Science.gov

Sample records for early decomposition observation

  1. Observations on the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkooz, Gal

    1992-01-01

    The Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (P.O.D.), also known as the Karhunen-Loeve expansion, is a procedure for decomposing a stochastic field in an L(2) optimal sense. It is used in diverse disciplines from image processing to turbulence. Recently the P.O.D. is receiving much attention as a tool for studying dynamics of systems in infinite dimensional space. This paper reviews the mathematical fundamentals of this theory. Also included are results on the span of the eigenfunction basis, a geometric corollary due to Chebyshev's inequality and a relation between the P.O.D. symmetry and ergodicity.

  2. Evidence for Early Morphological Decomposition: Combining Masked Priming with Magnetoencephalography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehtonen, Minna; Monahan, Philip J.; Poeppel, David

    2011-01-01

    Are words stored as morphologically structured representations? If so, when during word recognition are morphological pieces accessed? Recent masked priming studies support models that assume early decomposition of (potentially) morphologically complex words. The electrophysiological evidence, however, is inconsistent. We combined masked…

  3. Young Children's Thinking about Decomposition: Early Modeling Entrees to Complex Ideas in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ero-Tolliver, Isi; Lucas, Deborah; Schauble, Leona

    2013-01-01

    This study was part of a multi-year project on the development of elementary students' modeling approaches to understanding the life sciences. Twenty-three first grade students conducted a series of coordinated observations and investigations on decomposition, a topic that is rarely addressed in the early grades. The instruction included…

  4. Decomposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, Beth A.

    2014-01-01

    A cornerstone of ecosystem ecology, decomposition was recognized as a fundamental process driving the exchange of energy in ecosystems by early ecologists such as Lindeman 1942 and Odum 1960). In the history of ecology, studies of decomposition were incorporated into the International Biological Program in the 1960s to compare the nature of organic matter breakdown in various ecosystem types. Such studies still have an important role in ecological studies of today. More recent refinements have brought debates on the relative role microbes, invertebrates and environment in the breakdown and release of carbon into the atmosphere, as well as how nutrient cycling, production and other ecosystem processes regulated by decomposition may shift with climate change. Therefore, this bibliography examines the primary literature related to organic matter breakdown, but it also explores topics in which decomposition plays a key supporting role including vegetation composition, latitudinal gradients, altered ecosystems, anthropogenic impacts, carbon storage, and climate change models. Knowledge of these topics is relevant to both the study of ecosystem ecology as well projections of future conditions for human societies.

  5. Young Children's Thinking About Decomposition: Early Modeling Entrees to Complex Ideas in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ero-Tolliver, Isi; Lucas, Deborah; Schauble, Leona

    2013-01-01

    This study was part of a multi-year project on the development of elementary students' modeling approaches to understanding the life sciences. Twenty-three first grade students conducted a series of coordinated observations and investigations on decomposition, a topic that is rarely addressed in the early grades. The instruction included in-class observations of different types of soil and soil profiling, visits to the school's compost bin, structured observations of decaying organic matter of various kinds, study of organisms that live in the soil, and models of environmental conditions that affect rates of decomposition. Both before and after instruction, students completed a written performance assessment that asked them to reason about the process of decomposition. Additional information was gathered through one-on-one interviews with six focus students who represented variability of performance across the class. During instruction, researchers collected video of classroom activity, student science journal entries, and charts and illustrations produced by the teacher. After instruction, the first-grade students showed a more nuanced understanding of the composition and variability of soils, the role of visible organisms in decomposition, and environmental factors that influence rates of decomposition. Through a variety of representational devices, including drawings, narrative records, and physical models, students came to regard decomposition as a process, rather than simply as an end state that does not require explanation.

  6. Decomposition of the sensitivity of the symmetry energy observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, He-lei; Yong, Gao-Chan; Wen, De-Hua

    2015-04-01

    To exactly answer which density region that some frequently used symmetry-energy-sensitive observables probe, for the first time, we make a study of the decomposition of the sensitivity of some symmetry-energy-sensitive observables. It is found that for the Au+Au reaction at incident beam energies of 200 and 400 MeV/nucleon, frequently used symmetry-energy-sensitive observables mainly probe the density-dependent symmetry energy around 1.25 ρ0 (for pionic observables) or 1.5 ρ0 (for nucleonic observables). Effects of the symmetry energy in the low-density region is in general small but observable. The fact that the symmetry-energy-sensitive observables are not sensitive to the symmetry energy in the maximal baryon-density region increases the difficulty of studying nuclear symmetry energy at superdensity.

  7. Evidence for Early Morphological Decomposition in Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomyak, Olla; Marantz, Alec

    2010-01-01

    We employ a single-trial correlational MEG analysis technique to investigate early processing in the visual recognition of morphologically complex words. Three classes of affixed words were presented in a lexical decision task: free stems (e.g., taxable), bound roots (e.g., tolerable), and unique root words (e.g., vulnerable, the root of which…

  8. Polar decomposition for attitude determination from vector observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.

    1993-01-01

    This work treats the problem of weighted least squares fitting of a 3D Euclidean-coordinate transformation matrix to a set of unit vectors measured in the reference and transformed coordinates. A closed-form analytic solution to the problem is re-derived. The fact that the solution is the closest orthogonal matrix to some matrix defined on the measured vectors and their weights is clearly demonstrated. Several known algorithms for computing the analytic closed form solution are considered. An algorithm is discussed which is based on the polar decomposition of matrices into the closest unitary matrix to the decomposed matrix and a Hermitian matrix. A somewhat longer improved algorithm is suggested too. A comparison of several algorithms is carried out using simulated data as well as real data from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. The comparison is based on accuracy and time consumption. It is concluded that the algorithms based on polar decomposition yield a simple although somewhat less accurate solution. The precision of the latter algorithms increase with the number of the measured vectors and with the accuracy of their measurement.

  9. Early Pulsar Observations with LOFAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessels, J. W. T.; Stappers, B.; Alexov, A.; Coenen, T.; Hassall, T.; Karastergiou, A.; Kondratiev, V. K.; Kramer, M.; van Leeuwen, J.; Mol, J. D.; Noutsos, A.; Weltevrede, P.

    This contribution to the proceedings of "A New Golden Age for Radio Astronomy" is simply intended to give some of the highlights from pulsar observations with LOFAR at the time of its official opening: June 12th, 2010. These observations illustrate that, though LOFAR is still under construction and astronomical commissioning, it is already starting to deliver on its promise to revolutionize radio astronomy in the low-frequency regime. These observations also demonstrate how LOFAR has many "next-generation" capabilities, such as wide-field multi-beaming, that will be vital to open a new Golden Age in radio astronomy through the Square Kilometer Array and its precursors.

  10. Early post-mortem changes and stages of decomposition in exposed cadavers.

    PubMed

    Lee Goff, M

    2009-10-01

    Decomposition of an exposed cadaver is a continuous process, beginning at the moment of death and ending when the body is reduced to a dried skeleton. Traditional estimates of the period of time since death or post-mortem interval have been based on a series of grossly observable changes to the body, including livor mortis, algor mortis, rigor mortis and similar phenomena. These changes will be described briefly and their relative significance discussed. More recently, insects, mites and other arthropods have been increasingly used by law enforcement to provide an estimate of the post-mortem interval. Although the process of decomposition is continuous, it is useful to divide this into a series of five stages: Fresh, Bloated, Decay, Postdecay and Skeletal. Here these stages are characterized by physical parameters and related assemblages of arthropods, to provide a framework for consideration of the decomposition process and acarine relationships to the body. PMID:19554461

  11. Changes in the quality of chromophoric dissolved organic matter leached from senescent leaf litter during the early decomposition.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Satoshi; Maie, Nagamitsu; Baba, Mitsuhisa; Sudo, Takahiro; Sugiura, Toshihiro; Shima, Eikichi

    2012-01-01

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) leached from leaf litter is a major source of humus in mineral soil of forest ecosystems. While their functions and refractoriness depend on the physicochemical structure, there is little information on the quality of CDOM, especially for that leached in the very early stages of litter decomposition when a large amount of dissolved organic matter (DOM) is leached. This study aimed to better understand the variations/changes in the composition of CDOM leached from senescent leaf litter from two tree species during the early stage of decomposition. Leaf litter from a conifer tree (Japanese cedar, D. Don) and a deciduous broad-leaved tree (Konara oak, Thunb.) were incubated in columns using simulated rainfall events periodically for a total of 300 d at 20°C. The quality of CDOM was investigated based on the fluorescence properties by using a combination of excitation-emission matrix fluorescence (EEM) and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). In addition, the phenolic composition of DOM was investigated at a molecular level by thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (THM-GC-MS) in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH). The EEM was statistically decomposed into eight fluorescence components (two tannin/peptide-like peaks, one protein-like peak, and five humic-like peaks). A significant contribution of tannin/peptide-like peaks was observed at the beginning of incubation, but these peaks decreased quickly and humic-like peaks increased within 1 mo of incubation. The composition of humic-like peaks was different between tree species and changed over the incubation period. Since tannin-derived phenolic compounds were detected in the DOM collected after 254 d of incubation on THM-GC-MS, it was suggested that tannins partially changed its structure, forming various humic-like peaks during the early decomposition. PMID:22565264

  12. Evidence from neglect dyslexia for morphological decomposition at the early stages of orthographic-visual analysis

    PubMed Central

    Reznick, Julia; Friedmann, Naama

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether and how the morphological structure of written words affects reading in word-based neglect dyslexia (neglexia), and what can be learned about morphological decomposition in reading from the effect of morphology on neglexia. The oral reading of 7 Hebrew-speaking participants with acquired neglexia at the word level—6 with left neglexia and 1 with right neglexia—was evaluated. The main finding was that the morphological role of the letters on the neglected side of the word affected neglect errors: When an affix appeared on the neglected side, it was neglected significantly more often than when the neglected side was part of the root; root letters on the neglected side were never omitted, whereas affixes were. Perceptual effects of length and final letter form were found for words with an affix on the neglected side, but not for words in which a root letter appeared in the neglected side. Semantic and lexical factors did not affect the participants' reading and error pattern, and neglect errors did not preserve the morpho-lexical characteristics of the target words. These findings indicate that an early morphological decomposition of words to their root and affixes occurs before access to the lexicon and to semantics, at the orthographic-visual analysis stage, and that the effects did not result from lexical feedback. The same effects of morphological structure on reading were manifested by the participants with left- and right-sided neglexia. Since neglexia is a deficit at the orthographic-visual analysis level, the effect of morphology on reading patterns in neglexia further supports that morphological decomposition occurs in the orthographic-visual analysis stage, prelexically, and that the search for the three letters of the root in Hebrew is a trigger for attention shift in neglexia. PMID:26528159

  13. Loop for the observation of film temperature effects on decomposition (LOFTED)

    SciTech Connect

    Kruizenga, Alan Michael; Kolb, William J.; Briggs, Ronald J.; Christian, Joshua Mark; Ray, Daniel A; Gill, David.; Kelton, John W.; Chisman, Kye Martin

    2014-09-01

    Molten nitrate salt Loop for the Observation of Film Temperature Effects on Decomposition (LOFTED) was designed, fabricated, and tested. This unique experimental arrangement allowed a 60/40 molten nitrate salt to be continuously pumped through a Haynes 230 pipe, allowing simulation of a solar receiver. The wall temperature was held at 670°C during the test and the bulk temperature range from 600-610°C for approximately 1200 hours. Salt decomposition was tested using a calibrated total alkalinity methodology to assess oxide content over time. Several alloys (347SS, HR-224, In625-SQ, Haynes 230) were tested for corrosion performance over the duration of the study and compared to previous static tests. Results yielded nearly a tenfold increase in corrosion rate as compared to 600°C, owing to the need to understand the effects of flow and mass transport on corrosion in molten salt environments.

  14. Early Observations with The Murchison Widefield Array.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Daniel; MWA Collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), one of the demonstrator projects for the Square Kilometre Array, is a next-generation radio telescope being built in Australia. The MWA will study cosmological reionization, the sun, space weather, and time variability of the radio sky between 80 and 300 MHz, with construction of the full 512-tile system to be complete by mid 2010. As is the case with other future large low-frequency arrays, the visibility data rate produced is extremely large; the correlator, with 3000 fully-polarized frequency channels, is 20 GB/s (a few Peta-Bytes/day). It is impractical to store data being generated at this rate, and software is currently being developed to calibrate the visibilities and form images from them in real time. Relatively rapid phase and polarization distortions due to the ionosphere set the cadence for the real-time system, with a complete cycle of calibration, imaging and image de-distortion completed every 8 seconds. Furthermore, the gain and polarization response of the antennas need to be measured and accounted for to reach the challenging dynamic range requirements. The software will run on-site on a high-throughput, real-time computing cluster, at several tera-flops. In the second half of 2008 and early 2009, a series of early observations are being carried out at the MWA site with new generation dipoles, beamformers and receivers. A major objective of these site visits will be to gather information on the antenna primary beams, the sky and the ionosphere, as we prepare to commission a sub-array constructed from the first 32 tiles in mid 2009. Data from these observations will also be used for testing of the real-time calibration and imaging system. In this poster we will present results from these early observations, with an emphasis on some of the main technical challenges.

  15. Establishing the volatile profile of pig carcasses as analogues for human decomposition during the early postmortem period.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, P; Nizio, K D; Perrault, K A; Forbes, S L

    2016-02-01

    Following a mass disaster, it is important that victims are rapidly located as the chances of survival decrease greatly after approximately 48 h. Urban search and rescue (USAR) teams may use a range of tools to assist their efforts but detector dogs still remain one of the most effective search tools to locate victims of mass disasters. USAR teams can choose to deploy human scent dogs (trained to locate living victims) or human remains detection (HRD) dogs (trained to locate deceased victims). However, little is known about the variation between live human scent and postmortem human remains scent and the timeframe during which one type of scent transitions to the other. The aim of the current study was to measure the change in the scent profile of human decomposition analogues during the first 72 h postmortem by measuring the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that comprise the odour. Three pig carcasses (Sus scrofa domesticus L.) were placed on a soil surface and allowed to decompose under natural conditions. Decomposition odour was sampled frequently up to 75 h postmortem and analysed using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography - time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS). A total of 105 postmortem VOCs were identified during the early postmortem period. The VOC profile during the early postmortem period was highly dynamic, changing both hourly and daily. A transition period was observed after 43 h postmortem, where the VOC profile appeared to shift from a distinct antemortem odour to a more generalised postmortem odour. These findings are important in informing USAR teams and their use of detector dogs for disaster victim recovery. PMID:27441249

  16. Fungal decomposition of terrestrial organic matter accelerated Early Jurassic climate warming

    PubMed Central

    Pieńkowski, Grzegorz; Hodbod, Marta; Ullmann, Clemens V.

    2016-01-01

    Soils – constituting the largest terrestrial carbon pool - are vulnerable to climatic warming. Currently existing uncertainties regarding carbon fluxes within terrestrial systems can be addressed by studies of past carbon cycle dynamics and related climate change recorded in sedimentary successions. Here we show an example from the Early Jurassic (early Toarcian, c. 183 mya) marginal-marine strata from Poland, tracking the hinterland response to climatic changes through a super-greenhouse event. In contrast to anoxia-related enhanced carbon storage in coeval open marine environments, Total Organic Carbon (TOC) concentrations in the Polish successions are substantially reduced during this event. Increasing temperature favoured fungal-mediated decomposition of plant litter – specifically of normally resistant woody tissues. The associated injection of oxidized organic matter into the atmosphere corresponds to abrupt changes in standing vegetation and may have contributed significantly to the amplified greenhouse climate on Earth. The characteristic Toarcian signature of multiple warm pulses coinciding with rapidly decreasing carbon isotope ratios may in part be the result of a radical reduction of the terrestrial carbon pool as a response to climate change. PMID:27554210

  17. Fungal decomposition of terrestrial organic matter accelerated Early Jurassic climate warming.

    PubMed

    Pieńkowski, Grzegorz; Hodbod, Marta; Ullmann, Clemens V

    2016-01-01

    Soils - constituting the largest terrestrial carbon pool - are vulnerable to climatic warming. Currently existing uncertainties regarding carbon fluxes within terrestrial systems can be addressed by studies of past carbon cycle dynamics and related climate change recorded in sedimentary successions. Here we show an example from the Early Jurassic (early Toarcian, c. 183 mya) marginal-marine strata from Poland, tracking the hinterland response to climatic changes through a super-greenhouse event. In contrast to anoxia-related enhanced carbon storage in coeval open marine environments, Total Organic Carbon (TOC) concentrations in the Polish successions are substantially reduced during this event. Increasing temperature favoured fungal-mediated decomposition of plant litter - specifically of normally resistant woody tissues. The associated injection of oxidized organic matter into the atmosphere corresponds to abrupt changes in standing vegetation and may have contributed significantly to the amplified greenhouse climate on Earth. The characteristic Toarcian signature of multiple warm pulses coinciding with rapidly decreasing carbon isotope ratios may in part be the result of a radical reduction of the terrestrial carbon pool as a response to climate change. PMID:27554210

  18. Unimolecular thermal decomposition of phenol and d5-phenol: Direct observation of cyclopentadiene formation via cyclohexadienone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheer, Adam M.; Mukarakate, Calvin; Robichaud, David J.; Nimlos, Mark R.; Carstensen, Hans-Heinrich; Barney Ellison, G.

    2012-01-01

    The pyrolyses of phenol and d5-phenol (C6H5OH and C6D5OH) have been studied using a high temperature, microtubular (μtubular) SiC reactor. Product detection is via both photon ionization (10.487 eV) time-of-flight mass spectrometry and matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy. Gas exiting the heated reactor (375 K-1575 K) is subject to a free expansion after a residence time in the μtubular reactor of approximately 50-100 μs. The expansion from the reactor into vacuum rapidly cools the gas mixture and allows the detection of radicals and other highly reactive intermediates. We find that the initial decomposition steps at the onset of phenol pyrolysis are enol/keto tautomerization to form cyclohexadienone followed by decarbonylation to produce cyclopentadiene; C6H5OH → c-C6H6 = O → c-C5H6 + CO. The cyclopentadiene loses a H atom to generate the cyclopentadienyl radical which further decomposes to acetylene and propargyl radical; c-C5H6 → c-C5H5 + H → HC≡CH + HCCCH2. At higher temperatures, hydrogen loss from the PhO-H group to form phenoxy radical followed by CO ejection to generate the cyclopentadienyl radical likely contributes to the product distribution; C6H5O-H → C6H5O + H → c-C5H5 + CO. The direct decarbonylation reaction remains an important channel in the thermal decomposition mechanisms of the dihydroxybenzenes. Both catechol (o-HO-C6H4-OH) and hydroquinone (p-HO-C6H4-OH) are shown to undergo decarbonylation at the onset of pyrolysis to form hydroxycyclopentadiene. In the case of catechol, we observe that water loss is also an important decomposition channel at the onset of pyrolysis.

  19. Simulation of the early stage of binary alloy decomposition, based on the free energy density functional method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L'vov, P. E.; Svetukhin, V. V.

    2016-07-01

    Based on the free energy density functional method, the early stage of decomposition of a onedimensional binary alloy corresponding to the approximation of regular solutions has been simulated. In the simulation, Gaussian composition fluctuations caused by the initial alloy state are taken into account. The calculation is performed using the block approach implying discretization of the extensive solution volume into independent fragments for each of which the decomposition process is calculated, and then a joint analysis of the formed second phase segregations is performed. It was possible to trace all stages of solid solution decomposition: nucleation, growth, and coalescence (initial stage). The time dependences of the main phase distribution characteristics are calculated: the average size and concentration of the second phase particles, their size distribution function, and the nucleation rate of the second phase particles (clusters). Cluster trajectories in the size-composition space are constructed for the cases of growth and dissolution.

  20. Indium hydroxide to oxide decomposition observed in one nanocrystal during in situ transmission electron microscopy studies

    SciTech Connect

    Miehe, Gerhard; Lauterbach, Stefan; Kleebe, Hans-Joachim; Gurlo, Aleksander

    2013-02-15

    The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) is used to study, in situ, spatially resolved decomposition in individual nanocrystals of metal hydroxides and oxyhydroxides. This case study reports on the decomposition of indium hydroxide (c-In(OH){sub 3}) to bixbyite-type indium oxide (c-In{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The electron beam is focused onto a single cube-shaped In(OH){sub 3} crystal of {l_brace}100{r_brace} morphology with ca. 35 nm edge length and a sequence of HR-TEM images was recorded during electron beam irradiation. The frame-by-frame analysis of video sequences allows for the in situ, time-resolved observation of the shape and orientation of the transformed crystals, which in turn enables the evaluation of the kinetics of c-In{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystallization. Supplementary material (video of the transformation) related to this article can be found online at (10.1016/j.jssc.2012.09.022). After irradiation the shape of the parent cube-shaped crystal is preserved, however, its linear dimension (edge) is reduced by the factor 1.20. The corresponding spotted selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern representing zone [001] of c-In(OH){sub 3} is transformed to a diffuse strongly textured ring-like pattern of c-In{sub 2}O{sub 3} that indicates the transformed cube is no longer a single crystal but is disintegrated into individual c-In{sub 2}O{sub 3} domains with the size of about 5-10 nm. The induction time of approximately 15 s is estimated from the time-resolved Fourier transforms. The volume fraction of the transformed phase (c-In{sub 2}O{sub 3}), calculated from the shrinkage of the parent c-In(OH){sub 3} crystal in the recorded HR-TEM images, is used as a measure of the kinetics of c-In{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystallization within the framework of Avrami-Erofeev formalism. The Avrami exponent of {approx}3 is characteristic for a reaction mechanism with fast nucleation at the beginning of the reaction and subsequent three-dimensional growth of

  1. An approach using ensemble empirical mode decomposition to remove noise from prototypical observations on dam safety.

    PubMed

    Su, Huaizhi; Li, Hao; Chen, Zhexin; Wen, Zhiping

    2016-01-01

    It is very important for dam safety control to identify reasonably dam behavior according to the prototypical observations on deformation, seepage, stress, etc. However, there are many cases in which the noise corrupts the prototypical observations, and it must be removed from the data. Considering the nonlinear and non-stationary characteristics of data series with signal intermittency, an ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD)-based method is presented to remove noise from prototypical observations on dam safety. Its basic principle and implementation process are discussed. The key parameters and rules, which can adapt the noise removal requirements of prototypical observations on dam safety, are given. The displacement of one actual dam is taken as an example. The noise removal capability of EEMD-based method is assessed. It is indicated that the dam displacement feature can be reflected more clearly by removing noise from prototypical observations on dam displacement. The statistical model, which is built according to noise-removed data series, can provide the more precise forecast for structural behavior. PMID:27330916

  2. Global Warming Potential from early phase decomposition of soil organic matter amendments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, A.; Silver, W. L.

    2015-12-01

    Organic matter amendments to soil are widely used as a method of enhancing nutrient availability for crops or grassland. Amendments such as composted manure or greenwaste also have the co-benefits of potentially increasing soil carbon (C) stocks (DeLonge et al., 2013) and diverting organic waste from landfills or manure lagoons. However, application of organic matter amendments can also stimulate emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). In this study we determined how the chemical quality of organic matter amendments affected soil C and N content and GHG emissions during early stage decomposition. California grassland soils were amended with six different amendments of varying C and N content including three composts and three feedstocks (goat and horse bedding and cattle manure). Amendments and soils were incubated in the laboratory for 7 weeks; GHG fluxes were measured weekly. The three feedstocks emitted significantly more GHGs than the composted materials. With the exception of cow manure, N content of the amendment was linearly correlated with global warming potential emitted (R2= 0.66, P <0.0001). C:N ratios were not a significant predictor of GHG emissions. Cow manure stimulated a net loss of C (or C equivalents) in the mineral soil, as expected. However, greenwaste compost also surprisingly resulted in net C losses, while goat bedding, horse bedding, and the other compost were either C neutral or a slight net C sink at the end of the incubation. Ongoing analyses are examining the fate of the C incorporated from the amendment to the soil as occluded or free light fraction, as well as N mineralization rates. Our data suggest that N content of organic matter amendments is a good predictor of initial GHG emissions. The study also indicates that composting greenwaste with N-rich bedding and manure can result in lower GHG emissions and C sequestration compared to the individual uncomposted components.

  3. Unimolecular Thermal Decomposition of Phenol and d5-Phenol: Direct Observation of Cyclopentadiene Formation via Cyclohexadienone

    SciTech Connect

    Scheer, A. M.; Mukarakate, C.; Robichaud, D. J.; Nimlos, M. R.; Carstensen, H. H.; Barney, E. G.

    2012-01-28

    The pyrolyses of phenol and d{sub 5}-phenol (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}OH and C{sub 6}D{sub 5}OH) have been studied using a high temperature, microtubular ({mu}tubular) SiC reactor. Product detection is via both photon ionization (10.487 eV) time-of-flight mass spectrometry and matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy. Gas exiting the heated reactor (375 K-1575 K) is subject to a free expansion after a residence time in the {mu}tubular reactor of approximately 50-100 {micro}s. The expansion from the reactor into vacuum rapidly cools the gas mixture and allows the detection of radicals and other highly reactive intermediates. We find that the initial decomposition steps at the onset of phenol pyrolysis are enol/keto tautomerization to form cyclohexadienone followed by decarbonylation to produce cyclopentadiene; C{sub 6}H{sub 5}OH {yields} c-C{sub 6}H{sub 6} = O {yields} c-C{sub 5}H{sub 6} + CO. The cyclopentadiene loses a H atom to generate the cyclopentadienyl radical which further decomposes to acetylene and propargyl radical; c-C{sub 5}H{sub 6} {yields} c-C{sub 5}H{sub 5} + H {yields} HC {triple_bond} CH + HCCCH{sub 2}. At higher temperatures, hydrogen loss from the PhO-H group to form phenoxy radical followed by CO ejection to generate the cyclopentadienyl radical likely contributes to the product distribution; C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O-H {yields} C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O + H {yields} c-C{sub 5}H{sub 5} + CO. The direct decarbonylation reaction remains an important channel in the thermal decomposition mechanisms of the dihydroxybenzenes. Both catechol (o-HO-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}-OH) and hydroquinone (p-HO-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}-OH) are shown to undergo decarbonylation at the onset of pyrolysis to form hydroxycyclopentadiene. In the case of catechol, we observe that water loss is also an important decomposition channel at the onset of pyrolysis.

  4. Active Control of Jet Noise Using Observable Inferred Decomposition and Large Window PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Zachary; Berry, Matthew; Low, Kerwin; Cordier, Laurent; Noack, Bernd; Gogineni, Sivaram; Glauser, Mark

    2012-11-01

    In this investigation, we seek to find sources of noise created in the near-region of a highly subsonic jet, with a nozzle diameter of 2''. Using large window PIV alongside simultaneous hydrodynamic and acoustic pressure, we focus on observing flow structures created in the collapse of the potential core. Correlations can be made between the low-dimensional velocity field (using POD) and the far-field acoustics in an effort to identify loud modes in the flow. An advanced reduced order model known as Observable Inferred Decomposition (OID) is used to form closed-loop controllers for noise reduction in the far-field. With this technique, we find low-dimensional representations of near-field velocity and far-field pressure - finding a linear mapping between the two fields. Then, we obtain acoustically optimized modes in the flow field and seek to drive these modes to zero using active control strategies. For flow control, synthetic jet actuators are used as shear layer excitation. A large range of tests are explored, varying Mach number and flow control configurations. Finally, large PIV windows will allow us to investigate several diameters of the flow field in the streamwise plane.

  5. Early stages of spinodal decomposition in Fe–Cr resolved by in-situ small-angle neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Hörnqvist, M. Thuvander, M.; Steuwer, A.; King, S.; Odqvist, J.; Hedström, P.

    2015-02-09

    In-situ, time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) investigations of the early stages of the spinodal decomposition process in Fe–35Cr were performed at 773 and 798 K. The kinetics of the decomposition, both in terms of characteristic distance and peak intensity, followed a power-law behaviour from the start of the heat treatment (a′{sup  }= 0.10–0.11 and a″ = 0.67–0.86). Furthermore, the method allows tracking of the high–Q slope, which is a sensitive measure of the early stages of decomposition. Ex-situ SANS and atom probe tomography were used to verify the results from the in-situ investigations. Finally, the in-situ measurement of the evolution of the characteristic distance at 773 K was compared with the predictions from the Cahn-Hilliard-Cook model, which showed good agreement with the experimental data (a′{sup  }= 0.12–0.20 depending on the assumed mobility)

  6. Effects of root decomposition on plant-soil feedback of early- and mid-successional plant species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Naili; Van der Putten, Wim H; Veen, G F Ciska

    2016-10-01

    Plant-soil feedback (PSF) is an important driver of plant community dynamics. Many studies have emphasized the role of pathogens and symbiotic mutualists in PSFs; however, less is known about the contribution of decomposing litter, especially that of roots. We conducted a PSF experiment, where soils were conditioned by living early- and mid-successional grasses and forbs with and without decomposing roots of conspecific species (conditioning phase). These soils were used to test growth responses of conspecific and heterospecific plant species (feedback phase). The addition of the roots of conspecifics decreased the biomass of both early- and mid-successional plant species in the conditioning phase. In the feedback phase, root addition had positive effects on the biomass of early-successional species and neutral effects on mid-successional species, except when mid-successional grasses were grown in soils conditioned by conspecifics, where effects were negative. Biomass of early- and mid-successional forbs was generally reduced in soils conditioned by conspecifics. We conclude that root decomposition may increase short-term negative PSF effects, but that the effects can become neutral to positive over time, thereby counteracting negative components of PSF. This implies that root decomposition is a key element of PSF and needs to be included in future studies. PMID:27214646

  7. An Early Astronomical Observation by John Goodricke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Linda M.

    2009-12-01

    John Goodricke (1764-1786) is one of the most intriguing and enigmatic figures in the history of astronomy. Deaf from the age of five, his observations of the light variation of Algol brought him acclaim and the Copley Medal of the Royal Society by the age of nineteen. Together with his neighbor, mentor, and distant relative Edward Pigott, he went on to discover and quantify the light variations of other stars, including Delta Cephei. Goodricke's careful accounts of his observations, and their accuracy, remain a model of clear scientific thinking and reporting. His final derived value for the time between eclipse minima for Algol, for example, is within eight seconds of the modern value. Goodricke's astronomical observing career is generally thought to have begun with his return to his family home in York in 1781 at the age of seventeen. His school mathematics notebook and workbook from the Warrington Academy, however, contains a detailed drawing of the sky which suggest that he was already a knowledgable observer by the age of fifteen. This drawing is presented and interpreted.

  8. The Early Years: Observing with Magnifiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2008-01-01

    Inspire your students to become detailed observers by encouraging the use of magnifiers. Magnification can make us see an object with new understanding. Rachel Carson said, "Some of nature's most exquisite handiwork is on a miniature scale, as anyone knows who has applied a magnifying glass to a snowflake"(Carson 1965). The lesson described here…

  9. Some observations on early military anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Houghton, I T

    2006-06-01

    Although anaesthesia was discovered in 1846, pain relief had been used for many years previously. Opium, mandragora, and Indian hemp amongst others have been used since the earliest times as alluded to by many of the classical writers. The use of refrigeration anaesthesia is known to have been recommended a millennium ago although it never had much usage. Very soon after the introduction of ether anaesthesia, it was recommended for military use and the first use by the American forces was in Buena Vista early in 1847 and then again at Vera Cruz. Pirogoff taught and used ether anaesthesia on active service with the Russian forces in the Caucasus in the summer of 1847. Meanwhile Spencer Wells, who was serving with the Royal Navy in Malta, was the first British service medical officer recorded to have used anaesthesia. He went on to write up a series of 106 anaesthetics. The Danes were probably next to use anaesthesia in battle using chloroform in 1848. However, it was not until the Crimean War that anaesthesia began to play an important part in battle surgery with many anaesthetics being given with varying results. The War of the Rebellion was the next war in which anaesthesia was important and the first one in which proper statistics were kept allowing useful analysis. Anaesthesia had irrevocably found its place in battlefield surgery. PMID:16800222

  10. SOAR remote observing: tactics and early results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecil, Gerald N.; Crain, J. Adam

    2004-09-01

    Travel from North America to the 4.1m SOAR telescope atop Cerro Pachon exceeds $1000, and takes >16 hours door to door (20+ hours typically). SOAR aims to exploit best seeing, requiring dynamic scheduling that is impossible to accomplish when catering to peripatetic astronomers. According to technical arguments at www.peakoil.org, we are near the peak rate of depleting world petroleum, so can expect travel costs to climb sharply. With the telecom bubble's glut of optical fiber, we can transmit data more efficiently than astronomers and "observe remotely". With data compression, less than half of the 6 Mbps bandwidth shared currently by SOAR and CTIO is enough to enable a high-fidelity observing presence for SOAR partners in North America, Brazil, and Chile. We discuss access from home by cable modem/DSL link.

  11. Direct observation of roaming radicals in the thermal decomposition of acetaldehyde.

    SciTech Connect

    Sivaramakrishnan, R.; Michael, J. V.; Klippenstein, S. J.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

    2010-01-21

    The thermal dissociation of acetaldehyde has been studied with the reflected shock tube technique using H(D)-atom atomic resonance absorption spectrometry detection. The use of an unreversed light source yields extraordinarily sensitive H atom detection. As a result, we are able to measure both the total decomposition rate and the branching to radical versus molecular channels. This branching provides a direct measure of the contribution from the roaming radical mechanism since the contributions from the usual tight transition states are predicted by theory to be negligible. The experimental observations also provide a measure of the rate coefficient for H + CH{sub 3}CHO. Another set of experiments employing C{sub 2}H{sub 5}I as an H-atom source provides additional data for this rate coefficient that extends to lower temperature. An evaluation of the available experimental results for H + CH{sub 3}CHO can be expressed by a three-parameter Arrhenius expression as k = 7.66 x 10{sup -20}T{sup 2.75} exp((-486 K)/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (298-1415 K). Analogous experiments employing C{sub 2}D{sub 5}I as a D-atom source allow for the study of the isotopically substituted reaction. The present experiments are the only direct measure for this reaction rate constant, and the results can be expressed by an Arrhenius expression as k = 5.20 x 10{sup -10} exp((-4430 K)/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (1151-1354 K). The H/D + CH{sub 3}CHO reactions are also studied with ab initio transition-state theory, and the results are in remarkably good agreement with the current experimental data.

  12. Evaluation of two decomposition schemes in Earth System Models against LIDET, C14 observations and global soil carbon maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricciuto, D. M.; Yang, X.; Thornton, P. E.

    2015-12-01

    Soils contain the largest pool of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. Soil carbon dynamics and associated nutrient dynamics play significant roles in regulating global carbon cycle and atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Our capability to predict future climate change depends to a large extent on a well-constrained representation of soil carbon dynamics in ESMs. Here we evaluate two decomposition schemes - converging trophic cascade (CTC) and Century - in CLM4.5/ACME V0 using data from the long-term intersite decomposition experiment team (LIDET), radiocarbon (14C) observations, and Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD). For the evaluation against LIDET, We exercise the full CLM4.5/ ACME V0 land model, including seasonal variability in nitrogen limitation and environmental scalars (temperature, moisture, O2), in order to represent LIDET experiment in a realistic way. We show that the proper design of model experiments is crucial to model evaluation using data from field experiments such as LIDET. We also use 14C profile data at 10 sites to evaluate the performance of CTC and CENTURY decomposition scheme. We find that the 14C profiles at these sites are most sensitive to the depth dependent decomposition parameters, consistent with previous studies.

  13. Microscopic observations of X-ray and gamma-ray induced decomposition of ammonium perchlorate crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herley, P. J.; Levy, P. W.

    1972-01-01

    The X-ray and gamma-ray induced decomposition of ammonium perchlorate was studied by optical, transmission, and scanning electron microscopy. This material is a commonly used oxidizer in solid propellents which could be employed in deep-space probes, and where they will be subjected to a variety of radiations for as long as ten years. In some respects the radiation-induced damage closely resembles the effects produced by thermal decomposition, but in other respects the results differ markedly. Similar radiation and thermal effects include the following: (1) irregular or ill-defined circular etch pits are formed in both cases; (2) approximately the same size pits are produced; (3) the pit density is similar; (4) the c face is considerably more reactive than the m face; and (5) most importantly, many of the etch pits are aligned in crystallographic directions which are the same for thermal or radiolytic decomposition. Thus, dislocations play an important role in the radiolytic decomposition process.

