develop cognitive impairments that precede the onset of the classical motor symptoms. Similar to the disease progression in humans, the yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) 128 HD mouse model also exhibits cognitive dysfunction that precedes the onset of the neuropathological and motor impairments characteristic of HD. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate whether short- and long-term synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus, two related biological models of learning and memory processes, were altered in YAC128 mice in early stages of disease progression. We show that the YAC128 hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) displays marked reductions in paired-pulse depression both at 3 and 6 months of age. In addition, significantly enhanced post-tetanic and short-term potentiation are apparent in YAC128 mice after high-frequency stimulation at this time. Early and late forms of long-term plasticity were not altered at this stage. Together these findings indicate that there may be elevated neurotransmitter release in response to synaptic stimulation in YAC128 mice during the initial phase of disease progression. These abnormalities in short-term plasticity detected at this stage in YAC128 HD transgenic mice indicate that aberrant information processing at the level of the synapses may contribute, at least in part, to the early onset of cognitive deficits that are characteristic of this devastating neurodegenerative disorder. PMID:24949563

  20. All about Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Toolkit No. 25 All About Peripheral Arterial Disease What is peripheral arterial disease? Peripheral (puh-RIF-uh-rul) arterial (ar-TEER-ree-ul) ... Diabetes Association, Inc. 2/14 Toolkit No. 25: All About Peripheral Arterial Disease continued have PAD. The ...

  1. Community Engagement to Enhance Child Survival and Early Development in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: An Evidence Review

    PubMed Central

    Farnsworth, S. Katherine; Böse, Kirsten; Fajobi, Olaoluwa; Souza, Patricia Portela; Peniston, Anne; Davidson, Leslie L.; Griffiths, Marcia; Hodgins, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    As part of a broader evidence summit, USAID and UNICEF convened a literature review of effective means to empower communities to achieve behavioral and social changes to accelerate reductions in under-5 mortality and optimize early child development. The authors conducted a systematic review of the effectiveness of community mobilization and participation that led to behavioral change and one or more of the following: child health, survival, and development. The level and nature of community engagement was categorized using two internationally recognized models and only studies where the methods of community participation could be categorized as collaborative or shared leadership were eligible for analysis. The authors identified 34 documents from 18 countries that met the eligibility criteria. Studies with shared leadership typically used a comprehensive community action cycle, whereas studies characterized as collaborative showed clear emphasis on collective action but did not undergo an initial process of community dialogue. The review concluded that programs working collaboratively or achieving shared leadership with a community can lead to behavior change and cost-effective sustained transformation to improve critical health behaviors and reduce poor health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. Overall, community engagement is an understudied component of improving child outcomes. PMID:25207448

  2. Fibrin glue repair leads to enhanced axonal elongation during early peripheral nerve regeneration in an in vivo mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Koulaxouzidis, Georgios; Reim, Gernot; Witzel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Microsurgical suturing is the gold standard of nerve coaptation. Although literature on the usefulness of fibrin glue as an alternative is becoming increasingly available, it remains contradictory. Furthermore, no data exist on how both repair methods might influence the morphological aspects (arborization; branching) of early peripheral nerve regeneration. We used the sciatic nerve transplantation model in thy-1 yellow fluorescent protein mice (YFP; n = 10). Pieces of nerve (1cm) were grafted from YFP-negative mice (n = 10) into those expressing YFP. We performed microsuture coaptations on one side and used fibrin glue for repair on the contralateral side. Seven days after grafting, the regeneration distance, the percentage of regenerating and arborizing axons, the number of branches per axon, the coaptation failure rate, the gap size at the repair site and the time needed for surgical repair were all investigated. Fibrin glue repair resulted in regenerating axons travelling further into the distal nerve. It also increased the percentage of arborizing axons. No coaptation failure was detected. Gap sizes were comparable in both groups. Fibrin glue significantly reduced surgical repair time. The increase in regeneration distance, even after the short period of time, is in line with the results of others that showed faster axonal regeneration after fibrin glue repair. The increase in arborizing axons could be another explanation for better functional and electrophysiological results after fibrin glue repair. Fibrin glue nerve coaptation seems to be a promising alternative to microsuture repair. PMID:26330844

  3. The role of binaries in the enrichment of the early Galactic halo. I. r-process-enhanced metal-poor stars

    E-print Network

    Hansen, T T; Nordstrøm, B; Beers, T C; Yoon, J; Buchhave, L A

    2015-01-01

    The detailed chemical composition of most metal-poor halo stars has been found to be highly uniform, but a minority of stars exhibit dramatic enhancements in their abundances of heavy neutron-capture elements and/or of carbon. The key question for Galactic chemical evolution models is whether these peculiarities reflect the composition of the natal clouds, or if they are due to later mass transfer of processed material from a binary companion. If the former case applies, the observed excess of certain elements was implanted within selected clouds in the early ISM from a production site at interstellar distances. Our aim is to determine the frequency and orbital properties of binaries among these chemically peculiar stars. This information provides the basis for deciding whether mass transfer from a binary companion is necessary and sufficient to explain their unusual compositions. This paper discusses our study of a sample of 17 moderately (r-I) and highly (r-II) r-process-element enhanced VMP and EMP stars. ...

  4. Regulation of desmocollin gene expression in the epidermis: CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins modulate early and late events in keratinocyte differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Conrad; Zhu, Kuichun; Merritt, Anita; Picton, Rhian; Youngs, Denise; Garrod, David; Chidgey, Martyn

    2004-01-01

    Desmocollins (Dscs) are desmosomal cadherins that exhibit differentiation-specific patterns of expression in the epidermis. Dsc3 expression is strongest in basal cell layers, whereas Dsc1 is largely confined to upper, terminally differentiating strata. To understand better the processes by which Dsc expression is regulated in the epidermis, we have isolated Dsc3 and Dsc1 5'-flanking DNAs and analysed their activity in primary keratinocytes. In the present study, we found that transcription factors of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein family play a role in the regulation of expression of both Dscs and, in so doing, implicate this class of transcription factors in both early and late events in keratinocyte differentiation. We show that Dscs are differentially regulated by C/EBP (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein) family members, with Dsc3 expression being activated by C/EBPbeta but not C/EBPalpha, and the reverse being the case for Dsc1. Expression of both Dscs is activated by another family member, C/EBPdelta. These results show for the first time how desmosomal cadherin gene expression is regulated and provide a mechanism for the control of other differentiation-specific genes in the epidermis. PMID:15030314

  5. The mitochondrion-located protein OsB12D1 enhances flooding tolerance during seed germination and early seedling growth in rice.

    PubMed

    He, Dongli; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Pingfang

    2014-01-01

    B12D belongs to a function unknown subgroup of the Balem (Barley aleurone and embryo) proteins. In our previous work on rice seed germination, we identified a B12D-like protein encoded by LOC_Os7g41350 (named OsB12D1). OsB12D1 pertains to an ancient protein family with an amino acid sequence highly conserved from moss to angiosperms. Among the six OsB12Ds, OsB12D1 is one of the major transcripts and is primarily expressed in germinating seed and root. Bioinformatics analyses indicated that OsB12D1 is an anoxic or submergence resistance-related gene. RT-PCR results showed OsB12D1 is induced remarkably in the coleoptiles or roots by flooding during seed germination and early seedling growth. The OsB12D1-overexpressed rice seeds could protrude radicles in 8 cm deep water, further exhibiting significant flooding tolerance compared to the wild type. Moreover, this tolerance was not affected by the gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol. OsB12D1 was identified in the mitochondrion by subcellular localization analysis and possibly enhances electron transport through mediating Fe and oxygen availability under flooded conditions. This work indicated that OsB12D1 is a promising gene that can help to enhance rice seedling establishment in farming practices, especially for direct seeding. PMID:25089878

  6. Selective Enhancing Effect of Early Mitotic Inhibitor 1 (Emi1) Depletion on the Sensitivity of Doxorubicin or X-ray Treatment in Human Cancer Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Natsumi; Nakajima, Nakako Izumi; Tsunematsu, Takaaki; Ogawa, Ikuko; Kawai, Hidehiko; Hirayama, Ryoichi; Fujimori, Akira; Yamada, Akiko; Okayasu, Ryuichi; Ishimaru, Naozumi; Takata, Takashi; Kudo, Yasusei

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy and radiation in addition to surgery has proven useful in a number of different cancer types, but the effectiveness in normal tissue cannot be avoided in these therapies. To improve the effectiveness of these therapies selectively in cancer tissue is important for avoiding side effects. Early mitotic inhibitor 1 (Emi1) is known to have the function to inhibit anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome ubiquitin ligase complex, which ubiquitylates the cell cycle-related proteins. It recently has been shown that Emi1 knockdown prevents transition from S to G2 phase by down-regulating geminin via anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome activation. At present, anticancer drugs for targeting DNA synthesis to interfere with rapidly dividing cells commonly are used. As Emi1 depletion interferes with completion of DNA synthesis in cancer cells, we thought that Emi1 knockdown might enhance the sensitivity for anticancer agents. Here, we confirmed that Emi1 siRNA induced polyploidy for preventing transition from S to G2 phase in several cancer cell lines. Then, we treated Emi1 depleted cells with doxorubicin. Interestingly, increased apoptotic cells were observed after doxorubicin treatment in Emi1 siRNA-treated cancer cells. In addition, Emi1 depletion enhanced the sensitivity of x-ray irradiation in cancer cells. Importantly, synergistic effect of Emi1 knockdown in these combination therapies was not observed in normal cells. These results suggest that Emi1 siRNA can be a useful tool for enhancing of sensitivity of cancer cells to anticancer reagents and radiation. PMID:23645673

  7. Growth performance of early-weaned pigs is enhanced by feeding epidermal growth factor-expressing Lactococcus lactis fermentation product.

    PubMed

    Bedford, Andrea; Huynh, Evanna; Fu, Molei; Zhu, Cuilan; Wey, Doug; de Lange, Cornelis; Li, Julang

    2014-03-10

    We have previously generated epidermal growth factor expressing Lactococcus lactis (EGF-LL) using bioengineering approach, and shown that feeding newly-weaned piglets EGF-LL improves digestive function. To address concerns over the use of genetically modified organisms (GMO), the objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of feeding the EGF-LL fermentation product, after removal of the genetically modified EGF-LL, on growth performance and intestine development of newly-weaned piglets. One hundred and twenty newly-weaned piglets were fed ad libitum according to a 2-phase feeding program. Four pens were assigned to each of three treatments: (1) complete EGF-LL fermentation product (Ferm), (2) supernatant of EGF-LL fermentation product, after removal of EGF-LL (Supern), or (3) blank M17GE media (Control). EGF-LL or its fermented supernatant was administrated to piglets in the first 3 weeks post-weaning; their growth performance was monitored throughout treatment, and for the following week. Daily body weight gain (254.8g vs. 200.5g) and Gain:Feed (0.541kg/kg vs. 0.454kg/kg) of pigs on the Supern group were significantly improved compared to that of Control, although no difference was observed between the Ferm and Control pigs. Intestinal sucrase activity was increased in Supern- compared to Control group (166.3±62.1 vs. 81.4±56.5nmol glucose released/mg protein; P<0.05). The lack of growth response with Ferm pigs may be attributed to an overload of bacteria (daily dose included 4.56×10(10)CFU/kg BW/day EGF-LL). These results suggest that GMO-free EGF-LL fermentation product is effective in increasing growth performance of early-weaned piglets. PMID:24445174

  8. Early Embryogenesis-Specific Expression of the Rice Transposon Ping Enhances Amplification of the MITE mPing

    PubMed Central

    Teramoto, Shota; Tsukiyama, Takuji; Okumoto, Yutaka; Tanisaka, Takatoshi

    2014-01-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are numerically predominant transposable elements in the rice genome, and their activities have influenced the evolution of genes. Very little is known about how MITEs can rapidly amplify to thousands in the genome. The rice MITE mPing is quiescent in most cultivars under natural growth conditions, although it is activated by various stresses, such as tissue culture, gamma-ray irradiation, and high hydrostatic pressure. Exceptionally in the temperate japonica rice strain EG4 (cultivar Gimbozu), mPing has reached over 1000 copies in the genome, and is amplifying owing to its active transposition even under natural growth conditions. Being the only active MITE, mPing in EG4 is an appropriate material to study how MITEs amplify in the genome. Here, we provide important findings regarding the transposition and amplification of mPing in EG4. Transposon display of mPing using various tissues of a single EG4 plant revealed that most de novo mPing insertions arise in embryogenesis during the period from 3 to 5 days after pollination (DAP), and a large majority of these insertions are transmissible to the next generation. Locus-specific PCR showed that mPing excisions and insertions arose at the same time (3 to 5 DAP). Moreover, expression analysis and in situ hybridization analysis revealed that Ping, an autonomous partner for mPing, was markedly up-regulated in the 3 DAP embryo of EG4, whereas such up-regulation of Ping was not observed in the mPing-inactive cultivar Nipponbare. These results demonstrate that the early embryogenesis-specific expression of Ping is responsible for the successful amplification of mPing in EG4. This study helps not only to elucidate the whole mechanism of mPing amplification but also to further understand the contribution of MITEs to genome evolution. PMID:24921928

  9. Pregnancy-induced remodelling and enhanced endothelium-derived hyperpolarization-type vasodilator activity in rat uterine radial artery: transient receptor potential vanilloid type 4 channels, caveolae and myoendothelial gap junctions

    PubMed Central

    Senadheera, Sevvandi; Bertrand, Paul P; Grayson, T Hilton; Leader, Leo; Murphy, Timothy V; Sandow, Shaun L

    2013-01-01

    In pregnancy, the vasculature of the uterus undergoes rapid remodelling to increase blood flow and maintain perfusion to the fetus. The present study determines the distribution and density of caveolae, transient receptor potential vanilloid type 4 channels (TRPV4) and myoendothelial gap junctions, and the relative contribution of related endothelium-dependent vasodilator components in uterine radial arteries of control virgin non-pregnant and 20-day late-pregnant rats. The hypothesis examined is that specific components of endothelium-dependent vasodilator mechanisms are altered in pregnancy-related uterine radial artery remodelling. Conventional and serial section electron microscopy were used to determine the morphological characteristics of uterine radial arteries from control and pregnant rats. TRPV4 distribution and expression was examined using conventional confocal immunohistochemistry, and the contribution of endothelial TRPV4, nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH)-type activity determined using pressure myography with pharmacological intervention. Data show outward hypertrophic remodelling occurs in uterine radial arteries in pregnancy. Further, caveolae density in radial artery endothelium and smooth muscle from pregnant rats was significantly increased by ?94% and ?31%, respectively, compared with control, whereas caveolae density did not differ in endothelium compared with smooth muscle from control. Caveolae density was significantly higher by ?59% on the abluminal compared with the luminal surface of the endothelium in uterine radial artery of pregnant rats but did not differ at those surfaces in control. TRPV4 was present in endothelium and smooth muscle, but not associated with internal elastic lamina hole sites in radial arteries. TRPV4 fluorescence intensity was significantly increased in the endothelium and smooth muscle of radial artery of pregnant compared with control rats by ?2.6- and 5.5-fold, respectively. The TRPV4 signal was significantly higher in the endothelium compared with the smooth muscle in radial artery of both control and pregnant rats, by ?5.7- and 2.7-fold, respectively. Myoendothelial gap junction density was significantly decreased by ?37% in radial artery from pregnant compared with control rats. Pressure myography with pharmacological intervention showed that NO contributes ?80% and ?30%, and the EDH-type component ?20% and ?70% of the total endothelium-dependent vasodilator response in radial arteries of control and pregnant rats, respectively. TRPV4 plays a functional role in radial arteries, with a greater contribution in those from pregnant rats. The correlative association of increased TRPV4 and caveolae density and role of EDH-type activity in uterine radial artery of pregnant rats is suggestive of their causal relationship. The decreased myoendothelial gap junction density and lack of TRPV4 density at such sites is consistent with their having an integral, albeit complex, interactive role in uterine vascular signalling and remodelling in pregnancy. PMID:24128141

  10. Occlusive Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a specialist is needed to confirm the diagnosis. Did You Know... Angioplasty can help certain types of ... In This Article Animation 1 Peripheral Arterial Disease Did You Know 1 Did You Know... Figure 1 ...

  11. Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... t help, you may need coronary artery bypass surgery. The surgery creates a new path for blood to flow ... more than one bypass. The results of the surgery usually are excellent. Many people remain symptom-free ...

  12. Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) happens when there is a narrowing of the blood vessels outside of your heart. The cause of ... smoking. Other risk factors include older age and diseases like diabetes, high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, ...

  13. Carotid Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... their blood cholesterol by diet and medications and exercise regularly. Health care providers will want to reduce your risk ... the artery open. Prevention Take care of your health through exercise and proper nutrition and take all medications as ...

  14. Functional Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that control the dilation and constriction of arteries (sympathetic nervous system), by injuries, or by drugs. Raynaud's Syndrome Raynaud’s ... aged 15 to 40. Anything that stimulates the sympathetic nervous system, particularly exposure to cold but also strong emotion, ...

  15. Peripheral artery bypass - leg

    MedlinePLUS

    ... P. Peripheral arterial diseases. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's ... noncoronary obstructive vascular disease.In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's ...

  16. Peripheral Arterial Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Atherosclerosis Coronary Heart Disease Heart Attack Smoking and Your ... in the body's arteries, the condition is called atherosclerosis . Over time, plaque can harden and narrow the ...

  17. Exercise reduces arterial pressure augmentation through vasodilation of muscular arteries in humans.

    PubMed

    Munir, Shahzad; Jiang, Benyu; Guilcher, Antoine; Brett, Sally; Redwood, Simon; Marber, Michael; Chowienczyk, Philip

    2008-04-01

    Exercise markedly influences pulse wave morphology, but the mechanism is unknown. We investigated whether effects of exercise on the arterial pulse result from alterations in stroke volume or pulse wave velocity (PWV)/large artery stiffness or reduction of pressure wave reflection. Healthy subjects (n = 25) performed bicycle ergometry. with workload increasing from 25 to 150 W for 12 min. Digital arterial pressure waveforms were recorded using a servo-controlled finger cuff. Radial arterial pressure waveforms and carotid-femoral PWV were determined by applanation tonometry. Stroke volume was measured by echocardiography, and brachial and femoral artery blood flows and diameters were measured by ultrasound. Digital waveforms were recorded continuously. Other measurements were made before and after exercise. Exercise markedly reduced late systolic and diastolic augmentation of the peripheral pressure pulse. At 15 min into recovery, stroke volume and PWV were similar to baseline values, but changes in pulse wave morphology persisted. Late systolic augmentation index (radial pulse) was reduced from 54 +/- 3.9% at baseline to 42 +/- 3.7% (P < 0.01), and diastolic augmentation index (radial pulse) was reduced from 37 +/- 1.8% to 25 +/- 2.9% (P < 0.001). These changes were accompanied by an increase in femoral blood flow (from 409 +/- 44 to 773 +/- 48 ml/min, P < 0.05) and an increase in femoral artery diameter (from 8.2 +/- 0.4 to 8.6 +/- 0.4 mm, P < 0.05). In conclusion, exercise dilates muscular arteries and reduces arterial pressure augmentation, an effect that will enhance ventricular-vascular coupling and reduce load on the left ventricle. PMID:18296568

  18. Median artery revisited.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Niedenführ, M; Sañudo, J R; Vázquez, T; Nearn, L; Logan, B; Parkin, I

    1999-07-01

    This study confirms that the median artery may persist in adult life in 2 different patterns, palmar and antebrachial, based on their vascular territory. The palmar type, which represents the embryonic pattern, is large, long and reaches the palm. The antebrachial type,which represents a partial regression of the embryonic artery is slender, short, and terminates before reaching the wrist. These 2 arterial patterns appear with a different incidence. The palmar pattern was studied in the whole sample (120 cadavers) and had an incidence of 20%, being more frequent in females than in males (1.3:1), occurring unilaterally more often than bilaterally (4:1) and slightly more frequently on the right than on the left (1.1:1). The antebrachial pattern was studied in only 79 cadavers and had an incidence of 76%, being more frequent in females than in males (1.6:1); it was commoner unilaterally than bilaterally (1.5:1) and was again slightly more prevalent on the right than on the left (1.2:1). The origin of the median artery was variable in both patterns. The palmar type most frequently arose from the caudal angle between the ulnar artery and its common interosseous trunk (59%). The antebrachial pattern most frequently originated from the anterior interosseous artery (55%). Other origins, for both patterns, were from the ulnar artery or from the common interosseous trunk. The median artery in the antebrachial pattern terminated in the upper third (74%) or in the distal third of the forearm (26%). However, the palmar pattern ended as the 1st, 2nd or 1st and 2nd common digital arteries (65%) or joined the superficial palmar arch (35%). The median artery passed either anterior (67%) or posterior (25%) to the anterior interosseous nerve. It pierced the median nerve in the upper third of the forearm in 41% of cases with the palmar pattern and in none of the antebrachial cases. In 1 case the artery pierced both the anterior interosseous and median nerves. PMID:10473293

  19. Novel Pulmonary Artery Reduction Plasty for Pulmonary Artery Aneurysm With Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hong Ju; Suh, Young Joo

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 60-year-old female with pulmonary artery aneurysm (PAA) associated with an atrial septal defect and pulmonary arterial hypertension. There is no standard therapeutic approach for PAA at the present time. We performed a novel surgical repair of a 67-mm PAA consisting of internal plication of the pulmonary artery to reduce the diameter and approximation of remnant unfolding pulmonary artery to reinforce the stability of the pulmonary artery and prevent bleeding. PMID:26715001

  20. Translational evidence that impaired autophagy contributes to arterial ageing

    PubMed Central

    LaRocca, Thomas J; Henson, Grant D; Thorburn, Andrew; Sindler, Amy L; Pierce, Gary L; Seals, Douglas R

    2012-01-01

    Ageing causes arterial endothelial dysfunction that increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of autophagy, the cellular process of recycling damaged biomolecules, in endothelial dysfunction with ageing. In older humans, expression of autophagy markers in arterial endothelial cells was impaired by ?50% (P < 0.05) and was associated with an ?30% (P < 0.05) reduction in arterial endothelium-dependent dilatation (EDD). Similarly, in C57BL/6 control mice ageing was associated with an ?40% decrease (P < 0.05) in arterial markers of autophagy and an ?25% reduction (P < 0.05) in EDD. In both humans and mice, impaired EDD was mediated by reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and was associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammation (P < 0.05). In old mice, treatment with the autophagy-enhancing agent trehalose restored expression of autophagy markers, rescued NO-mediated EDD by reducing oxidative stress, and normalized inflammatory cytokine expression. In cultured endothelial cells, inhibition of autophagy increased oxidative stress and reduced NO production, whereas trehalose enhanced NO production via an autophagy-dependent mechanism. These results provide the first evidence that autophagy is impaired with ageing in vascular tissues. Our findings also suggest that autophagy preserves arterial endothelial function by reducing oxidative stress and inflammation and increasing NO bioavailability. Autophagy-enhancing strategies may therefore have therapeutic efficacy for ameliorating age-associated arterial dysfunction and preventing CVD. PMID:22570377

  1. Translational evidence that impaired autophagy contributes to arterial ageing.

    PubMed

    LaRocca, Thomas J; Henson, Grant D; Thorburn, Andrew; Sindler, Amy L; Pierce, Gary L; Seals, Douglas R

    2012-07-15

    Ageing causes arterial endothelial dysfunction that increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of autophagy, the cellular process of recycling damaged biomolecules, in endothelial dysfunction with ageing. In older humans, expression of autophagy markers in arterial endothelial cells was impaired by ?50% (P <0.05) and was associated with an ?30% (P <0.05) reduction in arterial endothelium-dependent dilatation (EDD). Similarly, in C57BL/6 control mice ageing was associated with an ?40% decrease (P <0.05) in arterial markers of autophagy and an ?25% reduction (P <0.05) in EDD. In both humans and mice, impaired EDD was mediated by reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and was associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammation (P <0.05). In old mice, treatment with the autophagy-enhancing agent trehalose restored expression of autophagy markers, rescued NO-mediated EDD by reducing oxidative stress, and normalized inflammatory cytokine expression. In cultured endothelial cells, inhibition of autophagy increased oxidative stress and reduced NO production, whereas trehalose enhanced NO production via an autophagy-dependent mechanism. These results provide the first evidence that autophagy is impaired with ageing in vascular tissues. Our findings also suggest that autophagy preserves arterial endothelial function by reducing oxidative stress and inflammation and increasing NO bioavailability. Autophagy-enhancing strategies may therefore have therapeutic efficacy for ameliorating age-associated arterial dysfunction and preventing CVD. PMID:22570377

  2. Surgical management of peritonitis secondary to acute superior mesenteric artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis of acute arterial mesenteric ischemia in the early stages is now possible using modern computed tomography with intravenous contrast enhancement and imaging in the arterial and/or portal phase. Most patients have acute superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion, and a large proportion of these patients will develop peritonitis prior to mesenteric revascularization, and explorative laparotomy will therefore be necessary to evaluate the extent and severity of intestinal ischemia, and to perform bowel resections. The establishment of a hybrid operating room in vascular units in hospitals is most important to be able to perform successful intestinal revascularization. This review outlines current frontline surgical strategies to improve survival and minimize bowel morbidity in patients with peritonitis secondary to acute SMA occlusion. Explorative laparotomy needs to be performed first. Curative treatment is based upon intestinal revascularization followed by bowel resection. If no vascular imaging has been carried out, SMA angiography is performed. In case of embolic occlusion of the SMA, open embolectomy is performed followed by angiography. In case of thrombotic occlusion, the occlusive lesion can be recanalized retrograde from an exposed SMA, the guidewire snared from either the femoral or brachial artery, and stented with standard devices from these access sites. Bowel resections and sometimes gall bladder removal due to transmural infarctions are performed at initial laparotomy, leaving definitive bowel reconstructions to a planned second look laparotomy, according to the principles of damage control surgery. Patients with peritonitis secondary to acute SMA occlusion should be managed by both the general and vascular surgeon, and a hybrid revascularization approach is of utmost importance to improve outcomes. PMID:25110423

  3. Understanding Arteries | Coronary Artery Disease | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Coronary Artery Disease Understanding Arteries Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents Below: ... the arteries and veins are healthy. A Healthy Artery An artery is a muscular tube. It has ...

  4. The role of binaries in the enrichment of the early Galactic halo. I. r-process-enhanced metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, T. T.; Andersen, J.; Nordström, B.; Beers, T. C.; Yoon, J.; Buchhave, L. A.

    2015-11-01

    Context. The detailed chemical composition of most metal-poor halo stars has been found to be highly uniform, but a minority of stars exhibit dramatic enhancements in their abundances of heavy neutron-capture elements and/or of carbon. The key question for Galactic chemical evolution models is whether these peculiarities reflect the composition of the natal clouds, or if they are due to later (post-birth) mass transfer of chemically processed material from a binary companion. If the former case applies, the observed excess of certain elements was implanted within selected clouds in the early ISM from a production site at interstellar distances. Aims: Our aim is to determine the frequency and orbital properties of binaries among these chemically peculiar stars. This information provides the basis for deciding whether local mass transfer from a binary companion is necessary and sufficient to explain their unusual compositions. This paper discusses our study of a sample of 17 moderately (r-I) and highly (r-II) r-process-element enhanced VMP and EMP stars. Methods: High-resolution, low signal-to-noise spectra of the stars were obtained at roughly monthly intervals over eight years with the FIES spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope. From these spectra, radial velocities with an accuracy of ~100 m s-1 were determined by cross-correlation against an optimized template. Results: Fourteen of the programme stars exhibit no significant radial-velocity variation over this temporal window, while three are binaries with orbits of typical eccentricity for their periods, resulting in a normal binary frequency of ~18 ± 6% for the sample. Conclusions: Our results confirm our preliminary conclusion from 2011, based on partial data, that the chemical peculiarity of the r-I and r-II stars is not caused by any putative binary companions. Instead, it was imprinted on the natal molecular clouds of these stars by an external, distant source. Models of the ISM in early galaxies should account for such mechanisms. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  5. Safety of Chemotherapeutic Infusion or Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Supplied Exclusively by the Cystic Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Beomsik Kim, Hyo-Cheol Chung, Jin Wook Hur, Saebeom Joo, Seung-Moon Jae, Hwan Jun Park, Jae Hyung

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the safety of chemotherapeutic infusion or chemoembolization by way of the cystic artery in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) supplied exclusively by the cystic artery. Methods: Between Jan 2002 and Dec 2011, we performed chemotherapeutic infusion or chemoembolization using iodized oil for the treatment of 27 patients with HCC supplied exclusively by the cystic artery. Computed tomography (CT) scans, digital subtraction angiograms, and medical records were retrospectively reviewed by consensus. Results: The cystic artery originated from the main right hepatic artery in 24 (89 %) patients, from the right anterior hepatic artery in 2 (7 %) patients, and from the left hepatic artery in 1 (4 %) patient. Selective catheterization of the cystic artery was achieved in all patients. Superselection of tumor-feeding vessels from the cystic artery was achieved in 7 patients (26 %). Chemotherapeutic infusion was performed in 18 patients (67 %), and chemoembolization was performed in 9 patients (33 %). There were no major complications and only 2 minor complications, including vasovagal syncope and nausea with vomiting. Individual tumor response supplied exclusively by the cystic artery at the follow-up enhanced CT scan were complete response (n = 16), partial response (n = 3), and stable disease (n = 8). Conclusion: HCC supplied exclusively by the cystic artery can be safely treated without severe complications by chemotherapeutic infusion or chemoembolization using iodized oil through the cystic artery.

  6. Sandwiched Electrochemiluminescent Peptide Biosensor for the Detection of Prognostic Indicator in Early-Stage Cancer Based on Hollow, Magnetic, and Self-Enhanced Nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haijun; Yuan, Yali; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Ruo

    2015-08-12

    Currently, peptide-based protein-recognition has been recognized as an effective and promising approach for protein assays. However, sandwiched peptide-based biosensor with high sensitivity and low background has not been proposed before. Herein, a sandwiched electrochemiluminescence (ECL) peptide-based biosensor is constructed for Cyclin A(2) (CA2), a prognostic indicator in early stage of multiple cancers, based on nanosheets with hollow, magnetic, and ECL self-enhanced properties. First, hollow and magnetic manganese oxide nanocrystals (H-Mn(3)O(4)) are synthesized using triblock copolymeric micelles with core-shell-corona architecture as templates. Then, polyethyleneimine (PEI) and the composite of platinum nanoparticles and tris (4,4'-dicarboxylicacid-2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium (II) (PtNPs-Ru) are immobilized on H-Mn(3)O(4) to form H-Mn(3)O(4) -PEI-PtNPs-Ru nanocomposite, in which PEI as coreactant can effectively enhance the luminous efficiency and PtNPs as nanochannels can greatly accelerate the electron transfer. Finally, due to the coordination between Eu(3+) and carboxyl, the obtained H-Mn(3)O(4) -PEI-PtNPs-Ru aggregates locally to form sheet-like nanostructures ((H-Mn(3)O(4) -PEI-PtNPs-Ru)(n) -Eu(3+)), by which the luminous efficiency is further increased. Based on the nanosheets and two designed peptides, a sandwiched ECL biosensor, using palladium nanocages synthesized through galvanic replacement reaction as substrate, is proposed for CA2 with a linear range from 0.001 to 100 ng mL(-1) and a detection limit of 0.3 pg mL(-1). PMID:25833656

  7. Delayed Gadolinium-Enhanced MRI of Cartilage (dGEMRIC) Shows No Change in Cartilage Structural Composition after Viscosupplementation in Patients with Early-Stage Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    van Tiel, Jasper; Reijman, Max; Bos, Pieter K.; Hermans, Job; van Buul, Gerben M.; Bron, Esther E.; Klein, Stefan; Verhaar, Jan A. N.; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M. A.; Weinans, Harrie; Kotek, Gyula; Oei, Edwin H. G.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Viscosupplementation with hyaluronic acid (HA) of osteoarthritic (OA) knee joints has a well-established positive effect on clinical symptoms. This effect, however, is only temporary and the working mechanism of HA injections is not clear. It was suggested that HA might have disease modifying properties because of its beneficial effect on cartilage sulphated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) content. Delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) is a highly reproducible, non-invasive surrogate measure for sGAG content and hence composition of cartilage. The aim of this study was to assess whether improvement in cartilage structural composition is detected using dGEMRIC 14 weeks after 3 weekly injections with HA in patients with early-stage knee OA. Methods In 20 early-stage knee OA patients (KLG I-II), 3D dGEMRIC at 3T was acquired before and 14 weeks after 3 weekly injections with HA. To evaluate patient symptoms, the knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) and a numeric rating scale (NRS) for pain were recorded. To evaluate cartilage composition, six cartilage regions in the knee were analyzed on dGEMRIC. Outcomes of dGEMRIC, KOOS and NRS before and after HA were compared using paired t-testing. Since we performed multiple t-tests, we applied a Bonferroni-Holm correction to determine statistical significance for these analyses. Results All KOOS subscales (‘pain’, ‘symptoms’, ‘daily activities’, ‘sports’ and ’quality of life’) and the NRS pain improved significantly 14 weeks after Viscosupplementation with HA. Outcomes of dGEMRIC did not change significantly after HA compared to baseline in any of the cartilage regions analyzed in the knee. Conclusions Our results confirm previous findings reported in the literature, showing persisting improvement in symptomatic outcome measures in early-stage knee OA patients 14 weeks after Viscosupplementation. Outcomes of dGEMRIC, however, did not change after Viscosupplementation, indicating no change in cartilage structural composition as an explanation for the improvement of clinical symptoms. PMID:24223194

  8. Effect of aspirin on acute changes in peripheral arterial stiffness and endothelial function following exertional heat stress in firefighters: The factorial group results of the Enhanced Firefighter Rehab Trial.

