Sample records for early bone formation

  1. Bisphosphonate treatment of type I diabetic mice prevents early bone loss but accentuates suppression of bone formation.

    PubMed

    Coe, Lindsay M; Tekalur, Srinivasan Arjun; Shu, Yutian; Baumann, Melissa J; McCabe, Laura R

    2015-08-01

    Type I (T1) diabetes is an autoimmune and metabolic disease associated with bone loss. Previous studies demonstrate that T1-diabetes decreases osteoblast activity and viability. Bisphosphonate therapy, commonly used to treat osteoporosis, is demonstrated to inhibit osteoclast activity as well as osteoblast apoptosis. Therefore, we examined the effect of weekly alendronate treatments on T1-diabetes induced osteoblast apoptosis and bone loss. Bone TUNEL assays identified that alendronate therapy prevents the diabetes-induced osteoblast death observed during early stages of diabetes development. Consistent with this, alendronate treatment for 40 days was able to prevent diabetes-induced trabecular bone loss. Alendronate was also able to reduce marrow adiposity in both control diabetic mice compared to untreated mice. Mechanical testing indicated that 40 days of alendronate treatment increased bone stiffness but decreased the work required for fracture in T1-diabetic and alendronate treated mice. Of concern at this later time point, bone formation rate and osteoblast markers, which were already decreased in diabetic mice, were further suppressed in alendronate-treated diabetic mice. Taken together, our results suggest that short-term alendronate treatment can prevent T1-diabetes-induced bone loss in mice, possibly in part by inhibiting diabetes onset associated osteoblast death, while longer treatment enhanced bone density but at the cost of further suppressing bone formation in diabetic mice. J. Cell. Physiol. 230: 1944-1953, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25641511

  2. The effect of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals on early bone formation surrounding dental implants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Svanborg; M. Hoffman; M. Andersson; F. Currie; P. Kjellin; A. Wennerberg

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge of how nanostructures might affect early bone healing and osseointegration is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate if nanometer thick coatings of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals applied on a moderately rough surface might enhance early bone healing on screw-shaped dental implants and to evaluate if the thickness of the coat influences healing. Sandblasted and acid etched titanium

  3. Ameloblastin expression and putative autoregulation in mesenchymal cells suggest a role in early bone formation and repair

    PubMed Central

    Tamburstuen, Margareth V.; Reseland, Janne E.; Spahr, Axel; Brookes, Steven J.; Kvalheim, Gunnar; Slaby, Ivan; Snead, Malcolm L.; Lyngstadaas, S. Petter

    2015-01-01

    Ameloblastin is mainly known as a dental enamel protein, synthesized and secreted into developing enamel matrix by the enamel-forming ameloblasts. The function of ameloblastin in tooth development remains unclear, but it has been suggested to be involved in processes varying from regulating crystal growth to activity as a growth factor or partaking in cell signaling. Recent studies suggest that some enamel matrix proteins also might have important functions outside enamel formation. In this context ameloblastin has recently been reported to induce dentin and bone repair, as well as being present in the early bone and cartilage extracellular matrices during embryogenesis. However, what cells express ameloblastin in these tissues still remain unclear. Thus, the expression of ameloblastin was examined in cultured primary mesenchymal cells and in vivo during healing of bone defects in a “proof of concept” animal study. The real time RT-PCR analysis revealed human ameloblastin (AMBN) mRNA expression in human mesenchymal stem cells and primary osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Expression of AMBN mRNA was also confirmed in human CD34 positive cells and osteoclasts. Western and dot blot analysis of cell lysates and medium confirmed the expression and secretion of ameloblastin from mesenchymal stem cells, primary human osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Expression of ameloblastin was also detected in newly formed bone in experimental bone defects in adult rats. Together these findings suggest a role of this protein in early bone formation and repair. PMID:20854943

  4. ?CT-based, in vivo dynamic bone histomorphometry allows 3D evaluation of the early responses of bone resorption and formation to PTH and alendronate combination therapy.

    PubMed

    de Bakker, Chantal M J; Altman, Allison R; Tseng, Wei-Ju; Tribble, Mary Beth; Li, Connie; Chandra, Abhishek; Qin, Ling; Liu, X Sherry

    2015-04-01

    Current osteoporosis treatments improve bone mass by increasing net bone formation: anti-resorptive drugs such as bisphosphonates block osteoclast activity, while anabolic agents such as parathyroid hormone (PTH) increase bone remodeling, with a greater effect on formation. Although these drugs are widely used, their role in modulating formation and resorption is not fully understood, due in part to technical limitations in the ability to longitudinally assess bone remodeling. Importantly, it is not known whether or not PTH-induced bone formation is independent of resorption, resulting in controversy over the effectiveness of combination therapies that use both PTH and an anti-resorptive. In this study, we developed a ?CT-based, in vivo dynamic bone histomorphometry technique for rat tibiae, and applied this method to longitudinally track changes in bone resorption and formation as a result of treatment with alendronate (ALN), PTH, or combination therapy of both PTH and ALN (PTH+ALN). Correlations between our ?CT-based measures of bone formation and measures of bone formation based on calcein-labeled histology (r=0.72-0.83) confirm the accuracy of this method. Bone remodeling parameters measured through ?CT-based in vivo dynamic bone histomorphometry indicate an increased rate of bone formation in rats treated with PTH and PTH+ALN, together with a decrease in bone resorption measures in rats treated with ALN and PTH+ALN. These results were further supported by traditional histology-based measurements, suggesting that PTH was able to induce bone formation while bone resorption was suppressed. PMID:25554598

  5. Peripheral Leptin Regulates Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Russell T.; Kalra, Satya P.; Wong, Carmen P.; Philbrick, Kenneth A.; Lindenmaier, Laurence B.; Boghossian, Stephane; Iwaniec, Urszula T.

    2012-01-01

    Substantial evidence does not support the prevailing view that leptin, acting through a hypothalamic relay, decreases bone accrual by inhibiting bone formation. To clarify the mechanisms underlying regulation of bone architecture by leptin, we evaluated bone growth and turnover in wild type (WT) mice, leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice, leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and ob/ob mice treated with leptin. We also performed hypothalamic leptin gene therapy to determine the effect of elevated hypothalamic leptin levels on osteoblasts. Finally, to determine the effects of loss of peripheral leptin signaling on bone formation and energy metabolism, we used bone marrow (BM) from WT or db/db donor mice to reconstitute the hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cell compartments in lethally irradiated WT recipient mice. Decreases in bone growth, osteoblast-lined bone perimeter and bone formation rate were observed in ob/ob mice and greatly increased in ob/ob mice following subcutaneous administration of leptin. Similarly, hypothalamic leptin gene therapy increased osteoblast-lined bone perimeter in ob/ob mice. In spite of normal osteoclast-lined bone perimeter, db/db mice exhibited a mild but generalized osteopetrotic-like (calcified cartilage encased by bone) skeletal phenotype and greatly reduced serum markers of bone turnover. Tracking studies and histology revealed quantitative replacement of BM cells following BM transplantation. WT mice engrafted with db/db BM did not differ in energy homeostasis from untreated WT mice or WT mice engrafted with WT BM. Bone formation in WT mice engrafted with WT BM did not differ from WT mice, whereas bone formation in WT mice engrafted with db/db cells did not differ from the low rates observed in untreated db/db mice. In summary, our results indicate that leptin, acting primarily through peripheral pathways, increases osteoblast number and activity. PMID:22887758

  6. Synergistic induction of early stage of bone formation by combination of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 and epidermal growth factor

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Hyup; Jang, Soo-Jeong; Baek, Hae-Ri; Lee, Kyung Mee; Chang, Bong-Soon; Lee, Choon-Ki

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates whether the combination of the rhBMP-2 and various types of growth factors including EGF, FGF, PDGF and VEGF increases osteoinductivity compared to the single use of rhBMP-2 through in vitro and in vivo study. Cultured human MSCs were treated with rhBMP-2 only or in combination with growth factors. For in vivo evaluation, rhBMP-2 only or with growth factors was implanted into the calvarial defect made on SD rats. Both EGF and PDGF significantly increased both ALP activity and expression level in hMSCs when treated in combination with rhBMP-2 at 3 and 7 days of differentiation and significantly raised the accumulation of the calcium at day 14. Furthermore, micro-CT scanning revealed that the EGF an FGF groups show significantly increased new bone surface ratio compared to the rhBMP-2 only group and, the EGF treatment significantly up regulated percent bone volume and trabecular number at two weeks after the surgery. VEGF treatment also significantly raised trabecular number and FGF treatment significantly increased the trabecular thickness. Histological examination revealed that the EGF combination group showed enhanced bone regeneration than the rhBMP-2 only group two weeks after the implantation. Even though the treatment of rhBMP-2 with PDGF and FGF failed to show enhanced osteogenesis in vitro and in vivo simultaneously, these results suggest that the positive effect of the combination of EGF and rhBMP-2 is expected to induce the bone formation earlier compared to the single use of rhBMP-2 in vitro and in vivo. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:24764222

  7. Dilatational band formation in bone

    PubMed Central

    Poundarik, Atharva A.; Diab, Tamim; Sroga, Grazyna E.; Ural, Ani; Boskey, Adele L.; Gundberg, Caren M.; Vashishth, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    Toughening in hierarchically structured materials like bone arises from the arrangement of constituent material elements and their interactions. Unlike microcracking, which entails micrometer-level separation, there is no known evidence of fracture at the level of bone’s nanostructure. Here, we show that the initiation of fracture occurs in bone at the nanometer scale by dilatational bands. Through fatigue and indentation tests and laser confocal, scanning electron, and atomic force microscopies on human and bovine bone specimens, we established that dilatational bands of the order of 100 nm form as ellipsoidal voids in between fused mineral aggregates and two adjacent proteins, osteocalcin (OC) and osteopontin (OPN). Laser microdissection and ELISA of bone microdamage support our claim that OC and OPN colocalize with dilatational bands. Fracture tests on bones from OC and/or OPN knockout mice (OC?/?, OPN?/?, OC-OPN?/?;?/?) confirm that these two proteins regulate dilatational band formation and bone matrix toughness. On the basis of these observations, we propose molecular deformation and fracture mechanics models, illustrating the role of OC and OPN in dilatational band formation, and predict that the nanometer scale of tissue organization, associated with dilatational bands, affects fracture at higher scales and determines fracture toughness of bone. PMID:23129653

  8. Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein Induces Bone Formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth A. Wang; Vicki Rosen; Josephine S. D'Alessandro; Marc Bauduy; Paul Cordes; Tomoko Harada; David I. Israel; Rodney M. Hewick; Kelvin M. Kerns; Peter Lapan; Deborah H. Luxenberg; David McQuid; Ioannis K. Moutsatsos; John Nove; John M. Wozney

    1990-01-01

    We have purified and characterized active recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2A. Implantation of the recombinant protein in rats showed that a single BMP can induce bone formation in vivo. A dose-response and time-course study using the rat ectopic bone formation assay revealed that implantation of 0.5-115 mug of partially purified recombinant human BMP-2A resulted in cartilage by day

  9. Burn Injury Enhances Bone Formation in Heterotopic Ossification Model

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Jonathan R.; De La Rosa, Sara; Sun, Hongli; Eboda, Oluwatobi; Cilwa, Katherine E.; Donneys, Alexis; Morris, Michael; Buchman, Steven R.; Cederna, Paul S.; Krebsbach, Paul H.; Wang, Stewart C.; Levi, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate the pro-osteogenic effect of burn injury on heterotopic bone formation using a novel burn ossicle in vivo model. Background Heterotopic ossification (HO), or the abnormal formation of bone in soft tissue, is a troubling sequela of burn and trauma injuries. The exact mechanism by which burn injury influences bone formation is unknown. The aim of this study was to develop a mouse model to study the effect of burn injury on heterotopic bone formation. We hypothesized that burn injury would enhance early vascularization and subsequent bone formation of subcutaneously implanted mesenchymal stem cells. Methods Mouse adipose-derived stem cells were harvested from C57/BL6 mice, transfected with a BMP-2 adenovirus, seeded on collagen scaffolds (ossicles), and implanted subcutaneously in the flank region of 8 adult mice. Burn and sham groups were created with exposure of 30% surface area on the dorsum to 60°C water or 30°C water for 18 seconds, respectively (n = 4/group). Heterotopic bone volume was analyzed in vivo by micro-computed tomography for 3 months. Histological analysis of vasculogenesis was performed with platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule staining. Osteogenic histological analysis was performed by Safranin O, Picrosirius red, and aniline blue staining. Qualitative analysis of heterotopic bone composition was completed with ex vivo Raman spectroscopy. Results Subcutaneously implanted ossicles formed heterotopic bone. Ossicles from mice with burn injuries developed significantly more bone than sham control mice, analyzed by micro-computed tomography at 1, 2, and 3 months (P < 0.05), and had enhanced early and late endochondral ossification as demonstrated by Safranin O, Picrosirius red, and aniline blue staining. In addition, burn injury enhanced vascularization of the ossicles (P < 0.05). All ossicles demonstrated chemical composition characteristic of bone as demonstrated by Raman spectroscopy. Conclusions Burn injury increases the predilection to osteogenic differentiation of ectopically implanted ossicles. Early differences in vascularity correlated with later bone development. Understanding the role of burn injury on heterotopic bone formation is an important first step toward the development of treatment strategies aimed to prevent unwanted and detrimental heterotopic bone formation. PMID:23673767

  10. Strontium ranelate inhibits bone resorption while maintaining bone formation in alveolar bone in monkeys ( Macaca fascicularis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Buehler; P Chappuis; J. L Saffar; Y Tsouderos; A Vignery

    2001-01-01

    Strontium ranelate (S12911) has previously been shown to stimulate bone formation and inhibit bone resorption in rats. To determine whether strontium ranelate affects normal bone remodeling, we studied the effect of strontium ranelate on alveolar bone in monkeys. Strontium ranelate, at dosages of 100, 275, and 750 mg\\/kg per day, or vehicle, were given by gavage to 31 normal adult

  11. Heterotrophic bone formation with bone marrow in the kidney parenchyme

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mi Mi Oh; Je Jong Kim; Seok Ho Kang; Hong Seok Park; Du Geon Moon; Jae Hyun Bae

    2010-01-01

    Extraosseous metaplasia of the urinary tract is an uncommon condition first described in 1923 by Phemister. Bone formation\\u000a can occur anywhere along the urinary tract but most has been described in renal pelvis, calyx or along the urothelial layer.\\u000a We report a case of extraossesous bone formation within the kidney parenchyma appearing as a calcified multiseptated mass.

  12. The Predictive Value of Biochemical Markers of Bone Turnover for Bone Mineral Density in Early Postmenopausal Women Treated with Hormone Replacement or Calcium Supplementation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CLIFFORD J. ROSEN; CHARLES H. CHESNUT; NANCY J. S. MALLINAK

    To compare the relative sensitivity and specificity of bone turnover indexes for bone loss or gain in early postmenopausal women, we performed a multicenter trial in 236 menopausal women (mean age, 51 yr), who were randomized to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) or calcium supplementation (CS; 500 mg\\/day) for 1 yr. Two markers of bone formation, osteocalcin (OC) and bone alkaline

  13. Early radiographic changes in radiation bone injury

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, M.; Tanimoto, K.; Wada, T.

    1986-06-01

    A chronologic series of periapical radiographs was evaluated for the purpose of detecting damage to bone and tooth-supporting tissues in a patient receiving radiation therapy for a basal cell carcinoma of the mandibular gingiva. Widening of the periodontal space was one of the early radiographic changes observed. It is suggested, from the sequence of radiographic changes, that radiation-induced changed in the circulatory system of the bone might be primarily responsible for the resulting changes.

  14. Space flight and bone formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, St B.

    2004-01-01

    Major physiological changes which occur during spaceflight include bone loss, muscle atrophy, cardiovascular and immune response alterations. When trying to determine the reason why bone loss occurs during spaceflight, one must remember that all these other changes in physiology and metabolism may also have impact on the skeletal system. For bone, however, the role of normal weight bearing is a major concern and we have found no adequate substitute for weight bearing which can prevent bone loss. During the study of this problem, we have learned a great deal about bone physiology and increased our knowledge about how normal bone is formed and maintained. Presently, we do not have adequate ground based models which can mimic the tissue loss that occurs in spaceflight but this condition closely resembles the bone loss seen with osteoporosis. Although a normal bone structure will respond to application of mechanical force and weight bearing by forming new bone, a weakened osteoporotic bone may have a tendency to fracture. The study of the skeletal system during weightless conditions will eventually produce preventative measures and form a basis for protecting the crew during long term space flight. The added benefit from these studies will be methods to treat bone loss conditions which occur here on earth.

  15. Clay-Enriched Silk Biomaterials for Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Mieszawska, Aneta J.; Llamas, Jabier Gallego; Vaiana, Christopher A.; Kadakia, Madhavi P.; Naik, Rajesh R.; Kaplan, David L.

    2011-01-01

    The formation of silk protein/clay composite biomaterials for bone tissue formation is described. Silk fibroin serves as an organic scaffolding material offering mechanical stability suitable for bone specific uses. Clay montmorillonite (Cloisite ® Na+) and sodium silicate are sources of osteoinductive silica-rich inorganic species, analogous to bioactive bioglass-like bone repair biomaterial systems. Different clay particle-silk composite biomaterial films were compared to silk films doped with sodium silicate as controls for support of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in osteogenic culture. The cells adhered and proliferated on the silk/clay composites over two weeks. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed increased transcript levels for alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and collagen type 1 (Col I) osteogenic markers in the cells cultured on the silk/clay films in comparison to the controls. Early evidence for bone formation based on collagen deposition at the cell-biomaterial interface was also found, with more collagen observed for the silk films with higher contents of clay particles. The data suggest that the silk/clay composite systems may be useful for further study toward bone regenerative needs. PMID:21549864

  16. The effects of early postoperative radiation on vascularized bone grafts

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, H.B.; Brown, S.; Hurst, L.N. (Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Western Ontario, London (Canada))

    1991-06-01

    The effects of early postoperative radiation were assessed in free nonvascularized and free vascularized rib grafts in the canine model. The mandibles of one-half of the dogs were exposed to a cobalt 60 radiation dose of 4080 cGy over a 4-week period, starting 2 weeks postoperatively. The patency of vascularized grafts was confirmed with bone scintigraphy. Histological studies, including ultraviolet microscopy with trifluorochrome labeling, and histomorphometric analyses were performed. Osteocytes persist within the cortex of the vascularized nonradiated grafts to a much greater extent than in nonvascularized, nonradiated grafts. Cortical osteocytes do not persist in either vascularized or nonvascularized grafts subjected to radiation. New bone formation is significantly retarded in radiated grafts compared with nonradiated grafts. Periosteum and endosteum remained viable in the radiated vascularized grafts, producing both bone union and increased bone turnover, neither of which were evident to any significant extent in nonvascularized grafts. Bone union was achieved in vascularized and non-vascularized nonradiated bone. In the radiated group of dogs, union was only seen in the vascularized bone grafts.

  17. Teriparatide: A bone formation treatment for osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Erik F; Robins, Deborah A

    2004-11-01

    Teriparatide is the recombinant human N-terminal fragment (1-34) of endogenous human parathyroid hormone, and it is the first bone anabolic agent for the treatment of osteoporosis. When given as once-daily subcutaneous injections, teriparatide can reverse the course of osteoporosis by stimulating formation of new bone and restoring lost architecture. Teriparatide (20 microg) treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women rapidly increased markers of bone formation and reduced the incidence of vertebral fractures by 65% and of nonvertebral fragility fractures by 53%. In addition, treatment with this compound increased spine bone mineral density by 10% and hip bone mineral density by 3% at study endpoint. Teriparatide is well tolerated and is not associated with any serious side effects. The compound has been approved in Europe and in the US for the treatment of osteoporosis. Duration of treatment is 18-24 months and the dose does not need to be adjusted for age or gender. PMID:15645006

  18. Genetic and Transcriptional Control of Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Javed, Amjad; Chen, Haiyan; Ghori, Farah Y.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis An exquisite interplay of developmental cues, transcription factors, coregulatory and signaling proteins support formation of skeletal elements of the jaw during embryogenesis and the dynamic remodeling of alveolar bone in the post-natal life. These molecules promote initial condensation of the mesenchyme, commitment of the mesenchymal progenitor to osteogenic lineage cells, and differentiation of committed osteoblast to mature osteocyte within mineralized bone. Parallel regulatory network promote formation of the functional ostoclast from mononuclear cells to support continuous bone remodeling within the alveolar bone. With an ever expanding list of new regulatory factors, the complexities of the molecular mechanisms that control gene expression in skeletal cells are being further appreciated. This review examines the multifunctional roles of prominent nuclear proteins, cytokines, hormones and paracrine factors that control osteogenesis. PMID:20713262

  19. Novel Regulators of Bone Formation: Molecular Clones and Activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Wozney; Vicki Rosen; Anthony J. Celeste; Lisa M. Mitsock; Matthew J. Whitters; Ronald W. Kriz; Rodney M. Hewick; Elizabeth A. Wang

    1988-01-01

    Protein extracts derived from bone can initiate the process that begins with cartilage formation and ends in de novo bone formation. The critical components of this extract, termed bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), that direct cartilage and bone formation as well as the constitutive elements supplied by the animal during this process have long remained unclear. Amino acid sequence has been

  20. Bone Formation and Inflammation in Cardiac Valves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emile R. Mohler III; Francis Gannon; Carol Reynolds; Robert Zimmerman; Martin G. Keane; Frederick S. Kaplan

    2010-01-01

    Background—For nearly a century, the mechanical failure of calcified heart valves was attributed to a passive degenerative process. Recently, several case reports described bone formation in surgically excised heart valves and suggested an unexpected process of tissue repair. Methods and Results—We studied the prevalence and pathology of heterotopic ossification in 347 surgically excised heart valves (256 aortic, 91 mitral) in

  1. Mechanical regulation of localized and appositional bone formation around bone-interfacing implants

    E-print Network

    Simmons, Craig A.

    INTRODUCTION The clinical success of bone-interfacing implants for orthopedic and dental applicationsMechanical regulation of localized and appositional bone formation around bone-interfacing implants: The local mechanical environment around bone- interfacing implants determines, in large part, whether bone

  2. Short-term aluminum administration in the rat: reductions in bone formation without osteomalacia

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, W.G.

    1984-05-01

    Aluminum may be a pathogenic factor in dialysis-associated osteomalacia. To study the early effects of Al on bone, cortical bone growth was measured in pair-fed rats given Al and control rats over two consecutive intervals of 28 (period I) and 16 (period II) days, respectively, using tetracycline labeling of bone. Al (2 mg elemental Al per rat) was administered intraperitoneally for 5 days each week, except for the first week of study, when an incremental dose of Al was given. Control rats received saline vehicle only. For the entire 44-day study, bone and matrix formation were reduced from control values in rats given Al. Although bone and matrix formation remained at control levels during period I in rats given Al, both measurements decreased from control values during period II. During Al exposure, bone and matrix apposition at the periosteum were reduced from control levels in period II, but not in period I. Neither osteoid width nor mineralization front width increased from control values in rats given Al. These findings indicate that Al reduces bone and matrix formation early in the course of Al exposure and prior to the development of histologic osteomalacia. Rather than acting as an inhibitor of mineralization, the early effect of Al on bone is the suppression of matrix synthesis. Our results suggest that the state of low bone formation seen in dialysis-associated osteomalacia may be the consequence of a direct toxic effect of Al on the cellular activity of osteoblasts. 29 references, 3 tables.

  3. Early tissue responses to zoledronate, locally delivered by bone screw, into a compromised cancellous bone site: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In fracture treatment, adequate fixation of implants is crucial to long-term clinical performance. Bisphosphonates (BP), potent inhibitors of osteoclastic bone resorption, are known to increase peri-implant bone mass and accelerate primary fixation. However, adverse effects are associated with systemic use of BPs. Thus, Zoledronic acid (ZOL) a potent BP was loaded on bone screws and evaluated in a local delivery model. Whilst mid- to long-term effects are already reported, early cellular events occurring at the implant/bone interface are not well described. The present study investigated early tissue responses to ZOL locally delivered, by bone screw, into a compromised cancellous bone site. Methods ZOL was immobilized on fibrinogen coated titanium screws. Using a bilateral approach, ZOL loaded test and non-loaded control screws were implanted into femoral condyle bone defects, created by an overdrilling technique. Histological analyses of the local tissue effects such as new bone formation and osteointegration were performed at days 1, 5 and 10. Results Histological evaluation of the five day ZOL group, demonstrated a higher osseous differentiation trend. At ten days an early influx of mesenchymal and osteoprogenitor cells was seen and a higher level of cellular proliferation and differentiation (p?bone-to-screw contact and bone volume values within the defect tended to increase. Local drug release did not induce any adverse cellular effects. Conclusion This study indicates that local ZOL delivery into a compromised cancellous bone site actively supports peri-implant osteogenesis, positively affecting mesenchymal cells, at earlier time points than previously reported in the literature. PMID:24656151

  4. Modulating Bone Resorption and Bone Formation in Opposite Directions in the Treatment of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Appelman-Dijkstra, Natasha M; Papapoulos, Socrates E

    2015-07-01

    Bone remodeling, the fundamental process for bone renewal, is targeted by treatments of osteoporosis to correct the imbalance between bone resorption and bone formation and reduce the risk of fractures and associated clinical consequences. Currently available therapeutics affect bone resorption and bone formation in the same direction and either decrease (inhibitors of bone resorption) or increase (parathyroid hormone [PTH] peptides) bone remodeling. Studies of patients with rare bone diseases and genetically modified animal models demonstrated that bone resorption and bone formation may not necessarily be coupled, leading to identification of molecular targets in bone cells for the development of novel agents for the treatment of osteoporosis. Application of such agents to the treatment of women with low bone mass confirmed that bone resorption and bone formation can be modulated in different directions and so far two new classes of therapeutics for osteoporosis have been defined with distinct mechanisms of action. Such treatments, if combined with a favorable safety profile, will offer new therapeutic options and will improve the management of patients with osteoporosis. PMID:26056029

  5. Bone formation in vitro by stromal cells obtained from bone marrow of young adult rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Maniatopoulos; J. Sodek; A. H. Melcher

    1988-01-01

    Cells from fetal or neonatal skeleton can synthesize bone-like tissue in vitro. In contrast, formation of bone-like tissue in vitro by cells derived from adult animals has rarely been reported and has not been achieved using cells from bone marrow. We have explored development of bone-like tissue in vitro by bone marrow stromal cells. Marrow stromal cells obtained from 40–43-day-old

  6. Bone formation within a breast abscess.

    PubMed

    Mannu, Gurdeep Singh; Ahmed, Farid; Cunnick, Giles; Mungalsingh, Naren

    2014-01-01

    We present a rare case of osseous metaplasia in a poorly healing breast abscess. An 87-year-old woman was referred to the breast surgery clinic with a painful lump in her right breast. Initial imaging and core biopsy suggested a breast abscess. Despite several courses of antibiotics and repeated attempts at aspiration the painful lesion persisted. It was eventually surgically excised in its entirety and final histopathology showed the presence of bone formation within the abscess. The patient's symptoms subsequently resolved. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case in the literature, of osseous metaplasia within a breast abscess in the absence of malignancy. PMID:25246453

  7. Polymer-ceramic composite that mimics bone formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolyn M. Dry

    1999-01-01

    Research was done on a biomimetic building material with the unique properties of bone. Bone, as well as other natural materials such as shell, obtains its toughness and strength as a result of utilizing optimum materials, structural form and carefully controlling the process of bone formation. The organic fibers are made first and the matrix grown around them as opposed

  8. Heterotopic bone formation in the musculus latissimus dorsi of sheep using ?-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds: evaluation of an extended prefabrication time on bone formation and matrix degeneration.

    PubMed

    Spalthoff, S; Jehn, P; Zimmerer, R; Möllmann, U; Gellrich, N-C; Kokemueller, H

    2015-06-01

    We previously generated viable heterotopic bone in living animals and found that 3 months of intrinsic vascularization improved bone formation and matrix degeneration. In this study, we varied the pre-vascularization time to determine its effects on the kinetics of bone formation and ceramic degradation. Two 25-mm-long cylindrical ?-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds were filled intraoperatively with autogenous iliac crest bone marrow and implanted in the latissimus dorsi muscle in six sheep. To examine the effect of axial perfusion, one scaffold was surgically implanted with (group C) or without (group D) a central vascular bundle. All animals were sacrificed 6 months postoperatively and histomorphometric measurements were compared to previous results. All implanted scaffolds exhibited ectopic bone growth. However, bone growth was not significantly different between the 3-month (group A, 0.191±0.097 vs. group C, 0.237±0.075; P=0.345) and 6-month (group B, 0.303±0.105 vs. group D, 0.365±0.258; P=0.549) pre-vascularization durations, regardless of vessel supply; early differences between surgically and extrinsically vascularized constructs disappeared after 6 months. Here, we describe a reliable procedure for generating ectopic bone in vivo. A 3-month pre-vascularization duration appears sufficient and ceramic degradation proceeds in accordance with bone generation, supporting the hypothesis of cell-mediated resorption. PMID:25617952

  9. Early postoperative bone scintigraphy in the evaluation of microvascular bone grafts in head and neck reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Schuepbach, Jonas; Dassonville, Olivier; Poissonnet, Gilles; Demard, Francois

    2007-01-01

    Background Bone scintigraphy was performed to monitor anastomotic patency and bone viability. Methods In this retrospective study, bone scans were carried out during the first three postoperative days in a series of 60 patients who underwent microvascular bone grafting for reconstruction of the mandible or maxilla. Results In our series, early bone scans detected a compromised vascular supply to the bone with high accuracy (p < 10-6) and a sensitivity that was superior to the sensitivity of clinical monitoring (92% and 75% respectively). Conclusion When performing bone scintigraphy during the first three postoperative days, it not only helps to detect complications with high accuracy, as described in earlier studies, but it is also an additional reliable monitoring tool to decide whether or not microvascular revision surgery should be performed. Bone scans were especially useful in buried free flaps where early postoperative monitoring depended exclusively on scans. According to our experience, we recommend bone scans as soon as possible after surgery and immediately in cases suspicious of vascularized bone graft failure. PMID:17448223

  10. Formative Assessment: Guidance for Early Childhood Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley-Ayers, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    This policy report provides a guide and framework to early childhood policymakers considering formative assessment. The report defines formative assessment and outlines its process and application in the context of early childhood. The substance of this document is the issues for consideration in the implementation of the formative assessment…

  11. Early Preheating and Galaxy Formation

    E-print Network

    A. J. Benson; P. Madau

    2003-07-07

    Winds from pregalactic starbursts and 'miniquasars' may pollute the IGM with metals and raise its temperature to a high adiabat, and so inhibit the formation of early galaxies. We compute the thermal history of the IGM when it experiences a period of rapid, homogeneous "preheating" at high redshifts. Measurements of the temperature of the Lyamn-alpha forest at z~3 constrain the redshift and energy of preheating, and rule out models that preheat too late or to too high a temperature. We predict galaxy luminosity functions in preheated universes. The results depend crucially on whether the baryonic smoothing scale in the IGM is computed globally, or in a local, density-dependent fashion. Using a globally averaged smoothing scale, we find that models with excessive preheating produce too few L_* and fainter galaxies, and are therefore inconsistent with observational data. A density-dependent smoothing scale requires more energetic preheating to achieve the same degree of suppression in the faint-end slope. All models, however, appear unable to explain the sharp cut-off in the luminosity function at bright magnitudes. Supernova-driven preheating scenarios tend to raise the mean metallicity of the universe well above the minimum levels observed in the Lyman-alpha clouds. We find that ionizing photon escape fractions must be significantly higher than 10% in order to explain the low inferred HI fraction at z~6. While early preheating causes strong suppression of dwarf galaxy formation we show that it is not able to reproduce the observed abundance of satellite galaxies in the Local Group in detail.

  12. The impact of skeletal unloading on bone formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bikle, Daniel D.; Sakata, Takeshi; Halloran, Bernard P.

    2003-01-01

    Skeletal unloading leads to decreased bone formation and decreased bone mass. Bone resorption is uncoupled from bone formation, contributing to the bone loss. During space flight bone is lost principally from the bones most loaded in the 1 g environment. Determining the mechanism(s) by which loading of bone is sensed and translated into a signal(s) controlling bone formation remains the holy grail in this field. It seems likely that matrix/cell interactions will underlie much of the mechanocoupling. Integrins are a prime mediator of such interactions. The role for systemic hormones such as PTH, GH and 1,25(OH)2D compared to locally produced factors such as IGF-I, PTHrP, BMPs and TGF beta in modulating the cellular response to load remains unclear. Our studies demonstrate that skeletal unloading leads to resistance to the anabolic actions of IGF-I on bone as a result of failure of IGF-I to activate its own signaling pathways. This is associated with a reduction in integrin expression, suggesting crosstalk between these two pathways. As the mechanism(s) by which bone responds to changes in mechanical load with changes in bone formation is further elucidated, applications of this knowledge to other etiologies of osteoporosis are likely to develop. Skeletal unloading provides a perturbation in bone mineral homeostasis that can be used to understand the mechanisms by which bone mineral homeostasis is maintained, and that such understanding will lead to effective treatment for disuse osteoporosis in addition to preventive measures for the bone loss that accompanies space travel.

  13. Lanthanum carbonate stimulates bone formation in a rat model of renal insufficiency with low bone turnover.

    PubMed

    Fumoto, Toshio; Ito, Masako; Ikeda, Kyoji

    2014-09-01

    Control of phosphate is important in the management of chronic kidney disease with mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD), for which lanthanum carbonate, a non-calcium phosphate-binding agent, has recently been introduced; however, it remains to be determined whether it has any beneficial or deleterious effect on bone remodeling. In the present study, the effects of lanthanum carbonate were examined in an animal model that mimics low turnover bone disease in CKD, i.e., thyroparathyroidectomized (TPTX) and 5/6 nephrectomized (NX) rats undergoing a constant infusion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and thyroxine injections (TPTX-PTH-5/6NX). Bone histomorphometry at the second lumbar vertebra and tibial metaphysis revealed that both bone formation and resorption were markedly suppressed in the TPTX-PTH-5/6NX model compared with the sham-operated control group, and treatment with lanthanum carbonate was associated with the stimulation of bone formation but not an acceleration of bone resorption. Lanthanum treatment caused a robust stimulation of bone formation with an activation of osteoblasts on the endosteal surface of femoral diaphysis, leading to an increase in cortical bone volume. Thus, lanthanum carbonate has the potential to stimulate bone formation in cases of CKD-MBD with suppressed bone turnover. PMID:24126694

  14. Brief Review of Models of Ectopic Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Michelle A.; Levi, Benjamin; Askarinam, Asal; Nguyen, Alan; Rackohn, Todd; Ting, Kang; Soo, Chia

    2012-01-01

    Ectopic bone formation is a unique biologic entity—distinct from other areas of skeletal biology. Animal research models of ectopic bone formation most often employ rodent models and have unique advantages over orthotopic (bone) environments, including a relative lack of bone cytokine stimulation and cell-to-cell interaction with endogenous (host) bone-forming cells. This allows for relatively controlled in vivo experimental bone formation. A wide variety of ectopic locations have been used for experimentation, including subcutaneous, intramuscular, and kidney capsule transplantation. The method, benefits and detractions of each method are summarized in the following review. Briefly, subcutaneous implantation is the simplest method. However, the most pertinent concern is the relative paucity of bone formation in comparison to other models. Intramuscular implantation is also widely used and relatively simple, however intramuscular implants are exposed to skeletal muscle satellite progenitor cells. Thus, distinguishing host from donor osteogenesis becomes challenging without cell-tracking studies. The kidney capsule (perirenal or renal capsule) method is less widely used and more technically challenging. It allows for supraphysiologic blood and nutrient resource, promoting robust bone growth. In summary, ectopic bone models are extremely useful in the evaluation of bone-forming stem cells, new osteoinductive biomaterials, and growth factors; an appropriate choice of model, however, will greatly increase experimental success. PMID:22085228

  15. Stratigraphy and depositional history, Bone Spring Formation, Lea County, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzullo, L.J. (Nearburg Producing Co., Dallas, TX (USA))

    1987-02-01

    The Bone Spring formation of the northern Delaware basin in southeastern New Mexico produces oil in Lea County from foreshelf detrital carbonate facies, such as in Scharb field. Production there comes from several intervals. Stratigraphic correlations between the various Bone Springs units and equivalent Leonardian facies of the Northwest shelf in Lea County suggest that the Bone Spring is correlative to the Yeso Formation of the Northwest shelf. The shelf facies there are divided into lower, middle, and upper Yeso. The upper part of what has generally been considered to be Wolfcamp in some areas, beneath the lowermost Bone Spring sandstone, is inferred to be lower Leonardian (lower Yeso) throughout the area studied. A model is proposed for the sedimentologic and reservoir evolution of the Bone Spring Formation in Lea County. Permian-Pennsylvanian tectonic activity provided the initial substrate for the development of a high-energy shelf edge in early Yeso time. In early middle Yeso time, the basin filled with sediments of the 3rd and 2nd Bone Spring units, and the shelf to basin transition was more subtle. As the basin subsided with infilling, a high-energy shelf edge again developed in late middle Yeso time. With continued basin infilling by 1st Bone Springs facies, the shelf to basin transition again evolved into a more subtle feature. Continued basin subsidence caused infilling by a thick sequence of upper Yeso carbonate, which was capped by progradational shelf carbonates of the upper Yeso.

  16. Leptin regulates bone formation via the sympathetic nervous system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeda, Shu; Elefteriou, Florent; Levasseur, Regis; Liu, Xiuyun; Zhao, Liping; Parker, Keith L.; Armstrong, Dawna; Ducy, Patricia; Karsenty, Gerard

    2002-01-01

    We previously showed that leptin inhibits bone formation by an undefined mechanism. Here, we show that hypothalamic leptin-dependent antiosteogenic and anorexigenic networks differ, and that the peripheral mediators of leptin antiosteogenic function appear to be neuronal. Neuropeptides mediating leptin anorexigenic function do not affect bone formation. Leptin deficiency results in low sympathetic tone, and genetic or pharmacological ablation of adrenergic signaling leads to a leptin-resistant high bone mass. beta-adrenergic receptors on osteoblasts regulate their proliferation, and a beta-adrenergic agonist decreases bone mass in leptin-deficient and wild-type mice while a beta-adrenergic antagonist increases bone mass in wild-type and ovariectomized mice. None of these manipulations affects body weight. This study demonstrates a leptin-dependent neuronal regulation of bone formation with potential therapeutic implications for osteoporosis.

  17. Regulation of bone morphogenetic proteins in early embryonic development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Yukiyo; Oelgeschläger, Michael

    2004-11-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), a large subgroup of the TGF-? family of secreted growth factors, control fundamental events in early embryonic development, organogenesis and adult tissue homeostasis. The plethora of dose-dependent cellular processes regulated by BMP signalling demand a tight regulation of BMP activity. Over the last decade, a number of proteins have been identified that bind BMPs in the extracellular space and regulate the interaction of BMPs with their cognate receptors, including the secreted BMP antagonist Chordin. In the early vertebrate embryo, the localized secretion of BMP antagonists from the dorsal blastopore lip establishes a functional BMP signalling gradient that is required for the determination of the dorsoventral or back to belly body axis. In particular, inhibition of BMP activity is essential for the formation of neural tissue in the development of vertebrate and invertebrate embryos. Here we review recent studies that have provided new insight into the regulation of BMP signalling in the extracellular space. In particular, we discuss the recently identified Twisted gastrulation protein that modulates, in concert with metalloproteinases of the Tolloid family, the interaction of Chordin with BMP and a family of proteins that share structural similarities with Chordin in the respective BMP binding domains. In addition, genetic and functional studies in zebrafish and frog provide compelling evidence that the secreted protein Sizzled functionally interacts with the Chd BMP pathway, despite being expressed ventrally in the early gastrula-stage embryo. These intriguing discoveries may have important implications, not only for our current concept of early embryonic patterning, but also for the regulation of BMP activity at later developmental stages and tissue homeostasis in the adult.

  18. HIF-1? regulates bone formation after osteogenic mechanical loading.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Ryan E; Silva, Matthew J

    2015-04-01

    HIF-1 is a transcription factor typically associated with angiogenic gene transcription under hypoxic conditions. In this study, mice with HIF-1? deleted in the osteoblast lineage (?HIF-1?) were subjected to damaging or non-damaging mechanical loading known to produce woven or lamellar bone, respectively, at the ulnar diaphysis. By microCT, ?HIF-1? mice produced significantly less woven bone than wild type (WT) mice 7days after damaging loading. This decrease in woven bone volume and extent was accompanied by a significant decrease in vascularity measured by immunohistochemistry against vWF. Additionally, osteocytes, rather than osteoblasts, appear to be the main bone cell expressing HIF-1? following damaging loading. In contrast, 10days after non-damaging mechanical loading, dynamic histomorphometry measurements demonstrated no impairment in loading-induced lamellar bone formation in ?HIF-1? mice. In fact, both non-loaded and loaded ulnae from ?HIF-1? mice had increased bone formation compared with WT ulnae. When comparing the relative increase in periosteal bone formation in loaded vs. non-loaded ulnae, it was not different between ?HIF-1? mice and controls. There were no significant differences observed between WT and ?HIF-1? mice in endosteal bone formation parameters. The increases in periosteal lamellar bone formation in ?HIF-1? mice are attributed to non-angiogenic effects of the knockout. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that HIF-1? is a pro-osteogenic factor for woven bone formation after damaging loading, but an anti-osteogenic factor for lamellar bone formation under basal conditions and after non-damaging loading. PMID:25541207

  19. Sim1 inhibits bone formation by enhancing the sympathetic tone in male mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xunde; Wei, Wei; Zinn, Andrew R; Wan, Yihong

    2015-04-01

    Single-minded 1 (Sim1) is a basic helix-loop-helix Per-Arnt-Sim transcription factor that is important for neuronal development in the hypothalamus. Loss-of-function mutation of Sim1 causes early-onset obesity. However, it is unknown whether and how Sim1 regulates bone remodeling. In this study, we found that adult-onset Sim1 deletion increases bone formation, leading to high bone mass. In contrast, Sim1-overexpressing transgenic mice exhibit decreased bone formation and low bone mass. Sim1 does not directly regulate osteoblastogenesis, because bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from Sim1 mutant mice display a normal capacity for osteoblast differentiation. Instead, Sim1 inhibits bone formation via stimulating the sympathetic nervous system, because sympathetic tone is decreased by Sim1 deletion but increased by Sim1 overexpression. Treatment with the ?-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol effectively reverses the high bone mass in Sim1-knockout mice. These findings reveal Sim1 as a critical yet previously unrecognized modulator of skeletal homeostasis that functions through a central relay. PMID:25607894

  20. Analyses Using Micro-CT Scans and Tissue Staining on New Bone Formation and Bone Fusion According to the Timing of Cranioplasty via Frozen Autologous Bone Flaps in Rabbits : A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hee Sup; Lee, Deok-Won; Koh, Jun Seok

    2015-01-01

    Objective The timing of cranioplasty and method of bone flap storage are known risk factors of non-union and resorption of bone flaps. In this animal experimental study, we evaluated the efficacy of cranioplasty using frozen autologous bone flap, and examined whether the timing of cranioplasty after craniectomy affects bone fusion and new bone formation. Methods Total 8 rabbits (male, older than 16 weeks) were divided into two groups of early cranioplasty group (EG, 4 rabbits) and delayed cranioplasty group (DG, 4 rabbits). The rabbits of each group were performed cranioplasty via frozen autologous bone flaps 4 weeks (EG) and 8 weeks (DG) after craniectomy. In order to obtain control data, the cranioplasty immediate after craniectomy were made on the contralateral cranial bone of the rabbits (control group, CG).The bone fusion and new bone formation were evaluated by micro-CT scan and histological examination 8 weeks after cranioplasty on both groups. Results In the micro-CT scans, the mean values of the volume and the surface of new bone were 50.13±7.18 mm3 and 706.23±77.26 mm2 in EG, 53.78±10.86 mm3 and 726.60±170.99 mm2 in DG, and 31.51±12.84 mm3 and 436.65±132.24 mm2 in CG. In the statistical results, significant differences were shown between EG and CG and between DG and CG (volume : p=0.028 and surface : p=0.008). The histological results confirmed new bone formation in all rabbits. Conclusion We observed new bone formation on all the frozen autologous bone flaps that was stored within 8 weeks. The timing of cranioplasty may showed no difference of degree of new bone formation. Not only the healing period after cranioplasty but the time interval from craniectomy to cranioplasty could affect the new bone formation. PMID:25932290

  1. Differential patterns of altered bone formation in different bone compartments in established osteoporosis.

    PubMed Central

    Byers, R J; Denton, J; Hoyland, J A; Freemont, A J

    1999-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the level of bone formation in the different bone compartments in cases of established osteoporosis, as previous work has concentrated on trabecular bone alone. METHODS: Bone formation rates were measured histomorphometrically, in the periosteal (P), cortical (C), subcortical (SC), and trabecular (T) compartments in iliac crest biopsies from 159 patients with established osteoporosis. The values were standardised using age and sex matched control data and patterns of differential change determined by analysis of parametric status (increased, normal, reduced). RESULTS: Mean bone formation was reduced in all four compartments. This was more marked (4.4/4.1 standard deviations below the mean in C/T, v 2.3/0.9 in P/SC) and more frequent (reduced in 81.5%/78.3% in T/C, v 43.3%/44% in P/SC) in the trabecular and cortical compartments than in the periosteal or subcortical bone. Parametric status was equal in trabecular and cortical bone in 85.4% of cases, and in periosteal and subcortical bone in 65.7%, but in all four compartments in only 35.1%, indicating differential alteration of bone formation in the two sets of compartments (T/C v P/SC). CONCLUSIONS: Altered trabecular bone formation is important in osteoporosis, but there are differential patterns of alteration in the other three compartments, emphasising the presence of different microenvironments in bone; thus the effect on the cortical compartment was similar to that on the trabecular, while the subcortical and periosteal compartments also showed linkage. The linkage between the two pairs was divergent, indicating different control of bone formation, with resultant different patterns of perturbation in osteoporosis. Images PMID:10343608

  2. The circadian modulation of leptin-controlled bone formation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mice with circadian gene Period and Cryptochrome mutations develop high bone mass early in life. Such a phenotype is accompanied by an increase in osteoblast numbers in mutant bone and cannot be corrected by leptin intracerebroventricular infusion. Thus, the molecular clock plays a key role in lepti...

  3. A supra-cellular model for coupling of bone resorption to formation during remodeling: lessons from two bone resorption inhibitors affecting bone formation differently.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Pia Rosgaard; Andersen, Thomas Levin; Pennypacker, Brenda L; Duong, Le T; Engelholm, Lars H; Delaissé, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-10

    The bone matrix is maintained functional through the combined action of bone resorbing osteoclasts and bone forming osteoblasts, in so-called bone remodeling units. The coupling of these two activities is critical for securing bone replenishment and involves osteogenic factors released by the osteoclasts. However, the osteoclasts are separated from the mature bone forming osteoblasts in time and space. Therefore the target cell of these osteoclastic factors has remained unknown. Recent explorations of the physical microenvironment of osteoclasts revealed a cell layer lining the bone marrow and forming a canopy over the whole remodeling surface, spanning from the osteoclasts to the bone forming osteoblasts. Several observations show that these canopy cells are a source of osteoblast progenitors, and we hypothesized therefore that they are the likely cells targeted by the osteogenic factors of the osteoclasts. Here we provide evidence supporting this hypothesis, by comparing the osteoclast-canopy interface in response to two types of bone resorption inhibitors in rabbit lumbar vertebrae. The bisphosphonate alendronate, an inhibitor leading to low bone formation levels, reduces the extent of canopy coverage above osteoclasts. This effect is in accordance with its toxic action on periosteoclastic cells. In contrast, odanacatib, an inhibitor preserving bone formation, increases the extent of the osteoclast-canopy interface. Interestingly, these distinct effects correlate with how fast bone formation follows resorption during these respective treatments. Furthermore, canopy cells exhibit uPARAP/Endo180, a receptor able to bind the collagen made available by osteoclasts, and reported to mediate osteoblast recruitment. Overall these observations support a mechanism where the recruitment of bone forming osteoblasts from the canopy is induced by osteoclastic factors, thereby favoring initiation of bone formation. They lead to a model where the osteoclast-canopy interface is the physical site where coupling of bone resorption to bone formation occurs. PMID:24333871

  4. Pregnane X receptor knockout mice display osteopenia with reduced bone formation and enhanced bone resorption

    PubMed Central

    Azuma, Kotaro; Casey, Stephanie C; Ito, Masako; Urano, Tomohiko; Horie, Kuniko; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi; Kirchner, Séverine; Blumberg, Bruce; Inoue, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR) and its murine ortholog pregnane X receptor (PXR) are nuclear receptors that are expressed mainly in the liver and intestine where they function as xenobiotic sensors. In addition to its role as a xenobiotic sensor, previous studies in our laboratories and elsewhere have identified a role for SXR/PXR as a mediator of bone homeostasis. Here, we report that systemic deletion of PXR results in marked osteopenia with mechanical fragility in female mice as young as 4 months old. Bone mineral density (BMD) of PXR knockout (PXRKO) mice was significantly decreased compared with the BMD of wild-type (WT) mice. Micro-computed tomography analysis of femoral trabecular bones revealed that the three-dimensional bone volume fraction of PXRKO mice was markedly reduced compared with that of WT mice. Histomorphometrical analysis of the trabecular bones in the proximal tibia showed a remarkable reduction in bone mass in PXRKO mice. As for bone turnover of the trabecular bones, bone formation is reduced, whereas bone resorption is enhanced in PXRKO mice. Histomorphometrical analysis of femoral cortical bones revealed a larger cortical area in WT mice than that in PXRKO mice. WT mice had a thicker cortical width than PXRKO mice. Three-point bending test revealed that these morphological phenotypes actually caused mechanical fragility. Lastly, serum levels of phosphate, calcium, and alkaline phosphatase were unchanged in PXRKO mice compared with WT. Consistent with our previous results, we conclude that SXR/PXR promotes bone formation and suppresses bone resorption thus cementing a role for SXR/PXR as a key regulator of bone homeostasis. PMID:20876238

  5. Rethinking the nature of fibrolamellar bone: an integrative biological revision of sauropod plexiform bone formation.

    PubMed

    Stein, Koen; Prondvai, Edina

    2014-02-01

    We present novel findings on sauropod bone histology that cast doubt on general palaeohistological concepts concerning the true nature of woven bone in primary cortical bone and its role in the rapid growth and giant body sizes of sauropod dinosaurs. By preparing and investigating longitudinal thin sections of sauropod long bones, of which transverse thin sections were published previously, we found that the amount of woven bone in the primary complex has been largely overestimated. Using comparative cellular and light-extinction characteristics in the two section planes, we revealed that the majority of the bony lamina consists of longitudinally organized primary bone, whereas woven bone is usually represented only by a layer a few cells thin in the laminae. Previous arguments on sauropod biology, which have been based on the overestimated amount, misinterpreted formation process and misjudged role of woven bone in the plexiform bone formation of sauropod dinosaurs, are thereby rejected. To explain the observed pattern in fossil bones, we review the most recent advances in bone biology concerning bone formation processes at the cellular and tissue levels. Differentiation between static and dynamic osteogenesis (SO and DO) and the revealed characteristics of SO- versus DO-derived bone tissues shed light on several questions raised by our palaeohistological results and permit identification of these bone tissues in fossils with high confidence. By presenting the methods generally used for investigating fossil bones, we show that the major cause of overestimation of the amount of woven bone in previous palaeohistological studies is the almost exclusive usage of transverse sections. In these sections, cells and crystallites of the longitudinally organized primary bone are cut transversely, thus cells appear rounded and crystallites remain dark under crossed plane polarizers, thereby giving the false impression of woven bone. In order to avoid further confusion in palaeohistological studies, we introduce new osteohistological terms as well as revise widely used but incorrect terminology. To infer the role of woven bone in the bone formation of fast-growing tetrapods, we review some aspects of the interrelationships between the vascularity of bone tissues, basal metabolic rate, body size and growth rate. By putting our findings into the context of osteogenesis, we provide a new model for the diametrical limb bone growth of sauropods and present new implications for the evolution of fast growth in vertebrates. Since biomechanical studies of bone tissues suggest that predominant collagen fibre orientation (CFO) is controlled by endogenous, functional and perhaps phylogenetic factors, the relationship between CFO and bone growth rate as defined by Amprino's rule, which has been the basis for the biological interpretation of several osteohistological features, must be revised. Our findings draw attention to the urgent need for revising widely accepted basic concepts of palaeohistological studies, and for a more integrative approach to bone formation, biomechanics and bone microstructural features of extant and extinct vertebrates to infer life history traits of long extinct, iconic animals like dinosaurs. PMID:23647662

  6. Circulating Osteogenic Precursor Cells in Heterotopic Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Suda, Robin K.; Billings, Paul C.; Egan, Kevin P.; Kim, Jung-Hoon; McCarrick-Walmsley, Ruth; Glaser, David L.; Porter, David L.; Shore, Eileen M.; Pignolo, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Cells with osteogenic potential can be found in a variety of tissues. Here we show that circulating osteogenic precursor (COP) cells, a bone marrow-derived type I collagen+/CD45+ subpopulation of mononuclear adherent cells, are present in early pre-osseous fibroproliferative lesions in patients with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) and nucleate heterotopic ossification (HO) in a murine in vivo implantation assay. Blood samples from FOP patients with active episodes of HO contain significantly higher numbers of clonally-derived COP cell colonies than patients with stable disease or unaffected individuals. The highest level of COP cells was found in a patient just prior to the clinical onset of an HO exacerbation. Our studies show that even COP cells derived from an unaffected individual can contribute to HO in genetically susceptible host tissue. The possibility that circulating, hematopoietic-derived cells with osteogenic potential can seed inflammatory sites has tremendous implications and, to our knowledge, represents the first example of their involvement in clinical HO. Thus, bone formation is not limited to cells of the mesenchymal lineage, and circulating cells of hematopoietic origin can also serve as osteogenic precursors at remote sites of tissue inflammation. PMID:19522009

  7. Bone Formation Rate in Experimental Disuse Osteoporosis in Monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cann, Christopher; Young, Donald R.

    1976-01-01

    Specific mechanisms underlying weightless and hypodynamic bone loss are obscure. A principal relationship which must be affected is the balance between bone formation and bone resorption rates. In order to better define the influence of those parameters on bone loss, and also to develop measurements in other species as a useful adjunct to human research, studies were undertaken with experimental monkeys. Tests were conducted with a total of 6 adult male monkeys, weighing 10-13 kg, and approximately 10-12 yrs. of age to evaluate specifically bone formation rate during the development of disuse osteoporosis and osteopenia. Three animals were restrained in a semi-recumbent position for six months; three animals served as normal caged controls. Food intake (Purina) was held relatively constant at 200g/day for each animal. Using a Norland Bone Mineral Analyzer, bone mineral losses of 3.5 to 6% were seen in the mid-shaft of the tibia and in the distal radius. Bone loss was confirmed radiographically, with observation of thinning of the proximal tibial cortex and trabeculae in the calcaneus. Bone formation rate was determined using standard Ca-47 kinetics under metabolic balance conditions. After six months of restraint, accretion was 7.2-13.2 mg Ca/kg/day, compared to 3.2-4.1 mg Ca/kg/day in caged controls and 3-8 mg Ca/kg/day in normal adult humans. Fecal and urine calcium was 25-40% higher in restrained animals than in controls. Dietary calcium absorption decreases during restraint, and calcium turnover increases, implying a rise in bone resorption rate concommitant with the observed rise in bone accretion rate. Further studies dealing specifically with bone resorption are underway to define this more fully.

  8. Lamellar Spacing in Cuboid Hydroxyapatite Scaffolds Regulates Bone Formation by Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Afghani, Shahrzad; Franco, Jaime; Launey, Max; Marshall, Sally; Marshall, Grayson W.; Nissenson, Robert; Lee, Janice; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Saiz, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Background A major goal in bone engineering is the creation of large volume constructs (scaffolds and stem cells) that bear load. The scaffolds must satisfy two competing requirements—they need be sufficiently porous to allow nutrient flow to maintain cell viability, yet sufficiently dense to bear load. We studied the effect of scaffold macroporosity on bone formation and scaffold strength, for bone formed by human bone marrow stromal cells. Methods Rigid cubical hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate scaffolds were produced by robo-casting. The ceramic line thickness was held constant, but the distance between adjacent lines was either 50, 100, 200, 500, or 1000??m. Cultured human bone marrow stromal cells were combined with the scaffolds in vitro; transplants were placed into the subcutis of immunodeficient mice. Transplants were harvested 9, 18, 23, 38, or 50 weeks later. Bone formation and scaffold strength were analyzed using histology and compression testing. Results Sixty transplants were evaluated. Cortical bone increased with transplant age, and was greatest among 500??m transplants. In contrast, maximum transplant strength was greatest among 200??m transplants. Conclusions Lamellar spacing within scaffolds regulates the extent of bone formation; 500??m yields the most new bone, whereas 200??m yields the strongest transplants. PMID:21294634

  9. Heterotopic bone formation (myositis ossificans) and lower-extremity swelling mimicking deep-venous disease

    SciTech Connect

    Orzel, J.A.; Rudd, T.G.; Nelp, W.B.

    1984-10-01

    A quadriplegic patient with a swollen leg was suspected of having deep-venous thrombosis, and was studied with radionuclide venography (RNV) and contrast venography. Focal narrowing of the femoral vein, seen on RNV, was due to extrinsic compression. Although soft-tissue radiographs were normal, Tc-99m diphosphonate imaging established the diagnosis of early heterotopic bone formation (myositis ossificans), which was responsible for the venous compression. Clinically this inflammatory process can mimic deep-venous thrombosis, and should be considered in evaluating patients at risk for both heterotopic bone formation and deep-venous thrombosis.

  10. Dissolution behavior and early bone apposition of calcium phosphate-coated machined implants

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ji-Wan; Lee, Eun-Ung; Lee, Jung-Seok; Jung, Ui-Won; Lee, In-Seop

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Calcium phosphate (CaP)-coated implants promote osseointegration and survival rate. The aim of this study was to (1) analyze the dissolution behavior of the residual CaP particles of removed implants and (2) evaluate bone apposition of CaP-coated machined surface implants at the early healing phase. Methods Mandibular premolars were extracted from five dogs. After eight weeks, the implants were placed according to drilling protocols: a nonmobile implant (NI) group and rotational implant (RI) group. For CaP dissolution behavior analysis, 8 implants were removed after 0, 1, 2, and 4 weeks. The surface morphology and deposition of the coatings were observed. For bone apposition analysis, block sections were obtained after 1-, 2-, and 4-week healing periods and the specimens were analyzed. Results Calcium and phosphorus were detected in the implants that were removed immediately after insertion, and the other implants were composed mainly of titanium. There were no notable differences between the NI and RI groups in terms of the healing process. The bone-to-implant contact and bone density in the RI group showed a remarkable increase after 2 weeks of healing. Conclusions It can be speculated that the CaP coating dissolves early in the healing phase and chemically induces early bone formation regardless of the primary stability. PMID:24455442

  11. Early Formation of Terrestrial Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, T. M.; Schmitt, A. K.; McCulloch, M. T.; Lovera, O. M.

    2007-12-01

    Early (?4.5 Ga) Formation of Terrestrial Crust T.M. Harrison1, A.K. Schmitt1, M.T. McCulloch2, and O.M. Lovera1 1Department of Earth and Space Sciences and IGPP, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA; 2Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, A.C.T. 2601 AUSTRALIA Large deviations in ?repsilonHf(T) from bulk silicate Earth seen in >4 Ga detrital zircons from Jack Hills, Western Australia, have been interpreted as reflecting a major differentiation of the silicate Earth at ca. 4.4 to 4.5 Ga. We have expanded the characterization of 176Hf/177Hf (Hf) in Hadean zircons by acquiring a further 116 laser ablation Lu-Hf measurements on 87 grains with ion microprobe 207Pb/206Pb ages up to 4.36 Ga. Most measurements employed concurrent Lu-Hf and 207Pb/206Pb analyses, permitting assessment of the use of ion microprobe data to characterize the age of the volumetrically larger domain sampled by laser drilling. Our new results confirm and extend the earlier observation of significant negative deviations in ?repsilonHf(T) throughout the Hadean, although no positive ?repsilonHf(T) values were documented in this study. These data yields an essentially uniform spectrum of single-stage model ages between 4.54 and 4.20 Ga for extraction of the zircons' protoliths from a chondritic reservoir. We derived the full error propagation expression for a parameter, ?repsilono, which measures the difference of a sample from solar system initial (Hf) (Hfo), and from this conclude that data plotting close to (Hfo), are statistically meaningful and consistent with silicate differentiation at 4.540±0.006 Ga. ?18O and Ti thermometry for these Hadean zircons show little obvious correlation with initial (Hf), consistent with their derivation through fusion of a broad suite of crustal rock types under near water-saturated conditions. Together with the inclusion assemblage and other isotopic and trace element data obtained from these ancient zircons, our results indicate essentially continuous derivation of crust from the mantle from 4.5 to 4.2 Ga, concurrent with recycling into the mantle and internal crustal re-working. These results represent further evidence that by 4.35 Ga, portions of the crust had taken on continental characteristics.

  12. Endochondral bone formation in embryonic mouse pre-metatarsals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klement, B. J.; Spooner, B. S.

    1992-01-01

    Long term exposure to a reduced gravitational environment has a deleterious effect on bone. The developmental events which occur prior to initial bone deposition will provide insight into the regulation of mature bone physiology. We have characterized a system in which the events preceding bone formation take place in an isolated in vitro organ culture environment. We show that cultured pre-metatarsal tissue parallels development of pre-metatarsal tissue in the embryo. Both undergo mesenchyme differentiation and morphogenesis to form a cartilage rod, which resembles the future bone, followed by terminal chondrocyte differentiation in a definite morphogenetic pattern. These sequential steps occur prior to osteoblast maturation and bone matrix deposition in the developing organism. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity is a distinctive enzymatic marker for mineralizing tissues. We have measured this activity throughout pre-metatarsal development and show (a) where in the tissue it is predominantly found, and (b) that this is indeed the mineralizing isoform of the enzyme.

  13. Biomimetic matrices self-initiating the induction of bone formation.

    PubMed

    Ripamonti, Ugo; Roden, Laura C; Ferretti, Carlo; Klar, Roland M

    2011-09-01

    The new strategy of tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine at large, is to construct biomimetic matrices to mimic nature's hierarchical structural assemblages and mechanisms of simplicity and elegance that are conserved throughout genera and species. There is a direct spatial and temporal relationship of morphologic and molecular events that emphasize the biomimetism of the remodeling cycles of the osteonic corticocancellous bone versus the "geometric induction of bone formation," that is, the induction of bone by "smart" concavities assembled in biomimetic matrices of macroporous calcium phosphate-based constructs. The basic multicellular unit of the corticocancellous bone excavates a trench across the bone surface, leaving in its wake a hemiosteon rather than an osteon, that is, a trench with cross-sectional geometric cues of concavities after cyclic episodes of osteoclastogenesis, eventually leading to osteogenesis. The concavities per se are geometric regulators of growth-inducing angiogenesis and osteogenesis as in the remodeling processes of the corticocancellous bone. The concavities act as a powerful geometric attractant for myoblastic/myoendothelial and/or endothelial/pericytic stem cells, which differentiate into bone-forming cells. The lacunae, pits, and concavities cut by osteoclastogenesis within the biomimetic matrices are the driving morphogenetic cues that induce bone formation in a continuum of sequential phases of resorption/dissolution and formation. To induce the cascade of bone differentiation, the soluble osteogenic molecular signals of the transforming growth factor ? supergene family must be reconstituted with an insoluble signal or substratum that triggers the bone differentiation cascade. By carving a series of repetitive concavities into solid and/or macroporous biomimetic matrices of highly crystalline hydroxyapatite or biphasic hydroxyapatite/?-tricalcium phosphate, we were able to embed smart biologic functions within intelligent scaffolds for tissue engineering of bone. The concavities assembled in the bioceramic constructs biomimetize the remodeling cycle of the corticocancellous bone and are endowed with multifunctional pleiotropic self-assembly capacities, initiating angiogenesis and bone formation by induction without the exogenous applications of the osteogenic-soluble molecular signals of the transforming growth factor ? supergene family. The incorporation of specific biologic activities into biomimetic matrices by manipulating the geometry of the substratum, defined as geometric induction of bone formation, is now helping to engineer therapeutic osteogenesis in clinical contexts. PMID:21959451

  14. Measurement of spinal or peripheral bone mass to estimate early postmenopausal bone loss

    SciTech Connect

    Riis, B.J.; Christiansen, C.

    1988-04-01

    This report presents data from 153 healthy, early postmenopausal women who were randomly allocated to two years of treatment with estrogen or placebo. Bone mineral content in the forearms was measured by single-photon absorptiometry, and bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and total-body bone mineral by dual-photon absorptiometry, before and after one and two years of treatment. At the end of the two years, there were highly significant differences of 6 to 7 percent between the estrogen and the placebo groups at all sites measured. The range of the changes of the spine measurement was twice that of the forearm and total-body measurements. It is concluded that measurement of the forearm by single-photon absorptiometry is superior to measurement of the spine by dual-photon absorptiometry both in clinical studies and in the individual patient for detecting estrogen-dependent bone loss and its treatment by estrogen replacement.

  15. Effect of salcatonin given intranasally on early postmenopausal bone loss.

    PubMed Central

    Overgaard, K.; Riis, B. J.; Christiansen, C.; Hansen, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study the effect of salmon calcitonin (salcatonin) given intranasally on calcium and bone metabolism in early postmenopausal women. DESIGN--Double blind, placebo controlled, randomised group comparison. SETTING--Outpatient clinic for research into osteoporosis. SUBJECTS--52 Healthy women who had had a natural menopause two and a half to five years previously. INTERVENTIONS--The 52 women were allocated randomly to two years of treatment with either salcatonin 100IU given intranasally (n = 26) or placebo (n = 26). Both groups received a calcium supplement of 500 mg daily. Seven of the women receiving salcatonin and six of those receiving placebo left the study before its end. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Bone mineral content in the spine, the total skeleton, and the forearms after two years of treatment. RESULTS--Bone mineral content in the spine was significantly higher in the women who had received salcatonin than in those who had received placebo both after one year and after two years of treatment. After one year the difference was 3.8% (95% confidence interval 0.0 to 7.6%) and after two years it was 8.2% (3.8 to 12.6%). In contrast, the bone mineral content in the distal and proximal forearms and in the total skeleton declined similarly in both groups by about 2% each year, and after two years of treatment the differences between the groups were not significant. Biochemical estimates of bone turnover were not affected by salcatonin. CONCLUSION--The results suggest that salcatonin given intranasally in the dose used prevents bone loss in the spine of early post menopausal women but does not affect the peripheral skeleton. PMID:2507027

  16. A Nude Mouse Model for Human Bone Formation in Unloaded Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Muraglia; I Martin; R Cancedda; R Quarto

    1998-01-01

    We describe an experimental model for human bone formation in unloaded conditions. Bone formation has been assessed by implanting in vivo human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) on porous hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramics subcutaneously in nude mice. In this system, human bone formation and remodeling occurs and can be studied in unloaded conditions, i.e., with no influence of muscle tension. Using

  17. Early structure formation from cosmic string loops

    SciTech Connect

    Shlaer, Benjamin; Vilenkin, Alexander [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, 212 College Avenue, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Loeb, Abraham, E-mail: shlaer@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA, 02138 (United States)

    2012-05-01

    We examine the effects of cosmic strings on structure formation and on the ionization history of the universe. While Gaussian perturbations from inflation are known to provide the dominant contribution to the large scale structure of the universe, density perturbations due to strings are highly non-Gaussian and can produce nonlinear structures at very early times. This could lead to early star formation and reionization of the universe. We improve on earlier studies of these effects by accounting for high loop velocities and for the filamentary shape of the resulting halos. We find that for string energy scales G??>10{sup ?7}, the effect of strings on the CMB temperature and polarization power spectra can be significant and is likely to be detectable by the Planck satellite. We mention shortcomings of the standard cosmological model of galaxy formation which may be remedied with the addition of cosmic strings, and comment on other possible observational implications of early structure formation by strings.

  18. The divalent strontium salt S12911 enhances bone cell replication and bone formation in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Canalis; M. Hott; P. Deloffre; Y. Tsouderos; P. J. Marie

    1996-01-01

    In this study, we have determined the effect of the divalent strontium salt S12911 on bone cell replication and bone formation in two culture systems. In the first series of experiments, half-calvariae of newborn rats were cultured with S12911 from 24 to 96 h and labeled with 3H-thymidine for the last 6 h of culture or treated with S12911 for

  19. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 potentiates bone morphogenetic protein-2 induced bone formation.

