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  1. The maternal microbiota drives early postnatal innate immune development.

    PubMed

    Gomez de Agüero, Mercedes; Ganal-Vonarburg, Stephanie C; Fuhrer, Tobias; Rupp, Sandra; Uchimura, Yasuhiro; Li, Hai; Steinert, Anna; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Hapfelmeier, Siegfried; Sauer, Uwe; McCoy, Kathy D; Macpherson, Andrew J

    2016-03-18

    Postnatal colonization of the body with microbes is assumed to be the main stimulus to postnatal immune development. By transiently colonizing pregnant female mice, we show that the maternal microbiota shapes the immune system of the offspring. Gestational colonization increases intestinal group 3 innate lymphoid cells and F4/80(+)CD11c(+) mononuclear cells in the pups. Maternal colonization reprograms intestinal transcriptional profiles of the offspring, including increased expression of genes encoding epithelial antibacterial peptides and metabolism of microbial molecules. Some of these effects are dependent on maternal antibodies that potentially retain microbial molecules and transmit them to the offspring during pregnancy and in milk. Pups born to mothers transiently colonized in pregnancy are better able to avoid inflammatory responses to microbial molecules and penetration of intestinal microbes. PMID:26989247

  2. Sensitivity and permissivity of Cyprinus carpio to cyprinid herpesvirus 3 during the early stages of its development: importance of the epidermal mucus as an innate immune barrier.

    PubMed

    Ronsmans, Maygane; Boutier, Maxime; Rakus, Krzysztof; Farnir, Frédéric; Desmecht, Daniel; Ectors, Fabien; Vandecan, Michaël; Lieffrig, François; Mélard, Charles; Vanderplasschen, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) causes a lethal disease in common and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio). The present study investigated the ability of CyHV-3 to infect common carp during the early stages of its development (from embryos to fingerlings) after inoculation by immersion in water containing the virus. Fish were inoculated at different times after hatching with a pathogenic recombinant CyHV-3 strain expressing luciferase. The sensitivity and permissivity of carp to CyHV-3 were investigated using in vivo bioluminescence imaging. The susceptibility of carp to CyHV-3 disease was investigated by measuring the survival rate. Carp were sensitive and permissive to CyHV-3 infection and susceptible to CyHV-3 disease at all stages of development, but the sensitivity of the two early developmental stages (embryo and larval stages) was limited compared to later stages. The lower sensitivity observed for the early developmental stages was due to stronger inhibition of viral entry into the host by epidermal mucus. In addition, independent of the developmental stage at which inoculation was performed, the localization of light emission suggested that the skin is the portal of CyHV-3 entry. Taken together, the results of the present study demonstrate that carp are sensitive and permissive to CyHV-3 at all stages of development and confirm that the skin is the major portal of entry after inoculation by immersion in infectious water. The results also stress the role of epidermal mucus as an innate immune barrier against pathogens even and especially at the early stages of development. PMID:25281322

  3. Development of innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Zook, Erin C; Kee, Barbara L

    2016-06-21

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a family of immune effector cells that have important roles in host defense, metabolic homeostasis and tissue repair but can also contribute to inflammatory diseases such as asthma and colitis. These cells can be categorized into three groups on the basis of the transcription factors that direct their function and the cytokines they produce, which parallel the effector functions of T lymphocytes. The hierarchy of cell-fate-restriction events that occur as common lymphoid progenitors become committed to each of the ILC lineages further underscores the relationship between these innate immune cells and T lymphocytes. In this Review we discuss the developmental program of ILCs and transcription factors that guide ILC lineage specification and commitment. PMID:27328007

  4. Altered innate immune development in HIV-exposed uninfected infants

    PubMed Central

    Reikie, Brian A.; Adams, Rozanne C.M.; Leligdowicz, Aleksandra; Ho, Kevin; Naidoo, Shalena; Rusk, Candice E.; de Beer, Corena; Preiser, Wolfgang; Cotton, Mark F.; Speert, David P.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Early in life HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants are at an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from infectious disease compared to HIV-unexposed (UE) infants. To improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying their increased risk, we contrasted innate immune development between HEU and UE infants in a developing world setting, where early-life infectious disease risk is exceptionally high. METHODS A prospective longitudinal cohort of HEU and UE newborns was established and the most detailed characterization to date of HEU infant immune development was performed. Single-cell cytokine production was analyzed by flow cytometry after stimulation of whole blood with pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMP). RESULTS Monocyte, classical dendritic cell and plasmacytoid dendritic cell composition was similar between HEU and UE infants throughout the first year of life. However, HEU mononuclear cells mounted an enhanced pro-inflammatory response to PAMP stimulation, both in quantity of cytokine produced per-cell and in proportion of responder cells. Significant differences in cytokine production were detected on the single cell level in a PAMP-specific pattern, but only at 2 and 6 weeks of age; all differences normalized by 12 months of age. CONCLUSIONS This time course of innate immune deviation early in life corresponds to the clinical window of vulnerability to infections in HEU infants and may be at least partially responsible for their increased morbidity and mortality from infectious disease. PMID:24732876

  5. Early developmental exposures shape trade-offs between acquired and innate immunity in humans

    PubMed Central

    Georgiev, Alexander V.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; McDade, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Life history theory predicts resource allocation trade-offs between competing functions and processes. We test the hypothesis that relative investment towards innate versus acquired immunity in humans is subject to such trade-offs and that three types of early developmental exposures are particularly salient in shaping adult immunophenotype: (i) pathogen exposure, (ii) nutritional resources; and (iii) extrinsic mortality cues. Methodology We quantified one aspect each of innate and acquired immune function, via C-reactive protein and Epstein–Barr virus antibodies, respectively, in a sample of 1248 men and women from the Philippines (ca. 21.5 years old). Early developmental exposures were assessed via long-term data collected prospectively since participants’ birth (1983–4). We calculated a standardized ratio to assess relative bias towards acquired versus innate immune function and examined its relationship to a suite of predictors via multiple regression. Results In partial support of our predictions, some of the measures of higher pathogen exposure, greater availability of nutritional resources, and lower extrinsic mortality cues in early life were associated with a bias toward acquired immunity in both men and women. The immune profile of women, in particular, appeared to be more sensitive to early life pathogen exposures than those of men. Finally, contrary to prediction, women exhibited a greater relative investment toward innate, not acquired, immunity. Conclusions and implications Early environments can exert considerable influence on the development of immunity. They affect trade-offs between innate and acquired immunity, which show adaptive plasticity and may differ in their influence in men and women. PMID:27530543

  6. Innate immune response development in nestling tree swallows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stambaugh, T.; Houdek, B.J.; Lombardo, M.P.; Thorpe, P.A.; Caldwell, Hahn D.

    2011-01-01

    We tracked the development of innate immunity in nestling Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and compared it to that of adults using blood drawn from nestlings during days 6, 12, and 18 of the ???20-day nestling period and from adults. Innate immunity was characterized using an in vitro assay of the ability of whole blood to kill Escherichia coli. The ability of whole blood to kill E. coli increased as nestlings matured. Neither this component of innate immunity nor right wing chord length on day18 were as developed as in adults indicating that development of the innate immune system and growth both continued after fledging. Narrow sense heritability analyses suggest that females with strong immune responses produced nestlings with strong immune responses. These data suggest nestling Tree Swallows allocated sufficient energy to support rapid growth to enable fledging by day 18, but that further development of innate immunity occurred post-fledging. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  7. Transcriptional Regulatory Network for the Development of Innate Lymphoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Chao; Zhu, Jinfang

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies on innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have expanded our knowledge about the innate arm of the immune system. Helper-like ILCs share both the “innate” feature of conventional natural killer (cNK) cells and the “helper” feature of CD4+ T helper (Th) cells. With this combination, helper-like ILCs are capable of initiating early immune responses similar to cNK cells, but via secretion of a set of effector cytokines similar to those produced by Th cells. Although many studies have revealed the functional similarity between helper-like ILCs and Th cells, some aspects of ILCs including the development of this lineage remain elusive. It is intriguing that the majority of transcription factors involved in multiple stages of T cell development, differentiation, and function also play critical roles during ILC development. Regulators such as Id2, GATA-3, Nfil3, TOX, and TCF-1 are expressed and function at various stages of ILC development. In this review, we will summarize the expression and functions of these transcription factors shared by ILCs and Th cells. We will also propose a complex transcriptional regulatory network for the lineage commitment of ILCs. PMID:26379372

  8. Transcription Factor Networks Directing the Development, Function, and Evolution of Innate Lymphoid Effectors

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Joonsoo; Malhotra, Nidhi

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian lymphoid immunity is mediated by fast and slow responders to pathogens. Fast innate lymphocytes are active within hours after infections in mucosal tissues. Slow adaptive lymphocytes are conventional T and B cells with clonal antigen receptors that function days after pathogen exposure. A transcription factor (TF) regulatory network guiding early T cell development is at the core of effector function diversification in all innate lymphocytes, and the kinetics of immune responses is set by developmental programming. Operational units within the innate lymphoid system are not classified by the types of pathogen-sensing machineries but rather by discrete effector functions programmed by regulatory TF networks. Based on the evolutionary history of TFs of the regulatory networks, fast effectors likely arose earlier in the evolution of animals to fortify body barriers, and in mammals they often develop in fetal ontogeny prior to the establishment of fully competent adaptive immunity. PMID:25650177

  9. A zebrafish larval model reveals early tissue-specific innate immune responses to Mucor circinelloides

    PubMed Central

    Voelz, Kerstin; Gratacap, Remi L.; Wheeler, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mucormycosis is an emerging fungal infection that is clinically difficult to manage, with increasing incidence and extremely high mortality rates. Individuals with diabetes, suppressed immunity or traumatic injury are at increased risk of developing disease. These individuals often present with defects in phagocytic effector cell function. Research using mammalian models and phagocytic effector cell lines has attempted to decipher the importance of the innate immune system in host defence against mucormycosis. However, these model systems have not been satisfactory for direct analysis of the interaction between innate immune effector cells and infectious sporangiospores in vivo. Here, we report the first real-time in vivo analysis of the early innate immune response to mucormycete infection using a whole-animal zebrafish larval model system. We identified differential host susceptibility, dependent on the site of infection (hindbrain ventricle and swim bladder), as well as differential functions of the two major phagocyte effector cell types in response to viable and non-viable spores. Larval susceptibility to mucormycete spore infection was increased upon immunosuppressant treatment. We showed for the first time that macrophages and neutrophils were readily recruited in vivo to the site of infection in an intact host and that spore phagocytosis can be observed in real-time in vivo. While exploring innate immune effector recruitment dynamics, we discovered the formation of phagocyte clusters in response to fungal spores that potentially play a role in fungal spore dissemination. Spores failed to activate pro-inflammatory gene expression by 6 h post-infection in both infection models. After 24 h, induction of a pro-inflammatory response was observed only in hindbrain ventricle infections. Only a weak pro-inflammatory response was initiated after spore injection into the swim bladder during the same time frame. In the future, the zebrafish larva as a live

  10. A zebrafish larval model reveals early tissue-specific innate immune responses to Mucor circinelloides.

    PubMed

    Voelz, Kerstin; Gratacap, Remi L; Wheeler, Robert T

    2015-11-01

    Mucormycosis is an emerging fungal infection that is clinically difficult to manage, with increasing incidence and extremely high mortality rates. Individuals with diabetes, suppressed immunity or traumatic injury are at increased risk of developing disease. These individuals often present with defects in phagocytic effector cell function. Research using mammalian models and phagocytic effector cell lines has attempted to decipher the importance of the innate immune system in host defence against mucormycosis. However, these model systems have not been satisfactory for direct analysis of the interaction between innate immune effector cells and infectious sporangiospores in vivo. Here, we report the first real-time in vivo analysis of the early innate immune response to mucormycete infection using a whole-animal zebrafish larval model system. We identified differential host susceptibility, dependent on the site of infection (hindbrain ventricle and swim bladder), as well as differential functions of the two major phagocyte effector cell types in response to viable and non-viable spores. Larval susceptibility to mucormycete spore infection was increased upon immunosuppressant treatment. We showed for the first time that macrophages and neutrophils were readily recruited in vivo to the site of infection in an intact host and that spore phagocytosis can be observed in real-time in vivo. While exploring innate immune effector recruitment dynamics, we discovered the formation of phagocyte clusters in response to fungal spores that potentially play a role in fungal spore dissemination. Spores failed to activate pro-inflammatory gene expression by 6 h post-infection in both infection models. After 24 h, induction of a pro-inflammatory response was observed only in hindbrain ventricle infections. Only a weak pro-inflammatory response was initiated after spore injection into the swim bladder during the same time frame. In the future, the zebrafish larva as a live whole

  11. Composition, Development, and Function of Uterine Innate Lymphoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Balmas, Elisa; Boulenouar, Selma; Gaynor, Louise M.; Kieckbusch, Jens; Gardner, Lucy; Hawkes, Delia A.; Barbara, Cynthia F.; Sharkey, Andrew M.; Brady, Hugh J. M.; Brosens, Jan J.; Moffett, Ashley; Colucci, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), including NK cells, contribute to barrier immunity and tissue homeostasis. In addition to the role of uterine NK cells in placentation and fetal growth, other uterine ILCs (uILCs) are likely to play roles in uterine physiology and pathology. In this article, we report on the composition of uILCs in the endometrium during the luteal phase and in the decidua during early pregnancy. Whereas nonkiller uILC1s and uILC2s are barely detectable in mouse and not detected in humans, a sizeable population of uILC3s is found in human endometrium and decidua, which are mostly NCR+ and partially overlap with previously described IL-22–producing uterine NK cells. Development of mouse uILC3 is Nfil3 independent, suggesting unique features of uILCs. Indeed, although the cytokine production profile of mouse uILCs recapitulates that described in other tissues, IL-5, IL-17, and IL-22 are constitutively produced by uILC2s and uILC3s. This study lays the foundation to understand how ILCs function in the specialized uterine mucosa, both in tissue homeostasis and barrier immunity and during pregnancy. PMID:26371244

  12. Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells Promote an Early Antibody Response to a Respiratory Antigen in Mice.

    PubMed

    Drake, Li Yin; Iijima, Koji; Bartemes, Kathleen; Kita, Hirohito

    2016-08-15

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a new family of immune cells that play important roles in innate immunity in mucosal tissues, and in the maintenance of tissue and metabolic homeostasis. Recently, group 2 ILCs (ILC2s) were found to promote the development and effector functions of Th2-type CD4(+) T cells by interacting directly with T cells or by activating dendritic cells, suggesting a role for ILC2s in regulating adaptive immunity. However, our current knowledge on the role of ILCs in humoral immunity is limited. In this study, we found that ILC2s isolated from the lungs of naive BALB/c mice enhanced the proliferation of B1- as well as B2-type B cells and promoted the production of IgM, IgG1, IgA, and IgE by these cells in vitro. Soluble factors secreted by ILC2s were sufficient to enhance B cell Ig production. By using blocking Abs and ILC2s isolated from IL-5-deficient mice, we found that ILC2-derived IL-5 is critically involved in the enhanced production of IgM. Furthermore, when adoptively transferred to Il7r(-/-) mice, which lack ILC2s and mature T cells, lung ILC2s promoted the production of IgM Abs to a polysaccharide Ag, 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylacetyl Ficoll, within 7 d of airway exposure in vivo. These findings add to the growing body of literature regarding the regulatory functions of ILCs in adaptive immunity, and suggest that lung ILC2s promote B cell production of early Abs to a respiratory Ag even in the absence of T cells. PMID:27421480

  13. Nfil3 is crucial for development of innate lymphoid cells and host protection against intestinal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Geiger, Theresa L; Abt, Michael C; Gasteiger, Georg; Firth, Matthew A; O'Connor, Margaret H; Geary, Clair D; O'Sullivan, Timothy E; van den Brink, Marcel R; Pamer, Eric G; Hanash, Alan M; Sun, Joseph C

    2014-08-25

    The bZIP transcription factor Nfil3 (also known as E4BP4) is required for the development of natural killer (NK) cells and type 1 innate lymphoid cells (ILC1s). We find that Nfil3 plays a critical role in the development of other mucosal tissue-associated innate lymphocytes. Type 3 ILCs (ILC3s), including lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi)-like cells, are severely diminished in both numbers and function in Nfil3-deficient mice. Using mixed bone marrow chimeric mice, we demonstrate that Nfil3 is critical for normal development of gut-associated ILC3s in a cell-intrinsic manner. Furthermore, Nfil3 deficiency severely compromises intestinal innate immune defense against acute bacterial infection with Citrobacter rodentium and Clostridium difficile. Nfil3 deficiency resulted in a loss of the recently identified ILC precursor, yet conditional ablation of Nfil3 in the NKp46(+) ILC3 subset did not perturb ILC3 numbers, suggesting that Nfil3 is required early during ILC3 development but not for lineage maintenance. Lastly, a marked defect in type 2 ILCs (ILC2s) was also observed in the lungs and visceral adipose tissue of Nfil3-deficient mice, revealing a general requirement for Nfil3 in the development of all ILC lineages. PMID:25113970

  14. The effects of early weaning on innate immune responses of Holstein calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to compare innate immune responses of calves weaned early (EW; n = 23; weaned at 23.7 ± 2.3 d of age) to conventionally-weaned calves (CW; n = 22; weaned at 44.7 ± 2.3 d of age). All calves were fed 3.8 L of colostrum within 12 h of birth and were subsequently fed m...

  15. Early innate responses to pathogens: pattern recognition by unconventional human T-cells

    PubMed Central

    Liuzzi, Anna Rita; McLaren, James E; Price, David A; Eberl, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Although typically viewed as a feature of innate immune responses, microbial pattern recognition is increasingly acknowledged as a function of particular cells nominally categorized within the adaptive immune system. Groundbreaking research over the past three years has shown how unconventional human T-cells carrying invariant or semi-invariant TCRs that are not restricted by classical MHC molecules sense microbial compounds via entirely novel antigen presenting pathways. This review will focus on the innate-like recognition of non-self metabolites by Vγ9/Vδ2 T-cells, mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells and germline-encoded mycolyl-reactive (GEM) T-cells, with an emphasis on early immune responses in acute infection. PMID:26182978

  16. Ontogeny of Innate T Lymphocytes – Some Innate Lymphocytes are More Innate than Others

    PubMed Central

    Vermijlen, David; Prinz, Immo

    2014-01-01

    Innate lymphocytes have recently received a lot of attention. However, there are different ideas about the definition of what is “innate” in lymphocytes. Lymphocytes without V(D)J-rearranged antigen receptors are now termed innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and include cells formerly known as natural killer (NK) cells. Also, lymphocytes that are innate should be able to recognize microbial or stress-induced patterns and react rapidly without prior sensitization, as opposed to adaptive immune responses. Formally, genuine innate lymphocytes would be present before or at birth. Here, we review the ontogeny of human and mouse innate T lymphocyte populations. We focus on γδ T cells, which are prototype lymphocytes that often use their V(D)J rearrangement machinery to generate genetically encoded predetermined recombinations of antigen receptors. We make parallels between the development of γδ T cells with that of innate αβ T cells [invariant (i)NKT and mucosa-associated invariant T cells] and compare this with the ontogeny of innate B cells and ILCs (including NK cells). We conclude that some subsets are more innate than others, i.e., innate lymphocytes that are made primarily early in utero during gestation while others are made after birth. In practice, a ranking of innateness by ontogeny has implications for the reconstitution of innate lymphocyte subsets after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:25346734

  17. Transcription factors controlling development and function of innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Tanriver, Yakup; Diefenbach, Andreas

    2014-03-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a heterogeneous group of lymphocytes, which play an important role in tissue homeostasis at epithelial surfaces. They are scarce in spleen and lymph nodes, but substantial numbers can be found in the intestinal mucosa even at steady state. There, they represent the first line of defence against invading pathogens and contribute to lymphorganogenesis, tissue repair and, when inappropriately activated, immune pathology. Lineage-specific development, function and maintenance of these cells depend on a restricted set of transcription factors that partially emerged as a result of diversification and selection during vertebrate evolution. The differential expression of transcription factors regulates unique developmental programs, which endow the different ILC subsets with specific effector functions. Despite this division of labour, ILCs are considered to share a common origin, as they all are progeny of the common lymphoid progenitor, rely on the common γ-chain (γc) used by various cytokine receptors and show a developmental requirement for the transcriptional regulator Id2 (inhibitor of DNA binding 2). Here, we review the transcriptional programs required for the development and function of ILCs and give an overview of the evolution of transcription factors and cytokines expressed by ILCs. PMID:24585669

  18. FoxO1-mediated autophagy is required for NK cell development and innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuo; Xia, Pengyan; Huang, Guanling; Zhu, Pingping; Liu, Jing; Ye, Buqing; Du, Ying; Fan, Zusen

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells exert a crucial role in early immune responses as a major innate effector component. However, the underlying mechanisms of NK cell development remain largely elusive. Here we show that robust autophagy appears in the stage of immature NK cells (iNKs), which is required for NK cell development. Autophagy defects result in damaged mitochondria and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that leads to apoptosis of NK cells. Autophagy protects NK cell viability during development through removal of damaged mitochondria and intracellular ROS. Phosphorylated Forkhead box O (FoxO)1 is located to the cytoplasm of iNKs and interacts with Atg7, leading to induction of autophagy. FoxO1 deficiency or an inactive FoxO1(AAA) mutant abrogates autophagy initiation in iNKs and impairs NK cell development and viral clearance. Therefore we conclude that FoxO1-mediated autophagy is required for NK cell development and NK cell-induced innate immunity. PMID:27010363

  19. FoxO1-mediated autophagy is required for NK cell development and innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuo; Xia, Pengyan; Huang, Guanling; Zhu, Pingping; Liu, Jing; Ye, Buqing; Du, Ying; Fan, Zusen

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells exert a crucial role in early immune responses as a major innate effector component. However, the underlying mechanisms of NK cell development remain largely elusive. Here we show that robust autophagy appears in the stage of immature NK cells (iNKs), which is required for NK cell development. Autophagy defects result in damaged mitochondria and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that leads to apoptosis of NK cells. Autophagy protects NK cell viability during development through removal of damaged mitochondria and intracellular ROS. Phosphorylated Forkhead box O (FoxO)1 is located to the cytoplasm of iNKs and interacts with Atg7, leading to induction of autophagy. FoxO1 deficiency or an inactive FoxO1AAA mutant abrogates autophagy initiation in iNKs and impairs NK cell development and viral clearance. Therefore we conclude that FoxO1-mediated autophagy is required for NK cell development and NK cell-induced innate immunity. PMID:27010363

  20. The Role of TOX in the Development of Innate Lymphoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Seehus, Corey R.; Kaye, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    TOX, an evolutionarily conserved member of the HMG-box family of proteins, is essential for the development of various cells of both the innate and adaptive immune system. TOX is required for the development of CD4+ T lineage cells in the thymus, including natural killer T and T regulatory cells, as well as development of natural killer cells and fetal lymphoid tissue inducer cells, the latter required for lymph node organogenesis. Recently, we have identified a broader role for TOX in the innate immune system, demonstrating that this nuclear protein is required for generation of bone marrow progenitors that have potential to give rise to all innate lymphoid cells. Innate lymphoid cells, classified according to transcription factor expression and cytokine secretion profiles, derive from common lymphoid progenitors in the bone marrow and require Notch signals for their development. We discuss here the role of TOX in specifying CLP toward an innate lymphoid cell fate and hypothesize a possible role for TOX in regulating Notch gene targets during innate lymphoid cell development. PMID:26556952

  1. G9a regulates group 2 innate lymphoid cell development by repressing the group 3 innate lymphoid cell program.

    PubMed

    Antignano, Frann; Braam, Mitchell; Hughes, Michael R; Chenery, Alistair L; Burrows, Kyle; Gold, Matthew J; Oudhoff, Menno J; Rattray, David; Halim, Timotheus Y; Cait, Alissa; Takei, Fumio; Rossi, Fabio M; McNagny, Kelly M; Zaph, Colby

    2016-06-27

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are emerging as important regulators of homeostatic and disease-associated immune processes. Despite recent advances in defining the molecular pathways that control development and function of ILCs, the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate ILC biology are unknown. Here, we identify a role for the lysine methyltransferase G9a in regulating ILC2 development and function. Mice with a hematopoietic cell-specific deletion of G9a (Vav.G9a(-/-) mice) have a severe reduction in ILC2s in peripheral sites, associated with impaired development of immature ILC2s in the bone marrow. Accordingly, Vav.G9a(-/-) mice are resistant to the development of allergic lung inflammation. G9a-dependent dimethylation of histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9me2) is a repressive histone mark that is associated with gene silencing. Genome-wide expression analysis demonstrated that the absence of G9a led to increased expression of ILC3-associated genes in developing ILC2 populations. Further, we found high levels of G9a-dependent H3K9me2 at ILC3-specific genetic loci, demonstrating that G9a-mediated repression of ILC3-associated genes is critical for the optimal development of ILC2s. Together, these results provide the first identification of an epigenetic regulatory mechanism in ILC development and function. PMID:27298444

  2. Early Life Ozone Exposure Results in Dysregulated Innate Immune Function and Altered microRNA Expression in Airway Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Gerriets, Joan E.; Wang, Theodore T.; Postlethwait, Edward M.; Evans, Michael J.; Fontaine, Justin H.; Miller, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to ozone has been associated with increased incidence of respiratory morbidity in humans; however the mechanism(s) behind the enhancement of susceptibility are unclear. We have previously reported that exposure to episodic ozone during postnatal development results in an attenuated peripheral blood cytokine response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that persists with maturity. As the lung is closely interfaced with the external environment, we hypothesized that the conducting airway epithelium of neonates may also be a target of immunomodulation by ozone. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated primary airway epithelial cell cultures derived from juvenile rhesus macaque monkeys with a prior history of episodic postnatal ozone exposure. Innate immune function was measured by expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 in primary cultures established following in vivo LPS challenge or, in response to in vitro LPS treatment. Postnatal ozone exposure resulted in significantly attenuated IL-6 mRNA and protein expression in primary cultures from juvenile animals; IL-8 mRNA was also significantly reduced. The effect of antecedent ozone exposure was modulated by in vivo LPS challenge, as primary cultures exhibited enhanced cytokine expression upon secondary in vitro LPS treatment. Assessment of potential IL-6-targeting microRNAs miR-149, miR-202, and miR-410 showed differential expression in primary cultures based upon animal exposure history. Functional assays revealed that miR-149 is capable of binding to the IL-6 3′ UTR and decreasing IL-6 protein synthesis in airway epithelial cell lines. Cumulatively, our findings suggest that episodic ozone during early life contributes to the molecular programming of airway epithelium, such that memory from prior exposures is retained in the form of a dysregulated IL-6 and IL-8 response to LPS; differentially expressed microRNAs such as miR-149 may play a role in the persistent modulation of the epithelial innate

  3. Persistent Activation of the Innate Immune Response in Adult Drosophila Following Radiation Exposure During Larval Development

    PubMed Central

    Sudmeier, Lisa J.; Samudrala, Sai-Suma; Howard, Steven P.; Ganetzky, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Cranial radiation therapy (CRT) is an effective treatment for pediatric central nervous system malignancies, but survivors often suffer from neurological and neurocognitive side effects that occur many years after radiation exposure. Although the biological mechanisms underlying these deleterious side effects are incompletely understood, radiation exposure triggers an acute inflammatory response that may evolve into chronic inflammation, offering one avenue of investigation. Recently, we developed a Drosophila model of the neurotoxic side effects of radiation exposure. Here we use this model to investigate the role of the innate immune system in response to radiation exposure. We show that the innate immune response and NF-ĸB target gene expression is activated in the adult Drosophila brain following radiation exposure during larval development, and that this response is sustained in adult flies weeks after radiation exposure. We also present preliminary data suggesting that innate immunity is radioprotective during Drosophila development. Together our data suggest that activation of the innate immune response may be beneficial initially for survival following radiation exposure but result in long-term deleterious consequences, with chronic inflammation leading to impaired neuronal function and viability at later stages. This work lays the foundation for future studies of how the innate immune response is triggered by radiation exposure and its role in mediating the biological responses to radiation. These studies may facilitate the development of strategies to reduce the deleterious side effects of CRT. PMID:26333838

  4. Atg5 Is Essential for the Development and Survival of Innate Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Timothy E; Geary, Clair D; Weizman, Orr-El; Geiger, Theresa L; Rapp, Moritz; Dorn, Gerald W; Overholtzer, Michael; Sun, Joseph C

    2016-05-31

    Autophagy is an essential cellular survival mechanism that is required for adaptive lymphocyte development; however, its role in innate lymphoid cell (ILC) development remains unknown. Furthermore, the conditions that promote lymphocyte autophagy during homeostasis are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that Atg5, an essential component of the autophagy machinery, is required for the development of mature natural killer (NK) cells and group 1, 2, and 3 innate ILCs. Although inducible ablation of Atg5 was dispensable for the homeostasis of lymphocyte precursors and mature lymphocytes in lymphoreplete mice, we found that autophagy is induced in both adaptive and innate lymphocytes during homeostatic proliferation in lymphopenic hosts to promote their survival by limiting cell-intrinsic apoptosis. Induction of autophagy through metformin treatment following homeostatic proliferation increased lymphocyte numbers through an Atg5-dependent mechanism. These findings highlight the essential role for autophagy in ILC development and lymphocyte survival during lymphopenia. PMID:27210760

  5. Breastmilk-Saliva Interactions Boost Innate Immunity by Regulating the Oral Microbiome in Early Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shehri, Saad S.; Knox, Christine L.; Liley, Helen G.; Cowley, David M.; Wright, John R.; Henman, Michael G.; Hewavitharana, Amitha K.; Charles, Bruce G.; Shaw, Paul N.; Sweeney, Emma L.; Duley, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Xanthine oxidase (XO) is distributed in mammals largely in the liver and small intestine, but also is highly active in milk where it generates hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Adult human saliva is low in hypoxanthine and xanthine, the substrates of XO, and high in the lactoperoxidase substrate thiocyanate, but saliva of neonates has not been examined. Results Median concentrations of hypoxanthine and xanthine in neonatal saliva (27 and 19 μM respectively) were ten-fold higher than in adult saliva (2.1 and 1.7 μM). Fresh breastmilk contained 27.3±12.2 μM H2O2 but mixing baby saliva with breastmilk additionally generated >40 μM H2O2, sufficient to inhibit growth of the opportunistic pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. Oral peroxidase activity in neonatal saliva was variable but low (median 7 U/L, range 2–449) compared to adults (620 U/L, 48–1348), while peroxidase substrate thiocyanate in neonatal saliva was surprisingly high. Baby but not adult saliva also contained nucleosides and nucleobases that encouraged growth of the commensal bacteria Lactobacillus, but inhibited opportunistic pathogens; these nucleosides/bases may also promote growth of immature gut cells. Transition from neonatal to adult saliva pattern occurred during the weaning period. A survey of saliva from domesticated mammals revealed wide variation in nucleoside/base patterns. Discussion and Conclusion During breast-feeding, baby saliva reacts with breastmilk to produce reactive oxygen species, while simultaneously providing growth-promoting nucleotide precursors. Milk thus plays more than a simply nutritional role in mammals, interacting with infant saliva to produce a potent combination of stimulatory and inhibitory metabolites that regulate early oral–and hence gut–microbiota. Consequently, milk-saliva mixing appears to represent unique biochemical synergism which boosts early innate immunity. PMID:26325665

  6. The draft genome of the large yellow croaker reveals well-developed innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Changwen; Zhang, Di; Kan, Mengyuan; Lv, Zhengmin; Zhu, Aiyi; Su, Yongquan; Zhou, Daizhan; Zhang, Jianshe; Zhang, Zhou; Xu, Meiying; Jiang, Lihua; Guo, Baoying; Wang, Ting; Chi, Changfeng; Mao, Yong; Zhou, Jiajian; Yu, Xinxiu; Wang, Hailing; Weng, Xiaoling; Jin, Jason Gang; Ye, Junyi; He, Lin; Liu, Yun

    2014-01-01

    The large yellow croaker, Larimichthys crocea, is one of the most economically important marine fish species endemic to China. Its wild stocks have severely suffered from overfishing, and the aquacultured species are vulnerable to various marine pathogens. Here we report the creation of a draft genome of a wild large yellow croaker using a whole-genome sequencing strategy. We estimate the genome size to be 728 Mb with 19,362 protein-coding genes. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the stickleback is most closely related to the large yellow croaker. Rapidly evolving genes under positive selection are significantly enriched in pathways related to innate immunity. We also confirm the existence of several genes and identify the expansion of gene families that are important for innate immunity. Our results may reflect a well-developed innate immune system in the large yellow croaker, which could aid in the development of wild resource preservation and mariculture strategies. PMID:25407894

  7. Early Developments, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buysee, Virginia, Ed.; Winton, Pam, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document consists of the single 2001 issue of a journal reporting new research in early childhood development conducted by the Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The issue focuses on pre-kindergarten programs, highlighting a recent assessment of the skills of entering…

  8. Early Developments, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Loyd, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of the two 1998 issues of a journal reporting new research in early child development conducted by the Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. In the Spring 1998 issue, articles highlight the Center's diverse cross-cultural projects and global research, training and…

  9. CD4-expressing cells are early mediators of the innate immune system during sepsis.

    PubMed

    Martignoni, André; Tschöp, Johannes; Goetzman, Holly S; Choi, Lisa G; Reid, Maria D; Johannigman, Jay A; Lentsch, Alex B; Caldwell, Charles C

    2008-05-01

    It is well established that the immune response to sepsis is mediated by leukocytes associated with the innate immune system. However, there is an emerging view that T lymphocytes can also mediate this response. Here, we observed a significant depletion of both CD4 and CD8 T cells in human patients after blunt trauma. To determine what effect the loss of these cells may have during a subsequent infection, we obtained CD4- and CD8-deficient mice and subjected them to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). We observed that CD4 knockout (KO) mice showed increased CLP-induced mortality compared with CD8-deficient and wild-type (WT) mice especially within the first 30 h of injury. CD4 KO mice also exhibited significantly increased IL-6 concentrations after the CLP. The CD4 KO mice had an increased concentration of bacteremia as compared with WT mice. Antibiotic treatment decreased mortality in the CD4 KO mice as compared with no changes in the wild mice after CLP. Neutrophils isolated from septic CD4 KO mice showed decreased spontaneous oxidative burst compared with neutrophils taken from septic controls. We examined the role of IFN-gamma by using mice deficient in this cytokine and found these mice to have significantly higher mortality as compared with WT mice. Finally, we detected a 2-fold increase in CD11b+ cells that exhibited intracellular IFN-gamma staining in the peritoneum of WT mice after CLP. The data suggest that CD4+ cells may facilitate the early clearance of bacteria by regulating neutrophils function possibly through an IFN-gamma-dependent mechanism. PMID:17885647

  10. The Roles of Innate Lymphoid Cells in the Development of Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Yeonduk; Jeong, Dongjin; Chung, Doo Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is a common pulmonary disease with several different forms. The most studied form of asthma is the allergic form, which is mainly related to the function of Th2 cells and their production of cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) in association with allergen sensitization and adaptive immunity. Recently, there have been many advances in understanding non-allergic asthma, which seems to be related to environmental factors such as air pollution, infection, or even obesity. Cells of the innate immune system, including macrophages, neutrophils, and natural killer T cells as well as the newly described innate lymphoid cells, are effective producers of a variety of cytokines and seem to play important roles in the development of non-allergic asthma. In this review, we focus on recent findings regarding innate lymphoid cells and their roles in asthma. PMID:25177249

  11. Early Childhood Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Edgar, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Focused on early childhood development, this "UNICEF Intercom" asserts that developmental programs should aim to give children a fair chance at growth beyond survival. First presented are moral, scientific, social equity, economic, population, and programatic arguments for looking beyond the fundamental objective of saving young lives.…

  12. Early innate immune response of immune proteins in juvenile channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) are raised for aquaculture in the Southeast U.S. and are susceptible to bacterial and viral infections acquired from their pond environment. Innate immune proteins mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and lysozyme were studied during two consecutive years in channel cat...

  13. Early hematopoiesis and macrophage development.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Kathleen E; Frame, Jenna M; Palis, James

    2015-12-01

    The paradigm that all blood cells are derived from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) has been challenged by two findings. First, there are tissue-resident hematopoietic cells, including subsets of macrophages that are not replenished by adult HSCs, but instead are maintained by self-renewal of fetal-derived cells. Second, during embryogenesis, there is a conserved program of HSC-independent hematopoiesis that precedes HSC function and is required for embryonic survival. The presence of waves of HSC-independent hematopoiesis as well as fetal HSCs raises questions about the origin of fetal-derived adult tissue-resident macrophages. In the murine embryo, historical examination of embryonic macrophage and monocyte populations combined with recent reports utilizing genetic lineage-tracing approaches has led to a model of macrophage ontogeny that can be integrated with existing models of hematopoietic ontogeny. The first wave of hematopoiesis contains primitive erythroid, megakaryocyte and macrophage progenitors that arise in the yolk sac, and these macrophage progenitors are the source of early macrophages throughout the embryo, including the liver. A second wave of multipotential erythro-myeloid progenitors (EMPs) also arises in the yolk sac. EMPs colonize the fetal liver, initiating myelopoiesis and forming macrophages. Lineage tracing indicates that this second wave of macrophages are distributed in most fetal tissues, although not appreciably in the brain. Thus, fetal-derived adult tissue-resident macrophages, other than microglia, appear to predominately derive from EMPs. While HSCs emerge at midgestation and colonize the fetal liver, the relative contribution of fetal HSCs to tissue macrophages at later stages of development is unclear. The inclusion of macrophage potential in multiple waves of hematopoiesis is consistent with reports of their functional roles throughout development in innate immunity, phagocytosis, and tissue morphogenesis and remodeling

  14. Nfil3 is required for the development of all innate lymphoid cell subsets

    PubMed Central

    Seillet, Cyril; Rankin, Lucille C.; Groom, Joanna R.; Mielke, Lisa A.; Tellier, Julie; Chopin, Michael; Huntington, Nicholas D.

    2014-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cell (ILC) populations protect against infection and are essential for lymphoid tissue formation and tissue remodeling after damage. Nfil3 is implicated in the function of adaptive immune lineages and NK cell development, but it is not yet known if Nfil3 regulates other innate lymphoid lineages. Here, we identify that Nfil3 is essential for the development of Peyer’s patches and ILC2 and ILC3 subsets. Loss of Nfil3 selectively reduced Peyer’s patch formation and was accompanied by impaired recruitment and distribution of lymphocytes within the patches. ILC subsets exhibited high Nfil3 expression and genetic deletion of Nfil3 severely compromised the development of all subsets. Subsequently, Nfil3−/− mice were highly susceptible to disease when challenged with inflammatory or infectious agents. Thus, we demonstrate that Nfil3 is a key regulator of the development of ILC subsets essential for immune protection in the lung and gut. PMID:25092873

  15. Innate immunity and adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Akira, Shizuo

    2011-10-12

    Innate immunity was for a long time considered to be non-specific because the major function of this system is to digest pathogens and present antigens to the cells involved in acquired immunity. However, recent studies have shown that innate immunity is not non-specific, but is instead sufficiently specific to discriminate self from pathogens through evolutionarily conserved receptors, designated Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Indeed, innate immunity has a crucial role in early host defence against invading pathogens. Furthermore, TLRs were found to act as adjuvant receptors that create a bridge between innate and adaptive immunity, and to have important roles in the induction of adaptive immunity. This paradigm shift is now changing our thinking on the pathogenesis and treatment of infectious, immune and allergic diseases, as well as cancers. Besides TLRs, recent findings have revealed the presence of a cytosolic detector system for invading pathogens. I will review the mechanisms of pathogen recognition by TLRs and cytoplasmic receptors, and then discuss the roles of these receptors in the development of adaptive immunity in response to viral infection. PMID:21893536

  16. Innate immunity and adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Akira, Shizuo

    2011-01-01

    Innate immunity was for a long time considered to be non-specific because the major function of this system is to digest pathogens and present antigens to the cells involved in acquired immunity. However, recent studies have shown that innate immunity is not non-specific, but is instead sufficiently specific to discriminate self from pathogens through evolutionarily conserved receptors, designated Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Indeed, innate immunity has a crucial role in early host defence against invading pathogens. Furthermore, TLRs were found to act as adjuvant receptors that create a bridge between innate and adaptive immunity, and to have important roles in the induction of adaptive immunity. This paradigm shift is now changing our thinking on the pathogenesis and treatment of infectious, immune and allergic diseases, as well as cancers. Besides TLRs, recent findings have revealed the presence of a cytosolic detector system for invading pathogens. I will review the mechanisms of pathogen recognition by TLRs and cytoplasmic receptors, and then discuss the roles of these receptors in the development of adaptive immunity in response to viral infection. PMID:21893536

  17. Innate and adaptive immunity in the development of depression: An update on current knowledge and technological advances.