    PubMed

    Olafiranye, Oladipupo; Hostler, David; Winger, Daniel G; Wang, Li; Reis, Steven E

    2015-06-01

    Peripheral arterial stiffness and endothelial function, which are independent predictors of cardiac events, are abnormal in firefighters. We examined the effects of aspirin on peripheral arterial stiffness and endothelial function in firefighters. Fifty-two firefighters were randomized to receive daily 81 mg aspirin or placebo for 14 days before treadmill exercise in thermal protection clothing, and a single dose of 325 mg aspirin or placebo immediately following exertion. Peripheral arterial augmentation index adjusted for a heart rate of 75 (AI75) and reactive hyperemia index (RHI) were determined immediately before, and 30, 60, and 90 minutes after exertion. Low-dose aspirin was associated with lower AI75 (-15.25±9.25 vs -8.08±10.70, p=0.014) but not RHI. On repeated measures analysis, treatment with low-dose aspirin before, but not single-dose aspirin after exertion, was associated with lower AI75 following exertional heat stress (p=0.018). Low-dose aspirin improved peripheral arterial stiffness and wave reflection but not endothelial function in firefighters. PMID:25939657

  9. Blood Flow in Arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, David N.

    Blood flow in arteries is dominated by unsteady flow phenomena. The cardiovascular system is an internal flow loop with multiple branches in which a complex liquid circulates. A nondimensional frequency parameter, the Womersley number, governs the relationship between the unsteady and viscous forces. Normal arterial flow is laminar with secondary flows generated at curves and branches. The arteries are living organs that can adapt to and change with the varying hemodynamic conditions. In certain circumstances, unusual hemodynamic conditions create an abnormal biological response. Velocity profile skewing can create pockets in which the direction of the wall shear stress oscillates. Atherosclerotic disease tends to be localized in these sites and results in a narrowing of the artery lumena stenosis. The stenosis can cause turbulence and reduce flow by means of viscous head losses and flow choking. Very high shear stresses near the throat of the stenosis can activate platelets and thereby induce thrombosis, which can totally block blood flow to the heart or brain. Detection and quantification of stenosis serve as the basis for surgical intervention. In the future, the study of arterial blood flow will lead to the prediction of individual hemodynamic flows in any patient, the development of diagnostic tools to quantify disease, and the design of devices that mimic or alter blood flow. This field is rich with challenging problems in fluid mechanics involving three-dimensional, pulsatile flows at the edge of turbulence.

  10. False aneurysm of perforating branch of the deep femoral artery—Report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Naouli, H.; Jiber, H.; Bouarhroum, A.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudoaneurysms of the deep femoral artery are uncommon and occur as a late complication of various traumas. Usually associated with femoral fractures, We report two cases of profunda femoris artery injury which presented as false aneurysm secondary to penetrating trauma. Because of its insidious onset, awareness and careful follow-up are the key issues for the early diagnosis. PMID:26217914

  11. Transposition of the Greater Arteries (TGA)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Transposition of Greater Arteries (TGA) Transposition of Greater Arteries (TGA) What is Transposition of Greater Arteries? Why ... Long-term prognosis What is Transposition of Greater Arteries? Illustration by Steven P. Goldberg, MD Copyright © 2012 ...

  12. Giant serpentine vertebrobasilar aneurysm with vertebral artery hypoplasia and fenestration- a case report.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Pradeep; Khokhar, Harsh Vardhan; Saxena, Sangeeta

    2015-03-01

    Intracranial aneurysm in paediatric age group is rare and association of the aneurysm with congenital vertebral artery anomaly is further rarer. We describe such a case in an 11-year-old male patient who consulted a paediatrician about headache and vertigo, and a noncontrast CT (NCCT) head revealed peripherally calcified hyperdense mass in prepontine and basal cisterns. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) revealed partially thrombosed giant serpentine aneurysm of right vertebrobasilar artery and contralateral hypoplastic vertebral artery with fenestration. The nondominant left vertebral artery gave off the posterior inferior cerebellar artery, then became hypoplastic and joined with its counterpart to form the basilar artery. This pattern is called as type 9. The patient was kept on conservative management. The role of MRI in this congenital anomaly and its association with vertigo and aneurysm of vertebro-basilar artery is discussed. PMID:25954679

  13. Phosphorylation of FMRP and alterations of FMRP complex underlie enhanced mLTD in adult rats triggered by early life seizures

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Paul B.; Castano, Anna M.; O’Leary, Heather; Simpson, Kameron; Browning, Michael D.; Benke, Tim. A.

    2013-01-01

    Outside of Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the role of Fragile-X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) in mediating neuropsychological abnormalities is not clear. FMRP, p70-S6 kinase (S6K) and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) are thought to cooperate as a dynamic signaling complex. In our prior work, adult rats have enhanced CA1 hippocampal long-term depression (LTD) following an early life seizure (ELS). We now show that mGluR-mediated LTD (mLTD) is specifically enhanced following ELS, similar to FMRP knock-outs. Total FMRP expression is unchanged but S6K is hyperphosphorylated, consistent with S6K overactivation. We postulated that either disruption of the FMRP-S6K-PP2A complex and/or removal of this complex from synapses could explain our findings. Using subcellular fractionation, we were surprised to find that concentrations of FMRP and PP2A were undisturbed in the synaptosomal compartment but reduced in parallel in the cytosolic compartment. Following ELS FMRP phosphorylation was reduced in the cytosolic compartment and increased in the synaptic compartment, in parallel with the compartmentalization of S6K activation. Furthermore, FMRP and PP2A remain bound following ELS. In contrast, the interaction of S6K with FMRP is reduced by ELS. Blockade of PP2A results in enhanced mLTD; this is occluded by ELS. This suggests a critical role for the location and function of the FMRP-S6K-PP2A signaling complex in limiting the amount of mLTD. Specifically, non-synaptic targeting and the function of the complex may influence the “set-point” for regulating mLTD. Consistent with this, striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP), an FMRP “target” which regulates mLTD expression, is specifically increased in the synaptosomal compartment following ELS. Further, we provide behavioral data to suggest that FMRP complex dysfunction may underlie altered socialization, a symptom associated and observed in other rodent models of autism, including FXS. PMID:23831253

  14. Based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy analysis of serum albumin in different stages of liver disease for early screening primary liver cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Fadian; Ruan, Qiuyong; Lin, Juqiang; Lin, Jinyong; Zeng, Yongyi; Li, Ling; Huang, Zufang; Liu, Nenrong; Chen, Rong

    2014-09-01

    Despite the introduction of high-technology methods of detection and diagnosis, screening of primary liver cancer (PLC) remains imperfect. To diagnosis PLC earlier, Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) coupled with cellulose-acetate membrane electrophoresis were introduced to separate human serum albumin and SERS spectra. Three groups (15 normal persons' samples, 17 hepatitis/cirrhosis samples, 15 cases of PLC) of serum albumin were tested. Silver colloid was used to obtain SERS spectra of human serum albumin. Principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were also employed for statistical analysis. The mean Raman spectra of three groups and the difference spectra of any two suggested that the albumin has changed in liver patients. Compared to normal groups, some Raman peaks have shifted or even disappeared in hepatitis/cirrhosis and PLCs groups. The sensitivity and specificity between PLCs and normal groups is 80% and 93.3%. Among hepatitis/cirrhosis and normal groups, the sensitivity is 88.2% and specificity is also 93.3%. Besides, the sensitivity and specificity between PLCs and hepatitis/cirrhosis groups is 86.7% and 76.5%. All the above data and results indicated that early screening of PLC is potential by SERS in different stages of liver disease before cancer occurs.

  15. Fatal Vertebral Artery Injury in Penetrating Cervical Spine Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Tannoury, Chadi; Degiacomo, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Study Design. This case illustrates complications to a vertebral artery injury (VAI) resulting from penetrating cervical spine trauma. Objectives. To discuss the management of both VAI and cervical spine trauma after penetrating gunshot wound to the neck. Summary of Background Data. Vertebral artery injury following cervical spine trauma is infrequent, and a unilateral VAI often occurs without neurologic sequela. Nevertheless, devastating complications of stroke and death do occur. Methods. A gunshot wound to the neck resulted in a C6 vertebral body fracture and C5–C7 transverse foramina fractures. Neck CT angiogram identified a left vertebral artery occlusion. A cerebral angiography confirmed occlusion of the left extracranial vertebral artery and patency of the remaining cerebrovascular system. Following anterior cervical corpectomy and stabilization, brainstem infarction occurred and resulted in death. Results. A fatal outcome resulted from vertebral artery thrombus propagation with occlusion of the basilar artery triggering basilar ischemia and subsequent brainstem and cerebellar infarction. Conclusions. Vertebral artery injury secondary to cervical spine trauma can lead to potentially devastating neurologic sequela. Early surgical stabilization, along with anticoagulation therapy, contributes towards managing the combination of injuries. Unfortunately, despite efforts, a poor outcome is sometimes inevitable when cervical spine trauma is coupled with a VAI. PMID:26640731

  16. Vessel Wall Imaging of the Intracranial and Cervical Carotid Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Young Jun; Jung, Seung Chai; Lee, Deok Hee

    2015-01-01

    Vessel wall imaging can depict the morphologies of atherosclerotic plaques, arterial walls, and surrounding structures in the intracranial and cervical carotid arteries beyond the simple luminal changes that can be observed with traditional luminal evaluation. Differentiating vulnerable from stable plaques and characterizing atherosclerotic plaques are vital parts of the early diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of stroke and the neurological adverse effects of atherosclerosis. Various techniques for vessel wall imaging have been developed and introduced to differentiate and analyze atherosclerotic plaques in the cervical carotid artery. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HR-MRI) is the most important and popular vessel wall imaging technique for directly evaluating the vascular wall and intracranial artery disease. Intracranial artery atherosclerosis, dissection, moyamoya disease, vasculitis, and reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome can also be diagnosed and differentiated by using HR-MRI. Here, we review the radiologic features of intracranial artery disease and cervical carotid artery atherosclerosis on HR-MRI and various other vessel wall imaging techniques (e.g., ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance, and positron emission tomography-computed tomography). PMID:26437991

  17. Decellularized porcine pulmonary arteries cross-linked by carbodiimide

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiu-Fang; Guo, Hai-Ping; Gong, Da; Ma, Jin-Hui; Xu, Zhi-Wei; Wan, Ju-Yi; Wang, Zhuo-Guang; Zhou, Zi-Fan; Li, Wen-Bin; Xin, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The physical properties of the tissues are weakened after decellularization, and the exposed collagen fibers are prone to thrombogenesis. Several studies have proven that the use of carbodiimide (EDC) as a cross-linking agent can improve the properties of decellularized xenogeneic scaffold materials. We adopted EDC for the treatment of porcine pulmonary arteries in an effort to improve the physical properties of these arteries following decellularization. Twenty porcine pulmonary arteries were randomly divided into 3 groups. The control group (group A) consisted of fresh porcine pulmonary arteries with no further processing; group B was treated with trypsin and the detergent Triton X-100 to remove cells; and group C was cross-linked with EDC after trypsin and Triton X-100 treatment, as in group B. The pulmonary arteries were assessed based on water content, thickness, tensile strength, and thermal shrinkage temperature, to evaluate the physical properties of all of the samples. The scaffolds were then subcutaneously embedded in rabbits. These constructs were removed after 4 weeks and checked. The cells and matrix components of the arterial walls were removed and the fibrous scaffolds were retained. In group B, the moisture content of the pulmonary arterial walls was increased; and the thickness of the walls and the tensile strength of the pulmonary arteries were decreased in comparison with group A. In subcutaneous embedding of the group B samples in rabbits, after 4 weeks, fibroblasts had grown into the scaffolds and regenerated the tissue. The water content was decreased in the pulmonary arterial walls, there was an increase in the tensile strength and the thermal shrinkage temperature in group C compared with group B. The EDC-based cross-linking procedure can enhance the tensile strength of decellularized pulmonary arteries and decrease scaffold rejection and degradation and promote tissue regeneration in vivo. PMID:23936590

  18. Arterial wall lymphangiogenesis is increased in the human iliac atherosclerotic arteries: involvement of CCR7 receptor.

    PubMed

    Grzegorek, Irmina; Drozdz, Katarzyna; Chmielewska, Magdalena; Gomulkiewicz, Agnieszka; Jablonska, Karolina; Piotrowska, Aleksandra; Karczewski, Maciej; Janczak, Dariusz; Podhorska-Okolow, Marzena; Dziegiel, Piotr; Szuba, Andrzej

    2014-12-01

    Twenty-six iliac artery segments were divided in two groups: atherosclerotic (A) and nonatherosclerotic (NA). Expression of LYVE-1, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, and CCR7 receptor were studied with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot (WB). IHC was performed on 26 samples of iliac arteries obtained from deceased 19 organ donors. The samples were divided into an atherosclerotic group (A) [subjects with history of cardiovascular disease (hypertension, ischemic heart disease) or/and diabetes] (n=16), and a nonatherosclerotic group (NA) [subjects without any known cardiovascular diseases or cardiovascular risk factors] (n=10). WB was performed on 19 iliac artery segments obtained from two groups, based on clinical data: an atherosclerotic group (A) [patients with atherosclerosis, who underwent surgery for lower limb ischemia] (n=10), and a nonatherosclerotic group (NA) [deceased organ donors without cardiovascular diseases/risk factors (n=9)]. Expression of LYVE-1, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, and CCR-7 was increased in atherosclerotic arteries. Positive correlations between LYVE-1 and VEGF-C expression in the intima-media complex assessed by IHC: (r=0.54; p=0.005) and WB: (r=0.47; p=0.005) were found. Positive correlations between expression of CCR-7 and other markers were observed. Lymphangiogenesis is enhanced within the atherosclerotic arterial wall. Our results confirm lymphatic system activation with increased lymphangiogenesis and lymphocyte/macrophage trafficking in atherosclerosis. PMID:25318003

  19. Peripheral Artery Disease and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Peripheral Artery Disease & Diabetes Updated:Nov 10,2015 People with diabetes are at higher risk of developing peripheral artery disease (PAD) . And individuals with PAD have a ...

  20. Screening for Carotid Artery Stenosis

    MedlinePLUS

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Carotid Artery Stenosis The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation statement on Screening for Carotid Artery Stenosis. This final ...

  1. Peripheral Arterial Disease and Claudication

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of fatty deposits inside them. This is called atherosclerosis. If you have PAD, your arms, and more ... also more likely in people who already have atherosclerosis in other arteries, such as the arteries in ...

  2. Credentialing for carotid artery stenting.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Darren B; Rapp, Joseph H

    2005-06-01

    Endovascular treatment of cervical carotid artery stenosis is a rapidly expanding area of clinical competence, and physicians from various subspecialties are already performing carotid artery stenting. As a result of the diverse specialty backgrounds of physicians performing carotid artery stenting, consensus regarding the establishment of credentialing standards remains elusive. In the following manuscript we review the physician credentialing process, published data, and national society position statements applicable to carotid artery stenting. PMID:16110377

  3. Kinetics of platelet and fibrin deposition on to damaged rabbit carotid arteries in vivo: involvement of platelets in the initial deposition of fibrin

    SciTech Connect

    Shand, R.A.; Butler, K.D.; Davies, J.A.; Menys, V.C.; Wallis, R.B.

    1987-03-01

    Thrombus formation in the rabbit carotid artery has been studied kinetically in vivo using a minimally invasive technique utilizing radioisotopes. Clamping of the carotid artery for 5 min resulted in the simultaneous accumulation of platelets and fibrin at the site of injury over the next 45 min. Under the electron microscope the response was seen to range from platelet monolayer adhesion to mural thrombus formation with fibrin deposition. In animals rendered thrombocytopenic, fibrin deposition was impaired during the first 15-20 minutes after injury. Basic coagulation times and fibrinogen concentration were within normal limits. In addition the injured vessels in these animals accumulated more radiolabelled albumin, but not erythrocytes, than injured vessels in control animals. The results may imply a role for platelets in the enhancement of fibrin deposition during the early part of the response to injury and in contributing to the maintenance of normal permeability following vessel injury.

  4. Heart Attacks, Strokes, and Peripheral Artery Disease in Patients With Giant-Cell Arteritis

    MedlinePLUS

    Annals of Internal Medicine Summaries for Patients Heart Attacks, Strokes, and Peripheral Artery Disease in Patients With Giant-Cell Arteritis The full report is titled “Risk for Cardiovascular Disease Early and Late ...

  5. Brachial Artery Injury Accompanying Closed Elbow Dislocations

    PubMed Central

    Harnarayan, Patrick; Cawich, Shamir O.; Harnanan, Dave; Budhooram, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Brachial artery injuries from elbow dislocations are uncommon, but they may lead to disastrous consequences if the diagnosis is delayed. Presentation of case We report a case of a patient who sustained a fall onto the elbow, with dislocation and brachial artery injury, despite an ipsilateral radial pulse being palpable. Discussion Clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for brachial injury when patients present with a fall onto the elbow coupled with signs suggestive of fracture-dislocation, nerve injury and/or signs of limb ischemia. Frank ischamia, however, is uncommon as there is a rich collateral anastomosis in the upper limb. Conclusion A high index of suspicion should be maintained in order to make the diagnosis early. Exploration with excision of the injured segment and reverse vein interposition grafting is the treatment of choice in these cases. PMID:25644552

  6. [Iatrogenic injuries of the pulmonary artery].

    PubMed

    Hromádka, P; Cernohorský, S; Skach, J; Zýková, I

    2010-04-01

    The injury of major thoracic vessels always presents life threatening condition. In our case report we present iatrogenous pulmonary artery lesion caused by Swan-ganz catheter during invasive intraluminal pulmonary pressure measurement as a part of examination for cardiosurgical mitral valve replacement. There are no files describing successfully treated patients with vast pulmonary artery trunk injury rather than particular case reports. Although severe iatrogenous injury is being discussed, the outcome for the patient is thank to early surgical treatment (the application of recombinant coagulation factor VII - Novoseven, blood recuperation, therapeutic hypothermia) and professional postoperative care maximally beneficial. In the discussion and conclusion authors summarize therapeutical procedures that led to saving a patient's life. PMID:20586159

  7. Human Arterial-Tree Multiscale

    E-print Network

    Human Arterial- Tree Multiscale Simulations CRUNCH Group Division of Applied Mathematics Brown University George Karniadakis and Leopold Grinberg #12;For modeling purposes, we subdivide the arterial system into three levels: 1. The Macrovascular Network (MaN), which includes large arteries, down

  8. Structural and Functional Abnormalities of Carotid Artery and Their Relation with EVA Phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Maloberti, Alessandro; Meani, Paolo; Varrenti, Marisa; Giupponi, Luca; Stucchi, Miriam; Vallerio, Paola; Giannattasio, Cristina

    2015-12-01

    Early vascular aging is a process characterized by a reduction in arterial elastin with an increase in collagen that has been related to cardiovascular risk factor and can determine an increased arterial stiffness and central blood pressure. It can be measured by several non invasive methods and in different arterial segment. The present paper will focus on functional (local stiffness parameter) and structural (intima media thickness) carotid arteries alterations typically evaluated by ultrasound methods. Methodological, research and clinical issue has been reviewed. PMID:25986075

  9. Coronary steal through anomalous internal mammary artery graft. Treated by ligation without sternotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Hijazi, A; Mazhar, R; Odeh, S; Qunnaby, I

    1996-01-01

    A patient who had undergone adequate coronary revascularization with a left internal mammary artery graft to the left anterior descending coronary artery and with saphenous vein grafts to the right coronary artery and to the 1st and 2nd obtuse marginal branches presented with early-onset recurrent angina. A repeat angiogram showed an abnormally large branch arising from the very proximal segment of the left internal mammary artery and supplying the whole lateral chest wall via many intercostal tributaries. Relief of symptoms was achieved by ligation of this branch, and the patient remains symptom free more than 6 years after the procedure. Images PMID:8885107

  10. Facts About Peripheral Arterial

    E-print Network

    Shen, Jun

    of the conditions that raise the risk for developing P.A.D., such as diabetes and high blood pressure, are more in every four African Americans between the ages of 65 and 74 has diabetes. Have high blood pressure. Also called hypertension, high blood pressure raises the risk of developing plaque in the arteries. High blood

  11. [Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis].

    PubMed

    Sauguet, A; Honton, B

    2014-12-01

    Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis can cause ischaemic nephropathy and arterial hypertension. Renal artery stenosis (RAS) continues to be a problem for clinicians, with no clear consensus on how to investigate and assess the clinical significance of stenotic lesions and manage the findings. RAS caused by fibromuscular dysplasia is probably commoner than previously appreciated, should be actively looked for in younger hypertensive patients and can be managed successfully with angioplasty. Atheromatous RAS is associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular events and increased cardiovascular mortality, and is likely to be seen with increasing frequency. Many patients with RAS may be managed effectively with medical therapy for several years without endovascular stenting, as demonstrated by randomized, prospective trials including the cardiovascular outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions (CORAL) trial, the Angioplasty and Stenting for Renal Artery Lesions (ASTRAL) trial. These trials share the limitation of excluding subsets of patients with high-risk clinical presentations, including episodic pulmonary edema and rapidly progressing renal failure and hypertension. Blood pressure control and medication adjustment may become more difficult with declining renal function and may prevent the use of angiotensin receptor blocker and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. The objective of this review is to evaluate the current management of RAS for cardiologists in the context of recent randomized clinical trials. There is now interest in looking more closely at patient selection for intervention, with focus on intervening only in patients with the highest-risk presentations such as flash pulmonary edema, rapidly declining renal function and severe resistant hypertension. PMID:25450992

  12. Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome: clinical diagnostic value of dynamic enhanced MSCT

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pei-Yuan; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Xia; Liu, Xin-Jiang; Chen, Liang; Wang, Xu; Wang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the clinical diagnostic value of dynamic enhanced multislice computed tomography (MSCT) for Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome (FHCS). [Subjects and Methods] This study retrospectively analyzed the clinical features and manifestations of scanning and dynamic enhanced MSCT in 19 patients with FHCS. [Results] MSCT scans showed different degrees of liver capsule thickness in the lesion area: seven cases of sub-capsular effusion and three cases with a small amount of pleural effusion; thickness of the liver capsular arterial phase showing significant enhancement in 17 cases, and slight enhancement in two; portal venous and delayed phase enhancement decreased with no clear boundary of the liver parenchyma; and adjacent hepatic parenchymal involvement in five cases, in which the arterial phase appeared to have patchy or triangular enhancement, and unclear portal vein and delayed phase imaging findings. MSCT revealed pelvic inflammatory disease in 14 cases, peritonitis in two, endometritis combined with bilateral ovarian abscesses in two, and a tube-ovarian abscess in one. [Conclusion] Dynamic enhanced MSCT can accurately display liver capsule lesions and possible pelvic inflammatory diseases related to FHCS, suggest the infection source, and have high application value for making early, accurate diagnoses and improved prognosis. PMID:26180288

  13. [Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated to human immunodeficiency virus].

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Gutiérrez, José Luis; Santos-Martínez, Luis Efren; Rodríguez-Silverio, Juan; Baranda-Tovar, Francisco Martín; Rivera-Rosales, Rosa María; Flores-Murrieta, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    From the advent of the highly effective antiretroviral treatment, the life expectancy of patients with human immunodeficiency virus has increased significantly. At present, the causes of death are non-infectious complications. Between them, the pulmonary arterial hypertension has a special importance. It is important early detection to establish the therapeutic, with the objective of preventing a fatal outcome to future. PMID:25577549

  14. Early intervention with gene-modified mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing interleukin-4 enhances anti-inflammatory responses and functional recovery in experimental autoimmune demyelination

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Natalie L.; Dantanarayana, Ashanti; Sun, Guizhi; Moussa, Leon; Caine, Sally; McDonald, Courtney; Herszfeld, Daniella; Bernard, Claude C.A.; Siatskas, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) can be isolated from most adult tissues and hold considerable promise for tissue regenerative therapies. Some of the potential advantages that MSCs have over other adult stem cell types include: (1) their relative ease of isolation, culture and expansion; (2) their immunomodulatory properties; (3) they can provide trophic support to injured tissues; (4) they can be transduced by retroviral vectors at a high efficiency; (5) they have an ability to home to sites of inflammation and injury. Collectively these characteristics suggest that MSCs are attractive vehicles for cell and gene therapy applications. In the current study, we investigated whether transplantation of human adipose-derived MSCs (Ad-MSCs) engineered to overexpress the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-4 was efficacious in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Ad-MSCs transduced with a bicistronic lentiviral vector encoding mouse IL-4 and enhanced green fluorescent protein (Ad-IL4-MSCs) stably expressed, relatively high levels of both transgenes. Importantly the phenotypic and functional attributes of Ad-IL4-MSCs, such as the expression of homing molecules and differentiation capacity, was not altered by the transduction process. Notably, the early administration of Ad-IL4-MSCs in mice with EAE at the time of T-cell priming attenuated clinical disease. This protective effect was associated with a reduction in peripheral MOG-specific T-cell responses and a shift from a pro- to an anti-inflammatory cytokine response. These data suggest that the delivery of Ad-MSCs genetically engineered to express anti-inflammatory cytokines may provide a rational approach to promote immunomodulation and tissue protection in a number of inflammatory and degenerative diseases including multiple sclerosis. PMID:22568986

  15. Coronary artery vasculitis: assessment with cardiac multi-detector computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Chang Ho; Kim, Yeo Koon; Chun, Eun Ju; Kim, Jeong A; Yong, Hwan Seok; Doo, Kyung Won; Choi, Sang Il

    2015-06-01

    Coronary artery vasculitis is rare and comprises an array of inflammatory diseases. It often results in severe and life-threatening complications, including coronary artery aneurysm, coronary artery stenosis, intraluminal thrombosis, and microcirculation abnormalities. These may occur at a young age and are often silent in the early phases. Invasive coronary angiography is the gold standard for diagnosing coronary artery disease (CAD); however, multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) is now widely regarded as a powerful non-invasive tool for the detection of CAD. It is important for clinicians to recognize the various CT findings associated with coronary artery vasculitis in order to promote accurate diagnosis and proper patient management. The purpose of this article is to present an overview of the conditions associated with coronary artery vasculitis, with an emphasis on etiology and cardiac MDCT diagnosis of CAD. Cardiac MDCT is clinically useful and can provide information for the accurate diagnosis and treatment of coronary vasculitis. PMID:25841665

  16. Enzymatic antioxidant system in vascular inflammation and coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Lubrano, Valter; Balzan, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    In biological systems there is a balance between the production and neutralization of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This balance is maintained by the presence of natural antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase. The enhancement of lipid peroxidation or the decrease of antioxidant protection present in metabolic diseases or bad lifestyle can induce endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Clinical studies have shown that oxidative stress can increase ROS reducing the formation of antioxidant defences, especially in subjects with coronary artery disease (CAD). Some observation indicated that in the early stages of the disease there is a homeostatic up-regulation of the antioxidant enzyme system in response to increased free radicals to prevent vascular damage. As soon as free radicals get to chronically elevated levels, this compensation ceases. Therefore, SOD and the other enzymes may represent a good therapeutic target against ROS, but they are not useful markers for the diagnosis of CAD. In conclusion antioxidant enzymes are reduced in presence of metabolic disease and CAD. However the existence of genes that promote their enzymatic activity could contribute to create new drugs for the treatment of damage caused by metabolic diseases or lifestyle that increases the plasma ROS levels. PMID:26618108

  17. Detrimental arterial inflammatory effect of microparticles circulating in preeclamptic women: ex vivo evaluation in human arteries.

    PubMed

    Boisramé-Helms, Julie; Meziani, Ferhat; Sananès, Nicolas; Boisramé, Thomas; Langer, Bruno; Schneider, Francis; Ragot, Thierry; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Tesse, Angela

    2015-10-01

    Elevated plasmatic levels of lympho-monocyte and platelet microparticles (MPs) have been reported in preeclampsia. Previous studies suggest that MPs could participate in preeclampsia vascular impairment. In this study, we investigated the ex vivo vascular effects of MPs from preeclamptic women on arteries from normotensive pregnant women. Omental arteries were collected from normal pregnant women undergoing cesarean section and incubated during 24 h with MPs from normal pregnant or preeclamptic women. Vascular contraction to serotonin and phenylephrine was studied on a wire myograph with or without pharmacological selective inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and/or cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2). Expression of iNOS, COX-2, and NF-?B and production of superoxide anion and 8-isoprostane were also assessed by immunohistological or biochemical staining and/or Western blot or ELISA assay, respectively. Microparticles from preeclamptic women, but not those from normal pregnant women, induced hyporeactivity to vasocontracturant agonists in omental arteries. Selective inhibitor of iNOS partially restored this arterial contraction, suggesting that nitric oxide (NO) is involved in vascular contractility alteration. Conversely, COX-2 induced 8-isoprostane release, a vasoconstricting metabolite modulating the agonist-induced contraction. COX-2 selective inhibitor almost abolished the arterial contraction in the same vessels. Interestingly, the association of iNOS and COX-2 selective inhibitors restored the contraction to control levels. Moreover, iNOS, COX-2, and NF-?B expressions are upregulated and superoxide anion levels increased in vessels incubated with MPs from preeclamptic women. In conclusion, circulating MPs from preeclamptic women induce vascular inflammation and enhance oxidative stress. These results suggest a possible role of MPs during preeclampsia-induced arterial dysfunction. PMID:26213341

  18. Occupational True Aneurysm of the Ulnar Artery: A Case Report of Hypothenar Hammer Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A 32-year-old male patient was admitted to the hospital with a pulsing mass of the right palm. He was an electrical construction engineer who frequently used a screwdriver. Computed tomography (CT) examination revealed a 22- × 30-mm saccular aneurysm of the right ulnar artery. The ulnar artery aneurysm was resected, and we could perform direct anastomosis of the ulnar artery. The dilated true aneurysm was compatible with a traumatic origin. A postoperative enhanced CT examination showed smooth reconstruction of the palmar arch. An occupational true aneurysm of the ulnar artery could be treated by resection and direct anastomosis. PMID:24130624

  19. Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis: current status.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon Hyo; Lerman, Lilach O

    2015-05-01

    Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) remains a major cause of secondary hypertension and kidney failure. Randomized prospective trials show that medical treatment should constitute the main therapeutic approach in ARAS. Regardless of intensive treatment and adequate blood pressure control, however, renal and extrarenal complications are not uncommon. Yet, the precise mechanisms, accurate detection, and optimal treatment in ARAS remain elusive. Strategies oriented to early detection and targeting these pathogenic pathways might prevent development of clinical end points. Here, we review the results of recent clinical trials, current understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms, novel imaging techniques to assess kidney damage in ARAS, and treatment options. PMID:25908472

  20. Caliber-Persistent Artery

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Sabrina Araújo Pinho; Ruiz, Marcelo Martinson; Kaba, Shajadi Pardo; Florezi, Giovanna Piacenza; Lemos Júnior, Celso Augusto; Witzel, Andréa Lusvarghi

    2015-01-01

    Caliber-persistent artery (CPLA) of the lip is a common vascular anomaly in which a main arterial branch extends to the surface of the mucous tissue with no reduction in its diameter. It usually manifests as pulsatile papule, is easily misdiagnosed, and is observed more frequently among older people, suggesting that its development may involve a degenerative process associated with aging; CPLA is also characterized by the loss of tone of the adjacent supporting connective tissue. Although the diagnosis is clinical, high-resolution Doppler ultrasound is a useful noninvasive tool for evaluating the lesion. This report describes the case of a 58-year-old male patient who complained of a lesion of the lower lip with bleeding and recurrent ulceration. The patient was successfully treated in our hospital after a diagnosis of CPLA and is currently undergoing a clinical outpatient follow-up with no complaints. PMID:26448884

  1. [Why screen for lung cancer in patients with arterial disease?].