    PubMed

    Higashino, Kosaku; Viggeswarapu, Manjula; Bargouti, Maggie; Liu, Hui; Titus, Louisa; Boden, Scott D

    2011-02-01

    The mechanisms driving bone marrow stem cell mobilization are poorly understood. A recent murine study found that circulating bone marrow-derived osteoprogenitor cells (MOPCs) were recruited to the site of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)-induced bone formation. Stromal cell-derived factor-1? (SDF-1?) and its cellular receptor CXCR4 have been shown to mediate the homing of stem cells to injured tissues. We hypothesized that chemokines, such as SDF-1, are also involved with mobilization of bone marrow cells. The CD45(-) fraction is a major source of MOPCs. In this report we determined that the addition of BMP-2 or SDF-1 to collagen implants increased the number of MOPCs in the peripheral blood. BMP-2-induced mobilization was blocked by CXCR4 antibody, confirming the role of SDF-1 in mobilization. We determined for the first time that addition of SDF-1 to implants containing BMP-2 enhances mobilization, homing of MOPCs to the implant, and ectopic bone formation induced by suboptimal BMP-2 doses. These results suggest that SDF-1 increases the number of osteoprogenitor cells that are mobilized from the bone marrow and then home to the implant. Thus, addition of SDF-1 to BMP-2 may improve the efficiency of BMPs in vivo, making their routine use for orthopaedic applications more affordable and available to more patients. PMID:21043834

  20. The effect of aging on bone formation in rats: Biochemical and histological evidence for decreased bone formation capacity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoru K. Nishimoto; Chung-Ho Chang; Elchonon Gendler; William F. Stryker; Marcel E. Nimni

    1985-01-01

    Summary  Ectopic bone formation by subcutaneously implanted demineralized bone matrix powder (DBM) was assessed biochemically and histologically\\u000a in Fischer 344 rats of different ages. The total calcium accumulated in implants was greatly depressed in older rats, as was\\u000a the rate of45Ca deposition. High alkaline phosphatase activity appeared later in the 10- and 16-month-old rats compared with 1-month-old\\u000a rats, and the magnitude

  1. Transgenic overexpression of bone morphogenetic protein 11 propeptide in skeleton enhances bone formation.

    PubMed

    Li, Zicong; Zeng, Fang; Mitchell, Alva D; Kim, Yong Soo; Wu, Zhenfang; Yang, Jinzeng

    2011-12-16

    Bone morphogenetic protein 11 (BMP11) is a key regulatory protein in skeletal development. BMP11 propeptide has been shown to antagonize GDF11 activity in vitro. To explore the role of BMP11 propeptide in skeletal formation in vivo, we generated transgenic mice with skeleton-specific overexpression of BMP11 propeptide cDNA. The mice showed a transformation of the seventh cervical vertebra into a thoracic vertebra in our previous report. Presently, further characterizations of the transgenic mice indicated that ossification in calvatia was dramatically enhanced in transgenic fetuses at 16.5 dpc in comparison with their wild-type littermates. At 10 weeks of age, bone mineral content and bone mineral density were significantly (P<0.05) higher in transgenic mice than that in their wild-type littermates based on dual energy X-ray absorptiometry analysis. The relative trabecular bone volume measured by histological analysis was dramatically increased in transgenic mice compared with their wild-type littermates. The enhanced bone formations in the transgenic mice appear to result from increase osteoblast activities as the expressions of four osteoblast markers - ?1 type 1 collagen, osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase and phex were significantly higher in transgenic fetuses than that in their wild-type littermates. These results suggest that over-expression of BMP11 propeptide stimulates bone formation by increasing osteoblast cell functions. PMID:22093826

  2. Decreased bone turnover with balanced resorption and formation prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation) in grizzly bears ( Ursus arctos horribilis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meghan E. McGee; Aaron J. Maki; Steven E. Johnson; O. Lynne Nelson; Charles T. Robbins; Seth W. Donahue

    2008-01-01

    Disuse uncouples bone formation from resorption, leading to increased porosity, decreased bone geometrical properties, and decreased bone mineral content which compromises bone mechanical properties and increases fracture risk. However, black bear bone properties are not adversely affected by aging despite annual periods of disuse (i.e., hibernation), which suggests that bears either prevent bone loss during disuse or lose bone and

  3. Inhibitory effects of ? -interferon on bradykinin-induced bone resorption and prostaglandin formation in cultured mouse calvarial bones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. H. Lerner; Ö. Ljunggren; M. Ransjö; K. Klaushofer; M. Peterlik

    1991-01-01

    The effects of mouse recombinant?-interferon (?-IFN) and indomethacin on bone resorption stimulated by bradykinin, Lys-bradykinin, Met-Lys-bradykinin, des-Arg9-bradykinin and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) have been studied using cultures of neonatal calvarial bones and analyzing the release of45Ca from prelabelled bones as a paramenter of bone resorption. In addition, the effects of?-IFN and indomethacin on formation of PGE2 in bone cultures stimulated by

  4. The Contribution of Bone Marrow-Derived Cells to Cerebrovascular Formation and Integrity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Kobiler; John Glod

    The contribution of bone marrow-derived circulating cells to the formation and maintenance of the vasculature, and the cerebrovasculature\\u000a in particular, has been established. It is becoming evident that several different populations of cells including early progenitor-like\\u000a cells, monocytic cells, and perhaps mesenchymal stem cells are responsible for the reported actions of “endothelial progenitor\\u000a cells.” Large variation in the relative contribution

  5. Expression of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins and Msx Genes during Root Formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Yamashiro; M. Tummers; I. Thesleff

    2003-01-01

    Like crown development, root formation is also regulated by interactions between epithelial and mesenchymml tissues. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), together with the transcription factors Msx1 and Msx2, play important roles in these interactions during early tooth morphogenesis. To investigate the involvement of this signaling pathway in root development, we analyzed the expression patterns of Bmp2, Bmp3, Bmp4, and Bmp7 as

  6. Effect of zinc supplementation on bone formation in hemodialysis patients with normal or low turnover bone.

    PubMed

    Shiota, Jun; Tagawa, Hitoshi; Izumi, Naoki; Higashikawa, Shingo; Kasahara, Hitoshi

    2015-02-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential trace element, which has been shown to stimulate osteoblastic bone formation and to inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption in vitro. In thalassemia, major patients Zn supplementation was reported to increase whole-body bone mineral content and areal bone mineral density. Therefore, we investigated the effect of Zn supplementation on bone formation in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Nine male patients with age of 66 (35-78) years indicated by median (range), HD vintage of 57 (4-97) months and serum intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) of 113 (6-310) pg/mL were supplemented with polaprezinc containing 34?mg Zn/day for 18 months. Doses of vitamin D were not changed during supplementation. Blood was collected at baseline, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months. Serum Zn increased significantly from 58 (52-65)??g/dL to 71 (57-93) ?g/dL at three months and remained unchanged until 18 months. No changes were observed in serum intact PTH during supplementation. Although we found no changes in serum bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) during Zn supplementation analyzed by Friedman test and Scheffe post hoc test, a significant trend of increase in serum BAP was verified by Jonckheere-Terpstra test (p?=?0.0409). On the contrary, there was no trend in serum TRACP5b by Jonckheere-Terpstra test. Therefore, we suggested the effect of Zn supplementation on promoting bone formation, not affected by the status of PTH and vitamin D, in HD patients with normal or low turnover bone. PMID:25207792

  7. Shell Formation and Bone Strength Laying Hens

    E-print Network

    , Daidzein and Exogenous Estrogen Abstract In Sweden almost 3.8% of all eggs are ruined due to cracked was detected. An imbalance between estrogen receptor alpha (ER) and estrogen receptor beta (ER) in the shell and overview of egg formation 10 1.2.2 Calcium sources for shell formation 13 1.2.3 Shell gland and the process

  8. Role of muscle-derived growth factors in bone formation

    PubMed Central

    Hamrick, Mark W.; McNeil, Paul L.; Patterson, Stella L.

    2013-01-01

    Muscle and bone anabolism and catabolism are tightly coupled during growth, development, and aging, yet the cellular and molecular mechanisms linking these two tissues are not well understood. Here we show that FGF-2 and IGF-1, two growth factors known to play a major role in regulating bone formation, are localized to muscle fibers along the muscle-bone interface of the mouse forelimb. Likewise, receptors for these growth factors are also abundant in periosteum adjacent to fleshy muscle attachments along the diaphysis of long bones. Growth factor levels were quantified from homogenized mouse forelimb muscles and IGF-1 was found to be the most abundant factor with FGF-2 also detected. Growth factor levels were also analyzed in conditioned medium from cultured myotubes, and IGF-1 and FGF-2 were again detected at significant levels. Mechanically wounding C2C12 myotubes increased the release of FGF-2 into conditioned medium, whereas IGF-1 was secreted at lower concentrations than FGF-2 following injury. Together these findings suggest that muscle is an important, local source of growth factors for bone tissue. Hence, the integrated growth and development of bone and muscle is likely to be regulated in part by paracrine mechanisms at the muscle-bone interface involving growth factor signaling. PMID:20190381

  9. Exposure to subcutaneously implanted uranium dioxide impairs bone formation.

    PubMed

    Díaz Sylvester, Paula L; López, Ricardo; Ubios, Angela M; Cabrini, Rómulo L

    2002-01-01

    The introduction of uranium particles into subcutaneous tissue is a risk that affects workers engaged in the extraction, purification, and manufacture of uranium, as well as soldiers who are wounded with uranium shrapnel. The authors evaluated the effect of an internal source of an insoluble form of uranium on bone. Uranium dioxide powder (0.125 gm/kg body weight) was implanted subcutaneously in rats. After 30 days, animals exposed to uranium weighed less than controls. Bone formation activity in endochondral ossification and bone growth were also lower in the experimental animals, as evidenced by histomorphometric and morphometric methods. This is the first study to report bone damage resulting from continuous, nonlethal exposure to an insoluble compound of uranium dioxide over a period of 30 days. PMID:12530598

  10. Craniosynostosis-Associated Fgfr2C342Y Mutant Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Exhibit Cell Autonomous Abnormalities in Osteoblast Differentiation and Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, J.; Kwon, T.-G.; Nam, H. K.; Hatch, N. E.

    2013-01-01

    We recently reported that cranial bones of Fgfr2C342Y/+ craniosynostotic mice are diminished in density when compared to those of wild type mice, and that cranial bone cells isolated from the mutant mice exhibit inhibited late stage osteoblast differentiation. To provide further support for the idea that craniosynostosis-associated Fgfr mutations lead to cell autonomous defects in osteoblast differentiation and mineralized tissue formation, here we tested bone marrow stromal cells isolated from Fgfr2C342Y/+ mice for their ability to differentiate into osteoblasts. Additionally, to determine if the low bone mass phenotype of Crouzon syndrome includes the appendicular skeleton, long bones were assessed by micro CT. Fgfr2C342Y/+ cells showed increased osteoblastic gene expression during early osteoblastic differentiation but decreased expression of alkaline phosphatase mRNA and enzyme activity, and decreased mineralization during later stages of differentiation, when cultured under 2D in vitro conditions. Cells isolated from Fgfr2C342Y/+ mice also formed less bone when allowed to differentiate in a 3D matrix in vivo. Cortical bone parameters were diminished in long bones of Fgfr2C342Y/+ mice. These results demonstrate that marrow stromal cells of Fgfr2C342Y/+ mice have an autonomous defect in osteoblast differentiation and bone mineralization, and that the Fgfr2C342Y mutation influences both the axial and appendicular skeletons. PMID:23762837

  11. Effect of estrogen/gestagen and 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 therapy on bone formation in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Thomsen, K.; Riis, B.; Christiansen, C.

    1986-12-01

    The effect of two different estrogen/gestagen regimens and 24R,25-(OH)2-cholecalciferol on bone formation was studied in a randomized trial with 144 healthy postmenopausal women. Urinary excretion (UE) of /sup 99m/technetium-diphosphonate and serum alkaline phosphatase (AP) was determined before and then once a year for 2 years of treatment. Both estimates of bone formation showed highly significant decreases (p less than .001) to normal premenopausal levels in women receiving unopposed 17 beta-estradiol or in a sequential combination with progestagen, whereas unchanged high values were found in the groups receiving 24R,25-(OH)2D3 and placebo. The data show that bone turnover increases in early postmenopausal women concomitantly with the loss of bone mass, and that hormonal substitutional therapy normalizes the total skeletal turnover as well as preventing bone loss.

  12. Sclerostin is a delayed secreted product of osteocytes that inhibits bone formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth E. S. Poole; Rutger L. van Bezooijen; Nigel Loveridge; Herman Hamersma; Socrates E. Papapoulos; Clemens W. Löwik; Jonathan Reeve

    2005-01-01

    Osteocytes are the most abundant cells in bone and are ideally located to influence bone turnover through their syncytial relationship with surface bone cells. Osteocyte-derived signals have remained largely enigmatic, but it was recently reported that human osteocytes secrete sclerostin, an inhibitor of bone formation. Absent sclerostin protein results in the high bone mass clinical disorder sclerosteosis. Here we report

  13. Immunolocalization of markers for bone formation during guided bone regeneration in osteopenic rats

    PubMed Central

    TERA, Tábata de Mello; NASCIMENTO, Rodrigo Dias; do PRADO, Renata Falchete; SANTAMARIA, Mauro Pedrine; JARDINI, Maria Aparecida Neves

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this paper was to evaluate the repair of onlay autogenous bone grafts covered or not covered by an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) membrane using immunohistochemistry in rats with induced estrogen deficiency. Material and Methods Eighty female rats were randomly divided into two groups: ovariectomized (OVX) and with a simulation of the surgical procedure (SHAM). Each of these groups was again divided into groups with either placement of an autogenous bone graft alone (BG) or an autogenous bone graft associated with an e-PTFE membrane (BGM). Animals were euthanized on days 0, 7, 21, 45, and 60. The specimens were subjected to immunohistochemistry for bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteonectin (ONC), and osteocalcin (OCC). Results All groups (OVX+BG, OVX+BMG, SHAM+BG, and SHAM+BMG) showed greater bone formation, observed between 7 and 21 days, when BSP and ONC staining were more intense. At the 45-day, the bone graft showed direct bonding to the recipient bed in all specimens. The ONC and OCC showed more expressed in granulation tissue, in the membrane groups, independently of estrogen deficiency. Conclusions The expression of bone forming markers was not negatively influenced by estrogen deficiency. However, the markers could be influenced by the presence of the e-PTFE membrane. PMID:25591022

  14. Red yeast rice stimulates bone formation in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gloria E. Gutierrez; Benjamin Mundy; Gianni Rossini; I. Ross Garrett; Stephen T. Chen; Gregory R. Mundy

    2006-01-01

    Statins are a class of drugs commonly prescribed to decrease cholesterol levels that have recently been shown to also stimulate bone formation. Clinical data have emerged in the last few years that suggest statins may reduce the risk of fracture in patients taking these drugs for cholesterol lowering. Red yeast rice (RYR), rice that has been fermented by the red

  15. Loss of transcription factor early growth response gene 1 results in impaired endochondral bone repair

    PubMed Central

    Reumann, Marie K.; Strachna, Olga; Yagerman, Sarah; Torrecilla, Daniel; Kim, Jihye; Doty, Steven B.; Lukashova, Lyudmila; Boskey, Adele L.; Mayer-Kuckuk, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    Transcription factors that play a role in ossification during development are expected to participate in postnatal fracture repair since the endochondral bone formation that occurs in embryos is recapitulated during fracture repair. However, inherent differences exist between bone development and fracture repair, including a sudden disruption of tissue integrity followed by an inflammatory response. This raises the possibility that repair-specific transcription factors participate in bone healing. Here, we assessed the consequence of loss of early growth response gene 1 (EGR-1) on endochondral bone healing because this transcription factor has been shown to modulate repair in vascularized tissues. Model fractures were created in ribs of wild type (wt) and EGR-1?/? mice. Differences in tissue morphology and composition between these two animal groups were followed over 28 post fracture days (PFDs). In wt mice, bone healing occurred in healing phases characteristic of endochondral bone repair. A similar healing sequence was observed in EGR-1?/? mice but was impaired by alterations. A persistent accumulation of fibrin between the disconnected bones was observed on PFD7 and remained pronounced in the callus on PFD14. Additionally, the PFD14 callus was abnormally enlarged and showed increased deposition of mineralized tissue. Cartilage ossification in the callus was associated with hyper-vascularity and -proliferation. Moreover, cell deposits located in proximity to the callus within skeletal muscle were detected on PFD14. Despite these impairments, repair in EGR-1?/? callus advanced on PFD28, suggesting EGR-1 is not essential for healing. Together, this study provides genetic evidence that EGR-1 is a pleiotropic regulator of endochondral fracture repair. PMID:21726677

  16. Tenascin-W inhibits proliferation and differentiation of preosteoblasts during endochondral bone formation

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Hiroaki [Department of Orthopaedics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Akiyama, Haruhiko [Department of Orthopaedics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)]. E-mail: hakiyama@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Nakamura, Takashi [Department of Orthopaedics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Crombrugghe, Benoit de [Department of Molecular Genetics, The University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2007-05-18

    We identified a cDNA encoding mouse Tenascin-W (TN-W) upregulated by bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp)2 in ATDC5 osteo-chondroprogenitors. In adult mice, TN-W was markedly expressed in bone. In mouse embryos, during endochondral bone formation TN-W was localized in perichondrium/periosteum, but not in trabecular and cortical bones. During bone fracture repair, cells in the newly formed perichondrium/periosteum surrounding the cartilaginous callus expressed TN-W. Furthermore, TN-W was detectable in perichondrium/periosteum of Runx2-null and Osterix-null embryos, indicating that TN-W is expressed in preosteoblasts. In CFU-F and -O cells, TN-W had no effect on initiation of osteogenesis of bone marrow cells, and in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells TN-W inhibited cell proliferation and Col1a1 expression. In addition, TN-W suppressed canonical Wnt signaling which stimulates osteoblastic differentiation. Our results indicate that TN-W is a novel marker of preosteoblasts in early stage of osteogenesis, and that TN-W inhibits cell proliferation and differentiation of preosteoblasts mediated by canonical Wnt signaling.

  17. Synergistic effect of fibroblast growth factor-4 in ectopic bone formation induced by bone morphogenetic protein-2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Kubota; S Iseki; S Kuroda; S Oida; T Iimura; W. R Duarte; K Ohya; I Ishikawa; S Kasugai

    2002-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein family members (BMPs) are essential signaling molecules during limb development and, in this process, fibroblast growth factor family members (FGFs) cooperate with BMPs. FGFs also exert anabolic effects in bone when systemically or locally applied. Thus, it is likely that the cooperation with FGFs also occurs in BMP-induced ectopic bone formation and that the exogenous FGF application

  18. [Osteoplastic pneumopathy (disseminated bone formation in the lung)].

    PubMed

    Baranyay, F

    1981-01-01

    8 cases of pneumophathia osteoplastica (ppo) of branching type observed at patients having no vascular deformities and one case of a focal ppo at a patient with mitral stenosis are reported. Pathogenesis of the ppo of branching type in the majority of cases could not be clarified since the process appeared to be in the phase of definitive bone formation. Nevertheless in one of the cases in a septum of Y shape in addition to collagen fibres ending in bone tissue numerous elastic fibres have also been revealed. This fact, considering the presence of a normal bronchus in the area seems to evidence vascular origin of the lesion. The latter hypothesis could be verified by the bone-formation in the media of a vessel wall in another case. Further, in a case of primary chronic polyarthritis with ppo, bone-formation could be seen in the perivascular lung tissue with necrotizing pulmonal arteritis. Considering this finding the possibility of the primary role of necrotizing pulmonal arthritis in the pathogenesis of ppo have to be taken into account. Ppo should be classified as one of the alveolocapillary block syndromes. In some cases it may have clinico-pathological significance. It may lead to bronchietasis, emphyseme or cor pulmonale chronicum. PMID:6790943

  19. Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitor Reduces Simvastatin-Induced Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 and Bone Formation In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, J. D.; Cleverly, D. G.; Burns, A. M.; Helm, N. B.; Schmid, M. J.; Marx, D. B.; Cullen, D. M.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Simvastatin, a cholesterol-lowering drug, also stimulates oral bone growth when applied topically, without systemic side effects. However, the mechanisms involved in vivo are not known. We hypothesized that bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 are involved, based on prior in vitro evidence. Material and Methods: A rat bilateral mandible model, where 0.5 mg simvastatin in methylcellulose gel (SIM) was placed on one side and gel alone (GEL) on the other, was used to quantitate NO, COX-2 and BMP-2 (via tissue extraction, enzyme activity or immunoassay), and bone formation rate (BFR; via undecalcified histomorphometry). COX-2 and NOS inhibitors (N-398 and L-NAME, respectively) also were administered intraperitoneally. Results: SIM was found to stimulate local BMP-2, NO and regional BFR (p < 0.05), while NS-398 inhibited BMP-2 and BFR (p ? 0.05). Conclusion: These data suggest an association between simvastatin-induced BMP-2 and bone formation in the mandibular microenvironment, and the negative effect of COX-2 inhibitors on bone growth. PMID:17451547

  20. Ectopic bone formation by electroporatic transfer of bone morphogenetic protein-4 gene.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, K N; Watanabe, Y; Nakamura, H; Kokubun, S

    2002-08-01

    Orthopedic surgeons have long awaited the clinical application of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) for bone regeneration. However, such possible applications involving proteins or genes transferred with virus vectors have encountered many problems, including high cost, immunological reactions, viral infection, etc. We adopted a new gene transfer system of in vivo electroporation with a plasmid expression vector. A solution of plasmid DNA containing mouse BMP-4 (pMiw-BMP4) was injected into the gastrocnemius of BALB/cA mice, and electric pulses were applied through paired-needle electrodes inserted percutaneously. As a control plasmid, LacZ-containing plasmid (pMiwZ) was transferred by electroporation. A control group in which pMiw-BMP4 was injected and not electroporated was also introduced. In these groups, the gastrocnemius was harvested at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after electroporation (n = 6 in each). As nonplasmid controls, electroporation with saline injection (n = 6), electroporation without injection (n = 6), and saline injection only (n = 3) were prepared. In these groups, the mice were killed 7 days after experimentation. Ectopic calcification or ossification was examined by histology as well as soft X-ray. In all electroporated groups (pMiwZ, pMiw-BMP4, saline injection, and without injection), dystrophic calcification of muscle bundles and infiltration of mesenchymal cells were observed histologically. Ectopic bone formation was observed only in the pMiw-BMP4 electroporation group. At 7 days after pMiw-BMP4 electroporation, extracellular eosinophilic matrix in a collection of mesenchymal cells was observed. Between 14 and 28 days after electroporation, ectopic bone was observed in 44% of mice, and bone marrow-like cells observed in 22%. The newly formed bone was woven. Injection of pMiw-BMP4 or saline induced neither calcification nor ossification. Our findings indicate that BMP-4 transferred by electroporation can induce in vivo and in situ ectopic bone formation in skeletal muscle. PMID:12151088

  1. Early Fixation of Cobalt-Chromium Based Alloy Surgical Implants to Bone Using a Tissue-engineering Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Munehiro; Tohma, Yasuaki; Ohgushi, Hajime; Takakura, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2012-01-01

    To establish the methods of demonstrating early fixation of metal implants to bone, one side of a Cobalt-Chromium (CoCr) based alloy implant surface was seeded with rabbit marrow mesenchymal cells and the other side was left unseeded. The mesenchymal cells were further cultured in the presence of ascorbic acid, ?-glycerophosphate and dexamethasone, resulting in the appearance of osteoblasts and bone matrix on the implant surface. Thus, we succeeded in generating tissue-engineered bone on one side of the CoCr implant. The CoCr implants were then implanted in rabbit bone defects. Three weeks after the implantation, evaluations of mechanical test, undecalcified histological section and electron microscope analysis were performed. Histological and electron microscope images of the tissue engineered surface exhibited abundant new bone formation. However, newly formed bone tissue was difficult to detect on the side without cell seeding. In the mechanical test, the mean values of pull-out forces were 77.15 N and 44.94 N for the tissue-engineered and non-cell-seeded surfaces, respectively. These findings indicate early bone fixation of the tissue-engineered CoCr surface just three weeks after implantation. PMID:22754313

  2. Early bone growth on the surface of titanium implants in rat femur is enhanced by an amorphous diamond coating

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose Amorphous diamond (AD) is a durable and compatible biomaterial for joint prostheses. Knowledge regarding bone growth on AD-coated implants and their early-stage osseointegration is poor. We investigated bone growth on AD-coated cementless intramedullary implants implanted in rats. Titanium was chosen as a reference due to its well-known performance. Materials and methods We placed AD-coated and non-coated titanium implants (Ra ? 0.2 ?m) into the femoral bone marrow of 25 rats. The animals were divided in 2 groups according to implant coating and they were killed after 4 or 12 weeks. The osseointegration of the implants was examined from hard tissue specimens by measuring the new bone formation on their surface. Results 4 weeks after the operation, the thickness of new bone in the AD-coated group was greater than that in the non-coated group (15.3 (SD 7.1) ?m vs. 7.6 (SD 6.0) ?m). 12 weeks after the operation, the thickness of new bone was similar in the non-coated group and in the AD-coated group. Interpretation We conclude that AD coating of femoral implants can enhance bone ongrowth in rats in the acute, early stage after the operation and might be an improvement over earlier coatings. PMID:21504369

  3. Biologic properties of nano-hydroxyapatite: An in vivo study of calvarial defects, ectopic bone formation and bone implantation.

    PubMed

    Pang, Kang-Mi; Lee, Jeong-Keun; Seo, Young-Kwon; Kim, Soung-Min; Kim, Myung-Jin; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the biologic properties of nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp) using the rat calvarial defect, ectopic bone formation, and rabbit tibia implant installation models. Animals were divided into two groups: those implanted with nHAp, and negative controls (Collagen). Eight weeks after creating an 8 mm calvarial defect, bone regeneration was evaluated radiographically and histologically. To investigate ectopic bone formation, materials were injected into the right thigh muscle and were evaluated after 8 weeks. nHAp coated implant and conventional titanium implant were placed bilaterally in rabbit tibias. After 4 weeks, bone-implant contact (BIC), new bone area inside the thread, and removal torque were measured. In the calvarial defect model, radiographic and histologic analysis showed more bone formation in the nHAp Group; particularly, histologically assessed bone area (p=0.034) and microcomputed tomography assessed bone mineral density (p=0.034). In the ectopic bone formation model, calcification and expression of osteogenic biomarkers were seen in the nHAp-injected samples but in none of the controls. nHAp coated implant resulted in increased BIC, new bone area, and increased removal torque, with statistical significance for BIC (p=0.034). This study suggests that nHAp has potential as a coating material for dental implant surfaces and as a bone graft material. PMID:25585978

  4. Control of bone formation by the serpentine receptor Frizzled-9

    PubMed Central

    Albers, Joachim; Schulze, Jochen; Beil, F. Timo; Gebauer, Matthias; Baranowsky, Anke; Keller, Johannes; Marshall, Robert P.; Wintges, Kristofer; Friedrich, Felix W.; Priemel, Matthias; Schilling, Arndt F.; Rueger, Johannes M.; Cornils, Kerstin; Fehse, Boris; Streichert, Thomas; Sauter, Guido; Jakob, Franz; Insogna, Karl L.; Pober, Barbara; Knobeloch, Klaus-Peter; Francke, Uta; Amling, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Although Wnt signaling in osteoblasts is of critical importance for the regulation of bone remodeling, it is not yet known which specific Wnt receptors of the Frizzled family are functionally relevant in this process. In this paper, we show that Fzd9 is induced upon osteoblast differentiation and that Fzd9?/? mice display low bone mass caused by impaired bone formation. Our analysis of Fzd9?/? primary osteoblasts demonstrated defects in matrix mineralization in spite of normal expression of established differentiation markers. In contrast, we observed a reduced expression of chemokines and interferon-regulated genes in Fzd9?/? osteoblasts. We also identified the ubiquitin-like modifier Isg15 as one potential downstream mediator of Fzd9 in these cells. Importantly, our molecular analysis further revealed that canonical Wnt signaling is not impaired in the absence of Fzd9, thus explaining the absence of a bone resorption phenotype. Collectively, our results reveal a previously unknown function of Fzd9 in osteoblasts, a finding that may have therapeutic implications for bone loss disorders. PMID:21402791

  5. Disruption of Scube2 Impairs Endochondral Bone Formation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuh-Charn; Roffler, Steve R; Yan, Yu-Ting; Yang, Ruey-Bing

    2015-07-01

    Signal peptide-CUB-EGF domain-containing protein 2 (SCUBE2) belongs to a secreted and membrane-tethered multidomain SCUBE protein family composed of three members found in vertebrates and mammals. Recent reports suggested that zebrafish scube2 could facilitate sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling for proper development of slow muscle. However, whether SCUBE2 can regulate the signaling activity of two other hedgehog ligands (Ihh and Dhh), and the developmental relevance of the SCUBE2-induced hedgehog signaling in mammals remain poorly understood. In this study, we first showed that as compared with SCUBE1 or SCUBE3, SCUBE2 is the most potent modulator of IHH signaling in vitro. In addition, gain and loss-of-function studies demonstrated that SCUBE2 exerted an osteogenic function by enhancing Ihh-stimulated osteoblast differentiation in the mouse mesenchymal progenitor cells. Consistent with these in vitro studies and the prominent roles of Ihh in coordinating skeletogenesis, genetic ablation of Scube2 (-/-) caused defective endochondral bone formation and impaired Ihh-mediated chondrocyte differentiation and proliferation as well as osteoblast differentiation of -/- bone-marrow mesenchymal stromal-cell cultures. Our data demonstrate that Scube2 plays a key regulatory role in Ihh-dependent endochondral bone formation. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:25639508

  6. Soy protein consumption and bone mass in early postmenopausal Chinese women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne C. Ho; Jean Woo; Silvia Lam; Yuming Chen; Aprille Sham; Joseph Lau

    2003-01-01

    Recent interest has been shown in the potential beneficial effects of phytoestrogens on bone health. As the early years of menopause are a period of rapid bone loss, and the risk for osteoporosis increases substantially, the habitual intake of soy protein and isoflavones may play a role in the retardation of bone loss. This paper reports the results of the

  7. Determinants of bone and blood lead concentrations in the early postpartum period

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Jean Brown; Howard Hu; Teresa Gonzales-Cossio; Karen E Peterson; Luz-Helena Sanin; Maria de Luz Kageyama; Eduardo Palazuelos; Antonio Aro; Lourdes Schnaas; Mauricio Hernandez-Avila

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVEThis study investigated determinants of bone and blood lead concentrations in 430 lactating Mexican women during the early postpartum period and the contribution of bone lead to blood lead.METHODSMaternal venous lead was measured at delivery and postpartum, and bone lead concentrations, measured with in vivo K-xray fluorescence, were measured post partum. Data on environmental exposure, demographic characteristics, and maternal factors

  8. Title: Patterning Bone Regeneration In Silico Modeling of Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) Driven bone formation

    E-print Network

    Wolper, Pierre

    to overdosing. Recently, in our laboratory, implantation of BMP-coated CaP carriers in a nude mouse model). Implantation of BMP-coated CaP carrier in a nude mouse model will be performed, and the location of bone tissue

  9. MicroRNA control of bone formation and homeostasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary S. Stein; Andre J. van Wijnen; Janet L. Stein; Mohammad Q. Hassan; Tripti Gaur; Ying Zhang; Jane B. Lian

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) repress cellular protein levels to provide a sophisticated parameter of gene regulation that coordinates a broad spectrum of biological processes. Bone organogenesis is a complex process involving the differentiation and crosstalk of multiple cell types for formation and remodeling of the skeleton. Inhibition of mRNA translation by miRNAs has emerged as an important regulator of developmental osteogenic signaling

  10. Protostar formation in the early universe.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Naoki; Omukai, Kazuyuki; Hernquist, Lars

    2008-08-01

    The nature of the first generation of stars in the universe remains largely unknown. Observations imply the existence of massive primordial stars early in the history of the universe, and the standard theory for the growth of cosmic structure predicts that structures grow hierarchically through gravitational instability. We have developed an ab initio computer simulation of the formation of primordial stars that follows the relevant atomic and molecular processes in a primordial gas in an expanding universe. The results show that primeval density fluctuations left over from the Big Bang can drive the formation of a tiny protostar with a mass 1% that of the Sun. The protostar is a seed for the subsequent formation of a massive primordial star. PMID:18669856

  11. Local treatment of a bone graft by soaking in zoledronic acid inhibits bone resorption and bone formation. A bone chamber study in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bone grafts are frequently used in orthopaedic surgery. Graft remodelling is advantageous but can occur too quickly, and premature bone resorption might lead to decreased mechanical integrity of the graft. Bisphosphonates delay osteoclastic bone resorption but may also impair formation of new bone. We hypothesize that these effects are dose dependent. In the present study we evaluate different ways of applying bisphosphonates locally to the graft in a bone chamber model, and compare that with systemic treatment. Methods Cancellous bone grafts were placed in titanium chambers and implanted in the tibia of 50 male rats, randomly divided into five groups. The first group served as negative control and the grafts were rinsed in saline before implantation. In the second and third groups, the grafts were soaked in a zoledronic acid solution (0.5 mg/ml) for 5 seconds and 10 minutes respectively before being rinsed in saline. In the fourth group, 8 ?L of zoledronic acid solution (0.5 mg/ml) was pipetted onto the freeze-dried grafts without rinsing. The fifth group served as positive control and the rats were given zoledronic acid (0.1 mg/kg) systemically as a single injection two weeks after surgery. The grafts were harvested at 6 weeks and analysed with histomorphometry, evaluating the ingrowth distance of new bone into the graft as an equivalent to the anabolic osteoblast effect and the amount (bone volume/total volume; BV/TV) of remaining bone in the remodelled graft as equivalent to the catabolic osteoclast effect. Results In all chambers, almost the entire graft had been revascularized but only partly remodelled at harvest. The ingrowth distance of new bone into the graft was lower in grafts soaked in zoledronic acid for 10 minutes compared to control (p = 0.007). In all groups receiving zoledronic acid, the BV/TV was higher compared to control. Conclusions This study found a strong inhibitory effect on bone resorption by bisphosphonates but also a limited inhibition of the ingrowth of new bone. Local treatment at surgery resulted in stronger inhibition of both resorption and bone formation compared to systemic treatment. PMID:23217097

  12. Sequential application of steady and pulsatile medium perfusion enhanced the formation of engineered bone.

    PubMed

    Correia, Cristina; Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Sousa, Rui A; Reis, Rui L; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2013-05-01

    In native bone, cells experience fluctuating shear forces that are induced by pulsatile interstitial flow associated with habitual loading. We hypothesized that the formation of engineered bone can be augmented by replicating such physiologic stimuli to osteogenic cells cultured in porous scaffolds using bioreactors with medium perfusion. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of fluid flow regime on in vitro bone-like tissue development by human adipose stem cells (hASC) cultivated on porous three-dimensional silk fibroin scaffolds. To this end, we varied the sequential relative durations of steady flow (SF) and pulsatile flow (PF) of culture medium applied over a period of 5 weeks, and evaluated their effect on early stages of bone formation. Porous silk fibroin scaffolds (400-600??m pore size) were seeded with hASC (30×10(6) cells/mL) and cultured in osteogenic medium under four distinct fluid flow regimes: (1) PF for 5 weeks; (2) SF for 1 week, PF for 4 weeks; (3) SF for 2 weeks, PF for 3 weeks; (4) SF for 5 weeks. The PF was applied in 12?h intervals, with the interstitial velocity fluctuating between 400 and 1200??m/s at a 0.5?Hz frequency for 2?h, followed by 10?h of SF. In all groups, SF was applied at 400??m/s. The best osteogenic outcomes were achieved for the sequence of 2 weeks of SF and 3 weeks of PF, as evidenced by gene expression (including the PGE2 mechanotransduction marker), construct compositions, histomorphologies, and biomechanical properties. We thus propose that osteogenesis in hASC and the subsequent early stage bone development involve a mechanism, which detects and responds to the level and duration of hydrodynamic shear forces. PMID:23259605

  13. Transgenic overexpression of bone morphogenetic protein 11 propeptide in skeleton enhances bone formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zicong Li; Fang Zeng; Alva Mitchell; Yong Soo Kim; Zhenfang Wu; Jinzeng Yang

    Bone morphogenetic protein 11 (BMP11) is a key regulatory protein in skeletal development. BMP11 propeptide has been shown to antagonize GDF11 activity in vitro. To explore the role of BMP11 propeptide in skeletal formation in vivo, we generated transgenic mice with skeleton-specific overexpression of BMP11 propeptide cDNA. The mice showed a transformation of the seventh cervical vertebra into a thoracic

  14. OSTEOBLAST DIFFERENTIATION AND BONE FORMATION GENE EXPRESSION IN STRONTIUM-INDUCING BONE MARROW MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monnipha Sila-asna; Ahnond Bunyaratvej; Sakan Maeda; Hiromichi Kitaguchi; Narong Bunyaratavej

    2007-01-01

    Osteoblastic differentiation from human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSCs) is an important step of bone formation. We studied the in vitro induction of hMSCs by using strontium ranelate, a natural trace amount in water, food and human skeleton. The mRNA synthesis of various osteoblast specific genes was assessed by means of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In the hMSCs culture,

  15. Black hole formation in the early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latif, M. A.; Schleicher, D. R. G.; Schmidt, W.; Niemeyer, J.

    2013-08-01

    Supermassive black holes with up to a 109 M? dwell in the centres of present-day galaxies, and their presence has been confirmed at z ? 6. Their formation at such early epochs is still an enigma. Different pathways have been suggested to assemble supermassive black holes in the first billion years after the big bang. Direct collapse has emerged as a highly plausible scenario to form black holes as it provides seed masses of 105-106 M?. Gravitational collapse in atomic cooling haloes with virial temperatures Tvir ? 104 K may lead to the formation of massive seed black holes in the presence of an intense background ultraviolet flux. Turbulence plays a central role in regulating accretion and transporting angular momentum. We present here the highest resolution cosmological large eddy simulations to date which track the evolution of high-density regions on scales of 0.25 au beyond the formation of the first peak, and study the impact of subgrid-scale turbulence. The peak density reached in these simulations is 1.2 × 10-8 g cm-3. Our findings show that while fragmentation occasionally occurs, it does not prevent the growth of a central massive object resulting from turbulent accretion and occasional mergers. The central object reaches ˜1000 M? within four free-fall times, and we expect further growth up to 106 M? through accretion in about 1 Myr. The direct collapse model thus provides a viable pathway of forming high-mass black holes at early cosmic times.

  16. Dual Delivery of rhPDGF-BB and Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Expressing the BMP2 Gene Enhance Bone Formation in a Critical-Sized Defect Model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Shin-Young; Kim, Kyoung-Hwa; Shin, Seung-Yun; Koo, Ki-Tae; Lee, Yong-Moo

    2013-01-01

    Bone tissue healing is a dynamic, orchestrated process that relies on multiple growth factors and cell types. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) is released from platelets at wound sites and induces cellular migration and proliferation necessary for bone regeneration in the early healing process. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), the most potent osteogenic differentiation inducer, directs new bone formation at the sites of bone defects. This study evaluated a combinatorial treatment protocol of PDGF-BB and BMP-2 on bone healing in a critical-sized defect model. To mimic the bone tissue healing process, a dual delivery approach was designed to deliver the rhPDGF-BB protein transiently during the early healing phase, whereas BMP-2 was supplied by rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) transfected with an adenoviral vector containing the BMP2 gene (AdBMP2) for prolonged release throughout the healing process. In in vitro experiments, the dual delivery of rhPDGF-BB and BMP2 significantly enhanced cell proliferation. However, the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs was significantly suppressed even though the amount of BMP-2 secreted by the AdBMP2-transfected BMSCs was not significantly affected by the rhPDGF-BB treatment. In addition, dual delivery inhibited the mRNA expression of BMP receptor type II and Noggin in BMSCs. In in vivo experiments, critical-sized calvarial defects in rats showed enhanced bone regeneration by dual delivery of autologous AdBMP2-transfected BMSCs and rhPDGF-BB in both the amount of new bone formed and the bone mineral density. These enhancements in bone regeneration were greater than those observed in the group treated with AdBMP2-transfected BMSCs alone. In conclusion, the dual delivery of rhPDGF-BB and AdBMP2-transfected BMSCs improved the quality of the regenerated bone, possibly due to the modulation of PDGF-BB on BMP-2-induced osteogenesis. PMID:23901900

  17. Hypothesis: Coupling between Resorption and Formation in Cancellous bone Remodeling is a Mechanically Controlled Event

    PubMed Central

    Erben, Reinhold G.

    2015-01-01

    Coupling is the process that links bone resorption to formation in a temporally and spatially coordinated manner within the remodeling cycle. In order to maintain skeletal integrity, it is of crucial importance that the amount of bone resorbed matches the amount of newly formed bone in each remodeling site. Although a number of different explanatory models have been developed, the mechanisms that couple bone resorption and formation in bone remodeling are still a matter of controversy. Here, I propose a model in which coupling is achieved by biomechanical strain sensed by osteocytes within the newly built bone package. In this model, the resorption cavity created by osteoclasts results in mechanical weakening of the structural element, and, thus, in increased strain under constant loading conditions. Subsequent bone formation is initiated by strain-sensitive osteocytes in the underlying bone matrix. After osteoblastic bone formation has started, the newly built osteocyte–osteoblast network detects strain. Once the mechanical strain within the newly built bone structural unit falls below a certain threshold, bone formation stops. In this biomechanical strain-driven model, osteoblasts do not need to “know” how much bone was previously resorbed in a given site. In addition, this model does not require the transfer of any information from bone-resorbing osteoclasts to bone-forming osteoblasts, because biomechanical strain “guides” osteoblasts through their job of re-filling the resorption cavity.

  18. Annual skeletal balance and metabolic bone marker changes in healthy early postmenopausal women: results of a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Mazzuoli, G; Acca, M; Pisani, D; Diacinti, D; Scarda, A; Scarnecchia, L; Pacitti, M T; D'Erasmo, E; Minisola, S; Bianchi, G; Manfredi, G

    2000-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the duration and annual rate of menopause-related bone loss and to investigate the relationship between bone turnover and bone loss in early healthy postmenopausal women. The rate of change in bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine and in bone turnover was measured twice at the exact interval of 12 months by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and by the determination of plasma alkaline phosphatase levels (ALP) and fasting urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio (OHPr/Cr), respectively, in 123 healthy premenopausal and postmenopausal women 45-60 years of age. The subjects were divided into nine groups according to their menstrual status and years since menopause (YSM). Annual bone loss at the lumbar spine of women who were menopausal for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years was -2.62 +/- 0.37 (95% confidence interval -3.66, -1.58), -3.87 +/- 0.96 (-6.02, -1.73), -2.50 +/- 0. 37 (-3.29, -1.70), -2.86 +/- 0.73 (-4.44, -1.27), and -1.54 +/- 0.41 (-2.42, -0.66), respectively, and was significantly less than zero. But, the annual bone loss of women who were premenopausal or menopausal for 6, 7, and 8 years was -0.76 +/- 0.60 (-2.04, +0.53), -1.16 +/- 0.68 (-2.61, +0.29), 0.24 +/- 0.48 (-0.78, +1.26), and 0. 16 +/- 0.63 (-1.18, -1.49), respectively, and was not significantly different from zero. These results demonstrate that the early hormone-dependent bone loss commences in the first year after menopause and is arrested within 6 years after the onset of menopause. The overall bone loss for this phase is estimated to be approximately 15%. Annual change in ALP and OHPr/Cr seems to indicate that bone resorption prevails on bone formation in the first 2 YSM, whereas osteoblastic activity relatively prevails from YSM 3 to YSM 5, which explains the progressive repairing of the imbalance between bone resorption and formation. PMID:10719282

  19. Biglycan modulates angiogenesis and bone formation during fracture healing

    PubMed Central

    Berendsen, Agnes D.; Pinnow, Emily L.; Maeda, Azusa; Brown, Aaron C.; McCartney-Francis, Nancy; Kram, Vardit; Owens, Rick T.; Robey, Pamela G.; Holmbeck, Kenn; de Castro, Luis F.; Kilts, Tina M.; Young, Marian F.

    2014-01-01

    Matrix proteoglycans such as biglycan (Bgn) dominate skeletal tissue and yet its exact role in regulating bone function is still unclear. In this paper we describe the potential role of (Bgn) in the fracture healing process. We hypothesized that Bgn could regulate fracture healing because of previous work showing that it can affect normal bone formation. To test this hypothesis, we created fractures in femurs of 6-week-old male wild type (WT or Bgn+/0) and Bgn-deficient (Bgn-KO or Bgn?/0) mice using a custom-made standardized fracture device, and analyzed the process of healing over time. The formation of a callus around the fracture site was observed at both 7 and 14 days post-fracture in WT and Bgn-deficient mice and immunohistochemistry revealed that Bgn was highly expressed in the fracture callus of WT mice, localizing within woven bone and cartilage. Micro-computed tomography (?CT) analysis of the region surrounding the fracture line showed that the Bgn-deficient mice had a smaller callus than WT mice. Histology of the same region also showed the presence of less cartilage and woven bone in the Bgn-deficient mice compared to WT mice. Picrosirius red staining of the callus visualized under polarized light showed that there was less fibrillar collagen in the Bgn-deficient mice, a finding confirmed by immunohistochemistry using antibodies to type I collagen. Interestingly, real time RT-PCR of the callus at 7 days post-fracture showed a significant decrease in relative vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF) gene expression by Bgn-deficient mice as compared to WT. Moreover, VEGF was shown to bind directly to Bgn through a solid-phase binding assay. The inability of Bgn to directly enhance VEGF-induced signaling suggests that Bgn has a unique role in regulating vessel formation, potentially related to VEGF storage or stabilization in the matrix. Taken together, these results suggest that Bgn has a regulatory role in the process of bone formation during fracture healing, and further, that reduced angiogenesis could be the molecular basis. PMID:24373744

  20. Early planet formation as a trigger for further planet formation

    E-print Network

    Philip J. Armitage; Brad M. S. Hansen

    1999-12-08

    Recent discoveries of extrasolar planets at small orbital radii, or with significant eccentricities, indicate that interactions between massive planets and the disks of gas and dust from which they formed are vital for determining the final shape of planetary systems. We show that if this interaction occurs at an early epoch, when the protoplanetary disc was still massive, then rapid planet growth through accretion causes an otherwise stable disc to fragment into additional planetary mass bodies when the planetary mass reaches 4-5 Jupiter masses. We suggest that such catastrophic planet formation could account for apparent differences in the mass function of massive planets and brown dwarfs, and the existence of young stars that appear to have dissipated their discs at an early epoch. Subsequent gravitational interactions will lead to planetary systems comprising a small number of massive planets in eccentric orbits.

  1. Annual skeletal balance and metabolic bone marker changes in healthy early postmenopausal women: results of a prospective study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Mazzuoli; M. Acca; D. Pisani; D. Diacinti; A. Scarda; L. Scarnecchia; M. T. Pacitti; E. D’Erasmo; S. Minisola; G. Bianchi; G. Manfredi

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the duration and annual rate of menopause-related bone loss and to investigate the relationship between bone turnover and bone loss in early healthy postmenopausal women. The rate of change in bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine and in bone turnover was measured twice at the exact interval of 12 months

  2. Core and early crust formation on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golabek, G. J.; Keller, T.; Gerya, T.; Tackley, P. J.; Connolly, J.; Zhu, G.

    2010-12-01

    One of the most striking surface features on Mars is the crustal dichotomy. It is the oldest geological feature on Mars and was formed more than 4.1 Ga ago by either exogenic or endogenic processes [1,2]. In order to find an internal origin of the crustal dichotomy, located within a maximum of 400 Ma of planetary differentiation, the thermal state of the planet resulting from core formation needs to be considered. Additionally, it was suggested that a primordial crust with up to 45 km thickness can be formed already during the Martian core formation [3]. We suggest that the sinking of iron diapirs delivered by predifferentiated impactors induced impact- and shear heating-related temperature anomalies in the mantle that fostered the formation of early Martian crust. Thus, the crustal thickness distribution would largely be a result of planetary core formation, late impact history and the onset of mantle convection. To test this hypothesis we use numerical models to simulate the formation of the Martian iron core and the resulting mantle convection pattern, while peridotite melting is enabled to track melting caused by shear and radioactive heating. We perform 2D simulations using the spherical-Cartesian code I2ELVIS for planetary accretion and the spherical code STAGYY for the consequent onset of mantle convection. We apply a temperature-, stress- and melt-fraction dependent viscoplastic rheology. Radioactive and shear heating as well as consumption of latent heat by silicate melting are taken into account. The depth of neutral buoyancy of silicate melt with respect to solid silicates is determined by the difference in compressibility of the liquid and solid phase. To self-consistently simulate the silicate phase changes expected inside a Mars-sized body, we use the thermodynamical database Perple_X. As initial condition for core formation, we apply randomly distributed iron diapirs with 75 km radius inside the planet, representing the cores of stochastically distributed impactors. Additionally, we explore the effect of one giant impactor core on the planetary evolution. Results indicate that the presence of a large impactor core induces hemispherically asymmetrical core formation. The amplitude of shear heating anomalies often exceeds the solidus of primitive mantle material and thus, the formation of a considerable amount of silicate melt is observed. The resulting temperature field after core formation is then read into the mantle convection code STAYY. The hemispherical magma ocean induced by one late giant impactor favours a dichotomous crust formation during and shortly after core formation. Afterwards, the extraction of excess heat produced by the sinking of the giant impactor through the mantle leads to a localized region of massive magmatism, comparable to Tharsis, which is sustained during later evolution by a single plume forming beneath the province. The rest of the mantle is dominated by a sluggish convection pattern with limited crust formation that preserves the early formed dichotomous crustal structure until recent time. References [1] Nimmo, F. et al., Nature, 453, 1220-1223, 2008. [2] Keller, T. & Tackley, P.J., Icarus, 202, 429-443, 2009. [3] Norman, M.D., Meteorit. Planet. Sci., 34, 439-449, 1999.

  3. Bone Mineral Density and Osteoporosis after Preterm Birth: The Role of Early Life Factors and Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Claire L.; Wood, Alexander M.; Harker, Caroline; Embleton, Nicholas D.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of preterm birth and perinatal events on bone health in later life remain largely unknown. Bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis risk may be programmed by early life factors. We summarise the existing literature relating to the effects of prematurity on adult BMD and the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis and programming of bone growth. Metabolic bone disease of prematurity and the influence of epigenetics on bone metabolism are discussed and current evidence regarding the effects of breastfeeding and aluminium exposure on bone metabolism is summarised. This review highlights the need for further research into modifiable early life factors and their effect on long-term bone health after preterm birth. PMID:23662104

  4. The homing of bone marrow MSCs to non-osseous sites for ectopic bone formation induced by osteoinductive calcium phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Song, Guodong; Habibovic, Pamela; Bao, Chongyun; Hu, Jing; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A.; Yuan, Huipin; Chen, Wenchuan; Xu, Hockin H.K.

    2013-01-01

    Osteoinductive biomaterials are promising for bone repair. There is no direct proof that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) home to non-osseous sites and participate in ectopic bone formation induced by osteoinductive bioceramics. The objective of this study was to use a sex-mismatched beagle dog model to investigate BMSC homing via blood circulation to participate in ectopic bone formation via osteoinductive biomaterial. BMSCs of male dogs were injected into female femoral marrow cavity. The survival and stable chimerism of donor BMSCs in recipients were confirmed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) granules were implanted in dorsal muscles of female dogs. Y chromosomes were detected in samples harvested from female dogs which had received male BMSCs. At 4 weeks, cells with Y-chromosomes were distributed in the new bone matrix throughout the BCP granule implant. At 6 weeks, cells with Y chromosomes were present in newly mineralized woven bone. TRAP positive osteoclast-like cells were observed in 4-week implants, and the number of such cells decreased from 4 to 6 weeks. These results show that osteoprogenitors were recruited from bone marrow and homed to ectopic site to serve as a cell source for calcium phosphate-induced bone formation. In conclusion, BMSCs were demonstrated to migrate from bone marrow through blood circulation to non-osseous bioceramic implant site to contribute to ectopic bone formation in a canine model. BCP induced new bone in muscles without growth factor delivery, showing excellent osteoinductivity that could be useful for bone tissue engineering. PMID:23298780

  5. MRI detection of early bone metastases in B16 mouse melanoma models

    PubMed Central

    Gauvain, Karen M.; Garbow, Joel R.; Song, Sheng-Kwei; Hirbe, Angela C.; Weilbaecher, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    Bone metastasis causes significant morbidity in cancer patients, including bone pain, pathologic fractures, nerve compression syndrome, and hypercalcemia. Animal models are utilized to study the pathogenesis of skeletal metastases and to evaluate potential therapeutic agents. Previously published methods for imaging bone metastasis in rodent models have focused on identifying advanced stage metastasis using simple X-rays. Here we report MRI as a method for detecting early bone metastases in mouse models in vivo. B16 mouse melanoma cells were injected into the left cardiac ventricle of C57BL/6 mice and magnetic resonance (MR) images were obtained of the left leg following the development of metastatic disease, when tumor associated bone destruction was histologically present but not visible by X-ray. T1 and T2 relaxation times of bone marrow were measured in healthy control mice and B16 melanoma tumor-bearing mice. Mean T2 values for normal marrow were 28 ms (SD 5) and for diseased bone marrow were 41 ms (SD 3). T2 relaxation time of diseased bone marrow is significantly longer than that of normal bone marrow (P < 0.0001) and can be used as a marker of early bone metastases. These studies demonstrate that MR imaging can detect bone marrow metastases in small animals prior to development of cortical bone loss identified by X-ray. PMID:16283483

  6. Genetic and Environmental Correlations Between Bone Formation and Bone Mineral Density: A Twin Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Harris; T. V Nguyen; G. M Howard; P. J Kelly; J. A Eisman

    1998-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover are both heritable. Although bone turnover affects bone mass, it is not clear whether these parameters are under common genetic or environmental control. The relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to the determination of an index of bone turnover, bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP), and the extent of common genetic regulation with

  7. Ibuprofen Administered Pre- or Post- Simulated Resistance Exercise Training Does Not Diminsh Gains in Bone Formation or Bone Mass 

    E-print Network

    Cunningham, David

    2012-02-14

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been shown to suppress bone formation when administered before, but not if administered after, an acute bout of mechanical load in rats. The NSAID ibuprofen inhibits cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme...

  8. Ibuprofen Administered Pre- or Post- Simulated Resistance Exercise Training Does Not Diminsh Gains in Bone Formation or Bone Mass

    E-print Network

    Cunningham, David

    2012-02-14

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been shown to suppress bone formation when administered before, but not if administered after, an acute bout of mechanical load in rats. The NSAID ibuprofen inhibits cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme...

  9. Effect of nickel–titanium shape memory metal alloy on bone formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anita Kapanen; Jorma Ryhänen; Anatoli Danilov; Juha Tuukkanen

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the biocompatibility of NiTi alloy on bone formation in vivo. For this purpose we used ectopic bone formation assay which goes through all the events of bone formation and calcification. Comparisons were made between Nitinol (NiTi), stainless steel (Stst) and titanium–aluminium (6%)–vanadium (4%) alloy (Ti–6Al–4V), which were implanted for 8 weeks under

  10. A truncated bone morphogenetic protein receptor affects dorsal-ventral patterning in the early Xenopus embryo.

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, A; Thies, R S; Yamaji, N; Song, J J; Wozney, J M; Murakami, K; Ueno, N

    1994-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which are members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) superfamily, have been implicated in bone formation and the regulation of early development. To better understand the roles of BMPs in Xenopus laevis embryogenesis, we have cloned a cDNA coding for a serine/threonine kinase receptor that binds BMP-2 and BMP-4. To analyze its function, we attempted to block the BMP signaling pathway in Xenopus embryos by using a dominant-negative mutant of the BMP receptor. When the mutant receptor lacking the putative serine/threonine kinase domain was expressed in ventral blastomeres of Xenopus embryos, these blastomeres were respecified to dorsal mesoderm, eventually resulting in the formation of a secondary body axis. These findings suggest that endogenous BMP-2 and BMP-4 are involved in the dorsal-ventral specification in the embryo and that ventral fate requires induction rather than resulting from an absence of dorsal specification. Images PMID:7937936

  11. Carbon nanotubes functionalized with fibroblast growth factor accelerate proliferation of bone marrow-derived stromal cells and bone formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Eri; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia; Venturelli, Enrica; Takita, Hiroko; Watari, Fumio; Bianco, Alberto; Yokoyama, Atsuro

    2013-11-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were functionalized with fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and the advantages of their use as scaffolds for bone augmentation were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The activity of FGF was assessed by measuring the effect on the proliferation of rat bone marrow stromal cells (RBMSCs). The presence of FGF enhanced the proliferation of RBMSCs and the FGF covalently conjugated to the nanotubes (FGF-CNT) showed the same effect as FGF alone. In addition, FGF-CNT coated sponges were implanted between the parietal bone and the periosteum of rats and the formation of new bone was investigated. At day 14 after implantation, a larger amount of newly formed bone was clearly observed in most pores of FGF-CNT coated sponges. These findings indicated that MWCNTs accelerated new bone formation in response to FGF, as well as the integration of particles into new bone during its formation. Scaffolds coated with FGF-CNT could be considered as promising novel substituting materials for bone regeneration in future tissue engineering applications.

  12. Dietary patterns, bone resorption and bone mineral density in early post-menopausal Scottish women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A C Hardcastle; L Aucott; W D Fraser; D M Reid; H M Macdonald

    2011-01-01

    Background\\/Objectives:Several nutrients affect bone turnover. Dietary patterns may provide insights into which foods are important and how nutrition affects bone health. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between dietary patterns, bone turnover and bone mineral density (BMD).Subjects\\/Methods:This cross-sectional study examined 3236 Scottish women age 50–59 years, who were members of the Aberdeen Prospective Osteoporosis Screening Study.

  13. Connexin 43 deficiency attenuates loss of trabecular bone and prevents suppression of cortical bone formation during unloading.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Shane A; Lewis, Gregory S; Zhang, Yue; Paul, Emmanuel M; Donahue, Henry J

    2012-11-01

    Connexin 43 (Cx43) is the most abundant gap junction protein in bone and has been demonstrated as an integral component of skeletal homeostasis. In the present study, we sought to further refine the role of Cx43 in the response to mechanical unloading by subjecting skeletally mature mice with a bone-specific deletion of Cx43 (cKO) to 3 weeks of mechanical unloading via hindlimb suspension (HLS). The HLS model was selected to recapitulate the effects of skeletal unloading due to prolonged bed rest, reduced activity associated with aging, and spaceflight microgravity. At baseline, the cortical bone of cKO mice displayed an osteopenic phenotype, with expanded cortices, decreased cortical thickness, decreased bone mineral density, and increased porosity. There was no baseline trabecular phenotype. After 3 weeks of HLS, wild-type (WT) mice experienced a substantial decline in trabecular bone volume fraction, connectivity density, trabecular thickness, and trabecular tissue mineral density. These deleterious effects were attenuated in cKO mice. Conversely, there was a similar and significant amount of cortical bone loss in both WT and cKO. Interestingly, mechanical testing revealed a greater loss of strength and rigidity for cKO during HLS. Analysis of double-label quantitative histomorphometry data demonstrated a substantial decrease in bone formation rate, mineralizing surface, and mineral apposition rate at both the periosteal and endocortical surfaces of the femur after unloading of WT mice. This suppression of bone formation was not observed in cKO mice, in which parameters were maintained at baseline levels. Taken together, the results of the present study indicate that Cx43 deficiency desensitizes bone to the effects of mechanical unloading, and that this may be due to an inability of mechanosensing osteocytes to effectively communicate the unloading state to osteoblasts to suppress bone formation. Cx43 may represent a novel therapeutic target for investigation as a countermeasure for age-related and unloading-induced bone loss. PMID:22714552

  14. The effect of bovine whey protein on ectopic bone formation in young growing rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Owen Kelly; Siobhan Cusack; Kevin D. Cashman

    2003-01-01

    The beneficial effect of bovine whey protein (WP) on bone metabolism has been shown in adult human subjects and ovariectomised rats. However, its effect on bone formation in earlier life, particularly during periods of bone mineral accrual, has not been investigated. Twenty-one male rats (4 weeks old, Wistar strain) were randomised by weight into three groups of seven rats each

  15. Permian Bone Spring formation: Sandstone play in the Delaware basin. Part I - slope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott L. Montgomery

    1997-01-01

    New exploration in the Permian (Leonardian) Bone Spring formation has indicated regional potential in several sandstone sections across portions of the northern Delaware basin. Significant production has been established in the first, second, and third Bone Spring sandstones, as well as in a new reservoir interval, the Avalon sandstone, above the first Bone Spring sandstone. These sandstones were deposited as

  16. Stratigraphy and depositional history, Bone Spring Formation, Lea County, New Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mazzullo

    1987-01-01

    The Bone Spring formation of the northern Delaware basin in southeastern New Mexico produces oil in Lea County from foreshelf detrital carbonate facies, such as in Scharb field. Production there comes from several intervals. Stratigraphic correlations between the various Bone Springs units and equivalent Leonardian facies of the Northwest shelf in Lea County suggest that the Bone Spring is correlative

  17. Low Dose Parathyroid Hormone Maintains Normal Bone Formation in Adult Male Rats During Rapid Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Russell T.; Iwaniec, Urszula T.

    2011-01-01

    A persistent negative energy balance results in bone loss. It is not clear whether the bone loss associated with chronic negative energy balance can be prevented. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of intermittent low dose parathyroid hormone (PTH) treatment in maintaining normal bone formation during severe energy restriction. Six-month-old male Fisher 344 rats were divided into 4 treatment groups: (1) baseline, (2) ad libitum (ad lib)-fed control, (3) energy-restricted (to consume 40% ad lib caloric intake), or (4) energy-restricted + low dose (1 ?g/kg/d) PTH. Severe energy restriction for 14 days decreased body weight and serum leptin levels. Compared to ad lib-fed controls, energy-restricted rats had lower cancellous bone formation, higher osteoclast perimeter/bone perimeter and higher bone marrow adiposity in the proximal tibial metaphysis. Also, the energy-restricted rats had a lower periosteal bone formation rate at the tibia-fibula synostosis. Administration of PTH to energy-restricted rats had no effect on weight loss or osteoclast perimeter/bone perimeter. In contrast, energy-restricted rats treated with PTH had higher rates of cancellous and cortical bone formation compared to energy-restricted rats, and did not differ from the ad lib-fed control animals. Furthermore, PTH treatment maintained normal bone marrow adiposity. In conclusion, rapid weight loss in adult male rats was accompanied by decreased bone formation and increased bone marrow adiposity and these changes were prevented by low dose PTH treatment. Taken together, the results suggest that the energy cost of bone formation in adult rats is low and PTH therapy is effective in preventing the reduced bone formation associated with rapid weight loss. PMID:21215827

  18. Wnt signaling in bone formation and its therapeutic potential for bone diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong Hwan; Liu, Xing; Wang, Jinhua; Chen, Xiang; Zhang, Hongyu; Kim, Stephanie H.; Cui, Jing; Li, Ruidong; Zhang, Wenwen; Kong, Yuhan; Zhang, Jiye; Shui, Wei; Lamplot, Joseph; Rogers, Mary Rose; Zhao, Chen; Wang, Ning; Rajan, Prashant; Tomal, Justin; Statz, Joseph; Wu, Ningning; Luu, Hue H.; Haydon, Rex C.

    2013-01-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway plays an important role not only in embryonic development but also in the maintenance and differentiation of the stem cells in adulthood. In particular, Wnt signaling has been shown as an important regulatory pathway in the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Induction of the Wnt signaling pathway promotes bone formation while inactivation of the pathway leads to osteopenic states. Our current understanding of Wnt signaling in osteogenesis elucidates the molecular mechanisms of classic osteogenic pathologies. Activating and inactivating aberrations of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway in osteogenesis results in sclerosteosis and osteoporosis respectively. Recent studies have sought to target the Wnt signaling pathway to treat osteogenic disorders. Potential therapeutic approaches attempt to stimulate the Wnt signaling pathway by upregulating the intracellular mediators of the Wnt signaling cascade and inhibiting the endogenous antagonists of the pathway. Antibodies against endogenous antagonists, such as sclerostin and dickkopf-1, have demonstrated promising results in promoting bone formation and fracture healing. Lithium, an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3?, has also been reported to stimulate osteogenesis by stabilizing ? catenin. Although manipulating the Wnt signaling pathway has abundant therapeutic potential, it requires cautious approach due to risks of tumorigenesis. The present review discusses the role of the Wnt signaling pathway in osteogenesis and examines its targeted therapeutic potential. PMID:23514963

  19. Hand bone loss in early undifferentiated arthritis: evaluating bone mineral density loss before the development of rheumatoid arthritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Haugeberg; M J Green; M A Quinn; H Marzo-Ortega; S Proudman; Z Karim; R J Wakefield; P G Conaghan; S Stewart; P Emery

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To examine the change in regional bone mineral density (BMD), including the hands, and assess its role as a predictor of outcome in patients presenting with an early undifferentiated inflammatory arthritis; (2) to examine for associations with the changes in hand BMD.Methods: 74 patients with undifferentiated hand arthritis of less than 12 months’ duration were examined at baseline

  20. In vivo bone formation by human bone marrow stromal cells: effect of carrier particle size and shape.

    PubMed

    Mankani, M H; Kuznetsov, S A; Fowler, B; Kingman, A; Robey, P G

    2001-01-01

    Successful closure of bone defects in patients remains an active area of basic and clinical research. A novel and promising approach is the transplantation of human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), which have been shown to possess a significant osteogenic potential. The extent and quality of bone formation by transplanted human BMSCs strongly depends on the carrier matrix with which cells are transplanted; to date, hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) supports far more osteogenesis than any other matrix tested. In order to further improve the technique of BMSC transplantation, we studied whether commercially available HA/TCP particles, clinically approved as an osteoconductive material and commercially available as particles measuring 0.5-1.0 mm diameter, is an optimum matrix for promoting bone development by BMSCs. HA/TCP and HA particles of varying size were sieved into a variety of size ranges, from <0.044 mm to 1.0-2.0 mm. Transplants were formed by mixing 40 mg aliquots of particles with cultured passaged human BMSCs. They were placed in subcutaneous pockets in immunocompromised Bg-Nu-XID mice and harvested 4 or 10 weeks later. The transplants were examined histologically; the presence of bone within each transplant was evaluated using histomorphometry or blindly scored on a semiquantitative scale. Transplant morphology and the amount of new bone varied in a consistent fashion based on particle size and shape. Transplants incorporating HA/TCP particles of 0.1-0.25 mm size demonstrated the greatest bone formation at both 4 and 10 weeks; larger or smaller particles were associated with less extensive bone formation, while a size of 0.044 mm represented a threshold below which no bone formation could be observed. Flat-sided HA particles measuring 0.1-0.25 mm formed no bone. The differences in bone formation were not attributable to the differences in cell attachment among the groups. Instead, the size and spatial and structural organization of the particles within BMSC transplants appear to determine the extent of bone formation. These findings provide necessary information for the successful clinical application of BMSC transplantation techniques. PMID:11084599

  1. A novel early precursor cell population from rat bone marrow promotes angiogenesis in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Some studies demonstrated therapeutic angiogenesis attributable to the effects of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC), others have reported disappointing results. This may be due to the fact that EPC populations used in these contradictory studies were selected and defined by highly variable and differing experimental protocols. Indeed, the isolation and reliable characterization of ex vivo differentiated EPC raises considerable problems due to the fact there is no biomarker currently available to specifically identify EPC exclusively. On the other hand traditional differentiation of primary immature bone marrow cells towards the endothelial lineage is a time-consuming process of up to 5 weeks. To circumvent these shortcomings, we herein describe a facile method to isolate and enrich a primary cell population from rat bone marrow, combining differential attachment methodology with cell sorting technology. Results The combination of these techniques enabled us to obtain a pure population of early endothelial precursor cells that show homogenous upregulation of CD31 and VEGF-R2 and that are positive for CD146. These cells exhibited typical sprouting on Matrigel™. Additionally, this population displayed endothelial tube formation when resuspended in Matrigel™ as well as in fibrin glue, demonstrating its functional angiogenic capacity. Moreover, these cells stained positive for DiI-ac-LDL and FITC-UEA, two markers that are commonly considered to stain differentiating EPCs. Based upon these observations in this study we describe a novel and time-saving method for obtaining a pure endothelial precursor cell population as early as 2–3 weeks post isolation that exhibits endothelial abilities in vitro and which still might have retained its early endothelial lineage properties. Conclusion The rapid isolation and the high angiogenic potential of these syngeneic cells might facilitate and accelerate the pre-vascularization of transplanted tissues and organs also in a human setting in the future. PMID:24666638

  2. Diabetes-related impairment in bone strength is established early in the life course

    PubMed Central

    Casazza, Krista; Hanks, Lynae J; Clines, Gregory A; Tse, Hubert M; Eberhardt, Alan W

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate properties of bone quantity/quality using young non-obese Type 1 (T1D)-diabetic (NOD) prone and syngenic non-diabetic (NOD.scid) mice. METHODS: Quantitative bone assessment of tibia was conducted using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for the evaluation of body mass, bone mineral content, body fat mass and lean mass. Qualitative assessment was accomplished by three-point breakage for assessment of force to failure and micro-computed tomography for evaluation of trabecular and cortical properties of bone. In addition, fasting blood was evaluated prior to sacrifice at week eleven and fifteen to evaluate and compare glucose homeostasis between the strains of mice. RESULTS: Our findings support a perturbation in the relationship between bone quantity, quality, and subsequently, the association between structure and strength. There were no differences in DXA-assessed body composition (body fat, % fat mass and lean mass) and bone composition (bone mineral content and bone mineral density) between strains. However, relative to NOD.scid, NOD mice had lower trabecular bone volume, relative trabecular bone volume, trabecular number and trabecular total material density (P < 0.05). Conversely, NOD mice had greater cortical total mean volume (P < 0.05). General linear models analysis adjusted for body weight revealed a significant contribution of T1D to bone health as early as 5 wk. CONCLUSION: It is well-established that diabetes is a significant risk factor for increased fractures, although the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Investigation of bone parameters encompassing strength and structure early in the life course will facilitate the elucidation of the pathogenesis of impaired bone integrity. PMID:23961325

  3. Vitamin D3 metabolites and PTH synergistically stimulate bone formation of chick embryonic femur in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyoshi Endo; Mamoru Kiyoki; Kohtaro Kawashima; Tatsuyuki Naruchi; Yoshinobu Hashimoto

    1980-01-01

    Bone remodelling depends on a balance between formation and resorption. Little is known of the biological factors involved in bone formation, whereas there is much evidence that physiological factors, such as parathyroid hormone (PTH) and active metabolites of vitamin D3, influence resorption. Cells responsible for osteogenesis and osteoclasis occur in close proximity, suggesting that both might be controlled by the

  4. Myeloma cells suppress bone formation by secreting a soluble Wnt inhibitor, sFRP-2.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Takashi; Abe, Masahiro; Asano, Jin; Hara, Tomoko; Kitazoe, Kenichi; Sekimoto, Etsuko; Tanaka, Yoichi; Shibata, Hironobu; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Ozaki, Shuji; Kido, Shinsuke; Inoue, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Toshio

    2005-11-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) develops devastating bone destruction with enhanced bone resorption and suppressed bone formation. In contrast to enhanced osteoclastogenesis, little is known about the mechanism of impaired bone formation in MM. Because a canonical Wingless-type (Wnt) signaling pathway has recently been shown to play an important role in osteoblast differentiation, we examined whether MM cells affect a canonical Wnt pathway to suppress bone formation. Conditioned media from RPMI8226 and U266 MM cell lines and primary MM cells suppressed in vitro mineralization as well as alkaline phosphatase activity in osteoblasts induced by bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2). These cell lines constitutively produced a soluble Wnt inhibitor, secreted Frizzled-related protein 2 (sFRP-2), but not other Wnt inhibitors including sFRP-1, sFRP-3, and dickkopf 1 (DKK-1) at the protein level. Most MM cells from patients with advanced bone destructive lesions also expressed sFRP-2. Furthermore, exogenous sFRP-2 suppressed osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2, and immunodepletion of sFRP-2 significantly restored mineralized nodule formation in vitro, suggesting a predominant role for MM cell-derived sFRP-2 in the impairment of bone formation by MM. Thus, in addition to enhanced osteolysis, MM cells also suppress bone formation at least in part through an inhibition of the canonical Wnt pathway by secreting sFRP-2. PMID:16030194

  5. Programmed administration of parathyroid hormone increases bone formation and reduces bone loss in hindlimb-unloaded ovariectomized rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. T.; Evans, G. L.; Cavolina, J. M.; Halloran, B.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1998-01-01

    Gonadal insufficiency and reduced mechanical usage are two important risk factors for osteoporosis. The beneficial effects of PTH therapy to reverse the estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss in the laboratory rat are well known, but the influence of mechanical usage in this response has not been established. In this study, the effects of programed administration of PTH on cancellous bone volume and turnover at the proximal tibial metaphysis were determined in hindlimb-unloaded, ovariectomized (OVX), 3-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats. PTH was administered to weight-bearing and hindlimb-unloaded OVX rats with osmotic pumps programed to deliver 20 microg human PTH (approximately 80 microg/kg x day) during a daily 1-h infusion for 7 days. Compared with sham-operated rats, OVX increased longitudinal and radial bone growth, increased indexes of cancellous bone turnover, and resulted in net resorption of cancellous bone. Hindlimb unloading of OVX rats decreased longitudinal and radial bone growth, decreased osteoblast number, increased osteoclast number, and resulted in a further decrease in cancellous bone volume compared with those in weight-bearing OVX rats. Programed administration of PTH had no effect on either radial or longitudinal bone growth in weight-bearing and hindlimb-unloaded OVX rats. PTH treatment had dramatic effects on selected cancellous bone measurements; PTH maintained cancellous bone volume in OVX weight-bearing rats and greatly reduced cancellous bone loss in OVX hindlimb-unloaded rats. In the latter animals, PTH treatment prevented the hindlimb unloading-induced reduction in trabecular thickness, but the hormone was ineffective in preventing either the increase in osteoclast number or the loss of trabecular plates. Importantly, PTH treatment increased the retention of a baseline flurochrome label, osteoblast number, and bone formation in the proximal tibial metaphysis regardless of the level of mechanical usage. These findings demonstrate that programed administration of PTH is effective in increasing osteoblast number and bone formation and has beneficial effects on bone volume in the absence of weight-bearing and gonadal hormones. We conclude that the actions of PTH on cancellous bone are independent of the level of mechanical usage.