  14. Direct observation and quantification of nanoscale spinodal decomposition in super duplex stainless steel weld metals.

    PubMed

    Shariq, Ahmed; Hättestrand, Mats; Nilsson, Jan-Olof; Gregori, Andrea

    2009-06-01

    Three variants of super duplex stainless steel weld metals with the basic composition 29Cr-8Ni-2Mo (wt%) were investigated. The nitrogen content of the three materials was 0.22%, 0.33% and 0.37%, respectively. Isothermal heat treatments were performed at 450 degrees C for times up to 243 h. The hardness evolution of the three materials was found to vary with the overall concentration of the nitrogen. Atom probe field ion microscopy (APFIM) was used to directly detect and quantify the degree of spinodal decomposition in different material conditions. 3-DAP atomic reconstruction clearly illustrate nanoscale variation of iron rich (alpha) and chromium rich (alpha') phases. A longer ageing time produces a coarser microstructure with larger alpha and alpha' domains. Statistical evaluation of APFIM data showed that phase separation was significant already after 1 h of ageing that gradually became more pronounced. Although nanoscale concentration variation was evident, no significant influence of overall nitrogen content on the degree of spinodal decomposition was found. PMID:19504899

  15. Early Decomposition in Visual Word Recognition: Dissociating Morphology, Form, and Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Bozic, Mirjana; Randall, Billi

    2008-01-01

    The role of morphological, semantic, and form-based factors in the early stages of visual word recognition was investigated across different SOAs in a masked priming paradigm, focusing on English derivational morphology. In a first set of experiments, stimulus pairs co-varying in morphological decomposability and in semantic and orthographic…

  16. Observational effects of the early episodically dominating dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chan-Gyung; Lee, Jae-heon; Hwang, Jai-chan; Noh, Hyerim

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the observational consequences of the early episodically dominating dark energy on the evolution of cosmological structures. For this aim, we introduce the minimally coupled scalar-field dark energy model with the Albrecht-Skordis potential, which allows a sudden ephemeral domination of a dark energy component during the radiation or early matter era. The conventional cosmological parameters in the presence of such an early dark energy are constrained with WMAP and Planck cosmic microwave background radiation data including other external data sets. It is shown that in the presence of such an early dark energy, the estimated cosmological parameters can deviate substantially from the currently known Λ cold dark matter (Λ CDM )-based parameters, with best-fit values differing by several percent for WMAP and by a percent level for Planck data. For the latter case, only a limited amount of dark energy with episodic nature is allowed since the Planck data strongly favor the Λ CDM model. Compared with the conventional dark energy model, the early dark energy dominating near the radiation-matter equality or at the early matter era results in the shorter cosmic age or the presence of tensor-type perturbation, respectively. Our analysis demonstrates that the alternative cosmological parameter estimation is allowed based on the same observations even in Einstein's gravity.

  17. Early decomposition in visual word recognition: Dissociating morphology, form, and meaning

    PubMed Central

    Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Bozic, Mirjana; Randall, Billi

    2008-01-01

    The role of morphological, semantic, and form-based factors in the early stages of visual word recognition was investigated across different SOAs in a masked priming paradigm, focusing on English derivational morphology. In a first set of experiments, stimulus pairs co-varying in morphological decomposability and in semantic and orthographic relatedness were presented at three SOAs (36, 48, and 72 ms). No effects of orthographic relatedness were found at any SOA. Semantic relatedness did not interact with effects of morphological decomposability, which came through strongly at all SOAs, even for pseudo-suffixed pairs such as archer-arch. Derivational morphological effects in masked priming seem to be primarily driven by morphological decomposability at an early stage of visual word recognition, and are independent of semantic factors. A second experiment reversed the order of prime and target (stem-derived rather than derived-stem), and again found that morphological priming did not interact with semantic relatedness. This points to an early segmentation process that is driven by morphological decomposability and not by the structure or content of central lexical representations. PMID:18923643

  18. TEMPORAL SIGNATURES OF AIR QUALITY OBSERVATIONS AND MODEL OUTPUTS: DO TIME SERIES DECOMPOSITION METHODS CAPTURE RELEVANT TIME SCALES?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Time series decomposition methods were applied to meteorological and air quality data and their numerical model estimates. Decomposition techniques express a time series as the sum of a small number of independent modes which hypothetically represent identifiable forcings, thereb...

  19. Do early life cognitive ability and self-regulation skills explain socio-economic inequalities in academic achievement? An effect decomposition analysis in UK and Australian cohorts.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Anna; Sawyer, Alyssa C P; Chittleborough, Catherine R; Mittinty, Murthy N; Law, Catherine; Lynch, John W

    2016-09-01

    Socio-economic inequalities in academic achievement emerge early in life and are observed across the globe. Cognitive ability and "non-cognitive" attributes (such as self-regulation) are the focus of many early years' interventions. Despite this, little research has compared the contributions of early cognitive and self-regulation abilities as separate pathways to inequalities in academic achievement. We examined this in two nationally representative cohorts in the UK (Millennium Cohort Study, n = 11,168; 61% original cohort) and Australia (LSAC, n = 3028; 59% original cohort). An effect decomposition method was used to examine the pathways from socio-economic disadvantage (in infancy) to two academic outcomes: 'low' maths and literacy scores (based on bottom quintile) at age 7-9 years. Risk ratios (RRs, and bootstrap 95% confidence intervals) were estimated with binary regression for each pathway of interest: the 'direct effect' of socio-economic disadvantage on academic achievement (not acting through self-regulation and cognitive ability in early childhood), and the 'indirect effects' of socio-economic disadvantage acting via self-regulation and cognitive ability (separately). Analyses were adjusted for baseline and intermediate confounding. Children from less advantaged families were up to twice as likely to be in the lowest quintile of maths and literacy scores. Around two-thirds of this elevated risk was 'direct' and the majority of the remainder was mediated by early cognitive ability and not self-regulation. For example in LSAC: the RR for the direct pathway from socio-economic disadvantage to poor maths scores was 1.46 (95% CI: 1.17-1.79). The indirect effect of socio-economic disadvantage through cognitive ability (RR = 1.13 [1.06-1.22]) was larger than the indirect effect through self-regulation (1.05 [1.01-1.11]). Similar patterns were observed for both outcomes and in both cohorts. Policies to alleviate social inequality (e.g. child poverty

  20. Bacterial decomposition of coral mucus as evaluated by long-term and quantitative observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Y.; Ogawa, H.; Miyajima, T.

    2011-06-01

    Coral mucus released from Acropora formosa and Montipora digitata was incubated with bacteria under dark conditions for 1 year to evaluate the quantitative degradability. All the mucus samples showed a similar decomposition pattern: about 80% of total organic carbon (TOC) in the mucus was mineralized within 1 month, while some mucus was slowly decomposed over the 1 year. Regression analysis using an exponential curve considering three degradability pools (labile, semilabile, and refractory) fitted the changes of the TOC concentrations very well ( r 2 > 0.99). Compiling the data on the two coral species, the labile organic C in the coral mucus had mineralization rates of 10-18% d-1 and accounted for 79-87% of the initial TOC in the mucus. Semilabile organic C had mineralization rates of 0.3-1.6% d-1 and accounted for 11-18% of the initial TOC. Refractory organic C accounted for 6% at most. These results suggest that not all coral mucus is rapidly decomposed by bacteria but some mucus remains as semilabile and refractory organic matter for several months.

  1. TAOS early optical observations of V404 Cyg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. T.; Ishioka, R.; King, S. K.; Wen, C. Y.; Wang, S. Y.; Lehner, M. J.; Schwamb, M. E.; TAOS Team

    2015-06-01

    We report early optical observations of the black hole X-ray transient V404 Cyg undergoing an outburst (GCN#17929,#17931, #17933, #17938, #17940,#17944, #17945, #17946, #17948, #17949, #17956; ATel #7646, #7647, #7650, #7655, #7658, #7659, #7661, #7662, #7663, #7665, #7666, #7667, #7669, #7671, #7674, #7677, #7678, #7681, #7686, #7688, #7693, #7694, #7695, #7696, #7699, #7701, #7702, #7708, #7709, #7710, #7714, #7715, #7716, #7717, #7718, #7720, #7721).

  2. Aminoxyl (nitroxyl) radicals in the early decomposition of the nitramine RDX.

    PubMed

    Irikura, Karl K

    2013-03-14

    The explosive nitramine RDX (1,3,5-trinitrohexahydro-s-triazine) is thought to decompose largely by homolytic N-N bond cleavage, among other possible initiation reactions. Density-functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the resulting secondary aminyl (R2N·) radical can abstract an oxygen atom from NO2 or from a neighboring nitramine molecule, producing an aminoxyl (R2NO·) radical. Persistent aminoxyl radicals have been detected in electron-spin resonance (ESR) experiments and are consistent with autocatalytic "red oils" reported in the experimental literature. When the O-atom donor is a nitramine, a nitrosamine is formed along with the aminoxyl radical. Reactions of aminoxyl radicals can lead readily to the "oxy-s-triazine" product (as the s-triazine N-oxide) observed mass-spectrometrically by Behrens and co-workers. In addition to forming aminoxyl radicals, the initial aminyl radical can catalyze loss of HONO from RDX. PMID:23373538

  3. Observed Global Historical Changes in Soil Decomposition Rates (1900-2011) and Plant Production (1981-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parton, W. J.; Smith, W. K.; Derner, J. D.; Del Grosso, S.; Chen, M.; Silver, W. L.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a unique analysis of changes in global soil decomposition rates from 1900 to 2011, determine which climatic factors have caused the observed historical changes in soil decay rates, and compares changes in soil decay rates with observed changes in plant production from 1981 to 2011. This analysis allows us to determine the impact of climatic changes from 1981 to 2011 on soil carbon (C) sequestration. We use observed global monthly global Climatic Research Unit (CRU) weather data from 1900 to 2011 (0.5° x 0.5° spatial scale) to calculate annual changes in the climatic decomposition index (CDI), an analog for soil decay rates. The CRU data was also used to calculate annual changes in precipitation, mean annual temperature, potential evapotranspiration and actual evapotranspiration (AET) rates at the 0.5° x 0.5° spatial scale. Annual changes in plant production (NPP) at the global scale were calculated using global satellite derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data sets. At the global scale CDI showed little change from 1900 to 1980 but increased by 4% from 1980 to 2011. CDI increased by more than 10% in tundra and boreal forest systems from 1980 to 2011 (< 4% for all other biomes). Changes in CDI are well correlated to changes in AET rates (r2 > 0.8) with a 2 to 4% increase in AET for most biomes (no change for dry grassland and desert biomes). NPP increased by > 6% for tundra, boreal forest and temperate forest from 1980 to 2011 with latitudinal average changes in NPP and CDI following similar patterns (greatest increases in the +40° to +75° latitudes). Global patterns in NPP are well correlated to AET and CDI (r2 > 0.8) but have different patterns (linear for AET and curvilinear for CDI). Latitudinal averaged ratio of NPP:CDI is correlated to Harmonized World Soil Database soil C levels (r = 0.67). Statistically significant trends (1980-2011) in NPP:CDI suggest increases in soil C for the boreal forest and temperate dry

  4. Temperature decomposition of paired site observations reveals new insights in climate models' capability to simulate the impact of LUC.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanden Broucke, Sam; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Davin, Edouard; Janssens, Ivan; Van Lipzig, Nicole

    2015-04-01

    The biogeophysical impact of land use change (LUC) has been shown to be a significant contributor to climate change. In this study, we present a new methodology for evaluating the impact of LUC in climate models. For this, we use observational data from paired eddy covariance flux towers, representing a LUC from forest to open land (deforestation). Two model simulations with a regional climate model (COSMO-CLM2) are performed which differ only in prescribed land use for site pair locations. The model is evaluated by comparing the observed and simulated difference in surface temperature (Ts) between open land and forests, an evaluation which is performed separately for summer/winter and daytime/ nighttime. Next, we identify the biogeophysical mechanisms responsible for Ts differences by applying a Ts decomposition method to both observations and model simulations, allowing us us to determine which LUC related biogeophysical mechanisms were well represented in COSMO-CLM2, and which were not. Results show that the model is able to simulate the increase in albedo and associated daytime surface cooling following deforestation reasonably well. Also well simulated is the overall decrease in sensible heat flux and associated daytime surface warming and nighttime surface cooling. However, it appears the model is missing one crucial impact of deforestation on the surface energy budget: a reduction in nighttime downwelling longwave radiation. As a result, the magnitude of nighttime cooling following deforestation is underestimated by 4 K. These new insights support a wider application of the methodology (to other climate models).

  5. Learning by observation requires an early sleep window

    PubMed Central

    Van Der Werf, Ysbrand D.; Van Der Helm, Els; Schoonheim, Menno M.; Ridderikhoff, Arne; Van Someren, Eus J. W.

    2009-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that sleep enhances memory for motor skills learned through practice. Motor skills can, however, also be learned through observation, a process possibly involving the mirror neuron system. We investigated whether motor skill enhancement through prior observation requires sleep to follow the observation, either immediately or after a delay, to consolidate the procedural memory. Sequence-specific fingertapping performance was tested in 64 healthy subjects in a balanced design. Electromyography verified absence of overt or subliminal hand muscle activations during observation. The results show that immediate sleep is necessary for the enhancement of a motor skill through prior observation. Immediate sleep improved the speed of subsequent performance by 22 ± 11% (mean ± SEM) (P = 0.04) and reduced the error rate by 42 ± 19% (P = 0.02). In contrast, no performance gains occurred if sleep was initiated more than 12 h after observation. A second study on 64 subjects ruled out explicit familiarity with the sequence or the spatiotemporal rhythm of the sequence to underlie performance improvements. The sleep-dependent observational motor learning enhancement is at least similar to that previously reported for implicit and declarative memory. The apparent prerequisite of observing real movements indicates that subjects transfer experience obtained through observation of movements to subsequent self-initiated movements, in the absence of practice. Moreover, the consolidation of this transfer requires an early sleep window. These findings could improve learning new motor skills in athletes and children, but also in patients having to remaster skills following stroke or injury. PMID:19884499

  6. No Differences in Decomposition Rates observed between Bacillus thuringiensis and Non-Bacillus thuringiensis Corn Residue Incubated in the Field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent speculation of slower residue decomposition for Bt corn hybrids compared to non-Bt corn hybrids has prompted investigative study. We evaluated the residue decomposition rates of Bt and non-Bt corn hybrids over a period of 22 months under field conditions using the litter bag technique. The ...

  7. Acquiring Comprehensive Observations using an Integrated Sensorweb for Early Warning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid; Ambrose, Steve

    2006-01-01

    As an integrated observing strategy, the concept of sensorweb for Earth observations is appealing in many aspects. For instance, by increasing the spatial and temporal coverage of observations from space and other vantage points, one can eventually aid in increasing the accuracy of the atmospheric models which are precursor to hurricane track prediction, volcanic eruption forecast, and trajectory path of transcontinental transport of dust, harmful nuclear and chemical plumes. In reality, there is little analysis'available in terms of benefits, costs and optimized set of sensors needed to make these necessary observations. This is a complex problem that must be carefully studied and balanced over many boundaries such as science, defense, early warning security, and surveillance. Simplistically, the sensorweb concept from the technological point of view alone has a great appeal in the defense, early warning and security applications. In fact, it can be relatively less expensive in per unit cost as opposed to building and deploying it for the scientific use. However, overall observing approach should not be singled out and aligned somewhat . orthogonally to serve a particular need. On the other hand, the sensorweb should be designed and deployed to serve multiple subject areas and customers simultaneously; and can behave as directed measuring systems for both science and operational entities. Sensorweb can be designed to act as expert systems, and/or also provide a dedicated integrated surveillance network. Today, there is no system in the world that is fully integrated in terms of reporting timely multiple hazards warnings, computing the lass of life and property damage estimates, and is also designed to cater to everyone's needs. It is not an easier problem to undertake and more so is not practically solvable. At this time due to some recent events in the world, the scientific community, social scientists, and operational agencies are more cognizant and getting

  8. Acquiring Comprehensive Observations using an integrated Sensorweb for Early Warning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid; Ambrose, Steve

    2006-01-01

    As an integrated observing strategy, the concept of sensorweb for Earth observations is appealing in many aspects. For instance, by increasing the spatial and temporal coverage of observations from space and other vantage points, one can eventually aid in increasing the accuracy of the atmospheric models which are precursor to hurricane track prediction, volcanic eruption forecast, and trajectory path of transcontinental transport of dust, harmful nuclear and chemical plumes. In reality, there is little analysis'available in terms of benefits, costs and optimized set of sensors needed to make these necessary observations. This is a complex problem that must be carefully studied and balanced over many boundaries such as science, defense, early warning, security, and surveillance. Simplistically, the sensorweb concept from the technological point of view alone has a great appeal in the defense, early warning and security applications. In fact, it can be relatively less expensive in per unit cost as opposed to building and deploying it for the scientific use. However, overall observing approach should not be singled out and aligned somewhat orthogonally to serve a particular need. On the other hand, the sensorweb should be designed and deployed to serve multiple subject areas and customers simultaneously; and can behave as directed measuring systems for both science and operational entities. Sensorweb can be designed to act as expert systems, and/or also provide a dedicated integrated surveillance network. Today, there is no system in the world that is fully integrated in terms of reporting timely multiple hazards warnings, computing the loss of life and property damage estimates, and is also designed to cater to everyone's needs. It is not an easier problem to undertake and more so is not practically solvable. At this time due to some recent events in the world, the scientific community, social scientists, and operational agencies are more cognizant and getting

  9. Early Observations with the Expanded Owens Valley Solar Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gary, Dale E.

    2016-05-01

    The Expanded Owens Valley Solar Array (EOVSA) is a newly expanded and upgraded, solar-dedicated radio array consisting of 13 antennas of 2.1 m diameter equipped with receivers designed to cover the 1-18 GHz frequency range. Two large (27-m diameter) dishes are being outfitted with He-cooled receivers for use in calibration of the small dishes. During 2015, the array obtained observations from dozens of flares in total power mode on 8 antennas. Since February 2016, it has begun taking solar data on all 13 small antennas with full interferometric correlations, as well as calibration observations with the first of the two large antennas equipped with its He-cooled receiver. The second He-cooled receiver is nearly complete, and will be available around the time of the meeting. We briefly review the commissioning activities leading up to full operations, including polarization and gain measurements and calibration methods, and resulting measures of array performance. We then present some early imaging observations with the array, emphasizing the remarkable temporal and spectral resolution of the instrument, together with joint RHESSI hard X-ray and SDO EUV observations.

  10. Simulation Study Of Early Afterglows Observed With Swift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Hededal, C.; Hardee, P.; Mizuno, Y.; Fishman, G. J.

    2006-09-01

    A 3-D relativistic particle-in-cell code has been used to simulate the dynamics of forward and reverse shocks with thin and thick shells within the parameter constraints provided by present Swift observations and the present models of GRB emission. Our 3-D RPIC simulations have provided the dynamics of collisionless shocks in electron-ion and electron-positron plasmas with and without initial ambient magnetic fields and revealed the importance of ``jitter radiation'' with prompt and afterglow spectra due to the inhomogeneous magnetic fields generated by the Weibel instability. It is different from synchrotron radiation, which is usually assumed to be the dominant radiation process. We have investigated gamma-ray burst emissions from prompt, early, and late afterglows considering microscopic processes. Based on our previous investigation of the Weibel instability for each stage of evolution of ejecta propagating in the ISM, we have incorporated the plasma conditions (relativistic jets) with the density and composition of the plasmas, the magnetic field strength ($\\sigma$-values (the ratio of the electromagnetic energy flux to the particle energy flux)) and its direction, and the Lorentz factor for the different stages in prompt and afterglows. Systematic simulation studies of the relativistic collisionless shocks, associated particle acceleration, magnetic field generation and self-consistent radiation provide insight into undetermined issues in prompt and afterglows observed by Swift. Self-consistently calculated lightcurves, spectra, spectral evolutions, and polarization as function of viewing angle will be done to light a shed on recent new observations by Swift, in particular, X-ray flares, early steep decay, and shallow decay.

  11. Theoretical evidence of the observed kinetic order dependence on temperature during the N(2)O decomposition over Fe-ZSM-5.

    PubMed

    Guesmi, Hazar; Berthomieu, Dorothee; Bromley, Bryan; Coq, Bernard; Kiwi-Minsker, Lioubov

    2010-03-28

    The characterization of Fe/ZSM5 zeolite materials, the nature of Fe-sites active in N(2)O direct decomposition, as well as the rate limiting step are still a matter of debate. The mechanism of N(2)O decomposition on the binuclear oxo-hydroxo bridged extraframework iron core site [Fe(II)(mu-O)(mu-OH)Fe(II)](+) inside the ZSM-5 zeolite has been studied by combining theoretical and experimental approaches. The overall calculated path of N(2)O decomposition involves the oxidation of binuclear Fe(II) core sites by N(2)O (atomic alpha-oxygen formation) and the recombination of two surface alpha-oxygen atoms leading to the formation of molecular oxygen. Rate parameters computed using standard statistical mechanics and transition state theory reveal that elementary catalytic steps involved into N(2)O decomposition are strongly dependent on the temperature. This theoretical result was compared to the experimentally observed steady state kinetics of the N(2)O decomposition and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiments. A switch of the reaction order with respect to N(2)O pressure from zero to one occurs at around 800 K suggesting a change of the rate determining step from the alpha-oxygen recombination to alpha-oxygen formation. The TPD results on the molecular oxygen desorption confirmed the mechanism proposed. PMID:20449377

  12. Early-stage changes in natural (13)C and (15)N abundance and nutrient dynamics during different litter decomposition.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Mukesh Kumar; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Song, Byeong-Yeol; Lee, Dongho; Bong, Yeon-Sik

    2016-05-01

    Decomposition, nutrient, and isotopic (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) dynamics during 1 year were studied for leaf and twig litters of Pinus densiflora, Castanea crenata, Erigeron annuus, and Miscanthus sinensis growing on a highly weathered soil with constrained nutrient supply using litterbags in a cool temperate region of South Korea. Decay constant (k/year) ranged from 0.58 to 1.29/year, and mass loss ranged from 22.36 to 58.43 % among litter types. The results demonstrate that mass loss and nutrient dynamics of decomposing litter were influenced by the seasonality of mineralization and immobilization processes. In general, most nutrients exhibited alternate phases of rapid mineralization followed by gradual immobilization, except K, which was released throughout the field incubation. At the end of study, among all the nutrients only N and P showed net immobilization. Mobility of different nutrients from decomposing litter as the percentage of initial litter nutrient concentration was in the order of K > Mg > Ca > N ≈ P. The δ(13)C (0.32-6.70 ‰) and δ(15)N (0.74-3.90 ‰) values of residual litters showed nonlinear increase and decrease, respectively compared to initial isotopic values during decomposition. Litter of different functional types and chemical quality converged toward a conservative nutrient use strategy through mechanisms of slow decomposition and slow nutrient mobilization. Our results indicate that litter quality and season, are the most important regulators of litter decomposition in these forests. The results revealed significant relationships between litter decomposition rates and N, C:N ratio and P, and seasonality (temperature). These results and the convergence of different litters towards conservative nutrient use in these nutrient constrained ecosystems imply optimization of litter management because litter removal can have cascading effects on litter decomposition and nutrient availability in these systems. PMID:26915037

  13. Early Australian Optical and Radio Observations of Centaurus A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Peter; Cozens, Glen; Orchiston, Wayne; Slee, Bruce; Wendt, Harry

    2010-10-01

    The discovery of the radio source Centaurus A and its optical counterpart NGC 5128 were important landmarks in the history of Australian astronomy. NGC 5128 was first observed in August 1826 by James Dunlop during a survey of southern objects at the Parramatta Observatory, west of the settlement at Sydney Cove. The observatory had been founded a few years earlier by Thomas Brisbane, the new governor of the British colony of New South Wales. Just over 120 years later, John Bolton, Gordon Stanley and Bruce Slee discovered the radio source Centaurus A at the Dover Heights field station in Sydney, operated by CSIRO's Radiophysics Laboratory (the forerunner to CSIRO Astronomy and Space Sciences). This paper will describe this early historical work and summarize further studies of Centaurus A by other Radiophysics groups up to 1960.

  14. Early Hinode Observations of a Solar Filament Eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.

    2007-01-01

    We use Hinode X-Ray Telescope (XRT) and Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) filtergraph (FG) Stokes-V magnetogram observations to study the early onset of a solar eruption that includes an erupting filament that we observe in TRACE EUV images; this is one of the first filament eruptions seen with Hinode. The filament undergoes a slow rise for at least 30 min prior to its fast eruption and strong soft X-ray flaring, and the new Hinode data elucidate the physical processes occurring during the slow-rise period: During the slow-rise phase, a soft X-ray (SXR) sigmoid forms from apparent reconnection low in the sheared core field traced by the filament, and there is a low-level intensity peak in both EUV and SXRs during the slow rise. The SOT data show that magnetic flux cancellation occurs along the neutral line of the filament in the hours before eruption, and this likely caused the low-lying reconnection that produced the microflaring and the slow rise leading up to the eruption.

  15. "Learning Stories"--Crossing Borders: Introducing Qualitative Early Childhood Observation Techniques to Early Childhood Practitioners in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyland, Berenice; Alfayez, Shatha

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood education has become a focus of government policy across the world. Part of the present increased interest in early childhood education has been a focus on curriculum frameworks and socio/cultural methods of assessment. Currently, New Zealand has emerged as a world leader in early childhood education, and observation and assessment…

  16. Spectral models for early time SN 2011fe observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, E.; Hoeflich, P.; Friesen, Brian; Sullivan, M.; Hsiao, E.; Ellis, R. S.; Gal-Yam, A.; Howell, D. A.; Nugent, P. E.; Dominguez, I.; Krisciunas, K.; Phillips, M. M.; Suntzeff, N.; Wang, L.; Thomas, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    We use observed UV through near-IR spectra to examine whether SN 2011fe can be understood in the framework of Branch-normal Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and to examine its individual peculiarities. As a benchmark, we use a delayed-detonation model with a progenitor metallicity of Z⊙/20. We study the sensitivity of features to variations in progenitor metallicity, the outer density profile, and the distribution of radioactive nickel. The effect of metallicity variations in the progenitor have a relatively small effect on the synthetic spectra. We also find that the abundance stratification of SN 2011fe resembles closely that of a delayed-detonation model with a transition density that has been fit to other Branch-normal SNe Ia. At early times, the model photosphere is formed in material with velocities that are too high, indicating that the photosphere recedes too slowly or that SN 2011fe has a lower specific energy in the outer ≈0.1 M⊙ than does the model. We discuss several explanations for the discrepancies. Finally, we examine variations in both the spectral energy distribution and in the colours due to variations in the progenitor metallicity, which suggests that colours are only weak indicators for the progenitor metallicity, in the particular explosion model that we have studied. We do find that the flux in the U band is significantly higher at maximum light in the solar metallicity model than in the lower metallicity model and the lower metallicity model much better matches the observed spectrum.

  17. [Effects of Eucalyptus grandis leaf litter at its early stage of decomposition on the growth and photosynthetic characteristics of Cichorium intybus].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiu-Hua; Li, Yi-Qiao; Hu, Ting-Xing; Chen, Bao-Jun; Yang, Yong-Gui; Chen, Hong; Hu, Hong-Ling

    2013-07-01

    From March to May, 2010, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of Eucalyptus grandis leaf litter at its early stage of decomposition on the growth and photosynthetic characteristics of Cichorium intybus. Four treatments with different application rate of the leaf litter, i.e., 0 g x pot(-1) (CK), 30 g x pot(-1) (A1), 60 g x pot(-1) (A2), and 90 g x pot(-1) (A3), were installed. Each pot contained 12 kg soil mixed with the leaf litter, and then, C. intybus was sown. The growth indicators of the C. intybus were measured at the 30, 45, 60, and 75 d after sowing, and the photosynthetic characteristics of the C. intybus in treatment A3 were studied after the seedlings third leaf fully expanded. At each measured time, the biomass accumulation and leaf area growth of C. intybus in treatments A1, A2, and A3 were inhibited significantly. At the early stage of the leaf litter decomposition, the synthesis of photosynthetic pigments of the C. intybus seedlings was inhibited significantly, and the inhibition effect was getting stronger with the increasing amount of the leaf litter addition. The diurnal change of the seedlings photosynthetic rate in all treatments showed a bimodal curve with midday depression, the stomatal conductance and water use efficiency had the same variation trend with the net photosynthetic rate, and the total diurnal photosynthesis decreased in the order of CK > A1 > A2 > A3. The GC-MS analysis showed there were 33 kinds of small molecule compounds released gradually with the decomposition of the leaf litter, among which, allelopathic substance terpenoid dominated. PMID:24175509

  18. Implementing Observation Protocols: Lessons for K-12 Education from the Field of Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pianta, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    This report draws from decades of experience using observation in early childhood education, which has implications for administrative decisions, evaluation practices, and policymaking in K-12. Early childhood education has long embraced the value of observing classrooms and teacher-child interactions. In early childhood education the features of…

  19. Prescriptive Early Intervention With Culturally Diverse Populations: Some Initial Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handy, Walter S.; Pedro-Carroll, JoAnne

    The Social Skills Development Program (SSDP) is a prevention program for inner-city primary-age school children. The services provided by SSDP are for children experiencing moderate school maladjustment. Included are descriptions of program rationale and operations, staffing, prescriptive early intervention, preventive health interventions and…

  20. Cumulus clouds - Early aircraft observations and entrainment hypotheses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, J.

    1983-01-01

    The history of cumulus research in the decade following World War II is reviewed in the perspective of the new ideas and advances made during the subsequent generation. Emphasis is placed upon pioneering aircraft measurements, evidence for entrainment, the early model attempts and their attendant controversies.

  1. The Swift XRT: Observations of Early X-ray Afterglows

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, David N.; Kennea, J. A.; Nousek, J. A.; Osborne, J. P.; O'Brien, P. T.; Chincarini, G.; Tagliaferri, G.; Giommi, P.; Zhang, B.

    2006-05-19

    During the first year of operations of the Swift observatory, the X-ray Telescope has made a number of discoveries concerning the nature of X-ray afterglows of both long and short GRBs. We highlight the key findings, which include rapid declines at early times, a standard template of afterglow light curve shapes, common flaring, and the discovery of the first short GRB afterglow.

  2. Innovation in observation: a vision for early outbreak detection

    PubMed Central

    Fefferman, NH; Naumova, EN

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of new infections and resurgence of old ones—health threats stemming from environmental contamination or purposeful acts of bioterrorism—call for a worldwide effort in improving early outbreak detection, with the goal of ameliorating current and future risks. In some cases, the problem of outbreak detection is logistically straightforward and mathematically easy: a single case of a disease of great concern can constitute an outbreak. However, for the vast majority of maladies, a simple analytical solution does not exist. Furthermore, each step in developing reliable, sensitive, effective surveillance systems demonstrates enormous complexities in the transmission, manifestation, detection, and control of emerging health threats. In this communication, we explore potential future innovations in early outbreak detection systems that can overcome the pitfalls of current surveillance. We believe that modern advances in assembling data, techniques for collating and processing information, and technology that enables integrated analysis will facilitate a new paradigm in outbreak definition and detection. We anticipate that moving forward in this direction will provide the highly desired sensitivity and specificity in early detection required to meet the emerging challenges of global disease surveillance. PMID:22460396

  3. Peer Observation of Teaching: Reflections of an Early Career Academic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eri, Rajaraman

    2014-01-01

    Peer observation of teaching (POT) is a reciprocal process where a peer observes another's teaching (classroom, virtual, on-line or even teaching resource such as unit outlines, assignments). Peers then provide constructive feedbacks that would enable teaching professional development through the mirror of critical reflection by both the observer…

  4. Observations of Glide and Decomposition of a<101> Dislocations at High Temperatures in Ni-Al Single Crystals Deformed along the Hard Orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R.; Daw, M. S.; Noebe, R. D.; Mills, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    Ni-44at.% Al and Ni-50at.% single crystals were tested in compression in the hard (001) orientations. The dislocation processes and deformation behavior were studied as a function of temperature, strain and strain rate. A slip transition in NiAl occurs from alpha(111) slip to non-alphaaaaaaaaaaa9111) slip at intermediate temperatures. In Ni-50at.% Al single crystal, only alpha(010) dislocations are observed above the slip transition temperature. In contrast, alpha(101)(101) glide has been observed to control deformation beyond the slip transition temperature in Ni-44at.%Al. alpha(101) dislocations are observed primarily along both (111) directions in the glide plane. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy observations show that the core of the alpha(101) dislocations along these directions is decomposed into two alpha(010) dislocations, separated by a distance of approximately 2nm. The temperature window of stability for these alpha(101) dislocations depends upon the strain rate. At a strain rate of 1.4 x 10(exp -4)/s, lpha(101) dislocations are observed between 800 and 1000K. Complete decomposition of a alpha(101) dislocations into alpha(010) dislocations occurs beyond 1000K, leading to alpha(010) climb as the deformation mode at higher temperature. At lower strain rates, decomposition of a alpha(101) dislocations has been observed to occur along the edge orientation at temperatures below 1000K. Embedded-atom method calculations and experimental results indicate that alpha(101) dislocation have a large Peieris stress at low temperature. Based on the present microstructural observations and a survey of the literature with respect to vacancy content and diffusion in NiAl, a model is proposed for alpha(101)(101) glide in Ni-44at.%Al, and for the observed yield strength versus temperature behavior of Ni-Al alloys at intermediate and high temperatures.

  5. Dynamic modelling of spur gear pair and application of empirical mode decomposition-based statistical analysis for early detection of localized tooth defect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parey, A.; El Badaoui, M.; Guillet, F.; Tandon, N.

    2006-06-01

    Gears are one of the most common and important machine components in many advanced machines. An improved understanding of vibration signal is required for the early detection of incipient gear failure to achieve high reliability. This paper mainly consists of two parts: in the first part, a 6-degree-of-freedom gear dynamic model including localized tooth defect has been developed. The model consists of a spur gear pair, two shafts, two inertias representing load and prime mover and bearings. The model incorporates the effects of time-varying mesh stiffness and damping, backlash, excitation due to gear errors and profile modifications. The second part consists of signal processing of simulated and experimental signals. Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is a method of breaking down a signal without leaving a time domain. The process is useful for analysing non-stationary and nonlinear signals. EMD decomposes a signal into some individual, nearly monocomponent signals, named as intrinsic mode function (IMF). Crest factor and kurtosis have been calculated of these IMFs. EMD pre-processed kurtosis and crest factor give early detection of pitting as compared to raw signal.

  6. EARLY ULTRAVIOLET OBSERVATIONS OF A TYPE IIn SUPERNOVA (2007pk)

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchard, T. A.; Roming, P. W. A.; Brown, P. J.; Kuin, N. P. M.; Oates, S. R.; Bayless, Amanda J.; Holland, S. T.; Milne, P.

    2012-05-10

    We present some of the earliest UV observations of a Type IIn supernova (SN)-SN 2007pk, where UV and optical observations using Swift's Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope began 3 days after discovery or {approx}5 days after shock breakout. The SN observations commence at approximately maximum light in the UV and u-band filters, suggesting that the UV light curve peaks begin very rapidly after the initial explosion, and subsequently exhibit a linear decay of 0.20, 0.21, 0.16 mag day{sup -1} in the UVOT uvw2, uvm2, uvw1 ({lambda}{sub c} = 1928, 2246, 2600 Angstrom-Sign ) filters. Meanwhile the b- and v-band light curves begin approximately seven days before v-band peak and exhibit a shallow rise followed by a subsequent decay. A series of optical/near-IR spectra taken with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope at days 3-26 after discovery show spectra similar to that of the peculiar Type IIn 1998S. The emission from 2007pk falls below detection {approx}20 days after discovery in the UV and 50 days in the optical, showing no sign of the long duration emission seen in other Type IIn SNe. We examine the physical and spectral characteristics of 2007pk and compare its UV light curve and decay rate with other Type II SNe.