    PubMed

    Lederlin, M; Trédaniel, J; Priollet, P

    2015-12-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death in France. Such a prognosis is explained by late diagnosis at a metastatic stage for half of the patients. Tobacco is the main risk factor for lung cancer, as it is for peripheral arterial disease. A review of literature shows that between 2.3% and 19% of patients with arterial disease also have lung cancer. When lung cancer is detected after treatment of arterial disease, it is at an advanced stage. But it can be diagnosed at an early stage when it is searched simultaneously with arterial disease treatment. There is no recommendation for lung cancer screening specifically for patients with arterial disease. However individual screening based on an annual low-dose chest scan is proposed for smokers meeting the criteria defined by the study of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST). Such screening has two disadvantages : the high number of false positives and the irradiation induced by the accumulation of examinations. The ISET method would alternatively help to identify circulating tumor cells on a simple blood test for subjects not yet at solid tumor stage, provided this method be subject to multicentric validation. Thus one could consider that the management of a patient with arterial disease meeting NLST criteria should be accompanied with screening for lung cancer by searching for tumor cells associated with low-dose scanner. PMID:26276562

  2. Arterial Stiffening and Clinical Outcomes in Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in dialysis patients. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) is more efficient to handily assess arteriosclerosis than aortic PWV. The cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) is also a novel blood pressure-independent arterial stiffness parameter. In dialysis patients, both baPWV and CAVI are increased compared to general subjects. Several studies have demonstrated that increased baPWV is associated with carotid atherosclerosis and diastolic left ventricular dysfunction in hemodialysis (HD) patients. In addition, higher baPWV is related to all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality. CAVI is similarly associated with CVD. However, baPWV is superior to CAVI as a predictor of CV outcomes in HD patients. Besides these outcomes, a close relationship exists between sarcopenia, abdominal visceral obesity and arterial stiffening. Reduction of thigh muscle mass is inversely correlated with baPWV and CAVI in males. Abdominal fatness is also associated with increased arterial stiffness in females. These observations provide further evidence of higher risk of CV events in HD patients with sarcopenic obesity. In addition, arterial stiffness is associated with cerebral small vessel disease and decreased cognitive function in the elderly. However, it is unknown whether arterial stiffness may be useful as an early indicator of cognitive decline in dialysis patients. Because dialysis patients are at risk of developing dementia, more studies are needed to elucidate the causal link between arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment. PMID:26587457

  3. Intra-arterial chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Homma, Akihiro; Onimaru, Rikiya; Matsuura, Kazuto; Robbins, K Thomas; Fujii, Masato

    2016-01-01

    Intra-arterial chemotherapy has been used to treat localized malignant neoplasms in patients with head and neck cancer for over 50 years as the head and neck region is particularly well suited to regional chemotherapy. Early intra-arterial chemotherapy did not prove its efficacy. In addition, the additional complications associated with establishing and maintaining arterial access have further dampened enthusiasm for this approach. Subsequent significant advances in vascular radiology techniques and the development of new devices, such as fluoroscopy units and angiographic catheters, have made possible safe, accurate and repeated superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy. Intra-arterial infusion of high-dose cisplatin with systemic neutralization by intravenous sodium thiosulfate (RADPLAT) is a theoretically attractive approach to the treatment of advanced head and neck cancer. However, a Dutch trial comparing intra-arterial and intravenous chemoradiotherapy for advanced head and neck cancer showed that RADPLAT was not superior to intravenous chemoradiotherapy. Therefore, further investigation of RADPLAT, including the refinement of the indications for its application, is needed. PMID:26486825

  4. Peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis.

    PubMed Central

    Salisbury, D M; Keeling, J W

    1978-01-01

    A term infant, born by caesarean section for fetal distress, developed grunting and cyanosis by 15 minutes of age. Ventilation at low pressures was achieved without difficulty but did not improve blood gas levels, and he died at 26 hours. Necropsy examination showed large heart and small lungs; histologically the lungs showed multiple obstructive lesions at medium size pulmonary artery level. Images Fig. PMID:666361

  5. Distal Embolic Protection for Renal Arterial Interventions

    SciTech Connect

    Dubel, Gregory J. Murphy, Timothy P.

    2008-01-15

    Distal or embolic protection has intuitive appeal for its potential to prevent embolization of materials generated during interventional procedures. Distal protection devices (DPDs) have been most widely used in the coronary and carotid vascular beds, where they have demonstrated the ability to trap embolic materials and, in some cases, to reduce complications. Given the frequency of chronic kidney disease in patients with renal artery stenosis undergoing stent placement, it is reasonable to propose that these devices may play an important role in limiting distal embolization in the renal vasculature. Careful review of the literature reveals that atheroembolization does occur during renal arterial interventions, although it often goes undetected. Early experience with DPDs in the renal arteries in patients with suitable anatomy suggests retrieval of embolic materials in approximately 71% of cases and renal functional improvement/stabilization in 98% of cases. The combination of platelet inhibition and a DPD may provide even greater benefit. Given the critical importance of renal functional preservation, it follows that everything that can be done to prevent atheroembolism should be undertaken including the use of DPDs when anatomically feasible. The data available at this time support a beneficial role for these devices.

  6. LATENT LIFE OF ARTERIES.

    PubMed

    Carrel, A

    1910-07-23

    When a segment of artery, killed by heat, formalin or glycerin is transplanted, it undergoes a rapid degeneration. Its muscle fibers disappear while the tissue of the host reacts by building a new wall of connective tissue. When the transplanted vessel has been preserved in a condition of latent life, no degeneration of the wall occurs, or the wall undergoes only partial degeneration. The muscle fibers can keep their normal appearance, even for a long time after the operation. It is, therefore, demonstrated that arteries can be preserved outside of the body in a condition of unmanifested actual life. The best method of preservation consists of placing the vessels, immersed in vaselin, in an ice box, the temperature of which is slightly above the freezing point. From a surgical standpoint, the transplantation of preserved vessels can be used with some safety. When the arteries were kept in defibrinated blood or vaselin and in cold storage, the proportion of positive results was 75 and 80 per cent., and this can probably be increased. PMID:19867337

  7. Vascular smooth cell proliferation in perfusion culture of porcine carotid arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Dan; Lin, Peter H.; Yao Qizhi; Chen Changyi

    2008-08-08

    Objective of this study was to develop a novel in vitro artery culture system to study vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation of porcine carotid arteries in response to injury, basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2), and FGF2 conjugated with cytotoxin saporin (SAP). Perfusion-cultured porcine carotid arteries remained contractile in response to norepinephrine and relaxant to acetylcholine for up to 96 h. SMC proliferation of cultured arteries was detected by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation in both non-injured and balloon-injured arteries. In the inner layer of the vessel wall near the lumen, SMC proliferation were less than 10% in uninjured vessels, 66% in injured vessels, 80% in injured vessels with FGF2 treatment, and 5% in injured vessels with treatment of FGF2-SAP. Thus, the cultured porcine carotid arteries were viable; and the injury stimulated SMC proliferation, which was significantly enhanced by FGF2 and inhibited by FGF2-SAP.

  8. Computerized axial tomography of the chest for visualization of ''absent'' pulmonary arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Sondheimer, H.M.; Oliphant, M.; Schneider, B.; Kavey, R.E.W.; Blackman, M.S.; Parker, F.B. Jr.

    1982-05-01

    To expand the search for central pulmonary arteries in six patients with absence of cardiac-pulmonary continuity, computerized axial tomography (CAT) of the chest was performed. The CAT scans were compared with previous arteriograms and pulmonary vein wedge angiograms. Three patients with type IV truncus arteriosus were studied, and none had a central, right or left pulmonary artery on CAT scan. However, two patients with tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia and a patent ductus arteriosus to the right lung demonstrated the presence of a left pulmonary artery. In addition, one child with truncus arteriosus with ''absent'' left pulmonary artery demonstrated a left pulmonary artery on the CAT scan. The CAT scan may therefore enhance our ability to search for disconnected pulmonary arteries in children with complex cyanotic congenital heart disease.

  9. Transcatheter Embolization of Pulmonary Artery False Aneurysm Associated with Primary Pulmonary Hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraki, T. Kanazawa, S.; Mimura, H.; Yasui, K.; Okumura, Y.; Dendo, S.; Yoshimura, K.; Takahara, M.; Hiraki, Y.

    2004-03-15

    A 29-year-old woman with primary pulmonary hypertension presented with recurrent hemoptysis. Contrast-enhanced CT of the chest demonstrated the enhanced mass surrounded by consolidation related to parenchymal hemorrhage. Pulmonary angiography suggested that the mass was a pulmonary artery false aneurysm. After a microcatheter was superselectively inserted into the parent artery of the falseaneurysm, the false aneurysm was successfully treated by transcatheterembolization with coils. Her hemoptysis has never recurred.

  10. Management of Giant Splenic Artery Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Akbulut, Sami; Otan, Emrah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To provide an overview of the medical literature on giant splenic artery aneurysm (SAA). The PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and Google databases were searched using keywords to identify articles related to SAA. Keywords used were splenic artery aneurysm, giant splenic artery aneuryms, huge splenic artery aneurysm, splenic artery aneurysm rupture, and visceral artery aneurysm. SAAs with a diameter ?5?cm are considered as giant and included in this study. The language of the publication was not a limitation criterion, and publications dated before January 15, 2015 were considered. The literature review included 69 papers (62 fulltext, 6 abstract, 1 nonavailable) on giant SAA. A sum of 78 patients (50 males, 28 females) involved in the study with an age range of 27–87 years (mean ± SD: 55.8?±?14.0 years). Age range for male was 30–87 (mean?±?SD: 57.5?±?12.0 years) and for female was 27–84 (mean?±?SD: 52.7?±?16.6 years). Most frequent predisposing factors were acute or chronic pancreatitis, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and cirrhosis. Aneurysm dimensions were obtained for 77 patients with a range of 50–300?mm (mean?±?SD: 97.1?±?46.0?mm). Aneurysm dimension range for females was 50–210?mm (mean?±?SD: 97.5?±?40.2?mm) and for males was 50–300?mm (mean?±?SD: 96.9?±?48.9?mm). Intraperitoneal/retroperitoneal rupture was present in 15, among which with a lesion dimension range of 50–180?mm (mean?±?SD; 100?±?49.3?mm) which was range of 50–300?mm (mean?±?SD: 96.3?±?45.2?mm) in cases without rupture. Mortality for rupture patients was 33.3%. Other frequent complications were gastrosplenic fistula (n?=?3), colosplenic fistula (n?=?1), pancreatic fistula (n?=?1), splenic arteriovenous fistula (n?=?3), and portosplenic fistula (n?=?1). Eight of the patients died in early postoperative period while 67 survived. Survival status of the remaining 3 patients is unclear. Range of follow-up period for the surviving patients varies from 3 weeks to 42 months. Either rupture or fistulization into hollow organs risk increase in compliance with aneurysm diameter. Mortality is significantly high in rupture cases. Patients with an evident risk should undergo either surgical or interventional radiological treatment without delay. PMID:26166071

  11. Page Kidney Secondary to Large Splenic Artery Aneurysm Bleeding and Its Management by Angioembolization

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Santosh; Jayant, Kumar; AS, Sriharsha; Singh, Sharwan Kumar; Agrawal, Swati

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The Page kidney is a rare phenomenon that refers to hypertension resulting from any external compression of a kidney by a hematoma, tumor, lymphocele, or urinoma. The activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is believed to be the main mechanism responsible for development of resistant hypertension in Page kidney. Case Presentation: We reported a patient with chronic pancreatitis who presented with hypotension due to splenic artery aneurysmal bleed; following the resuscitation, accelerated hypertension secondary to Page kidney caused by perinephric hematoma presented. Early diagnosis by contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen and renal angiogram was followed by therapeutic angioembolization. However, ultrasound guided aspiration was not done because of denial by the patient for further treatment. Follow-up showed normalization of blood pressure and resolution of hematoma on subsequent abdomen ultrasound evaluation. Discussion: Splenic artery aneurysm is a very uncommon cause of Page kidney and to our knowledge, it was the first case of its kind ever reported in the literature. PMID:25032140

  12. Adapting Japanese Lesson Study to Enhance the Teaching and Learning of Geometry and Spatial Reasoning in Early Years Classrooms: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Joan; Hawes, Zachary; Naqvi, Sarah; Caswell, Beverly

    2015-01-01

    Increased efforts are needed to meet the demand for high quality mathematics in early years classrooms. Despite the foundational role of geometry and spatial reasoning for later mathematics success, the strand receives inadequate instructional time and is limited to concepts of static geometry. Moreover, early years teachers typically lack both…

  13. A High-Resolution Multi-Proxy Lake Sediment Record from Torfdalsvatn Suggests an Enhanced Temperature Gradient Between North and South Iceland During the Early Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florian, Christopher; Geirsdóttir, Áslaug; Miller, Gifford; Axford, Yarrow

    2015-04-01

    Torfdalsvatn (66° 3'41.73"N, 20°23'14.26"W) is a relatively small (0.4 km2) and shallow (z=5.8 m) lake on the Skagi Peninsula of northern Iceland approximately 0.5 km from the modern coastline. This location is ideal for comparison with the many marine core records from the North Iceland Shelf that record variability in the northern extent of the warm Irminger Current, one of the primary controls on regional climate. To develop a record of north Iceland Holocene terrestrial climate, we analyzed a 8.4 m sediment core at 15-30 year resolution from approximately 12 ka to present using multiple proxies including sedimentary pigments, organic carbon flux, carbon to nitrogen ratio and stable isotopes, as well as biogenic silica measured by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR-S). Results show gradual warming during the early Holocene, with stable soil development and peak aquatic productivity not occurring until after 8 ka. Increased aquatic productivity and a stable terrestrial environment between 6 and 2 ka indicate peak Holocene warmth in this interval. Aquatic productivity abruptly decreases at 1.8 ka associated with an increase in minerogenic material from landscape destabilization in the catchment with the onset of late Holocene cooling. At 1ka, the proportion of terrestrially-derived organic matter deposited in the lake sediment increases, indicating significant destabilization of soil horizons due to continued cooling and potential human settlement. This record is in good agreement with composite north Iceland chironomid-inferred July air temperatures from Axford et al. (2007), which show peak summer temperatures occurring between approximately 5 and 2 ka. The time of peak warmth at Torfdalsvatn is associated with peak biogenic carbonate concentration in the marine core MD99-2269, indicating an influx of warm Irminger waters. This is in contrast with Holocene climate records obtained from lakes in south and west Iceland, implying that there was an enhanced climate gradient between south and north Iceland during much of the Holocene. A comparison of the data from this core with other high-resolution regional climate records can lead to a better understanding of the relationship between marine and terrestrial climate, as well as the differences in climate histories between north and south Iceland.

  14. Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI Detects Early Response to Adoptive NK Cellular Immunotherapy Targeting the NG2 Proteoglycan in a Rat Model of Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Thuen, Marte; Gras Navarro, Andrea; Huuse, Else Marie; Thorsen, Frits; Poli, Aurelie; Zimmer, Jacques; Haraldseth, Olav; Lie, Stein Atle; Enger, Per Øyvind; Chekenya, Martha

    2014-01-01

    There are currently no established radiological parameters that predict response to immunotherapy. We hypothesised that multiparametric, longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of physiological parameters and pharmacokinetic models might detect early biological responses to immunotherapy for glioblastoma targeting NG2/CSPG4 with mAb9.2.27 combined with natural killer (NK) cells. Contrast enhanced conventional T1-weighted MRI at 7±1 and 17±2 days post-treatment failed to detect differences in tumour size between the treatment groups, whereas, follow-up scans at 3 months demonstrated diminished signal intensity and tumour volume in the surviving NK+mAb9.2.27 treated animals. Notably, interstitial volume fraction (ve), was significantly increased in the NK+mAb9.2.27 combination therapy group compared mAb9.2.27 and NK cell monotherapy groups (p?=?0.002 and p?=?0.017 respectively) in cohort 1 animals treated with 1 million NK cells. ve was reproducibly increased in the combination NK+mAb9.2.27 compared to NK cell monotherapy in cohort 2 treated with increased dose of 2 million NK cells (p<0.0001), indicating greater cell death induced by NK+mAb9.2.27 treatment. The interstitial volume fraction in the NK monotherapy group was significantly reduced compared to mAb9.2.27 monotherapy (p<0.0001) and untreated controls (p?=?0.014) in the cohort 2 animals. NK cells in monotherapy were unable to kill the U87MG cells that highly expressed class I human leucocyte antigens, and diminished stress ligands for activating receptors. A significant association between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of water and ve in combination NK+mAb9.2.27 and NK monotherapy treated tumours was evident, where increased ADC corresponded to reduced ve in both cases. Collectively, these data support histological measures at end-stage demonstrating diminished tumour cell proliferation and pronounced apoptosis in the NK+mAb9.2.27 treated tumours compared to the other groups. In conclusion, ve was the most reliable radiological parameter for detecting response to intralesional NK cellular therapy. PMID:25268630

  15. Accuracy Evaluation in the Measurement of a Small Change in the Thickness of Arterial Walls and the Measurement of Elasticity of the Human Carotid Artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Hideyuki; Kanai, Hiroshi; Hoshimiya, Nozomu; Chubachi, Noriyoshi; Koiwa, Yoshiro

    1998-05-01

    For the diagnosis of the early stages of atherosclerosis, it isimportant to evaluate the local acoustic characteristics of thearterial wall. For this purpose, it is necessary to increase thespatial resolution in the axial direction to several millimeters,which corresponds to the size of the macular lesion on the surface ofthe wall. We have proposed a method for measuring small velocitysignals on the intima and adventitia of the arterial wall from theskin surface using pulsive ultrasonic waves. The small change inthickness of the arterial wall is obtained by integrating thedifference between the two velocity signals on the intima andadventitia. The elastic property of the arterial wall is noninvasivelyevaluated from the change in thickness and the arterial innerpressure. In this paper, we evaluate the accuracy of the proposedmethod for measuring the small displacement. Moreover, we applied thismethod to evaluate the elastic property of the arterial wall of 50patients and 8 healthy subjects.

  16. Single vessel abdominal arterial disease.

    PubMed

    van Noord, Désirée; Kuipers, Ernst J; Mensink, Peter B F

    2009-01-01

    The long-standing discussion concerning the mere existence of single vessel abdominal artery disease can be closed: chronic gastrointestinal ischaemia (CGI) due to single vessel abdominal artery stenosis exists, can be treated successfully and in a safe manner. The most common causes of single vessel CGI are the coeliac artery compression syndrome (CACS) in younger patients, and atherosclerotic disease in elderly patients. The clinical symptoms of single vessel CGI patients are postprandial and exercise-related pain, weight loss, and an abdominal bruit. The current diagnostic approach in patients suspected of single vessel CGI is gastrointestinal tonometry combined with radiological visualisation of the abdominal arteries to define possible arterial stenosis. Especially in single vessel abdominal artery stenosis, gastrointestinal tonometry plays a pivotal role in establishing the diagnosis CGI. First-choice treatment of single vessel CGI remains surgical revascularisation, especially in CACS. In elderly or selected patients endovascular stent placement therapy is an acceptable option. PMID:19258186

  17. Noninvasive assessment of arterial compliance of human cerebral arteries with short inversion time arterial spin labeling

    PubMed Central

    Warnert, Esther AH; Murphy, Kevin; Hall, Judith E; Wise, Richard G

    2015-01-01

    A noninvasive method of assessing cerebral arterial compliance (AC) is introduced in which arterial spin labeling (ASL) is used to measure changes in arterial blood volume (aBV) occurring within the cardiac cycle. Short inversion time pulsed ASL (PASL) was performed in healthy volunteers with inversion times ranging from 250 to 850?ms. A model of the arterial input function was used to obtain the cerebral aBV. Results indicate that aBV depends on the cardiac phase of the arteries in the imaging volume. Cerebral AC, estimated from aBV and brachial blood pressure measured noninvasively in systole and diastole, was assessed in the flow territories of the basal cerebral arteries originating from the circle of Willis: right and left middle cerebral arteries (RMCA and LMCA), right and left posterior cerebral arteries (RPCA and LPCA), and the anterior cerebral artery (ACA). Group average AC values calculated for the RMCA, LMCA, ACA, RPCA, and LPCA were 0.56%±0.2%, 0.50%±0.3%, 0.4%±0.2%, 1.1%±0.5%, and 1.1%±0.3% per mm?Hg, respectively. The current experiment has shown the feasibility of measuring AC of cerebral arteries with short inversion time PASL. PMID:25515216

  18. Subclavian and Vertebral Arterial Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Hülsbeck, S.

    2007-01-01

    Endovascular treatment of supra-aortic atherosclerotic arterial stenoses and occlusions using percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and stent placement is an accepted first-choice procedure. Technical success, primary success, and midterm patency after PTA and stent placement for the treatment of stenosed or obstructed brachiocephalic arteries are promising and complication rates are low. Permanent miniaturization and device improvement makes treatment of atherosclerotic obstructive disease by endovascular means in brachial and cephalic arteries a safe procedure showing promising midterm patency rates. PMID:21326803

  19. Intrasplenic Arterial Aneurysms during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Abu-khalaf, Mahmoud M. S.; Al-Ameer, Sokiyna M.; Smadi, Moath M.; Qatawneh, Ayman; Smara, Osama A.; Hadidy, Azmy T.

    2015-01-01

    Splenic artery aneurysms account for about 60% of all visceral aneurysms. Pregnancy is a risk factor for splenic artery aneurysms rupture with high maternal mortality and fetal loss. Intrasplenic arterial aneurysms are extremely rare and have not been reported to be associated with pregnancy. This report presents a 34-year-old woman during the second trimester, admitted with severe left upper quadrant and left shoulder pain. She had two uncomplicated intrasplenic aneurysms. Splenectomy was done. She delivered a full term healthy girl. This is the first report of acute abdomen during pregnancy caused by intrasplenic artery aneurysms with maternal and fetal survival. PMID:25810934

  20. Arterial pulse wave pressure transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, C.; Gorelick, D.; Chen, W. (inventors)

    1974-01-01

    An arterial pulse wave pressure transducer is introduced. The transducer is comprised of a fluid filled cavity having a flexible membrane disposed over the cavity and adapted to be placed on the skin over an artery. An arterial pulse wave creates pressure pulses in the fluid which are transduced, by a pressure sensitive transistor in direct contact with the fluid, into an electric signal. The electrical signal is representative of the pulse waves and can be recorded so as to monitor changes in the elasticity of the arterial walls.

  1. Resistant spontaneous coronary artery spasm.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Kudret; ?ahin, Alparslan; Y?ld?z, Süleyman Sezai; Aksan, Gökhan

    2015-10-01

    Coronary artery spasm should always be suspected in patients who have myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteries. This case report presents a 33-year-old woman with anterior myocardial infarction, whose coronary angiograph revealed normal left anterior descending artery and new onset complete occlusion of the circumflex artery at the time of the procedure. Nitroglycerin up to 800 mcg was administered without success. In such resistant cases, when all efforts fail, including prompt recognition and application of vasodilator drugs, retracting the catheter and waiting may play a role. PMID:26536989

  2. Arterial stiffness variations by gender in African-American and Caucasian children.

    PubMed Central

    Hlaing, WayWay M.; Prineas, Ronald J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Most arterial stiffness studies have been conducted in adult populations as a part of the aging process in the arterial system. Arterial stiffness is an important early marker of disease identification that may lead to improved cardiovascular health. The aim of this study was to assess the gender and ethnic differences in the arterial stiffness levels among children and adolescents. DESIGN: From a subgroup of schoolchildren who participated in a prospective cohort study in Minnesota, Caucasian and African-American children who completed 16 timed visits were included in this report (n=487). The participants were followed from 1978 (7.68 +/- 0.72 years) to 1987 (16.65 +/- 0.71 years). A surrogate measure of arterial stiffness-arterial pulse pressure (APP in mmHg)--was used. RESULTS: Adjusted APP differences started to appear around 12.67 years and persisted throughout the study. Boys consistently had higher APP levels than the girls. Ethnic differences in adjusted APP levels were observed at an earlier age (7.68 years) but did not persist after age 10. CONCLUSION: APP levels were different between gender and ethnic groups in youth. These early indications of arterial stiffness warrant further exploration of arterial stiffness etiology. PMID:16708504

  3. How Can Carotid Artery Disease Be Prevented?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can Carotid Artery Disease Be Prevented? Taking action to control your risk factors can help prevent or delay carotid artery disease and stroke . Your risk for carotid artery ...

  4. Who Needs Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Who Needs Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting? Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is used to treat people ... or after a heart attack to treat blocked arteries. Your doctor may recommend CABG if other treatments, ...

  5. Angioplasty and stent placement - carotid artery - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... angioplasty and stenting - discharge; CAS - discharge; Endarterectomy - carotid artery - discharge; Angioplasty - carotid artery - discharge ... were done to open a narrowed or blocked artery that supplies blood to your brain. Your health ...

  6. Facts about Transposition of the Great Arteries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Policy Makers Facts about Transposition of the Great Arteries Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... What We Know About Transposition of the Great Arteries How often does transposition of the great arteries ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: Pulmonary arterial hypertension

    MedlinePLUS

    ... literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Pulmonary arterial hypertension On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... definitions Reviewed September 2012 What is pulmonary arterial hypertension? Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a progressive disorder characterized ...

  8. Postpartum vertebral artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Finley, Amanda; Rogers, Brenton; Richards, Theodore; Vogel, Heather

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a right vertebral artery dissection in a 35-year-old woman, 3?weeks post partum, with manifestations of vertebrobasilar disease. She was 3?weeks out from the uneventful delivery of her fourth child, with presentation of acute neurological symptoms, predominantly intractable vertigo. Vertigo can have many non-specific generalised symptoms and clinical findings. Postpartum women have a lengthy list of possible aetiologies of vertigo not limited to our initially suspected preeclampsia, dural venous thrombosis and vertebral dissection. PMID:26604230

  9. Strategies for Enhancing Adolescents' Health through Music Media. A Commentary on "Popular Music in Early Adolescence" by Peter G. Christensen and Donald F. Roberts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flora, June A.

    The primary purpose of this paper is to describe strategies for enhancing the health behavior of adolescents and their families through increasing the healthfulness of the media environment, particularly radio or the music industry. A second goal is to briefly describe research that would enhance understanding of the healthfulness of the media…

  10. The Hypolipidemic and Pleiotropic Effects of Rosuvastatin Are Not Enhanced by Its Association with Zinc and Selenium Supplementation in Coronary Artery Disease Patients: A Double Blind Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Sena-Evangelista, Karine Cavalcanti Maurício; Pedrosa, Lucia Fatima Campos; Paiva, Maria Sanali Moura Oliveira; Dias, Paula Cristina Silveira; Ferreira, Diana Quitéria Cabral; Cozzolino, Sílvia Maria Franciscato; Faulin, Tanize Espírito Santo; Abdalla, Dulcinéia Saes Parra

    2015-01-01

    Objective Statins treatment may modify the levels of zinc and selenium, minerals that can improve vascular function and reduce oxidative damage and inflammation in atherosclerotic patients. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of rosuvastatin, alone or associated with zinc and selenium supplementation, on lipid profile, antioxidant enzymes and mineral status in coronary artery disease patients. Material and Methods A double-blind randomized clinical trial was performed in which patients (n = 76) were treated with 10 mg rosuvastatin over 4 months associated or not with zinc (30 mg/d) and selenium (150 ?g/d) supplementation. The following parameters were analyzed before and after the intervention: anthropometric measurements, lipid profile, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), electronegative low density lipoprotein (LDL(-)) concentrations, activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), zinc and selenium concentrations in blood plasma and erythocytes. Significance was determined using an ? of 5% (two-tailed). Results We found that rosuvastatin therapy was efficient in reducing total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and hs-CRP independently of mineral supplementation. Neither treatment was associated with significant changes in LDL(-). Similarly, the antioxidant enzymes GPx and SOD activity were unchanged by treatments. Neither treatment was associated with significant differences in concentrations of zinc or selenium in blood plasma and erythocytes of studied groups. Conclusion Rosuvastatin treatment did not affect zinc and selenium levels in coronary artery disease patients. The zinc and selenium supplementation at doses used in this study did not change lipid profile or SOD and GPx activity in patients receiving rosuvastatin. Further studies should be focused on testing alternative doses and supplements in different populations to contribute for a consensus on the ideal choice of antioxidants to be used as possible complementary therapies in atherosclerotic patients. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01547377 PMID:25785441

  11. Computer-aided auscultation to diagnose Renal Artery Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Lund, Morten Enemark; Buur, Tom; Schmidt, Samuel Emil; Struijk, Johannes Jan

    2010-01-01

    Renal Artery Stenosis (RAS) is the most common cause of secondary hypertension, and early diagnosis is important since correct and timely treatment may cure hypertension and prevent loss of renal function. This study investigates a new approach to diagnosing renal artery stenosis by computer analysis of the phonogram recorded with an electronic stethoscope. Phonograms recorded from five positions over the renal arteries were obtained, three from patients with confirmed RAS and 15 from healthy subjects. Two features describing the power ratios between the systolic and diastolic periods in two different frequency bands were extracted. It was possible to discriminate all three RAS subjects from the healthy subjects in the frequency band 0.4-1.1 kHz. However, the number of subjects is insufficient to draw statistically significant conclusions about the performance of the system. PMID:21095799

  12. Computer measurement of arterial disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J.; Selzer, R. H.; Barndt, R.; Blankenhorn, D. H.; Brooks, S.

    1980-01-01

    Image processing technique quantifies human atherosclerosis by computer analysis of arterial angiograms. X-ray film images are scanned and digitized, arterial shadow is tracked, and several quantitative measures of lumen irregularity are computed. In other tests, excellent agreement was found between computer evaluation of femoral angiograms on living subjects and evaluation by teams of trained angiographers.

  13. Computerized analysis of coronary artery disease: Performance evaluation of segmentation and tracking of coronary arteries in CT angiograms

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Chuan Chan, Heang-Ping; Chughtai, Aamer; Kuriakose, Jean; Agarwal, Prachi; Kazerooni, Ella A.; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Patel, Smita; Wei, Jun

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: The authors are developing a computer-aided detection system to assist radiologists in analysis of coronary artery disease in coronary CT angiograms (cCTA). This study evaluated the accuracy of the authors’ coronary artery segmentation and tracking method which are the essential steps to define the search space for the detection of atherosclerotic plaques. Methods: The heart region in cCTA is segmented and the vascular structures are enhanced using the authors’ multiscale coronary artery response (MSCAR) method that performed 3D multiscale filtering and analysis of the eigenvalues of Hessian matrices. Starting from seed points at the origins of the left and right coronary arteries, a 3D rolling balloon region growing (RBG) method that adapts to the local vessel size segmented and tracked each of the coronary arteries and identifies the branches along the tracked vessels. The branches are queued and subsequently tracked until the queue is exhausted. With Institutional Review Board approval, 62 cCTA were collected retrospectively from the authors’ patient files. Three experienced cardiothoracic radiologists manually tracked and marked center points of the coronary arteries as reference standard following the 17-segment model that includes clinically significant coronary arteries. Two radiologists visually examined the computer-segmented vessels and marked the mistakenly tracked veins and noisy structures as false positives (FPs). For the 62 cases, the radiologists marked a total of 10191 center points on 865 visible coronary artery segments. Results: The computer-segmented vessels overlapped with 83.6% (8520/10191) of the center points. Relative to the 865 radiologist-marked segments, the sensitivity reached 91.9% (795/865) if a true positive is defined as a computer-segmented vessel that overlapped with at least 10% of the reference center points marked on the segment. When the overlap threshold is increased to 50% and 100%, the sensitivities were 86.2% and 53.4%, respectively. For the 62 test cases, a total of 55 FPs were identified by radiologist in 23 of the cases. Conclusions: The authors’ MSCAR-RBG method achieved high sensitivity for coronary artery segmentation and tracking. Studies are underway to further improve the accuracy for the arterial segments affected by motion artifacts, severe calcified and noncalcified soft plaques, and to reduce the false tracking of the veins and other noisy structures. Methods are also being developed to detect coronary artery disease along the tracked vessels.