    PubMed

    Haapakoski, Rita; Ebmeier, Klaus P; Alenius, Harri; Kivimäki, Mika

    2016-04-01

    The inflammation theory of depression, proposed over 20years ago, was influenced by early studies on T cell responses and since then has been a stimulus for numerous research projects aimed at understanding the relationship between immune function and depression. Observational studies have shown that indicators of immunity, especially C reactive protein and proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 6, are associated with an increased risk of depressive disorders, although the evidence from randomized trials remains limited and only few studies have assessed the interplay between innate and adaptive immunity in depression. In this paper, we review current knowledge on the interactions between central and peripheral innate and adaptive immune molecules and the potential role of immune-related activation of microglia, inflammasomes and indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase in the development of depressive symptoms. We highlight how combining basic immune methods with more advanced 'omics' technologies would help us to make progress in unravelling the complex associations between altered immune function and depressive disorders, in the identification of depression-specific biomarkers and in developing immunotherapeutic treatment strategies that take individual variability into account. PMID:26631274

  18. Innate and adaptive immunity in the development of depression: An update on current knowledge and technological advances

    PubMed Central

    Haapakoski, Rita; Ebmeier, Klaus P.; Alenius, Harri; Kivimäki, Mika

    2016-01-01

    The inflammation theory of depression, proposed over 20 years ago, was influenced by early studies on T cell responses and since then has been a stimulus for numerous research projects aimed at understanding the relationship between immune function and depression. Observational studies have shown that indicators of immunity, especially C reactive protein and proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 6, are associated with an increased risk of depressive disorders, although the evidence from randomized trials remains limited and only few studies have assessed the interplay between innate and adaptive immunity in depression. In this paper, we review current knowledge on the interactions between central and peripheral innate and adaptive immune molecules and the potential role of immune-related activation of microglia, inflammasomes and indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase in the development of depressive symptoms. We highlight how combining basic immune methods with more advanced ‘omics’ technologies would help us to make progress in unravelling the complex associations between altered immune function and depressive disorders, in the identification of depression-specific biomarkers and in developing immunotherapeutic treatment strategies that take individual variability into account. PMID:26631274

  19. Innate lymphoid cell development requires TOX-dependent generation of a common ILC progenitor

    PubMed Central

    Seehus, Corey R.; Aliahmad, Parinaz; de la Torre, Brian; Iliev, Iliyan D.; Spurka, Lindsay; Funari, Vincent A.; Kaye, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Diverse innate lymphoid cell (ILC) subtypes have been defined, based on effector function and transcription factor expression. ILCs derive from common lymphoid progenitors, although the transcriptional pathways leading to ILC lineage specification remain poorly characterized. Here we demonstrate that transcriptional regulator TOX is required for the in vivo differentiation of common lymphoid progenitors to ILC lineage-restricted cells. In vitro modeling demonstrates that TOX deficiency results in early defects in progenitor cell survival or expansion as well as later stage ILC differentiation. In addition, comparative transcriptome analysis of bone marrow progenitors reveals that TOX-deficient cells fail to upregulate many aspects of the ILC gene program, including Notch gene targets, implicating TOX as a key determinant of early ILC lineage specification. PMID:25915732

  20. Super-resolution microscopy reveals protein spatial reorganization in early innate immune responses.

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, Bryan D.; Aaron, Jesse S.; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann

    2010-10-01

    Over the past decade optical approaches were introduced that effectively break the diffraction barrier. Of particular note were introductions of Stimulated Emission/Depletion (STED) microscopy, Photo-Activated Localization Microscopy (PALM), and the closely related Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM). STORM represents an attractive method for researchers, as it does not require highly specialized optical setups, can be implemented using commercially available dyes, and is more easily amenable to multicolor imaging. We implemented a simultaneous dual-color, direct-STORM imaging system through the use of an objective-based TIRF microscope and filter-based image splitter. This system allows for excitation and detection of two fluorophors simultaneously, via projection of each fluorophor's signal onto separate regions of a detector. We imaged the sub-resolution organization of the TLR4 receptor, a key mediator of innate immune response, after challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacteria-specific antigen. While distinct forms of LPS have evolved among various bacteria, only some LPS variations (such as that derived from E. coli) typically result in significant cellular immune response. Others (such as from the plague bacteria Y. pestis) do not, despite affinity to TLR4. We will show that challenge with LPS antigens produces a statistically significant increase in TLR4 receptor clusters on the cell membrane, presumably due to recruitment of receptors to lipid rafts. These changes, however, are only detectable below the diffraction limit and are not evident using conventional imaging methods. Furthermore, we will compare the spatiotemporal behavior of TLR4 receptors in response to different LPS chemotypes in order to elucidate possible routes by which pathogens such as Y. pestis are able to circumvent the innate immune system. Finally, we will exploit the dual-color STORM capabilities to simultaneously image LPS and TLR4 receptors in the cellular

  1. Development of fetal and placental innate immune responses during establishment of persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Natalia P; Webb, Brett T; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Van Campen, Hana; Antoniazzi, Alfredo Q; Morarie, Susan E; Hansen, Thomas R

    2012-08-01

    Transplacental viral infections are dependent upon complex interactions between feto-placental and maternal immune responses and the stage of fetal development at which the infection occurs. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has the ability to cross the placenta and infect the fetus. Infection early in gestation with non-cytopathic (ncp) BVDV leads to persistent infection. Establishment of fetal persistent infection results in life-long viremia, virus-specific immunotolerance, and may have detrimental developmental consequences. We have previously shown that heifers infected experimentally with ncp BVDV type 2 on d. 75 of gestation had transient robust up-regulation of the type I interferon (IFN) stimulated genes (ISGs) 3-15 days after viral inoculation. Blood from persistently infected (PI) fetuses, collected 115 days post maternal infection, demonstrated moderate chronic up-regulation of ISGs. This infection model was used to delineate timing of the development of innate immune responses in the fetus and placenta during establishment of persistent infection. It was hypothesized that: (i) chronic stimulation of innate immune responses occurs following infection of the fetus and (ii) placental production of the type I IFN contributes to up-regulation of ISGs in PI fetuses. PI fetuses, generated by intranasal inoculation of pregnant heifers with ncp BVDV, and control fetuses from uninfected heifers, were collected via Cesarean sections on d. 82, 89, 97, 192, and 245 of gestation. Fetal viremia was confirmed starting on d. 89. Significant up-regulation of mRNA encoding cytosolic dsRNA sensors -RIG-I and MDA5 - was detected on d. 82-192. Detection of viral dsRNA by cytosolic sensors leads to the stimulation of ISGs, which was reflected in significant up-regulation of ISG15 mRNA in fetal blood on d. 89, 97, and 192. No difference in IFN-α and IFN-β mRNA concentration was found in fetal blood or caruncular tissue, while a significant increase in both IFN-α and IFN

  2. The Innate Lymphoid Cell Precursor.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Isabel E; Constantinides, Michael G; Gudjonson, Herman; Bendelac, Albert

    2016-05-20

    The discovery of tissue-resident innate lymphoid cell populations effecting different forms of type 1, 2, and 3 immunity; tissue repair; and immune regulation has transformed our understanding of mucosal immunity and allergy. The emerging complexity of these populations along with compounding issues of redundancy and plasticity raise intriguing questions about their precise lineage relationship. Here we review advances in mapping the emergence of these lineages from early lymphoid precursors. We discuss the identification of a common innate lymphoid cell precursor characterized by transient expression of the transcription factor PLZF, and the lineage relationships of innate lymphoid cells with conventional natural killer cells and lymphoid tissue inducer cells. We also review the rapidly growing understanding of the network of transcription factors that direct the development of these lineages. PMID:27168240

  3. Development of novel DIF-1 derivatives that selectively suppress innate immune responses.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Van Hai; Kikuchi, Haruhisa; Kubohara, Yuzuru; Takahashi, Katsunori; Katou, Yasuhiro; Oshima, Yoshiteru

    2015-08-01

    The multiple pharmacological activities of differentiation-inducing factor-1 (DIF-1) of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum led us to examine the use of DIF-1 as a 'drug template' to develop promising seed compounds for drug discovery. DIF-1 and its derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their regulatory activities in innate immune responses. We found two new derivatives (4d and 5e) with highly selective inhibitory activities against production of the antimicrobial peptide attacin in Drosophila S2 cells and against production of interleukin-2 in Jurkat cells. PMID:26122773

  4. ILC You Later: Early and Irreparable Loss of Innate Lymphocytes in HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Mudd, Joseph C; Brenchley, Jason M

    2016-02-16

    Loss of IL-17-producing cells in the gut during HIV infection is linked to GI barrier damage. Kløverpris et al. (2016) find that circulating ILCs are lost early and irreversibly during HIV infection. Early ART administration protects against the ILC loss, and this might be clinically beneficial to HIV-infected individuals. PMID:26885853

  5. Innate immune response and implant loosening: Interferon gamma is inversely associated with early migration of total knee prostheses.

    PubMed

    Schoeman, Monique A E; Pijls, Bart G; Oostlander, Angela E; Keurentjes, Johan C; Valstar, Edward R; Nelissen, Rob G H H; Meulenbelt, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    To allow prediction of the risk of loosening prior to surgery, we investigated the relationship between innate immune cytokine response via TLR2 stimulation and early migration of six different knee prostheses using RSA (radiostereometry). This study included 114 patients of a prospective RSA-cohort who received a total knee arthroplasty. Whole blood cytokine responses were obtained by ex vivo stimulation with tripalmitoyl-S-glycerylcysteine (Pam3Cys-SK4) for assessment of the TLR2 immune response. Early migration was calculated using the maximum total point motion (MTPM) 1 year post surgery. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the cytokine data to reduce the correlated data of individual cytokines and identified two components. Subsequently, linear mixed model analyses were applied with adjustments for gender, age, BMI, time-to-blood sampling, and prosthesis type. Component 1, consisting of IFNγ, IL-12p40, IL-10, IL-1β, TNFα, and IL-6, showed a significant inverse association (β = -0.128; p = 0.041) with MTPM. Further analysis showed that IFNγ (β = -0.161, p = 0.008) had the highest contribution to this association and is particularly found in patients receiving another prosthesis than Nexgen (β = -0.239; p < 0.001). In conclusion, patients with high levels of IFNγ upon stimulation of TLR2 are at lower risk of early migration of their knee prosthesis. PMID:26212694

  6. Development and function of human innate immune cells in a humanized mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Rongvaux, Anthony; Willinger, Tim; Martinek, Jan; Strowig, Till; Gearty, Sofia V.; Teichmann, Lino L.; Saito, Yasuyuki; Marches, Florentina; Halene, Stephanie; Palucka, A. Karolina; Manz, Markus G.; Flavell, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Mice repopulated with human hematopoietic cells are a powerful tool for the study of human hematopoiesis and immune function in vivo. However, existing humanized mouse models are unable to support development of human innate immune cells, including myeloid cells and NK cells. Here we describe a mouse strain, called MI(S)TRG, in which human versions of four genes encoding cytokines important for innate immune cell development are knocked in to their respective mouse loci. The human cytokines support the development and function of monocytes/macrophages and natural killer cells derived from human fetal liver or adult CD34+ progenitor cells injected into the mice. Human macrophages infiltrated a human tumor xenograft in MI(S)TRG mice in a manner resembling that observed in tumors obtained from human patients. This humanized mouse model may be used to model the human immune system in scenarios of health and pathology, and may enable evaluation of therapeutic candidates in an in vivo setting relevant to human physiology. PMID:24633240

  7. Early Adolescent Ego Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Michael A.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are the theoretical characteristics of social identity in early adolescence (ages 10 to 15). It is suggested that no longer is identity thought to begin with adolescence, but may have its beginnings in the preteen years. The article draws heavily on Eriksonian concepts. (Editor/KC)

  8. Early alterations of the innate and adaptive immune statuses in sepsis according to the type of underlying infection

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Although major changes of the immune system have been described in sepsis, it has never been studied whether these may differ in relation to the type of underlying infection or not. This was studied for the first time. Methods The statuses of the innate and adaptive immune systems were prospectively compared in 505 patients. Whole blood was sampled within less than 24 hours of advent of sepsis; white blood cells were stained with monoclonal antibodies and analyzed though a flow cytometer. Results Expression of HLA-DR was significantly decreased among patients with severe sepsis/shock due to acute pyelonephritis and intraabdominal infections compared with sepsis. The rate of apoptosis of natural killer (NK) cells differed significantly among patients with severe sepsis/shock due to ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) compared with sepsis. The rate of apoptosis of NKT cells differed significantly among patients with severe sepsis/shock due to acute pyelonephritis, primary bacteremia and VAP/HAP compared with sepsis. Regarding adaptive immunity, absolute counts of CD4-lymphocytes were significantly decreased among patients with severe sepsis/shock due to community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and intraabdominal infections compared with sepsis. Absolute counts of B-lymphocytes were significantly decreased among patients with severe sepsis/shock due to CAP compared with sepsis. Conclusions Major differences of the early statuses of the innate and adaptive immune systems exist between sepsis and severe sepsis/shock in relation to the underlying type of infection. These results may have a major impact on therapeutics. PMID:20504311

  9. Developmental biology of the innate immune response: implications for neonatal and infant vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Philbin, Victoria Jane; Levy, Ofer

    2009-01-01

    Molecular characterization of mechanisms by which human pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) detect danger signals has greatly expanded our understanding of the innate immune system. PRRs include Toll-like receptors (TLRs), nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs), retinoic acid inducible gene-like receptors (RLRs) and C-type lectin receptors (CLRs). Characterization of the developmental expression of these systems in the fetus, newborn and infant is incomplete but has yielded important insights into neonatal susceptibility to infection. Activation of PRRs on antigen-presenting cells enhances co-stimulatory function, and thus PRRs agonists are potential vaccine adjuvants, some of which are already in clinical use. Thus study of PRRs has also revealed how previously mysterious immunomodulators are able to mediate their actions, including the vaccine adjuvant aluminum hydroxide (Alum) whose adjuvant activity depends on its ability to activate a cytosolic protein complex known as the Nacht Domain Leucine-Rich Repeat and PYD-Containing Protein 3 (NALP3) inflammasome leading to IL-1ß production. Progress in characterizing PRRs is thus informing and expanding the design of improved adjuvants. This review summarizes recent developments in the field of innate immunity with special emphasis on developmental expression in the fetus, newborn and infant and its implications for the design of more effective neonatal and infant vaccines. PMID:19918215

  10. Foxa2 programs Th2 cell-mediated innate immunity in the developing lung.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Wan, Huajing; Luo, Fengming; Zhang, Liqian; Xu, Yan; Lewkowich, Ian; Wills-Karp, Marsha; Whitsett, Jeffrey A

    2010-06-01

    After birth, the respiratory tract adapts to recurrent exposures to pathogens, allergens, and toxicants by inducing the complex innate and acquired immune systems required for pulmonary homeostasis. In this study, we show that Foxa2, expressed selectively in the respiratory epithelium, plays a critical role in regulating genetic programs influencing Th2 cell-mediated pulmonary inflammation. Deletion of the Foxa2 gene, encoding a winged helix/forkhead box transcription factor that is selectively expressed in respiratory epithelial cells, caused spontaneous pulmonary eosinophilic inflammation and goblet cell metaplasia. Loss of Foxa2 induced the recruitment and activation of myeloid dendritic cells and Th2 cells in the lung, causing increased production of Th2 cytokines and chemokines. Loss of Foxa2-induced expression of genes regulating Th2 cell-mediated inflammation and goblet cell differentiation, including IL-13, IL-4, eotaxins, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, Il33, Ccl20, and SAM pointed domain-containing Ets transcription factor. Pulmonary inflammation and goblet cell differentiation were abrogated by treatment of neonatal Foxa2(Delta/Delta) mice with mAb against IL-4Ralpha subunit. The respiratory epithelium plays a central role in the regulation of Th2-mediated inflammation and innate immunity in the developing lung in a process regulated by Foxa2. PMID:20483781

  11. Common-Lymphoid-Progenitor-Independent Pathways of Innate and T Lymphocyte Development.

    PubMed

    Ghaedi, Maryam; Steer, Catherine A; Martinez-Gonzalez, Itziar; Halim, Timotheus Y F; Abraham, Ninan; Takei, Fumio

    2016-04-19

    All lymphocytes are thought to develop from common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs). However, lymphoid-primed multipotent progenitors (LMPPs) are more efficient than CLPs in differentiating into T cells and group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s). Here, we have divided LMPPs into CD127(-) (LMPP-s) and CD127(+) (LMPP+s) subsets and compared them with Ly6D(-) and Ly6D(+) CLPs. Adult LMPP+s differentiated into T cells and ILCs more rapidly and efficiently than other progenitors in transplantation assays. The development of T cells and ILC2s is highly active in the neonatal period. Neonatal CLPs are rare and, unlike prominent neonatal LMPP+s, do not efficiently differentiate into T cells and ILC2s. ILC2s generated in the neonatal period are long lived and persist in adult tissues. These results suggest that some ILCs and T cells may develop from LMPP+s via CLP-independent pathways. PMID:27068476

  12. The transcription factor Bcl11b is specifically expressed in group 2 innate lymphoid cells and is essential for their development

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yong; Wang, Cui; Clare, Simon; Wang, Juexuan; Lee, Song-Choon; Brandt, Cordelia; Burke, Shannon; Lu, Liming; He, Daqian; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Copeland, Neal G.; Dougan, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), or ILC2s, are a subset of recently identified ILCs, which play important roles in innate immunity by producing type 2 effector cytokines. Several transcription factors have been found to have critical functions in the development of both ILC2s and T cells. We report here that Bcl11b, a transcription factor essential in T cell lineage commitment and maintenance, is specifically expressed in progenitors committed to the ILC2 lineage and is required for ILC2 development. The Bcl11b gene is expressed in ∼28% of ILC progenitors (ILCPs; common helper innate lymphoid progenitors or ILCPs expressing either ID2 or promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger, respectively). Both in vitro and in vivo, these Bcl11b-expressing early ILCPs generate only ILC2s. Inactivation of Bcl11b causes a complete loss of ILC2 development from hematopoietic progenitors, which is confirmed upon immune challenge with either papain administration or influenza virus infection. PMID:25964371

  13. CRITICAL READING DEVELOPS EARLY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEE, DORRIS; AND OTHERS

    THIS ISSUE OF THE READING AIDS SERIES PRESENTS A DISCUSSION OF THE POTENTIAL FOR CRITICAL READING AMONG YOUNG CHILDREN AND HOW IT CAN BE DEVELOPED. IT OFFERS SUGGESTIONS FOR THE MAXIMUM DEVELOPMENT OF THINKING SKILLS AND ATTITUDES OF INQUIRY AND EVALUATION. SOME OF THE TOPICS DISCUSSED ARE -- (1) THE DEVELOPMENT OF PERCEPTS, CONCEPTS, AND COMMON…

  14. The genome of the miiuy croaker reveals well-developed innate immune and sensory systems

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Tianjun; Xu, Guoliang; Che, Rongbo; Wang, Rixin; Wang, Yanjin; Li, Jinrui; Wang, Shanchen; Shu, Chang; Sun, Yuena; Liu, Tianxing; Liu, Jiang; Wang, Aishuai; Han, Jingjing; Chu, Qing; Yang, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    The miiuy croaker, Miichthys miiuy, is a representative Sciaenidae known for its exceptionally large otoliths. This species mainly inhabits turbid aquatic environments with mud to sandy mud bottoms. However, the characteristics of the immune system of this organism and its specific aquatic environment adaptations are poorly understood. Thus, we present a high-quality draft genome of miiuy croaker. The expansions of several gene families which are critical for the fish innate immune system were identified. Compared with the genomes of other fishes, some changes have occurred in the miiuy croaker sensory system including modification of vision and expansion of taste and olfaction receptors. These changes allow miiuy croaker to adapt to the environment during the long-term natural selection. The genome of miiuy croaker may elucidate its relatively well-developed immune defense and provide an adaptation model of the species thriving in turbid deep aquatic environments. PMID:26902509

  15. Formaldehyde inhalation during pregnancy abolishes the development of acute innate inflammation in offspring.

    PubMed

    Silva Ibrahim, Beatriz; Miranda da Silva, Cristiane; Barioni, Éric Diego; Correa-Costa, Matheus; Drewes, Carine Cristiane; Saraiva Câmara, Niels Olsen; Tavares-de-Lima, Wothan; Poliselli Farsky, Sandra Helena; Lino-dos-Santos-Franco, Adriana

    2015-06-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is an environmental and occupational pollutant that induces programming mechanisms on the acquired immune host defense in offspring when exposed during the prenatal period. Hence, here we investigated whether the exposure of FA on pregnant rats could affect the development of an innate acute lung injury in offspring induced by lipopolissacaride (LPS) injection. Pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to FA (0.92 mg/m(3)) or vehicle (distillated water), both 1 h/day, 5 days/week, from 1 to 21 days of pregnancy. Non-manipulated rats were used as control. After 30 days of birth, the offspring was submitted to injection of LPS (Salmonella abortus equi, 5 mg/kg, i.p.). Systemic and lung inflammatory parameters were evaluated 24 h later. Exposure to FA during gestation abolished the development of acute lung injury in offspring, as observed by reduced number of leukocytes in the bronchoalveolar fluid (BAL), in the blood and in the bone marrow, and decreased myeloperoxidase activity in the lung. Moreover, phagocytes from BAL presented normal phagocytosis, but reduced oxidative burst. Alterations on the profile of inflammatory cytokines were evidenced by reduced mRNA levels of IL-6 and elevated levels of IL-10 and IFN gamma in the lung tissue. Indeed, mRNA levels of toll-likereceptor-4 and nuclear factor-kappa B translocation into the nucleus were also reduced. Additionally, hyperresponsiveness to methacholine was blunted in the trachea of offspring of FA exposed mothers. Together, our data clearly show that FA exposure in the prenatal period modifies the programming mechanisms of the innate defense in the offspring leading to impaired defense against infections. PMID:25845602

  16. Epigenetics of Early Child Development

    PubMed Central

    Murgatroyd, Chris; Spengler, Dietmar

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive clinical studies show that adverse conditions in early life can severely impact the developing brain and increase vulnerability to mood disorders later in life. During early postnatal life the brain exhibits high plasticity which allows environmental signals to alter the trajectories of rapidly developing circuits. Adversity in early life is able to shape the experience-dependent maturation of stress-regulating pathways underlying emotional functions and endocrine responses to stress, such as the hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) system, leading to long-lasting altered stress responsivity during adulthood. To date, the study of gene–environment interactions in the human population has been dominated by epidemiology. However, recent research in the neuroscience field is now advancing clinical studies by addressing specifically the mechanisms by which gene–environment interactions can predispose individuals toward psychopathology. To this end, appropriate animal models are being developed in which early environmental factors can be manipulated in a controlled manner. Here we will review recent studies performed with the common aim of understanding the effects of the early environment in shaping brain development and discuss the newly developing role of epigenetic mechanisms in translating early life conditions into long-lasting changes in gene expression underpinning brain functions. Particularly, we argue that epigenetic mechanisms can mediate the gene–environment dialog in early life and give rise to persistent epigenetic programming of adult physiology and dysfunction eventually resulting in disease. Understanding how early life experiences can give rise to lasting epigenetic marks conferring increased risk for mental disorders, how they are maintained and how they could be reversed, is increasingly becoming a focus of modern psychiatry and should pave new guidelines for timely therapeutic interventions. PMID:21647402

  17. Early clearance of Chikungunya virus in children is associated with a strong innate immune response.

    PubMed

    Simarmata, Diane; Ng, David Chun Ern; Kam, Yiu-Wing; Lee, Bernett; Sum, Magdline Sia Henry; Her, Zhisheng; Chow, Angela; Leo, Yee-Sin; Cardosa, Jane; Perera, David; Ooi, Mong H; Ng, Lisa F P

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) is a global infectious disease which can affect a wide range of age groups. The pathological and immunological response upon Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection have been reported over the last few years. However, the clinical profile and immune response upon CHIKV infection in children remain largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed the clinical and immunological response, focusing on the cytokine/chemokine profile in a CHIKV-infected pediatric cohort from Sarawak, Malaysia. Unique immune mediators triggered upon CHIKV infection were identified through meta-analysis of the immune signatures between this pediatric group and cohorts from previous outbreaks. The data generated from this study revealed that a broad spectrum of cytokines/chemokines is up-regulated in a sub-group of virus-infected children stratified according to their viremic status during hospitalization. Furthermore, different immune mediator profiles (the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and growth and other factors) were observed between children and adults. This study gives an important insight to understand the immune response of CHIKV infection in children and would aid in the development of better prognostics and clinical management for children. PMID:27180811

  18. Early clearance of Chikungunya virus in children is associated with a strong innate immune response

    PubMed Central

    Simarmata, Diane; Ng, David Chun Ern; Kam, Yiu-Wing; Lee, Bernett; Sum, Magdline Sia Henry; Her, Zhisheng; Chow, Angela; Leo, Yee-Sin; Cardosa, Jane; Perera, David; Ooi, Mong H.; Ng, Lisa F. P.

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) is a global infectious disease which can affect a wide range of age groups. The pathological and immunological response upon Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection have been reported over the last few years. However, the clinical profile and immune response upon CHIKV infection in children remain largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed the clinical and immunological response, focusing on the cytokine/chemokine profile in a CHIKV-infected pediatric cohort from Sarawak, Malaysia. Unique immune mediators triggered upon CHIKV infection were identified through meta-analysis of the immune signatures between this pediatric group and cohorts from previous outbreaks. The data generated from this study revealed that a broad spectrum of cytokines/chemokines is up-regulated in a sub-group of virus-infected children stratified according to their viremic status during hospitalization. Furthermore, different immune mediator profiles (the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and growth and other factors) were observed between children and adults. This study gives an important insight to understand the immune response of CHIKV infection in children and would aid in the development of better prognostics and clinical management for children. PMID:27180811

  19. Bcl11b is essential for group 2 innate lymphoid cell development

    PubMed Central

    Oliphant, Christopher J.; Englezakis, Alexandros; Yu, Yong; Clare, Simon; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Belz, Gabrielle; Liu, Pentao; Fallon, Padraic G.

    2015-01-01

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are often found associated with mucosal surfaces where they contribute to protective immunity, inappropriate allergic responses, and tissue repair. Although we know they develop from a common lymphoid progenitor in the bone marrow (BM), the specific lineage path and transcriptional regulators that are involved are only starting to emerge. After ILC2 gene expression analysis we investigated the role of Bcl11b, a factor previously linked to T cell commitment, in ILC2 development. Using combined Bcl11b-tom and Id2-gfp reporter mice, we show that Bcl11b is expressed in ILC2 precursors in the BM and maintained in mature ILC2s. In vivo deletion of Bcl11b, by conditional tamoxifen-induced depletion or by Bcl11b−/− fetal liver chimera reconstitution, demonstrates that ILC2s are wholly dependent on Bcl11b for their development. Notably, in the absence of Bcl11b there is a concomitant expansion of the RORγt+ ILC3 population, suggesting that Bcl11b may negatively regulate this lineage. Using Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection, we reveal that the absence of Bcl11b leads to impaired worm expulsion, caused by a deficit in ILC2s, whereas Citrobacter rodentium infection is cleared efficiently. These data clearly establish Bcl11b as a new factor in the differentiation of ILC2s. PMID:25964370

  20. Flt3 Ligand Regulates the Development of Innate Lymphoid Cells in Fetal and Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Baerenwaldt, Anne; von Burg, Nicole; Kreuzaler, Matthias; Sitte, Selina; Horvath, Edit; Peter, Annick; Voehringer, David; Rolink, Antonius G; Finke, Daniela

    2016-03-15

    Flt3 ligand (Flt3L) promotes survival of lymphoid progenitors in the bone marrow and differentiation of dendritic cells (DCs), but its role in regulating innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) during fetal and adult life is not understood. By using Flt3L knockout and transgenic mice, we demonstrate that Flt3L controls ILC numbers by regulating the pool of α4β7(-) and α4β7(+) lymphoid tissue inducer cell progenitors in the fetal liver and common lymphoid progenitors in the bone marrow. Deletion of flt3l severely reduced the number of fetal liver progenitors and lymphoid tissue inducer cells in the neonatal intestine, resulting in impaired development of Peyer's patches. In the adult intestine, NK cells and group 2 and 3 ILCs were severely reduced. This effect occurred independently of DCs as ILC numbers were normal in mice in which DCs were constitutively deleted. Finally, we could show that administration of Flt3L increased the number of NKp46(-) group 3 ILCs in wild-type and even in Il7(-/-) mice, which generally have reduced numbers of ILCs. Taken together, Flt3L significantly contributes to ILC and Peyer's patches development by targeting lymphoid progenitor cells during fetal and adult life. PMID:26851220

  1. Toll-like receptors in antiviral innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Sandra N.; Li, Kui

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are fundamental sensor molecules of the host innate immune system, which detect conserved molecular signatures of a wide range of microbial pathogens and initiate innate immune responses via distinct signaling pathways. Various TLRs are implicated in the early interplay of host cells with invading viruses, which regulates viral replication and/or host responses, ultimately impacting on viral pathogenesis. To survive the host innate defense mechanisms, many viruses have developed strategies to evade or counteract signaling through the TLR pathways, creating an advantageous environment for their propagation. Here we review the current knowledge of the roles TLRs play in antiviral innate immune responses, discuss examples of TLR-mediated viral recognition, and describe strategies used by viruses to antagonize the host antiviral innate immune responses. PMID:24316048

  2. [Early Development under Microgravity Conditions].

    PubMed

    Ogneva, I V

    2015-01-01

    The review is devoted to various aspects of early development under the space flight conditions. The different possible cell mechanosensors are considered. Structural and functional changes in the cells, predominantly, in non-muscle ones, were discussed. The results of the different experiments with the embryos of fish, amphibians, birds and mammals under microgravity conditions are shown discussing possible reasons for the development of morphological changes. PMID:26591615

  3. Innate Invariant NKT Cell Recognition of HIV-1–Infected Dendritic Cells Is an Early Detection Mechanism Targeted by Viral Immune Evasion

    PubMed Central

    Paquin-Proulx, Dominic; Gibbs, Anna; Bächle, Susanna M.; Checa, Antonio; Introini, Andrea; Leeansyah, Edwin; Wheelock, Craig E.; Nixon, Douglas F.; Broliden, Kristina; Tjernlund, Annelie; Moll, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells are innate-like T cells that respond rapidly with a broad range of effector functions upon recognition of glycolipid Ags presented by CD1d. HIV-1 carries Nef- and Vpu-dependent mechanisms to interfere with CD1d surface expression, indirectly suggesting a role for iNKT cells in control of HIV-1 infection. In this study, we investigated whether iNKT cells can participate in the innate cell–mediated immune response to HIV-1. Infection of dendritic cells (DCs) with Nef- and Vpu-deficient HIV-1 induced upregulation of CD1d in a TLR7-dependent manner. Infection of DCs caused modulation of enzymes in the sphingolipid pathway and enhanced expression of the endogenous glucosylceramide Ag. Importantly, iNKT cells responded specifically to rare DCs productively infected with Nef- and Vpu-defective HIV-1. Transmitted founder viral isolates differed in their CD1d downregulation capacity, suggesting that diverse strains may be differentially successful in inhibiting this pathway. Furthermore, both iNKT cells and DCs expressing CD1d and HIV receptors resided in the female genital mucosa, a site where HIV-1 transmission occurs. Taken together, these findings suggest that innate iNKT cell sensing of HIV-1 infection in DCs is an early immune detection mechanism, which is independent of priming and adaptive recognition of viral Ag, and is actively targeted by Nef- and Vpu-dependent viral immune evasion mechanisms. PMID:27481843

  4. Innate Invariant NKT Cell Recognition of HIV-1-Infected Dendritic Cells Is an Early Detection Mechanism Targeted by Viral Immune Evasion.

    PubMed

    Paquin-Proulx, Dominic; Gibbs, Anna; Bächle, Susanna M; Checa, Antonio; Introini, Andrea; Leeansyah, Edwin; Wheelock, Craig E; Nixon, Douglas F; Broliden, Kristina; Tjernlund, Annelie; Moll, Markus; Sandberg, Johan K

    2016-09-01

    Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells are innate-like T cells that respond rapidly with a broad range of effector functions upon recognition of glycolipid Ags presented by CD1d. HIV-1 carries Nef- and Vpu-dependent mechanisms to interfere with CD1d surface expression, indirectly suggesting a role for iNKT cells in control of HIV-1 infection. In this study, we investigated whether iNKT cells can participate in the innate cell-mediated immune response to HIV-1. Infection of dendritic cells (DCs) with Nef- and Vpu-deficient HIV-1 induced upregulation of CD1d in a TLR7-dependent manner. Infection of DCs caused modulation of enzymes in the sphingolipid pathway and enhanced expression of the endogenous glucosylceramide Ag. Importantly, iNKT cells responded specifically to rare DCs productively infected with Nef- and Vpu-defective HIV-1. Transmitted founder viral isolates differed in their CD1d downregulation capacity, suggesting that diverse strains may be differentially successful in inhibiting this pathway. Furthermore, both iNKT cells and DCs expressing CD1d and HIV receptors resided in the female genital mucosa, a site where HIV-1 transmission occurs. Taken together, these findings suggest that innate iNKT cell sensing of HIV-1 infection in DCs is an early immune detection mechanism, which is independent of priming and adaptive recognition of viral Ag, and is actively targeted by Nef- and Vpu-dependent viral immune evasion mechanisms. PMID:27481843

  5. Arguing about innateness.

    PubMed

    Valian, Virginia

    2014-07-01

    This paper lays out the components of a language acquisition model, the interconnections among the components, and the differing stances of nativism and empiricism about syntax. After demonstrating that parsimony cannot decide between the two stances, the paper analyzes nine examples of evidence that have been used to argue for or against nativism, concluding that most pieces of evidence are either irrelevant or suggest that language is special but need not invoke innate ideas. Two pieces of evidence - the development of home sign languages and the acquisition of Determiners - do show not just that language is special but that the child has innate syntactic content. The existential claim that nativism makes - there is at least one innate syntactic idea - is an easier claim to verify than the universal claim that empiricism makes - there are no innate syntactic ideas. PMID:25023498

  6. Innate Immune Memory: Activation of Macrophage Killing Ability by Developmental Duties.

    PubMed

    Schneider, David; Tate, Ann Thomas

    2016-06-20

    Innate immune systems in many taxa exhibit hallmarks of memory in response to previous microbial exposure. A new study demonstrates that innate immune memory in Drosophila embryonic macrophages can also be induced by the successful engulfment of apoptotic cells, highlighting the importance of early exposure events for developing responsive immune systems. PMID:27326712

  7. Cutting Edge: Eomesodermin Is Sufficient To Direct Type 1 Innate Lymphocyte Development into the Conventional NK Lineage.

    PubMed

    Pikovskaya, Olga; Chaix, Julie; Rothman, Nyanza J; Collins, Amélie; Chen, Yen-Hua; Scipioni, Anna M; Vivier, Eric; Reiner, Steven L

    2016-02-15

    Type 1 innate lymphocytes comprise two developmentally divergent lineages, type 1 helper innate lymphoid cells (hILC1s) and conventional NK cells (cNKs). All type 1 innate lymphocytes (ILCs) express the transcription factor T-bet, but cNKs additionally express Eomesodermin (Eomes). We show that deletion of Eomes alleles at the onset of type 1 ILC maturation using NKp46-Cre imposes a substantial block in cNK development. Formation of the entire lymphoid and nonlymphoid type 1 ILC compartment appears to require the semiredundant action of both T-bet and Eomes. To determine if Eomes is sufficient to redirect hILC1 development to a cNK fate, we generated transgenic mice that express Eomes when and where T-bet is expressed using Tbx21 locus control to drive expression of Eomes codons. Ectopic Eomes induces cNK-like properties across the lymphoid and nonlymphoid type 1 ILC compartments. Subsequent to their divergent lineage specification, hILC1s and cNKs thus possess substantial developmental plasticity. PMID:26792802

  8. Innate Immunity to Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickx, Rodinde; Stichling, Nicole; Koelen, Jorien; Kuryk, Lukasz; Lipiec, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Human adenoviruses are the most widely used vectors in gene medicine, with applications ranging from oncolytic therapies to vaccinations, but adenovirus vectors are not without side effects. In addition, natural adenoviruses pose severe risks for immunocompromised people, yet infections are usually mild and self-limiting in immunocompetent individuals. Here we describe how adenoviruses are recognized by the host innate defense system during entry and replication in immune and nonimmune cells. Innate defense protects the host and represents a major barrier to using adenoviruses as therapeutic interventions in humans. Innate response against adenoviruses involves intrinsic factors present at constant levels, and innate factors mounted by the host cell upon viral challenge. These factors exert antiviral effects by directly binding to viruses or viral components, or shield the virus, for example, soluble factors, such as blood clotting components, the complement system, preexisting immunoglobulins, or defensins. In addition, Toll-like receptors and lectins in the plasma membrane and endosomes are intrinsic factors against adenoviruses. Important innate factors restricting adenovirus in the cytosol are tripartite motif-containing proteins, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like inflammatory receptors, and DNA sensors triggering interferon, such as DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 41 and cyclic guanosine monophosphate–adenosine monophosphate synthase. Adenovirus tunes the function of antiviral autophagy, and counters innate defense by virtue of its early proteins E1A, E1B, E3, and E4 and two virus-associated noncoding RNAs VA-I and VA-II. We conclude by discussing strategies to engineer adenovirus vectors with attenuated innate responses and enhanced delivery features. PMID:24512150

  9. Sleep and Early Cortical Development

    PubMed Central

    Olini, Nadja; Huber, Reto; LeBourgeois, Monique

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is increasingly recognized as a key process in neurodevelopment. Animal data show that sleep is essential for the maturation of fundamental brain functions, and growing epidemiological findings indicate that children with early sleep disturbance suffer from later cognitive, attentional, and psychosocial problems. Still, major gaps exist in understanding processes underlying links between sleep and neurodevelopment. One challenge is to translate findings from animal research to humans. In this review, we describe parallels and differences in sleep and development of the cortex in humans and animals and discuss emerging questions. PMID:26807347

  10. Cognitive Development in Early Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Chari; Elkind, David

    Some studies of early readers are discussed. It is pointed out that study of early readers has relevance for practical and theoretical issues in psychology and education. Of interest in this document are the following questions: (1) Are there any special talents or traits distinguishing early from non-early readers? (2) Do children who read early…

  11. Innate Immune Recognition of EBV.

    PubMed

    Lünemann, Anna; Rowe, Martin; Nadal, David

    2015-01-01

    The ability of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) to establish latency despite specific immune responses and to successfully persist lifelong in the human host shows that EBV has developed powerful strategies and mechanisms to exploit, evade, abolish, or downsize otherwise effective immune responses to ensure its own survival. This chapter focuses on current knowledge on innate immune responses against EBV and its evasion strategies for own benefit and summarizes the questions that remain to be tackled. Innate immune reactions against EBV originate both from the main target cells of EBV and from nontarget cells, which are elements of the innate immune system. Thus, we structured our review accordingly but with a particular focus on the innate recognition of EBV in its two stages in its life cycle, latent state and lytic replication. Specifically, we discuss (I) innate sensing and resulting innate immune responses against EBV by its main target cells, focusing on (i) EBV transmission between epithelial cells and B cells and their life cycle stages; and (ii) elements of innate immunity in EBV's target cells. Further, we debate (II) the innate recognition and resulting innate immune responses against EBV by cells other than the main target cells, focusing on (iii) myeloid cells: dendritic cells, monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophil granulocytes; and (iv) natural killer cells. Finally, we address (III) how EBV counteracts or exploits innate immunity in its latent and lytic life cycle stages, concentrating on (v) TLRs; (vi) EBERs; and (vii) microRNAs. PMID:26428378

  12. [Early childhood growth and development].