  7. Ozone decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Batakliev, Todor; Georgiev, Vladimir; Anachkov, Metody; Rakovsky, Slavcho

    2014-01-01

    Catalytic ozone decomposition is of great significance because ozone is a toxic substance commonly found or generated in human environments (aircraft cabins, offices with photocopiers, laser printers, sterilizers). Considerable work has been done on ozone decomposition reported in the literature. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the literature, concentrating on analysis of the physico-chemical properties, synthesis and catalytic decomposition of ozone. This is supplemented by a review on kinetics and catalyst characterization which ties together the previously reported results. Noble metals and oxides of transition metals have been found to be the most active substances for ozone decomposition. The high price of precious metals stimulated the use of metal oxide catalysts and particularly the catalysts based on manganese oxide. It has been determined that the kinetics of ozone decomposition is of first order importance. A mechanism of the reaction of catalytic ozone decomposition is discussed, based on detailed spectroscopic investigations of the catalytic surface, showing the existence of peroxide and superoxide surface intermediates. PMID:26109880

  8. Ozone decomposition.

    PubMed

    Batakliev, Todor; Georgiev, Vladimir; Anachkov, Metody; Rakovsky, Slavcho; Zaikov, Gennadi E

    2014-06-01

    Catalytic ozone decomposition is of great significance because ozone is a toxic substance commonly found or generated in human environments (aircraft cabins, offices with photocopiers, laser printers, sterilizers). Considerable work has been done on ozone decomposition reported in the literature. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the literature, concentrating on analysis of the physico-chemical properties, synthesis and catalytic decomposition of ozone. This is supplemented by a review on kinetics and catalyst characterization which ties together the previously reported results. Noble metals and oxides of transition metals have been found to be the most active substances for ozone decomposition. The high price of precious metals stimulated the use of metal oxide catalysts and particularly the catalysts based on manganese oxide. It has been determined that the kinetics of ozone decomposition is of first order importance. A mechanism of the reaction of catalytic ozone decomposition is discussed, based on detailed spectroscopic investigations of the catalytic surface, showing the existence of peroxide and superoxide surface intermediates. PMID:26109880

  9. Decomposition techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Sample decomposition is a fundamental and integral step in the procedure of geochemical analysis. It is often the limiting factor to sample throughput, especially with the recent application of the fast and modern multi-element measurement instrumentation. The complexity of geological materials makes it necessary to choose the sample decomposition technique that is compatible with the specific objective of the analysis. When selecting a decomposition technique, consideration should be given to the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the sample, elements to be determined, precision and accuracy requirements, sample throughput, technical capability of personnel, and time constraints. This paper addresses these concerns and discusses the attributes and limitations of many techniques of sample decomposition along with examples of their application to geochemical analysis. The chemical properties of reagents as to their function as decomposition agents are also reviewed. The section on acid dissolution techniques addresses the various inorganic acids that are used individually or in combination in both open and closed systems. Fluxes used in sample fusion are discussed. The promising microwave-oven technology and the emerging field of automation are also examined. A section on applications highlights the use of decomposition techniques for the determination of Au, platinum group elements (PGEs), Hg, U, hydride-forming elements, rare earth elements (REEs), and multi-elements in geological materials. Partial dissolution techniques used for geochemical exploration which have been treated in detail elsewhere are not discussed here; nor are fire-assaying for noble metals and decomposition techniques for X-ray fluorescence or nuclear methods be discussed. ?? 1992.

  10. Geotechnical Trainspotting: Early Observations From the New Seattle Liquefaction Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodin, P.; Yelin, T.; Weaver, C. S.; Steidl, J. H.; Steller, R. A.; Gomberg, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    The Seattle Liquefaction Array (SLA) is a geotechnical monitoring array established by the US Geological Survey earlier this year in industrialized Seattle, Washington. Funding for the array was provided by the Advanced National Seismic System, at the behest of the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network's regional advisory committee. The SLA aims to further the understanding of earthquake-induced liquefaction, particularly the processes associated with repeatedly liquefied soils and the liquefaction of deeply buried deposits. The SLA occupies a site at which shaking-induced liquefaction was observed during earthquakes in 1949, 1965, and 2001. The SLA site is seismically noisy but important as it is similar to sites that host many structures in Seattle. The site is comprised chiefly by loose-to-dense interbedded coastal and river outwash sands. Instrumentation at the site includes four 3-component accelerometers at the surface and at depths of 5.4, 44.9, and 56.4 meters, a surface barometer, and six piezometers at depths of 6.9, 22.9, 28.9, 43.1, 46.9, and 51.9 meters. Emplacement depths were selected to sample a variety of liquefaction susceptibilities. Continuous data from all sensors are sampled at 200 samples per second, and are available from the IRIS DMC archive, with a buffer of data stored on site in the event of telemetry failure. To date, only a handful of earthquakes have produced shaking strong enough at the SLA to be observed within the high levels of background noise. However, the noise itself provides data useful to constrain the low-strain seismic and pressure response of the site. Notably, the array is within a few meters of a set of busy railroad tracks. Passing and parked trains expose the site to a broad bandwidth of deformations, including seismic frequencies, albeit with a source at the surface. Many times each day the site experiences both high levels of shaking, and step changes in the pressure field of a variety of amplitudes that may last from

  11. Early Observations in the Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcock, C.; Bianco, F.; Lehner, M.; Dave, R.; Giammarco, J.; Schwamb, M.; Cook, K.; Marshall, S.; de Pater, I.; Porrata, R.; Rice, J.; Lissauer, J.; Lee, T.; King, S. K.; Wang, A.; Wang, S. Y.; Wen, C. Y.; Chen, W. P.; Ip, W.; Chang, Y. H.; Kinoshita, D.; Lin, H. C.; Mondal, S.; Zhang, Z. W.; Axelrod, T.; Byun, Y. I.

    2005-12-01

    The Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey (TAOS) is a program dedicated to performing a survey of the size and number distribution for small bodies (< 10km) in the Kuiper Belt. These objects are too faint to be detected through traditional means, but can be observed via their occultations of background stars. This technique is challenging due to the low event rate, the short event duration (< 200ms), marginal signal to noise of detections, and the possibility of a high false detection rate due to atmospheric fluctuations or other terrestrial phenomena. TAOS overcomes these obstacles with a four robotic telescope array (50cm) located in Lulin, Taiwan. Each telescope is equipped with a 2048 x 2048 pixel CCD camera. All four telescopes synchronously monitor up to 2000 stars autonomously at 5 Hz. We discuss the current state of the survey and the overall performance of the system during predicted asteroid occultations. In particular, we discuss our two telescope response to the occultation by (1723) Klemola of HIP 050535 (V = 8.46), with a maximal duration of 1.3 seconds and 7.2 magnitude drop.

  12. Direct Extraction of Tumor Response Based on Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition for Image Reconstruction of Early Breast Cancer Detection by UWB.

    PubMed

    Li, Qinwei; Xiao, Xia; Wang, Liang; Song, Hang; Kono, Hayato; Liu, Peifang; Lu, Hong; Kikkawa, Takamaro

    2015-10-01

    A direct extraction method of tumor response based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) is proposed for early breast cancer detection by ultra-wide band (UWB) microwave imaging. With this approach, the image reconstruction for the tumor detection can be realized with only extracted signals from as-detected waveforms. The calibration process executed in the previous research for obtaining reference waveforms which stand for signals detected from the tumor-free model is not required. The correctness of the method is testified by successfully detecting a 4 mm tumor located inside the glandular region in one breast model and by the model located at the interface between the gland and the fat, respectively. The reliability of the method is checked by distinguishing a tumor buried in the glandular tissue whose dielectric constant is 35. The feasibility of the method is confirmed by showing the correct tumor information in both simulation results and experimental results for the realistic 3-D printed breast phantom. PMID:26552095

  13. Real-Time Observation of Early Stage Damage During Hypervelocity Impacts into Basalt Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimberley, J.; Ramesh, K. T.

    2012-03-01

    Hypervelocity impacts were conducted on basalt targets bonded to glass allowing for the early stages of damage accumulation to be observed in real time. Results show that significant damage accumulates before the arrival of tensile wave reflections.

  14. Woodland Decomposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, J.

    1988-01-01

    Outlines the role of the main organisms involved in woodland decomposition and discusses some of the variables affecting the rate of nutrient cycling. Suggests practical work that may be of value to high school students either as standard practice or long-term projects. (CW)

  15. The observational influence of the North Atlantic SST tripole on the early spring atmospheric circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhe; Luo, Feifei; Wan, Jianghua

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the forcing of the North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) tripole on the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)-like circulation in early spring (February-April) in observations. Corresponding to an SST tripole forcing in early spring, the atmospheric circulation is very weak and insignificant. However, further analyses indicate that the observational effect of the SST anomalies on the NAO-like circulation is disturbed by the concomitant sea ice anomalies. With the linear effects of sea ice anomalies removed, there is an equivalent barotropic NAO-like circulation in early spring related to a North Atlantic SST tripole.

  16. NTO decomposition studies

    SciTech Connect

    Oxley, J.C.; Smith, J.L.; Yeager, K.E.; Rogers, E.; Dong, X.X.

    1996-07-01

    To examine the thermal decomposition of 5-nitro-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazol-3-one (NTO) in detail, isotopic labeling studies were undertaken. NTO samples labeled with {sup 15}N in three different locations [N(1) and N(2), N(4), and N(6)] were prepared. Upon thermolysis, the majority of the NTO condensed-phase product was a brown, insoluble residue, but small quantities of 2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazol-3-one (TO) and triazole were detected. Gases comprised the remainder of the NTO decomposition products. The analysis of these gases is reported along with mechanistic implications of these observations.

  17. Influence of Chemical Composition on the Reaction Products Observed During Electron Stimulated Decomposition of Organohalides Adsorbed in Water (Ice) Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairbrother, Howard; Perry, Christopher; Faradzhev, Nadir; Madey, Theodore

    2004-03-01

    We report on the reactions of CF_2Cl2 and other organohalides codeposited_ in water (ice) films (≈100 nm thick on Au) at ˜ 100K during X-ray or electron beam irradiation. X-ray irradiation produces a distribution of low energy secondary electrons that in CF_2Cl_2/H_2O(ice) films produce H_3O^+, CO2 and COF2 (carbonyl fluoride). Chloride and fluoride anions are also produced and solvated (trapped) within the ice film during X-ray or electron irradiation. Product partitioning is dependent on the film's chemical composition; in water rich films, CO2 and COF2 production is favored, while a thermally stable partially halogenated CF_xCly film is detected in CF_2Cl2 rich films. During the early stages of irradiation, the dominance of Cl^- anions indicates that DEA of CF_2Cl2 via C-Cl cleavage (CF_2Cl2 + e^- → ot CF_2Cl + Cl^-) is the primary initial process. These results obtained for CF_2Cl2 are compared with electron stimulated reactions of other organohalides (CCl_4, CDCl_3, CD_2Cl2 and CH_3I) adsorbed in water(ice)films.

  18. A study of early/slow VLF perturbations observed at Agra, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Uma; Singh, Ashutosh K.; Singh, Om P.; Singh, Birbal; Saraswat, Vibhav K.

    2016-06-01

    We present here the results of sub-ionospheric VLF perturbations observed on NWC (19.8 kHz) transmitter signal propagating in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide, monitored at our low latitude station Agra. During the period of observation (June-December 2011), we found 89 cases of VLF perturbation, while only 73 cases showing early character associated with strong lightning discharges. Out of 73 events, 64 (~84%) of the early VLF perturbations are found to be early/slow in nature; the remaining 9 events are early/fast. The onset duration of these early/slow VLF perturbations is up to ~ 5 s. A total of 54 observed early events show amplitude change lying between ± 3.0 dB, and phase change ± 12 degree, respectively, and found to occur mainly during nighttime. One of the interesting results we found is that the events with larger recovery time lie far away from the VLF propagation path, while events with smaller duration of recovery are within the ± 50-100 km of signal path. The World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) data is analysed to find the location of causative lightning and temporal variation. The lightning discharge and associated processes that lead to early VLF events are discussed.

  19. Early Language & Literacy Classroom Observation (ELLCO) Toolkit, Research Edition [with] User's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Miriam W.; Dickinson, David K.

    The document is comprised of the Early Language and Literacy Classroom Observation (ELLCO) Toolkit, a field-tested observation packet to examine literacy and language practices and materials in prekindergarten through third grade classrooms, and a user's guide providing technical information and instructions for administration and scoring the…

  20. An Observational Study of the Interactions of Socially Withdrawn/Anxious Early Adolescents and Their Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Barry H.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The friendships of socially withdrawn/anxious children and early adolescents have been found to lack critical rewarding qualities. Observational research may help elucidate the obstacles they face in forming and maintaining high-quality friendships with sociable peers. Method: We observed the interactions of 38 socially withdrawn early…

  1. Thermal Decomposition of IMX-104: Ingredient Interactions Govern Thermal Insensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Maharrey, Sean; Wiese-Smith, Deneille; Highley, Aaron M.; Steill, Jeffrey D.; Behrens, Richard; Kay, Jeffrey J.

    2015-04-01

    This report summarizes initial studies into the chemical basis of the thermal insensitivity of INMX-104. The work follows upon similar efforts investigating this behavior for another DNAN-based insensitive explosive, IMX-101. The experiments described demonstrate a clear similarity between the ingredient interactions that were shown to lead to the thermal insensitivity observed in IMX-101 and those that are active in IMX-104 at elevated temperatures. Specifically, the onset of decomposition of RDX is shifted to a lower temperature based on the interaction of the RDX with liquid DNAN. This early onset of decomposition dissipates some stored energy that is then unavailable for a delayed, more violent release.

  2. New insights in the capability of climate models to simulate the impact of LUC based on temperature decomposition of paired site observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanden Broucke, Sam; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Davin, Edouard L.; Janssens, Ivan; Lipzig, Nicole

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we present a new methodology for evaluating the biogeophysical impact of land use change (LUC) in regional climate models. For this, we use observational data from paired eddy covariance flux towers in Europe, representing a LUC from forest to open land (deforestation). Two model simulations with the regional climate model COSMO-CLM2 (The Consortium for Small-Scale Modelling model in climate mode COSMO-CLM coupled to the Community Land Model CLM) are performed which differ only in prescribed land use for site pair locations. The model is evaluated by comparing the observed and simulated difference in surface temperature (Ts) between open land and forests. Next, we identify the biogeophysical mechanisms responsible for Ts differences by applying a decomposition method to both observations and model simulations. This allows us to determine which LUC-related mechanisms were well represented in COSMO-CLM2, and which were not. Results from observations show that deforestation leads to a significant cooling at night, which is severely underestimated by COSMO-CLM2. It appears that the model is missing one crucial impact of deforestation on the nighttime surface energy budget: a reduction in downwelling longwave radiation. Results are better for daytime, as the model is able to simulate the increase in albedo and associated surface cooling following deforestation reasonably well. Also well simulated, albeit underestimated slightly, is the decrease in sensible heat flux caused by reduced surface roughness. Overall, these results stress the importance of differentiating between daytime and nighttime climate when discussing the effect of LUC on climate. Finally, we believe that they provide new insights supporting a wider application of the methodology (to other regional climate models).

  3. The Copernicus observations - Interstellar or circumstellar material. [UV spectra of early stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steigman, G.; Strittmatter, P. A.; Williams, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    It is suggested that the sharp absorption lines observed in the ultraviolet spectra of early-type stars by the Copernicus satellite may be entirely accounted for by the circumstellar material in the H II regions and associated transition zones around the observed stars. If this interpretation is correct, the Copernicus results yield little information on the state of any interstellar (as opposed to circumstellar) gas and, in particular, shed little light on the degree of element depletion in interstellar space.

  4. Probing the interstellar medium in early-type galaxies with Infrared Space Oberservatory observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malhotra, S.; Hollenbach, D.; Helou, D.; Silbermann, N.; Valjavec, E.; Rubin, R.; Dale, D.; Hunter, D.; Lu, N.; Lord, S.; Dinerstein, H.; Thronson, H.

    2000-01-01

    Four IRAS-detected early-type galaxies were observed with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). With the exception of the 15 mu m image of NGC 1052, the mid-IR images of NGC 1052, NGC 1155, NGC 5866, and NGC 6958 at 4.5, 7, and 15 mu m show extended emission.

  5. Validity, Reliability, and Utility of the Observation Survey of Early Literacy Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Carolyn A.; Ciancio, Dennis J.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the validity, reliability, and utility of five of the six subtests of Clay's (2002) Observation Survey of Early Literacy Achievement (OS), including Letter Identification, Word Reading, Writing Vocabulary, Hearing and Recording Sounds in Words, and Text Reading. In addition to a review of studies providing assessment of the…

  6. Chao Yuanfang: Imperial Physician of the Sui Dynasty and an Early Pertussis Observer?

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yan; Salim, Abdulbaset M.; Wu, Wendy; Kilgore, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    Early Chinese texts contain extensive disease descriptions, including various texts that contain descriptions of modern-day conditions. During the Sui Dynasty, a leading scholar, Chao Yuanfang, may have authored a leading treatise 1400 years ago. Although these texts are the subject of ongoing research, evidence suggests that a clinical syndrome consistent with pertussis was observed in ancient China. PMID:26977422

  7. Naturalistic Observations of Schoolyard Social Participation: Marker Variables for Socio-Emotional Functioning in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplan, Robert J.; Ooi, Laura L.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine links between observed social participation in the schoolyard and indices of socio-emotional functioning in early adolescence. Participants were children (N = 290) aged 9 to 12 years. Social participation (e.g., solitary play, dyadic interaction, group interaction) was assessed in the schoolyard during recess…

  8. Clinical observations of early and late normal tissue injury in patients receiving fast neutron irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ornitz, R.D.; Bradley, E.W.; Mossman, K.L.; Fender, F.M.; Schell, M.C.; Rogers, C.C.

    1980-03-01

    This communication describes early and late normal tissue effects in 177 patients treated totally or in part by 15 MeV neutrons from the Naval Research Laboratory Cyclotron in Washington, D.C. between October 1973 and December 1976. Late normal tissue reactions were found to be greater than would be expected from careful observation of the early clinical responses to neutron treatment. Neutron prescriptions must be written based on the late effect tolerance level experience which is being accumulated at several neutron therapy facilities.

  9. Integrating earth observations and model results provides earlier Famine Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M. E.; Funk, C. C.; Galu, G.; Choularton, R.

    2007-12-01

    Remote sensing allows us to detect slowly evolving natural hazards such as agricultural drought. Famine early warning systems transform this data into actionable policy information, enabling humanitarian organizations to respond in a timely and appropriate manner. These life saving responses are increasingly important. In 2006, 1 out of 8 people did not have enough to eat, 22 million more people became undernourished, and 22 countries provided 6.5 billion dollars in food aid. The motivation is strong, therefore, to increase the effectiveness of every dollar of food aid provided, ensuring that the assistance arrives sufficiently early to ward off human and economic catastrophe. Properly interpreted remote sensing information reduces the influence of politics in determining the amount and location of aid delivered. In this talk we will review three recent contributions that earth observations have provided to famine early warning: trend identification, increasingly accurate forecasts of food security conditions, and enhanced integration of biophysical and socio-economic data.

  10. Observed multivariable signals of late 20th and early 21st century volcanic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santer, Benjamin D.; Solomon, Susan; Bonfils, Céline; Zelinka, Mark D.; Painter, Jeffrey F.; Beltran, Francisco; Fyfe, John C.; Johannesson, Gardar; Mears, Carl; Ridley, David A.; Vernier, Jean-Paul; Wentz, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    The relatively muted warming of the surface and lower troposphere since 1998 has attracted considerable attention. One contributory factor to this "warming hiatus" is an increase in volcanically induced cooling over the early 21st century. Here we identify the signals of late 20th and early 21st century volcanic activity in multiple observed climate variables. Volcanic signals are statistically discernible in spatial averages of tropical and near-global SST, tropospheric temperature, net clear-sky short-wave radiation, and atmospheric water vapor. Signals of late 20th and early 21st century volcanic eruptions are also detectable in near-global averages of rainfall. In tropical average rainfall, however, only a Pinatubo-caused drying signal is identifiable. Successful volcanic signal detection is critically dependent on removal of variability induced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation.

  11. Chandra Observations of Coronal Emission from the Early G Supergiants α and β Aquarii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, Thomas R.; Brown, Alexander; Harper, Graham M.

    2005-07-01

    We report Chandra detections of coronal X-rays from the early G supergiants α Aquarii (HD 209750: G2 Ib) and β Aquarii (HD 204867: G0 Ib). Previous ROSAT observations of these archetypical ``hybrid chromosphere'' stars were inconclusive, in the case of α Aqr owing to a 38' mispointing, and for β Aqr because of a small positional discrepancy of the apparent source. The Chandra High Resolution Camera (HRC-I), with its superior spatial resolution and sensitivity, has obtained a positive detection of α Aqr and recovered faint emission at the location of β Aqr, now well separated from the stronger source to the southeast that dominated the earlier ROSAT image. The coronal LX/LC IV luminosity ratios of both supergiants are extremely depressed relative to early G main-sequence stars, continuing the ``X-ray deficiency syndrome'' originally identified in late F/early G luminosity class III giants of the Hertzsprung gap.

  12. Observing the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation: A Unique Window on the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation is the remnant heat from the Big Bang. It provides us with a unique probe of conditions in the early universe, long before any organized structures had yet formed. The anisotropy in the radiation's brightness yields important clues about primordial structure and additionally provides a wealth of information about the physics,of the early universe. Within the framework of inflationary dark matter models observations of the anisotropy on sub-degree angular scales will reveal the signatures of acoustic oscillations of the photon-baryon fluid at a redshift of approx. 1100. The validity of inflationary models will be tested and, if agreement is found, accurate values for most of the key cosmological parameters will result. If disagreement is found, we will need to rethink our basic ideas about the physics of the early universe. I will present an overview of the physical processes at work in forming the anisotropy and discuss what we have already learned from current observations. I will conclude with a brief overview of the recently launched Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) mission which will observe the anisotropy over the full sky with 0.21 degree angular resolution. At the time of this meeting, MAP will have just arrived at the L2 Lagrange point, marking the start of its observing campaign. The MAP hardware is being produced by Goddard in partnership with Princeton University.

  13. Observational Constraints on the Nature of the First Supermassive Black Holes Seeds in the Early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treister, Ezequiel; Schawinski, Kevin; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Weigel, Anna

    2015-08-01

    We constrain the total accreted mass density in supermassive black holes at z>6, as inferred from the integrated X-ray emission in a sample of galaxy candidates selected using observed-frame optical and near-IR dropout techniques. Combining galaxy samples acquired in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field with recent deep Hubble observations of the CANDELS fields and Chandra 4 Msec observations we obtain the most restrictive current constraints on total black hole growth in the early Universe, estimating a mass density <1000M⊙Mpc-3. We further carry out a detailed study of all the individually-detected X-ray sources in the Chandra Deep Field South, finding that none of them is a good candidate to be at z>5.These results place interesting constraints on growth by accretion and imply one or more of the following: only ~20% luminous galaxies at this epoch are seeded with BHs - so seeding is inefficient; most black hole growth at early epochs happens in dusty - as yet undetected - host galaxies and/or in less-massive - also as yet undetected - galaxies; therefore a large fraction of the early black hole buildup is heavily obscured or that either most of the growth is due to radiatively inefficient accretion or due to black hole mergers at these early times. Not seeing a signal from growing black holes in high-redshift galaxies suggests that if their black holes are growing they are doing so in a veiled fashion, or they are simply not growing or perhaps most galaxies do not harbor black holes at their centers at all. These possibilities offer novel insights for high redshift seed formation models.Finally, we present the prospects to constrain the nature of the first black hole seeds in the early Universe using existing and planned space-based facilities.

  14. XBT effects on the global ocean observation system in the early 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, You-Soon; Zhang, Shaoqing

    2016-04-01

    During the early 21st century, we have experienced a transition period of global ocean observing system from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) to Argo. There has been decreasing of XBT observations, but significant increasing of Argo profiles in the global ocean. However, evaluation of the XBT observation system during this period has little been presented. Here, this study investigates the XBT effects on the global ocean observing system by using GFDL data assimilation model. After Argo period, the amount of heat content correction by XBT assimilation is significantly weaken especially in the upper ocean, but it remains in the deeper oceans below 700 m depth within a dynamic model system. This study also confirms that although XBT only provides temperature observations mostly in the upper 700 m of the northern hemisphere, it can affects both temperature and salinity fields of data assimilation system especially in the deep and southern oceans.

  15. In situ observations of early oxide formation in steel under hot-rolling conditions.

    PubMed

    Melfo, W M; Dippenaar, R J

    2007-02-01

    A technique was developed to study in situ the early stages of the reaction between iron and air. Using a high-temperature microscope, we observed at temperatures between 1000 degrees C and 1050 degrees C and within the first 30 s of reaction, the formation of iron-oxide layers on the surface of low-carbon steel. We observed the nucleation and growth of a first layer of iron oxide and the consecutive formation in sequence, of higher iron oxides sweeping over the surface of the former oxide. The grain boundaries of the steel substrate remain visible for quite some time following exposure to an oxidizing atmosphere indicating that diffusion through steel grain boundaries may have a determining influence on the formation of oxides. These findings emphasize the importance of conducting further studies to better understand the kinetics and mechanisms by which iron-oxide layers form in the early stages of oxidation. PMID:17359249

  16. Blue Straggler Stars: Early Observations That Failed to Solve the Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, Russell D.

    In this chapter, I describe early ideas on blue stragglers, and various observations (some published, some not) that promised but failed to resolve the question of their origin. I review the data and ideas that were circulating from Allan Sandage's original discovery in 1953 of "anomalous blue stars" in the globular cluster M3, up until about 1992, when what seems to have been the only previous meeting devoted to Blue Straggler Stars (BSSs) was held at the Space Telescope Science Institute.

  17. Interactions of tissue and fertilizer nitrogen on decomposition dynamics of lignin-rich conifer litter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perakis, Steven S.; Matkins, Joselin J.; Hibbs, David E.

    2012-01-01

    High tissue nitrogen (N) accelerates decomposition of high-quality leaf litter in the early phases of mass loss, but the influence of initial tissue N variation on the decomposition of lignin-rich litter is less resolved. Because environmental changes such as atmospheric N deposition and elevated CO2 can alter tissue N levels within species more rapidly than they alter the species composition of ecosystems, it is important to consider how within-species variation in tissue N may shape litter decomposition and associated N dynamics. Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii ) is a widespread lignin-rich conifer that dominates forests of high carbon (C) storage across western North America, and displays wide variation in tissue and litter N that reflects landscape variation in soil N. We collected eight unique Douglas-fir litter sources that spanned a two-fold range in initial N concentrations (0.67–1.31%) with a narrow range of lignin (29–35%), and examined relationships between initial litter chemistry, decomposition, and N dynamics in both ambient and N fertilized plots at four sites over 3 yr. High initial litter N slowed decomposition rates in both early (0.67 yr) and late (3 yr) stages in unfertilized plots. Applications of N fertilizer to litters accelerated early-stage decomposition, but slowed late-stage decomposition, and most strongly affected low-N litters, which equalized decomposition rates across litters regardless of initial N concentrations. Decomposition of N-fertilized litters correlated positively with initial litter manganese (Mn) concentrations, with litter Mn variation reflecting faster turnover of canopy foliage in high N sites, producing younger litterfall with high N and low Mn. Although both internal and external N inhibited decomposition at 3 yr, most litters exhibited net N immobilization, with strongest immobilization in low-N litter and in N-fertilized plots. Our observation for lignin-rich litter that high initial N can slow decomposition

  18. Overlooked sunspot observations by Hevelius in the early Maunder Minimum, 1653 1684

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyt, Douglas V.; Schatten, Kenneth H.

    1995-09-01

    In the bookMachina Coelestis (1679), Johannes Hevelius lists his daily solar observations from 1653 to 1679. He mentions 19 sunspot groups during this interval, of which 14 are unique to Hevelius and five are confirmed by other observers. There are an additional 9 sunspot groups during this interval that were not observed by Hevelius. In five cases he was not observing, but in the other four cases he did observe but failed to comment upon sunspots. The spots he missed or failed to observe tend to occur near the end of his career. This suggests Hevelius occasionally missed sunspots but usually was a reliable observer. These observations are important because they provide us the only known daily listing of solar observations during the early years of the Maunder Minimum. They are also important because they were overlooked by Wolf, Spoerer, Maunder, Eddy, and others in their study of solar activity in the seventeenth century. They provide us the best record of the sunspot maximum of 1660 when one sunspot lasted at least 86 days as it traversed the solar disk four times. The same region was active for seven solar rotations.

  19. Initialized Decadal Climate Predictions of the Observed Early-2000s Hiatus of Global Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meehl, G. A.; Teng, H.; Arblaster, J.

    2014-12-01

    The slow-down in the rate of global warming in the early-2000s is not evident in the multi-model ensemble average of traditional climate change projection simulations. However, a number of individual ensemble members from that set of models successfully simulate the early-2000s hiatus when naturally-occurring climate variability involving the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) coincided, by chance, with the observed negative phase of the IPO that contributed to the early-2000s hiatus. If the recent methodology of initialized decadal climate prediction could have been applied in the mid-1990s using the CMIP5 multi-models, both the negative phase of the IPO in the early 2000s as well as the hiatus could have been simulated, with the multi-model average performing better than most of the individual models. The loss of predictive skill for six initial years prior to the mid-1990s points to the need for consistent hindcast skill to establish reliability of an operational decadal climate prediction system.

  20. Climate model simulations of the observed early-2000s hiatus of global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meehl, Gerald A.; Teng, Haiyan; Arblaster, Julie M.

    2014-10-01

    The slowdown in the rate of global warming in the early 2000s is not evident in the multi-model ensemble average of traditional climate change projection simulations. However, a number of individual ensemble members from that set of models successfully simulate the early-2000s hiatus when naturally-occurring climate variability involving the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) coincided, by chance, with the observed negative phase of the IPO that contributed to the early-2000s hiatus. If the recent methodology of initialized decadal climate prediction could have been applied in the mid-1990s using the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 multi-models, both the negative phase of the IPO in the early 2000s as well as the hiatus could have been simulated, with the multi-model average performing better than most of the individual models. The loss of predictive skill for six initial years before the mid-1990s points to the need for consistent hindcast skill to establish reliability of an operational decadal climate prediction system.

  1. Near Real-Time Determination of Earthquake Source Parameters for Tsunami Early Warning from Geodetic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manneela, Sunanda; Srinivasa Kumar, T.; Nayak, Shailesh R.

    2016-06-01

    Exemplifying the tsunami source immediately after an earthquake is the most critical component of tsunami early warning, as not every earthquake generates a tsunami. After a major under sea earthquake, it is very important to determine whether or not it has actually triggered the deadly wave. The near real-time observations from near field networks such as strong motion and Global Positioning System (GPS) allows rapid determination of fault geometry. Here we present a complete processing chain of Indian Tsunami Early Warning System (ITEWS), starting from acquisition of geodetic raw data, processing, inversion and simulating the situation as it would be at warning center during any major earthquake. We determine the earthquake moment magnitude and generate the centroid moment tensor solution using a novel approach which are the key elements for tsunami early warning. Though the well established seismic monitoring network, numerical modeling and dissemination system are currently capable to provide tsunami warnings to most of the countries in and around the Indian Ocean, the study highlights the critical role of geodetic observations in determination of tsunami source for high-quality forecasting.

  2. [Observations of play and verbal behavior of boys with fragile X syndrome in early childhood].

    PubMed

    Sarimski, K

    1999-08-01

    Reports on development and behaviour in boys with fragile-X syndrome support the idea of a characteristic behavioural phenotype in this special population. Preliminary results are presented for 10 boys with fragile-X syndrome in early childhood. Severe mental handicaps and communicative abnormalities are observed less frequently than was expected on the basis of results reported for school-age children or adults. Boys with fragile-X syndrome show goal-directed and cooperative play behaviours in a Montessori play session, but less persistence and organisation than children with normal development or a mental handicap of heterogeneous origin. Results confirmed these behavioural differences as characteristic aspects of a "behavioural phenotype" in children who already in early childhood have fragile-X syndrome. PMID:10478436

  3. Constraining the temperature history of the past millennium using early instrumental observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brohan, P.

    2012-12-01

    The current assessment that twentieth-century global temperature change is unusual in the context of the last thousand years relies on estimates of temperature changes from natural proxies (tree-rings, ice-cores etc.) and climate model simulations. Confidence in such estimates is limited by difficulties in calibrating the proxies and systematic differences between proxy reconstructions and model simulations - notable differences include large differences in multi-decadal variability between proxy reconstructions, and big uncertainties in the effect of volcanic eruptions. Because the difference between the estimates extends into the relatively recent period of the early nineteenth century it is possible to compare them with a reliable instrumental estimate of the temperature change over that period, provided that enough early thermometer observations, covering a wide enough expanse of the world, can be collected. By constraining key aspects of the reconstructions and simulations, instrumental observations, inevitably from a limited period, can reduce reconstruction uncertainty throughout the millennium. A considerable quantity of early instrumental observations are preserved in the world's archives. One organisation which systematically made observations and collected the results was the English East-India Company (EEIC), and 900 log-books of EEIC ships containing daily instrumental measurements of temperature and pressure have been preserved in the British Library. Similar records from voyages of exploration and scientific investigation are preserved in published literature and the records in National Archives. Some of these records have been extracted and digitised, providing hundreds of thousands of new weather records offering an unprecedentedly detailed view of the weather and climate of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The new thermometer observations demonstrate that the large-scale temperature response to the Tambora eruption and the 1809

  4. Formation of meteorite hydrocarbons from thermal decomposition of siderite (FeCO 3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollom, Thomas M.

    2003-01-01

    Thermal decomposition of siderite has been proposed as a source of magnetite in martian meteorites. Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the possibility that this process might also result in abiotic synthesis of organic compounds. Siderite decomposition in the presence of water vapor at 300°C generated a variety of organic products dominated by alkylated and hydroxylated aromatic compounds. The results suggest that formation of magnetite by thermal decomposition of siderite on the precursor rock of the martian meteorite ALH84001 would have been accompanied by formation of organic compounds and may represent a source of extraterrestrial organic matter in the meteorite and on Mars. The results also suggest that thermal decomposition of siderite during metamorphism could account for some of the reduced carbon observed in metasedimentary rocks from the early Earth.

  5. Constraining the temperature history of the past millennium using early instrumental observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brohan, P.; Allan, R.; Freeman, E.; Wheeler, D.; Wilkinson, C.; Williamson, F.

    2012-05-01

    The current assessment that twentieth-century global temperature change is unusual in the context of the last thousand years relies on estimates of temperature changes from natural proxies (tree-rings, ice-cores etc.) and climate model simulations. Confidence in such estimates is limited by difficulties in calibrating the proxies and systematic differences between proxy reconstructions and model simulations. As the difference between the estimates extends into the relatively recent period of the early nineteenth century it is possible to compare them with a reliable instrumental estimate of the temperature change over that period, provided that enough early thermometer observations, covering a wide enough expanse of the world, can be collected. One organisation which systematically made observations and collected the results was the English East-India Company (EEIC), and their archives have been preserved in the British Library. Inspection of those archives revealed 900 log-books of EEIC ships containing daily instrumental measurements of temperature and pressure, and subjective estimates of wind speed and direction, from voyages across the Atlantic and Indian Oceans between 1789 and 1834. Those records have been extracted and digitised, providing 273 000 new weather records offering an unprecedentedly detailed view of the weather and climate of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The new thermometer observations demonstrate that the large-scale temperature response to the Tambora eruption and the 1809 eruption was modest (perhaps 0.5 °C). This provides a powerful out-of-sample validation for the proxy reconstructions - supporting their use for longer-term climate reconstructions. However, some of the climate model simulations in the CMIP5 ensemble show much larger volcanic effects than this - such simulations are unlikely to be accurate in this respect.