  14. Cystic artery bleeding due to blunt gallbladder injury: computed tomography findings and treatment with transcatheter arterial embolization.

    PubMed

    Osada, Hisato; Ohno, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Wataru; Okada, Takemichi; Nakada, Kei; Honda, Norinari

    2010-02-01

    Blunt gallbladder injury is rare, and bleeding from the cystic artery due to blunt trauma is even rarer. We report herein a case of extraluminal bleeding of the gallbladder in a patient following blunt abdominal trauma. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed pericholecystic fluid and extravasation of contrast material in the subcapsular liver space adjacent to the gallbladder. Abdominal digital subtraction angiography revealed pseudoaneurysm originating from a branch of the cystic artery. Successful treatment was achieved using selective transcatheter embolization, and cholecystectomy was not required. PMID:20182852

  15. Contribution of cardiovascular magnetic resonance in the evaluation of coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Mavrogeni, Sophie; Markousis-Mavrogenis, George; Kolovou, Genovefa

    2014-10-26

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) allows the nonradiating assessment of coronary arteries; to achieve better image quality cardiorespiratory artefacts should be corrected. Coronary MRA (CMRA) at the moment is indicated only for the detection of abnormal coronary origin, coronary artery ectasia and/or aneurysms (class?I?indication) and coronary bypass grafts (class II indication). CMRA utilisation for coronary artery disease is not yet part of clinical routine. However, the lack of radiation is of special value for the coronary artery evaluation in children and women. CMRA can assess the proximal part of coronary arteries in almost all cases. The best results have been observed in the evaluation of the left anterior descending and the right coronary artery, while the left circumflex, which is located far away from the coil elements, is frequently imaged with reduced quality, compared to the other two. Different studies detected an increase in wall thickness of the coronaries in patients with type?I?diabetes and abnormal renal function. Additionally, the non-contrast enhanced T1-weighed images detected the presence of thrombus in acute myocardial infarction. New techniques using delayed gadolinium enhanced imaging promise the direct visualization of inflamed plaques in the coronary arteries. The major advantage of CMR is the potential of an integrated protocol offering assessment of coronary artery anatomy, cardiac function, inflammation and stress perfusion-fibrosis in the same study, providing an individualized clinical profile of patients with heart disease. PMID:25349650

  16. Contribution of cardiovascular magnetic resonance in the evaluation of coronary arteries

    PubMed Central

    Mavrogeni, Sophie; Markousis-Mavrogenis, George; Kolovou, Genovefa

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) allows the nonradiating assessment of coronary arteries; to achieve better image quality cardiorespiratory artefacts should be corrected. Coronary MRA (CMRA) at the moment is indicated only for the detection of abnormal coronary origin, coronary artery ectasia and/or aneurysms (class?I?indication) and coronary bypass grafts (class II indication). CMRA utilisation for coronary artery disease is not yet part of clinical routine. However, the lack of radiation is of special value for the coronary artery evaluation in children and women. CMRA can assess the proximal part of coronary arteries in almost all cases. The best results have been observed in the evaluation of the left anterior descending and the right coronary artery, while the left circumflex, which is located far away from the coil elements, is frequently imaged with reduced quality, compared to the other two. Different studies detected an increase in wall thickness of the coronaries in patients with type?I?diabetes and abnormal renal function. Additionally, the non-contrast enhanced T1-weighed images detected the presence of thrombus in acute myocardial infarction. New techniques using delayed gadolinium enhanced imaging promise the direct visualization of inflamed plaques in the coronary arteries. The major advantage of CMR is the potential of an integrated protocol offering assessment of coronary artery anatomy, cardiac function, inflammation and stress perfusion-fibrosis in the same study, providing an individualized clinical profile of patients with heart disease. PMID:25349650

  17. Low dialysate potassium and central arterial pressure waveform

    PubMed Central

    Kals, Jaak

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular mortality is high in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Early arterial pressure wave reflections predict mortality in HD patients, and HD acutely improves the central pressure waveform. Potassium (K) plays a crucial role in cardiac electrophysiology, and patients with end-stage kidney disease depend on HD for neutral K balance. We aimed to study the impact of dialysate K concentrations on central arterial pressure waveform. Methods Thirty-three chronic HD patients were studied before and after a HD session, and the prescribed dialysate K concentration was recorded. In a subset of 23 patients without arrhythmias, pulse wave analysis was performed on radial arteries. Nine patients had dialysate K set to 1 mmol/L (group 1), and 14 patients had K set to 2 or 3 mmol/L (group 2). Augmentation index (AIx), defined as difference between the second and first systolic peak divided by central pulse pressure, was used as a measure of arterial stiffness. Results HD reduced the AIx in group 1 only (p = 0.0005). Likewise, central systolic pressure was reduced in group 1 only (p = 0.006). The relative reduction of AIx post-HD was significantly higher in group 1 compared with group 2 (p < 0.0001). The association between low dialysate K and AIx reduction remained statistically significant after adjustment for variables including the change in central and peripheral systolic pressure and mean arterial pressure. Conclusion Low dialysate K is strongly and independently associated with the acute improvement of AIx. PMID:25951045

  18. Accidental Intra-Arterial Injection of Diclofenac –Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jasdeep; Sharma, Pratibha; Khera, Aadhar; Singh, Puneet

    2015-01-01

    Diclofenac sodium is a very common drug used in medical practice for analgesia and is freely available over the counter without any medical prescription. The drug is also the most commonly used or misused by quacks working all over India. Many case reports have been published on upper limb catastrophe of unintentional intra-arterial injection of barbiturates, thiopental sodium, narcotics, and tranquilizers but only two cases of inadvertent intra-arterial injection of diclofenac have been reported till date. Potential serious complication of inadvertent intra-arterial injection of diclofenac sodium leading to gangrene has been recently reported in medical literature. It is a medical emergency and literature has shown that timely diagnosis with early intervention can salvage the limb. We hereby report a case of accidental intra-arterial injection of diclofenac sodium in the ulnar artery by a quack for pain abdomen leading to gangrene of the distal part of affected little, ring and part of middle finger of right hand. PMID:25738031

  19. Milk fat globule epidermal growth factor VIII signaling in arterial wall remodeling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingyi; Wang, Hejia H; Lakatta, Edward G

    2013-09-01

    Arterial inflammation and remodeling, important sequellae of advancing age, are linked to the pathogenesis of age-associated arterial diseases e.g. hypertension, atherosclerosis, and metabolic disorders. Recently, high-throughput proteomic screening has identified milk fat globule epidermal growth factor VIII (MFG-E8) as a novel local biomarker for aging arterial walls. Additional studies have shown that MFG-E8 is also an element of the arterial inflammatory signaling network. The transcription, translation, and signaling levels of MFG-E8 are increased in aged, atherosclerotic, hypertensive, and diabetic arterial walls in vivo as well as activated vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and a subset of macrophages in vitro. In VSMC, MFG-E8 increases proliferation and invasion as well as the secretion of inflammatory molecules. In endothelial cells (EC), MFG-E8 facilitates apoptosis. In addition, MFG-E8 has been found to be an essential component of the endothelial-derived microparticles that relay biosignals and modulate arterial wall phenotypes. This review mainly focuses upon the landscape of MFG-E8 expression and signaling in adverse arterial remodeling. Recent discoveries have suggested that MFG-E8 associated interventions are novel approaches for the retardation of the enhanced rates of VSMC proliferation and EC apoptosis that accompany arterial wall inflammation and remodeling during aging and age-associated arterial disease. PMID:22272902

  20. Responses of coronary arteries of cardiac transplant patients to acetylcholine.

    PubMed Central

    Fish, R D; Nabel, E G; Selwyn, A P; Ludmer, P L; Mudge, G H; Kirshenbaum, J M; Schoen, F J; Alexander, R W; Ganz, P

    1988-01-01

    Accelerated coronary atherosclerosis is a major cause of graft failure after heart transplantation. Graft atherosclerosis is typically diffuse and difficult to detect even with coronary arteriography. Recently, acetylcholine was shown to dilate blood vessels by releasing a vasorelaxant substance from the endothelium (endothelium-derived relaxing factor). We have demonstrated paradoxical vasoconstriction induced by acetylcholine both early and late in the course of coronary atherosclerosis in patients, suggesting an association of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. In this report, we tested the hypothesis that coronary arteries of heart transplant patients can show endothelial dysfunction before or in the early stages of angiographically evident coronary atherosclerosis. Acetylcholine was infused into the left anterior descending artery of 13 heart transplant patients at 12 (n = 9) and 24 (n = 4) mo after transplantation. Vascular responses were evaluated by quantitative angiography. Among patients with angiographically smooth coronary arteries, relatively few (6/25) arterial segments had preserved vasodilator responses, while the majority failed to dilate (10/25) or paradoxically constricted (9/25). Angiographically irregular coronary arteries were present in three patients, in whom 8/10 segments showed marked paradoxical constriction and the remaining 2/10 failed to dilate. Only 1 of 13 patients retained appropriate dilation to acetylcholine in all segments. Nitroglycerin, which acts directly on vascular smooth muscle, dilated nearly all segments. No clinical features of the patients, including myocardial rejection appeared to correlate with the impaired functional response of vessels. Thus impaired response to acetylcholine is a common early finding in heart transplant patients and emphasizes the potential importance of endothelial dysfunction in the development of atherosclerosis. Images PMID:3121675

  1. Arterial aging: a review of the pathophysiology and potential for pharmacological intervention.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Michael F; Adji, Audrey; Namasivayam, Mayooran; Mok, Jonathan

    2011-10-01

    This review begins with a perspective on the effects of arterial aging on society and world events over the past century. Until recently, the use of just one technique to measure blood pressure non-invasively limited progress in understanding the mechanisms involved and the potential of antihypertensive drug therapies. New methods for extracting information from the arterial waveform have followed the (re)introduction of arterial tonometry into clinical practice, together with mathematical analysis in the frequency and time domains. These new methods have exposed the phenomenon of aortic stiffening with age, and early wave reflection arising therefrom, and identified it as the major cause of cardiovascular degeneration. Such findings point to arterial aging as a logical target for the treatment and prevention not only of cardiac, aortic and large artery disease, but also of damage to microvessels in the brain and kidney, which in turn leads insidiously to dementia and renal failure, respectively. PMID:21970306

  2. Norepinephrine release in arteries of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Zsoter, T.T.; Wolchinsky, C.; Lawrin, M.; Sirko, S.

    1982-01-01

    The role of the sympathetic nervous system in arterial hypertension cannot be properly evaluated until it is known about the activity in the vessels themselves. In this study researchers investigated the effect of transmural stimulation on the tail artery - labelled in vitro with /sup 3/H-norepinephrine - of 7-9 week old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar Kyoto controls (WKR). Electrical stimulation using two frequencies (2 and 10 Hz) resulted in significantly more /sup 3/H overflow in vessels from SHR than from WKR. With 10 Hz stimulation the fractional release was also greater. Column chromatographic analysis of /sup 3/H overflow revealed that transmural stimulation in arteries of SHR enhanced mainly the release of norepinephrine and not of its metabolites. Significantly, an increased release of /sup 3/H-norepinephrine on stimulation was observed in SHR before the full development of hypertension suggesting that it might be a cause rather than a consequence of high blood pressure.

  3. Coronary artery aneurysm and thrombosis following chronic ephedra use.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Casey M; Kaesberg, Julie L; Mitchell, Eric S; Ferguson, Michael A; Haigney, Mark C P

    2010-02-18

    Ephedra, also known as Ma Huang, was commonly used to enhance athletic performance, "fat burning", and weight loss before its removal from the United States in April 2004 due to acute adverse health reactions including lethal arrhythmias, stroke, vasoconstriction, and myocardial infarction. We report the case of a 29-year-old patient with acute myocardial infarction, secondary to coronary artery aneurysms and thrombosis who reported use of Ma Huang, Xenadrine(r)RFA, and Hydroxycut at recommended dosages for a combined total of approximately 2 years. Other causes of coronary artery aneurysm and hypercoagulability were ruled out. Our case exemplifies the long-term (as opposed to acute) danger of ephedrine products and the first case of coronary artery aneurysm associated with its use. PMID:18718687

  4. Early Infection HIV-1 Envelope V1-V2 Genotypes Do Not Enhance Binding or Replication in Cells Expressing High Levels of ?4?7 Integrin

    PubMed Central

    Etemad, Behzad; Gonzalez, Oscar A.; McDonough, Sean; Pena-Cruz, Victor; Sagar, Manish

    2013-01-01

    It has been postulated that HIV-1 envelope properties, such as shorter and less glycosylated V1-V2 loops commonly observed among non-subtype B early – transmitted viruses, promote utilization of the gut homing integrin ?4?7. This property potentially confers an advantage to some HIV-1 variants early after acquisition. We found that replication competent recombinant viruses incorporating HIV-1 subtype A compact and less glycosylated early versus chronic phase V1-V2 loops demonstrated no significant difference in binding to ?4?7 high CD8+ T cells or replication in ?4?7 high CD4+ T cells. Integrin ?4?7 usage does not select for shorter less glycosylated envelopes during transmission. PMID:23797693

  5. A rare complication of pre-Eisenmenger patent ductus arteriosus: Pulmonary artery dissection

    PubMed Central

    Ay, Yasin; Ay, Nuray Kahraman; Aydin, Cemalettin; Kara, Ibrahim; Zeybek, Rahmi

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Pulmonary artery dissection associated with patent ductus arteriosus is usually seen in patients with pulmonary hypertension and Eisenmenger's syndrome. This paper presents a case with pre-Eisenmenger patent ductus arteriosus complicated by pulmonary artery dissection, and explains how she was surgically treated. PRESENTATION OF CASE The transthoracic echocardiography of a 21-year-old woman complaining of effort dyspnea revealed patent ductus arteriosus. Contrast-enhanced thoracic computed tomography scan showed patent ductus arteriosus and dissection in the main pulmonary artery extending from the edge of the patent ductus arteriosus orifice to the pulmonary valve. The patent ductus arteriosus was divided with pledgeted prolene suture and the dissected aneurysmal portion of the pulmonary artery was resected by surgery. Dacron graft interposition was applied to the main pulmonary artery. DISCUSSION Because rupture causes cardiogenic shock and sudden death, diagnosis is rare in the living subject and pulmonary artery dissection is frequently detected in autopsy. A case with pulmonary artery dissection as a result of patent ductus arteriosus has been reported in the literature, but the patient died in the preoperative period. In our study, the patient was not diagnosed to have Eisenmenger's syndrome, but had pulmonary artery dissection, a complication arising from patent ductus arteriosus. The patient underwent curative surgery that included pulmonary artery dissection repair and closure of the patent ductus arteriosus. CONCLUSION In addition to pulmonary artery aneurysm, pulmonary artery dissection must also be considered as a complication in cases of patent ductus arteriosus with high pulmonary artery pressure diagnosed in adulthood. PMID:23562897

  6. Enhancements to and characterization of the very early time electromagnetic (VETEM) prototype instrument and applications to shallow subsurface imaging at sites in the DOE complex. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, D.L.; Chew, W.C.

    1998-06-01

    'The objective of this project is to enhance the state-of-the-art of electromagnetic imaging of the shallow (0 to 5 m) subsurface in electrically conductive media where ground penetrating radar (GPR) provides insufficient penetration and time domain electromagnetic (TEM) systems provide insufficient resolution. This objective is being pursued by instrumentation enhancements to the existing very early time electromagnetic (VETEM) system coupled with physical and numerical modeling. Success in this endeavor will improve the speed and accuracy of waste pit and trench location and characterization, and could have additional applications to shallow DNAPL and LNAPL spill and cleanup monitoring, clay cap integrity assessment, and landfill stabilization monitoring. This could result in significant savings in time and money during characterization, remediation, and decommissioning of facilities. This report summarizes accomplishments after 8 months of a three-year project. The authors have focused mainly on instrumentation and numerical modeling during this time.'

  7. Gestational pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Moll, Matthew; Payne, Julie G.; Tukey, Melissa H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease marked by the irreversible pulmonary vascular changes of vasoconstriction, thrombosis, and proliferation of smooth muscle and endothelial cells. The untreated clinical course is characterized by progressive dyspnea and a median survival of less than 3 years. Many of these patients are of child-bearing age; however, pregnancy leads to physiologic changes that are particularly poorly tolerated in PAH, conferring a 30%–56% mortality. We present a case of PAH that spontaneously resolved after termination of pregnancy and recurred during each of two subsequent pregnancies. To our knowledge, this case is unique, because no cases of spontaneous resolution of idiopathic PAH have been reported in adults, nor have there been any reports of pulmonary hypertension that is isolated to the gestational period. PMID:26697182

  8. Arterial Perfusion Imaging-Defined Subvolume of Intrahepatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hesheng; Farjam, Reza; Feng, Mary; Hussain, Hero; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Cao, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess whether an increase in a subvolume of intrahepatic tumor with elevated arterial perfusion during radiation therapy (RT) predicts tumor progression post RT. Methods and Materials Twenty patients with unresectable intrahepatic cancers undergoing RT were enrolled in a prospective IRB-approved study. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI) were performed prior to RT (pre-RT), after delivering ~60% of the planned dose (mid-RT) and one month after completion of RT to quantify hepatic arterial perfusion. The arterial perfusions of the tumors at pre-RT were clustered into low-normal and elevated perfusion by a fuzzy clustering-based method, and the tumor subvolumes with elevated arterial perfusion were extracted from the hepatic arterial perfusion images. The percentage changes in the tumor subvolumes and means of arterial perfusion over the tumors from pre-RT to mid-RT were evaluated for predicting tumor progression post-RT. Results Of the 24 tumors, 6 tumors in 5 patients progressed 5–21 months after RT completion. Neither tumor volumes nor means of tumor arterial perfusion at pre-RT were predictive of treatment outcome. The mean arterial perfusion over the tumors increased significantly at mid-RT in progressive tumors comparing to the responsive ones (p=0.006). From pre-RT to mid-RT, the responsive tumors had a decrease in the tumor subvolumes with elevated arterial perfusion (median: ?14%, range: ?75% – 65%), while the progressing tumors had an increase of the subvolumes (median: 57%, range: ?7% – 165%) (p=0.003). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of the percentage change in the subvolume for predicting tumor progression post-RT had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.90. Conclusion The increase in the subvolume of the intrahepatic tumor with elevated arterial perfusion during RT has the potential to be a predictor for tumor progression post-RT. The tumor subvolume could be a radiation boost candidate for response-driven adaptive RT. PMID:24613814

  9. A case of metastatic brain tumor in the perfusion territory of superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery anastomosis

    PubMed Central

    Fujioka, Yutaka; Hata, Nobuhiro; Sangatsuda, Yuhei; Inoue, Daisuke; Haga, Sei; Nagata, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Background: We report a rare case of metastatic tumor in the perfusion territory of superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomosis. Case Description: A 63-year-old man, who had undergone left STA-MCA anastomosis in the treatment of occlusion of internal carotid artery 4 years ago, presented with a hyperintense lesion on T2-weighted image in the left frontal lobe, the perfusion territory of the prior bypass. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging 1 month later showed enhanced tumor within the T2 hyperintense lesion. A total removal of the tumor through another craniotomy was performed. The pathologic diagnosis was metastatic carcinoma. Conclusion: This is the first report of the metastatic carcinoma by seeding of tumor cells through STA-MCA bypass flow. PMID:26682089

  10. Laparoscopic Bipolar Coagulation of Hypogastric Artery in Postpartum Haemorrhage: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Panuccio, Enrico; Volpi, Eugenio; Ferrero, Annamaria; Sismondi, Piero

    2011-01-01

    Background. Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a significant contributor to worldwide maternal morbidity and mortality. When PPH continues despite aggressive medical treatment, early consideration should be given to surgical intervention. Various surgical interventions may be used but conservative interventions are recommended primarily. Case. This case report describes laparoscopic coagulation of hypogastric artery technique in a patient with PPH. Conclusions. Laparoscopic ligature of the hypogastric artery for PPH treatment can be a valid alternative to laparotomy in patients with vaginal delivery. PMID:22567499

  11. Laparoscopic bipolar coagulation of hypogastric artery in postpartum haemorrhage: a case report.

    PubMed

    Panuccio, Enrico; Volpi, Eugenio; Ferrero, Annamaria; Sismondi, Piero

    2011-01-01

    Background. Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a significant contributor to worldwide maternal morbidity and mortality. When PPH continues despite aggressive medical treatment, early consideration should be given to surgical intervention. Various surgical interventions may be used but conservative interventions are recommended primarily. Case. This case report describes laparoscopic coagulation of hypogastric artery technique in a patient with PPH. Conclusions. Laparoscopic ligature of the hypogastric artery for PPH treatment can be a valid alternative to laparotomy in patients with vaginal delivery. PMID:22567499

  12. FINAL REPORT. ENHANCEMENTS TO AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE VERY EARLY TIME ELECTROMAGNETIC (VETEM) PROTOTYPE INSTRUMENT AND APPLICATIONS TO SHALLOW SUBSURFACE IMAGING AT SITES IN THE DOE COMPLEX

    EPA Science Inventory

    The central aim of the Very Early Time Electromagnetic (VETEM) EMSP project was to improve the state-of-the-art of electromagnetic imaging of the shallow (0 to about 5 m)subsurface through electrically conductive soils. In addition, we aimed to demonstrate the utility of the new ...

  13. Increased accumulation of 4-hydroxynonenal adducts in male GSTA4/PPAR alpha double knockout mice enhances injury during early stages of alcoholic liver disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hepatic lipid peroxidation and accumulation of aldehyde-adducted proteins occur early in alcohol-mediated injury and are postulated to mediate the subsequent pro-inflammatory and fibrotic responses observed in alcoholic liver disease. To test the significance of lipid peroxidation formation in the ...

  14. Building Their Futures: How Early Head Start Programs Are Enhancing the Lives of Infants and Toddlers in Low-Income Families. Volume I: Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, John M.; Kisker, Ellen Eliason; Ross, Christine M.; Schochet, Peter Z.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Boller, Kimberly; Paulsell, Diane; Fuligni, Allison Sidle; Berlin, Lisa J.

    Early Head Start began with 68 programs in 1995 and today, almost 650 programs serve some 55,000 low-income families with infants and toddlers. This two-generation program provides high-quality child and family development services, a focus on staff development, and a commitment to community partnerships. A rigorous national evaluation, including…

  15. Piezo1 in Smooth Muscle Cells Is Involved in Hypertension-Dependent Arterial Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Retailleau, Kevin; Duprat, Fabrice; Arhatte, Malika; Ranade, Sanjeev Sumant; Peyronnet, Rémi; Martins, Joana Raquel; Jodar, Martine; Moro, Céline; Offermanns, Stefan; Feng, Yuanyi; Demolombe, Sophie; Patel, Amanda; Honoré, Eric

    2015-11-10

    The mechanically activated non-selective cation channel Piezo1 is a determinant of vascular architecture during early development. Piezo1-deficient embryos die at midgestation with disorganized blood vessels. However, the role of stretch-activated ion channels (SACs) in arterial smooth muscle cells in the adult remains unknown. Here, we show that Piezo1 is highly expressed in myocytes of small-diameter arteries and that smooth-muscle-specific Piezo1 deletion fully impairs SAC activity. While Piezo1 is dispensable for the arterial myogenic tone, it is involved in the structural remodeling of small arteries. Increased Piezo1 opening has a trophic effect on resistance arteries, influencing both diameter and wall thickness in hypertension. Piezo1 mediates a rise in cytosolic calcium and stimulates activity of transglutaminases, cross-linking enzymes required for the remodeling of small arteries. In conclusion, we have established the connection between an early mechanosensitive process, involving Piezo1 in smooth muscle cells, and a clinically relevant arterial remodeling. PMID:26526998

  16. Popliteal artery injury associated with blunt trauma to the knee without fracture or dislocation.

    PubMed

    Imerci, Ahmet; Ozaksar, Kemal; Gürbüz, Yusuf; Sügün, Tahir Sadik; Canbek, Umut; Savran, Ahmet

    2014-03-01

    Popliteal artery injuries are frequently seen with fractures, dislocations, or penetrating injuries. Concern about arterial injury and early recognition of the possibility of arterial injury is crucial for the salvage of the extremity. This article provides an outline of the diagnostic challenges related to these rare vascular injuries and emphasizes the necessity for a high level of suspicion, even in the absence of a significant penetrating injury, knee dislocation, fracture, or high-velocity trauma mechanism. The importance of a detailed vascular examination of a blunt trauma patient is emphasized. PMID:24672601

  17. [Contribution of arterial spin labeling to the diagnosis of sudden and transient neurological deficit].

    PubMed

    Yger, M; Villain, N; Belkacem, S; Bertrand, A; Rosso, C; Crozier, S; Samson, Y; Dormont, D

    2015-02-01

    MRI is the gold standard exploration for sudden transient neurological events. If diffusion MRI is negative, there may be a diagnostic doubt between transient ischemic attack and other causes of transient neurological deficit. We illustrate how sequence arterial spin labeling (ASL), which evaluates cerebral perfusion, contributes to the exploration of transient neurological events. An ASL sequence was performed in seven patients with a normal diffusion MRI explored for a transient deficit. Cortical hyperperfusion not systematized to an arterial territory was found in three and hypoperfusion systematized to an arterial territory in four. ASL helped guide early management of these patients. PMID:25555846

  18. Enhancing glutamatergic transmission during adolescence reverses early-life stress-induced deficits in the rewarding effects of cocaine in rats.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Richard M; Moloney, Rachel D; Glennon, Jeffrey; Vlachou, Styliani; Cryan, John F

    2015-12-01

    Adolescence marks a critical time when the brain is highly susceptible to pathological insult yet also uniquely amenable to therapeutic intervention. It is during adolescence that the onset of the majority of psychiatric disorders, including substance use disorder (SUDs), occurs. It has been well established that stress, particularly during early development, can contribute to the pathological changes which contribute to the development of SUDs. Glutamate as the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS plays a key role in various physiological processes, including reward function, and in mediating the effects of psychological stress. We hypothesised impairing glutamatergic signalling during the key adolescent period would attenuate early-life stress induced impaired reward function. To test this, we induced early-life stress in male rats using the maternal-separation procedure. During the critical adolescent period (PND25-46) animals were treated with the glutamate transporter activator, riluzole, or the NMDA receptor antagonist, memantine. Adult reward function was assessed using voluntary cocaine intake measured via intravenous self-administration. We found that early-life stress in the form of maternal-separation impaired reward function, reducing the number of successful cocaine-infusions achieved during the intravenous self-administration procedure as well impairing drug-induced reinstatement of cocaine-taking behaviour. Interestingly, riluzole and memantine treatment reversed this stress-induced impairment. These data suggest that reducing glutamatergic signalling may be a viable therapeutic strategy for treating vulnerable individuals at risk of developing SUDs including certain adolescent populations, particularly those which may have experienced trauma during early-life. PMID:26187394

  19. Arterial stiffness identification of the human carotid artery using the stressstrain relationship in vivo

    E-print Network

    Konofagou, Elisa E.

    Arterial stiffness identification of the human carotid artery using the stress­strain relationship in revised form 20 September 2011 Accepted 20 September 2011 Available online xxxx Keywords: Arterial stiffness Carotid artery Collagen Elastin Stress­strain relationship a b s t r a c t Arterial stiffness

  20. Signs and Symptoms of Artery Disease | Coronary Artery Disease | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Coronary Artery Disease Signs and Symptoms of Artery Disease Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents ... this depends on which arteries are affected. Coronary Arteries Coronary arteries supply oxygen-rich blood to the ...

  1. What else is hiding behind superior mesenteric artery syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    De Angelis, Paola; Iacobelli, Barbara Daniela; Torroni, Filippo; Dall'Oglio, Luigi; Bagolan, Pietro; Fusaro, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    The superior mesenteric artery syndrome (SMAS) is an uncommon condition in children. We describe a case of a 7-year-old boy with SMAS that occurred 3 years after a Deloyers' procedure for subtotal colonic Hirschsprung who was admitted for bilious vomit, abdominal pain and diarrhea due to unrecognized celiac disease. This case emphasize that SMAS in children needs a close medical and surgical follow-up to avoid an underestimation of early clinical signs unrelated to surgery. PMID:25972411

  2. Popliteal Artery Entrapment Syndrome: Report of 2 Critical Aspects Cases.

    PubMed

    Zaghloul, Rachid; Naouli, Hamza; Bouarhroum, Abdelatif

    2015-11-01

    Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome is a rare and underdiagnosed cause of claudication in young adult. The typical clinical feature is calf claudication; the following case reports describe 2 rare clinical aspects, acute limb ischemia and pulsatile mass revealing a bilateral anatomic entrapment. These cases suggest that an early diagnosis is mandatory to avoid a dramatic clinical outcome and to limit the surgical treatment to a myotomy. PMID:26315789

  3. Pseudoaneurysm of pulmonary artery: rare complication of systemic chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Shivani; King, Gentry; Varadi, Gabor

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm is an uncommon yet fatal clinical entity. Its presentation can mimic a number of common diseases and can be easily missed. As pseudoaneurysm is associated with a number of fatal complications, clinicians should be aware of imaging features which distinguishes pseudoaneurysms from its close differentials. Early recognition and treatment of pseudoaneurysm can prevent fatal outcomes including hemothorax, rupture, or death. PMID:26509021

  4. Pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm formation with superior mesenteric artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Kitaoka, Tadashi; Deguchi, Juno; Kamiya, Chiaki; Suzuki, Jun; Sato, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    Celiac stenosis or occlusion is attributed partly to increase blood flow at pancreatic arcade from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) system and may play a causal role in true aneurysm of pancreaticoduodenal artery (PDAA) formation. However, despite possible increased blood flow in the pancreatic arcades like celiac stenosis, PDAAs with a stenotic SMA are extremely rare, with only three cases have been reported in the literature. We report a case of PDAA with SMA stenosis and review the literature. PMID:25298835

  5. Pancreaticoduodenal Artery Aneurysm Formation with Superior Mesenteric Artery Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Kitaoka, Tadashi; Kamiya, Chiaki; Suzuki, Jun; Sato, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    Celiac stenosis or occlusion is attributed partly to increase blood flow at pancreatic arcade from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) system and may play a causal role in true aneurysm of pancreaticoduodenal artery (PDAA) formation. However, despite possible increased blood flow in the pancreatic arcades like celiac stenosis, PDAAs with a stenotic SMA are extremely rare, with only three cases have been reported in the literature. We report a case of PDAA with SMA stenosis and review the literature. PMID:25298835

  6. MDCT angiography of isolated right subclavian artery.

    PubMed

    Türkvatan, Aysel; Paç, Ay?enur; Kiziltepe, U?ursay; Olçer, Tülay; Cumhur, Turhan

    2010-01-01

    Isolation of a subclavian artery is an uncommon congenital anomaly of the aortic arch in which one subclavian artery loses its connection with the aorta and originates from the homolateral pulmonary artery by way of a ductus arteriosus. Isolation of the left subclavian artery in patients with a right aortic arch is well known. However, isolated right subclavian artery with a left-sided aortic arch is an extremely rare condition. In this report, we present multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography findings of an isolated right subclavian artery associated with a common carotid trunk and an anomalous origin and proximal interruption of the left pulmonary artery. PMID:21428206

  7. A Semi-Automatic Coronary Artery Segmentation Framework Using Mechanical Simulation.

    PubMed

    Cai, Ken; Yang, Rongqian; Li, Lihua; Ou, Shanxing; Chen, Yuke; Dou, Jianhong

    2015-10-01

    CVD (cardiovascular disease) is one of the biggest threats to human beings nowadays. An early and quantitative diagnosis of CVD is important in extending lifespan and improving people's life quality. Coronary artery stenosis can prevent CVD. To diagnose the degree of stenosis, the inner diameter of coronary artery needs to be measured. To achieve such measurement, the coronary artery is segmented by using a method that is based on morphology and the continuity between computed tomography image slices. A centerline extraction method based on mechanical simulation is proposed. This centerline extraction method can figure out a basic framework of the coronary artery by simulating pixel dots of the artery image into mass points. Such mass points have tensile forces, with which the outer pixel dots can be drawn to the center. Subsequently, the centerline of the coronary artery can be outlined by using the local line-fitting method. Finally, the nearest point method is adopted to measure the inner diameter. Experimental results showed that the methods proposed in this paper can precisely extract the centerline of the coronary artery and can accurately measure its inner diameter, thereby providing a basis for quantitative diagnosis of coronary artery stenosis. PMID:26310950

  8. The control of the circulation in skeletal muscle during arterial hypoxia in the rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, J. P.; Korner, P. I.; White, S. W.