    PubMed

    Arce, Melitón

    2015-01-01

    This article describes and discusses issues related to the process of childhood growth and development, with emphasis on the early years, a period in which this process reaches critical speed on major structures and functions of the human economy. We reaffirm that this can contribute to the social availability of a generation of increasingly better adults, which in turn will be able to contribute to building a better world and within it a society that enjoys greater prosperity. In the first chapter, we discuss the general considerations on the favorable evolution of human society based on quality of future adults, meaning the accomplishments that today’s children will gain. A second chapter mentions the basics of growth and development in the different fields and the various phenomena that occur in it. In the third we refer to lost opportunities and negative factors that can affect delaying the process and thereby result in not obtaining the expected accomplishments. In the fourth, conclusions and recommendations are presented confirming the initial conception that good early child care serves to build a better society and some recommendations are formulated to make it a good practice. PMID:26580942

  13. Enhanced early innate and T cell-mediated responses in subjects immunized with Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed Plus CPG 7909 (AV7909).

    PubMed

    Minang, Jacob T; Inglefield, Jon R; Harris, Andrea M; Lathey, Janet L; Alleva, David G; Sweeney, Diane L; Hopkins, Robert J; Lacy, Michael J; Bernton, Edward W

    2014-11-28

    NuThrax™ (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed with CPG 7909 Adjuvant) (AV7909) is in development. Samples obtained in a phase Ib clinical trial were tested to confirm biomarkers of innate immunity and evaluate effects of CPG 7909 (PF-03512676) on adaptive immunity. Subjects received two intramuscular doses of commercial BioThrax(®) (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed, AVA), or two intramuscular doses of one of four formulations of AV7909. IP-10, IL-6, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were elevated 24-48 h after administration of AV7909 formulations, returning to baseline by Day 7. AVA (no CPG 7909) resulted in elevated IL-6 and CRP, but not IP-10. Another marker of CpG, transiently decreased absolute lymphocyte counts (ALCs), correlated with transiently increased IP-10. Cellular recall responses to anthrax protective antigen (PA) or PA peptides were assessed by IFN-γ ELISpot assay performed on cryopreserved PBMCs obtained from subjects prior to immunization and 7 days following the second immunization (study day 21). One-half of subjects that received AV7909 with low-dose (0.25mg/dose) CPG 7909 possessed positive Day 21 T cell responses to PA. In contrast, positive T cell responses occurred at an 11% average rate (1/9) for AVA-treated subjects. Differences in cellular responses due to dose level of CPG 7909 were not associated with differences in humoral anti-PA IgG responses, which were elevated for recipients of AV7909 compared to recipients of AVA. Serum markers at 24 or 48 h (i.e. % ALC decrease, or increase in IL-6, IP-10, or CRP) correlated with the humoral (antibody) responses 1 month later, but did not correlate with cellular ELISpot responses. In summary, biomarkers of early responses to CPG 7909 were confirmed, and adding a CpG adjuvant to a vaccine administered twice resulted in increased T cell effects relative to vaccine alone. Changes in early biomarkers correlated with subsequent adaptive humoral immunity but not cellular immunity. PMID:24530403

  14. Early flower development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed Central

    Smyth, D R; Bowman, J L; Meyerowitz, E M

    1990-01-01

    The early development of the flower of Arabidopsis thaliana is described from initiation until the opening of the bud. The morphogenesis, growth rate, and surface structure of floral organs were recorded in detail using scanning electron microscopy. Flower development has been divided into 12 stages using a series of landmark events. Stage 1 begins with the initiation of a floral buttress on the flank of the apical meristem. Stage 2 commences when the flower primordium becomes separate from the meristem. Sepal primordia then arise (stage 3) and grow to overlie the primordium (stage 4). Petal and stamen primordia appear next (stage 5) and are soon enclosed by the sepals (stage 6). During stage 6, petal primordia grow slowly, whereas stamen primordia enlarge more rapidly. Stage 7 begins when the medial stamens become stalked. These soon develop locules (stage 8). A long stage 9 then commences with the petal primordia becoming stalked. During this stage all organs lengthen rapidly. This includes the gynoecium, which commences growth as an open-ended tube during stage 6. When the petals reach the length of the lateral stamens, stage 10 begins. Stigmatic papillae appear soon after (stage 11), and the petals rapidly reach the height of the medial stamens (stage 12). This final stage ends when the 1-millimeter-long bud opens. Under our growing conditions 1.9 buds were initiated per day on average, and they took 13.25 days to progress through the 12 stages from initiation until opening. PMID:2152125

  15. Affect of Early Life Oxygen Exposure on Proper Lung Development and Response to Respiratory Viral Infections

    PubMed Central

    Domm, William; Misra, Ravi S.; O’Reilly, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Children born preterm often exhibit reduced lung function and increased severity of response to respiratory viruses, suggesting that premature birth has compromised proper development of the respiratory epithelium and innate immune defenses. Increasing evidence suggests that premature birth promotes aberrant lung development likely due to the neonatal oxygen transition occurring before pulmonary development has matured. Given that preterm infants are born at a point of time where their immune system is also still developing, early life oxygen exposure may also be disrupting proper development of innate immunity. Here, we review current literature in hopes of stimulating research that enhances understanding of how the oxygen environment at birth influences lung development and host defense. This knowledge may help identify those children at risk for disease and ideally culminate in the development of novel therapies that improve their health. PMID:26322310

  16. Ontogeny of Intestinal Epithelial Innate Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Hornef, Mathias W.; Fulde, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that processes during postnatal development might significantly influence the establishment of mucosal host-microbial homeostasis. Developmental and adaptive immunological processes but also environmental and microbial exposure early after birth might thus affect disease susceptibility and health during adult life. The present review aims at summarizing the current understanding of the intestinal epithelial innate immune system and its developmental and adaptive changes after birth. PMID:25346729

  17. Taiwanese Early Childhood Educators' Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Ching-Yun

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed based on a qualitative paradigm to explore the professional development of Taiwanese early childhood educators. The method of phenomenology was employed. The main research question addressed was "How do early childhood educators construe their professional development experience?" Seven Taiwanese early childhood educators…

  18. Strategies for Supporting Early Literacy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Lindsay R.; Horn, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The development of early literacy skills is critical to children's later success in reading and reading-related activities; therefore, understanding how teachers can support early literacy development is equally important. In this article, the authors provide information on how early childhood teachers can use specific strategies and techniques as…

  19. Innate Immune Sensing by Toll-like Receptors in Newborns and the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Kollmann, Tobias R.; Levy, Ofer; Montgomery, Ruth R.; Goriely, Stanislas

    2012-01-01

    Summary Given the "inborn" nature of the innate immune system, it is surprising to find that innate immune function does in fact change with age. Similar patterns of distinct Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated immune responses come to light when one contrasts innate immune development at the beginning of life with that toward the end of life. Importantly, these developmental patterns of innate cytokine responses correlate with clinical patterns of susceptibility to disease: A heightened risk of suffering from excessive inflammation is often detected in prematurely born infants, disappears over the first few months of life, and reappears toward the end of life. In addition, risk periods for particular infections in early life reemerge in older adults. The near-mirror-image patterns that emerge in contrasts of early versus late innate immune ontogeny emphasize changes in host-environment interactions as the underlying molecular and teleologic drivers. PMID:23159225

  20. Mosquito immune responses and malaria transmission: lessons from insect model systems and implications for vertebrate innate immunity and vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Barillas-Mury, C; Wizel, B; Han, Y S

    2000-06-01

    The introduction of novel biochemical, genetic, molecular and cell biology tools to the study of insect immunity has generated an information explosion in recent years. Due to the biodiversity of insects, complementary model systems have been developed. The conceptual framework built based on these systems is used to discuss our current understanding of mosquito immune responses and their implications for malaria transmission. The areas of insect and vertebrate innate immunity are merging as new information confirms the remarkable extent of the evolutionary conservation, at a molecular level, in the signaling pathways mediating these responses in such distant species. Our current understanding of the molecular language that allows the vertebrate innate immune system to identify parasites, such as malaria, and direct the acquired immune system to mount a protective immune response is very limited. Insect vectors of parasitic diseases, such as mosquitoes, could represent excellent models to understand the molecular responses of epithelial cells to parasite invasion. This information could broaden our understanding of vertebrate responses to parasitic infection and could have extensive implications for anti-malarial vaccine development. PMID:10802234

  1. Emerging role of long noncoding RNAs as regulators of innate immune cell development and inflammatory gene expression.

    PubMed

    Elling, Roland; Chan, Jennie; Fitzgerald, Katherine A

    2016-03-01

    The innate immune system represents the first line of defense during infection and is initiated by the detection of conserved microbial products by germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Sensing through PRRs induces broad transcriptional changes that elicit powerful inflammatory responses. Tight regulation of these processes depends on multiple regulatory checkpoints, including noncoding RNA species such as microRNAs. In addition, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have recently gained attention as important regulators of gene expression acting through versatile interactions with DNA, RNA, or proteins. As such, these RNAs have a multitude of mechanisms to modulate gene expression. Here, we summarize recent advances in this rapidly moving and evolving field. We highlight the contribution of lncRNAs to both the development and activation of innate immune cells, whether it is in the nucleus, where lncRNAs alter the transcription of target genes through interaction with transcription factors, chromatin-modifying complexes or heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein complexes, or in the cytosol where they can control the stability of target mRNAs. In addition, we discuss experimental approaches required to comprehensively investigate the function of a candidate noncoding RNA locus, including loss-of-function approaches encompassing genomic deletions, RNA interference, locked nucleic acids, and various adaptions of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology. PMID:26820238

  2. Acquisition of innate-like microbial reactivity in mucosal tissues during human fetal MAIT-cell development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leeansyah, Edwin; Loh, Liyen; Nixon, Douglas F.; Sandberg, Johan K.

    2014-01-01

    Innate-like, evolutionarily conserved MR1-restricted mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells represent a large antimicrobial T-cell subset in humans. Here, we investigate the development of these cells in second trimester human fetal tissues. MAIT cells are rare and immature in the fetal thymus, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. In contrast, mature IL-18Rα+ CD8αα MAIT cells are enriched in the fetal small intestine, liver and lung. Independently of localization, MAIT cells express CD127 and Ki67 in vivo and readily proliferate in response to Escherichia coli in vitro. Maturation is accompanied by the gradual post-thymic acquisition of the PLZF transcription factor and the ability to produce IFNγ and IL-22 in response to bacteria in mucosa. Thus, MAIT cells acquire innate-like antimicrobial responsiveness in mucosa before exposure to environmental microbes and the commensal microflora. Establishment of this arm of immunity before birth may help protect the newborn from a range of pathogenic microbes.

  3. Early Childhood Educators' Knowledge of Early Literacy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crim, Courtney; Hawkins, Jacqueline; Thornton, Jenifer; Rosof, Holly Boon; Copley, Juanita; Thomas, Emily

    2008-01-01

    The foundation of all learning is rooted in the development of language and literacy abilities. Literacy development begins well before children enter school and can accelerate in an early childhood classroom setting. Teacher educators often hear about the importance of literacy development. In particular, the significance of phonological…

  4. Supporting Mathematical Development in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pound, Linda

    2006-01-01

    This book provides practical guidance for parents, teachers, and other early years workers who want to give children a good start in mathematical development. Showing how competent children are as mathematicians from an early age, the book offers an overview of young children's mathematical behaviour at home and in early years settings. This book…

  5. Early Childhood Development Policy Advances in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejuu, Godfrey

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the history and development of early childhood development in Uganda is paramount if we are to know how far we have come and where we are going. This article explores the introduction of early childhood development in Ugandan policy and government interventions from 1960 to 2011. Data was obtained from a review of available early…

  6. Small Intestine Early Innate Immunity Response during Intestinal Colonization by Escherichia coli Depends on Its Extra-Intestinal Virulence Status

    PubMed Central

    Willing, Benjamin P.; Croxen, Matthew A.; Dufour, Nicolas; Dion, Sara; Wachtel, Sarah; Denamur, Erick; Finlay, B. Brett

    2016-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains live as commensals in the digestive tract of the host, but they can also initiate urinary tract infections. The aim of this work was to determine how a host detects the presence of a new UPEC strain in the digestive tract. Mice were orally challenged with UPEC strains 536 and CFT073, non-pathogenic strain K12 MG1655, and ΔPAI-536, an isogenic mutant of strain 536 lacking all 7 pathogenicity islands whose virulence is drastically attenuated. Intestinal colonization was measured, and cytokine expression was determined in various organs recovered from mice after oral challenge. UPEC strain 536 efficiently colonized the mouse digestive tract, and prior Enterobacteriaceae colonization was found to impact strain 536 colonization efficiency. An innate immune response, detected as the production of TNFα, IL-6 and IL-10 cytokines, was activated in the ileum 48 hours after oral challenge with strain 536, and returned to baseline within 8 days, without a drop in fecal pathogen load. Although inflammation was detected in the ileum, histology was normal at the time of cytokine peak. Comparison of cytokine secretion 48h after oral gavage with E. coli strain 536, CFT073, MG1655 or ΔPAI-536 showed that inflammation was more pronounced with UPECs than with non-pathogenic or attenuated strains. Pathogenicity islands also seemed to be involved in host detection, as IL-6 intestinal secretion was increased after administration of E. coli strain 536, but not after administration of ΔPAI-536. In conclusion, UPEC colonization of the mouse digestive tract activates acute phase inflammatory cytokine secretion but does not trigger any pathological changes, illustrating the opportunistic nature of UPECs. This digestive tract colonization model will be useful for studying the factors controlling the switch from commensalism to pathogenicity. PMID:27096607

  7. Expression kinetics of key genes in the early innate immune response to Great Lakes viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus IVb infection in yellow perch (Perca flavescens)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, Wendy; Emmenegger, Eveline; Glenn, Jolene; Simchick, Crystal; Winton, Jim; Goetz, Frederick

    2013-01-01

    The recently discovered strain of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, VHSV-IVb, represents an example of the introduction of an extremely pathogenic rhabdovirus capable of infecting a wide variety of new fish species in a new host-environment. The goal of the present study was to delineate the expression kinetics of key genes in the innate immune response relative to the very early stages of VHSV-IVb infection using the yellow perch (Perca flavescens) as a model. Administration of VHSV-IVb by IP-injection into juvenile yellow perch resulted in 84% cumulative mortality, indicating their high susceptibility to this disease. In fish sampled in the very early stages of infection, a significant up-regulation of Mx gene expression in the liver, as well as IL-1β and SAA activation in the head kidney, spleen, and liver was directly correlated to viral load. The potential down-regulation of Mx in the hematopoietic tissues, head kidney and spleen, may represent a strategy utilized by the virus to increase replication.

  8. Programmed cell death 1 inhibits inflammatory helper T-cell development through controlling the innate immune response.

    PubMed

    Rui, Yuxiang; Honjo, Tasuku; Chikuma, Shunsuke

    2013-10-01

    Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) is an inhibitory coreceptor on immune cells and is essential for self-tolerance because mice genetically lacking PD-1 (PD-1(-/-)) develop spontaneous autoimmune diseases. PD-1(-/-) mice are also susceptible to severe experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), characterized by a massive production of effector/memory T cells against myelin autoantigen, the mechanism of which is not fully understood. We found that an increased primary response of PD-1(-/-) mice to heat-killed mycobacteria (HKMTB), an adjuvant for EAE, contributed to the enhanced production of T-helper 17 (Th17) cells. Splenocytes from HKMTB-immunized, lymphocyte-deficient PD-1(-/-) recombination activating gene (RAG)2(-/-) mice were found to drive antigen-specific Th17 cell differentiation more efficiently than splenocytes from HKMTB-immunized PD-1(+/+) RAG2(-/-) mice. This result suggested PD-1's involvement in the regulation of innate immune responses. Mice reconstituted with PD-1(-/-) RAG2(-/-) bone marrow and PD-1(+/+) CD4(+) T cells developed more severe EAE compared with the ones reconstituted with PD-1(+/+) RAG2(-/-) bone marrow and PD-1(+/+) CD4(+) T cells. We found that upon recognition of HKMTB, CD11b(+) macrophages from PD-1(-/-) mice produced very high levels of IL-6, which helped promote naive CD4(+) T-cell differentiation into IL-17-producing cells. We propose a model in which PD-1 negatively regulates antimycobacterial responses by suppressing innate immune cells, which in turn prevents autoreactive T-cell priming and differentiation to inflammatory effector T cells. PMID:24043779

  9. Critical Issues in Early Childhood Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslow, Martha, Ed.; Martinez-Beck, Ivelisse, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Effective teaching leads to positive student outcomes, and professional development for early childhood teachers is key to improving both. But what exactly is meant by "professional development"? What effect does it have on school readiness? Which models and approaches really work? This is the book the early childhood field needs to take the…

  10. Systems, Development, and Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sameroff, Arnold J.

    1992-01-01

    This commentary on the study reported in this monograph focuses on three topics raised by the study: (1) social systems, or individuals in the context of institutions; (2) the study of development through the use of disabled populations as experiments in human growth; and (3) the ability of intervention programs to manipulate development. (BC)

  11. Online Early Childhood Professional Development: Selected Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood professional development opportunities are expanding rapidly throughout the country. With nearly 12 million children under the age of 5 in some kind of early childhood setting, there is an effort to increase the quality of care and education. In fact, 97% of states require child care professionals to commit to ongoing professional…

  12. Trisomy and early brain development

    PubMed Central

    Haydar, Tarik F.; Reeves, Roger H.

    2011-01-01

    Trisomy for human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) results in Down syndrome (DS). The finished human genome sequence provides a thorough catalog of the genetic elements whose altered dosage perturbs development and function in DS. However, understanding how small alterations in the steady state transcript levels for <2% of human genes can disrupt development and function of essentially every cell presents a more complicated problem. Mouse models that recapitulate specific aspects of DS have been used to identify changes in brain morphogenesis and function. Here we provide a few examples of how trisomy for specific genes affects the development of the cortex and cerebellum to illustrate how gene dosage effects might contribute to divergence between the trisomic and euploid brains. PMID:22169531

  13. The Early Development of Precocity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Nancy M.

    1987-01-01

    The limited research on precocity in infants and preschool children is reviewed, examining specifically the problems of: describing young gifted children, predicting their future development, determining the origins of high achievement motivation and commitment, and nurturing the talent at home and/or in the preschool. (Author/JDD)

  14. Assessment of Early Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flapan, Dorothy

    This is a short assessment outline for use by non-clinicians in evaluating the development of young children. It usually requires 20-30 minutes to assess one child. It may be used periodically to evaluate changes, as a year-end summary, or as a means of communicating with others who have contacts with the child. Sections of the assessment deal…

  15. Ikaros Inhibits Group 3 Innate Lymphoid Cell Development and Function by Suppressing the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiyang; Heller, Jennifer J; Bostick, John W; Lee, Aileen; Schjerven, Hilde; Kastner, Philippe; Chan, Susan; Chen, Zongming E; Zhou, Liang

    2016-07-19

    Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) expressing the transcription factor (TF) RORγt are important for the defense and homeostasis of host intestinal tissues. The zinc finger TF Ikaros, encoded by Ikzf1, is essential for the development of RORγt(+) fetal lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells and lymphoid organogenesis, but its role in postnatal ILC3s is unknown. Here, we show that small-intestinal ILC3s had lower Ikaros expression than ILC precursors and other ILC subsets. Ikaros inhibited ILC3s in a cell-intrinsic manner through zinc-finger-dependent inhibition of transcriptional activity of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, a key regulator of ILC3 maintenance and function. Ablation of Ikzf1 in RORγt(+) ILC3s resulted in increased expansion and cytokine production of intestinal ILC3s and protection against infection and colitis. Therefore, in contrast to being required for LTi development, Ikaros inhibits postnatal ILC3 development and function to regulate gut immune responses at steady state and in disease. PMID:27438771

  16. Variability in early communicative development.

    PubMed

    Fenson, L; Dale, P S; Reznick, J S; Bates, E; Thal, D J; Pethick, S J

    1994-01-01

    Data from parent reports on 1,803 children--derived from a normative study of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (CDIs)--are used to describe the typical course and the extent of variability in major features of communicative development between 8 and 30 months of age. The two instruments, one designed for 8-16-month-old infants, the other for 16-30-month-old toddlers, are both reliable and valid, confirming the value of parent reports that are based on contemporary behavior and a recognition format. Growth trends are described for children scoring at the 10th-, 25th-, 50th-, 75th-, and 90th-percentile levels on receptive and expressive vocabulary, actions and gestures, and a number of aspects of morphology and syntax. Extensive variability exists in the rate of lexical, gestural, and grammatical development. The wide variability across children in the time of onset and course of acquisition of these skills challenges the meaningfulness of the concept of the modal child. At the same time, moderate to high intercorrelations are found among the different skills both concurrently and predictively (across a 6-month period). Sex differences consistently favor females; however, these are very small, typically accounting for 1%-2% of the variance. The effects of SES and birth order are even smaller within this age range. The inventories offer objective criteria for defining typicality and exceptionality, and their cost effectiveness facilitates the aggregation of large data sets needed to address many issues of contemporary theoretical interest. The present data also offer unusually detailed information on the course of development of individual lexical, gestural, and grammatical items and features. Adaptations of the CDIs to other languages have opened new possibilities for cross-linguistic explorations of sequence, rate, and variability of communicative development. PMID:7845413

  17. An Immediate Innate Immune Response Occurred In the Early Stage of E.granulosus Eggs Infection in Sheep: Evidence from Microarray Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jishun; Hou, Hongyan; Chen, Sheng; Jia, Bin; Ban, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Background Cystic Echinococcosis(CE), caused by infection with the larval stage of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus), is a chronic parasitic zoonosis, with highly susceptible infection in sheep. However, the comprehensive molecular mechanisms that underlie the process of E. granulosus infection in the early stage remain largely unknown. The objective of this present study was to gain a cluster of genes expression profiles in the intestine tissue of sheep infected with CE. Methods Nine healthy sheep were divided into infection group and healthy controls, with six infected perorally 5000 E. granulosus eggs suspended in 1000μl physiological saline and three controls perorally injected 1000μl physiological saline. All animals were sacrificed at 4 hours post-infection, respectively. The intestine tissue was removed and the RNA was extracted. In the infection group, the biology replicates were designed to make sure the accuracy of the data. The ovine microarrays were used to analyze changes of gene expression in the intestine tissue between CE infected sheep and healthy controls. Real-time PCR was used to assess reliability of the microarray data. Results By biology repeats, a total of 195 differentially expressed genes were identified between infected group and controls at 4 hours post-infection, with 105 genes related to immune responses, while 90 genes associated with functions including energy metabolism, fat soluble transport, etc. Among the 105 immunity genes, 72 genes showed up-regulated expression levels while 33 showed down-regulation levels. Function analysis showed that most of up-regulated genes were related to innate immune responses, such as mast cell, NK cell, cytokines, chemokines and complement. In addition, Real-time PCR analysis of a random selection of nine genes confirmed the reliability of the microarray data. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first report describing gene expression profiles in the intestine tissue of CE

  18. Measuring time during early embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Ferree, Patrick L; Deneke, Victoria E; Di Talia, Stefano

    2016-07-01

    In most metazoans, embryonic development is orchestrated by a precise series of cellular behaviors. Understanding how such events are regulated to achieve a stereotypical temporal progression is a fundamental problem in developmental biology. In this review, we argue that studying the regulation of the cell cycle in early embryonic development will reveal novel principles of how embryos accurately measure time. We will discuss the strategies that have emerged from studying early development of Drosophila embryos. By comparing the development of flies to that of other metazoans, we will highlight both conserved and alternative mechanisms to generate precision during embryonic development. PMID:26994526

  19. Mathematical Modeling of Early Cellular Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses to Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury and Solid Organ Allotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Day, Judy D.; Metes, Diana M.; Vodovotz, Yoram

    2015-01-01

    A mathematical model of the early inflammatory response in transplantation is formulated with ordinary differential equations. We first consider the inflammatory events associated only with the initial surgical procedure and the subsequent ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) events that cause tissue damage to the host as well as the donor graft. These events release damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs), thereby initiating an acute inflammatory response. In simulations of this model, resolution of inflammation depends on the severity of the tissue damage caused by these events and the patient’s (co)-morbidities. We augment a portion of a previously published mathematical model of acute inflammation with the inflammatory effects of T cells in the absence of antigenic allograft mismatch (but with DAMP release proportional to the degree of graft damage prior to transplant). Finally, we include the antigenic mismatch of the graft, which leads to the stimulation of potent memory T cell responses, leading to further DAMP release from the graft and concomitant increase in allograft damage. Regulatory mechanisms are also included at the final stage. Our simulations suggest that surgical injury and I/R-induced graft damage can be well-tolerated by the recipient when each is present alone, but that their combination (along with antigenic mismatch) may lead to acute rejection, as seen clinically in a subset of patients. An emergent phenomenon from our simulations is that low-level DAMP release can tolerize the recipient to a mismatched allograft, whereas different restimulation regimens resulted in an exaggerated rejection response, in agreement with published studies. We suggest that mechanistic mathematical models might serve as an adjunct for patient- or sub-group-specific predictions, simulated clinical studies, and rational design of immunosuppression. PMID:26441988

  20. Innate immune memory in plants.

    PubMed

    Reimer-Michalski, Eva-Maria; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-08-01

    The plant innate immune system comprises local and systemic immune responses. Systemic plant immunity develops after foliar infection by microbial pathogens, upon root colonization by certain microbes, or in response to physical injury. The systemic plant immune response to localized foliar infection is associated with elevated levels of pattern-recognition receptors, accumulation of dormant signaling enzymes, and alterations in chromatin state. Together, these systemic responses provide a memory to the initial infection by priming the remote leaves for enhanced defense and immunity to reinfection. The plant innate immune system thus builds immunological memory by utilizing mechanisms and components that are similar to those employed in the trained innate immune response of jawed vertebrates. Therefore, there seems to be conservation, or convergence, in the evolution of innate immune memory in plants and vertebrates. PMID:27264335

  1. Early development of cephalochordates (amphioxus).

    PubMed

    Holland, Linda Z; Onai, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    The Phylum Chordata includes three groups--Vertebrata, Tunicata, and Cephalochordata. In cephalochordates, commonly called amphioxus or lancelets, which are basal in the Chordata, the eggs are small and relatively non-yolky. As in vertebrates, cleavage is indeterminate with cell fates determined gradually as development proceeds. The oocytes are attached to the ovarian follicle at the animal pole, where the oocyte nucleus is located. The cytoplasm at the opposite side of the egg, the vegetal pole, contains the future germ plasm or pole plasm, which includes determinants of the germline. After fertilization, additional asymmetries are established by movements of the egg and sperm nuclei, resulting in a concentration of mitochondria at one side of the animal hemisphere. This may be related to establishment of the dorsal/ventral axis. Patterning along the embryonic axes is mediated by secreted signaling proteins. Dorsal identity is specified by Nodal/Vg1 signaling, while during the gastrula stage, opposition between Nodal/Vg1 and BMP signaling establishes dorsal/anterior (i.e., head) and ventral/posterior (i.e., trunk/tail) identities, respectively. Wnt/β-catenin signaling specifies posterior identity while retinoic acid signaling specifies positions along the anterior/posterior axis. These signals are further modulated by a number of secreted antagonists. This fundamental patterning mechanism is conserved, with some modifications, in vertebrates. PMID:23801434

  2. Early Years Educators at Play: A Research-Based Early Childhood Professional Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilinc, Sultan; Kelley, Michael F.; Millinger, Jenny; Adams, Korbi

    2016-01-01

    Every culture has developed some version of performance art. Children especially appreciate performance; their innate openness, forgiveness, and self-love make them delightful performers and audience members. Every time they engage with performance art, children are learning about storytelling, history, sociability, artistry, and physicality.…

  3. MicroRNA-181a/b-1 Is Not Required for Innate γδ NKT Effector Cell Development.

    PubMed

    Sandrock, Inga; Ziętara, Natalia; Łyszkiewicz, Marcin; Oberdörfer, Linda; Witzlau, Katrin; Krueger, Andreas; Prinz, Immo

    2015-01-01

    Thymic development of αβ T lymphocytes into invariant natural killer (NK) T cells depends on their selection via agonistic lipid antigen presented by CD1d. If successful, newly selected NKT cells gain effector functions already in the thymus. Some γδ T cell subsets also acquire effector functions in the thymus. However, it is not clear whether agonistic TCR stimulation is involved in thymic γδ T cell selection and development. Here we combine two genetic models to address this question. MiR-181a/b-1-/-mice, which show impaired agonistic T cell selection of invariant αβ NKT cells, were crossed to Tcrd-H2BeGFP reporter mice to monitor selection, intra-thymic expansion and differentiation of γδ T cells. We found that miR-181a/b-1-deficiency had no effect on numbers of thymic γδ T cell or on their differentiation towards an IL-17- or IFN-γ-producing effector phenotype. Also, the composition of peripheral lymph node γδ T cells was not affected by miR-181a/b-1-deficiency. Dendritic epidermal γδ T cells were normally present in knock-out animals. However, we observed elevated frequencies and numbers of γδ NKT cells in the liver, possibly because γδ NKT cells can expand and replace missing αβ NKT cells in peripheral niches. In summary, we investigated the role of miR-181a/b-1 for selection, intrathymic development and homeostasis of γδ T cells. We conclude that miR-181a/b-1-dependent modulation of T cell selection is not critically required for innate development of γδ NKT cells or of any other γδ T cell subtypes. PMID:26673421

  4. MicroRNA-181a/b-1 Is Not Required for Innate γδ NKT Effector Cell Development

    PubMed Central

    Sandrock, Inga; Ziętara, Natalia; Łyszkiewicz, Marcin; Oberdörfer, Linda; Witzlau, Katrin; Krueger, Andreas; Prinz, Immo

    2015-01-01

    Thymic development of αβ T lymphocytes into invariant natural killer (NK) T cells depends on their selection via agonistic lipid antigen presented by CD1d. If successful, newly selected NKT cells gain effector functions already in the thymus. Some γδ T cell subsets also acquire effector functions in the thymus. However, it is not clear whether agonistic TCR stimulation is involved in thymic γδ T cell selection and development. Here we combine two genetic models to address this question. MiR-181a/b-1–/–mice, which show impaired agonistic T cell selection of invariant αβ NKT cells, were crossed to Tcrd-H2BeGFP reporter mice to monitor selection, intra-thymic expansion and differentiation of γδ T cells. We found that miR-181a/b-1-deficiency had no effect on numbers of thymic γδ T cell or on their differentiation towards an IL-17- or IFN-γ-producing effector phenotype. Also, the composition of peripheral lymph node γδ T cells was not affected by miR-181a/b-1-deficiency. Dendritic epidermal γδ T cells were normally present in knock-out animals. However, we observed elevated frequencies and numbers of γδ NKT cells in the liver, possibly because γδ NKT cells can expand and replace missing αβ NKT cells in peripheral niches. In summary, we investigated the role of miR-181a/b-1 for selection, intrathymic development and homeostasis of γδ T cells. We conclude that miR-181a/b-1-dependent modulation of T cell selection is not critically required for innate development of γδ NKT cells or of any other γδ T cell subtypes. PMID:26673421

  5. Teacher Knowledge Development in Early Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Casey; Jenkins, Jayne M.; Lux, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Investigation of physical education preservice teacher knowledge development has been primarily limited to study of a single semester of early field experience (EFE), with findings from these investigations driving EFE design. The purpose of this research was to investigate what types of knowledge develop and how knowledge evolves and interacts to…

  6. Current Issues in Research on Early Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Alberta E.

    Research on early development is moving apace. Developmental psychology is again giving serious attention to ages and stages. This attention is due, in great part, to the formulations about cognitive development by Piaget. Earlier in the century, the experimental approach to child study came to reflect psychology's generally heavy commitment to…

  7. Transcriptome Encyclopedia of Early Human Development.

    PubMed

    Sahakyan, Anna; Plath, Kathrin

    2016-05-01

    Our understanding of human pre-implantation development is limited by the availability of human embryos and cannot completely rely on mouse studies. Petropoulos et al. now provide an extensive transcriptome analysis of a large number of human pre-implantation embryos at single-cell resolution, revealing previously unrecognized features unique to early human development. PMID:27153491

  8. Early Brain Development Research Review and Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Pam

    2010-01-01

    Thanks to imaging technology used in neurobiology, people have access to useful and critical information regarding the development of the human brain. This information allows them to become much more effective in helping children in their early development. In fact, when people base their practices on the findings from medical science research,…

  9. Patterns of Early Lexical and Phonological Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Cooper, Judith A.

    1984-01-01

    Analyzes early lexical and phonological development in three children from late babbling through the acquisition of 50 conventional words. Focuses on (1) the relationship between prelinguistic and linguistic vocalizations, (2) phonological development after the onset of speech, (3) patterns of lexical selection, (4) rate of lexical acquisition,…

  10. Early executive function predicts reasoning development.

    PubMed

    Richland, Lindsey E; Burchinal, Margaret R

    2013-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is a core cognitive skill that distinguishes humans from all other species and contributes to general fluid intelligence, creativity, and adaptive learning capacities. Yet its origins are not well understood. In the study reported here, we analyzed large-scale longitudinal data from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development to test predictors of growth in analogical-reasoning skill from third grade to adolescence. Our results suggest an integrative resolution to the theoretical debate regarding contributory factors arising from smaller-scale, cross-sectional experiments on analogy development. Children with greater executive-function skills (both composite and inhibitory control) and vocabulary knowledge in early elementary school displayed higher scores on a verbal analogies task at age 15 years, even after adjusting for key covariates. We posit that knowledge is a prerequisite to analogy performance, but strong executive-functioning resources during early childhood are related to long-term gains in fundamental reasoning skills. PMID:23184588

  11. Bioecological Theory, Early Child Development and the Validation of the Population-Level Early Development Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guhn, Martin; Goelman, Hillel

    2011-01-01

    The Early Development Instrument (EDI; Janus and Offord in "Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science" 39:1-22, 2007) project is a Canadian population-level, longitudinal research project, in which teacher ratings of Kindergarten children's early development and wellbeing are linked to health and academic achievement variables at the individual…

  12. Early Childhood Development and E-Learning in Africa: The Early Childhood Development Virtual University Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pence, Alan

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the development and evaluation of the graduate-level Early Childhood Development Virtual University (ECDVU) programme in Sub-Saharan Africa from 2001 through to 2004. It outlines the history of the ECDVU and the establishing of a Sub-Saharan programme for future leaders in the early childhood field guided by the key principle…

  13. RFamide Peptides in Early Vertebrate Development

    PubMed Central

    Sandvik, Guro Katrine; Hodne, Kjetil; Haug, Trude Marie; Okubo, Kataaki; Weltzien, Finn-Arne

    2014-01-01

    RFamides (RFa) are neuropeptides involved in many different physiological processes in vertebrates, such as reproductive behavior, pubertal activation of the reproductive endocrine axis, control of feeding behavior, and pain modulation. As research has focused mostly on their role in adult vertebrates, the possible roles of these peptides during development are poorly understood. However, the few studies that exist show that RFa are expressed early in development in different vertebrate classes, perhaps mostly associated with the central nervous system. Interestingly, the related peptide family of FMRFa has been shown to be important for brain development in invertebrates. In a teleost, the Japanese medaka, knockdown of genes in the Kiss system indicates that Kiss ligands and receptors are vital for brain development, but few other functional studies exist. Here, we review the literature of RFa in early vertebrate development, including the possible functional roles these peptides may play. PMID:25538682

  14. Stress, Early Brain Development, and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnar, Megan R.; Barr, Ronald G.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews research on the effect of stress hormones, particularly glucocorticoids, on the brain and early development. It describes the psychological and social processes that reduce stress hormone responses to threatening and painful procedures. Research on the cognitive and emotional effects of synthetic glucocorticoids is also discussed.…

  15. Operating Principles and Early Lexical Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mervis, Carolyn B.

    Two types of operating principles thought to play an important role in early lexical development are discussed. The principles are those concerned with: (1) assignment of reference or meaning to words; and (2) formation and evolution of categories. Discussion also addresses related issues, such as the developmentally important relationship between…

  16. Early Intervention, Maternal Development and Children's Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Diana T.

    The purposes of this longitudinal study of early intervention with 83 black mother-child dyads were (a) to test the thesis that sociocultural transmission influences childhood development in educationally significant ways, and (b) to describe the process through which such transmission can occur. Two social intervention programs were contrasted;…

  17. Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Early Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Jerome

    The popular view among American psychologists has been that there is a continuity of psychological structure that is shaped by early experience. Data gathered in studies of Guatemalan villages imply serious discontinuities in the development of particular cognitive competencies and capacities for affect through preadolescence. The first two years…

  18. EARLY CRANIOFACIAL DEVELOPMENT: LIFE AMONG THE SIGNALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early Craniofacial Development: Life Among the Signals. Sid Hunter and Keith Ward. Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, US EPA, RTP, NC, 27711

    Haloacetic acids (HAA) are chemicals formed during drinking water disinfection and present in finished tap water. Exposure o...

  19. The Early Years: Development, Learning and Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian, Ed.; Catherwood, Di, Ed.

    Designed for teachers, students, caregivers, and health professionals who work with children from birth to age 8, this book provides a review of recent research and theories of development and learning in the early childhood years, with an emphasis on implications for effective teaching. Where appropriate, the book takes an Australian perspective,…

  20. Early Phonological Development: Creating an Assessment Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Williams, A. Lynn

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a new protocol for assessing the phonological systems of two-year-olds with typical development and older children with delays in vocabulary acquisition. The test (Profiles of Early Expressive Phonological Skills ("PEEPS"), Williams & Stoel-Gammon, in preparation) differs from currently available assessments in that age of…

  1. Has innate immunity evolved through different routes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrinello, Nicolò

    2010-03-01

    Invertebrate self/non-self recognition, defense responses, mating and development share innate immune surveillance and functions challenged by competition and linked to fitness. Independent evolutionary branches of immune responses may use conserved gene traits. On the other hand immunity genes may be conserved due to their role in development. Finally, upregulation of innate immunity genes during ascidian metamorphosis supports the danger hypothesis.