  6. Constraining the temperature history of the past millennium using early instrumental observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brohan, P.; Allan, R.; Freeman, E.; Wheeler, D.; Wilkinson, C.; Williamson, F.

    2012-10-01

    The current assessment that twentieth-century global temperature change is unusual in the context of the last thousand years relies on estimates of temperature changes from natural proxies (tree-rings, ice-cores, etc.) and climate model simulations. Confidence in such estimates is limited by difficulties in calibrating the proxies and systematic differences between proxy reconstructions and model simulations. As the difference between the estimates extends into the relatively recent period of the early nineteenth century it is possible to compare them with a reliable instrumental estimate of the temperature change over that period, provided that enough early thermometer observations, covering a wide enough expanse of the world, can be collected. One organisation which systematically made observations and collected the results was the English East India Company (EEIC), and their archives have been preserved in the British Library. Inspection of those archives revealed 900 log-books of EEIC ships containing daily instrumental measurements of temperature and pressure, and subjective estimates of wind speed and direction, from voyages across the Atlantic and Indian Oceans between 1789 and 1834. Those records have been extracted and digitised, providing 273 000 new weather records offering an unprecedentedly detailed view of the weather and climate of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The new thermometer observations demonstrate that the large-scale temperature response to the Tambora eruption and the 1809 eruption was modest (perhaps 0.5 °C). This provides an out-of-sample validation for the proxy reconstructions - supporting their use for longer-term climate reconstructions. However, some of the climate model simulations in the CMIP5 ensemble show much larger volcanic effects than this - such simulations are unlikely to be accurate in this respect.

  7. Observation of x-ray resonant Raman scattering: The early days

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, C.J.

    1995-12-31

    My early observation of Raman scattering came as a serendipitous by-product of our efforts to achieve the best possible signal for x-ray fluorescent analysis. We were also investigating the x-ray spectrum produced by a monochromatic x-ray beam striking metal targets which might contribute to the inelastic background. This background could contaminate the very weak diffusively distributed elastically scattered radiation associated with defects in the perfect periodicity of crystals. Energy analysis of the x-ray spectra created by monochromatic Cu K{sub {alpha}} and Mo K{sub {alpha}} radiation impinging on highly pure metal targets showed an inelastically scattered intensity related to the energy difference between the exciting radiation and the nearest bound state. Confirmation of these observations and availability of synchrotron radiation has led to wide application of this new x-ray spectroscopy in atomic physics including its use as a probe of the unoccupied density of states.

  8. The intergenerational continuity of observed early parenting: a prospective, longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Kovan, Nikki M; Chung, Alissa L; Sroufe, L Alan

    2009-09-01

    The authors report the results from a prospective, longitudinal study of cross-generational parenting quality in a lower socioeconomic status sample of moderate ethnic diversity (N = 61). The study extends previous research on intergenerational continuity of parenting in several significant ways: (a) Assessments in both generations were based on direct observation, (b) assessments were made at the same age (24 months) in both generations, (c) there were controls for later parenting in the first generation, and (d) there were controls for critical background factors (stress, socioeconomic status, child and parent IQ). An observed parenting-quality composite showed moderate stability (r = .43) across generations, and findings held after controlling for all other factors. A possible special role for early parenting experience and the extensive research needed to demonstrate it are discussed. PMID:19702386

  9. Early Temperatures Observed with the Extremely Sensitive Rayleigh Lidar at Utah State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickwar, Vincent B.; Sox, Leda; Emerick, Matthew T.; Herron, Joshua P.; Barton, David L.

    2016-06-01

    Rayleigh-scatter lidar observations were made at the Atmospheric Lidar Observatory (ALO) at Utah State University (USU) from 1993-2004 from 45-90 km. The lidar operated at 532 nm with a power-aperture-product (PAP) of ~3.1 Wm2. The sensitivity of the lidar has since been increased by a factor of 66 to 205 Wm2, extending the maximum altitude into new territory, the lower thermosphere. Observations have been extended up to 115 km, almost to the 120 km goal. Early temperatures from four ~4-week periods starting in June 2014 are presented and discussed. They are compared to each other, to the ALO climatology from the original lidar [1], and to temperatures from the NRLMSISe00 empirical model [2].

  10. Ultrastructural observations of the early and late stages of gorgonian coral (Junceella juncea) oocytes.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Sujune; Jhuang, Yating; Spikings, Emma; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Lin, Chiahsin

    2014-08-01

    The developmental oogenesis of gorgonian coral was investigated at the histological level. The objective of this study was to examine and improve the understanding of Junceella juncea oogenesis using ultrastructural methods, such as histological sectioning and transmission electron microscopy. At least three types of yolk materials were observed in this study: yolk body, lipid granules and cortical alveoli. Some of the complex yolk materials were encompassed by concentric or arched layers of smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex in early stage oocytes. Different types of vesicles were found in both early and late stage oocytes and some granules could be seen inside the empty vesicles. This may be a possible method for elaborating complex yolk materials. Homogeneous yolks from different types of inclusions were abundant and the autosynthesis of yolk may be a major mechanism in J. juncea oocytes. This is the first report of the ultrastructural observation of oogenesis in gorgonian coral species using transmission electron microscopy. Our study obtained relatively detailed information at the ultrastructural level, and it provides an overview of the oocyte ultrastucture of the gorgonian coral J. juncea. PMID:24973261

  11. Experimental observation of critical slowing down as an early warning of population collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorselen, Daan; Dai, Lei; Korolev, Kirill; Gore, Jeff

    2012-02-01

    Near tipping points marking population collapse or other critical transitions in complex systems small changes in conditions can result in drastic shifts in the system state. In theoretical models it is known that early warning signals can be used to predict the approach of these tipping points (bifurcations), but little is known about how these signals can be detected in practice. Here we use the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to study these early warning signals in controlled experimental populations. We grow yeast in the sugar sucrose, where cooperative feeding dynamics causes a fold bifurcation; falling below a critical population size results in sudden collapse. We demonstrate the experimental observation of an increase in both the size and timescale of the fluctuations of population density near this fold bifurcation. Furthermore, we test the utility of theoretically predicted warning signals by observing them in two different slowly deteriorating environments. These findings suggest that these generic indicators of critical slowing down can be useful in predicting catastrophic changes in population biology.

  12. A new approach for tsunami early warning using tsunami observations in a source region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanioka, Y.

    2015-12-01

    After the 2011 devastating Tohoku tsunami, improvement of tsunami early warning system is one of key issues in Japan. Japanese government was decided to install 125 ocean bottom pressure sensors and seismometers with a cable system along the Japan and Kurile trench. Each sensor is separated by 30km. We should develop a new approach for real-time tsunami forecast using those newly available data combined with GNSS data or seismic data. A well-recognized problem to use tsunami data at pressure sensors on the top of tsunami source area is a fact that a large vertical coseismic deformation due to a large earthquake cannot be observed at those sensors. The sensors observe a tsunami wave when it starts to propagate. Because of that problem, GSNN data or seismic data are typically used to estimate the coseismic deformation for the tsunami numerical simulation. In this paper, we develop a new technique, which solve the problem. Our technique uses the observations at pressure sensors on the tsunami source area as an input to compute the tsunami directly. Actual tsunami heights at the sensors on the source area is unknown because the cosismic vertical deformation is unknown. However, we can observe directly the time derivative of tsunami heights at those sensors. Time derivatives of tsunami heights at each point are used as inputs to compute the tsunami height distribution in the calculated area. Then we can numerically compute a tsunami using a traditional finite difference technique from the tsunami height distribution computed. For numerical test, first, we compute the synthetic tsunamis using the fault model with 1 minute grid system. The computed tsunami waveforms at 15 minutes x 15 minutes grid points are used as the observed data for this new technique. Each observed point is separated by 15 minutes, about 30km. The result show that the accuracy of tsunami computation is good enough for tsunami forecast. Tsunami generation with a long duration, such as tsunami

  13. Observation of the early stage of insulin crystallization by confocal laser scanning microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mühlig, P.; Klupsch, Th.; Schell, U.; Hilgenfeld, R.

    2001-11-01

    It is demonstrated that high resolution confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) is a powerful tool for in situ observation and analysis of protein crystal growth. CLSM is used to study the early crystallization stage of Des-ThrB30 human insulin in aqueous solution, under conditions known to lead to monoclinic crystals. A modified batch crystallization method for CLSM purposes is applied which allows the growth behavior of crystallites to be studied in reflected light. A few hours after the start of the experiment, microcrystallites of characteristic shapes (mainly prismatic and pyramidal) are observed, the number of which strongly depends on the concentration of higher insulin aggregates in the initial solution. From direct observation as well as from model calculations we conclude that for solute concentrations up to about 3.5-times the saturation value, growth starts from few active insulin precipitate particles while 3D nucleation is neglegible for observation times up to 24 h. The anisotropic growth rates of monoclinic, prismatic crystallites are measured along the long edge of the cover face and perpendicular to the latter. A simultaneous crossover to signifcantly higher growth rates is found when the crystallite size reaches about 2 μm. The higher growth rates are connected with the appearence of striations. We argue that this growth rate crossover is caused by an increased 2D nucleation rate at the edges and corners, which finally results in bunching of steps simultaneously spreading over adjacent crystallite faces.

  14. ASCA observation of three bright early-type galaxies: NGC 4472, NGC 4406, and NGC 4636

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Awaki, Hisamitsu; Mushotzky, Richard; Tsuru, Takeshi; Fabian, Andrew C.; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Loewenstein, Michael; Makishima, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Hironori; Matsushita, Kyoko; Mihara, Tatehiro

    1994-01-01

    We report Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) 0.3-10 keV and X-ray observations of three early type galaxies, NGC 4472, NGC 4406, and NGC 4636. The extended mission in these galaxies is well described by thin thermal eimssion from hot gas. The gas temperature is 0.92 +/- 0.02 keV for NGC 4472, 0.79 +/- 0.01 keV for NGC 4406, and 0.73 +/- 0.02 keV for NGC 4636. The metal abundance for NGC 4472, NGC 4406, and NGC 4636 are, under the assumption of solar ratios, 0.63 +/- 0.15, 0.45 +/- 0.10, and 0.38 +/- 0.07, respectively. Detailed analysis has allowed determination of the abundances of oxygen, silicon, sulfur, and iron. The observed abundances are consistent with the solar ratios. For NGC 4472 and NGC 4406 we also determined the mean temperature of the gas producing the Si lines from the ratio of the Si H to He-like lines and find it to be consistent with the continuum temperature. The X-ray temperature is in good agreement with the observed optical velocity dispersion, stellar density profile, and gas density profile. Our data indicates that the supernova rate should be less than one fifth of the nominal rate in early type galaxies. We derive the mass of these systems within fixed angular scales and find that M/L greater than 40, confirming that elliptical galaxies are dark matter dominated at large radii.

  15. X-ray Emission from Early-Type Stars: EUVE, ROSAT, and ASCA Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, D. H.

    1996-05-01

    I will present results from a ROSAT PSPC survey of 27 B stars and detailed EUVE and ASCA observations of 2 B stars, epsilon CMa (B2 II) and tau Sco (B0 V). These data are used to test the applicability of the wind-shock paradigm in the context of radiation-driven wind theory to the high-energy emission from OB stars. Contrary to the results of both the ROSAT and EINSTEIN all-sky surveys, I find that almost all B stars are X-ray emitters, albeit at much lower levels than O stars. The X-ray emission from most early-B stars is consistent with the predictions of the wind-shock picture, however higher than predicted mass loss rates are required to reconcile the observed X-ray properties of stars later than about B1 with the models. My combined analysis of the EUVE and ROSAT observations of epsilon CMa indicates that wind attenuation of the EUV and soft X-ray radiation is consistent with a wind-shock morphology and inconsistent with the existence of coronal X-ray emission. Also the temperature distribution in the hot plasma is qualitatively consistent with numerical models of the radiation-force instability wind shocks. ASCA and ROSAT spectra of tau Sco, on the other hand, indicate that the standard wind-shock picture cannot explain the high-energy properties of all early-type stars. The large X-ray flux and hard spectrum of tau Sco may be understood in terms of this object's youth, either through the interaction of its stellar wind with the remnant natal cloud, or via coronal activity related to its fossil magnetic field.

  16. EARLY PHASE OBSERVATIONS OF EXTREMELY LUMINOUS TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA 2009dc

    SciTech Connect

    Yamanaka, M.; Arai, A.; Chiyonobu, S.; Fukazawa, Y.; Ikejiri, Y.; Itoh, R.; Komatsu, T.; Miyamoto, H.; Kawabata, K. S.; Kinugasa, K.; Hashimoto, O.; Honda, S.; Tanaka, M.; Imada, A.; Kuroda, D.; Maeda, K.; Nomoto, K.; Kamata, Y.; Kawai, N.; Konishi, K.

    2009-12-20

    We present early phase observations in optical and near-infrared wavelengths for the extremely luminous Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2009dc. The decline rate of the light curve is DELTAm{sub 15}(B) = 0.65 +- 0.03, which is one of the slowest among SNe Ia. The peak V-band absolute magnitude is estimated to be M{sub V} = -19.90 +- 0.15 mag if no host extinction is assumed. It reaches M{sub V} = -20.19 +- 0.19 mag if we assume the host extinction of A{sub V} = 0.29 mag. SN 2009dc belongs to the most luminous class of SNe Ia, like SNe 2003fg and 2006gz. Our JHK{sub s} -band photometry shows that this SN is also one of the most luminous SNe Ia in near-infrared wavelengths. We estimate the ejected {sup 56}Ni mass of 1.2 +- 0.3 M{sub sun} for the no host extinction case (and of 1.6 +- 0.4 M{sub sun} for the host extinction of A{sub V} = 0.29 mag). The C II lambda6580 absorption line remains visible until a week after the maximum brightness, in contrast to its early disappearance in SN 2006gz. The line velocity of Si II lambda6355 is about 8000 km s{sup -1} around the maximum, being considerably slower than that of SN 2006gz. The velocity of the C II line is similar to or slightly less than that of the Si II line around the maximum. The presence of the carbon line suggests that the thick unburned C+O layer remains after the explosion. Spectropolarimetric observations by Tanaka et al. indicate that the explosion is nearly spherical. These observational facts suggest that SN 2009dc is a super-Chandrasekhar mass SN Ia.

  17. HST WFC3 Early Release Science: Emission-line Galaxies from IR Grism Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straughn, Amber; Kuntschner, H.; Kuemmel, M.; Walsh, J.; Cohen, S.; Gardner, J. P.; Windhorst, R. A.; O'Connell, R. W.; Pirzkal, N.; Meurer, G.; McCarthy, P. J.; Hathi, N. P.; Malhotra, S.; Rhoads, J.; SOC, WFC3

    2011-01-01

    The Early Release Science II program for HST WFC3 includes one pointing observed with the G102 (0.8-1.1 microns; R 210) and G141 (1.1-1.6 microns; R 130) infrared grisms at a depth of 2 orbits/grism. From this data we detect 48 actively star-forming emission-line galaxies and measure the galaxies' redshifts, line fluxes, star-formation rates, and masses. In particular, the prominent emission lines Ha, [OII], and [OIII] fall into the two infrared grism bandpasses over a redshift range z=0.2-3.6, and the majority of galaxies have at least two lines in the observable wavelength range resulting in secure line identification and redshift determination. We detect galaxies with line fluxes to 3 x 10-17 erg/s/cm2 as well as several sources with very high EW lines. The higher spectral resolution and sensitivity of the WFC3 grisms over previous instrumentation also allows detection of other emission lines in some galaxies. The average magnitude of the emission-line galaxy sample is mAB(F098M)=23.6 mag with more than 20% of the sample fainter than mAB(F098M)=25 mag, demonstrating the remarkable efficiency and capability of the WFC3 NIR grisms for measuring galaxy properties to faint magnitudes and intermediate redshifts. Our results point to the promising potential for future science with WFC3 grism spectroscopy, as well as upcoming missions such as JWST and WFIRST. This paper is based on Early Release Science observations made by the WFC3 Scientific Oversight Committee. We are grateful to the Director of the Space Telescope Science Institute for awarding Director's Discretionary time for this program. This research was supported in part by an appointment to the NASA Postdoctoral Program at Goddard Space Flight Center, administered by Oak Ridge Associated Universities through a contract with NASA (ANS).

  18. Improving Type Ia Supernova Standard Candle Cosmology Measurements Using Observations of Early-Type Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, Joshua Evan

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are the current standard-bearers for dark energy but face several hurdles for their continued success in future large surveys. For example, spectroscopic classification of the myriad SNe soon to be discovered will not be possible, and systematics from uncertainties in dust corrections and the evolution of SN demographics and/or empirical calibrations used to standardize SNe Ia must be studied. Through the identification of low-dust host galaxies and through increased understanding of both the SN - progenitor connections and empirical calibrations, host galaxy information may offer opportunities to improve the cosmological utility of SNe Ia. The first half of this thesis analyzes the sample of SNe Ia discovered by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cluster Supernova Survey augmented with HST-observed SNe Ia in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) fields. Correlations between properties of SNe and their host galaxies are examined at high redshift. Using galaxy color and quantitative morphology to determine the red sequence in 25 clusters, a model is developed to distinguish passively evolving early-type galaxies from star-forming galaxies in both clusters and the field. With this approach, 6 early-type cluster member hosts and 11 SN Ia early-type field hosts are identified. For the first time at z > 0.9, the correlation between host galaxy type and the rise and fall time of SN Ia light curves is confirmed. The relatively simple spectral energy distributions of early-type galaxies also enables stellar mass measurements for these hosts. In combination with literature host mass measurements, these measurements are used to show, at z > 0.9, a hint of the correlation between host mass and Hubble residuals reported at lower redshift. By simultaneously fitting cluster galaxy formation histories and dust content to the scatter of the cluster red sequences, it is shown that dust reddening of early-type cluster SN hosts is likely less

  19. Early Observations with the Rosetta/MIRO Instrument at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulkis, Samuel

    2015-04-01

    The MIRO (Microwave Instrument on the Rosetta Orbiter) is a dual frequency (560 GHz and 190 GHz) heterodyne instrument consisting of two broadband channels (one in each frequency band) for continuum measurements, and a very high spectral resolution (44 kHz, 4096 channels) spectrometer interfaced with the submillimeter radiometer. Broad scientific objectives are to understand heat transport and ice sublimation in comets as interrelated processes reflecting properties acquired at time of formation and subsequent evolution and to understand important processes in the coma. The spectroscopic receiver is fixed tuned to measure simultaneously 8 molecular transitions of water, carbon monoxide, ammonia, and methanol. The continuum channels probe the nucleus sub-surface temperatures; the spectrometer channels are sensitive to gas abundance, velocity, and temperature. This paper will present an overview of the MIRO instrument, status of observations, and early results. Early results include detection and monitoring of water vapor in the coma, measurements of water gas production rates and their temporal and spatial variability, and measurements of subsurface temperatures and temperature gradients in the nucleus at depths of a few centimeters. The authors acknowledge funding support from NASA, CNES and CNRS/INSU, National Central University, and SNSB (Sweden). A part of this work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. We thank the operational support teams from the ESA Rosetta Mission.

  20. Watching Teachers Work: Using Observation Tools to Promote Effective Teaching in the Early Years and Early Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guernsey, Lisa; Ochshorn, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This paper paints a picture of the dismal state of early education for many children--especially the disadvantaged--who are rarely given access to the kinds of stimulating, content-rich conversations that provide them with the cognitive and social-emotional skills they need to succeed throughout their years in school. With many states currently…

  1. CONSTRAINTS ON TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA PROGENITOR COMPANIONS FROM EARLY ULTRAVIOLET OBSERVATIONS WITH SWIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Peter J.; Dawson, Kyle S.; Harris, David W.; Olmstead, Matthew; Milne, Peter; Roming, Peter W. A.

    2012-04-10

    We compare early ultraviolet (UV) observations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) with theoretical predictions for the brightness of the shock associated with the collision between SN ejecta and a companion star. Our simple method is independent of the intrinsic flux from the SN and treats the flux observed with the Swift/Ultra-Violet Optical Telescope as conservative upper limits on the shock brightness. Comparing this limit with the predicted flux for various shock models, we constrain the geometry of the SN progenitor-companion system. We find the model of a 1 M{sub Sun} red supergiant companion in Roche-lobe overflow to be excluded at a 95% confidence level for most individual SNe for all but the most unfavorable viewing angles. For the sample of 12 SNe taken together, the upper limits on the viewing angle are inconsistent with the expected distribution of viewing angles for red gaint stars as the majority of companions with high confidence. The separation distance constraints do allow main-sequence companions. A better understanding of the UV flux arising from the SN itself as well as continued UV observations of young SNe Ia will further constrain the possible progenitors of SNe Ia.

  2. Early Solar Wind Observations from the Plasma and Suprathermal Ion Composition (PLASTIC) Experiments on STEREO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvin, A. B.; Kistler, L. A.; Popecki, M. A.; Farrugia, C.; Moebius, E.; Lee, M.; Ellis, L.; Simunac, K.; Singer, K.; Russell, C.; Walker, C.; Blush, L.; Klecker, B.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Thompson, B.; Bochsler, P.; Wurz, P.; Daoudi, H.; Giammanco, C.; Karrer, R.; Opitz, A.; Koeten, M.; Luhmann, J.; Howard, R.; Wuelser, J. P.; Acuna, M.

    2007-05-01

    Two identical Plasma and Suprathermal Ion Composition (PLASTIC) instruments are now flying on the STEREO A and B observatories, which launched in October 2006. The STEREO observatories are drifting away from the Earth and from each other, providing different longitudinal perspectives. PLASTIC together with the IMPACT suite provides the in-situ measurements for the STEREO mission, while SECCHI provides remote imaging of the solar corona. The PLASTIC solar wind sector measures solar wind proton bulk parameters and provides species identification and relative abundances for the more dominant solar wind minor (Z>2) ions. During this early part of the STEREO mission, as we approach solar minimum conditions, there have been a series of coronal- hole associated high speed streams and interstream sector boundaries. In this talk we will provide initial observations of the solar wind during selected time periods.

  3. Nested Taylor decomposition in multivariate function decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baykara, N. A.; Gürvit, Ercan

    2014-12-01

    Fluctuationlessness approximation applied to the remainder term of a Taylor decomposition expressed in integral form is already used in many articles. Some forms of multi-point Taylor expansion also are considered in some articles. This work is somehow a combination these where the Taylor decomposition of a function is taken where the remainder is expressed in integral form. Then the integrand is decomposed to Taylor again, not necessarily around the same point as the first decomposition and a second remainder is obtained. After taking into consideration the necessary change of variables and converting the integration limits to the universal [0;1] interval a multiple integration system formed by a multivariate function is formed. Then it is intended to apply the Fluctuationlessness approximation to each of these integrals one by one and get better results as compared with the single node Taylor decomposition on which the Fluctuationlessness is applied.

  4. The light up and evolution of early Massive Black Holes: Athena observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comastri, Andrea

    2012-07-01

    The known AGN population at z > 6 is made by luminous optical QSO hosting Supermassive Black Holes (M > 10^9 solar masses), likely to represent the tip of the iceberg of the luminosity and mass function. According to theoretical models for structure formation, Massive Black Holes (MBH -- 10^4-10^7 solar masses) are predicted to be abundant in the early Universe (z > 6). The detection of such a population would provide unique constraints on the MBH formation mechanism and subsequent growth and is within the capabilities of deep and ultradeep ATHENA surveys. I will summarize the state of the art of present deep XMM and Chandra surveys, as far as the search for and spectral characterization of high redshift AGN is concerned. I will also present the observational strategy of future multi-cone ATHENA Wide Field Imager (WFI) surveys and the expected breakthroughs in the determination of the luminosity function and its evolution at high (> 4) and very high (> 6) redshifts. Perspectives for high spectral resolution observations with the XMS calorimeter onboard ATHENA will also be outlined.

  5. Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua Launch and Early Mission Attitude Support Experiences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tracewell, D.; Glickman, J.; Hashmall, J.; Natanson, G.; Sedlak, J.

    2003-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua satellite was successfully launched on May 4,2002. Aqua is the second in the series of EOS satellites. EOS is part of NASA s Earth Science Enterprise Program, whose goals are to advance the scientific understanding of the Earth system. Aqua is a three-axis stabilized, Earth-pointing spacecraft in a nearly circular, sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 705 km. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics attitude team supported all phases of the launch and early mission. This paper presents the main results and lessons learned during this period, including: real-time attitude mode transition support, sensor calibration, onboard computer attitude validation, response to spacecraft emergencies, postlaunch attitude analyses, and anomaly resolution. In particular, Flight Dynamics support proved to be invaluable for successful Earth acquisition, fine-point mode transition, and recognition and correction of several anomalies, including support for the resolution of problems observed with the MODIS instrument.

  6. Shock Breakout and Early Light Curves of Type II-P Supernovae Observed with Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnavich, Peter M.; Tucker, Bradley E.; Rest, Armin; Shaya, Edward J.; Olling, Robert; Kasen, Daniel; Villar, Victoria; KEGS

    2016-01-01

    We discovered two transient events in the Kepler field with light curves that strongly suggest they are type II-P supernovae. Using the fast cadence of the Kepler observations we precisely estimate the rise time to maximum for KSN2011a and KSN2011d as 10.5±0.4 and 13.3±0.4 rest-frame days respectively. We find the progenitor radius of KSN2011a (280±20 R⊙) to be significantly smaller than that for KSN2011d (490±20 R⊙) but both have similar explosion energies of 2.0±0.3 ×1051 erg.The rising light curve of KSN2011d is an excellent match to that predicted by simple models of exploding red supergiants (RSG). However, the early rise of KSN2011a is faster than the models predict possibly due to the supernova shockwave moving into pre-existing wind or mass-loss from the RSG. A mass loss rate of 10-4 M⊙ yr-1 from the RSG can explain the fast rise without impacting the optical flux at maximum light or the shape of the post-maximum light curve.No shock breakout emission is seen in KSN2011a, but this is likely due to the circumstellar interaction suspected in the fast rising light curve. The early light curve of KSN2011d does show excess emission consistent with model predictions of a shock breakout. This is the first optical detection of a shock breakout from a type II-P supernova.

  7. Shock Breakout and Early Light Curves of Type II-P Supernovae Observed with Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnavich, P. M.; Tucker, B. E.; Rest, A.; Shaya, E. J.; Olling, R. P.; Kasen, D.; Villar, A.

    2016-03-01

    We discovered two transient events in the Kepler field with light curves that strongly suggest they are type II-P supernovae (SNe II-P). Using the fast cadence of the Kepler observations we precisely estimate the rise time to maximum for KSN2011a and KSN2011d as 10.5 ± 0.4 and 13.3 ± 0.4 rest-frame days, respectively. Based on fits to idealized analytic models, we find the progenitor radius of KSN2011a (280 ± 20 R⊙) to be significantly smaller than that for KSN2011d (490 ± 20 R⊙), but both have similar explosion energies of 2.0 ± 0.3 × 1051 erg. The rising light curve of KSN2011d is an excellent match to that predicted by simple models of exploding red supergiants (RSG). However, the early rise of KSN2011a is faster than the models predict, possibly due to the supernova shock wave moving into pre-existing wind or mass-loss from the RSG. A mass-loss rate of 10-4M⊙ yr-1 from the RSG can explain the fast rise without impacting the optical flux at maximum light or the shape of the post-maximum light curve. No shock breakout emission is seen in KSN2011a, but this is likely due to the circumstellar interaction suspected in the fast rising light curve. The early light curve of KSN2011d does show excess emission consistent with model predictions of a shock breakout. This is the first optical detection of a shock breakout from a SNe II-P.

  8. Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory for the observation of early photons from gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, I. H.; Brandt, S.; Budtz-Jørgensen, C.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Chen, P.; Connell, P.; Eyles, C.; Grossan, B.; Huang, M.-H. A.; Jeong, S.; Jung, A.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, S.-W.; Lee, J.; Lim, H.; Linder, E. V.; Liu, T.-C.; Min, K. W.; Na, G. W.; Nam, J. W.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Reglero, V.; Ripa, J.; Rodrigo, J. M.; Smoot, G. F.; Svertilov, S.; Vedenkin, N.; Yashin, I.

    2013-02-01

    One of the least documented and understood aspects of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is the rise phase of the optical light curve. The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) is an effort to address this question through extraordinary opportunities presented by a series of space missions including a small spacecraft observatory. The UFFO is equipped with a fast-response Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT) that uses a rapidly moving mirror or mirror array to redirect the optical beam rather than slewing the entire spacecraft to aim the optical instrument at the GRB position. The UFFO will probe the early optical rise of GRBs with sub-second response, for the first time, opening a completely new frontier in GRBs and transient studies. Its fast response measurements of the optical emission of dozens of GRBs each year will provide unique probes of the burst mechanism and test the prospect of GRBs as a new standard candle, potentially opening up the z > 10 universe. For the first time we employ a motorized slewing stage in SMT that can point to the event within 1 s after the x-ray trigger provided by the UFFO Burst Alert and Trigger Telescope. These two scientific instruments comprise the UFFO-pathfinder payload, which will be placed onboard the Lomonosov satellite and launched in 2013. The UFFO-pathfinder is the first step of our long-term program of space instruments for rapid-response GRB observations. We describe early photon science, our soon-to-be-launched UFFO-pathfinder hardware and mission, and our next planned mission, the UFFO-100.

  9. Thermal decomposition products of butyraldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatten, Courtney D.; Kaskey, Kevin R.; Warner, Brian J.; Wright, Emily M.; McCunn, Laura R.

    2013-12-01

    The thermal decomposition of gas-phase butyraldehyde, CH3CH2CH2CHO, was studied in the 1300-1600 K range with a hyperthermal nozzle. Products were identified via matrix-isolation Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and photoionization mass spectrometry in separate experiments. There are at least six major initial reactions contributing to the decomposition of butyraldehyde: a radical decomposition channel leading to propyl radical + CO + H; molecular elimination to form H2 + ethylketene; a keto-enol tautomerism followed by elimination of H2O producing 1-butyne; an intramolecular hydrogen shift and elimination producing vinyl alcohol and ethylene, a β-C-C bond scission yielding ethyl and vinoxy radicals; and a γ-C-C bond scission yielding methyl and CH2CH2CHO radicals. The first three reactions are analogous to those observed in the thermal decomposition of acetaldehyde, but the latter three reactions are made possible by the longer alkyl chain structure of butyraldehyde. The products identified following thermal decomposition of butyraldehyde are CO, HCO, CH3CH2CH2, CH3CH2CH=C=O, H2O, CH3CH2C≡CH, CH2CH2, CH2=CHOH, CH2CHO, CH3, HC≡CH, CH2CCH, CH3C≡CH, CH3CH=CH2, H2C=C=O, CH3CH2CH3, CH2=CHCHO, C4H2, C4H4, and C4H8. The first ten products listed are direct products of the six reactions listed above. The remaining products can be attributed to further decomposition reactions or bimolecular reactions in the nozzle.

  10. Erbium hydride decomposition kinetics.

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrizz, Robert Matthew

    2006-11-01

    Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) is used to study the decomposition kinetics of erbium hydride thin films. The TDS results presented in this report are analyzed quantitatively using Redhead's method to yield kinetic parameters (E{sub A} {approx} 54.2 kcal/mol), which are then utilized to predict hydrogen outgassing in vacuum for a variety of thermal treatments. Interestingly, it was found that the activation energy for desorption can vary by more than 7 kcal/mol (0.30 eV) for seemingly similar samples. In addition, small amounts of less-stable hydrogen were observed for all erbium dihydride films. A detailed explanation of several approaches for analyzing thermal desorption spectra to obtain kinetic information is included as an appendix.

  11. Constraint on the early Universe by relic gravitational waves: From pulsar timing observations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Wen

    2011-05-15

    Recent pulsar timing observations by the Parkers Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) and European Pulsar Timing Array (EPTA) teams obtained the constraint on the relic gravitational waves at the frequency f{sub *}=1/yr, which provides the opportunity to constrain H{sub *}, the Hubble parameter, when these waves crossed the horizon during inflation. In this paper, we investigate this constraint by considering the general scenario for the early Universe: we assume that the effective (average) equation-of-state w before the big bang nucleosynthesis stage is a free parameter. In the standard hot big-bang scenario with w=1/3, we find that the current PPTA result follows a bound H{sub *{<=}}1.15x10{sup -1}m{sub Pl}, and the EPTA result follows H{sub *{<=}}6.92x10{sup -2}m{sub Pl}. We also find that these bounds become much tighter in the nonstandard scenarios with w>1/3. When w=1, the bounds become H{sub *{<=}}5.89x10{sup -3}m{sub Pl} for the current PPTA and H{sub *{<=}}3.39x10{sup -3}m{sub Pl} for the current EPTA. In contrast, in the nonstandard scenario with w=0, the bound becomes H{sub *{<=}}7.76m{sub Pl} for the current PPTA.

  12. An overview of the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) and its observations - New sky maps of the early universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smoot, George F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the three instruments aboard NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite and presents early results obtained from the first six months of observations. The three instruments (FIRAS, DMR, and DIRBE) have operated well and produced significant new results. The FIRAS measurement of the CMB spectrum supports the standard Big Bang model. The maps made from the DMR instrument measurements show a spatially smooth early universe. The maps of galactic and zodiacal emission produced by the DIRBE instrument are needed to identify the foreground emissions from extragalactic and thus to interpret its and the other COBE results in terms of events in the early universe.

  13. Increasing Accountability Measures for Early Childhood Teachers Using Evaluation Models: Observation, Feedback, and Self-Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinking, Anna Krummel

    2015-01-01

    President Barack Obama and U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan are promoting an early learning initiative focusing on the agenda of every four year old having equal access to high-quality early learning environments (Administration for Children and Families, 2013). One way the Federal government is supporting this proposal is through a grant;…

  14. On the utility of in situ soil moisture observations for flash drought early warning in Oklahoma, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Trent W.; McRoberts, D. Brent; Quiring, Steven M.; Hall, Ryann E.

    2015-11-01

    Drought early warning systems are a vital component of drought monitoring and require information at submonthly time scales because of the rapidly evolving nature of drought. This study evaluates the utility of in situ soil moisture observations for drought early warning in Oklahoma. Soil moisture was used to identify drought events, and the results were compared with the U.S. Drought Monitor with respect to the identification of drought onset. Soil moisture observations consistently identify rapid-onset (flash) drought events earlier than the U.S. Drought Monitor. Our results show that soil moisture percentiles provide a 2-3 week lead time over the U.S. Drought Monitor based on five flash drought events that occurred in Oklahoma between 2000 and 2013. We conclude that in situ soil moisture observations are an important source of information for early warning of flash drought events in the Oklahoma.

  15. Use of 13C NMR and ftir for elucidation of degradation pathways during natural litter decomposition and composting I. early stage leaf degradation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wershaw, R. L.; Leenheer, J.A.; Kennedy, K.R.; Noyes, T.I.

    1996-01-01

    Oxidative degradation of plant tissue leads to the formation of natural dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and humus. Infrared (IR) and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry have been used to elucidate the chemical reactions of the early stages of degradation that give rise to DOC derived from litter and compost. The results of this study indicate that oxidation of the lignin components of plant tissue follows the sequence of O-demethylation, and hydroxylation followed by ring-fission, chain-shortening, and oxidative removal of substituents. Oxidative ring-fission leads to the formation of carboxylic acid groups on the cleaved ends of the rings and, in the process, transforms phenolic groups into aliphatic alcoholic groups. The carbohydrate components are broken down into aliphatic hydroxy acids and aliphatic alcohols.

  16. Newly observed several peroxides from the gas phase ozonolysis of isoprene using a flow tube reactor and the water vapor effect on their formation and decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, D.; Chen, Z.; Zhao, Y.