    1966-01-01

    1. The effects of arterial hypoxia on muscle blood flow were examined in normal unanaesthetized rabbits in relation to simultaneously determined changes in cardiac output, arterial pressure and heart rate. Muscle blood flow was estimated from the difference between total limb flow (local thermodilution) and the estimated skin flow (using a calibrated heat conductivity method). The role of the arterial chemoreceptors and baro-receptors in the control of muscle blood flow was examined and the nature of the sympathetic efferent discharge analysed. 2. In mild hypoxia (PO2 > 35 mm Hg) in the rabbit, muscle blood flow did not change, although cardiac output increased. During moderate hypoxia (PO2 30-35 mm Hg) there was initial vasoconstriction in muscle, followed by a return to control values paralleling the changes in cardiac output. In severe arterial hypoxia (PO2 < 30 mm Hg) the initial vasoconstriction was less marked, and during the `steady state' there was a large vasodilatation and increase in muscle blood flow, at a time when the cardiac output was not elevated. 3. The early vasoconstriction in arterial hypoxia is mediated mainly through sympathetic vasoconstrictor nerves as a result of strong arterial chemoreceptor stimulation. 4. Increased secretion of adrenaline is an important factor in restoring muscle blood flow to control values during moderate arterial hypoxia, and in elevating the muscle blood flow above these values in severe hypoxia. The peripheral dilator (?-) effects of adrenaline oppose the peripheral constrictor (?-) effects resulting from increased activation of sympathetic constrictor nerves during arterial hypoxia. PMID:5963740

  9. Arterial regenerative activity after prosthetic implantation.

    PubMed

    Greisler, H P; Kim, D U; Price, J B; Voorhees, A B

    1985-03-01

    Factors modifying arterial regenerative activity were evaluated by replacing adult rabbit aortas with either absorbable polyglycolic acid (PGA) or nonabsorbable Dacron prostheses, 3.5 mm in internal diameter by 24 mm in length, woven to identical specifications including pore size, wall thickness, and elastic modulus, and were followed up for 12 months. At death, 48 PGA and 20 Dacron specimens were studied grossly and by arteriography, light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and by bursting strength determinations. There were no aortic-related deaths or transaortic hemorrhages. Both materials elicited a surrounding inflammatory reaction containing macrophages which transgressed the interstices of only the PGA prostheses. Between two and four weeks, circumferentially oriented smooth-musclelike myofibroblasts proliferated in the PGA inner capsule yielding a neointima 3.2 times thicker than Dacron's. Early ultrastructurally primitive cells progressively differentiated into these smooth-musclelike myofibroblasts. The few myofibroblasts later appearing with Dacron were radially oriented. After one month proliferation stopped in both groups and neointimal thickness became constant. The luminal surface in the PGA group was endothelial-like but was fibrinous in the Dacron group. All specimens withstood saline infusion at three to five times systolic pressure. These studies demonstrate great arterial regenerative potential and suggest hemodynamic and intercellular mitogens controlling it. PMID:2982343

  10. Peripheral artery bypass - leg - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... P. Peripheral arterial diseases. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's ... noncoronary obstructive vascular disease. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's ...

  11. Cineangiography of the Coronary Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Gerard M.; Charland, Raymond; Roy, Paul; Primeau, Robert; Nadeau, Reginald

    1971-01-01

    Fifty French-Canadian patients presenting with typical or atypical anginal pain were studied by selective cinearteriography and coronary sinus catheterization, with measurement of myocardial function, oxygen and lactate extraction at rest and during isoproterenol infusion. In 28 of 42 patients all three coronary arteries were involved, but angina pectoris also occurred in patients with single mildly stenotic arterial lesions and even in eight patients with normal cinearteriograms. All patients with severe arterial lesions had typical angina, and the longer the duration of angina, the greater the extent, usually, of anatomic disease. Seventy-nine percent of resting electrocardiograms of patients with documented coronary artery disease were abnormal, with recognizable prior infarction in 18. Two-thirds of the patients experiencing pain during the stressful state had abnormal ventricular function. An abnormal arteriovenous lactate difference in response to isoproterenol occurred in patients in all groups. PMID:5563346

  12. Design of mechanical arterial simulator

    E-print Network

    Chai, Lauren (Lauren Amy)

    2012-01-01

    A force controlled ultrasound probe is being explored as a new method of measuring blood pressure. An arterial simulator was designed and built for experiments. For this simulator, the vessels and bulk material were designed ...

  13. Effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on central arterial stiffness and arterial wave reflections in young and older healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Monahan, Kevin D; Feehan, Robert P; Blaha, Cheryl; McLaughlin, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Increased central arterial stiffness and enhanced arterial wave reflections may contribute to increased risk of cardiovascular disease development with advancing age. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3) ingestion may reduce cardiovascular risk via favorable effects exerted on arterial structure and function. We determined the effects of n-3 supplementation (4 g/day for 12 weeks) on important measures of central arterial stiffness (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity; PWV) and arterial wave reflection (central augmentation index) in young (n = 12; 25 ± 1-year-old, mean ± SE) and older (n = 12; 66 ± 2) healthy adults. We hypothesized that n-3 supplementation would decrease carotid-femoral PWV and central augmentation index in older adults. Our results indicate that carotid-femoral PWV and central augmentation index were greater in older (988 ± 65 cm/sec and 33 ± 2%) than in young adults (656 ± 16 cm/sec and 3 ± 4%: both P < 0.05 compared to older) before the intervention (Pre). N-3 supplementation decreased carotid-femoral PWV in older (?-9 ± 2% Precompared to Post; P < 0.05), but not young adults (?2 ± 3%). Central augmentation index was unchanged by n-3 supplementation in young (3 ± 4 vs. 0 ± 4% for Pre and Post, respectively) and older adults (33 ± 2 vs. 35 ± 3%). Arterial blood pressure at rest, although increased with age, was not altered by n-3 supplementation in young or older adults. Collectively, these data indicate that 12 weeks of daily n-3 supplementation decreases an important measure of central arterial stiffness (carotid-femoral PWV) in older, but not young healthy adults. The mechanism underlying decreased central arterial stiffness with n-3 supplementation is unknown, but appears to be independent of effects on arterial blood pressure or arterial wave reflections. PMID:26109192

  14. Pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic and progressive disease leading to right heart failure and ultimately death if untreated. The first classification of PH was proposed in 1973. In 2008, the fourth World Symposium on PH held in Dana Point (California, USA) revised previous classifications. Currently, PH is devided into five subgroups. Group 1 includes patients suffering from idiopathic or familial PAH with or without germline mutations. Patients with a diagnosis of PAH should systematically been screened regarding to underlying mutations of BMPR2 gene (bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2) or more rarely of ACVRL1 (activine receptor-like kinase type 1), ENG (endogline) or Smad8 genes. Pulmonary veno occusive disease and pulmonary capillary hemagiomatosis are individualized and designated as clinical group 1'. Group 2 'Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases' is divided into three sub-groups: systolic dysfonction, diastolic dysfonction and valvular dysfonction. Group 3 'Pulmonary hypertension due to respiratory diseases' includes a heterogenous subgroup of respiratory diseases like PH due to pulmonary fibrosis, COPD, lung emphysema or interstitial lung disease for exemple. Group 4 includes chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension without any distinction of proximal or distal forms. Group 5 regroup PH patients with unclear multifactorial mechanisms. Invasive hemodynamic assessment with right heart catheterization is requested to confirm the definite diagnosis of PH showing a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) of ? 25 mmHg and a normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) of ? 15 mmHg. The assessment of PCWP may allow the distinction between pre-capillary and post-capillary PH (PCWP > 15 mmHg). Echocardiography is an important tool in the management of patients with underlying suspicion of PH. The European Society of Cardiology and the European Respiratory Society (ESC-ERS) guidelines specify its role, essentially in the screening proposing criteria for estimating the presence of PH mainly based on tricuspid regurgitation peak velocity and systolic artery pressure (sPAP). The therapy of PAH consists of non-specific drugs including oral anticoagulation and diuretics as well as PAH specific therapy. Diuretics are one of the most important treatment in the setting of PH because right heart failure leads to fluid retention, hepatic congestion, ascites and peripheral edema. Current recommendations propose oral anticoagulation aiming for targeting an International Normalized Ratio (INR) between 1.5-2.5. Target INR for patients displaying chronic thromboembolic PH is between 2–3. Better understanding in pathophysiological mechanisms of PH over the past quarter of a century has led to the development of medical therapeutics, even though no cure for PAH exists. Several specific therapeutic agents were developed for the medical management of PAH including prostanoids (epoprostenol, trepoprostenil, iloprost), endothelin receptor antagonists (bosentan, ambrisentan) and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (sildenafil, tadalafil). This review discusses the current state of art regarding to epidemiologic aspects of PH, diagnostic approaches and the current classification of PH. In addition, currently available specific PAH therapy is discussed as well as future treatments. PMID:23829793

  15. Nonprogressive Unilateral Intracranial Arteriopathy in Children with Arterial Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Yeon, Je Young

    2015-01-01

    The nonprogressive unilateral intracranial arteriopathy known as transient (focal) cerebral arteriopathy is not a well-recognized arteriopathy among practitioners of Korea and Japan, although it cannot be easily differentiated from early moyamoya disease. This review summarizes the nomenclature, pathophysiology, diagnostic evaluation, clinico-radiological features, and management of nonprogressive (reversible or stable) unilateral arteriopathy based on the relevant literature and our own experiences. Nonprogressive unilateral arteriopathy should be strongly suspected in children presenting with basal ganglia infarction and arterial beading. The early identification of patients likely to have nonprogressive or progressive arteriopathy would ensure proper management and guide further research for secondary stroke prevention. PMID:26180606

  16. External iliac artery thrombosis after common iliac artery balloon occlusion during cesarean hysterectomy for placenta accreta in cervico-isthmic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Matsueda, Sayaka; Hidaka, Nobuhiro; Kondo, Yukiko; Fujiwara, Arisa; Fukushima, Kotaro; Kato, Kiyoko

    2015-11-01

    Although the role of interventional radiology in the field of obstetrical hemorrhage has been widely reported upon recently, the rate of procedure-related complications has not been fully determined. We present the case of a patient who developed an external iliac artery thrombosis, a rarely reported complication associated with prophylactic common iliac artery balloon occlusion (CIABO). After CIABO, we found that the dorsalis pedis artery of the right foot was weak and the foot was cold, despite the fact that the patient had no complaints. Computed tomography demonstrated a linear thrombus in the right external iliac artery. We managed the patient conservatively using a heparin drip without the need for thromboembolectomy. Our experience suggests that it is important to consider the risk of thrombosis formation after CIABO. Physical examination post-procedure is key to identifying this complication early. PMID:26223441

  17. Rat Carotid Artery Balloon Injury Model

    PubMed Central

    Tulis, David Anthony

    2010-01-01

    i. Summary Numerous and diverse experimental animal models have been used over the years to examine reactions to various forms of blood vessel disease and/or injury across species and in multiple vascular beds in a cumulative effort to relate these findings to the human condition. In this context, the rat carotid artery balloon injury model is highly characterized and commonly used for investigating gross morphological, cellular, biochemical, and molecular components of the response to experimentally-induced arterial injury. The mechanical damage caused by the balloon catheter completely removes the intimal endothelial lining and creates a distending mural injury in the operated vessel. This elicits a reproducible remodeling response characterized by vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) mitogenesis and migration (via phenotypic switching), SMC apoptosis, partial vascular endothelial cell regeneration, enhanced matrix synthesis, and establishment of an invasive neointima in time-dependent fashion. This multi-factorial process allows for investigation of these many important pathophysiological processes and can serve as a valuable “proof-of-concept” tool to verify and substantiate in vitro results; however, inherent anatomical and adaptive constraints of this in vivo model ration comparison to the diseased human system (see Note 1). In this chapter, brief overview of the materials needed and the methodologies commonly employed for successful routine performance of this important experimental animal model will be provided. Individual sub-sections will cover animal care and handling, pre- and post-operative procedures, and the surgery proper. Protocols for histopathology and morphometry and procedures for data management and interpretation pertinent to the rat carotid artery balloon injury model will be discussed in Chapter __ of this series. Notes will conclude with important caveats, limitations, and considerations for practical use of this technique. PMID:18287662

  18. Arterial Stiffness and Cardiovascular Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Jani?, Miodrag; Lunder, Mojca; Šabovi?, Mišo

    2014-01-01

    The world population is aging and the number of old people is continuously increasing. Arterial structure and function change with age, progressively leading to arterial stiffening. Arterial stiffness is best characterized by measurement of pulse wave velocity (PWV), which is its surrogate marker. It has been shown that PWV could improve cardiovascular event prediction in models that included standard risk factors. Consequently, it might therefore enable better identification of populations at high-risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The present review is focused on a survey of different pharmacological therapeutic options for decreasing arterial stiffness. The influence of several groups of drugs is described: antihypertensive drugs (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, calcium channel blockers, beta-blockers, diuretics, and nitrates), statins, peroral antidiabetics, advanced glycation end-products (AGE) cross-link breakers, anti-inflammatory drugs, endothelin-A receptor antagonists, and vasopeptidase inhibitors. All of these have shown some effect in decreasing arterial stiffness. Nevertheless, further studies are needed which should address the influence of arterial stiffness diminishment on major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). PMID:25170513

  19. Coronary Artery Disease | Coronary Artery Disease | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Coronary Artery Disease Coronary Artery Disease Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents ... exercise routine produced a strong heart!" Fast Facts Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood ...

  20. Enhanced Cytomegalovirus Infection in Atherosclerotic Human Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Nerheim, Pamela L.; Meier, Jeffery L.; Vasef, Mohammad A.; Li, Wei-Gen; Hu, Ling; Rice, James B.; Gavrila, Daniel; Richenbacher, Wayne E.; Weintraub, Neal L.

    2004-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a possible co-factor in atherogenesis and vascular occlusion, but its ability to actively infect medium and large blood vessels is unclear. A vascular explant model was adapted to investigate CMV infection in human coronary artery, internal mammary artery (IMA), and saphenous vein (SV). Vascular explants were inoculated with CMV Towne or low-passage clinical isolate and examined in situ for CMV cytopathic effect and immediate-early and early antigens, as indicators of active infection. At 5 to 7 days after inoculation, we found that CMV Towne actively infected eight of eight different atherosclerotic blood vessel explants (coronary artery, n = 4; SV and IMA grafts, n = 4), whereas it only infected 2 of 14 nonatherosclerotic blood vessel explants (SV, n = 10; IMA, n = 4) (P = 0.001). The CMV clinical isolate actively infected none of six sets of nonatherosclerotic SV explants at 5 to 7 days after inoculation. The active CMV infections involved adventitial and, less frequently, intimal cells. A small subset of infected cells in atherosclerotic tissue expresses the endothelial cell marker CD31. Smooth muscle cells residing in both atherosclerotic and nonatherosclerotic blood vessels were free of active CMV infections even after all vascular tissue layers were exposed to the virus. In contrast, active CMV Towne infection was evident at 2 days after inoculation in smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells previously isolated from the SV tissues. We conclude that active CMV infection is enhanced in atherosclerotic blood vessels compared to atherosclerosis-free vascular equivalents, and this viral activity is restricted to subpopulations of intimal and adventitial cells. PMID:14742264

  1. Effect of Arterial Deprivation on Growing Femoral Epiphysis: Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using a Piglet Model

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Jung-Eun; Kim, In-One; Kim, Woo Sun; Choi, Young Hun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the usefulness of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and diffusion MRI for the evaluation of femoral head ischemia. Materials and Methods Unilateral femoral head ischemia was induced by selective embolization of the medial circumflex femoral artery in 10 piglets. All MRIs were performed immediately (1 hour) and after embolization (1, 2, and 4 weeks). Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) were calculated for the femoral head. The estimated pharmacokinetic parameters (Kep and Ve from two-compartment model) and semi-quantitative parameters including peak enhancement, time-to-peak (TTP), and contrast washout were evaluated. Results The epiphyseal ADC values of the ischemic hip decreased immediately (1 hour) after embolization. However, they increased rapidly at 1 week after embolization and remained elevated until 4 weeks after embolization. Perfusion MRI of ischemic hips showed decreased epiphyseal perfusion with decreased Kep immediately after embolization. Signal intensity-time curves showed delayed TTP with limited contrast washout immediately post-embolization. At 1-2 weeks after embolization, spontaneous reperfusion was observed in ischemic epiphyses. The change of ADC (p = 0.043) and Kep (p = 0.043) were significantly different between immediate (1 hour) after embolization and 1 week post-embolization. Conclusion Diffusion MRI and pharmacokinetic model obtained from the DCE-MRI are useful in depicting early changes of perfusion and tissue damage using the model of femoral head ischemia in skeletally immature piglets. PMID:25995692

  2. Renal Infarction Caused by Spontaneous Renal Artery Dissection: Treatment with Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis and Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Jeon, Yong Sun Cho, Soon Gu; Hong, Ki Cheon

    2009-03-15

    Spontaneous renal artery dissection (SRAD) is rare and presents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We report a case of a 36-year-old man who had an SRAD-complicated renal infarction. The patient experienced severe unilateral flank pain. Enhanced abdominal computed axial tomography scan showed renal infarction, and urinalysis showed no hematuria. Selective renal angiography was essential to evaluate the extent of dissection and suitability for repair. The patient was treated with catheter-directed thrombolysis and frenal artery stenting.

  3. Arterial wall dysfunction in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Cypiene, A; Kovaite, M; Venalis, A; Dadoniene, J; Rugiene, R; Petrulioniene, Z; Ryliskyte, L; Laucevicius, A

    2009-05-01

    Carotid-radial pulse wave velocity (PWV), aortic augmentation index (AIx) and endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) have been repeatedly showed to be related to premature atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases in different settings of population. The increased arterial stiffness and endothelium dysfunction may add to premature aging of the arteries in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. Still data about arterial stiffness and endothelium function in inflammatory rheumatic diseases are not well described. The aim of this study was to determine the PWV, its derivate marker AIx and FMD and factors possibly influencing them in young SLE women without significant organ damage. Thirty women between 23 and 55 years with an established SLE diagnosis and 66 healthy women were consequently included in the study and both groups were comparable according to age, body mass index (BMI), serum lipid profile and creatinine. PWV was determined by measuring carotid-radial pulse wave transit time with the help of applanation tonometry and AIx, its derivate marker, was calculated as a difference between two waveform peaks expressed as a percentage of the pulse pressure. The FMD was performed by obtaining the repeated scans of the brachial artery at rest and during reactive hyperemia. In SLE women, PWV and AIx were significantly higher and FMD was not different from controls. In linear multiple stepwise regression analysis if patients and controls were both considered, PWV was weakly related to mean blood pressure (MBP), AIx was mostly predicted by age and MBP and FMD was predicted by the diameter of blood vessel, BMI, high density lipoproteins. If the sole SLE setting was analyzed, PWV was not related to any of the pending parameters, AIx turned out to be related to organ damage measured by Systemic Lupus International collaborative Clinics (SLICC) index and age, and FMD obtained strong and significant relation with vessel diameter, and BMI, and disease duration. Regardless of the small number of study group patients, we can state that controlling for MBP and taking measures towards organ damage prevention can partially slow down the process of early atherosclerosis in SLE patients. PMID:19395454

  4. Sympathetic neuroeffector transmission to pulmonary vascular smooth muscle in porcine superior mesenteric arterial occlusion (SMAO) shock.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, S; Glenn, T M; Eddy, L J; Rebert, R R

    1980-01-01

    Splanchnic arterial occlusion shock results in pulmonary endothelial damage and depression of porcine intralobar pulmonary artery and vein contractility. This study evaluates the functional integrity of the adrenergic nerves innervating intralobar pulmonary arteries and veins and the changes in neurotransmission following 1) superior mesenteric artery occlusion (SMAO) shock in swine; 2) sequential inhibition of prostacyclin, thromboxane, and prostaglandin synthesis; and 3) mechanical stripping of the endothelium. Rings of porcine intralobar pulmonary arteries and veins were obtained from sham and SMAO shocked swine. They were suspended in muscle baths and stimulated transmurally at 1-32 Hz, 2 msec duration, 2 msec delay at 7.5-10V. Some experiments were performed on rings of intralobular pulmonary arteries and veins in which the endothelium was stripped with a razor blade. Appropriate inverted-reverted controls were used to account for any deleterious effects of the preparatory techniques involved in stripping. Intralobar pulmonary arteries and veins from sham swine contracted in response to 1 Hz, with maximum responses at 32 Hz. The responses to nerve stimulation were enhanced by cocaine and inhibited by phentolamine, an alpha-receptor antagonist. Inhibition of endothelial prostacyclin synthesis, as well as endothelial stripping, diminished by 30-40% the responses to nerve stimulation. The responses to nerve stimulation were depressed in both intralobar pulmonary arteries and veins in SMAO shocked swine. The data demonstrate physiologic regulation of neural control in porcine pulmonary blood vessels. Furthermore, the data suggest that prostaglandin, the vascular endothelium, and shock, may modify this process. PMID:7315616

  5. Local Uteroplacental Influences are Responsible for the Induction of Uterine Artery Myogenic Tone during Rat Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gokina, Natalia I.; Kuzina, Olga Y.; Fuller, Robert; Osol, George

    2009-01-01

    Uterine artery constrictor responses to elevation of intraluminal pressure (myogenic tone) are considerably enhanced in late pregnant rats, although the underlying causes remain unknown. A single uterine horn ligation model was used to differentiate local from systemic influences, and to test the hypothesis that that factors associated with the site of placentation, rather than systemic hormonal changes, are primarily involved in the induction of this adaptive process. Radial uterine arteries were dissected from the gravid and non-gravid uterine horns of late pregnant rats, cannulated and pressurized. Changes in arterial diameter and smooth muscle [Ca2+]i in response to the elevation of intraluminal pressure were studied using intact and endothelium-denuded arteries loaded with the ratiometric Ca2+-sensitive dye fura-2. Elevations of pressure from 10 to 60 and 100 mm Hg resulted in passive arterial distention of arteries from non-gravid horns with a minor change in [Ca2+]i. In contrast, arteries from gravid horns developed myogenic tone associated with a significant elevation in [Ca2+]i. Synchronous oscillations in [Ca2+]i and lumen diameter were frequently observed in vessels from gravid horns. Endothelial denudation augmented tone in the gravid horn but did not uncover myogenic tone in vessels from the non-gravid horn. In summary, pregnancy-associated uterine artery myogenic behavior is due to an upregulation of calcium-handling mechanisms, occurs independently of the endothelium, and is induced by local uteroplacental influences. PMID:19657140

  6. Evidence for local relaxin ligand-receptor expression and function in arteries.

    PubMed

    Novak, Jacqueline; Parry, Laura J; Matthews, Julianna E; Kerchner, Laurie J; Indovina, Kimberly; Hanley-Yanez, Karen; Doty, Ketah D; Debrah, Dan O; Shroff, Sanjeev G; Conrad, Kirk P

    2006-11-01

    Relaxin is a 6 kDa protein hormone produced by the corpus luteum and secreted into the blood during pregnancy in rodents and humans. Growing evidence indicates that circulating relaxin causes vasodilatation and increases in arterial compliance, which may be among its most important actions during pregnancy. Here we investigated whether there is local expression and function of relaxin and relaxin receptor in arteries of nonpregnant females and males. Relaxin-1 and its major receptor, Lgr7, mRNA are expressed in thoracic aortas, small renal and mesenteric arteries from mice and rats of both sexes, as well as in small renal arteries from female tammar wallabies (an Australian marsupial). Using available antibodies for rat and mouse Lgr7 receptor and rat relaxin, we also identified protein expression in arteries. Small renal arteries isolated from relaxin-1 gene-deficient mice demonstrate enhanced myogenic reactivity and decreased passive compliance relative to wild-type (WT) and heterozygous mice. Taken together, these findings reveal an arterial-derived, relaxin ligand-receptor system that acts locally to regulate arterial function. PMID:17077312

  7. Targeting cell motility in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Paulin, Roxane; Meloche, Jolyane; Courboulin, Audrey; Lambert, Caroline; Haromy, Alois; Courchesne, Antony; Bonnet, Pierre; Provencher, Steeve; Michelakis, Evangelos D; Bonnet, Sébastien

    2014-02-01

    Pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC), in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), contribute to obliterative vascular remodelling and are characterised by enhanced proliferation, suppressed apoptosis and, a much less studied, increased migration potential. One of the major proteins that regulate cell migration is focal adhesion kinase (FAK), but its role in PAH is not fully understood. We hypothesised that targeting cell migration by FAK inhibition may be a new therapeutic strategy in PAH. In vivo, inhalation of FAK-siRNA (n=5) or oral delivery of PF-228 (FAK inhibitor PF-573 228; n=5) inhibited rat monocrotaline induced PAH, improving the haemodynamics, vascular remodelling (media thickness), and right ventricular hypertrophy. In vitro, FAK was activated in PAH human lungs (n=8) or PASMC when compared to those form healthy subjects (Western blot, n=5), in a Src-dependent manner, as it was reversed by the specific Src inhibitor PP2. The degree of FAK phosphorylation at Y576 correlated positively with pulmonary vascular resistance in PAH patients. FAK inhibition (siRNA, PF-228 and PP2) in PAH-PASMCs induced a fivefold increase in apoptosis (percentage of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling), a 2.5-fold decrease in proliferation (%Ki67), an 18% decrease in cell migration (colorimetric assay) and a 50% decrease in cell invasion (wound healing). Suppressing PASMC migration by FAK inhibition inhibits PAH progression and may open a new therapeutic window in PAH. PMID:23845719

  8. Angiotensin II stimulates internalization and degradation of arterial myocyte plasma membrane BK channels to induce vasoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Leo, M Dennis; Bulley, Simon; Bannister, John P; Kuruvilla, Korah P; Narayanan, Damodaran; Jaggar, Jonathan H

    2015-09-15

    Arterial smooth muscle cells (myocytes) express large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK) channel ? and auxiliary ?1 subunits that modulate arterial contractility. In arterial myocytes, ?1 subunits are stored within highly mobile rab11A-positive recycling endosomes. In contrast, BK? subunits are primarily plasma membrane-localized. Trafficking pathways for BK? and whether physiological stimuli that regulate arterial contractility alter BK? localization in arterial myocytes are unclear. Here, using biotinylation, immunofluorescence resonance energy transfer (immunoFRET) microscopy, and RNAi-mediated knockdown, we demonstrate that rab4A-positive early endosomes traffic BK? to the plasma membrane in myocytes of resistance-size cerebral arteries. Angiotensin II (ANG II), a vasoconstrictor, reduced both surface and total BK?, an effect blocked by bisindolylmaleimide-II, concanavalin A, and dynasore, protein kinase C (PKC), internalization, and endocytosis inhibitors, respectively. In contrast, ANG II did not reduce BK? mRNA, and sodium nitroprusside, a nitric oxide donor, did not alter surface BK? protein over the same time course. MG132 and bafilomycin A, proteasomal and lysosomal inhibitors, respectively, also inhibited the ANG II-induced reduction in surface and total BK?, resulting in intracellular BK? accumulation. ANG II-mediated BK channel degradation reduced BK currents in isolated myocytes and functional responses to iberiotoxin, a BK channel blocker, and NS1619, a BK activator, in pressurized (60 mmHg) cerebral arteries. These data indicate that rab4A-positive early endosomes traffic BK? to the plasma membrane in arterial myocytes. We also show that ANG II stimulates PKC-dependent BK? internalization and degradation. These data describe a unique mechanism by which ANG II inhibits arterial myocyte BK currents, by reducing surface channel number, to induce vasoconstriction. PMID:26179602

  9. Inflammation-Induced Enhancement of the Visceromotor Reflex to Urinary Bladder Distention: Modulation by Endogenous Opioids and the Effects of Early-In-Life Experience with Bladder Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    DeBerry, Jennifer; Ness, Timothy J.; Robbins, Meredith; Randich, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal electromyographic (EMG) responses to noxious intensities of urinary bladder distention (UBD) are significantly enhanced 24 hrs following zymosan-induced bladder inflammation in adult female rats. This inflammation-induced hypersensitivity is concomitantly inhibited by endogenous opioids because intraperitoneal (i.p.) naloxone administration before testing significantly increases EMG response magnitude to UBD. This inhibitory mechanism is not tonically active since naloxone does not alter EMG response magnitude to UBD in rats without inflammation. At the dose tested, naloxone does not affect bladder compliance in rats with or without inflammation. The effects of i.p. naloxone likely result from blockade of a spinal mechanism, because intrathecal (i.t.) naloxone also significantly enhances EMG responses to UBD in rats with inflammation. Rats exposed to bladder inflammation from P90-P92 prior to re-inflammation at P120 show similar hypersensitivity and concomitant opioid inhibition, with response magnitudes being no different from that produced by inflammation at P120 alone. In contrast, rats exposed to bladder inflammation from P14-P16 prior to re-inflammation at P120 show markedly enhanced hypersensitivity and no evidence of concomitant opioid inhibition. These data indicate that bladder inflammation in adult rats induces bladder hypersensitivity that is inhibited by an endogenous opioidergic mechanism. This mechanism can be disrupted by neonatal bladder inflammation. PMID:17704007

  10. Effect of early postmortem enhancement of calcium lactate/phosphate on quality attributes of beef round muscles under different packaging systems.

    PubMed

    Cruzen, Shannon M; Kim, Yuan H Brad; Lonergan, Steven M; Grubbs, Judson K; Fritchen, Aaron N; Huff-Lonergan, Elisabeth

    2015-03-01

    The objective was to determine the influence of calcium lactate/phosphate enhancement on quality of beef round cuts in high-oxygen modified atmosphere (HiOx-MAP; 80% O2/20% CO2). Mm. semimembranosus (SM), semitendinosus (ST), and adductor (AD) were divided and assigned to water-injected control (CON), 3mM phosphate (STP), or 200mM calcium lactate/3mM phosphate (CAL/STP) treatments at 24h postmortem. Steaks (n=10) were vacuum packaged (VAC) and stored for 9days, then displayed for 7days in VAC or HiOx-MAP. Lipid oxidation, pH, surface color, star probe, and sensory characteristics were evaluated. HiOx-MAP resulted in greater lipid oxidation, more discoloration, and decreased sensory quality of steaks (P<0.05) compared to VAC. However, CAL/STP enhancement significantly reduced lipid oxidation of all steaks, decreased ST and SM star probe values, and improved tenderness of HiOx-MAP packaged AD and SM (P<0.05). Results suggest that CAL/STP enhancement has beneficial effects on lipid stability and sensory attributes of beef round cuts under HiOx-MAP. PMID:25437452

  11. Is platelet-rich plasma able to enhance the results of arthroscopic microfracture in early osteoarthritis and cartilage lesion over 40 years of age?