  6. Advanced Molecular Profiling in Vivo Detects Novel Function of Dickkopf-3 in the Regulation of Bone Formation

    E-print Network

    Domany, Eytan

    In the adult, endochondral bone formation or ossification is a major process involved in both long bone development(1) and fracture healing.(2) Endochondral bone formation is a multistep process that involves to verify and understand the complexity of endochondral bone forma- tion. In a rat fracture model, several

  7. Discordance between MRI and bone scan findings in a child with acute complicated osteomyelitis: scintigraphic features that contribute to the early diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Mpalaris, V; Arsos, G; Iakovou, I; Dalpa, E; Karatzas, N

    2014-01-01

    Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of acute osteomyelitis are of paramount importance in children because they can prevent irreversible bone damage. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with its superior spatial resolution and lack of ionizing radiation is routinely preferred over bone scan for this purpose. Increased blood flow, hyperemia and focally increased tracer uptake shown by "three phase" bone scan are the typical scintigraphic findings of acute osteomyelitis. In addition, diffuse uptake along the shaft of long bones and focal "cold" lesions are two special features that may be highly suggestive of infective periostitis, soft tissue sepsis and subperiosteal abscess formation, due to the loose attachment of periosteum to bone during childhood. We present a case of complicated osteomyelitis in a child with inconclusive MRI correctly diagnosed on the basis of these special scintigraphic findings resulting in treatment change from double i.v. Vancomycin--Ceftriaxone scheme to surgical intervention. PMID:23938190

  8. Calcium ions and osteoclastogenesis initiate the induction of bone formation by coral-derived macroporous constructs

    PubMed Central

    Klar, Roland M; Duarte, Raquel; Dix-Peek, Therese; Dickens, Caroline; Ferretti, Carlo; Ripamonti, Ugo

    2013-01-01

    Coral-derived calcium carbonate/hydroxyapatite macroporous constructs of the genus Goniopora with limited hydrothermal conversion to hydroxyapatite (7% HA/CC) initiate the induction of bone formation. Which are the molecular signals that initiate pattern formation and the induction of bone formation? To evaluate the role of released calcium ions and osteoclastogenesis, 7% HA/CC was pre-loaded with either 500 ?g of the calcium channel blocker, verapamil hydrochloride, or 240 ?g of the osteoclast inhibitor, biphosphonate zoledronate, and implanted in the rectus abdominis muscle of six adult Chacma baboons Papio ursinus. Generated tissues on days 15, 60 and 90 were analysed by histomorphometry and qRT-PCR. On day 15, up-regulation of type IV collagen characterized all the implanted constructs correlating with vascular invasion. Zoledronate-treated specimens showed an important delay in tissue patterning and morphogenesis with limited bone formation. Osteoclastic inhibition yielded minimal, if any, bone formation by induction. 7% HA/CC pre-loaded with the Ca++ channel blocker verapamil hydrochloride strongly inhibited the induction of bone formation. Down-regulation of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) together with up-regulation of Noggin genes correlated with limited bone formation in 7% HA/CC pre-loaded with either verapamil or zoledronate, indicating that the induction of bone formation by coral-derived macroporous constructs is via the BMPs pathway. The spontaneous induction of bone formation is initiated by a local peak of Ca++ activating stem cell differentiation and the induction of bone formation. PMID:24106923

  9. Bone marrow-derived osteoblast progenitor cells in circulating blood contribute to ectopic bone formation in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Otsuru, Satoru [Division of Gene Therapy Science, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tamai, Katsuto [Division of Gene Therapy Science, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)]. E-mail: tamai@gts.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Yamazaki, Takehiko [Division of Gene Therapy Science, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Hideki [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kaneda, Yasufumi [Division of Gene Therapy Science, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2007-03-09

    Recent studies have suggested the existence of osteoblastic cells in the circulation, but the origin and role of these cells in vivo are not clear. Here, we examined how these cells contribute to osteogenesis in a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-induced model of ectopic bone formation. Following lethal dose-irradiation and subsequent green fluorescent protein-transgenic bone marrow cell-transplantation (GFP-BMT) in mice, a BMP-2-containing collagen pellet was implanted into muscle. Three weeks later, a significant number of GFP-positive osteoblastic cells were present in the newly generated ectopic bone. Moreover, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) from the BMP-2-implanted mouse were then shown to include osteoblast progenitor cells (OPCs) in culture. Passive transfer of the PBMNCs isolated from the BMP-2-implanted GFP-mouse to the BMP-2-implanted nude mouse led to GFP-positive osteoblast accumulation in the ectopic bone. These data provide new insight into the mechanism of ectopic bone formation involving bone marrow-derived OPCs in circulating blood.

  10. Feedback on Early Module Feedback Exam Format Change

    E-print Network

    Alechina, Natasha

    Feedback on Early Module Feedback Exam Format Change G52PAS 2013-14 G52PAS 2013-14 1 / 3 #12;Feedback on early module feedback about feedback There was an early module feedback taken by Rong at the last lecture I promised to clarify how feedback on student performance for this module will be given

  11. Cadmium stimulates osteoclast-like multinucleated cell formation in mouse bone marrow cell cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Miyahara, Tatsuro; Takata, Masakazu; Miyata, Masaki; Nagai, Miyuki; Sugure, Akemi; Kozuka, Hiroshi; Kuze, Shougo (Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan))

    1991-08-01

    Most of cadmium (Cd)-treated animals have been reported to show osteoporosis-like changes in bones. This suggests that Cd may promote bone loss by a direct action on bone. It was found that Cd stimulated prostaglandin E{sub 2}(PGE{sub 2}) production in the osteoblast-like cell, MC3T3-E1. Therefore, Cd stimulates bone resorption by increasing PGE{sub 2} production. Recently, several bone marrow cell culture systems have been developed for examining the formation of osteoclast-like multinucleated cells in vitro. As osteoblasts produce PGE{sub 2} by Cd-induced cyclooxygenase and may play an important role in osteoclast formation, the present study was undertaken to clarify the possibility that Cd might stimulate osteoclast formation in a mouse bone marrow culture system.

  12. Chinese red yeast rice (Monascus purpureus-fermented rice) promotes bone formation

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ricky WK; Rabie, Bakr

    2008-01-01

    Background Statin can induce the gene expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2. Red yeast rice (RYR, Hongqu), i.e. rice fermented with Monascus purpureus, contains a natural form of statin. This study demonstrates the effects of RYR extract on bone formation. Methods Bone defects were created in the parietal bones of two New Zealand white rabbits. In the test animal, two defects were grafted with collagen matrix mixed with RYR extract. In the control animal, two defects were grafted with collagen matrix alone. UMR 106 cell line was used to test RYR extract in vitro. In the control group, cells were cultured for three durations (24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours) without any intervention. In the RYR group, cells were cultured for the same durations with various concentrations of RYR extract (0.001 g/ml, 0.005 g/ml and 0.01 g/ml). Bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay were performed to measure total protein, mitochondrial activity and bone cell formation respectively. Results The test animal showed more formation of new bone in the defects than the control animal. RYR significantly increased the optical density in the MTT assay and ALP activity in vitro. Conclusion RYR extract stimulated new bone formation in bone defects in vivo and increased bone cell formation in vitro. PMID:18373874

  13. High bone mass in adult mice with diet-induced obesity results from a combination of initial increase in bone mass followed by attenuation in bone formation; implications for high bone mass and decreased bone quality in obesity.

    PubMed

    Lecka-Czernik, B; Stechschulte, L A; Czernik, P J; Dowling, A R

    2015-07-15

    Obesity is generally recognized as a condition which positively influences bone mass and bone mineral density (BMD). Positive effect of high body mass index (BMI) on bone has been recognized as a result of increased mechanical loading exerted on the skeleton. However, epidemiologic studies indicate that obesity is associated with increased incidence of fractures. The results presented here offer a new perspective regarding the mechanisms which may be responsible for the increase of bone mass and concurrent decrease in bone quality. Two groups of 12 week old C57BL/6 males were fed either high fat diet (HFD) or regular diet (RD) for 11 weeks. Metabolic profile, bone parameters and gene expression were assessed in these groups at the end of the experiment. Additionally, bone status was evaluated in a third group of 12 week old animals corresponding to animals at the start of the feeding period. Administration of HFD resulted in development of a diet-induced obesity (DIO), glucose intolerance, alteration in energy metabolism, and impairment in WAT function, as compared to the age-matched control animals fed RD. The expression of adiponectin, FABP4/aP2, DIO2 and FoxC2 were decreased in WAT of DIO animals, as well as transcript levels for IGFBP2, the cytokine regulating both energy metabolism and bone mass. At the end of experiment, DIO mice had higher bone mass than both control groups on RD, however they had decreased bone formation, as assessed by calcein labeling, and increased marrow adipocyte content. This study suggests that the bone mass acquired in obesity is a result of a two-phase process. First phase would consist of either beneficial effect of fat expansion to increase bone mass by increased mechanical loading and/or increased production of bone anabolic adipokines and/or nutritional effect of fatty acids. This is followed by a second phase characterized by decreased bone formation and bone turnover resulting from development of metabolic impairment. PMID:25576855

  14. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy improves angiogenesis and bone formation in critical sized diaphyseal defects.

    PubMed

    Grassmann, J P; Schneppendahl, J; Hakimi, A R; Herten, M; Betsch, M; Lögters, T T; Thelen, S; Sager, M; Wild, M; Windolf, J; Jungbluth, P; Hakimi, M

    2015-04-01

    Besides the use of autologous bone grafting several osteoconductive and osteoinductive methods have been reported to improve bone healing. However, persistent non-union occurs in a considerable number of cases and compromised angiogenesis is suspected to impede bone regeneration. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) improves angiogenesis. This study evaluates the effects of HBO on bone defects treated with autologous bone grafting in a bone defect model in rabbits. Twenty-four New-Zealand White Rabbits were subjected to a unilateral critical sized diaphyseal radius bone defect and treated with autologous cancellous bone transplantation. The study groups were exposed to an additional HBO treatment regimen. Bone regeneration was evaluated radiologically and histologically at 3 and 6 weeks, angiogenesis was assessed by immunohistochemistry at three and six weeks. The additional administration of HBO resulted in a significantly increased new bone formation and angiogenesis compared to the sole treatment with autologous bone grafting. These results were apparent after three and six weeks of treatment. The addition of HBO therapy to autologous bone grafts leads to significantly improved bone regeneration. The increase in angiogenesis observed could play a crucial role for the results observed. PMID:25640997

  15. Gentamicin release from polymethylmethacrylate bone cements and Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hilbrand van De Belt; Daniëlle Neut; Willem Schenk; Jim R van Horn; Henny C van Der Mei; Henk J Busscher

    2000-01-01

    We measured the formation of a Staphylo- coccus aureus biofilm in vitro on unloaded and gentami- cin-loaded bone cements (CMW3 and Palacos R) and re- lated the formation to antibiotic release rates. All experi- ments were done in triplicate. Microbial growth on gen- tamicin-loaded cements occurred despite the release of antibiotic. Biofilm formation on gentamicin loaded CMW3 bone cement was

  16. Early reexploration after closed reduction of nasal bone fracture.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Lee, Hong Sik

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the cases that were reexplored shortly after closed reduction of the nasal bone fracture. From 1996 to 2009, 955 patients (757 males and 198 females) were operated on for the nasal bone fractures. The nasal splints were applied and removed 1 week postoperatively, and the results of nasal reduction were reviewed. Indications for reexploration were undercorrection or deviation of the reduced nasal bone.Of the 955 patients, 13 (11 males and 2 females; 1.36%) were reexplored. The recorrection was done 7.78 +/- 4.77 days after the initial surgery. Mostly local anesthesia was carried out on the reoperation of 11 patients. All 13 patients were satisfied with the final result.If any undercorrection or deviation is persistent, the corrective reexploration should be discussed with the patient in detail and corrective reexploration should be planned soon. PMID:20489464

  17. Metastatic bone cancer as a recurrence of early gastric cancer - characteristics and possible mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Michiya; Okabayashi, Takehiro; Sano, Takeshi; Araki, Keijiro

    2005-01-01

    The surgical outcome of most early gastric cancer (EGC) is usually satisfactory. Some cases show bone metastasis even though the depth of cancer invasion is confined to the mucosa. The most frequent site for recurrence of EGC is the liver. Cases of EGC with bone metastasis are reviewed to clarify the clinicopathological characteristics of EGC giving rise to bone metastasis. Possible mechanisms and risk factors underlying this rare condition are proposed. Forty-six cases of bone metastasis from EGC are reviewed from published reports and meeting proceedings in Japan. This investigation suggests that risk factors for bone metastasis from EGC include depressed-type signet-ring cell carcinoma, poorly differentiated carcinoma, and/or the likely involvement of lymph node metastasis, even though the cancer is confined to the gastric mucosa. The risk factors do not include recurrence of EGC in the liver. We speculate that the mechanism of bone metastasis from EGC is via lymphatic channels and systemic circulation. Post-operative follow-up of cases should consider the development of bone metastasis from EGC. We propose the use of elevated alkaline phosphatase levels for the detection of bone metastasis and recommend bone scintigraphy in positive cases. PMID:16237749

  18. Bone loss or lost bone: Rationale and recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of early postmenopausal bone loss

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mone Zaidi; Charles H. Turner; Ernesto Canalis; Roberto Pacifici; Li Sun; Jameel Iqbal; X. Edward Guo; Stuart Silverman; Solomon Epstein; Clifford J. Rosen

    2009-01-01

    Recent reports suggest that bone loss begins during late perimenopause at a dramatic rate, even before estrogen levels plummet.\\u000a During the ensuing 5 years, there is evidence of the beginnings of microarchitectural deterioration, which impacts bone strength\\u000a and ultimately enhances its propensity to fracture. The diagnosis of osteoporosis based on T-scores alone, or through stratification\\u000a for a high fracture risk

  19. Relation of early menarche to high bone mineral density

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ito; M. Yamada; K. Hayashi; M. Ohki; M. Uetani; T. Nakamura

    1995-01-01

    The study of background factors in individuals with high bone mineral density (BMD) may provide useful information in the prevention of osteoporosis. We investigated the relationship of reproductive factors to BMD. In 519 female volunteers (327 postmenopausal and 192 premenopausal women) ranging in age from 21 to 74 (mean 52.3 ±11.8) years, spinal BMD values were obtained using both quantitative

  20. Silicon deprivation decreases collagen formation in wounds and bone, and ornithine transaminase enzyme activity in liver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. D. Seaborn; F. H. Nielsen

    2002-01-01

    We have shown that silicon (Si) deprivation decreases the collagen concentration in bone of 9-wk-old rats. Finding that Si\\u000a deprivation also affects collagen at different stages in bone development, collagen-forming enzymes, or collagen deposition\\u000a in other tissues would have implications that Si is important for both wound healing and bone formation. Therefore, 42 rats\\u000a in experiment 1 and 24 rats

  1. Cannabinoids Stimulate Fibroblastic Colony Formation by Bone Marrow Cells Indirectly via CB 2 Receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Scutt; E. M. Williamson

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 were shown to modulate bone formation and resorption in vivo, although little is known of the mechanisms underlying this. The effects of cannabinoids on mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) recruitment\\u000a in whole bone marrow were investigated using either the fibroblastic colony-forming unit (CFU-f) assay or high-density cultures\\u000a of whole bone marrow. Levels of the

  2. Fibulin-1 is required for bone formation and Bmp-2-mediated induction of Osterix.

    PubMed

    Cooley, Marion A; Harikrishnan, Keerthi; Oppel, James A; Miler, Sloan F; Barth, Jeremy L; Haycraft, Courtney J; Reddy, Sakamuri V; Scott Argraves, W

    2014-12-01

    The extracellular matrix protein Fibulin-1 (Fbln1) has been shown to be involved in numerous processes including cardiovascular and lung development. Here we have examined the role of Fbln1 in bone formation. Alizarin red staining of skulls from Fbln1-deficient mice showed reduced mineralization of both membranous and endochondral bones. MicroCT (?CT) analysis of the calvarial bones (i.e., frontal, parietal and interparietal bones collectively) indicated that bone volume in Fbln1 nulls at neonatal stage P0 were reduced by 22% (p=0.015). Similarly, Fbln1 null frontal bones showed a 16% (p=0.035) decrease in bone volume, with a reduction in the interfrontal bone, and a discontinuity in the leading edge of the frontal bone. To determine whether Fbln1 played a role in osteoblast differentiation during bone formation, qPCR was used to measure the effects of Fbln1 deficiency on the expression of Osterix (Osx), a transcription factor essential for osteoblast differentiation. This analysis demonstrated that Osx mRNA was significantly reduced in Fbln1-deficient calvarial bones at developmental stages E16.5 (p=0.049) and E17.5 (p=0.022). Furthermore, the ability of Bmp-2 to induce Osx expression was significantly diminished in Fbln1-deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts. Together, these findings indicate that Fbln1 is a new positive modulator of the formation of membranous bone and endochondral bone in the skull, acting as a positive regulator of Bmp signaling. PMID:25201465

  3. Osteoblast-Specific ?-Glutamyl Carboxylase-Deficient Mice Display Enhanced Bone Formation With Aberrant Mineralization.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Kotaro; Shiba, Sachiko; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Urano, Tomohiko; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi; Amizuka, Norio; Inoue, Satoshi

    2015-07-01

    Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin that is necessary for blood coagulation. In addition, it has bone-protective effects. Vitamin K functions as a cofactor of ?-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX), which activates its substrates by carboxylation. These substrates are found throughout the body and examples include hepatic blood coagulation factors. Furthermore, vitamin K functions as a ligand of the nuclear receptor known as steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR) and its murine ortholog, pregnane X receptor (PXR). We have previously reported on the bone-protective role of SXR/PXR signaling by demonstrating that systemic Pxr-knockout mice displayed osteopenia. Because systemic Ggcx-knockout mice die shortly after birth from severe hemorrhage, the GGCX-mediated effect of vitamin K on bone metabolism has been difficult to evaluate. In this work, we utilized Ggcx-floxed mice to generate osteoblast-specific GGCX-deficient (Ggcx(?obl/?obl) ) mice by crossing them with Col1-Cre mice. The bone mineral density (BMD) of Ggcx(?obl/?obl) mice was significantly higher than that of control Col1-Cre (Ggcx(+/+) ) mice. Histomorphometrical analysis of trabecular bones in the proximal tibia showed increased osteoid volume and a higher rate of bone formation in Ggcx(?obl/?obl) mice. Histomorphometrical analysis of cortical bones revealed a thicker cortical width and a higher rate of bone formation in Ggcx(?obl/?obl) mice. Electron microscopic examination revealed disassembly of mineralized nodules and aberrant calcification of collagen fibers in Ggcx(?obl/?obl) mice. The mechanical properties of bones from Ggcx(?obl/?obl) mice tended to be stronger than those from control Ggcx(+/+) mice. These results suggest that GGCX in osteoblasts functions to prevent abnormal mineralization in bone formation, although this function may not be a prerequisite for the bone-protective effect of vitamin K. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:25600070

  4. Suppressive effects of Anoectochilus formosanus extract on osteoclast formation in vitro and bone resorption in vivo.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Kikuko; Ikeuchi, Mayumi; Koyama, Tomoyuki; Yamaguchi, Kohji; Woo, Je-Tae; Nishimura, Tomio; Yazawa, Kazunaga

    2008-01-01

    Anoectochilus formosanus, a plant native to Taiwan, is used as a folk medicine. It was found that oral administration of A. formosanus extract (AFE) (500 mg/kg) for 4 weeks suppressed bone weight loss and trabecular bone loss in ovariectomized mice, an experimental model of osteoporosis. Although AFE at 12.5 and 25 mug/ml inhibited osteoclast formation in co-culture of osteoblasts and bone marrow cells, AFE did not inhibit the formation of osteoclast progenitor cells and preosteoclast cells in bone marrow cells and RAW264 cells. However, AFE (at 12.5 and 25 microg/ml) decreased RANKL expression. These results suggested that AFE might suppress the bone loss caused by estrogen deficiency through suppression of RANKL expression required for osteoclast formation. PMID:18301967

  5. Overexpression of H1 Calponin in Osteoblast Lineage Cells Leads to a Decrease in Bone Mass by Disrupting Osteoblast Function and Promoting Osteoclast Formation

    PubMed Central

    Su, Nan; Chen, Maomao; Chen, Siyu; Li, Can; Xie, Yangli; Zhu, Ying; Zhang, Yaozong; Zhao, Ling; He, Qifen; Du, Xiaolan; Chen, Di; Chen, Lin

    2013-01-01

    H1 calponin (CNN1) is known as a smooth muscle-specific, actin-binding protein which regulates smooth muscle contractive activity. Although previous studies have shown that CNN1 has effect on bone, the mechanism is not well defined. To investigate the role of CNN1 in maintaining bone homeostasis, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing Cnn1 under the control of the osteoblast-specific 3.6-kb Col1a1 promoter. Col1a1-Cnn1 transgenic mice showed delayed bone formation at embryonic stage and decreased bone mass at adult stage. Morphology analyses showed reduced trabecular number, thickness and defects in bone formation. The proliferation and migration of osteoblasts were decreased in Col1a1-Cnn1 mice due to alterations in cytoskeleton. The early osteoblast differentiation of Col1a1-Cnn1 mice was increased, but the late stage differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts derived from Col1a1-Cnn1 mice were significantly decreased. In addition to impaired bone formation, the decreased bone mass was also associated with enhanced osteoclastogenesis. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining revealed increased osteoclast numbers in tibias of 2-month-old Col1a1-Cnn1 mice, and increased numbers of osteoclasts co-cultured with Col1a1-Cnn1 osteoblasts. The ratio of RANKL to OPG was significantly increased in Col1a1-Cnn1 osteoblasts. These findings reveal a novel function of CNN1 in maintaining bone homeostasis by coupling bone formation to bone resorption. PMID:23044709

  6. Osteostatin-coated porous titanium can improve early bone regeneration of cortical bone defects in rats.

    PubMed

    van der Stok, Johan; Lozano, Daniel; Chai, Yoke Chin; Amin Yavari, Saber; Bastidas Coral, Angela P; Verhaar, Jan A N; Gómez-Barrena, Enrique; Schrooten, Jan; Jahr, Holger; Zadpoor, Amir A; Esbrit, Pedro; Weinans, Harrie

    2015-05-01

    A promising bone graft substitute is porous titanium. Porous titanium, produced by selective laser melting (SLM), can be made as a completely open porous and load-bearing scaffold that facilitates bone regeneration through osteoconduction. In this study, the bone regenerative capacity of porous titanium is improved with a coating of osteostatin, an osteoinductive peptide that consists of the 107-111 domain of the parathyroid hormone (PTH)-related protein (PTHrP), and the effects of this osteostatin coating on bone regeneration were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. SLM-produced porous titanium received an alkali-acid-heat treatment and was coated with osteostatin through soaking in a 100?nM solution for 24?h or left uncoated. Osteostatin-coated scaffolds contained ?0.1??g peptide/g titanium, and in vitro 81% was released within 24?h. Human periosteum-derived osteoprogenitor cells cultured on osteostatin-coated scaffolds did not induce significant changes in osteogenic (alkaline phosphatase [ALP], collagen type 1 [Col1], osteocalcin [OCN], runt-related transcription factor 2 [Runx2]), or angiogenic (vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF]) gene expression; however, it resulted in an upregulation of osteoprotegerin (OPG) gene expression after 24?h and a lower receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RankL):OPG mRNA ratio. In vivo, osteostatin-coated, porous titanium implants increased bone regeneration in critical-sized cortical bone defects (p=0.005). Bone regeneration proceeded until 12 weeks, and femurs grafted with osteostatin-coated implants and uncoated implants recovered, respectively, 66% and 53% of the original femur torque strength (97±31 and 77±53?N·mm, not significant). In conclusion, the osteostatin coating improved bone regeneration of porous titanium. This effect was initiated after a short burst release and might be related to the observed in vitro upregulation of OPG gene expression by osteostatin in osteoprogenitor cells. Long-term beneficial effects of osteostatin-coated, porous titanium implants on bone regeneration or mechanical strength were not established here and may require optimization of the pace and dose of osteostatin release. PMID:25627039

  7. The reversal phase of the bone-remodeling cycle: cellular prerequisites for coupling resorption and formation

    PubMed Central

    Delaisse, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    The reversal phase couples bone resorption to bone formation by generating an osteogenic environment at remodeling sites. The coupling mechanism remains poorly understood, despite the identification of a number of ‘coupling' osteogenic molecules. A possible reason is the poor attention for the cells leading to osteogenesis during the reversal phase. This review aims at creating awareness of these cells and their activities in adult cancellous bone. It relates cell events (i) on the bone surface, (ii) in the mesenchymal envelope surrounding the bone marrow and appearing as a canopy above remodeling surfaces and (iii) in the bone marrow itself within a 50-?m distance of this canopy. When bone remodeling is initiated, osteoprogenitors at these three different levels are activated, likely as a result of a rearrangement of cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions. Notably, canopies are brought under the osteogenic influence of capillaries and osteoclasts, whereas bone surface cells become exposed to the eroded matrix and other osteoclast products. In several diverse pathophysiological situations, including osteoporosis, a decreased availability of osteoprogenitors from these local reservoirs coincides with decreased osteoblast recruitment and impaired initiation of bone formation, that is, uncoupling. Overall, this review stresses that coupling does not only depend on molecules able to activate osteogenesis, but that it also demands the presence of osteoprogenitors and ordered cell rearrangements at the remodeling site. It points to protection of local osteoprogenitors as a critical strategy to prevent bone loss. PMID:25120911

  8. Circulating leptin is negatively associated with the isotopically-measured bone formation rate in pubertal adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Animal studies show that serum leptin (SL) is associated with decreased bone formation (BF) and increased bone resorption (BR) rates via its effects on the sympathetic nervous system. Pediatric data on these relationships are limited due to lack of accurate methodology for in vivo assess...

  9. An electronic device for accelerating bone formation in tissues surrounding a dental implant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jong K. Song; Tae H. Cho; Hui Pan; Yoon M. Song; In S. Kim; Tae H. Lee; Soon J. Hwang; Sung J. Kim

    2009-01-01

    A dental implant is a unique structure which can be used with a noninvasive method because it is inserted into the bone in part and extended extracorporally. This study presents an electronic device that is temporarily connected with the dental implant, and reports its effect on accelerating bone formation in the surrounding tissues in a canine mandibular model. A small

  10. Rapid Establishment of Chemical and Mechanical Properties during Lamellar Bone Formation

    E-print Network

    significantly correlated with bone material stiffness, while the combination of all chemical parameters raisedRapid Establishment of Chemical and Mechanical Properties during Lamellar Bone Formation B. Busa,1 of the time course by which chemical properties define the stiffness of the material during primary

  11. Substance P stimulates late-stage rat osteoblastic bone formation through neurokinin-1 receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Goto; K. Nakao; K. K. Gunjigake; M. A. Kido; S. Kobayashi; T. Tanaka

    2007-01-01

    Substance P (SP) is a widely distributed neuropeptide that works as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. Recently, SP receptors, particularly neurokinin-1 receptors (NK1-Rs) that have a high affinity for SP, have been observed not only in neuron and immune cells, but also in other peripheral cells, including bone cells. To identify the role of SP in bone formation, we investigated the

  12. Heparanase expression and activity influences chondrogenic and osteogenic processes during endochondral bone formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Brown; M. Alicknavitch; S. S. D’Souza; T. Daikoku; C. B. Kirn-Safran; D. Marchetti; D. D. Carson; M. C. Farach-Carson

    2008-01-01

    Endochondral bone formation is a highly orchestrated process involving coordination among cell–cell, cell–matrix and growth factor signaling that eventually results in the production of mineralized bone from a cartilage template. Chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation occur in sequence during this process, and the temporospatial patterning clearly requires the activities of heparin binding growth factors and their receptors. Heparanase (HPSE) plays a

  13. BMP2 activity, although dispensable for bone formation, is required for the initiation of fracture healing

    E-print Network

    Tabin, Cliff

    BMP2 activity, although dispensable for bone formation, is required for the initiation of fracture capacity. Over 40 years ago, an intrinsic activity capable of initiating this reparative response was found has been shown to be the initiator of the endogenous bone repair response. Here we demonstrate

  14. Competitive physical activity early in life is associated with bone mineral density in elderly Swedish men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Nilsson; C. Ohlsson; A. L. Eriksson; K. Frändin; M. Karlsson; Ö. Ljunggren; D. Mellström; M. Lorentzon

    2008-01-01

    Summary  In this population-based study of 75-year-old men (n?=?498), we investigated the association between physical activity (PA) early in life and present bone mineral density (BMD).\\u000a We demonstrate that a high frequency of competitive sports early in life is associated with BMD at several bone sites, indicating\\u000a that increases in BMD following PA are preserved longer than previously believed.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction  Physical activity

  15. Early Union Formation in Canada: Links with Education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darcy W. Hango; Céline Le Bourdais

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the link between early union formation and education using a new Canadian longitudinal data set, the\\u000a Youth in Transition Survey (YITS). Educational transitions and early union formation occur around the same time in young adulthood,\\u000a yet the roles of student and conjugal partner are often thought to be incompatible. We examine the effect of two important\\u000a educational

  16. Rat bone marrow stem cells isolation and culture as a bone formative experimental system

    PubMed Central

    Smajilagi?, Amer; Alji?evi?, Mufida; Redži?, Amira; Filipovi?, Selma; Lagumdžija, Alena C.

    2013-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal cells have been identified as a source of pluripotent stem cells with multipotential potential and differentiation in to the different cells types such as are osteoblast, chondroblast, adipoblast. In this research we describe pioneering experiment of tissue engineering in Bosnia and Herzegovina, of the isolation and differentiation rat bone marrow stromal cells in to the osteoblast cells lineages. Rat bone marrow stromal cells were isolated by method described by Maniatopulos using their plastic adherence capatibility. The cells obtained by plastic adherence were cultured and serially passaged in the osteoinductive medium to differentiate into the osteocytes. Bone marrow samples from rats long bones used for isolation of stromal cells (BMSCs). Under determinate culture conditions BMSCs were differentiated in osteogenic cell lines detected by Alizarin red staining three weeks after isolation. BMSCs as autologue cells model showed high osteogenetic potential and calcification capatibility in vitro. In future should be used as alternative method for bone transplantation in Regenerative Medicine. PMID:23448607

  17. Rat bone marrow stem cells isolation and culture as a bone formative experimental system.

    PubMed

    Smajilagi?, Amer; Alji?evi?, Mufida; Redži?, Amira; Filipovi?, Selma; Lagumdžija, Alena

    2013-02-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal cells have been identified as a source of pluripotent stem cells with multipotential potential and differentiation in to the different cells types such as are osteoblast, chondroblast, adipoblast. In this research we describe pioneering experiment of tissue engineering in Bosnia and Herzegovina, of the isolation and differentiation rat bone marrow stromal cells in to the osteoblast cells lineages. Rat bone marrow stromal cells were isolated by method described by Maniatopulos using their plastic adherence capatibility. The cells obtained by plastic adherence were cultured and serially passaged in the osteoinductive medium to differentiate into the osteocytes. Bone marrow samples from rats long bones used for isolation of stromal cells (BMSCs). Under determinate culture conditions BMSCs were differentiated in osteogenic cell lines detected by Alizarin red staining three weeks after isolation. BMSCs as autologue cells model showed high osteogenetic potential and calcification capatibility in vitro. In future should be used as alternative method for bone transplantation in Regenerative Medicine. PMID:23448607

  18. Influence of early zoledronic acid administration on bone marrow fat in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Guan-Wu; Xu, Zheng; Chang, Shi-Xin; Zhou, Lei; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Nian, Hua; Shi, Xiao

    2014-12-01

    Although the primary target cell of bisphosphonates is the osteoclast, increasing attention is being given to other effector cells influenced by bisphosphonates, such as osteoblasts and marrow adipocytes. Early zoledronic acid (ZA) treatment to ovariectomized (OVX) rats has been found to fully preserve bone microarchitecture over time. However, little is known regarding the influence of ZA on marrow adipogenesis. The purpose of this study was to monitor the ability of early administration of ZA in restoring marrow adiposity in an estrogen-deficient rat model. Thirty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham-operated (SHAM), OVX + vehicle, and OVX + ZA groups (n=10/group). Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and water/fat magnetic resonance imaging were performed at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks after treatment to assess bone mineral density and marrow fat fraction. Serum biochemical markers, bone remodeling, and marrow adipocyte parameters were analyzed using biochemistry, histomorphometry, and histopathology, respectively. The expression levels of osteoblast, adipocyte, and osteoclast-related genes in bone marrow were assessed using RT-PCR. The OVX rats showed marked bone loss, first detected at 12 weeks, but estrogen deficiency resulted in a remarked increase in marrow fat fraction, first detected at 6 weeks compared with the SHAM rats (all P < .001). Similarly, the OVX rats had a substantially larger percent adipocyte area (+163.0%), mean diameter (+29.5%), and higher density (+57.3%) relative to the SHAM rats. Bone histomorphometry, levels of osteoclast-related gene expression, and a serum resorption marker confirmed that ZA significantly suppressed bone resorption activities. Furthermore, ZA treatment returned adipocyte-related gene expression and marrow adipocyte parameters toward SHAM levels. These data suggest that a single dose of early ZA treatment acts to reverse marrow adipogenesis occurring during estrogen deficiency, which may contribute to its capacity to reduce bone loss. PMID:25243855

  19. Administration of a tropomyosin receptor kinase inhibitor attenuates sarcoma-induced nerve sprouting, neuroma formation and bone cancer pain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Pain often accompanies cancer and most current therapies for treating cancer pain have significant unwanted side effects. Targeting nerve growth factor (NGF) or its cognate receptor tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA) has become an attractive target for attenuating chronic pain. In the present report, we use a mouse model of bone cancer pain and examine whether oral administration of a selective small molecule Trk inhibitor (ARRY-470, which blocks TrkA, TrkB and TrkC kinase activity at low nm concentrations) has a significant effect on cancer-induced pain behaviors, tumor-induced remodeling of sensory nerve fibers, tumor growth and tumor-induced bone remodeling. Early/sustained (initiated day 6 post cancer cell injection), but not late/acute (initiated day 18 post cancer cell injection) administration of ARRY-470 markedly attenuated bone cancer pain and significantly blocked the ectopic sprouting of sensory nerve fibers and the formation of neuroma-like structures in the tumor bearing bone, but did not have a significant effect on tumor growth or bone remodeling. These data suggest that, like therapies that target the cancer itself, the earlier that the blockade of TrkA occurs, the more effective the control of cancer pain and the tumor-induced remodeling of sensory nerve fibers. Developing targeted therapies that relieve cancer pain without the side effects of current analgesics has the potential to significantly improve the quality of life and functional status of cancer patients. PMID:21138586

  20. Early decrements in bone density after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in pediatric bone sarcoma patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bone mineral density (BMD) accrual during childhood and adolescence is important for attaining peak bone mass. BMD decrements have been reported in survivors of childhood bone sarcomas. However, little is known about the onset and development of bone loss during cancer treatment. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate BMD in newly diagnosed Ewing's and osteosarcoma patients by means of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods DXA measurements of the lumbar spine (L2-4), both femora and calcanei were performed perioperatively in 46 children and adolescents (mean age: 14.3 years, range: 8.6-21.5 years). Mean Z-scores, areal BMD (g/cm2), calculated volumetric BMD (g/cm3) and bone mineral content (BMC, g) were determined. Results Lumbar spine mean Z-score was -0.14 (95% CI: -0.46 to 0.18), areal BMD was 1.016 g/cm2 (95% CI: 0.950 to 1.082) and volumetric BMD was 0.330 g/cm3 (95% CI: 0.314 to 0.347) which is comparable to healthy peers. For patients with a lower extremity tumor (n = 36), the difference between the affected and non-affected femoral neck was 12.1% (95% CI: -16.3 to -7.9) in areal BMD. The reduction of BMD was more pronounced in the calcaneus with a difference between the affected and contralateral side of 21.7% (95% CI: -29.3 to -14.0) for areal BMD. Furthermore, significant correlations for femoral and calcaneal DXA measurements were found with Spearman-rho coefficients ranging from ? = 0.55 to ? = 0.80. Conclusions The tumor disease located in the lower extremity in combination with offloading recommendations induced diminished BMD values, indicating local osteopenia conditions. However, the results revealed no significant decrements of lumbar spine BMD in pediatric sarcoma patients after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Nevertheless, it has to be taken into account that bone tumor patients may experience BMD decrements or secondary osteoporosis in later life. Furthermore, the peripheral assessment of BMD in the calcaneus via DXA is a feasible approach to quantify bone loss in the lower extremity in bone sarcoma patients and may serve as an alternative procedure, when the established assessment of femoral BMD is not practicable due to endoprosthetic replacements. PMID:21190557

  1. Bone formation by human postnatal bone marrow stromal stem cells is enhanced by telomerase expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Songtao Shi; Stan Gronthos; Shaoqiong Chen; Anand Reddi; Christopher M. Counter; Pamela G. Robey; Cun-Yu Wang

    2002-01-01

    Human postnatal bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSSCs) have a limited life-span and progressively lose their stem cell properties during ex vivo expansion. Here we report that ectopic expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) in BMSSCs extended their life-span and maintained their osteogenic potential. In xenogenic transplants, hTERT-expressing BMSSCs (BMSSC-Ts) generated more bone tissue, with a mineralized lamellar bone

  2. Regulation of bone resorption and formation by purines and pyrimidines

    E-print Network

    Burnstock, Geoffrey

    an organic collagen matrix, and three major cell types: osteoclasts, osteoblasts and osteocytes (Table 1; Fig. Some osteoblasts become incorporated in the bone matrix they secrete, differentiating into osteocytes Differentiate into osteocytes (network of strain- detecting cells) when engulfed by bone matrix; p

  3. Calcium Plasma Implanted Titanium Surface with Hierarchical Microstructure for Improving the Bone Formation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Mengqi; Qiao, Yuqin; Wang, Qi; Jin, Guodong; Qin, Hui; Zhao, Yaochao; Peng, Xiaochun; Zhang, Xianlong; Liu, Xuanyong

    2015-06-17

    Introducing hierarchical microstructure and bioactive trace elements simultaneously onto the surface of titanium implant is a very effective way to improve the osseointegration between bone and implant. In this work, hierarchical topography was prepared on Ti surface via acid etching and sandblasting (SLA) to form micropits and microcavities then underwent Ca plasma immersion ion implantation (Ca-PIII) process. The surface wettability and roughness did not change obviously before and after Ca-PIII process. The in vitro evaluations including cell adhesion, activity, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteogenic genes (Runx2, OSX, ALP, BSP, Col1a1, OPN, and OC), and protein (BSP, Col1a1, OPN, and OC) expressions revealed that the introduction of Ca ions onto the surface of SLA-treated Ti can promote greater osteoblasts adhesion, spread and proliferation, which in return further accelerated the maturation and mineralization of osteoblasts. More importantly, in vivo evaluations including Micro-CT evaluation, histological observations, push-out test, sequential fluorescent labeling and histological observations verified that Ca-SLA-treated Ti implants could efficiently promote new bone formation in early times. These promising results suggest that Ca-SLA-treated Ti has the potential for future application in orthopedic field. PMID:26020570

  4. Up-regulation of glycolytic metabolism is required for HIF1?-driven bone formation

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Jenna N.; Lim, Joohyun; Shi, Yu; Joeng, Kyu Sang; Arbeit, Jeffrey M.; Shohet, Ralph V.; Long, Fanxin

    2014-01-01

    The bone marrow environment is among the most hypoxic in the body, but how hypoxia affects bone formation is not known. Because low oxygen tension stabilizes hypoxia-inducible factor alpha (HIF?) proteins, we have investigated the effect of expressing a stabilized form of HIF1? in osteoblast precursors. Brief stabilization of HIF1? in SP7-positive cells in postnatal mice dramatically stimulated cancellous bone formation via marked expansion of the osteoblast population. Remarkably, concomitant deletion of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) in the mouse did not diminish bone accrual caused by HIF1? stabilization. Thus, HIF1?-driven bone formation is independent of VEGFA up-regulation and increased angiogenesis. On the other hand, HIF1? stabilization stimulated glycolysis in bone through up-regulation of key glycolytic enzymes including pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1). Pharmacological inhibition of PDK1 completely reversed HIF1?-driven bone formation in vivo. Thus, HIF1? stimulates osteoblast formation through direct activation of glycolysis, and alterations in cellular metabolism may be a broadly applicable mechanism for regulating cell differentiation. PMID:24912186

  5. Dietary fish oil results in a greater bone mass and bone formation indices in aged ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Hiroshi; Barrios, Jill A; Shea, Jill E; Miller, Scott C

    2008-01-01

    Postmenopausal bone loss and the possible progression to osteoporosis is a major health concern. Until recently, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was the standard for preventing the development of osteoporosis and possible hip fractures following menopause. However, because of some adverse effects of HRT, new therapies, lifestyle habits, and nutritional interventions are being developed and better characterized in their ability to prevent bone loss after menopause. One such option is to increase the amount of fish oil consumed in the diet. The goal of the current research was to determine the impact of fish oil supplementation on bone mass, density, formation, and resorption in an aged ovariectomized rat model. Twelve-month-old female retired breeder Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a control (Control) or fish oil (Fish) diet. Two weeks following the introduction of the diets, the rats were either sham-operated (Sham) or bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX). Ten weeks after surgery, indices of bone mass and bone histomorphometry were measured. Bone mineral content (BMC) of the whole femur was significantly higher in the Fish/OVX than in the Control/OVX, and the differences were most pronounced in the distal and proximal ends of the femur. However, the Fish/Sham and the Control/Sham did not differ in the measures of BMC. Although the Control/OVX had significantly lower cortical area and greater endosteal perimeter compared with the Control/Sham, the differences were not significant between the Fish/Sham and the Fish/OVX. In addition, the Fish/OVX had a significantly larger percent double-labeled surface and mineral apposition rate at the endocortical surface than the Control/OVX. Our findings suggest that fish oil supplementation has a positive effect on bone metabolism and might be a possible intervention to slow the loss of bone observed following menopause. PMID:18470664

  6. Pulsed electromagnetic fields partially preserve bone mass, microarchitecture, and strength by promoting bone formation in hindlimb-suspended rats.

    PubMed

    Jing, Da; Cai, Jing; Wu, Yan; Shen, Guanghao; Li, Feijiang; Xu, Qiaoling; Xie, Kangning; Tang, Chi; Liu, Juan; Guo, Wei; Wu, Xiaoming; Jiang, Maogang; Luo, Erping

    2014-10-01

    A large body of evidence indicates that pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF), as a safe and noninvasive method, could promote in vivo and in vitro osteogenesis. Thus far, the effects and underlying mechanisms of PEMF on disuse osteopenia and/or osteoporosis remain poorly understood. Herein, the efficiency of PEMF on osteoporotic bone microarchitecture, bone strength, and bone metabolism, together with its associated signaling pathway mechanism, was systematically investigated in hindlimb-unloaded (HU) rats. Thirty young mature (3-month-old), male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally assigned to control, HU, and HU + PEMF groups. The HU + PEMF group was subjected to daily 2-hour PEMF exposure at 15 Hz, 2.4 mT. After 4 weeks, micro-computed tomography (µCT) results showed that PEMF ameliorated the deterioration of trabecular and cortical bone microarchitecture. Three-point bending test showed that PEMF mitigated HU-induced reduction in femoral mechanical properties, including maximum load, stiffness, and elastic modulus. Moreover, PEMF increased serum bone formation markers, including osteocalcin (OC) and N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1NP); nevertheless, PEMF exerted minor inhibitory effects on bone resorption markers, including C-terminal crosslinked telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX-I) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAcP5b). Bone histomorphometric analysis demonstrated that PEMF increased mineral apposition rate, bone formation rate, and osteoblast numbers in cancellous bone, but PEMF caused no obvious changes on osteoclast numbers. Real-time PCR showed that PEMF promoted tibial gene expressions of Wnt1, LRP5, ?-catenin, OPG, and OC, but did not alter RANKL, RANK, or Sost mRNA levels. Moreover, the inhibitory effects of PEMF on disuse-induced osteopenia were further confirmed in 8-month-old mature adult HU rats. Together, these results demonstrate that PEMF alleviated disuse-induced bone loss by promoting skeletal anabolic activities, and imply that PEMF might become a potential biophysical treatment modality for disuse osteoporosis. PMID:24753111

  7. Acute effects of deflazacort and prednisone on rates of mineralization and bone formation.

    PubMed

    Lo Cascio, V; Kanis, J A; Beneton, M N; Bertoldo, F; Adami, S; Poggi, G; Zanolin, M E

    1995-02-01

    The aims of this study were to determine (1) whether acute suppression of bone formation could be evaluated after the administration of corticosteroids in man by quantitative bone histomorphometry; and (2) whether there were significant differences between the effects of prednisone and its analog deflazacort. Thirteen patients who needed high-dose corticosteroid therapy were randomly allocated to two groups of treatment (prednisone or deflazacort). Quantitative bone histomorphometry, using the technique of triple labeling, and biochemical measurements of bone turnover were studied. There were no differences in biochemical indices of bone turnover between prednisone and deflazacort at the beginning and end of the 15 days of treatment course. During corticosteroid treatment, there were no significant changes in biochemical indices of bone turnover but a significant decline in total alkaline phosphatase (P < 0.01). Histomorphometric indices, as revealed by measurements of tetracycline interval and extent of labeling, showed no significant differences in either mineral apposition rate or bone formation rate in the two groups. We conclude that the acute glucocorticoid suppression of bone turnover by glucocorticoids is not detectable within the first 2 weeks of treatment by histomorphometric techniques. No differences in bone effects of prednisone and deflazacort were detected in this short-term study. PMID:7736317

  8. P2X7 receptors: role in bone cell formation and function.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Ankita; Gartland, Alison

    2015-04-01

    The role of the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is being explored with intensive interest in the context of normal bone physiology, bone-related diseases and, to an extent, bone cancer. In this review, we cover the current understanding of P2X7R regulation of bone cell formation, function and survival. We will discuss how the P2X7R drives lineage commitment of undifferentiated bone cell progenitors, the vital role of P2X7R activation in bone mineralisation and its relatively unexplored role in osteocyte function. We also review how P2X7R activation is imperative for osteoclast formation and its role in bone resorption via orchestrating osteoclast apoptosis. Variations in the gene for the P2X7R (P2RX7) have implications for P2X7R-mediated processes and we review the relevance of these genetic variations in bone physiology. Finally, we highlight how targeting P2X7R may have therapeutic potential in bone disease and cancer. PMID:25591582

  9. Micromotion-induced strain fields influence early stages of repair at bone-implant interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Wazen, Rima M.; Currey, Jennifer A.; Guo, Hongqiang; Brunski, John B.; Helms, Jill A.; Nanci, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Implant loading can create micromotion at the bone-implant interface. The interfacial strain associated with implant micromotion could contribute to regulating the tissue healing response. Excessive micromotion can lead to fibrous encapsulation and implant loosening. Our objective was to characterize the influence of interfacial strain on bone regeneration around implants in mouse tibiae. A micromotion system was used to create strain under conditions of (1) no initial contact between implant and bone, and (2) a direct bone-implant contact. Pin- and screw-shaped implants were subjected to displacements of 150 ?m or 300 ?m, 60 cycles/day, for 7 days. Pin-shaped implants placed in 5 animals were subjected to 3 sessions of 150 ?m displacement per day, with 60 cycles per session. Control implants in both types of interfaces were stabilized throughout the healing period. Experimental strain analyses, microtomography, image-based displacement mapping, and finite element simulations were used to characterize interfacial strain fields. Calcified tissue sections were prepared and stained with Goldner to evaluate tissue reaction in higher and lower strain regions. In stable implants, bone formation occurred consistently around the implants. In implants subjected to micromotion, bone regeneration was disrupted in areas of high strain concentrations (e.g. > 30%), whereas lower strain values were permissive of bone formation. Increasing implant displacement or number of cycles per day also changed the strain distribution and disturbed bone healing. These results indicate that not only implant micromotion but also the associated interfacial strain field contributes to regulating the interfacial mechanobiology at healing bone-implant interfaces. PMID:23337705

  10. Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis mediated by novel glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors induces bone formation and a unique bone turnover biomarker profile in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmour, Peter S., E-mail: Peter.Gilmour@astrazeneca.com [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); O'Shea, Patrick J.; Fagura, Malbinder [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Pilling, James E. [Discovery Sciences, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Sanganee, Hitesh [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Wada, Hiroki [R and I IMed, AstraZeneca R and D, Molndal (Sweden); Courtney, Paul F. [DMPK, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Kavanagh, Stefan; Hall, Peter A. [Safety Assessment, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Escott, K. Jane [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Wnt activation by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) causes bone anabolism in rodents making GSK-3 a potential therapeutic target for osteoporotic and osteolytic metastatic bone disease. To understand the wnt pathway related to human disease translation, the ability of 3 potent inhibitors of GSK-3 (AZD2858, AR79, AZ13282107) to 1) drive osteoblast differentiation and mineralisation using human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSC) in vitro; and 2) stimulate rat bone formation in vivo was investigated. Bone anabolism/resorption was determined using clinically relevant serum biomarkers as indicators of bone turnover and bone formation assessed in femurs by histopathology and pQCT/?CT imaging. GSK-3 inhibitors caused ?-catenin stabilisation in human and rat mesenchymal stem cells, stimulated hADSC commitment towards osteoblasts and osteogenic mineralisation in vitro. AZD2858 produced time-dependent changes in serum bone turnover biomarkers and increased bone mass over 28 days exposure in rats. After 7 days, AZD2858, AR79 or AZ13282107 exposure increased the bone formation biomarker P1NP, and reduced the resorption biomarker TRAcP-5b, indicating increased bone anabolism and reduced resorption in rats. This biomarker profile was differentiated from anabolic agent PTH{sub 1–34} or the anti-resorptive Alendronate-induced changes. Increased bone formation in cortical and cancellous bone as assessed by femur histopathology supported biomarker changes. 14 day AR79 treatment increased bone mineral density and trabecular thickness, and decreased trabecular number and connectivity assessed by pQCT/?CT. GSK-3 inhibition caused hADSC osteoblastogenesis and mineralisation in vitro. Increased femur bone mass associated with changes in bone turnover biomarkers confirmed in vivo bone formation and indicated uncoupling of bone formation and resorption. - Highlights: • Wnt modulation with 3 novel GSK-3 inhibitors alters bone growth. • Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis and mineralisation produced by GSK-3 inhibition. • In rats, 3 GSK-3 inhibitors produced a unique serum bone turnover biomarker profile. • Enhanced bone formation was seen within 7 to 14 days of compound treatment in rats.

  11. Exercise Effects on Fitness and Bone Mineral Density in Early Postmenopausal Women: 1-Year EFOPS Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Engelke, Klaus; Lauber, Dirk; Weineck, Juergen; Hensen, Johannes; Kalender, Willi A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effect of intense exercise training on physical fitness, coronary heart disease, bone mineral density (BMD), and parameters related to quality of life in early postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Data on woman in control and exercise training groups indicated that the intense exercise training program was effective in improving…

  12. Requirement of alveolar bone formation for eruption of rat molars

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Gary E.; He, Hongzhi; Gutierrez, Dina L.; Ring, Sherry; Yao, Shaomian

    2011-01-01

    Tooth eruption is a localized event that requires a dental follicle (DF) to regulate the resorption of alveolar bone to form an eruption pathway. During the intra-osseous phase of eruption, the tooth moves through this pathway. The mechanism or motive force that propels the tooth through this pathway is controversial but many studies have shown that alveolar bone growth at the base of the crypt occurs during eruption. To determine if this bone growth (osteogenesis) was causal, experiments were designed in which the expression of an osteogenic gene in the DF, bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP6), was inhibited by injection of the 1st mandibular molar of the rat with an siRNA targeted against BMP6. The injection was followed by electroporation to promote uptake of the siRNA. In 45 first molars injected, eruption either was delayed or completely inhibited (7 molars). In the impacted molars, an eruption pathway formed but bone growth at the base of the crypt was greatly reduced as compared to the erupted first molar controls. These studies show that alveolar bone growth at the base of the crypt is required for tooth eruption and that BMP6 may be an essential gene for promoting this growth. PMID:21896048

  13. Modulating hydrogel crosslink density and degradation to control bone morphogenetic protein delivery and in vivo bone formation.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Julianne L; Ma, Henry; Rai, Reena; Burdick, Jason A

    2014-10-10

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) show promise in therapies for improving bone formation after injury; however, the high supraphysiological concentrations required for desired osteoinductive effects, off-target concerns, costs, and patient variability have limited the use of BMP-based therapeutics. To better understand the role of biomaterial design in BMP delivery, a matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-sensitive hyaluronic acid (HA)-based hydrogel was used for BMP-2 delivery to evaluate the influence of hydrogel degradation rate on bone repair in vivo. Specifically, maleimide-modified HA (MaHA) macromers were crosslinked with difunctional MMP-sensitive peptides to permit protease-mediated hydrogel degradation and growth factor release. The compressive, rheological, and degradation properties of MaHA hydrogels were characterized as a function of crosslink density, which was varied through either MaHA concentration (1-5wt.%) or maleimide functionalization (10-40%f). Generally, the compressive moduli increased, the time to gelation decreased, and the degradation rate decreased with increasing crosslink density. Furthermore, BMP-2 release increased with either a decrease in the initial crosslink density or an increase in collagenase concentration (non-specific MMP degradation). Lastly, two hydrogel formulations with distinct BMP-2 release profiles were evaluated in a critical-sized calvarial defect model in rats. After six weeks, minimal evidence of bone repair was observed within defects left empty or filled with hydrogels alone. For hydrogels that contained BMP-2, similar volumes of new bone tissue were formed; however, the faster degrading hydrogel exhibited improved cellular invasion, bone volume to total volume ratio, and overall defect filling. These results illustrate the importance of coordinating hydrogel degradation with the rate of new tissue formation. PMID:24905414

  14. Teriparatide and bone turnover and formation in a hemodialysis patient with low-turnover bone disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    Palcu, Patricia; Dion, Natalie; Ste-Marie, Louis-Georges; Goltzman, David; Radziunas, Ina; Miller, Paul D; Jamal, Sophie A

    2015-06-01

    Teriparatide, a recombinant form of parathyroid hormone, is an anabolic agent approved for use in women and men with osteoporosis. However, it is not well studied in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We report on a patient with stage 5 CKD treated with dialysis who presented to our clinic with multiple fractures, including bilateral nondisplaced pelvic fractures resulting in chronic pain and interfering with the patient's ability to work. Bone histomorphometry demonstrated low-turnover bone disease, and he was treated with 20?g of teriparatide (subcutaneous injection) every morning for 24 months. Within 6 months of initiating therapy, the patient's pain resolved and he was able to resume work. Serum calcium and phosphate levels remained within reference ranges throughout his treatment, and he sustained no further fractures. During 24 months of treatment, bone mineral density was maintained at the lumbar spine, and there was an increase of 4% at the femoral neck and total hip. A second transiliac bone biopsy demonstrated improvements in static and dynamic parameters of bone formation. In our patient, 24-month treatment with teriparatide was safe and effective; however, larger studies are needed to determine the efficacy of teriparatide in the dialysis-dependent CKD population. PMID:25843705

  15. Evidence that intermittent treatment with parathyroid hormone increases bone formation in adult rats by activation of bone lining cells.

    PubMed

    Dobnig, H; Turner, R T

    1995-08-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that intermittent treatment with PTH increases osteoblast number and bone formation in growing and adult rats. The cellular mechanism for this increase in osteoblast number was investigated in 16-month-old female rats. Continuous [3H]thymidine infusion over a 1-week intermittent PTH [human PTH-(1-34)] treatment period was performed to determine the percentage of newly formed osteoblasts that originate from progenitor cells. To verify increases in bone formation, we performed histomorphometry and Northern blot analysis of selected bone matrix proteins. PTH treatment resulted in dramatic increases in fluorochrome-labeled perimeter (727%), osteoid perimeter (735%), osteoblast number (626%), and steady state mRNA levels of osteocalcin (946%) and type 1 collagen (> 1000%). Autoradiographic analysis of metaphyseal sections revealed no difference in the percentage of [3H]thymidine-labeled osteoblasts between PTH- and vehicle-treated groups (4.3 +/- 1.3% vs. 5.7 +/- 2.7%, respectively). Similar changes were observed in PTH-treated ovariectomized rats. As the PTH-induced increase in osteoblast number did not require proliferation of progenitor cells we carried out an additional experiment in adult ovariectomized rats to determine the onset of PTH action. Incorporation of [3H]proline in the distal femoral epiphysis of PTH-treated adult ovariectomized rats was increased within 24 h. We conclude that the rapid PTH-induced rise in bone formation did not require cell proliferation and was most likely due to activation of preexisting bone lining cells to osteoblasts. PMID:7628403

  16. Long bone maturation is driven by pore closing: A quantitative tomography investigation of structural formation in young C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Bortel, Emely L; Duda, Georg N; Mundlos, Stefan; Willie, Bettina M; Fratzl, Peter; Zaslansky, Paul

    2015-08-01

    During mammalian growth, long bones undergo extensive structural reorganization, transforming from primitive shapes in the limb buds into mature bones. Here we shed light on the steps involved in structural formation of the mineralized tissue in midshafts of C57BL/6 femurs, shortly after birth. By combining 3D micrometer-resolution X-ray microtomography with 2D histology, we study the transformation of the tissue from a partially-mineralized scaffold into a compact bone structure. We identify three growth phases that take place during murine long bone maturation: During a patterning phase (I) mineralized struts form a loosely connected foam-like cortical network. During a transitioning phase (II), the extensive non-mineralized tracts vanish, transforming the foam into a fully continuous mass, by 14days of age. Concomitantly, closed porosity increases to about ?1.4%, and stays at this level, also found in maturity. During a shaping phase (III), the bones gradually attain their characteristic intricate adult form. Architectured mineral depositioning - first in open foamy scaffolds, and later into solid bone material - is presumably a compromise between the mechanical needs of providing support to the body, and the biological requirements of vascularization and extensive nutritional needs in the early stages of bone formation. PMID:25829108

  17. Effects of 1-week head-down tilt bed rest on bone formation and the calcium endocrine system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Whalen, Robert T.; Fung, Paul; Sherrard, Donald J.; Maloney, Norma

    1992-01-01

    The -6-deg head-down tilt (HDT) is employed in the study of 8 subjects to determine early responses in human bone and calcium endocrines during spaceflight. The average rates of bone formation in the iliac crest are determined by means of a single-dose labeling schedule and are found to decrease in 6 of the subjects. The decrease varies directly with walking miles, and increased excretion of urinary Ca and Na are observed preceding increased levels of ionized serum calcium on a bed-rest day late in the week. Reduced phosphorous excretions are also followed by increased serum phosphorous on day six, and reductions are noted in parathyroid hormone and vitamin D by the end of the experiment. The data demonstrate the responsiveness of the skeletal system to biomechanical stimuli such as the HDT.

  18. Estrogen receptor ? in osteocytes regulates trabecular bone formation in female mice

    PubMed Central

    Kondoh, Shino; Inoue, Kazuki; Igarashi, Katsuhide; Sugizaki, Hiroe; Shirode-Fukuda, Yuko; Inoue, Erina; Yu, Taiyong; Takeuchi, Jun K; Kanno, Jun; Bonewald, Lynda F; Imai, Yuuki

    2014-01-01

    Estrogens are well known steroid hormones necessary to maintain bone health. In addition, mechanical loading, in which estrogen signaling may intersect with the Wnt/?-catenin pathway, is essential for bone maintenance. As osteocytes are known as the major mechanosensory cells embedded in mineralized bone matrix, osteocyte ER? deletion mice (ER??Ocy/?Ocy) were generated by mating ER? floxed mice with Dmp1-Cre mice to determine the role of ER? in osteocytes. Trabecular bone mineral density of female, but not male ER??Ocy/?Ocy mice was significantly decreased. Bone formation parameters in ER??Ocy/?Ocy were significantly decreased while osteoclast parameters were unchanged. This suggests that ER? in osteocytes exerts osteoprotective function by positively controlling bone formation. To identify potential targets of ER?, gene array analysis of Dmp1-GFP osteocytes sorted by FACS from ER??Ocy/?Ocy and control mice was performed. Gene expression microarray followed by gene ontology analyses revealed that osteocytes from ER??Ocy/?Ocy highly expressed genes categorized in ‘Secreted’ when compared to control osteocytes. Among them, expression of Mdk and Sostdc1, both of which are Wnt inhibitors, was significantly increased without alteration of expression of the mature osteocyte marker Sost or ?-catenin. Moreover, hindlimb suspension experiments showed that trabecular bone loss due to unloading was greater in ER??Ocy/?Ocy mice with no loss of cortical bone. These data suggest that ER? in osteocytes has osteoprotective functions in trabecular bone formation through regulating expression of Wnt antagonists, but conversely plays a negative role in cortical bone loss due to unloading. PMID:24333171

  19. A Computational Analysis of Bone Formation in the Cranial Vault in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chanyoung; Richtsmeier, Joan T.; Kraft, Reuben H.

    2015-01-01

    Bones of the cranial vault are formed by the differentiation of mesenchymal cells into osteoblasts on a surface that surrounds the brain, eventually forming mineralized bone. Signaling pathways causative for cell differentiation include the actions of extracellular proteins driven by information from genes. We assume that the interaction of cells and extracellular molecules, which are associated with cell differentiation, can be modeled using Turing’s reaction–diffusion model, a mathematical model for pattern formation controlled by two interacting molecules (activator and inhibitor). In this study, we hypothesize that regions of high concentration of an activator develop into primary centers of ossification, the earliest sites of cranial vault bone. In addition to the Turing model, we use another diffusion equation to model a morphogen (potentially the same as the morphogen associated with formation of ossification centers) associated with bone growth. These mathematical models were solved using the finite volume method. The computational domain and model parameters are determined using a large collection of experimental data showing skull bone formation in mouse at different embryonic days in mice carrying disease causing mutations and their unaffected littermates. The results show that the relative locations of the five ossification centers that form in our model occur at the same position as those identified in experimental data. As bone grows from these ossification centers, sutures form between the bones. PMID:25853124

  20. Palm Tocotrienol Supplementation Enhanced Bone Formation in Oestrogen-Deficient Rats

    PubMed Central

    Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana; Ming, Wang; Abu Bakar, Roshayati; Hashnan, Nursyahrina Atiqah; Mohd Ali, Hanif; Mohamed, Norazlina; Muhammad, Norliza; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun

    2012-01-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is the commonest cause of osteoporosis. It is associated with increased free radical activity induced by the oestrogen-deficient state. Therefore, supplementation with palm-oil-derived tocotrienols, a potent antioxidant, should be able to prevent this bone loss. Our earlier studies have shown that tocotrienol was able to prevent and even reverse osteoporosis due to various factors, including oestrogen deficiency. In this study we compared the effects of supplementation with palm tocotrienol mixture or calcium on bone biomarkers and bone formation rate in ovariectomised (oestrogen-deficient) female rats. Our results showed that palm tocotrienols significantly increased bone formation in oestrogen-deficient rats, seen by increased double-labeled surface (dLS/Bs), reduced single-labeled surface (sLS/BS), increased mineralizing surface (MS/BS), increased mineral apposition rate (MAR), and an overall increase in bone formation rate (BFR/BS). These effects were not seen in the group supplemented with calcium. However, no significant changes were seen in the serum levels of the bone biomarkers, osteocalcin, and cross-linked C-telopeptide of type I collagen, CTX. In conclusion, palm tocotrienol is more effective than calcium in preventing oestrogen-deficient bone loss. Further studies are needed to determine the potential of tocotrienol as an antiosteoporotic agent. PMID:23150728

  1. Deletion of Nrf2 reduces skeletal mechanical properties and decreases load-driven bone formation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yong-Xin; Li, Lei; Corry, Kylie A; Zhang, Pei; Yang, Yang; Himes, Evan; Mihuti, Cristina Layla; Nelson, Cecilia; Dai, Guoli; Li, Jiliang

    2015-05-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor expressed in many cell types, including osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts. Nrf2 has been considered a master regulator of cytoprotective genes against oxidative and chemical insults. The lack of Nrf2 can induce pathologies in multiple organs. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Nrf2 in load-driven bone metabolism using Nrf2 knockout (KO) mice. Compared to age-matched littermate wild-type controls, Nrf2 KO mice have significantly lowered femoral bone mineral density (-7%, p<0.05), bone formation rate (-40%, p<0.05), as well as ultimate force (-11%, p<0.01). The ulna loading experiment showed that Nrf2 KO mice were less responsive than littermate controls, as indicated by reduction in relative mineralizing surface (rMS/BS, -69%, p<0.01) and relative bone formation rate (rBFR/BS, -84%, p<0.01). Furthermore, deletion of Nrf2 suppressed the load-driven gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and Wnt5a in cultured primary osteoblasts. Taken together, the results suggest that the loss-of-function mutation of Nrf2 in bone impairs bone metabolism and diminishes load-driven bone formation. PMID:25576674

  2. Ectopic Osteoid and Bone Formation by Three Calcium-Phosphate Ceramics in Rats, Rabbits and Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liao; Zhang, Bi; Bao, Chongyun; Habibovic, Pamela; Hu, Jing; Zhang, Xingdong

    2014-01-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramics with specific physicochemical properties have been shown to induce de novo bone formation upon ectopic implantation in a number of animal models. In this study we explored the influence of physicochemical properties as well as the animal species on material-induced ectopic bone formation. Three bioceramics were used for the study: phase-pure hydroxyapatite (HA) sintered at 1200°C and two biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramics, consisting of 60 wt.% HA and 40 wt.% TCP (?-Tricalcium phosphate), sintered at either 1100°C or 1200°C. 108 samples of each ceramic were intramuscularly implanted in dogs, rabbits, and rats for 6, 12, and 24 weeks respectively. Histological and histomorphometrical analyses illustrated that ectopic bone and/or osteoid tissue formation was most pronounced in BCP sintered at 1100°C and most limited in HA, independent of the animal model. Concerning the effect of animal species, ectopic bone formation reproducibly occurred in dogs, while in rabbits and rats, new tissue formation was mainly limited to osteoid. The results of this study confirmed that the incidence and the extent of material-induced bone formation are related to both the physicochemical properties of calcium phosphate ceramics and the animal model. PMID:25229501

  3. Determinants of bone and blood lead concentrations in the early postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Brown, M. J.; Hu, H.; Gonzales-Cossio, T.; Peterson, K.; Sanin, L.; Kageyama, M. d.; Palazuelos, E.; Aro, A.; Schnaas, L.; Hernandez-Avila, M.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—This study investigated determinants of bone and blood lead concentrations in 430 lactating Mexican women during the early postpartum period and the contribution of bone lead to blood lead.?METHODS—Maternal venous lead was measured at delivery and postpartum, and bone lead concentrations, measured with in vivo K-x ray fluorescence, were measured post partum. Data on environmental exposure, demographic characteristics, and maternal factors related to exposure to lead were collected by questionnaire. Linear regression was used to examine the relations between bone and blood lead, demographics, and environmental exposure variables.?RESULTS—Mean (SD) blood, tibial, and patellar lead concentrations were 9.5 (4.5) µg/dl, 10.2 (10.1) µg Pb/g bone mineral, and 15.2 (15.1) µg Pb/g bone mineral respectively. These values are considerably higher than values for women in the United States. Older age, the cumulative use of lead glazed pottery, and higher proportion of life spent in Mexico City were powerful predictors of higher bone lead concentrations. Use of lead glazed ceramics to cook food in the past week and increased patellar lead concentrations were significant predictors of increased blood lead. Patellar lead concentrations explained one third of the variance accounted for by the final blood lead model. Women in the 90th percentile for patella lead had an untransformed predicted mean blood lead concentration 3.6 µg/dl higher than those in the 10th percentile.?CONCLUSIONS—This study identified the use of lead glazed ceramics as a major source of cumulative exposure to lead, as reflected by bone lead concentrations, as well as current exposure, reflected by blood lead, in Mexico. A higher proportion of life spent in Mexico City, a proxy for exposure to leaded gasoline emissions, was identified as the other major source of cumulative lead exposure. The influence of bone lead on blood lead coupled with the long half life of lead in bone has implications for other populations and suggests that bone stores may pose a threat to women of reproductive age long after exposure has declined.???Keywords: postpartum; blood lead; bone lead PMID:10896960

  4. Platelets guide the formation of early metastatic niches

    PubMed Central

    Labelle, Myriam; Begum, Shahinoor; Hynes, Richard O.

    2014-01-01

    During metastasis, host cells are recruited to disseminated tumor cells to form specialized microenvironments (“niches”) that promote metastatic progression, but the mechanisms guiding the assembly of these niches are largely unknown. Tumor cells may autonomously recruit host cells or, alternatively, host cell-to-host cell interactions may guide the formation of these prometastatic microenvironments. Here, we show that platelet-derived rather than tumor cell-derived signals are required for the rapid recruitment of granulocytes to tumor cells to form “early metastatic niches.” Granulocyte recruitment relies on the secretion of CXCL5 and CXCL7 chemokines by platelets upon contact with tumor cells. Blockade of the CXCL5/7 receptor CXCR2, or transient depletion of either platelets or granulocytes prevents the formation of early metastatic niches and significantly reduces metastatic seeding and progression. Thus, platelets recruit granulocytes and guide the formation of early metastatic niches, which are crucial for metastasis. PMID:25024172

  5. Low-Level Mechanical Vibrations can Reduce Bone Resorption and Enhance Bone Formation in the Growing Skeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Xie,L.; Jacobsen, J.; Busa, B.; Donahue, L.; Miller, L.; Rubin, C.; Judex, S.