  2. Measuring in support of early childhood development

    PubMed Central

    Hertzman, Clyde; Clinton, Jean; Lynk, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    A child’s early experiences and environments have a significant, measurable effect on later life trajectories of health and well-being. Each child’s own world, especially parents and other caregivers, literally sculpts the brain and impacts stress pathways. Effective early childhood interventions exist that can improve adult and societal outcomes. In this statement, the Canadian Paediatric Society calls on federal and provincial/territorial governments to measure and monitor the developmental progress of children in Canada, which can vary widely among communities and demographic groups. The statement explores the objectives for collecting quality information about early child development, its determinants and long-term outcomes. It also examines four approaches to collecting population-based, person-specific and longitudinal data, both in young children and later in life. A key outcome of monitoring development is timely intervention. Linking individual data to the home and community levels is a critical step, so that communities and governments can monitor and take actions that support early child development. PMID:23204908

  3. New players unveiled in early anther development

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, María

    2011-01-01

    Anther development is an important process for the successful sexual reproduction in plants. Whereas the regulation of the late stages of anther development is quite well described in A. thaliana, little is known about the regulation of the early stages of this process. Two novel groups of factors involved in these early stages have recently been described, namely ROXYs, members of the Glutaredoxin (GRX) family of small and ubiquitous oxidoreductases involved in various cellular and stress-related responses, and SBP-box Genes. ROXYs belong to the CC-type of GRXs with a CCXC active motif and are specific for higher plants. SBP-box genes encode for SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN transcription factors, many of which are targeted by miR156 and miR157. Strikingly, both the enzymes and the transcription factors represent evolutionary conserved gene families and loss-of-function of these genes exhibits similar anther phenotypes, e.g. arresting sporogenous cell formation and missing pollen sacs. This mini-review gives an overview of how these factors affect early anther development and discusses a possible relationship between these factors and other known early anther genes. PMID:21633200

  4. Measuring in support of early childhood development.

    PubMed

    Hertzman, Clyde; Clinton, Jean; Lynk, Andrew

    2011-12-01

    A child's early experiences and environments have a significant, measurable effect on later life trajectories of health and well-being. Each child's own world, especially parents and other caregivers, literally sculpts the brain and impacts stress pathways. Effective early childhood interventions exist that can improve adult and societal outcomes. In this statement, the Canadian Paediatric Society calls on federal and provincial/territorial governments to measure and monitor the developmental progress of children in Canada, which can vary widely among communities and demographic groups. The statement explores the objectives for collecting quality information about early child development, its determinants and long-term outcomes. It also examines four approaches to collecting population-based, person-specific and longitudinal data, both in young children and later in life. A key outcome of monitoring development is timely intervention. Linking individual data to the home and community levels is a critical step, so that communities and governments can monitor and take actions that support early child development. PMID:23204908

  5. [Innate immunity primary immunodeficiencies and infections].

    PubMed

    Duchamp, M; Miot, C; Bustamante, J C; Picard, C

    2016-07-01

    The diagnosis of primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) is important for the early and adaptive care of patients and their families. Among the various known PIDs, a number of them concern the innate immune system, which involve a set of cells and mechanisms involved in the host defense by a nonspecific and fast response. The majority of patients with innate immunity defects have a predisposition to one isolated type of infection (bacterial, viral, or fungal), dependent on the genetic defect involved. This article describes the different PIDs involving innate immunity and the immunological investigations allowing for their diagnosis. PMID:27266636

  6. Early development and neurogenesis of Temnopleurus reevesii.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Shunsuke; Yamazaki, Atsuko; Wada, Wakana; Tsuchiya, Yasutaka; Sato, Toshihiko; Shinagawa, Hideo; Yamada, Yutaro; Yaguchi, Junko

    2015-04-01

    Sea urchins are model non-chordate deuterostomes, and studying the nervous system of their embryos can aid in the understanding of the universal mechanisms of neurogenesis. However, despite the long history of sea urchin embryology research, the molecular mechanisms of their neurogenesis have not been well investigated, in part because neurons appear relatively late during embryogenesis. In this study, we used the species Temnopleurus reevesii as a new sea urchin model and investigated the detail of its development and neurogenesis during early embryogenesis. We found that the embryos of T. reevesii were tolerant of high temperatures and could be cultured successfully at 15-30°C during early embryogenesis. At 30°C, the embryos developed rapidly enough that the neurons appeared at just after 24 h. This is faster than the development of other model urchins, such as Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus or Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. In addition, the body of the embryo was highly transparent, allowing the details of the neural network to be easily captured by ordinary epifluorescent and confocal microscopy without any additional treatments. Because of its rapid development and high transparency during embryogenesis, T. reevesii may be a suitable sea urchin model for studying neurogenesis. Moreover, the males and females are easily distinguishable, and the style of early cleavages is intriguingly unusual, suggesting that this sea urchin might be a good candidate for addressing not only neurology but also cell and developmental biology. PMID:25754419

  7. Innate Immune Activation in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Lumeng, Carey N.

    2014-01-01

    The innate immune system is a prewired set of cellular and humoral components that has developed to sense perturbations in normal physiology and trigger responses to restore the system back to baseline. It is now understood that many of these components can also sense the physiologic changes that occur with obesity and be activated. While the exact reasons for this chronic immune response to obesity are unclear, there is strong evidence to suggest that innate inflammatory systems link obesity and disease. Based on this, anti-inflammatory therapies for diseases like type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome may form the core of future treatment plans. This review will highlight the components involved in the innate immune response and discuss the evidence that they contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity-associated diseases. PMID:23068074

  8. Chapter 2: Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Turvey, Stuart E.; Broide, David H.

    2009-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed an explosion of interest in the innate immune system. Questions about how the innate immune system senses infection and empowers a protective immune response are being answered at the molecular level. These basic science discoveries are being translated into a more complete understanding of the central role innate immunity plays in the pathogenesis of many human infectious and inflammatory diseases. It is particularly exciting that we are already seeing a return on these scientific investments with the emergence of novel therapies to harness the power of the innate immune system. In this review we explore the defining characteristics of the innate immune system, and through more detailed examples, we highlight recent breakthroughs that have advanced our understanding of the role of innate immunity in human health and disease. PMID:19932920

  9. Early and Middle Adolescents’ Autonomy Development

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Debra A.; Greenwell, Lisa; Resell, Judith; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Schuster, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Progression toward autonomy is considered of central importance during the adolescent period. For young adolescents with an HIV-infected parent, there may be additional challenges. This study investigated current autonomy among early and middle adolescents affected by maternal HIV (N = 108), as well as examined longitudinally the children’s responsibility taking when they were younger (age 6 - 11; N = 81) in response to their mother’s illness and their current autonomy as early/middle adolescents. In analyses of self-care and family autonomy, children with greater attachment to their mothers had higher autonomy, and there was a trend for children who drink or use drugs alone to have lower autonomy. In analyses of management autonomy, attachment to peers was associated with higher autonomy. Trajectory group findings indicate that those children who had taken on more responsibility for instrumental caretaking roles directly because of their mother’s illness showed better autonomy development as early and middle age adolescents. Therefore, “parentification” of young children with a mother with HIV may not negatively affect later autonomy development. PMID:18540228

  10. Early development of Silvetia babingtonii (Fucales, Phaeophyceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gaoge; Wei, Xiaojiao; Shuai, Limei; Lu, Bojun; Wang, Shasha; Kang, Dongdong

    2014-08-01

    Silvetia babingtonii is a potentially economic brown alga for sources of food and high-value added utilization. So far, sporeling nursery and field cultivation has not been successful. The lack of knowledge on development and life cycle of this alga hinder the development of techniques for the sporeings and cultivation. In this study, internal structure of oogonium and antherium of S. babingtonii was observed with hematoxylin and eosin staining and through microscope. Meanwhile, early development from zygotes to juvenile sporelings was studied at 20°C under 60-100 μmol photons m-2s-1. Zygotes germinated and divided into thallus and rhizoid cells. The larger thallus cells further divided and developed into juvenile sporelings; while the smaller rhizoid cells divided and elongated into rhizoid hairs. These findings documented the life cycle of S. babingtonii and provided fundamental knowledge for sporeling nursery in the near future.

  11. Lipidome signatures in early bovine embryo development.

    PubMed

    Sudano, Mateus J; Rascado, Tatiana D S; Tata, Alessandra; Belaz, Katia R A; Santos, Vanessa G; Valente, Roniele S; Mesquita, Fernando S; Ferreira, Christina R; Araújo, João P; Eberlin, Marcos N; Landim-Alvarenga, Fernanda D C

    2016-07-15

    Mammalian preimplantation embryonic development is a complex, conserved, and well-orchestrated process involving dynamic molecular and structural changes. Understanding membrane lipid profile fluctuation during this crucial period is fundamental to address mechanisms governing embryogenesis. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to perform a comprehensive assessment of stage-specific lipid profiles during early bovine embryonic development and associate with the mRNA abundance of lipid metabolism-related genes (ACSL3, ELOVL5, and ELOVL6) and with the amount of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Immature oocytes were recovered from slaughterhouse-derived ovaries, two-cell embryos, and eight- to 16-cell embryos, morula, and blastocysts that were in vitro produced under different environmental conditions. Lipid droplets content and mRNA transcript levels for ACSL3, ELOVL5, and ELOVL6, monitored by lipid staining and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively, increased at morula followed by a decrease at blastocyst stage. Relative mRNA abundance changes of ACSL3 were closely related to cytoplasmic lipid droplet accumulation. Characteristic dynamic changes of phospholipid profiles were observed during early embryo development and related to unsaturation level, acyl chain length, and class composition. ELOVL5 and ELOVL6 mRNA levels were suggestive of overexpression of membrane phospholipids containing elongated fatty acids with 16, 18, and 20 carbons. In addition, putative biomarkers of key events of embryogenesis, embryo lipid accumulation, and elongation were identified. This study provides a comprehensive description of stage-specific lipidome signatures and proposes a mechanism to explain its potential relationship with the fluctuation of both cytoplasmic lipid droplets content and mRNA levels of lipid metabolism-related genes during early bovine embryo development. PMID:27107972

  12. Innate immunity to influenza virus: implications for future therapy

    PubMed Central

    White, Mitchell R; Doss, Mona; Boland, Patrick; Tecle, Tesfaldet; Hartshorn, Kevan L

    2009-01-01

    Innate immunity is critical in the early containment of influenza virus infection. The innate response is surprisingly complex. A variety of soluble innate inhibitors in respiratory secretions provide an initial barrier to infection. Dendritic cells, phagocytes and natural killer cells mediate viral clearance and promote further innate and adaptive responses. Toll-like receptors 3 and 7 and cytoplasmic RNA sensors are critical for activating these responses. In general, the innate response restricts viral replication without injuring the lung; however, the 1918 pandemic and H5N1 strains cause more profound, possibly harmful, innate responses. In this review, we discuss the implications of burgeoning knowledge of innate immunity for therapy of influenza. PMID:19756245

  13. The Innate Immune System in Acute and Chronic Wounds

    PubMed Central

    MacLeod, Amanda S.; Mansbridge, Jonathan N.

    2016-01-01

    Significance: This review article provides an overview of the critical roles of the innate immune system to wound healing. It explores aspects of dysregulation of individual innate immune elements known to compromise wound repair and promote nonhealing wounds. Understanding the key mechanisms whereby wound healing fails will provide seed concepts for the development of new therapeutic approaches. Recent Advances: Our understanding of the complex interactions of the innate immune system in wound healing has significantly improved, particularly in our understanding of the role of antimicrobials and peptides and the nature of the switch from inflammatory to reparative processes. This takes place against an emerging understanding of the relationship between human cells and commensal bacteria in the skin. Critical Issues: It is well established and accepted that early local inflammatory mediators in the wound bed function as an immunological vehicle to facilitate immune cell infiltration and microbial clearance upon injury to the skin barrier. Both impaired and excessive innate immune responses can promote nonhealing wounds. It appears that the switch from the inflammatory to the proliferative phase is tightly regulated and mediated, at least in part, by a change in macrophages. Defining the factors that initiate the switch in such macrophage phenotypes and functions is the subject of multiple investigations. Future Directions: The review highlights processes that may be useful targets for further investigation, particularly the switch from M1 to M2 macrophages that appears to be critical as dysregulation of this switch occurs during defective wound healing. PMID:26862464

  14. Kepler Mission Development Challenges and Early Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanson, J.; Duren, R.; Frerking, M.

    2011-01-01

    Kepler is NASA s first mission capable of detecting Earth-size planets orbiting in the habitable zone of stars other than the Sun. Kepler comprises a space telescope designed to continuously monitor the brightnesses of more than 100,000 target stars, and a ground segment to analyze the measured stellar light curves and detect the signatures of orbiting planets. In order to detect Earth-size planets orbiting Sun-like stars Kepler was designed to provide unprecedented photometric sensitivity and stability. This paper addresses some of the technical challenges encountered during the development of the Kepler mission and the measures taken to overcome them. Early scientific results are summarized.

  15. Kepler Mission Development Challenges and Early Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanson, J.

    2011-01-01

    Kepler is NASA`s first mission capable of detecting Earth-size planets orbiting in the habitable zone of stars other than the sun. Kepler comprises a space telescope designed to continuously monitor the brightnesses of more than 100,000 target stars, and a ground segment to analyze the measured stellar light curves and detect the signatures of orbiting planets. In order to detect Earth-size planets orbiting Sun-like stars Kepler was designed to provide unprecedented photometric sensitivity and stability. This paper addresses some of the technical challenges encountered during the development of the Kepler mission and the measures taken to overcome them. Early scientific results are summarized.

  16. Trade-offs between acquired and innate immune defenses in humans

    PubMed Central

    McDade, Thomas W.; Georgiev, Alexander V.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.

    2016-01-01

    Immune defenses provide resistance against infectious disease that is critical to survival. But immune defenses are costly, and limited resources allocated to immunity are not available for other physiological or developmental processes. We propose a framework for explaining variation in patterns of investment in two important subsystems of anti-pathogen defense: innate (non-specific) and acquired (specific) immunity. The developmental costs of acquired immunity are high, but the costs of maintenance and activation are relatively low. Innate immunity imposes lower upfront developmental costs, but higher operating costs. Innate defenses are mobilized quickly and are effective against novel pathogens. Acquired responses are less effective against novel exposures, but more effective against secondary exposures due to immunological memory. Based on their distinct profiles of costs and effectiveness, we propose that the balance of investment in innate versus acquired immunity is variable, and that this balance is optimized in response to local ecological conditions early in development. Nutritional abundance, high pathogen exposure and low signals of extrinsic mortality risk during sensitive periods of immune development should all favor relatively higher levels of investment in acquired immunity. Undernutrition, low pathogen exposure, and high mortality risk should favor innate immune defenses. The hypothesis provides a framework for organizing prior empirical research on the impact of developmental environments on innate and acquired immunity, and suggests promising directions for future research in human ecological immunology. PMID:26739325

  17. Crosstalk between innate and adaptive immunity in hepatitis B virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Wang, Kai; Zou, Zhi-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major public health problem worldwide. HBV is not directly cytotoxic to infected hepatocytes; the clinical outcome of infection results from complicated interactions between the virus and the host immune system. In acute HBV infection, initiation of a broad, vigorous immune response is responsible for viral clearance and self-limited inflammatory liver disease. Effective and coordinated innate and adaptive immune responses are critical for viral clearance and the development of long-lasting immunity. Chronic hepatitis B patients fail to mount efficient innate and adaptive immune responses to the virus. In particular, HBV-specific cytotoxic T cells, which are crucial for HBV clearance, are hyporesponsiveness to HBV infection. Accumulating experimental evidence obtained from the development of animal and cell line models has highlighted the importance of innate immunity in the early control of HBV spread. The virus has evolved immune escape strategies, with higher HBV loads and HBV protein concentrations associated with increasing impairment of immune function. Therefore, treatment of HBV infection requires inhibition of HBV replication and protein expression to restore the suppressed host immunity. Complicated interactions exist not only between innate and adaptive responses, but also among innate immune cells and different components of adaptive responses. Improved insight into these complex interactions are important in designing new therapeutic strategies for the treatment HBV infection. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge regarding the cross-talk between the innate and adaptive immune responses and among different immunocytes in HBV infection. PMID:26730277

  18. Trade-offs between acquired and innate immune defenses in humans.

    PubMed

    McDade, Thomas W; Georgiev, Alexander V; Kuzawa, Christopher W

    2016-01-01

    Immune defenses provide resistance against infectious disease that is critical to survival. But immune defenses are costly, and limited resources allocated to immunity are not available for other physiological or developmental processes. We propose a framework for explaining variation in patterns of investment in two important subsystems of anti-pathogen defense: innate (non-specific) and acquired (specific) immunity. The developmental costs of acquired immunity are high, but the costs of maintenance and activation are relatively low. Innate immunity imposes lower upfront developmental costs, but higher operating costs. Innate defenses are mobilized quickly and are effective against novel pathogens. Acquired responses are less effective against novel exposures, but more effective against secondary exposures due to immunological memory. Based on their distinct profiles of costs and effectiveness, we propose that the balance of investment in innate versus acquired immunity is variable, and that this balance is optimized in response to local ecological conditions early in development. Nutritional abundance, high pathogen exposure and low signals of extrinsic mortality risk during sensitive periods of immune development should all favor relatively higher levels of investment in acquired immunity. Undernutrition, low pathogen exposure, and high mortality risk should favor innate immune defenses. The hypothesis provides a framework for organizing prior empirical research on the impact of developmental environments on innate and acquired immunity, and suggests promising directions for future research in human ecological immunology. PMID:26739325

  19. Moral Development in Early Adolescence: Perspective on a Perplexing Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinder, Robert E.; Nelsen, Edward A.

    1980-01-01

    The authors focus on the moral development of the early adolescent (ages 10 to 15). The ways in which early adolescents develop morally, social influences on such development, and the expression of morality behaviorally are discussed. (Editor/KC)

  20. Early Literacy and Early Numeracy: The Value of Including Early Literacy Skills in the Prediction of Numeracy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purpura, David J.; Hume, Laura E.; Sims, Darcey M.; Lonigan, Cristopher J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether early literacy skills uniquely predict early numeracy skills development. During the first year of the study, 69 3- to 5-year-old preschoolers were assessed on the Preschool Early Numeracy Skills (PENS) test and the Test of Preschool Early Literacy Skills (TOPEL). Participants were assessed again a…

  1. Astronewt: early development of newt in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogami, Y.; Imamizo, M.; Yamashita, M.; Izumi-Kurotani, A.; Wiederhold, M. L.; Koike, H.; Asashima, M.

    AstroNewt experiment explores the effects of earth gravity on the early development of Japanese red-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster. Since female newts keep spermatophore in cloaca, fertilized eggs could be obtained without mating. Fertilization of newt's egg occurs just prior to spawning, so that gonadotrophic cues applied to females in orbit leads to laying eggs fertilized just in space. A property of newt being kept in hibernation at low temperature may be of great help for the space experiment carried out with much limited resources. A general outline of the AstroNewt project is shown here in addition to some technical advances for the development of the project. Experimental schemes of two space experiments (IML-2 in summer 1994 and unmanned SFU at the beginning of 1995) are also shown.

  2. Development of Life on Early Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    Exploration of Mars has begun to unveil the history of the planet. Combinations of remote sensing, in situ compositional measurements and photographic observations have shown Mars had a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution encompassed conditions that were suitable for supporting life. A habitable planet must have water, carbon and energy sources along with a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water- as shown by carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001, well-dated at 3.9 Gy, (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon, water and a likely thicker atmosphere from extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H20, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust [1]. The question arises: "Why would life not develop from these favorable conditions on Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would favor the formation of early life. (Even if life developed elsewhere on Earth, Venus, or on other bodies-it was transported to Mars where surface conditions were suitable for life to evolve). The commonly stated requirement that life would need hundreds of millions of year to get started is only an assumption; we know of no evidence that requires such a long interval for the development of life, if the proper habitable

  3. Cell fate regulation in early mammalian development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oron, Efrat; Ivanova, Natalia

    2012-08-01

    Preimplantation development in mammals encompasses a period from fertilization to implantation and results in formation of a blastocyst composed of three distinct cell lineages: epiblast, trophectoderm and primitive endoderm. The epiblast gives rise to the organism, while the trophectoderm and the primitive endoderm contribute to extraembryonic tissues that support embryo development after implantation. In many vertebrates, such as frog or fish, maternally supplied lineage determinants are partitioned within the egg. Cell cleavage that follows fertilization results in polarization of these factors between the individual blastomeres, which become restricted in their developmental fate. In contrast, the mouse oocyte and zygote lack clear polarity and, until the eight-cell stage, individual blastomeres retain the potential to form all lineages. How are cell lineages specified in the absence of a maternally supplied blueprint? This is a fundamental question in the field of developmental biology. The answer to this question lies in understanding the cell-cell interactions and gene networks involved in embryonic development prior to implantation and using this knowledge to create testable models of the developmental processes that govern cell fates. We provide an overview of classic and contemporary models of early lineage development in the mouse and discuss the emerging body of work that highlights similarities and differences between blastocyst development in the mouse and other mammalian species.

  4. The Crosstalk between Hypoxia and Innate Immunity in the Development of Obesity-Related Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Loste, María Teresa; Fábrega, Emilio; López-Hoyos, Marcos; Crespo, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a major health issue in western countries in parallel with the dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity and all obesity related conditions, including respiratory diseases as obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). Interestingly, the severity of the liver damage in obesity-related NAFLD has been associated with the concomitant presence of OSAHS. In the presence of obesity, the proinflammatory state in these patients together with intermittent episodes of hypoxia, characteristic of OSAHS pathogenesis, may lead to an enhanced inflammatory response mediated by a positive feedback loop mechanism that implicates HIF-1 and NFκB. Thus, the severity of liver involvement in obese NAFLD patients with a concomitant diagnosis of OSAHS could be explained. In this review, we focus on the molecular mechanisms underlying the hepatic response to chronic intermittent hypoxia and its interaction with innate immunity in obesity-related NAFLD. PMID:26491664

  5. The Early Development of Kinetic Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Robert D.

    1979-01-01

    A review of the work of Bernoulli and other early contributors to kinetic theory. One significant point is that the most outstanding work in this early period was done by a little-known Scotsman, John J. Waterston. (BB)

  6. Early development of grateloupia turuturu (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gaoge; Jiang, Chunmei; Wang, Shasha; Wei, Xiaojiao; Zhao, Fengjuan

    2012-03-01

    Grateloupia turuturu is a commercial red alga with potential value in nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. To supplement information on its life history and verify whether carpospores can be used for seedling culture, early development of G. turuturu was investigated under culture conditions (27°C, 10-13 μol/(m2·s) in irradiance, photoperiod 10:14 h L:D). Three physiological stages were recognized by continuous microscopic observation: division stage, discoid crust stage, and juvenile seedling stage. At the beginning of the division stage, the carpospores developed germ tubes into which the carpospore protoplasm was evacuated, and then the carpospore protoplasm in the germ tubes began to divide continuously until discoid crusts formed. Finally, upright thalli appeared on the discoid crusts and developed into juvenile seedlings. It took about 60 days for carpospores to develop into juvenile seedlings. The growth parameters, including germination rate for carpospores and discoid crust diameter, were recorded. These results contribute more information on the life cycle, and at the same time are of great significance in the scaling-up of artificial seedling cultures of G. turuturu.

  7. Communication and community development: early child development programs.

    PubMed

    Wood, F; Reinhold, A J

    1993-01-01

    Community-based groups are organized around particular aspects of early childhood development (ECD), such as literacy, parent education, and early childhood activities. In the Colombian national program, community households call upon women to devote a portion of their home to organized child care for minimal material reward. The Indian Child Development Service subsidizes the payment of organizers; and Kenyan parents construct basic preschool facilities, provide school lunches, and subsidize a teacher. In such cases the government plays a subordinate role, while the burden of program maintenance is carried by the community. These programs share the characteristics that children and adults learn side by side; adult learning ranges from women's literacy, to health, organizational issues, or small-scale economic development; a strong cultural component emphasizes mother tongue language learning, indigenous child-rearing practices, and local working models; physical structures are in homes; capacity-building for the adults is central which will be transferred to other spheres of community life. In the remote coastal villages of Colombia, an organization called Promesa works with mothers on designing their preschool children's educational activities. Promesa began to confront other priority needs in the villages, especially in environmental health and malaria control. A 1990 assessment related that participants' pride, self-confidence, and ability to solve problems regarding the healthy development of their children increased; groups learned to make use of the physical, human, and institutional resources from their environments; and participants' children remained in school and performed better. Conclusions from a decade of loose experimentation suggest that through communication community women can be organized to provide basic early education and early childhood activities can help rural children over the cultural barrier of school. PMID:12317893

  8. Economic deprivation and early childhood development.

    PubMed

    Duncan, G J; Brooks-Gunn, J; Klebanov, P K

    1994-04-01

    We consider 3 questions regarding the effects of economic deprivation on child development. First, how are developmental outcomes in childhood affected by poverty and such poverty correlates as single parenthood, ethnicity, and maternal education? Second, what are the developmental consequences of the duration and timing of family economic deprivation? And, third, what is the comparative influence of economic deprivation at the family and neighborhood level? We investigate these issues with longitudinal data from the Infant Health and Development Program. We find that family income and poverty status are powerful correlates of the cognitive development and behavior of children, even after accounting for other differences--in particular family structure and maternal schooling--between low- and high-income families. While the duration of poverty matters, its timing in early childhood does not. Age-5 IQs are found to be higher in neighborhoods with greater concentrations of affluent neighbors, while the prevalence of low-income neighbors appears to increase the incidence of externalizing behavior problems. PMID:7516849

  9. Approaching archetypes: reconsidering innateness.

    PubMed

    Goodwyn, Erik

    2010-09-01

    The question of innateness has hounded Jungian psychology since Jung originally postulated the archetype as an a priori structure within the psyche. During his life and after his death he was continually accused of Lamarckianism and criticized for his theory that the archetypes existed as prior structures. More recently, with the advent of genetic research and the human genome project, the idea that psychological structures can be innate has come under even harsher criticism even within Jungian thought. There appears to be a growing consensus that Jung's idea of innate psychological structures was misguided, and that perhaps the archetype-as-such should be abandoned for more developmental and 'emergent' theories of the psyche. The purpose of this essay is to question this conclusion, and introduce some literature on psychological innateness that appears relevant to this discussion. PMID:20883307

  10. Calcium at fertilization and in early development

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Fertilization calcium waves are introduced and the evidence from which we can infer general mechanisms of these waves is presented. The two main classes of hypothesis put forward to explain the generation of the fertilization calcium wave are set out and it is concluded that initiation of the fertilization calcium wave can be most generally explained in inverterbrates by a mechanism in which an activating substance enters the egg from the sperm on sperm-egg fusion, activating the egg by stimulating phospholipase C activation through a src family kinase pathway and in mammals by the diffusion of a sperm-specific phospholipase C from sperm to egg on sperm-egg fusion. The fertilization calcium wave is then set into the context of cell cycle control and the mechanism of repetitive calcium spiking in mammalian eggs is investigated. Evidence that calcium signals control cell division in early embryos is reviewed, and it is concluded that calcium signals are essential at all three stages of cell division in early embryos. Evidence that phosphoinositide signalling pathways control the resumption of meiosis during oocyte maturation is considered. It is concluded on balance that the evidence points to a need for phosphoinositide/calcium signalling during resumption of meiosis. Changes to the calcium signalling machinery occur during meiosis to enable the production of a calcium wave in the mature oocyte when it is fertilized; evidence that the shape and structure of the endoplasmic reticulum alters dynamically during maturation and after fertilization is reviewed and the link between ER dynamics and the cytoskeleton is discussed. There is evidence that calcium signalling plays a key part in the development of patterning in early embryos. Morphogenesis in ascidian, frog and zebrafish embryos is briefly described to provide the developmental context in which calcium signals act. Intracellular calcium waves that may play a role in axis formation in ascidian are discussed

  11. Early Years Practitioners' Views on Early Personal, Social and Emotional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrey, Carol; Ward, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Current policy guidance stresses the need for early identification of obstacles to learning and appropriate intervention. New standards for learning (Early Years Foundation Stage) place personal, social and emotional development (PSED) as central to learning and development. This paper reports a survey and follow-up interviews with early years…

  12. Innate Immunity and Neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Bonifati, Domenico Marco

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation of central nervous system (CNS) is usually associated with trauma and infection. Neuroinflammation occurs in close relation to trauma, infection, and neurodegenerative diseases. Low-level neuroinflammation is considered to have beneficial effects whereas chronic neuroinflammation can be harmful. Innate immune system consisting of pattern-recognition receptors, macrophages, and complement system plays a key role in CNS homeostasis following injury and infection. Here, we discuss how innate immune components can also contribute to neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. PMID:23843682

  13. Early development of Brycon orthotaenia (Pisces: Characidae).

    PubMed

    Gomes, Rafael Zeferino; Sato, Yoshimi; Rizzo, Elizete; Bazzoli, Nilo

    2013-02-01

    Brycon orthotaenia is an important fish for commercial and sport fishing and may reach 7 kg in body weight; it is endangered in some regions of Brazil's São Francisco River Basin. Breeders were subjected to spawning induction to analyse the early development; oocytes and semen were obtained by manual extrusion and fertilization was carried out using the dry method. After fertilization, eggs were kept in incubators at 24°C. Egg samples were collected every 10 min until hatching in order to monitor embryonic development and were analysed and photographed. Larvae samples were collected daily until the seventh day to analyse the larvae development; larvae were fixed in Bouin's fluid and subjected to routine histological and histochemical techniques for glycoprotein and glyco-conjugated detection. Oocyte extrusion occurred 6 h after the second hormone dose at 26°C. The recently extruded oocytes were spherical, dark green and non-adhesive, with a diameter of 1479.67 ± 53.18 and 3094.60 ± 80.34 μm after hydration. The blastopore closure occurred within 7 h 30 min of fertilization and the fertilization rate was 50.0 ± 5.5 % at 24°C. Embryonic development was completed within 21 h 30 min of fertilization. Complete yolk sac resorption and mouth opening occurred on the third day after hatching, at which time an adhesive organ with mucosubstances was observed. On the third day, an olfactory chamber with cilia and intense cannibalism amongst the larvae was observed. The complete differentiation of the digestive system occurred on the fifth day and the nervous and sensorial systems differentiation occurred on the sixth to seventh days. PMID:21733293

  14. Early Childhood Development: Upgrading the Downgrader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parnell, Dale

    1973-01-01

    Argues that, properly implemented, early childhood education in basic skills will drastically cut the waste of millions of students sitting in classes and learning little or nothing because they have not mastered the prerequisites. The next step in education, according to the author, must be preschool and home-based early childhood education…

  15. Early Parental Depression and Child Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, James F.; Keefe, Heather A.; Leiferman, Jenn A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of early maternal and paternal depression on child expressive language at age 24 months and the role that parent-to-child reading may play in this pathway. Participants and methods: The 9-month and 24-month waves from a national prospective study of children and their families, the Early Childhood Longitudinal…

  16. Innate Immune Effectors in Mycobacterial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Saiga, Hiroyuki; Shimada, Yosuke; Takeda, Kiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis, which is caused by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), remains one of the major bacterial infections worldwide. Host defense against Mtb is mediated by a combination of innate and adaptive immune responses. In the last 15 years, the mechanisms for activation of innate immunity have been elucidated. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been revealed to be critical for the recognition of pathogenic microorganisms including mycobacteria. Subsequent studies further revealed that NOD-like receptors and C-type lectin receptors are responsible for the TLR-independent recognition of mycobacteria. Several molecules, such as active vitamin D3, secretary leukocyte protease inhibitor, and lipocalin 2, all of which are induced by TLR stimulation, have been shown to direct innate immune responses to mycobacteria. In addition, Irgm1-dependent autophagy has recently been demonstrated to eliminate intracellular mycobacteria. Thus, our understanding of the mechanisms for the innate immune response to mycobacteria is developing. PMID:21274449

  17. Contemporary Trends and Developments in Early Childhood Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Jiaxiong; Zhang, Jie

    2008-01-01

    Early childhood education in China has gone through a century-long development process and has made great progress in the past two decades. Contemporary early childhood education is becoming diverse in its forms and educational approaches, and is aligning itself with the increasingly open and diversified society. It is clear that early childhood…

  18. Classroom Effects of an Early Childhood Educator Professional Development Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algozzine, Bob; Babb, Julie; Algozzine, Kate; Mraz, Maryann; Kissel, Brian; Spano, Sedra; Foxworth, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated an Early Childhood Educator Professional Development (ECEPD) project that provided high-quality, sustained, and intensive professional development designed to support developmentally appropriate instruction for preschool-age children based on the best available research on early childhood pedagogy, child development, and preschool…

  19. Parents' Role in the Early Head Start Children's Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, Cecelia Smalls

    2014-01-01

    The development of language during a child's early years has been linked to parental involvement. While Early Head Start (EHS) researchers have theorized that parental involvement is an important factor in language development, there has been little research on how parents view their roles in the language development process. The purpose of this…

  20. Early Development and the Brain: Teaching Resources for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilkerson, Linda, Ed.; Klein, Rebecca, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This nine-unit curriculum translates current scientific research on early brain development into practical suggestions to help early childhood professionals understand the reciprocal link between caregiving and brain development. The curriculum was created and extensively field-tested by the Erikson Institute Faculty Development Project on the…

  1. Lexically Based Learning and Early Grammatical Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieven, Elena V. M.

    1997-01-01

    Tests Pine & Lieven's (1993) suggestion that a lexically-based positional analysis can account for the structure of a considerable proportion of children's early multiword corpora. Results reveal that the positional analysis accounts for 60% of the children's multiword utterances and that most other utterances are defined as frozen. (33…

  2. Development of an Early Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gil, Isidoro Candel

    2005-01-01

    The following paper presents the main evaluation instruments used in early intervention, and reflects upon their use, taking into account that they were created with and for the normal population. Likewise, developmental characteristics of some child groups are described, more notably the x fragile syndrome, Williams syndrome and Prader Willi…

  3. Early Adolescence: A Critical Development Transition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Anne C.

    A longitudinal study of early adolescents examined gender differences in attitude and behavior, as well as the effects of pubertal change, parental expectations, and parental support. It was hypothesized that sex differences would emerge during preadolescence and that males' and females' rates of change would be significantly different. Subjects…

  4. Early literacy and early numeracy: the value of including early literacy skills in the prediction of numeracy development.

    PubMed

    Purpura, David J; Hume, Laura E; Sims, Darcey M; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether early literacy skills uniquely predict early numeracy skills development. During the first year of the study, 69 3- to 5-year-old preschoolers were assessed on the Preschool Early Numeracy Skills (PENS) test and the Test of Preschool Early Literacy Skills (TOPEL). Participants were assessed again a year later on the PENS test and on the Applied Problems and Calculation subtests of the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement. Three mixed effect regressions were conducted using Time 2 PENS, Applied Problems, and Calculation as the dependent variables. Print Knowledge and Vocabulary accounted for unique variance in the prediction of Time 2 numeracy scores. Phonological Awareness did not uniquely predict any of the mathematics domains. The findings of this study identify an important link between early literacy and early numeracy development. PMID:21831396

  5. The Chlamydia trachomatis Type III Secretion Chaperone Slc1 Engages Multiple Early Effectors, Including TepP, a Tyrosine-phosphorylated Protein Required for the Recruitment of CrkI-II to Nascent Inclusions and Innate Immune Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Shan; Bastidas, Robert J.; Saka, Hector A.; Carpenter, Victoria K.; Richards, Kristian L.; Plano, Gregory V.; Valdivia, Raphael H.

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis, the causative agent of trachoma and sexually transmitted infections, employs a type III secretion (T3S) system to deliver effector proteins into host epithelial cells to establish a replicative vacuole. Aside from the phosphoprotein TARP, a Chlamydia effector that promotes actin re-arrangements, very few factors mediating bacterial entry and early inclusion establishment have been characterized. Like many T3S effectors, TARP requires a chaperone (Slc1) for efficient translocation into host cells. In this study, we defined proteins that associate with Slc1 in invasive C. trachomatis elementary bodies (EB) by immunoprecipitation coupled with mass spectrometry. We identified Ct875, a new Slc1 client protein and T3S effector, which we renamed TepP (Translocated early phosphoprotein). We provide evidence that T3S effectors form large molecular weight complexes with Scl1 in vitro and that Slc1 enhances their T3S-dependent secretion in a heterologous Yersinia T3S system. We demonstrate that TepP is translocated early during bacterial entry into epithelial cells and is phosphorylated at tyrosine residues by host kinases. However, TepP phosphorylation occurs later than TARP, which together with the finding that Slc1 preferentially engages TARP in EBs leads us to postulate that these effectors are translocated into the host cell at different stages during C. trachomatis invasion. TepP co-immunoprecipitated with the scaffolding proteins CrkI-II during infection and Crk was recruited to EBs at entry sites where it remained associated with nascent inclusions. Importantly, C. trachomatis mutants lacking TepP failed to recruit CrkI-II to inclusions, providing genetic confirmation of a direct role for this effector in the recruitment of a host factor. Finally, endocervical epithelial cells infected with a tepP mutant showed altered expression of a subset of genes associated with innate immune responses. We propose a model wherein TepP acts downstream of TARP

  6. InnateDB: facilitating systems-level analyses of the mammalian innate immune response.

    PubMed

    Lynn, David J; Winsor, Geoffrey L; Chan, Calvin; Richard, Nicolas; Laird, Matthew R; Barsky, Aaron; Gardy, Jennifer L; Roche, Fiona M; Chan, Timothy H W; Shah, Naisha; Lo, Raymond; Naseer, Misbah; Que, Jaimmie; Yau, Melissa; Acab, Michael; Tulpan, Dan; Whiteside, Matthew D; Chikatamarla, Avinash; Mah, Bernadette; Munzner, Tamara; Hokamp, Karsten; Hancock, Robert E W; Brinkman, Fiona S L

    2008-01-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in dissecting the signaling pathways involved in the innate immune response, it is now apparent that this response can no longer be productively thought of in terms of simple linear pathways. InnateDB (www.innatedb.ca) has been developed to facilitate systems-level analyses that will provide better insight into the complex networks of pathways and interactions that govern the innate immune response. InnateDB is a publicly available, manually curated, integrative biology database of the human and mouse molecules, experimentally verified interactions and pathways involved in innate immunity, along with centralized annotation on the broader human and mouse interactomes. To date, more than 3500 innate immunity-relevant interactions have been contextually annotated through the review of 1000 plus publications. Integrated into InnateDB are novel bioinformatics resources, including network visualization software, pathway analysis, orthologous interaction network construction and the ability to overlay user-supplied gene expression data in an intuitively displayed molecular interaction network and pathway context, which will enable biologists without a computational background to explore their data in a more systems-oriented manner. PMID:18766178

  7. InnateDB: facilitating systems-level analyses of the mammalian innate immune response

    PubMed Central

    Lynn, David J; Winsor, Geoffrey L; Chan, Calvin; Richard, Nicolas; Laird, Matthew R; Barsky, Aaron; Gardy, Jennifer L; Roche, Fiona M; Chan, Timothy H W; Shah, Naisha; Lo, Raymond; Naseer, Misbah; Que, Jaimmie; Yau, Melissa; Acab, Michael; Tulpan, Dan; Whiteside, Matthew D; Chikatamarla, Avinash; Mah, Bernadette; Munzner, Tamara; Hokamp, Karsten; Hancock, Robert E W; Brinkman, Fiona S L

    2008-01-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in dissecting the signaling pathways involved in the innate immune response, it is now apparent that this response can no longer be productively thought of in terms of simple linear pathways. InnateDB (www.innatedb.ca) has been developed to facilitate systems-level analyses that will provide better insight into the complex networks of pathways and interactions that govern the innate immune response. InnateDB is a publicly available, manually curated, integrative biology database of the human and mouse molecules, experimentally verified interactions and pathways involved in innate immunity, along with centralized annotation on the broader human and mouse interactomes. To date, more than 3500 innate immunity-relevant interactions have been contextually annotated through the review of 1000 plus publications. Integrated into InnateDB are novel bioinformatics resources, including network visualization software, pathway analysis, orthologous interaction network construction and the ability to overlay user-supplied gene expression data in an intuitively displayed molecular interaction network and pathway context, which will enable biologists without a computational background to explore their data in a more systems-oriented manner. PMID:18766178

  8. Studying Children's Early Literacy Development: Confirmatory Multidimensional Scaling Growth Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Cody

    2012-01-01

    There has been considerable debate over the ways in which children's early literacy skills develop over time. Using confirmatory multidimensional scaling (MDS) growth analysis, this paper directly tested the hypothesis of a cumulative trajectory versus a compensatory trajectory of development in early literacy skills among a group of 1233…

  9. Rethinking the Brain: New Insights into Early Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rima

    Recent research on early brain development holds several implications for parents, teachers, health professionals, and policymakers. This report, based on the proceedings from a 1996 national conference on the importance of early brain development for the nation's future well-being, highlights major findings, summarizes their implications for…

  10. Assessing Home Environment for Early Child Development in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadeem, Sanober; Rafique, Ghazala; Khowaja, Liaquat; Yameen, Anjum

    2014-01-01

    Family environment plays a very important role in early child development and the availability of stimulating material in the early years of a child's life is crucial for optimising development. The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) inventory is one of the most widely used measures to assess the quality and quantity…

  11. Supporting Early Childhood Educators through Professional Development Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mraz, Maryann

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the findings of a study that examined instruction in early childhood classrooms where teachers participated in high-quality, sustained, and intensive professional development through an Early Childhood Educator Professional Development partnership on literacy practices essential to school success. Comparisons made between…

  12. Investments for Future: Early Childhood Development and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kartal, Hulya

    2007-01-01

    Investments relevant to the first years of life are directly connected to the future of societies. It can be argued that investments for early childhood development and education are one of the best ways of decreasing social inequality caused by adverse environments which hinder development in early ages and tackling poverty by reducing the rate…

  13. Achievement Gap. Early Developments. Volume 11, Number 2, Fall 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Pam, Ed.; Buysse, Virginia, Ed.; Zimmerman, Tracy, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Research has identified a host of factors that likely contribute to the disparity in achievement, negating the possibility that a one-size-fits-all answer exists. Therefore, the initiatives highlighted in this issue of "Early Developments" address a variety of approaches. This issue of "Early Developments" includes the following articles: (1) The…

  14. Early Communication Development and Intervention for Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landa, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder defined by impairments in social and communication development, accompanied by stereotyped patterns of behavior and interest. The focus of this paper is on the early development of communication in autism, and early intervention for impairments in communication associated with this disorder. An overview of…

  15. The Young Black Child: His Early Education and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Evangeline H.

    The early education and development of the black child must involve his sense of who he is as a basic component of any services designed for him. This is most effectively achieved by those who care most, are most knowledgeable about his culture, are willing to learn about early human development, and are devoted to adapting all of these to each…

  16. Program Evaluation. Early Developments. Volume 8, Number 3, Fall 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manuel, John

    2004-01-01

    This issue of "Early Developments" is devoted to program evaluation, a type of work that many at FPG are engaged in, either conducting evaluations or helping agencies and states conduct evaluations. Many readers know FPG for its research in prevention, early intervention, child care, and child and family development, but in the past several years,…

  17. Promoting Professional Development for Physical Therapists in Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalino, Tricia; Chiarello, Lisa A.; Long, Toby; Weaver, Priscilla

    2015-01-01

    Early intervention service providers are expected to form cohesive teams to build the capacity of a family to promote their child's development. Given the differences in personnel preparation across disciplines of service providers, the Early Childhood Personnel Center is creating integrated and comprehensive professional development models for…

  18. Dual Language Exposure and Early Bilingual Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, Erifka; Core, Cynthia; Place, Silvia; Rumiche, Rosario; Senor, Melissa; Parra, Marisol

    2012-01-01

    The extant literature includes conflicting assertions regarding the influence of bilingualism on the rate of language development. The present study compared the language development of equivalently high-SES samples of bilingually and monolingually developing children from 1 ; 10 to 2 ; 6. The monolingually developing children were significantly…

  19. Biologic perspective on early erotic development.

    PubMed

    Yates, Alayne

    2004-07-01

    Neurobiologic researchers can understand children's sexuality in less moral and more biologic terms. Genetically programmed levels of neurotransmitters and hormones establish a baseline trajectory of erotic interest and activity across the lifespan. Environmental influences also contribute. Intense early stimulation can affect the brain and create a condition of hyper eroticism, whereas too little stimulation can limit the ability to bond and impair the sexual response. Children who are erotically challenged or challenging are viewed correctly as having a brain imbalance, rather than as victims or as being morally deficient. This should pave the way for more humane, objective, and effective interventions. PMID:15183369

  20. Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... health, behavior, school performance and other indicators of development in infancy, early childhood, middle childhood and middle adolescence. SECCYD is the most comprehensive study of children and the many environments in which they develop. The NICHD supported the ...