    PubMed

    Lee, Gun Woo; Son, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Jae-Do; Jung, Gu-Hee

    2013-07-01

    Most studies suggested that arthroscopic microfracture is effective method at only less than 40 years of age. Thus, the authors thought that "how can this indication regarding age be extended?," and tried to find a way to use this technique effectively over 40 years of age. The aim of this study was the first to report the results regarding the PRP as an adjunct for arthroscopic microfracture in the early osteoarthritic (OA) knee with cartilage lesion over 40 years of age. 49 patients who underwent arthroscopic microfracture for cartilage lesion sized less than 4 cm(2) with early OA, aged 40-50 years, were enrolled and randomly divided into 2 groups: a control group with only arthroscopic microfracture (25 patients) and a study group with arthroscopic microfracture and PRP (24 patients). The patients were prospectively evaluated with VAS, IKDC score at preoperative and postoperative 1, 6, 12, and 24 months. And we perform second arthroscopies in 10 patients of each group to identify the extent of cartilage restoration at 4-6 months postoperatively. There were significant improvements in clinical results between preoperative evaluation and postoperative 2 years in both groups (p = 0.017). In the postoperative 2 years, clinical results showed significantly better in the study group than in the control group (p = 0.012). In post-arthroscopic finding, hardness and elasticity degree was better in the study group. The PRP injection with arthroscopic microfracture would be improved the results in early osteoarthritic knee with cartilage lesion in 40-50 years old, and the indication of this technique could be extended to 50 years. PMID:23412171

  12. Portal vein arterialization: a salvage procedure for a totally de-arterialized liver. The Paul Brousse Hospital experience

    PubMed Central

    Bhangui, Prashant; Salloum, Chady; Lim, Chetana; Andreani, Paola; Ariche, Arie; Adam, René; Castaing, Denis; Kerba, Tech; Azoulay, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background Portal vein arterialization (PVA) has been used as a salvage inflow technique when hepatic artery (HA) reconstruction is deemed impossible in liver transplantation (LT) or hepatopancreatobiliary (HPB) surgery. Outcomes and the management of possible complications have not been well described. Methods The present study analysed outcomes in 16 patients who underwent PVA during the period from February 2005 to January 2011 for HA thrombosis post-LT (n = 7) or after liver resection (n = 1), during curative resection for locally advanced HPB cancers (requiring HA interruption) (n = 7) and for HA resection without reconstruction (n = 1). In addition, a literature review was conducted. Results Nine patients were women. The median age of the patients was 58 years (range: 30–72 years). Recovery of intrahepatic arterial signals and PVA shunt patency were documented using Doppler ultrasound until the last follow-up (or until shunt thrombosis in some cases). Of five postoperative deaths, two occurred as a result of haemorrhagic shock, one as a result of liver ischaemia and one as a result of sepsis. The fifth patient died at home of unknown cause. Three patients (19%) had major bleeding related to portal hypertension (PHT). Of these, two underwent re-exploration and one underwent successful shunt embolization to control the bleeding. Four patients (25%) had early shunt thrombosis, two of whom underwent a second PVA. After a median follow-up of 13 months (range: 1–60 months), 10 patients (63%) remained alive with normal liver function and one submitted to retransplantation. Conclusions Portal vein arterialization results in acceptable rates of survival in relation to spontaneous outcomes in patients with completely de-arterialized livers. The management of complications (especially PHT) after the procedure is challenging. Portal vein arterialization may represent a salvage option or a bridge to liver retransplantation and thus may make curative resection in locally advanced HPB cancers with vascular involvement feasible. PMID:24329988

  13. Anomalous superficial ulnar artery based flap

    PubMed Central

    Ramani, C. V.; Kundagulwar, Girish K.; Prabha, Yadav S.; Dushyanth, Jaiswal

    2014-01-01

    Upper limb shows a large number of arterial variations. This case report describes the presence of additional superficial ulnar artery which was used to raise a pedicle flap to cover an arm defect thus avoided using the main vessel of the forearm - radial or ulnar artery. Vascular anomalies occurring in the arm and forearm tend to increase the likelihood of damaging the superficial anomalous arteries during surgery. Superficial ulnar or radial arteries have been described to originate from the upper third of the brachial artery; here we report the origin of the anomalous superficial ulnar artery originating from the brachial artery at the level of elbow with the concomitant presence of normal deep radial and ulnar arteries. PMID:24987217

  14. Noninvasive Optical Imaging of UV-Induced Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Murine Skin: Studies of Early Tumor Development and Vitamin D Enhancement of Protoporphyrin IX Production.

    PubMed

    Rollakanti, Kishore R; Anand, Sanjay; Davis, Scott C; Pogue, Brian W; Maytin, Edward V

    2015-11-01

    Better noninvasive techniques are needed to monitor protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) levels before and during photodynamic therapy (PDT) of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin. Our aim was to evaluate (1) multispectral fluorescent imaging of ultraviolet light (UV)-induced cancer and precancer in a mouse model of SCC and (2) multispectral imaging and probe-based fluorescence detection as a tool to study vitamin D (VD) effects on aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced PpIX synthesis. Dorsal skin of hairless mice was imaged weekly during a 24-week UV carcinogenesis protocol. Hot spots of PpIX fluorescence were detectable by multispectral imaging beginning at 14 weeks of UV exposure. Many hot spots disappeared after cessation of UV at week 20, but others persisted or became visible after week 20, and corresponded to tumors that eventually became visible by eye. In SCC-bearing mice pretreated with topical VD before ALA application, our optical techniques confirmed that VD preconditioning induces a tumor-selective increase in PpIX levels. Fluorescence-based optical imaging of PpIX is a promising tool for detecting early SCC lesions of the skin. Pretreatment with VD can increase the ability to detect early tumors, providing a potential new way to improve efficacy of ALA-PDT. PMID:26223149

  15. Visualization of Coronary Arteries from Intravenous Angiograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selzer, Robert H.

    1985-01-01

    Under most circumstances, the coronary arteries are not satisfactorily visualized in intravenous angiograms. The objective of this study is to develop computer image enhancement methods that will improve the quality of the latent coronary images to a degree sufficient to detect an obstructive lesion. Such a technique, if successful, could be used as a first step alternative to conventional coronary angiography for individuals with ambiguous noninvasive cardiac tests. The determination of no lesion from the intravenous procedure would relieve the need for the conventional angiogram, while verification of an obstructive lesion could be followed by a conventional angiogram. The nature of the imaging problem and a description of the methods and initial processing results are described in this paper.

  16. Episodic Enhanced Carbon Sequestration and Redox Conditions in a Late Barremian-Early Aptian Restricted Marine Basin: El Pui Section, Organyà Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-hernandez, Y.; Maurrasse, F. J.

    2013-05-01

    A major episode of intensified carbon sequestration (TOC) and enhanced redox conditions in the lower Cretaceous is associated with the well-known Oceanic Anoxic Event 1a (OAE1a) worldwide. Increased TOC values (up to 3.0wt%) concurrent with positive excursions in ?13C (up to 2.5‰) have been documented in different areas in the Late Barremian as well as in the middle Aptian prior to, and after OAE-1a, respectively. Such indicators imply that environmental conditions conducive to increased carbon sequestration (although less intense) developed in isolated basins not synchronous with major global forcing mechanisms recorded in the major events. In this study, geochemical analyses: organic (TOC; ?13C; biomarker analysis), and inorganic: (trace and major element concentrations, and clay mineralogy) reveal the occurrence of intermittent reducing conditions in a restricted marine basin from the latest Barremian to the lower Aptian that led to enhanced C sequestration. We also document later occurrence of OAE-1a in the basin sedimentary succession, and the impact of regional physiographic conditions in the local expression of the global event. Temporal behavior in the concentration of major elements (Al, Si and Ti) reveals variations in sedimentation patterns and nutrient availability controlled by fluctuation in terrigenous fluxes from continental runoffs. Such fluctuations controlled primary producers (both Prokaryotes: cyanobacteria; and Eukaryotes: nanno-phytoplankton) that constitute the calcareous and organic matter (OM) components of the matrix where their relative abundance co-varies with the intensity of terrigenous fluxes. The presence of benthic fauna also responded to episodic alterations in the oxygen levels with lower abundance or absence at dysoxic to anoxic intervals. Oxygen depleted levels are associated with enhanced primary productivity as indicated by positive excursions in the ?13C-org and trace element indices.

  17. Left main coronary artery compression in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), chest pain is most likely due to right ventricular demand ischemia. We report a patient with idiopathic PAH who developed severe angina due to extrinsic compression of the left main coronary artery (LMCA) from a dilated pulmonary artery trunk. The diagnosis was verified by electrocardiogram after exercise, coronary angiography including intravascular ultrasound, and cardiac multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). The origin of the LMCA was high in the left coronary sinus, facilitating extrinsic compression. The patient was successfully treated by percutaneous coronary intervention with stent implantation in the LMCA. Extrinsic compression of the LMCA is a severe and potentially fatal complication that should be considered in all patients with PAH and angina. MDCT is the method of choice for first-line diagnosis. PMID:26697183

  18. Early annihilation and diffuse backgrounds in models of weakly interacting massive particles in which the cross section for pair annihilation is enhanced by 1/upsilon.

    PubMed

    Kamionkowski, Marc; Profumo, Stefano

    2008-12-31

    Recent studies have considered modifications to the standard weakly interacting massive particle scenario in which the pair annihilation cross section (times relative velocity v) is enhanced by a factor 1/upsilon to approximately 10(-3) in the Galaxy, enough to explain several puzzling Galactic radiation signals. We show that in these scenarios a burst of weakly interacting massive particle annihilation occurs in the first collapsed dark-matter halos. We show that severe constraints to the annihilation cross section derive from measurements of the diffuse extragalactic radiation and from ionization and heating of the intergalactic medium. PMID:19437633

  19. FOXM1 Upregulation Is an Early Event in Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma and it Is Enhanced by Nicotine during Malignant Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Gemenetzidis, Emilios; Bose, Amrita; Riaz, Adeel M.; Chaplin, Tracy; Young, Bryan D.; Ali, Muhammad; Sugden, David; Thurlow, Johanna K.; Cheong, Sok-Ching; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Wan, Hong; Waseem, Ahmad; Parkinson, Eric K.; Fortune, Farida; Teh, Muy-Teck

    2009-01-01

    Background Cancer associated with smoking and drinking remains a serious health problem worldwide. The survival of patients is very poor due to the lack of effective early biomarkers. FOXM1 overexpression is linked to the majority of human cancers but its mechanism remains unclear in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Methodology/Principal Findings FOXM1 mRNA and protein expressions were investigated in four independent cohorts (total 75 patients) consisting of normal, premalignant and HNSCC tissues and cells using quantitative PCR (qPCR), expression microarray, immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry. Effect of putative oral carcinogens on FOXM1 transcriptional activity was dose-dependently assayed and confirmed using a FOXM1-specific luciferase reporter system, qPCR, immunoblotting and short-hairpin RNA interference. Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array was used to ‘trace’ the genomic instability signature pattern in 8 clonal lines of FOXM1-induced malignant human oral keratinocytes. Furthermore, acute FOXM1 upregulation in primary oral keratinocytes directly induced genomic instability. We have shown for the first time that overexpression of FOXM1 precedes HNSCC malignancy. Screening putative carcinogens in human oral keratinocytes surprisingly showed that nicotine, which is not perceived to be a human carcinogen, directly induced FOXM1 mRNA, protein stabilisation and transcriptional activity at concentrations relevant to tobacco chewers. Importantly, nicotine also augmented FOXM1-induced transformation of human oral keratinocytes. A centrosomal protein CEP55 and a DNA helicase/putative stem cell marker HELLS, both located within a consensus loci (10q23), were found to be novel targets of FOXM1 and their expression correlated tightly with HNSCC progression. Conclusions/Significance This study cautions the potential co-carcinogenic effect of nicotine in tobacco replacement therapies. We hypothesise that aberrant upregulation of FOXM1 may be inducing genomic instability through a program of malignant transformation involving the activation of CEP55 and HELLS which may facilitate aberrant mitosis and epigenetic modifications. Our finding that FOXM1 is upregulated early during oral cancer progression renders FOXM1 an attractive diagnostic biomarker for early cancer detection and its candidate mechanistic targets, CEP55 and HELLS, as indicators of malignant conversion and progression. PMID:19287496

  20. Artery Remodeling Under Axial Twist in Three Days Organ Culture.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Liang; Xiao, Yangming; Voorhees, Andrew; Qi, Ying-Xin; Jiang, Zong-Lai; Han, Hai-Chao

    2015-08-01

    Arteries often endure axial twist due to body movement and surgical procedures, but how arteries remodel under axial twist remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate early stage arterial wall remodeling under axial twist. Porcine carotid arteries were twisted axially and maintained for three days in ex vivo organ culture systems while the pressure and flow remained the same as untwisted controls. Cell proliferation, internal elastic lamina (IEL) fenestrae shape and size, endothelial cell (EC) morphology and orientation, as well as the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), MMP-2 and MMP-9, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) were quantified using immunohistochemistry staining and immunoblotting. Our results demonstrated that cell proliferation in both the intima and media were significantly higher in the twisted arteries compared to the controls. The cell proliferation in the intima increased from 1.33 ± 0.21% to 7.63 ± 1.89%, and in the media from 1.93 ± 0.84% to 8.27 ± 2.92% (p < 0.05). IEL fenestrae total area decreased from 26.07 ± 2.13% to 14.74 ± 0.61% and average size decreased from 169.03 ± 18.85 ?m(2) to 80.14 ± 1.96 ?m(2) (p < 0.01), but aspect ratio increased in the twist group from 2.39 ± 0.15 to 2.83 ± 0.29 (p < 0.05). MMP-2 expression significantly increased (p < 0.05) while MMP-9 and TIMP-2 showed no significant difference in the twist group. The ECs in the twisted arteries were significantly elongated compared to the controls after three days. The angle between the major axis of the ECs and blood flow direction under twist was 7.46 ± 2.44 degrees after 3 days organ culture, a decrease from the initial 15.58 ± 1.29 degrees. These results demonstrate that axial twist can stimulate artery remodeling. These findings complement our understanding of arterial wall remodeling under mechanical stress resulting from pressure and flow variations. PMID:25503524

  1. Complication after arterial bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Dizon, M; Wallach, P; Matfin, G; Adelman, H M

    1998-10-15

    A 57-year-old man experienced sudden onset of pleuritic chest pain and respiratory distress 10 days after undergoing four-vessel coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The surgery was performed after cardiac catheterization had shown right coronary artery dominance and the presence of lesions occluding 40% of the mid right coronary artery, 20% of the left main coronary artery, and 99% of the lower left anterior descending artery and its first diagonal branch. The patient had initially presented with acute dyspnea following an episode of crushing, nonradiating pain in the left chest and was diagnosed as having a non-Q-wave myocardial infarction after cardiac enzyme testing. His hospital course before and immediately after CABG was uneventful. The first sign of difficulty was detected one week after surgery, on day 17. An echocardiogram showed a small pericardial effusion, moderate to severe concentric thickening of the left ventricle, a left ventricular ejection fraction of 0.60 (normal, 0.67 +/- 0.08), normal valves, and normal segmental wall motion. The pleural chest pains began two days later, on day 19. PMID:9793541

  2. Anomalous origin of one pulmonary artery from the ascending aorta: a review of echocardiographic, catheter, and morphological features.

    PubMed Central

    Fong, L V; Anderson, R H; Siewers, R D; Trento, A; Park, S C

    1989-01-01

    Six patients with anomalous origin of one pulmonary artery from the ascending aorta were reviewed. Four had anomalous origin of the right pulmonary artery and two had anomalous origin of the left pulmonary artery from the ascending aorta. Two of these six patients had tetralogy of Fallot. Two patients died in the first month of life. No changes in the pulmonary vasculature were seen at necropsy. Corrective surgery was attempted in two patients with associated tetralogy of Fallot when they were two years old but both died. At necropsy there was severe pulmonary vascular disease in the lung supplied by the anomalous pulmonary artery but no pulmonary vascular hypertensive changes in the lung supplied by the pulmonary artery from the right ventricle. Two recent patients underwent successful anastomosis of the anomalous pulmonary artery to the main pulmonary artery at three months and one month and three weeks of age respectively. Intraoperative lung biopsy in the latter patient showed early changes in both lungs. Both echocardiography and cardiac catheterisation were used in the diagnoses. Systemic or suprasystemic pressures were found in the pulmonary artery arising from the right ventricle as well as the anomalous pulmonary artery in the three patients without tetralogy of Fallot. Anomalous origin of a pulmonary artery from the ascending aorta is a distinct entity and differs from other aorto-pulmonary arterial connections. Early surgical intervention is recommended in all patients (including those patients with associated tetralogy of Fallot) because of the risk of rapid development of irreversible pulmonary vascular disease. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 PMID:2590592

  3. Lesions of the medial prefrontal cortex enhance the early phase of psychogenic fever to unexpected sucrose concentration reductions, promote recovery from negative contrast and enhance spontaneous recovery of sucrose-entrained anticipatory activity.

    PubMed

    Pecoraro, N; de Jong, H; Ginsberg, A B; Dallman, M F

    2008-06-01

    Two groups of rats, one bearing bilateral excitotoxic lesions of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and one sham-lesioned group, were run in a successive negative contrast paradigm. Both groups had telemeters implanted to monitor core temperature and activity. After ad libitum baseline and food restriction to 85% body weights, rats received a sucrose solution once daily for 5 min and 30 s at 10:30 h. They received their preshift 32% sucrose solution for 14 days followed by a sucrose concentration reduction (downshift) to 4% sucrose for 12 days. Rats were then upshifted to 32% for six additional days before being downshifted to 4% for the next 6 days. There were no differences in intake of the 32% sucrose during the preshift. All rats showed profound suppression of intake upon the shift to 4% sucrose. On the first day of the unexpected 4% sucrose, lesioned rats showed an enhanced psychogenic fever compared with Shams, whereas on the second day of 4% sucrose they showed an impaired ability to blunt that fever compared with Shams. In addition, lesioned rats showed greater rates of recovery and asymptotic drinking of the subsequent 4% sucrose solution than Shams, indicating impairments in the encoding or retrieval of the shift. In addition, lesioned rats showed enhanced entrainment to the 32% sucrose meals, normal damping of anticipation, and enhanced spontaneous recovery of anticipatory thermal responses to the calorically impoverished 4% solutions. These failures to inhibit responding point to a failure in interference learning in rats bearing lesions of the mPFC. PMID:18455879

  4. The role of binaries in the enrichment of the early Galactic halo. II. Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor Stars - CEMP-no stars

    E-print Network

    Hansen, T T; Nordström, B; Beers, T C; Placco, V M; Yoon, J; Buchhave, L A

    2015-01-01

    The detailed composition of most metal-poor halo stars has been found to be very uniform. However, a fraction of 20-70% (increasing with decreasing metallicity) exhibit dramatic enhancements in their abundances of carbon - the so-called carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars. A key question for Galactic chemical evolution models is whether this non-standard composition reflects that of the stellar natal clouds, or is due to local, post-birth mass transfer of chemically processed material from a binary companion; CEMP stars should then all be members of binary systems. Our aim is to determine the frequency and orbital parameters of binaries among CEMP stars with and without over-abundances of neutron-capture elements - CEMP-s and CEMP-no stars, respectively - as a test of this local mass-transfer scenario. This paper discusses a sample of 24 CEMP-no stars, while a subsequent paper will consider a similar sample of CEMP-s stars. Most programme stars exhibit no statistically significant radial-velocit variation...

  5. Intermittent hypoxia in rats reduces activation of Ca2+ sparks in mesenteric arteries.

    PubMed

    Jackson-Weaver, Olan; Osmond, Jessica M; Naik, Jay S; Gonzalez Bosc, Laura V; Walker, Benjimen R; Kanagy, Nancy L

    2015-12-01

    Ca(+) sparks are vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) Ca(2+)-release events that are mediated by ryanodine receptors (RyR) and promote vasodilation by activating large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium channels and inhibiting myogenic tone. We have previously reported that exposing rats to intermittent hypoxia (IH) to simulate sleep apnea augments myogenic tone in mesenteric arteries through loss of hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-induced dilation. Because we also observed that H2S can increase Ca(2+) spark activity, we hypothesized that loss of H2S after IH exposure reduces Ca(2+) spark activity and that blocking Ca(2+) spark generation reduces H2S-induced dilation. Ca(2+) spark activity was lower in VSMC of arteries from IH compared with sham-exposed rats. Furthermore, depolarizing VSMC by increasing luminal pressure (from 20 to 100 mmHg) or by elevating extracellular [K(+)] increased spark activity in VSMC of arteries from sham rats but had no effect in arteries from IH rats. Inhibiting endogenous H2S production in sham arteries prevented these increases. NaHS or phosphodiesterase inhibition increased spark activity to the same extent in sham and IH arteries. Depolarization-induced increases in Ca(2+) spark activity were due to increased sparks per site, whereas H2S increases in spark activity were due to increased spark sites per cell. Finally, inhibiting Ca(2+) spark activity with ryanodine (10 ?M) enhanced myogenic tone in arteries from sham but not IH rats and blocked dilation to exogenous H2S in arteries from both sham and IH rats. Our results suggest that H2S regulates RyR activation and that H2S-induced dilation requires Ca(2+) spark activation. IH exposure decreases endogenous H2S-dependent Ca(2+) spark activation to cause membrane depolarization and enhance myogenic tone in mesenteric arteries. PMID:26408536

  6. Unenhanced MR Angiography of Uterine and Ovarian Arteries after Uterine Artery Embolization: Differences between Patients with Incomplete and Complete Fibroid Infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Kensaku; Saida, Tsukasa; Shibuya, Yoko; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Shiigai, Masanari; Osada, Kayo; Tanaka, Nami; Minami, Manabu

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: To compare the status of uterine and ovarian arteries after uterine artery embolization (UAE) in patients with incomplete and complete fibroid infarction via unenhanced 3D time-of-flight magnetic resonance (MR) angiography. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five consecutive women (mean age 43 years; range 26-52 years) with symptomatic uterine fibroids underwent UAE and MR imaging before and within 2 months after UAE. The patients were divided into incomplete and complete fibroid infarction groups on the basis of the postprocedural gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging findings. Two independent observers reviewed unenhanced MR angiography before and after UAE to determine bilateral uterine and ovarian arterial flow scores. The total arterial flow scores were calculated by summing the scores of the 4 arteries. All scores were compared with the Mann-Whitney test. Results: Fourteen and 21 patients were assigned to the incomplete and complete fibroid infarction groups, respectively. The total arterial flow score in the incomplete fibroid infarction group was significantly greater than that in the complete fibroid infarction group (P = 0.019 and P = 0.038 for observers 1 and 2, respectively). In 3 patients, additional therapy was recommended for insufficient fibroid infarction. In 1 of the 3 patients, bilateral ovarian arteries were invisible before UAE but seemed enlarged after UAE. Conclusion: The total arterial flow from bilateral uterine and ovarian arteries in patients with incomplete fibroid infarction is less well reduced than in those with complete fibroid infarction. Postprocedural MR angiography provides useful information to estimate the cause of insufficient fibroid infarction in individual cases.

  7. Vitamin A supplementation in early life enhances the intestinal immune response of rats with gestational vitamin A deficiency by increasing the number of immune cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xia; Cui, Ting; Li, Yingying; Wang, Yuting; Wang, Qinghong; Li, Xin; Bi, Yang; Wei, Xiaoping; Liu, Lan; Li, Tingyu; Chen, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin A is a critical micronutrient for regulating immunity in many organisms. Our previous study demonstrated that gestational or early-life vitamin A deficiency decreases the number of immune cells in offspring. The present study aims to test whether vitamin A supplementation can restore lymphocyte pools in vitamin A-deficient rats and thereby improve the function of their intestinal mucosa; furthermore, the study aimed to identify the best time frame for vitamin A supplementation. Vitamin A-deficient pregnant rats or their offspring were administered a low-dose of vitamin A daily for 7 days starting on gestational day 14 or postnatal day 1, day 14 or day 28. Serum retinol concentrations increased significantly in all four groups that received vitamin A supplementation, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The intestinal levels of secretory immunoglobulin A and polymeric immunoglobulin receptor increased significantly with lipopolysaccharide challenge in the rats that received vitamin A supplementation starting on postnatal day 1. The rats in this group had higher numbers of CD8+ intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes, CD11C+ dendritic cells in the Peyer's patches and CD4+CD25+ T cells in the spleen compared with the vitamin A-deficient rats; flow cytometric analysis also demonstrated that vitamin A supplementation decreased the number of B cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Additionally, vitamin A supplementation during late gestation increased the numbers of CD8+ intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes and decreased the numbers of B lymphocytes in the mesenteric lymph nodes. However, no significant differences in lymphocyte levels were found between the rats in the other two vitamin A supplement groups and the vitamin A-deficient group. In conclusion, the best recovery of a subset of lymphocytes in the offspring of gestational vitamin A-deficient rats and the greatest improvement in the intestinal mucosal immune response are achieved when vitamin A supplementation occurs during the early postnatal period. PMID:25503794

  8. Early radiographic diagnosis of peri-implantitis enhances the outcome of peri-implantitis treatment: a 5-year retrospective study after non-surgical treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hee-Yung; Park, Shin-Young; Kim, Jin-Ah; Kim, Young-Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This retrospective study evaluated the relationship between the timing of peri-implantitis diagnosis and marginal bone level after a 5-year follow-up of non-surgical peri-implantitis treatment. Methods Thirty-three patients (69 implants) were given peri-implantitis diagnosis in 2008-2009 in Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. Among them, 31 implants from 16 patients were included in this study. They were treated non-surgically in this hospital, and came for regular maintenance visits for at least 5 years after peri-implantitis treatment. Radiographic marginal bone levels at each interval were measured and statistical analysis was performed. Results Timing of peri-implantitis was one of the significant factors affecting initial bone loss and total bone loss not additional bone after peri-implantitis diagnosis. Patients with cardiovascular disease and diabetic mellitus were positively influenced on both initial bone loss and total bone loss. Patients who needed periodontal treatment after implant placement showed a negative effect on bone loss compared to those who needed periodontal treatment before implant placement during entire periods. Implant location also significantly influenced on amounts of bone loss. Mandibular implants showed less bone loss than maxillary implants. Among surgical factors, combined use of autogenous and xenogenic bone graft materials showed a negative effect on bone loss compared to autogenous bone graft materials. Use of membrane negatively affected on initial bone loss but positively on additional bone loss and total bone loss. Thread exposure showed positive effects on initial bone loss and total bone loss. Conclusions Early peri-implantitis diagnosis led to early non-surgical intervention for peri-implantitis treatment, which resulted in the maintenance of the bone level as well as preservation of the implant. Graphical Abstract PMID:26131368

  9. Early Life Hormetic Treatments Decrease Irradiation-Induced Oxidative Damage, Increase Longevity, and Enhance Sexual Performance during Old Age in the Caribbean Fruit Fly

    PubMed Central

    López-Martínez, Giancarlo; Hahn, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Early life events can have dramatic consequences on performance later in life. Exposure to stressors at a young age affects development, the rate of aging, risk of disease, and overall lifespan. In spite of this, mild stress exposure early in life can have beneficial effects on performance later in life. These positive effects of mild stress are referred to as physiological conditioning hormesis. In our current study we used anoxia conditioning hormesis as a pretreatment to reduce oxidative stress and improve organismal performance, lifespan, and healthspan of Caribbean fruit flies. We used gamma irradiation to induce mild oxidative damage in a low-dose experiment, and massive oxidative damage in a separate high-dose experiment, in pharate adult fruit flies just prior to adult emergence. Irradiation-induced oxidative stress leads to reduced adult emergence, flight ability, mating performance, and lifespan. We used a hormetic approach, one hour of exposure to anoxia plus irradiation in anoxia, to lower post-irradiation oxidative damage. We have previously shown that this anoxic-conditioning treatment elevates total antioxidant capacity and lowers post-irradiation oxidative damage to lipids and proteins. In this study, conditioned flies had lower mortality rates and longer lifespan compared to those irradiated without hormetic conditioning. As a metric of healthspan, we tracked mating both at a young age (10 d) and old age (30 d). We found that anoxia-conditioned male flies were more competitive at young ages when compared to unconditioned irradiation stressed male flies, and that the positive effects of anoxic conditioning hormesis on mating success were even more pronounced in older males. Our data shows that physiological conditioning hormesis at a young age, not only improves immediate metrics of organismal performance (emergence, flight, mating), but the beneficial effects also carry into old age by reducing late life oxidative damage and improving lifespan and healthspan. PMID:24498251

  10. [Integrated coronary artery bypass strategy prevents urgent pump conversion during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting].

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, H; Takase, S; Misawa, Y; Hagiwara, K; Tanji, M; Takahashi, S; Watanabe, M; Kondo, S

    2009-01-01

    Urgent pump conversion during off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) results in high morbidity and mortality. We retrospectively evaluated if the peri-operative integrated strategy prevents this lethal event in our 400 consecutive OPCAB operations. The patients with preoperative cardiogenic shock and/or ventricular arrhythmias underwent on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). All other patients (99% of total CABG) were scheduled to undergo OPCAB (n=400). Prophylactic intraaortic balloon pumping (IABP) was applied to the patients with critical (>95%) left main trunk stenosis or low (<0.35) left ventricular ejection fraction. All the patients received the deep pericardial suture, apex-traction device, suction-type stabilizer, test-clamp of target coronary arteries by micro bulldog clamp, and intra-coronary shunts. Intra-operative IABP was applied in the case of sustained ST-segment change and/or elevated pulmonary artery pressure. Pump conversion was indicated for the patients with ventricular fibrillation and/or cardiogenic shock. Two patients (0.5%) had pump conversion due to ventricular arrhythmia and sustained hypotension, respectively. These pump conversion did not result in hospital mortality. Three hospital deaths (0.7%) occurred due to non-cardiac causes. The integrated strategy using prophylactic or intra-operative IABP in OPCAB produce a low pump conversion rate even during an early period of surgeon's learning curve. PMID:19195183

  11. C A R D I O V A S C U L AR D I S EA S E Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Challenges in

    E-print Network

    Kornfeld, S. Kerry

    C A R D I O V A S C U L AR D I S EA S E Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Challenges hypertension (PAH) is a vascular remodeling disease with a relentless course toward heart failure and early. INTRODUCTION Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a complex vascular disease that results in heart failure

  12. Revascularization of the bronchial arteries in lung transplantation: an overview.

    PubMed

    Nørgaard, M A; Olsen, P S; Svendsen, U G; Pettersson, G

    1996-10-01

    Development of the surgical technique has minimized the incidence of airway problems associated with single as well as sequential bilateral lung transplantation. Although early results are good, long-term results remain unsatisfactory. The main problems after lung transplantation are pulmonary infections and the bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. The bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome is usually considered to be chronic rejection, but a multifactorial genesis including airway ischemia has been suggested. We reviewed the literature relevant to direct bronchial artery revascularization during lung transplantation. Although information is limited, there are good reasons to believe that reestablishment of the dual blood supply to the transplanted lung is beneficial not only for healing of the airway anastomoses, but also for the airway and the lung responses to pathologic conditions. In small series, methods of bronchial artery revascularization have proved successful and have been associated with good early results. We believe it is justified to test the impact of direct bronchial artery revascularization on outcome after lung transplantation in large clinical series. PMID:8823127

  13. Achieving safe femoral arterial access.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael S; Kong, Jeremy

    2015-06-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention can lead to vascular access complications that prolong patient hospital stay and costs as well as increase patient morbidity and mortality. Given its ease of use and familiarity, transfemoral access is still the preferred method of approach by many operators. The transfemoral approach is used when large bore access is required or if transradial access is not feasible due to variations in the anatomy of the upper extremity artery. The use of fluoroscopy, ultrasonography, and femoral angiography can help the operator obtain proper arteriotomy of the common femoral artery. Measures to decrease vascular access complications include proper technique, optimal pharmacotherapy, and avoiding the use of arterial sheaths >6 Fr. Optimal pharmacotherapy includes the use of bivalirudin and weight-based unfractionated heparin to avoid supratherapeutic activated clotting times, and to avoid glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. When used appropriately, vascular closure devices can decrease the risk of bleeding complications. Randomized trials are needed to confirm these recommendations. PMID:25911441

  14. The palindromic series I repeats in the simian cytomegalovirus major immediate-early promoter behave as both strong basal enhancers and cyclic AMP response elements.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Y N; Crawford, S; Stall, J; Rawlins, D R; Jeang, K T; Hayward, G S

    1990-01-01

    A 600-base-pair (bp) enhancer region upstream from the major IE94 gene of simian cytomegalovirus (SCMV) produces very strong basal expression of associated gene products. This domain consists of multiple sets of interspersed repetitive elements, including 11 copies of a conserved 16-bp palindromic sequence with the consensus CCATTGACGTCAATGG. These series I repeats contain an 8-bp core TGACGTCA that resembles the cyclic AMP (cAMP) response element (CRE) of cellular genes. In transient chloramphenicol acetyltransferase assays in K562 human erythroleukemia cells, a set of deleted variants of the IE94 promoter all responded up to 15-fold to induction by cAMP. However, successive removal of most of the SCMV 16-bp motifs reduced basal expression over 20-fold. The cAMP stimulation was also manifested at the steady-state RNA level after SCMV infection of K562 cells and was detectable within 1.5 h after treatment of DNA-transfected cells. Addition of a single 30-bp oligonucleotide encompassing the 16-bp palindrome conveyed up to 10-fold cAMP responsiveness onto a heterologous weak promoter but had no effect on basal expression. In contrast, two or more adjacent copies produced 20- to 40-fold increases in basal expression and provided greater than 200-fold activation in the presence of cAMP. Similar effects were obtained when the oligonucleotides were placed in a downstream location relative to the reporter gene. Studies with mutant oligonucleotides revealed that both the core CRE and the flanking sequence portions of the 16-bp elements were essential for enhancer function. Both components were also important for maximum cAMP responsiveness. Band shift assays with fractionated nuclear extracts from Raji lymphocytes revealed multiple competable complexes with cellular DNA-binding factors that recognized the series I elements. Three distinct CREB-like factors were detected that required only the core 8-bp elements for binding. We conclude that the 16-bp series I repeats provide a major contribution to the constitutive enhancer properties of the IE94 promoter and also act as functional CREs. The cAMP response properties appear likely to play a key role in reactivation of the virus from a latent state in appropriately differentiating cell types. Images PMID:2152815

  15. Absence of Clinical and Hemodynamic Consequences due to Posterior Tibial Artery Congenital Aplasia

    PubMed Central

    Karaolanis, Georgios; Karanikola, Evridiki; Palla, Viktoria Varvara; Filis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    The exact knowledge of popliteal artery and its branches' anatomic variations is important for the clinical practice of angiology, vascular surgery, and interventional procedures. Congenital absence of the artery leads, in some cases, to early malformations of the extremity in the childhood; however, it may also remain asymptomatic. We present an unusual case of a 76-year-old male patient complaining of paraesthesia in both limbs and bilateral aplasia of posterior tibial artery (PTA). Physical examination, ankle-brachial indexes, before and after exercise, arterial duplex scan, and magnetic resonance arteriography were performed. Arterial pulses for PTA at the level of the ankle were normal; arterial duplex study showed biphasic arterial flow at the level of the ankle. Color duplex ultrasound as well as magnetic resonance arteriography revealed the absence of the PTA in both limbs. The vascularization of the fibula was bilaterally normal. The patient underwent also neurological examination and electromyography, which were normal. The evaluation of the possible clinical signs and symptoms and the hemodynamic consequences of this condition are further discussed. PMID:26090262

  16. Bile duct ischemia developing after reconstruction of the hepatic artery during the Whipple operation

    PubMed Central

    Çak?r, Murat; Küçükkartallar, Tevfik; Tekin, Ahmet; Tuncer, Fatma Betül; Kartal, Adil

    2015-01-01

    A pancreaticoduodenectomy is a surgical procedure with a high morbidity and mortality rate. The injury of the hepatic artery may occasionally lead to intraoperative bleeding. Repair of the injured hepatic artery is of great importance in terms of maintaining the vascular supply of the liver. We report a case with an injury of the hepatic artery that was successfully reconstructed with the gastroduodenal artery and then developed a biliary leak due to bile duct ischemia at an early stage. A 33-year-old women complaining of right upper quadrant pain was found to have a solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas. She underwent an immediate pancreaticoduodenectomy, and her hepatic artery was injured during the operation. The arterial ends were sutured with primary anastomosis, because they could be aligned without any tension. The biliary leak occurred on postoperative day 2. We detected bile duct ischemia and reanastomosed the artery. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 8. Surgeons should be prepared for anomalies of the peripancreatic vascular structures during pancreaticoduodenectomy. Computed tomography angiography should be considered to reveal these anomalies before the surgery. Insufficiency of the biliodigestive anastomosis due to bile duct ischemia in the postoperative period should be kept in mind, even in cases of successful repair.