    2006-01-01

    Short durations of extremely small magnitude, high-frequency, mechanical stimuli can promote anabolic activity in the adult skeleton. Here, it is determined if such signals can influence trabecular and cortical formative and resorptive activity in the growing skeleton, if the newly formed bone is of high quality, and if the insertion of rest periods during the loading phase would enhance the efficacy of the mechanical regimen. Eight-week-old female BALB/cByJ mice were divided into four groups, baseline control (n = 8), age-matched control (n = 10), whole-body vibration (WBV) at 45 Hz (0.3 g) for 15 min day{sup -1} (n = 10), and WBV that were interrupted every second by 10 of rest (WBV-R, n = 10). In vivo strain gaging of two additional mice indicated that the mechanical signal induced strain oscillations of approximately 10 microstrain on the periosteal surface of the proximal tibia. After 3 weeks of WBV, applied for 15 min each day, osteoclastic activity in the trabecular metaphysis and epiphysis of the tibia was 33% and 31% lower (P < 0.05) than in age-matched controls. Bone formation rates (BFR{center_dot}BS{sup -1}) on the endocortical surface of the metaphysis were 30% greater (P < 0.05) in WBV than in age-matched control mice but trabecular and middiaphyseal BFR were not significantly altered. The insertion of rest periods (WBV-R) failed to potentiate the cellular effects. Three weeks of either WBV or WBV-R did not negatively influence body mass, bone length, or chemical bone matrix properties of the tibia. These data indicate that in the growing skeleton, short daily periods of extremely small, high-frequency mechanical signals can inhibit trabecular bone resorption, site specifically attenuate the declining levels of bone formation, and maintain a high level of matrix quality. If WBV prove to be efficacious in the growing human skeleton, they may be able to provide the basis for a non-pharmacological and safe means to increase peak bone mass and, ultimately, reduce the incidence of osteoporosis or stress fractures later in life.

  6. Differences in the Capacity of Several Biochemical Bone Markers to Assess High Bone Turnover in Early Menopause and Response to Alendronate Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Fink; C. Cormier; P. Steinmetz; C. Kindermans; Y. Le Bouc; J.-C. Souberbielle

    2000-01-01

    :   We measured bone mineral density (BMD), four markers of bone formation [bone alkaline phosphatase (bAP), osteocalcin (Oc),\\u000a N- and C-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP and PICP respectively)] and five markers of bone resorption [serum\\u000a C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx), urinary CTx, N-terminal cross-linked telopeptide (NTx), free and total deoxypyridinoline\\u000a (fDpd and tDpd respectively)] in 28

  7. Permian Bone Spring formation: Sandstone play in the Delaware basin. Part I - slope

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, S.L. [Petroleum Consultant, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    New exploration in the Permian (Leonardian) Bone Spring formation has indicated regional potential in several sandstone sections across portions of the northern Delaware basin. Significant production has been established in the first, second, and third Bone Spring sandstones, as well as in a new reservoir interval, the Avalon sandstone, above the first Bone Spring sandstone. These sandstones were deposited as submarine-fan systems within the northern Delaware basin during periods of lowered sea level. The Bone Spring as a whole consists of alternating carbonate and siliciclastic intervals representing the downdip equivalents to thick Abo-Yeso/Wichita-Clear Fork carbonate buildups along the Leonardian shelf margin. Hydrocarbon exploration in the Bone Spring has traditionally focused on debris-flow carbonate deposits restricted to the paleoslope. Submarine-fan systems, in contrast, extend a considerable distance basinward of these deposits and have been recently proven productive as much as 40-48 km south of the carbonate trend.

  8. Geochemical and mineralogical studies of dinosaur bone from the Morrison Formation at Dinosaur Ridge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Modreski, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    The dinosaur bones first discovered in 1877 in the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation at Morrison, Colorado were the first major find of dinosaur skeletons in the western U.S. and led to the recognition of four new dinosaur genera (Apatosaurus, Allosaurus, Diplodocus, and Stegosaurus). Eight articles dealing with these bones which appeared as research reports in the annual reports of the Friends of Dinosaur Ridge from 1990-1999 are condensed and summarized with some additional comments. Two of the articles are about the mineralogy and preservation of the bones; two are about the physical description of the bone occurrence; two are about the history of the site, and two are about use of novel instrumental methods (ground-penetrating radar and a directional scintillometer) to search for new bones.

  9. The Formation and Early Evolution of Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Norbert S.

    The discovery of bright X-ray emission from young low-mass stars in the wake of the launch of the EINSTEINX-ray observatory (see Chap. 2) [66, 67] truly took researchers by surprise. X-rays from Orion had been detected with Uhuru, the first X-ray satellite launched in the early 1970s, but due to the lack of spatial resolving power a connection to young low-mass stars seemed far from likely. At the time, these stars were investigated for their complex emission patterns at long wavelengths. Models for gravitational collapse do not provide many clues about mechanisms for emissions at wavelengths much shorter than a few microns (see Chaps. 4 and 5). High energy emission requires special circumstances and the responsible physical processes are often different from the ones at the origins of the optical and IR emissions. In order to emit at short wavelengths, one either needs very high temperatures or very high magnetic field strengths or some mechanism to produce high-velocity electrons. The previous chapters already demonstrated that gravitational potentials in protostellar systems are by far too small to free enough energy (see Sect. 6.7). Thus the energy has to come from a different pool, which is most likely rotational and magnetic energy inherited from pre-collapse cloud dynamics. Synchrotron radiation from magnetic fields as high as 1011G can be ruled out on the grounds that superdense degenerate matter, as found in neutron stars, is needed to carry such high field densities [840]. Chapters 6 and 8 also showed that magnetic field strengths in protostellar environments do not exceed 1 or a few kG.

  10. Dystrophic Cutaneous Calcification and Metaplastic Bone Formation due to Long Term Bisphosphonate Use in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tatl?, Ali Murat; Göksu, Sema Sezgin; Arslan, Deniz; Ba?sorgun, Cumhur ?brahim; Co?kun, Hasan ?enol

    2013-01-01

    Bisphosphonates are widely used in the treatment of breast cancer with bone metastases. We report a case of a female with breast cancer presented with a rash around a previous mastectomy site and a discharge lesion on her right chest wall in August 2010. Biopsy of the lesion showed dystrophic calcification and metaplastic bone formation. The patient's history revealed a long term use of zoledronic acid for the treatment of breast cancer with bone metastasis. We stopped the treatment since we believed that the cutaneous dystrophic calcification could be associated with her long term bisphosphonate therapy. Adverse cutaneous events with bisphosphonates are very rare, and dystrophic calcification has not been reported previously. The dystrophic calcification and metaplastic bone formation in this patient are thought to be due to long term bisphosphonate usage. PMID:23956898

  11. Osteoimmunology: oncostatin M as a pleiotropic regulator of bone formation and resorption in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Sims, Natalie A; Quinn, Julian M W

    2014-01-01

    Bone remodeling in health and disease is carried out by osteoblasts and osteoclasts, which respectively produce bone matrix and resorb it. Endocrine and paracrine control of these cells can be direct, but they are also exerted indirectly, either by influencing progenitor cell differentiation or by stimulating paracrine signals from local accessory cells including osteocytes (which form a critical communication and regulation network within the bone matrix), macrophages and T lymphocytes. Here we review the osteotropic actions of the interleukin-6 family member cytokine oncostatin M (OSM), which is of particular interest because of its ability to stimulate bone accrual. OSM is produced within the bone microenvironment by cells of both mesenchymal and hematopoietic origin, including osteocytes, osteoblasts, macrophages and T lymphocytes, and can act via two receptor complexes: OSM receptor:gp130 and leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR):gp130. Although OSM can directly stimulate osteoblast mineralization activity and differentiation, it can also stimulate mesenchymal stem cell osteoblastic commitment at the expense of adipogenesis. In osteocytes, OSM can suppress the production of the bone formation inhibitor sclerostin, an action that is mediated by LIFR:gp130. OSM also stimulates the production of receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B ligand by osteoblasts and thereby drives the formation of osteoclasts particularly in pathological conditions. Thus, cellular effects of OSM on bone metabolism include direct and indirect actions mediated by two related receptor/ligand complexes. OSM therefore provides an example of paracrine and endocrine control mechanisms that regulate bone mass by controlling both bone formation and resorption. PMID:24876928

  12. Gentamicin release from polymethylmethacrylate bone cements and Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    van de Belt, H; Neut, D; Schenk, W; van Horn, J R; van der Mei, H C; Busscher, H J

    2000-12-01

    We measured the formation of a Staphylococcus aureus biofilm in vitro on unloaded and gentamicin-loaded bone cements (CMW3 and Palacos R) and related the formation to antibiotic release rates. All experiments were done in triplicate. Microbial growth on gentamicin-loaded cements occurred despite the release of antibiotic. Biofilm formation on gentamicin loaded CMW3 bone cement was one fourth to one fifth less than on the unloaded bone cement, while biofilm formation on Palacos R bone cement was not significantly affected by antibiotic loading. More gentamicin was released from CMW3 (79 mg) than from Palacos R (70 mg), but the percentage gentamicin released after one week relative to the total amount incorporated was significantly lower for CMW3 (4.7%) than for Palacos R (8.4%). After one day, subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics were eluted from the cements. We concluded that antibiotic-loaded bone cement does not necessarily inhibit the formation of an infectious biofilm in vitro. PMID:11145392

  13. Effect of coating Straumann® Bone Ceramic with Emdogain on mesenchymal stromal cell hard tissue formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krzysztof Marek Mrozik; Stan Gronthos; Danijela Menicanin; Victor Marino; P. Mark Bartold

    Periodontal tissue engineering requires a suitable biocompatible scaffold, cells with regenerative capacity, and instructional\\u000a molecules. In this study, we investigated the capacity of Straumann® Bone Ceramic coated with Straumann® Emdogain, a clinical\\u000a preparation of enamel matrix protein (EMP), to aid in hard tissue formation by post-natal mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs)\\u000a including bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and periodontal ligament fibroblasts

  14. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes enhance electrochemical properties of titanium to determine in situ bone formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sirinrath Sirivisoot; Thomas J. Webster

    2008-01-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) enhance osteoblast (bone-forming cell) calcium deposition compared to currently implanted materials (such as titanium). In this study, MWCNTs were grown out of nanopores anodized on titanium (MWCNT-Ti). The electrochemical responses of MWCNT-Ti were investigated in an attempt to ascertain if MWCNT-Ti can serve as novel in situ sensors of bone formation. For this purpose, MWCNT-Ti was

  15. WNT7B Promotes Bone Formation in part through mTORC1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jianquan; Tu, Xiaolin; Esen, Emel; Joeng, Kyu Sang; Lin, Congxin; Arbeit, Jeffrey M.; Rüegg, Markus A.; Hall, Michael N.; Ma, Liang; Long, Fanxin

    2014-01-01

    WNT signaling has been implicated in both embryonic and postnatal bone formation. However, the pertinent WNT ligands and their downstream signaling mechanisms are not well understood. To investigate the osteogenic capacity of WNT7B and WNT5A, both normally expressed in the developing bone, we engineered mouse strains to express either protein in a Cre-dependent manner. Targeted induction of WNT7B, but not WNT5A, in the osteoblast lineage dramatically enhanced bone mass due to increased osteoblast number and activity; this phenotype began in the late-stage embryo and intensified postnatally. Similarly, postnatal induction of WNT7B in Runx2-lineage cells greatly stimulated bone formation. WNT7B activated mTORC1 through PI3K-AKT signaling. Genetic disruption of mTORC1 signaling by deleting Raptor in the osteoblast lineage alleviated the WNT7B-induced high-bone-mass phenotype. Thus, WNT7B promotes bone formation in part through mTORC1 activation. PMID:24497849

  16. Fibrillin-1 and -2 differentially modulate endogenous TGF-? and BMP bioavailability during bone formation.

    PubMed

    Nistala, Harikiran; Lee-Arteaga, Sui; Smaldone, Silvia; Siciliano, Gabriella; Carta, Luca; Ono, Robert N; Sengle, Gerhard; Arteaga-Solis, Emilio; Levasseur, Regis; Ducy, Patricia; Sakai, Lynn Y; Karsenty, Gerard; Ramirez, Francesco

    2010-09-20

    Extracellular regulation of signaling by transforming growth factor (TGF)-? family members is emerging as a key aspect of organ formation and tissue remodeling. In this study, we demonstrate that fibrillin-1 and -2, the structural components of extracellular microfibrils, differentially regulate TGF-? and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) bioavailability in bone. Fibrillin-2-null (Fbn2(-/-)) mice display a low bone mass phenotype that is associated with reduced bone formation in vivo and impaired osteoblast maturation in vitro. This Fbn2(-/-) phenotype is accounted for by improper activation of latent TGF-? that selectively blunts expression of osterix, the transcriptional regulator of osteoblast maturation, and collagen I, the structural template for bone mineralization. Cultured osteoblasts from Fbn1(-/-) mice exhibit improper latent TGF-? activation as well, but mature faster because of increased availability of otherwise matrix-bound BMPs. Additional in vitro evidence excludes a direct role of microfibrils in supporting mineral deposition. Together, these findings identify the extracellular microfibrils as critical regulators of bone formation through the modulation of endogenous TGF-? and BMP signaling. PMID:20855508

  17. FAD104, a Regulatory Factor of Adipogenesis, Acts as a Novel Regulator of Calvarial Bone Formation*

    PubMed Central

    Kishimoto, Keishi; Nishizuka, Makoto; Katoh, Daiki; Kato, Ayumi; Osada, Shigehiro; Imagawa, Masayoshi

    2013-01-01

    Osteogenesis is a complex process that is orchestrated by several growth factors, extracellular cues, signaling molecules, and transcriptional factors. Understanding the mechanisms of bone formation is pivotal for clarifying the pathogenesis of bone diseases. Previously, we reported that fad104 (factor for adipocyte differentiation 104), a novel positive regulator of adipocyte differentiation, negatively regulated the differentiation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts into osteocytes. However, the physiological role of fad104 in bone formation has not been elucidated. Here, we clarified the role of fad104 in bone formation in vivo and in vitro. fad104 disruption caused craniosynostosis-like premature ossification of the calvarial bone. Furthermore, analyses using primary calvarial cells revealed that fad104 negatively regulated differentiation and BMP/Smad signaling pathway. FAD104 interacted with Smad1/5/8. The N-terminal region of FAD104, which contains a proline-rich motif, was capable of binding to Smad1/5/8. We demonstrated that down-regulation of Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation by FAD104 is dependent on the N-terminal region of FAD104 and that fad104 functions as a novel negative regulator of BMP/Smad signaling and is required for proper development for calvarial bone. These findings will aid a comprehensive description of the mechanism that controls normal and premature calvarial ossification. PMID:24052261

  18. Early archosauromorph remains from the Permo-Triassic Buena Vista Formation of north-eastern Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Ezcurra, Martín D; Velozo, Pablo; Meneghel, Melitta; Piñeiro, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    The Permo-Triassic archosauromorph record is crucial to understand the impact of the Permo-Triassic mass extinction on the early evolution of the group and its subsequent dominance in Mesozoic terrestrial ecosystems. However, the Permo-Triassic archosauromorph record is still very poor in most continents and hampers the identification of global macroevolutionary patterns. Here we describe cranial and postcranial bones from the Permo-Triassic Buena Vista Formation of northeastern Uruguay that contribute to increase the meagre early archosauromorph record from South America. A basioccipital fused to both partial exoccipitals and three cervical vertebrae are assigned to Archosauromorpha based on apomorphies or a unique combination of characters. The archosauromorph remains of the Buena Vista Formation probably represent a multi-taxonomic assemblage composed of non-archosauriform archosauromorphs and a 'proterosuchid-grade' animal. This assemblage does not contribute in the discussion of a Late Permian or Early Triassic age for the Buena Vista Formation, but reinforces the broad palaeobiogeographic distribution of 'proterosuchid grade' diapsids in Permo-Triassic beds worldwide. PMID:25737816

  19. Early Family Formation Among White, Black, and Mexican American Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy S. Landale; Robert Schoen; Kimberly Daniels

    2010-01-01

    Using data from Waves I and III of Add Health, this study examines early family formation among 6,144 White, Black, and Mexican American women. Drawing on cultural and structural perspectives, models of the first and second family transitions (cohabitation, marriage, or childbearing) are estimated using discrete-time multinomial logistic regression. Complex differences by race and ethnicity and generation are partially explained

  20. Formation of early water oceans on rocky planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda T. Elkins-Tanton

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial planets, with silicate mantles and metallic cores, are likely to obtain water and carbon compounds during accretion. Here I examine the conditions that allow early formation of a surface water ocean (simultaneous with cooling to clement surface conditions), and the timeline of degassing the planetary interior into the atmosphere. The greatest fraction of a planet's initial volatile budget is

  1. Early evolution of the universe and formation of structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Gottloeber; H. J. Haubold; J. P. Muecket; V. Mueller

    1990-01-01

    Significant results are presented regarding the formation of structure in the universe and the key conclusions are put into the context of future research directions. Attention is given to the failure of hot big-bang cosmology to account for observable cosmological structures in spite of the solid foundations of the big-bang descriptions early universe evolution. The problems of classical cosmology are

  2. Early Family Formation among White, Black, and Mexican American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landale, Nancy S.; Schoen, Robert; Daniels, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Using data from Waves I and III of Add Health, this study examines early family formation among 6,144 White, Black, and Mexican American women. Drawing on cultural and structural perspectives, models of the first and second family transitions (cohabitation, marriage, or childbearing) are estimated using discrete-time multinomial logistic…

  3. A Subset of Chondrogenic Cells Provides Early Mesenchymal Progenitors in Growing Bones

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Noriaki; Ono, Wanida; Nagasawa, Takashi; Kronenberg, Henry M.

    2014-01-01

    The hallmark of endochondral bone development is the presence of cartilaginous templates, in which osteoblasts and stromal cells are generated to form mineralized matrix and support bone marrow hematopoiesis. However, the ultimate source of these mesenchymal cells and the relationship between bone progenitors in fetal life and those in later life are unknown. Fate-mapping studies revealed that cells expressing cre-recombinases driven by the collagen II (Col2) promoter/enhancer and their descendants contributed to, in addition to chondrocytes, early perichondrial precursors prior to Runx2 expression and, subsequently, to a majority of osteoblasts, Cxcl12 (chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12)-abundant stromal cells and bone marrow stromal/mesenchymal progenitor cells in postnatal life. Lineage-tracing experiments using a tamoxifen-inducible creER system further revealed that early postnatal cells marked by Col2-creER, as well as Sox9-creER and aggrecan (Acan)-creER, progressively contributed to multiple mesenchymal lineages and continued to provide descendants for over a year. These cells are distinct from adult mesenchymal progenitors and thus provide opportunities for regulating the explosive growth that occurs uniquely in growing mammals. PMID:25419849

  4. Bone mineral content in early-postmenopausal and postmenopausal osteoporotic women: comparison of measurement methods

    SciTech Connect

    Reinbold, W.D.; Genant, H.K.; Reiser, U.J.; Harris, S.T.; Ettinger, B.

    1986-08-01

    To investigate associations among methods for noninvasive measurement of skeletal bone mass, we studied 40 healthy early postmenopausal women and 68 older postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Methods included single- and dual-energy quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) of the lumbar spine, single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) of the distal third of the radius, and combined cortical thickness (CCT) of the second metacarpal shaft. Lateral thoracolumbar radiography was performed, and a spinal fracture index was calculated. There was good correlation between QCT and DPA methods in early postmenopausal women and modest correlation in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Correlations between spinal measurements (QCT or DPA) and appendicular cortical measurements (SPA or CCT) were modest in healthy women and poor in osteoporotic women. Measurements resulting from one method are not predictive of those by another method for the individual patient. The strongest correlation with severity of vertebral fracture is provided by QCT; the weakest, by SPA. There was a high correlation between single- and dual-energy QCT results, indicating that errors due to vertebral fat are not substantial in these postmenopausal women. Single-energy QCT may be adequate and perhaps preferable for assessing postmenopausal women. The measurement of spinal trabecular bone density by QCT discriminates between osteoporotic women and younger healthy women with more sensitivity than measurements of spinal integral bone by DPA or of appendicular cortical bone by SPA or CCT.

  5. The Novel Zinc Finger-Containing Transcription Factor Osterix Is Required for Osteoblast Differentiation and Bone Formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuhisa Nakashima; Xin Zhou; Gary Kunkel; Zhaoping Zhang; Jian Min Deng; Richard R. Behringer; Benoit de Crombrugghe

    2002-01-01

    We have identified a novel zinc finger-containing transcription factor, called Osterix (Osx), that is specifically expressed in all developing bones. In Osx null mice, no bone formation occurs. In endochondral skeletal elements of Osx null mice, mesenchymal cells, together with osteoclasts and blood vessels, invade the mineralized cartilage matrix. However, the mesenchymal cells do not deposit bone matrix. Similarly, cells

  6. Beneath the Minerals, a Layer of Round Lipid Particles Was Identified to Mediate Collagen Calcification in Compact Bone Formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaohua Xu; Jianqing J. Yu

    2006-01-01

    Astronauts lose 1–2% of their bone minerals per month during space flights. A systematic search for a countermeasure relies on a good understanding of the mechanism of bone formation at the molecular level. How collagen fibers, the dominant matrix protein in bones, are mineralized remains mysterious. Atomic force microscopy was carried out, in combination with immunostaining and Western blotting, on

  7. Contribution of defect on early stage of LIPSS formation.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Hisashi; Yada, Shuhei; Obara, Go; Terakawa, Mitsuhiro

    2014-07-28

    We investigated an early stage of laser-induced periodic surface structure (LIPSS) formation to elucidate the contribution of defects on the formation. 4H-SiC crystals were irradiated by multiple pulses of femtosecond laser with different laser spot sizes. We observed the decrease in formation thresholds of high-spatial-frequency LIPSS (HSFL) and low-spatial-frequency LIPSS (LSFL) with the increased irradiated laser spot size. For smaller laser spot size, HSFL was only formed at the periphery of LSFL formation area, whereas for larger spot size, HSFL was randomly distributed within the laser spot. Our results are coincident with the hypothesis that the existence of defects in crystal contributes to the early stage on the formation of LIPSS, in which the electron excitation via one or two photon absorption in a defect site cause local nanoablation at a laser fluence under the intrinsic ablation threshold, followed by the formation of a nanovoid, which act as a scatterer, and interference of scattered wave and laser pulses lead to HSFL formation. PMID:25089418

  8. Water Formation in the Upper Atmosphere of the Early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Benjamin; Carrasco, Nathalie; Marcq, Emmanuel; Vettier, Ludovic; Määttänen, Anni

    2015-07-01

    The water concentration and distribution in the early Earth's atmosphere are important parameters that contribute to the chemistry and the radiative budget of the atmosphere. If the atmosphere above the troposphere is generally considered as dry, photochemistry is known to be responsible for the production of numerous minor species. Here we used an experimental setup to study the production of water in conditions simulating the chemistry above the troposphere of the early Earth with an atmospheric composition based on three major molecules: N2, CO2, and H2. The formation of gaseous products was monitored using infrared spectroscopy. Water was found as the major product, with approximately 10% of the gas products detected. This important water formation is discussed in the context of the early Earth.

  9. Perlecan modulates VEGF signaling and is essential for vascularization in endochondral bone formation.

    PubMed

    Ishijima, Muneaki; Suzuki, Nobuharu; Hozumi, Kentaro; Matsunobu, Tomoya; Kosaki, Keisuke; Kaneko, Haruka; Hassell, John R; Arikawa-Hirasawa, Eri; Yamada, Yoshihiko

    2012-05-01

    Perlecan (Hspg2) is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan expressed in basement membranes and cartilage. Perlecan deficiency (Hspg2(-/-)) in mice and humans causes lethal chondrodysplasia, which indicates that perlecan is essential for cartilage development. However, the function of perlecan in endochondral ossification is not clear. Here, we report the critical role of perlecan in VEGF signaling and angiogenesis in growth plate formation. The Hspg2(-/-) growth plate was significantly wider but shorter due to severely impaired endochondral bone formation. Hypertrophic chondrocytes were differentiated in Hspg2(-/-) growth plates; however, removal of the hypertrophic matrix and calcified cartilage was inhibited. Although the expression of MMP-13, CTGF, and VEGFA was significantly upregulated in Hspg2(-/-) growth plates, vascular invasion into the hypertrophic zone was impaired, which resulted in an almost complete lack of bone marrow and trabecular bone. We demonstrated that cartilage perlecan promoted activation of VEGF/VEGFR by binding to the VEGFR of endothelial cells. Expression of the perlecan transgene specific to the cartilage of Hspg2(-/-) mice rescued their perinatal lethality and growth plate abnormalities, and vascularization into the growth plate was restored, indicating that perlecan in the growth plate, not in endothelial cells, is critical in this process. These results suggest that perlecan in cartilage is required for activating VEGFR signaling of endothelial cells for vascular invasion and for osteoblast migration into the growth plate. Thus, perlecan in cartilage plays a critical role in endochondral bone formation by promoting angiogenesis essential for cartilage matrix remodeling and subsequent endochondral bone formation. PMID:22421594

  10. Circulating Bone Marrow Cells Can Contribute to Neointimal Formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chih-lu Han; Gordon R. Campbell; Julie H. Campbell

    2001-01-01

    To examine the source of smooth muscle-like cells during vascular healing, C57BL\\/6 (Ly 5.2) female mice underwent whole body irradiation followed by transfusion with 106 nucleated bone marrow cells from congenic (Ly 5.1) male donors. Successful repopulation (88.4 ± 4.9%) by donor marrow was demonstrated in the female mice by flow cytometry with FITC-conjugated A20.1\\/Ly 5.1 monoclonal antibody after 4

  11. Bone formation by human umbilical cord perivascular cells.

    PubMed

    Kajiyama, Sohtaro; Ujiie, Yuko; Nishikawa, Sumio; Inoue, Kohji; Shirakawa, Satoshi; Hanada, Nobuhiro; Liddell, Robert; Davies, John E; Gomi, Kasuhiro

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the possibility of employing human umbilical perivascular cells (HUCPVCs) within the context of finding an alternative source of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) for bone tissue engineering. Since it has previously been reported that conditioned medium (CM) from osteogenic bone marrow (BM) MSCs can potentiate osteogenic differentiation in a secondary cell population, we also employed BM-MSCs to generate CM to stimulate osteogenesis in the HUCPVCs. The BM-MSCs were a commercially available immortalized human cell line. In vitro assays showed negligible levels of osteogenic gene expression in HUCPVCs compared to BM-MSC, but alkaline phosphatase was detected when HUCPVC were cultured in osteogenic medium in the presence of CM from BM-MSC. An in vivo assay employing a rat calvarial osteotomy defect, together with a collagen sponge scaffold, showed that HUCPVCs provided statistically significant bony repair compared to controls. BM-MSC loaded scaffolds were not statistically different from either controls or HUCPVCs. The addition of BM-MSC CM to HUCPVCs also produced no statistically significant difference to the bone formed by HUCPVCs alone. Our results demonstrate that the in vitro assays employed did not predict in vivo outcomes, and that the BM-MSC cell line employed, or CM from such cells, provided no osteogenic advantage over the use of HUCPVCs alone. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 103A: 2807-2814, 2015. PMID:25676366

  12. Apoptosis-associated uncoupling of bone formation and resorption in osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Marriott, Ian

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the destruction of bone tissue in osteomyelitis are only now being elucidated. While some of the tissue damage associated with osteomyelitis likely results from the direct actions of bacteria and infiltrating leukocytes, perhaps exacerbated by bacterial manipulation of leukocyte survival pathways, infection-induced bone loss predominantly results from an uncoupling of the activities of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Bacteria or their products can directly increase osteoclast formation and activity, and the inflammatory milieu at sites of infection can further promote bone resorption. In addition, osteoclast activity is critically regulated by osteoblasts that can respond to bacterial pathogens and foster both inflammation and osteoclastogenesis. Importantly, bone loss during osteomyelitis is also brought about by a decline in new bone deposition due to decreased bone matrix synthesis and by increased rates of osteoblast apoptosis. Extracellular bacterial components may be sufficient to reduce osteoblast viability, but the causative agents of osteomyelitis are also capable of inducing continuous apoptosis of these cells by activating intrinsic and extrinsic cell death pathways to further uncouple bone formation and resorption. Interestingly, bacterial internalization appears to be required for maximal osteoblast apoptosis, and cytosolic inflammasome activation may act in concert with autocrine/paracrine death receptor-ligand signaling to induce cell death. The manipulation of apoptotic pathways in infected bone cells could be an attractive new means to limit inflammatory damage in osteomyelitis. However, the mechanism that is the most important in bacterium-induced bone loss has not yet been identified. Furthermore, it remains to be determined whether the host would be best served by preventing osteoblast cell death or by promoting apoptosis in infected cells. PMID:24392356

  13. Effects of designed PLLA and 50:50PLGA scaffold architectures on bone formation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Eiji; Liao, Elly E.; Hu, Wei-Wen; Krebsbach, Paul H.; Hollister, Scott J.

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradable porous scaffolds have been investigated as an alternative approach to current metal, ceramic, and polymer bone graft substitutes for lost or damaged bone tissues. Although there have been many studies investigating the effects of scaffold architecture on bone formation, many of these scaffolds were fabricated using conventional methods, such as salt leaching and phase separation, and were constructed without designed architecture. To study the effects of both designed architecture and material on bone formation, we designed and fabricated three types of porous scaffold architecture from two biodegradable materials, poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and 50:50Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) using image based design and indirect solid freeform fabrication techniques, seeded them with bone morphogenic protein-7 transduced human gingival fibroblasts and implanted them subcutaneously into mice for 4 and 8 weeks. Micro-computed tomography data confirmed that the fabricated porous scaffolds replicated the designed architectures. Histological analysis revealed that the 50:50PLGA scaffolds degraded and did not maintain their architecture after 4 weeks. The PLLA scaffolds maintained their architecture at both time points and showed improved bone ingrowth which followed the internal architecture of the scaffolds. Mechanical properties of both PLLA and 50:50PLGA scaffolds decreased, but PLLA scaffolds maintained greater mechanical properties than 50:50PLGA after implantation. The increase of mineralized tissue helped to support mechanical properties of bone tissue and scaffold constructs from 4 to 8 weeks. The results indicated the importance of choice of scaffold materials and computationally designed scaffolds to control tissue formation and mechanical properties for desired bone tissue regeneration. PMID:22162220

  14. Physical Mechanisms of Pattern Formation in the Early Chick Embryo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balter, Ariel; Glazier, James; Zaitlen, Benji; Chaplain, Mark; Weijer, Cornelis

    2007-03-01

    Gastrulation marks a critical step in early embryogenesis when the first recognizable patterns are laid down. Although the genome maintains ultimate responsibility for this pattern formation, it cannot actually control the organization of individual cells. The robustness of embryogenic pattern formation suggests that a few simple, physical mechanisms are unleashed and that self-organization results. We perform numerical simulations of early chick gastrulation using an agent based method in which individual cells interact via a handful of behaviors including adhesivity, secretion and chemotaxis. Through these simulations we have identified certain behaviors as being important for various stages and morphological events. For instance, experimental results on primitive streak formation are best reproduced by a model in which the Kohler's Sickle secretes a chemo repellant for streak tip cells, and cell polarization appears to be important for initiating polonaise motion during streak elongation.

  15. The Importance of the Prenyl Group in the Activities of Osthole in Enhancing Bone Formation and Inhibiting Bone Resorption In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Yuan-Kun; Pan, Ya-Lei; Niu, Yin-Bo; Li, Chen-Rui; Wu, Xiang-Long; Fan, Wu-Tu; Lu, Ting-Li; Mei, Qi-Bing; Xian, Cory J.

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis treatment always aimed at keeping the balance of bone formation and bone resorption. Recently, prenyl group in natural products has been proposed as an active group to enhance the osteogenesis process. Osthole has both the prenyl group and bone-protective activities, but the relationship is still unknown. In this study we found that osthole exerted a potent ability to promote proliferation and osteogenic function of rat bone marrow stromal cells and osteoblasts, including improved cell viability, alkaline phosphatase activity, enhanced secretion of collagen-I, bone morphogenetic protein-2, osteocalcin and osteopontin, stimulated mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor-1, runt-related transcription factor-2, osterix, OPG (osteoprotegerin), RANKL (receptor activator for nuclear factor-?B ligand), and the ratio of OPG/RANKL, as well as increasing the formation of mineralized nodules. However, 7-methoxycoumarin had no obvious effects. Osthole also inhibited osteoclastic bone resorption to a greater extent than 7-methoxycoumarin, as shown by a lower tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity and lower number and smaller area of resorption pits. Our findings demonstrate that osthole could be a potential agent to stimulate bone formation and inhibit bone resorption, and the prenyl group plays an important role in these bone-protective effects. PMID:25147567

  16. Quantitative analysis of factors influencing tissue-engineered bone formation by detecting the expression levels of alkaline phosphatase and bone ?-carboxyglutamate protein 2

    PubMed Central

    SONG, ZEZHONG; WU, CHANGSHUN; SUN, SHUI; LI, HUIBO; WANG, DONG; GONG, JIANBAO; YAN, ZEXING

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering is a promising alternative approach that permits the efficient reconstruction of bone defects. There are four elements involved in bone tissue engineering technology, including the seed cells, growth factors, scaffolds and culture environment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of these factors on bone formation in tissue engineering technology by analyzing the expression of osteogenetic markers using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were extracted from the bone marrow of the bilateral tibial platform of New Zealand white rabbits. In addition, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) samples were prepared from blood extracted from the ear vein of the rabbits. A perfusion bioreactor was used to provide the culture environment, and ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) was used to build the scaffolds. The ?-TCP scaffolds were divided into five groups and each group was treated with a different combination of the factors. Next, the composites were implanted into the rabbits. After three months, the expression levels of the new bone formation markers, alkaline phosphatase and bone ?-carboxyglutamate protein 2, were detected using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis. The expression levels of the markers in the experimental groups were higher compared with the negative control group. Comparisons between the experimental groups also revealed statistical significance. Scanning electron microscopy revealed good adhesion and distribution of the BMSCs on the ?-TCP scaffold. In conclusion, the PCR results indicated that PRP, BMSCs and the bioreactor exhibited a promoting effect on bone formation. PMID:25780393

  17. Mechanisms of ectopic bone formation by human osteoprogenitor cells on CaP biomaterial carriers.

    PubMed

    Chai, Yoke Chin; Roberts, Scott J; Desmet, Eline; Kerckhofs, Greet; van Gastel, Nick; Geris, Liesbet; Carmeliet, Geert; Schrooten, Jan; Luyten, Frank P

    2012-04-01

    Stem cell-based strategies for bone regeneration, which use calcium phosphate (CaP)-based biomaterials in combination with developmentally relevant progenitor populations, have significant potential for clinical repair of skeletal defects. However, the exact mechanism of action and the stem cell-host-material interactions are still poorly understood. We studied if pre-conditioning of human periosteum-derived cells (hPDCs) in vitro could enhance, in combination with a CaP-based biomaterial carrier, ectopic bone formation in vivo. By culturing hPDCs in a biomimetic calcium (Ca(2+)) and phosphate (P(i)) enriched culture conditions, we observed an enhanced cell proliferation, decreased expression of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) markers and upregulation of osteogenic genes including osterix, Runx2, osteocalcin, osteopontin, and BMP-2. However, the in vitro pre-conditioning protocols were non-predictive for in vivo ectopic bone formation. Surprisingly, culturing in the presence of Ca(2+) and P(i) supplements resulted in partial or complete abrogation of in vivo ectopic bone formation. Through histological, immunohistochemical and microfocus X-ray computed tomography (?CT) analysis of the explants, we found that in situ proliferation, collagen matrix deposition and the mediation of osteoclastic activity by hPDCs are associated to their ectopic bone forming capacity. These data were validated by the multivariate analysis and partial least square regression modelling confirming the non-predictability of in vitro parameters on in vivo ectopic bone formation. Our series of experiments provided further insights on the stem cell-host-material interactions that govern in vivo ectopic bone induction driven by hPDCs on CaP-based biomaterials. PMID:22269651

  18. In vivo stimulation of bone formation by aluminum and oxygen plasma surface-modified magnesium implants.

    PubMed

    Wong, Hoi Man; Zhao, Ying; Tam, Vivian; Wu, Shuilin; Chu, Paul K; Zheng, Yufeng; To, Michael Kai Tsun; Leung, Frankie K L; Luk, Keith D K; Cheung, Kenneth M C; Yeung, Kelvin W K

    2013-12-01

    A newly developed magnesium implant is used to stimulate bone formation in vivo. The magnesium implant after undergoing dual aluminum and oxygen plasma implantation is able to suppress rapid corrosion, leaching of magnesium ions, as well as hydrogen gas release from the biodegradable alloy in simulated body fluid (SBF). No released aluminum is detected from the SBF extract and enhanced corrosion resistance properties are confirmed by electrochemical tests. In vitro studies reveal enhanced growth of GFP mouse osteoblasts on the aluminum oxide coated sample, but not on the untreated sample. In addition to that a small amount (50 ppm) of magnesium ions can enhance osteogenic differentiation as reported previously, our present data show a low concentration of hydrogen can give rise to the same effect. To compare the bone volume change between the plasma-treated magnesium implant and untreated control, micro-computed tomography is performed and the plasma-treated implant is found to induce significant new bone formation adjacent to the implant from day 1 until the end of the animal study. On the contrary, bone loss is observed during the first week post-operation from the untreated magnesium sample. Owing to the protection offered by the Al2O3 layer, the plasma-treated implant degrades more slowly and the small amount of released magnesium ions stimulate new bone formation locally as revealed by histological analyses. Scanning electron microscopy discloses that the Al2O3 layer at the bone-implant interface is still present two months after implantation. In addition, no inflammation or tissue necrosis is observed from both treated and untreated implants. These promising results suggest that the plasma-treated magnesium implant can stimulate bone formation in vivo in a minimal invasive way and without causing post-operative complications. PMID:24060425

  19. Bone vascularization and trabecular bone formation are mediated by PKB alpha/Akt1 in a gene-dosage-dependent manner: in vivo and ex vivo MRI.

    PubMed

    Vandoorne, Katrien; Magland, Jeremy; Plaks, Vicki; Sharir, Amnon; Zelzer, Elazar; Wehrli, Felix; Hemmings, Brian A; Harmelin, Alon; Neeman, Michal

    2010-07-01

    PKBalpha/Akt1, a protein kinase, is a major mediator of angiogenic signaling. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of PKB alpha/Akt1 in bone vascularization and development. For that aim, macromolecular dynamic contrast enhanced MRI was applied to examine in vivo vascular changes in long bones of 40-day-old growing PKB alpha/Akt1-deficient, heterozygous, and wild-type mice. Ex vivo microMRI and microCT were applied to monitor the impact of PKB alpha/Akt1 gene dosage on trabecular bone formation during endochondral bone growth. PKB alpha/Akt1-deficient mice and, remarkably, also heterozygous mice showed significantly reduced blood volume fraction in the humerus compared to wild-type mice. Moreover, PKB alpha/Akt1-deficient mice showed a more severe vascular deficiency with reduced permeability. microCT and microMRI of trabeculae revealed impaired bone formation in both PKB alpha/Akt1-deficient and heterozygous mice, whereas cortical bone parameters were only reduced in PKB alpha/Akt1-deficient mice. Reduction of metaphyseal blood vessel invasion, concomitant with aberrant trabeculae and shorter long bones, demonstrates a gene-dose-dependent role for PKB alpha/Akt1 in regulation of overall size and endochondral bone growth. MRI proved to provide high sensitivity for in vivo detection of subtle gene dose effects leading to impaired bone vascularity and for uncovering changes in trabecular bone. PMID:20572141

  20. Microarray analysis of changes in bone cell gene expression early after cadmium gavage in mice.

    PubMed

    Regunathan, Akhila; Glesne, David A; Wilson, Allison K; Song, Jongwoo; Nicolae, Dan; Flores, Tony; Bhattacharyya, Maryka H

    2003-09-15

    We developed an in vivo model for cadmium-induced bone loss in which mice excrete bone mineral in feces beginning 8 h after cadmium gavage. Female mice of three strains [CF1, MTN (metallothionein-wild-type), and MT1,2KO (MT1,2-deficient)] were placed on a low-calcium diet for 2 weeks. Each mouse was gavaged with 200 microg Cd or vehicle only. Fecal calcium was monitored daily for 9 days, beginning 4 days before cadmium gavage, to document the bone response. For CF1 mice, bones were taken from four groups: +/- Cd, 2 h after Cd and +/- Cd, 4 h after Cd. MTN and MT1,2KO strains had two groups each: +/-Cd, 4 h after Cd. PolyA+ RNA preparations from marrow-free shafts of femura and tibiae of each +/- Cd pair were submitted to Incyte Genomics for microarray analysis. Fecal Ca results showed that bone calcium excreted after cadmium differed for the three mouse strains: CF1, 0.24 +/- 0.08 mg; MTN, 0.92 +/- 0.22 mg; and MT1,2KO, 1.7 +/- 0.4 mg. Gene array results showed that nearly all arrayed genes were unaffected by cadmium. However, MT1 and MT2 had Cd+/Cd- expression ratios >1 in all four groups, while all ratios for MT3 were essentially 1, showing specificity. Both probes for MAPK 14 (p38 MAPK) had expression ratios >1, while no other MAPK responded to cadmium. Vacuolar proton pump ATPase and integrin alpha v (osteoclast genes), transferrin receptor, and src-like adaptor protein genes were stimulated by Cd; other src-related genes were unaffected. Genes for bone formation, stress response, growth factors, and signaling molecules showed little or no response to cadmium. Results support the hypothesis that Cd stimulates bone demineralization via a p38 MAPK pathway involving osteoclast activation. PMID:13678660

  1. The effects of prostaglandin E2 in growing rats - Increased metaphyseal hard tissue and cortico-endosteal bone formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jee, W. S. S.; Ueno, K.; Deng, Y. P.; Woodbury, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    The role of in vivo prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in bone formation is investigated. Twenty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing between 223-267 g were injected subcutaneously with 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0 mg of PGE2-kg daily for 21 days. The processing of the tibiae for observation is described. Radiographs and histomorphometric analyses are also utilized to study bone formation. Body weight, weights of soft tissues and bones morphometry are evaluated. It is observed that PGE2 depressed longitudinal bone growth, increased growth cartilage thickness, decreased degenerative cartilage cell size and cartilage cell production, and significantly increased proximal tibial metaphyseal hard tissue mass. The data reveal that periosteal bone formation is slowed down at higher doses of PGE2 and endosteal bone formation is slightly depressed less than 10 days post injection; however, here is a late increase (10 days after post injection) in endosteal bone formation and in the formation of trabecular bone in the marrow cavity of the tibial shaft. It is noted that the effects of PGE2 on bone formation are similar to the responses of weaning rats to PGE2.

  2. Nanoscale Confinement Controls the Crystallization of Calcium Phosphate: Relevance to Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Cantaert, Bram; Beniash, Elia; Meldrum, Fiona C.

    2015-01-01

    A key feature of biomineralization processes is that they take place within confined volumes, in which the local environment can have significant effects on mineral formation. Herein, we investigate the influence of confinement on the formation mechanism and structure of calcium phosphate (CaP). This is of particular relevance to the formation of dentine and bone, structures of which are based on highly mineralized collagen fibrils. CaP was precipitated within 25–300 nm diameter, cylindrical pores of track etched and anodised alumina membranes under physiological conditions, in which this system enables systematic study of the effects of the pore size in the absence of a structural match between the matrix and the growing crystals. Our results show that the main products were polycrystalline hydroxapatite (HAP) rods, together with some single crystal octacalcium phosphate (OCP) rods. Notably, we demonstrate that these were generated though an intermediate amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) phase, and that ACP is significantly stabilised in confinement. This effect may have significance to the mineralization of bone, which can occur through a transient ACP phase. We also show that orientation of the HAP comparable, or even superior to that seen in bone can be achieved through confinement effects alone. Although this simple experimental system cannot be considered, a direct mimic of the in vivo formation of ultrathin HAP platelets within collagen fibrils, our results show that the effects of physical confinement should not be neglected when considering the mechanisms of formation of structures, such as bones and teeth. PMID:24115275

  3. Evaluation of radionuclide bone-imaging for the early detection of sepsis in a model of equine neonatal osteomyelitis

    E-print Network

    Taylor, James Rutledge

    1986-01-01

    abscesses. It is well documented today, however, that regions of osteomyelitis can appear as areas of decreased uptake, or "cold spots". ' ' Most likely in the early phase of osteomyelitis, 11, 12, 14 acute inflammation of the bone and marrow causes... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1986 Major Subject: Veterinary Med1cal Sciences EVALUATION OF RADIONUCLIOE BONE-IMAGING FOR THE EARLY DETECTION OF SEPSIS IN A MODEL OF EQUINE NEONATAL OSTEOMYELITIS A Thesis by JAMES RUTLEOGE...

  4. Biological properties of bone marrow-derived early and late endothelial progenitor cells in different culture media.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xiu M; Cheng, Min; Li, Hong; Cui, Xiao D; Li, Xin; Wang, Yu L; Sun, Jin L; Zhang, Xiao Y

    2013-12-01

    Ex vivo expansion of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) may be a promising strategy to overcome the clinical problem of limited cell numbers. As the culture medium is the key for the cell characteristics, the effects of different culture media on EPCs were investigated in the present study. Rat bone marrow mononuclear cells were cultured in different media, including M-199 media with 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and bovine pituitary extract (M1); M-199 media with 10% FBS, 20 ng/ml vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and 10 ng/ml basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF; M2) or epidermal growth medium (EGM)-2MV media. The cell morphology and biological functions, such as proliferation, adhesion, migration, tube formation and nitric oxide (NO) production were subsequently assayed in vitro. Moreover, endothelial biomarkers and apoptosis were also analyzed. The results showed that endothelial?like cells appeared in all of the culture systems. First?passage cells, namely early EPCs, tended to form colonies in M2 and EGM-2MV media but showed a fusiform shape in M1 media. The 3rd or 4th generation EPCs, namely late EPCs, cultured in EGM-2MV media exhibited increased adhesion, migration, tube formation and NO production as compared with EPCs in M1 or M2 media. Furthermore, late EPCs cultured in EGM-2MV expressed higher levels of endothelial cell markers, such as von Willibrand factor (vWF)and CD31, but relatively greater levels of apoptosis were observed. In conclusion, cell culture conditions, for example the medium used, affects the biological properties of bone marrow-derived early and late EPCs. PMID:24126824

  5. In vivo regulation of matrix vesicle concentration and enzyme activity during primary bone formation.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Z; Swain, L; Sela, J; Gross, U; Amir, D; Kohavi, D; Muller-Mai, C; Boyan, B

    1992-05-01

    In vivo regulation of matrix vesicles (MV) during primary bone formation was examined using tibial marrow ablation in rats as the experimental model. The effects of bone-bonding and nonbonding implants on the number of MV/micron 2 of matrix and the alkaline phosphatase (ALPase) and phospholipase A2 (PA2) activities of MV-enriched microsomes (MVEM) isolated from the healing bone were studied. MV concentration, ALPase, and PA2 were increased by bone-bonding implants by day 3 post-surgery; a similar effect was seen in the contralateral limb, but at a lower magnitude. Nonbonding implants had no effect at day 3 and decreased MV concentration and PA2 activity at later time points; the same behavior was observed in the contralateral limb. These results demonstrate that MVs are influenced in a differential manner by implant materials, both locally and systemically, and can be regulated during primary mineralization. PMID:1611298

  6. The Effect of an Enamel Matrix Derivative (Emdogain) Combined with Bone Ceramic on Bone Formation in Mandibular Defects: A Histomorphometric and Immunohistochemical Study in the Canine

    PubMed Central

    Birang, Reza; Shah Abouei, Mohammad; Mohammad Razavi, Sayed; Zia, Peyaman; Soolari, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combination of an enamel matrix derivative (EMD) and an osteoconductive bone ceramic (BC) in improving bone regeneration. Materials and Methods. Four cylindrical cavities (6 × 6?mm) were prepared bilaterally in the mandible in three dogs. The defects were randomly assigned to four different treatments—filled with EMD/BC and covered with a nonresorbable membrane, filled with EMD/BC without membrane, membrane coverage only, or control (left untreated)—and healed for 2, 4, or 6 weeks. Harvested specimens were prepared for histologic, histomorphometric, and immunohistochemical analyses. Results. Sites treated with EMD/BC with or without membrane showed more total bone formation and lamellar bone formation than membrane-only and control defects. There were no statistically significant differences in total bone formation between EMD/BC with or without membrane. Conclusion. EMD with BC might improve bone formation in osseous defects more than membrane coverage alone; the use of a membrane had no significant additive effect on total bone formation. PMID:22619627

  7. Glucose Uptake and Runx2 Synergize to Orchestrate Osteoblast Differentiation and Bone Formation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jianwen; Shimazu, Junko; Makinistoglu, Munevver P; Maurizi, Antonio; Kajimura, Daisuke; Zong, Haihong; Takarada, Takeshi; Lezaki, Takashi; Pessin, Jeffrey E; Hinoi, Eiichi; Karsenty, Gerard

    2015-06-18

    The synthesis of type I collagen, the main component of bone matrix, precedes the expression of Runx2, the earliest determinant of osteoblast differentiation. We hypothesized that the energetic needs of osteoblasts might explain this apparent paradox. We show here that glucose, the main nutrient of osteoblasts, is transported in these cells through Glut1, whose expression precedes that of Runx2. Glucose uptake favors osteoblast differentiation by suppressing the AMPK-dependent proteasomal degradation of Runx2 and promotes bone formation by inhibiting another function of AMPK. While RUNX2 cannot induce osteoblast differentiation when glucose uptake is compromised, raising blood glucose levels restores collagen synthesis in Runx2-null osteoblasts and initiates bone formation in Runx2-deficient embryos. Moreover, RUNX2 favors Glut1 expression, and this feedforward regulation between RUNX2 and Glut1 determines the onset of osteoblast differentiation during development and the extent of bone formation throughout life. These results reveal an unexpected intricacy between bone and glucose metabolism. PMID:26091038

  8. New bone formation in a bone defect associated to dental implant using absorbable or non-absorbable membrane in a dog model

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Maria de Almeida; Olate, Sergio; Lanata-Flores, Antonio; Pozzer, Leandro; Cavalieri-Pereira, Lucas; Cantín, Mario; Vásquez, Bélgica; de Albergaria-Barbosa, José

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the bone formation capacity in fenestration defects associated with dental implants using absorbable and non-absorbable membranes. Six dogs were used in the study. In both tibias of each animal 3 implants were installed, and around these 5 mm circular defects were created. The defects were covered with absorbable membranes (experimental group 1), non-absorbable membranes (experimental group 2), and the third defect was not covered (control group). At 3 and 8 weeks post-surgery, the animals were euthanized and the membranes with the bone tissue around the implants were processed for histological analysis. The statistical analysis was conducted with Tukey’s test, considering statistical significance when p<0.1. Adequate bone repair was observed in the membrane-covered defects. At 3 weeks, organization of the tissue, bone formation from the periphery of the defect and the absence of inflammatory infiltrate were observed in both experimental groups, but the defect covered with absorbable membrane presented statistically greater bone formation. At 8 weeks, both membrane-covered defects showed adequate bone formation without significant differences, although they did in fact present differences with the control defect in both periods (p>0.1). In the defects without membrane, continuous connective tissue invasions and bone repair deficiency were observed. There were no significant differences in the characteristics and volume of the neoformed bone in the defects around the implants covered by the different membranes, whereas the control defects produced significantly less bone. The use of biological membranes contributes to bone formation in three-wall defects. PMID:24228090

  9. Titanium nanotubes activate genes related to bone formation in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Pozio, Alfonso; Palmieri, Annalisa; Girardi, Ambra; Cura, Francesca; Carinci, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Background: Titanium is used worldwide to make osseointegrable devices, thanks to its favorable characteristics as mechanical proprieties and biocompatibility, demonstrated by in vivo studies with animal models and clinical trials over a forty-year period. However, the exact genetic effect of the titanium layer on cells is still not well characterized. Materials and Methods: To investigate how titanium nanotubes stimulate osteoblasts differentiation and proliferation, some osteoblast genes (SP7, RUNX2, COL3A1, COL1A1, ALPL, SPP1 and FOSL1) were analyzed by quantitative Real Time RT- PCR. Results: After 15 days, osteoblasts cultivated on titanium naotube showed the up-regulation of bone related genes SP7, ENG, FOSL1 and SPP1 and the down-regulation of RUNX2, COL3A1, COL1A1, and ALPL. After 30 days of treatment, the bone related genes SP7, ENG, FOSL1 and RUNX2 were up-regulated while COL3A1, COL1A1, ALPL and SPP1 were down-regulated. Conclusions: Our results, demonstrates that titanium nanotubes can lead to osteoblast differentiation and extracellular matrix deposition and mineralization in dental pulp stem cells by the activation of osteoblast related genes SPP1, FOSL1 and RUNX2. PMID:23814577

  10. 3D analysis of bone formation around titanium implants using micro-computed tomography (?CT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, Ricardo; Scharnweber, Dieter; Müller, Bert; Beckmann, Felix; Goebbels, Jürgen; Jansen, John; Schliephake, Henning; Worch, Hartmut

    2006-08-01

    The quantitative analysis of bone formation around biofunctionalised metallic implants is an important tool for the further development of implants with higher success rates. This is, nowadays, especially important in cases of additional diseases like diabetes or osteoporosis. Micro computed tomography (?CT), as non-destructive technique, offers the possibility for quantitative three-dimensional recording of bone close to the implant's surface with micrometer resolution, which is the range of the relevant bony structures. Within different animal models using cylindrical and screw-shaped Ti6Al4V implants we have compared visualization and quantitative analysis of newly formed bone by the use of synchrotron-radiation-based CT-systems in comparison with histological findings. The SR?CT experiments were performed at the beamline BW 5 (HASYLAB at DESY, Hamburg, Germany; at the BAMline (BESSY, Berlin, Germany). For the experiments, PMMA-embedded samples were prepared with diameters of about 8 mm, which contain in the center the implant surrounded by the bony tissue. To (locally) quantify the bone formation, models were developed and optimized. The comparison of the results obtained by SR?CT and histology demonstrates the advantages and disadvantages of both approaches, although the bone formation values for the different biofunctionalized implants are identical within the error bars. SR?CT allows the clear identification of fully mineralized bone around the different titanium implants. As hundreds of virtual slices were easily generated for the individual samples, the quantification and interactive bone detection led to conclusions of high precision and statistical relevance. In this way, SR?CT in combination with interactive data analysis is proven to be more significant with respect to classical histology.

  11. Role of WNT16 in the regulation of periosteal bone formation in female mice.

    PubMed

    Wergedal, Jon E; Kesavan, Chandrasekhar; Brommage, Robert; Das, Subhashri; Mohan, Subburaman

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we evaluated the role of WNT16 in regulating bone size, an important determinant of bone strength. Mice with targeted disruption of the Wnt16 gene exhibited a 24% reduction in tibia cross-sectional area at 12 weeks of age compared with that of littermate wild-type (WT) mice. Histomorphometric studies revealed that the periosteal bone formation rate and mineral apposition rate were reduced (P < .05) by 55% and 32%, respectively, in Wnt16 knockout (KO) vs WT mice at 12 weeks of age. In contrast, the periosteal tartrate resistant acid phosphatase-labeled surface was increased by 20% in the KO mice. Because mechanical strain is an important physiological regulator of periosteal bone formation (BF), we determined whether mechanical loading-induced periosteal BF is compromised in Wnt16 KO mice. Application of 4800-?e strain to the right tibia using a 4-point bending loading method for 2 weeks (2-Hz frequency, 36 cycles per day, 6 days/wk) produced a significant increase in cross-sectional area (11% above that of the unloaded left tibia, P < .05, n = 6) in the WT but not in the KO mice (-0.2% change). Histomorphometric analyses revealed increases in the periosteal bone formation rate and mineral apposition rate in the loaded bones of WT but not KO mice. Wnt16 KO mice showed significant (20%-70%) reductions in the expression levels of markers of canonical (?-catenin and Axin2) but not noncanonical (Nfatc1 and Tnnt2) WNT signaling in the periosteum at 5 weeks of age. Our findings suggest that WNT16 acting via canonical WNT signaling regulates mechanical strain-induced periosteal BF and bone size. PMID:25521583

  12. Effects of static magnetic fields on bone formation in rat osteoblast cultures.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Y; Ohsaki, Y; Goto, T; Nakasima, A; Iijima, T

    2003-12-01

    Although the promotional effects on osteoblasts of pulsed electromagnetic fields have been well-demonstrated, the effects of static magnetic fields (SMF) remain unclear; nevertheless, magnets have been clinically used as a 'force source' in various orthodontic treatments. We undertook the present investigation to study the effects of SMF on osteoblastic differentiation, proliferation, and bone nodule formation using a rat calvaria cell culture. During a 20-day culture, the values of the total area and the number and average size of bone nodules showed high levels in the presence of SMF. In the matrix development and mineralization stages, the calcium content in the matrix and two markers of osteoblastic phenotype (alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin) also showed a significant increase. Accordingly, these findings suggest that SMF stimulates bone formation by promoting osteoblastic differentiation and/or activation. PMID:14630895

  13. Thrombospondin 1 promotes synaptic formation in bone marrow-derived neuron-like cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yun; Lu, Mingnan; Guo, Weitao; Zeng, Rong; Wang, Bin; Wang, Huaibo

    2013-04-01

    In this study, a combination of growth factors was used to induce bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells differentiation into neuron-like cells, in a broader attempt to observe the role of thrombospondin 1 in synapse formation. Results showed that there was no significant difference in the differentiation rate of neuron-like cells between bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells with thrombospondin induction and those without. However, the cell shape was more complex and the neurites were dendritic, with unipolar, bipolar or multipolar morphologies, after induction with thrombospondin 1. The induced cells were similar in morphology to normal neurites. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the number of positive cells for postsynaptic density protein 95 and synaptophysin 1 protein was significantly increased after induction with thrombospondin 1. These findings indicate that thrombospondin 1 promotes synapse formation in neuron-like cells that are differentiated from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. PMID:25206378

  14. Prenatal and early postnatal stress exposure influences long bone length in adult rat offspring

    PubMed Central

    Dancause, Kelsey Needham; Cao, Xiu Jing; Veru, Franz; Xu, Susan; Long, Hong; Yu, Chunbo; Laplante, David P.; Walker, Claire Dominique; King, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Stress during the prenatal and early postnatal periods (perinatal stress, PS) is known to impact offspring cognitive, behavioral, and physical development, but effects on skeletal growth are not clear. Our objective was to analyze effects of variable, mild, daily PS exposure on adult offspring long bone length. Twelve pregnant rat dams were randomly assigned to receive variable stress from gestational days 14-21 (Prenatal group), postpartum days 2-9 (Postnatal), both periods (Pre-Post), or no stress (Control). Differences in adult offspring tibia and femur length were analyzed among treatment groups. Mean tibia length differed among groups for males (p=0.016) and females (p=0.009), and differences for femur length approached significance for males (p=0.051). Long bone length was shorter among PS-exposed offspring, especially those exposed to postnatal stress (Postnatal and Pre-Post groups). Results persisted when controlling for nose-tail length. These differences might reflect early stunting that is maintained in adulthood, or delayed growth among PS-exposed offspring. This study suggests that PS results in shorter long bones in adulthood, independently of effects on overall body size. Stunting and growth retardation are major global health burdens. Our study adds to a growing body of evidence suggesting that PS is a risk factor for poor linear growth. PMID:22826037

  15. Lymphangiosarcoma with bone formation of the auricle in a dog

    PubMed Central

    MINESHIGE, Takayuki; SUGAHARA, Go; OHMURO, Tamio; KAMIIE, Junichi; SHIROTA, Kinji

    2015-01-01

    A 12-year-old mixed-breed neutered female dog was referred with cutaneous tumors at the left auricle. Histologically, the cutaneous tumor located in the dermis comprised numerous clefts and cavernous channels lined by neoplastic endothelial cells with no erythrocytes. Bone tissue without direct contact with neoplastic cells was seen in the well-developed stromal connective tissue. The neoplastic endothelial cells exhibited mild to moderate atypia. Immunohistochemically, neoplastic cells were positive for vimentin and negative for cytokeratin and factor VIII-related antigen. Basement membrane around the neoplastic lumens was positive for laminin in a linear or granular pattern. Ultrastructural examination revealed discontinuous basement membrane beneath the tumor cells. Histopathological features of this case were consistent with lymphangiosarcoma, and stromal ossification was characteristic. PMID:25716121

  16. Lymphangiosarcoma with bone formation of the auricle in a dog.

    PubMed

    Mineshige, Takayuki; Sugahara, Go; Ohmuro, Tamio; Kamiie, Junichi; Shirota, Kinji

    2015-07-01

    A 12-year-old mixed-breed neutered female dog was referred with cutaneous tumors at the left auricle. Histologically, the cutaneous tumor located in the dermis comprised numerous clefts and cavernous channels lined by neoplastic endothelial cells with no erythrocytes. Bone tissue without direct contact with neoplastic cells was seen in the well-developed stromal connective tissue. The neoplastic endothelial cells exhibited mild to moderate atypia. Immunohistochemically, neoplastic cells were positive for vimentin and negative for cytokeratin and factor VIII-related antigen. Basement membrane around the neoplastic lumens was positive for laminin in a linear or granular pattern. Ultrastructural examination revealed discontinuous basement membrane beneath the tumor cells. Histopathological features of this case were consistent with lymphangiosarcoma, and stromal ossification was characteristic. PMID:25716121

  17. The paredon, Mexico, obsidian source and early formative exchange.

    PubMed

    Charlton, T H; Grove, D C; Hopke, P K

    1978-09-01

    In 1975, archeological surface surveys of trade routes located again a pre-Hispanic obsidian source in central Mexico first reported in 1902. Initial trace element studies of the Paredón source through an analysis by neutron activation have been compared with similar studies of the obsidian found at Chalcatzingo 150 kilometers from the source. These comparisons indicate that obsidian from Paredón, rather than Otumba, was of primary importance during the Early Formative in central Mexico. PMID:17738531

  18. Formation of early water oceans on rocky planets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda T. Elkins-Tanton

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial planets, with silicate mantles and metallic cores, are likely to obtain water and carbon compounds during accretion.\\u000a Here I examine the conditions that allow early formation of a surface water ocean (simultaneous with cooling to clement surface\\u000a conditions), and the timeline of degassing the planetary interior into the atmosphere. The greatest fraction of a planet’s\\u000a initial volatile budget is

  19. Abiotic Formation of Organohalogens During Early Diagenetic Processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heinz F. Schöler; Frank Keppler

    To date more than 3650 organohalogen compounds are known to be naturally produced by biogeochemical processes. The current\\u000a understanding of the abiotic formation of organohalogens during early diagenetic processes in soils and sediments are reviewed\\u000a here. Next to volatile alkyl halides and polar organohalogens such as haloacetates there is evidence that even semivolatile\\u000a organohalogens (e.g. polychlorinated dibenzodioxins) and halogenated humic

  20. Assessment of bone formation and bone resorption in osteoporosis: a comparison between tetracycline-based iliac histomorphometry and whole body /sup 85/Sr kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Reeve, J.; Arlot, M.E.; Chavassieux, P.M.; Edouard, C.; Green, J.R.; Hesp, R.; Tellez, M.; Meunier, P.J.

    1987-12-01

    Bone formation and resorption have been measured in patients with idiopathic osteoporosis by histomorphometry of 7.5-mm trephine biopsies and in the whole body by 85Sr radiotracer methodology and calcium balances. The studies were synchronized and most were preceded by double in vivo tetracycline labeling. Correlations between histological and kinetic bone formation indices were better when better when based on the extent of double tetracycline labels than on measurements of osteoid by visible light microscopy. Correction of the kinetic data for long-term exchange, using 5 months' serial whole body counting of retained 85Sr, improved the fit of the kinetic to the histological data. A statistical analysis of the measurement uncertainties showed that the residual scatter in the best correlations (between exchange-corrected bone formation rates and double-labeled osteoid surface indices) could be attributed to measurement imprecision alone. The exchange-corrected resorption rate correlated fairly well with iliac trabecular resorption surfaces, and using a volume referent rather than a surface referent for the histological index improved the statistical fit when patients with therapeutically accelerated bone turnover were included. A much better correlation was obtained by including osteoid volume acting as an independent predictor of bone resorption in a bivariate regression with a resorption surface index. The residual errors could then be accounted for by known measurement uncertainties. Whereas osteoid taking a double label closely predicted the kinetic rate of bone formation, further analysis suggested that osteoid that took no label or a single label was more closely related to bone resorption, presumably as a secondary result of the coupling of bone formation to bone resorption.

  1. Detection of gentamicin emission from bone cement in the early postoperative period following total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Bálint, Lehel; Koós, Zoltán; Horváth, Gábor; Szabó, György

    2006-05-01

    This article describes the characteristics of gentamicin emission from the bone cement-antibiotic complex in the early postoperative period following total hip arthroplasty. Gentamicin levels of the drain fluid taken at 6, 24, and 48 hours postoperatively were measured with a fluorescent polarization immunoassay method. Mean gentamicin concentrations were 2.6, 1.2, and 0.6 mcg/mL, respectively. Age, sex, and body mass index had no significant influence on the outcome. Results showed that the amount of gentamicin in the wound fluid is inversely proportional to the total amount excreted. Twenty-four hours postoperatively, the average gentamicin concentrations in the drain fluid taken from around the endoprosthesis implanted with Palacos-R bone cement (Zimmer Warsaw, Ind), diminished, yet remained above the minimal inhibitory concentration level. PMID:16729744

  2. Photothermal tomography for the functional and structural evaluation, and early mineral loss monitoring in bones.

    PubMed

    Kaiplavil, Sreekumar; Mandelis, Andreas; Wang, Xueding; Feng, Ting

    2014-08-01

    Salient features of a new non-ionizing bone diagnostics technique, truncated-correlation photothermal coherence tomography (TC-PCT), exhibiting optical-grade contrast and capable of resolving the trabecular network in three dimensions through the cortical region with and without a soft-tissue overlayer are presented. The absolute nature and early demineralization-detection capability of a marker called thermal wave occupation index, estimated using the proposed modality, have been established. Selective imaging of regions of a specific mineral density range has been demonstrated in a mouse femur. The method is maximum-permissible-exposure compatible. In a matrix of bone and soft-tissue a depth range of ~3.8 mm has been achieved, which can be increased through instrumental and modulation waveform optimization. Furthermore, photoacoustic microscopy, a comparable modality with TC-PCT, has been used to resolve the trabecular structure and for comparison with the photothermal tomography. PMID:25136480

  3. Osteochondrosis Can Lead to Formation of Pseudocysts and True Cysts in the Subchondral Bone of Horses.

    PubMed

    Olstad, K; Ostevik, L; Carlson, C S; Ekman, S

    2014-11-26

    Osteochondrosis arises as a result of focal failure of the blood supply to growth cartilage. The current aim was to examine the pathogenesis of pseudocysts and true cysts in subchondral bone following failure of the blood supply to the articular-epiphyseal cartilage complex in horses. Cases were recruited based on identification of lesions (n = 17) that were considered likely to progress to or to represent pseudocysts or true cysts in epiphyseal bone in histological sections and included 10 horses ranging in age from 48 days to 5 years old. Cases comprised 3 warmbloods, 3 Standardbreds, 1 Quarter horse and 1 Arabian with spontaneous lesions and 2 Fjord ponies with experimentally induced lesions. Seven lesions consisted of areas of ischemic chondronecrosis and were compatible with pseudocysts. Two lesions were located at intermediate depth in epiphyseal growth cartilage, 2 lesions were located in the ossification front, 2 lesions were located in epiphyseal bone and 1 lesion was located in the metaphyseal growth plate (physis). Ten lesions contained dilated blood vessels and were compatible with true cysts. In 2 lesions the dilated blood vessels were located within the lumina of failed cartilage canals. In the 8 remaining lesions areas of ischemic chondronecrosis were associated with granulation tissue in the subjacent bone and dilated vessels were located within this granulation tissue. Failure of the blood supply and ischemic chondronecrosis can lead to formation of pseudocysts or dilatation of blood vessels and formation of true cysts in the epiphyseal bone of horses. PMID:25428408

  4. Antibody formation by bone marrow cells in irradiated mice

    PubMed Central

    Playfair, J. H. L.; Purves, Elizabeth C.

    1971-01-01

    Bone marrow-thymus cooperation experiments were carried out in lethally irradiated mice with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) as the antigen and direct plaque-forming cells (PFC) as the end point. Various parameters were altered, with the following results: (1) Above 800 rad, the response by marrow cells alone, as well as the increase due to added thymus cells, was independent of irradiation dose. (2) The response of marrow cells was greatest at high SRBC concentrations, but the co-operative effect of thymus cells was most evident at lower SRBC levels, and completely absent at high levels. (3) Increasing the number of marrow cells, without thymus, gave increasing numbers of PFC, but the dose-response curve did not suggest cell synergism. (4) Thymectomy and antithymocyte serum treatment of host or donor did not prevent the response by marrow cells alone. It was concluded that this was a true IgM response by antibody-forming precursors from the marrow, unaided by thymus-derived cells. PMID:4934135

  5. OBIF, an osteoblast induction factor, plays an essential role in bone formation in association with osteoblastogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mizuhashi, Koji; Kanamoto, Takashi; Ito, Masako; Moriishi, Takeshi; Muranishi, Yuki; Omori, Yoshihiro; Terada, Koji; Komori, Toshihisa; Furukawa, Takahisa

    2012-05-01

    In vertebrate bone formation, the functional mechanisms of transcription factors in osteoblastic differentiation have been relatively well elucidated; however, the exact roles of cell-extrinsic molecules are less clear. We previously identified human and mouse Obif, an osteoblast induction factor, also known as Tmem119, which encodes a single transmembrane protein. OBIF is predominantly expressed in osteoblasts in mouse. While exogenous Obif expression stimulated osteoblastic differentiation, knockdown of Obif inhibits the osteoblastic differentiation of pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. In order to investigate an in vivo role of OBIF in bone formation, we generated Obif-deficient mice by targeted gene disruption. Analyses of micro-computed tomography (mCT) revealed that Obif(-/-) mice exhibit significantly reduced cortical thickness in the mid-shaft of the femur at postnatal day 14 (P14). Furthermore, progressive bone hypoplasia is observed after 8 weeks. The expression levels of osteoblast marker genes, Collagen 1a1, Osteopontin, Runx2, and Osterix, in the calvaria were decreased in Obif(-/-) mice at P4. These data indicate that Obif plays an essential role in bone formation through regulating osteoblastogenesis. PMID:22416756

  6. Inhibiting Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1) removes suppression of bone formation and prevents the development of osteolytic bone disease in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Heath, Deborah J; Chantry, Andrew D; Buckle, Clive H; Coulton, Les; Shaughnessy, John D; Evans, Holly R; Snowden, John A; Stover, David R; Vanderkerken, Karin; Croucher, Peter I

    2009-03-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is associated with the development of osteolytic bone disease, mediated by increased osteoclastic bone resorption and impaired osteoblastic bone formation. Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1), a soluble inhibitor of wingless/int (Wnt) signaling and osteoblastogenesis, is elevated in patients with MM and correlates with osteolytic bone disease. In this study, we investigated the effect of inhibiting Dkk1 on the development of osteolytic lesions in the 5T2MM murine model of myeloma. We showed that Dkk1 is expressed by murine 5T2MM myeloma cells. Injection of 5T2MM cells into C57BL/KaLwRij mice resulted in the development of osteolytic bone lesions (p < 0.05), mediated by increased osteoclast numbers (p < 0.001) and a decrease in osteoblast numbers (p < 0.001) and mineralizing surface (p < 0.05). Mice bearing 5T2MM cells were treated with an anti-Dkk1 antibody (BHQ880, 10 mg/kg, IV, twice weekly for 4 wk) from time of paraprotein detection. Anti-Dkk1 treatment prevented 5T2MM-induced suppression of osteoblast numbers (p < 0.001) and surface (p < 0.001). Treatment increased mineralizing surface by 28% and bone formation rate by 25%; however, there was no change in mineral apposition rate. Inhibiting Dkk1 had no effect on osteoclast numbers. muCT analysis showed that anti-Dkk1 treatment significantly protected against 5T2MM-induced trabecular bone loss (p < 0.05) and reduced the development of osteolytic bone lesions (p < 0.05). Treatment had no significant effect on tumor burden. These data suggest that inhibiting Dkk1 prevents the suppression of bone formation and in doing so is effective in preventing the development of osteolytic bone disease in myeloma, offering an effective therapeutic approach to treating this clinically important aspect of myeloma. PMID:19016584

  7. Morphogenesis of the compartmentalizing bone around the molar primordia in the mouse mandible during dental developmental stages between lamina, bell-stage, and root formation (E13-P20).