  1. Comparative transcriptomics of early dipteran development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Modern sequencing technologies have massively increased the amount of data available for comparative genomics. Whole-transcriptome shotgun sequencing (RNA-seq) provides a powerful basis for comparative studies. In particular, this approach holds great promise for emerging model species in fields such as evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo). Results We have sequenced early embryonic transcriptomes of two non-drosophilid dipteran species: the moth midge Clogmia albipunctata, and the scuttle fly Megaselia abdita. Our analysis includes a third, published, transcriptome for the hoverfly Episyrphus balteatus. These emerging models for comparative developmental studies close an important phylogenetic gap between Drosophila melanogaster and other insect model systems. In this paper, we provide a comparative analysis of early embryonic transcriptomes across species, and use our data for a phylogenomic re-evaluation of dipteran phylogenetic relationships. Conclusions We show how comparative transcriptomics can be used to create useful resources for evo-devo, and to investigate phylogenetic relationships. Our results demonstrate that de novo assembly of short (Illumina) reads yields high-quality, high-coverage transcriptomic data sets. We use these data to investigate deep dipteran phylogenetic relationships. Our results, based on a concatenation of 160 orthologous genes, provide support for the traditional view of Clogmia being the sister group of Brachycera (Megaselia, Episyrphus, Drosophila), rather than that of Culicomorpha (which includes mosquitoes and blackflies). PMID:23432914

  2. Ion Channels in Innate and Adaptive Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Feske, Stefan; Wulff, Heike; Skolnik, Edward Y.

    2016-01-01

    Ion channels and transporters mediate the transport of charged ions across hydrophobic lipid membranes. In immune cells, divalent cations such as calcium, magnesium, and zinc have important roles as second messengers to regulate intracellular signaling pathways. By contrast, monovalent cations such as sodium and potassium mainly regulate the membrane potential, which indirectly controls the influx of calcium and immune cell signaling. Studies investigating human patients with mutations in ion channels and transporters, analysis of gene-targeted mice, or pharmacological experiments with ion channel inhibitors have revealed important roles of ionic signals in lymphocyte development and in innate and adaptive immune responses. We here review the mechanisms underlying the function of ion channels and transporters in lymphocytes and innate immune cells and discuss their roles in lymphocyte development, adaptive and innate immune responses, and autoimmunity, as well as recent efforts to develop pharmacological inhibitors of ion channels for immunomodulatory therapy. PMID:25861976

  3. Innate immune cells in the pathogenesis of primary systemic vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Misra, Durga Prasanna; Agarwal, Vikas

    2016-02-01

    Innate immune system forms the first line of defense against foreign substances. Neutrophils, eosinophils, erythrocytes, platelets, monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, γδ T cells, natural killer and natural killer T cells comprise the innate immune system. Genetic polymorphisms influencing the activation of innate immune cells predispose to development of vasculitis and influence its severity. Abnormally activated innate immune cells cross-talk with other cells of the innate immune system, present antigens more efficiently and activate T and B lymphocytes and cause tissue destruction via cell-mediated cytotoxicity and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These secreted cytokines further recruit other cells to the sites of vascular injury. They are involved in both the initiation as well as the perpetuation of vasculitis. Evidences suggest reversal of aberrant activation of immune cells in response to therapy. Understanding the role of innate immune cells in vasculitis helps understand the potential of therapeutic modulation of their activation to treat vasculitis. PMID:26403285

  4. Cognition and Affect in Early Literacy Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamee, Gillian D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Using Vygotsky's theory of development, explores the significance of storytelling and dramatization activities on the intellectual and emotional development of preschool children. Results indicate that dramatizing of children's stories enhances the storytelling of preschool children and, thus, influences their literacy development. (DST)

  5. Dual language exposure and early bilingual development*

    PubMed Central

    HOFF, ERIKA; CORE, CYNTHIA; PLACE, SILVIA; RUMICHE, ROSARIO; SEÑOR, MELISSA; PARRA, MARISOL

    2015-01-01

    The extant literature includes conflicting assertions regarding the influence of bilingualism on the rate of language development. The present study compared the language development of equivalently high-SES samples of bilingually and monolingually developing children from 1;10 to 2;6. The monolingually developing children were significantly more advanced than the bilingually developing children on measures of both vocabulary and grammar in single language comparisons, but they were comparable on a measure of total vocabulary. Within the bilingually developing sample, all measures of vocabulary and grammar were related to the relative amount of input in that language. Implications for theories of language acquisition and for understanding bilingual development are discussed. PMID:21418730

  6. Early Numeracy Assessment: The Development of the Preschool Early Numeracy Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purpura, David J.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The focus of this study was to construct and validate 12 brief early numeracy assessment tasks that measure the skills and concepts identified as key to early mathematics development by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (2006) and the National Mathematics Advisory Panel (2008)-as well as critical developmental…

  7. Innate inflammation in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Susanne M; Henschel, Angela M; Hessner, Martin J

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is an autoimmune disease often diagnosed in childhood that results in pancreatic β-cell destruction and life-long insulin dependence. T1D susceptibility involves a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors and has historically been attributed to adaptive immunity, although there is now increasing evidence for a role of innate inflammation. Here, we review studies that define a heightened age-dependent innate inflammatory state in T1D families that is paralleled with high fidelity by the T1D-susceptible biobreeding rat. Innate inflammation may be driven by changes in interactions between the host and environment, such as through an altered microbiome, intestinal hyperpermeability, or viral exposures. Special focus is put on the temporal measurement of plasma-induced transcriptional signatures of recent-onset T1D patients and their siblings as well as in the biobreeding rat as it defines the natural history of innate inflammation. These sensitive and comprehensive analyses have also revealed that those who successfully managed T1D risk develop an age-dependent immunoregulatory state, providing a possible mechanism for the juvenile nature of T1D. Therapeutic targeting of innate inflammation has been proven effective in preventing and delaying T1D in rat models. Clinical trials of agents that suppress innate inflammation have had more modest success, but efficacy may be improved by the addition of combinatorial approaches that target other aspects of T1D pathogenesis. An understanding of innate inflammation and mechanisms by which this susceptibility is both potentiated and mitigated offers important insight into T1D progression and avenues for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25980926

  8. Corruption of Innate Immunity by Bacterial Proteases

    PubMed Central

    Potempa, Jan; Pike, Robert N.

    2009-01-01

    The innate immune system of the human body has developed numerous mechanisms to control endogenous and exogenous bacteria and thus prevent infections by these microorganisms. These mechanisms range from physical barriers such as the skin or mucosal epithelium to a sophisticated array of molecules and cells that function to suppress or prevent bacterial infection. Many bacteria express a variety of proteases, ranging from non-specific and powerful enzymes that degrade many proteins involved in innate immunity to proteases that are extremely precise and specific in their mode of action. Here we have assembled a comprehensive picture of how bacterial proteases affect the host’s innate immune system to gain advantage and cause infection. This picture is far from being complete since the numbers of mechanisms utilized are as astonishing as they are diverse, ranging from degradation of molecules vital to innate immune mechanisms to subversion of the mechanisms to allow the bacterium to hide from the system or take advantage of it. It is vital that such mechanisms are elucidated to allow strategies to be developed to aid the innate immune system in controlling bacterial infections. PMID:19756242

  9. NOD2 Signaling Contributes to the Innate Immune Response Against Helper-Dependent Adenovirus Vectors Independently of MyD88 In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Masataka; Cela, Racel; Bertin, Terry K.; Sule, Gautam; Cerullo, Vincenzo; Rodgers, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We previously demonstrated that Toll-like receptor/myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) signaling is required for maximal innate and acquired [T helper cell type 1 (Th1)] immune responses following systemic administration of helper-dependent adenoviral vectors (HDAds). However, MyD88-deficient mice injected with HDAdLacZ exhibited only partial reduction of innate immune cytokine expression compared with wild-type mice, suggesting MyD88-independent pathways also respond to HDAds. We now show that NOD2, a nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)–like receptor known to detect muramyl dipeptides in bacterial peptidoglycans, also contributes to innate responses to HDAds, but not to humoral or Th1 immune responses. We established NOD2/MyD88 double-deficient mice that, when challenged with HDAds, showed a significant reduction of the innate response compared with mice deficient for either gene singly, suggesting that NOD2 signaling contributes to the innate response independently of MyD88 signaling following systemic administration of HDAds. In addition, NOD2-deficient mice exhibited significantly higher transgene expression than did wild-type mice at an early time point (before development of an acquired response), but not at a later time point (after development of an acquired response). These results indicate that the intracellular sensor NOD2 is required for innate responses to HDAds and can limit transgene expression during early phases of infection. PMID:21561248

  10. Economic Deprivation and Early-Childhood Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; And Others

    This study used longitudinal data from the Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP) to examine three issues regarding effects of economic deprivation on child development: (1) the effects on children's developmental outcomes of poverty and such poverty correlates as single parenthood, ethnicity, and maternal education; (2) the developmental…

  11. Parents Resourcing Children's Early Development and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sue; Nixon, Helen; Pudney, Valerie; Jurvansuu, Sari

    2009-01-01

    Parents deal with a complex web of choices when seeking and using knowledge and resources related to their young children's literacy development. Information concerning children's learning and development comes in many forms and is produced by an increasingly diverse range of players including governments, non-government organizations and…

  12. Crystallization of Spätzle, a cystine-knot protein involved in embryonic development and innate immunity in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, Anita; Neumann, Piotr; Schierhorn, Angelika; Stubbs, Milton T.

    2008-08-01

    Crystallization of the cystine-knot protein Spätzle occurred following serendipitous limited degradation of the pro-Spätzle propeptide during the crystallization experiment. The Spätzle protein is involved in both the definition of the dorsal–ventral axis during embryonic development and in the adult innate immune response. The disulfide-linked dimeric cystine-knot protein has been expressed as a proprotein in inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli and refolded in vitro by rapid dilution. Initial orthorhombic crystals that diffracted to 7 Å resolution were obtained after three months by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. Optimization of the crystallization conditions resulted in orthorhombic crystals (space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 53.0, b = 59.2, c = 62.5 Å) that diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution in-house. The small volume of the asymmetric unit indicated that it was not possible for the crystals to contain the complete pro-Spätzle dimer. Mass spectrometry, N-terminal sequencing and Western-blot analysis revealed that the crystals contained the C-terminal disulfide-linked cystine-knot dimer. Comparison of various crystallization experiments indicated that degradation of the N-terminal prodomain was dependent on the buffer conditions.

  13. The Innate Sense of the Body Develops to Become a Public Affair by 2-3 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochat, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Infants from birth do express a sense of their own body as a differentiated entity among other entities in the world, an entity that is situated, physically bounded, organized, and agent in the environment. Quickly however, this implicit sense of self develops to become explicit, conceptual, and more importantly, public and social. This…

  14. Teacher Training for Early Childhood Development and Education in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbugua, Tata

    2009-01-01

    The training of early childhood development and education (ECDE) teachers in Kenya remains a priority in recognition of the vital role well-trained professionals play in the quality of early childhood experiences for children ages 0+ to 5+. This article provides a detailed overview of the current structure and training of ECDE professionals,…

  15. Alberta Learning: Early Development Instrument Pilot Project Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meaney, Wanda; Harris-Lorenze, Elayne

    The Early Development Instrument (EDI) was designed by McMaster University to measure the outcomes of childrens early years as they influence their readiness to learn at school. The EDI was piloted in several Canadian cities in recent years through two national initiatives. Building on these initiatives, Alberta Learning piloted the EDI as a…

  16. Early Speech Motor Development: Cognitive and Linguistic Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Green, Jordan R.; Marx, David B.

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation examines developmental changes in orofacial movements occurring during the early stages of communication development. The goals were to identify developmental trends in early speech motor performance and to determine how these trends differ across orofacial behaviors thought to vary in cognitive and linguistic…

  17. Supporting Communication Development in the Early Years: A Practitioner's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Julie; James, Deborah; Harrison, Mary

    2015-01-01

    This research study set out to explore the education practitioner's role in promoting communication development in early years classrooms. The study was undertaken in the combined nursery and reception early years unit of a small primary school using an ethnographic approach. Qualitative data was collected through 18 three-hour visits to the…

  18. Development of the Visual System and Implications for Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Penny

    2002-01-01

    This article summarizes the early development of the visual system within the context of the other sensory systems and preterm birth and relates this information to early intervention. Retinopathy of prematurely, ocular defects, cortical visual impairment and potential impact of the neonatal intensive care unit environment are discussed. (Contains…

  19. Framing Early Childhood Development: Strategic Communications and Public Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, Franklin D.; Bales, Susan Nall

    2004-01-01

    This brief focuses on the potential role that strategic communications can play in helping state (Maternal Child Health) MCH programs and their collaborating partners frame their message to enhance the public's understanding of the importance of early child development and the need for a comprehensive and integrated early childhood system. The…

  20. Online Professional Development: Choices for Early Childhood Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Heather; Donaldson, Ana J.; Hudson, Susan D.

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood educators are responsible for providing young children with the best possible early care and education. Research on child care workers' education has shown that professional preparation makes a significant impact on children's cognitive and emotional development (National Association for the Education of Young Children [NAEYC],…

  1. The Influence of Early Stimulation on Language Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, William; Swenson, Amy

    This longitudinal study explored the effects of early language stimulation upon norms of the language development of three infants. When the infants were 4-5 months old, a long-term program of intensified early language stimulation was implemented by weekly home tutoring sessions with the parents. The tutor stimulation program consisted of an…

  2. Early Development of Self-Injurious Behavior: An Empirical Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Scott; Oliver, Chris; Murphy, Glynis

    2001-01-01

    The early development of self-injurious behavior (SIB) in 16 young children with developmental disabilities was tracked over an 18-month period. Naturalistic observations in each child's classroom found a significant association between early SIB and low levels of social contact, which may be considered as a risk marker for SIB exacerbation.…

  3. Education for Sustainable Development in Early Childhood Education in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reunamo, Jyrki; Suomela, Liisa

    2013-01-01

    In the Finnish early childhood education and care (ECEC) curriculum, there is no specific content for education for sustainable development (ESD). Thus, it is not possible to get direct guidelines on how to conduct ESD in ECEC from the curriculum. We seek to look at the preferences of Finnish early childhood educators through the model of extended…

  4. Developing Prosocial Behaviors in Early Adolescence with Reactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Annis L. C.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the alarming rise of early adolescence aggression in Hong Kong, it is the pioneer evidence-based outcome study on Anger Coping Training (ACT) program for early adolescence with reactive aggression to develop their prosocial behaviors. This research program involved experimental and control groups with pre- and post-comparison using a …

  5. Chaos, Poverty, and Parenting: Predictors of Early Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Willoughby, Michael; Mills-Koonce, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown that distal family risk factors like poverty and maternal education are strongly related to children's early language development. Yet, few studies have examined these risk factors in combination with more proximal day-to-day experiences of children that might be critical to understanding variation in early language. Young…

  6. The Play of Disabled Children in Early Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirila, Silja; And Others

    Play is a central facilitating element of early development. As a child plays, he or she practices spontaneously cognitive, emotional, and motor abilities. This research project, part of a larger project on early intervention with young disabled children, investigated the play of children with a motor handicap. The sample consisted of 61 disabled…

  7. Family Strategies to Support and Develop Resilience in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taket, A. R.; Nolan, A.; Stagnitti, K.

    2014-01-01

    Early childhood is an important time for the development of resilience. A recently completed study has followed three cohorts of resilient children and young people living in disadvantaged areas in Victoria, Australia, through different transitions in their educational careers. This paper focuses on the early childhood cohort, where we have…

  8. Promoting Early Literacy through the Professional Development of Preschool Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Cristianne; Prokop, Mary Jo Surges; Johnson, Evelyn; Podhajski, Blanche; Nathan, Jane

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a professional learning program on the emergent literacy skills of preschool children. Building Blocks for Literacy® is a program consisting of training supported by mentoring designed to teach early childcare providers how to promote the development of early literacy skills. A previous…

  9. Early development of fern gametophytes in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roux, Stanley J.; Chatterjee, Ani; Hillier, Sheila; Cannon, Tom

    Dormant spores of the fern Ceratopteris richardii were flown on Shuttle mission STS-93 to evaluate the effects of /micro-g on their development and on their pattern of gene expression. Prior to flight the spores were sterilized and sown into one of two environments: (1) Microscope slides in a video-microscopy module; and (2) Petri dishes. All spores were then stored in darkness until use. Spore germination was initiated on orbit after exposure to light. For the spores on microscope slides, cell level changes were recorded through the clear spore coat of the spores by video microscopy. After their exposure to light, spores in petri dishes were frozen in orbit at four different time points during which on earth gravity fixes the polarity of their development. Spores were then stored frozen in Biological Research in Canister units until recovery on earth. The RNAs from these cells and from /1-g control cells were extracted and analyzed on earth after flight to assay changes in gene expression. Video microscopy results revealed that the germinated spores developed normally in microgravity, although the polarity of their development, which is guided by gravity on earth, was random in space. Differential Display-PCR analyses of RNA extracted from space-flown cells showed that there was about a 5% change in the pattern of gene expression between cells developing in /micro-g compared to those developing on earth.

  10. Early development of fern gametophytes in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roux, Stanley J.; Chatterjee, Ani; Hillier, Sheila; Cannon, Tom

    2003-01-01

    Dormant spores of the fern Ceratopteris richardii were flown on Shuttle mission STS-93 to evaluate the effects of micro-g on their development and on their pattern of gene expression. Prior to flight the spores were sterilized and sown into one of two environments: (1) Microscope slides in a video-microscopy module; and (2) Petri dishes. All spores were then stored in darkness until use. Spore germination was initiated on orbit after exposure to light. For the spores on microscope slides, cell level changes were recorded through the clear spore coat of the spores by video microscopy. After their exposure to light, spores in petri dishes were frozen in orbit at four different time points during which on earth gravity fixes the polarity of their development. Spores were then stored frozen in Biological Research in Canister units until recovery on earth. The RNAs from these cells and from 1-g control cells were extracted and analyzed on earth after flight to assay changes in gene expression. Video microscopy results revealed that the germinated spores developed normally in microgravity, although the polarity of their development, which is guided by gravity on earth, was random in space. Differential Display-PCR analyses of RNA extracted from space-flown cells showed that there was about a 5% change in the pattern of gene expression between cells developing in micro-g compared to those developing on earth. c2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  11. ECR-MAPK regulation in liver early development.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiu-Ju; Zhuo, Hexian

    2014-01-01

    Early growth is connected to a key link between embryonic development and aging. In this paper, liver gene expression profiles were assayed at postnatal day 22 and week 16 of age. Meanwhile another independent animal experiment and cell culture were carried out for validation. Significance analysis of microarrays, qPCR verification, drug induction/inhibition assays, and metabonomics indicated that alpha-2u globulin (extracellular region)-socs2 (-SH2-containing signals/receptor tyrosine kinases)-ppp2r2a/pik3c3 (MAPK signaling)-hsd3b5/cav2 (metabolism/organization) plays a vital role in early development. Taken together, early development of male rats is ECR and MAPK-mediated coordination of cancer-like growth and negative regulations. Our data represent the first comprehensive description of early individual development, which could be a valuable basis for understanding the functioning of the gene interaction network of infant development. PMID:25580437

  12. Nature's experiment? Handedness and early childhood development.

    PubMed

    Johnston, David W; Nicholls, Michael E R; Shah, Manisha; Shields, Michael A

    2009-05-01

    In recent years, a large body of research has investigated the various factors affecting child development and the consequent impact of child development on future educational and labor market outcomes. In this article, we contribute to this literature by investigating the effect of handedness on child development. This is an important issue given that around 10% of the world's population is left-handed and given recent research demonstrating that child development strongly affects adult outcomes. Using a large, nationally representative sample of young children, we find that the probability of a child being left-handed is not significantly related to child health at birth, family composition, parental employment, or household income. We also find robust evidence that left-handed (and mixed-handed) children perform significantly worse in nearly all measures of development than right-handed children, with the relative disadvantage being larger for boys than girls. Importantly, these differentials cannot be explained by different socioeconomic characteristics of the household, parental attitudes, or investments in learning resources. PMID:21305394

  13. Global health and development in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Aboud, Frances E; Yousafzai, Aisha K

    2015-01-01

    Health and nutritional risks co-occur in the lives of children under the age of 2 years who live in developing countries. We review evidence showing how these risks, in addition to inadequate psychosocial stimulation, prevent children from developing expected cognitive and language abilities. A systematic review and meta-analysis of 21 interventions aimed at enhancing stimulation and 18 interventions that provided better nutrition--all conducted since 2000--revealed that stimulation had a medium effect size of 0.42 and 0.47 on cognitive and language development, respectively, whereas nutrition by itself had a small effect size of 0.09. The implementation processes of these interventions are described and compared. A number of unresolved issues are outlined and discussed, including ways to maximize parental health behavior change, assess mediators that account for intervention effects, and expand the assessment of young children's brain functions that underlie language and cognition and are affected by nutrition and stimulation. PMID:25196276

  14. Developing Microcomputer Programs for Early Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moxley, Roy A.; Barry, Pamela J.

    Through an adaptation of a language experience approach, microcomputer programs were designed to develop the literacy skills of four 4-year-old nursery school children. In order to document the design process, the intervention procedures, and their effects, case studies were made. Instruction was based on a highly interactive strategy with short,…

  15. Early developments in solar cooling equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    A brief description of a development program to design, fabricate and field test a series of solar operated or driven cooling devices, undertaken by the Marshall Space Flight Center in the context of the Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Act of 1974, is presented. Attention is given to two basic design concepts: the Rankine cycle principle and the use of a dessicant for cooling.

  16. Developing an Engineering Identity in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantoya, Michelle L.; Aguirre-Munoz, Zenaida; Hunt, Emily M.

    2015-01-01

    This project describes a strategy to introduce young children to engineering in a way that develops their engineering identity. The targeted age group is 3-7 year old students because they rarely experience purposeful engineering instruction. The curriculum was designed around an engineering storybook and included interactive academic discussions…

  17. On Class Differences and Early Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Jerome

    There are seven major sets of differences between young children of different economic backgrounds. The middle class child, compared to the lower class child, generally exhibits: (1) better language comprehension and expression, (2) richer schema development, involving mental preparation for the unusual, (3) stronger attachment to the mother,…

  18. Reading Development Subtypes and Their Early Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torppa, Minna; Tolvanen, Asko; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Eklund, Kenneth; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Leskinen, Esko; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2007-01-01

    The present findings are drawn from the Jyvaskyla Longitudinal Study of Dyslexia (JLD), in which approximately 100 children with familial risk of dyslexia and 100 control children have been followed from birth. In this paper we report data on the reading development of the JLD children and their classmates, a total of 1,750 children from four…

  19. Maternal DNA Methylation Regulates Early Trophoblast Development

    PubMed Central

    Branco, Miguel R.; King, Michelle; Perez-Garcia, Vicente; Bogutz, Aaron B.; Caley, Matthew; Fineberg, Elena; Lefebvre, Louis; Cook, Simon J.; Dean, Wendy; Hemberger, Myriam; Reik, Wolf

    2016-01-01

    Summary Critical roles for DNA methylation in embryonic development are well established, but less is known about its roles during trophoblast development, the extraembryonic lineage that gives rise to the placenta. We dissected the role of DNA methylation in trophoblast development by performing mRNA and DNA methylation profiling of Dnmt3a/3b mutants. We find that oocyte-derived methylation plays a major role in regulating trophoblast development but that imprinting of the key placental regulator Ascl2 is only partially responsible for these effects. We have identified several methylation-regulated genes associated with trophoblast differentiation that are involved in cell adhesion and migration, potentially affecting trophoblast invasion. Specifically, trophoblast-specific DNA methylation is linked to the silencing of Scml2, a Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 protein that drives loss of cell adhesion in methylation-deficient trophoblast. Our results reveal that maternal DNA methylation controls multiple differentiation-related and physiological processes in trophoblast via both imprinting-dependent and -independent mechanisms. PMID:26812015

  20. The Early Development of Programmable Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Martin D.

    1985-01-01

    Programmable equipment innovations, precursors of today's technology, are examined, including the development of the binary code and feedback control systems, such as temperature sensing devices, interchangeable parts, punched cards carrying instructions, continuous flow oil refining process, assembly lines for mass production, and the…

  1. Transcriptional Onset of Lysozyme Genes during Early Development in Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jang-Wook; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Noh, Jae Koo; Kim, Hyun Chul; Park, Choul-Ji; Park, Jong-Won; Kim, Kyung-Kil

    2014-01-01

    The immune system in teleost fish is not completely developed during embryonic and larval stages, therefore effective innate mechanisms is very important for survival in such an environment. However, the knowledge of the development of immune system assumed to be restricted. In many species, lysozymes have been considered as important genes of the first line immune defense. The early detection of lysozyme mRNA in previous reports, led to the investigation of its presence in oocytes. As a result, c-type lysozyme mRNA transcripts were detected in unfertilized oocytes indicating maternal transfer. Therefore, we investigated the expression patterns of lysozymes in flounder, including the matured oocyte. In our results, c-type lysozyme mRNA was first detected in unfertilized oocyte stage, observed the significantly decreased until hatching stage, and was significantly increased after hatching stage. On the other hand, g-type lysozyme mRNA transcripts were first detected at late neurula stage, and the mRNA level was significantly increased after 20 dph. It may be suggest that maternally supplied mRNAs are selectively degraded prior to the activation of embryonic transcription. This study will be help in understanding the maturation and onset of humoral immunity during development of olive flounder immune system. PMID:25949197

  2. Innatism, Concept Formation, Concept Mastery and Formal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winch, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This article will consider the claim that the possession of concepts is innate rather than learned. Innatism about concept learning is explained through consideration of the work of Fodor and Chomsky. First, an account of concept formation is developed. Second the argument against the claim that concepts are learned through the construction of a…

  3. Branch Mode Selection during Early Lung Development

    PubMed Central

    Menshykau, Denis; Kraemer, Conradin; Iber, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    Many organs of higher organisms, such as the vascular system, lung, kidney, pancreas, liver and glands, are heavily branched structures. The branching process during lung development has been studied in great detail and is remarkably stereotyped. The branched tree is generated by the sequential, non-random use of three geometrically simple modes of branching (domain branching, planar and orthogonal bifurcation). While many regulatory components and local interactions have been defined an integrated understanding of the regulatory network that controls the branching process is lacking. We have developed a deterministic, spatio-temporal differential-equation based model of the core signaling network that governs lung branching morphogenesis. The model focuses on the two key signaling factors that have been identified in experiments, fibroblast growth factor (FGF10) and sonic hedgehog (SHH) as well as the SHH receptor patched (Ptc). We show that the reported biochemical interactions give rise to a Schnakenberg-type Turing patterning mechanisms that allows us to reproduce experimental observations in wildtype and mutant mice. The kinetic parameters as well as the domain shape are based on experimental data where available. The developed model is robust to small absolute and large relative changes in the parameter values. At the same time there is a strong regulatory potential in that the switching between branching modes can be achieved by targeted changes in the parameter values. We note that the sequence of different branching events may also be the result of different growth speeds: fast growth triggers lateral branching while slow growth favours bifurcations in our model. We conclude that the FGF10-SHH-Ptc1 module is sufficient to generate pattern that correspond to the observed branching modes. PMID:22359491

  4. Branch mode selection during early lung development.

    PubMed

    Menshykau, Denis; Kraemer, Conradin; Iber, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    Many organs of higher organisms, such as the vascular system, lung, kidney, pancreas, liver and glands, are heavily branched structures. The branching process during lung development has been studied in great detail and is remarkably stereotyped. The branched tree is generated by the sequential, non-random use of three geometrically simple modes of branching (domain branching, planar and orthogonal bifurcation). While many regulatory components and local interactions have been defined an integrated understanding of the regulatory network that controls the branching process is lacking. We have developed a deterministic, spatio-temporal differential-equation based model of the core signaling network that governs lung branching morphogenesis. The model focuses on the two key signaling factors that have been identified in experiments, fibroblast growth factor (FGF10) and sonic hedgehog (SHH) as well as the SHH receptor patched (Ptc). We show that the reported biochemical interactions give rise to a Schnakenberg-type Turing patterning mechanisms that allows us to reproduce experimental observations in wildtype and mutant mice. The kinetic parameters as well as the domain shape are based on experimental data where available. The developed model is robust to small absolute and large relative changes in the parameter values. At the same time there is a strong regulatory potential in that the switching between branching modes can be achieved by targeted changes in the parameter values. We note that the sequence of different branching events may also be the result of different growth speeds: fast growth triggers lateral branching while slow growth favours bifurcations in our model. We conclude that the FGF10-SHH-Ptc1 module is sufficient to generate pattern that correspond to the observed branching modes. PMID:22359491

  5. Lineage determinants in early endocrine development

    PubMed Central

    Rieck, Sebastian; Bankaitis, Eric D.; Wright, Christopher V.E.

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic endocrine cells are produced from a dynamic epithelium in a process that, as in any developing organ, is driven by interacting programs of spatiotemporally regulated intercellular signals and autonomous gene regulatory networks. These algorithms work to push progenitors and their transitional intermediates through a series of railroad-station-like switching decisions to regulate flux along specific differentiation tracks. Extensive research on pancreas organogenesis over the last 20 years, greatly spurred by the potential to restore functional β-cell mass in diabetic patients by transplantation therapy, is advancing our knowledge of how endocrine lineage bias is established and allocation is promoted. The field is working towards the goal of generating a detailed blueprint of how heterogeneous cell populations interact and respond to each other, and other influences such as the extracellular matrix, to move into progressively refined and mature cell states. Here, we highlight how signaling codes and transcriptional networks might determine endocrine lineage within a complex and dynamic architecture, based largely on studies in the mouse. The process begins with the designation of multipotent progenitor cells (MPC) to pancreatic buds that subsequently move through a newly proposed period involving epithelial plexus formation-remodeling, and ends with formation of clustered endocrine islets connected to the vascular and peripheral nervous systems. Developing this knowledge base, and increasing the emphasis on direct comparisons between mouse and human, will yield a more complete and focused picture of pancreas development, and thereby inform β-cell-directed differentiation from human embryonic stem or induced pluripotent stem cells (hESC, iPSC). Additionally, a deeper understanding may provide surprising therapeutic angles by defining conditions that allow the controllable reprogramming of endodermal or pancreatic cell populations. PMID:22728667

  6. Pattern formation during early floral development.

    PubMed

    Vaddepalli, Prasad; Scholz, Sebastian; Schneitz, Kay

    2015-06-01

    Flowers are central to sexual reproduction in plants. The study of floral development proved tremendously successful in obtaining key insight into processes, such as fate determination, pattern formation, and growth regulation. Recent advances relate to the complex mechanisms underlying the crosstalk between phytohormone signaling, cell and tissue mechanics, and regulatory gene networks that positions floral buds at the apex and directs floral specification, initiation and outgrowth. Furthermore, progress has been made in elucidating the intercellular communication and temporal coordination necessary to organize the behavior of the various functional subdomains within the young flower. PMID:25687790

  7. Epigenetic Control of Early Mouse Development.

    PubMed

    Lim, C Y; Knowles, B B; Solter, D; Messerschmidt, D M

    2016-01-01

    Although the genes sequentially transcribed in the mammalian embryo prior to implantation have been identified, understanding of the molecular processes ensuring this transcription is still in development. The genomes of the sperm and egg are hypermethylated, hence transcriptionally silent. Their union, in the prepared environment of the egg, initiates their epigenetic genomic reprogramming into a totipotent zygote, in which the genome gradually becomes transcriptionally activated. During gametogenesis, sex-specific processes result in sperm and eggs with disparate epigenomes, both of which require drastic reprogramming to establish the totipotent genome of the zygote and the pluripotent inner cell mass of the blastocyst. Herein, we describe the factors, DNA and histone modifications, activation and repression of retrotransposons, and cytoplasmic localizations, known to influence the activation of the mammalian genome at the initiation of new life. PMID:27475856

  8. Early intestinal growth and development in poultry.

    PubMed

    Lilburn, M S; Loeffler, S

    2015-07-01

    While there are many accepted "facts" within the field of poultry science that are in truth still open for discussion, there is little debate with respect to the tremendous genetic progress that has been made with commercial broilers and turkeys (Havenstein et al., 2003, 2007). When one considers the changes in carcass development in poultry meat strains, these genetic "improvements" have not always been accompanied by correlated changes in other physiological systems and this can predispose some birds to developmental anomalies (i.e. ascites; Pavlidis et al., 2007; Wideman et al., 2013). Over the last decade, there has been increased interest in intestinal growth/health as poultry nutritionists have attempted to adopt new approaches to deal with the broader changes in the overall nutrition landscape. This landscape includes not only the aforementioned genetic changes but also a raft of governmental policies that have focused attention on the environment (phosphorus and nitrogen excretion), consumer pressure on the use of antibiotics, and renewable biofuels with its consequent effects on ingredient costs. Intestinal morphology has become a common research tool for assessing nutritional effects on the intestine but it is only one metric among many that can be used and histological results can often be interpreted in a variety of ways. This study will address the broader body of research on intestinal growth and development in commercial poultry and will attempt to integrate the topics of the intestinal: microbial interface and the role of the intestine as an immune tissue under the broad umbrella of intestinal physiology. PMID:25910905

  9. National Outcome Measures for Early Childhood Development: Development of an Indicator-Based Reporting Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Council of Australian Governments released the National Early Childhood Development Strategy, Investing in the Early Years in July 2009 (COAG 2009). One of the key reform priorities in the strategy is to build better information and a solid evidence base, and establishing national outcome measures for early childhood development has been…

  10. Continuing Professional Development in Early Childhood Education in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherrington, Sue; Thornton, Kate

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the influences on and nature of continuing professional development in the New Zealand early childhood education sector. In addition to discussing the nature of professional development and providing an explanation of the policy context that informs the delivery of professional development, the paper draws on evaluations of…

  11. IL-13 REPLACES IL-4 IN DEVELOPMENT OF MONOCYTE DERIVED DENDRITIC CELLS (MODC) OF SWINE; THE INNATE IMMUNE RESPONSE OF MODC TO TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR AGONISTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are a critical aspect of innate immune responses in addition to initiating adaptive immunity. In vitro generation of monocyte derived dendritic cells (MoDC) by culturing cells in IL-4 and GM-CSF has been reported for multiple species including swine. However, IL-4 is not a prom...

  12. Early development of an enterprise health data warehouse.

    PubMed

    Househ, Mowafa Said; Al-Tuwaijri, Majid

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe early development challenges of an enterprise data warehouse within a Saudi Arabian academic healthcare facility. An action case research method was selected for this paper. The study took place between December 2009 and February 2010. Data collection included interviews, meeting observations, and meeting minutes. Early development challenges centered on the development of clear contracts with vendors; development of a clear project plan; a need to fast-track bureaucracy; and educate clinicians and staff about the project; and lack of data standardization. PMID:21335698

  13. Getting an Early Start on Early Child Development. Education Notes. 30194

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mary Eming; Dunkelberg, Erika

    2004-01-01

    The children born this year--2004--will be eleven years old in 2015--the age of primary school completion in most countries. This is the MDG (Millennium Development Goal) generation--for whom the international community has pledged that by 2015, all children will be able to complete primary schooling. Ensuring good early child development is the…

  14. Development of pattern vision following early and extended blindness

    PubMed Central

    Kalia, Amy; Lesmes, Luis Andres; Dorr, Michael; Gandhi, Tapan; Chatterjee, Garga; Ganesh, Suma; Bex, Peter J.; Sinha, Pawan

    2014-01-01

    Visual plasticity peaks during early critical periods of normal visual development. Studies in animals and humans provide converging evidence that gains in visual function are minimal and deficits are most severe when visual deprivation persists beyond the critical period. Here we demonstrate visual development in a unique sample of patients who experienced extended early-onset blindness (beginning before 1 y of age and lasting 8–17 y) before removal of bilateral cataracts. These patients show surprising improvements in contrast sensitivity, an assay of basic spatial vision. We find that contrast sensitivity development is independent of the age of sight onset and that individual rates of improvement can exceed those exhibited by normally developing infants. These results reveal that the visual system can retain considerable plasticity, even after early blindness that extends beyond critical periods. PMID:24449865

  15. Developing Early Literacy: Report of the National Early Literacy Panel. A Scientific Synthesis of Early Literacy Development and Implications for Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institute for Literacy, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The National Early Literacy Panel (NELP) was appointed in 2002 and carried out its work under the auspices of the National Center for Family Literacy (NCFL). NELP's primary goal was to identify interventions, parenting activities, and instructional practices that promote the development of children's early literacy skills. The National Institute…

  16. Professional Development Needs and Interests of Early Childhood Education Trainers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byington, Teresa A.; Tannock, Michelle T.