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, one has been paying more and more attention to the formation of hydrogen peroxide and organic peroxides in the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) because peroxides play important roles, such as reservoir of OH, HO2 and RO2 radicals, intermediate of Criegee radical chemistry and contributor to secondary organic aerosol. However, to the best of our knowledge, in the reaction of ozone with VOCs, only several small peroxides such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxymethyl hydroperoxide (HMHP), and methyl hydroperoxide (MHP) were separately identified, and their yields varied widely between different studies. Moreover, the information on the formation mechanism of peroxides in the ozonolysis of VOCs was mostly from a speculation rather than experimental evidence. Notably, a static chamber was employed in most of the previous studies, potentially resulting in the decomposition and heterogeneous reaction of peroxides on the chamber walls within an experiment time of tens of minutes to several hours, and possibly missing the details about the generation of peroxides. In the present study, we have used a flow quartz tube reactor to investigate the formation of peroxides in the ozonolysis of isoprene at various relative humidities (RH). A variety of peroxides have been detected on the tens of seconds of time scale using an online high performance liquid chromatography coupled with post-column derivatization using p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and fluorescence detection. Our experimental results show that in addition to the three peroxides mentioned previously, more four ones, those are peroxyacetic acid (PAA) and three unknown peroxides, have been found. Furthermore, the total yield of the three small peroxides (H2O2, HMHP and MHP) is found to be similar to the result of literature; while for PAA and three unknown peroxides, they highlight a combined molar yield, for example, ~ 40% at 5% RH, much higher than that of the three small peroxides

  17. [Effects of elevated O3 on leaf litter decomposition and nutrient release of Quercus mongolica in city].

    PubMed

    Su, Li-li; Xu, Sheng; Fu, Wei; He, Xing-yuan; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Yi; Ping, Qin

    2016-02-01

    The leaf litters of 10-year-old Quercus mongolica were put in nylon bags and exposed to elevated 03 level (120 nmol . mol-1) with the control of 40 nmol . mol-1 in open top chambers (OTCs) for 150 days to test the effect of high O3 on the litter decomposition. The results showed that no significant difference was observed in residual mass between elevated O3 treatment and the control. Elevated 03 inhibited the release of C and K during the decomposition, the residual rate of K under elevated O3 treatment (23.9%) was significantly higher than that of the control (17.1%) after 150-day decomposition. Compared with the control, N mineralization and lignin degradation in elevated O3 treatment were inhibited during early period of decomposition (0-60 d), but were promoted in later period (90-150 d). The changes of lignin/N showed no significant difference between elevated O3 treatment and the control during the decomposition. Elevated O3 generally promoted the release of P in leaf litter of Q. mongolica during the decomposition. C/P ratio was higher under elevated 03 than that under control. Significant positive correlation was shown between residual dry mass of leaf litters and the residual rate of C, N, K, C/N ratio during decomposition. Elevated 03 might play an important role in the nutrient cycle of forest ecosystem in high-O3 pollution area. PMID:27396107

  18. Early results on 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko observed by Rosetta/OSIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierks, H.; Tubiana, C.; Snodgrass, C.; Agarwal, J.; Güttler, C.; Oklay, N.; Vincent, J.; Küppers, M.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P.; Rickman, H.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Hviid, S.; Mottola, S.; Osiris Team

    2014-07-01

    67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) is the target comet of the ESA Rosetta mission. Launched in 2004, the Rosetta spacecraft woke up on the 20th of January 2014. After 36 months of deep space hibernation, Rosetta is now traveling to rendezvous with the comet at 4.1 au from the Sun, and it will follow 67P along its orbit, investigating how the comet changes and evolves while approaching the Sun. The Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System OSIRIS (Keller et al., 2007) is the scientific imaging system onboard Rosetta. It comprises the Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) with wavelength range 250--1000 nm and the Wide Angle Camera (WAC) with wavelength range 240--720 nm. The NAC (FOV = 2.20×2.22 deg) is a system with high spatial resolution that allows an initial detection of the nucleus, studies its structure and rotation from relatively great distances, investigates the mineralogy of the surface, and studies the dust ejection processes. The WAC has much lower spatial resolution but, accordingly, a much wider field of view (about 11.35×12.11 deg). This allows observations of the 3-dimensional flow field of dust and gas near the nucleus and, in addition, provides a synoptic view of the whole nucleus. In summary, the WAC would provide long-term monitoring of the entire nucleus from close distances, while the NAC studies the details. The two camera units have been designed as a complementary pair, which, on one hand, addresses the study of the nucleus surface, and on the other hand, investigates the dynamics of the sublimation process. After commissioning in March 2014, OSIRIS took first images of comet 67P and its dust environment. Ground-based observations performed in 2007/08 when 67P was in the same orbital arc as it will be in March/April 2014, show that the comet was already active at 4.3 au inbound and that its behavior was repetitive during the last three apparitions (Snodgrass et al. 2013). We therefore expect to detect early comet activity by OSIRIS in

  19. Titan: Preliminary results on surface properties and photometry from VIMS observations of the early flybys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buratti, B.J.; Sotin, C.; Brown, R.H.; Hicks, M.D.; Clark, R.N.; Mosher, J.A.; McCord, T.B.; Jaumann, R.; Baines, K.H.; Nicholson, P.D.; Momary, T.; Simonelli, D.P.; Sicardy, B.

    2006-01-01

    Cassini observations of the surface of Titan offer unprecedented views of its surface through atmospheric windows in the 1-5 ??m region. Images obtained in windows for which the haze opacity is low can be used to derive quantitative photometric parameters such as albedo and albedo distribution, and physical properties such as roughness and particle characteristics. Images from the early Titan flybys, particularly T0, Ta, and T5 have been analyzed to create albedo maps in the 2.01 and 2.73 ??m windows. We find the average normal reflectance at these two wavelengths to be 0.15??0.02 and 0.035??0.003, respectively. Titan's surface is bifurcated into two albedo regimes, particularly at 2.01 ??m. Analysis of these two regimes to understand the physical character of the surface was accomplished with a macroscopic roughness model. We find that the two types of surface have substantially different roughness, with the low-albedo surface exhibiting mean slope angles of ???18??, and the high-albedo terrain having a much more substantial roughness with a mean slope angle of ???34??. A single-scattering phase function approximated by a one-term Henyey-Greenstein equation was also fit to each unit. Titan's surface is back-scattering (g???0.3-0.4), and does not exhibit substantially different backscattering behavior between the two terrains. Our results suggest that two distinct geophysical domains exist on Titan: a bright region cut by deep drainage channels and a relatively smooth surface. The two terrains are covered by a film or a coating of particles perhaps precipitated from the satellite's haze layer and transported by eolian processes. Our results are preliminary: more accurate values for the surface albedo and physical parameters will be derived as more data is gathered by the Cassini spacecraft and as a more complete radiative transfer model is developed from both Cassini orbiter and Huygens Lander measurements. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. “Triple positive” early breast cancer: an observational multicenter retrospective analysis of outcome

    PubMed Central

    Vici, Patrizia; Pizzuti, Laura; Sperduti, Isabella; Frassoldati, Antonio; Natoli, Clara; Gamucci, Teresa; Tomao, Silverio; Michelotti, Andrea; Moscetti, Luca; Gori, Stefania; Baldini, Editta; Giotta, Francesco; Cassano, Alessandra; Santini, Daniele; Giannarelli, Diana; Di Lauro, Luigi; Corsi, Domenico Cristiano; Marchetti, Paolo; Sini, Valentina; Sergi, Domenico; Barba, Maddalena; Maugeri-Saccà, Marcello; Russillo, Michelangelo; Mentuccia, Lucia; D'Onofrio, Loretta; Iezzi, Laura; Scinto, Angelo Fedele; Da Ros, Lucia; Bertolini, Ilaria; Basile, Maria Luisa; Rossi, Valentina; De Maria, Ruggero; Montemurro, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    We recently found that trastuzumab benefit may be lower in a small subset of early breast cancer (BC) patients (pts) with tumors expressing high levels of both hormonal receptors (HRs), i.e. triple positive (TP). To better investigate the role of HRs in HER2 positive BC, we retrospectively identified 872 TP BC pts treated with adjuvant chemotherapy alone (cohort A-366 pts), or plus trastuzumab (cohort B-506 pts). Relapse-free-survival (RFS) and breast-cancer-specific-survival (BCSS) were evaluated. Trastuzumab improved RFS and BCSS in all the subsets analyzed, but the effect on BCSS in tumors expressing both HRs in >30% of cells (TP30), and even on RFS in tumors with both HRs expressed in >50% of cells (TP50) was not significant. Distinct patterns of relapse were observed in TP50 and no-TP50 tumors, the former showing low and constant risk in the first 5 years, a late increase beyond 5 years and modest trastuzumab effect. Trastuzumab effect tended to disappear in pts whose tumors expressed ER in >50% of cells. Multivariate analysis of RFS confirmed a significant interaction between trastuzumab and ER expression, with benefit confined to pts whose tumors expressed ER in ≤50% of cells. Our data suggest that the pattern of relapse of TP tumors with high HRs is similar to that of “luminal”, HER2 negative tumors, without clear benefit from adjuvant trastuzumab, which remains the standard treatment even in TP tumors. Confirmatory findings on the extent to which quantitative expression of HRs may impact clinical behavior of HER2 positive BC are warranted. PMID:26910921

  1. Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, Robert R.; Vera-Ciro, Carlos; Murray, Claire E.; Stanimirović, Snežana; Babler, Brian; Heiles, Carl; Hennebelle, Patrick; Goss, W. M.; Dickey, John

    2015-04-01

    We present a new algorithm, named Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), for automatically decomposing spectra into Gaussian components. AGD uses derivative spectroscopy and machine learning to provide optimized guesses for the number of Gaussian components in the data, and also their locations, widths, and amplitudes. We test AGD and find that it produces results comparable to human-derived solutions on 21 cm absorption spectra from the 21 cm SPectral line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA (21-SPONGE) survey. We use AGD with Monte Carlo methods to derive the H i line completeness as a function of peak optical depth and velocity width for the 21-SPONGE data, and also show that the results of AGD are stable against varying observational noise intensity. The autonomy and computational efficiency of the method over traditional manual Gaussian fits allow for truly unbiased comparisons between observations and simulations, and for the ability to scale up and interpret the very large data volumes from the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and pathfinder telescopes.

  2. Highlights of early VIRTIS/ROSETTA observations: 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko seen from orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erard, Stéphane; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Filacchione, Gianricco; Arnold, Gabriele; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Capria, Teresa; DeSanctis, Maria Cristina; Leyrat, Cédric; Tosi, Federico; Drossart, Pierre; Ciarniello, Mauro; Raponi, Andrea; Quirico, Eric; Schmitt, Bernard

    2015-08-01

    VIRTIS is the imaging spectrometer of the Rosetta mission, devoted to remote sensing studies of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (1). The instrument is made of a mapping channel covering the 0.3-5 μm range at moderate spectral resolution (VIRTIS-M), and of a cross-dispersion spectrometer covering the 2-5um range with resolution ~3000 (VIRTIS-H). The most recent results will be presented at the meeting; early ones are discussed here.The nucleus is observed from a wide range of illumination conditions and spatial resolution (down to 2.5 m). Albedo, spectral parameters, and compositional maps have been derived for areas out of the polar night. The nucleus surface appears to be extremely homogeneous and dark. The inferred normal albedo is 0.060 ± 0.003 at 0.55 μm (2), with distinct spectral slopes in the VIS and IR regions (5-25 and 1.5-5 % kÅ-1 respectively). The main spectral feature is a ubiquitous absorption in the 2.9-3.6 μm range, consistent with non-volatile organic macromolecular materials (2,3). The most likely absorbents include carboxylic groups, alcoholic OH, and possibly NH4+ ions. However, the low albedo and marked slope suggest a mixture with opaque minerals (e.g. sulfides) or Fe-Ni alloys in the refractory crust. Ice is so far marginally detected in areas just emerging from shadow (4).The surface temperature is measured on the dayside as a function of local time and heliocentric distance. A maximum of 220K has been derived, with fast variations controlled by low thermal inertia. This is consistent with a surface covered by a porous crust, mainly devoid of water ice (5,6).Water vapor and carbon dioxide have been observed in the coma and their variability with altitude, geographic location and heliocentric distance has been studied. CO2/H2O ratio averages to 3-7%, but both species display different distributions. This suggests either different source regions, or seasonal variability (7).1- Coradini et al, SSR, 20072- Capaccioni et al., Science, 20153

  3. Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 Early Release Science: Emission-line Galaxies from Infrared Grism Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straughn, Amber N.; Kuntschner, Harald; Kümmel, Martin; Walsh, Jeremy R.; Cohen, Seth H.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Pirzkal, Norbert; Meurer, Gerhardt; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; Balick, Bruce; Bond, Howard E.; Calzetti, Daniela; Disney, Michael J.; Dopita, Michael A.; Frogel, Jay A.; Hall, Donald N. B.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Kimble, Randy A.; Mutchler, Max; Paresce, Francesco; Saha, Abhijit; Silk, Joseph I.; Trauger, John T.; Walker, Alistair R.; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Young, Erick T.; Xu, Chun

    2011-01-01

    We present grism spectra of emission-line galaxies (ELGs) from 0.6 to 1.6 μm from the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope. These new infrared grism data augment previous optical Advanced Camera for Surveys G800L 0.6-0.95 μm grism data in GOODS-South from the PEARS program, extending the wavelength coverage well past the G800L red cutoff. The Early Release Science (ERS) grism field was observed at a depth of two orbits per grism, yielding spectra of hundreds of faint objects, a subset of which is presented here. ELGs are studied via the Hα, [O III], and [O II] emission lines detected in the redshift ranges 0.2 <~ z <~ 1.4, 1.2 <~ z <~ 2.2, and 2.0 <~ z <~ 3.3, respectively, in the G102 (0.8-1.1 μm R ~= 210) and G141 (1.1-1.6 μm R ~= 130) grisms. The higher spectral resolution afforded by the WFC3 grisms also reveals emission lines not detectable with the G800L grism (e.g., [S II] and [S III] lines). From these relatively shallow observations, line luminosities, star formation rates, and grism spectroscopic redshifts are determined for a total of 48 ELGs to m AB(F098M) ~= 25 mag. Seventeen GOODS-South galaxies that previously only had photometric redshifts now have new grism-spectroscopic redshifts, in some cases with large corrections to the photometric redshifts (Δz ~= 0.3-0.5). Additionally, one galaxy had no previously measured redshift but now has a secure grism-spectroscopic redshift, for a total of 18 new GOODS-South spectroscopic redshifts. The faintest source in our sample has a magnitude m AB(F098M)= 26.9 mag. The ERS grism data also reflect the expected trend of lower specific star formation rates for the highest mass galaxies in the sample as a function of redshift, consistent with downsizing and discovered previously from large surveys. These results demonstrate the remarkable efficiency and capability of the WFC3 NIR grisms for measuring galaxy properties to faint magnitudes and redshifts to z >~ 2.

  4. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE WFC3 EARLY RELEASE SCIENCE: EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES FROM INFRARED GRISM OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Straughn, Amber N.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Kuntschner, Harald; Kuemmel, Martin; Walsh, Jeremy R.; Cohen, Seth H.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; O'Connell, Robert W.; Pirzkal, Norbert; Bond, Howard E.; Meurer, Gerhardt; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Balick, Bruce; Calzetti, Daniela; Disney, Michael J.; Dopita, Michael A.; Frogel, Jay A.

    2011-01-15

    We present grism spectra of emission-line galaxies (ELGs) from 0.6 to 1.6 {mu}m from the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope. These new infrared grism data augment previous optical Advanced Camera for Surveys G800L 0.6-0.95 {mu}m grism data in GOODS-South from the PEARS program, extending the wavelength coverage well past the G800L red cutoff. The Early Release Science (ERS) grism field was observed at a depth of two orbits per grism, yielding spectra of hundreds of faint objects, a subset of which is presented here. ELGs are studied via the H{alpha}, [O III], and [O II] emission lines detected in the redshift ranges 0.2 {approx}< z {approx}< 1.4, 1.2 {approx}< z {approx}< 2.2, and 2.0 {approx}< z {approx}< 3.3, respectively, in the G102 (0.8-1.1 {mu}m; R {approx_equal} 210) and G141 (1.1-1.6 {mu}m; R {approx_equal} 130) grisms. The higher spectral resolution afforded by the WFC3 grisms also reveals emission lines not detectable with the G800L grism (e.g., [S II] and [S III] lines). From these relatively shallow observations, line luminosities, star formation rates, and grism spectroscopic redshifts are determined for a total of 48 ELGs to m A{sub B(F098M)} {approx_equal} 25 mag. Seventeen GOODS-South galaxies that previously only had photometric redshifts now have new grism-spectroscopic redshifts, in some cases with large corrections to the photometric redshifts ({Delta}z {approx_equal} 0.3-0.5). Additionally, one galaxy had no previously measured redshift but now has a secure grism-spectroscopic redshift, for a total of 18 new GOODS-South spectroscopic redshifts. The faintest source in our sample has a magnitude m{sub AB(F098M)}= 26.9 mag. The ERS grism data also reflect the expected trend of lower specific star formation rates for the highest mass galaxies in the sample as a function of redshift, consistent with downsizing and discovered previously from large surveys. These results demonstrate the remarkable efficiency and capability of the

  5. Early-Time Observations of GRBs afterglow with 2-m Robotic Telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Melandri, A.; Mundell, C. G.; Steele, I. A.; Carter, D.; Kobayashi, S.; Bersier, D.; Bode, M. F.; Mottram, C. J.; Smith, R. J.; Gomboc, A.; Guidorzi, C.; Monfardini, A.

    2007-08-21

    In the era of rapid and accurate localisation of Gamma Ray Bursts by the Swift satellite, high quality early time multi-wavelength light curves, obtained by space and ground-based robotic telescopes, have shown that the standard 'smooth temporal power law decays' typical of late-time afterglow emission can be substantially modified at early times by e.g. energy injection from long-lived central engines, and/or interactions between the ejecta and clumps in the surrounding circumburst medium. Well-sampled optical light curves (covering a wide range in time, brightness and redshift) together with early-time polarimetry provide a powerful probe of the physics of GRBs, their ejecta and their environments. Here we summarise the GRB followup programme being conducted on a network of the world's three largest robotic telescopes that aims to obtain early-time multicolour photometric and polarimetric measurements crucial for the understanding of GRB physics.

  6. Methanethiol decomposition on Ni(100)

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, M.E.; Ahkter, S.; Golchet, A.; White, J.M. ); Sahin, T. )

    1991-01-01

    Static secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SSIMS), temperature programmed desorption (TPD), and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) were used under ultrahigh vacuum conditions to study the decomposition of CH{sub 3}SH on Ni(100). Only methane, hydrogen, and the parent molecule are observed in TPD. Complete decomposition to C(a), S(a) and desorbing H{sub 2} is the preferred reaction pathway for low exposures, while desorption of methane is observed at higher coverages. Preadsorbed hydrogen promoted methane desorption. Upon adsorption, and for low coverages, SSIMS evidence indicates S-H bond cleavage into CH{sub 3}S and surface hydrogen. S-H bond cleavage is inhibited for high coverages. The TP-SSIMS data are consistent with an activated C-S bond cleavage in CH{sub 3}S, with an activation energy of 8.81 kcal/mol and preexponential factor of 10{sup 6.5}s{sup {minus}1}. The low preexponential factor is taken as indicating a complex decomposition pathway. A mechanism consistent with the observed data is discussed.

  7. Simulated NASA Satellite Data Products for the NOAA Integrated Coral Reef Observation Network/Coral Reef Early Warning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estep, Leland; Spruce, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    This RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) experiment will demonstrate the use of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) and LDCM (Landsat Data Continuity Mission) sensor data as significant input to the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) ICON/ CREWS (Integrated Coral Reef Observation System/Coral Reef Early Warning System). The project affects the Coastal Management Program Element of the Applied Sciences Program.

  8. Conflict Resolution and Children's Behaviour: Observing and Understanding Social and Cooperative Play in Early Years Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadhead, Pat

    2009-01-01

    This paper draws from continuing research into the growth of sociability and cooperation in young children. It began in the mid-1980s and has continued periodically in a range of early years educational settings across the 3-6 age range. The research has underpinned the development of an observational tool. This tool--the Social Play Continuum or…

  9. Parenting and the Family Check-Up: Changes in Observed Parent-Child Interaction Following Early Childhood Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Sitnick, Stephanie L.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Gill, Anne; Dishion, Thomas; Winter, Charlotte; Waller, Rebecca; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin

    2016-01-01

    Coercion theory posits a cyclical relationship between harsh and coercive parent–child interactions and problem behavior beginning in early childhood. As coercive interactions have been theorized and found to facilitate the development and growth of early conduct problems, early interventions often target parenting to prevent or reduce early disruptive problem behavior. This study utilizes direct observations of parent–child interactions from the Early Steps Multisite study (N = 731; 369 boys) to examine the effect of the Family Check-Up, a family-centered intervention program, on measures of parent–child positive engagement and coercion from age 2 through 5, as well as on childhood problem behavior at age 5. Results indicate that high levels of parent–child positive engagement were associated with less parent–child coercion the following year, but dyadic coercion was unrelated to future levels of positive engagement. In addition, families assigned to the Family Check-Up showed increased levels of positive engagement at ages 3 and 5, and the association between positive engagement at age 3 and child problem behavior at age 5 was mediated by reductions in parent–child coercion at age 4. These findings provide longitudinal confirmation that increasing positive engagement in parent–child interaction can reduce the likelihood of coercive family dynamics in early childhood and growth in problem behavior. PMID:25133754

  10. Nucleon spin decomposition and orbital angular momentum in the nucleon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakamatsu, Masashi

    2014-09-01

    To get a complete decomposition of nucleon spin is a fundamentally important homework of QCD. In fact, if our researches end up without accomplishing this task, a tremendous efforts since the 1st discovery of the nucleon spin crisis would end in the air. We now have a general agreement that there are at least two physically inequivalent gauge-invariant decompositions of the nucleon. In these two decompositions, the intrinsic spin parts of quarks and gluons are just common. What discriminate these two decompositions are the orbital angular momentum (OAM) parts. The OAMs of quarks and gluons appearing in the first decomposition are the so-called ``mechanical'' OAMs, while those appearing in the second decomposition are the generalized (gauge-invariant) ``canonical'' ones. By this reason, these decompositions are broadly called the ``mechanical'' and ``canonical'' decompositions of the nucleon spin. Still, there remains several issues, which have not reached a complete consensus among the experts. (See the latest recent). In the present talk, I will mainly concentrate on the practically most important issue, i.e. which decomposition is more favorable from the observational viewpoint. There are two often-claimed advantages of canonical decomposition. First, each piece of this decomposition satisfies the SU(2) commutation relation or angular momentum algebra. Second, the canonical OAM rather than the mechanical OAM is compatible with free partonic picture of constituent orbital motion. In the present talk, I will show that both these claims are not necessarily true, and push forward a viewpoint that the ``mechanical'' decomposition is more physical in that it has more direct connection with observables. I also emphasize that the nucleon spin decomposition accessed by the lattice QCD analyses is the ``mechanical'' decomposition not the ``canonical'' one. The recent lattice QCD studies of the nucleon spin decomposition are also briefly overviewed.

  11. Thermal Decomposition Mechanism of Butyraldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatten, Courtney D.; Warner, Brian; Wright, Emily; Kaskey, Kevin; McCunn, Laura R.

    2013-06-01

    The thermal decomposition of butyraldehyde, CH_3CH_2CH_2C(O)H, has been studied in a resistively heated SiC tubular reactor. Products of pyrolysis were identified via matrix-isolation FTIR spectroscopy and photoionization mass spectrometry in separate experiments. Carbon monoxide, ethene, acetylene, water and ethylketene were among the products detected. To unravel the mechanism of decomposition, pyrolysis of a partially deuterated sample of butyraldehyde was studied. Also, the concentration of butyraldehyde in the carrier gas was varied in experiments to determine the presence of bimolecular reactions. The results of these experiments can be compared to the dissociation pathways observed in similar aldehydes and are relevant to the processing of biomass, foods, and tobacco.

  12. Monitoring Classroom Behavior in Early Childhood: Using Group Observation Data to Make Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krasch, Delilah; Carter, Deborah Russell

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluating classroom behavior in early childhood for the purpose of improving teaching and learning is critical. There is a clear link between social behavior and academic learning. Classrooms where students are following expectations, engaging academically, and transitioning effectively between activities are classrooms where…

  13. Thermal decomposition of allylbenzene ozonide

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, J.C.; Church, D.F.; Pryor, W.A. )

    1989-07-19

    Thermal decomposition of allylbenzene ozonide (ABO) at 98{degree}C in the liquid phase yields toluene, bibenzyl, phenylacetaldehyde, formic acid, and (benzyloxy)methyl formate as major products; benzyl chloride is formed when chlorinated solvents are employed. These products, as well as benzyl formate, are formed when ABO is decomposed at 37{degree}C. When the decomposition of ABO is carried out in the presence of 1-butanethiol, the product distribution changes: yields of toluene increase, no bibenzyl is formed, and decreases in yields of (benzyloxy)methyl formate, phenylacetladehyde, and benzyl chloride are observed. The decomposition of 1-octene ozonide (OTO) also was studied for comparison. The activation parameters for both ABO and OTO are similar (28.2 kcal/mol, log A = 13.6 and 26.6 kcal/mol, log A = 12.5, respectively); these data suggest that ozonides decompose by homolysis of the O-O bond, rather than by an alternative synchronous two-bond scission process. When ABO is decomposed at 37{degree}C in the presence of the spin traps 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) or 3,3,5,5-tetramethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (M{sub 4}PO), ESR signals are observed that are consistent with the trapping of benzyl and other carbon- and oxygen-centered radicals. A mechanism for the thermal decomposition of ABO that involves peroxide bond homolysis and subsequent {beta}-scission is proposed. Thus, Criegee ozonides decompose to give free radicals at quite modest temperatures.

  14. The potential role of real-time geodetic observations in tsunami early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinti, Stefano; Armigliato, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Tsunami warning systems (TWS) have the final goal to launch a reliable alert of an incoming dangerous tsunami to coastal population early enough to allow people to flee from the shore and coastal areas according to some evacuation plans. In the last decade, especially after the catastrophic 2004 Boxing Day tsunami in the Indian Ocean, much attention has been given to filling gaps in the existing TWSs (only covering the Pacific Ocean at that time) and to establishing new TWSs in ocean regions that were uncovered. Typically, TWSs operating today work only on earthquake-induced tsunamis. TWSs estimate quickly earthquake location and size by real-time processing seismic signals; on the basis of some pre-defined "static" procedures (either based on decision matrices or on pre-archived tsunami simulations), assess the tsunami alert level on a large regional scale and issue specific bulletins to a pre-selected recipients audience. Not unfrequently these procedures result in generic alert messages with little value. What usually operative TWSs do not do, is to compute earthquake focal mechanism, to calculate the co-seismic sea-floor displacement, to assess the initial tsunami conditions, to input these data into tsunami simulation models and to compute tsunami propagation up to the threatened coastal districts. This series of steps is considered nowadays too time consuming to provide the required timely alert. An equivalent series of steps could start from the same premises (earthquake focal parameters) and reach the same result (tsunami height at target coastal areas) by replacing the intermediate steps of real-time tsunami simulations with proper selection from a large archive of pre-computed tsunami scenarios. The advantage of real-time simulations and of archived scenarios selection is that estimates are tailored to the specific occurring tsunami and alert can be more detailed (less generic) and appropriate for local needs. Both these procedures are still at an

  15. Temporal dynamics of biotic and abiotic drivers of litter decomposition.

    PubMed

    García-Palacios, Pablo; Shaw, E Ashley; Wall, Diana H; Hättenschwiler, Stephan

    2016-05-01

    Climate, litter quality and decomposers drive litter decomposition. However, little is known about whether their relative contribution changes at different decomposition stages. To fill this gap, we evaluated the relative importance of leaf litter polyphenols, decomposer communities and soil moisture for litter C and N loss at different stages throughout the decomposition process. Although both microbial and nematode communities regulated litter C and N loss in the early decomposition stages, soil moisture and legacy effects of initial differences in litter quality played a major role in the late stages of the process. Our results provide strong evidence for substantial shifts in how biotic and abiotic factors control litter C and N dynamics during decomposition. Taking into account such temporal dynamics will increase the predictive power of decomposition models that are currently limited by a single-pool approach applying control variables uniformly to the entire decay process. PMID:26947573

  16. On the Helmert-blocking technique: its acceleration by block Choleski decomposition and formulae to insert observations into an adjusted network.

    PubMed

    Del Rio, Eduardo; Oliveira, Leonardo

    2015-04-01

    The Helmert-blocking technique is a common approach to adjust large geodetic networks like Europeans and Brazilians. The technique is based upon a division of the network into partial networks called blocks. This way, the global network adjustment can be done by manipulating these blocks. Here we show alternatives to solve the block system that arises from the application of the technique. We show an alternative that optimizes its implementation as the elapsed processing time is decreased by about 33%. We also show that to insert observations into an adjusted network it is not necessary to readjust the whole network. We show the formulae to insert new observations into an adjusted network that are more efficient than simply readjusting the whole new network. PMID:26064634

  17. On the Helmert-blocking technique: its acceleration by block Choleski decomposition and formulae to insert observations into an adjusted network

    PubMed Central

    Del Rio, Eduardo; Oliveira, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    The Helmert-blocking technique is a common approach to adjust large geodetic networks like Europeans and Brazilians. The technique is based upon a division of the network into partial networks called blocks. This way, the global network adjustment can be done by manipulating these blocks. Here we show alternatives to solve the block system that arises from the application of the technique. We show an alternative that optimizes its implementation as the elapsed processing time is decreased by about 33%. We also show that to insert observations into an adjusted network it is not necessary to readjust the whole network. We show the formulae to insert new observations into an adjusted network that are more efficient than simply readjusting the whole new network. PMID:26064634

  18. In situ dynamics of microbial communities during decomposition of wheat, rape, and alfalfa residues.

    PubMed

    Pascault, Noémie; Cécillon, Lauric; Mathieu, Olivier; Hénault, Catherine; Sarr, Amadou; Lévêque, Jean; Farcy, Pascal; Ranjard, Lionel; Maron, Pierre-Alain

    2010-11-01

    Microbial communities are of major importance in the decomposition of soil organic matter. However, the identities and dynamics of the populations involved are still poorly documented. We investigated, in an 11-month field experiment, how the initial biochemical quality of crop residues could lead to specific decomposition patterns, linking biochemical changes undergone by the crop residues to the respiration, biomass, and genetic structure of the soil microbial communities. Wheat, alfalfa, and rape residues were incorporated into the 0-15 cm layer of the soil of field plots by tilling. Biochemical changes in the residues occurring during degradation were assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy. Qualitative modifications in the genetic structure of the bacterial communities were determined by bacterial-automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis. Bacterial diversity in the three crop residues at early and late stages of decomposition process was further analyzed from a molecular inventory of the 16S rDNA. The decomposition of plant residues in croplands was shown to involve specific biochemical characteristics and microbial community dynamics which were clearly related to the quality of the organic inputs. Decay stage and seasonal shifts occurred by replacement of copiotrophic bacterial groups such as proteobacteria successful on younger residues with those successful on more extensively decayed material such as Actinobacteria. However, relative abundance of proteobacteria depended greatly on the composition of the residues, with a gradient observed from alfalfa to wheat, suggesting that this bacterial group may represent a good indicator of crop residues degradability and modifications during the decomposition process. PMID:20593174

  19. Orthogonal tensor decompositions

    SciTech Connect

    Tamara G. Kolda

    2000-03-01

    The authors explore the orthogonal decomposition of tensors (also known as multi-dimensional arrays or n-way arrays) using two different definitions of orthogonality. They present numerous examples to illustrate the difficulties in understanding such decompositions. They conclude with a counterexample to a tensor extension of the Eckart-Young SVD approximation theorem by Leibovici and Sabatier [Linear Algebra Appl. 269(1998):307--329].

  20. Observations of two ``millimetre-only'' cores as candidates for early high-mass star-forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balnozan, Egon; Lo, Nadia; Jones, Paul; Cunningham, Maria; Hill, Tracey; Bronfman, Leonardo

    2013-04-01

    We wish to image at high spectral resolution two “millimetre-only” sources from a subset of 10 identified by Hill et al. (2005) in a 1.2-mm continuum survey. These very bright mm-only sources (also featuring strong NH3 emission) are believed to be excellent candidates for early-stage protostars (C2102-2009JULS) through their characteristic similarity to known massive star-forming sources, despite lacking typical features of massive star formation such as methanol masers and radio continuum. We present evidence of methanol emission in these sources from a recent spectral analysis, along with other molecular species indicative of very early-stage star-formation in cores featuring outflows but devoid of HII regions. High-resolution observations are critical in discriminating between maser and thermal methanol line emission mechanisms that can distinguish between early-stage massive star formation and lower-mass objects. These observations will allow us to quantify the frequency, spatial position and scale of molecular emission to further understanding of the chemistry that distinguishes between low and high-mass star formation, investigate the possible relation between mm-only radio sources and massive protostars, while also gathering data relevant to creating chemical timelines of their early evolution.

  1. The Stone Cold Truth: The Effect of Concrete Encasement on the Rate and Pattern of Soft Tissue Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Martin, D C; Dabbs, Gretchen R; Roberts, Lindsey G; Cleary, Megan K

    2016-03-01

    This study provides a descriptive analysis of taphonomic changes observed in the soft tissue of ten pigs (Sus scrofa) after being encased in Quickrete (®) concrete and excavated at monthly or bimonthly intervals over the course of 2 years. The best method of subject excavation was investigated. Rate and pattern of decomposition were compared to a nonencased control subject. Results demonstrate subjects interred in concrete decomposed significantly slower than the control subject (p < 0.01), the difference being observable after 1 month. After 1 year, the encased subject was in the early stage of decomposition with purging fluids and intact organs present, versus complete skeletonization of the control subject. Concrete subjects also display a unique decomposition pattern, exhibiting a chemically burned outer layer of skin and a common separation of the dermal and epidermal layers. Results suggest using traditional methods to estimate postmortem interval on concrete subjects may result in underestimation. PMID:27404603

  2. Early-time VLA Observations and Broadband Afterglow Analysis of the Fermi/LAT Detected GRB 130907A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veres, Péter; Corsi, Alessandra; Frail, Dale A.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Perley, Daniel A.

    2015-09-01

    We present multi-wavelength observations of the hyper-energetic gamma-ray burst (GRB) 130907A, a Swift-discovered burst with early radio observations starting at ≈4 hr after the γ-ray trigger. GRB 130907A was also detected by the Fermi/LAT instrument and at late times showed a strong spectral evolution in X-rays. We focus on the early-time radio observations, especially at >10 GHz, to attempt to identify reverse shock signatures. While our radio follow-up of GRB 130907A ranks among the earliest observations of a GRB with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, we did not see an unambiguous signature of a reverse shock. While a model with both reverse and forward shock can correctly describe the observations, the data is not constraining enough to decide upon the presence of the reverse-shock component. We model the broadband data using a simple forward-shock synchrotron scenario with a transition from a wind environment to a constant density interstellar medium (ISM) in order to account for the observed features. Within the confines of this model, we also derive the underlying physical parameters of the fireball, which are within typical ranges except for the wind density parameter (A*), which is higher than those for bursts with wind-ISM transition, but typical for the general population of bursts. We note the importance of early-time radio observations of the afterglow (and of well-sampled light curves) for unambiguously identifying the potential contribution of the reverse shock.