  17. Arterial blood supply of hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with efficacy of sorafenib therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qian; Zhang, Xianghua; Li, Jing; Huang, Liang; Yan, Jianjun; Xu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Background To explore the efficacy of sorafenib in treating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its relationship with the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of HCC, analyze the prognostic factors of HCC patients treated with sorafenib, and investigate the relationship between imaging findings and outcomes. Methods A total of 38 HCC patients who were treated with sorafenib from April 2009 to December 2010 were included in this study. HCCs were classified as good arterial supply and poor arterial supply according to the intensity enhancement on CT scan or MRI. Clinical data were collected and the survival time was calculated by Kaplan-Meier method. Results Among these 38 patients [35 (92.1%) were males] treated with sorafenib, the median age was (53.3±11.1) years. Tumors in 17 patients had good arterial supply while those in the remained 21 patients had poor arterial supply. The median survival time (MST) was 10.7 months (95% CI, 8.7-12.7) and the 1-year overall survival (OS) was 41.0%. The MST and 1-year OS in patients with tumors with good arterial supply were 12 months (range, 4-20 months) and 52.9%, respectively, compared with those of 7 months (range, 1-16 months) and 23.8% in patients with tumors with poor arterial supply (P=0.002). Patients with BCLC stage B tumors had longer MST and higher OS than those with BCLC stage C tumors, although the differences were not statistically significant. Multivariate analysis showed that arterial supply of tumors remained statistically predictive for OS (HR =0.22; 95% CI, 0.07-0.67; P=0.008). Conclusions Arterial blood supply is an independent predictor for survival in HCC patients treated with sorafenib, and patients with tumors with good arterial supply benefit more than those with tumors with poor arterial supply. PMID:26697445

  18. Three cases of cervicocephalic artery dissection in an amusement park.

    PubMed

    Kurita, Naohide; Ueno, Yuji; Watanabe, Masao; Miyamoto, Nobukazu; Shimura, Hideki; Nonaka, Senshu; Tsutsumi, Satoshi; Yasumoto, Yukimasa; Hattori, Nobutaka; Urabe, Takao

    2014-01-01

    About 20 cases of cerebrovascular accidents in amusement parks have been documented. However, only a few cases of amusement park stroke (APS) after roller coaster rides have been reported. Here, we present triggers of stroke, clinical characteristics, and the angiographic appearance of 3 consecutive patients of APS. Their clinical characteristics included young age, absence of atherosclerotic risk factors, and severe injuries. Serial changes in angiographic appearance led to the diagnosis of cervicocephalic artery dissection (CAD). Patients A and B were diagnosed with isolated middle cerebral artery (MCA) dissection, and patient C was diagnosed with internal carotid artery dissection involving MCA dissection. Running excitedly toward an attraction in patient A, a go-kart ride in patient B, and riding in an enhanced motion vehicle in patient C were considered as the likely triggers for APS. We had specific cases with APS associated with CAD, which can occur under diverse contexts other than roller coaster rides at amusement parks. Our findings suggest that the variable directions of the high gravitational forces induced by vehicle riding or running excitedly might injure the MCA or internal carotid artery, and thereby cause CAD in the amusement park. PMID:25263648

  19. Computational simulation of flow in stenotic artery using cubic interpolation profile scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che Sidik, Nor Azwadi; Salehi, Mehran; Witri, Afiq

    2012-06-01

    This paper devoted to a computational prediction of blood flow in a stenotic artery using a suitable mathematical model. The artery was modelled as a rigid two-dimensional tube with three different levels of severity of the disease. In the mathematical model, the blood flow equations were governed by the stream function-vorticity equations. Then the cubic interpolation profile scheme with high order of accuracy was applied to discretise the advection term of the equation. Different cases were considered, where the Reynolds number of the blood flow were varied to predict pulsatile of blood flow. The present paper reports the analysis of flow separation area downstream the stenosed artery and the location and peak wall shear stress values. These findings may contribute for early detection and medical treatments to prevent further development of the disease and rupture of the artery.

  20. Sympathoexcitation and arterial hypertension associated with obstructive sleep apnea and cyclic intermittent hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Weiss, J Woodrow; Tamisier, Renaud; Liu, Yuzhen

    2015-12-15

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by repetitive episodes of upper airway obstruction during sleep. These obstructive episodes are characterized by cyclic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), by sleep fragmentation, and by hemodynamic instability, and they result in sustained sympathoexcitation and elevated arterial pressure that persist during waking, after restoration of normoxia. Early studies established that 1) CIH, rather than sleep disruption, accounts for the increase in arterial pressure; 2) the increase in arterial pressure is a consequence of the sympathoactivation; and 3) arterial hypertension after CIH exposure requires an intact peripheral chemoreflex. More recently, however, evidence has accumulated that sympathoactivation and hypertension after CIH are also dependent on altered central sympathoregulation. Furthermore, although many molecular pathways are activated in both the carotid chemoreceptor and in the central nervous system by CIH exposure, two specific neuromodulators-endothelin-1 and angiotensin II-appear to play crucial roles in mediating the sympathetic and hemodynamic response to intermittent hypoxia. PMID:26251511

  1. A Case of Midbrain and Thalamic Infarction Involving Artery of Percheron

    PubMed Central

    Almamun, Muhammad; Suman, Appu; Arshad, Syed; Sanjeev Kumar, Sonni Jayathirthachar

    2015-01-01

    Blood supply to the thalamus and brainstem have frequent anatomic variations. One of these is where all the perforators to the above areas arise from a single branch of the posterior cerebral artery commonly known as the artery of Percheron. Infarction involving this artery leading to bilateral thalamic and midbrain lesions is not uncommon, but can cause diagnostic difficulties due to the varying clinical presentations possible and the wide differentials. Early brain imaging and diagnosis is important for initiating appropriate treatment. In this case report, we discuss a patient who presented with an artery of Percheron related stroke affecting the mid brain and paramedian thalamic areas. We also discuss the differentials of presentations with similar symptoms. PMID:26239245

  2. Coronary artery balloon angioplasty - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... muscle (the coronary arteries) can be narrowed or blocked by this accumulation. If the narrowing is small, ... is a minimally invasive procedure to open up blocked coronary arteries, allowing blood to circulate unobstructed to ...

  3. Flows In Model Human Femoral Arteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Back, Lloyd H.; Kwack, Eug Y.; Crawford, Donald W.

    1990-01-01

    Flow is visualized with dye traces, and pressure measurements made. Report describes experimental study of flow in models of human femoral artery. Conducted to examine effect of slight curvature of artery on flow paths and distribution of pressure.

  4. Worse Psoriasis, Less Healthy Arteries, Study Finds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... news/fullstory_155049.html Worse Psoriasis, Less Healthy Arteries, Study Finds Chronic skin disorder linked to increase ... News) -- The skin disorder psoriasis appears linked with artery inflammation, raising the odds for heart disease, a ...

  5. Types of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting There are several types of coronary ... for you based on your needs. Traditional Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Traditional CABG is used when at ...

  6. Coronary Artery Disease - Coronary Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Coronary Artery Disease - Coronary Heart Disease Updated:Aug 7,2015 ... for the buildup of plaque in the heart’s arteries that could lead to heart attack. But what ...

  7. Mucormycosis causing pulmonary artery aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Lakshman; Dewan, Sandeep; Kumar, Vishal; Wankhade, Bhushan

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary artery aneurysm (PAA) is an uncommon entity and is usually congenital in origin or secondary to pulmonary arterial hypertension. Infections causing PAA are few, tuberculosis and bacterial infections being the common causative organisms. There have been few cases reported previously, in which the organism causing PAA was found to be a rare fungus called mucor. Pulmonary mucormycosis causing PAA is an infrequent and almost fatal complication as most of the diagnosis was made post mortem. This report brings out a case of pulmonary mucormycosis causing ruptured PAA in a patient with diabetes. This patient was cured by a timely treatment of a combination of surgery and medical therapy.

  8. Runtime visualization of the human arterial tree.

    PubMed

    Insley, Joseph A; Papka, Michael E; Dong, Suchuan; Karniadakis, George; Karonis, Nicholas T

    2007-01-01

    Large-scale simulation codes typically execute for extended periods of time and often on distributed computational resources. Because these simulations can run for hours, or even days, scientists like to get feedback about the state of the computation and the validity of its results as it runs. It is also important that these capabilities be made available with little impact on the performance and stability of the simulation. Visualizing and exploring data in the early stages of the simulation can help scientists identify problems early, potentially avoiding a situation where a simulation runs for several days, only to discover that an error with an input parameter caused both time and resources to be wasted. We describe an application that aids in the monitoring and analysis of a simulation of the human arterial tree. The application provides researchers with high-level feedback about the state of the ongoing simulation and enables them to investigate particular areas of interest in greater detail. The application also offers monitoring information about the amount of data produced and data transfer performance among the various components of the application. PMID:17495339

  9. Lifestyle Factors and Coronary Artery Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chong-Do; Jae, Sae Young

    2014-01-01

    The effective prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a global health challenge. Adopting a combined primary (prevention of the first episode of coronary heart disease or stroke) and primordial (prevention of the causal risk factors of CVD) prevention strategy is the best approach to prevent CVD. Most importantly, the primordial prevention strategy should in the first place be to promote cardiovascular health across individual and population levels by improving the underlying causal risk factors for CVD (i.e., unhealthy diets, physical inactivity, obesity, and cigarette smoking). Epidemiological evidence indicates that maintaining favorable underlying risk factors (lifestyle factors) is associated with a lower risk of incident CVD. Prevention of early atherosclerotic vascular disease is also an important strategy to prevent CVD. However, there has been limited research on the association between lifestyle factors and early atherosclerotic vascular disease (i.e., coronary or carotid atherosclerosis) across race and gender groups in population-based studies. This article briefly reviews whether lifestyle factors relate to subclinical atherosclerosis as assessed by coronary artery calcification in asymptomatic individuals.

  10. Transcatheter Arterial Coil Embolization of Ruptured Common Hepatic Artery Aneurysm in a Patient with Behçet's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hotta, Akihiro; Kuwatsuru, Ryohei; Asahi, Kouichi; Okada, Shingo; Tsuge, Daisuke; Shiraishi, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic artery aneurysm is a rare and potentially life-threatening entity. We report a case of ruptured common hepatic artery aneurysm in a patient with Behçet's disease. The ruptured aneurysm was treated successfully with transcatheter arterial coil embolization. Transcatheter arterial embolization is the preferred treatment modality in patients at high risk of surgical intervention. PMID:25821623

  11. Early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M.

    2015-05-01

    Earth has continents, subduction and mobile lid plate tectonics, but details of the early evolution are poorly understood. Here I summarize the Hadean-Archean record, review evidence for a hotter Earth and consider geodynamic models for early Earth.

  12. Spontaneous Recanalization of Superior Mesenteric Artery Occlusion Following Angioplasty and Stenting of Inferior Mesenteric Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Akpinar, Erhan Cil, Barbaros E.; Arat, Anil; Baykal, Atac; Karaman, Kerem; Balkanci, Ferhun

    2006-02-15

    An 84-year-old woman with a history of hypertension and coronary artery disease was admitted with a progressively worsening diffuse abdominal pain. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen and angiography revealed occlusion of the origin and proximal portion of superior mesenteric artery. Aortography also showed severe origin stenosis of inferior mesenteric artery and that the distal part of the superior mesenteric artery was supplied by a prominent marginal artery of Drummond. Patient was effectively treated with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting of the inferior mesenteric artery. Follow-up imaging studies demonstrated patency of the stent and spontaneous recanalization of superior mesenteric artery occlusion.

  13. Combination therapy including CpG oligodeoxynucleotides and entecavir induces early viral response and enhanced inhibition of viral replication in a woodchuck model of chronic hepadnaviral infection.

    PubMed

    Meng, Zhongji; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Pei, Rongjuan; Zhang, Ejuan; Kemper, Thekla; Vollmer, Jörg; Davis, Heather L; Glebe, Dieter; Gerlich, Wolfram; Roggendorf, Michael; Lu, Mengji

    2016-01-01

    CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) stimulate immune cells via TLR9 and are potentially useful immunomodulators for the treatment of chronic viral infections. In the present study, different classes of CpGs were tested for their capacities for innate immune activation and antiviral activities in the woodchuck model. A class P CpG ODN was found to stimulate interferon (IFN) production in woodchuck peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vitro, and following subcutaneous administration in vivo, it was observed to induce IFN and MxA expression in woodchuck PBMCs. Combination treatment with CpG ODN and entecavir (ETV) led to effective suppression of the woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) load in the woodchucks, with early viral responses and inhibition of replication. The woodchuck hepatitis surface antigen (WHsAg) serum concentrations were strongly decreased by CpG and ETV together but not by either agent alone, indicating synergistic effects. However, viral control post-treatment was still transient, similar to that observed with ETV alone. Significantly elevated levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) but not of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in some of the woodchucks receiving CpG ODN were noted, but these increases were resolved before the completion of treatment and were not associated with an elevated serum bilirubin level or coagulation disorders, suggesting the absence of a significant safety concern. PMID:26585244

  14. The Ineffective Role of Cathodal tDCS in Enhancing the Functional Motor Outcomes in Early Phase of Stroke Rehabilitation: An Experimental Trial

    PubMed Central

    Assenza, Federica; Izzo, Simona; Paolucci, Stefano; Vernieri, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive technique that could improve the rehabilitation outcomes in stroke, eliciting neuroplastic mechanisms. At the same time conflicting results have been reported in subacute phase of stroke, when neuroplasticity is crucial. The aim of this double-blind, randomized, and sham-controlled study was to determine whether a treatment with cathodal tDCS before the rehabilitative training might augment the final outcomes (upper limb function, hand dexterity and manual force, locomotion, and activities of daily living) in respect of a traditional rehabilitation for a sample of patients affected by ischemic stroke in the subacute phase. An experimental group (cathodal tDCS plus rehabilitation) and a control group (sham tDCS plus rehabilitation) were assessed at the beginning of the protocol, after 10 days of stimulation, after 30 days from ending of stimulation, and at the end of inpatient rehabilitation. Both groups showed significant improvements for all the assessed domains during the rehabilitation, except for the manual force, while no significant differences were demonstrated between groups. These results seem to indicate that the cathodal tDCS, provided in an early phase of stroke, does not lead to a functional improvement. To depict a more comprehensive scenario, further studies are needed. PMID:24895588

  15. Coronary artery bypass grafting in a patient with organophosphate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Pieris, Rajeeva R; Fernando, Ravindra

    2015-01-01

    A 43-year-old male, with no previous history of mental illness, was diagnosed with coronary heart disease, after which he became acutely depressed and attempted suicide by ingesting an organophosphate pesticide. He was admitted to an intensive care unit and treated with pralidoxime, atropine, and oxygen. His coronary occlusion pattern required early coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. His family, apprehensive of a repeat suicidal attempt, requested surgery be performed as soon as possible. He recovered well from the OP poisoning and was mentally fit to express informed consent 2 weeks after admission. Seventeen days after poisoning, he underwent coronary artery bypass grafting and recovered uneventfully. Six years later, he remains in excellent health. We report this case because to the best of our knowledge there is no literature regarding CABG performed soon after organophosphate poisoning. PMID:26334855

  16. Comparison of Approaches to Quantify Arterial Damping

    E-print Network

    Chesler, Naomi C.

    Comparison of Approaches to Quantify Arterial Damping Capacity From Pressurization Tests on Mouse Conduit Arteries Lian Tian e-mail: ltian22@wisc.edu Zhijie Wang e-mail: zwang48@wisc.edu Department-mail: chesler@engr.wisc.edu Large conduit arteries are not purely elastic, but viscoelastic, which affects

  17. Optimised Computational Functional Imaging for Arteries

    E-print Network

    Nicoud, Franck

    Optimised Computational Functional Imaging for Arteries Ramiro Moreno1 , Ming Chau3 , Shirod Jeetoo of the Optimised Computational Func- tional Imaging for Arteries (OCFIA) program is to introduce high of the complex velocity distribution and biomechanical load on the arterial wall. Nevertheless there is not doubt

  18. Nonlinear problems in arterial ows Giuseppe Pontrelli

    E-print Network

    Pontrelli, Giuseppe

    Nonlinear problems in arterial ows Giuseppe Pontrelli Istituto per le Applicazioni del Calcolo in a deformable tube xed at the two ends is presented as a fundamental study. The main application is in arterial and pathological states. Blood ow in arteries is dominated by unsteadiness and by wave propagation phenomena

  19. Arterial wall properties in patients with renal failure.

    PubMed

    Konings, Constantijn J A M; Dammers, Ruben; Rensma, Pieter L; Kooman, Jeroen P; Hoeks, Arnold P G; Kornet, Lilian; Gladziwa, Ulrich; van der Sande, Frank M; Leunissen, Karel M L

    2002-06-01

    Hemodialysis (HD) patients commonly show abnormalities of the arterial system. Only a few studies have focused on arterial wall properties in patients with early stages of renal insufficiency and patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) therapy. In this study, the distensibility coefficient (DC), a marker of arterial stiffening and intima media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery (CCA) and a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis, was assessed in four age-matched groups of patients: 18 HD patients, 36 PD patients, 30 patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) not yet on dialysis therapy with a creatinine clearance (CCl) between 10 and 70 mL/min, and 25 normotensive controls with normal renal function. Arterial wall properties were assessed by an automated vessel wall detection system. In patients with CRF and HD patients, but not PD patients, the DC of the CCA was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) compared with controls (CRF, 12.6 +/- 7.5 10(-3)/kPa; HD, 11.6 +/- 7.6 10(-3)/kPa; and PD, 14.7 +/- 6.2 10(-3)/kPa compared with controls, 16.7 +/- 4.6 10(-3)/kPa). In patients with CRF, a significant relationship was found between CCl and the DC (r = 0.41; P = 0.02). IMT was not different among patients with CRF (589 +/- 115 microm), HD (622 +/- 115 microm) and PD patients (585 +/- 121 microm), and controls (668 +/- 150 microm). In conclusion, compared with controls, the DC of the CCA was significantly reduced in HD patients and those with CRF, but not PD patients. In patients with CRF, the DC correlated significantly with CCl. IMT did not differ between groups of renal patients and controls. PMID:12046032

  20. Edward F. Adolph Distinguished Lecture: The remarkable anti-aging effects of aerobic exercise on systemic arteries.

    PubMed

    Seals, Douglas R

    2014-09-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in modern societies, and advancing age is the major risk factor for CVD. Arterial dysfunction, characterized by large elastic artery stiffening and endothelial dysfunction, is the key event leading to age-associated CVD. Our work shows that regular aerobic exercise inhibits large elastic artery stiffening with aging (optimizes arterial compliance) and preserves endothelial function. Importantly, among previously sedentary late middle-aged and older adults, aerobic exercise improves arterial stiffness and enhances endothelial function in most groups and, therefore, also can be considered a treatment for age-associated arterial dysfunction. The mechanisms by which regular aerobic exercise destiffens large elastic arteries are incompletely understood, but existing evidence suggests that reductions in oxidative stress associated with decreases in both adventitial collagen (fibrosis) and advanced glycation end-products (structural protein cross-linking molecules), play a key role. Aerobic exercise preserves endothelial function with aging by maintaining nitric oxide bioavailability via suppression of excessive superoxide-associated oxidative stress, and by inhibiting the development of chronic low-grade vascular inflammation. Recent work from our laboratory supports the novel hypothesis that aerobic exercise may exert these beneficial effects by directly inducing protection to aging arteries against multiple adverse factors to which they are chronically exposed. Regular aerobic exercise should be viewed as a "first line" strategy for prevention and treatment of arterial aging and a vital component of a contemporary public health approach for reducing the projected increase in population CVD burden. PMID:24855137

  1. Maternal nutrient restriction reduces carotid artery constriction without increasing nitric oxide synthesis in the late gestation rat fetus.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Morag E; Williams, Sarah J; Veerareddy, Sukrutha; Davidge, Sandra T

    2005-11-01

    Chronic reduction in substrate delivery to the fetus may induce redistribution of fetal cardiac output to maintain nutrient delivery to vital organs, including the brain. Reduced vasoconstriction, in conjunction with increased local synthesis of nitric oxide may contribute to "brain sparing." The authors hypothesized that maternal undernutrition would reduce vasoconstrictor responses in fetal carotid arteries due to increased nitric oxide. Timed pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized on day 0 of pregnancy to control (C) or nutrient restricted (NR) diet. Dams were killed on day 20 of pregnancy. Fetal carotid artery responses were assessed using a pressurized myograph system. Fetal body weight was reduced by NR diet. In NR fetuses, liver, lung, kidney, and heart weights were lower, whereas proportional brain weight was greater. Carotid artery constriction to endothelin-1 was similar in both groups; however, phenylephrine-induced constriction was decreased in NR arteries. Arteries from control fetuses constricted in response to increasing concentrations of L-NAME, whereas arteries from NR did not. There was also no effect of L-NAME on constriction to phenylephrine in arteries from NR fetuses. Our study indicates that the reduced carotid artery vasoconstriction to phenylephrine in NR fetuses, which is consistent with the maintenance of fetal brain blood flow, was not mediated by enhanced nitric oxide. Reduced phenylephrine but not endothelin-1-induced constriction suggests specific effects on adrenergic carotid artery function, which may implicate this pathway in the vascular adaptation to fetal undernutrition. PMID:16183825

  2. Ruptured aneurysm at an anastomotic artery extending from the vertebral artery to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery: a case report.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Jun; Uemura, Shozaburo; Hayasaki, Aiko; Kimura, Hiroshi; Morioka, Motohiro; Kuratsu, Jun-Ichi

    2011-04-01

    A 51-year-old hypertensive man presented with subarachnoid haemorrhage. He had a past history of cerebellar infarction due to occlusion of the right posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) 4 years earlier. Digital subtraction angiography showed a saccular aneurysm above an arterial loop extending from the vertebral artery to the distal part of the PICA, reminiscent of peripheral PICA branches. We performed aneurysmal neck clipping with excellent outcome. Aneurysms at anastomotic arteries are extremely rare and can result from increased haemodynamic stress. We report the first case of a ruptured aneurysm at an anastomotic artery in the posterior circulation territory. PMID:21058041

  3. Anomalous External Carotid Artery-Internal Carotid Artery Anastomosis in Two Patients with Proximal Internal Carotid Arterial Remnants

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang Hun; Kang, Hyun-Seung; Kim, Jeong Eun; Jung, Seung Chai; Ahn, Jun Hyong; Han, Moon Hee

    2015-01-01

    Two angiographic instances of anomalous external carotid artery (ECA) and internal carotid artery (ICA) anastomosis are described, each occurring at the C2-3 level and bearing remnants of proximal ICA. The ICA remnant of one patient (identifiable immediately upon bifurcation of the common carotid artery) was hypoplastic, and that of the other patient was an occluded arterial stump. These features are not typical of non-bifurcating ICA. The occipital artery originated from an anomalous connection in one instance and from the main trunk of the ECA (just past the ECA-ICA connection) in the other. PMID:26175593

  4. Does Lower Limb Exercise Worsen Renal Artery Hemodynamics in Patients with Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nan; Xu, Zaipin; Deng, Xiaoyan; Liu, Ming; Liu, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Renal artery stenosis (RAS) and renal complications emerge in some patients after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) to treat abdominal aorta aneurysm (AAA). The mechanisms for the causes of these problems are not clear. We hypothesized that for EVAR patients, lower limb exercise could negatively influence the physiology of the renal artery and the renal function, by decreasing the blood flow velocity and changing the hemodynamics in the renal arteries. To evaluate this hypothesis, pre- and post-operative models of the abdominal aorta were reconstructed based on CT images. The hemodynamic environment was numerically simulated under rest and lower limb exercise conditions. The results revealed that in the renal arteries, lower limb exercise decreased the wall shear stress (WSS), increased the oscillatory shear index (OSI) and increased the relative residence time (RRT). EVAR further enhanced these effects. Because these parameters are related to artery stenosis and atherosclerosis, this preliminary study concluded that lower limb exercise may increase the potential risk of inducing renal artery stenosis and renal complications for AAA patients. This finding could help elucidate the mechanism of renal artery stenosis and renal complications after EVAR and warn us to reconsider the management and nursing care of AAA patients. PMID:25946196

  5. Endovascular repair of popliteal artery aneurysms: techniques, current evidence and recent experience.

    PubMed

    Siauw, Ray; Koh, Eng H; Walker, Stuart R

    2006-06-01

    Endovascular repair of popliteal artery aneurysms is a new technique, which has emerged as an alternative to open surgical bypass. However, evidence to support its use is limited. We present a review of current literature relevant to this technique. The MEDLINE search terms were popliteal artery, aneurysm, endovascular, endoluminal and stent. Fifty-eight articles were yielded, of which 21 were studies of endovascular repair by implantation of stent or stent graft of true aneurysms of the popliteal artery. There was only one randomized study. Small numbers of endovascular interventions are reported, with variations in study design and endovascular techniques. Long-term follow-up data is lacking; however, early results have been promising with high rates of initial treatment success. Early thrombosis of stent grafts occurs in approximately 10%, but this does not herald limb loss. Endovascular treatment offers potential benefits over traditional surgery, but needs to be studied further with a large-scale multicentre randomized trial. PMID:16768779

  6. Clinical, Laboratory, and Imaging Characteristics of Transient Ischemic Attack Caused by Large Artery Lesions: A Comparison between Carotid and Intracranial Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Uehara, Toshiyuki; Ohara, Tomoyuki; Toyoda, Kazunori; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki; Minematsu, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The aims of this study were to determine the differences in clinical characteristics and the risk of ischemic stroke between patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) attributable to extracranial carotid and intracranial artery occlusive lesions. Methods Among 445 patients admitted to our stroke care unit within 48 h of TIA onset between April 2008 and December 2013, 85 patients (63 men, mean age 69.4 years) with large artery occlusive lesions relevant to symptoms were included in this study. The primary endpoints were ischemic stroke at 2 and 90 days after TIA onset. Results Twenty-eight patients had carotid artery occlusive lesions (extracranial group), and 57 patients had intracranial artery occlusive lesions (intracranial group). Patients in the intracranial group were significantly younger, had lower levels of fibrinogen, and were less likely to have occlusion when compared with those in the extracranial group. Eleven patients in the extracranial group and none in the intracranial group underwent revascularization procedures within 90 days of TIA onset. The 2-day risk (14.2 vs. 0%, p = 0.044) and the 90-day risk (17.1 vs. 0%, p = 0.020) of ischemic stroke after TIA onset were significantly higher in the intracranial group than in the extracranial group. Conclusions Among our patients with TIA caused by large artery disease, patients with intracranial artery occlusive lesions were more frequent and were at higher risk of early ischemic stroke than those with extracranial carotid artery occlusive lesions. These data highlight the importance of prompt assessment of intracranial artery lesions in patients with TIA.