    2011-01-01

    An online survey of early childhood education (ECE) trainers was conducted to assess their professional development needs and determine any differences between new and experienced trainers. Trainers identified teaching techniques and resources commonly used. The survey information is guiding the development of ECE trainer criteria in a…

  17. Child Development, Early Childhood Education and Family Life: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Beverly, Comp.

    This bibliographical listing of approximately 2500 books on child development, early childhood education and family life was compiled as a resource for parents and students. Books are listed alphabetically by author and are grouped according to the following categories: child development; observation of children; adolescence; language…

  18. Professional Development for Early Childhood Education: A National Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rebecca Ann

    2012-01-01

    The article introduces the reader to a special issue of "NHSA Dialog" that focuses on the professional development (PD) of early childhood educators. The article opens with a perspective from a historical lens, namely that of PD in K-12 education and the evolution of Learning Forward, formerly the National Staff Development Council. The recently…

  19. Early Markers of Vulnerable Language Skill Development in Galactosaemia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Fiona M.; Coman, David J.; Syrmis, Maryanne

    2014-01-01

    There are no known biomedical or genetic markers to identify which infants with galactosaemia (GAL) are most at risk of poor language skill development, yet pre-linguistic communicative "red flag" behaviours are recognised as early identifiers of heightened vulnerability to impaired language development. We report on pre-linguistic…

  20. Culture and Early Language Development: Implications for Assessment and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parada, Patricia M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study--"Culture and Early Language Development: Implications for Assessment and Intervention"--was to explore and describe the perceptions and beliefs of Salvadoran mothers of low socioeconomic status regarding the language development of their young children in order to identify cultural variations in…

  1. Salinity on survival and early development of biofuel feedstock crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant survival, growth and development can be influenced by irrigation water salinity level. Affects of salinity on early development of biofuel feedstock crops need to be clarified. The biofuel feedstock crops canola (Brassica napus L.), sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], and sunflower (Helia...

  2. Helping Families Connect Early Literacy with Social-Emotional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Rosa Milagros; Fettig, Angel; Shaffer, LaShorage

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood educators know that home is a child's first learning environment. From birth, children are comforted by hearing and listening to their caregivers' voices. The language used by families supports young children's development of oral language skills. Exposure to print materials in the home also supports literacy development. Literacy…

  3. Innate immunity underlies symbiotic relationships.

    PubMed

    Kisseleva, E P

    2014-12-01

    Here, the modern data regarding interactions between normal microbiota and barrier tissues in plants, humans and animals are reviewed. The main homeostatic mechanisms responsible for interactions between epithelium and innate immune cells with symbiotic bacteria are described. A key step in this process is recognition of soluble microbial products by ligation to pattern-recognition receptors expressed on the host cells. As a result, epithelial cells secrete mucus, antibacterial peptides and immunoregulatory molecules. The main outcomes from immunological reactions towards symbiotic bacteria involve development of conditions for formation and maintenance of microbial biocenosis as well as providing safety for the host. Also, it is considered important to preserve and transfer beneficial bacteria to progeny. PMID:25716721

  4. Innate cell communication kick-starts pathogen-specific immunity

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Amariliz; Siracusa, Mark C.; Yap, George S.; Gause, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Innate cells are responsible for the rapid recognition of infection and mediate essential mechanisms of pathogen elimination, and also facilitate adaptive immune responses. We review here the numerous intricate interactions among innate cells that initiate protective immunity. The efficient eradication of pathogens depends on the coordinated actions of multiple cells, including innate cells and epithelial cells. Rather than acting as isolated effector cells, innate cells are in constant communication with other responding cells of the immune system, locally and distally. These interactions are critically important for the efficient control of primary infections as well for the development of ‘trained’ innate cells that facilitate the rapid elimination of homologous or heterologous infections. PMID:27002843

  5. T Cells Going Innate.

    PubMed

    Seyda, Midas; Elkhal, Abdallah; Quante, Markus; Falk, Christine S; Tullius, Stefan G

    2016-08-01

    Natural killer (NK) cell receptors (NKRs) play a crucial role in the homeostasis of antigen-experienced T cells. Indeed, prolonged antigen stimulation may induce changes in the receptor repertoire of T cells to a profile that features NKRs. Chronic antigen exposure, at the same time, has been shown to trigger the loss of costimulatory CD28 molecules with recently reported intensified antigen thresholds of antigen-experienced CD8(+) T cells. In transplantation, NKRs have been shown to assist allograft rejection in a CD28-independent fashion. We discuss here a role for CD28-negative T cells that have acquired the competency of the NKR machinery, potentially promoting allorecognition either through T cell receptor (TCR) crossreactivity or independently from TCR recognition. Collectively, NKRs can bring about innate-like T cells by providing alternative costimulatory pathways that gain relevance in chronic inflammation, potentially leading to resistance to CD28-targeting immunosuppressants. PMID:27402226

  6. Regulation of maternal mRNAs in early development.

    PubMed

    Farley, Brian M; Ryder, Sean P

    2008-01-01

    Most sexually reproducing metazoans are anisogamous, meaning that the two gametes that combine during fertilization differ greatly in size. By convention, the larger gametes are considered female and are called ova, while the smaller gametes are male and are called sperm. In most cases, both gametes contribute similarly to the chromosomal content of the new organism. In contrast, the maternal gamete contributes nearly all of the cytoplasm. This cytoplasmic contribution is crucial to patterning early development; it contains the maternal proteins and transcripts that guide the early steps of development prior to the activation of zygotic transcription. This review compares and contrasts early development in common laboratory model organisms in order to highlight the similarities and differences in the regulation of maternal factors. We will focus on the production and reversible silencing of maternal mRNAs during oogenesis, their asymmetric activation after fertilization, and their subsequent clearance at the midblastula transition. Where possible, insights from mechanistic studies are presented. PMID:18365862

  7. Early determinants of development: a lipid perspective1234

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Susan E

    2009-01-01

    This article results from an International Life Sciences Institute workshop on early nutritional determinants of health and development. The presentation on lipids focused mainly on the longer-chain products of the essential fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n–3), and cognitive development as among the most studied lipids and outcomes, respectively, in early human nutrition. Because there have been several recent reviews on this topic, the present review takes a broader perspective with respect to both early development and lipids: an expanded research agenda is plausible on the basis of observations from some human studies and from animal studies. Other lipids known to be provided in variable amounts to infants through human milk are cholesterol and gangliosides. Short sections address the current state of knowledge and some questions that could be pursued. PMID:19321568

  8. New Hampshire Early Childhood Professional Development System: Guide to Early Childhood Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, Tessa, Ed.

    The community of child care providers in New Hampshire has adopted the Early Childhood Professional Development System as an initial step toward assuring quality care and education for children. This guide describes the components of that system and is presented in eight sections. Section 1 of the guide introduces the system based on a set of two…

  9. Social Contexts of Early Development in Education. Advances in Early Education and Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reifel, Stuart, Ed.

    This volume reflects some of the disciplinary and interdisciplinary diversity found in the study of programs for young children, and its chapters cover a number of matters central to early childhood development and practice, including preparation for practice. The book has 11 chapters divided into 4 parts that cover family and community, adults…

  10. The Australian Early Development Index: Reshaping Family-Child Relationships in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peers, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the cultural significance of the Australian Early Development Index (AEDI) and discusses changes that the discourse of this instrument makes to the way in which the child is conceptualised. It analyses the technological function of the AEDI to examine how it makes the child a universal resource for human capital. The article…

  11. Temperament, Executive Control, and ADHD across Early Development

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovitz, Beth B.; O’Neill, Sarah; Rajendran, Khushmand; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Research examining factors linking early temperament and later ADHD is limited by cross-sectional approaches and having the same informant rate both temperament and psychopathology. We used multi-informant/multi-method longitudinal data to test the hypothesis that negative emotionality during preschool is positively associated with ADHD symptom severity in middle childhood, but developing executive control mediates this relation. Children (N=161) with and without ADHD were evaluated three times: Parent and teacher temperament ratings and NEPSY Visual Attention at ages 3–4 years; WISC-IV Working Memory Index and NEPSY Response Set at age 6 years; and ADHD symptoms using the Kiddie-SADS at age 7 years. Parent and teacher ratings of preschoolers’ temperament were combined to form an Anger/Frustration composite. Similarly, an Executive Functioning composite was derived from age 6 measures. Bootstrapping was used to determine whether age 6 Executive Functioning mediated the relation between early Anger/Frustration and later ADHD symptom severity, while controlling for early executive functioning. Preschoolers’ Anger/Frustration was significantly associated with later ADHD symptoms, with this relation partially mediated by age 6 Executive Functioning. Developing executive control mediates the relation between early Anger/Frustration and later ADHD symptom severity, suggesting that Anger/Frustration influences ADHD symptom severity through its impact on developing executive control. Early interventions targeting the harmful influences of negative emotionality or enhancing executive functioning may diminish later ADHD severity. PMID:26854505

  12. Id3 and Id2 act as a dual safety mechanism in regulating the development and population size of innate-like γδ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Meifang; Zhuang, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    The innate-like T cells expressing Vγ1.1 and Vδ6.3 represent a unique T cell lineage sharing features with both the γδ T and the invariant NKT cells. The population size of Vγ1.1+Vδ6.3+ T cells is tightly controlled and usually contributes to a very small proportion of thymic output, but the underlying mechanism remains enigmatic. Deletion of Id3, an inhibitor of E-protein transcription factors, can induce an expansion of the Vγ1.1+Vδ6.3+ T cell population. This phenotype is much stronger on the C57Bl/6 background than on the 129/sv background. Using quantitative trait linkage analysis, we identified Id2, a homologue of Id3, to be the major modifier of Id3 in limiting Vγ1.1+Vδ6.3+ T cell expansion. The Vγ1.1+Vδ6.3+ phenotype is attributed to an intrinsic weakness of Id2 transcription from Id2 C57Bl/6 allele, leading to an overall reduced dosage of Id proteins. However, complete removal of both Id2 and Id3 genes in developing T cells suppressed the expansion of Vγ1.1+Vδ6.3+ T cells due to decreased proliferation and increased cell death. We showed that conditional knockout of Id2 alone is sufficient to promote a moderate expansion of γδ T cells. These regulatory effects of Id2 and Id3 on Vγ1.1+Vδ6.3+ T cells are mediated by titration of E protein activity, since removing one or more copies of E protein genes can restore Vγ1.1+Vδ6.3+ T cell expansion in Id2 and Id3 double conditional knockout mice. Our data indicated that Id2 and Id3 collaboratively control survival and expansion of the γδ lineage through modulating a proper threshold of E-proteins. PMID:24379125

  13. Id3 and Id2 act as a dual safety mechanism in regulating the development and population size of innate-like γδ T cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Baojun; Lin, Yen-Yu; Dai, Meifang; Zhuang, Yuan

    2014-02-01

    The innate-like T cells expressing Vγ1.1 and Vδ6.3 represent a unique T cell lineage sharing features with both the γδ T and the invariant NKT cells. The population size of Vγ1.1(+)Vδ6.3(+) T cells is tightly controlled and usually contributes to a very small proportion of thymic output, but the underlying mechanism remains enigmatic. Deletion of Id3, an inhibitor of E protein transcription factors, can induce an expansion of the Vγ1.1(+)Vδ6.3(+) T cell population. This phenotype is much stronger on the C57BL/6 background than on the 129/sv background. Using quantitative trait linkage analysis, we identified Id2, a homolog of Id3, to be the major modifier of Id3 in limiting Vγ1.1(+)Vδ6.3(+) T cell expansion. The Vγ1.1(+)Vδ6.3(+) phenotype is attributed to an intrinsic weakness of Id2 transcription from Id2 C57BL/6 allele, leading to an overall reduced dosage of Id proteins. However, complete removal of both Id2 and Id3 genes in developing T cells suppressed the expansion of Vγ1.1(+)Vδ6.3(+) T cells because of decreased proliferation and increased cell death. We showed that conditional knockout of Id2 alone is sufficient to promote a moderate expansion of γδ T cells. These regulatory effects of Id2 and Id3 on Vγ1.1(+)Vδ6.3(+) T cells are mediated by titration of E protein activity, because removing one or more copies of E protein genes can restore Vγ1.1(+)Vδ6.3(+) T cell expansion in Id2 and Id3 double conditional knockout mice. Our data indicated that Id2 and Id3 collaboratively control survival and expansion of the γδ lineage through modulating a proper threshold of E proteins. PMID:24379125

  14. Early Childhood Obesity is Associated with Compromised Cerebellar Development

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jennifer L; Couch, Jessica; Schwenk, Krista; Long, Michelle; Towler, Stephen; Theriaque, Douglas W; He, Guojun; Liu, Yijun; Driscoll, Daniel J; Leonard, Christiana M

    2009-01-01

    As part of a study investigating commonalities between Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS — a genetic imprinting disorder) and early-onset obesity of unknown etiology (EMO) we measured total cerebral and cerebellar volume on volumetric MRI images. Individuals with PWS (n=16) and EMO (n=12) had smaller cerebellar volumes than a control group of 15 siblings (p=0.02 control vs. EMO; p=0.0005 control vs. PWS), although there was no difference among the groups in cerebral volume. Individuals with PWS and EMO also had impaired cognitive function: general intellectual ability (GIA): PWS 65 ± 25; EMO 81 ± 19; and Controls 112 ± 13 (p<0.0001 controls vs. PWS and controls vs. EMO). As both conditions are characterized by early-onset obesity and slowed cognitive development, these results raise the possibility that early childhood obesity retards both cerebellar and cognitive development. PMID:19437203

  15. Early development of synchrony in cortical activations in the human

    PubMed Central

    Koolen, N.; Dereymaeker, A.; Räsänen, O.; Jansen, K.; Vervisch, J.; Matic, V.; Naulaers, G.; De Vos, M.; Van Huffel, S.; Vanhatalo, S.

    2016-01-01

    Early intermittent cortical activity is thought to play a crucial role in the growth of neuronal network development, and large scale brain networks are known to provide the basis for higher brain functions. Yet, the early development of the large scale synchrony in cortical activations is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the early intermittent cortical activations seen in the human scalp EEG show a clear developmental course during the last trimester of pregnancy, the period of intensive growth of cortico-cortical connections. We recorded scalp EEG from altogether 22 premature infants at post-menstrual age between 30 and 44 weeks, and the early cortical synchrony was quantified using recently introduced activation synchrony index (ASI). The developmental correlations of ASI were computed for individual EEG signals as well as anatomically and mathematically defined spatial subgroups. We report two main findings. First, we observed a robust and statistically significant increase in ASI in all cortical areas. Second, there were significant spatial gradients in the synchrony in fronto-occipital and left-to-right directions. These findings provide evidence that early cortical activity is increasingly synchronized across the neocortex. The ASI-based metrics introduced in our work allow direct translational comparison to in vivo animal models, as well as hold promise for implementation as a functional developmental biomarker in future research on human neonates. PMID:26876605

  16. Early development of synchrony in cortical activations in the human.

    PubMed

    Koolen, N; Dereymaeker, A; Räsänen, O; Jansen, K; Vervisch, J; Matic, V; Naulaers, G; De Vos, M; Van Huffel, S; Vanhatalo, S

    2016-05-13

    Early intermittent cortical activity is thought to play a crucial role in the growth of neuronal network development, and large scale brain networks are known to provide the basis for higher brain functions. Yet, the early development of the large scale synchrony in cortical activations is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the early intermittent cortical activations seen in the human scalp EEG show a clear developmental course during the last trimester of pregnancy, the period of intensive growth of cortico-cortical connections. We recorded scalp EEG from altogether 22 premature infants at post-menstrual age between 30 and 44weeks, and the early cortical synchrony was quantified using recently introduced activation synchrony index (ASI). The developmental correlations of ASI were computed for individual EEG signals as well as anatomically and mathematically defined spatial subgroups. We report two main findings. First, we observed a robust and statistically significant increase in ASI in all cortical areas. Second, there were significant spatial gradients in the synchrony in fronto-occipital and left-to-right directions. These findings provide evidence that early cortical activity is increasingly synchronized across the neocortex. The ASI-based metrics introduced in our work allow direct translational comparison to in vivo animal models, as well as hold promise for implementation as a functional developmental biomarker in future research on human neonates. PMID:26876605

  17. Developing Early Undergraduate Research at a Two-Year College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibbernsen, Kendra

    2013-01-01

    Two-year college (TYC) physics teachers are not often required to provide student research experiences as a part of their contracted duties. However, some TYC physics faculty members are interested in developing research opportunities for their freshman- and sophomore-level students, often called "early undergraduate research" (EUR).…

  18. Illumina Spin-off to Develop Early-Detection Test.

    PubMed

    Colwell, Janet

    2016-04-01

    DNA-sequencing giant Illumina has formed a new company, called Grail, to develop liquid biopsies capable of spotting cancer before symptoms arise. The start-up is working on a low-cost "pan-cancer" test that can detect multiple cancer types early, which it hopes to introduce by 2019. PMID:26873346

  19. An Analysis of Early Childhood Education Research and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Myrtle; And Others

    This volume organizes information on research and development in early childhood education. Goals and objectives of the 77 programs reviewed are described, and the strategies for implementing the programs are discussed. Organizational factors and the problems encountered in the programs and projects are considered. There is a short discussion of…

  20. Participation as a Basis for Developing Early Intervention Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, M. Jeanne; Woods, Juliann

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This article describes how participation in activities/routines can be used as a basis for understanding children's communication and language skills and how that knowledge can be extended to collaborate with families and caregivers to develop meaningful early intervention outcomes. Method: The approach is centered on children's use of…

  1. Early Intervention and Its Effects on Maternal and Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Diana T.

    1983-01-01

    The longitudinal study reported used an intervention strategy to test the thesis that sociocultural background, mediated by maternal attitudes and behaviors, influences Black children's early development in educationally significant ways. Two models of parent education were contrasted: the Levenstein toy demonstration program and the…

  2. State Guide to Developing Successful Early Childhood Data Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ICF International (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Early education leaders--inside and outside of government--are looking for new ways to improve quality, accountability, and efficiency across many different programs serving young children and their families, and they see investment in data systems as a pivotal part of that effort. However, it can be challenging to develop and implement effective…

  3. MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT: EARLY LIFE EFFECTS FROM THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mammary Gland Development: Early Life Effects from the Environment

    S.E. Fenton. Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory, ORD, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.

    As signs of precocious puberty in girls reach ...

  4. Formative Evaluation of the Early Development Instrument: Progress and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, Daniel P.

    2007-01-01

    This article is a commentary for the special issue on the Early Development Instrument (EDI), a community tool to assess children's school readiness and developmental outcomes at a group level. The EDI is administered by kindergarten teachers, who assess their kindergarten students on 5 developmental domains: physical health and well-being, social…

  5. Career Planning and Development for Early-Career Scientists

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early career development can be looked at as being of two major phases. The first phase is the formal educational process leading to an awarded degree, postdoctoral training, and potentially formal certification in a scientific discipline. The second phase is the informal educa...

  6. More Alike than Different: Early Childhood Professional Development in Guatemala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Belinda J.; Vardell, Rosemarie; de Castaneda, Albertina

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an early childhood professional development project that took place in the summer of 2005 in Guatemala City. Located in Central America, Guatemala has a population of approximately 12.3 million people, including more than two million children under the age of 5 (UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2007; UNICEF, 2004). Events…

  7. Family Concepts in Early Learning and Development Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Bridget A.; Sanchez, Claudia; Lee, Angela M.; Casillas, Nicole; Hansen, Caitlynn

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the use of concepts related to families, parents, and the home in 51 state-level early learning and development standards documents. Guidelines from six national family involvement, engagement, and school-partnership models were used to create the Family Involvement Models Analysis Chart (FIMAC), which served as…

  8. Socio-Emotional Development and Early Schooling: Experimental Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Michael E.

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1960s, researchers, legislators, advocacy groups, and social partners have examined, analysed, and written articles on the effects of early childhood care outside the family context on children's development and capacity for adaptation. Since the availability of non-parental care for children is often considered essential for women…

  9. The Benefits of Early Child Development Programs: An Economic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Gaag, Jacques; Tan, Jee-Peng

    This paper provides a framework for estimating the economic benefits of early child development (ECD) programs and applies the framework to preliminary data from the Bolivian ECD program (known as the PIDI Project). The evaluation quantifies the benefits of increased lifetime productivity as a result of ECD enrollment. The evaluation also takes…

  10. Rethinking Early Learning and Development Standards in the Ugandan Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejuu, Godfrey

    2013-01-01

    Concerns that the African child is being tailored to be a "global child," alongside other homogenizing and dominating projections, such as early learning and development standards (ELDS), have increased. African communities need to be assured that global standards and global indicators will not further homogenize nations and thereby risk…

  11. Promoting and Investing in Early Childhood Development Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Seok Hoon

    This paper describes the impact of three early childhood education research programs in Australia, Singapore, and Malaysia, and funded by the Bernard van Leer Foundation. The Mount Druitt Project in Australia has implemented institution- and home-based educational programs, which also monitor children's physical development and work closely with…

  12. Early Childhood Education for Sustainability: Recommendations for Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daries, Julie; Engdahl, Ingrid; Otieno, Lorraine; Pramling-Samuelson, Ingrid; Siraj-Blatchford, John; Vallabh, Priya

    2009-01-01

    The following recommendations for "Education for Sustainable Development (ESD)" in Early Childhood Education were the product of an extended international collaboration that was supported by a number of bodies including the Centre for Environment and Sustainability in Gothenburg, the Swedish Ministry of Education and Research, the Swedish National…

  13. Characterizing Key Features of the Early Childhood Professional Development Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Patricia; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Meeker, Kathleen Artman; Kinder, Kiersten; Pasia, Cathleen; McLaughlin, Tara

    2012-01-01

    Professional development (PD) has been defined as facilitated teaching and learning experiences designed to enhance practitioners' knowledge, skills, and dispositions as well as their capacity to provide high-quality early learning experiences for young children. The purpose of this study was to use a framework from the National Professional…

  14. The Ecology of Early Reading Development for Children in Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kainz, Kirsten; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2007-01-01

    In this study we investigated reading development from kindergarten to third grade for 1,913 economically disadvantaged children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort. Characteristics of the child, the family, classroom instruction, and school composition were used to model influences from multiple levels of children's…

  15. Early Journals and Their Influences on the Development of Gerontology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Lorraine; Carter, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    This examination of early gerontology journals identifies the multidisciplinary backgrounds of contributors, methods of investigation, nascent theory development, and formative themes and controversies. Through use of content, thematic, and critical analyses of second year issues of "The Gerontologist," "Educational Gerontology," "Research on…

  16. Development of an Early Hebrew Oral Reading Fluency Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Scott J.; Weinberger, Elana R.; Goodman, Nina E.; Ross, Shoshana

    2010-01-01

    Currently, there are no Hebrew (L2) reading assessments that have been tested to obtain evidence for reliability and validity on which to base decisions about Hebrew instruction. The authors developed a Hebrew benchmark assessment tool for first grade students modeled after Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills, a standardized test of…

  17. Predictors of Early versus Later Spelling Development in Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber; Juul, Holger

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined phoneme awareness, phonological short term memory, letter knowledge, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and visual-verbal paired associate learning (PAL) as longitudinal predictors of spelling skills in an early phase (Grade 2) and a later phase (Grade 5) of development in a sample of 140 children learning to spell in the…

  18. HIV Infection: Transmission, Effects on Early Development, and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Barbara

    1997-01-01

    Describes the modes of transmission of HIV and the course of the disease in infants and toddlers. Information is provided on its effects on early development, medical screening and treatments, therapies, psychosocial assistance, and interventions, including nutritional therapy, occupational and physical therapies, and speech and language therapy.…

  19. Starting Smart: How Early Experiences Affect Brain Development. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Theresa

    Based on recent research, it is now believed that brain growth is highly dependent upon children's early experiences. Neurons allow communication and coordinated functioning among various brain areas. Brain development after birth consists of an ongoing process of wiring and rewiring the connections among neurons. The forming and breaking of…

  20. Teaching Parents How to Facilitate Social Development during Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Progar, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Social competency gained in early childhood influences numerous domains of a child's life throughout the lifespan. Since the preschool years are a time when children begin forming friendships with peers and may be exposed to a classroom setting for the first time, developing social competency is imperative for functioning well with the many people…

  1. Identification of the Social Development in Early Childhood in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Asif; Sarwar, Muhammad; Khan, Naeemullah

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify the social development in early childhood years. It was delimited to eight private schools of Lahore City from the area of Faisal Town and Shadman. Forty students (male and female) were randomly selected as the sample. Five students from Nursery, Prep and grade one were selected from each school. A checklist…

  2. A Productive System of Early Years Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hordern, Jim

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses the concept of the productive system to identify some of the tensions between the stages of professional development of early years practitioners and the relationships between the various actors within the system of professional formation in England. In the context of the recommendations of the Nutbrown Review a series of…

  3. Teacher Efficacy in an Early Childhood Professional Development School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Ann; Willhite, Gary L.

    2015-01-01

    Teacher efficacy is the belief teachers have in their ability to impact student learning. Efficacy includes teacher confidence in instructional, management and collaboration skills. The following study addresses teacher efficacy in an Early Childhood Professional Development School (PDS). The PDS experience provides an opportunity for mentor…

  4. Applying cognitive training to target executive functions during early development

    PubMed Central

    Wass, Sam V.

    2015-01-01

    Developmental psychopathology is increasingly recognizing the importance of distinguishing causal processes (i.e., the mechanisms that cause a disease) from developmental outcomes (i.e., the symptoms of the disorder as it is eventually diagnosed). Targeting causal processes early in disordered development may be more effective than waiting until outcomes are established and then trying to reverse the pathogenic process. In this review, I evaluate evidence suggesting that neural and behavioral plasticity may be greatest at very early stages of development. I also describe correlational evidence suggesting that, across a number of conditions, early emerging individual differences in attentional control and working memory may play a role in mediating later-developing differences in academic and other forms of learning. I review the currently small number of studies that applied direct and indirect cognitive training targeted at young individuals and discuss methodological challenges associated with targeting this age group. I also discuss a number of ways in which early, targeted cognitive training may be used to help us understand the developmental mechanisms subserving typical and atypical cognitive development. PMID:24511910

  5. Child Development Associate. Administration for Early Childhood Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oscar Rose Junior Coll., Midwest City, OK.

    The purpose of this Child Development Associate (CDA) training module, one in a series of 18, is to provide the CDA intern with the knowledge and skills necessary for the administration of early childhood programs. The module stipulates competency-based objectives and provides essential information, suggestions, examples and learning activities on…

  6. Changing the Perspective on Early Development of Rett Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marschik, Peter B.; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Wolin, Thomas; Zhang, Dajie; Bartl-Pokorny, Katrin D.; Pini, Giorgio; Zappella, Michele; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Einspieler, Christa; Johnston, Michael V.

    2013-01-01

    We delineated the achievement of early speech-language milestones in 15 young children with Rett syndrome ("MECP2" positive) in the first two years of life using retrospective video analysis. By contrast to the commonly accepted concept that these children are normal in the pre-regression period, we found markedly atypical development of…

  7. Approaches to Developing Health in Early Years Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Ann; Boddy, Janet; Statham, June; Warwick, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to consider the opportunities and difficulties in developing health-promotion work in early years settings in the UK. Design/methodology/approach: As the first study of its kind conducted in the UK, a multi-method approach was adopted involving: an overview of health-related guidance and of effective…

  8. Visual and Auditory Temporal Processing and Early Reading Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, Michelle; Conlon, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of temporal processing measures obtained before school entry to predict early reading development in an unselected sample of 125 children (68 males, 57 females). Visual and auditory temporal order judgment (TOJ) tasks measured at Preschool (mean age 5.36 years) significantly predicted letter and word…

  9. Early Language Development After Peri-natal Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Trauner, Doris A.; Eshagh, Karin; Ballantyne, Angela O.; Bates, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Early unilateral brain damage has different implications for language development than does similar damage in adults, given the plasticity of the developing brain. The goal of this study was to examine early markers of language and gesture at 12 and 24 months in children who had peri-natal right hemisphere (RH) or left hemisphere (LH) stroke (n = 71), compared with typically developing controls (n = 126). Parents completed the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI): Words & Gestures (12 month data point), or the CDI: Words & Sentences (24 month data point). Statistical analyses were performed on percentile scores using analysis of variance techniques. At 12 months, there were no differences among groups for Words Understood, Phrases Understood or Words Produced. At 24 months, both lesion groups scored significantly lower than controls on Word Production, Irregular Words, and Mean Length of Sentences, but lesion groups did not differ from each other. In longitudinal subset of participants, expressive vocabulary failed to progress as expected from 12 to 24 months in the stroke group, with no differences based on lesion side. Gesture and word production were dissociated in the left hemisphere subjects. Findings suggest that early language development after peri-natal stroke takes a different course from that of typical language development, perhaps reflecting brain reorganization secondary to plasticity in the developing brain. PMID:23711573

  10. Early development of Xenopus embryos is affected by simulated gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yokota, Hiroki; Neff, Anton W.; Malacinski, George M.

    1994-01-01

    Early amphibian (Xenopus laevis) development under clinostat-simulated weightlessness and centrifuge-simulated hypergravity was studied. The results revealed significant effects on (i) 'morphological patterning' such as the cleavage furrow pattern in the vegetal hemisphere at the eight-cell stage and the shape of the dorsal lip in early gastrulae and (ii) 'the timing of embryonic events' such as the third cleavage furrow completion and the dorsal lip appearance. Substantial variations in sensitivity to simulated force fields were observed, which should be considered in interpreting spaceflight data.

  11. Developing International Collaborations for Early Career Researchers in Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Julianne C.; Barrett, Emma L.; Crome, Erica; Forbes, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    International collaboration is becoming increasingly vital as the emphasis on unmet need for mental health across cultures and nations grows. Opportunities exist for early career researchers to engage in international collaboration. However, little information is provided about such opportunities in most current psychology training models. The authors are early career researchers in psychology from U.S. and Australia who have developed a collaborative relationship over the past two years. Our goal is to increase awareness of funding opportunities to support international research and to highlight the benefits and challenges associated with international collaboration based on our experience. PMID:27453624

  12. Early development of multiple epithelial neoplasms in Netherton syndrome.

    PubMed

    Krasagakis, K; Ioannidou, D J; Stephanidou, M; Manios, A; Panayiotides, J G; Tosca, A D

    2003-01-01

    We report a case of Netherton syndrome manifested as congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma, trichorrhexis invaginata and atopy, who in early adulthood developed multiple, aggressive epithelial neoplasms in sun-exposed areas of the skin, in areas with papillomatous skin hyperplasia and at the left parotid region. The occurrence of cutaneous neoplasia has been reported in syndromes with congenital ichthyosis and suggests that the underlying genetic defects may cause the development of cancer in prone patients. PMID:12920370

  13. Developing Early Undergraduate Research at a Two-Year College

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibbernsen, Kendra

    2013-11-01

    Two-year college (TYC) physics teachers are not often required to provide student research experiences as a part of their contracted duties. However, some TYC physics faculty members are interested in developing research opportunities for their freshman- and sophomore-level students, often called "early undergraduate research" (EUR). Here are some suggestions if you are interested in developing and managing EUR at your TYC.

  14. Model of influenza A virus infection: dynamics of viral antagonism and innate immune response

    PubMed Central

    Fribourg, M.; Hartmann, B.; Schmolke, M.; Marjanovic, N.; Albrecht, R.A.; García-Sastre, A.; Sealfon, S. C.; Jayaprakash, C.; Hayot, F.

    2014-01-01

    Viral antagonism of host responses is an essential component of virus pathogenicity. The study of the interplay between immune response and viral antagonism is challenging due to the involvement of many processes acting at multiple time scales. Here we develop an ordinary differential equation model to investigate the early, experimentally-measured, responses of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells to infection by two H1N1 influenza A viruses of different clinical outcome: pandemic A/California/4/2009 and seasonal A/New Caledonia/20/1999. Our results reveal how the strength of virus antagonism, and the time scale over which it acts to thwart the innate immune response, differ significantly between the two viruses, as is made clear by their impact on the temporal behavior of a number of measured genes. The model thus sheds light on the mechanisms that underlie the variability of innate immune responses to different H1N1 viruses. PMID:24594370

  15. Innate lymphoid cells and natural killer T cells in the gastrointestinal tract immune system.

    PubMed

    Montalvillo, Enrique; Garrote, José Antonio; Bernardo, David; Arranz, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is equipped with a highly specialized intrinsic immune system. However, the intestine is exposed to a high antigenic burden that requires a fast, nonspecific response -so-called innate immunity- to maintain homeostasis and protect the body from incoming pathogens. In the last decade multiple studies helped to unravel the particular developmental requirements and specific functions of the cells that play a role in innate immunity. In this review we shall focus on innate lymphoid cells, a newly discovered, heterogeneous set of cells that derive from an Id2-dependent lymphoid progenitor cell population. These cells have been categorized on the basis of the pattern of cytokines that they secrete, and the transcription factors that regulate their development and functions. Innate lymphoid cells play a role in the early response to pathogens, the anatomical contention of the commensal flora, and the maintenance of epithelial integrity.Amongst the various innate lymphoid cells we shall lay emphasis on a subpopulation with several peculiarities, namely that of natural killer T cells, a subset of T lymphocytes that express both T-cell and NK-cell receptors. The most numerous fraction of the NKT population are the so-called invariant NKT or iNKT cells. These iNKT cells have an invariant TCR and recognize the glycolipidic structures presented by the CD1d molecule, a homolog of class-I MHC molecules. Following activation they rapidly acquire cytotoxic activity and secrete both Th1 and Th2 cytokines, including IL-17. While their specific role is not yet established, iNKT cells take part in a great variety of intestinal immune responses ranging from oral tolerance to involvement in a number of gastrointestinal conditions. PMID:25287236

  16. Effects of early life stress on amygdala and striatal development.

    PubMed

    Fareri, Dominic S; Tottenham, Nim

    2016-06-01

    Species-expected caregiving early in life is critical for the normative development and regulation of emotional behavior, the ability to effectively evaluate affective stimuli in the environment, and the ability to sustain social relationships. Severe psychosocial stressors early in life (early life stress; ELS) in the form of the absence of species expected caregiving (i.e., caregiver deprivation), can drastically impact one's social and emotional success, leading to the onset of internalizing illness later in life. Development of the amygdala and striatum, two key regions supporting affective valuation and learning, is significantly affected by ELS, and their altered developmental trajectories have important implications for cognitive, behavioral and socioemotional development. However, an understanding of the impact of ELS on the development of functional interactions between these regions and subsequent behavioral effects is lacking. In this review, we highlight the roles of the amygdala and striatum in affective valuation and learning in maturity and across development. We discuss their function separately as well as their interaction. We highlight evidence across species characterizing how ELS induced changes in the development of the amygdala and striatum mediate subsequent behavioral changes associated with internalizing illness, positing a particular import of the effect of ELS on their interaction. PMID:27174149

  17. Pulmonary surfactant in innate immunity and the pathogenesis of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, J S; Schlesinger, L S

    2000-01-01

    Components of the innate immune system serve to protect the host from invading pathogens prior to the generation of a directed immune response, and influence the manner in which the directed immune response develops. The pulmonary surfactant system consists of a complex array of proteins and lipids that reduce surface tension of the alveoli, and appears to play an essential role in innate immunity. Investigators have recently gained insight into the interactions between components of the surfactant system and the respiratory pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is likely that pulmonary surfactant and other innate immune determinants play significant roles in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. PMID:11052906

  18. Alternatives to the fish early life-stage test: Developing a conceptual model for early fish development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic fish toxicity is a key parameter for hazard classification and environmental risk assessment of chemicals, and the OECD 210 fish early life-stage (FELS) test is the primary guideline test used for various international regulatory programs. There exists a need to develop ...

  19. The use of clinical utility assessments in early clinical development.

    PubMed

    Khan, Anis A; Perlstein, Itay; Krishna, Rajesh

    2009-03-01

    A quickly realizable benefit of model-based drug development is in reducing uncertainty in risk/benefit, comprising individually of safety and effectiveness, two key attributes of a product evaluated for regulatory approval, marketing, and use. In this review, we investigate gaps and opportunities in using fundamental decision analytic principles in drug development and present a quantitative clinical pharmacology framework for the application of such aids for early clinical development decision making. We anticipate that implementation of such emerging tools will enable sufficient scientific understanding of the two attributes to facilitate the early termination of compounds with less than desirable risk/benefit profiles and continuance of compounds with acceptable risk/benefit profiles. PMID:19145490

  20. Pentraxins in humoral innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Inforzato, Antonio; Bottazzi, Barbara; Garlanda, Cecilia; Valentino, Sonia; Mantovani, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Innate immunity represents the first line of defence against pathogens and plays key roles in activation and orientation of the adaptive immune response. The innate immune system comprises both a cellular and a humoral arm. Components of the humoral arm include soluble pattern recognition molecules (PRMs) that recognise pathogens associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and initiate the immune response in coordination with the cellular arm, therefore acting as functional ancestors of antibodies. The long pentraxin PTX3 is a prototypic soluble PRM that is produced at sites of infection and inflammation by both somatic and immune cells. Gene targeting of this evolutionarily conserved protein has revealed a non-redundant role in resistance to selected pathogens. Moreover, PTX3 exerts important functions at the crossroad between innate immunity, inflammation and female fertility. Here we review the studies on PTX3, with emphasis on pathogen recognition and crosstalk with other components of the innate immune system. PMID:21948359

  1. Early childhood WIC participation, cognitive development and academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Margot I

    2015-02-01

    For the 22% of American children who live below the federal poverty line, and the additional 23% who live below twice that level, nutritional policy is part of the safety net against hunger and its negative effects on children's development. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) provides steadily available food from the food groups essential for physical and cognitive development. The effects of WIC on dietary quality among participating women and children are strong and positive. Furthermore, there is a strong influence of nutrition on cognitive development and socioeconomic inequality. Yet, research on the non-health effects of U.S. child nutritional policy is scarce, despite the ultimate goal of health policies directed at children-to enable productive functioning across multiple social institutions over the life course. Using two nationally representative, longitudinal surveys of children-the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) and the Child Development Supplement (CDS) of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics-I examine how prenatal and early childhood exposure to WIC is associated in the short-term with cognitive development, and in the longer-term with reading and math learning. Results show that early WIC participation is associated with both cognitive and academic benefits. These findings suggest that WIC meaningfully contributes to children's educational prospects. PMID:25555255

  2. Telomerase Activity is Downregulated Early During Human Brain Development.

    PubMed

    Ishaq, Abbas; Hanson, Peter S; Morris, Christopher M; Saretzki, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Changes in hTERT splice variant expression have been proposed to facilitate the decrease of telomerase activity during fetal development in various human tissues. Here, we analyzed the expression of telomerase RNA (hTR), wild type and α-spliced hTERT in developing human fetal brain (post conception weeks, pcw, 6-19) and in young and old cortices using qPCR and correlated it to telomerase activity measured by TRAP assay. Decrease of telomerase activity occurred early during brain development and correlated strongest to decreased hTR expression. The expression of α-spliced hTERT increased between pcw 10 and 19, while that of wild type hTERT remained unchanged. Lack of expression differences between young and old cortices suggests that most changes seem to occur early during human brain development. Using in vitro differentiation of neural precursor stem cells (NPSCs) derived at pcw 6 we found a decrease in telomerase activity but no major expression changes in telomerase associated genes. Thus, they do not seem to model the mechanisms for the decrease in telomerase activity in fetal brains. Our results suggest that decreased hTR levels, as well as transient increase in α-spliced hTERT, might both contribute to downregulation of telomerase activity during early human brain development between 6 and 17 pcw. PMID:27322326

  3. Telomerase Activity is Downregulated Early During Human Brain Development

    PubMed Central

    Ishaq, Abbas; Hanson, Peter S.; Morris, Christopher M.; Saretzki, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Changes in hTERT splice variant expression have been proposed to facilitate the decrease of telomerase activity during fetal development in various human tissues. Here, we analyzed the expression of telomerase RNA (hTR), wild type and α-spliced hTERT in developing human fetal brain (post conception weeks, pcw, 6–19) and in young and old cortices using qPCR and correlated it to telomerase activity measured by TRAP assay. Decrease of telomerase activity occurred early during brain development and correlated strongest to decreased hTR expression. The expression of α-spliced hTERT increased between pcw 10 and 19, while that of wild type hTERT remained unchanged. Lack of expression differences between young and old cortices suggests that most changes seem to occur early during human brain development. Using in vitro differentiation of neural precursor stem cells (NPSCs) derived at pcw 6 we found a decrease in telomerase activity but no major expression changes in telomerase associated genes. Thus, they do not seem to model the mechanisms for the decrease in telomerase activity in fetal brains. Our results suggest that decreased hTR levels, as well as transient increase in α-spliced hTERT, might both contribute to downregulation of telomerase activity during early human brain development between 6 and 17 pcw. PMID:27322326

  4. Conditions on Early Mars Might Have Fostered Rapid and Early Development of Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.