    PubMed

    Radlanski, Ralf J; Renz, Herbert; Zimmermann, Camilla A; Mey, Robert; Matalova, Eva

    2015-07-01

    Despite increasing knowledge of the basic molecular aspects of bone formation and its regulation, the mechanisms of bone morphogenesis leading to a topologically specific shape remain unknown. The formation of the alveolar bone, which houses the dental primordia and later, the dental roots, may serve as a model to understand the formation of bone form in general. Thirty-eight heads of mice (C57 Bl/6J) ranging from stages E13-P20 were used to prepare histological serial sections. For each stage, virtual 3D-reconstructions were made in order to study the morphogenesis of the mandibular molar primordia concomitantly with their surrounding bone. Special focus was given to recording the remodeling pattern. It has been shown that, in early stages (E13, E14), bone formation is characterized by apposition only. In stage E15, the bony crypt around the dental primordia is remodeled mostly by resorption of bone. In stage E18, the bone remodeling pattern shows resorption all along the bony gutter, which houses the molar primordia. The medial and lateral margins are characterized by apposition. At birth (stage P0), a bony septum has begun to form between the primordium m1 and of m2, arising from both sides and characterized by pure apposition of bone. In stage P4, the crypts of m1 and m2, and also that of m3, show bone resorption inside, while the medial and lateral bony margins show apposition of bone throughout. Generally, during development, the bone gradually encapsulates the dental primordia, in such a way that the bone reaches over the dental primordia and leaves only a continuous longish opening of about 200?m width. The opening at the occlusal surface of m1, at the time of eruption, starting at stage P14, appears to have increased in size again. The distance between bone and dental primordium undergoes change during development. In erupted molars, it is around 100?m, during early developmental stages, it may be as less as 20?m. These data show the inevitability of bone remodeling. PMID:25723515

  8. Novel EP4 receptor agonist-bisphosphonate conjugate drug (C1) promotes bone formation and improves vertebral mechanical properties in the ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal bone loss.

    PubMed

    Liu, Careesa C; Hu, Sally; Chen, Gang; Georgiou, John; Arns, Steve; Kumar, Nag S; Young, Robert N; Grynpas, Marc D

    2015-04-01

    Current treatments for postmenopausal osteoporosis aim to either promote bone formation or inhibit bone resorption. The C1 conjugate drug represents a new treatment approach by chemically linking the antiresorptive compound alendronate (ALN) with the anabolic agent prostanoid EP4 receptor agonist (EP4a) through a linker molecule (LK) to form a conjugate compound. This enables the bone-targeting ability of ALN to deliver EP4a to bone sites and mitigate the systemic side effects of EP4a, while also facilitating dual antiresorptive and anabolic effects. In vivo hydrolysis is required to release the EP4a and ALN components for pharmacological activity. Our study investigated the in vivo efficacy of this drug in treating established bone loss using an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model of postmenopausal osteopenia. In a curative experiment, 3-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were OVX, allowed to lose bone for 7 weeks, then treated for 6 weeks. Treatment groups consisted of C1 conjugate at low and high doses, vehicle-treated OVX and sham, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ), and mixture of unconjugated ALN-LK and EP4a to assess the effect of conjugation. Results showed that weekly administration of C1 conjugate dose-dependently increased bone volume in trabecular bone, which partially or completely reversed OVX-induced bone loss in the lumbar vertebra and improved vertebral mechanical strength. The conjugate also dose-dependently stimulated endocortical woven bone formation and intracortical resorption in cortical bone, with high-dose treatment increasing the mechanical strength but compromising the material properties. Conjugation between the EP4a and ALN-LK components was crucial to the drug's anabolic efficacy. To our knowledge, the C1 conjugate represents the first time that a combined therapy using an anabolic agent and the antiresorptive compound ALN has shown significant anabolic effects which reversed established osteopenia. PMID:25284325

  9. Teriparatide Increases Bone Formation and Bone Mineral Density in Adult Women With Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Irene S.; Miller, Karen K.; Herzog, David B.; Misra, Madhusmita; Lee, Hang; Finkelstein, Joel S.; Bouxsein, Mary L.; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Context: Anorexia nervosa (AN), a prevalent psychiatric disorder predominantly affecting women, is characterized by self-induced starvation and low body weight. Increased clinical fractures are common, and most women have low bone mineral density (BMD). Previously investigated treatments have led to no or modest increases in BMD in AN. Objective: Our objective was to investigate the effect of teriparatide (TPT; human PTH[1–34]), an anabolic agent, on low bone mass in women with AN. Design, Setting, and Patients: This randomized, placebo-controlled trial at a clinical research center included 21 women with AN: 10 (mean age ± SEM, 47 ± 2.7 years) treated with TPT and 11 (47.1 ± 2.3 years) treated with placebo. Interventions: TPT (20 ?g SC) or placebo was administered for 6 months. Main Outcome Measures: Our primary outcome measure was change in BMD of the spine and hip by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Secondary outcome measures included changes in serum N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1NP), C-terminal collagen cross-links, sclerostin, and IGF-1 levels. Results: At 6 months, spine BMD increased significantly more with TPT (posteroanterior spine, 6.0% ± 1.4%; lateral spine, 10.5% ± 2.5%) compared with placebo (posteroanterior spine, 0.2% ± 0.7%, P < .01; lateral spine, ?0.6% ± 1.0%; P < .01). The results remained significant after controlling for baseline body mass index, P1NP, and IGF-1. Changes in femoral neck (P = .4) and total hip (P = 0.8) BMD were comparable in both groups, as were changes in weight. Serum P1NP levels increased after 3 months of TPT treatment and remained at this higher level at 6 months, whereas P1NP levels were unchanged in the placebo group (P = .02). TPT was well-tolerated by all subjects. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that TPT administration increases spine BMD substantially after only 6 months of therapy in women with AN. PMID:24456286

  10. The Formation and Early Evolution of Young Massive Clusters

    E-print Network

    Longmore, Steven N; Bastian, Nate; Bally, John; Rathborne, Jill; Testi, Leonardo; Stolte, Andrea; Dale, James; Bressert, Eli; Alves, Joao

    2014-01-01

    We review the formation and early evolution of the most massive and dense young stellar clusters, focusing on the role they can play in our understanding of star and planet formation as a whole. Young massive cluster (YMC) progenitor clouds in the Galactic Center can accumulate to a high enough density without forming stars that the initial protostellar densities are close to the final stellar density. For this to hold in the disk, the time scale to accumulate the gas to such high densities must be much shorter than the star formation timescale. Otherwise the gas begins forming stars while it is being accumulated to high density. The distinction between the formation regimes in the two environments is consistent with the predictions of environmentally-dependent density thresholds for star formation. This implies that stars in YMCs of similar total mass and radius can have formed at widely different initial protostellar densities. The fact that no systematic variations in fundamental properties are observed be...

  11. In Vivo Ectopic Bone Formation by Devitalized Mineralized Stem Cell Carriers Produced Under Mineralizing Culture Condition

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Yoke Chin; Geris, Liesbet; Bolander, Johanna; Pyka, Grzegorz; Van Bael, Simon; Luyten, Frank P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Functionalization of tissue engineering scaffolds with in vitro–generated bone-like extracellular matrix (ECM) represents an effective biomimetic approach to promote osteogenic differentiation of stem cells in vitro. However, the bone-forming capacity of these constructs (seeded with or without cells) is so far not apparent. In this study, we aimed at developing a mineralizing culture condition to biofunctionalize three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds with highly mineralized ECM in order to produce devitalized, osteoinductive mineralized carriers for human periosteal-derived progenitors (hPDCs). For this, three medium formulations [i.e., growth medium only (BM1), with ascorbic acid (BM2), and with ascorbic acid and dexamethasone (BM3)] supplemented with calcium (Ca2+) and phosphate (PO43?) ions simultaneously as mineralizing source were investigated. The results showed that, besides the significant impacts on enhancing cell proliferation (the highest in BM3 condition), the formulated mineralizing media differentially regulated the osteochondro-related gene markers in a medium-dependent manner (e.g., significant upregulation of BMP2, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, and Wnt5a in BM2 condition). This has resulted in distinguished cell populations that were identifiable by specific gene signatures as demonstrated by the principle component analysis. Through devitalization, mineralized carriers with apatite crystal structures unique to each medium condition (by X-ray diffraction and SEM analysis) were obtained. Quantitatively, BM3 condition produced carriers with the highest mineral and collagen contents as well as human-specific VEGF proteins, followed by BM2 and BM1 conditions. Encouragingly, all mineralized carriers (after reseeded with hPDCs) induced bone formation after 8 weeks of subcutaneous implantation in nude mice models, with BM2-carriers inducing the highest bone volume, and the lowest in the BM3 condition (as quantitated by nano-computed tomography [nano-CT]). Histological analysis revealed different bone formation patterns, either bone ossicles containing bone marrow surrounding the scaffold struts (in BM2) or bone apposition directly on the struts' surface (in BM1 and BM3). In conclusion, we have presented experimental data on the feasibility to produce devitalized osteoinductive mineralized carriers by functionalizing 3D porous scaffolds with an in vitro cell-made mineralized matrix under the mineralizing culture conditions. PMID:25469312

  12. Gene expression profiling and histomorphometric analyses of the early bone healing response around nanotextured implants

    PubMed Central

    Wazen, Rima M; Kuroda, Shingo; Nishio, Clarice; Sellin, Karine; Brunski, John B; Nanci, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    While in vitro studies have shown that nanoscale surface modifications influence cell fate and activity, there is little information on how they modulate healing at the bone–implant interface. Aim This study aims to investigate the effect of nanotopography at early time intervals when critical events for implant integration occur. Materials & methods Untreated and sulfuric acid/hydrogen peroxide-treated machined-surface titanium alloy implants were placed in rat tibiae. Samples were processed for DNA microarray analysis and histomorphometry. Results At both 3 and 5 days, the gene expression profile of the healing tissue around nanotextured implants differed from that around machined-surface implants or control empty holes, and were accompanied by an increase in bone–implant contact on day 5. While some standard pathways such as the immune response predominated, a number of unclassified genes were also implicated. Conclusion Nanotexture elicits an initial gene response that is more complex than suspected so far and favors healing at the bone–implant interface. PMID:23286527

  13. Bone marrow microenvironment in myelomagenesis: its potential role in early diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Balakumaran, Arun; Robey, Pamela Gehron; Fedarko, Neal; Landgren, Ola

    2010-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematological malignancy, with an overall survival of 4–6 years. It is always preceded by a premalignant stage called monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS). Importantly, at this time we lack reliable predictors to determine who will progress from MGUS to MM, and who will remain stable. The bone marrow microenvironment plays a key role in myelomagenesis (growth, survival and migration of malignant plasma cells). In the present review, we summarize and discuss our current understanding of the bone marrow microenvironment and its compartments in relation to myelomagenesis. Although it remains to be proven, we believe that an improved characterization of the cellular constituents, the extracellular matrix components and the soluble factors of the bone marrow could open up novel avenues to better understand underlying mechanisms of the transformation from MGUS to MM. Ultimately, this will lead to the development of early treatment of high-risk precursor disease aimed to delay/prevent MM. PMID:20465501

  14. Follistatin-like 3 is a mediator of exercise-driven bone formation and strengthening.

    PubMed

    Nam, J; Perera, P; Gordon, R; Jeong, Y H; Blazek, A D; Kim, D G; Tee, B C; Sun, Z; Eubank, T D; Zhao, Y; Lablebecioglu, B; Liu, S; Litsky, A; Weisleder, N L; Lee, B S; Butterfield, T; Schneyer, A L; Agarwal, S

    2015-09-01

    Exercise is vital for maintaining bone strength and architecture. Follistatin-like 3 (FSTL3), a member of follistatin family, is a mechanosensitive protein upregulated in response to exercise and is involved in regulating musculoskeletal health. Here, we investigated the potential role of FSTL3 in exercise-driven bone remodeling. Exercise-dependent regulation of bone structure and functions was compared in mice with global Fstl3 gene deletion (Fstl3-/-) and their age-matched Fstl3+/+ littermates. Mice were exercised by low-intensity treadmill walking. The mechanical properties and mineralization were determined by ?CT, three-point bending test and sequential incorporation of calcein and alizarin complexone. ELISA, Western-blot analysis and qRT-PCR were used to analyze the regulation of FSTL3 and associated molecules in the serum specimens and tissues. Daily exercise significantly increased circulating FSTL3 levels in mice, rats and humans. Compared to age-matched littermates, Fstl3-/- mice exhibited significantly lower fracture tolerance, having greater stiffness, but lower strain at fracture and yield energy. Furthermore, increased levels of circulating FSTL3 in young mice paralleled greater strain at fracture compared to the lower levels of FSTL3 in older mice. More significantly, Fstl3-/- mice exhibited loss of mechanosensitivity and irresponsiveness to exercise-dependent bone formation as compared to their Fstl3+/+ littermates. In addition, FSTL3 gene deletion resulted in loss of exercise-dependent sclerostin regulation in osteocytes and osteoblasts, as compared to Fstl3+/+ osteocytes and osteoblasts, in vivo and in vitro. The data identify FSTL3 as a critical mediator of exercise-dependent bone formation and strengthening and point to its potential role in bone health and in musculoskeletal diseases. PMID:25937185

  15. Formation of Early Water Oceans on Rocky Planets

    E-print Network

    Elkins-Tanton, Linda T

    2010-01-01

    Terrestrial planets, with silicate mantles and metallic cores, are likely to obtain water and carbon compounds during accretion. Here I examine the conditions that allow early formation of a surface water ocean (simultaneous with cooling to clement surface conditions), and the timeline of degassing the planetary interior into the atmosphere. The greatest fraction of a planet's initial volatile budget is degassed into the atmosphere during the end of magma ocean solidification, leaving only a small fraction of the original volatiles to be released into the atmosphere through later volcanism. Rocky planets that accrete with water in their bulk mantle have two mechanisms for producing an early water ocean: First, if they accrete with at least 1 to 3 mass% of water in their bulk composition, liquid water may be extruded onto the planetary surface at the end of magma ocean solidification. Second, at initial water contents as low as 0.01 mass% or lower, during solidification a massive supercritical fluid and steam ...

  16. The Wnt Antagonist Secreted Frizzled-Related Protein1 Is a Negative Regulator of Trabecular Bone Formation in Adult Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PETER V. N. BODINE; WEIGUANG ZHAO; YOGENDRA P. KHARODE; FREDERICK J. BEX; ANDRE-JEAN LAMBERT; MARY BETH GOAD; TRIPTI GAUR; GARY S. STEIN; JANE B. LIAN; BARRY S. KOMM

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have associated activation of ca- nonical Wnt signaling in osteoblasts with elevated bone formation. Here we report that deletion of the murine Wnt antagonist, secreted frizzled-related protein (sFRP)-1, prolongs and enhances trabecu- lar bone accrual in adult animals. sFRP-1 mRNA was expressed in bones and other tissues of \\/ mice but was not observed in \\/ animals. Despite

  17. Effects of Bone CS-Proteoglycans, DS-Decorin, and DS-Biglycan on Hydroxyapatite Formation in a Gelatin Gel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Boskey; L. Spevak; S. B. Doty; L. Rosenberg

    1997-01-01

    .   The small leucine-rich bone proteoglycans, biglycan and decorin, can be purified by chromatography on hydroxyapatite columns,\\u000a demonstrating their potential affinities for bone apatite. To determine their effects on in vitro apatite formation and growth, a mixture of the chondroitin-sulfate (CS) bone proteoglycans, or purified fractions of the\\u000a dermatan sulfate (DS) containing proteoglycans, DS-decorin and DS-biglycan obtained from skin and

  18. Ectopic bone formation using an injectable biphasic calcium phosphate\\/Si-HPMC hydrogel composite loaded with undifferentiated bone marrow stromal cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophe Trojani; Florian Boukhechba; Jean-Claude Scimeca; Fanny Vandenbos; Jean-François Michiels; Guy Daculsi; Pascal Boileau; Pierre Weiss; Georges F. Carle; Nathalie Rochet

    2006-01-01

    We have used a new synthetic injectable composite constituted of hydroxyapatite\\/tricalcium phosphate (HA\\/TCP) particles in suspension in a self-hardening Si–hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) hydrogel. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo the biocompatibility and the new bone formation efficacy of this scaffold loaded with undifferentiated bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). This biomaterial was mixed extemporaneously with BMSCs prepared from

  19. Enhancement of ectopic bone formation by bone morphogenetic protein-2 released from a heparin-conjugated poly( l-lactic- co-glycolic acid) scaffold

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oju Jeon; Su Jin Song; Sun-Woong Kang; Andrew J. Putnam; Byung-Soo Kim

    2007-01-01

    In this study, a heparin-conjugated poly(l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (HP-PLGA) scaffold was developed for the sustained delivery of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), and then used to address the hypothesis that BMP-2 delivered from this scaffold could enhance ectopic bone formation. We found the amount of heparin conjugated to the PLGA scaffolds could be increased up to 3.2-fold by using scaffolds made from

  20. Nutrition and bone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gail Goldberg

    2004-01-01

    Throughout life the skeleton is continually renewed. Old, worn out bone is broken down and new bone tissue is formed. During infancy, childhood and adolescence, bone formation is higher than breakdown. At about 30–35 years old adults achieve their peak bone mass. The rate of bone breakdown is equal to the rate of bone formation and bone mass is maintained.

  1. Glycation of Human Cortical and Cancellous Bone Captures Differences in the Formation of Maillard Reaction Products between Glucose and Ribose

    PubMed Central

    Sroga, Gra?yna E.; Siddula, Alankrita; Vashishth, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    To better understand some aspects of bone matrix glycation, we used an in vitro glycation approach. Within two weeks, our glycation procedures led to the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) at the levels that corresponded to approx. 25–30 years of the natural in vivo glycation. Cortical and cancellous bones from human tibias were glycated in vitro using either glucose (glucosylation) or ribose (ribosylation). Both glucosylation and ribosylation led to the formation of higher levels of AGEs and pentosidine (PEN) in cancellous than cortical bone dissected from all tested donors (young, middle-age and elderly men and women). More efficient glycation of bone matrix proteins in cancellous bone most likely depended on the higher porosity of this tissue, which facilitated better accessibility of the sugars to the matrix proteins. Notably, glycation of cortical bone from older donors led to much higher AGEs levels as compared to young donors. Such efficient in vitro glycation of older cortical bone could result from aging-related increase in porosity caused by the loss of mineral content. In addition, more pronounced glycation in vivo would be driven by elevated oxidation processes. Interestingly, the levels of PEN formation differed pronouncedly between glucosylation and ribosylation. Ribosylation generated very high levels of PEN (approx. 6- vs. 2.5-fold higher PEN level than in glucosylated samples). Kinetic studies of AGEs and PEN formation in human cortical and cancellous bone matrix confirmed higher accumulation of fluorescent crosslinks for ribosylation. Our results suggest that in vitro glycation of bone using glucose leads to the formation of lower levels of AGEs including PEN, whereas ribosylation appears to support a pathway toward PEN formation. Our studies may help to understand differences in the progression of bone pathologies related to protein glycation by different sugars, and raise awareness for excessive sugar supplementation in food and drinks. PMID:25679213

  2. Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation on different gentamicin-loaded polymethylmethacrylate bone cements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hilbrand van de Belt; Daniëlle Neut; Willem Schenk; Jim R van Horn; Henny C van der Mei; Henk J Busscher

    2001-01-01

    In this in vitro study, the formation of a Staphylococcus aureus biofilm on six gentamicin-loaded bone cements (CMW1, CMW3, CMW Endurance, CMW2000, Palacos, and Palamed) was determined in a modified Robbins device over a 3 days time span and related with previously (Van de Belt et al., Biomaterials 21 (2000) 1981) measured kinetics of antibiotic release by these cement brands.

  3. Effect of icariin on bone formation during distraction osteogenesis in the rabbit mandible

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Wei; L. Zili; C. Yuanlu; Y. Biao; L. Cheng; W. Xiaoxia; L. Yang; W. Xing

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of icariin on bone formation during mandibular distraction. 40 Rabbits were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Mandibular distraction was performed 5 days after unilateral mandibular osteotomy using a custom-made external distractor at a rate of 0.5mm\\/12h for 10 days. From the first day of distraction, icariin (2.5mg\\/kg·day) was

  4. Evaluation of a Thiolated Chitosan Scaffold for Local Delivery of BMP-2 for Osteogenic Differentiation and Ectopic Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Bae, In-Ho; Jeong, Byung-Chul; Kim, Sun-Hun; Koh, Jeong-Tae

    2013-01-01

    Thiolated chitosan (Thio-CS) is a well-established pharmaceutical excipient for drug delivery. However, its use as a scaffold for bone formation has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of Thio-CS in bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) delivery and bone formation. In vitro study showed that BMP-2 interacted with the Thio-CS and did not affect the swelling behavior. The release kinetics of BMP-2 from the Thio-CS was slightly delayed (70%) within 7 days compared with that from collagen gel (Col-gel, 85%), which is widely used in BMP-2 delivery. The BMP-2 released from Thio-CS increased osteoblastic cell differentiation but did not show any cytotoxicity until 21 days. Analysis of the in vivo ectopic bone formation at 4 weeks of posttransplantation showed that use of Thio-CS for BMP-2 delivery induced more bone formation to a greater extent (1.8 fold) than that of Col-gel. However, bone mineral density in both bones was equivalent, regardless of Thio-CS or Col-gel carrier. Taken together, Thio-CS system might be useful for delivering osteogenic protein BMP-2 and present a promising bone regeneration strategy. PMID:24024213

  5. Ion-exchange polymer nanofibers for enhanced osteogenic differentiation of stem cells and ectopic bone formation.

    PubMed

    Shabani, Iman; Haddadi-Asl, Vahid; Soleimani, Masoud; Seyedjafari, Ehsan; Hashemi, Seyed Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Nanofibrous scaffolds with specific modifications have shown promising potential for bone tissue engineering applications. In the present study, poly(ether sulfone) (PES) and sulfonated PES (SPES) nanofibers were fabricated via electrospinning. Calcium ions were then incorporated in SPES by immersion in a Ca(OH)2 solution. The calcium-ion-exchanged SPES (Ca-SPES), PES, and SPES nanofibers were characterized and then evaluated for their osteogenic capacity: both in vitro using stem cell culture and in vivo after subcutaneous implantation in mice. After 7 days of immersion in simulated body fluid, the formation of an apatite layer was only observed on Ca-SPES nanofibers. According to the MTT results, an increasing stem cell population was detected on all scaffolds during the period of study. Using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, alkaline phosphatase activity, and calcium content assays, it was demonstrated that the osteogenic differentiation of stem cells was higher on Ca-SPES scaffolds in comparison with PES and SPES nanofibers. Interestingly, Ca-SPES scaffolds were shown to induce ectopic bone formation after 12 weeks of subcutaneous implantation in mice. This was confirmed by mineralization and the production of collagen fibers using van Kossa and Masson's trichrome staining, respectively. Taken together, it was demonstrated that the incorporation of calcium ions into the ion-exchange nanofibrous scaffolds not only gives them the ability to enhance osteogenic differentiation of stem cells in vitro but also to induce ectopic bone formation in vivo. PMID:24328219

  6. Heparanase expression and activity influences chondrogenic and osteogenic processes during endochondral bone formation.

    PubMed

    Brown, A J; Alicknavitch, M; D'Souza, S S; Daikoku, T; Kirn-Safran, C B; Marchetti, D; Carson, D D; Farach-Carson, M C

    2008-10-01

    Endochondral bone formation is a highly orchestrated process involving coordination among cell-cell, cell-matrix and growth factor signaling that eventually results in the production of mineralized bone from a cartilage template. Chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation occur in sequence during this process, and the temporospatial patterning clearly requires the activities of heparin binding growth factors and their receptors. Heparanase (HPSE) plays a role in osteogenesis, but the mechanism by which it does so is incompletely understood. We used a combination of ex vivo and in vitro approaches and a well described HPSE inhibitor, PI-88 to study HPSE in endochondral bone formation. In situ hybridization and immunolocalization with HPSE antibodies revealed that HPSE is expressed in the peri-chondrium, peri-osteum, and at the chondro-osseous junction, all sites of key signaling events and tissue morphogenesis. Transcripts encoding Hpse also were observed in the pre-hypertrophic zone. Addition of PI-88 to metatarsals in organ culture reduced growth and suggested that HPSE activity aids the transition from chondrogenic to osteogenic processes in growth of long bones. To study this, we used high density cultures of ATDC5 pre-chondrogenic cells grown under conditions favoring chondrogenesis or osteogenesis. Under chondrogenic conditions, HPSE/Hpse was expressed at high levels during the mid-culture period, at the onset of terminal chondrogenesis. PI-88 addition reduced chondrogenesis and accelerated osteogenesis, including a dramatic up-regulation of osteocalcin levels. In normal growth medium, addition of PI-88 reduced migration of ATDC-5 cells, suggesting that HPSE facilitates cartilage replacement by bone at the chondro-osseous junction by removing the HS component of proteoglycans, such as perlecan/HSPG2, that otherwise prevent osteogenic cells from remodeling hypertrophic cartilage. PMID:18589009

  7. A reversal phase arrest uncoupling the bone formation and resorption contributes to the bone loss in glucocorticoid treated ovariectomised aged sheep.

    PubMed

    Andreasen, Christina M; Ding, Ming; Overgaard, Søren; Bollen, Peter; Andersen, Thomas L

    2015-06-01

    Large animals as sheep are often used as models for human osteoporosis. Our aim was therefore to determine how glucocorticoid treatment of ovariectomised sheep affects the cancellous bone, determining the cellular events within the bone remodelling process that contributes to their bone loss. Twenty female sheep were assigned for two groups; an untreated control group and an ovariectomised group treated with glucocorticoids (0.6 mg/kg/day, 5 times weekly) for 7 months. At 7 months the glucocorticoid-treated ovariectomised sheep showed a significant change in the bone microstructure revealed by a decreased trabecular bone volume and thickness compared to the control sheep. The treatment led to a temporary elevation of the bone resorption marker CTX (c-terminal collagen telopeptide), while the bone formation marker osteocalcin remained suppressed all 7 months. Histomorphometrically, the treated sheep had a complete absence of osteoid surfaces, and a 5-fold increase in the extent of eroded/reversal surfaces after 7 months. Most of these reversal surfaces were actually arrested reversal surfaces, defined as reversal surfaces without the presence of neighbouring osteoid surfaces or osteoclasts, which is classically observed next to active reversal surfaces. As in humans, these arrested reversal surfaces had compared to active reversal surfaces a reduced canopy coverage, a significantly decreased cell density, and a decreased immunoreactivity for the osteoblastic markers osterix, runx2 and smooth muscle actin in the mononuclear reversal cells colonising the surfaces. In conclusion, glucocorticoid treatment of ovariectomised sheep induced a significant bone loss, caused by an arrest of the reversal phase, resulting in an uncoupling of the bone formation and resorption during the reversal phase, as recently demonstrated in postmenopausal women with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. This supports the relevance of the sheep model to the pathophysiology of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, making it a relevant preclinical model for orthopaedic implant and biomaterial research. PMID:25689083

  8. Erythropoietin stimulates bone formation, cell proliferation, and angiogenesis in a femoral segmental defect model in mice.

    PubMed

    Holstein, J H; Orth, M; Scheuer, C; Tami, A; Becker, S C; Garcia, P; Histing, T; Mörsdorf, P; Klein, M; Pohlemann, T; Menger, M D

    2011-11-01

    The glycoprotein erythropoietin (EPO) has been demonstrated to stimulate fracture healing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of EPO treatment on bone repair in a femoral segmental defect model. Bone repair was analyzed in mice which were treated by EPO (500IE/kg/d intraperitoneally; n=38) and in mice which received the vehicle for control (n=40). Two and 10 weeks after creating a 1.8mm femoral segmental defect, bone repair was studied by micro-CT, histology, and Western blot analysis. At 10 weeks, micro-CT and histomorphometric analyses showed a significantly higher bridging rate of the bone defects in EPO-treated animals than in controls. This was associated by a significantly higher bone volume within the segmental defects of the EPO-treated animals. At 2 weeks, Western blot analyses revealed a significantly higher expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in EPO-treated animals compared to controls. Accordingly, the number of blood vessels was significantly increased in the EPO group at 2 weeks. At 10 weeks, we found a significantly higher expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in EPO-treated animals when compared to controls. Western blot analyses showed no significant differences between the groups in the expression of the endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthases (eNOS and iNOS) and the angiopoietin receptor Tie-2. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the results of the Western blot analyses, demonstrating a significantly higher number of VEGF- and PCNA-positive cells in EPO-treated animals than in controls at 2 and 10 weeks, respectively. We conclude that EPO is capable of stimulating bone formation, cell proliferation and VEGF-mediated angiogenesis in a femoral segmental defect model. PMID:21851867

  9. Increased Resistance during Jump Exercise Does Not Enhance Cortical Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Boudreaux, Ramon D.; Swift, Joshua M.; Gasier, Heath G.; Wiggs, Michael P.; Hogan, Harry A.; Fluckey, James D.; Bloomfield, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE This study sought to elucidate the effects of a low- and high-load jump resistance exercise (RE) training protocol on cortical bone of the tibia and femur mid-diaphyses. METHODS Sprague-Dawley rats (male, 6-mos-old) were randomly assigned to high-load RE (HRE; n = 16), low-load RE (LRE; n = 15) or cage control (CC; n = 11) groups. Animals in the HRE and LRE groups performed 15 sessions of jump RE for 5 weeks. Load in the HRE group was progressively increased from 80g added to a weighted vest (50 repetitions) to 410g (16 repetitions). The LRE rats completed the same protocol as the HRE group (same number of repetitions) with only a 30g vest applied. RESULTS Low- and high-load jump RE resulted in 6–11% higher cortical bone mineral content (BMC) and cortical bone area compared to controls as determined by in vivo pQCT measurements. In the femur, however, only LRE demonstrated improvements in cortical volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD; +11%) and cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI; +20%) versus CC group. Three-point bending to failure revealed a marked increase in tibial max force (25–29%), stiffness (19–22%), and energy to max force (35–55%), and a reduction in elastic modulus (?11–14%) in both LRE and HRE compared to controls. Dynamic histomorphometry assessed at the tibia mid-diaphysis determined that both LRE and HRE resulted in 20–30% higher periosteal mineralizing surface versus CC group. Mineral apposition rate (MAR) and bone formation rate (BFR) were significantly greater in LRE animals (27%, 39%) than in the HRE group. CONCLUSION These data demonstrate that jump training with minimal loading is equally, and sometimes more, effective at augmenting cortical bone integrity compared to overload training in skeletally mature rats. PMID:24743108

  10. Lanthanum tracer and freeze-fracture studies suggest that compartmentalisation of early bone matrix may be related to initial mineralisation.

    PubMed Central

    Soares, A M; Arana-Chavez, V E; Reid, A R; Katchburian, E

    1992-01-01

    In adult bone the calcified matrix and enclosed osteocytes are separated from the extracellular space by a continuous layer of bone lining cells. It thus appears that bone matrix is compartmentalised and, as such, may constitute a 'milieu intérieur' which is different from the general extracellular space. Since adult bone matrix is compartmentalised and matrix vesicles also form a microcompartment, it is conceivable that compartmentalisation, in early osteogenesis, may be a requirement for the initial events of the mineralisation process. We have therefore conducted an ultrastructural, tracer, and freeze-fracture study to determine the stage in which bone matrix becomes compartmentalised and also to find out whether there are tight junctions between osteoblasts. The results show that in early nonmineralised stages and in incipient mineralisation, lanthanum penetrates all intercellular spaces and the newly forming bone matrix which is rich in matrix vesicles and collagen. With the progression of mineralisation, when all matrix vesicles appear mineralised and calcification is 'spreading' to the surrounding matrix, lanthanum is restricted to intercellular spaces and conspicuous macular tight junctions are present between osteoblasts. We suggest that matrix vesicles act as microcompartments for calcification when the early bone matrix is in continuity with the surrounding extracellular space. In later stages, when lanthanum fails to penetrate the matrix, matrix vesicles may no longer be necessary because the bone matrix itself is compartmentalised, thus allowing for localised changes in composition that might favour mineral deposition. Images Figs 1-4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6-8 Fig. 9-11 Fig. 12 Figs. 13-15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Figs. 19-20 PMID:1295872

  11. Bone marrow colony-formation in vitro after infection of genetically defined inbred mice with Candida albicans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siripen Wanasaengsakul; Robert B. Ashman

    2004-01-01

    The effect of C. albicans infection on the production of haematopoietic precursor cells in the bone marrow of CBA\\/CaH and BALB\\/c mice was evaluated by assay of colony formation in vitro. In immunocompetent mice, neither systemic nor oral infection induced significant alterations in colony formation by bone marrow from the two mouse strains, and Candida infection did not alter the

  12. Rapid oriented fibril formation of fish scale collagen facilitates early osteoblastic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Rena; Uemura, Toshimasa; Xu, Zhefeng; Yamaguchi, Isamu; Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Junzo

    2015-08-01

    We studied the effect of fibril formation of fish scale collagen on the osteoblastic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). We found that hMSCs adhered easily to tilapia scale collagen, which remarkably accelerated the early stage of osteoblastic differentiation in hMSCs during in vitro cell culture. Osteoblastic markers such as ALP activity, osteopontin, and bone morphogenetic protein 2 were markedly upregulated when the hMSCs were cultured on a tilapia collagen surface, especially in the early osteoblastic differentiation stage. We hypothesized that this phenomenon occurs due to specific fibril formation of tilapia collagen. Thus, we examined the time course of collagen fibril formation using high-speed atomic force microscopy. Moreover, to elucidate the effect of the orientation of fibril formation on the differentiation of hMSCs, we measured ALP activity of hMSCs cultured on two types of tilapia scale collagen membranes with different degrees of fibril formation. The ALP activity in hMSCs cultured on a fibrous collagen membrane was significantly higher than on a non-fibrous collagen membrane even before adding osteoblastic differentiation medium. These results showed that the degree of the fibril formation of tilapia collagen was essential for the osteoblastic differentiation of hMSCs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 103A: 2531-2539, 2015. PMID:25546439

  13. Dual growth factor delivery and controlled scaffold degradation enhance in vivo bone formation by transplanted bone marrow stromal cells

    E-print Network

    Simmons, Craig A.

    by transplanted bone marrow stromal cells Craig A. Simmons,a,b,1 Eben Alsberg,a,1 Susan Hsiong,c Woo J. Kim bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) transplanted ectopically in SCID mice using alginate hydrogels Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords: Alginate; Mesenchymal stem cells; Bone morphogenetic protein-2

  14. Bone chip-filled burrows associated with bored dinosaur bone in floodplain paleosols of the Cretaceous Hasandong Formation, Korea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    In Sung Paik

    2000-01-01

    Borings in dinosaur bone, which are intimately associated with subjacent burrows filled with bone chips, are recognized from a Lower Cretaceous floodplain vertic–calcic paleosol, Dapyeongri, Korea. The bored bone is an in situ weathered scapula of herbivore. The borings are ubiquitous within and on scapula, and have diverse orientations. They are mostly solitary with diameters from a few millimeters to

  15. Homeobox genes d11-d13 and a13 control mouse autopod cortical bone and joint formation.

    PubMed

    Villavicencio-Lorini, Pablo; Kuss, Pia; Friedrich, Julia; Haupt, Julia; Farooq, Muhammed; Türkmen, Seval; Duboule, Denis; Hecht, Jochen; Mundlos, Stefan

    2010-06-01

    The molecular mechanisms that govern bone and joint formation are complex, involving an integrated network of signaling pathways and gene regulators. We investigated the role of Hox genes, which are known to specify individual segments of the skeleton, in the formation of autopod limb bones (i.e., the hands and feet) using the mouse mutant synpolydactyly homolog (spdh), which encodes a polyalanine expansion in Hoxd13. We found that no cortical bone was formed in the autopod in spdh/spdh mice; instead, these bones underwent trabecular ossification after birth. Spdh/spdh metacarpals acquired an ovoid shape and developed ectopic joints, indicating a loss of long bone characteristics and thus a transformation of metacarpals into carpal bones. The perichondrium of spdh/spdh mice showed abnormal morphology and decreased expression of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), which was identified as a direct Hoxd13 transcriptional target. Hoxd11-/-Hoxd12-/-Hoxd13-/- triple-knockout mice and Hoxd13-/-Hoxa13+/- mice exhibited similar but less severe defects, suggesting that these Hox genes have similar and complementary functions and that the spdh allele acts as a dominant negative. This effect was shown to be due to sequestration of other polyalanine-containing transcription factors by the mutant Hoxd13 in the cytoplasm, leading to their degradation. These data indicate that Hox genes not only regulate patterning but also directly influence bone formation and the ossification pattern of bones, in part via Runx2. PMID:20458143

  16. Copal bone cement is more effective in preventing biofilm formation than Palacos R-G.

    PubMed

    Ensing, Geert T; van Horn, Jim R; van der Mei, Henny C; Busscher, Henk J; Neut, Daniëlle

    2008-06-01

    Bone cements loaded with combinations of antibiotics are assumed more effective in preventing infection than bone cements with gentamicin as a single drug. Moreover, loading with an additional antibiotic may increase interconnectivity between antibiotic particles to enhance release. We hypothesize addition of clindamycin to a gentamicin-loaded cement yields higher antibiotic release and causes larger inhibition zones against clinical isolates grown on agar and stronger biofilm inhibition. Antibiotic release after 672 hours from Copal bone cement was more extensive (65% of the clindamycin and 41% of the gentamicin incorporated) than from Palacos R-G (4% of the gentamicin incorporated). The higher antibiotic release from Copal resulted in a stronger and more prolonged inhibition of bacterial growth on agar. Bacterial colony counting and confocal laser scanning microscopy of biofilms grown on the bone cements suggest antibiotic release reduced bacterial viability, most notably close to the cement surface. The gentamicin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus formed gentamicin-resistant small colony variants on Palacos R-G and therefore Copal more effectively decreased biofilm formation than Palacos R-G. PMID:18338216

  17. Long-term imatinib therapy promotes bone formation in CML patients.

    PubMed

    Fitter, Stephen; Dewar, Andrea L; Kostakis, Panagiota; To, L Bik; Hughes, Timothy P; Roberts, Marion M; Lynch, Kevin; Vernon-Roberts, Barrie; Zannettino, Andrew C W

    2008-03-01

    Imatinib inhibits tyrosine kinases important in osteoclast (c-Fms) and osteoblast (platelet-derived growth factor receptor [PDGF-R], c-Abl) function, suggesting that long-term therapy may alter bone homeostasis. To investigate this question, we measured the trabecular bone volume (TBV) in iliac crest bone biopsies taken from chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients at diagnosis and again after 2 to 4 years of imatinib therapy. Half the patients (8 of 17) showed a substantive increase in TBV (> 2-fold), after imatinib therapy, with the TBV in the posttreatment biopsy typically surpassing the normal upper limit for the patient's age group. Imatinib-treated patients exhibited reduced serum calcium and phosphate levels with hypophosphatemia evident in 53% (9 of 17) of patients. In vitro, imatinib suppressed osteoblast proliferation and stimulated osteogenic gene expression and mineralized-matrix production by inhibiting PDGF receptor function. In PDGF-stimulated cultures, imatinib dose-dependently inhibited activation of Akt and Crk-L. Using pharmacologic inhibitors, inhibition of PI3-kinase/Akt activation promoted mineral formation, suggesting a possible molecular mechanism for the imatinib-mediated increase in TBV in vivo. Further investigation is required to determine whether the increase in TBV associated with imatinib therapy may represent a novel therapeutic avenue for the treatment of diseases that are characterized by generalized bone loss. PMID:18042796

  18. The effects of 3D bioactive glass scaffolds and BMP-2 on bone formation in rat femoral critical size defects and adjacent bones.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wai-Ching; Robu, Irina S; Patel, Rikin; Leu, Ming C; Velez, Mariano; Chu, Tien-Min Gabriel

    2014-08-01

    Reconstruction of critical size defects in the load-bearing area has long been a challenge in orthopaedics. In the past, we have demonstrated the feasibility of using a biodegradable load-sharing scaffold fabricated from poly(propylene fumarate)/tricalcium phosphate (PPF/TCP) loaded with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) to successfully induce healing in those defects. However, there is limited osteoconduction observed with the PPF/TCP scaffold itself. For this reason, 13-93 bioactive glass scaffolds with local BMP-2 delivery were investigated in this study for inducing segmental defect repairs in a load-bearing region. Furthermore, a recent review on BMP-2 revealed greater risks in radiculitis, ectopic bone formation, osteolysis and poor global outcome in association with the use of BMP-2 for spinal fusion. We also evaluated the potential side effects of locally delivered BMP-2 on the structures of adjacent bones. Therefore, cylindrical 13-93 glass scaffolds were fabricated by indirect selective laser sintering with side holes on the cylinder filled with dicalcium phosphate dehydrate as a BMP-2 carrier. The scaffolds were implanted into critical size defects created in rat femurs with and without 10 ?g of BMP-2. The x-ray and micro-CT results showed that a bridging callus was found as soon as three weeks and progressed gradually in the BMP group while minimal bone formation was observed in the control group. Degradation of the scaffolds was noted in both groups. Stiffness, peak load and energy to break of the BMP group were all higher than the control group. There was no statistical difference in bone mineral density, bone area and bone mineral content in the tibiae and contralateral femurs of the control and BMP groups. In conclusion, a 13-93 bioactive glass scaffold with local BMP-2 delivery has been demonstrated for its potential application in treating large bone defects. PMID:25065552

  19. Evaluation of radionuclide bone-imaging for the early detection of sepsis in a model of equine neonatal osteomyelitis 

    E-print Network

    Taylor, James Rutledge

    1986-01-01

    EVALUATION OF RADIONUCLIDE GONE-IMAGING FOR THE EARLY DETECTION OF SEPSIS IN A MODEL OF EQUINE NEONATAL OSTEOMYELITIS A Thesis by JAMES RUTLEDGE TAYLOR Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1986 Major Subject: Veterinary Med1cal Sciences EVALUATION OF RADIONUCLIOE BONE-IMAGING FOR THE EARLY DETECTION OF SEPSIS IN A MODEL OF EQUINE NEONATAL OSTEOMYELITIS A Thesis by JAMES RUTLEOGE...

  20. Early diagenetic formation of illite: implications for clay geothermometry

    SciTech Connect

    Fishman, N.S.; Turner-Peterson, C.E.; Owen, D.E.

    1987-05-01

    A concentric zonation of authigenic clays occurs in altered tuff beds deposited in saline-alkaline playa-lake complex that represents the Brushy Basin Member of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation in the eastern part of the Colorado Plateau. Along the margins of the playa-lake complex, randomly ordered smectitic mixed-layer clays (80-100% expandable layers) formed upon alteration of silicic volcanic ash. In contrast, stratigraphically equivalent altered tuff beds in the central part of the playa-lake complex contain ordered illitic mixed-layer clays (0-30% expandable layers). This pattern of a basinward increase in illitic layers coincides with the concentric zonation of authigenic minerals in tuff beds from smectite and clinoptilolite (playa margin) to analcime, K-feldspar, and albite (central playa). Temperatures above 90/sup 0/C have been considered necessary for transforming randomly ordered smectitic clays to ordered illitic phases. (It remains unclear whether illitic phases can precipitate directly from solution.) In the Brushy Basin Member, however, zonation of clays occurs irrespective of proximity to sources of heat (intrusive and extrusive igneous bodies) and depth of burial. Instead, the basinward increase in salinity and alkalinity of syndepositional pore waters, which is indicated by the zonation of authigenic zeolites and feldspars in Brushy Basin tuff beds, probably also controlled the basinward increase in illitic content of mixed-layer phases. Thus, illitization possibly resulted from early transformation of precursor clays, or alternatively, by early, direct precipitation. Because pore waters at near-surface temperatures can seemingly control formation of illitic phases, caution should be exercised when using illite as a geothermometer to evaluate the thermal evolution of sedimentary sequences.

  1. Dietary emu oil supplementation suppresses 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy-induced inflammation, osteoclast formation, and bone loss.

    PubMed

    Raghu Nadhanan, Rethi; Abimosleh, Suzanne M; Su, Yu-Wen; Scherer, Michaela A; Howarth, Gordon S; Xian, Cory J

    2012-06-01

    Cancer chemotherapy can cause osteopenia or osteoporosis, and yet the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, and currently, no preventative treatments are available. This study investigated damaging effects of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on histological, cellular, and molecular changes in the tibial metaphysis and potential protective benefits of emu oil (EO), which is known to possess a potent anti-inflammatory property. Female dark agouti rats were gavaged orally with EO or water (1 ml·day(-1)·rat(-1)) for 1 wk before a single ip injection of 5-FU (150 mg/kg) or saline (Sal) was given. The treatment groups were H(2)O + Sal, H(2)O + 5-FU, EO + 5-FU, and EO + Sal. Oral gavage was given throughout the whole period up to 1 day before euthanasia (days 3, 4, and 5 post-5-FU). Histological analysis showed that H(2)O + 5-FU significantly reduced heights of primary spongiosa on days 3 and 5 and trabecular bone volume of secondary spongiosa on days 3 and 4. It reduced density of osteoblasts slightly and caused an increase in the density of osteoclasts on trabecular bone surface on day 4. EO supplementation prevented reduction of osteoblasts and induction of osteoclasts and bone loss caused by 5-FU. Gene expression studies confirmed an inhibitory effect of EO on osteoclasts since it suppressed 5-FU-induced expression of proinflammatory and osteoclastogenic cytokine TNF?, osteoclast marker receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B, and osteoclast-associated receptor. Therefore, this study demonstrated that EO can counter 5-FU chemotherapy-induced inflammation in bone, preserve osteoblasts, suppress osteoclast formation, and potentially be useful in preventing 5-FU chemotherapy-induced bone loss. PMID:22436700

  2. p47phox-Nox2-dependent ROS Signaling Inhibits Early Bone Development in Mice but Protects against Skeletal Aging.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-Ran; Lazarenko, Oxana P; Blackburn, Michael L; Mercer, Kelly E; Badger, Thomas M; Ronis, Martin J J

    2015-06-01

    Bone remodeling is age-dependently regulated and changes dramatically during the course of development. Progressive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been suspected to be the leading cause of many inflammatory and degenerative diseases, as well as an important factor underlying many effects of aging. In contrast, how reduced ROS signaling regulates inflammation and remodeling in bone remains unknown. Here, we utilized a p47(phox) knock-out mouse model, in which an essential cytosolic co-activator of Nox2 is lost, to characterize bone metabolism at 6 weeks and 2 years of age. Compared with their age-matched wild type controls, loss of Nox2 function in p47(phox) (-/-) mice resulted in age-related switch of bone mass and strength. Differences in bone mass were associated with increased bone formation in 6-week-old p47(phox) (-/-) mice but decreased in 2-year-old p47(phox) (-/-) mice. Despite decreases in ROS generation in bone marrow cells and p47(phox)-Nox2 signaling in osteoblastic cells, 2-year-old p47(phox) (-/-) mice showed increased senescence-associated secretory phenotype in bone compared with their wild type controls. These in vivo findings were mechanistically recapitulated in ex vivo cell culture of primary fetal calvarial cells from p47(phox) (-/-) mice. These cells showed accelerated cell senescence pathway accompanied by increased inflammation. These data indicate that the observed age-related switch of bone mass in p47(phox)-deficient mice occurs through an increased inflammatory milieu in bone and that p47(phox)-Nox2-dependent physiological ROS signaling suppresses inflammation in aging. PMID:25922068

  3. Early effects of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D on bone calcium in vitamin D-deficient rats

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Early effects of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D on bone calcium in vitamin D-deficient rats P. J. MARIE mineralization. Vitamin-D deficient rats were labeled with 45calcium 10 to 14 days prior to treatment (experiment. In the untreated vitamin D-deficient rats of experiment 2, the rate of 45calcium loss in serum was higher than

  4. Early predictors of transplant-related mortality (TRM) after allogeneic bone marrow transplants (BMT): blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and bilirubin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Bacigalupo; R Oneto; B Bruno; M Soracco; T Lamparelli; F Gualandi; D Occhini; AM Raiola; N Mordini; G Berisso; S Bregante; G Dini; A Lombardi; MT Van Lint; R Brand

    1999-01-01

    Transplant-related mortality (TRM) following allo- geneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) remains a major concern and early identification of patients at risk may be clinically relevant. In this study we describe a predictive score based on bilirubin and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels on day +7 after BMT. The patient population consisted of 309 consecutive patients who underwent BMT from sibling

  5. Osteoclasts on bone and dentin in vitro: mechanism of trail formation and comparison of resorption behavior.

    PubMed

    Rumpler, M; Würger, T; Roschger, P; Zwettler, E; Sturmlechner, I; Altmann, P; Fratzl, P; Rogers, M J; Klaushofer, K

    2013-12-01

    The main function of osteoclasts in vivo is the resorption of bone matrix, leaving behind typical resorption traces consisting of pits and trails. The mechanism of pit formation is well described, but less is known about trail formation. Pit-forming osteoclasts possess round actin rings. In this study we show that trail-forming osteoclasts have crescent-shaped actin rings and provide a model that describes the detailed mechanism. To generate a trail, the actin ring of the resorption organelle attaches with one side outside the existing trail margin. The other side of the ring attaches to the wall inside the trail, thus sealing that narrow part to be resorbed next (3–21 lm). This 3D configuration allows vertical resorption layer-by-layer from the surface to a depth in combination with horizontal cell movement. Thus, trails are not just traces of a horizontal translation of osteoclasts during resorption. Additionally, we compared osteoclastic resorption on bone and dentin since the latter is the most frequently used in vitro model and data are extrapolated to bone. Histomorphometric analyses revealed a material-dependent effect reflected by an 11-fold higher resorption area and a sevenfold higher number of pits per square centimeter on dentin compared to bone. An important material-independent aspect was reflected by comparable mean pit area (?m²) and podosome patterns. Hence, dentin promotes the generation of resorbing osteoclasts, but once resorption has started, it proceeds independently of material properties. Thus, dentin is a suitable model substrate for data acquisition as long as osteoclast generation is not part of the analyses. PMID:24022329

  6. Clonal distribution of osteoprogenitor cells in cultured chick periostea: Functional relationship to bone formation

    SciTech Connect

    McCulloch, C.A.; Fair, C.A.; Tenenbaum, H.C.; Limeback, H.; Homareau, R. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1990-08-01

    Folded explants of periosteum from embryonic chick calvaria form bone-like tissue when grown in the presence of ascorbic acid, organic phosphate, and dexamethasone. All osteoblast-like cells in these cultures arise de novo by differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells present in the periosteum. To study the spatial and functional relationships between bone formation and osteoprogenitor cells, cultures were continuously labeled with (3H)thymidine for periods of 1-5 days. Radioautographs of serial 2-microns plastic sections stained for alkaline phosphatase (AP) showed maximal labeling of 30% of fibroblastic (AP-negative) cells by 3 days while osteogenic cells (AP-positive) exhibited over 95% labeling by 5 days. No differential shifts in labeling indices, grain count histograms of fibroblastic and osteogenic cells or numbers of AP-positive cells were observed, indicating no significant recruitment of cells from the fibroblastic to the osteogenic compartment. Despite the continuous presence of (3H)thymidine, less than 35% of both osteoblasts and osteocytes were labeled at 5 days, indicating that only one-third of the osteoprogenitor cells had cycled prior to differentiation. Spatial clustering of (3H)thymidine-labeled cells was measured by computer-assisted morphometry and application of the Poisson distribution to assess contagion. Cluster size and number of labeled cells per cluster did not vary between 1-3 days, but the number of clusters increased 20-fold between Day 1 and Day 3. Three-dimensional reconstruction from serial sections showed that clusters formed long, tubular arrays of osteogenic cells up to eight cells in length and located within 2-3 cell layers from the bone surface. Selective killing of S-phase cells with two pulse labels of high specific activity (3H)thymidine at 1 and 2 days of culture completely blocked bone formation.

  7. Rictor Is Required for Early B Cell Development in Bone Marrow

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Jie; Zhang, Liyan; Hao, Sha; Liang, Haoyue; Wang, Xiaomin; Wang, Weili; Xu, Jing; Liu, Hanzhi; Liu, Bin; Cheng, Tao; Yuan, Weiping

    2014-01-01

    The development of early B cells, which are generated from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in a series of well-characterized stages in bone marrow (BM), represents a paradigm for terminal differentiation processes. Akt is primarily regulated by phosphorylation at Thr308 by PDK1 and at Ser473 by mTORC2, and Akt signaling plays a key role in hematopoiesis. However, the role of mTORC2 in the development of early B cells remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the functional role of mTORC2 by specifically deleting an integral component, Rictor, in a hematopoietic system. We demonstrated that the deletion of Rictor induced an aberrant increase in the FoxO1 and Rag-1 proteins in BM B cells and that this increase was accompanied by a significant decrease in the abundance of B cells in the peripheral blood (PB) and the spleen, suggesting impaired development of early B cells in adult mouse BM. A BM transplantation assay revealed that the B cell differentiation defect induced by Rictor deletion was not affected by the BM microenvironment, thus indicating a cell-intrinsic mechanism. Furthermore, the knockdown of FoxO1 in Rictor-deleted HSCs and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) promoted the maturation of B cells in the BM of recipient mice. In addition, we revealed that treatment with rapamycin (an mTORC1 inhibitor) aggravated the deficiency in B cell development in the PB and BM. Taken together, our results provide further evidence that Rictor regulates the development of early B cells in a cell-intrinsic manner by modifying the expression of FoxO1 and Rag-1. PMID:25084011

  8. Magnetic fields during the early phase of massive star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifried, Daniel Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this work is to improve our current understanding of the formation process of massive stars in the presence of magnetic fields by means of numerical simulations. In particular, I focus on protostellar accretion rates, the evolution and the properties of protostellar discs and their associated outflows, and the interplay of turbulence and magnetic fields and its impact on protostellar disc formation. In a systematic parameter study I show that the accretion rates are remarkably constant over a wide range of initial conditions. Furthermore, I show that in the absence of turbulence for strong initial magnetic fields only sub-Keplerian discs can form which is attributed to the strong magnetic braking effect. This result seems to be in contrast to observational results. The morphology of the outflows, which shows a strong dependence on the initial conditions, can ultimately be linked to the structure of the underlying disc. Well-collimated outflows with high outflows velocities only develop if a Keplerian protostellar disc is present, otherwise slowly expanding, sphere-like outflows develop. Furthermore, I analyse the driving mechanism of outflows with an analytical criterion derived in the course of this work. When including supersonic, turbulent motions in the simulations, Keplerian protostellar discs form in contrast to the non-turbulent simulations. This result is in agreement with observations of early-type protostellar objects.

  9. High Redshift Quasars and Star Formation in the Early Universe

    E-print Network

    M. Dietrich; I. Appenzeller; M. Vestergaard; S. J. Wagner

    2001-09-13

    In order to derive information on the star formation history in the early universe we observed 6 high-redshift (z=3.4) quasars in the near-infrared to measure the relative iron and \\mgii emission strengths. A detailed comparison of the resulting spectra with those of low-redshift quasars show essentially the same FeII/MgII emission ratios and very similar continuum and line spectral properties, indicating a lack of evolution of the relative iron to magnesium abundance of the gas since z=3.4 in bright quasars. On the basis of current chemical evolution scenarios of galaxies, where magnesium is produced in massive stars ending in type II SNe, while iron is formed predominantly in SNe of type Ia with a delay of ~1 Gyr and assuming as cosmological parameters H_o = 72 km/s Mpc, Omega_M = 0.3, and Omega_Lambda = 0.7$, we conclude that major star formation activity in the host galaxies of our z=3.4 quasars must have started already at an epoch corresponding to z_f ~= 10, when the age of the universe was less than 0.5 Gyrs.

  10. Star formation bimodality in early-type galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Amblard, A.; Riguccini, L.; Temi, P.; Im, S.; Fanelli, M. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States); Serra, P. [IAS, CNRS (UMR8617), Université Paris-Sud 11, Bâtiment 121, F-91400 Orsay (France)

    2014-03-10

    We compute the properties of a sample of 221 local, early-type galaxies with a spectral energy distribution (SED) modeling software, CIGALEMC. Concentrating on the star-forming (SF) activity and dust contents, we derive parameters such as the specific star formation rate (sSFR), the dust luminosity, dust mass, and temperature. In our sample, 52% is composed of elliptical (E) galaxies and 48% of lenticular (S0) galaxies. We find a larger proportion of S0 galaxies among galaxies with a large sSFR and large specific dust emission. The stronger activity of S0 galaxies is confirmed by larger dust masses. We investigate the relative proportion of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and SF galaxies in our sample using spectroscopic Sloan Digital Sky Survey data and near-infrared selection techniques, and find a larger proportion of AGN-dominated galaxies in the S0 sample than the E one. This could corroborate a scenario where blue galaxies evolve into red ellipticals by passing through an S0 AGN active period while quenching its star formation. Finally, we find a good agreement comparing our estimates with color indicators.

  11. Sustained Modeling-Based Bone Formation During Adulthood in Cynomolgus Monkeys May Contribute to Continuous BMD Gains With Denosumab.

    PubMed

    Ominsky, Michael S; Libanati, Cesar; Niu, Qing-Tian; Boyce, Rogely W; Kostenuik, Paul J; Wagman, Rachel B; Baron, Roland; Dempster, David W

    2015-07-01

    Denosumab (DMAb) administration to postmenopausal women with osteoporosis is associated with continued bone mineral density (BMD) increases and low fracture incidence through 8 years, despite persistently reduced bone turnover markers and limited fluorochrome labeling in iliac crest bone biopsies. BMD increases were hypothesized to result from additional accrual of bone matrix via modeling-based bone formation-a hypothesis that was tested by examining fluorochrome labeling patterns in sections from ovariectomized (OVX) cynomolgus monkeys (cynos) treated with DMAb for 16 months. Mature OVX or Sham cynos were treated monthly with vehicle for 16 months, whereas other OVX cynos received monthly 25 or 50?mg/kg DMAb. DMAb groups exhibited very low serum bone resorption and formation biomarkers and near-absent fluorochrome labeling in proximal femur cancellous bone. Despite these reductions, femoral neck dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) BMD continued to rise in DMAb-treated cynos, from a 4.6% increase at month 6 to 9.8% above baseline at month 16. Further examination of cortical bone in the proximal femur demonstrated consistent and prominent labeling on the superior endocortex and the inferior periosteal surface, typically containing multiple superimposed labels from month 6 to 16 over smooth cement lines, consistent with continuous modeling-based bone formation. These findings were evident in all groups. Quantitative analysis at another modeling site, the ninth rib, demonstrated that DMAb did not alter the surface extent of modeling-based labels, or the cortical area bound by them, relative to OVX controls, while significantly reducing remodeling-based bone formation and eroded surface. This conservation of modeling-based formation occurred concomitantly with increased femoral neck strength and, when coupled with a reduction in remodeling-based bone loss, is likely to contribute to increases in bone mass with DMAb treatment. Thus, this study provides preclinical evidence for a potential mechanism that could contribute to the clinical observations of continued BMD increases and low fracture rates with long-term DMAb administration. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:25684625

  12. BMP-2 gene modified canine bMSCs promote ectopic bone formation mediated by a nonviral PEI derivative

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Kaige; Zeng, Dengliang; Zhang, Yilin; Xia, Lunguo; Xu, Ling; Kaplan, David L.; Jiang, Xinquan; Zhang, Fuqiang

    2012-01-01

    The study was to explore the effects of BMP-2 gene modified canine bone marrow stromal cells (bMSCs) mediated by a nonviral PEI derivative (GenEscort™ II) in promoting bone formation in vitro and in vivo. Canine bMSCs were cultured and transfected with plasmids containing bone morphogenetic protein-2 gene (pBMP-2) or enhanced green fluorescent protein gene (pEGFP). Gene transfection conditions were initially optimized by varying GenEscort™ II/plasmid ratios. Osteogenic differentiation of gene modified bMSCs was investigated via alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity analysis and real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis in vitro. The bone formation ability of pBMP-2 transfected bMSCs combined with apatite-coated silk scaffolds (mSS) was explored and compared with pEGFP transfected bMSCs/mSS or untreated bMSCs/mSS at 8, 12 weeks after operation. Results showed that gene transfection efficiency reached up to 36.67 ± 4.12% as demonstrated by EGFP expression. ALP staining and activity assay were stronger with pBMP-2 gene transfection, and the mRNA expression of BMP-2, bone sialoprotein (BSP), Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx-2) and osteopontin (OPN) up-regulated in bMSCs 3, 6, 9 days in pBMP-2 group. Besides, the tissue-engineered bone complex with pBMP-2 modified bMSCs achieved significantly increased de novo bone formation compared with control groups (P<0.01). We conclude that pBMP-2 transfection mediated by GenEscort™ II could enhance the osteogenic differentiation of canine bMSCs and promote the ectopic new bone formation in nude mice. GenEscort™ II mediated pBMP-2 gene transfer appears to be a safe and effective nonviral method for gene enhanced bone tissue engineering. PMID:21347550

  13. The role of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in the inhibition of bone formation induced by skeletal unloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halloran, B. P.; Bikle, D. D.; Wronski, T. J.; GLOBUS. R.; Levens, M. J.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1983-01-01

    Skeletal unloading results in osteopenia. To examine the involvement of vitamin D in this process, the rear limbs of growing rats were unloaded and alterations in bone calcium and bone histology were related to changes in serum calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphorus (P sub i), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D), 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH)2D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D. Acute skeletal unloading induced a transitory inhibition of Ca accumulation in unloaded bones. This was accompanied by a transitory rise in serum Ca, a 21% decrease in longitudinal bone growth (P 0.01), a 32% decrease in bone surface lined with osteoblasts (P .05), no change in bone surface lined with osteoclasts and a decrease in circulating (1,25(OH)2D. No significant changes in the serum concentrations of P sub i, 25-OH-D or 24,25(OH)2D were observed. After 2 weeks of unloading, bone Ca stabilized at approximately 70% of control and serum Ca and 1,25(OH)2D returned to control values. Maintenance of a constant serum 1,25(OH)2D concentration by chronic infusion of 1,25(OH)2D (Alza osmotic minipump) throughout the study period did not prevent the bone changes induced by acute unloading. These results suggest that acute skeletal unloading in the growing rat produces a transitory inhibition of bone formation which in turn produces a transitory hypercalcemia.

  14. Effect of Different rhBMP-2 and TG-VEGF Ratios on the Formation of Heterotopic Bone and Neovessels

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Wei Xin; Li, Chun Lei; Ehrbar, Martin; Weber, Franz E.; Zwahlen, Roger A.

    2014-01-01

    Bioengineered bone substitutes might represent alternatives to autologous bone grafts in medically compromised patients due to reduced operation time and comorbidity. Due to the lack of an inherent vascular system their dimension is limited to the size of critical bone size defect. To overcome this shortcoming, the experiment tried to create heterotopic bone around vessels. In vivo, a two-component fibrin and thrombin gel containing recombinant bone morphogenic protein (rhBMP-2) and transglutamate vascular endothelial growth factor (TG-VEGF) in different ratios, respectively, was injected into a dimensionally stable membrane tube, wrapped around the femoral vessel bundle in twelve New Zealand white rabbits. Sacrifice occurred eight weeks postoperatively. Microcomputed tomography of the specimens showed significantly increased bone volume in the rhBMP-2 to TG-VEGF ratio of 10 to 1 group. Histology showed new bone formation in close proximity to the vessel bundle. Immunohistochemistry detected increased angiogenesis within the newly formed bone in the rhBMP-2 to TG-VEGF ratios of 3 to 1 and 5 to 1. Heterotopic bone was engineered in vivo around vessels using different rhBMP-2 and TG-VEGF ratios in a fibrin matrix injected into a dimensionally stable membrane tube which prevented direct contact with skeletal muscles. PMID:24783213

  15. Antagonizing the ?v?3 Integrin Inhibits Angiogenesis and Impairs Woven but Not Lamellar Bone Formation Induced by Mechanical Loading

    PubMed Central

    Tomlinson, Ryan E.; Schmieder, Anne H.; Quirk, James D.; Lanza, Gregory M.; Silva, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis and osteogenesis are critically linked, though the role of angiogenesis is not well understood in osteogenic mechanical loading. In this study, either damaging or non-damaging cyclic axial compression was used to generate woven bone formation (WBF) or lamellar bone formation (LBF), respectively, at the mid-diaphysis of the adult rat forelimb. ?v?3 integrin targeted nanoparticles or vehicle was injected intravenously following mechanical loading. ?3 integrin subunit expression on vasculature was maximal 7 days after damaging mechanical loading, but was still robustly expressed 14 days after loading. Accordingly, targeted nanoparticle delivery in WBF loaded limbs was increased compared to non-loaded limbs. Vascularity was dramatically increased after WBF loading (+700% on day 14) and modestly increased after LBF loading (+50% on day 14). This increase in vascularity was inhibited by nanoparticle treatment in both WBF and LBF loaded limbs at days 7 and 14 after loading. Decreased vascularity led to diminished woven, but not lamellar, bone formation. Decreased woven bone formation resulted in impaired structural properties of the skeletal repair, particularly in post-yield behavior. These results demonstrate that ?v?3 integrin mediated angiogenesis is critical for recovering fracture resistance following bone injury, but is not required for bone modeling after modest mechanical strain. PMID:24644077

  16. Osteopontin functionalization of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in a PDLLA matrix promotes bone formation

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, T.; Baas, J.; Dolathshahi-Pirouz, A.; Jacobsen, T.; Singh, G.; Nygaard, J. V.; Foss, M.; Bechtold, J.; Bünger, C.; Besenbacher, F.; Søballe, K.

    2015-01-01

    We studied the osteoconductive tissue response of hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles functionalized with osteopontin (OPN) in a matrix of poly-d,l-lactic-acid (PDLLA). In a canine endosseus 0.75-mm gap implant model, we tested the osteointegrative impact of the OPN functionalized composite as an implant coating, and a non-functionalized composite was used as reference control. During the four weeks of observation, the OPN functionalized composite coating significantly increased the formation of new bone in the porosities of the implant, but no differences were observed in the gap. The study provides evidence of its potential use either alone or in combination with other osteoconductive compounds. PMID:21800419

  17. Effect of biological implant surface coatings on bone formation, applying collagen, proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans and growth factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernd Stadlinger; Eckart Pilling; Ronald Mai; Susanne Bierbaum; Ricardo Berhardt; Dieter Scharnweber; Uwe Eckelt

    2008-01-01

    Objectives  The aim of the present study was to evaluate six different implant surface coatings with respect to bone formation. Being\\u000a major structural components of the extracellular matrix, collagen, the non-collagenous components decorin\\/chondroitin sulphate\\u000a (CS) and the growth factors TGF-?1\\/BMP-4 served in different combinations as coatings of experimental titanium implants.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Eight miniature pigs received each six implants in the

  18. BMP signaling mediated by constitutively active Activin type 1 receptor (ACVR1) results in ectopic bone formation localized to distal extremity joints.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Shailesh; Loder, Shawn J; Brownley, Cameron; Eboda, Oluwatobi; Peterson, Jonathan R; Hayano, Satoru; Wu, Bingrou; Zhao, Bin; Kaartinen, Vesa; Wong, Victor C; Mishina, Yuji; Levi, Benjamin

    2015-04-15

    BMP signaling mediated by ACVR1 plays a critical role for development of multiple structures including the cardiovascular and skeletal systems. While deficient ACVR1 signaling impairs normal embryonic development, hyperactive ACVR1 function (R206H in humans and Q207D mutation in mice, ca-ACVR1) results in formation of heterotopic ossification (HO). We developed a mouse line, which conditionally expresses ca-ACVR1 with Nfatc1-Cre(+) transgene. Mutant mice developed ectopic cartilage and bone at the distal joints of the extremities including the interphalangeal joints and hind limb ankles as early as P4 in the absence of trauma or exogenous bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) administration. Micro-CT showed that even at later time points (up to P40), cartilage and bone development persisted at the affected joints most prominently in the ankle. Interestingly, this phenotype was not present in areas of bone outside of the joints - tibia are normal in mutants and littermate controls away from the ankle. These findings demonstrate that this model may allow for further studies of heterotopic ossification, which does not require the use of stem cells, direct trauma or activation with exogenous Cre gene administration. PMID:25722188

  19. Local Controlled Release of Polyphenol Conjugated with Gelatin Facilitates Bone Formation.

    PubMed

    Honda, Yoshitomo; Tanaka, Tomonari; Tokuda, Tomoko; Kashiwagi, Takahiro; Kaida, Koji; Hieda, Ayato; Umezaki, Yasuyuki; Hashimoto, Yoshiya; Imai, Koichi; Matsumoto, Naoyuki; Baba, Shunsuke; Shimizutani, Kimishige

    2015-01-01

    Catechins are extensively used in health care treatments. Nevertheless, there is scarce information about the feasibility of local administration with polyphenols for bone regeneration therapy, possibly due to lack of effective delivery systems. Here we demonstrated that the epigallocatechin-3-gallate-conjugated gelatin (EGCG/Gel) prepared by an aqueous chemical synthesis using 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-morpholinium chloride (DMT-MM) gradually disintegrated with time and facilitated bone formation in a critical size defect of a mouse calvaria. Conjugation of EGCG with the Gel generated cross-linking between the two molecules, thereby leading to a retardation of the degradation of the EGCG/Gel and to a delayed release of EGCG. The prepared EGCG/Gels represented significant osteogenic capability compared with that of the uncross-linked Gel and the cross-linked Gel with uncombined-EGCG. In vitro experiments disclosed that the EGCG/Gel induced osteoblastogenesis of a mouse mesenchymal stem cell line (D1 cells) within 14 days. Using fluorescently-labeled EGCG/Gel, we found that the fraction of EGCG/Gel adsorbed onto the cell membrane of the D1 cells possibly via a Gel-cell interaction. The interaction might confer the long-term effects of EGCG on the cells, resulting in a potent osteogenic capability of the EGCG/Gel in vivo. These results should provide insight into local controlled release of polyphenols for bone therapy. PMID:26110386

  20. Local Controlled Release of Polyphenol Conjugated with Gelatin Facilitates Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Yoshitomo; Tanaka, Tomonari; Tokuda, Tomoko; Kashiwagi, Takahiro; Kaida, Koji; Hieda, Ayato; Umezaki, Yasuyuki; Hashimoto, Yoshiya; Imai, Koichi; Matsumoto, Naoyuki; Baba, Shunsuke; Shimizutani, Kimishige

    2015-01-01

    Catechins are extensively used in health care treatments. Nevertheless, there is scarce information about the feasibility of local administration with polyphenols for bone regeneration therapy, possibly due to lack of effective delivery systems. Here we demonstrated that the epigallocatechin-3-gallate-conjugated gelatin (EGCG/Gel) prepared by an aqueous chemical synthesis using 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-morpholinium chloride (DMT-MM) gradually disintegrated with time and facilitated bone formation in a critical size defect of a mouse calvaria. Conjugation of EGCG with the Gel generated cross-linking between the two molecules, thereby leading to a retardation of the degradation of the EGCG/Gel and to a delayed release of EGCG. The prepared EGCG/Gels represented significant osteogenic capability compared with that of the uncross-linked Gel and the cross-linked Gel with uncombined-EGCG. In vitro experiments disclosed that the EGCG/Gel induced osteoblastogenesis of a mouse mesenchymal stem cell line (D1 cells) within 14 days. Using fluorescently-labeled EGCG/Gel, we found that the fraction of EGCG/Gel adsorbed onto the cell membrane of the D1 cells possibly via a Gel-cell interaction. The interaction might confer the long-term effects of EGCG on the cells, resulting in a potent osteogenic capability of the EGCG/Gel in vivo. These results should provide insight into local controlled release of polyphenols for bone therapy. PMID:26110386

  1. Relative bone mass decreased in mice fed high dietary fat despite an increase in body mass and bone formation markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Osteoporosis and obesity are interrelated health disorders. Osteoblasts and adipocytes are derived from common mesenchymal stem cells and age-related osteoporosis is associated with increased bone marrow adipogenesis. To determine whether bone mass and osteoblast number and activity are affected by ...