  7. Comparison of biological properties of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells from early and late passages: Immunomodulatory ability is enhanced in aged cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHUANG, YONG; LI, DONG; FU, JINQIU; SHI, QING; LU, YUANYUAN; JU, XIULI

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a potential source of adult stem cells for cell-based therapeutics due to their substantial multilineage differentiation capacity and secretory functions. No information is presently available regarding the maintenance of immunosuppressive properties of this cell type with repeated passages. It was therefore the aim of the present study to analyze the biological properties, particularly the immunoregulatory effect, of MSCs from late passages. The differences between young and old MSCs in morphology, cell surface antigen phenotype, proliferation, gene expression and immunomodulatory ability were investigated. The results of the current study demonstrated that with the passage of cells, senescent MSCs displayed a characteristically enlarged and flattened morphology, different gene expression profiles and stronger immunosuppressive activities. Increased interleukin-6 production may be a possible underlying mechanism for this enhanced immunomodulatory ability of MSCs. These findings suggest that aged MSCs may provide a treatment option for patients with graft versus host disease and other diseases associated with dysregulation of the immune system. PMID:25339265

  8. Exercise Training and Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Tara L.; Lloyd, Pamela G.; Yang, Hsiao-Tung; Terjung, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common vascular disease that reduces blood flow capacity to the legs of patients. PAD leads to exercise intolerance that can progress in severity to greatly limit mobility, and in advanced cases leads to frank ischemia with pain at rest. It is estimated that 12–15 million people in the United States are diagnosed with PAD, with a much larger population that is undiagnosed. The presence of PAD predicts a 50–1500% increase in morbidity and mortality, depending on severity. Treatment of patients with PAD is limited to modification of cardiovascular disease risk factors, pharmacological intervention, surgery, and exercise therapy. Extended exercise programs that involve walking ~5 times/wk, at a significant intensity that requires frequent rest periods, are most significant. Pre-clinical studies and virtually all clinical trials demonstrate the benefits of exercise therapy, including: improved walking tolerance, modified inflammatory/hemostatic markers, enhanced vasoresponsiveness, adaptations within the limb (angiogenesis, arteriogenesis, mitochondrial synthesis) that enhance oxygen delivery and metabolic responses, potentially delayed progression of the disease, enhanced quality of life indices, and extended longevity. A synthesis is provided as to how these adaptations can develop in the context of our current state of knowledge and events known to be orchestrated by exercise. The benefits are so compelling that exercise prescription should be an essential option presented to patients with PAD in the absence of contraindications. Obviously, selecting for a life style pattern, that includes enhanced physical activity prior to the advance of PAD limitations, is the most desirable and beneficial. PMID:23720270

  9. The enhanced expression of IL-17-secreting T cells during the early progression of atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice fed on a western-type diet

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Un Sil; Choi, Jun-Pyo; Kim, You-Sun; Ryu, Sung-Ho; Kim, Yoon-Keun

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic progressive inflammatory disorder and the leading cause of cardiovascular mortality. Here we assessed the dynamic changes of T-cell-derived cytokines, such as inteferon (IFN)-?, interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-4, during the progression of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-null (ApoE?/?) mice, to understand the role of immune responses in different stages of atherosclerosis. Male ApoE?/? mice were fed a high-fat, western-type diet (WD: 21% lipid, 1.5% cholesterol) after 5 weeks of age and were compared with C57BL/6 wild-type control mice fed a standard chow diet. Atherosclerotic lesions appeared in the aortic sinus of ApoE?/? mice 4 weeks after WD and the lesions progressed and occupied >50% of the total sinus area 16 weeks after WD. Aortic IL-17 mRNA and protein expression started to increase in ApoE?/? mice after 4 weeks on the WD and peaked at around 8–12 weeks on the WD. In terms of systemic expression of T-cell-derived cytokines, IL-17 production from splenocytes after anti-CD3/CD28 stimuli increased from 4 weeks on the WD, peaked at 12 weeks and returned to control levels at 16 weeks. The production of IFN-? and IL-4 (Th1 and Th2 cytokines, respectively) from splenocytes was delayed compared with IL-17. Taken together, the present data indicate that Th17 cell response may be involved at an early stage in the development of atherosclerosis. PMID:25976521

  10. Compliant transducer measures artery profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldstein, C.; Culler, V. H.; Crawford, D. W.; Spears, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Instrument consisting of compliant fingers with attached semiconductor pickups measures inside contours of narrow vessels. Instrument, originally designed to monitor human arteries, is drawn through vessel to allow finges to follow contours. Lead wires transmit electrical signals to external processing equipment.

  11. Bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of the left internal mammary artery graft to the anterior descending coronary artery as a surgical strategy has been shown to improve the survival rate and decrease the risk of adverse cardiac events in patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery. These clinical benefits appear to be related to the superior short and long-term patency rates of the internal thoracic artery graft. Although the advantages of using of both internal thoracic arteries (ITA) for bypass grafting have taken longer to prove, recent results from multiple data sets now support these findings. The major advantage of bilateral ITA grafting appears to be improved survival rate, while the disadvantages of complex ITA grafting include the increased complexity of operation, and an increased risk of wound complications. While these short-term disadvantages have been mitigated in contemporary surgical practice, they have not eliminated. Bilateral ITA grafting should be considered the procedure of choice for patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery that have a predicted survival rate of longer than ten years. PMID:23977627

  12. Engineering of arteries in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Angela H.; Niklason, Laura E.

    2014-01-01

    This review will focus on two elements that are essential for functional arterial regeneration in vitro: the mechanical environment and the bioreactors used for tissue growth. The importance of the mechanical environment to embryological development, vascular functionality, and vascular graft regeneration will be discussed. Bioreactors generate mechanical stimuli to simulate the biomechanical environment of the arterial system. This system has been used to reconstruct arterial grafts with appropriate mechanical strength for implantation by controlling the chemical and mechanical environments in which the grafts are grown. Bioreactors are powerful tools to study the effect of mechanical stimuli on extracellular matrix (ECM) architecture and the mechanical properties of engineered vessels. Hence biomimetic systems enable us to optimize chemo-biomechanical culture conditions to regenerate engineered vessels with physiological properties similar to those of native arterial vessels. In addition, this review will introduce and examine various approaches and techniques that have been used to engineer biologically-based vascular grafts, including collagen-based grafts, fibrin-gel grafts, cell sheet engineering, biodegradable polymers, and decellularization of native vessels. PMID:24399290

  13. Capsaicin and arterial hypertensive crisis.

    PubMed

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; La Rosa, Felice Carmelo; La Rocca, Roberto

    2010-10-01

    Chili peppers are rich in capsaicin. The potent vasodilator calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is stored in a population of C-fiber afferents that are sensitive to capsaicin. CGRP and peptides released from cardiac C fibers have a beneficial effect in myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. It has been reported that capsaicin pretreatment can deplete cardiac C-fiber peptide stores. Furthermore, it has also been reported that capsaicin-treated pigs have significantly increased mean arterial blood pressure compared with controls, and that the decrease in CGRP synthesis and release contributes to the elevated blood pressure. A case has also been reported of an arterial hypertensive crisis in a patient with a large ingestion of peppers and chili peppers the day before. We present a case of an arterial hypertensive crisis in a 19-year-old Italian man with an abundant ingestion of peppers and of chili peppers the preceding day. This case describes an unusual pattern of arterial hypertensive crisis due to capsaicin. PMID:19168246

  14. Abdominal arteries recognition in x-ray using a structural model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nempont, Olivier; Florent, Raoul

    2010-03-01

    The automatic recognition of vascular trees is a challenging task, required for roadmapping or advanced visualization. For instance, during an endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), the recognition of abdominal arteries in angiograms can be used to select the appropriate stent graft. This choice is based on a reduced set of arteries (aorta, renal arteries, iliac arteries) whose relative positions are quite stable. We propose in this article a recognition process based on a structural model. The centerlines of the target vessels are represented by a set of control points whose relative positions are constrained. To find their position in an angiogram, we enhance the target vessels and extract a set of possible positions for each control point. Then, a constraint propagation algorithm based on the model prunes those sets of candidates, removing inconsistent ones. We present preliminary results on 5 cases, illustrating the potential of this approach and especially its ability to handle the high variability of the target vessels.

  15. Lower limb ischaemic symptoms in the young patient: popliteal artery entrapment.

    PubMed

    Roy, S; Vohra, R; Duddy, M; Tiwari, A

    2012-12-01

    This case report describes a case of Popliteal Entrapment Syndrome causing unilateral ischaemic claudication symptoms in an otherwise healthy soldier. The condition is rare but is an important cause of exercise related leg pain; untreated it can progress to structural arterial damage requiring reconstruction. Early identification of such cases may allow less invasive treatment. PMID:23402071

  16. Experimental evidence of the compressibility of arteries.

    PubMed

    Yosibash, Zohar; Manor, Itay; Gilad, Ilan; Willentz, Udi

    2014-11-01

    A definitive answer to the question whether artery walls are incompressible is to our opinion not yet categorically provided. Experimental-based evidence on the level of compressibility in artery walls is not easily achieved because of the difficulties associated with the measurement of very small differences in volumes under physiological pressure in these biological tissues. Past experiments aimed at addressing the question considered different species, different arteries, the experimental devices were not accurate enough and a statistical analysis of the results was missing. A precise experimental device together with a thorough testing protocol, a careful selection of arteries and a statistical analysis is presented for a definitive evaluation of the artery wall compressibility. We provide experimental evidence that in saphenous and femoral porcine arteries under physiological pressure range a relative compressibility of 2-6% is observed. The pre-assumption of incompressibility in many phenomenological constitutive models of artery walls should probably be re-evaluated. PMID:25173235

  17. Compressive pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm associated with celiac artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Wattez, Hélène; Lancelevée, Julien; Perot, Céline; Massouille, David; Chambon, Jean-Pierre

    2013-11-01

    Peripancreatic artery aneurysms are a rare condition, representing <2% of all splanchnic artery aneurysms, and have been significantly related to celiac axis stenosis. While they are most often asymptomatic, those aneurysms have a strong tendency to rupture (52% rupture rate at the initial presentation) and, in this case, the outcome is often dramatic. Given that reports of this disease are rare, appropriate guidelines are difficult to formulate and different treatment strategies have been proposed. Endovascular management seems to be efficient in the large majority of most recent reports, but open surgery still remains necessary for complex cases, especially when associated with celiac axis stenosis. We report a new occurrence of a symptomatic compressive aneurysm related to common bile duct compression that we treated using a hybrid procedure. PMID:23988551

  18. Pelvic arteriovenous malformation treated by transarterial glue embolisation combining proximal balloon occlusion and devascularisation of multiple feeding arteries.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kenji; Yamada, Takayuki; Kumano, Reiko; Nakajima, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of a 70-year-old man with abdominal aortic aneurysm and coincident pelvic arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Before the operation for the aneurysm, we embolised the pelvic AVM that had multiple feeding arteries and an aneurysmal-dilated draining vein. After decreasing the number of the feeding arteries by coil embolisation, an n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate/lipiodol mixture (1:1) was injected into the prominent feeding artery and nidus with proximal balloon occlusion of the right internal iliac artery to decrease the flow to the nidus. The mixture (1:4-8) was also added for the finer feeding arteries that became apparent after the initial procedure to embolise the rest of the nidus. A follow-up study showed no contrast enhancement of the nidus and aneurysmal draining vein. PMID:24907213

  19. Pulmonary Arterial Stent Implantation in an Adult with Williams Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Reesink, Herre J.; Henneman, Onno D. F.; Delden, Otto M. van; Biervliet, Jules D.; Kloek, Jaap J.; Reekers, Jim A.; Bresser, Paul

    2007-07-15

    We report a 38-year-old patient who presented with pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular dysfunction due to pulmonary artery stenoses as a manifestation of Williams syndrome, mimicking chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. The patient was treated with balloon angioplasty and stent implantation. Short-term follow-up showed a good clinical result with excellent patency of the stents but early restenosis of the segments in which only balloon angioplasty was performed. These stenoses were subsequently also treated successfully by stent implantation. Stent patency was observed 3 years after the first procedure.

  20. Traumatic aneurysm of the occipital artery secondary to paintball injury.

    PubMed

    John, Neely; Leach, James L; Rachana, Tyagi; Mangano, Francesco T

    2009-01-01

    Paintball is an "extreme sport" that has been steadily growing in popularity since the early 1980s. Although this activity is considered recreational, there are a number of inherent dangers associated. Most notably, the number of head and neck injuries due to paintball participation has been increasing in recent years. In this paper we present the first reported case of occipital artery traumatic pseudoaneurysm resulting from a paintball accident. The presentation, diagnosis and intraoperative findings are detailed. A discussion including a review of the literature is also presented. The authors recommend a re-evaluation of guidelines within the paintball sporting industry, including improvements in protective equipment. PMID:18922630

  1. TAP-Stenting Technique for Bifurcation Stenosis of Celiac Artery.

    PubMed

    Colkesen, Yucel; Seker, Taner; Kuloglu, Osman; Çayli, Murat

    2015-01-01

    We report a clinical course of a patient who developed severe ischemic liver injury and total occlusion of the celiac artery (CA). A 40-year-old man presented with abdominal pain. Computed tomography indicated total occlusion of the CA. Laboratory data demonstrated markedly elevated hepatic enzymes. An exploratory laparotomy was not necessitated due to absence of peritonism. The patient was successfully treated by endovascular recanalization of the CA occlusion via transcatheter balloon angioplasty and TAP-stenting (T-stenting and small protrusion) technique. Endovascular intervention in patients solely with liver failure appears practicable and early treatment is advised. PMID:25815240

  2. TAP-Stenting Technique for Bifurcation Stenosis of Celiac Artery

    PubMed Central

    Colkesen, Yucel; Seker, Taner; Kuloglu, Osman; Çayli, Murat

    2015-01-01

    We report a clinical course of a patient who developed severe ischemic liver injury and total occlusion of the celiac artery (CA). A 40-year-old man presented with abdominal pain. Computed tomography indicated total occlusion of the CA. Laboratory data demonstrated markedly elevated hepatic enzymes. An exploratory laparotomy was not necessitated due to absence of peritonism. The patient was successfully treated by endovascular recanalization of the CA occlusion via transcatheter balloon angioplasty and TAP-stenting (T-stenting and small protrusion) technique. Endovascular intervention in patients solely with liver failure appears practicable and early treatment is advised. PMID:25815240

  3. Celiac artery dissection seen with ruptured pancreaticoduodenal arcade aneurysms in two cases of celiac artery stenosis from compression by median arcuate ligament.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Akiko; Kohtake, Hiroshi; Furui, Shigeru; Takeshita, Koji; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Morita, Satoru

    2012-10-01

    We report two cases of ruptured pancreaticoduodenal arcade aneurysms that were successfully treated by embolotherapy. In these cases, contrast-enhanced computed tomography, sagittal reformed images, and angiography revealed celiac artery stenoses due to compression by the median arcuate ligament. Computed tomography also showed acute localized dissection in the distal celiac axis, suggesting that aneurysmal rupture had occurred immediately after development of the dissection. When unruptured pancreaticoduodenal arcade aneurysms are identified in the context of celiac artery dissection, the possibility of rupture may be high and requires strict observation and consideration of embolotherapy. PMID:22795523

  4. Aberrant Ovarian Collateral Originating from External Iliac Artery During Uterine Artery Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Joon Ho; Kim, Man Deuk Lee, Kwang-hun; Lee, Myungsu; Lee, Mu Sook; Won, Jong Yun; Park, Sung Il; Lee, Do Yun

    2013-02-15

    We report a case of a 35-year-old woman who underwent uterine artery embolization (UAE) for symptomatic multiple uterine fibroids with collateral aberrant right ovarian artery that originated from the right external iliac artery. We believe that this is the first reported case in the literature of this collateral uterine flow by the right ovarian artery originated from the right external iliac artery. We briefly present the details of the case and review the literature on variations of ovarian artery origin that might be encountered during UAE.

  5. Type I persistent proatlantal artery associated with fusiform subclavian artery aneurysm: Report of one case.

    PubMed

    Buljan, Krunoslav; Hegeduš, Ivana; Gilman Kuric, Tihana; Salha, Tamer; Tomi?, Svetlana; Butkovi? Soldo, Silva; Buljan, Vesna; Šoši?, ?ur?ica

    2015-08-01

    We report a 61 years old male presenting with a right cerebral infarction, along with a type I persistent left proatlantal artery (PA), which is a form of primitive carotid-basilar anastomosis. The patient had an absence of the ipsilateral vertebral artery (VA) and hypoplasia of the contralateral VA, while the basilar artery was supplied by the PA. Other vascular anomalies present were a fusiform aneurysm of the right subclavian artery, and an A1 segment aplasia of the hypoplastic anterior right cerebral artery, which originated from the anterior communicating artery. To our knowledge these anomalies were not described previously. PMID:26436940

  6. Emerging paradigms in arterial thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Wisler, James W; Becker, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    A traditional perspective of arterial thrombosis begins with vessel wall injury and exposure of subendothelial proteins, including collagen and tissue factor, to circulating cellular and non-cellular components. Adhesion and activation of platelets, mediated by their interaction with von Willebrand protein and collagen, respectively, coupled with tissue factor-mediated activation of coagulation proteins, results in thrombin generation and fibrin formation. While this time-honored paradigm remains firm and soundly based, emerging evidence suggests that arterial thrombosis is much more complex and dynamic than originally believed. Several novel triggers, templates and facilitators, such as cell-free nucleic acids, histones, DNA-histone complexes, polyphosphates, and microvesicles have recently been identified and require inclusion in the expanding universe of thrombosis as a dominant phenotype of human disease. Because these mediators appear to have modest if any effect on physiologic hemostasis, they likely represent acquired and disease or condition-dependent processes that are highly attractive targets for pharmacologic intervention. PMID:24046067

  7. Particle transport near arterial stenosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendabadi, Sahar; Shadden, Shawn

    2010-11-01

    We will present work towards understanding particle transport near arterial stenoses. Prior studies have shown increased platelet aggregation downstream of stenosis, or analogous geometrical models that induce flow separation and recirculation via abrupt expansion. Stenosis leads to changes in fluid mechanical quantities such as shear stress, flow separation, recirculation and reattachment and there exists several hypotheses on how these conditions influence platelet activation and aggregation. In particular, it is thought that high shear at the stenotic throat "activates" platelets that subsequently aggregate in the low shear separation zone perpetuating thrombotic events. We aim to understand particle (e.g. platelet) transport downstream of a stenosis in close detail. Towards this objective, we have developed numerical models of pulsatile flow near arterial stenoses and methods for particle tracking, including quantification of mechanical stimuli thought to initiate platelet activation. We will discuss results of this effort, comparison with previous studies, and plans for continued numerical and experimental work.

  8. Temporary Arterial Balloon Occlusion as an Adjunct to Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    SciTech Connect

    Hagspiel, Klaus D.; Nambiar, Ashwin; Hagspiel, Lauren M.; Ahmad, Ehab Ali; Bozlar, Ugur

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. This study was designed to describe the technique of arterial occlusion using a temporary occlusion balloon system as an alternative to coil occlusion during Yttrium-90 radioembolization of hepatic tumors. Methods. Review of charts, angiography, and follow-up imaging studies of consecutive patients undergoing oncological embolization procedures in which a HyperForm system (ev3 Neurovascular, Irvine, CA) was used. Intraprocedural target vessel occlusion and patency of the target vessel on follow-up were recorded. Clinical data and Bremsstrahlung scans were reviewed for evidence of nontarget embolization. Results. Four radioembolization procedures were performed in three patients (all female, age 48-54 (mean 52) years). Five arteries were temporarily occluded (three gastroduodenal arteries, one right gastric artery, and one cystic artery). All radioembolization procedures were successfully completed. Follow-up imaging (either digital subtraction angiography (DSA) or computed tomography angiography (CTA)) was available for all patients between 28-454 (mean 183) days following the procedure, demonstrating all five vessels to be patent. No clinical or imaging evidence for nontarget embolization was found. Conclusions. Temporary balloon occlusion of small and medium-sized arteries during radioembolization allows safe therapy with preserved postprocedural vessel patency on early and midterm follow-up.

  9. Brachiocephalic Artery Cannulation in Proximal Aortic Surgery that Requires Circulatory Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Unal, Mehmet; Akar, Ilker; Ince, Ilker; Aslan, Cemal; Koc, Fatih; Kafali, Haluk

    2014-01-01

    The brachiocephalic artery is an alternative cannulation site in the repair of ascending aortic lesions that require circulatory arrest. We evaluate the effectiveness and safety of this technique. Proximal aortic surgery was performed in 32 patients from 2006 through 2012 via brachiocephalic artery cannulation and circulatory arrest. Twenty-four (75%) of the patients were men. The mean age was 48.69 ± 9.43 years (range, 30–68 yr). Twelve had type I dissection, 2 had type II dissection, and 18 had true aneurysms of the ascending aorta. All operations were performed through a median sternotomy. The arterial cannula was inserted through an 8-mm vascular graft anastomosed to the brachiocephalic artery in an end-to-side fashion. In dissections, the distal anastomosis was performed without clamping the aorta. The patients were cooled to 24 °C, and circulatory arrest was established. The brachiocephalic and left carotid arteries were clamped, and antegrade cerebral perfusion was started at a rate of 10 mL/kg/min. Cardiopulmonary bypass was resumed after completion of the distal anastomosis and the initiation of rewarming. The proximal anastomosis was then performed. None of the patients sustained a major neurologic deficit, but 5 patients experienced transient postoperative agitation (<24 hr). There were 2 early deaths (6.25%), on the 3rd and the 11th postoperative days, both unrelated to the cannulation technique. Brachiocephalic artery cannulation through a graft can be a safe and effective technique in proximal aortic surgical procedures that require circulatory arrest. PMID:25593522

  10. Accumulation of intimal platelets in cerebral arteries following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in cats

    SciTech Connect

    Haining, J.L.; Clower, B.R.; Honma, Y.; Smith, R.R.

    1988-07-01

    From 2 hours to 23 days following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage, the accumulation of indium-111-labeled platelets on the intimal surface of the middle cerebral artery was studied in 23 cats. Subarachnoid hemorrhage was produced by transorbital rupture of the right middle cerebral artery. Of the 23 cats, 17 exhibited right middle cerebral artery/left middle cerebral artery radioactivity ratios of greater than 1.25. When these results were compared with those of 12 control cats, 0.001 less than p less than 0.005 (chi2 test). Thus, the results from the control and experimental groups are significantly different and indicate early (after 2 hours) preferential accumulation of intimal platelets in the ruptured right middle cerebral artery compared with the unruptured left middle cerebral artery and new platelet deposition continuing for up to 23 days. However, the experimental group did not reveal a clear pattern for platelet accumulation following subarachnoid hemorrhage. There was no simple correlation between the magnitude of the radioactivity ratios and the time after hemorrhage when the cats were killed although the ratios for 2 hours to 7 days seemed greater than those for 8 to 23 days. Assuming the pivotal role of platelets in the angiopathy of subarachnoid hemorrhage, the administration of antiplatelet agents as soon as possible following its occurrence may be of value.

  11. A new radial strain and strain rate estimation method using autocorrelation for carotid artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jihui; Kim, Hoonmin; Park, Jongho; Yeo, Sunmi; Shim, Hwan; Lim, Hyungjoon; Yoo, Yangmo

    2014-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease. The early diagnosis of atherosclerosis is of clinical interest since it can prevent any adverse effects of atherosclerotic vascular diseases. In this paper, a new carotid artery radial strain estimation method based on autocorrelation is presented. In the proposed method, the strain is first estimated by the autocorrelation of two complex signals from the consecutive frames. Then, the angular phase from autocorrelation is converted to strain and strain rate and they are analyzed over time. In addition, a 2D strain image over region of interest in a carotid artery can be displayed. To evaluate the feasibility of the proposed radial strain estimation method, radiofrequency (RF) data of 408 frames in the carotid artery of a volunteer were acquired by a commercial ultrasound system equipped with a research package (V10, Samsung Medison, Korea) by using a L5-13IS linear array transducer. From in vivo carotid artery data, the mean strain estimate was -0.1372 while its minimum and maximum values were -2.961 and 0.909, respectively. Moreover, the overall strain estimates are highly correlated with the reconstructed M-mode trace. Similar results were obtained from the estimation of the strain rate change over time. These results indicate that the proposed carotid artery radial strain estimation method is useful for assessing the arterial wall's stiffness noninvasively without increasing the computational complexity.

  12. Assessment of conduit artery vasomotion using photoplethysmography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanders, Karlis; Grabovskis, Andris; Marcinkevics, Zbignevs; Aivars, Juris Imants

    2013-11-01

    Vasomotion is a spontaneous oscillation of vascular tone. The phenomenon has been observed in small arterioles and capillaries as well as in the large conduit arteries. The layer of smooth muscle cells that surrounds a blood vessel can spontaneously and periodically change its tension and thereby the arterial wall stiffness also changes. As the understanding of the phenomenon is still rather obscure, researchers would benefit from a low-cost and reliable investigation technique such as photoplethysmography (PPG). PPG is an optical blood pulsation measurement technique that can offer substantial information about the arterial stiffness. The aims of this pilot study were to evaluate the usefulness of the PPG technique in the research of vasomotion and to investigate vasomotion in the relatively large conduit arteries. Continuous 15 minute long measurements of posterior tibial artery wall stiffness were taken. Artery diameter, electrocardiogram, blood pressure and respiration were also simultaneously registered. Fast Fourier Transform power spectra were calculated to identify unique stiffness oscillations that did not correspond to fluctuations in the systemic parameters and thus would indicate vasomotion. We concluded that photoplethysmography is a convenient method for the research of the vasomotion in large arteries. Local stiffness parameter b/a is more accurate to use and easier to measure than the pulse wave velocity which describes stiffness of a segment of an artery. Conduit arteries might exhibit a low amplitude high frequency vasomotion ( 9 to 27 cycles per minute). Low frequency vasomotion is problematic to distinguish from the passive oscillations imposed by the arterial pressure.

  13. Arterial Distensibility in Chronic Inflammatory Rheumatic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    The pulse wave velocity (PWV), as an indicator of arterial distensibility, may play an important role in the stratification of patients based on the cardiovascular risk. PWV inversely correlates with arterial distensibility and relative arterial compliance. Decreased arterial distensibility alters arterial blood pressure and flow dynamics, and disturbes coronary perfusion. Systemic immune and inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, predominantly due to adverse cardiovascular events. Systemic inflammation in these disorders may alter arterial compliance and arterial distensibility and, through this effect, lead to accelerated atherosclerosis. We have demonstrated an increase in the carotid-femoral (aortic) PWV that is a technique in which large artery elasticity is assessed from analysis of the peripheral arterial waveform, in patients with chronic inflammatory conditions such as RA, SLE, familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), Wegener’s granulomatosis (WG), sarcoidosis, psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis except Behçet’s disease (BD). In this review, the issue of arterial stiffness in RA, SLE, as well as WG, psoriasis, FMF, BD, sarcoidosis, systemic sclerosis (SS) and Takayasu's arteritis (TA) is overviewed. PMID:20461114

  14. Polylith - the early goals

    SciTech Connect

    Purtilo, J.M.

    1985-04-01

    The system Polylith is a language-domain independent module inter-connection grammar, together with an enhanced set of execution time services and assistance from a collection of expert tools. This report summarizes some of the early ambitions for the Polylith as held by its author; it draws upon many internal documents written during the specification phase of our system's development. It is the author's intent to coalesce this material for rapid dissemination throughout the UIUC community.

  15. Ultrasonic Imaging Of Deep Arteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rooney, James A.; Heyser, Richard C.; Lecroissette, Dennis H.

    1990-01-01

    Swept-frequency sound replaces pulsed sound. Ultrasonic medical instrument produces images of peripheral and coronary arteries with resolutions higher and at depths greater than attainable by previous ultrasonic systems. Time-delay-spectrometry imager includes scanning, image-processing, and displaying equipment. It sweeps in frequency from 0 to 10 MHz in 20 ms, pauses for 5 ms, and repeats sweep. Intended for use in noninvasive detection and measurement of atherosclerotic lesions.

  16. Arterial closure devices. A review.

    PubMed

    Madigan, J B; Ratnam, L A; Belli, A M

    2007-10-01

    The use of arterial closure devices in achieving haemostasis following arterial puncture has become increasingly popular. This review aims to provide an overview of the currently available closure devices, with an up-to-date summary of the supporting literature. The various devices have their advantages and disadvantages as well as differing mechanisms of actions. Technical aspects of deployment affect the learning curve and ease of use of individual devices. Some complications that arise are device specific where others are related to arterial punctures in general. When choosing a device, all these factors should be taken into account as well as differing clinical requirements and priorities. Most studies of arterial closure devices that are currently in use conclude that the safety profile of closure devices is comparable to manual compression. The literature does not show superiority of any particular device. Caution is advised in extrapolating evidence based on differing patient groups, as many of the study populations are heterogeneous. As physicians become more familiar with the use of closure devices, off-label applications of some devices have emerged, some of which need further evaluation. The ideal closure device should reduce complication rates compared to manual compression, be easy to use with a short learning curve, and have a high rate of deployment success. It should also be usable across a wide range of sheath sizes, not leave any permanent foreign body behind, reduce time to haemostasis and ambulation, allow immediate repuncture, improve patient comfort and be cost effective. In spite of the wide range of devices currently available there remains room for improvement. PMID:17989631

  17. Association of Peripheral Arterial and Cardiovascular Diseases in Familial Hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Carolina; Miname, Marcio; Makdisse, Marcia; Kalil, Roberto; Santos, Raul D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant genetic disease characterized by an elevation in the serum levels of total cholesterol and of low-density lipoproteins (LDL- c). Known to be closely related to the atherosclerotic process, FH can determine the development of early obstructive lesions in different arterial beds. In this context, FH has also been proposed to be a risk factor for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Objective This observational cross-sectional study assessed the association of PAD with other manifestations of cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as coronary artery and cerebrovascular disease, in patients with heterozygous FH. Methods The diagnosis of PAD was established by ankle-brachial index (ABI) values ? 0.90. This study assessed 202 patients (35% of men) with heterozygous FH (90.6% with LDL receptor mutations), mean age of 51 ± 14 years and total cholesterol levels of 342 ± 86 mg /dL. Results The prevalences of PAD and previous CVD were 17% and 28.2 %, respectively. On multivariate analysis, an independent association between CVD and the diagnosis of PAD was observed (OR = 2.50; 95% CI: 1.004 - 6.230; p = 0.049). Conclusion Systematic screening for PAD by use of ABI is feasible to assess patients with FH, and it might indicate an increased risk for CVD. However, further studies are required to determine the role of ABI as a tool to assess the cardiovascular risk of those patients. PMID:25029472

  18. Coronary artery calcification in chronic kidney disease: An update

    PubMed Central

    Stompór, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Arterial calcification is a well-recognized complication of advanced atherosclerosis. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by significantly more pronounced, disseminated and fast-progressing calcification of the vascular system, including the coronary arteries. New computed tomography-based imaging techniques allow for the noninvasive assessment and monitoring of calcification in different vascular sites. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) develops early in the course of CKD and is tightly associated with mineral and bone disorders, which include but are not limited to secondary hyperparathyroidism. In this review, recent data on the pathogenesis of CAC development and progression are discussed, with a special emphasis on fibroblast growth factor 23 and its co-receptor, klotho. The prevalence, progression and prognostic significance of CAC are reviewed separately for patients with end-stage renal disease treated with dialysis, kidney transplant recipients and patients with earlier stages of CKD. In the last section, therapeutic considerations are discussed, with special attention paid to the importance of treatment that addresses mineral and bone disorders of CKD. PMID:24772252

  19. Coronary artery calcification in chronic kidney disease: An update.

    PubMed

    Stompór, Tomasz

    2014-04-26

    Arterial calcification is a well-recognized complication of advanced atherosclerosis. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by significantly more pronounced, disseminated and fast-progressing calcification of the vascular system, including the coronary arteries. New computed tomography-based imaging techniques allow for the noninvasive assessment and monitoring of calcification in different vascular sites. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) develops early in the course of CKD and is tightly associated with mineral and bone disorders, which include but are not limited to secondary hyperparathyroidism. In this review, recent data on the pathogenesis of CAC development and progression are discussed, with a special emphasis on fibroblast growth factor 23 and its co-receptor, klotho. The prevalence, progression and prognostic significance of CAC are reviewed separately for patients with end-stage renal disease treated with dialysis, kidney transplant recipients and patients with earlier stages of CKD. In the last section, therapeutic considerations are discussed, with special attention paid to the importance of treatment that addresses mineral and bone disorders of CKD. PMID:24772252

  20. Coronary artery disease in women.

    PubMed Central

    Chiamvimonvat, V.; Sternberg, L.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review and recognize how presentation, investigation, risk factor modification, and treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD) is different for women than for men. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiologic data are from well-recognized, peer-reviewed medical journals. Most data on treatment are from randomized controlled trials. MAIN FINDINGS: Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality in women, with incidence after menopause equal to that of men. Diabetes and postmenopausal status without hormone replacement therapy are the strongest risk factors. Women with CAD are more likely to have atypical symptoms, including nonexertional chest pain; pain in other locations, such as jaw, arms, shoulder, back, and epigastrium; and angina-equivalents, such as dyspnea, palpitations, and presyncope. Because women have atypical symptoms, physicians should maintain a high level of suspicion. Although newer nonivasive stress imaging modalities provide greater diagnostic accuracy than traditional exercise stress testing, the tests are still less accurate for women. A safe and cost-effective approach to investigation can be guided by clinical likelihood for CAD based on patients' age, chest pain quality, and risk factors. Treatment and preventive strategies are generally similar for women and men. CONCLUSION: Coronary artery disease is a serious cause of morbidity and mortality in women and will continue to gain importance as women's life expectancy increases. Important differences in presentation, risk factors, investigation, and treatment of women exist and should be recognized. PMID:9870124