    2007-01-01

    The exploration of Mars during the past decades has begun to unveil the history of the planet. The combinations of remote sensing, in situ geochemical compositional measurements and photographic observations from both above and on the surface have shown Mars to have a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution clearly had conditions that were suitable for supporting life. For a planet to be able to be habitable, it must have water, carbon sources, energy sources and a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water-carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001 well-dated at approx.3.9 Gy., (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, early active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon and water from possibly extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H2O, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) some crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust. The question arises: "Why would life not evolve from these favorable conditions on early Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, it seems likely that environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would all favor the formation of early life. Even if life developed elsewhere (on Earth, Venus, or on other solar systems) and was transported to Mars, the surface conditions were likely very hospitable for that introduced life to multiply and evolve.

  5. Innate Immune Defenses in Human Tuberculosis: An Overview of the Interactions between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Innate Immune Cells.

    PubMed

    Sia, Jonathan Kevin; Georgieva, Maria; Rengarajan, Jyothi

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a serious global public health problem that results in up to 2 million deaths each year. TB is caused by the human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), which infects primarily innate immune cells patrolling the lung. Innate immune cells serve as barometers of the immune response against Mtb infection by determining the inflammatory milieu in the lungs and promoting the generation of adaptive immune responses. However, innate immune cells are also potential niches for bacterial replication and are readily manipulated by Mtb. Our understanding of the early interactions between Mtb and innate immune cells is limited, especially in the context of human infection. This review will focus on Mtb interactions with human macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils, and NK cells and detail evidence that Mtb modulation of these cells negatively impacts Mtb-specific immune responses. Furthermore, this review will emphasize important innate immune pathways uncovered through human immunogenetic studies. Insights into the human innate immune response to Mtb infection are necessary for providing a rational basis for the augmentation of immune responses against Mtb infection, especially with respect to the generation of effective anti-TB immunotherapeutics and vaccines. PMID:26258152

  6. Innate Immune Defenses in Human Tuberculosis: An Overview of the Interactions between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Innate Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sia, Jonathan Kevin; Georgieva, Maria; Rengarajan, Jyothi

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a serious global public health problem that results in up to 2 million deaths each year. TB is caused by the human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), which infects primarily innate immune cells patrolling the lung. Innate immune cells serve as barometers of the immune response against Mtb infection by determining the inflammatory milieu in the lungs and promoting the generation of adaptive immune responses. However, innate immune cells are also potential niches for bacterial replication and are readily manipulated by Mtb. Our understanding of the early interactions between Mtb and innate immune cells is limited, especially in the context of human infection. This review will focus on Mtb interactions with human macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils, and NK cells and detail evidence that Mtb modulation of these cells negatively impacts Mtb-specific immune responses. Furthermore, this review will emphasize important innate immune pathways uncovered through human immunogenetic studies. Insights into the human innate immune response to Mtb infection are necessary for providing a rational basis for the augmentation of immune responses against Mtb infection, especially with respect to the generation of effective anti-TB immunotherapeutics and vaccines. PMID:26258152

  7. The dynamics of methionine supply and demand during early development.

    PubMed

    McBreairty, Laura E; Bertolo, Robert F

    2016-06-01

    Methionine is an indispensable amino acid that, when not incorporated into protein, is converted into the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine as entry into the methionine cycle. Following transmethylation, homocysteine is either remethylated to reform methionine or irreversibly trans-sulfurated to form cysteine. Methionine flux to transmethylation and to protein synthesis are both high in the neonate and this review focuses on the dynamics of methionine supply and demand during early development, when growth requires expansion of pools of protein and transmethylation products such as creatine and phosphatidylcholine (PC). The nutrients folate and betaine (derived from choline) donate a methyl group during remethylation, providing an endogenous supply of methionine to meet the methionine demand. During early development, variability in the dietary supply of these methionine cycle-related nutrients can affect both the supply and the demand of methionine. For example, a greater need for creatine synthesis can limit methionine availability for protein and PC synthesis, whereas increased availability of remethylation nutrients can increase protein synthesis if dietary methionine is limiting. Moreover, changes to methyl group availability early in life can lead to permanent changes in epigenetic patterns of DNA methylation, which have been implicated in the early origins of adult disease phenomena. This review aims to summarize how changes in methyl supply and demand can affect the availability of methionine for various functions and highlights the importance of variability in methionine-related nutrients in the infant diet. PMID:27177124

  8. Early development of Chondrus ocellatus holm (Gigartinaceae, Rhodophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Aihua; Wang, Jicheng; Duan, Delin

    2006-06-01

    Chondrus is an economically important red algae widely used for food and biochemical purpose. It early development is crucial for the culture and seedling propagation. We chose tetraspores and carpospores of Chondrus ocellatus as examples for experiment of the culture, induction and release in laboratory condition, aiming to understand early development of C. ocellatus and to apply in seedling production. Mature C. ocellatus were collected in Qingdao, China, from Nov. to Dec. 2004. After the gametophyte and tetrasporophyte were brushed and washed with sterilized seawater, the algal materials were treated in 1.5% KI for 20 min, then were dried for 1h to stimulate the releasing of spores. After the spores released overnight, it were cultured in PES medium, incubated at 18 °C, 10±2 μmol/(m2·s1) in 12∶12h (light: dark). The observation and recording under microscope were carried out. Continuous observation of the early development showed that both tetraspore and carpospore are similar to each other. In general, three stages of the early development were shown being division, discoid crust and seedling stages. To the division stage, the most obvious feature was the increasing of cell number; during the discoid crust stage, the discoid crust had a three-dimensional axis, and it began to differentiate into two types of cells: the basal cells and the apical cells; and to the seedling stage, several protuberances-like appeared on the discoid crusts and formed juvenile seedlings. Carpospores and tetraspores exhibited a similar development process that included division stage, discoid crust stage and seedling stage.

  9. Lexically-based learning and early grammatical development.

    PubMed

    Lieven, E V; Pine, J M; Baldwin, G

    1997-02-01

    Pine & Lieven (1993) suggest that a lexically-based positional analysis can account for the structure of a considerable proportion of children's early multiword corpora. The present study tests this claim on a second, larger sample of eleven children aged between 1;0 and 3;0 from a different social background, and extends the analysis to later in development. Results indicate that the positional analysis can account for a mean of 60% of all the children's multiword utterances and that the great majority of all other utterances are defined as frozen by the analysis. Alternative explanations of the data based on hypothesizing underlying syntactic or semantic relations are investigated through analyses of pronoun case marking and of verbs with prototypical agent-patient roles. Neither supports the view that the children's utterances are being produced on the basis of general underlying rules and categories. The implications of widespread distributional learning in early language development are discussed. PMID:9154014

  10. Studies Toward Birth and Early Mammalian Development in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, April E.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Successful reproduction is the hallmark of a species' ability to adapt to its environment and must be realized to sustain life beyond Earth. Before taking this immense step, we need to understand the effects of altered gravity on critical phases of mammalian reproduction, viz., those events surrounding pregnancy, birth and the early development of offspring. No mammal has yet undergone birth in space. however studies spanning the gravity continuum from 0 to 2-g are revealing insights into how birth and early postnatal development will proceed in space. In this presentation, I will report the results of behavioral studies of rat mothers and offspring exposed from mid- to late pregnancy to either hypogravity (0-g) or hypergravity (1.5 or 2-g).

  11. Pattern Recognition Receptors in Innate Immunity, Host Defense, and Immunopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suresh, Rahul; Mosser, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Infection by pathogenic microbes initiates a set of complex interactions between the pathogen and the host mediated by pattern recognition receptors. Innate immune responses play direct roles in host defense during the early stages of infection, and they also exert a profound influence on the generation of the adaptive immune responses that ensue.…

  12. Identification of Mytilus edulis genetic regulators during early development.

    PubMed

    Bassim, Sleiman; Tanguy, Arnaud; Genard, Bertrand; Moraga, Dario; Tremblay, Rejean

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that enable growth and survival of an organism while driving it to the full range of its adaptation is fundamental to the issues of biodiversity and evolution, particularly regarding global climatic changes. Here we report the Illumina RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) and de novo assembly of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis transcriptome during early development. This study is based on high-throughput data, which associates genome-wide differentially expressed transcript (DET) patterns with early activation of developmental processes. Approximately 50,383 high-quality contigs were assembled. Over 8000 transcripts were associated with functional proteins from public databases. Coding and non-coding genes served to design customized microarrays targeting every developmental stage, which encompass major transitions in tissue organization. Consequently, multi-processing pattern exploration protocols applied to 3633 DETs helped discover 12 unique coordinated eigengenes supposedly implicated in various physiological and morphological changes that larvae undergo during early development. Moreover, dynamic Bayesian networks (DBNs) provided key insights to understand stage-specific molecular mechanisms activated throughout ontogeny. In addition, delayed and contemporaneous interactions between DETs were coerced with 16 relevant regulators that interrelated in non-random genetic regulatory networks (GRNs). Genes associated with mechanisms of neural and muscular development have been characterized and further included in dynamic networks necessary in growth and functional morphology. This is the first large-scale study being dedicated to M. edulis throughout early ontogeny. Integration between RNA-seq and microarray data enabled a high-throughput exploration of hidden processes essential in growth and survival of microscopic mussel larvae. Our integrative approach will support a holistic understanding of systems biology and will help establish new links

  13. The Development of Children's Early Numeracy through Key Stage 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrey, Carol; Godfrey, Ray

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a limited longitudinal study of young children's early numeracy development within three testing cycles, at the mid-point and towards the end of their reception year (at five years-of-age) and again at the mid-point of Year 1 (at six years-of-age), located within the broader context of progress through to Key Stage 1 SAT…

  14. Reading Instruction Affects the Cognitive Skills Supporting Early Reading Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeown, Sarah P.; Johnston, Rhona S.; Medford, Emma

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the cognitive skills associated with early reading development when children were taught by different types of instruction. Seventy-nine children (mean age at pre-test 4;10 (0.22 S.D.) and post-test 5;03 (0.21 S.D.)) were taught to read either by an eclectic approach which included sight-word learning, guessing from context and…

  15. Dynamic Self-Organization and Early Lexical Development in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ping; Zhao, Xiaowei; Whinney, Brian Mac

    2007-01-01

    In this study we present a self-organizing connectionist model of early lexical development. We call this model DevLex-II, based on the earlier DevLex model. DevLex-II can simulate a variety of empirical patterns in children's acquisition of words. These include a clear vocabulary spurt, effects of word frequency and length on age of acquisition,…

  16. Early zebrafish development: It’s in the maternal genes

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, Elliott W.; Mullins, Mary C.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The earliest stages of embryonic development in all animals examined rely on maternal gene products that are generated during oogenesis and supplied to the egg. The period of maternal control of embryonic development varies among animals according to the onset of zygotic transcription and the persistence of maternal gene products. This maternal regulation has been little studied in vertebrates, due to the difficulty in manipulating maternal gene function and lack of basic molecular information. However, recent maternal-effect screens in the zebrafish have generated more than 40 unique mutants that are providing new molecular entry points to the maternal control of early vertebrate development. Here we discuss recent studies of 12 zebrafish mutant genes that illuminate the maternal molecular controls on embryonic development, including advances in the regulation of animal-vegetal polarity, egg activation, cleavage development, body plan formation, tissue morphogenesis, microRNA function and germ cell development. PMID:19608405

  17. Biased gene expression in early honeybee larval development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Female larvae of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) develop into either queens or workers depending on nutrition. This nutritional stimulus triggers different developmental trajectories, resulting in adults that differ from each other in physiology, behaviour and life span. Results To understand how these trajectories are established we have generated a comprehensive atlas of gene expression throughout larval development. We found substantial differences in gene expression between worker and queen-destined larvae at 6 hours after hatching. Some of these early changes in gene expression are maintained throughout larval development, indicating that caste-specific developmental trajectories are established much earlier than previously thought. Within our gene expression data we identified processes that potentially underlie caste differentiation. Queen-destined larvae have higher expression of genes involved in transcription, translation and protein folding early in development with a later switch to genes involved in energy generation. Using RNA interference, we were able to demonstrate that one of these genes, hexamerin 70b, has a role in caste differentiation. Both queen and worker developmental trajectories are associated with the expression of genes that have alternative splice variants, although only a single variant of a gene tends to be differentially expressed in a given caste. Conclusions Our data, based on the biases in gene expression early in development together with published data, supports the idea that caste development in the honeybee consists of two phases; an initial biased phase of development, where larvae can still switch to the other caste by differential feeding, followed by commitment to a particular developmental trajectory. PMID:24350621

  18. Resistance, Reproduction, Both, or Neither: Exploring the Influence of Early Childhood Professional Development Specialists on the Field of Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Rebecca E.

    2012-01-01

    This article details the findings from a qualitative study that explored the ways individuals who work with early childhood education (ECE) practitioners in professional development settings influenced those practitioners' understandings of early childhood policy and early childhood systems. Defined as individuals who work in the professional…

  19. Early development and replacement of the stickleback dentition.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Nicholas A; Donde, Nikunj N; Miller, Craig T

    2016-08-01

    Teeth have long served as a model system to study basic questions about vertebrate organogenesis, morphogenesis, and evolution. In nonmammalian vertebrates, teeth typically regenerate throughout adult life. Fish have evolved a tremendous diversity in dental patterning in both their oral and pharyngeal dentitions, offering numerous opportunities to study how morphology develops, regenerates, and evolves in different lineages. Threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) have emerged as a new system to study how morphology evolves, and provide a particularly powerful system to study the development and evolution of dental morphology. Here, we describe the oral and pharyngeal dentitions of stickleback fish, providing additional morphological, histological, and molecular evidence for homology of oral and pharyngeal teeth. Focusing on the ventral pharyngeal dentition in a dense developmental time course of lab-reared fish, we describe the temporal and spatial consensus sequence of early tooth formation. Early in development, this sequence is highly stereotypical and consists of seventeen primary teeth forming the early tooth field, followed by the first tooth replacement event. Comparing this detailed morphological and ontogenetic sequence to that described in other fish reveals that major changes to how dental morphology arises and regenerates have evolved across different fish lineages. J. Morphol. 277:1072-1083, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27145214

  20. The Role of Androgen Hormones in Early Follicular Development

    PubMed Central

    Gervásio, Catiele Garcia; Bernuci, Marcelo Picinin; Silva-de-Sá, Marcos Felipe; Rosa-e-Silva, Ana Carolina Japur de Sá

    2014-01-01

    Background. Although chronic hyperandrogenism, a typical feature of polycystic ovary syndrome, is often associated with disturbed reproductive performance, androgens have been shown to promote ovarian follicle growth in shorter exposures. Here, we review the main effects of androgens on the regulation of early folliculogenesis and the potential of their application in improving follicular in vitro growth. Review. Androgens may affect folliculogenesis directly via androgen receptors (ARs) or indirectly through aromatization to estrogen. ARs are highly expressed in the granulosa and theca cells of early stage follicles and slightly expressed in mature follicles. Short-term androgen exposure augments FSH receptor expression in the granulosa cells of developing follicles and enhances the FSH-induced cAMP formation necessary for the transcription of genes involved in the control of follicular cell proliferation and differentiation. AR activation also increases insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and its receptor gene expression in the granulosa and theca cells of growing follicles and in the oocytes of primordial follicles, thus facilitating IGF-1 actions in both follicular recruitment and subsequent development. Conclusion. During the early and intermediate stages of follicular maturation, locally produced androgens facilitate the transition of follicles from the dormant to the growing pool as well as their further development. PMID:25006485

  1. Neuroimaging biomarkers for early drug development in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Tregellas, Jason R

    2014-07-15

    Given the relative inability of currently available antipsychotic treatments to adequately provide sustained recovery and improve quality of life for patients with schizophrenia, new treatment strategies are urgently needed. One way to improve the therapeutic development process may be an increased use of biomarkers in early clinical trials. Reliable biomarkers that reflect aspects of disease pathophysiology can be used to determine if potential treatment strategies are engaging their desired biological targets. This review evaluates three potential neuroimaging biomarkers: hippocampal hyperactivity, gamma-band deficits, and default network abnormalities. These deficits have been widely replicated in the illness, correlate with measures of positive symptoms, are consistent with models of disease pathology, and have shown initial promise as biomarkers of biological response in early studies of potential treatment strategies. Two key features of these deficits, and a guiding rationale for the focus of this review, are that the deficits are not dependent upon patients' performance of specific cognitive tasks and they have analogues in animal models of schizophrenia, greatly increasing their appeal for use as biomarkers. Using neuroimaging biomarkers such as those proposed here to establish early in the therapeutic development process if treatment strategies are having their intended biological effect in humans may facilitate development of new treatments for schizophrenia. PMID:24094513

  2. Neuroimaging Biomarkers for Early Drug Development in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Tregellas, Jason R.

    2013-01-01

    Given the relative inability of currently available antipsychotic treatments to adequately provide sustained recovery and improve quality of life for patients with schizophrenia, new treatment strategies are urgently needed. One way to improve the therapeutic development process may be an increased use of biomarkers in early clinical trials. Reliable biomarkers that reflect aspects of disease pathophysiology can be used to determine if potential treatment strategies are engaging their desired biological targets. This review evaluates three potential neuroimaging biomarkers: hippocampal hyperactivity, gamma-band deficits and default network abnormalities. These deficits have been widely replicated in the illness, correlate with measures of positive symptoms, are consistent with models of disease pathology, and have shown initial promise as biomarkers of biological response in early studies of potential treatment strategies. Two key features of these deficits, and a guiding rational for the focus of this review, is that the deficits are not dependent upon patients' performance of specific cognitive tasks, and have analogues in animal models of schizophrenia, greatly increasing their appeal for use as biomarkers. Using neuroimaging biomarkers such as those proposed here to establish early in the therapeutic development process if treatment strategies are having their intended biological effect in humans may facilitate development of new treatments for schizophrenia. PMID:24094513

  3. Plasticity of defensive behavior and fear in early development

    PubMed Central

    Wiedenmayer, Christoph P.

    2009-01-01

    Animals have the ability to respond to threatening situations with sets of defensive behaviors. This review demonstrates that defensive behaviors change during early life in mammals. First, unlearned responses are reorganized during early ontogeny and expressed in an age-specific way. Second, the expression of defensive responses is influenced by early experience prior to the first encounter with a threat. Third, once animals have been exposed to a threatening stimulus they subsequently modify their behavior. The neural bases of defensive behavior and the processes that alter them during development are discussed. Maturation of components and connections of the fear circuit seem to contribute to changes in unlearned fear responses. Early experience and learning modify these developmental processes and shape the expression of defensive behavior. Continuous reorganization of the neural substrate and defensive behavior during ontogeny seems to allow the animal to adjust to the conditions it encounters at a given age in a given environment. It is proposed that the developmental changes in defensive behavior can be conceptualized as phenotypic plasticity. PMID:19073211

  4. Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Packard, René R. S.; Lichtman, Andrew H.; Libby, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disorder, involves both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune response that mediate the initiation, progression, and ultimate thrombotic complications of atherosclerosis. Most fatal thromboses, which may manifest as acute myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke, result from frank rupture or superficial erosion of the fibrous cap overlying the atheroma, processes that occur in inflammatorily active, rupture-prone plaques. Appreciation of the inflammatory character of atherosclerosis has led to the application of C-reactive protein as a biomarker of cardiovascular risk, and the characterization of the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory actions of the statin class of drugs. An improved understanding of the pathobiology of atherosclerosis and further studies of its immune mechanisms provide avenues for the development of future strategies directed toward better risk stratification of patients as well as the identification of novel anti-inflammatory therapies. This review retraces leukocyte subsets involved in innate and adaptive immunity and their contributions to atherogenesis. PMID:19449008

  5. CNS Remyelination and the Innate Immune System

    PubMed Central

    McMurran, Christopher E.; Jones, Clare A.; Fitzgerald, Denise C.; Franklin, Robin J. M.

    2016-01-01

    A misguided inflammatory response is frequently implicated in myelin damage. Particularly prominent among myelin diseases, multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune condition, with immune–mediated damage central to its etiology. Nevertheless, a robust inflammatory response is also essential for the efficient regeneration of myelin sheaths after such injury. Here, we discuss the functions of inflammation that promote remyelination, and how these have been experimentally disentangled from the pathological facets of the immune response. We focus on the contributions that resident microglia and monocyte-derived macrophages make to remyelination and compare the roles of these two populations of innate immune cells. Finally, the current literature is framed in the context of developing therapies that manipulate the innate immune response to promote remyelination in clinical myelin disease. PMID:27200350

  6. Long noncoding RNAs in innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuan; Cao, Xuetao

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to play important roles in immune cell development and immune responses through different mechanisms, such as dosage compensation, imprinting, enhancer function, and transcriptional regulation. Although the functions of most lncRNAs are unclear, some lncRNAs have been found to control transcriptional or post-transcriptional regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses via new methods of protein–protein interactions or pairing with DNA and RNA. Interestingly, increasing evidence has elucidated the importance of lncRNAs in the interaction between hosts and pathogens. In this review, an overview of the lncRNAs modes of action, as well as the important and diversified roles of lncRNAs in immunity, are provided, and an emerging paradigm of lncRNAs in regulating innate immune responses is highlighted. PMID:26277893

  7. Development of tsunami early warning systems and future challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wächter, J.; Babeyko, A.; Fleischer, J.; Häner, R.; Hammitzsch, M.; Kloth, A.; Lendholt, M.

    2012-06-01

    Fostered by and embedded in the general development of information and communications technology (ICT), the evolution of tsunami warning systems (TWS) shows a significant development from seismic-centred to multi-sensor system architectures using additional sensors (e.g. tide gauges and buoys) for the detection of tsunami waves in the ocean. Currently, the beginning implementation of regional tsunami warning infrastructures indicates a new phase in the development of TWS. A new generation of TWS should not only be able to realise multi-sensor monitoring for tsunami detection. Moreover, these systems have to be capable to form a collaborative communication infrastructure of distributed tsunami warning systems in order to implement regional, ocean-wide monitoring and warning strategies. In the context of the development of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and in the EU-funded FP6 project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS), a service platform for both sensor integration and warning dissemination has been newly developed and demonstrated. In particular, standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) have been successfully incorporated. In the FP7 project Collaborative, Complex and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC), new developments in ICT (e.g. complex event processing (CEP) and event-driven architecture (EDA)) are used to extend the existing platform to realise a component-based technology framework for building distributed tsunami warning systems.

  8. Proteomic profiling change during the early development of silicosis disease

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Rongming; Ding, Bangmei; Zhang, Yingyi; Xia, Qian; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background Silicosis is one of several severe occupational diseases for which effective diagnostic tools during early development are currently unavailable. In this study we focused on proteomic profiling during the early stages of silicosis to investigate the pathophysiology and identify the proteins involved. Methods Two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF-MS were used to assess the proteomic differences between healthy individuals (HI), dust-exposed workers without silicosis (DEW) and silicosis patients (SP). Proteins abundances that differed by a factor of two-fold or greater were subjected to more detailed analysis, and enzyme linked to immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was employed to correlate with protein expression data. Results Compared with HI, 42 proteins were more abundant and 8 were less abundant in DEW, and these were also differentially accumulated in SP. Closer inspection revealed that serine protease granzyme A, alpha-1-B-glycoprotein (A1BG) and the T4 surface glycoprotein precursor (TSGP) were among the up-regulated proteins in DEW and SP. Significant changes in serine proteases, glycoproteins and proto-oncogenes may be associated with the response to cytotoxicity and infectious pathogens by activation of T cells, positive regulation of extracellular matrix structural constituents and immune response, and fibroblast proliferation. Up-regulation of cytokines included TNFs, interferon beta precursor, interleukin 6, atypical chemokine receptor 2, TNFR13BV, and mutant IL-17F may be involved in the increased and persistent immune response and fibrosis that occurred during silicosis development. Conclusions Granzymes, glycoproteins, cytokines and immune factors were dramatically involved in the immune response, metabolism, signal regulation and fibrosis during the early development of silicosis. Proteomic profiling has expanded our understanding of the pathogenesis of silicosis, and identified a number of targets that may be potential

  9. Development of an assisting detection system for early infarct diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sim, K. S.; Nia, M. E.; Ee, C. S.

    2015-04-24

    In this paper, a detection assisting system for early infarct detection is developed. This new developed method is used to assist the medical practitioners to diagnose infarct from computed tomography images of brain. Using this assisting system, the infarct could be diagnosed at earlier stages. The non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) brain images are the data set used for this system. Detection module extracts the pixel data from NCCT brain images, and produces the colourized version of images. The proposed method showed great potential in detecting infarct, and helps medical practitioners to make earlier and better diagnoses.

  10. Oxidative stress, innate immunity, and age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Peter X.; Stiles, Travis; Douglas, Christopher; Ho, Daisy; Fan, Wei; Du, Hongjun; Xiao, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of vision loss affecting tens of millions of elderly worldwide. Early AMD is characterized by the appearance of soft drusen, as well as pigmentary changes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). These soft, confluent drusen can progress into two forms of advanced AMD: geographic atrophy (GA, or dry AMD) or choroidal neovascularization (CNV, or wet AMD). Both forms of AMD result in a similar clinical progression in terms of loss of central vision. The exact mechanism for developing early AMD, as well as triggers responsible for progressing to advanced stage of disease, is still largely unknown. However, significant evidence exists demonstrating a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors as causes of AMD progression. Multiple genes and/or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been found associated with AMD, including various genes involved in the complement pathway, lipid metabolism and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. Of the known genetic contributors to disease risk, the CFH Y402H and HTRA1/ARMS polymorphisms contribute to more than 50% of the genetic risk for AMD. Environmentally, oxidative stress plays a critical role in many aging diseases including cardiovascular disease, cancer, Alzheimer’s disease and AMD. Due to the exposure to sunlight and high oxygen concentration, the oxidative stress burden is higher in the eye than other tissues, which can be further complicated by additional oxidative stressors such as smoking. Increasingly, evidence is accumulating suggesting that functional abnormalities of the innate immune system incurred via high risk genotypes may be contributing to the pathogenesis of AMD by altering the inflammatory homeostasis in the eye, specifically in the handling of oxidation products. As the eye in non-pathological instances maintains a low level of inflammation despite the presence of a relative abundance of potentially inflammatory molecules, we have

  11. Innate Lymphoid Cells in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Vallentin, Blandine; Barlogis, Vincent; Piperoglou, Christelle; Cypowyj, Sophie; Zucchini, Nicolas; Chéné, Matthieu; Navarro, Florent; Farnarier, Catherine; Vivier, Eric; Vély, Frédéric

    2015-10-01

    The world of lymphocytes has recently expanded. A group of cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILC), has been defined. It includes lymphoid cells that have been known for decades, such as natural killer (NK) cells and lymphoid tissue-inducer (LTi) cells. NK cells recognize a vast array of tumor cells, which they help to eliminate through cytotoxicity and the production of cytokines, such as IFNγ. Advances in our understanding of NK-cell biology have led to a growing interest in the clinical manipulation of these cells in cancer. The other ILCs are found mostly in the mucosae and mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues, where they rapidly initiate immune responses to pathogens without the need for specific sensitization. Here, we outline the basic features of ILCs and review the role of ILCs other than NK cells in cancer. Much of the role of these ILCs in cancer remains unknown, but several findings should lead to further efforts to dissect the contribution of different ILC subsets to the promotion, maintenance, or elimination of tumors at various anatomic sites. This will require the development of standardized reagents and protocols for monitoring the presence and function of ILCs in human blood and tissue samples. PMID:26438443

  12. Where need meets opportunity: youth development programs for early teens.

    PubMed

    Quinn, J

    1999-01-01

    Early adolescence is a time of burgeoning independence, autonomy, and focus on peers. It is also a time when individual interests, skills, and preferences become salient to young people. Not surprisingly, out-of-school programs designed to capture the interest of early teens are diverse in focus and varied in structure, ranging from sports teams to drop-in recreation centers, from museum apprenticeships to mentoring relationships between an individual teen and an adult. This article describes the array of various organizations that offer programs and services for youths in their early teens. It explains the philosophy of positive youth development that has emerged as a unifying theme in this long-standing but newly self-conscious field. Principles of best practice are reviewed, as are five key implementation challenges: increasing participation by youths; expanding access to programs, especially in low-income communities; improving funding; evaluating program effectiveness; and coordination with other youth services. The article closes with a discussion anticipating the new opportunities that accompany the attention and funding now going toward positive youth development programs that enrich the lives of young people through informal learning. PMID:10646262

  13. Explaining the Early Development and Health of Teen Mothers’ Children*

    PubMed Central

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Dennis, Jeff A.

    2013-01-01

    The transmission of social disadvantage from teenage mothers to their children is well established, but when and why do these disparities emerge in the early life course? Using nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, this study investigated the relationship between teen childbearing and children’s cognition, behavior, and health from infancy through preschool. Developmental disparities between teenage mothers’ children and others were largely nonexistent at 9 months but accumulated with age. Having a teenage mother predicted compromised development across several domains by age 4½. Our conceptual model expected preexisting disadvantage, ongoing resource disadvantage, and compromised parenting quality to explain the association between teen childbearing and child outcomes. Preexisting social disadvantage accounted for much of this relationship. Financial, social, and material resources in the child’s household partially or fully explained each of the remaining significant relationships between teenage childbearing and child outcomes. Parenting quality explained a smaller proportion of these relationships than did resources, and these factors’ influences were largely independent. Because children of teenage mothers with a modest set of resources were not predicted to have compromised development, resources provided in early childhood may have the potential to reduce developmental disparities for teenage mothers’ children. PMID:23630407

  14. Gestural development and its relation to a child's early vocabulary.

    PubMed

    Kraljević, Jelena Kuvač; Cepanec, Maja; Simleša, Sanja

    2014-05-01

    Gesture and language are tightly connected during the development of a child's communication skills. Gestures mostly precede and define the way of language development; even opposite direction has been found. Few recent studies have focused on the relationship between specific gestures and specific word categories, emphasising that the onset of one gesture type predicts the onset of certain word categories or of the earliest word combinations. The aim of this study was to analyse predicative roles of different gesture types on the onset of first word categories in a child's early expressive vocabulary. Our data show that different types of gestures predict different types of word production. Object gestures predict open-class words from the age of 13 months, and gestural routines predict closed-class words and social terms from 8 months. Receptive vocabulary has a strong mediating role for all linguistically defined categories (open- and closed-class words) but not for social terms, which are the largest word category in a child's early expressive vocabulary. Accordingly, main contribution of this study is to define the impact of different gesture types on early expressive vocabulary and to determine the role of receptive vocabulary in gesture-expressive vocabulary relation in the Croatian language. PMID:24583922

  15. TRPM Channels and Magnesium in Early Embryonic Development

    PubMed Central

    Komiya, Yuko; Runnels, Loren W.

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg2+) is the second most abundant cellular cation and is essential for all stages of life, from the early embryo to adult. Mg2+ deficiency causes or contributes to many human diseases, including migraine headaches, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, hypotension, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiac arrhythmias. Although the concentration of Mg2+ in the extracellular environment can vary significantly, the total intracellular Mg2+ concentration is actively maintained within a relatively narrow range (14 – 20 mM) via tight, yet poorly understood, regulation of intracellular Mg2+ by Mg2+ transporters and Mg2+-permeant ion channels. Recent studies have continued to add to the growing number of Mg2+ transporters and ion channels involved in Mg2+ homeostasis, including TRPM6 and TRPM7, members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel family. Mutations in TRPM6, including amino acid substitutions that prevent its heterooligomerization with TRPM7, occur in the rare autosomal-recessive disease hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia (HSH). However, is the fact that genetic ablation of either gene in mice results in early embryonic lethality that has raised the question of whether these channels’ capacity to mediate Mg2+ influx plays an important role in embryonic development. Here we review what is known of the function of Mg2+ in early development and summarize recent findings regarding the function of the TRPM6 and TRPM7 ion channels during embryogenesis. PMID:26679946

  16. Understanding early-stage dune development: morphodynamics of aeolian protodunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baddock, Matthew; Wiggs, Giles; Nield, Joanna

    2016-04-01

    For such a fundamental aspect of bedform development, the initiation and early-stage growth of sand dunes remain poorly understood. Protodunes are bedforms within the continuum of early-stage depositional aeolian features that exist between flat sand patches and small dunes. As transitory bedforms with the potential to develop into dunes, the detailed study of protodune morphodynamics can provide significant insights into nascent dune development. As part of a multi-annual study investigating bedform change through repeat morphological surveys of bedforms with differing maturity, measurements of near-surface airflow and sand transport were conducted over a protodune in a small Namibian barchan dune field. The protodune was approximately 85 m in length and 1 m high, and was without a slipface. Data show that over the course of a week, patterns of airflow and transport flux variation were linked with accretion at the crest, and erosion of the leeside edge showing an increase in protodune height, and providing evidence of the dune's vertical development. Surveys reveal the longer term evolution of the protodune, in the context of changes exhibited by nearby, fully developed barchan dunes, and long term monitoring of wind regime at the site.

  17. Human memory development and its dysfunction after early hippocampal injury.

    PubMed

    de Haan, Michelle; Mishkin, Mortimer; Baldeweg, Torsten; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2006-07-01

    Cognitive memory involves long-term memories for facts (semantic memory) and personal experiences (episodic memory) that can be brought to mind. There is consensus that the hippocampus and related medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures are crucial for adult cognitive memory, but much less is known about their contribution to memory during infancy and childhood. We argue that the MTL is involved in memory from early in life, supporting recognition memory within the first postnatal months and recall memory within the first year. We propose that normal development involves a sequence in which a form of semantic-like memory emerges first, whereas the characteristics of episodic memory develop only later with progressive development of the hippocampus. Early bilateral injury to the hippocampus disrupts this normal pattern such that memory skills cannot develop beyond the stage of semantic memories. This review is part of the INMED/TINS special issue "Nature and nurture in brain development and neurological disorders", based on presentations at the annual INMED/TINS symposium (http://inmednet.com/). PMID:16750273

  18. Soluble Host Defense Lectins in Innate Immunity to Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Wy Ching; Tate, Michelle D.; Brooks, Andrew G.; Reading, Patrick C.

    2012-01-01

    Host defenses against viral infections depend on a complex interplay of innate (nonspecific) and adaptive (specific) components. In the early stages of infection, innate mechanisms represent the main line of host defense, acting to limit the spread of virus in host tissues prior to the induction of the adaptive immune response. Serum and lung fluids contain a range of lectins capable of recognizing and destroying influenza A viruses (IAV). Herein, we review the mechanisms by which soluble endogenous lectins mediate anti-IAV activity, including their role in modulating IAV-induced inflammation and disease and their potential as prophylactic and/or therapeutic treatments during severe IAV-induced disease. PMID:22665991

  19. Early gait development in human infants: Plasticity and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Teulier, Caroline; Lee, Do Kyeong; Ulrich, Beverly D

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we focus on how a developmental perspective on plasticity in the control of human movement can promote early therapy and improve gait acquisition in infants with developmental disabilities. Current knowledge about stepping development in healthy infants across the first year of life highlights strong plasticity, both in behavioral outcome and in underlying neuro-muscular activation. These data show that stepping, like other motor skills, emerges from the interaction between infant's maturation and the environment. This view is reinforced by showing that infants with different internal resources (like genetic disorder or neural tube defect) show unique developmental trajectories when supported on a treadmill, yet do respond. Moreover, we will show that their behavior can be improved by context manipulations (mostly sensory stimulation) or practice. Overall, plasticity in the neural, skeletal, and muscle tissues create new opportunities for optimizing early intervention by creatively tapping into the same developmental processes experienced by healthy infants. PMID:25782975

  20. The Psl economy in early P. aeruginosa biofilm development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kun; Tseng, Boo Shan; Jin, Fan; Gibiansky, Max; Harrison, Joe; Parsek, Matthew; Wong, Gerard

    2012-02-01

    Psl from P. aeruginosa (PAO1) is a mannose- and galactose-rich exopolysaccharide (EPS). It has been shown that Psl plays an important role in bacterial surface adhesion. Here, we examine role of Psl in controlling motility and microcolony formation during early biofilm development, by translating video microscopy movies into searchable databases of bacterial trajectories. We use a massively-parallel cell tracking algorithm to extract the full motility history of every cell in a large community. We find that at early stages of growth, P. aeruginosa motility is guided by Psl and self-organize in a manner analogous to a capitalist economic system, resulting in a power law bacterial distribution where a small number of bacteria are extremely ``rich'' in communally produced Psl. By comparing overproducers and underproducers of Psl, we find that local Psl levels determine post-division cell fates: High local Psl levels drive the formation of sessile microcolonies that grow exponentially.

  1. Illinois Early Learning Project Tip Sheets: Physical Development and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The Illinois Early Learning Project (IEL) is funded by the Illinois State Board of Education to provide information resources on early learning and training related to implementing the Illinois Early Learning Standards for parents and for early childhood personnel in all settings. The IEL tip sheets offer suggestions to parents and early childhood…

  2. Regulation of bone morphogenetic proteins in early embryonic development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Yukiyo; Oelgeschläger, Michael

    2004-11-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), a large subgroup of the TGF-β family of secreted growth factors, control fundamental events in early embryonic development, organogenesis and adult tissue homeostasis. The plethora of dose-dependent cellular processes regulated by BMP signalling demand a tight regulation of BMP activity. Over the last decade, a number of proteins have been identified that bind BMPs in the extracellular space and regulate the interaction of BMPs with their cognate receptors, including the secreted BMP antagonist Chordin. In the early vertebrate embryo, the localized secretion of BMP antagonists from the dorsal blastopore lip establishes a functional BMP signalling gradient that is required for the determination of the dorsoventral or back to belly body axis. In particular, inhibition of BMP activity is essential for the formation of neural tissue in the development of vertebrate and invertebrate embryos. Here we review recent studies that have provided new insight into the regulation of BMP signalling in the extracellular space. In particular, we discuss the recently identified Twisted gastrulation protein that modulates, in concert with metalloproteinases of the Tolloid family, the interaction of Chordin with BMP and a family of proteins that share structural similarities with Chordin in the respective BMP binding domains. In addition, genetic and functional studies in zebrafish and frog provide compelling evidence that the secreted protein Sizzled functionally interacts with the Chd BMP pathway, despite being expressed ventrally in the early gastrula-stage embryo. These intriguing discoveries may have important implications, not only for our current concept of early embryonic patterning, but also for the regulation of BMP activity at later developmental stages and tissue homeostasis in the adult.