  3. Thermal decomposition mechanism of disilane.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kazumasa; Matsumoto, Keiji; Oguchi, Tatsuo; Tonokura, Kenichi; Koshi, Mitsuo

    2006-04-13

    Thermal decomposition of disilane was investigated using time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry coupled with vacuum ultraviolet single-photon ionization (VUV-SPI) at a temperature range of 675-740 K and total pressure of 20-40 Torr. Si(n)H(m) species were photoionized by VUV radiation at 10.5 eV (118 nm). Concentrations of disilane and trisilane during thermal decomposition of disilane were quantitatively measured using the VUV-SPI method. Formation of Si(2)H(4) species was also examined. On the basis of pressure-dependent rate constants of disilane dissociation reported by Matsumoto et al. [J. Phys. Chem. A 2005, 109, 4911], kinetic simulation including gas-phase and surface reactions was performed to analyze thermal decomposition mechanisms of disilane. The branching ratio for (R1) Si(2)H(6) --> SiH(4) + SiH(2)/(R2) Si(2)H(6) --> H(2) + H(3)SiSiH was derived by the pressure-dependent rate constants. Temperature and reaction time dependences of disilane loss and formation of trisilane were well represented by the kinetic simulation. Comparison between the experimental results and the kinetic simulation results suggested that about 70% of consumed disilane was converted to trisilane, which was observed as one of the main reaction products under the present experimental conditions. PMID:16599440

  4. Systematic Observation of Early Adolescents in Educational Settings: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Anne; Mikami, Amori Yee

    2015-01-01

    The growing use of systematic, empirically tested observational frameworks in school-based research is crucial for increasing the replicability and generalizability of findings across settings. That said, observations are often mistakenly assumed to be the "gold standard" assessment, without more nuanced discussions about the best uses…

  5. EXCESS OPTICAL ENHANCEMENT OBSERVED WITH ARCONS FOR EARLY CRAB GIANT PULSES

    SciTech Connect

    Strader, M. J.; Mazin, B. A.; Spiro Jaeger, G. V.; Gwinn, C. R.; Meeker, S. R.; Szypryt, P.; Van Eyken, J. C.; Marsden, D.; Walter, A. B.; Ulbricht, G.; Johnson, M. D.; O'Brien, K.; Stoughton, C.; Bumble, B.

    2013-12-10

    We observe an extraordinary link in the Crab pulsar between the enhancement of an optical pulse and the timing of the corresponding giant radio pulse. At optical through infrared wavelengths, our observations use the high time resolution of ARray Camera for Optical to Near-IR Spectrophotometry, a unique superconducting energy-resolving photon-counting array at the Palomar 200 inch telescope. At radio wavelengths, we observe with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope and the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument backend. We see an 11.3% ± 2.5% increase in peak optical flux for pulses that have an accompanying giant radio pulse arriving near the peak of the optical main pulse, in contrast to a 3.2% ± 0.5% increase when an accompanying giant radio pulse arrives soon after the optical peak. We also observe that the peak of the optical main pulse is 2.8% ± 0.8% enhanced when there is a giant radio pulse accompanying the optical interpulse. We observe no statistically significant spectral differences between optical pulses accompanied by and not accompanied by giant radio pulses. Our results extend previous observations of optical-radio correlation to the time and spectral domains. Our refined temporal correlation suggests that optical and radio emission are indeed causally linked, and the lack of spectral differences suggests that the same mechanism is responsible for all optical emission.

  6. Early-time Observations of Gamma-ray Burst Error Boxes with the Livermore Optical Transient Imaging System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, George Grant

    2000-08-01

    Approximately three times per day a bright flash of high energy radiation from the depths of the universe encounters the Earth. These gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) were discovered circa 1970 yet their origin remains a mystery. Traditional astronomical observations of GRBs are hindered by their transient nature. They have durations of only a few seconds and occur at random times from unpredictable directions. In recent years, precise GRB localizations and rapid coordinate dissemination have permitted sensitive follow-up observations. These observations resulted in the identification of long wavelength counterparts within distant galaxies. Despite the wealth of data now available the physical mechanism which produces these extremely energetic phenomena is still unknown. In the near future, simultaneous and early-time optical observations of GRBs will aid in constraining the theoretical models. The Livermore Optical Transient Imaging System (LOTIS) is an automated robotic wide field-of-view telescope dedicated to the search for prompt and early-time optical emission from GRBs. Since routine operations began in October 1996 LOTIS has responded to over 145 GRB triggers. LOTIS has not yet detected optical emission from a GRB but upper limits provided by the telescope constrain the theoretical emission mechanisms. Super-LOTIS, also a robotic wide field-of-view telescope, is 100 times more sensitive than LOTIS. Routine observations from Steward Observatory's Kitt Peak Station will begin in the immediate future. During engineering test runs Super-LOTIS obtained its first upper limit on the early-time optical afterglow of GRBs. An overview of the history and current state of GRBs is presented. Theoretical models are reviewed briefly. The LOTIS and Super-LOTIS hardware and operating procedures are discussed. A summary of the results from both LOTIS and Super-LOTIS and an interpretation of those results is presented. Plans for future studies with both systems are briefly stated.

  7. UIT Observations of Early-Type Galaxies and Analysis of the FUSE Spectrum of a Subdwarf B Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohl, Raymond G.; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This work covers Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) observations of early-type galaxies (155 nm) and Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectra of a Galactic subdwarf B star (sdB). Early UV space astronomy missions revealed that early-type galaxies harbor a population of stars with effective temperatures greater than that of the main sequence turn-off (about 6,000 K) and UV emission that is very sensitive to characteristics of the stellar population. We present UV (155 nm) surface photometry and UV-B color profiles for 8 E and SO galaxies observed by UIT. Some objects have de Vaucouleurs surface brightness profiles, while others have disk-like profiles, but we find no other evidence for the presence of a disk or young, massive stars. There is a wide range of UV-B color gradients, but there is no correlation with metallicity gradients. SdB stars are the leading candidate UV emitters in old, high metallicity stellar populations (e.g., early-type galaxies). We observed the Galactic sdB star PG0749+658 with FUSE and derived abundances with the aim of constraining models of the heavy element distribution in sdB atmospheres. All of the elements measured are depleted with respect to solar, except for Cr and Mn, which are about solar, and Ni, which is enhanced. This work was supported in part by NASA grants NAG5-700 and NAG5-6403 to the University of Virginia and NAS5-32985 to Johns Hopkins University.

  8. Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (uffo) for Observation of Early Photons from Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, I. H.; Ahmad, S.; Barrillon, P.; Brandt, S.; Budtz-Jorgensen, C.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Chen, P.; Choi, Y. J.; Connell, P.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Eyles, C.; Grossan, B.; Huang, M.-H. A.; Jung, A.; Jeong, S.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. B.; Kim, S.-W.; Kim, Y. W.; Krasnov, A. S.; Lee1, J.; Lim, H.; Linder, E. V.; Liu, T.-C.; Lund, N.; Min, K. W.; Na, G. W.; Nam, J. W.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Ripa, J.; Reglero, V.; Rodrigo, J. M.; Smoot, G. F.; Suh, J. E.; Svertilov, S.; Vedenkin, N.; Wang, M.-Z.; Yashin, I.

    2013-12-01

    One of the least documented and understood aspects of gamma-ray bursts (GRB) is the rise phase of the optical light curve. The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) is an effort to address this question through extraordinary opportunities presented by a series of space missions including a small spacecraft observatory. The UFFO is equipped with a fast-response Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT) which uses rapidly moving mirror or mirror arrays to redirect the optical beam rather than slewing the entire spacecraft to aim the optical instrument at the GRB position. The UFFO will probe the early optical rise of GRBs with a sub-second response, for the first time, opening a completely new frontier in GRB and transient studies, the only GRB system which can point and measure on these time scales. Its fast response measurements of the optical emission of dozens of GRB each year will provide unique probes of the burst mechanism, shock breakouts in core-collapse supernovae, tidal disruptions around black holes, test Lorentz violation, be the electromagnetic counterpart to neutrino and gravitational wave signatures of the violent universe, and verify the prospect of GRB as a new standard candle potentially opening up the z>10 universe. As a first step, we employ a motorized slewing stage in SMT which can point to the event within 1s after X-ray trigger, in the UFFO-pathfinder payload onboard the Lomonosov satellite to be launched in 2012. The pathfinder was a small and limited, yet remarkably powerful micro-observatory for rapid optical response to bright gamma-ray bursts, the first part of our GRB and rapid-response long-term program. We describe the early photon science, the space mission of UFFO-pathfinder, and our plan for the next step.

  9. TEST FUSION IN ADULT FORAMINIFERA: A REVIEW WITH NEW OBSERVATIONS OF AN EARLY EOCENE NUMMULITES SPECIMEN

    PubMed Central

    Ferràndez-Cañadell, Carles; Briguglio, Antonino; Hohenegger, Johann; Wöger, Julia

    2015-01-01

    In foraminifera, so-called “double tests” usually arise due to abnormal growth originating mainly from twinning, but may also be caused by irregularities in the early chambers and by regeneration after test injury that modifies the direction of growth. A fourth cause of double tests has only rarely been reported: the fusion of the tests of two adult individuals. We studied an early Eocene Nummulites double test consisting of two adult individuals that fused after an extended period of independent growth. The specimen was studied using computed tomography with micrometric resolution (micro-CT) that allowed bi- and three-dimensional visualization of the internal structure. Before fusion each individual test had 30–36 chambers, which, by comparison with growth rates in recent nummulitids, implies at least three months of independent growth. After fusion, the compound test grew in two spirals that fused after about one whorl and then continued in a single spiral. To fuse their tests, either adult individuals have to be forced to do so or the allorecognition (ability to distinguish between self and another individual) mechanisms must fail. A possible explanation for the merged Nummulites tests in this study is forced fusion in attached individuals after surviving ingestion and digestion by a metazoan. Alternatively, environmental stress could lead to a failure of allorecognition mechanisms and/or foraminiferal motility. Once fused, subsequent growth seems to be determined mainly by the relative orientation of individual tests. In any case, the frequency in which adult fusion occurs remains unknown. PMID:26166916

  10. Mid-Infrared Observational and Theoretical Studies of Star Formation and Early Solar Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Barbara

    1997-01-01

    The first 2 years of this program were used to make mid-IR observations of regions of star formation in the Orion nebula with the UCSD mid-IR camera at the UCSD/University of Minnesota telescope at Mt. Lemmon. These observations attempted to make the first systematic study of an extended region, known to have newly forming stars, and expected to have complex mid-IR emission. We discovered, to our surprise, that most of the thermal emission originated from extended sources rather than from point sources. This interesting observation made the analysis of the data much more complex, since the chop/nod procedures used at these wavelengths produce a differential measurement of the emission in one region compared to that in the adjacent region. Disentangling complex extended emission in such a situation is very difficult. In parallel with this work we were also observing comets in the thermal infrared, the other component of the original proposal. Some spectacular data on the comet Swift-Tuttle was acquired and published. A changing jet structure observed over a 2 week period is described. The rotation period of the comet can be measured at 66 hours. The size of the nucleus can also be estimated (at 30 km) from the observed excess flux from the nucleus. These data have lead to the development of models describing the action of dust particles of differing sizes and composition leaving the nucleus. The spatial distribution of the predicted IR emission has been compared to the observed jet structures, leading to estimates of both particles sizes, relative amounts of silicate vs organic grains, and the amounts of dust emitted in the jets vs isotopic emission.

  11. Decomposing Nekrasov decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, A.; Zenkevich, Y.

    2016-02-01

    AGT relations imply that the four-point conformal block admits a decomposition into a sum over pairs of Young diagrams of essentially rational Nekrasov functions — this is immediately seen when conformal block is represented in the form of a matrix model. However, the q-deformation of the same block has a deeper decomposition — into a sum over a quadruple of Young diagrams of a product of four topological vertices. We analyze the interplay between these two decompositions, their properties and their generalization to multi-point conformal blocks. In the latter case we explain how Dotsenko-Fateev all-with-all (star) pair "interaction" is reduced to the quiver model nearest-neighbor (chain) one. We give new identities for q-Selberg averages of pairs of generalized Macdonald polynomials. We also translate the slicing invariance of refined topological strings into the language of conformal blocks and interpret it as abelianization of generalized Macdonald polynomials.

  12. Early-time observations of gamma-ray burst error boxes with the Livermore optical transient imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, G G

    2000-08-01

    Despite the enormous wealth of gamma-ray burst (GRB) data collected over the past several years the physical mechanism which causes these extremely powerful phenomena is still unknown. Simultaneous and early time optical observations of GRBs will likely make an great contribution t o our understanding. LOTIS is a robotic wide field-of-view telescope dedicated to the search for prompt and early-time optical afterglows from gamma-ray bursts. LOTIS began routine operations in October 1996 and since that time has responded to over 145 gamma-ray burst triggers. Although LOTIS has not yet detected prompt optical emission from a GRB its upper limits have provided constraints on the theoretical emission mechanisms. Super-LOTIS, also a robotic wide field-of-view telescope, can detect emission 100 times fainter than LOTIS is capable of detecting. Routine observations from Steward Observatory's Kitt Peak Station will begin in the immediate future. During engineering test runs under bright skies from the grounds of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Super-LOTIS provided its first upper limits on the early-time optical afterglow of GRBs. This dissertation provides a summary of the results from LOTIS and Super-LOTIS through the time of writing. Plans for future studies with both systems are also presented.

  13. The Observed State of the Water Cycle in the Early Twenty-First Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, M.; Beaudoing, H. K.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Olson, W. S.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Houser, P. R.; Adler, R.; Bosilovich, M. G.; Clayson, C. A.; Chambers, D.; Clark, E.; Fetzer, Eric J.; Gao, X.; Gu, G.; Hilburn, K.; Huffman, G. J.; Lettenmier, D. P.; Liu, W. T.; Robertson, F. R.; Schlosser, C. A.; Sheffield, J.; Wood, E. F.

    2015-01-01

    This study quantifies mean annual and monthly fluxes of Earth's water cycle over continents and ocean basins during the first decade of the millennium. To the extent possible, the flux estimates are based on satellite measurements first and data-integrating models second. A careful accounting of uncertainty in the estimates is included. It is applied within a routine that enforces multiple water and energy budget constraints simultaneously in a variational framework in order to produce objectively determined optimized flux estimates. In the majority of cases, the observed annual surface and atmospheric water budgets over the continents and oceans close with much less than 10% residual. Observed residuals and optimized uncertainty estimates are considerably larger for monthly surface and atmospheric water budget closure, often nearing or exceeding 20% in North America, Eurasia, Australia and neighboring islands, and the Arctic and South Atlantic Oceans. The residuals in South America and Africa tend to be smaller, possibly because cold land processes are negligible. Fluxes were poorly observed over the Arctic Ocean, certain seas, Antarctica, and the Australasian and Indonesian islands, leading to reliance on atmospheric analysis estimates. Many of the satellite systems that contributed data have been or will soon be lost or replaced. Models that integrate ground-based and remote observations will be critical for ameliorating gaps and discontinuities in the data records caused by these transitions. Continued development of such models is essential for maximizing the value of the observations. Next-generation observing systems are the best hope for significantly improving global water budget accounting.

  14. Swift and Fermi Observations of the Early Afterglow of the Short Gamma-Ray Burst 090510

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pasquale, M.; Schady, P.; Kuin, N. P. M.; Page, M. J.; Curran, P. A.; Zane, S.; Oates, S. R.; Holland, S. T.; Breeveld, A. A.; Hoversten, E. A.; Chincarini, G.; Grupe, D.; Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Briggs, M. S.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, T. H.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Carrigan, S.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Connaughton, V.; Conrad, J.; Dermer, C. D.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Dingus, B. L.; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Farnier, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Fishman, G.; Focke, W. B.; Frailis, M.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Granot, J.; Greiner, J.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Hughes, R. E.; Jackson, M. S.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, W. N.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kawai, N.; Kerr, M.; Kippen, R. M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kocevski, D.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Makeev, A.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; McGlynn, S.; Meegan, C.; Mészáros, P.; Meurer, C.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Moretti, E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paciesas, W. S.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Preece, R.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reposeur, T.; Ritz, S.; Rochester, L. S.; Rodriguez, A. Y.; Roth, M.; Ryde, F.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sander, A.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Scargle, J. D.; Schalk, T. L.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stamatikos, M.; Starck, J.-L.; Stecker, F. W.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Thayer, J. G.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Toma, K.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Uehara, T.; Usher, T. L.; van der Horst, A. J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vilchez, N.; Vitale, V.; von Kienlin, A.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wu, X. F.; Yamazaki, R.; Ylinen, T.; Ziegler, M.

    2010-02-01

    We present the observations of GRB090510 performed by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope and the Swift observatory. This is a bright, short burst that shows an extended emission detected in the GeV range. Furthermore, its optical emission initially rises, a feature so far observed only in long bursts, while the X-ray flux shows an initial shallow decrease, followed by a steeper decay. This exceptional behavior enables us to investigate the physical properties of the gamma-ray burst outflow, poorly known in short bursts. We discuss internal and external shock models for the broadband energy emission of this object.

  15. Early Results on Energetic Particle Precipitation Observed by the ABOVE Instrument Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cully, C. M.; Chaddock, D.; Daniel, C.; Davis, E.; Galts, D.; McGuffin, N.; Quinn, C.; Sheldon, A.; Wilson, C.

    2014-12-01

    ABOVE, the Array for Broadband Observations of VLF/ELF Emissions, is a network of radio instruments located across western Canada. The instruments monitor natural and artificial electromagnetic radiation in the frequency range from 200 Hz to 75 kHz. The primary scientific focus is on energetic particle precipitation: we infer precipitation into the atmosphere based on the observed amplitude and phase of remotely transmitted artificial signals, and simultanesouly monitor natural whistler-mode waves (chorus and hiss) that drive the precipitation. Instrument deployment began during the summer of 2014. We report here on the instrument design and the first results.

  16. An Observational Study of Early Heterosexual Interaction at Middle School Dances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrini, Anthony D.; Long, Jeffery D.

    2007-01-01

    In this longitudinal, observational study of heterosexual interaction at middle school dances we examined the degree to which boys' and girls' groups became more gender integrated over time. The results show groups became more integrated over time with the pattern differing by gender. Boys had a relatively low level of contact with girls over the…

  17. A comparison of 3-D model predictions of Mars' oxygen corona with early MAVEN IUVS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yuni; Combi, Michael R.; Tenishev, Valeriy; Bougher, Stephen W.; Deighan, Justin; Schneider, Nicholas M.; McClintock, William E.; Jakosky, Bruce M.

    2015-11-01

    We have compared our 3-D hot O corona model predictions with the OI 130.4 nm emission detected by Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph/Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (IUVS/MAVEN) based completely on our best pre-MAVEN understanding of the 3-D structure of the thermosphere and ionosphere. The model was simulated appropriately for the observational conditions. In addition to dissociative recombination (DR) of O2+, DR of CO2+ is also considered as an important hot O source. The model predictions showed excellent agreement with the transition altitude, the observed altitude variation of density, and the spatial variation of the corona with respect to the Mars-Sun geometry. While previous models predicted escape rates covering a range of nearly 100, the brightness of the modeled hot O densities is a factor of ~1.5 lower than the observations. We discuss possible changes to the model that could come from further analysis of MAVEN measurements and that might close the gap between the modeled and observed brightness.

  18. The Early Development of Object Knowledge: A Study of Infants' Visual Anticipations during Action Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunnius, Sabine; Bekkering, Harold

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the developing object knowledge of infants through their visual anticipation of action targets during action observation. Infants (6, 8, 12, 14, and 16 months) and adults watched short movies of a person using 3 different everyday objects. Participants were presented with objects being brought either to a correct or to an…

  19. Observing Preschoolers' Social-Emotional Behavior: Structure, Foundations, and Prediction of Early School Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko Hamada; Thayer, Sara K.; Mincic, Melissa S.; Sirotkin, Yana S.; Zinsser, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Social-emotional behavior of 352 3- and 4-year-olds attending private childcare and Head Start programs was observed using the Minnesota Preschool Affect Checklist, Revised (MPAC-R). Goals of the investigation included (a) using MPAC-R data to extract a shortened version, MPAC-R/S, comparing structure, internal consistency, test-retest…

  20. Educative Experiences and Early Childhood Science Education: A Deweyan Perspective on Learning to Observe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howes, Elaine V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a report of work conducted at an urban elementary professional development school in the eastern US. John Dewey's explication of "educative experiences" is applied to describe curriculum involving small animals as a basis for teaching science inquiry processes, particularly the process of observation. The analysis is qualitative and…

  1. An Observational Analysis of Behavior in Depressed Preschoolers: Further Validation of Early-Onset Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luby, Joan L.; Sullivan, Jill; Belden, Andy; Stalets, Melissa; Blankenship, Samantha; Spitznagel, Edward

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether higher levels of negative and lower levels of positive behaviors could be observed in a sample of depressed preschoolers. Support for the validity of preschool depression is now available; however, objective evidence of negative behaviors among depressed preschoolers is needed. Method: A structured observational…

  2. Explicit Instructional Interactions: Observed Stability and Predictive Validity during Early Literacy and Beginning Mathematics Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doabler, Christian T.; Nelson-Walker, Nancy; Kosty, Derek; Baker, Scott K.; Smolkowski, Keith; Fien, Hank

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the authors conceptualize teaching episodes such as an integrated set of observable student-teacher interactions. Instructional interactions that take place between teachers and students around critical academic content are a defining characteristic of classroom instruction and a component carefully defined in many education…

  3. Copernicus observations of neutral helium lines in early-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufton, P. L.; McKeith, C. D.

    1980-01-01

    Observations of stellar ultraviolet He I lines at 2829, 2945, and 3187 A obtained with the Copernicus Satellite, are compared with LTE and non-LTE calculations. The stars observed cover the range of spectral types O8-B7 and luminosity Classes I-V and were chosen to have relatively low projected rotational velocities. The equivalent widths measured with the two near ultraviolet Copernicus spectrometers (VI and V2) are in satisfactory accord both with each other and with results obtained from balloon flights and the IUE satellite. The model atmosphere calculations use the 'complete linearization procedure' and are similar to those of Auer and Mihalas (1973) but with a different choice of atomic data. For stars of Class II-V the observations and non-LTE calculations for the 2829 and 2945 A lines are in satisfactory agreement but there is an unresolved discrepancy for the 3187 A line. For the Class I supergiants neither LTE nor non-LTE theory reproduces the observations, in common with that found previously for visible triplet lines. In an appendix LTE and non-LTE equivalent widths are tabulated for T-sub-eff = 15,000 to 27,500 K and log 0 = 3 and 4.

  4. Observations of Nucleation and Early Stage Growth of Amorphous Silica on Carboxyl-Terminated Model Biosubstrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, A. F.; Dove, P. M.

    2005-12-01

    surface. While controlling solution chemistry, we can make in situ measurements of nucleation and early stage growth at these interfaces with Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Preliminary experiments show that at pH 4 to 7, and supersaturations of 0.76 to 1.45 (σ = ln([H4SiO4]/Ksp)), silica nucleates on carboxyl-terminated areas of the surface, that are less than 30 nm in diameter. The nuclei evolve during early stages of growth to spread over the surface into a sheet like form.

  5. A Simplified Diagnostic Observational Assessment of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Grodberg, David; Siper, Paige; Jamison, Jesslyn; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Kolevzon, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Subspecialty physicians who have expertise in the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder typically do not have the resources to administer comprehensive diagnostic observational assessments for patients suspected of ASD. The autism mental status exam (AMSE) is a free and brief eight-item observation tool that addresses this practice gap. The AMSE, designed by Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists, Developmental Behavioral Pediatricians and Pediatric Neurologists structures the observation and documentation of signs and symptoms of ASD and yields a score. Excellent sensitivity and specificity was demonstrated in a population of high-risk adults. This protocol now investigates the AMSE's test performance in a population of 45 young children age 18 months to 5 years with suspected ASD or social and communication concerns who are evaluated at an autism research center. Each subject received a developmental evaluation, including the AMSE, performed by a Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist, that was followed by independent standardized assessment using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised. A Best Estimate Diagnosis protocol used DSM-5 criteria to ascertain a diagnosis of ASD or non-ASD. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to determine the AMSE cut point with the highest sensitivity and specificity. Findings indicate an optimized sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 100% for this high prevalence group. Because of its high classification accuracy in this sample of children the AMSE holds promise as a tool that can support both diagnostic decision making and standardize point of care observational assessment of ASD in high risk children. Autism Res 2016, 9: 443-449. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26305145

  6. In situ observations of nanoparticle early development kinetics at mineral-water interfaces.

    SciTech Connect

    Jun, Y. S.; Lee, B.; Waychunas, G. A.

    2010-10-08

    The early development of nanoparticles at mineral?water interfaces exerts crucial influences on the sequestration and transport of aqueous toxic species originating from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation often occur simultaneously, making it difficult to sort out whether toxic species are transported as free species, sorbed on nanoparticle surfaces, or trapped between aggregated nanoparticles. Here, using a newly developed X-ray scattering setup, we show how homogeneous nucleation and growth can be quantitatively separated from heterogeneous processes under aqueous conditions in real-time. Under conditions found in acid-mine-drainage (at pH 3.6 and [Fe{sup 3+}] = 10{sup -4} M), heterogeneous nucleation of iron oxide nanoparticles on quartz dominated homogeneous nucleation by a factor of 192 (by particle volume). The smallest heterogeneously formed nanoparticles had radii of 1.7 {+-} 0.5 nm, significantly smaller than the size estimated using classical nucleation theory (CNT). Based on the data, the dominant nucleation and growth mechanisms of iron oxide nanoparticles depending on ionic strength were presented. Our findings have implications for the formation and transport of nanoparticles, and thus toxins, in both environmental and biological systems.

  7. Observations of the Early Evening Boundary-Layer Transition Using a Small Unmanned Aerial System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonin, Timothy; Chilson, Phillip; Zielke, Brett; Fedorovich, Evgeni

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of the lower portion of the planetary boundary layer is investigated using the Small Multifunction Research and Teaching Sonde (SMARTSonde), an unmanned aerial vehicle developed at the University of Oklahoma. The study focuses on the lowest 200 m of the atmosphere, where the most noticeable thermodynamic changes occur during the day. Between October 2010 and February 2011, a series of flights was conducted during the evening hours on several days to examine the vertical structure of the lower boundary layer. Data from a nearby Oklahoma Mesonet tower was used to supplement the vertical profiles of temperature, humidity, and pressure, which were collected approximately every 30 min, starting 2 h before sunset and continuing until dusk. From the profiles, sensible and latent heat fluxes were estimated. These fluxes were used to diagnose the portion of the boundary layer that was most affected by the early evening transition. During the transition period, a shallow cool and moist layer near the ground was formed, and as the evening progressed the cooling affected an increasingly shallower layer just above the surface.

  8. Copernicus observations of the N v resonance doublet in 53 early-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, D. C.; Bohlin, R. C.; Savage, B. D.

    1982-01-01

    UV spectra in the wavelength interval 1170-1270 A are presented for 53 early-type stars ranging in spectral type from O6.5 V to B2.5 IV. The sample includes four Wolf-Rayet stars, seven known Oe-Be stars, and six galactic halo OB stars. A qualitative analysis of the stellar N v doublet reveals that: (1) N v is present in all stars hotter and more luminous than type B0 for the main sequence, B1 for giants, and B2 for supergiants; (2) shell components of N v and an unidentified absorption feature at 1230 A are present in about half of the stars; (3) the column density of N v is well correlated with bolometric luminosity over the spectral range O6 to B2; and (4) the ratio of emission to absorption equivalent width is a factor of 2 smaller in the main sequence stars than in supergiants, which suggests that the wind structure changes as a star evolves. For several stars, this ratio is too small to be explained by traditional wind models.

  9. Childhood Maltreatment and Prospectively Observed Quality of Early Care as Predictors of Antisocial Personality Disorder Features

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zhenyu; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Easterbrooks, M. Ann; Zhao, Xudong; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the separate contributions of maltreatment and ongoing quality of parent-child interaction to the etiology of antisocial personality features using a prospective longitudinal design. 120 low-income young adults (aged 18-23) were assessed for extent of ASPD features on the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnosis-Axis II, for presence of maltreatment on the Conflict Tactics Scale, Traumatic Experiences Scale, and Adult Attachment Interview, and for referral in infancy to parent-infant clinical services. Fifty-six of these families had been studied longitudinally since the first year of life. In infancy, attachment disorganization and disrupted mother-infant interaction were assessed; in middle childhood, disorganized-controlling attachment behaviors were reliably rated. In kindergarten and second grade, behavior problems were assessed by teacher report. In cross-sectional analyses, maltreatment was significantly associated with ASPD features but did not account for the independent effect of early referral to parent-infant services on ASPD features. In longitudinal analyses, maternal withdrawal in infancy predicted the extent of ASPD features twenty years later, independently of childhood abuse. In middle childhood, disorganized attachment behavior and maladaptive behavior at school added to prediction of later ASPD features. Antisocial features in young adulthood have precursors in the minute-to-minute process of parent-child interaction beginning in infancy. PMID:22754051

  10. Integrating observation and statistical forecasts over sub-Saharan Africa to support Famine Early Warning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, C.; Verdin, J.P.; Husak, G.

    2007-01-01

    Famine early warning in Africa presents unique challenges and rewards. Hydrologic extremes must be tracked and anticipated over complex and changing climate regimes. The successful anticipation and interpretation of hydrologic shocks can initiate effective government response, saving lives and softening the impacts of droughts and floods. While both monitoring and forecast technologies continue to advance, discontinuities between monitoring and forecast systems inhibit effective decision making. Monitoring systems typically rely on high resolution satellite remote-sensed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and rainfall imagery. Forecast systems provide information on a variety of scales and formats. Non-meteorologists are often unable or unwilling to connect the dots between these disparate sources of information. To mitigate these problem researchers at UCSB's Climate Hazard Group, NASA GIMMS and USGS/EROS are implementing a NASA-funded integrated decision support system that combines the monitoring of precipitation and NDVI with statistical one-to-three month forecasts. We present the monitoring/forecast system, assess its accuracy, and demonstrate its application in food insecure sub-Saharan Africa.

  11. Early Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Observations of the Quasar 3C454.3

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A

    2009-05-07

    This is the first report of Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope observations of the quasar 3C 454.3, which has been undergoing pronounced long-term outbursts since 2000. The data from the Large Area Telescope (LAT), covering 2008 July 7-October 6, indicate strong, highly variable {gamma}-ray emission with an average flux of {approx} 3 x 10{sup -6} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, for energies > 100 MeV. The {gamma}-ray flux is variable, with strong, distinct, symmetrically-shaped flares for which the flux increases by a factor of several on a time scale of about three days. This variability indicates a compact emission region, and the requirement that the source is optically thin to pair-production implies relativistic beaming with Doppler factor {delta} > 8, consistent with the values inferred from VLBI observations of superluminal expansion ({delta} {approx} 25). The observed {gamma}-ray spectrum is not consistent with a simple power-law, but instead steepens strongly above {approx} 2 GeV, and is well described by a broken power-law with photon indices of {approx} 2.3 and {approx} 3.5 below and above the break, respectively. This is the first direct observation of a break in the spectrum of a high luminosity blazar above 100 MeV, and it is likely direct evidence for an intrinsic break in the energy distribution of the radiating particles. Alternatively, the spectral softening above 2GeV could be due to -ray absorption via photonphoton pair production on the soft X-ray photon field of the host AGN, but such an interpretation would require the dissipation region to be located very close ({approx}< 100 gravitational radii) to the black hole, which would be inconsistent with the X-ray spectrum of the source.

  12. Predictors of Acute Hemodynamic Decompensation in Early Sepsis: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Im; Smith, Robert L.; Gartshteyn, Yevgeniya; Kwon, Sophia; Caraher, Erin J.; Nolan, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background The study of sepsis is hindered by its heterogeneous time course and evolution. A subgroup of patients with severe sepsis develops shock soon after the initiation of treatment while others present hypotensive. We sought to determine the incidence of hypotension after the initiation of treatment for sepsis, and characterize their clinical features and course. Methods A retrospective review of electronic medical record of all septic patients (n = 542) that met the definition of septic shock within 24 hours of admission (2011 - 2012) at an urban Veteran Affairs Hospital was performed. Subjects either had 1) initial normotension (INT) with hypotension developing within 24 hours or 2) initial hypotension (IH). Logistic regression was used to model associated factors of INT/IH. Results INT occurred in 62 patients (11%) with average initial blood pressure of 120/71 mm Hg and developed hypotension to 79/48 mm Hg. IH was identified in 52 patients (10%) with average presenting blood pressure of 81/46 mm Hg. INT showed evidence of increased sympathetic tone with significantly higher heart rate, blood pressure and temperature. INT patients were younger, more frequently on alpha-blockers, and more likely septic from pneumonia compared to IH patients. INT and IH patients had similar timing of antibiotic initiation, amount of 24-hour fluid resuscitation, vasopressor use, organ dysfunction and mortality at 28 days. Using alpha-blockers, being Caucasian, and having higher temperatures were independent predictors of INT. Conclusion INT is a distinctive presentation of septic shock characterized by rapid deterioration during early treatment. By further studying this subgroup, mediators of septic shock may be identified that clarify pathophysiology and provide timely targeted treatment. PMID:27429677

  13. Early Additional Immune-Modulators for Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia in Children: An Observation Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung-Churl; Rhim, Jung-Woo; Shin, Myung-Seok; Kang, Jin-Han

    2014-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) pneumonia is a self-limiting disease, but some patients complain of progressive pneumonia, despite of appropriate antibiotic treatment. We aimed to introduce the role of immune-modulators (corticosteroid and/or intravenous immunoglobulin, IVIG) treatment for childhood MP pneumonia based on previous our experiences. Materials and Methods A retrospective case series analysis for 183 children with MP pneumonia was performed. MP pneumonia patients were diagnosed by two Immunoglobulin M (IgM) tests: the micro-particle agglutination method (≥1:40) and the cold agglutination test (≥1:4), and were examined twice at the initial admission and at discharge. Among 183 MP pneumonia patients, 90 patients with persistent fever for over 48 hours after admission or those with severe respiratory symptoms and signs received additional prednisolone (82 patients, 1 mg/kg/day) or intravenous methylprednisolone (8 patients, 5-10 mg/kg/day) with antibiotics. Four patients with aggravated clinical symptoms and chest radiographic findings after corticosteroid treatment received IVIG (1 g/kg/day, 1-2 doses). Results Mean age of 183 patients was 5.5 ± 3.2 years (6 months-15 years), and the male: female ratio was 1.1:1 (96:87). Fifty-seven patients (31%) were seroconverters and 126 seropositive patients showed increased diagnostic IgM antibody titres during admission (over 4 folds). The majority of the patients who received corticosteroids (86/90 cases) showed rapid defervescence within 48 hours with improved clinical symptoms, regardless of the used antibiotics. Also, 4 patients who received additional IVIG improved both clinically and radiographically within 2 days without adverse reaction. Conclusions In the era of macrolide-resistant MP strains, early additional immune-modulator therapy with antibiotics might prevent from the disease progression and reduce the disease morbidity without adverse reaction. PMID:25566403

  14. Hubble Space Telescope observations of the globular cluster systems of early type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Arunav

    1999-11-01

    We have studied the globular cluster systems of 60 early type galaxies using archival Hubble Space Telescope images. We discovered that the color distributions of the cluster systems of 30 to 60 percent of ellipticals is bimodal. The bimodality is most likely a signature of two major epochs of globular cluster formation in the history of these galaxies. At least 10% of the S0 galaxies in our sample show similar evidence of bimodality. However, the mechanism for the formation of the redder or metal-rich set of clusters appears to be different in the two galaxies that we studied in most detail, M87 the giant elliptical at the center of the Virgo cluster, and the S0 galaxy NGC 3115. While the red clusters in M87 appear to have formed during a major merger, the metal-rich clusters in NGC 3115 are associated with the thick disk of the galaxy. It seems likely that the red clusters in NGC 3145 were formed during a minor merger that did not destroy the disk. We measured the turnover luminosity of the globular cluster luminosity function in both the V and I-band. Comparing the turnover luminosities with other distance estimates we find that the absolute magnitude of the turnover luminosity in both bands is constant to within ~ 0.1 to ~ 0.2 mag. We conclude that the peak of the globular cluster luminosity function is an excellent distance indicator, with an accuracy comparable to other competing methods. We have also measured the sizes of individual clusters in our sample. The median size of the clusters appears to be the same in all galaxies. We suggest that this can be exploited to directly measure the distance to galaxies by simple geometrical considerations.