  2. PTHrP 1-141 and 1-86 Increase In Vitro Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Hildreth, Blake Eason; Werbeck, Jillian L.; Thudi, Nandu K.; Deng, Xiyun; Rosol, Thomas J.; Toribio, Ramiro E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) has anabolic effects in bone, which has led to the clinical use of N-terminal fragments of PTHrP and PTH. Since 10-20% of fractures demonstrate healing complications and osteoporosis continues to be a debilitating disease, the development of bone-forming agents is of utmost importance. Due to evidence that regions of PTHrP other than the N-terminus may have bone-forming effects, this study was designed to compare the effects of full-length PTHrP 1-141 to N-terminal PTHrP 1-86 on in vitro bone formation. Materials and methods MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts were treated once every 6 days for 36 days with 5, 25, and 50 pM of PTHrP 1-141 or 1-86 for 1 or 24 hours. Cells were also treated after blocking the N-terminus, the nuclear localization sequence (NLS), and the C-terminus of PTHrP, individually and in combination. Area of mineralization, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and osteocalcin (OCN) were measured. Results PTHrP 1-141 and 1-86 increased mineralization after 24-hr treatments, but not 1-hr. PTHrP 1-141 was more potent than 1-86. Treatment with PTHrP 1-141 for 24-hr, but not 1-86, resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in ALP, with no effect after 1-hr. Exposure to both peptides for 1- or 24-hrs induced a concentration-dependent increase in OCN, with 24-hr exceeding 1-hr. Antibody blocking revealed that the NLS and C-terminus are anabolic. Conclusions Both PTHrP 1-141 and 1-86 increased in vitro bone formation; however, PTHrP 1-141 was more effective. The NLS and C-terminus have anabolic effects distinct from the N-terminus. This demonstrates the advantage of PTHrP 1-141 as a skeletal anabolic agent. PMID:20538301

  3. Low-level laser therapy improves bone formation: stereology findings for osteoporosis in rat model.

    PubMed

    Scalize, Priscilla Hakime; de Sousa, Luiz Gustavo; Regalo, Simone Cecílio Hallak; Semprini, Marisa; Pitol, Dimitrius Leonardo; da Silva, Giselle Aparecida; de Almeida Coelho, Jéssica; Coppi, Antônio Augusto; Laad, Aliny A B Lobo; Prado, Karina Fittipaldi Bombonato; Siessere, Selma

    2015-07-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) benefits bone metabolism, but its use needs to be standardized. We evaluated the effects of LLLT on bone defects in calvaria of ovariectomized rats. Stereology was used to calculate tissue repair volume (V tr ), density of trabecular bone volume (Vv t ), total volume of newly formed trabecular bone (Vtot), and the area occupied by collagen fibers (A C ). Fifty-four Wistar rats were submitted to bilateral ovariectomy, and bone defects were created in calvaria after 150 days. The animals were divided into nine groups (n?=?6), and 24 h after defects, the treatment started with a 780-nm low-intensity GaAlAs laser: G1, G2, and G3 received 3 sessions of 0, 20, and 30 J/cm(2) respectively; G4, G5, and G6 received 6 sessions of 0, 20, and 30 J/cm(2), respectively; and G7, G8, and G9 received 12 sessions of 0, 20, and 30 J/cm(2), respectively. A normal distribution was found for all of the data. The test used to verify the normality was the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS, p?>?0.05). The one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test was used for data processing. A difference of p?bone formation in the groups that received 20 and 30 J/cm(2) when compared to control groups, but over time, the dose of 30 J/cm(2) showed better stereological parameters when compared to 20 J/cm(2). PMID:26037661

  4. Detection of bone erosions in early rheumatoid arthritis: 3D ultrasonography versus computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Peluso, G; Bosello, S L; Gremese, E; Mirone, L; Di Gregorio, F; Di Molfetta, V; Pirronti, T; Ferraccioli, G

    2015-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) volumetric ultrasonography (US) is an interesting tool that could improve the traditional approach to musculoskeletal US in rheumatology, due to its virtual operator independence and reduced examination time. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of 3DUS in the detection of bone erosions in hand and wrist joints of early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA) patients, with computed tomography (CT) as the reference method. Twenty ERA patients without erosions on standard radiography of hands and wrists underwent 3DUS and CT evaluation of eleven joints: radiocarpal, intercarpal, ulnocarpal, second to fifth metacarpo-phalangeal (MCP), and second to fifth proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints of dominant hand. Eleven (55.0 %) patients were erosive with CT and ten of them were erosive also at 3DUS evaluation. In five patients, 3DUS identified cortical breaks that were not erosions at CT evaluation. Considering CT as the gold standard to identify erosive patients, the 3DUS sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 0.9, 0.55, 0.71, and 0.83, respectively. A total of 32 erosions were detected with CT, 15 of them were also observed at the same sites with 3DUS, whereas 17 were not seen on 3DUS evaluation. The majority of these 3DUS false-negative erosions were in the wrist joints. Furthermore, 18 erosions recorded by 3DUS were false positive. The majority of these 3DUS false-positive erosions were located at PIP joints. This study underlines the limits of 3DUS in detecting individual bone erosion, mostly at the wrist, despite the good sensitivity in identifying erosive patients. PMID:26091903

  5. Early diagnosis of adenovirus infection and treatment with cidofovir after bone marrow transplantation in children.

    PubMed

    Legrand, F; Berrebi, D; Houhou, N; Freymuth, F; Faye, A; Duval, M; Mougenot, J F; Peuchmaur, M; Vilmer, E

    2001-03-01

    Adenovirus infection remains an important cause of mortality after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Currently no efficient antiviral treatment is known. Thus, testing new modalities of early diagnosis and treatment is a crucial objective. Adenovirus infection is defined by the combination of symptoms and the isolation of virus from the source of clinical symptoms. The involvement of two or more organs and the presence of virus in blood cultures define disseminated disease. Seven children with a median age of 7 years received bone marrow transplantation for leukemia. All received an unrelated graft without T cell depletion. Adenovirus was sought in blood, urine and biopsy specimens using PCR and culture. Analysis of biopsy specimens included systematic immunohistochemistry. Cidofovir treatment was initiated as soon as biopsy revealed the histopathological signs of adenovirus. Cidofovir was given at 5 mg/kg once weekly for 3 weeks then every 2 weeks. Six patients had diarrhoea and one patient had cystitis. Adenovirus infection and disseminated disease were diagnosed in four cases and three cases, respectively. In six cases, serotype A31 was isolated from gastrointestinal biopsy and in two cases serotypes B2 and C6 were detected in blood and urine. Cidofovir treatment was associated with clinical improvement of diarrhoea, cystitis and fever in five patients, in whom the virus became undetectable in cultures and PCR analyses despite the persistence of immunodeficiency. The median follow-up was 360 days after BMT (240-570). One child died of invasive aspergillosis and another of disseminated adenovirus after interruption of cidofovir therapy. Further studies in immunocompromised patients will be needed to extend these promising results concerning the role of cidofovir in adenovirus infection. PMID:11319592

  6. Cold Accretion in Early Galaxy Formation and Its Ly? Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yajima, Hidenobu; Li, Yuexing; Zhu, Qirong; Abel, Tom

    2015-03-01

    Ly? emission has played an important role in detecting high-redshift galaxies, including recently distant ones at redshifts z\\gt 7. It may also contain important information concerning the origin of these galaxies. Here, we investigate the formation of a typical L* galaxy and its observational signatures at the earliest stage by combining a cosmological hydrodynamic simulation with three-dimensional radiative transfer (RT) calculations using the newly improved AR{{T}2} code. Our cosmological simulation uses the Aquila initial condition, which zooms in on a Milky-Way-like halo with high resolutions, and our RT couples multi-wavelength continuum, Ly? line, and ionization of hydrogen. We find that the modeled galaxy starts to form at redshift z ? 24 through the efficient accretion of cold gas, which produces a strong Ly? line with a luminosity of {{L}Ly? }? {{10}42} erg {{s}-1} as early as z ? 14. The Ly? emission appears to trace the cold, dense gas. The lines exhibit asymmetric, single-peak profiles, and are shifted to the blue wing, a characteristic feature of gas inflow. Moreover, the contribution to the total Ly? luminosity from excitation cooling increases with redshift and becomes dominant at z ? 6. We predict that L* galaxies such as the modeled one may be detected at z ? 8 by the James Webb Space Telescope and Atacama Large Millimeter Array with a reasonable integration time. Beyond redshift 12, however, the Ly? line may only be observable by spectroscopic surveys. Our results suggest that the Ly? line is one of the most powerful tools to detect the first generation of galaxies and decipher their formation mechanism.

  7. Heat and Radiofrequency Plasma Glow Discharge Pretreatment of a Titanium Alloy Promote Bone Formation and Osseointegration

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Daniel E.; Rapuano, Bruce E.; Vyas, Parth; Lane, Joseph M.; Meyers, Kathleen; Wright, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Orthopedic and dental implants manifest increased failure rates when inserted into low density bone. We determined whether chemical pretreatments of a titanium alloy implant material stimulated new bone formation to increase osseointegration in vivo in trabecular bone using a rat model. Titanium alloy rods were untreated or pretreated with heat (600°C) or radiofrequency plasma glow discharge (RFGD). The rods were then coated with the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin (1 nM) or left uncoated and surgically implanted into the rat femoral medullary cavity. Animals were euthanized 3 or 6 weeks later, and femurs were removed for analysis. The number of trabeculae in contact with the implant surface, surface contact between trabeculae and the implant, and the length and area of bone attached to the implant were measured by histomorphometry. Implant shear strength was measured by a pull-out test. Both pretreatments and fibronectin enhanced the number of trabeculae bonding with the implant and trabeculae-to-implant surface contact, with greater effects of fibronectin observed with pretreated compared to untreated implants. RFGD pretreatment modestly increased implant shear strength, which was highly correlated (r2 = 0.87 – 0.99) with measures of trabecular bonding for untreated and RFGD-pretreated implants. In contrast, heat pretreatment increased shear strength 3 to 5-fold for both uncoated and fibronectin-coated implants at 3 and 6 weeks, suggesting a more rapid increase in implant-femur bonding compared to the other groups. In summary, our findings suggest that the heat and RFGD pretreatments can promote the osseointegration of a titanium alloy implant material. PMID:23649564

  8. Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein-A Increases Osteoblast Proliferation in Vitro and Bone Formation in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xuezhong; Wergedal, Jon E.; Rehage, Mark; Tran, Kiet; Newton, Jacqueline; Lam, Paggie; Baylink, David J.; Mohan, Subburaman

    2010-01-01

    Pregnancy-associated plasma protein (PAPP)-A, a protease for IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-2, -4, and -5, may enhance IGF action by increasing its bioavailability. Here we have determined the role and mechanism of action of PAPP-A in the regulation of osteoblast proliferation in vitro and bone metabolism in vivo. Recombinant PAPP-A (100 ng/ml) significantly increased osteoblast proliferation and free IGF-I concentration. These effects were abolished by noncleavable IGFBP-4, suggesting that PAPP-A promotes osteoblast proliferation by increasing IGF bioavailability. To determine whether PAPP-A exerts an anabolic effect on bone in vivo, we developed transgenic mice that overexpress PAPP-A in osteoblasts using the 2.3-kb rat type I collagen promoter. Consistent with the increase in IGFBP-4 proteolysis, free IGF-I concentration was significantly increased in the conditioned medium of cultured osteoblasts derived from transgenic mice compared with the wild-type littermates. Calvarial bone thickness, bone marrow cavity, and skull bone mineral density were significantly increased in transgenic mice. Bone size-related parameters in femur and tibia such as total bone area and periosteal circumference as determined by peripheral quantitated computed tomography and histological analysis were significantly increased in transgenic mice. Bone formation rate and osteoid surface were increased by more than 2-fold, whereas bone resorbing surface was unaffected. These anabolic effects were sustained with aging. These findings provide strong evidence that PAPP-A acts as a potent anabolic factor in the regulation of bone formation. Thus, enhancing IGF bioavailability by PAPP-A can be a powerful strategy in the treatment of certain metabolic diseases such as osteoporosis. PMID:16946002

  9. An orally active calcium-sensing receptor antagonist that transiently increases plasma concentrations of PTH and stimulates bone formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjay Kumar; Christopher J. Matheny; Sandra J. Hoffman; Robert W. Marquis; Maggie Schultz; Xiaoguang Liang; Janice A. Vasko; George B. Stroup; Vernal R. Vaden; Hyking Haley; John Fox; Eric G. DelMar; Edward F. Nemeth; Amparo M. Lago; James F. Callahan; Pradip Bhatnagar; William F. Huffman; Maxine Gowen; Bingming Yi; Theodore M. Danoff; Lorraine A. Fitzpatrick

    2010-01-01

    Daily subcutaneous administration of exogenous parathyroid hormone (PTH) promotes bone formation in patients with osteoporosis. Here we describe two novel, short-acting calcium-sensing receptor antagonists (SB-423562 and its orally bioavailable precursor, SB-423557) that elicit transient PTH release from the parathyroid gland in several preclinical species and in humans. In an ovariectomized rat model of bone loss, daily oral administration of SB-423557

  10. Annexin A3 Regulates Early Blood Vessel Formation

    PubMed Central

    Meadows, Stryder M.; Cleaver, Ondine

    2015-01-01

    Annexins are a large family of calcium binding proteins that associate with cell membrane phospholipids and are involved in various cellular processes including endocytosis, exocytosis and membrane-cytoskeletal organization. Despite studies on numerous Annexin proteins, the function of Annexin A3 (Anxa3) is largely unknown. Our studies identify Anxa3 as a unique marker of the endothelial and myeloid cell lineages of Xenopus laevis during development. Anxa3 transcripts are also detected in endothelial cells (ECs) of zebrafish and mouse embryos, suggesting an important evolutionary function during formation of blood vessels. Indeed, Anxa3 loss-of-function experiments in frog embryos reveal its critical role during the morphogenesis of early blood vessels, as angioblasts in MO injected embryos fail to form vascular cords. Furthermore, in vitro experiments in mammalian cells identify a role for Anxa3 in EC migration. Our results are the first to reveal an in vivo function for Anxa3 during vascular development and represent a previously unexplored aspect of annexin biology. PMID:26182056

  11. Evaluating apatite formation and osteogenic activity of electrospun composites for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Patlolla, Ajitha; Arinzeh, Treena Livingston

    2014-05-01

    Significant interest has been in examining calcium phosphate ceramics, specifically ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) (Ca3 (PO4)2 ) and synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) (Ca10 (PO4)6 (OH)2 ), in composites and more recently, in fibrous composites formed using the electrospinning technique for bone tissue engineering applications. Calcium phosphate ceramics are sought because they can be bone bioactive, which means an apatite forms on their surface that facilitates bonding to bone tissue, and are osteoconductive. However, studies examining the bioactivity of electrospun composites containing calcium phosphates and their corresponding osteogenic activity have been limited. In this study, electrospun composites consisting of (20/80) HA/TCP nanoceramics and poly (?-caprolactone) (PCL) were fabricated. Solvent and solvent combinations were evaluated to form scaffolds with a maximum concentration and dispersion of ceramic and pore sizes large enough for cell infiltration and tissue growth. PCL was dissolved in either methylene chloride (Composite-MC) or a combination of methylene chloride (80%) and dimethylformamide (20%; Composite-MC?+?DMF). Composites were evaluated in vitro for degradation, apatite formation, and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with an emphasis on temporal gene expression of osteogenic markers and the pluripotent gene Sox-2. Apatite formation and the osteogenic differentiation was the greatest for Composite-MC as determined by gene expression, protein production and biochemical markers, even without the presence of osteoinductive factors in the media, in comparison to Composite-MC?+?DMF and unfilled PCL mats. Sox-2 levels also reduced over time. The results of this study demonstrate that the solvent or solvent combination used in preparing the electrospun composite mats plays a critical role in determining their bioactivity which may, in turn, affect cell behavior. PMID:24264603

  12. Serum levels of biomarkers of bone and cartilage destruction and new bone formation in different cohorts of patients with axial spondyloarthritis with and without tumor necrosis factor-alpha blocker treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heiner Appel; Louise Janssen; Joachim Listing; René Heydrich; Martin Rudwaleit; Joachim Sieper

    2008-01-01

    Introduction  Recent data about radiographic progression during treatment with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) blocker agents in patients\\u000a with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) have prompted an intensive discussion about the link between inflammation\\/bone destruction\\u000a and new bone formation and the order of events. Therefore, we analysed parameters of cartilage degradation, neoangiogenesis,\\u000a and new bone formation in different cohorts of patients with axial spondyloarthritis

  13. Hypoxia induces giant osteoclast formation and extensive bone resorption in the cat.

    PubMed

    Muzylak, M; Price, J S; Horton, M A

    2006-11-01

    Dental disease due to osteoclast (OC) overactivity reaches epidemic proportions in older domestic cats and has also been reported in wild cats. Feline odontoclastic resorptive lesions (FORL) involve extensive resorption of the tooth, leaving it liable to root fracture and subsequent loss. The etiopathogenesis of FORL remains unclear. Here, we explore the hypothesis that FORL is associated with hypoxia in the oral microenvironment, leading to increased OC activity. To investigate this, we developed a method of generating OCs from cat blood. Reducing O2 from 20% to 2% increased the mean area of OC eightfold from 0.01 to 0.08 mm2. In hypoxic cultures, very large OCs containing several hundred nuclei were evident (reaching a maximum size of approximately 14 mm2). Cultures exposed to 2% O2 exhibited an increase of approximately 13-fold in the area of bone slices covered by resorption lacunae. In line with this finding, there was a significant increase in cells differentiating under hypoxic conditions, reflected in increased expression of cathepsin K and proton pump enzymes. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that oxygen tension is a major regulator of OC formation in the cat. However, in this species, hypoxia induces the formation of "giant" OCs, which can be so large as to be visible with the naked eye and yet also actively resorb. This suggests that local hypoxia is likely to play a key role in the pathogenesis of FORL and other inflammatory conditions that are associated with bone resorption in cats. PMID:17048066

  14. Core formation, wet early mantle, and H2O degassing on early Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuramoto, K.; Matsui, T.

    1993-01-01

    Geophysical and geochemical observations strongly suggest a 'hot origin of Mars,' i.e., the early formation of both the core and the crust-mantle system either during or just after planetary accretion. To consider the behavior of H2O in the planetary interior it is specifically important to determine by what mechanism the planet is heated enough to cause melting. For Mars, the main heat source is probably accretional heating. Because Mars is small, the accretion energy needs to be effectively retained in its interior. Therefore, the three candidates of heat retention mechanism are discussed first: (1) the blanketing effect of the primordial H2-He atmosphere; (2) the blanketing effect of the impact-induced H2O-CO2 atmosphere; and (3) the higher deposition efficiency of impact energy due to larger impacts. It was concluded that (3) the is the most plausible mechanism for Mars. Then, its possible consequence on how wet the early martian mantle was is discussed.

  15. Effect of Host Sex and Sex Hormones on Muscle-Derived Stem Cell-Mediated Bone Formation and Defect Healing

    PubMed Central

    Meszaros, Laura B.; Usas, Arvydas; Cooper, Gregory M.

    2012-01-01

    Muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) are known to exhibit sexual dimorphism, by donor sex, of osteogenic, chondrogenic, and myogenic differentiation potential in vitro. Moreover, host sex differences in the myogenic capacity of MDSCs in vivo are also observed. This study investigated the role of host sex and host sex hormones in MDSC-mediated bone formation and healing. Using unaltered male, castrated male, unaltered female, and ovariectomized female mice, both MDSC-mediated ectopic bone formation and cranial defect healing were examined. Male hosts, whether unaltered or castrated, form significantly larger volumes of MDSC-mediated ectopic bone than female hosts (either unaltered or ovariectomized), and no differences in ectopic bone volume were found between hosts of the same sex. In a cranial defect healing model, similar results were found—unaltered and castrated male hosts display larger volumes of bone formed when compared with unaltered and ovariectomized female hosts. However, in this healing model, some volume differences were found between hosts of the same sex. In both models, these differences were attributed to varying rates of endochondral bone formation in male and female hosts. PMID:22712541

  16. miR-124 negatively regulates osteogenic differentiation and in vivo bone formation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Abdul S; Um, Soyoun; Lee, Heesu; Baek, Kyunghwa; Seo, Byoung Moo; Lee, Gene; Kim, Gwan-Shik; Woo, Kyung Mi; Ryoo, Hyun-Mo; Baek, Jeong-Hwa

    2015-05-01

    MicroRNAs are novel key regulators of cellular differentiation. Dlx transcription factors play an important role in osteoblast differentiation, and Dlx5 and Dlx2 are known targets of miR-124. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the regulatory effects of miR-124 on the osteogenic differentiation and in vivo bone formation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). During osteogenic induction by BMP2, the expression levels of miR-124 were inversely correlated with those of osteogenic differentiation marker genes in human and mouse bone marrow-derived MSCs, MC3T3-E1 cells and C2C12 cells. The overexpression of a miR-124 mimic significantly decreased the expression levels of Dlx5, Dlx3, and Dlx2, whereas the silencing of miR-124 with hairpin inhibitors significantly increased the expression of these Dlx genes. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that miR-124 directly targets the 3'UTRs of Dlx3, Dlx5, and Dlx2. The overexpression of a miR-124 mimic suppressed the osteogenic marker gene expression levels, alkaline phosphatase activity and matrix mineralization, which were all significantly increased by the overexpression of a miR-124 inhibitor. When ectopic bone formation was induced by the subcutaneous transplantation of human bone marrow-derived MSCs in nude mice, MSCs overexpressing a miR-124 inhibitor significantly enhanced woven bone formation compared with control MSCs. However, MSCs overexpressing a miR-124 mimic exhibited increased adipocyte differentiation at the expense of ectopic bone formation. These results suggest that miR-124 is a negative regulator of osteogenic differentiation and in vivo bone formation and that the targeting of Dlx5, Dlx3, and Dlx2 genes partly contributes to this inhibitory effect exerted by miR-124. PMID:25424317

  17. Bone development following transplants of urinary bladder wall: a quantitative histological and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed Central

    Callis, P D

    1982-01-01

    Bone formation occurred ten days after transplantation of guinea-pig urinary bladder wall to the anterior abdominal wall. A quantitative analysis showed that the bone which formed in the tissues of the transplant site grew rapidly during the following week. Thereafter, bone growth slowed and remodelling became evident histologically. The bone continued to enlarge for up to six months but growth was mainly confined to an increase in thickness. Matrix vesicles were observed in the early bone formation, but later, when bone growth slowed, these structures could not be observed on the bone surfaces. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:6215390

  18. Early star formation and the evolution of the stellar initial mass function in Richard B. Larson*

    E-print Network

    Larson, Richard B.

    Early star formation and the evolution of the stellar initial mass function in galaxies Richard B function, mass function ­ galaxies: evolution ­ galaxies: formation ­ galaxies: stellar content ­ dark in the literature that the stellar IMF in galaxies was top-heavy at early times. This would be plausible physically

  19. Bone tissue formation with human mesenchymal stem cells and biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics: the local implication of osteoclasts and macrophages.

    PubMed

    Gamblin, Anne-Laure; Brennan, Meadhbh A; Renaud, Audrey; Yagita, Hideo; Lézot, Frédéric; Heymann, Dominique; Trichet, Valérie; Layrolle, Pierre

    2014-12-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) have immunomodulative properties and, associated with calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics, induce bone tissue repair. However, the mechanisms of osteoinduction by hMSC with CaP are not clearly established, in particular the role of osteoclasts and macrophages. Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) particles were implanted with or without hMSC in the paratibial muscles of nude mice. hMSC increased osteoblastic gene expression at 1 week, the presence of macrophages at 2 and 4 weeks, osteoclastogenesis at 4 and 8 weeks, and osteogenesis at 4 and 8 weeks. hMSC disappeared from the implantation site after 2 weeks, indicating that hMSC were inducers rather than effectors of bone formation. Induced blockage of osteoclastogenesis by anti-Rankl treatment significantly impaired bone formation, revealing the pivotal role of osteoclasts in bone formation. In summary, hMSC positively influence the body foreign reaction by attracting circulating haematopoietic stem cells and inducing their differentiation into macrophages M1 and osteoclasts, thus favouring bone formation. PMID:25176068

  20. Formation and Processing of Organics in the Early Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerridge, John F.

    1999-10-01

    Until pristine samples can be returned from cometary nuclei, primitive meteorites represent our best source of information about organic chemistry in the early solar system. However, this material has been affected by secondary processing on asteroidal parent bodies which probably did not affect the material now present in cometary nuclei. Production of meteoritic organic matter apparently involved the following sequence of events: Molecule formation by a variety of reaction pathways in dense interstellar clouds; Condensation of those molecules onto refractory interstellar grains; Irradiation of organic-rich interstellar-grain mantles producing a range of molecular fragments and free radicals; Inclusion of those interstellar grains into the protosolar nebula with probable heating of at least some grain mantles during passage through the shock wave bounding the solar accretion disc; Agglomeration of residual interstellar grains and locally produced nebular condensates into asteroid-sized planetesimals; Heating of planetesimals by decay of extinct radionuclides; Melting of ice to produce liquid water within asteroidal bodies; Reaction of interstellar molecules, fragments and radicals with each other and with the aqueous environment, possibly catalysed by mineral grains; Loss of water and other volatiles to space yielding a partially hydrated lithology containing a complex suite of organic molecules; Heating of some of this organic matter to generate a kerogen-like complex; Mixing of heated and unheated material to yield the meteoritic material now observed. Properties of meteoritic organic matter believed to be consistent with this scenario include: Systematic decrease of abundance with increasing C number in homologous series of characterisable molecules; Complete structural diversity within homologous series; Predominance of branched-chain isomers; Considerable isotopic variability among characterisable molecules and within kerogen-like material; Substantial deuterium enrichment in all organic fractions; Some fractions significantly enriched in nitrogen-15; Modest excesses of L-enantiomers in some racemisation-resistant molecules but no general enantiomeric preference. Despite much speculation about the possible role of Fischer-Tropsch catalytic hydrogenation of CO in production of organic molecules in the solar nebula, no convincing evidence for such material has been found in meteorites. A similarity between some meteoritic organics and those produced by Miller-Urey discharge synthesis may reflect involvement of common intermediates rather than the operation of electric discharges in the early solar system. Meteoritic organic matter constitutes a useful, but not exact, guide to what we shall find with in situ analytical and sample-return missions to cometary nuclei.

  1. Impaired bone formation in male idiopathic osteoporosis: further reduction in the presence of concomitant hypercalciuria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zerwekh, J. E.; Sakhaee, K.; Breslau, N. A.; Gottschalk, F.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    We present iliac bone histomorphometric data and related biochemical data from 16 nonalcoholic men (50 +/- 11 (SD) years) referred for evaluation of spontaneous skeletal and/or appendicular fractures and reduced spinal bone density. All men were eugonadal and had no known underlying disorder associated with osteopenia. For the group, mean serum chemistry values were within normal limits including immunoreactive parathyroid hormone, osteocalcin and serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D]. Nine men demonstrated hypercalciuria (greater than or equal to 0.1 mmol/kg per day) while on a constant metabolic diet of 20 mmol/day Ca. Their 24-hour urinary calcium was significantly greater than that for the remaining 7 men (7.4 +/- 1.6 vs. 5.0 +/- 0.8 mmol/day, p = 0.003), as was their calciuric response to a 1 g oral calcium load (0.23 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.15 +/- 0.05 Ca/creatinine, p = 0.042). Serum parameters (including parathyroid hormone and 1,25(OH)2D) of hypercalciuric and normocalciuric men were not significantly different. Histomorphometric indices for cancellous bone demonstrated significant differences between the entire group of osteoporotic men and age-adjusted normal values for bone volume (11.4 +/- 4.0% vs. 23.2 +/- 4.4%), osteoid surface (5.6 +/- 3.9% vs. 12.1 +/- 4.6%), osteoblastic surface (2.0 +/- 2.3% vs. 3.9 +/- 1.9%), and mineralizing surface (1.9 +/- 2.4% vs. 5.1 +/- 2.7%); there were also significant differences in bone formation rate (total surface referent) (0.004 +/- 0.001 vs. 0.011 +/- 0.006 mm3/mm2 per year). Compared with the normocalciuric group the 9 hypercalciuric men had significantly lower osteoblastic surfaces (1.6 +/- 1.9% vs. 2.5 +/- 2.6%) and mineralizing surfaces (1.4 +/- 1.5% vs. 2.7 +/- 3.2%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  2. Formation of the early atmosphere from late-accreting planetesimals Sujoy Mukhopadhyay*

    E-print Network

    Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy

    1 Formation of the early atmosphere from late-accreting planetesimals Sujoy Mukhopadhyay* , Rita, Cambridge MA 02138, USA. * Corresponding author Abstract The composition of Earth's early atmosphere strongly influenced chemical reactions on our planet's surface. For example, an early reducing atmosphere

  3. Organism-scale modeling of early Drosophila patterning via Bone Morphogenetic Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Umulis, David M.; Shimmi, Osamu; O’Connor, Michael B.; Othmer, Hans G.

    2010-01-01

    Advances in image acquisition and informatics technology have led to organism-scale spatio-temporal atlases of gene expression and protein distributions. To maximize the utility of this information for the study of developmental processes, a new generation of mathematical models is needed for discovery and hypothesis testing. Here we develop a data-driven, geometrically-accurate, model of early Drosophila embryonic bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-mediated patterning. We tested nine different mechanisms for signal transduction with feedback, eight combinations of geometry and gene expression prepatterns, and two scale-invariance mechanisms for their ability to reproduce proper BMP signaling output in wild-type and mutant embryos. We found that a model based on positive feedback of a secreted BMP binding protein, coupled with the experimentally-measured embryo geometry, provides the best agreement with population-mean image data. Our results demonstrate that using bioimages to build and optimize a 3D model provides significant new insights into mechanisms that guide tissue patterning. PMID:20159596

  4. Delayed osteon formation in long-bone diaphysis of an 11-year-old giant cow with dermal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Mori, R; Kodaka, T; Naito, Y

    1999-02-01

    The transverse sections of radius diaphysis in an 11-year-old giant Holstein cow with dermal dysplasia of a collagen disorder-related skin fragility (Cow 1), probably based on increasing turnover of the dermal collagen as reported previously, were morphologically and physico-chemically investigated. Cow 1 had about one and a half times as much as the body weight of normal Holstein cows, aged 5 to 6.5 years with stabilized growth. The bone samples were compared with those of a 12-year-old Holstein cow as controls (Cow 2). It has been reported that the long-bone diaphysis of young calves and some herbivorous dinosaurs are occupied with laminar bone showing a concentric appositional formation, and that such a laminar bone is characteristically seen during the growing period of some farm animals and large dogs that show very rapid growth rates. Cow 1 had a smaller number of osteons than Cow 2 in the outer-half layer of the diaphysis, and showed an intermediate type between Cow 2 and a 1-year-old Holstein ox in the entire layers, although their bone volumes were similar among them. There were no significant differences in Ca and P concentrations and the Vickers microhardness values between the bone matrix of Cow 1 and Cow 2. The bone-collagen fibrils of Cow 1 showed uneven diameters and a disordered arrangement. Thus, there may be some relation in collagen formation between the bone matrix of Cow 1 and the dermis. From the remaining volume of laminar bone, Cow 1, aged 11 years, had probably shown growth until quite recently, so that we consider that Cow 1 became a giant animal, in the same way as some herbivorous dinosaurs. PMID:10081745

  5. Formation of Jupiter's Core and Early Stages of Envelope Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angelo, G.; Weidenschilling, S.; Lissauer, J. J.; Bodenheimer, P.; Hubickyj, O.

    2012-12-01

    We are performing calculations of the formation of Jupiter via core nucleated accretion and gas capture. The core starts as a seed body of a few hundred kilometers in radius and orbits within a swarm of planetesimals whose initial size distribution ranges from ~10 m to ~100 km. The planetesimals are immersed in a gaseous disk, representative of an early solar nebula. The evolution of the swarm of planetesimals accounts for collisions and gravitational stirring due to mutual interactions among bodies, and for migration and velocity damping due to interactions with the nebula gas. Collisions among planetesimals lead to growth and/or fragmentation, altering the size distribution of the swarm over time. Collisions of planetesimals with the seed body lead to its growth, resulting in the formation of a planetary core. Gas capture by the core leads to the accumulation of a tenuous atmosphere, which later becomes a massive envelope, increasing the size-dependent effective cross-section of the planet for planetesimals' accretion. Planetesimals that travel through the core's envelope release energy, affecting the thermal budget of the envelope, and deliver mass, affecting the opacity of the envelope. The calculation of dust opacity, which is especially important for envelope contraction, is performed self-consistently, accounting for coagulation and sedimentation of dust and small particles that are released in the envelope as passing planetesimals are ablated. We find that, in a disk of planetesimals with a surface density of about 10 g/cm2 at 5.2 AU, a one Earth mass core accumulates in less than 1e5 years, and that it takes over 1.5e6 years to accumulate a core of 3 Earth masses, when the core's geometrical cross-section is used for the accretion of planetesimals. Gas drag in the core's envelope increases the ability of the planet to accrete planetesimals. Smaller planetesimals are affected to a greater extent than are larger planetesimals. We find that the effective, envelope-enhanced cross-section leads to the growth of a core of 3 Earth masses in less than 1e5 years and of a core of 5 Earth masses in less than 2e5 years. By the time the total planet mass reaches about 6 Earth masses, the accretion rate of solids has dropped below ~1e-6 Earth masses per year. Support for this research from NASA Outer Planets Research Program is gratefully acknowledged.

  6. Transcription of the Bone Sialoprotein Gene Is Stimulated by v-Src Acting through an Inverted CCAAT Box1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard H. Kim; Jaro Sodek

    1999-01-01

    Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is an early marker of differentiated osteoblasts that has been implicated in the nucleation of hydroxyapatite crystal formation during de novo bone formation. Although essentially specific to mineralizing connective tissues, BSP is also expressed ectopically by car- cinomas that exhibit microcalcification and which metastasize to bone with high frequency. However, it is not known how BSP is

  7. Local delivery of rhVEGF165 through biocoated nHA/coral block grafts in critical-sized dog mandible defects: a histological study at the early stages of bone healing

    PubMed Central

    Du, Bing; Gao, Yao; Deng, Yue; Zhao, Yadong; Lai, Chunhua; Guo, Zehong; Rong, Mingdeng; Zhou, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar defects of a critical size cannot heal completely without grafting. Thus, they represent a major clinical challenge to reconstructive surgery. Numerous types of grafts have been used to improve bone regeneration. In the case of particle grafts, the capacity for volume rebuilding and space maintaining is still not ideal, particularly for critical-sized bone defects. Although porous block grafts can overcome the above problems of particle grafts, they are still not widely used for critical-sized alveolar defects, because of their reduced efficacy in blood vessel and bone formation. Thus, in the present study, nano-hydroxyapatite/coralline (nHA/coral) blocks were pre-vascularized by coating them with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and then implanted in dogs with critical-sized mandibular defects. This model has possible applications in orthopedic and implant surgery. In vivo results indicate that the nHA/coral blocks allow cell and collagen ingrowth because of their suitable pore size and interconnectivity of pores. In addition, pre-vascularization properties were obtained by coating the scaffolds with VEGF. Histological and immunohistochemical examinations, as well as fluorescence analysis, revealed that the local delivery of VEGF can significantly improve neovascularization and mineralization of newly formed bone at the early stages of bone healing in this dog implantation model. Our data collectively show that nHA/coral blocks have possible applications in bone tissue engineering, and excellent results can be achieved by pre-vascularization with VEGF. PMID:26131067

  8. [Biological activities of bone morphological protein in bone regeneration].

    PubMed

    Smajilagi?, Amer; Redzic, Amira; Filipovi?, S; Hadzihasanovi?, B

    2005-01-01

    Bone matrix contents various development factors which control structuring and absorption and those factors play important role in bone and cartilage development. Bone morphological proteins are members of TGF-beta super family and their activity is certain becoming from the bone. This activity leads to the serial development processes which include chemo taxis, proliferation and differentiation which results in trans resistant formation of cartilage as well as production of life cells of a bone tissue. Biological activities of re combinative human bone morphogenetic protein 7 (rhBMP-7). induction bone formation of non critical size mandible defect of New Zealand rabbits were researched in the study. Markers of osteoblastic differential in the study included ALP specific activity. Histological analysis performed 7, 14, 30, 60 postoperative days, C-T analysis with determination Bone Mineral Density value of new structured tissue within the defect was done 30 days. Results indicate that ectopic bone formation has been inducted with rhBMP-7 and histological analysis shown mature bone with collagen and ostheociti 60th day. Early 7 day granulocyte tissue with angiogenesis was detected, and after 30 days ostheoblastsis shown with a lot of vascular and mezenhimal tissue. Ostheogenetic processes were characteristic for typical inter membraneous ossification without cartilage tissue. ALP activity was significantly increased 21 days. C-T and Bone Mineral Density value shown density of new structured tissue determinate as bone (413 mg/cm3 and 519 mg/cm3). Studies showed that concentration of 100 mg rhBMP-7 in collagen as career had strong ostheo inductive capacity. Conditions which module BMP depend ostheo induction should be considered in the future. Information could lead to improvements of rhBMP as substitution for bone graft in clinical practice. PMID:15875464

  9. Paget's disease of bone: early and late responses to three different modes of treatment with aminohydroxypropylidene bisphosphonate (APD)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H I Harinck; S E Papapoulos; H J Blanksma; A J Moolenaar; P Vermeij; O L Bijvoet

    1987-01-01

    Early and late responses to treatment with either oral (600 mg\\/day) or intravenous (20 mg\\/day) (3-amino-1-hydroxypropylidene)-1,1-bisphosphonate (aminohydroxypropylidene bisphosphonate; APD) were studied in 142 patients with Paget's disease of bone who had not previously been treated with bisphosphonate. The efficacy of three therapeutic regimens was compared: (a) oral aminohydroxypropylidene bisphosphonate given continuously until six months after the serum alkaline phosphatase activity

  10. Low Magnitude and High Frequency Mechanical Loading Prevents Decreased Bone Formation Responses

    E-print Network

    at-risk for fractures during long term space travel. On average, astronauts lose 1­2% of bone mass since it is at first asymptomatic but can lead to severe fractures of bones, typically those in the hip effectively mitigate this bone loss. It has long been regarded that mechanical stimuli are anabolic to bone

  11. Incorporation of chitosan in acrylic bone cement: effect on antibiotic release, bacterial biofilm formation and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Tunney, M M; Brady, A J; Buchanan, F; Newe, C; Dunne, N J

    2008-04-01

    Bacterial infection remains a significant problem following total joint replacement. Efforts to prevent recurrent implant infection, including the use of antibiotic-loaded bone cement for implant fixation at the time of revision surgery, are not always successful. In this in vitro study, we investigated whether the addition of chitosan to gentamicin-loaded Palacos R bone cement increased antibiotic release and prevented bacterial adherence and biofilm formation by Staphylococcus spp. clinical isolates. Furthermore, mechanical tests were performed as a function of time post-polymerisation in pseudo-physiological conditions. The addition of chitosan to gentamicin-loaded Palacos R bone cement significantly decreased gentamicin release and did not increase the efficacy of the bone cement at preventing bacterial colonisation and biofilm formation. Moreover, the mechanical performance of cement containing chitosan was significantly reduced after 28 days of saline degradation with the compressive and bending strengths not in compliance with the minimum requirements as stipulated by the ISO standard for PMMA bone cement. Therefore, incorporating chitosan into gentamicin-loaded Palacos R bone cement for use in revision surgery has no clinical antimicrobial benefit and the detrimental effect on mechanical properties could adversely affect the longevity of the prosthetic joint. PMID:18266082

  12. The Impact of Immune System in Regulating Bone Metastasis Formation by Osteotropic Tumors

    PubMed Central

    D'Amico, Lucia; Roato, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Bone metastases are frequent and debilitating consequence for many tumors, such as breast, lung, prostate, and kidney cancer. Many studies report the importance of the immune system in the pathogenesis of bone metastasis. Indeed, bone and immune system are strictly linked to each other because bone regulates the hematopoietic stem cells from which all cells of the immune system derive, and many immunoregulatory cytokines influence the fate of bone cells. Furthermore, both cytokines and factors produced by immune and bone cells promote the growth of tumor cells in bone, contributing to supporting the vicious cycle of bone metastasis. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the interactions among bone, immune, and tumor cells aiming to provide an overview of the osteoimmunology field in bone metastasis from solid tumors.

  13. Effect of vitamin D deficiency on bone formation in the chick.

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, I R; Kodicek, E

    1979-01-01

    1. The process of diaphyseal bone formation can be investigated by studying the rate of incorporation of radioactive precursors, administered in vivo into bone fractions of increasing density. 2. In the 4-week-old vitamin D-treated chick most of the osteoid becomes calcified within 12h and almost all within 2 days. The low-density calcified phase that is formed is converted into a higher density form and within 7 days the greater proportion of the calcified tissue is in the higher density form. 3. In the vitamin D-deficient chick of similar age the rate of calcification of osteoid is decreased, as is the rate of conversion into the higher density phase with the resultant accumulation of the lower density calcified form. 4. The higher density phase probably corresponds to hydroxyapatite and the lower density one to the ACP-pase described by Termine & Posner [(1967) Calcif. Tissue Res. 1, 8--23]. 5. The disorder in the process of calcification seems to be unrelated to the alteration in blood Ca2+ and phosphate concentrations, but related to the presence or absence of cholecalciferol. PMID:228653

  14. Does Metformin Treatment Influence Bone Formation in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease?

    PubMed

    Soifer, E; Gavish, D; Shargorodsky, M

    2015-07-01

    Antidiabetic drug metformin that improves insulin sensitivity and used in the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), may affect the bone health. Our study was designed to investigate a possible effect of metformin on bone formation marker, procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (P1NP) in patients with NAFLD.In a randomized, placebo controlled study, 63 patients with NAFLD were assigned to one of 2 groups: Group 1 received daily metformin and Group 2 received placebo. Metabolic parameters, insulin resistance markers, and P1NP were determined.Although circulating P1NP levels did not differ significantly between the groups at baseline, at the end of the study, P1NP was significantly lower in patients treated with metformin than in the placebo group (p<0.007). Within-group analysis indicated that P1NP levels significantly decreased (p=0.023) in patients receiving metformin during 4-month follow-up period, while no change in P1NP was observed in placebo group (p=0.359). In general linear model metformin treatment was the only significant independent predictor of endpoint P1NP.Metformin treatment was associated with decrease in P1NP levels in patients with NAFLD. The effect on P1NP was independent of glucose lowering effect and caused from exposure to metformin per se. PMID:25671801

  15. Dentine matrix protein 1 (DMP-1) is a marker of bone formation and mineralisation in soft tissue tumours.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Y; Kashima, T G; Hookway, E S; Tanaka, Y; Hassan, A B; Oppermann, U; Athanasou, N A

    2015-04-01

    Dentine matrix protein 1 (DMP-1) is a non-collagenous matrix protein found in dentine and bone. It is highly expressed by osteocytes and has been identified in primary benign and malignant osteogenic bone tumours. Bone formation and matrix mineralisation are seen in a variety of benign and malignant soft tissue tumours and tumour-like lesions, and in this study, we analysed immunohistochemically the DMP-1 expression in a wide range of soft tissue lesions (n?=?254) in order to assess whether DMP-1 expression is useful in the histological diagnosis of soft tissue tumours. Matrix staining of DMP-1 was seen in all cases of myositis ossificans, fibro-osseous tumour of the digits, extraskeletal soft tissue osteosarcoma and in most cases of ossifying fibromyxoid tumour. DMP-1 was also noted in dense collagenous connective tissue of mineralising soft tissue lesions such as tumoural calcinosis, dermatomyositis and calcific tendinitis. DMP-1 was expressed in areas of focal ossification and calcification in synovial sarcoma and other soft tissue tumours. With few exceptions, DMP-1 was not expressed in other benign and malignant soft tissue tumours. Our findings indicate that DMP-1 is a matrix marker of bone formation and mineralisation in soft tissue tumours. DMP-1 expression should be particularly useful in distinguishing extraskeletal osteosarcoma and ossifying fibromyxoid tumour from other sarcomas and in identifying areas of osteoid/bone formation and mineralisation in soft tissue tumours. PMID:25630512

  16. Single-Dose Local Simvastatin Injection Improves Implant Fixation via Increased Angiogenesis and Bone Formation in an Ovariectomized Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jie; Yang, Ning; Fu, Xin; Cui, Yueyi; Guo, Qi; Ma, Teng; Yin, Xiaoxue; Leng, Huijie; Song, Chunli

    2015-01-01

    Background Statins have been reported to promote bone formation. However, taken orally, their bioavailability is low to the bones. Implant therapies require a local repair response, topical application of osteoinductive agents, or biomaterials that promote implant fixation. Material/Methods The present study evaluated the effect of a single local injection of simvastatin on screw fixation in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis. Results Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, micro-computed tomography, histology, and biomechanical tests revealed that 5 and 10 mg simvastatin significantly improved bone mineral density by 18.2% and 22.4%, respectively (P<0.05); increased bone volume fraction by 51.0% and 57.9%, trabecular thickness by 16.4% and 18.9%, trabeculae number by 112.0% and 107.1%, and percentage of osseointegration by 115.7% and 126.3%; and decreased trabeculae separation by 34.1% and 36.6%, respectively (all P<0.01). Bone mineral apposition rate was significantly increased (P<0.01). Furthermore, implant fixation was significantly increased (P<0.05), and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) expression was markedly increased. Local injection of a single dose of simvastatin also promoted angiogenesis. Vessel number, volume, thickness, surface area, and vascular volume per tissue volume were significantly increased (all P<0.01). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor-2, von Willebrand factor, and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 expression were enhanced. Conclusions A single local injection of simvastatin significantly increased bone formation, promoted osseointegration, and enhanced implant fixation in ovariectomized rats. The underlying mechanism appears to involve enhanced BMP2 expression and angiogenesis in the target bone. PMID:25982481

  17. Unusual presentation of glomus tympanicum tumour: New bone formation in the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gaurav; Andreou, Zenon; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Owa, Anthony

    2014-09-16

    The objective of this study is to increase awareness of the rare presentation, diagnostic difficulties and management of glomus tympanicum of the middle ear. A 49 years old male, with a background of hypertension and epilepsy, presented with a two month history of left sided conductive hearing loss, pulsatile tinnitus and headache. Clinically and radiologically a diagnosis of glomus tympanicum was made. Intraoperatively, extensive osteogenesis of the middle ear resulting in ossicular fixation and erosion was found. This patient required a two stage operation for full clearance of disease. A stapedectomy drill was used to drill off the bony overgrowth surrounding the ossicles resulting in improved hearing thresholds and full clearance of the disease at two year follow up. Glomus tympanicum can result in new bone formation in the middle ear with resultant ossicular fixation and conductive hearing loss. This can be effectively treated surgically with restoration of hearing. PMID:25232551

  18. JMJD3 promotes chondrocyte proliferation and hypertrophy during endochondral bone formation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Xu, Longyong; Xu, Longxia; Xu, Qing; Li, Dangsheng; Yang, Yingzi; Karsenty, Gerard; Chen, Charlie Degui

    2015-01-01

    JMJD3 (KDM6B) is an H3K27me3 demethylase and counteracts polycomb-mediated transcription repression. However, the function of JMJD3 in vivo is not well understood. Here we show that JMJD3 is highly expressed in cells of the chondrocyte lineage, especially in prehypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes, during endochondral ossification. Homozygous deletion of Jmjd3 results in severely decreased proliferation and delayed hypertrophy of chondrocytes, and thereby marked retardation of endochondral ossification in mice. Genetically, JMJD3 associates with RUNX2 to promote proliferation and hypertrophy of chondrocytes. Biochemically, JMJD3 associates with and enhances RUNX2 activity by derepression of Runx2 and Ihh transcription through its H3K27me3 demethylase activity. These results demonstrate that JMJD3 is a key epigenetic regulator in the process of cartilage maturation during endochondral bone formation. PMID:25587042

  19. MRI evaluation of tibial tunnel wall cortical bone formation after platelet-rich plasma applied during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Rupreht, Mitja; Vogrin, Matjaž; Hussein, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Background After anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, formation of cortical sclerotic bone encircling the femoral and tibial tunnel is a part of intratunnel graft healing. During the physiological cascades of soft tissue healing and bone growth, cellular and hormonal factors play an important role. The purpose of this study was to non-invasively but quantitatively assess the effect of intraoperatively applied platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on the formation of cortical bone encircling the tibial tunnel. Patients and methods In fifty patients, standard arthroscopic ACL reconstructions were performed. The PRP group (n = 25) received a local application of PRP while the control group (n = 25) did not receive PRP. The proximal tibial tunnel was examined by MRI in the paraxial plane where the portion of the tibial tunnel wall circumference consisting of sclerotic cortical bone was assessed with testing occurring at one, two and a half and six months after surgery. Results At one month after surgery, differences between the groups in the amount of cortical sclerotic bone encircling the tunnel were not significant (p = 0.928). At two and a half months, the sclerotic portion of the tunnel wall in the PRP group (36.2%) was significantly larger than in the control (22.5%) group (p = 0.004). At six months, the portion of sclerotic bone in the PRP group (67.1%) was also significantly larger than in the control (53.5%) group (p = 0.003). Conclusions Enhanced cortical bone formation encircling the tibial tunnel at 2.5 and 6 months after ACL graft reconstruction results from locally applied platelet-rich plasma. PMID:23801907

  20. DICKKOPF-1 (DKK-1) STIMULATED PROSTATE CANCER GROWTH AND METASTASIS AND INHIBITED BONE FORMATION IN OSTEOBLASTIC BONE METASTASES

    PubMed Central

    Thudi, Nanda K.; Martin, Chelsea K.; Murahari, Sridhar; Shu, Sherry S.; Lanigan, Lisa G.; Werbeck, Jillian L.; Keller, Evan T.; McCauley, Laurie K.; Pinzone, Joseph J.; Rosol, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Osteoblastic bone metastasis is the predominant phenotype observed in prostate cancer patients and is associated with high patient mortality and morbidity. However, the mechanisms determining the development of this phenotype are not well understood. Prostate cancer cells secrete several osteogenic factors including Wnt proteins, which are not only osteoinductive but also oncogenic. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to investigate the contribution of the Wnt signaling pathway in prostate cancer growth, incidence of bone metastases and osteoblastic phenotype of bone metastases. The strategy involved overexpressing the Wnt antagonist, DKK-1, in the mixed osteoblastic and osteolytic Ace-1 prostate cancer cells. Methods Ace-1 prostate cancer cells stably expressing human DKK-1 or empty vector were established and transduced with lentiviral yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-luciferase (Luc). The Ace-1/vectorYFP-LUC and Ace-1/DKK-1YFP-LUC cells were injected subcutaneously, intratibially, or in the left cardiac ventricle in athymic mice. Results Unexpectedly, DKK-1 significantly increased Ace-1 subcutaneous tumor mass and the incidence of bone metastases after intracardiac injection of Ace-1 cells. DKK-1 increased Ace-1 tumor growth associated with increased phospho46 JNK by the Wnt noncanonical pathway. As expected, DKK-1 decreased the Ace-1 osteoblastic phenotype of bone metastases, as confirmed by radiographic, histopathological, and microcomputer tomographic analysis. DKK-1 decreased osteoblastic activity via the Wnt canonical pathway evidenced by an inhibition of T-cell factor (TCF) activity in murine osteoblast precursor ST2 cells. Conclusion The present study showed that DKK-1 is a potent inhibitor of bone growth in prostate cancer-induced osteoblastic metastases. PMID:20957670

  1. An automatic early stage alveolar-bone-resorption evaluation method on digital dental panoramic radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Muramatsu, Chisako; Hara, Takeshi; Suzuki, Hiroki; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    Periodontal disease is a kind of typical dental diseases, which affects many adults. The presence of alveolar bone resorption, which can be observed from dental panoramic radiographs, is one of the most important signs of the progression of periodontal disease. Automatically evaluating alveolar-bone resorption is of important clinic meaning in dental radiology. The purpose of this study was to propose a novel system for automated alveolar-bone-resorption evaluation from digital dental panoramic radiographs for the first time. The proposed system enables visualization and quantitative evaluation of alveolar bone resorption degree surrounding the teeth. It has the following procedures: (1) pre-processing for a test image; (2) detection of tooth root apices with Gabor filter and curve fitting for the root apex line; (3) detection of features related with alveolar bone by using image phase congruency map and template matching and curving fitting for the alveolar line; (4) detection of occlusion line with selected Gabor filter; (5) finally, evaluation of the quantitative alveolar-bone-resorption degree in the area surrounding teeth by simply computing the average ratio of the height of the alveolar bone and the height of the teeth. The proposed scheme was applied to 30 patient cases of digital panoramic radiographs, with alveolar bone resorption of different stages. Our initial trial on these test cases indicates that the quantitative evaluation results are correlated with the alveolar-boneresorption degree, although the performance still needs further improvement. Therefore it has potential clinical practicability.

  2. Long-Term Symptoms Onset and Heterotopic Bone Formation around a Total Temporomandibular Joint Prosthesis: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Guarda-Nardini, Luca; Manfredini, Daniele; Ferronato, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background The literature on total alloplastic temporomandibular joint (TMJ) reconstructions is encouraging, and studies on total alloplastic TMJ replacements outcomes showed acceptable improvements in terms of both pain levels and jaw function. Nevertheless, some adverse events, such as heterotopic bone formation around the implanted prosthesis, may occur. In consideration of that, the present manuscript describes a case of heterotopic bone formation around a total temporomandibular joint prosthesis, which occurred several years after the implant. Methods The present manuscript describes a case of heterotopic bone formation around a total TMJ prosthesis, which occurred several years after the implant in patients, who previously underwent multiple failed TMJ surgeries. Results Ten years after the surgical TMJ replacement to solve an ankylotic bone block, the patient came to our attention again referring a progressive limitation in mouth opening. A computerized tomography showed evidence of marked heterotopic bone formation in the medial aspects of the joint, where a new-born ankylotic block occupied most part of the gap created by resecting the coronoid process at the time of the TMJ prosthesis insertion. Conclusions Despite this adverse event has been sometimes described in the literature, this is the first case in which its occurrence happened several years after the temporomandibular joint replacement. It can be suggested that an accurate assessment of pre-operative risk factors for re-ankylosis (e.g., patients with multiple failed temporomandibular joint surgeries) and within-intervention prevention (e.g., strategies to keep the bone interfaces around the implant separated) should be better standardized and define in future studies. PMID:24800055

  3. Licochalcone A up-regulates of FasL in mesenchymal stem cells to strengthen bone formation and increase bone mass

    PubMed Central

    Ming, Leiguo; Jin, Fang; Huang, Ping; Luo, Hailang; Liu, Wenjia; Zhang, Leilei; Yuan, Wei; Zhang, Yongjie; Jin, Yan

    2014-01-01

    The role of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells(BMSCs)in the pathogenesis and therapy of osteoporosis has drawn increasing attention in recent years. In the development of osteoporosis, it has been demonstrated that many changes occurred in the behavior of BMSCs. For example, the biological system of FasL pathways mediated differentiation of ERK and GSK-3?-catenin pathway was damaged. Here we found that 0.35?mg/L Licochalcone A (L-A) had a strong effect in increasing the osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of BMSCs both in vivo and in vitro by up-regulating FasL and further playing a role in regulating the ERK and GSK-3?-catenin systems. It has also demonstrated that the administration of L-A could restore the biological function of the damaged BMSCs differentiation by recovering or protecting bone mass in a disease state through activating the endosteal bone formation and partially inhibiting bone resorption in acute estrogen deficiency model. Results of our study suggested that careful titration of MSC was response to L-A and up-regulated FasL pathways mediating differentiation of ERK and GSK-3?-catenin biological systems under disease state in vivo, restore the impaired function, is one of the ways of L-A relieve or treatment osteoporosis. PMID:25428397

  4. Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Perichondrium Express Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule and Participate in Bone Marrow Formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fumio Arai; Osamu Ohneda; Takeshi Miyamoto; Xiu Qin Zhang; Toshio Suda

    Perichondrium in fetal limb is composed of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells. However, the multipotency of cells in this region and the role of perichondrium in bone marrow formation are not well understood. In this report, we purified and characterized perichondrial cells using a monoclonal antibody against activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) and in- vestigated the role of perichondrial cells in

  5. Clustered precursors in bone marrow sections predict early relapse in patients with acute myeloid leukemia within hematologic remission

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bone marrow (BM) aspiration is largely used for relapse assessment in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). It remains unclear what roles that BM trephine biopsy plays on relapse assessment. Methods Bone marrow (BM) sections during complete remission (CR) from 60 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients were retrospectively analyzed. Computer image processing technology was performed for detection of the distance between precursors and endosteum, and density of precursors was also calculated under light microscopic image. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify the immunophenotype of clustered precursors. Results Except for single and double precursors, there existed clustered precursors of 3-5 cells during CR. Here, we demonstrated that clustered precursors, but not single and double precursors, were useful in risk factor of relapse. Area under the receiving operator curve (ROC) was of 0.007 (CI 95%, from 0.572 to 0.851). Using a standard cut-off value of >4.0/mm2 for cluster density, early relapse was detected with a sensitivity of 51.5% and a specificity of 85.7%. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that clustered precursor is an independent risk factor for early relapse (Adjusted HR: 0.325, 95% CI: 0.156-0.679, p?=?0.003). Conclusions Cumulatively, clustered precursors in BM sections during CR may serve as an independent risk factor of early relapse and poor outcome for AML patients in cluster density?>?4.0/mm2 in sections. Early aggressive interventions are needed to prevent hematologic relapse. PMID:24447607

  6. Detection and prevalence of disseminated tumor cells from the bone marrow of early stage male breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Hartkopf, Andreas D; Taran, Florin-Andrei; Walter, Christina B; Hahn, Markus; Fehm, Tanja; Wallwiener, Markus; Brucker, Sara Y

    2015-07-01

    Male breast cancer (mBC) is a rare entity. As detection of disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in the bone marrow of females with early stage breast cancer is a promising prognostic marker, we aimed to determine the prevalence and prognostic value of DTCs in mBC. Bone marrow aspirates were collected from male patients undergoing primary surgery for early stage breast cancer (T1-4, N0-2, M0) at Tuebingen University, Germany, between January 2001 and April 2015. DTCs were identified by immunocytochemistry (pancytokeratin antibody A45/B-B3) and cytomorphology. 24 patients with mBC were included into the analysis. DTCs were detected in four of these (17 %). There was no significant association between the DTC status and any other clinicopathological parameter. Also, no significant impact of the DTC status on DFS or OS could be observed. DTCs are detectable in patients with early stage mBC. The detection rate is comparable to that in women. No associations between DTCs and clinicopathological features or prognosis were observed, which is most likely due to the small sample size. The detection of DTCs in male patients with early stage breast cancer emphasizes the transmission of future clinical applications for DTCs from women to men. PMID:26012646

  7. Numerical assessment of bone remodeling around conventionally and early loaded titanium and titanium-zirconium alloy dental implants.

    PubMed

    Akça, K?vanç; Eser, At?l?m; Çavu?o?lu, Yeliz; Sa??rkaya, Elçin; Çehreli, Murat Cavit

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate conventionally and early loaded titanium and titanium-zirconium alloy implants by three-dimensional finite element stress analysis. Three-dimensional model of a dental implant was created and a thread area was established as a region of interest in trabecular bone to study a localized part of the global model with a refined mesh. The peri-implant tissues around conventionally loaded (model 1) and early loaded (model 2) implants were implemented and were used to explore principal stresses, displacement values, and equivalent strains in the peri-implant region of titanium and titanium-zirconium implants under static load of 300 N with or without 30° inclination applied on top of the abutment surface. Under axial loading, principal stresses in both models were comparable for both implants and models. Under oblique loading, principal stresses around titanium-zirconium implants were slightly higher in both models. Comparable stress magnitudes were observed in both models. The displacement values and equivalent strain amplitudes around both implants and models were similar. Peri-implant bone around titanium and titanium-zirconium implants experiences similar stress magnitudes coupled with intraosseous implant displacement values under conventional loading and early loading simulations. Titanium-zirconium implants have biomechanical outcome comparable to conventional titanium implants under conventional loading and early loading. PMID:25725630

  8. Quantitative computed tomography of vertebral spongiosa: a sensitive method for detecting early bone loss after oophorectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Genant, H.K.; Cann, C.E.; Ettinger, B.; Gordan, G.S.

    1982-11-01

    The bone mineral loss was assessed serially in 37 premenopausal women for 24 months after oophorectomy and the dose-response for conjugated estrogen therapy in preventing this loss was determined. Spinal cancellous bone was measured by quantitative computed tomography and measurement of appendicular cortical bone by radial photon absorptiometry and metacarpal radiogrammetry. For the placebo and low-dose treatment groups, the mean annual bone mineral losses were 7% to 9% from the vertebral spongiosum and 1% to 3% from the peripheral cortex. The correlation between axial and appendicular loss was weak, precluding a reliable estimate of spinal loss from peripheral measurements. For the maximal-dose group (0.6 mg/d), the mean annual bone mineral losses were less than 0.5% from the axial and appendicular sites, and were not significant. The results indicate that spinal quantitative computed tomography provides a highly sensitive measurement of bone mineral loss after oophorectomy, that bone mineral loss is five- to sevenfold greater from the spinal spongiosum than from the appendicular cortex, and that conjugated estrogen in doses of less than 0.6 mg/d are inadequate to prevent the vertebral mineral loss.

  9. Muramyl Dipeptide Enhances Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Osteoclast Formation and Bone Resorption through Increased RANKL Expression in Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Masahiko; Kimura, Keisuke; Sugisawa, Haruki; Aonuma, Tomo; Takada, Haruhiko; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is bacterial cell wall component capable of inducing osteoclast formation and pathological bone resorption. Muramyl dipeptide (MDP), the minimal essential structural unit responsible for the immunological activity of peptidoglycans, is ubiquitously expressed by bacterium. In this study, we investigated the effect of MDP in LPS-induced osteoclast formation and bone resorption. LPS was administered with or without MDP into the supracalvariae of mice. The number of osteoclasts, the level of mRNA for cathepsin K and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), the ratio of the bone destruction area, the level of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase form 5b (TRACP 5b), and C-terminal telopeptides fragments of type I collagen as a marker of bone resorption in mice administrated both LPS and MDP were higher than those in mice administrated LPS or MDP alone. On the other hand, MDP had no effect on osteoclastogenesis in parathyroid hormone administrated mice. MDP enhanced LPS-induced receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL) expression and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression in vivo and in stromal cells in vitro. MDP also enhanced LPS-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, including ERK, p38, and JNK, in stromal cells. These results suggest that MDP might play an important role in pathological bone resorption in bacterial infection diseases. PMID:26000311

  10. Influence of synthetic polyethylene glycol hydrogels on new bone formation during mandibular augmentation procedures in Goettingen minipigs.

    PubMed

    Brockmeyer, Phillipp; Kramer, Katharina; Krohn, Sebastian; Kauffmann, Philipp; Mauth, Corinna; Dard, Michel; Schliephake, Henning; Gruber, Rudolf Matthias

    2015-06-01

    Polyethylene glycol hydrogels (PEG) have been used as slow release carrier for osteoinductive growth factors in order to achieve a retarded delivery. However, there have been concerns about negative effects on bone regeneration. This study aims to test whether PEG hydrogels themselves affect new bone formation (NBF), when used as a carrier during mandibular augmentation procedures. In a randomized split-mouth design, bilateral mandibular bone defects were surgically created in 12 Goettingen minipigs, and subsequently augmented, using PEG hydrogel on one side of the mandible. The contralateral sides, without PEG, served as controls. After 4 and 12 weeks, bone formation was evaluated in six animals each. A comparison of the data, using a three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), revealed a significant effect of the healing time and the region of the graft on the distribution and enhancement of NBF (P < .0001, respectively). Although a 0.3 % (95 %-CI [-5.5; 4.8]) lower volume density of newly formed bone could be observed over all PEG hydrogel sections, in contrast to the contralateral controls, the analysis revealed no clinically significant effects of the PEG hydrogel treatment on the total level (P = 0.90), and the distribution of NBF (P = 0.54). In conclusion, PEG hydrogels do not affect NBF when used as a carrier for osteoinductive growth factors during mandibular augmentation procedures. PMID:26032116

  11. Bone formation in vivo induced by Cbfa1-carrying adenoviral vectors released from a biodegradable porous ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uemura, Toshimasa; Kojima, Hiroko

    2011-06-01

    Overexpression of Cbfa1 (a transcription factor indispensable for osteoblastic differentiation) is expected to induce the formation of bone directly and indirectly in vivo by accelerating osteoblastic differentiation. Adenoviral vectors carrying the cDNA of Cbfa1/til-1(Adv-Cbf1) were allowed to be adsorbed onto porous blocks of ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP), a biodegradable ceramic, which were then implanted subcutaneously and orthotopically into bone defects. The adenoviral vectors were released sustainingly by biodegradation, providing long-term expression of the genes. Results of the subcutaneous implantation of Adv-Cbfa1-adsorbed ?-TCP/osteoprogenitor cells suggest that a larger amount of bone formed in the pores of the implant than in the control material. Regarding orthotopic implantation into bone defects, the released Adv-Cbfa1 accelerated regeneration in the cortical bone, whereas it induced bone resorption in the marrow cavity. A safer gene transfer using a smaller amount of the vector was achieved using biodegradable porous ?-TCP as a carrier.