  15. EARLY CHROMOSPHERIC RESPONSE DURING A SOLAR MICROFLARE OBSERVED WITH SOHO's CDS AND RHESSI

    SciTech Connect

    Brosius, Jeffrey W.; Holman, Gordon D. E-mail: Gordon.D.Holman@nasa.go

    2010-09-10

    We observed a solar microflare with RHESSI and SOHO's Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) on 2009 July 5. With CDS we obtained rapid cadence (7 s) stare spectra within a narrow field of view toward the center of AR 11024. The spectra contain emission lines from ions that cover a wide range of temperature, including He I (<0.025 MK), O V (0.25 MK), Si XII (2 MK), and Fe XIX (8 MK). The start of a precursor burst of He I and O V line emission preceded the steady increase of Fe XIX line emission by about 1 minute and the emergence of 3-12 keV X-ray emission by about 4 minutes. Thus, the onset of the microflare was observed in upper chromospheric (He I) and transition region (O V) line emission before it was detected in high-temperature flare plasma emission. Redshifted O V emission during the precursor suggests explosive chromospheric evaporation, but no corresponding blueshifts were found with either Fe XIX (which was very weak) or Si XII. Similarly, in subsequent microflare brightenings the O V and He I intensities increased (between 49 s and almost 2 minutes) before emissions from the hot flare plasma. Although these time differences likely indicate heating by a nonthermal particle beam, the RHESSI spectra provide no additional evidence for such a beam. In intervals lasting up to about 3 minutes during several bursts, the He I and O V emission line profiles showed secondary, highly blueshifted ({approx}-200 km s{sup -1}) components; during intervals lasting nearly 1 minute the velocities of the primary and secondary components were oppositely directed. Combined with no corresponding blueshifts in either Fe XIX or Si XII, this indicates that explosive chromospheric evaporation occurred predominantly at either comparatively cool temperatures (<2 MK) or within a hot temperature range to which our observations were not sensitive (e.g., between 2 and 8 MK).

  16. Early Chromospheric Response During a Solar Microflare Observed with SOHO's CDS and RHESSI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brosius, Jeffrey W.; Holman, Gordon D.

    2010-01-01

    We observed a solar microflare with RHESSI and SOHO's Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) on 2009 July 5. With CDS we obtained rapid cadence (7 s) stare spectra within a narrow field of view toward the center of AR 11024. The spectra contain emission lines from ions that cover a wide range of temperature, including He I (< 0.025 MK), O V (0.25 MK), Si XII (2 MK), and Fe XIX (8 MK). The start of a precursor burst of He I and O V line emission preceded the steady increase of Fe XIX line emission by about 1 minute, and the emergence of 3-12 keV X-ray emission by about 4 minutes. Thus the onset of the microflare was observed in upper chromospheric (He I) and transition region (O V) line emission before it was detected in high temperature flare plasma emission. Redshifted O V emission during the precursor suggests explosive chromospheric evaporation, but no corresponding blueshifts were found with either Fe XIX (which was very weak) or Si XII. Similarly, in subsequent microflare brightenings the O V and He I intensities increased (between 49 s and almost 2 minutes) before emissions from the hot flare plasma. Although these time differences likely indicate heating by a nonthermal particle beam, the RHESSI spectra provide no additional evidence for such a beam. In intervals lasting up to about 3 minutes during several bursts, the He I and O V emission line profiles showed secondary, highly blueshifted ( approximately 200 km/s) components; during intervals lasting nearly 1 minute the velocities of the primary and secondary components were oppositely directed. Combined with no corresponding blueshifts in either Fe XIX or Si XII, this indicates that explosive chromospheric evaporation occurred predominantly at either comparatively cool temperatures (< 2 MK) or within a hot temperature range to which our observations were not sensitive (e.g., between 2 and 8 MK).

  17. The Early History of Photometric Observations of Asteroids made at the Table Mountain Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, James W.; Harris, Alan W.

    2009-05-01

    An Ascop S-20 photomultiplier tube mounted in a Mt. Wilson designed dry-ice cold-box assembly was used with a pulse-counting system to measure the colors, magnitudes, rotational rates, and phase coefficients of over 300 different asteroids between 1978 and 1993. During this time period, nearly one third of all known asteroid rotational rates (~150) were obtained from this effective system. All observations were made with manual telescopic pointing, with data written out long-hand utilizing the 0.6 meter telescope at JPL's Table Mountain Facility. Nearly 40 refereed journal (mostly ICARUS) papers were published containing these results, with yet a few more to come.

  18. The accelerations of the earth and moon from early astronomical observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, P. M.; Stephenson, F. R.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation has compiled a very large amount of data on central or near central solar eclipses as recorded in four principal ancient sources (Greek and Roman classics, medieval European chronicles, Chinese annals and astronomical treatises, and Late Babylonian astronomical texts) and applied careful data selectivity criteria and statistical methods to obtain reliable dates, magnitudes, and places of observation of the events, and thereby made estimates of the earth acceleration and lunar acceleration. The basic conclusion is that the lunar acceleration and both tidal and nontidal earth accelerations have been essentially constant during the period from 1375 B.C. to the present.

  19. The early Earth Observing System reference handbook: Earth Science and Applications Division missions, 1990-1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Prior to the launch of the Earth Observing System (EOS) series, NASA will launch and operate a wide variety of new earth science satellites and instruments, as well as undertake several efforts collecting and using the data from existing and planned satellites from other agencies and nations. These initiatives will augment the knowledge base gained from ongoing Earth Science and Applications Division (ESAD) programs. This volume describes three sets of ESAD activities -- ongoing exploitation of operational satellite data, research missions with upcoming launches between now and the first launch of EOS, and candidate earth probes.

  20. A novel system for in-situ observations of early hydration reactions in wet conditions in conventional SEM

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, A.; Bentur, A. . E-mail: bentur@tx.technion.ac.il; Kovler, K.

    2007-01-15

    A novel system enabling wet microscopy in conventional SEM is described and its performance for in-situ study of hydration reactions is demonstrated. The technology is based on a sealed specimen capsule, which is protected from the microscope vacuum by an electron-transparent partition membrane. Thus, the wet sample can be placed and observed in a 'conventional' SEM without the need for drying or employing environmental SEM. Early hydration reactions of gypsum and cement systems were followed during the first 24 h.

  1. Using Satellite Observation for Early Warning of Convective Storm in Tehran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owlad, E.

    2015-12-01

    Severe convective storms are responsible for large amount of damage each year around the world. They form an important part of the climate system by redistributing heat, moisture, and trace gases, as well as producing large quantities of precipitation. As these extreme and rare events are in mesoscale there is many uncertainty in predicting them and we can't rely on just models. On the other hand, remote sensing has a large application in Meteorology and near real time weather forecasting, especially in rare and extreme events like convective storms that might be difficult to predict with atmospheric models. On second of June 2014, near 12UTC a sudden and strong convective storm occurred in Tehran province that was not predicted, and caused economic and human losses. In This research we used satellite observations along with synoptic station measurements to predict and monitor this storm. Results from MODIS data show an increase in the amount of cloudiness and also aerosol optical depth and sudden decrease in cloud top temperature few hours before the storm occurs. EUMETSAT images show the governing of convection before the storm occurs. With combining the observation data that shows Lake of humidity and high temperature in low levels with satellite data that reveals instability in high levels that together caused this convective, we could track the storm and decrease the large amount of damage.

  2. A SOLAR CYCLE LOST IN 1793-1800: EARLY SUNSPOT OBSERVATIONS RESOLVE THE OLD MYSTERY

    SciTech Connect

    Usoskin, Ilya G.; Mursula, Kalevi; Arlt, Rainer; Kovaltsov, Gennady A.

    2009-08-01

    Because of the lack of reliable sunspot observations, the quality of the sunspot number series is poor in the late 18th century, leading to the abnormally long solar cycle (1784-1799) before the Dalton minimum. Using the newly recovered solar drawings by the 18-19th century observers Staudacher and Hamilton, we construct the solar butterfly diagram, i.e., the latitudinal distribution of sunspots in the 1790s. The sudden, systematic occurrence of sunspots at high solar latitudes in 1793-1796 unambiguously shows that a new cycle started in 1793, which was lost in the traditional Wolf sunspot series. This finally confirms the existence of the lost cycle that has been proposed earlier, thus resolving an old mystery. This Letter brings the attention of the scientific community to the need of revising the sunspot series in the 18th century. The presence of a new short, asymmetric cycle implies changes and constraints to sunspot cycle statistics, solar activity predictions, and solar dynamo theories, as well as for solar-terrestrial relations.

  3. Early stage intercalation of doxorubicin to DNA fragments observed in molecular dynamics binding simulations.

    PubMed

    Lei, Hongxing; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wu, Chun

    2012-09-01

    The intercalation mode between doxorubicin (an anticancer drug) and two 6-base-pair DNA model fragments (d(CGATCG)₂ and d(CGTACG)₂) has been well studied by X-ray crystallography and NMR experimental methods. Yet, the detailed intercalation pathway at molecular level remains elusive. In this study, we conducted molecular dynamics binding simulations of these two systems using AMBER DNA (parmbsc0) and drug (GAFF) force fields starting from the unbound state. We observed outside binding (minor groove binding or end-binding) in all six independent binding simulations (three for each DNA fragment), followed by the complete intercalation of a drug molecule in two simulations (one for each DNA fragment). First, our data directly supported that the minor groove binding is the dominant pre-intercalation step. Second, we observed that the opening and flipping of a local base pair (A3-T10 for d(CGATCG)₂ and C1-G12 for d(CGTACG)₂) in the two intercalation trajectories. This locally cooperative flipping-intercalation mechanism was different from the previously proposed rise-insertion mechanism by which the distance between two neighboring intact base pairs increases to create a space for the drug insertion. Third, our simulations provided the first set of data to support the applicability of the AMBER DNA and drug force fields in drug-DNA atomistic binding simulations. Implications on the kinetics pathway and drug action are also discussed. PMID:23079648

  4. High-resolution observations of tungsten liner collapse and early jet formation

    SciTech Connect

    Winer, K.A.; Breithaupt, R.D.; Muelder, S.A.; Baum, D.W.

    1996-07-01

    High-resolution photography of collapsing tungsten-lined shaped charges has revealed surface texturing both similar to and strikingly different from that previously observed during copper liner collapse. The behavior of three types of tungsten-lined shaped charges, with different liner designs and high explosives but with similar tungsten processing, were characterized by image-converter camera and fast- framing camera photography, and flash x-ray radiography. 120-mm- diameter, trumpet-shaped Octol charges produced surface blistering near the base of the tungsten liner, probably due to inhomogeneities near the liner-explosive interface resulting from cast loading. 148- mm-diameter, quasi-conical LX-14 charges produced smooth shocked- surface texture similar to that observed in conical, copper-lined LX- 14 (Viper) charges. 81-mm-diameter, conical LX-20 charges produced severe radial texturing throughout the collapsing tungsten liner, which transitioned to azimuthal banding on the jet surface. For each type of charge, obscuring debris from the tungsten jet tip prevented clear imaging of the jet surface at late time. 8 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Early observations on an emerging Great Lakes invader Hemimysis anomala in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, Maureen G.; Lantry, Brian F.; Boscarino, Brent; Bowen, Kelly; Gerlofsma, Jocelyn; Schaner, Ted; Back, Richard; Questel, Jennifer; Smythe, A. Garry; Cap, Roberta; Goehle, Michael; Young, Bryan; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Johnson, James H.; McKenna, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Hemimysis anomala, a Ponto-Caspian littoral mysid, is an emerging Great Lakes invader that was discovered in Lakes Michigan and Ontario in 2006. Similar to the native mysid Mysis diluviana, Hemimysis exhibits a diel vertical migration pattern but generally inhabits shallower and warmer waters than M. diluviana. Because basic information on the distribution, habitat use, and biology of Hemimysis in the Great Lakes is scarce, the potential for food web disruption by Hemimysis cannot easily be predicted. Preliminary observations indicate widespread invasion of Hemimysis in Lake Ontario. In this study, we confirm the presence of Hemimysis at sites spanning the northern and southern shores of Lake Ontario and the presence of the individuals during winter months. In one horizontal tow in November 2007, over 26,000 individuals were collected with a length range of 4.4 to 9.0. mm and an average caloric density of 611. cal/g wet weight. The most effective methods for sampling Hemimysis were horizontal tows with either a zooplankton net in the water column or a benthic sled near the lake bottom. Although more quantitative data on the life history and distribution of this species is necessary, our preliminary observations support the prediction that the potential for Hemimysis to impact the nearshore food web in Lake Ontario appears high.

  6. Hydrazine decomposition and other reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Warren E. (Inventor); La France, Donald S. (Inventor); Voge, Hervey H. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to the catalytic decomposition of hydrazine, catalysts useful for this decomposition and other reactions, and to reactions in hydrogen atmospheres generally using carbon-containing catalysts.

  7. CaII K interstellar observations towards early-type disc and halo stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smoker, J. V.; Rolleston, W. R. J.; Kay, H. R. M.; Kilkenny, D.; Morras, R.; Arnal, M.; Keenan, F. P.; Mooney, C. J.; Dufton, P. L.; Ryans, R. S. I.; Hambly, N. C.; O'Donoghue, D.; McGillivray, H.

    2003-11-01

    We present high-resolution (R=λ/Δλ~ 40000) CaII K interstellar observations (λair= 3933.66Å) towards 88 mainly B-type stars, of which 74 are taken from the Edinburgh-Cape or Palomar-Green surveys, and 81 have |b| > 25°. The majority of the data come from previously existing spectroscopy, although also included are 18 new observations of stars with echelle spectra taken with UVES on the Very Large Telescope UT2 (Kueyen). Some 49 of the sample stars have distance estimates above the Galactic plane (|z|) >= 1 kpc, and are thus good probes of the halo interstellar medium. Of the 362 interstellar Ca K components that we detect, 75 (21 per cent) have absolute values of their LSR velocity values exceeding 40 km s-1. In terms of the deviation velocity for the sightlines with distance estimates, 46/273 (17 per cent) of components have velocity values exceeding those predicted by standard Galactic rotation by more than 40 km s-1. Combining this data set with previous observations, we find that the median value of the reduced equivalent width (REW) of stars with |z| >= 1 kpc (EW×sin|b|) is ~115 mÅ (n= 80), similar to that observed in extragalactic sightlines by Bowen. Using data of all z distances, the REW at infinity is found to be ~130 mÅ, with the scaleheight (l) of the CaII K column density distribution being ~800 pc (n= 196) and reduced column density at infinity of log[N(CaII K) cm-2]~12.24. This implies that ~30 per cent of CaII K absorption occurs at distances exceeding ~1 kpc. For nine sightlines with distance exceeding 1 kpc and with a companion object within 5°, we find that all but two have values of CaII reduced equivalent width the same to within ~20 per cent, when the REW of the nearest object is extrapolated to the distance of the further of the pair, and assuming l= 800 pc. For 29 of our sightlines with |z| >= 1 kpc and a HI detection from the Leiden-Dwingeloo survey (beamsize of 0.5°), we find log(N(CaII K)/N(HI)) ranging from -7.4 to -8.4. Values

  8. Predicted and observed early effects of combined alpha and beta lung irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, B.R.; Hahn, F.F.; Snipes, M.B.; Newton, G.J.; Eidson, A.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Boecker, B.B. )

    1990-12-01

    The nonstochastic radiobiological effects of combined alpha and beta irradiation of the lungs of rats from inhaled radionuclides were studied. Both respiratory functional morbidity at 18 mo and mortality from radiation pneumonitis within 18 mo after exposure were examined for rats exposed to the beta-emitter 147Pm, the alpha-emitter 238Pu, or both combined. The results were used to validate hazard-function models that were developed (1) for respiratory functional morbidity at 18 mo and (2) for lethality from radiation pneumonitis within 18 mo. Both models were found to adequately predict the experimental observations for chronic alpha plus beta irradiation of the lung. Based on this 18-mo study, a relative biological effectiveness of approximately seven was obtained for 238Pu alpha radiation compared to 147Pm beta radiation for both respiratory functional morbidity and lethality from radiation pneumonitis. However, the relative biological effectiveness for the alpha radiation is likely to increase with longer follow-up.

  9. HST WFC3 Early Release Science: Emission-Line Galaxies from IR Grism Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straughn, A. N.; Kuntschner, H.; Kuemmel, M.; Walsh, J. R.; Cohen, S. H.; Gardner, J. P.; Windhorst, R. A.; O'Connell, R. W.; Pirzkal, N.; Meurer, G.; McCarthy, P. J.; Hathi, N. P.; Malhotra, S.; Rhoads, J.; Balick, B.; Bond, H. E.; Calzetti, D.; Disney, M. J.; Dopita, M. A.; Frogel, J. A.; Hall, D. N. B.; Holtzman, J. A.; Kimlbe, R. A.; Trauger, J. T.; Young, E. T.

    2010-01-01

    We present grism spectra of emission line galaxies (ELGs) from 0.6-1.6 microns from the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). These new infrared grism data augment previous optical Advanced Camera for Surveys G800L (0.6-0.95 micron) grism data in GOODS South, extending the wavelength coverage well past the G800L red cutoff. The ERS grism field was observed at a depth of 2 orbits per grism, yielding spectra of hundreds of faint objects, a subset of which are presented here. ELGs are studied via the Ha, [O III ], and [OII] emission lines detected in the redshift ranges 0.2 less than or equal to z less than or equal to 1.6, 1.2 less than or equal to z less than or equal to 2.4 and 2.0 less than or equal to z less than or equal to 3.6 respectively in the G102 (0.8-1.1 microns; R approximately 210) and C141 (1.1-1.6 microns; R approximately 130) grisms. The higher spectral resolution afforded by the WFC3 grisms also reveals emission lines not detectable with the G800L grism (e.g., [S II] and [S III] lines). From these relatively shallow observations, line luminosities, star formation rates, and grism spectroscopic redshifts are determined for a total of 25 ELGs to M(sub AB)(F098M) approximately 25 mag. The faintest source in our sample with a strong but unidentified emission line--is MAB(F098M)=26.9 mag. We also detect the expected trend of lower specific star formation rates for the highest mass galaxies in the sample, indicative of downsizing and discovered previously from large surveys. These results demonstrate the remarkable efficiency and capability of the WFC3 NIR grisms for measuring galaxy properties to faint magnitudes.

  10. EARLY OBSERVATIONS AND ANALYSIS OF THE TYPE Ia SN 2014J IN M82

    SciTech Connect

    Marion, G. H.; Vinkó, J.; Sand, D. J.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Banerjee, D. P. K.; Joshi, V.; Venkataraman, V.; Ashok, N. M.; Valenti, S.; Howell, D. A.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Amanullah, R.; Johansson, J.; Binzel, R. P.; Bochanski, J. J.; Bryngelson, G. L.; Burns, C. R.; Drozdov, D.; Fieber-Beyer, S. K.; Graham, M. L.; and others

    2015-01-01

    We present optical and near infrared (NIR) observations of the nearby Type Ia SN 2014J. Seventeen optical and 23 NIR spectra were obtained from 10 days before (–10d) to 10 days after (+10d) the time of maximum B-band brightness. The relative strengths of absorption features and their patterns of development can be compared at one day intervals throughout most of this period. Carbon is not detected in the optical spectra, but we identify C I λ1.0693 in the NIR spectra. Mg II lines with high oscillator strengths have higher initial velocities than other Mg II lines. We show that the velocity differences can be explained by differences in optical depths due to oscillator strengths. The spectra of SN 2014J show that it is a normal SN Ia, but many parameters are near the boundaries between normal and high-velocity subclasses. The velocities for O I, Mg II, Si II, S II, Ca II, and Fe II suggest that SN 2014J has a layered structure with little or no mixing. That result is consistent with the delayed detonation explosion models. We also report photometric observations, obtained from –10d to +29d, in the UBVRIJH and K{sub s} bands. The template fitting package SNooPy is used to interpret the light curves and to derive photometric parameters. Using R{sub V} = 1.46, which is consistent with previous studies, SNooPy finds that A{sub V} = 1.80 for E(B – V){sub host} = 1.23 ± 0.06 mag. The maximum B-band brightness of –19.19 ± 0.10 mag was reached on February 1.74 UT ± 0.13 days and the supernova has a decline parameter, Δm {sub 15}, of 1.12 ± 0.02 mag.

  11. [CII] At 1 < z < 2: Observing Star Formation in the Early Universe with Zeus (1 and 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Nikola, T.; Oberst, T.; Parshley, S.; Stacey, G.; Benford, D.; staguhn, J.

    2010-01-01

    We report the detection of the [CII] 158 micron fine structure line from six submillimeter galaxies with redshifts between 1.12 and 1.73. This more than doubles the total number of [CII] 158 micron detections reported from high redshift sources. These observations were made with the Redshift(z) and Early Universe Spectrometer(ZEUS) at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory on Mauna Kea, Hawaii between December 2006 and March 2009. ZEUS is a background limited submm echelle grating spectrometer (Hailey-Dunsheath 2009). Currently we are constructing ZEUS-2. This new instrument will utilize the same grating but will feature a two dimensional transition-edge sensed bolometer array with SQUID multiplexing readout system enabling simultaneous background limited observations in the 200, 340,450 and 650 micron telluric windows. ZEUS-2 will allow for long slit imaging spectroscopy in nearby galaxies and a [CII] survey from z 0.25 to 2.5.

  12. Passive microwave observations of the Weddell Sea during austral winter and early spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenfell, T. C.; Comiso, J. C.; Lange, M. A.; Eicken, H.; Wensnahan, M. R.

    1994-05-01

    The results of multispectral passive microwave observations (6.7 to 90-GHz) are presented from the cruises of the FS Polarstern in the Weddell Sea from July to December 1986. This paper includes primarily the analysis of radiometric observations taken at ice station sites. Averaged emissivity spectra for first-year (FY) ice were relatively constant throughout the experiment and were not statistically different from FY ice signatures in the Arctic. Detailed ice characterization was carried out at each site to compare the microwave signatures of the ice with the physical properties. Absorption optical depths of FY ice were found to be sufficiently high that only the structure in the upper portions of the ice contributed significantly to interstation emissivity variations. The emissivities at 90-GHz, e(90), had the greatest variance. Both e(90) at vertical polarization and GRe(90,18.7) (defined as [ev(90)-ev(18.7)]/ev[(90)+ev(18.7)]) depended on the scattering optical depth which is a function of the snow grain diameter and layer thickness. The variance showed a latitude dependence and is probably due to an increase in the strength of snow metamorphism nearer the northern edge of the ice pack. The contribution of variations of near-surface brine volume to the emissivity was not significant over the range of values encountered at the station sites. Emissivity spectra are presented for a range of thin ice types. Unsupervised principal component analysis produced three significant eigenvectors and showed a separation among four different surface types: open water, thin ice, FY ice, and FY ice with a thick snow cover. A comparison with SMMR satellite data showed that averaged ice concentrations derived from the ship's ice watch log were consistent with the satellite concentrations. The surface based emissivities for FY ice were also compared with emissivities calculated from scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) satellite radiances. Best agreement was found at

  13. Mitochondrial regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production-Unexpected observations in early postnatal cerebral vasculature.

    PubMed

    Wolf, S; Mattheis, A; Laufs, U; Meier, C; Tschernig, T

    2016-07-01

    Nicotinamide-nucleotide-transhydrogenase (Nnt) is a mitochondrial protein. It is altered and functionally lacking in the C57BL/6J sub-strain. This leads to the generation of more radical oxygen species than in the C57BL/6N sub-strain. During studies on the effect of Nnt in perinatal hypoxia the cerebral vasculature was investigated in postnatal day 9 mice using post mortem arterial filling with silicone rubber compounds. Surprisingly, the tiny vessels were no longer uniformly filled and a bleb-like pattern occurred in both sub-strains. Furthermore, considerably more bleb-like spots were observed in the C57Bl/6J sub-strain than in the C57Bl/6N sub-strain. These blebs might be the result of feathery vessels bursting. It remains unclear how the mechanisms in the used strains differ. Nnt might influence the vascular structure or its development and mechanisms and should be investigated further. PMID:26724498

  14. The performance of field scientists undertaking observations of early life fossils while in simulated space suit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willson, D.; Rask, J. C.; George, S. C.; de Leon, P.; Bonaccorsi, R.; Blank, J.; Slocombe, J.; Silburn, K.; Steele, H.; Gargarno, M.; McKay, C. P.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted simulated Apollo Extravehicular Activity's (EVA) at the 3.45 Ga Australian 'Pilbara Dawn of life' (Western Australia) trail with field and non-field scientists using the University of North Dakota's NDX-1 pressurizable space suit to overview the effectiveness of scientist astronauts employing their field observation skills while looking for stromatolite fossil evidence. Off-world scientist astronauts will be faced with space suit limitations in vision, human sense perception, mobility, dexterity, the space suit fit, time limitations, and the psychological fear of death from accidents, causing physical fatigue reducing field science performance. Finding evidence of visible biosignatures for past life such as stromatolite fossils, on Mars, is a very significant discovery. Our preliminary overview trials showed that when in simulated EVAs, 25% stromatolite fossil evidence is missed with more incorrect identifications compared to ground truth surveys but providing quality characterization descriptions becomes less affected by simulated EVA limitations as the science importance of the features increases. Field scientists focused more on capturing high value characterization detail from the rock features whereas non-field scientists focused more on finding many features. We identified technologies and training to improve off-world field science performance. The data collected is also useful for NASA's "EVA performance and crew health" research program requirements but further work will be required to confirm the conclusions.

  15. Predicted and observed early effects of combined alpha and beta lung irradiation.

    PubMed

    Scott, B R; Hahn, F F; Snipes, M B; Newton, G J; Eidson, A F; Mauderly, J L; Boecker, B B

    1990-12-01

    The nonstochastic radiobiological effects of combined alpha and beta irradiation of the lungs of rats from inhaled radionuclides were studied. Both respiratory functional morbidity at 18 mo and mortality from radiation pneumonitis within 18 mo after exposure were examined for rats exposed to the beta-emitter 147Pm, the alpha-emitter 238Pu, or both combined. The results were used to validate hazard-function models that were developed (1) for respiratory functional morbidity at 18 mo and (2) for lethality from radiation pneumonitis within 18 mo. Both models were found to adequately predict the experimental observations for chronic alpha plus beta irradiation of the lung. Based on this 18-mo study, a relative biological effectiveness of approximately seven was obtained for 238Pu alpha radiation compared to 147Pm beta radiation for both respiratory functional morbidity and lethality from radiation pneumonitis. However, the relative biological effectiveness for the alpha radiation is likely to increase with longer follow-up. PMID:2228607

  16. Estimates for Lorentz Factors of Gamma-Ray Bursts from Early Optical Afterglow Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hascoët, Romain; Beloborodov, Andrei M.; Daigne, Frédéric; Mochkovitch, Robert

    2014-02-01

    The peak time of optical afterglow may be used as a proxy to constrain the Lorentz factor Γ of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) ejecta. We revisit this method by including bursts with optical observations that started when the afterglow flux was already decaying; these bursts can provide useful lower limits on Γ. Combining all analyzed bursts in our sample, we find that the previously reported correlation between Γ and the burst luminosity L γ does not hold. However, the data clearly show a lower bound Γmin that increases with L γ. We suggest an explanation for this feature: explosions with large jet luminosities and Γ < Γmin suffer strong adiabatic cooling before their radiation is released at the photosphere; they produce weak bursts, barely detectable with present instruments. To test this explanation, we examine the effect of adiabatic cooling on the GRB location in the L γ - Γ plane using a Monte Carlo simulation of the GRB population. Our results predict detectable on-axis "orphan" afterglows. We also derive upper limits on the density of the ambient medium that decelerates the explosion ejecta. We find that the density in many cases is smaller than expected for stellar winds from normal Wolf-Rayet progenitors. The burst progenitors may be peculiar massive stars with weaker winds, or there might exist a mechanism that reduces the stellar wind a few years before the explosion.

  17. Estimates for Lorentz factors of gamma-ray bursts from early optical afterglow observations

    SciTech Connect

    Hascoët, Romain; Beloborodov, Andrei M.; Daigne, Frédéric; Mochkovitch, Robert

    2014-02-10

    The peak time of optical afterglow may be used as a proxy to constrain the Lorentz factor Γ of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) ejecta. We revisit this method by including bursts with optical observations that started when the afterglow flux was already decaying; these bursts can provide useful lower limits on Γ. Combining all analyzed bursts in our sample, we find that the previously reported correlation between Γ and the burst luminosity L {sub γ} does not hold. However, the data clearly show a lower bound Γ{sub min} that increases with L {sub γ}. We suggest an explanation for this feature: explosions with large jet luminosities and Γ < Γ{sub min} suffer strong adiabatic cooling before their radiation is released at the photosphere; they produce weak bursts, barely detectable with present instruments. To test this explanation, we examine the effect of adiabatic cooling on the GRB location in the L {sub γ} – Γ plane using a Monte Carlo simulation of the GRB population. Our results predict detectable on-axis 'orphan' afterglows. We also derive upper limits on the density of the ambient medium that decelerates the explosion ejecta. We find that the density in many cases is smaller than expected for stellar winds from normal Wolf-Rayet progenitors. The burst progenitors may be peculiar massive stars with weaker winds, or there might exist a mechanism that reduces the stellar wind a few years before the explosion.

  18. The decomposition of methyltrichlorosilane: Studies in a high-temperature flow reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Allendorf, M.D.; Osterheld, T.H.; Melius, C.F.

    1994-01-01

    Experimental measurements of the decomposition of methyltrichlorosilane (MTS), a common silicon carbide precursor, in a high-temperature flow reactor are presented. The results indicate that methane and hydrogen chloride are major products of the decomposition. No chlorinated silane products were observed. Hydrogen carrier gas was found to increase the rate of MTS decomposition. The observations suggest a radical-chain mechanism for the decomposition. The implications for silicon carbide chemical vapor deposition are discussed.

  19. Earth Observations for Early Detection of Agricultural Drought in Countries at Risk: Contributions of the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdin, J. P.; Rowland, J.; Senay, G. B.; Funk, C. C.; Budde, M. E.; Husak, G. J.; Jayanthi, H.

    2013-12-01

    The Group on Earth Observations' Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) implementation plan emphasizes the information needs of countries at risk of food insecurity emergencies. Countries in this category are often vulnerable to disruption of agricultural production due to drought, while at the same time they lack well developed networks of in-situ observations to support early drought detection. Consequently, it is vital that Earth observations by satellites supplement those available from surface stations. The USGS, in its role as a FEWS NET implementing partner, has recently developed a number of new applications of satellite observations for this purpose. (1) In partnership with the University of California, Santa Barbara, a 30+ year time series of gridded precipitation estimates (CHIRPS) has been developed by blending NOAA GridSat B1 geostationary thermal infrared imagery with station observations using robust geostatistical methods. The core data set consists of pentadal (5-daily) accumulations from 1981-2013 at 0.05 degree spatial resolution between +/- 50 degrees latitude. Validation has been recently completed, and applications for gridded crop water balance calculations and mapping the Standardized Precipitation Index are in development. (2) Actual evapotranspiration (ETa) estimates using MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) data at 1-km have been successfully demonstrated using the operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance model with 8-day composites from the LPDAAC. A new, next-day latency implementation using daily LST swath data from the NASA LANCE server is in development for all the crop growing regions of the world. This ETa processing chain follows in the footsteps of (3) the expedited production of MODIS 250-meter NDVI images every five days at USGS EROS, likewise using LANCE daily swath data as input since 2010. Coverage includes Africa, Central Asia, the Middle East, Central America, and the Caribbean. (4) A surface water point monitoring

  20. Coupling experimental data and a prototype model to probe the physical and chemical processes of 2,4-dinitroimidazole solid-phase thermal decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, R.; Minier, L.; Bulusu, S.

    1998-12-31

    The time-dependent, solid-phase thermal decomposition behavior of 2,4-dinitroimidazole (2,4-DNI) has been measured utilizing simultaneous thermogravimetric modulated beam mass spectrometry (STMBMS) methods. The decomposition products consist of gaseous and non-volatile polymeric products. The temporal behavior of the gas formation rates of the identified products indicate that the overall thermal decomposition process is complex. In isothermal experiments with 2,4-DNI in the solid phase, four distinguishing features are observed: (1) elevated rates of gas formation are observed during the early stages of the decomposition, which appear to be correlated to the presence of exogenous water in the sample; (2) this is followed by a period of relatively constant rates of gas formation; (3) next, the rates of gas formation accelerate, characteristic of an autocatalytic reaction; (4) finally, the 2,4-DNI is depleted and gaseous decomposition products continue to evolve at a decreasing rate. A physicochemical and mathematical model of the decomposition of 2,4-DNI has been developed and applied to the experimental results. The first generation of this model is described in this paper. Differences between the first generation of the model and the experimental data collected under different conditions suggest refinements for the next generation of the model.

  1. Early evolution of a stratospheric volcanic eruption cloud as observed with TOMS and AVHRR

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, D.J.; Rose, William I., Jr.; Coke, L.R.; Bluth, G.J.S.; Sprod, I.E.; Krueger, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is a detailed study of remote sensing data from the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) and the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) satellite detectors, of the 1982 eruption of El Chicho??n, Mexico. The volcanic cloud/atmosphere interactions in the first four days of this eruption were investigated by combining ultraviolet retrievals to estimate the mass of sulfur dioxide in the volcanic cloud [Krueger et al., 1995] with thermal infrared retrievals of the size, optical depth, and mass of fine-grained (1-10 ??m radius) volcanic ash [Wen and Rose, 1994]. Our study provides the first direct evidence of gravitational separation of ash from a stratospheric, gas-rich, plinian eruption column and documents the marked differences in residence times of volcanic ash and sulfur dioxide in volcanic clouds. The eruption column reached as high as 32 km [Carey and Sigurdsson, 1986] and was injected into an atmosphere with a strong wind shear, which allowed for an observation of the separation of sulfur dioxide and volcanic ash. The upper, more sulfur dioxide-rich part of the cloud was transported to the west in the stratosphere, while the fine-grained ash traveled to the south in the troposphere. The mass of sulfur dioxide released was estimated at 7.1 ?? 109 kg with the mass decreasing by approximately 4% 1 day after the peak. The mass of fine-grained volcanic ash detected was estimated at 6.5 ?? 109 kg, amounting to about 0.7% of the estimated mass of the ash which fell out in the mapped ash blanket close to the volcano. Over the following days, 98% of this remaining fine ash was removed from the volcanic cloud, and the effective radius of ash in the volcanic cloud decreased from about 8 ??m to about 4 ??m. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. An observation of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis processes in the decomposition of H sub 2 O sub 2 over MnO sub 2 and Mn(OH) sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, S.P.; Ashton, W.R.; Tseung, A.C.C. )

    1991-09-01

    The kinetics of peroxide decomposition by manganese dioxide (MnO{sub 2}) and manganese hydroxide (Mn(OH){sub 2}) have been studied in alkaline solutions. The activity for peroxide decomposition on Mn(OH){sub 2} was generally higher than MnO{sub 2} and the kinetics for the decomposition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were first-order in the case of MnO{sub 2} catalysts, but 1.3-order for Mn(OH){sub 2} catalysts. It is suggested that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is mainly homogeneously decomposed by Mn{sup 2+} ions (in the form of HMnO{sub 2}{sup {minus}} ions in concentrated alkaline solutions) dissolved in the solution in the case of Mn(OH){sub 2}. Compared with the results reported for the decomposition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the presence of 1 ppm Co{sup 2+} ions, it is concluded that the kinetics of the homogeneous decomposition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} are directly influenced by the concentration of the active species in the solution.

  3. Battery Electric Vehicle Driving and Charging Behavior Observed Early in The EV Project

    SciTech Connect

    John Smart; Stephen Schey

    2012-04-01

    demonstrations. One such previous study was a PHEV demonstration conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), led by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). AVTA's PHEV demonstration involved over 250 vehicles in the United States, Canada, and Finland. This paper summarizes driving and charging behavior observed in that demonstration, including the distribution of distance driven between charging events, charging frequency, and resulting proportion of operation charge depleting mode. Charging demand relative to time of day and day of the week will also be shown. Conclusions from the PHEV demonstration will be given which highlight the need for expanded analysis in The EV Project. For example, the AVTA PHEV demonstration showed that in the absence of controlled charging by the vehicle owner or electric utility, the majority of vehicles were charged in the evening hours, coincident with typical utility peak demand. Given this baseline, The EV Project will demonstrate the effects of consumer charge control and grid-side charge management on electricity demand. This paper will outline further analyses which will be performed by eTec and INL to documenting driving and charging behavior of vehicles operated in a infrastructure-rich environment.

  4. Decomposition, lookup, and recombination: MEG evidence for the full decomposition model of complex visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Fruchter, Joseph; Marantz, Alec

    2015-04-01

    There is much evidence that visual recognition of morphologically complex words (e.g., teacher) proceeds via a decompositional route, first involving recognition of their component morphemes (teach + -er). According to the Full Decomposition model, after the visual decomposition stage, followed by morpheme lookup, there is a final "recombination" stage, in which the decomposed morphemes are combined and the well-formedness of the complex form is evaluated. Here, we use MEG to provide evidence for the temporally-differentiated stages of this model. First, we demonstrate an early effect of derivational family entropy, corresponding to the stem lookup stage; this is followed by a surface frequency effect, corresponding to the later recombination stage. We also demonstrate a late effect of a novel statistical measure, semantic coherence, which quantifies the gradient semantic well-formedness of complex words. Our findings illustrate the usefulness of corpus measures in investigating the component processes within visual word recognition. PMID:25797098

  5. Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Global Drought Monitor Portal: Adding Capabilities for Forecasting Hydrological Extremes and Early Warning Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzi, W.; de Roo, A.; Vogt, J.; Lawford, R. G.; Pappenberger, F.; Heim, R. R.; Stefanski, R.

    2011-12-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2007) has suggested the hydrometeorological extremes of both drought and flooding may increase under climate change. Drought zones can grow over large tracts of continental area and are a global-scale phenomenon (Sheffield and Wood 2011). The Group on Earth Observations Global Drought Monitor Portal (GDMP) was established as a demonstration for the 5th Earth Observation Ministerial Summit in Beijing in 2010. The European Drought Observatory, the North American Drought Monitor, the Princeton University experimental African Drought Monitor, and the University College London experimental global drought monitor were made "interoperable" through installation of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Mapping Services (WMS) on their respective servers, allowing maps of current drought conditions to be exchanged and assembled into maps of global drought coverage on the NIDIS portal. Partners from the Republic of Argentina, the Commonwealth of Australia, China, Jordan, Brazil, and Uruguay have also joined. The GEO Global Drought Monitoring, Forecasting, and Early Warning effort involves multiple parties and institutions, including the World Meteorological Organization, the World Climate Research Program Drought Interest Group, NASA, and others. The GEO Secretariat held a launch workshop in Geneva on 4-6 May 2010 to initiate drafting the final GEO Work Plan, and, during this meeting, additional capabilities were added to the existing GDMP: 1) drought forecasting was added to drought "current conditions" monitoring, in a partnership with Joint Research Centre (and other partners) aiming at a combined platform for Hydrological Extremes (drought and flooding); 2) extending drought forecasts from the medium-range 15-day window to a 30-day window; this will be tested through pilot projects over Europe and Africa, as part of the Global Water Scarcity Information Service (GLOWASIS)and the Improved Drought Early Warning Forecasting

  6. ROSAT PSPC observations of two X-ray-faint early-type galaxies: NGC 4365 and NGC 4382

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabbiano, G.; Kim, D.-W.; Trinchieri, G.

    1994-01-01

    We present the results of ROSAT Positive Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) observations of the two early-type galaxies NGC 4365 and NGC 4382. These galaxies are among those observed with Einstein to have the lowest X-ray to optical flux ratios of early-type galaxies. The PSCP data show that for radii r greater than 50 arcsec the radial distributions of the X-ray surface brightness are consistent with the optical distributions of King (1978). We also find that these galaxies have X-ray spectra significantly different from those observed in X-ray-bright ellipticals, with a relative excess of counts detected in the softest spectral channels. This confirms earlier Einstein results. The characteristics of the ROSAT PSPC do not allow us to discriminate between possible spectral models. If we adopt a two-component thermal model on the grounds of physical plausibility, we find that the spectral data can be fitted with a very soft optically thin component, with kT approximately 0.2 keV, and a hard component with kT greater than (1.0-1.5) keV. The hard component has a luminosity consistent with that expected from the integrated emission of a population of low mass-X-ray binaries in these galaxies; the nature of the very soft component is more speculative. Candidates include the coronal emission of late-type stars, supersoft X-ray sources, RS CVn, and perhaps a hot Interstellar Medium (ISM). Alternatively, the spectal data may be fitted with a 0.6-1 keV bremsstrahlung spectrum (expontential plus Gaunt), and may suggest the presence of a totally new population of X-ray sources.

  7. Multicriteria approximation through decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, C.; Krumke, S.; Marathe, M.; Phillips, C.; Sundberg, E.

    1998-06-01

    The authors propose a general technique called solution decomposition to devise approximation algorithms with provable performance guarantees. The technique is applicable to a large class of combinatorial optimization problems that can be formulated as integer linear programs. Two key ingredients of their technique involve finding a decomposition of a fractional solution into a convex combination of feasible integral solutions and devising generic approximation algorithms based on calls to such decompositions as oracles. The technique is closely related to randomized rounding. Their method yields as corollaries unified solutions to a number of well studied problems and it provides the first approximation algorithms with provable guarantees for a number of new problems. The particular results obtained in this paper include the following: (1) the authors demonstrate how the technique can be used to provide more understanding of previous results and new algorithms for classical problems such as Multicriteria Spanning Trees, and Suitcase Packing; (2) they also show how the ideas can be extended to apply to multicriteria optimization problems, in which they wish to minimize a certain objective function subject to one or more budget constraints. As corollaries they obtain first non-trivial multicriteria approximation algorithms for problems including the k-Hurdle and the Network Inhibition problems.

  8. Multicriteria approximation through decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, C. |; Krumke, S.; Marathe, M.; Phillips, C.; Sundberg, E. |

    1997-12-01

    The authors propose a general technique called solution decomposition to devise approximation algorithms with provable performance guarantees. The technique is applicable to a large class of combinatorial optimization problems that can be formulated as integer linear programs. Two key ingredients of the technique involve finding a decomposition of a fractional solution into a convex combination of feasible integral solutions and devising generic approximation algorithms based on calls to such decompositions as oracles. The technique is closely related to randomized rounding. The method yields as corollaries unified solutions to a number of well studied problems and it provides the first approximation algorithms with provable guarantees for a number of new problems. The particular results obtained in this paper include the following: (1) The authors demonstrate how the technique can be used to provide more understanding of previous results and new algorithms for classical problems such as Multicriteria Spanning Trees, and Suitcase Packing. (2) They show how the ideas can be extended to apply to multicriteria optimization problems, in which they wish to minimize a certain objective function subject to one or more budget constraints. As corollaries they obtain first non-trivial multicriteria approximation algorithms for problems including the k-Hurdle and the Network Inhibition problems.

  9. The 2014 Mw 6.0 Napa earthquake, California: Observations from real-time GPS-enhanced earthquake early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grapenthin, Ronni; Johanson, Ingrid; Allen, Richard M.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, progress has been made to demonstrate feasibility and benefits of including real-time GPS (rtGPS) in earthquake early warning and rapid response systems. Most concepts, however, have yet to be integrated into operational environments. The Berkeley Seismological Laboratory runs an rtGPS-based finite fault inversion scheme in real time. This system (G-larmS) detected the 2014 Mw 6.0 South Napa earthquake in California. We review G-larmS' performance during this event and 13 aftershocks and present rtGPS observations and real-time modeling results for the main shock. The first distributed slip model and magnitude estimates were available 24s after the event origin time, which, after optimizations, was reduced to 14s (≈8s S wave travel time, ≈6s data latency). G-larmS' solutions for the aftershocks (that had no measurable surface displacements) demonstrate that, in combination with the seismic early warning magnitude, Mw 6.0 is our current resolution limit.

  10. The 2014 Mw 6.0 Napa Earthquake, California: Observations from Real-time GPS-enhanced Earthquake Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johanson, I. A.; Grapenthin, R.; Allen, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, progress has been made to demonstrate feasibility and benefits of including real-time GPS (rtGPS) in earthquake early warning and rapid response systems. While most concepts have yet to be integrated into operational environments, the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory is currently running an rtGPS based finite fault inversion scheme in true real-time, which is triggered by the seismic-based ShakeAlert system and then sends updated earthquake alerts to a test receiver. The Geodetic Alarm System (G-larmS) was online and responded to the 2014 Mw6.0 South Napa earthquake in California. We review G-larmS' performance during this event and for 13 aftershocks, and we present rtGPS observations and real-time modeling results for the main shock. The first distributed slip model and a magnitude estimate of Mw5.5 were available 24 s after the event origin time, which could be reduced to 14 s after a bug fix (~8 s S-wave travel time, ~6 s data latency). The system continued to re-estimate the magnitude once every second: it increased to Mw5.9 3 s after the first alert and stabilized at Mw5.8 after 15 s. G-larmS' solutions for the subsequent small magnitude aftershocks demonstrate that Mw~6.0 is the current limit for alert updates to contribute back to the seismic-based early warning system.

  11. Quality versus Quantity: The Use of Observation by Early Childhood Educators in Improving the Performance of Children Enrolled in Preschool Programs in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tackie-Ofosu, Vivian; Bentum, Kwesi

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, the authors explored how early childhood educators used observation to support children in the learning environment. The objectives set were to find out the observation methods teachers used, ascertain their understanding of child observation, find out activities children undertook, and how teachers documented what children…

  12. Observation of early shell-dopant mix in OMEGA direct-drive implosions and comparisons with radiation-hydrodynamic simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgaertel, J. A.; Bradley, P. A.; Hsu, S. C.; Cobble, J. A.; Hakel, P.; Tregillis, I. L.; Krasheninnikova, N. S.; Murphy, T. J.; Schmitt, M. J.; Shah, R. C.; Obrey, K. D.; Batha, S.; Johns, H.; Joshi, T.; Mayes, D.; Mancini, R. C.; Nagayama, T.

    2014-05-15

    Temporally, spatially, and spectrally resolved x-ray image data from direct-drive implosions on OMEGA were interpreted with the aid of radiation-hydrodynamic simulations. Neither clean calculations nor those using a turbulent mix model can explain fully the observed migration of shell-dopant material (titanium) into the core. Shell-dopant migration was observed via time-dependent, spatially integrated spectra, and spatially and spectrally resolved x-ray images of capsule implosions and resultant dopant emissions. The titanium emission was centrally peaked in narrowband x-ray images. In post-processed clean simulations, the peak titanium emission forms in a ring in self-emission images as the capsule implodes. Post-processed simulations with mix reproduce trends in time-dependent, spatially integrated spectra, as well having centrally peaked Ti emission in synthetic multiple monochromatic imager. However, mix simulations still do not transport Ti to the core as is observed in the experiment. This suggests that phenomena in addition to the turbulent mix must be responsible for the transport of Ti. Simple diffusion estimates are unable to explain the early Ti mix into the core. Mechanisms suggested for further study are capsule surface roughness, illumination non-uniformity, and shock entrainment.

  13. The Development of Real-time Strong-motion Observation on the Earthquake Early Warning in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, N.; Shin, T.; Wu, Y.

    2007-12-01

    For the sake of seismic hazards mitigation, a real-time strong-motion monitoring system was implemented by the Central Weather Bureau (CWB) since 1995. After successive refinements during the past decade, the system has been utilized as the basis for the development of the early warning (EWS) application in Taiwan. In order to shorten the earthquake response time, a virtual sub-network approach is utilized at first. Under the practical experiment since 2001, for monitoring inland or near offshore earthquakes with magnitude greater than 4.5, the response time can be shorten as 18.8+-3.8 sec averagely. Therefore, it can provide early warning before S-wave arrival for metropolitan areas located 60 km away from the epicenter. For the sake of further reducing the area of so-called blind-zone which cannot provide early warning, we also attempted to utilize vertical displacement records of P-wave as a basis to issue warnings. As results, we found that the amplitude 0.1 cm can be used as a criterion to judge if an earthquake above magnitude 6.0 is occurring in Taiwan Island. Furthermore, we also derived a set of frequency-based formulas simultaneously, which can be used to estimate earthquake magnitude rapidly. To combine the research results, and under the framework of real-time strong-motion observational network, we designed an earthquake early warning algorithm which is suitable for Taiwan Island. According to the experiment on 7 magnitude-above-6.0 earthquakes took place after 2002, the averaged response times is within 15 sec. Furthermore, the processing time for inland earthquakes can be shorten beneath 10 sec, and the radius of blind-zone is reduced to 30 km. Since 2003, the CWB has been replacing the existing 16-bit digital accelero- graphs used in its real-time strong-motion monitoring to 24-bit instruments at an annual replacement rate of 5 to 10% of the total. Besides, some high quality borehole seismic stations and a cable-based Ocean Bottom Seismographic (OBS

  14. The Be star Gamma Cassiopeiae: X-ray, far-UV, and optical observations in early 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horaguchi, Toshihiro; Kogure, Tomokazu; Hirata, Ryuko; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Matsuoka, Masaru; Murakami, Toshio; Doazan, Vera; Slettebak, Arne; Huang, Chang Chun; Cao, Huilai; Guo, Zihe; Huang, Lin; Tsujita, Joji; Ohshima, Osamu; Ito, Yoshiharu

    1994-02-01

    The state of gamma Cas in early 1989 is presented as the result of joint observations in the X-ray, far-UV, and optical regions. Particular attention has been paid to short- and long-term variations within these spectral ranges. In X-ray observations with the Ginga satellite we have found no specific periodic variabilities in the 64 to 13,000 s range, although a highly variable nature with no appreciable changes in the hardness ratios has been confirmed. The X-ray spectrum has been fitted with that of a thin thermal plasma (16 - 17 keV) with an iron emission line centered at 6.7 keV. For the resonance lines of Si IV, C IV, and N V observed with the IUE satellite in the far-UV region, no high-velocity narrow absorption components were detected. The presence of very broad wings in their profiles extending to expansion velocities (greater than or approximately equal to 1,000 km/s) much larger than the photospheric escape velocity provides evidence for the existence of high-velocity mass-loss processes from the star. The optical spectrum shows that gamma Cas is still in the state of V/R greater than 1 for H alpha, H beta, and H gamma. A series of high-resolution, high-S/N, He I lambda 4481 line profiles and Mg II lambda 4481 line profiles indicates evidence of nonradial pulsation (absolute value of m approx. = 8 - 10) of the star. The UBV photometric observations show that gamma Cas was in a rather stable state in early 1989, although some fluctuation was recorded on time scales of minutes and hours. We cannot find any correlation between the time variations of the X-ray and other wavelength regions. We discuss the X-ray characteristics of gamma Cas, which is uncommon among Be star X-ray sources regarding its spectral feature and variability.

  15. The VLA Low Band Project: Early Commissioning Results and Vision for a Primary Focus-based Commensal Observing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassim, Namir E.; Clarke, T. E.; Hicks, B.; Peters, W. M.; Wilson, T. L.; Cutchin, S.; Owen, F. N.; Perley, R. A.; Durand, S.; Kutz, C.; Harden, P.; Intema, H.; Brisken, W.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Taylor, G. B.; Lazio, T. J.

    2013-01-01

    We present an update on the Jansky Very Large Array Low Band (VLA-LB) project, currently undergoing scientific commissioning and expected to be fully available in 2013. VLA-LB is a joint NRL and NRAO initiative to equip the VLA with broadband low frequency receivers that cover the spectrum between 66 and 470 MHz. The current system can already access the 66 to 86 MHz and 230 to 436 MHz sub-bands by working with existing 74 and 330 MHz feeds, respectively. The bandwidth at 74 MHz will increase by more than an order of magnitude while the 330 MHz bandwidth increases by approximately a factor of 6. The improved bandwidth and system temperature, coupled with the power of the WIDAR correlator, promise significantly enhanced performance compared to past VLA capabilities. Early commissioning results at “P band” (330 MHz) with a handful of antennas accessing the larger bandwidth indicate sensitivity rivaling that of the legacy 27-antenna, narrow-band old VLA capability. New feeds that can exploit a larger fraction of the available receiver bandwidth are being explored. While VLA-LB is useful as a conventional system, we are looking to enhance its power by leveraging the VLA’s capability to detect radiation at its prime and Cassegrain foci simultaneously. The ability to observe with more than one band in parallel is a powerful multiplier of a telescope’s function, and many instruments (e.g. the GMRT, WSRT and VLA) offer this. A variant is being explored for VLA-LB: observing from the prime focus during all normal Cassegrain observations. This proposed VLA-LB commensal system would piggyback normal VLA observing time to survey at low frequencies with relatively large field of views. Shared fields with other multi-beaming, dipole-based arrays that view the same sky with the VLA, e.g. the first station of the Long Wavelength Array (LWA1), would be possible. The collected data will be assembled into a database of spectra and wide-field images, suitable for studies of

  16. Soil-litter mixing accelerates decomposition in a Chihuahuan Desert grassland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decomposition models typically under-predict decomposition relative to observed rates in drylands. This discrepancy indicates a significant gap in our mechanistic understanding of carbon and nutrient cycling in these systems. Recent research suggests that certain drivers of decomposition that are of...

  17. Wood decomposition as influenced by invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Ulyshen, Michael D

    2016-02-01

    The diversity and habitat requirements of invertebrates associated with dead wood have been the subjects of hundreds of studies in recent years but we still know very little about the ecological or economic importance of these organisms. The purpose of this review is to examine whether, how and to what extent invertebrates affect wood decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems. Three broad conclusions can be reached from the available literature. First, wood decomposition is largely driven by microbial activity but invertebrates also play a significant role in both temperate and tropical environments. Primary mechanisms include enzymatic digestion (involving both endogenous enzymes and those produced by endo- and ectosymbionts), substrate alteration (tunnelling and fragmentation), biotic interactions and nitrogen fertilization (i.e. promoting nitrogen fixation by endosymbiotic and free-living bacteria). Second, the effects of individual invertebrate taxa or functional groups can be accelerative or inhibitory but the cumulative effect of the entire community is generally to accelerate wood decomposition, at least during the early stages of the process (most studies are limited to the first 2-3 years). Although methodological differences and design limitations preclude meta-analysis, studies aimed at quantifying the contributions of invertebrates to wood decomposition commonly attribute 10-20% of wood loss to these organisms. Finally, some taxa appear to be particularly influential with respect to promoting wood decomposition. These include large wood-boring beetles (Coleoptera) and termites (Termitoidae), especially fungus-farming macrotermitines. The presence or absence of these species may be more consequential than species richness and the influence of invertebrates is likely to vary biogeographically. PMID:25424353

  18. The 3-D effects in the long-term solar wind speed rise observed by Voyager 2 in early 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizzo, V. J.; Paularena, K. I.; Richardson, J. D.; Lazarus, A. J.; Belcher, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    In early 1994, Voyager 2 at 42-43 AU near heliolatitude 10 deg S observed over a period of approximately 100 days a remarkable sequence of quasi-recurrent stream fronts, wherein the background (ambient) speed rose steadily from approximately 450 to approximately 550 km/s while the mean period of the streams decreased from the usual 25 days down to approximately 20 days. A qualitative explanation for this effect can be derived from IMP observations, which show that the amplitude of the stream structure at 1 AU increased monotonically in late 1993, concurrent with major secular evolution in the corona. The reduction in period, then, amounts to a doppler shift due to the progressive overtaking of successively faster streams in the sequence. Attempts to model this process quantitatively with 1-D dynamic simulations falter on three accounts: (1) the reduction in period is overestimated, (2) the simulation predicts many more fronts surviving to 43 AU than are observed by Voyager; (3) the density variations are much too large. It is argued that inclusion of the 3-D geometry in the simulation would resolve most all these shortcomings. Using a series of calculations executed with 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D MHD models of hypothetical tilted-dipole flows, we show that: (1) the radial propagation velocities of 3-D fronts are less than those of 1-D or 2-D fronts, owing to the tilt of (and increased shearing across) the interaction surfaces hence the overtaking rate of successive streams is reduced; (2) in a tilted-dipole geometry, the reverse fronts should largely disappear from the equatorial plane by 43 AU, effectively halving the number of fronts to be observed (see companion paper on predominance of forward fronts at Voyager); and (3) the density enhancements would be much smaller than predicted by a 1-D model.

  19. Fulvenallene decomposition kinetics.

    PubMed

    Polino, Daniela; Cavallotti, Carlo

    2011-09-22

    While the decomposition kinetics of the benzyl radical has been studied in depth both from the experimental and the theoretical standpoint, much less is known about the reactivity of what is likely to be its main decomposition product, fulvenallene. In this work the high temperature reactivity of fulvenallene was investigated on a Potential Energy Surface (PES) consisting of 10 wells interconnected through 11 transition states using a 1 D Master Equation (ME). Rate constants were calculated using RRKM theory and the ME was integrated using a stochastic kinetic Monte Carlo code. It was found that two main decomposition channels are possible, the first is active on the singlet PES and leads to the formation of the fulvenallenyl radical and atomic hydrogen. The second requires intersystem crossing to the triplet PES and leads to acetylene and cyclopentadienylidene. ME simulations were performed calculating the microcanonical intersystem crossing frequency using Landau-Zener theory convoluting the crossing probability with RRKM rates evaluated at the conical intersection. It was found that the reaction channel leading to the cyclopentadienylidene diradical is only slightly faster than that leading to the fulvenallenyl radical, so that it can be concluded that both reactions are likely to be active in the investigated temperature (1500-2000 K) and pressure (0.05-50 bar) ranges. However, the simulations show that intersystem crossing is rate limiting for the first reaction channel, as the removal of this barrier leads to an increase of the rate constant by a factor of 2-3. Channel specific rate constants are reported as a function of temperature and pressure. PMID:21819060

  20. Hydrogen peroxide catalytic decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide in a gaseous stream is converted to nitrogen dioxide using oxidizing species generated through the use of concentrated hydrogen peroxide fed as a monopropellant into a catalyzed thruster assembly. The hydrogen peroxide is preferably stored at stable concentration levels, i.e., approximately 50%-70% by volume, and may be increased in concentration in a continuous process preceding decomposition in the thruster assembly. The exhaust of the thruster assembly, rich in hydroxyl and/or hydroperoxy radicals, may be fed into a stream containing oxidizable components, such as nitric oxide, to facilitate their oxidation.

  1. Mode decomposition evolution equations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Wei, Guo-Wei; Yang, Siyang

    2011-01-01

    Partial differential equation (PDE) based methods have become some of the most powerful tools for exploring the fundamental problems in signal processing, image processing, computer vision, machine vision and artificial intelligence in the past two decades. The advantages of PDE based approaches are that they can be made fully automatic, robust for the analysis of images, videos and high dimensional data. A fundamental question is whether one can use PDEs to perform all the basic tasks in the image processing. If one can devise PDEs to perform full-scale mode decomposition for signals and images, the modes thus generated would be very useful for secondary processing to meet the needs in various types of signal and image processing. Despite of great progress in PDE based image analysis in the past two decades, the basic roles of PDEs in image/signal analysis are only limited to PDE based low-pass filters, and their applications to noise removal, edge detection, segmentation, etc. At present, it is not clear how to construct PDE based methods for full-scale mode decomposition. The above-mentioned limitation of most current PDE based image/signal processing methods is addressed in the proposed work, in which we introduce a family of mode decomposition evolution equations (MoDEEs) for a vast variety of applications. The MoDEEs are constructed as an extension of a PDE based high-pass filter (Europhys. Lett., 59(6): 814, 2002) by using arbitrarily high order PDE based low-pass filters introduced by Wei (IEEE Signal Process. Lett., 6(7): 165, 1999). The use of arbitrarily high order PDEs is essential to the frequency localization in the mode decomposition. Similar to the wavelet transform, the present MoDEEs have a controllable time-frequency localization and allow a perfect reconstruction of the original function. Therefore, the MoDEE operation is also called a PDE transform. However, modes generated from the present approach are in the spatial or time domain and can be

  2. HF radar observations of Pc 5 field line resonances in the midnight/early morning MLT sector

    SciTech Connect

    Ruohoniemi, J.M.; Greenwald, R.A.; Baker, K.B. ); Samson, J.C. )

    1991-09-01

    On a number of occasions The Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory HF radar at Goose Bay, Labrador, has observed the effects of field line resonances on the drift velocities of irregularities in the F region of the high-latitude ionosphere. One of the most interesting sets of resonances occurs near midnight MLT and may be associated with shear in the convective flow in the magnetotail. This paper discusses in detail a particularly clear example which shows field line resonance equatorward of a region of shear flow in the early morning sector. The motions were predominantly in the geomagnetic east-west direction, indicating north-south electric fields. As expected of field line resonance pulsations, these oscillations had pronounced peaks in their latitudinal power distribution. The pulsations could occur simultaneously but remained distinct as the latitude of peak response was observed to vary inversely with the frequency of the pulsation. The authors interpret these features in terms of field line resonance theory and discuss the possible sources of the pulsation energy.

  3. Early-type galaxies at intermediate redshift observed with Hubble space telescope WFC3: perspectives on recent star formation

    SciTech Connect

    Rutkowski, Michael J.; Jeong, Hyunjin; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Cohen, Seth H.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Kaviraj, Sugata; Ryan, Russell E. Jr.; Koekemoer, Anton; Hathi, Nimish P.; Dopita, Michael A.

    2014-12-01

    We present an analysis of the stellar populations of 102 visually selected early-type galaxies (ETGs) with spectroscopic redshifts (0.35 ≲ z ≲ 1.5) from observations in the Early Release Science program with the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We fit one- and two-component synthetic stellar models to the ETGs UV-optical-near-IR spectral energy distributions and find that a large fraction (∼40%) are likely to have experienced a minor (f{sub YC} ≲ 10% of stellar mass) burst of recent (t{sub YC} ≲ 1 Gyr) star formation. The measured age and mass fraction of the young stellar populations do not strongly trend with measurements of galaxy morphology. We note that massive (M > 10{sup 10.5} M {sub ☉}) recent star-forming ETGs appear to have larger sizes. Furthermore, high-mass, quiescent ETGs identified with likely companions populate a distinct region in the size-mass parameter space, in comparison with the distribution of massive ETGs with evidence of recent star formation (RSF). We conclude that both mechanisms of quenching star formation in disk-like ETGs and (gas-rich, minor) merger activity contribute to the formation of young stars and the size-mass evolution of intermediate redshift ETGs. The number of ETGs for which we have both HST WFC3 panchromatic (especially UV) imaging and spectroscopically confirmed redshifts is relatively small, therefore, a conclusion about the relative roles of both of these mechanisms remains an open question.

  4. Environmental effects of solar-thermal power systems: ecological observations during early testing of the Barstow 10-MWe pilot STPS

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, F.B.

    1982-11-01

    Environmental measurements were continued at Solar One during 1982, while final steps in construction and early testing were carried out. Measurements of sand depths downwind (east) of the heliostat field indicated that some of the sand blown off the field (most of it between September 1979 and March 1980) has been carried farther east, reducing sand depths somewhat in areas just east of the field. Observations of birds between March and June 1982 revealed that (1) the natural avifauna of the field has been altered, although the area is still used for feeding by some icterids (larks, blackbirds) and aerial insectivores (swallows, swifts); (2) of 15 bird casualties ascribable to the presence and/or operation of Solar One, 12 followed collisions with heliostats, three resulted from incineration in heliostat beams; (3) the central receiver tower does not appear to be a source of mortality. Numbers of rodents (particularly kangaroo rats) trapped in areas downwind of the site declined steadily between 1978 and 1982 in areas both clost to the field and as far east as 600 m from the fence. The most likely interpretation of these changes is a reduction in reproductivity and/or early survival caused by four consecutive years (1978, 1979, 1980, 1981) of suboptimal autumn rainfall. Micrometeorological measurements in areas downwind of Solar One showed small effects on air temperatures (<0.5/sup 0/C), wind speeds (<0.4 m/sec), and evaporation rates (<1.5 ml/hr).Effects were detected only in areas 100 to 190 m from the east perimeter fence. Because these differences are so small, relative to natural heterogeneities, the effects of Solar One on rates of evaporation, air temperatures and wind speed will not affect the downwind biological community. The relavance of these findings to construction of a larger solar thermal power plant (e.g., Solar 100) are considered.

  5. Biological characterization and selection criteria of adjuvant chemotherapy for early breast cancer: experience from the Italian observational NEMESI study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background International treatment guidelines recommend administration of adjuvant chemotherapy in early breast cancer based on clinical, prognostic and predictive parameters. Methods An observational study (NEMESI) was conducted in 63 Italian oncology centres in patients with early breast cancer. Age, performance status, concomitant disease, menopausal status, histology, tumor dimension (pT), axillary lymph node status (pN), grading (G), estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER and PgR), proliferative index (ki67 or MIB-1), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and type of adjuvant treatment were recorded. The primary objective of the study was to define parameters influencing the decision to prescribe adjuvant chemotherapy and the type of chemotherapy. Results Data for 1894 patients were available. 69.0% postmenopausal, 67.0% pT1, 22.3% pTmic/pT1a/pT1b, 61.0% pN0, 48.7% luminal A, 18.1% luminal B, 16.1% HER2 positive, 8.7% triple negative, 8.4% unknown. 57.8% received adjuvant chemotherapy: 38.1% of luminal A, 67.3% luminal B, 88.2% HER2-positive, 97.6% triple negative. Regimens administered: 9.1% CMF-like, 48.8% anthracyclines, 38.4% anthracyclines plus taxanes, 3.7% taxanes alone. Increasing pT/pN and, marginally, HER2-positive were associated with the prescription of anthracyclines plus taxanes. Suboptimal schedules (CMF-like or AC/EC or FEC-75) were prescribed in 37.3% receiving chemotherapy, even in HER2-positive and triple negative disease (36.5% and 34.0%, respectively). Conclusions This study showed an overprescription of adjuvant chemotherapy for early breast cancer, particularly referred to luminal A. pT, pN and, marginally, HER2 were the principal determinants for the choice of chemotherapy type. Suboptimal chemotherapy regimens were adopted in at least one third of HER2-positve and triple negative. PMID:22672524

  6. Hydrogen iodide decomposition

    DOEpatents

    O'Keefe, Dennis R.; Norman, John H.

    1983-01-01

    Liquid hydrogen iodide is decomposed to form hydrogen and iodine in the presence of water using a soluble catalyst. Decomposition is carried out at a temperature between about 350.degree. K. and about 525.degree. K. and at a corresponding pressure between about 25 and about 300 atmospheres in the presence of an aqueous solution which acts as a carrier for the homogeneous catalyst. Various halides of the platinum group metals, particularly Pd, Rh and Pt, are used, particularly the chlorides and iodides which exhibit good solubility. After separation of the H.sub.2, the stream from the decomposer is countercurrently extracted with nearly dry HI to remove I.sub.2. The wet phase contains most of the catalyst and is recycled directly to the decomposition step. The catalyst in the remaining almost dry HI-I.sub.2 phase is then extracted into a wet phase which is also recycled. The catalyst-free HI-I.sub.2 phase is finally distilled to separate the HI and I.sub.2. The HI is recycled to the reactor; the I.sub.2 is returned to a reactor operating in accordance with the Bunsen equation to create more HI.

  7. Coxeter decompositions of hyperbolic simplexes

    SciTech Connect

    Felikson, A A

    2002-12-31

    A Coxeter decomposition of a polyhedron in a hyperbolic space H{sup n} is a decomposition of it into finitely many Coxeter polyhedra such that any two tiles having a common facet are symmetric with respect to it. The classification of Coxeter decompositions is closely related to the problem of the classification of finite-index subgroups generated by reflections in discrete hyperbolic groups generated by reflections. All Coxeter decompositions of simplexes in the hyperbolic spaces H{sup n} with n>3 are described in this paper.

  8. Purely Dry Mergers do not Explain the Observed Evolution of Massive Early-type Galaxies since z ~ 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Nipoti, Carlo; Treu, Tommaso

    2014-05-01

    Several studies have suggested that the observed size evolution of massive early-type galaxies (ETGs) can be explained as a combination of dry mergers and progenitor bias, at least since z ~ 1. In this paper we carry out a new test of the dry-merger scenario based on recent lensing measurements of the evolution of the mass density profile of ETGs. We construct a theoretical model for the joint evolution of the size and mass density profile slope γ' driven by dry mergers occurring at rates given by cosmological simulations. Such dry-merger model predicts a strong decrease of γ' with cosmic time, inconsistent with the almost constant γ' inferred from observations in the redshift range 0 < z < 1. We then show with a simple toy model that a modest amount of cold gas in the mergers—consistent with the upper limits on recent star formation in ETGs—is sufficient to reconcile the model with measurements of γ'. By fitting for the amount of gas accreted during mergers, we find that models with dissipation are consistent with observations of the evolution in both size and density slope, if ~4% of the total final stellar mass arises from the gas accreted since z ~ 1. Purely dry merger models are ruled out at >99% CL. We thus suggest a scenario where the outer regions of massive ETGs grow by accretion of stars and dark matter, while small amounts of dissipation and nuclear star formation conspire to keep the mass density profile constant and approximately isothermal.

  9. Sunspot numbers based on historic records in the 1610s: Early telescopic observations by Simon Marius and others

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhäuser, R.; Neuhäuser, D. L.

    2016-07-01

    Hoyt & Schatten (1998) claim that Simon Marius would have observed the sun from 1617 Jun 7 to 1618 Dec 31 (Gregorian calendar) all days, except three short gaps in 1618, but would never have detected a sunspot - based on a quotation from Marius in Wolf (1857), but mis-interpreted by Hoyt & Schatten. Marius himself specified in early 1619 that for one and a half year ... rather few or more often no spots could be detected ... which was never observed before (Marius 1619). The generic statement by Marius can be interpreted such that the active day fraction was below 0.5 (but not zero) from fall 1617 to spring 1619 and that it was 1 before fall 1617 (since August 1611). Hoyt & Schatten cite Zinner (1952), who referred to Zinner (1942), where observing dates by Marius since 1611 are given but which were not used by Hoyt & Schatten. We present all relevant texts from Marius where he clearly stated that he observed many spots in different form on and since 1611 Aug 3 (Julian) = Aug 13 (Greg.) (on the first day together with Ahasverus Schmidnerus); 14 spots on 1612 May 30 (Julian) = Jun 9 (Greg.), which is consistent with drawings by Galilei and Jungius for that day, the latter is shown here for the first time; at least one spot on 1611 Oct 3 and/or 11 (Julian), i.e. Oct 13 and/or 21 (Greg.), when he changed his sunspot observing technique; he also mentioned that he has drawn sunspots for 1611 Nov 17 (Julian) = Nov 27 (Greg.); in addition to those clearly datable detections, there is evidence in the texts for regular observations. For all the information that can be compared to other observers, the data from Marius could be confirmed, so that his texts are highly credible. We also correct several shortcomings or apparent errors in the database by Hoyt & Schatten (1998) regarding 1612 (Harriot), 1615 (Saxonius, Tardé), 1616 (Tardé), 1617-1619 (Marius, Riccioli/Argoli), and Malapert (for 1618, 1620, and 1621). Furthermore, Schmidnerus, Cysat, David & Johann Fabricius

  10. Low Temperature Decomposition Rates for Tetraphenylborate Ion

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.D.

    1998-11-18

    Previous studies indicated that palladium is catalyzes rapid decomposition of alkaline tetraphenylborate slurries. Additional evidence suggest that Pd(II) reduces to Pd(0) during catalyst activation. Further use of tetraphenylborate ion in the decontamination of radioactive waste may require removal of the catalyst or cooling to temperatures at which the decomposition reaction proceeds slowly and does not adversely affect processing. Recent tests showed that tetraphenylborate did not react appreciably at 25 degrees Celsius over six months suggesting the potential to avoid the decomposition at low temperatures. The lack of reaction at low temperature could reflect very slow kinetics at the lower temperature, or may indicate a catalyst ''deactivation'' process. Previous tests in the temperature range 35 to 70 degrees Celsius provided a low precision estimate of the activation energy of the reaction with which to predict the rate of reaction at 25 percent Celsius. To understand the observations at 25 degrees Celsius, experiments must separate the catalyst activation step and the subsequent reaction with TPB. Tests described in this report represent an initial attempt to separate the two steps and determine the rate and activation energy of the reaction between active catalyst and TPB. The results of these tests indicate that the absence of reaction at 25 degrees Celsius was caused by failure to activate the catalyst or the presence of a deactivating mechanism. In the presence of activated catalyst, the decomposition reaction rate is significant.