  12. IFN? impairs extracellular matrix formation leading to inhibition of mineralization by effects in the early stage of human osteoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Woeckel, V J; Eijken, M; van de Peppel, J; Chiba, H; van der Eerden, B C J; van Leeuwen, J P T M

    2012-06-01

    Osteoimmunology is an emerging field of research focused on the interaction of the immune system and bone. In this study we demonstrate that human osteoblasts are sensitive to the immune cytokine interferon (IFN)?. Osteoblasts respond to IFN? as shown by the induction of several known IFN target genes such as interferon-induced (IFI) proteins (IFIT1, IFI44L), interferon-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) complex and the induction of IFN? itself. We demonstrated that IFN? has severe inhibitory effects on mineralization of osteoblast-derived extracellular matrix (ECM). Analysis of the timing of the IFN? effects revealed that committed osteoblasts in early stage of differentiation are most sensitive to IFN? inhibition of mineralization. A single IFN? treatment was as effective as multiple treatments. During the progress of differentiation osteoblasts become desensitized for IFN?. This pinpoints to a complex pattern of IFN? sensitivity in osteoblasts. Focusing on early osteoblasts, we showed that IFN? decreased gene expression of ECM-related genes, such as type I Collagen (COL1A1), fibronectin (FN1), fibullin (FBLN1), fibrillin (FBN2), and laminin (LAMA1). Additionally, ECM produced by IFN?-treated osteoblasts contained less collagen protein. IFN? stimulated gene expression of osteopontin (OPN), annexin2 (ANXA2), and hyaluronan synthase 1 (HAS1), which are important factors in the adhesion of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in the HSC niche. In conclusion, IFN? directly modifies human osteoblast function by inhibiting ECM synthesis eventually resulting in delayed bone formation and mineralization and induces a HSC niche supporting phenotype. These effects are highly dependent on timing of treatment in the early phase of osteoblast differentiation. PMID:21898404

  13. The induction of bone formation by smart biphasic hydroxyapatite tricalcium phosphate biomimetic matrices in the non-human primate Papio ursinus

    PubMed Central

    Ripamonti, U; Richter, P W; Nilen, R W N; Renton, L

    2008-01-01

    Long-term studies in the non-human primate Chacma baboon Papio ursinus were set to investigate the induction of bone formation by biphasic hydroxyapatite/p-tricalcium phosphate (HA/?-TCP) biomimetic matrices. HA/?-TCP biomimetic matrices in a pre-sinter ratio (wt%) of 40/60 and 20/80, respectively, were sintered and implanted in the rectus abdominis and in calvarial defects of four adult baboons. The post-sinter phase content ratios were 19/81 and 4/96, respectively. Morphological analyses on day 90 and 365 showed significant induction of bone formation within concavities of the biomimetic matrices with substantial bone formation by induction and resorption/dissolution of the implanted matrices. One year after implantation in calvarial defects, 4/96 biphasic biomimetic constructs showed prominent induction of bone formation with significant dissolution of the implanted scaffolds. The implanted smart biomimetic matrices induce de novo bone formation even in the absence of exogenously applied osteogenic proteins of the transforming growth factor-?(TGF-?) superfamily. The induction of bone formation biomimetizes the remodelling cycle of the cortico-cancellous bone of primates whereby resorption lacunae, pits and concavities cut by osteoclastogenesis are regulators of bone formation by induction. The concavities assembled in HA/?-TCP biomimetic bioceramics are endowed with multifunctional pleiotropic self-assembly capacities initiating and promoting angiogenesis and bone formation by induction. Resident mesenchymal cells differentiate into osteoblastic cell lines expressing, secreting and embedding osteogenic soluble molecular signals of the TGF-? superfamily within the concavities of the biomimetic matrices initiating bone formation as a secondary response. PMID:18363843

  14. Osteogenic differentiation and ectopic bone formation of canine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in injectable thermo-responsive polymer hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Liao, Han-Tsung; Chen, Chien-Tzung; Chen, Jyh-Ping

    2011-11-01

    This study describes an injectable, thermo-responsive hyaluronic acid-g-chitosan-g-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (HA-CPN) copolymer for bone tissue engineering. The wettability, temperature-dependent change of water content, and volume of HA-CPN hydrogel were measured, together with its biocompatibility in vitro and in vivo. The dried hydrogel morphology shows a three-dimensional, porous structure with interconnected pores. Canine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (cBMSCs) were encapsulated in HA-CPN hydrogel and osteoinduction was assessed by comparing samples with different osteogenic differentiation induction times but with the same total cell culture time. Cell proliferation and time-dependent osteogenic differentiation, evident from secretion of extracellular matrix and formation of mineral deposits, were observed. The cells showed better proliferation in HA-CPN hydrogel than on tissue culture polystyrene after osteo-induced for 21 days and higher alkaline phosphatase activity regardless of osteo-induction times. Mineralization extent of cBMSCs in HA-CPN followed by Alizarin red stains showed positive stained nodules after osteo-induced longer than 7 days. The cells/hydrogel construct also showed increased mechanical strength and elasticity after osteogenic differentiation, and the increase could be correlated with osteo-induction time. In vivo studies confirmed the biocompatibility and bioresorption of the HA-CPN hydrogel and ectopic bone formation when the hydrogel was used as a cell carrier for osteo-induced cBMSCs and implanted in nude mice subcutaneously. Taken together, the results indicate the feasibility and efficacy of HA-CPN hydrogel as an injectable bone tissue engineering scaffold with cBMSCs. PMID:21870942

  15. Recapitulation of signals regulating embryonic bone formation during postnatal growth and in fracture repair

    E-print Network

    Tabin, Cliff

    that regulate embryonic endochondral ossification are also expressed during postnatal bone growth and fracture Ireland Ltd. Keywords: Ihh; Parathyroid hormone-related protein; Fracture repair; Bone; Endochondral ossification 1. Introduction During embryogenesis, the development of the long bones takes place by a process

  16. Effects of Polycaprolactone-Tricalcium Phosphate, Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 and Dog Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Bone Formation: Pilot Study in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-Jong; Kim, Myung-Rae; Oh, Jin-Sub; Han, Inho

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival, proliferation, and bone formation of dog mesenchymal stem cells (dMSCs) in the graft material by using Polycaprolactone-tricalcium phosphate (PCL-TCP), auto-fibrin glue (AFG), recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2), and dMSCs after a transplantation to the scapula of adult beagle dogs. Materials and Methods The subjects were two beagle dogs. Total dose of rhBMP-2 on each block was 10 µg with 50 µg/mg concentration. The cortical bone of the scapula of the dog was removed which was the same size of PCL-TCP block (Osteopore International Pte, Singapore; 5.0×5.0×8.0 mm in size), and the following graft material then was fixed with orthodontic mini-implant, Dual-top® (Titanium alloy, Jeil Co. Seoul, Korea). Four experimental groups were prepared for this study, Group 1: PCL-TCP + aFG; Group 2: PCL-TCP + aFG + dMSCs; Group 3: PCL-TCP + aFG + dMSCs + rhBMP-2; Group 4: PCL-TCP + aFG + dMSCs + rhBMP-2 + PCL membrane. The survival or proliferation of dMSCs cells was identified with an extracted tissue through a fluorescence microscope, H-E staining and Von-Kossa staining in two weeks and four weeks after the transplantation. Results The survival and proliferation of dMSCs were identified through a fluorescence microscope from both Group 1 and Group 2 in two weeks and four weeks after the transplantation. Histological observation also found that the injected cells were proliferating well in the G2, G3, and G4 scaffolds. Conclusion This study concluded that bone ingrowth occurred in PCL-TCP scaffold which was transplanted with rhBMP-2, and MSCs did not affect bone growth. More sufficient healing time would be needed to recognize effects of dMSCs on bone formation. PMID:20046425

  17. Inhibition of osteoclast-like cell formation by bisphosphonates in long-term cultures of human bone marrow.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, D E; MacDonald, B R; Russell, R G; Gowen, M

    1989-01-01

    Bisphosphonates inhibit bone resorption in vivo and in vitro by unknown mechanisms. The effect of bisphosphonates on the formation of osteoclasts from their mononuclear hematopoietic precursors was investigated using human long-term marrow cultures in which multinucleated cells form that express most of the known features of the osteoclast phenotype (e.g., bone resorption, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, calcitonin responsiveness, and reactivity with specific MAbs). The five bisphosphonates that were tested strongly inhibited 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-stimulated formation of these cells with the same relative potencies as they inhibit bone resorption in vivo. Two representative compounds (3-amino-1-hydroxypropylidene-1,1-bisphosphonate and dichloromethylene bisphosphonate) failed to inhibit the proliferation of precursors of the osteoclast-like cells. However, these compounds decreased the proportion of mononuclear and multinucleated cells expressing an osteoclast antigen, thus suggesting a degree of specificity for cells of the osteoclast lineage. We conclude that bisphosphonates are potent inhibitors of osteoclast-like cell formation in long-term human marrow cultures, and that this may be related to their ability to inhibit bone resorption in vivo. Images PMID:2524504

  18. In vitro induction of E-rosette formation in human bone marrow cells by the thymic proteins LSHr and LSHh.

    PubMed

    Pierschbacher, M D; Kalden, J R; Luckey, T D

    1979-07-01

    Two thymic factors, LSHh and LSHr, were found to be active in the induction of E-rosette formation. In vitro incubation of human bone marrow cells, isolated by Ficoll gradient centrifugation, with subnanogram quantities of either of these LSH proteins increased the number of E-rosette-forming cells in the bone marrow cultures by a factor of two. Kidney extract and bovine serum albumin did not show significant activity when tested as controls. Commercial thymopoietin II peptide was found to be active in the assay at comparable concentrations. The data allow a comparison of LHS proteins with other preparations tested in this manner. PMID:262453

  19. Bone formation by three-dimensional stromal osteoblast culture in biodegradable polymer scaffolds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishaug, S. L.; Crane, G. M.; Miller, M. J.; Yasko, A. W.; Yaszemski, M. J.; Mikos, A. G.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Bone formation was investigated in vitro by culturing stromal osteoblasts in three-dimensional (3-D), biodegradable poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) foams. Three polymer foam pore sizes, ranging from 150-300, 300-500, and 500-710 microns, and two different cell seeding densities, 6.83 x 10(5) cells/cm2 and 22.1 x 10(5) cells/cm2, were examined over a 56-day culture period. The polymer foams supported the proliferation of seeded osteoblasts as well as their differentiated function, as demonstrated by high alkaline phosphatase activity and deposition of a mineralized matrix by the cells. Cell number, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineral deposition increased significantly over time for all the polymer foams. Osteoblast foam constructs created by seeding 6.83 x 10(5) cells/cm2 on foams with 300-500 microns pores resulted in a cell density of 4.63 x 10(5) cells/cm2 after 1 day in culture; they had alkaline phosphatase activities of 4.28 x 10(-7) and 2.91 x 10(-6) mumol/cell/min on Days 7 and 28, respectively; and they had a cell density that increased to 18.7 x 10(5) cells/cm2 by Day 56. For the same constructs, the mineralized matrix reached a maximum penetration depth of 240 microns from the top surface of the foam and a value of 0.083 mm for mineralized tissue volume per unit of cross sectional area. Seeding density was an important parameter for the constructs, but pore size over the range tested did not affect cell proliferation or function. This study suggests the feasibility of using poly(alpha-hydroxy ester) foams as scaffolding materials for the transplantation of autogenous osteoblasts to regenerate bone tissue.

  20. Chondroitin sulfate and sulfated hyaluronan-containing collagen coatings of titanium implants influence peri-implant bone formation in a minipig model.

    PubMed

    Korn, P; Schulz, M C; Hintze, V; Range, U; Mai, R; Eckelt, U; Schnabelrauch, M; Möller, S; Becher, J; Scharnweber, D; Stadlinger, B

    2014-07-01

    An improved osseous integration of dental implants in patients with lower bone quality is of particular interest. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of artificial extracellular matrix implant coatings on early bone formation. The coatings contained collagen (coll) in conjunction with either chondroitin sulfate (CS) or sulfated hyaluronan (sHya). Thirty-six screw-type, grit-blasted, and acid-etched titanium implants were inserted in the mandible of 6 minipigs. Three surface states were tested: (1) uncoated control (2) coll/CS (3) coll/sHya. After healing periods of 4 and 8 weeks, bone implant contact (BIC), bone volume density (BVD) as well as osteoid related parameters were measured. After 4 weeks, control implants showed a BIC of 44% which was comparable to coll/CS coated implants (48%) and significantly higher compared to coll/sHya coatings (37%, p?=?0.012). This difference leveled out after 8 weeks. No significant differences could be detected for BVD values after 4 weeks and all surfaces showed reduced BVD values after 8 weeks. However, at that time, BVD around both, coll/CS (30%, p?=?0.029), and coll/sHya (32%, p?=?0.015), coatings was significantly higher compared to controls (22%). The osteoid implant contact (OIC) showed no significant differences after 4 weeks. After 8 weeks OIC for controls was comparable to coll/CS, the latter being significantly higher compared to coll/sHya (0.9% vs. 0.4%, p?=?0.012). There were no significant differences in osteoid volume density. In summary, implant surface coatings by the chosen organic components of the extracellular matrix showed a certain potential to influence osseointegration in vivo. PMID:23946280

  1. Enhancing Research and Practice in Early Childhood through Formative and Design Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Barbara A.; Reinking, David

    2011-01-01

    This article describes formative and design experiments and how they can advance research and instructional practices in early childhood education. We argue that this relatively new approach to education research closes the gap between research and practice, and it addresses limitations that have been identified in early childhood research. We…

  2. Regionalized sequence of myocardial cell growth and proliferation characterizes early chamber formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. T. Soufan; Berg van den G; J. M. Ruijter; Boer de P. A. J; Hoff van den M. J. B; A. F. M. Moorman

    2006-01-01

    Increase in cell size and proliferation of myocytes are key processes in cardiac morphogenesis, yet their regionalization during development of the heart has been described only anecdotally. We have made quantitative reconstructions of embryonic chicken hearts ranging in stage from the fusion of the heart-forming fields to early formation of the chambers. These reconstructions reveal that the early heart tube

  3. Regionalized Sequence of Myocardial Cell Growth and Proliferation Characterizes Early Chamber Formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandre T. Soufan; Gert van den Berg; Jan M. Ruijter; Piet A. J. de Boer; Maurice J. B. van den Hoff; Antoon F. M. Moorman

    2010-01-01

    Increase in cell size and proliferation of myocytes are key processes in cardiac morphogenesis, yet their regionalization during development of the heart has been described only anecdotally. We have made quantitative reconstructions of embryonic chicken hearts ranging in stage from the fusion of the heart-forming fields to early formation of the chambers. These reconstructions reveal that the early heart tube

  4. The effect of rhBMP-2 and PRP delivery by biodegradable ?-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds on new bone formation in a non-through rabbit cranial defect model

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyun-Pil; Mercado-Pagan, Angel E.; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Kang, Seong-Soo; Choi, Taek-Hue; Bishop, Julius; Koh, Jeong-Tae; Maloney, William; Lee, Kwang-Min; Yang, Yunzhi; Park, Sang-Won

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated whether the combination of biodegradable ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) scaffolds with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) or platelet-rich plasma (PRP) could accelerate bone formation and increase bone height using a rabbit non-through cranial bone defect model. Four non-through cylindrical bone defects with a diameter of 8-mm were surgically created on the cranium of rabbits. ?-TCP scaffolds in the presence and absence of impregnated rhBMP-2 or PRP were placed into the defects. At 8 and 16 weeks after implantation, samples were dissected and fixed for analysis by microcomputed tomography and histology. Only defects with rhBMP-2 impregnated ?-TCP scaffolds showed significantly enhanced bone formation compared to non-impregnated ?-TCP scaffolds (p<0.05). Although new bone was higher than adjacent bone at 8 weeks after implantation, vertical bone augmentation was not observed at 16 weeks after implantation, probably due to scaffold resorption occurring concurrently with new bone formation. PMID:23779152

  5. Soluble Biomarkers of Cartilage and Bone Metabolism in Early Proof of Concept Trials in Psoriatic Arthritis: Effects of Adalimumab Versus Placebo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arno W. R. van Kuijk; Jeroen DeGroot; Rishma C. Koeman; Nico Sakkee; Dominique L. Baeten; Danielle M. Gerlag; Paul P. Tak

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundThere is growing interest in soluble biomarkers that could be used on the group level for screening purposes in small proof of principle studies during early drug development. We investigated early changes in serum levels of several candidate biomarkers involved in cartilage and bone metabolism following the initiation of adalimumab as a prototypic active treatment in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) compared

  6. Intermittent parathyroid hormone treatment increases osteoblast number, steady state messenger ribonucleic acid levels for osteocalcin, and bone formation in tibial metaphysis of hypophysectomized female rats.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, I U; Dobnig, H; Turner, R T

    1995-11-01

    The effects of GH and PTH on cancellous histomorphometry were determined in the proximal tibial metaphysis of hypophysectomized (HYPOX) sexually mature female rats. HYPOX resulted in uterine atrophy and a loss in body weight. Longitudinal bone growth ceased and bone formation was greatly reduced. There were decreases in cancellous bone area, trabecular number, and trabecular thickness. Intermittent treatment with GH did not influence uterine weight in HYPOX rats. However, GH resulted in resumption of whole body weight gain, as well as maintenance of normal longitudinal bone growth. Additionally, GH partially maintained bone formation in HY POX rats and did not have a significant effect on steady state messenger RNA levels for osteocalcin. Intermittent treatment with PTH had no effect on whole body weight gain, uterine weight, or longitudinal bone growth. In contrast, PTH increased bone formation compared with the baseline, HYPOX, and GH-treated HYPOX rats, and dramatically increased osteocalcin messenger RNA levels compared with the latter two groups. The increased bone formation was primarily due to an increase in osteoblast number; the mineral apposition rate, an index of osteoblast activity, was increased compared with control and GH-treated rats but not compared with baseline values. Interestingly, neither treatment influenced indices of bone resorption. PMID:7588250

  7. Nanohydroxyapatite shape and its potential role in bone formation: an analytical study

    PubMed Central

    Kalia, Priya; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Fan, Jian Ping; Warley, Alice; Di Silvio, Lucy; Huang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Bone cells (osteoblasts) produce a collagen-rich matrix called osteoid, which is mineralized extracellularly by nanosized calcium phosphate (CaP). Synthetically produced CaP nanoparticles (NPs) have great potential for clinical application. However few studies have compared the effect of CaP NPs with different properties, such as shape and aspect ratio, on the survival and behaviour of active bone-producing cells, such as primary human osteoblasts (HOBs). This study aimed to investigate the biocompatibility and ultrastructural effects of two differently shaped hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] nanoparticles (HA NPs), round- (aspect ratio 2.12, AR2) and rice-shaped (aspect ratio 3.79, AR4). The ultrastructural response and initial extracellular matrix (ECM) formation of HOBs to HA NPs were observed, as well as matrix vesicle release. A transmission electron microscopy (TEM)-based X-ray microanalytical technique was used to measure cytoplasmic ion levels, including calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), sodium (Na) and potassium (K). K/Na ratios were used as a measure of cell viability. Following HA NP stimulation, all measured cytoplasmic ion levels increased. AR2 NPs had a greater osteogenic effect on osteoblasts compared with AR4 NPs, including alkaline phosphatase activity and matrix vesicle release. However, they produced only a moderate increase in intracellular Ca and P levels compared with AR4. This suggests that particular Ca and P concentrations may be required for, or indicative of, optimal osteoblast activity. Cell viability, as measured by Na and K microanalysis, was best maintained in AR2. Initial formation of osteoblast ECM was altered in the presence of either HA NP, and immuno-TEM identified fibronectin and matrilin-3 as two ECM proteins affected. Matrilin-3 is here described for the first time as being expressed by cultured osteoblasts. In summary, this novel and in-depth study has demonstrated that HA NP shape can influence a range of different parameters related to osteoblast viability and activity. PMID:24478288

  8. Lecture notes on the formation and early evolution of planetary systems

    E-print Network

    Philip J. Armitage

    2014-08-26

    These notes provide an introduction to the theory of the formation and early evolution of planetary systems. Topics covered include the structure, evolution and dispersal of protoplanetary disks; the formation of planetesimals, terrestrial and gas giant planets; and orbital evolution due to gas disk migration, planetesimal scattering, planet-planet interactions, and tides.

  9. Dynamics of Alloplastic Bone Grafts on an Early Stage of Corticotomy-Facilitated Orthodontic Tooth Movement in Beagle Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyung-Joo; Kim, Tae-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Alveolar augmented corticotomy is effective in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement, but the effect only lasts for a relatively short time. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying biology of the immediate periodontal response to orthodontic tooth movement after a corticotomy with alloplastic bone grafts. The results demonstrated that measurable tooth movement began as early as 3 days after the intervention in beagle dogs. Based on the results and histological findings, augmented corticotomy-facilitated orthodontic tooth movement might enhance the condition of the periodontal tissue and the stability of the outcomes of orthodontic treatment. PMID:25276787

  10. Effects of strontium ranelate on bone formation in the mid-palatal suture after rapid maxillary expansion

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shuya; Wang, Xuxia; Li, Na; Chen, Yun; Su, Yuran; Zhang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of strontium ranelate on bone regeneration in the mid-palatal suture in response to rapid maxillary expansion (RME). Methods Thirty-six male 6-week-old Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups, ie, an expansion only (EO) group, an expansion plus strontium ranelate (SE) group, and a control group. An orthodontic appliance was set between the right and left upper molars of rats with an initial expansive force of 0.98 N. Rats in the SE group were administered strontium ranelate (600 mg/kg body weight) and then euthanized in batches on days 4, 7, and 10. Morphological changes in the mid-palatal suture were investigated using micro-computed tomography and hematoxylin and eosin staining after RME. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 expression in the suture was also examined to evaluate bone formation in the mid-palatal suture. Image-Pro Plus software was then used to determine the mean optical density of the immunohistochemical images. Analysis of variance was used for statistical evaluation at the P<0.05 level. Results With expansive force, the mid-palatal suture was expanded, but there was no statistically significant difference (P>0.05) between the SE and EO groups. The bone volume of the suture decreased after RME, but was higher in the SE group than in the EO group on days 7 and 10. Further, expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 in the SE group was higher than in the other two groups (P<0.05). Conclusion Strontium ranelate may hasten new bone formation in the expanded mid-palatal suture, which may be therapeutically beneficial in prevention of relapse and shortening the retention period after RME.

  11. Early Archean stromatolites: Paleoenvironmental setting and controls on formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, D. R.

    1991-01-01

    The earliest record of terrestrial life is contained in thin, silicified sedimentary layers within enormously thick, predominantly volcanic sequences in South Africa and Western Australia. This record includes bacteria-like microfossils, laminated carbonaceous structures resembling flat bacterial mats and stromatolites, and a morphologically diverse assemblage of carbonaceous particles. These structures and particles and their host sediments provide the only direct source of information on the morphology, paleoecology, and biogeochemistry of early life; the nature of interactions between organisms and surface systems on the early earth; and possible settings within which life might have evolved. The three known occurrences of 3.5 to 3.2 billion-year-old stromalites were evaluated in terms of depositional setting and biogenicity.

  12. Pattern formation during early ovule development in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Sieber; Jacqueline Gheyselinck; Rita Gross-Hardt; Thomas Laux; Ueli Grossniklaus; Kay Schneitz

    2004-01-01

    Ovules of higher plants are the precursors of seeds. Ovules emerge from placental tissue inside the gynoecium of flowers. Three elements, funiculus, chalaza, and nucellus, can be distinguished along the proximal–distal axis of the outgrowing radially symmetrical ovule primordium. The asymmetric initiation of the outer integument marks the switch to adaxial–abaxial development, which leads to the formation of a bilaterally

  13. Radiative Feedback and Hydrogen Molecules During Early Galaxy Formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Shapiro

    1999-01-01

    The first sources of ionizing radiation which turned on in the postrecombination universe exerted a strong feedback on the subsequent formation and evolution of galaxies. Included in these effects was the reionization of the IGM by the propagation of overlapping ionization fronts, which photoevaporated some protogalactic clouds and altered the thermal history of gas inside others. The role of hydrogen

  14. The formation and early differentiation of the Earth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard J. Wood

    2010-01-01

    The currently accepted model of planetary formation is that the cloud and dust surrounding the young sun accreted in about 104 yr to form 10 km size planetesimals. Gravitational interactions and collisions between planetesimals progressed to generate a few tens of moon to Mars-sized planetary embryos in ~1 M.yr. Earth grew from these embryos through a succession of impacts, culminating

  15. Divergent Resorbability and Effects on Osteoclast Formation of Commonly Used Bone Substitutes in a Human In Vitro-Assay

    PubMed Central

    Busse, Björn; Schilling, Arndt F.; Schinke, Thorsten; Amling, Michael; Lange, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Bioactive bone substitute materials are a valuable alternative to autologous bone transplantations in the repair of skeletal defects. However, clinical studies have reported varying success rates for many commonly used biomaterials. While osteoblasts have traditionally been regarded as key players mediating osseointegration, increasing evidence suggests that bone-resorbing osteoclasts are of crucial importance for the longevity of applied biomaterials. As no standardized data on the resorbability of biomaterials exists, we applied an in vitro-assay to compare ten commonly used bone substitutes. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were differentiated into osteoclasts in the co-presence of dentin chips and biomaterials or dentin alone (control) for a period of 28 days. Osteoclast maturation was monitored on day 0 and 14 by light microscopy, and material-dependent changes in extracellular pH were assessed twice weekly. Mature osteoclasts were quantified using TRAP stainings on day 28 and their resorptive activity was determined on dentin (toluidin blue staining) and biomaterials (scanning electron microscopy, SEM). The analyzed biomaterials caused specific changes in the pH, which were correlated with osteoclast multinuclearity (r?=?0.942; p?=?0.034) and activity on biomaterials (r?=?0.594; p?=?0.041). Perossal led to a significant reduction of pH, nuclei per osteoclast and dentin resorption, whereas Tutogen bovine and Tutobone human strikingly increased all three parameters. Furthermore, natural biomaterials were resorbed more rapidly than synthetic biomaterials leading to differential relative resorption coefficients, which indicate whether bone substitutes lead to a balanced resorption or preferential resorption of either the biomaterial or the surrounding bone. Taken together, this study for the first time compares the effects of widely used biomaterials on osteoclast formation and resorbability in an unbiased approach that may now aid in improving the preclinical evaluation of bone substitute materials. PMID:23071629

  16. Ectopic bone formation cannot occur by hydroxyapatite/?-tricalcium phosphate bioceramics in green fluorescent protein chimeric mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Lijia; Duan, Xin; Xiang, Zhou; Shi, Yujun; Lu, Xiaofeng; Ye, Feng; Bu, Hong

    2012-12-01

    Many studies have shown that calcium phosphate ceramics (CP) have osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties; however, the exact mechanism of bone induction has not yet been reported. This study was performed to investigate if destroying immunological function will influence osteogenesis, to explain the mechanism which is unclear. In this study, twenty C57BL/6 mice were divided into two groups (n = 10), in group 1, a hydroxyapatite/?-tricalcium phosphate (HA/?-TCP) ceramic was implanted into both the left and right leg muscles of each mouse; in group 2, ten mice experienced lethal irradiation, then were injected bone marrow (BM) cells from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice by tail veil, after bone marrow transplantation (BMT), heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, and muscle were harvested for biological analysis, after the GFP chimera model was established successfully, the same HA/?-TCP ceramic was implanted into both leg muscles of each mouse immediately after irradiation. 45 and 90 days after implantation, the ceramics of the two groups were harvested to perform with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining; the results showed that there was no bone formation in group 2, while new bone tissues were detected in group 1. Our findings suggest that the BM cell from GFP transgenic mice is a good biomarker and it could set a good platform for chimera model; it also shows that BM cell is one of cell resources of bone induction, and destruction of immune function will impede osteoinduction by CP. Overall, our results may shed light on clear mechanism study of bone induction in the future.

  17. Synergistic effects of high dietary calcium and exogenous parathyroid hormone in promoting osteoblastic bone formation in mice.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuxu; Zhou, Min; Zhang, Qunhu; Liu, Huan; Xu, Yong; Shu, Lei; Zhang, Jue; Miao, Dengshun; Ren, Yongxin

    2015-03-28

    In the present study, we investigated whether high dietary Ca and exogenous parathyroid hormone 1-34 fragments (PTH 1-34) have synergistic effects on bone formation in adult mice, and explored the related mechanisms. Adult male mice were fed a normal diet, a high-Ca diet, a PTH-treated diet, or a high-Ca diet combined with subcutaneously injected PTH 1-34 (80 ?g/kg per d) for 4 weeks. Bone mineral density, trabecular bone volume, osteoblast number, alkaline phosphatase (ALP)- and type I collagen-positive areas, and the expression levels of osteoblastic bone formation-related genes and proteins were increased significantly in mice fed the high-Ca diet, the PTH-treated diet, and, even more dramatically, the high-Ca diet combined with PTH. Osteoclast number and surface and the ratio of receptor activator for nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL):osteoprotegerin (OPG) were decreased in the high-Ca diet treatment group, increased in the PTH treatment group, but not in the combined treatment group. Furthermore, third-passage osteoblasts were treated with high Ca (5 mM), PTH 1-34 (10?? M) or high Ca combined with PTH 1-34. Osteoblast viability and ALP activity were increased in either the high Ca-treated or PTH-treated cultures and, even more dramatically, in the cultures treated with high Ca plus PTH, with consistent up-regulation of the expression levels of osteoblast proliferation and differentiation-related genes and proteins. These results indicate that dietary Ca and PTH play synergistic roles in promoting osteoblastic bone formation by stimulating osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. PMID:25744000

  18. Ethane 1-hydroxy-1, 1-diphosphonate (EHDP) counteracts the inhibitory effect of uranyl nitrate on bone formation.

    PubMed

    Ubios, A M; Guglielmotti, M B; Cabrini, R L

    1990-01-01

    The beneficial effect of ethane 1-hydroxy-1, 1-diphosphonate (EHDP) in restoring the inhibition of bone formation in cases of acute uranium intoxication is presented. Bone formation was studied histomorphometrically in a model of alveolar bone healing. After tooth extraction, 40 rats were divided into 4 groups that received (1) no further treatment, (2) 10 daily intraperitoneal injections of 7.5 mg/kg of body weight of EHDP, (3) an intraperitoneal injection of 2.0 mg/kg of body weight of uranyl nitrate, and (4) the same treatment as was provided rats in groups 2 and 3. The results showed that the healing of bone did not occur in exposed animals, whereas healing in EHDP-treated exposed animals did not differ from that of nonexposed controls. This effect might result from a blocking and/or competitive action of EHDP and/or the stimulation that EHDP elicits at the doses and in the administration period studied. PMID:2125406

  19. Total extract of Korean red ginseng facilitates human bone marrow hematopoietic colony formation in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Gyung; Bae, Sung Hwa; Kim, Seong-Mo; Lee, Ji-Hye; Kim, Min Ji; Jang, Hae-Bong

    2014-01-01

    Background The number of CD34+ cells in a peripheral blood stem cell collection is the key factor in predicting successful treatment of hematologic malignancies. Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) is the most popular medicinal herb in Korea. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of KRG on hematopoietic colony formation. Methods Bone marrow (BM) samples were obtained from 8 human donors after acquiring informed consent. BM mononuclear cells (MNCs) were isolated, and CD34+ cells were sorted using magnetic beads. The sorted CD34+ cells were incubated with or without total extract of KRG (50 µg/mL, 100 µg/mL) or Ginsenoside Rg1 (100 µg/mL), and the hematopoietic colony assay was performed using methylcellulose semisolid medium. The CD34+ cell counts were measured by a single platform assay using flow cytometry. Results The numbers of human BM-MNCs and CD34+ cells obtained after purification were variable among donors (5.6×107 and 1.3-48×107 and 8.9×104 and 1.8-80×104, respectively). The cells expanded 1,944 times after incubation for 12 d. Total extract of KRG added to the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-specific medium increased CD34+ cell counts 3.6 times compared to 2.6 times when using HSC medium alone. Total numbers of hematopoietic colonies in KRG medium were more than those observed in conventional medium, especially that of erythroid colonies such as burst forming unit-erythroid. Conclusion Total extract of KRG facilitated CD34+ cell expansion and hematopoietic colony formation, especially of the erythroid lineage. PMID:25325037

  20. Bone Mesenchymal Stem Cells Contributed to the Neointimal Formation after Arterial Injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mincai; Li, Suqin; Yu, Liangzhu; Wu, Jiliang; She, Tonghui; Gan, Yaping; Hu, Zhenwu; Liao, Wenli; Xia, Hongli

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Recent findings suggest that in response to repair-to-injury bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) participate in the process of angiogenesis. It is unclear what role BMSCs play in the structure of the vessel wall. In present study, we aimed to determine whether BMSCs had the capacity of endothelial cells (ECs). Methods BMSCs were separated and cultured. FACS and RT-PCR analysis confirmed the gene expression phenotype. The capacity of migration and adhesion and the ultrastructure of BMSCs were examined. The effect of BMSCs transplantation on the vascular repair was investigated in a murine carotid artery-injured model. Results BMSCs could express some markers and form the tube-like structure. The migration and adhesion capacity of BMSCs increased significantly after stimulated. In addition, BMSCs had the intact cell junction. In vivo the local transfer of BMSCs differentiated into neo-endothelial cells in the injury model for carotid artery and contributed to the vascular remodeling. Conclusion These results showed that BMSCs could contribute to neointimal formation for vascular lesion and might be associated with the differentiation into ECs, which indicated the important therapeutic implications for vascular diseases. PMID:24349351

  1. The formation and early evolution of the Milky Way galaxy.

    PubMed

    Buser, R

    2000-01-01

    Recent observations indicate that the Milky Way may have formed by aggregation of gas and stars from a reservoir of preexisting small galaxies in the local universe. The process probably began more than 12 billion years ago with material of different original angular momentum following two separate evolutionary lines, one into the slowly rotating halo and central bulge and the other into the rapidly rotating disk. The existence of distinct thick and thin disks shows that continuing mergers of satellite galaxies likely also determined the early evolution of the main structural component of the luminous Galaxy. PMID:10615051

  2. An evaluation of several biochemical markers for bone formation and resorption in a protocol utilizing cyclical parathyroid hormone and calcitonin therapy for osteoporosis.

    PubMed Central

    Hodsman, A B; Fraher, L J; Ostbye, T; Adachi, J D; Steer, B M

    1993-01-01

    Female patients (n = 20) with osteoporosis, aged 66 +/- 5 yr were studied during a 24-h infusion of parathyroid hormone (PTH [1-34]) at a rate of 0.5 IU equivalents/kg.h, and then during a 28-d period of subcutaneous injections, at a dose of 800 IU equivalents per day. Thereafter half the patients received subcutaneous injections of calcitonin, 75 U/d for 42 d, and all patients were followed to the end of a 90-d cycle. Biochemical markers of bone formation (serum alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and the carboxy-terminal extension peptide of pro-collagen 1) and bone resorption (fasting urine calcium, hydroxyproline, and deoxypyridinoline) were compared during treatment by the intravenous and subcutaneous route of PTH administration, and subsequently during calcitonin therapy. During intravenous PTH infusion there were significant reductions in all three bone formation markers, despite expected rises in urinary calcium and hydroxyproline. By contrast, the circulating markers of bone formation increased rapidly by > 100% of baseline values during daily PTH injections (P < 0.001). Significant increases in bone resorption markers were only seen at the end of the 28 d of injections, but were < 100% over baseline values, (P < 0.05). Quantitative bone histomorphometry from biopsies obtained after 28 d of PTH treatment confirmed that bone formation at both the cellular and tissue levels were two to five times higher than similar indices measured in a control group of biopsies from untreated osteoporotic women. Subsequent treatment of these patients with calcitonin showed no significant changes in the biochemical markers of bone formation and only a modest attenuation of bone resorption. Thus, PTH infusion may inhibit bone formation, as judged by circulating biochemical markers, whereas daily injections confirm the potent anabolic actions of the hormone. Sequential calcitonin therapy does not appear to act synergistically with PTH in cyclical therapeutic protocols. PMID:8450043

  3. Early magma ocean and core formation on Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Wladimir; Breuer, Doris; Spohn, Tilman

    2013-04-01

    The Dawn mission confirms predictions that the asteroid 4 Vesta is differentiated in an iron rich core, a silicate mantle and a basaltic crust, supports its identification as the parent body of the HEDs and provides revised values of e.g. the mass, the bulk density and the dimensions of the asteroid 4 Vesta. Although no distinct volcanic regions have been identified, resurfacing by igneous processes distinguishes Vesta from asteroids like Ceres with its primitive surface, or Lutetia, which retained its primordial surface composition (and may still be partially differentiated[1]). Vesta's core radius is estimated to be 107-113 km[2] (derived from the mass concentration towards the centre). We performed numerical calculations of the thermo-chemical evolution of Vesta adopting the new data obtained by the Dawn mission (mass, bulk density, radius). We have expanded the thermo-chemical evolution model of [3], which includes accretion, compaction, melting, associated changes of the material properties, advective heat transport and differentiation by porous flow, by considering convection and thus effective cooling in a magma ocean to analyse its formation and evolution on Vesta. For melt fractions below the rheologically critical melt fraction (RCMF) of ?50% the heat transport by melt segregation is modeled assuming melt flow in porous media and by supplementing the energy balance equation with additional advection terms. Above the RCMF the effective thermal conductivity keff is computed from the convective heat flux in the soft turbulence regime[4]. The parameter keff mimics the vigorous convection and heat flux of the magma ocean with a low viscosity. It amounts to O(106) W m-1K-1 and substitutes the thermal conductivity in the energy balance equation. We consider both instantaneous and continuous accretion (assuming late runaway material accumulation). In particular, we compare the evolution scenarios arising from the instantaneous accretion of Vesta at different formation times t0 (relative to the formation of the CAIs) with those for which the accretion durations ta is between 0.5 and 2.0 Ma. According to our results core formation is possible for formation times of up to 2.5 Ma after the CAIs. An important process for the formation and evolution of a magma ocean is the partitioning of 26Al and its relocation with the silicate melt. Previous models[5] suggest the formation of an internal magma ocean throughout the whole mantle beneath a solid crust. Thereby, the partitioning of 26Al is neglected. In contrast to that, if partitioning of 26Al into the melt is considered we obtain an about 1 km thick superficial magma ocean due to the enrichment of the radioactive nuclides in the liquid phase and redistribution towards the surface with the rising melt (for t0

  4. Comparison of effect of BMP2, -4, and -6 on in vitro cartilage formation of human adult stem cells from bone marrow stroma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ichiro Sekiya; Benjamin L. Larson; Jussi T. Vuoristo; Roxanne L. Reger; Darwin J. Prockop

    2005-01-01

    The human adult stem cells from bone marrow stroma referred to as mesenchymal stem cells or marrow stromal cells (MSCs) are of interest because they are easily isolated and expanded and are capable of multipotential differentiation. Here, we examined the ability of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, -4, and -6 to enhance in vitro cartilage formation of MSCs. Human

  5. Early Oligocene initiation of North Atlantic Deep Water formation.

    PubMed

    Davies, R; Cartwright, J; Pike, J; Line, C

    2001-04-19

    Dating the onset of deep-water flow between the Arctic and North Atlantic oceans is critical for modelling climate change in the Northern Hemisphere and for explaining changes in global ocean circulation throughout the Cenozoic era (from about 65 million years ago to the present). In the early Cenozoic era, exchange between these two ocean basins was inhibited by the Greenland-Scotland ridge, but a gateway through the Faeroe-Shetland basin has been hypothesized. Previous estimates of the date marking the onset of deep-water circulation through this basin-on the basis of circumstantial evidence from neighbouring basins-have been contradictory, ranging from about 35 to 15 million years ago. Here we describe the newly discovered Southeast Faeroes drift, which extends for 120 km parallel to the basin axis. The onset of deposition in this drift has been dated to the early Oligocene epoch ( approximately 35 million years ago) from a petroleum exploration borehole. We show that the drift was deposited under a southerly flow regime, and conclude that the initiation of deep-water circulation from the Norwegian Sea into the North Atlantic Ocean took place much earlier than is currently assumed in most numerical models of ancient ocean circulation. PMID:11309613

  6. Adalimumab therapy reduces hand bone loss in early rheumatoid arthritis: explorative analyses from the PREMIER study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Hoff; T K Kvien; J Kalvesten; A Elden; G Haugeberg

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The effect of adalimumab on hand osteo- porosis was examined and related to radiographic joint damage in the three treatment arms of the PREMIER study: adalimumab plus methotrexate, adalimumab and methotrexate monotherapy. Predictors of hand bone loss were also searched for. Methods: 768 patients (537 fulfilled 2 years) with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) for less than 3 years, never treated

  7. A histomorphometric study of the effect of doxycycline and erythromycin on bone formation in dental alveolar socket of rat

    PubMed Central

    Shahabooei, Mohammad; Razavi, Sayed Mohammad; Minaiyan, Mohsen; Birang, Reza; Behfarnia, Parichehr; Yaghini, Jaber; Naghsh, Narges; Ghalayani, Parichehr; Hajisadeghi, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether subantimicrobial doses of doxycycline (DOX) and erythromycin (EM) used for the treatment of peri-implant osteolysis due to their anti-osteoclastogenesis can interfere with the osseous wound healing process in rat alveolar socket. Materials and Methods: Forty-five male Wistar rats had their first maxillary right molar extracted and were divided into three groups. DOX and EM at the doses of 5 mg/kg/day orally (p.o.) and 2 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally (i.p.) were administered respectively to two separate groups for 7 days after operation. In the control group the animals received normal saline (5 ml/kg). Five rats were sacrificed at 7, 14 and 21 days post-extraction in each study group. A histomorphometric analysis was used to evaluate new bone formation inside the alveolar socket. Significant level was set at 0.05. Results: The findings showed that the percentage of new bone formation (NBF) enhanced significantly on days 7 and 14. There was no significant difference in the NBF between DOX and EM groups. Conclusion: Short-term treatment with both DOX and EM enhanced new bone formation without any advances in favor of each drug. PMID:25878996

  8. Effects of JSOG-6 on protection against bone loss in ovariectomized mice through regulation of osteoblast differentiation and osteoclast formation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background JSOG-6 is used as a traditional medicine to relieve the symptoms associated with inflammation, rheumatism, and osteoporosis in Korea. In the present study, we investigated the effects of JSOG-6 on bone loss prevention both in in vitro and in vivo as well as its underlying mechanism of action. Methods Protection against bone loss was assessed in an ovariectomized (OVX) mouse model. Bone microarchitecture was measured using a micro-computed tomography to detect the parameters of three-dimensional structure of a trabecular bone. Serum biomarkers were also evaluated in an OVX-induced model. Osteoclasts derived from mouse bone marrow cells (BMCs) and osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were also employed to investigate the mechanism of action. Results Oral administration of JSOG-6 significantly increased the bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur in OVX mice in vivo. Especially, the reduced Tb.No (trabecular bone number) in the OVX group was significantly recovered by JSOG-6 treatment. The serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin, C-terminal telopeptide, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, biomarkers of bone resorption, were significantly elevated in OVX mice, but JSOG-6 effectively inhibited the increase in OVX mice. JSOG-6 was also found to enhance the osteoblastic differentiation and maturation with the increase of the density and ALP activity, a marker of osteoblastic differentiation, as well as calcium deposition, a marker of osteoblastic maturation in MC3T3-E1 cells. The effects of JSOG-6 on osteoblastic differentiation were also associated in part with the increase of ALP and OPN mRNA expressions and the decrease of RANKL mRNA expression in MC3T3-E1 cells. Conclusions The findings demonstrate that JSOG-6 induced protection against bone loss in OVX mice, and its anti-osteoporotic property might be, in part, a function of the stimulation of osteoblast differentiation and the inhibition of osteoclast formation. These findings suggest that JSOG-6 might be an applicable therapeutic traditional medicine for the regulation of the osteoporotic response. PMID:24903150

  9. Monitoring tissue inflammation and responses to drug treatments in early stages of mice bone fracture using 50 MHz ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yen-Chu; Lin, Yi-Hsun; Wang, Shyh-Hau; Lin, Shih-Ping; Shung, K. Kirk; Wu, Chia-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Bone fracture induces moderate inflammatory responses that are regulated by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) or 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) for initiating tissue repair and bone formation. Only a handful of non-invasive techniques focus on monitoring acute inflammation of injured bone currently exists. In the current study, we monitored in vivo inflammation levels during the initial 2 weeks of the inflammatory stage after mouse bone fracture utilizing 50 MHz ultrasound. The acquired ultrasonic images were correlated well with histological examinations. After the bone fracture in the tibia, dynamic changes in the soft tissue at the medial-posterior compartment near the fracture site were monitored by ultrasound on the days of 0, 2, 4, 7, and 14. The corresponding echogenicity increased on the 2nd, 4th, and 7th day, and subsequently declined to basal levels after the 14th day. An increase of cell death was identified by the positive staining of deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay and was consistent with ultrasound measurements. The increases of both COX-2 and Leukotriene B4 receptor 1 (BLT1, 5- LO-relative receptor), which are regulators for tissue inflammation, in the immunohistochemistry staining revealed their involvement in bone fracture injury. Monitoring the inflammatory response to various non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) treatments was investigated by treating injured mice with a daily oral intake of aspirin (Asp), indomethacin (IND), and a selective COX-2 inhibitor (SC-236). The Asp treatment significantly reduced fracture-increased echogenicity (hyperechogenicity, p < 0.05) in ultrasound images as well as inhibited cell death, and expression of COX-2 and BLT1. In contrast, treatment with IND or SC-236 did not reduce the hyperechogenicity, as confirmed by cell death (TUNEL) and expression levels of COX-2 or BLT1. Taken together, the current study reports the feasibility of a noninvasive ultrasound method capable of monitoring post-fracture tissue inflammation that positively correlates with histological findings. Results of this study also suggest that this approach may be further applied to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of inflammatory processes and to develop therapeutic strategies for facilitating fracture healing. PMID:23871514

  10. Monitoring tissue inflammation and responses to drug treatments in early stages of mice bone fracture using 50 MHz ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Chu; Lin, Yi-Hsun; Wang, Shyh-Hau; Lin, Shih-Ping; Shung, K Kirk; Wu, Chia-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Bone fracture induces moderate inflammatory responses that are regulated by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) or 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) for initiating tissue repair and bone formation. Only a handful of non-invasive techniques focus on monitoring acute inflammation of injured bone currently exists. In the current study, we monitored in vivo inflammation levels during the initial 2 weeks of the inflammatory stage after mouse bone fracture utilizing 50 MHz ultrasound. The acquired ultrasonic images were correlated well with histological examinations. After the bone fracture in the tibia, dynamic changes in the soft tissue at the medial-posterior compartment near the fracture site were monitored by ultrasound on the days of 0, 2, 4, 7, and 14. The corresponding echogenicity increased on the 2nd, 4th, and 7th day, and subsequently declined to basal levels after the 14th day. An increase of cell death was identified by the positive staining of deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay and was consistent with ultrasound measurements. The increases of both COX-2 and Leukotriene B4 receptor 1 (BLT1, 5-LO-relative receptor), which are regulators for tissue inflammation, in the immunohistochemistry staining revealed their involvement in bone fracture injury. Monitoring the inflammatory response to various non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) treatments was investigated by treating injured mice with a daily oral intake of aspirin (Asp), indomethacin (IND), and a selective COX-2 inhibitor (SC-236). The Asp treatment significantly reduced fracture-increased echogenicity (hyperechogenicity, p<0.05) in ultrasound images as well as inhibited cell death, and expression of COX-2 and BLT1. In contrast, treatment with IND or SC-236 did not reduce the hyperechogenicity, as confirmed by cell death (TUNEL) and expression levels of COX-2 or BLT1. Taken together, the current study reports the feasibility of a non-invasive ultrasound method capable of monitoring post-fracture tissue inflammation that positively correlates with histological findings. Results of this study also suggest that this approach may be further applied to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of inflammatory processes and to develop therapeutic strategies for facilitating fracture healing. PMID:23871514

  11. Formation of Massive Black Holes in Early Mergers ?

    E-print Network

    Hartmut Schulz; Stefanie Komossa

    1999-05-11

    We review theoretical and observational arguments favoring a scenario in which a typical massive black hole (MBH) is formed in the merger core of colliding disk systems at high z during the build-up of a spheroid. Low-mass (~ 10^{5-6} M_sun) seed black holes are assumed to have been formed earlier. The most massive black holes giving rise to the most luminous active galactic nuclei (AGN) in active phases are expected to grow in violent mergers of large disk-plus-bulge systems that lead to giant elliptical galaxies, the typical hosts of radio galaxies and quasars. We consider current ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRG) as systems closely resembling the predecessors of early formed massive ellipticals. As an example, we discuss the evidence for an AGN in the merging system NGC 6240 which we advertize as a prototypical active ULIRG, obscured in X-rays by a high column density absorber.

  12. Early galaxy formation in warm dark matter cosmologies

    E-print Network

    Dayal, Pratika; Pacucci, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    We present a framework for high-redshift ($z \\geq 7$) galaxy formation that traces their dark matter (DM) and baryonic assembly in four cosmologies: Cold Dark Matter (CDM) and Warm Dark Matter (WDM) with particle masses of $m_x =$ 1.5, 3 and 5 ${\\rm keV}$. We use the same astrophysical parameters regulating star formation and feedback, chosen to match current observations of the evolving ultra violet luminosity function (UV LF). We find that the assembly of observable (with current and upcoming instruments) galaxies in CDM and $m_x \\geq 3 {\\rm keV}$ WDM results in similar halo mass to light ratios (M/L), stellar mass densities (SMDs) and UV LFs. However the suppression of small-scale structure leads to a notably delayed and subsequently more rapid stellar assembly in the $1.5 {\\rm keV}$ WDM model. Thus galaxy assembly in $m_x \\leq 2 {\\rm keV}$ WDM cosmologies is characterized by: (i) a dearth of small-mass halos hosting faint galaxies; and (ii) a younger, more UV bright stellar population, for a given stellar...

  13. An in vitro bone tissue regeneration strategy combining chondrogenic and vascular priming enhances the mineralization potential of mesenchymal stem cells in vitro while also allowing for vessel formation.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Fiona E; Haugh, Matthew G; McNamara, Laoise M

    2015-04-01

    Chondrogenic priming (CP) of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and coculture of MSCs with human umbilical vein endothelial stem cells (HUVECs) both have been shown to significantly increase the potential for MSCs to undergo osteogenic differentiation and mineralization in vitro and in vivo. Such strategies mimic cartilage template formation or vascularization that occur during endochondral ossification during early fetal development. However, although both chondrogenesis and vascularization are crucial precursors for bone formation by endochondral ossification, no in vitro bone tissue regeneration strategy has sought to incorporate both events simultaneously. The objective of this study is to develop an in vitro bone regeneration strategy that mimics critical aspects of the endochondral ossification process, specifically (1) the formation of a cartilage template and (2) subsequent vascularization of this template. We initially prime the MSCs with chondrogenic growth factors, to ensure the production of a cartilage template, and subsequently implement a coculture strategy involving MSC and HUVECs. Three experimental groups were compared; (1) CP for 21 days with no addition of cells; (2) CP for 21 days followed by coculture of HUVECs (250,000 cells); (3) CP for 21 days followed by coculture of HUVECs and MSCs (250,000 cells) at a ratio of 1:1. Each group was cultured for a further 21 days in osteogenic media after the initial CP period. Biochemical (DNA, Alkaline Phosphatase Activity, Calcium, and Vessel Endothelial Growth Factor) and histological analyses (Alcian blue, alizarin red, CD31(+), and collagen type X) were performed 1, 2, and 3 weeks after the media switch. The results of this study show that CP provides a cartilage-like template that provides a suitable platform for HUVEC and MSC cells to attach, proliferate, and infiltrate for up to 3 weeks. More importantly we show that the use of the coculture methodology, rudimentary vessels are formed within this cartilage template and enhanced the mineralization potential of MSCs. Taken together these results indicate for the first time that the application of both chondrogenic and vascular priming of MSCs enhances the mineralization potential of MSCs in vitro while also allowing the formation of immature vessels. PMID:25588588

  14. Early Galaxy Formation in Warm Dark Matter Cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayal, Pratika; Mesinger, Andrei; Pacucci, Fabio

    2015-06-01

    We present a framework for high-redshift (z? 7) galaxy formation that traces their dark matter (DM) and baryonic assembly in four cosmologies: cold dark matter (CDM) and warm dark matter (WDM) with particle masses of {{m}x} = 1.5, 3, and 5 keV. We use the same astrophysical parameters regulating star formation and feedback, chosen to match current observations of the evolving ultraviolet luminosity function (UV LF). We find that the assembly of observable (with current and upcoming instruments) galaxies in CDM and {{m}x}?slant 3 keV WDM results in similar halo mass-to-light ratios (M/L), stellar mass densities (SMDs), and UV LFs. However, the suppression of small-scale structure leads to a notably delayed and subsequently more rapid stellar assembly in the 1.5 keV WDM model. Thus, galaxy assembly in {{m}x}? 2 keV WDM cosmologies is characterized by (1) a dearth of small-mass halos hosting faint galaxies and (2) a younger, more UV-bright stellar population, for a given stellar mass. The higher M/L (effect 2) partially compensates for the dearth of small-mass halos (effect 1), making the resulting UV LFs closer to CDM than expected from simple estimates of halo abundances. We find that the redshift evolution of the SMD is a powerful probe of the nature of DM. Integrating down to a limit of {{M}UV}=-16.5 for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the SMD evolves as log (SMD) \\propto -0.63(1+z) in {{m}x}=1.5 keV WDM, as compared to log (SMD) \\propto -0.44(1+z) in CDM. Thus, high-redshift stellar assembly provides a powerful test bed for WDM models, accessible with the upcoming JWST.

  15. Local delivery of siRNA using a biodegradable polymer application to enhance BMP-induced bone formation.

    PubMed

    Manaka, Tomoya; Suzuki, Akinobu; Takayama, Kazushi; Imai, Yuuki; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Takaoka, Kunio

    2011-12-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is useful tool for specific and efficient knockdown of disease-related genes. However, in vivo applications of siRNA are limited due to difficulty in its efficient delivery to target cells. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of a biodegradable hydrogel, poly-d,l-lactic acid-p-dioxanone-polyethylene glycol block co-polymer (PLA-DX-PEG), as a siRNA carrier. PLA-DX-PEG pellets with or without fluorescein-labeled dsRNA were implanted into mouse dosal muscle pouches. The cellular uptake of dsRNA surround the polymer was confirmed by fluorescent microscopy. The fluorescence intensity was dose-dependent of the dsRNA, and exhibited a time-dependent decrease. To investigate its biological efficiency, noggin (antagonoist to BMPs) gene-silencing with siRNA (siRNA/Noggin) was examined by the amount of suppression of BMP-2-induced noggin expression and the level of performance of BMP, indicated by ectopic bone formation. Noggin gene expression induced by BMP-2 was suppressed by addition of siRNA/Noggin to the implant, and the ectopic bone formation induced by implants with both BMP-2 and siRNA/Noggin was significantly greater than those induced by implants with BMP-2 alone. These results indicate the efficacy of local delivery of siRNAs by PLA-DX-PEG polymer, which intensified bone-inducing effects of BMP and promoted new bone formation by suppressing gene expression of Noggin. PMID:21963281

  16. Inhibition of cathepsin K increases modeling-based bone formation, and improves cortical dimension and strength in adult ovariectomized monkeys.

    PubMed

    Pennypacker, Brenda L; Chen, Charles M; Zheng, Helen; Shih, Mei-Shu; Belfast, Mary; Samadfam, Rana; Duong, Le T

    2014-08-01

    Treatment with the cathepsin K (CatK) inhibitor odanacatib (ODN) protects against bone loss and maintains normal biomechanical properties in the spine and hip of ovariectomized (OVX) preclinical models. Here, we characterized the effects of ODN on the dynamics of cortical modeling and remodeling, and dimension and strength of the central femur in adult OVX-rhesus monkeys. Animals were treated with vehicle or ODN (6 or 30?mg/kg, once per day [q.d., p.o.]) in prevention mode for 21 months. Calcein and tetracycline double-labeling were given at 12 and 21 months, and the femoral cross-sections were subjected to dynamic histomorphometric and cement line analyses. ODN treatment significantly increased periosteal and endocortical bone formation (BFR/BS), accompanied with an increase in endocortical mineralizing surface (102%, p?bone mineral content (BMC) (r(2) ?=?0.9057, p?bone formation, ODN significantly improved cortical dimension and strength in OVX monkeys. This novel mechanism of CatK inhibition in stimulating cortical formation suggests that ODN represents a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:24591096

  17. Formation of Stony-Iron Meteorites in Early Giant Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, E.; Goldstein, J.; Yang, J.

    2010-06-01

    Pallasites, meteorites composed mainly of olivine (Mg-Fe2SiO4) and metallic Fe-Ni, are widely thought to have formed at the boundary between the metallic core of a melted and differentiated asteroid and the surrounding olivine mantle, but their precise origin is controversial. Studies of the thermal histories of 28 members of the largest group of pallasites, called the main group, by Jijin Yang and colleagues at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst and the University of Hawaii show they cooled at diverse rates of 2.5-20 K per million years. These rates are much slower than the cooling rates of another group called IIIAB irons (50-350 K/Myr) proving that the IIIAB irons did not cool in the core of the main-group pallasite body, contrary to widespread belief. The tenfold range in the cooling rates of the main-group samples shows these pallasites did not cool at the core-mantle boundary of a single body, otherwise they would have had indistinguishable cooling rates. The main-group pallasites, like several groups of iron meteorites, appear to have cooled in bodies that were formed after the original differentiated bodies were split open by glancing collisions with larger bodies. Pallasites, the iron meteorites, and their parent asteroids are vestiges of a vast population of differentiated bodies with a violent early impact history.

  18. DUAL HALOS AND FORMATION OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Hong Soo; Lee, Myung Gyoon, E-mail: hspark@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: mglee@astro.snu.ac.kr [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-20

    We present a determination of the two-dimensional shape parameters of the blue and red globular cluster systems (GCSs) in a large number of elliptical galaxies and lenticular galaxies (early-type galaxies, called ETGs). We use a homogeneous data set of the globular clusters in 23 ETGs obtained from the HST/ACS Virgo Cluster Survey. The position angles of both blue and red GCSs show a correlation with those of the stellar light distribution, showing that the major axes of the GCSs are well aligned with those of their host galaxies. However, the shapes of the red GCSs show a tight correlation with the stellar light distribution as well as with the rotation property of their host galaxies, while the shapes of the blue GCSs do much less. These provide clear geometric evidence that the origins of the blue and red globular clusters are distinct and that ETGs may have dual halos: a blue (metal-poor) halo and a red (metal-rich) halo. These two halos show significant differences in metallicity, structure, and kinematics, indicating that they are formed in two distinguishable ways. The red halos might have formed via dissipational processes with rotation, while the blue halos are through accretion.

  19. Combined photoacoustic and ultrasonic diagnosis of early bone loss and density variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lashkari, Bahman; Mandelis, Andreas

    2012-02-01

    Over the past two decades, osteoporosis has been recognized among the most serious public health problems. Fortunately with the growing awareness of osteoporosis, new treatments have been developed for the prevention of fracture. At the same time, there is a rapid improvement in diagnostic methods. In this study biomedical photoacoustics (PA) is applied to the analysis of bone mineral concentration. The PA signal depends on optical as well as mechanical properties of the object and therefore has the potential to provide higher sensitivity to density variations compared with standard diagnostic methods, like ultrasound. A laser source with 800 nm wavelength and different ultrasonic transducers with resonance frequencies in the range 1 to 5 MHz were employed. The CW or frequency-domain (FD) PA radar method was utilized with linear frequency modulation chirps to provide temporal gating control over the transmitted signal and higher sensitivity in the detected signal. The laser intensity was set below the safety standards for skin exposure. The preliminary studies showed adequate optical absorption by cortical bone to generate measurable PA signals and the transmission of laser light through this layer. Experiments are focused on detection and evaluation of PA signals from in-vitro animal cortical bones with and without a trabecular sublayer. The trabecular layer is then diluted by chemical etching and differences in the PA signals are discussed.

  20. Antagonizing the parathyroid calcium receptor stimulates parathyroid hormone secretion and bone formation in osteopenic rats.

    PubMed

    Gowen, M; Stroup, G B; Dodds, R A; James, I E; Votta, B J; Smith, B R; Bhatnagar, P K; Lago, A M; Callahan, J F; DelMar, E G; Miller, M A; Nemeth, E F; Fox, J

    2000-06-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is an effective bone anabolic agent, but it must be administered parenterally. An orally active anabolic agent would provide a valuable alternative for treating osteoporosis. NPS 2143 is a novel, selective antagonist (a "calcilytic") of the parathyroid cell Ca(2+) receptor. Daily oral administration of NPS 2143 to osteopenic ovariectomized (OVX) rats caused a sustained increase in plasma PTH levels, provoking a dramatic increase in bone turnover but no net change in bone mineral density. Concurrent oral administration of NPS 2143 and subcutaneous infusion of 17beta-estradiol also resulted in increased bone turnover. However, the antiresorptive action of estrogen decreased the extent of bone resorption stimulated by the elevated PTH levels, leading to an increase in bone mass compared with OVX controls or to either treatment alone. Despite the sustained stimulation to the parathyroid gland, parathyroid cells did not undergo hyperplasia. These data demonstrate that an increase in endogenous PTH secretion, induced by antagonism of the parathyroid cell Ca(2+) receptor with a small molecule, leads to a dramatic increase in bone turnover, and they suggest a novel approach to the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:10841518

  1. Antagonizing the parathyroid calcium receptor stimulates parathyroid hormone secretion and bone formation in osteopenic rats

    PubMed Central

    Gowen, Maxine; Stroup, George B.; Dodds, Robert A.; James, Ian E.; Votta, Bart J.; Smith, Brian R.; Bhatnagar, Pradip K.; Lago, Amparo M.; Callahan, James F.; DelMar, Eric G.; Miller, Michael A.; Nemeth, Edward F.; Fox, John

    2000-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is an effective bone anabolic agent, but it must be administered parenterally. An orally active anabolic agent would provide a valuable alternative for treating osteoporosis. NPS 2143 is a novel, selective antagonist (a “calcilytic”) of the parathyroid cell Ca2+ receptor. Daily oral administration of NPS 2143 to osteopenic ovariectomized (OVX) rats caused a sustained increase in plasma PTH levels, provoking a dramatic increase in bone turnover but no net change in bone mineral density. Concurrent oral administration of NPS 2143 and subcutaneous infusion of 17?-estradiol also resulted in increased bone turnover. However, the antiresorptive action of estrogen decreased the extent of bone resorption stimulated by the elevated PTH levels, leading to an increase in bone mass compared with OVX controls or to either treatment alone. Despite the sustained stimulation to the parathyroid gland, parathyroid cells did not undergo hyperplasia. These data demonstrate that an increase in endogenous PTH secretion, induced by antagonism of the parathyroid cell Ca2+ receptor with a small molecule, leads to a dramatic increase in bone turnover, and they suggest a novel approach to the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:10841518

  2. Bone Formation with Two Types of Grafting Materials: A Histologic and Histomorphometric Study

    PubMed Central

    Rokn, Amir Reza; Khodadoostan, Mohammad Amin; Reza Rasouli Ghahroudi, Amir Ali; Motahhary, Puria; Kharrazi Fard, Mohammad Javad; Bruyn, Hugo De; Afzalifar, Rose; Soolar, Ehsan; Soolari, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although autogenous bone grafts are considered the gold standard for bone regeneration, they have certain limitations, including patient morbidity at the harvest site. Synthetic bone substitutes have been developed to overcome some of these limitations. The present study aimed to compare the osteogenic properties of Straumann Bone Ceramic (SBC), which is a biphasic calcium phosphate, with Bio-Oss, an inorganic bovine bone material, in an animal model. Methods: Thirteen rabbits were included in this study. In each rabbit, four 6.5-mm-diameter identical defects were prepared on the calvarium. One site was filled with Bio-Oss, the second site was treated with small-particle SBC, the third site was treated with large-particle SBC, and the fourth site was left as an untreated control. After 4 and 8 weeks, the animals were sacrificed, and histologic and histomorphometric examinations were performed. The data were analyzed using Friedman and multiple-comparison Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in the amount of bone fill between the four groups. L-SBC showed more inflammation and foreign-body reactions than the other bone substitutes. Conclusion: No statistically significant differences were found between groups. Further studies on this issue seem necessary. PMID:21760862

  3. Ly? heating and its impact on early structure formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciardi, B.; Salvaterra, R.

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, we have calculated the effect of Ly? photons emitted by the first stars on the evolution of the intergalactic medium (IGM) temperature. We have considered both a standard Salpeter IMF and a delta-function IMF for very massive stars with mass 300Msolar. We find that the Ly? photons produced by the stellar populations considered here are able to heat the IGM at z <~ 25, although never above ~100 K. Stars with a Salpeter IMF are more effective as, due to the contribution from small-mass long-living stars, they produce a higher Ly? background. Ly? heating can affect the subsequent formation of small-mass objects by producing an entropy floor that may limit the amount of gas able to collapse and reduce the gas clumping. We find that the gas fraction in haloes of mass below ~5 × 106Msolar is less than 50 per cent (for the smallest masses this fraction drops to 1 per cent or less) compared to a case without Ly? heating. Finally, Ly? photons heat the IGM temperature above the cosmic microwave background temperature and render the 21-cm line from neutral hydrogen visible in emission at z <~ 15.

  4. A model for core formation in the early Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. H.; Drake, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    Two basic types exogenous models were proposed to account for siderophile and chalcophile element abundances in the Earth's upper mantle. The first model requires that the Earth be depleted in volatiles and that, after a core formation event which extracted the most siderophile elements into the core, additional noble siderophile elements (Pt, Ir, Au) were added as a late veneer and mixed into the mantle. The second model postulates a reduced Earth with approximately CI elemental abundances in which a primary core forming event depleted all siderophile elements in the mantle. The plausibility of models which require fine scale mixing of chondritic material into the upper mantle is analyzed. Mixing in liquids is more efficient, but large degrees of silicate partial melting will facilitate the separation of magma from residual solids. Any external events affecting the upper mantle of the Earth should also be evident in the Moon; but siderophile and chalcophile element abundance patterns inferred for the mantles of the Earth and Moon differ. There appear to be significant physical difficulties associated with chondritic veneer models.

  5. Star Formation Efficiency in the Central 1 kpc Region of Early-Type Spiral Galaxies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akio K. Inoue; Hiroyuki Hirashita; Hideyuki Kamaya

    2000-01-01

    It has been reported recently that there are some early-type spiral (Sa--Sab)\\u000agalaxies having evident star-forming regions which concentrate in their own\\u000acentral 1-kpc. In such central region, is the mechanism of the star formation\\u000adistinct from that in disks of spiral galaxies? To reveal this, we estimate the\\u000astar formation efficiency (SFE) in this central 1-kpc star-forming region of

  6. [Protective effects of WR2721 on early bone marrow hematopoietic function in mice exposed to 6.5 Gy of (60)Co ?-rays].

    PubMed

    Deng, Zi-Liang; Zhang, Liu-Zhen; Cong, Yue; Liu, Xiao-Lan; Yu, Zu-Ying; Shan, Ya-Jun; Cui, Yu; Wang, Li-Mei; Xing, Shuang; Cong, Yu-Wen; Luo, Qing-Liang

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of WR2721(amifostine) against bone marrow hematopoietic damage of mice exposed to 6.5 Gy of (60)Co-? ray. A total of 60 C57/BL6J mice was divided into 3 groups:normal group (mice were injected with physiological salt solution), irradiation group (mice were injected with physiologic salt solution before irradiation) and WR2721 group (mice were injected with WR2721 before irradiation). The WBC, neutrophil (Neut), Plt and RBC levels in peripheral blood of 3 group mice were counted within 60 days after irradiation; the bone marrow nuclear cells (BMNC) were counted at 2 and 24 hours after irradiation; the hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (LK/LSK) level and colony formation capability were detected by flow cytometry at 2 and 24 hours after irradiation. The results indicated that the counts of WBC and neut at 4 and 18 days, Plt at 7-18 days and RBC at 10-30 day after irradiation in WR2721 group were higher than those in irradiation group (P < 0.05); the BMNC, LSK and LK levels obviously increased at 24 hours after irradiation (P < 0.05), the CFU-GEMM, CFU-GM, CFU-MK BFU-E and CFU-E all significantly increased at 2 and 24 hours after irradiation (P < 0.01), as compared with irradiation group. It is concluded that WR2721 can effectively alleviate early hematopoietic damage and promote the fast recovery of peripheral blood cells in mice exposed to ?-ray, suggesting that the WR2721 has significant radioprotective effect on hematopoietic system. PMID:24989296

  7. TNF-TNFR2/p75 Signaling Inhibits Early and Increases Delayed Nontargeted Effects in Bone Marrow-derived Endothelial Progenitor Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Sasi, Sharath P.; Song, Jin; Park, Daniel; Enderling, Heiko; McDonald, J. Tyson; Gee, Hannah; Garrity, Brittany; Shtifman, Alexander; Yan, Xinhua; Walsh, Kenneth; Natarajan, Mohan; Kishore, Raj; Goukassian, David A.

    2014-01-01

    TNF-?, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, is highly expressed after being irradiated (IR) and is implicated in mediating radiobiological bystander responses (RBRs). Little is known about specific TNF receptors in regulating TNF-induced RBR in bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (BM-EPCs). Full body ?-IR WT BM-EPCs showed a biphasic response: slow decay of p-H2AX foci during the initial 24 h and increase between 24 h and 7 days post-IR, indicating a significant RBR in BM-EPCs in vivo. Individual TNF receptor (TNFR) signaling in RBR was evaluated in BM-EPCs from WT, TNFR1/p55KO, and TNFR2/p75KO mice, in vitro. Compared with WT, early RBR (1–5 h) were inhibited in p55KO and p75KO EPCs, whereas delayed RBR (3–5 days) were amplified in p55KO EPCs, suggesting a possible role for TNFR2/p75 signaling in delayed RBR. Neutralizing TNF in ?-IR conditioned media (CM) of WT and p55KO BM-EPCs largely abolished RBR in both cell types. ELISA protein profiling of WT and p55KO EPC ?-IR-CM over 5 days showed significant increases in several pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-?, IL-1? (Interleukin-1 alpha), RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted), and MCP-1. In vitro treatments with murine recombinant (rm) TNF-? and rmIL-1?, but not rmMCP-1 or rmRANTES, increased the formation of p-H2AX foci in nonirradiated p55KO EPCs. We conclude that TNF-TNFR2 signaling may induce RBR in naïve BM-EPCs and that blocking TNF-TNFR2 signaling may prevent delayed RBR in BM-EPCs, conceivably, in bone marrow milieu in general. PMID:24711449

  8. Alpha-Lipoic Acid Promotes Osteoblastic Formation in H2 O2 -Treated MC3T3-E1 Cells and Prevents Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chao; Xu, Dong; Wang, Chang-Yuan; Jin, Yue; Liu, Qi; Meng, Qiang; Liu, Ke-Xin; Sun, Hui-Jun; Liu, Mo-Zhen

    2015-09-01

    Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), a naturally occurring compound and dietary supplement, has been established as a potent antioxidant that is a strong scavenger of free radicals. Recently, accumulating evidences has indicated the relationship between oxidative stress and osteoporosis (OP). Some studies have investigated the possible beneficial effects of ALA on OP both in vivo and in vitro; however, the precise mechanism(s) underlying the bone-protective action of ALA remains unclear. Considering this, we focused on the anti-oxidative capacity of ALA to exert bone-protective effects in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, the effects of ALA on osteoblastic formation in H2 O2 -treated MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts and ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss in rats were investigated. The results showed that ALA promoted osteoblast differentiation, mineralization and maturation and inhibited osteoblast apoptosis, thus increasing the OPG/receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) ligand (RANKL) ratio and leading to enhanced bone formation in vitro and inhibited bone loss in vivo. Further study revealed that ALA exerted its bone-protective effects by inhibiting reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by down-regulating Nox4 gene expression and protein synthesis and attenuating the transcriptional activation of NF-?B. In addition, ALA might exert its bone-protective effects by activating the Wnt/Lrp5/?-catenin signaling pathway. Taken together, the present study indicated that ALA promoted osteoblastic formation in H2 O2 -treated MC3T3-E1 cells and prevented OVX-induced bone loss in rats by regulating Nox4/ROS/NF-?B and Wnt/Lrp5/?-catenin signaling pathways, which provided possible mechanisms of bone-protective effects in regulating osteoblastic formation and preventing bone loss. Taken together, the results suggest that ALA may be a candidate for clinical OP treatment. J. Cell. Physiol. 230: 2184-2201, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25655087

  9. A Study of Micronucleus Induction with Methyl Formate and 2-Methylbutane in Bone Marrow Cells of Male ICR Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo-Jin; Kang, Min-Gu; Kim, Jong-Kyu; Chung, Yong-Hyun; Yang, Jeong-Sun

    2010-01-01

    Objectives We investigated the genotoxicity of two chemicals, methyl formate and 2-methylbutane, using male ICR mice bone marrow cells for the screening of micronucleus induction. Although these two chemicals have already been tested numerous times, a micronucleus test has not been conducted and the amounts used have recently been increased. Methods 7 week male ICR mice were tested at dosages of 250, 500, and 1,000 mg/kg for methyl formate and 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg for 2-methlybutane, respectively. After 24 hours of oral administration with the two chemicals, the mice were sacrificed and their bone marrow cells were prepared for smearing slides. Results As a result of counting the micronucleated polychromatic erythrocyte (MNPCE) of 2,000 polychromatic erythrocytes, all treated groups expressed no statistically significant increase of MNPCE compared to the negative control group. There were no clinical signs related with the oral exposure of these two chemicals. Conclusion It was concluded that the two chemicals did not induce micronucleus in the bone marrow cells of ICR mice, and there was no direct proportion with dosage. These results indicate that the two chemicals have no mutagenic potential under each study condition. PMID:22953166

  10. A two-year history of high bone loading physical activity attenuates ethnic differences in bone strength and geometry in pre-/early pubertal children from a low-middle income country.

    PubMed

    Meiring, Rebecca M; Avidon, Ingrid; Norris, Shane A; McVeigh, Joanne A

    2013-12-01

    We examined the interplay between ethnicity and weight-bearing physical activity on the content and volumetric properties of bone in a pre- to early pubertal South African Black and White population. Sixty six children [Black boys, 10.4 (1.4)yrs, n=15; Black girls, 10.1 (1.2)yrs, n=27; White boys, 10.1 (1.1)yrs, n=7; White girls, 9.6 (1.3)yrs, n=17] reported on all their physical activities over the past two years in an interviewer administered physical activity questionnaire (PAQ). All participants underwent a whole body and site-specific DXA scan and we also assessed bone structure and estimated bone strength with pQCT. Children were classified as being either high or low bone loaders based on the cohort's median peak bone strain score estimated from the PAQ. In the low bone loading group, Black children had greater femoral neck bone mineral content (BMC) (2.9 (0.08)g) than White children (2.4 (0.11)g; p=0.05). There were no ethnic differences in the high bone loaders for femoral neck BMC. At the cortical site, the Black low bone loaders had a greater radius area (97.3 (1.3) vs 88.8 (2.6)mm(2); p=0.05) and a greater tibia total area (475.5 (8.7) vs. 397.3 (14.0)mm(2); p=0.001) and strength (1633.7 (60.1) vs. 1271.8 (98.6)mm(3); p=0.04) compared to the White low bone loaders. These measures were not different between the Black low and high bone loaders or between the Black and White high bone loaders. In conclusion, the present study shows that there may be ethnic and physical activity associations in the bone health of Black and White pre-pubertal children and further prospective studies are required to determine the possible ethnic specific response to mechanical loading. PMID:24012701

  11. Stability and Three-Dimensional Analysis of Bone Formation in Longitudinally Fluted Miniscrew Implants 

    E-print Network

    Truong, An Van

    2014-04-22

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effects of longitudinal flutes on mini-screw implant (MSI) bone healing and stability. Using 11 skeletally mature New Zealand White rabbits, 33 longitudinally fluted and ...

  12. In vitro and in vivo studies of surface-structured implants for bone formation

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Lu; Feng, Bo; Wang, Peizhi; Ding, Siyang; Liu, Zhiyuan; Zhou, Jie; Yu, Rong

    2012-01-01

    Background and methods Micronanoscale topologies play an important role in implant osteointegration and determine the success of an implant. We investigated the effect of three different implant surface topologies on osteoblast response and bone regeneration. In this study, implants with nanotubes and micropores were used, and implants with flat surfaces were used as the control group. Results Our in vitro studies showed that the nanostructured topologies improved the proliferation, differentiation, and development of the osteoblastic phenotype. Histological analysis further revealed that the nanotopology increased cell aggregation at the implant-tissue interfaces and enhanced bone-forming ability. Pushout testing indicated that the nanostructured topology greatly increased the bone-implant interfacial strength within 4 weeks of implantation. Conclusion Nanotopography may improve regeneration of bone tissue and shows promise for dental implant applications. PMID:23028216

  13. Overexpression of ?FosB transcription factor(s) increases bone formation and inhibits adipogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Sabatakos; N. A. Sims; J. Chen; K. Aoki; M. B. Kelz; M. Amling; Y. Bouali; K. Mukhopadhyay; K. Ford; E. J. Nestler; R. Baron

    2000-01-01

    Members of the AP-1 family of transcription factors participate in the regulation of bone cell proliferation and differentiation. We report here a potent AP-1-related regulator of osteoblast function: ?FosB, a naturally occurring truncated form of FosB that arises from alternative splicing of the fosB transcript and is expressed in osteoblasts. Overexpression of ?FosB in transgenic mice leads to increased bone

  14. Copal Bone Cement Is More Effective in Preventing Biofilm Formation than Palacos RG

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geert T. Ensing; Jim R. van Horn; Henny C. van der Mei; Henk J. Busscher; Daniëlle Neut

    2008-01-01

    Bone cements loaded with combinations of antibiotics are assumed more effective in preventing infection than bone cements\\u000a with gentamicin as a single drug. Moreover, loading with an additional antibiotic may increase interconnectivity between antibiotic\\u000a particles to enhance release. We hypothesize addition of clindamycin to a gentamicin-loaded cement yields higher antibiotic\\u000a release and causes larger inhibition zones against clinical isolates grown

  15. Early Visean bryozoans from the Shishtu II Member, Shishtu Formation, central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolokonnikova, Zoya; Yazdi-Moghadam, Mohsen

    2013-12-01

    Four bryozoan species are described from the upper member (Shishtu II) (Visean, Early Carboniferous=Mississippian) of the Shishtu Formation of central Iran: Nikiforovella ulbensis Nekhoroshev, 1956, Nicklesopora elegantulaformis (Nekhoroshev, 1956), Primorella cf. iranica Gorjunova, 2006, and Nikiforopora intermedia (Nikiforova, 1950). This Visean assemblage shows close palaeogeographical affinities of Iran with Kazakhstan and Russia (eastern Transbaikalia, Kurgan region).

  16. Modeling the Early Stages of Thin Film Formation by Energetic Atom Deposition

    E-print Network

    Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    on a surface with energies far in excess of the thermal energy of an average lattice atom. The simultaneousModeling the Early Stages of Thin Film Formation by Energetic Atom Deposition C.A. STONE and N of discrete kinetic rate equations to a Fokker-Planck (FP)-type continuum. Unique features of the atomic

  17. Some Remarks on Modeling of the Early Stage of Cloud Formation in a Simulation Chamber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adel N. Saad; Josef Podzimek; John C. Carstens

    1976-01-01

    A numerical model has been developed to describe the early stage of cloud formation in a relatively small simulation chamber. The results for adiabatic expansion show a tendency for the cloud droplet spectrum to narrow, similar to the results obtained by other authors. The influence of updraft fluctuations is not as important as the fluctuation of temperature which depends upon

  18. Sights and Sounds Circa 1776; Early American Materials in Non-Book Formats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevin, David G.

    Early American materials in non-book formats available at Washington University's John M. Olin Library are listed. Microform materials include: books, pamphlets and broadsides printed between 1636 through 1800; 700 rare volumes from the colonial, revolutionary, and federal periods from the University of Virginia; American plays from 1714-1830; and…

  19. CO2-SO2 clathrate hydrate formation on early Mars1 Eric Chassefirea,b

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    atmosphere was necessary in order to keep28 early Mars warm and wet. However, current models have not been a significant formation of sulfate37 minerals during the Noachian and inhibiting carbonates from forming of episodic warm47 episodes facilitated by the release of SO2 to the atmosphere. These episodes could explain

  20. DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT AND PROVENANCE OF THE LATE APTIAN TO EARLY ALBIAN CUMMINGS FORMATION, EAST CENTRAL ALBERTA,

    E-print Network

    Beaumont, Christopher

    Mannville Group, has been interpreted as a transgressive estuary deposit. Basal channel incision followed Mannville Groups. Key Words: Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin, depositional environment, Cummings of east central Alberta, the late Aptian to early Albian Cummings Formation, found within the Lower

  1. Microgravity and bone cell mechanosensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein-Nulend, J.; Bacabac, R. G.; Veldhuijzen, J. P.; Van Loon, J. J. W. A.

    2003-10-01

    The capacity of bone tissue to alter its mass and structure in response to mechanical demands has long been recognized but the cellular mechanisms involved remained poorly understood. Bone not only develops as a structure designed specifically for mechanical tasks, but it can adapt during life toward more efficient mechanical performance. Mechanical adaptation of bone is a cellular process and needs a biological system that senses the mechanical loading. The loading information must then be communicated to the effector cells that form new bone or destroy old bone. The in vivo operating cell stress derived from bone loading is likely the flow of interstitial fluid along the surface of osteocytes and lining cells. The response of bone cells in culture to fluid flow includes prostaglandin (PG) synthesis and expression of prostaglandin G/H synthase inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2). Cultured bone cells also rapidly produce nitric oxide (NO) in response to fluid flow as a result of activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (ecNOS), which enzyme also mediates the adaptive response of bone tissue to mechanical loading. Earlier studies have shown that the disruption of the actin-cytoskeleton abolishes the response to stress, suggesting that the cytoskeleton is involved in cellular mechanotransduction. Microgravity, or better near weightlessness, is associated with the loss of bone in astronauts, and has catabolic effects on mineral metabolism in bone organ cultures. This might be explained as resulting from an exceptional form of disuse under near weightlessness conditions. However, under near weightlessness conditions the assembly of cytoskeletal elements may be altered since it has been shown that the direction of the gravity vector determines microtubular pattern formation in vivo. We found earlier that the transduction of mechanical signals in bone cells also involves the cytoskeleton and is related to PGEZ production. Therefore it is possible that the mechanosensitivity of bone cells is altered under near weightlessness conditions, and that this abnormal mechanosensation contributes to disturbed bone metabolism observed in astronauts. In our current project for the International Space Station, we wish to test this hypothesis experimentally using an in vitro model. The specific aim of our research project is to test whether near weightlessness decreases the sensitivity of bone cells for mechanical stress through a decrease in early signaling molecules (NO, PGs) that are involved in the mechanical loading-induced osteogenic response. Bone cells are cultured with or without gravity prior to and during mechanical loading, using our modified in vitro oscillating fluid flow apparatus. In this "FlowSpace" project we are developing a cell culture module that is used to provide further insight in the mechanism of mechanotransduction in bone.

  2. Effects of prostaglandin F2 alpha on bone formation and resorption in cultured neonatal mouse calvariae: Role of prostaglandin E2 production

    SciTech Connect

    Raisz, L.G.; Alander, C.B.; Fall, P.M.; Simmons, H.A. (Univ. of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington (USA))

    1990-02-01

    Although most studies show that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is the most potent and effective of the prostanoids in bone, recent data in cell culture suggest that PGF2 alpha may have unique effects, particularly on cell replication. The present study was undertaken to compare the effects of PGF2 alpha and PGE2 in cultured neonatal mouse parietal bones by simultaneous measurement of bone resorption as release of previously incorporated 45Ca, bone formation as incorporation of (3H)proline into collagenase-digestible (CDP) and noncollagen protein, and DNA synthesis as incorporation of (3H)thymidine. PGF2 alpha was less effective than PGE2 as a stimulator of bone resorption, and its effects were partially inhibited by indomethacin and markedly inhibited by glucocorticoids. In contrast, the resorptive response to PGE2 was unaffected by indomethacin and only partially inhibited by cortisol. PGF2 alpha had little effect on bone formation, in contrast to the biphasic effect of PGE2, which inhibited labeling of CDP in the absence of cortisol and stimulated CDP labeling in the presence of cortisol. PGF2 alpha increased thymidine incorporation into DNA, but the effect was smaller than that of PGE2 and was inhibited by indomethacin. These observations suggested that PGF2 alpha might act in part by stimulating PGE2 production. By RIA, PGE2 concentrations were increased in the medium of bones treated with PGF2 alpha, and this increase was blocked by indomethacin. By HPLC, bones prelabeled with (3H)arachidonic acid showed an increase in labeled PGE2 release, and RIA showed an increase in PGE2 after PGF2 alpha treatment. These results indicate that PGF2 alpha is a relatively weak agonist in bone compared to PGE2 and that some of the effects of PGF2 alpha on bone resorption, formation, and cell replication may be mediated by an increase in endogenous PGE2 production.

  3. Star formation in globular clusters and dwarf galaxies and implications for the early evolution of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Douglas N. C.; Murray, Stephen D.

    1991-01-01

    Based upon the observed properties of globular clusters and dwarf galaxies in the Local Group, we present important theoretical constraints on star formation in these systems. These constraints indicate that protoglobular cluster clouds had long dormant periods and a brief epoch of violent star formation. Collisions between protocluster clouds triggered fragmentation into individual stars. Most protocluster clouds dispersed into the Galactic halo during the star formation epoch. In contrast, the large spread in stellar metallicity in dwarf galaxies suggests that star formation in their pregenitors was self-regulated: we propose the protocluster clouds formed from thermal instability in the protogalactic clouds and show that a population of massive stars is needed to provide sufficient UV flux to prevent the collapsing protogalactic clouds from fragmenting into individual stars. Based upon these constraints, we propose a unified scenario to describe the early epochs of star formation in the Galactic halo as well as the thick and thin components of the Galactic disk.

  4. Pharmacological Inhibition of Protein Kinase G1 Enhances Bone Formation by Human Skeletal Stem Cells Through Activation of RhoA-Akt Signaling.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Abbas; Siersbaek, Majken S; Chen, Li; Qanie, Diyako; Zaher, Walid; Abdallah, Basem M; Kassem, Moustapha

    2015-07-01

    Development of novel approaches to enhance bone regeneration is needed for efficient treatment of bone defects. Protein kinases play a key role in regulation of intracellular signal transduction pathways, and pharmacological targeting of protein kinases has led to development of novel treatments for several malignant and nonmalignant conditions. We screened a library of kinase inhibitors to identify small molecules that enhance bone formation by human skeletal (stromal or mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSC). We identified H-8 (known to inhibit protein kinases A, C, and G) as a potent enhancer of ex vivo osteoblast (OB) differentiation of hMSC, in a stage- and cell type-specific manner, without affecting adipogenesis or osteoclastogenesis. Furthermore, we showed that systemic administration of H-8 enhances in vivo bone formation by hMSC, using a preclinical ectopic bone formation model in mice. Using functional screening of known H-8 targets, we demonstrated that inhibition of protein kinase G1 (PRKG1) and consequent activation of RhoA-Akt signaling is the main mechanism through which H-8 enhances osteogenesis. Our studies revealed PRKG1 as a novel negative regulator of OB differentiation and suggest that pharmacological inhibition of PRKG1 in hMSC implanted at the site of bone defect can enhance bone regeneration. Stem Cells 2015;33:2219-2231. PMID:25858613

  5. In situ controlled release of rhBMP-2 in gelatin-coated 3D porous poly(?-caprolactone) scaffolds for homogeneous bone tissue formation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingchun; Tan, Ke; Zhang, Yan; Ye, Zhaoyang; Tan, Wen-Song; Lang, Meidong

    2014-01-13

    In tissue engineering, incorporation of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) into biomaterial scaffolds is an attractive strategy to stimulate bone repair. However, suboptimal release of BMP-2 remains a great concern, which may cause unfavorable bone formation as well as severe inflammation. In this study, genipin-cross-linked gelatin entrapped with recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) was exploited to decorate the interior surface of three-dimensional porous poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds. With gelatin-coating, PCL scaffolds demonstrated enhanced water uptake and improved compressive moduli. Intriguingly, a unique release profile of rhBMP-2 composed of a transient burst release followed by a sustained release was achieved in coated scaffolds. These coated scaffolds well supported growth and osteogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in vitro, indicating the retaining of rhBMP-2 bioactivity. When hMSCs-seeded scaffolds were implanted subcutaneously in nude mice for 4 weeks, better bone formation was observed in gelatin/rhBMP-2-coated scaffolds. Specifically, the spatial distribution of newly formed bone was more uniform in gelatin-coated scaffolds than in uncoated scaffolds, which displayed preferential bone formation at the periphery. These results collectively demonstrated that gelatin-coating of porous PCL scaffolds is a promising approach for delivering rhBMP-2 to stimulate improved bone regeneration. PMID:24266740

  6. Src Homology 2-containing 5Inositol Phosphatase (SHIP) Suppresses an Early Stage of Lymphoid Cell Development through Elevated Interleukin6 Production by Myeloid Cells in Bone Marrow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koji Nakamura; Taku Kouro; Paul W. Kincade; Alexander Malykhin; Kazuhiko Maeda; K. Mark Coggeshall

    The Src homology (SH)2-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP) negatively regulates a variety of immune responses through inhibitory immune receptors. In SHIP ? \\/ ? animals, we found that the number of early lymphoid progenitors in the bone marrow was significantly reduced and accompanied by expansion of myeloid cells. We exploited an in vitro system using hemato- poietic progenitors that reproduced the

  7. The Role of Scaffold Architecture and Composition on the Bone Formation by Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Declercq, Heidi A.; Desmet, Tim; Dubruel, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Scaffold architecture and composition are crucial parameters determining the initial cell spatial distribution and consequently bone tissue formation. Three-dimensional poly-?-caprolactone (PCL) scaffolds with a 0/90° lay-down pattern were plotted and subjected to (1) an oxygen plasma (PCL O) or (2) a postargon plasma modification with gelatin and fibronectin (PCL Fn). These scaffolds with an open pore structure were compared with more compact scaffolds fabricated by conventional processing techniques: oxidized polylactic acid (LA O) and collagen (COL) scaffolds. Human adipose tissue-derived stem cell/scaffold interactions were studied. The study revealed that the biomimetic surface modification of plotted scaffolds did not increase the seeding efficiency. The proliferation and colonization was superior for PCL Fn in comparison with PCL O. The plotted PCL Fn was completely colonized throughout the scaffold, whereas conventional scaffolds only at the edge. Protein-based scaffolds (PCL Fn and COL) enhanced the differentiation, although plotted scaffolds showed a delay in their differentiation compared with compact scaffolds. In conclusion, protein modification of plotted PCL scaffolds enhances uniform tissue formation, but shows a delayed differentiation in comparison with compact scaffolds. The present study demonstrates that biomimetic PCL scaffolds could serve as a guiding template to obtain a uniform bone tissue formation in vivo. PMID:23998529

  8. The effect of Lycii Radicis Cortex extract on bone formation in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunkuk; Jin, Hyun-Seok; Cho, Doo-Yeoun; Kim, Jeonghyun; Kim, Mun-Chang; Choi, Chun Whan; Jin, Yilan; Lee, Ji-Won; Park, Jin-Hyok; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Huh, Dam; Jeong, Seon-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a common skeletal disease caused by decreased bone mass; it enhances the risk of bone fracture. This study aimed to discover novel herbal extract(s) for the treatment of osteoporosis. We screened 64 ethanol extracts of edible plants native to Korea for their ability to increase the cellular proliferation and differentiation of two osteoblastic cell lines: C3H10T1/2 and MC3T3-E1. We selected a Lycii Radicis Cortex (LRC), Lycium Chinese root bark as the primary candidate. Treatment with LRC extract showed enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity and increased expression of bone metabolic markers Alpl, Runx2, and Bglap genes in both osteoblastic cell lines. There was no effect on the osteoclastic differentiation of primary-cultured monocytes from the mouse bone marrows. Furthermore, the study examined the effect of LRC extract in vivo in ovariectomizd (OVX) mice for 8 weeks and 16 weeks, respectively. Bone mineral density (BMD) was significantly higher in LRC extract-administered group than in the non-LRC-administered OVX control group. The results indicated that LRC extract prevented the OVX-induced BMD loss in mice via promoting the differentiation of osteoblast linage cells. These results suggest that LRC extract may be a good natural herbal medicine candidate for the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:25432011

  9. Small intestine submucosa sponge for in vivo support of tissue-engineered bone formation in the presence of rat bone marrow stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyung Sook Kim; Ju Young Lee; Yun Mi Kang; E. Sle Kim; Gyeong Hae Kim; Sang Dal Rhee; Hyae Gyeong Cheon; Jae Ho Kim; Byoung-Hyun Min; Hai Bang Lee; Moon Suk Kim

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to visualize new bone formed in vivo on a small intestine submucosa (SIS) sponge used as a tissue-engineered scaffold for the repair of damaged bone. The SIS sponge provided a three-dimensional pore structure, and supported good attachment and viability of rat bone marrow stem cells (rBMSCs). To examine bone regeneration, we prepared full-thickness

  10. Bubble stability in vigorous convection: Ramifications for magma-ocean degassing and formation of an early atmosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Sethian; J. Suckale; L. T. Elkins-Tanton

    2009-01-01

    The heat provided by energetic impacts, radioactive decay and core formation during the early stages in terrestrial planet evolution is sufficient to melt a silicate mantle partially or entirely. Thus, magma-ocean models provide an interesting hypothetical starting point for understanding mantle evolution of terrestrial planets. A key constraint in these models is the formation of an early atmosphere, because it

  11. Bone status in adults with early-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis following 1-year anti-TNF? therapy and discontinuation of glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Brabnikova Maresova, Kristyna; Jarosova, Katerina; Pavelka, Karel; Stepan, Jan J

    2013-08-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is an inflammatory disease associated with bone loss and low bone mineral density (BMD). The treatment involves disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, glucocorticoids (GCs) and biological agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of 12-month therapy with the anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF?) preparations on bone mineral density (BMD) and biochemical turnover markers (BTM) in adult patients with JIA who were previously either treated or not treated with glucocorticoids (GC) and to assess effects of the discontinuation of GCs on their bone status. Nineteen adult patients (12 women, 7 men) aged 18-33 years with active JIA were prospectively enrolled to receive the anti-TNF? therapy (infliximab, etanercept or adalimumab). BMD and BTMs were determined at baseline and 1-year follow-up. The anti-TNF? therapy resulted in a significant reduction in disease activity score 28 (DAS28) and C-reactive protein (CRP) and a significant increase in BMD at the lumbar spine and total body and in serum N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP, marker of bone formation). No significant changes in serum beta C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (?CTX, marker of osteoclastic bone resorption) and osteocalcin (marker of bone remodeling) were found. A significant negative correlation was observed between the change in the DAS28, CRP and serum PINP. The change in serum PINP concentrations positively correlated with the change in lumbar spine BMD. A significant increase in serum PINP was observed only in patients discontinuing GCs during the anti-TNF? treatment. After the initiation of the anti-TNF? therapy in young adults with JIA, the increase in new bone formation can be explained by discontinuation of GCs administration as the patients with the largest reduction in DAS28 and CRP probably are the ones most likely to stop GC. PMID:23370856

  12. Osteoblast maturation and new bone formation in response to titanium implant surface features are reduced with age.

    PubMed

    Olivares-Navarrete, Rene; Raines, Andrew L; Hyzy, Sharon L; Park, Jung Hwa; Hutton, Daphne L; Cochran, David L; Boyan, Barbara D; Schwartz, Zvi

    2012-08-01

    The surface properties of materials contribute to host cellular response and play a significant role in determining the overall success or failure of an implanted biomaterial. Rough titanium (Ti) surface microtopography and high surface free energy have been shown to enhance osteoblast maturation in vitro and increase bone formation in vivo. Whereas the surface properties of Ti are known to affect osteoblast response, host bone quality also plays a significant role in determining successful osseointegration. One factor affecting host bone quality is patient age. We examined both in vitro and in vivo whether response to Ti surface features was affected by animal age. Calvarial osteoblasts isolated from 1-, 3-, and 11-month-old rats all displayed a reduction in cell number and increases in alkaline phosphatase-specific activity and osteocalcin in response to increasing Ti surface microtopography and surface energy. Further, osteoblasts from the three ages examined displayed increased production of osteocalcin and local factors osteoprotegerin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, and active transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 in response to increasing Ti surface roughness and surface energy. Latent TGF-?1 only increased in cultures of osteoblasts from 1- and 3-month-old rats. Treatment with the systemic osteotropic hormone 1?,25(OH)(2)D(3) further enhanced the response of osteoblasts to Ti surface features for all three age groups. However, osteoblasts derived from 11-month-old animals had a reduced response to 1?,25(OH)(2)D(3) compared to osteoblasts derived from 1- or 3-month-old animals. These results were confirmed in vivo. Ti implants placed in the femoral intramedullary canal of old (9-month-old) mice yielded lower bone-to-implant contact and neovascularization in response to Ti surface roughness and energy compared to younger (2-month-old) mice. These results show that rodent osteoblast maturation in vitro as well as new bone formation in vivo is reduced with age. Whether comparable age differences exist in humans needs to be determined. PMID:22492532

  13. ACM Reference Format Le, B., Deng, Z. 2012. Smooth Skinning Decomposition with Rigid Bones. ACM Trans. Graph. 31 6,

    E-print Network

    Azevedo, Ricardo

    bone-vertex weight map. Formulated as a constrained optimization problem where the least squared error. Every vertex is associated with the bones via a bone-vertex weight map which quantifies the influence: A set of example poses are decomposed into rigid bone transformations B and a sparse, convex bone-vertex

  14. Microgravity and Bone Cell Mechanosensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein-Nulend, J.; Bacabac, R.; Veldhuijzen, J.; van Loon, J.

    The capacity of bone tissue to alter its mass and structure in response to mechanical demands has long been recognized but the cellular mechanisms involved remained poorly understood. Bone not only develops as a structure designed specifically for mechanical tasks, but it can adapt during life toward more efficient mechanical performance. Mechanical adaptation of bone is a cellular process and needs a biological system that senses the mechanical loading. The loading information must then be communicated to the effector cells that form new bone or destroy old bone.The in vivo operating cell stress derived from bone loading is likely flow of interstitial fluid along the surface of osteocytes and lining cells. The response of bone cells in culture to fluid flow includes prostaglandin (PG) synthesis and expression of prostaglandin G/H synthase inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2). Cultured bone cells also rapidly produce nitric oxide (NO) in response to fluid flow as a result of activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (ecNOS), which enzyme also mediates the adaptive response of bone tissue to mechanical loading. Disruption of the actin-cytoskeleton abolishes the response to stress, suggesting that the cytoskeleton is involved in cellular mechanotransduction.Microgravity, or better near weightlessness, has catabolic effects on the skeleton of astronauts, and on mineral metabolism in bone organ cultures. This might be explained as resulting from an exceptional form of disuse under near weightlessness conditions. However, under near weightlessness conditions the assembly of cytoskeletal elements may be altered since it has been shown that the direction of the gravity vector determines microtubular pattern formation in vivo. We found that the transduction of mechanical signals in bone cells also involves the cytoskeleton and is related to PGE2 production. Therefore it is possible that the mechanosensitivity of bone cells is altered under near weightlessness conditions, and that this abnormal mechanosensation contributes to disturbed bone metabolism observed in astronauts.In our current project for the International Space Station, we wish to test this hypothesis experimentally using an in vitro model. The specific aim of our research project is to test whether near weightlessness decreases the sensitivity of bone cells for mechanical stress through a decrease in early signaling molecules (NO, PGs) that are involved in the mechanical loading-induced osteogenic response. Bone cells are cultured with or without gravity prior to and during mechanical loading, using our modified in vitro oscillating fluid flow apparatus. In this "FlowSpace" project we are developing a cell culture module that is used to provide further insight in the mechanism of mechanotransduction in bone.

  15. Biodegradable chitin conduit tubulation combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for treatment of spinal cord injury by reducing glial scar and cavity formation.

    PubMed

    Xue, Feng; Wu, Er-Jun; Zhang, Pei-Xun; Li-Ya, A; Kou, Yu-Hui; Yin, Xiao-Feng; Han, Na

    2015-01-01

    We examined the restorative effect of modified biodegradable chitin conduits in combination with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation after right spinal cord hemisection injury. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that biological conduit sleeve bridging reduced glial scar formation and spinal muscular atrophy after spinal cord hemisection. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells survived and proliferated after transplantation in vivo, and differentiated into cells double-positive for S100 (Schwann cell marker) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (glial cell marker) at 8 weeks. Retrograde tracing showed that more nerve fibers had grown through the injured spinal cord at 14 weeks after combination therapy than either treatment alone. Our findings indicate that a biological conduit combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation effectively prevented scar formation and provided a favorable local microenvironment for the proliferation, migration and differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in the spinal cord, thus promoting restoration following spinal cord hemisection injury. PMID:25788929

  16. Biodegradable chitin conduit tubulation combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for treatment of spinal cord injury by reducing glial scar and cavity formation

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Feng; Wu, Er-jun; Zhang, Pei-xun; Li-ya, A; Kou, Yu-hui; Yin, Xiao-feng; Han, Na

    2015-01-01

    We examined the restorative effect of modified biodegradable chitin conduits in combination with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation after right spinal cord hemisection injury. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that biological conduit sleeve bridging reduced glial scar formation and spinal muscular atrophy after spinal cord hemisection. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells survived and proliferated after transplantation in vivo, and differentiated into cells double-positive for S100 (Schwann cell marker) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (glial cell marker) at 8 weeks. Retrograde tracing showed that more nerve fibers had grown through the injured spinal cord at 14 weeks after combination therapy than either treatment alone. Our findings indicate that a biological conduit combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation effectively prevented scar formation and provided a favorable local microenvironment for the proliferation, migration and differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in the spinal cord, thus promoting restoration following spinal cord hemisection injury. PMID:25788929

  17. In vitro prevention of Pseudomonas aeruginosa early biofilm formation with antibiotics used in cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Olmos, Ana; García-Castillo, María; Maiz, Luis; Lamas, Adelaida; Baquero, Fernando; Cantón, Rafael

    2012-08-01

    The ability of antibiotics used in bronchopulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients to prevent Pseudomonas aeruginosa early biofilm formation was studied using a biofilm microtitre assay with 57 non-mucoid P. aeruginosa isolates (44 first colonisers and 13 recovered during the initial intermittent colonisation stage) obtained from 35 CF patients. Minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (BICs) of levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, ceftazidime, tobramycin, colistin and azithromycin were determined by placing a peg lid with a formed biofilm onto microplates containing antibiotics. A modification of this protocol consisting of antibiotic challenge during biofilm formation was implemented in order to determine the biofilm prevention concentration (BPC), i.e. the minimum concentration able to prevent biofilm formation. The lowest BPCs were for fluoroquinolones, tobramycin and colistin and the highest for ceftazidime and imipenem. The former antibiotics had BPCs identical to or only slightly higher than their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) determined by standard Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) microdilution and were also active on formed biofilms as reflected by their low BIC values. In contrast, ceftazidime and imipenem were less effective for prevention of biofilm formation and on formed biofilms. In conclusion, the new BPC parameter determined in non-mucoid P. aeruginosa isolates recovered during early colonisation stages in CF patients supports early aggressive antimicrobial treatment guidelines in first P. aeruginosa-colonised CF patients. PMID:22727530

  18. Parathyroid hormone-related peptide-depleted mice show abnormal epiphyseal cartilage development and altered endochondral bone formation

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    To elucidate the role of PTHrP in skeletal development, we examined the proximal tibial epiphysis and metaphysis of wild-type (PTHrP-normal) 18- 19-d-old fetal mice and of chondrodystrophic litter mates homozygous for a disrupted PTHrP allele generated via homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells (PTHrP-depleted). In the PTHrP-normal epiphysis, immunocytochemistry showed PTHrP to be localized in chondrocytes within the resting zone and at the junction between proliferative and hypertrophic zones. In PTHrP-depleted epiphyses, a diminished [3H]thymidine-labeling index was observed in the resting and proliferative zones accounting for reduced numbers of epiphyseal chondrocytes and for a thinner epiphyseal plate. In the mutant hypertrophic zone, enlarged chondrocytes were interspersed with clusters of cells that did not hypertrophy, but resembled resting or proliferative chondrocytes. Although the overall content of type II collagen in the epiphyseal plate was diminished, the lacunae of these non-hypertrophic chondrocytes did react for type II collagen. Moreover, cell membrane-associated chondroitin sulfate immunoreactivity was evident on these cells. Despite the presence of alkaline phosphatase activity on these nonhypertrophic chondrocytes, the adjacent cartilage matrix did not calcify and their persistence accounted for distorted chondrocyte columns and sporadic distribution of calcified cartilage. Consequently, in the metaphysis, bone deposited on the irregular and sparse scaffold of calcified cartilage and resulted in mixed spicules that did not parallel the longitudinal axis of the tibia and were, therefore, inappropriate for bone elongation. Thus, PTHrP appears to modulate both the proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes and its absence alters the temporal and spatial sequence of epiphyseal cartilage development and of subsequent endochondral bone formation necessary for normal elongation of long bones. PMID:8089190

  19. The effect of devitalized trabecular bone on the formation of osteochondral tissue-engineered constructs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric G. Lima; Pen-hsiu Grace Chao; Gerard A. Ateshian; B. Sonny Bal; James L. Cook; Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic; Clark T. Hung

    2008-01-01

    In the current study, evidence is presented demonstrating that devitalized trabecular bone has an inhibitory effect on in vitro chondral tissue development when used as a base material for the tissue-engineering of osteochondral constructs for cartilage repair. Chondrocyte-seeded agarose hydrogel constructs were cultured alone or attached to an underlying bony base in a chemically defined medium formulation that has been

  20. The effect of enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain) on bone formation: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florian Rathe; Rüdiger Junker; Betsy M. Chesnutt; John A. Jansen

    2009-01-01

    This systematic review focused on the question, if and to what extent enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain) [EMD]) promotes the regeneration of bone. The influence of combinations with other biomaterials was additionally evaluated. Twenty histomorphometric studies were included in this systematic review. Main results of the reviewed articles were (i) guide tissue regeneration (GTR) of infrabony defects seems to result in

  1. Stability and Three-Dimensional Analysis of Bone Formation in Longitudinally Fluted Miniscrew Implants

    E-print Network

    Truong, An Van

    2014-04-22

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effects of longitudinal flutes on mini-screw implant (MSI) bone healing and stability. Using 11 skeletally mature New Zealand White rabbits, 33 longitudinally fluted and 33 non-fluted MSIs were...

  2. Stimulation of New Bone Formation by Direct Transfer of Osteogenic Plasmid Genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianming Fang; Yao-Yao Zhu; Elizabeth Smiley; Jeffrey Bonadio; Jeffrey P. Rouleau; Steven A. Goldstein; Laurie K. McCauley; Beverly L. Davidson; Blake J. Roessler

    1996-01-01

    Degradable matrices containing expression plasmid DNA [gene-activated matrices (GAMs)] were implanted into segmental gaps created in the adult rat femur. Implantation of GAMs containing beta -galactosidase or luciferase plasmids led to DNA uptake and functional enzyme expression by repair cells (granulation tissue) growing into the gap. Implantation of a GAM containing either a bone morphogenetic protein-4 plasmid or a plasmid

  3. Lrp5-independent activation of Wnt signaling by lithium chloride increases bone formation

    E-print Network

    in these mice. SAMP6 mice have accelerated osteoporosis due to inadequate osteoblast renewal. Lithium lithium should determine whether it also improves bone mass in humans. anabolic osteoporosis therapy the Osteoporosis­Pseudoglioma syndrome (OPPG), an autosomal re- cessive disorder characterized by extremely low

  4. Reconstructing the palaeoenvironments of the early Pleistocene mammal faunas from the pollen preserved on fossil bones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cesare Ravazzi; Roberta Pini; Marzia Breda

    2009-01-01

    We carried out a systematic investigation on the pollen content of sediment adhering to skeletal elements of large mammals which originate from the long lacustrine record of Leffe (Early Pleistocene of the Italian Alps). Three local faunas were discovered during mining activities along the intermediate part (spanning from 1.5 to 0.95Ma) of the basin succession. The excellent pollen preservation allowed

  5. Kinetic study of model reactions in the gas phase at the early stage of coke formation

    SciTech Connect

    Nohara, D.; Sakai, T. (Dept. of Chemical Reaction Engineering, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya City Univ., Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467 (JP))

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the most probable gas-phase reactions at the early stage of coke formation were elucidated by kinetic study on the model reactions adopted for formation of cyclic compounds and growth of ring. It was revealed that the formation and growth of ring proceeded mainly through cycloaddition of butadiene or allyl radicals to unsaturated hydrocarbons at relatively low temperatures ({approximately}600{degrees}C), i.e., through a Diels-Alder type reaction. On the other hand, such growth of ring as formation of biphenyl accompanying dehydrogenation from benzene can proceed only at the higher temperatures. It was also revealed that in the growth of the ring, cycloaddition of butadiene favors a cyclic olefin molecule that possesses a nonconjugated double bond and a nearly planar structure.

  6. Parathyroid Hormone Stimulates TRANCE and Inhibits Osteoprotegerin Messenger Ribonucleic Acid Expression in Murine Bone Marrow Cultures: Correlation with Osteoclast-Like Cell Formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SUN-KYEONG LEE; JOSEPH A. LORENZO

    1999-01-01

    We studied the effects of PTH on the expression of tumor necrosis factor-related activation-induced cytokine (TRANCE), osteoprote- gerin (OPG), and receptor activator of NF kB (RANK) messenger RNA (mRNA) in cultured murine bone marrow, calvaria, and osteoblasts. TRANCE, OPG, and RANK are recently identified regulators of os- teoclast formation. Bone marrow cells were cultured with or without PTH(1-34) for 6

  7. Biosilica-glass formation using enzymes from sponges [silicatein]: Basic aspects and application in biomedicine [bone reconstitution material and osteoporosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shun-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Gan, Lu; Wiens, Matthias; Schröder, Heinz C.; Müller, Werner E. G.

    2011-09-01

    In the last 15 years biomineralization, in particular biosilicification (i.e., the formation of biogenic silica, SiO2), has become an exciting source of inspiration for the development of novel bionic approaches, following "Nature as model". Among the silica forming organisms there are the sponges that have the unique property to catalyze their silica skeletons by a specific enzyme termed silicatein. In the present review we summarize the present state of knowledge on silicatein-mediated "biosilica" formation in marine sponges, the involvement of further molecules in silica metabolism and their potential application in biomedicine. Recent advancements in the production of bone replacement material and in the potential use as a component in the treatment of osteoporosis are highlighted.

  8. Evidence for early fibrosis and increased airway resistance in bone marrow transplant recipient mice deficient in MMP12

    PubMed Central

    England, Kristen A.; Price, Andrew P.; Tram, Kevin V.; Shapiro, Steven D.; Blazar, Bruce R.

    2011-01-01

    Idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality post-bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in humans. In our established murine IPS model in which lethally conditioned recipients are given allogeneic bone marrow and splenocytes, recruitment of host monocytes occurs early post-BMT, followed by donor T cells concomitant with development of severe lung dysfunction. Because matrix metalloproteinase 12 (MMP12) is important for macrophage infiltration and injury in other mouse models of lung disease such as emphysema, lethally conditioned MMP12?/? mice were used as allogeneic recipients to determine whether MMP12 plays a similar role in potentiating lung injury in IPS. Surprisingly, MMP12?/? mice developed IPS and exhibited an accelerated allogeneic T cell-dependent decrease in compliance compared with wild-type (WT) recipients. MMP12?/?, but not WT, mice also had allogeneic T cell-dependent elevated lung resistance post-BMT. Recruitment of monocytes and T cells into the lungs was not altered on day 7 post-BMT, but the lungs of MMP12?/? recipients had increased collagen deposition, a feature normally not seen in our IPS model. MMP12?/? mice had a compensatory increase in MMP2 in the lungs post-BMT, as well as increased ?6-integrin compared with WT recipients, and only in the presence of allogeneic T cells. Levels of total transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 protein in the lungs were elevated compared with WT recipients, consistent with the profibrotic function of ?6-integrin as an activator of TGF-?. These data indicate that host-derived MMP12 may be important in limiting development of IPS by allowing proper remodeling of extracellular matrix and effective repair of BMT-related injury. PMID:21784967

  9. ALDOSE REDUCTASE PROTECTS AGAINST EARLY ATHEROSCLEROTIC LESION FORMATION IN APO E - NULL MICE

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Sanjay; Vladykovskaya, Elena; Barski, Oleg A.; Spite, Matthew; Kaiserova, Karin; Petrash, J. Mark; Chung, Stephen S; Hunt, Greg; Dawn, Buddhadeb; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Atherosclerotic lesion formation is associated with the accumulation of oxidized lipids. Products of lipid oxidation, particularly aldehydes, stimulate cytokine production and enhance monocyte adhesion, however their contribution to atherosclerotic lesion formation remains unclear. Objective To test the hypothesis that inhibition of aldehyde removal by aldose reductase (AR), which metabolizes both free and phospholipid aldehydes, would exacerbate atherosclerotic lesion formation. Methods and Results In atherosclerotic lesions of apoE-null mice, AR protein was localized with macrophage-rich regions and its abundance increased with lesion progression. Treatment of apoE-null mice with AR inhibitors sorbinil or tolrestat increased early lesion formation, but did not affect the formation of advanced lesions. Early lesions of AR?/?/apoE?/? mice maintained on high fat diet were significantly larger when compared with age-matched AR+/+/apoE?/? mice. The increase in lesion area due to deletion of the AR gene was seen in both male and female mice. Pharmacological inhibition or genetic ablation of AR also increased the lesion formation in male mice made diabetic by streptozotocin treatment. Lesions in AR?/?/apoE?/? mice exhibited increased collagen and macrophage content and a decrease in smooth muscle cells. AR?/?/apoE?/? mice displayed a greater accumulation of the AR substrate 4-hydroxy trans-2-nonenal (HNE) in the plasma and protein-HNE adducts in arterial lesions than AR+/+/apoE?/? mice. Conclusions These observations indicate that AR is upregulated in atherosclerotic lesions and it protects against early stages of atherogenesis by removing toxic aldehydes generated in oxidized lipids. PMID:19729598

  10. Early relapse of Burkitt lymphoma heralded by a bone marrow necrosis and numb chin syndrome successfully treated with allogeneic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Cerny, Jan; Devitt, Katherine; Yu, Hongbo; Ramanathan, Muthalagu; Woda, Bruce; Nath, Rajneesh

    2014-01-01

    The optimal salvage therapy for patients with relapsed Burkitt lymphoma is unknown. Bone marrow necrosis is an underreported (<1% of bone marrow failures). Numb chin syndrome is another rare syndrome associated with aggressive malignancies. Survival of these syndromes is dictated by the underlying disease and is usually dismal. Our 35-year-old patient experienced an early relapse of Burkitt lymphoma accompanied by syndromes, achieved second complete remission and underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation. He remains alive and well >2 years after the transplant. To our knowledge, this is the longest reported survival of the two syndromes in the setting of BL relapse. PMID:25068102

  11. Early relapse of Burkitt lymphoma heralded by a bone marrow necrosis and numb chin syndrome successfully treated with allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cerny, Jan; Devitt, Katherine; Yu, Hongbo; Ramanathan, Muthalagu; Woda, Bruce; Nath, Rajneesh

    2014-01-01

    The optimal salvage therapy for patients with relapsed Burkitt lymphoma is unknown. Bone marrow necrosis is an underreported (<1% of bone marrow failures). Numb chin syndrome is another rare syndrome associated with aggressive malignancies. Survival of these syndromes is dictated by the underlying disease and is usually dismal. Our 35-year-old patient experienced an early relapse of Burkitt lymphoma accompanied by syndromes, achieved second complete remission and underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation. He remains alive and well >2 years after the transplant. To our knowledge, this is the longest reported survival of the two syndromes in the setting of BL relapse. PMID:25068102

  12. Normalizing the bone marrow microenvironment with p38 inhibitor reduces multiple myeloma cell proliferation and adhesion and suppresses osteoclast formation

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Aaron N. [Scios Inc., 6500 Paseo Padre Parkway, Fremont, CA 94555 (United States); Stebbins, Elizabeth G. [Scios Inc., 6500 Paseo Padre Parkway, Fremont, CA 94555 (United States); Henson, Margaret [Scios Inc., 6500 Paseo Padre Parkway, Fremont, CA 94555 (United States); O'Young, Gilbert [Scios Inc., 6500 Paseo Padre Parkway, Fremont, CA 94555 (United States); Choi, Sun J. [Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology-Oncology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Quon, Diana [Scios Inc., 6500 Paseo Padre Parkway, Fremont, CA 94555 (United States); Damm, Debby [Scios Inc., 6500 Paseo Padre Parkway, Fremont, CA 94555 (United States); Reddy, Mamatha [Scios Inc., 6500 Paseo Padre Parkway, Fremont, CA 94555 (United States); Ma, Jing Y. [Scios Inc., 6500 Paseo Padre Parkway, Fremont, CA 94555 (United States); Haghnazari, Edwin [Scios Inc., 6500 Paseo Padre Parkway, Fremont, CA 94555 (United States); Kapoun, Ann M. [Scios Inc., 6500 Paseo Padre Parkway, Fremont, CA 94555 (United States); Medicherla, Satyanarayana [Scios Inc., 6500 Paseo Padre Parkway, Fremont, CA 94555 (United States); Protter, Andy [Scios Inc., 6500 Paseo Padre Parkway, Fremont, CA 94555 (United States); Schreiner, George F. [Scios Inc., 6500 Paseo Padre Parkway, Fremont, CA 94555 (United States); Kurihara, Noriyoshi [Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology-Oncology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Anderson, Judy [Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology-Oncology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Roodman, G. David [Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology-Oncology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Va Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Navas, Tony A. [Scios Inc., 6500 Paseo Padre Parkway, Fremont, CA 94555 (United States); Higgins, Linda S. [Scios Inc., 6500 Paseo Padre Parkway, Fremont, CA 94555 (United States)]. E-mail: lhiggin3@scius.jnj.com

    2006-06-10

    The multiple myeloma (MM) bone marrow (BM) microenvironment plays a critical role in supporting tumor growth and survival as well as in promoting formation of osteolytic lesions. Recent results suggest that the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is an important factor in maintaining this activated environment. In this report, we demonstrate that the p38{alpha} MAPK inhibitor, SCIO-469, suppresses secretion of the tumor-supportive factors IL-6 and VEGF from BM stromal cells (BMSCs) as well as cocultures of BMSCs with MM cells, resulting in reduction in MM cell proliferation. Additionally, we show that SCIO-469 prevents TNF{alpha}-induced adhesion of MM cells to BMSCs through an ICAM-1- and VCAM-1-independent mechanism. Microarray analysis revealed a novel set of TNF{alpha}-induced chemokines in BMSCs that is strongly inhibited by SCIO-469. Furthermore, reintroduction of chemokines CXCL10 and CCL8 to BMSCs overcomes the inhibitory effect of SCIO-469 on TNF{alpha}-induced MM adhesion. Lastly, we show that SCIO-469 inhibits secretion and expression of the osteoclast-activating factors IL-11, RANKL, and MIP-1{alpha} as well as prevents human osteoclast formation in vitro. Collectively, these results suggest that SCIO-469 treatment can suppress factors in the bone marrow microenvironment to inhibit MM cell proliferation and adhesion and also to alleviate osteolytic activation in MM.

  13. Focal Adhesion Kinase Plays a Role in Osteoblast Mechanotransduction In Vitro but Does Not Affect Load-Induced Bone Formation In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Alesha B.; Blundo, Jennifer T.; Chen, Julia C.; Lee, Kristen L.; Yereddi, Nikitha Reddy; Jang, Eugene; Kumar, Shefali; Tang, W. Joyce; Zarrin, Sarah; Kim, Jae-Beom; Jacobs, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    A healthy skeleton relies on bone's ability to respond to external mechanical forces. The molecular mechanisms by which bone cells sense and convert mechanical stimuli into biochemical signals, a process known as mechanotransduction, are unclear. Focal adhesions play a critical role in cell survival, migration and sensing physical force. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that controls focal adhesion dynamics and can mediate reparative bone formation in vivo and osteoblast mechanotransduction in vitro. Based on these data, we hypothesized that FAK plays a role in load-induced bone formation. To test this hypothesis, we performed in vitro fluid flow experiments and in vivo bone loading studies in FAK?/? clonal lines and conditional FAK knockout mice, respectively. FAK?/? osteoblasts showed an ablated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) response to fluid flow shear. This effect was reversed with the re-expression of wild-type FAK. Re-expression of FAK containing site-specific mutations at Tyr-397 and Tyr-925 phosphorylation sites did not rescue the phenotype, suggesting that these sites are important in osteoblast mechanotransduction. Interestingly, mice in which FAK was conditionally deleted in osteoblasts and osteocytes did not exhibit altered load-induced periosteal bone formation. Together these data suggest that although FAK is important in mechanically-induced signaling in osteoblasts in vitro, it is not required for an adaptive response in vivo, possibly due to a compensatory mechanism that does not exist in the cell culture system. PMID:23028449

  14. Effects of acoustic and EHF impulses on multipotent stromal cells during formation of bone marrow containing heterotopic organs in tissue engineered constructions.

    PubMed

    Chaikhalyan, R K; Yusupov, V I; Gorskaya, Yu F; Kuralesova, A I; Gerasimov, Yu V; Sviridov, A P; Tambiev, A Kh; Vorob'eva, N N; Shishkova, A G Grosheva V V; Moskvina, I L; Bagratashvili, V N

    2015-03-01

    We studied the effects of physical factors (acoustic impulses of laser-induced hydrodynamics, AILIH, and EHF-radiation) on the formation of heterotopic bone marrow organs. Suspension of precipitated mouse bone marrow cells was exposed to AILIH and EHF or their combinations (AILIH+EHF, EHF+AILIH). The developed tissue engineering constructions (gelatin sponges containing 107 nucleated bone marrow cells exposed to physical factors) were transplanted under the renal capsule of syngeneic mice. Analysis of newly formed hemopoietic organs was performed after 3 and 5 months. The total amount of hemopoietic cells, number of multipotent stromal cells, efficiency of colony formation from these cells, and weight of bone capsule of the transplants were measured. Microscopic study showed that 5-month transplants were significantly larger than 3-month transplants and contained 3-fold more hemopoietic cells (20-fold in the AILIH+EHF group). The number of multipotent stromal cells was maximum in EHF+AILIH group (by 2.2 times higher than in the control) and minimum in AILIH+EHF group. Exposure to EHF+AILIH had most pronounced effect on the formation of the bone marrow transplants. The weight of bone capsules more rapidly increased in gelatin sponges of 3-month transplants of EHF+AILIH and AILIH groups. These data suggest that the studied physical factors can be used for acceleration of rehabilitation process. PMID:25778661

  15. BMP-Non-Responsive Sca1+CD73+CD44+ Mouse Bone Marrow Derived Osteoprogenitor Cells Respond to Combination of VEGF and BMP-6 to Display Enhanced Osteoblastic Differentiation and Ectopic Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Madhu, Vedavathi; Li, Ching-Ju; Dighe, Abhijit S.; Balian, Gary; Cui, Quanjun

    2014-01-01

    Clinical trials on fracture repair have challenged the effectiveness of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) but suggest that delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) might be beneficial. It has also been reported that BMPs could not increase mineralization in several MSCs populations, which adds ambiguity to the use of BMPs. However, an exogenous supply of MSCs combined with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and BMPs is reported to synergistically enhance fracture repair in animal models. To elucidate the mechanism of this synergy, we investigated the osteoblastic differentiation of cloned mouse bone marrow derived MSCs (D1 cells) in vitro in response to human recombinant proteins of VEGF, BMPs (-2, -4, -6, -9) and the combination of VEGF with BMP-6 (most potent BMP). We further investigated ectopic bone formation induced by MSCs pre-conditioned with VEGF, BMP-6 or both. No significant increase in mineralization, phosphorylation of Smads 1/5/8 and expression of the ALP, COL1A1 and osterix genes was observed upon addition of VEGF or BMPs alone to the cells in culture. The lack of CD105, Alk1 and Alk6 expression in D1 cells correlated with poor response to BMPs indicating that a greater care in the selection of MSCs is necessary. Interestingly, the combination of VEGF and BMP-6 significantly increased the expression of ALP, COL1A1 and osterix genes and D1 cells pre-conditioned with VEGF and BMP-6 induced greater bone formation in vivo than the non-conditioned control cells or the cells pre-conditioned with either VEGF or BMP-6 alone. This enhanced bone formation by MSCs correlated with higher CADM1 expression and OPG/RANKL ratio in the implants. Thus, combined action of VEGF and BMP on MSCs enhances osteoblastic differentiation of MSCs and increases their bone forming ability, which cannot be achieved through use of BMPs alone. This strategy can be effectively used for bone repair. PMID:25048464

  16. BMP-non-responsive Sca1+ CD73+ CD44+ mouse bone marrow derived osteoprogenitor cells respond to combination of VEGF and BMP-6 to display enhanced osteoblastic differentiation and ectopic bone formation.

    PubMed

    Madhu, Vedavathi; Li, Ching-Ju; Dighe, Abhijit S; Balian, Gary; Cui, Quanjun

    2014-01-01

    Clinical trials on fracture repair have challenged the effectiveness of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) but suggest that delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) might be beneficial. It has also been reported that BMPs could not increase mineralization in several MSCs populations, which adds ambiguity to the use of BMPs. However, an exogenous supply of MSCs combined with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and BMPs is reported to synergistically enhance fracture repair in animal models. To elucidate the mechanism of this synergy, we investigated the osteoblastic differentiation of cloned mouse bone marrow derived MSCs (D1 cells) in vitro in response to human recombinant proteins of VEGF, BMPs (-2, -4, -6, -9) and the combination of VEGF with BMP-6 (most potent BMP). We further investigated ectopic bone formation induced by MSCs pre-conditioned with VEGF, BMP-6 or both. No significant increase in mineralization, phosphorylation of Smads 1/5/8 and expression of the ALP, COL1A1 and osterix genes was observed upon addition of VEGF or BMPs alone to the cells in culture. The lack of CD105, Alk1 and Alk6 expression in D1 cells correlated with poor response to BMPs indicating that a greater care in the selection of MSCs is necessary. Interestingly, the combination of VEGF and BMP-6 significantly increased the expression of ALP, COL1A1 and osterix genes and D1 cells pre-conditioned with VEGF and BMP-6 induced greater bone formation in vivo than the non-conditioned control cells or the cells pre-conditioned with either VEGF or BMP-6 alone. This enhanced bone formation by MSCs correlated with higher CADM1 expression and OPG/RANKL ratio in the implants. Thus, combined action of VEGF and BMP on MSCs enhances osteoblastic differentiation of MSCs and increases their bone forming ability, which cannot be achieved through use of BMPs alone. This strategy can be effectively used for bone repair. PMID:25048464

  17. Origin of graphite in early precambrian banded iron formation in Anshan, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuguang Li; Xiachen Zhi; Jiangfeng Chen; Junxin Wang; Yanyao Deng

    1984-01-01

    Graphite which occurs in the early Precambrian banded iron formation (BIF) (3.1x109yr) at Gongchangling, Anshan, China, can be divided into two genetic types on the basis of its modes of occurrence: biogenic\\u000a and inorganic; the former occurs in garnet-mica-quartz schist and the latter in rich magnetite ore.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The garnet-mica-quartz schist is located at the bottom of the formation. Its original

  18. Risedronate Preserves Bone Architecture in Early Postmenopausal Women In 1 Year as Measured by Three-Dimensional Microcomputed Tomography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. E. Dufresne; P. A. Chmielewski; M. D. Manhart; T. D. Johnson; B. Borah

    2003-01-01

    Risedronate reduces the risk of vertebral fractures by up to 70% within the first year of treatment. Increases in bone mineral density or decreases in bone turnover markers explain only a portion of the anti-fracture effect, suggesting that other factors, such as changes in trabecular bone architecture, also play a role. Our objective was to determine the effects of risedronate

  19. Plumbagin attenuates cancer cell growth and osteoclast formation in the bone microenvironment of mice

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Wei; Wang, Ting-yu; Fan, Qi-ming; Du, Lin; Xu, Jia-ke; Zhai, Zan-jing; Li, Hao-wei; Tang, Ting-ting

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of plumbagin, a naphthoquinone derived from the medicinal plant Plumbago zeylanica, on human breast cancer cell growth and the cancer cell-induced osteolysis in the bone microenvironment of mice. Methods: Human breast cancer cell subline MDA-MB-231SA with the ability to spread and grow in the bone was tested. The cell proliferation was determined using the CCK-8 assay. Apoptosis was detected with Annexin V/PI double-labeled flow cytometry. Red fluorescent protein-labeled MDA-MB-231SArfp cells were injected into the right tibia of female BALB/c-nu/nu mice. Three days after the inoculation, the mice were injected with plumbagin (2, 4, or 6 mg/kg, ip) 5 times per week for 7 weeks. The growth of the tumor cells was monitored using an in vivo imaging system. After the mice were sacrificed, the hind limbs were removed for radiographic and histological analyses. Results: Plumbagin (2.5–20 ?mol/L) concentration-dependently inhibited the cell viability and induced apoptosis of MDA-MB-231SA cells in vitro (the IC50 value of inhibition of cell viability was 14.7 ?mol/L). Administration of plumbagin to breast cancer bearing mice delayed the tumor growth by 2–3 weeks and reduced the tumor volume by 44%–74%. The in vivo imaging study showed that plumbagin dose-dependently inhibited MDA-MB-231SArfp cell growth in bone microenvironment. Furthermore, X-ray images and micro-CT study demonstrated that plumbagin reduced bone erosion area and prevented a decrease in bone tissue volume. Histological studies showed that plumbagin dose-dependently inhibited the breast cancer cell growth, enhanced the cell apoptosis and reduced the number of TRAcP-positive osteoclasts. Conclusion: Plumbagin inhibits the cell growth and induces apoptosis in human breast cancer cells in mice bone microenvironment, leading to significant reduction in osteolytic lesions caused by the tumor cells. PMID:24384612

  20. A small interfering RNA targeting Lnk accelerates bone fracture healing with early neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Yohei; Ii, Masaaki; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Kawamoto, Atsuhiko; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Akimaru, Hiroshi; Mifune, Yutaka; Shoji, Taro; Fukui, Tomoaki; Asahi, Michio; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Asahara, Takayuki

    2013-09-01

    Lnk, an intracellular adapter protein, is expressed in hematopoietic cell lineages, which has recently been proved as an essential inhibitory signaling molecule for stem cell self-renewal in the stem cell factor-c-Kit signaling pathway with enhanced hematopoietic and osteogenic reconstitution in Lnk-deficient mice. Moreover, the therapeutic potential of hematopoietic stem/endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) for fracture healing has been demonstrated with mechanistic insight into vasculogenesis/angiogenesis and osteogenesis enhancement in the fracture sites. We report here, Lnk siRNA-transfected endothelial commitment of c-kit+/Sca-1+/lineage- subpopulations of bone marrow cells have high EPC colony-forming capacity exhibiting endothelial markers, VE-Cad, VEGF and Ang-1. Lnk siRNA-transfected osteoblasts also show highly osteoblastic capacity. In vivo, locally transfected Lnk siRNA could successfully downregulate the expression of Lnk at the fracture site up to 1 week, and radiological and histological examination showed extremely accelerated fracture healing in Lnk siRNA-transfected mice. Moreover, Lnk siRNA-transfected mice exhibited sufficient therapeutic outcomes with intrinstic enhancement of angiogenesis and osteogenesis, specifically, the mice demonstrated better blood flow recovery in the sites of fracture. In our series of experiments, we clarified that a negatively regulated Lnk system contributed to a favorable circumstance for fracture healing by enhancing vasculogenesis/angiogenesis and osteogenesis. These findings suggest that downregulation of Lnk system may have the clinical potential for faster fracture healing, which contributes to the reduction of delayed unions or non-unions. PMID:23897412

  1. Reconstructing the palaeoenvironments of the early Pleistocene mammal faunas from the pollen preserved on fossil bones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravazzi, Cesare; Pini, Roberta; Breda, Marzia

    2009-12-01

    We carried out a systematic investigation on the pollen content of sediment adhering to skeletal elements of large mammals which originate from the long lacustrine record of Leffe (Early Pleistocene of the Italian Alps). Three local faunas were discovered during mining activities along the intermediate part (spanning from 1.5 to 0.95 Ma) of the basin succession. The excellent pollen preservation allowed testing the reproducibility of the pollen signal from single skeletons. A clear palaeoenvironmental patterning, consistent with the ecological preferences of the considered mammal species, emerged from the canonical correspondence analysis of pollen types diagnostic for vegetation communities. Edaphic factors related to seasonal river activity changes and to the development of swamp forests in the riverbanks are significantly associated to the occurrences of Hippopotamus cf. antiquus, whereas finds of Mammuthus meridionalis belong to fully forested landscapes dominated by conifer or mixed forests of oceanic, warm to cool-temperate climate. Rhinoceros habitats include variable forest cover under different climate states. Distinct cool-temperate, partially open vegetation could be recognized for large deer included Cervalces cf carnutorum. A palynostratigraphic correlation between individual spectra and a reference palynostratigraphic record allowed assignment of many fossil remains to a precise stratigraphic position. This procedure also shown that the Leffe local faunas include specimens accumulated under different environmental and climate states, as a consequence of high-frequency climate changes characterizing the Late Villafranchian Early Pleistocene.

  2. Early Formative Pottery Production, Mobility, and Exchange on the Pacific Coast of Southern Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josue Gomez; Douglas J. Kennett; Hector Neff; Michael D. Glascock; Barbara Voorhies

    2011-01-01

    In this article we report ceramic stylistic and compositional (Instrumental Neutron Activation-INAA) data from two Early Formative Period (3,400–2,800 cal yrs. BP) coastal sites from the Acapetahua region of southern Mexico, datasets potentially sensitive to the study of the exchange of ideas and materials. Gourd-shaped vessels (tecomates) with red slips dominate the earliest ceramic assemblages at the two sites. The

  3. Effect of gentamicin loaded PMMA bone cement on Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KA Poelstra; HJ Busscher; W. Schenk; JR van Horn; HC van der Mei

    1999-01-01

    PMMA (poly?methyl?methacrylate) bone cement is widely used in prosthetic implant surgery and is currently prepared with vacuum?mixing for improved mechanical properties. Revision of implants due to infection occurs in about 1% of cases, mostly involving staphylococcal strains. Antibiotic loaded cement is often used in this revision?setting. The aims of this study were to determine in a modified Robbins device whether

  4. Enhanced endothelialization and microvessel formation in polyester grafts seeded with CD341 bone marrow cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vishwanath Bhattacharya; Peter A. McSweeney; Qun Shi; Benedetto Bruno; Atsushi Ishida; Richard Nash; Rainer F. Storb; Lester R. Sauvage; William P. Hammond; Moses Hong-De Wu

    12-cm composite grafts had a 4-cm PET graft in the center and 4-cm standard ePTFE grafts at each end. The entire composite was coated with silicone rub- ber to make it impervious; thus, the PET segment was shielded from perigraft and pannus ingrowth. There were 5 study grafts and 5 control grafts. On the day before surgery, 120 mL bone

  5. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP-3) Regulates Hematopoiesis and Bone Formation In Vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Shen; Ingrid G. Winkler; Valerie Barbier; Natalie A. Sims; Jean Hendy; Jean-Pierre Lévesque

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundTissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP-3) inhibits matrix metalloproteinases and membrane-bound sheddases. TIMP-3 is associated with the extracellular matrix and is expressed in highly remodeling tissues. TIMP-3 function in the hematopoietic system is unknown.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe now report that TIMP-3 is highly expressed in the endosteal region of the bone marrow (BM), particularly by osteoblasts, endothelial and multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells which

  6. Formation and preclinical evaluation of a new alloplastic injectable bone substitute material.

    PubMed

    Bojar, Witold; Kucharska, Martyna; Bubak, Grzegorz; Ciach, Tomasz; Koperski, ?ukasz; Jastrz?bski, Zenon; Gruber, Beata M; Krzyszto?-Russjan, Jolanta; Marczewska, Jadwiga; Anuszewska, El?bieta L; Drozd, Ewa; Brynk, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Alloplastic bone substitute materials are raising some more interest as an alternative for autologic transplants and xenogenic materials especially in oral surgery over the last few years. These non-immunogenic and completely resorbable biomaterials are the basis for complete and predictable guided bone regeneration. In the majority of cases, such a material is chosen because of its convenient application by surgeons. The main objective of our project was to design and fabricate an osteoconductive, injectable and readily tolerable by human tissues biomaterial for guided bone regeneration. For this purpose, a self-setting composite consisting of chitosan/tricalcium phosphate microparticles and sodium alginate was made. The material obtained was characterized by microsphere and agglomerate morphology and microstructure. Its features relating to setting time and mechanical properties were precisely investigated. Our material was also evaluated according to PN-EN ISO 10993 Biological evaluation of medical devices, i.e., the in vitro tests for genotoxicity and cytotoxicity were conduced. Then, the following examinations were performed: subchronic systemic toxicity, skin sensitization, irritation and delayed-type hypersensitivity and local effects after implantation. The material tested showed a high degree of cytocompatibility, fulfilled the requirements of International Standards and seemed to be a "user friendly" material for oral surgeons. PMID:22742431

  7. Multifunctional surfaces with biomimetic nanofibres and drug-eluting micro-patterns for infection control and bone tissue formation.

    PubMed

    Chen, X N; Gu, Y X; Lee, J H; Lee, W Y; Wang, H J

    2012-01-01

    For long-term orthopaedic implants, the creation of a surface that is repulsive to bacteria while adhesive to tissue cells represents a promising strategy to control infection. To obtain such multifunctional surfaces, two possible approaches were explored to incorporate a model antibiotic, rifampicin (Rf), into the osteogenic polycaprolactone (PCL)/chitosan (CHS) biomimetic nanofibre meshes by (1) blending Rf into the electrospinning solutions and then electrospinning into nanofibres (i.e., Rf-incorporating fibres), or (2) depositing Rf-containing poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) micro-patterns onto the PCL/chitosan nanofibre meshes via ink-jet printing (i.e., Rf-eluting micro-pattern/fibre). Rapid release of Rf from both meshes was measured even though a relatively slower release rate was obtained from the Rf-eluting micro-pattern ones. Antibacterial assay with Staphylococcus epidermidis showed that both mesh surfaces could effectively kill bacteria and prevent biofilm formation. However, only Rf-eluting micro-pattern meshes favoured the attachment, spreading and metabolic activity of preosteoblasts in the cell culture study. Furthermore, the Rf-eluting micro-pattern meshes could better support the osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblasts by up-regulating the gene expression of bone markers (type I collagen and alkaline phosphatase). Clearly, compared to Rf-incorporating nanofibre meshes, Rf-eluting micro-patterns could effectively prevent biofilm formation without sacrificing the osteogenic properties of PCL/chitosan nanofibre surfaces. This finding provides an innovative avenue to design multifunctional surfaces for enhancing bone tissue formation while controlling infection. PMID:23007909

  8. The star-formation histories of early-type galaxies from ATLAS3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermid, Richard M.; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Tim A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnovi?, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; Morganti, Rafaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nic; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2012-08-01

    We present an exploration of the integrated stellar populations of early-type galaxies (ETGs) from the ATLAS3D survey. We use two approaches: firstly the application of line-indices interpreted through single stellar population (SSP) models, which provide a single value of age, metallicity and abundance ratio. And secondly, by fitting a linear combination of SSP spectra to our data, smoothly weighted in the free parameters of age and metallicity, thereby inferring a star-formation history of these galaxies. Despite the significant differences in these approaches, we obtain generally consistent results, such that galaxies that are more massive appear older with enhanced abundance ratios using line indices, and have shorter star-formation histories weighted to early times. We highlight two limitations of the index-SSP approach. Firstly the SSP-equivalent ages belie the fact that ETGs are overwhelmingly composed of ancient stars. Secondly, the young stellar contributions implied in our star formation histories are required to obtain realistic UV-optical colours. We remark that, even fitting solar-abundance models, we can recover a star-formation duration that correlates with the measured alpha-enhancement, in agreement with other recent work.

  9. Regional geologic characterization of the Second Bone Spring Sandstone, Delaware basin, Lea and Eddy Counties, New Mexico 

    E-print Network

    Downing, Amanda Beth

    2001-01-01

    The Bone Spring Formation is a series of interbedded siliciclastics and carbonates that were deposited in the Delaware basin during the Leonardian (Early Permian). It consists of the First, Second and Third Carbonate and the First, Second and Third...

  10. The Early Miocene Cape Melville Formation fossil assemblage and the evolution of modern Antarctic marine communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittle, Rowan J.; Quaglio, Fernanda; Griffiths, Huw J.; Linse, Katrin; Crame, J. Alistair

    2014-01-01

    The fossil community from the Early Miocene Cape Melville Formation (King George Island, Antarctica) does not show the archaic retrograde nature of modern Antarctic marine communities, despite evidence, such as the presence of dropstones, diamictites and striated rocks, that it was deposited in a glacial environment. Unlike modern Antarctic settings, and the upper units of the Eocene La Meseta Formation on Seymour Island, Antarctica, which are 10 million years older, the Cape Melville Formation community is not dominated by sessile suspension feeding ophiuroids, crinoids or brachiopods. Instead, it is dominated by infaunal bivalves, with a significant component of decapods, similar to present day South American settings. It is possible that the archaic retrograde structure of the modern community did not fully evolve until relatively recently, maybe due to factors such as further cooling and isolation of the continent leading to glaciations, which resulted in a loss of shallow shelf habitats.

  11. Loss of chaotic trabecular structure in OPG-deficient juvenile Paget's disease patients indicates a chaogenic role for OPG in nonlinear pattern formation of trabecular bone.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Phil

    2004-05-01

    The RANK-RANKL-OPG system of osteoclast regulation may play a key role in determining chaotic structure in trabecular bone. Iliac trabecular bone from juvenile Paget's disease patients deficient in functional OPG shows parallel, anisotropic structure instead of normal chaotic structure. Evidence from experimental systems suggests that RANK-RANKL-OPG controls key nonlinear "chaogenic" parameters, such as friction, forcing frequency, feedback, and boundary forcing. The RANK-RANKL-osteoprotegerin (OPG) system of osteoclast regulation may play a key role in determining chaotic structure in trabecular bone. Iliac trabecular bone from juvenile Paget's disease (JPD) patients deficient in functional OPG shows parallel, anisotropic structure instead of normal chaotic structure. Evidence from experimental systems suggests that RANK-RANKL-OPG controls key nonlinear "chaogenic" parameters, such as friction, forcing frequency, feedback, and boundary forcing. The Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction-diffusion system, the catalytic oxidation of CO on platinum surfaces, and thermal diffusion in liquid helium allow visualization of nonlinear emergent patterns such as labyrinthine structures, turbulence, and cellular structures, all of which bear some resemblance to trabecular bone. In JPD, the gene for OPG (TNFRSF11B) is subject to an inactivating mutation, leading to increased resorption and accelerated remodeling. Histomorphometric images of iliac crest trabecular bone from teenagers suffering from JPD show a highly unusual array of parallel, regular trabecular plates, instead of the typical chaotic, fractal patterns of normal trabecular bone. Loss of OPG function is associated with a change from chaotic to regular structure, suggesting that the RANK-RANKL-OPG system is controlling key nonlinear "chaogenic" parameters. Looking at trabecular bone from the perspective of nonlinear pattern formation may help understand other phenomena, such as the marked dependence of trabecular bone's architectural and mechanical quality on remodeling rate independent of the trabecular bone mass. PMID:15068491

  12. Novel analysis model for implant osseointegration using ectopic bone formation via the recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2/macroporous biphasic calcium phosphate block system in rats: a proof-of-concept study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung-Chul; Lee, Jong-Bin; Daculsi, Guy; Oh, Sang-Yeop; Cho, Kyoo-Sung; Im, Gun-Il; Kim, Byung-Soo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The osseointegration around titanium mini-implants installed in macroporous biphasic calcium phosphate (MBCP) blocks was evaluated after incubation with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in an ectopic subcutaneous rat model. Methods Mini-implants (?1.8×12 mm) were installed in MBCP blocks (bMBCPs, 4×5×15 mm) loaded with rhBMP-2 at 0.1 mg/mL, and then implanted for 8 weeks into subcutaneous pockets of male Sprague-Dawley rats