  3. Epigenetics and development of food allergy (FA) in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xiumei; Wang, Xiaobin

    2014-09-01

    This review aims to highlight the latest advance on epigenetics in the development of food allergy (FA) and to offer future perspectives. FA, a condition caused by an immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated hypersensitivity reaction to food, has emerged as a major clinical and public health problem worldwide in light of its increasing prevalence, potential fatality, and significant medical and economic impact. Current evidence supports that epigenetic mechanisms are involved in immune regulation and that the epigenome may represent a key "missing piece" of the etiological puzzle for FA. There are a growing number of population-based epigenetic studies on allergy-related phenotypes, mostly focused on DNA methylation. Previous studies mostly applied candidate-gene approaches and have demonstrated that epigenetic marks are associated with multiple allergic diseases and/or with early-life exposures relevant to allergy development (such as early-life smoking exposure, air pollution, farming environment, and dietary fat). Rapid technological advancements have made unbiased genome-wide DNA methylation studies highly feasible, although there are substantial challenge in study design, data analyses, and interpretation of findings. In conclusion, epigenetics represents both an important knowledge gap and a promising research area for FA. Due to the early onset of FA, epigenetic studies of FA in prospective birth cohorts have the potential to better understand gene-environment interactions and underlying biological mechanisms in FA during critical developmental windows (preconception, in utero, and early childhood) and may lead to new paradigms in the diagnosis, prevention, and management of FA and provide novel targets for future drug discovery and therapies for FA. PMID:25096861

  4. Considerations in the early development of biosimilar products.

    PubMed

    Li, Edward C; Abbas, Richat; Jacobs, Ira A; Yin, Donghua

    2015-05-01

    The widespread use and patent expiration of many biologics have led to global interest in development of biosimilar products. Because the manufacture of biologics, including biosimilars, is a complex process involving living systems, the development of a biosimilar is more rigorous than the development of a generic small molecule drug. Several regulatory agencies have established or are proposing guidelines that recommend a stepwise process to ensure the efficacy and safety of a biosimilar are highly similar to the reference product. This article also explores the early clinical phase of biosimilar development, which is particularly important to resolving any uncertainties that might remain following in vitro and in vivo evaluations and to enable a selective and targeted approach to Phase III clinical efficacy and safety investigation. PMID:25572407

  5. Diffusion Tensor Imaging for Understanding Brain Development in Early Life

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Anqi; Mori, Susumu; Miller, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    The human brain rapidly develops during the final weeks of gestation and in the first two years following birth. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a unique in vivo imaging technique that allows three-dimensional visualization of the white matter anatomy in the brain. It has been considered to be a valuable tool for studying brain development in early life. In this review, we first introduce the DTI technique. We then review DTI findings on white matter development at the fetal stage and in infancy as well as DTI applications for understanding neurocognitive development and brain abnormalities in preterm infants. Finally, we discuss limitations of DTI and potential valuable imaging techniques for studying white matter myelination. PMID:25559117

  6. Innate immune targets of hepatitis B virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Li; Wang, Kai; Yu, Ji-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 400 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) globally despite the widespread immunization of HBV vaccine and the development of antiviral therapies. The immunopathogenesis of HBV infection is initiated and driven by complexed interactions between the host immune system and the virus. Host immune responses to viral particles and proteins are regarded as the main determinants of viral clearance or persistent infection and hepatocyte injury. Innate immune system is the first defending line of host preventing from virus invasion. It is acknowledged that HBV has developed active tactics to escape innate immune recognition or actively interfere with innate immune signaling pathways and induce immunosuppression, which favor their replication. HBV reduces the expression of pattern-recognition receptors in the innate immune cells in humans. Also, HBV may interrupt different parts of antiviral signaling pathways, leading to the reduced production of antiviral cytokines such as interferons that contribute to HBV immunopathogenesis. A full comprehension of the mechanisms as to how HBV inactivates various elements of the innate immune response to initiate and maintain a persistent infection can be helpful in designing new immunotherapeutic methods for preventing and eradicating the virus. In this review, we aimed to summarize different branches the innate immune targeted by HBV infection. The review paper provides evidence that multiple components of immune responses should be activated in combination with antiviral therapy to disrupt the tolerance to HBV for eliminating HBV infection. PMID:27330680

  7. Innate immune targets of hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Li; Wang, Kai; Yu, Ji-Guang

    2016-06-18

    Approximately 400 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) globally despite the widespread immunization of HBV vaccine and the development of antiviral therapies. The immunopathogenesis of HBV infection is initiated and driven by complexed interactions between the host immune system and the virus. Host immune responses to viral particles and proteins are regarded as the main determinants of viral clearance or persistent infection and hepatocyte injury. Innate immune system is the first defending line of host preventing from virus invasion. It is acknowledged that HBV has developed active tactics to escape innate immune recognition or actively interfere with innate immune signaling pathways and induce immunosuppression, which favor their replication. HBV reduces the expression of pattern-recognition receptors in the innate immune cells in humans. Also, HBV may interrupt different parts of antiviral signaling pathways, leading to the reduced production of antiviral cytokines such as interferons that contribute to HBV immunopathogenesis. A full comprehension of the mechanisms as to how HBV inactivates various elements of the innate immune response to initiate and maintain a persistent infection can be helpful in designing new immunotherapeutic methods for preventing and eradicating the virus. In this review, we aimed to summarize different branches the innate immune targeted by HBV infection. The review paper provides evidence that multiple components of immune responses should be activated in combination with antiviral therapy to disrupt the tolerance to HBV for eliminating HBV infection. PMID:27330680

  8. Early somatosensory processing in individuals at risk for developing psychoses

    PubMed Central

    Hagenmuller, Florence; Heekeren, Karsten; Theodoridou, Anastasia; Walitza, Susanne; Haker, Helene; Rössler, Wulf; Kawohl, Wolfram

    2014-01-01

    Human cortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) allow an accurate investigation of thalamocortical and early cortical processing. SEPs reveal a burst of superimposed early (N20) high-frequency oscillations around 600 Hz. Previous studies reported alterations of SEPs in patients with schizophrenia. This study addresses the question whether those alterations are also observable in populations at risk for developing schizophrenia or bipolar disorders. To our knowledge to date, this is the first study investigating SEPs in a population at risk for developing psychoses. Median nerve SEPs were investigated using multichannel EEG in individuals at risk for developing bipolar disorders (n = 25), individuals with high-risk status (n = 59) and ultra-high-risk status for schizophrenia (n = 73) and a gender and age-matched control group (n = 45). Strengths and latencies of low- and high-frequency components as estimated by dipole source analysis were compared between groups. Low- and high-frequency source activity was reduced in both groups at risk for schizophrenia, in comparison to the group at risk for bipolar disorders. HFO amplitudes were also significant reduced in subjects with high-risk status for schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. These differences were accentuated among cannabis non-users. Reduced N20 source strengths were related to higher positive symptom load. These results suggest that the risk for schizophrenia, in contrast to bipolar disorders, may involve an impairment of early cerebral somatosensory processing. Neurophysiologic alterations in schizophrenia precede the onset of initial psychotic episode and may serve as indicator of vulnerability for developing schizophrenia. PMID:25309363

  9. Early Social Experience Affects the Development of Eye Gaze Processing.

    PubMed

    Senju, Atsushi; Vernetti, Angélina; Ganea, Natasa; Hudry, Kristelle; Tucker, Leslie; Charman, Tony; Johnson, Mark H

    2015-12-01

    Eye gaze is a key channel of non-verbal communication in humans. Eye contact with others is present from birth, and eye gaze processing is crucial for social learning and adult-infant communication. However, little is known about the effect of selectively different experience of eye contact and gaze communication on early social and communicative development. To directly address this question, we assessed 14 sighted infants of blind parents (SIBPs) longitudinally at 6-10 and 12-16 months. Face scanning and gaze following were assessed using eye tracking. In addition, naturalistic observations were made when the infants were interacting with their blind parent and with an unfamiliar sighted adult. Established measures of emergent autistic-like behaviors and standardized tests of cognitive, motor, and linguistic development were also collected. These data were then compared with those obtained from a group of infants of sighted parents. Despite showing typical social skills development overall, infants of blind parents allocated less attention to adult eye movements and gaze direction, an effect that increased between 6-10 and 12-16 months of age. The results suggest that infants adjust their use of adults' eye gaze depending on gaze communication experience from early in life. The results highlight that human functional brain development shows selective experience-dependent plasticity adaptive to the individual's specific social environment. PMID:26752077

  10. Studies toward birth and early mammalian development in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronca, April E.

    2003-10-01

    Sustaining life beyond Earth on either space stations or other planets will require a clear understanding of how the space environment affects key phases of mammalian reproduction and development. Pregnancy, parturition (birth) and the early development of offspring are complex processes essential for successful reproduction and the proliferation of mammalian species. While no mammal has yet undergone birth within the space environment, studies spanning the gravity continuum from 0- to 2-g are revealing startling insights into how reproduction and development may proceed under gravitational conditions deviating from those typically experienced on Earth. In this report, I review studies of pregnant Norway rats and their offspring flown in microgravity (μg) onboard the NASA Space Shuttle throughout the period corresponding to mid- to late gestation, and analogous studies of pregnant rats exposed to hypergravity ( ht) onboard the NASA Ames Research Center 24-ft centrifuge. Studies of postnatal rats flown in space or exposed to centrifugation are reviewed. Although many important questions remain unanswered, the available data suggest that numerous aspects of pregnancy, birth and early mammalian development can proceed under altered gravity conditions. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  11. Early Social Experience Affects the Development of Eye Gaze Processing

    PubMed Central

    Senju, Atsushi; Vernetti, Angélina; Ganea, Natasa; Hudry, Kristelle; Tucker, Leslie; Charman, Tony; Johnson, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Eye gaze is a key channel of non-verbal communication in humans [1, 2, 3]. Eye contact with others is present from birth [4], and eye gaze processing is crucial for social learning and adult-infant communication [5, 6, 7]. However, little is known about the effect of selectively different experience of eye contact and gaze communication on early social and communicative development. To directly address this question, we assessed 14 sighted infants of blind parents (SIBPs) longitudinally at 6–10 and 12–16 months. Face scanning [8] and gaze following [7, 9] were assessed using eye tracking. In addition, naturalistic observations were made when the infants were interacting with their blind parent and with an unfamiliar sighted adult. Established measures of emergent autistic-like behaviors [10] and standardized tests of cognitive, motor, and linguistic development [11] were also collected. These data were then compared with those obtained from a group of infants of sighted parents. Despite showing typical social skills development overall, infants of blind parents allocated less attention to adult eye movements and gaze direction, an effect that increased between 6–10 and 12–16 months of age. The results suggest that infants adjust their use of adults’ eye gaze depending on gaze communication experience from early in life. The results highlight that human functional brain development shows selective experience-dependent plasticity adaptive to the individual’s specific social environment. PMID:26752077

  12. Plant Innate Immunity Multicomponent Model.

    PubMed

    Andolfo, Giuseppe; Ercolano, Maria R

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of plant-pathogen interactions is making rapid advances in order to address issues of global importance such as improving agricultural productivity and sustainable food security. Innate immunity has evolved in plants, resulting in a wide diversity of defense mechanisms adapted to specific threats. The postulated PTI/ETI model describes two perception layers of plant innate immune system, which belong to a first immunity component of defense response activation. To better describe the sophisticated defense system of plants, we propose a new model of plant immunity. This model considers the plant's ability to distinguish the feeding behavior of their many foes, such as a second component that modulates innate immunity. This hypothesis provides a new viewpoint highlighting the relevance of hormone crosstalk and primary metabolism in regulating plant defense against the different behaviors of pathogens with the intention to stimulate further interest in this research area. PMID:26617626

  13. GPCRs in invertebrate innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Reboul, Jerome; Ewbank, Jonathan J

    2016-08-15

    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent a privileged point of contact between cells and their surrounding environment. They have been widely adopted in vertebrates as mediators of signals involved in both innate and adaptive immunity. Invertebrates rely on innate immune defences to resist infection. We review here evidence from a number of different species, principally the genetically tractable Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster that points to an important role for GPCRs in modulating innate immunity in invertebrates too. In addition to examples of GPCRs involved in regulating the expression of defence genes, we discuss studies in C. elegans addressing the role of GPCR signalling in pathogen aversive behaviour. Despite the many lacunae in our current knowledge, it is clear that GPCR signalling contributes to host defence across the animal kingdom. PMID:27262554

  14. Plant Innate Immunity Multicomponent Model

    PubMed Central

    Andolfo, Giuseppe; Ercolano, Maria R.

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of plant–pathogen interactions is making rapid advances in order to address issues of global importance such as improving agricultural productivity and sustainable food security. Innate immunity has evolved in plants, resulting in a wide diversity of defense mechanisms adapted to specific threats. The postulated PTI/ETI model describes two perception layers of plant innate immune system, which belong to a first immunity component of defense response activation. To better describe the sophisticated defense system of plants, we propose a new model of plant immunity. This model considers the plant’s ability to distinguish the feeding behavior of their many foes, such as a second component that modulates innate immunity. This hypothesis provides a new viewpoint highlighting the relevance of hormone crosstalk and primary metabolism in regulating plant defense against the different behaviors of pathogens with the intention to stimulate further interest in this research area. PMID:26617626

  15. An innate antiviral pathway acting before interferons at epithelial surfaces.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Marie B; Reinert, Line S; Thomsen, Martin K; Bagdonaite, Ieva; Nandakumar, Ramya; Cheshenko, Natalia; Prabakaran, Thaneas; Vakhrushev, Sergey Y; Krzyzowska, Malgosha; Kratholm, Sine K; Ruiz-Perez, Fernando; Petersen, Steen V; Goriely, Stanislas; Bibby, Bo Martin; Eriksson, Kristina; Ruland, Jürgen; Thomsen, Allan R; Herold, Betsy C; Wandall, Hans H; Frische, Sebastian; Holm, Christian K; Paludan, Søren R

    2016-02-01

    Mucosal surfaces are exposed to environmental substances and represent a major portal of entry for microorganisms. The innate immune system is responsible for early defense against infections and it is believed that the interferons (IFNs) constitute the first line of defense against viruses. Here we identify an innate antiviral pathway that works at epithelial surfaces before the IFNs. The pathway is activated independently of known innate sensors of viral infections through a mechanism dependent on viral O-linked glycans, which induce CXCR3 chemokines and stimulate antiviral activity in a manner dependent on neutrophils. This study therefore identifies a previously unknown layer of antiviral defense that exerts its action on epithelial surfaces before the classical IFN response is operative. PMID:26595890

  16. Chaos, Poverty, and Parenting: Predictors of Early Language Development

    PubMed Central

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Willoughby, Mike; Mills-Koonce, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that distal family risk factors like poverty and maternal education are strongly related to children's early language development. Yet, few studies have examined these risk factors in combination with more proximal day-to-day experiences of children that might be critical to understanding variation in early language. Young children's exposure to a chronically chaotic household may be one critical experience that is related to poorer language, beyond the contribution of SES and other demographic variables. In addition, it is not clear whether parenting might mediate the relationship between chaos and language. The purpose of this study was to understand how multiple indicators of chaos over children's first three years of life, in a representative sample of children living in low wealth rural communities, were related to child expressive and receptive language at 36 months. Factor analysis of 10 chaos indicators over five time periods suggested two factors that were named household disorganization and instability. Results suggested that after accounting for thirteen covariates like maternal education and poverty, one of two chaos composites (household disorganization) accounted for significant variance in receptive and expressive language. Parenting partially mediated this relationship although household disorganization continued to account for unique variance in predicting early language. PMID:23049162

  17. The microbiome and innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Thaiss, Christoph A; Zmora, Niv; Levy, Maayan; Elinav, Eran

    2016-07-01

    The intestinal microbiome is a signalling hub that integrates environmental inputs, such as diet, with genetic and immune signals to affect the host's metabolism, immunity and response to infection. The haematopoietic and non-haematopoietic cells of the innate immune system are located strategically at the host-microbiome interface. These cells have the ability to sense microorganisms or their metabolic products and to translate the signals into host physiological responses and the regulation of microbial ecology. Aberrations in the communication between the innate immune system and the gut microbiota might contribute to complex diseases. PMID:27383981

  18. Cancer Immunosurveillance by Tissue-Resident Innate Lymphoid Cells and Innate-like T Cells.

    PubMed

    Dadi, Saïda; Chhangawala, Sagar; Whitlock, Benjamin M; Franklin, Ruth A; Luo, Chong T; Oh, Soyoung A; Toure, Ahmed; Pritykin, Yuri; Huse, Morgan; Leslie, Christina S; Li, Ming O

    2016-01-28

    Malignancy can be suppressed by the immune system in a process termed immunosurveillance. However, to what extent immunosurveillance occurs in spontaneous cancers and the composition of participating cell types remains obscure. Here, we show that cell transformation triggers a tissue-resident lymphocyte response in oncogene-induced murine cancer models. Non-circulating cytotoxic lymphocytes, derived from innate, T cell receptor (TCR)αβ, and TCRγδ lineages, expand in early tumors. Characterized by high expression of NK1.1, CD49a, and CD103, these cells share a gene-expression signature distinct from those of conventional NK cells, T cells, and invariant NKT cells. Generation of these lymphocytes is dependent on the cytokine IL-15, but not the transcription factor Nfil3 that is required for the differentiation of tumor-infiltrating NK cells, and IL-15 deficiency, but not Nfil3 deficiency, results in accelerated tumor growth. These findings reveal a tumor-elicited immunosurveillance mechanism that engages unconventional type-1-like innate lymphoid cells and type 1 innate-like T cells. PMID:26806130

  19. Miz1 Is Required for Early Embryonic Development during Gastrulation

    PubMed Central

    Adhikary, Sovana; Peukert, Karen; Karsunky, Holger; Beuger, Vincent; Lutz, Werner; Elsässer, Hans-Peter; Möröy, Tarik; Eilers, Martin

    2003-01-01

    Miz1 is a member of the POZ domain/zinc finger transcription factor family. In vivo, Miz1 forms a complex with the Myc oncoprotein and recruits Myc to core promoter elements. Myc represses transcription through Miz1 binding sites. We now show that the Miz1 gene is ubiquitously expressed during mouse embryogenesis. In order to elucidate the physiological function of Miz1, we have deleted the mouse Miz1 gene by homologous recombination. Miz1+/− mice are indistinguishable from wild-type animals; in contrast, Miz1−/− embryos are not viable. They are severely retarded in early embryonic development and do not undergo normal gastrulation. Expression of Goosecoid and Brachyury is detectable in Miz1−/− embryos, suggesting that Miz1 is not required for signal transduction by Nodal. Expression of p21Cip1, a target gene of Miz1 is unaltered; in contrast, expression of p57Kip2, another target gene of Miz1 is absent in Miz1−/− embryos. Miz1−/− embryos succumb to massive apoptosis of ectodermal cells around day 7.5 of embryonic development. Our results show that Miz1 is required for early embryonic development during gastrulation. PMID:14560010

  20. A gene expression atlas of early craniofacial development.

    PubMed

    Brunskill, Eric W; Potter, Andrew S; Distasio, Andrew; Dexheimer, Phillip; Plassard, Andrew; Aronow, Bruce J; Potter, S Steven

    2014-07-15

    We present a gene expression atlas of early mouse craniofacial development. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) was used to isolate cells from the principal critical microregions, whose development, differentiation and signaling interactions are responsible for the construction of the mammalian face. At E8.5, as migrating neural crest cells begin to exit the neural fold/epidermal ectoderm boundary, we examined the cranial mesenchyme, composed of mixed neural crest and paraxial mesoderm cells, as well as cells from adjacent neuroepithelium. At E9.5 cells from the cranial mesenchyme, overlying olfactory placode/epidermal ectoderm, and underlying neuroepithelium, as well as the emerging mandibular and maxillary arches were sampled. At E10.5, as the facial prominences form, cells from the medial and lateral prominences, the olfactory pit, multiple discrete regions of underlying neuroepithelium, the mandibular and maxillary arches, including both their mesenchymal and ectodermal components, as well as Rathke's pouch, were similarly sampled and profiled using both microarray and RNA-seq technologies. Further, we performed single cell studies to better define the gene expression states of the early E8.5 pioneer neural crest cells and paraxial mesoderm. Taken together, and analyzable by a variety of biological network approaches, these data provide a complementing and cross validating resource capable of fueling discovery of novel compartment specific markers and signatures whose combinatorial interactions of transcription factors and growth factors/receptors are responsible for providing the master genetic blueprint for craniofacial development. PMID:24780627

  1. A Gene Expression Atlas of Early Craniofacial Development

    PubMed Central

    Brunskill, Eric W.; Potter, Andrew S.; Distasio, Andrew; Dexheimer, Phillip; Plassard, Andrew; Aronow, Bruce J.; Potter, S. Steven

    2014-01-01

    We present a gene expression atlas of early mouse craniofacial development. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) was used to isolate cells from the principal critical micro-regions, whose development, differentiation and signaling interactions are responsible for the construction of the mammalian face. At E8.5, as migrating neural crest cells begin to exit the neural fold/epidermal ectoderm boundary, we examined the cranial mesenchyme, composed of mixed neural crest and paraxial mesoderm cells, as well as cells from adjacent neuroepithelium. At E9.5 cells from the cranial mesenchyme, overlying olfactory placode/epidermal ectoderm, and underlying neuroepithelium, as well as the emerging mandibular and maxillary arches were sampled. At E10.5, as the facial prominences form, cells from the medial and lateral prominences, the olfactory pit, multiple discrete regions of underlying neuroepithelium, the mandibular and maxillary arches, including both their mesenchymal and ectodermal components, as well as Rathke’s pouch, were similarly sampled and profiled using both microarray and RNA-seq technologies. Further, we performed single cell studies to better define the gene expression states of the early E8.5 pioneer neural crest cells and paraxial mesoderm. Taken together, and analyzable by a variety of biological network approaches, these data provide a complementing and cross-validating resource capable of fueling discovery of novel compartment specific markers and signatures whose combinatorial interactions of transcription factors and growth factors/receptors are responsible for providing the master genetic blueprint for craniofacial development. PMID:24780627

  2. APECS: A Network for Polar Early Career Scientist Professional Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enderlin, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Association of Polar Early Career Researchers (APECS) is an international and interdisciplinary organization for undergraduate and graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, early faculty members, educators and others with interests in the polar regions, alpine regions and the wider Cryosphere. APECS is a scientific, non-profit organization with free individual membership that aims to stimulate research collaborations and develop effective future leaders in polar research, education, and outreach. APECS grew out of the 4th International Polar Year (2007-08), which emphasized the need to stimulate and nurture the next generation of scientists in order to improve the understanding and communication of the polar regions and its global connections. The APECS organizational structure includes a Council and an elected Executive Committee that are supported by a Directorate. These positions are open to all individual members through a democratic process. The APECS Directorate is funded by the Norwegian Research Council, the University of Tromsø and the Norwegian Polar Institute and is hosted by the University of Tromsø. Early career scientists benefit from a range of activities hosted/organized by APECS. Every year, numerous activities are run with partner organizations and in conjunction with major polar conferences and meetings. In-person and online panels and workshops focus on a range of topics, from developing field skills to applying for a job after graduate school. Career development webinars are hosted each fall and topical research webinars are hosted throughout the year and archived online (http://www.apecs.is). The APECS website also contains abundant information on polar news, upcoming conferences and meetings, and job postings for early career scientists. To better respond to members' needs, APECS has national/regional committees that are linked to the international overarching organization. Many of these committees organize regional meetings or

  3. Disciplined approach to drug discovery and early development.

    PubMed

    Plenge, Robert M

    2016-07-27

    Our modern health care system demands therapeutic interventions that improve the lives of patients. Unfortunately, decreased productivity in therapeutics research and development (R&D) has driven drug costs up while delivering insufficient value to patients. Here, I discuss a model of translational medicine that connects four components of the early R&D pipeline-causal human biology, therapeutic modality, biomarkers of target modulation, and proof-of-concept clinical trials. Whereas the individual components of this model are not new, technological advances and a disciplined approach to integrating all four areas offer hope for improving R&D productivity. PMID:27464747

  4. Role of Innate T Cells in Anti-Bacterial Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yifang; Williams, Anthony P.

    2015-01-01

    Innate T cells are a heterogeneous group of αβ and γδ T cells that respond rapidly (<2 h) upon activation. These innate T cells also share a non MHC class I or II restriction requirement for antigen recognition. Three major populations within the innate T cell group are recognized, namely, invariant NKT cells, mucosal associated invariant T cells, and gamma delta T cells. These cells recognize foreign/self-lipid presented by non-classical MHC molecules, such as CD1d, MR1, and CD1a. They are activated during the early stages of bacterial infection and act as a bridge between the innate and adaptive immune systems. In this review, we focus on the functional properties of these three innate T cell populations and how they are purposed for antimicrobial defense. Furthermore, we address the mechanisms through which their effector functions are targeted for bacterial control and compare this in human and murine systems. Lastly, we speculate on future roles of these cell types in therapeutic settings such as vaccination. PMID:26124758

  5. Identification of IFN-γ-producing innate B cells

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Yan; Liu, Xingguang; Han, Chaofeng; Xu, Sheng; Xie, Bin; Zhang, Qian; Gu, Yan; Hou, Jin; Qian, Li; Qian, Cheng; Han, Huanxing; Cao, Xuetao

    2014-01-01

    Although B cells play important roles in the humoral immune response and the regulation of adaptive immunity, B cell subpopulations with unique phenotypes, particularly those with non-classical immune functions, should be further investigated. By challenging mice with Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, vesicular stomatitis virus and Toll-like receptor ligands, we identified an inducible CD11ahiFcγRIIIhi B cell subpopulation that is significantly expanded and produces high levels of IFN-γ during the early stage of the immune response. This subpopulation of B cells can promote macrophage activation via generating IFN-γ, thereby facilitating the innate immune response against intracellular bacterial infection. As this new subpopulation is of B cell origin and exhibits the phenotypic characteristics of B cells, we designated these cells as IFN-γ-producing innate B cells. Dendritic cells were essential for the inducible generation of these innate B cells from the follicular B cells via CD40L-CD40 ligation. Increased Bruton's tyrosine kinase activation was found to be responsible for the increased activation of non-canonical NF-κB pathway in these innate B cells after CD40 ligation, with the consequent induction of additional IFN-γ production. The identification of this new population of innate B cells may contribute to a better understanding of B cell functions in anti-infection immune responses and immune regulation. PMID:24296781

  6. Learning from the Messengers: Innate Sensing of Viruses and Cytokine Regulation of Immunity—Clues for Treatments and Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Melchjorsen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Virus infections are a major global public health concern, and only via substantial knowledge of virus pathogenesis and antiviral immune responses can we develop and improve medical treatments, and preventive and therapeutic vaccines. Innate immunity and the shaping of efficient early immune responses are essential for control of viral infections. In order to trigger an efficient antiviral defense, the host senses the invading microbe via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), recognizing distinct conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The innate sensing of the invading virus results in intracellular signal transduction and subsequent production of interferons (IFNs) and proinflammatory cytokines. Cytokines, including IFNs and chemokines, are vital molecules of antiviral defense regulating cell activation, differentiation of cells, and, not least, exerting direct antiviral effects. Cytokines shape and modulate the immune response and IFNs are principle antiviral mediators initiating antiviral response through induction of antiviral proteins. In the present review, I describe and discuss the current knowledge on early virus–host interactions, focusing on early recognition of virus infection and the resulting expression of type I and type III IFNs, proinflammatory cytokines, and intracellular antiviral mediators. In addition, the review elucidates how targeted stimulation of innate sensors, such as toll-like receptors (TLRs) and intracellular RNA and DNA sensors, may be used therapeutically. Moreover, I present and discuss data showing how current antimicrobial therapies, including antibiotics and antiviral medication, may interfere with, or improve, immune response. PMID:23435233

  7. Stress Hyperglycemia, Insulin Treatment, and Innate Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xiu, Fangming; Jeschke, Marc G.

    2014-01-01

    Hyperglycemia (HG) and insulin resistance are the hallmarks of a profoundly altered metabolism in critical illness resulting from the release of cortisol, catecholamines, and cytokines, as well as glucagon and growth hormone. Recent studies have proposed a fundamental role of the immune system towards the development of insulin resistance in traumatic patients. A comprehensive review of published literatures on the effects of hyperglycemia and insulin on innate immunity in critical illness was conducted. This review explored the interaction between the innate immune system and trauma-induced hypermetabolism, while providing greater insight into unraveling the relationship between innate immune cells and hyperglycemia. Critical illness substantially disturbs glucose metabolism resulting in a state of hyperglycemia. Alterations in glucose and insulin regulation affect the immune function of cellular components comprising the innate immunity system. Innate immune system dysfunction via hyperglycemia is associated with a higher morbidity and mortality in critical illness. Along with others, we hypothesize that reduction in morbidity and mortality observed in patients receiving insulin treatment is partially due to its effect on the attenuation of the immune response. However, there still remains substantial controversy regarding moderate versus intensive insulin treatment. Future studies need to determine the integrated effects of HG and insulin on the regulation of innate immunity in order to provide more effective insulin treatment regimen for these patients. PMID:24899891

  8. Innate Immune Regulation by STAT-mediated Transcriptional Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haiyan S.; Watowich, Stephanie S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The term innate immunity typically refers to a quick but nonspecific host defense response against invading pathogens. The innate immune system comprises particular immune cell populations, epithelial barriers, and numerous secretory mediators including cytokines, chemokines, and defense peptides. Innate immune cells are also now recognized to play important contributing roles in cancer and pathological inflammatory conditions. Innate immunity relies on rapid signal transduction elicited upon pathogen recognition via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and cell:cell communication conducted by soluble mediators, including cytokines. A majority of cytokines involved in innate immune signaling use a molecular cascade encompassing receptor-associated Jak protein tyrosine kinases and STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) transcriptional regulators. Here, we focus on roles for STAT proteins in three major innate immune subsets: neutrophils, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs). While knowledge in this area is only now emerging, understanding the molecular regulation of these cell types is necessary for developing new approaches to treat human disorders such as inflammatory conditions, autoimmunity, and cancer. PMID:25123278

  9. Regulation of host innate immunity by hepatitis C virus: crosstalk between hepatocyte and NK/DC

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung-Jae; Hahn, Young S.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in humans is remarkably efficient in establishing viral persistence, leading to the development of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. CD8+ T cells are involved in controlling HCV infection; but, in chronic HCV patients, severe CD4+ and CD8+ T cell dysfunction has been observed. This suggests that HCV may employ numerous mechanisms to counteract or possibly suppress the host T cell responses. The primary site of HCV replication occurs within hepatocytes in the liver. As a result of liver enodothelial cells perforated by fenestrations, parenchymal cells (hepatocytes) are not separated by a basal membrane, and thereby HCV-infected hepatocytes are extensively capable of interacting with innate immune cells including NK, DC. Recent studies reveal that the function of NK and DC function is significantly impaired in chronic HCV patients. Given a critical role of NK and DC in limiting HCV replication at the early phase of viral infection, it is likely that HCV-infected hepatocytes might be responsible for impairing NK and DC function by enhancing the expression of immunoregulatory molecules (either soluble or cell surface). Thus, this impairment of innate immunity attributes to the failure of generating effective T cell responses to clear HCV infection. In this article, we will review studies highlighting the regulation of innate immunity by HCV and crosstalk between hepatocytes and NK/DC in the hepatic environment. PMID:24688607

  10. Early Requestive Development in Consecutive Third Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safont-Jorda, Maria-Pilar

    2011-01-01

    While research on early simultaneous bilingual acquisition is well-documented, studies on multiple language acquisition in early childhood are still needed. Existing studies have mainly focused on early simultaneous acquisition of three or more languages. Some attention has already been paid to early pragmatic differentiation and cross-linguistic…

  11. WFDC2 (HE4): A potential role in the innate immunity of the oral cavity and respiratory tract and the development of adenocarcinomas of the lung

    PubMed Central

    Bingle, Lynne; Cross, Simon S; High, Alec S; Wallace, William A; Rassl, Doris; Yuan, Guanglu; Hellstrom, Ingegerd; Campos, Michael A; Bingle, Colin D

    2006-01-01

    Background The Whey Acidic Protein domain is an evolutionarily conserved motif found in a number of proteins, the best studied of which are antiproteinases involved in the innate immune defence of multiple epithelia. We recently characterised the WFDC2 gene which encodes a two WAP domain-containing protein, initially suggested as a marker for epididymis, and showed that it is highly expressed in the lung and salivary gland. The precise location of WFDC2 protein in these sites has not been described. Methods We used immunohistochemistry to localise WFDC2 in normal tissues of the respiratory tract, naso- and oropharynx, as well as in chronically inflamed lung from Cystic Fibrosis and a range of pulmonary carcinomas. We have complemented these studies with molecular analysis of WFDC2 gene expression in primary human lung cell cultures. Results WFDC2 is expressed in some epithelial cells of the upper airways as well as in mucous cells and ducts of submucosal glands. No staining was seen in peripheral lung. Intense staining is found in major salivary glands and in minor glands of the nose, sinuses, posterior tongue and tonsil. Studies with the related protein Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor (SLPI) show that although both proteins are expressed in similar tissues, the precise cellular localisation differs. Significant increases in expression and localisation of WFDC2 are seen in patients with Cystic Fibrosis. SLPI expression was greatly reduced in the same samples. In cultures of tracheobronchial epithelial cells, expression of WFDC2 and SLPI are differentially regulated during differentiation yet WFDC2 is not induced by pro-inflammatory mediators. The majority of adenocarcinomas stain with WFDC2 whilst a significant minority of squamous, small cell and large cell carcinomas exhibit focal staining. There is no clear association with tumour grade. Conclusion We believe that these studies support the hypothesis that WFDC2 may be a component of the innate immune

  12. Accident Sequence Precursor Program Large Early Release Frequency Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.D.; Brownson, D.A.; Duran, F.A.; Gregory, J.J.; Rodrick, E.G.

    1999-01-04

    The objectives for the ASP large early release frequency (LERF) model development work is to build a Level 2 containment response model that would capture all of the events necessary to define LERF as outlined in Regulatory Guide 1.174, can be directly interfaced with the existing Level 1 models, is technically correct, can be readily modified to incorporate new information or to represent another plant, and can be executed in SAPHIRE. The ASP LERF models being developed will meet these objectives while providing the NRC with the capability to independently assess the risk impact of plant-specific changes proposed by the utilities that change the nuclear power plants' licensing basis. Together with the ASP Level 1 models, the ASP LERF models provide the NRC with the capability of performing equipment and event assessments to determine their impact on a plant's LERF for internal events during power operation. In addition, the ASP LERF models are capable of being updated to reflect changes in information regarding the system operations and phenomenological events, and of being updated to assess the potential for early fatalities for each LERF sequence. As the ASP Level 1 models evolve to include more analysis capabilities, the LERF models will also be refined to reflect the appropriate level of detail needed to demonstrate the new capabilities. An approach was formulated for the development of detailed LERF models using the NUREG-1150 APET models as a guide. The modifications to the SAPHIRE computer code have allowed the development of these detailed models and the ability to analyze these models in a reasonable time. Ten reference LERF plant models, including six PWR models and four BWR models, which cover a wide variety of containment and nuclear steam supply systems designs, will be complete in 1999. These reference models will be used as the starting point for developing the LERF models for the remaining nuclear power plants.

  13. Systems-Level Analysis of Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Zak, Daniel E.; Tam, Vincent C.; Aderem, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Systems-level analysis of biological processes strives to comprehensively and quantitatively evaluate the interactions between the relevant molecular components over time, thereby enabling development of models that can be employed to ultimately predict behavior. Rapid development in measurement technologies (omics), when combined with the accessible nature of the cellular constituents themselves, is allowing the field of innate immunity to take significant strides toward this lofty goal. In this review, we survey exciting results derived from systems biology analyses of the immune system, ranging from gene regulatory networks to influenza pathogenesis and systems vaccinology. PMID:24655298

  14. NEP Early Flight program: System performance and development considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.; George, Jeffrey A.

    1993-01-01

    A mission/system study of Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) for early robotic planetary science mission applications has been conducted. Subject missions considered included a Mars orbiter with a Phobos and Deimos Rendezvous; a Comet Kopff Rendezvous; a Multiple Mainbelt Asteroid Rendezvous (MMBAR); an Asteroid (Vesta) Sample Return; a Trojan Asteroid (Odysseus) Rendezvous; and a Jupiter mini Grand Tour. The purpose of the study was to determine if 'near-term' NEP technology could be used on an early NEP flight to demonstrate the technologies while conducting a useful science mission. The analysis shows that, depending upon technology readiness date, the missions could be performed with low power NEP. The technology and system development costs associated with vehicle/stage development for a candidate mission are presented. The study assumed relatively mature space electric power and space electric propulsion technologies (more advanced technologies have been already shown by others to be enabling for many outer planetary missions). Thus, a very important first step in using NEP would be taken, which would contribute valuable solar system science, as well as reduce the risks associated with using NEP for more demanding outer planetary science mission applications.

  15. Early-life experience, epigenetics, and the developing brain.

    PubMed

    Kundakovic, Marija; Champagne, Frances A

    2015-01-01

    Development is a dynamic process that involves interplay between genes and the environment. In mammals, the quality of the postnatal environment is shaped by parent-offspring interactions that promote growth and survival and can lead to divergent developmental trajectories with implications for later-life neurobiological and behavioral characteristics. Emerging evidence suggests that epigenetic factors (ie, DNA methylation, posttranslational histone modifications, and small non-coding RNAs) may have a critical role in these parental care effects. Although this evidence is drawn primarily from rodent studies, there is increasing support for these effects in humans. Through these molecular mechanisms, variation in risk of psychopathology may emerge, particularly as a consequence of early-life neglect and abuse. Here we will highlight evidence of dynamic epigenetic changes in the developing brain in response to variation in the quality of postnatal parent-offspring interactions. The recruitment of epigenetic pathways for the biological embedding of early-life experience may also have transgenerational consequences and we will describe and contrast two routes through which this transmission can occur: experience dependent vs germline inheritance. Finally, we will speculate regarding the future directions of epigenetic research and how it can help us gain a better understanding of the developmental origins of psychiatric dysfunction. PMID:24917200

  16. ESE-1 in Early Development: Approaches for the Future

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chan Mi; Wu, Jing; Xia, Yi; Hu, Jim

    2016-01-01

    E26 transformation-specific (Ets) family of transcription factors are characterized by the presence of Ets-DNA binding domain and have been found to be highly involved in hematopoiesis and various tissue differentiation. ESE-1, or Elf3 in mice, is a member of epithelium-specific Ets sub-family which is most prominently expressed in epithelial tissues such as the gut, mammary gland, and lung. The role of ESE-1 during embryogenesis had long been alluded from 30% fetal lethality in homozygous knockout mice and its high expression in preimplantation mouse embryos, but there has been no in-depth of analysis of ESE-1 function in early development. With improved proteomics, gene editing tools and increasing knowledge of ESE-1 function in adult tissues, we hereby propose future research directions for the study of ESE-1 in embryogenesis, including studying its regulation at the protein level and at the protein family level, as well as better defining the developmental phase under investigation. Understanding the role of ESE-1 in early development will provide new insights into its involvement in tissue regeneration and cancer, as well as how it functions with other Ets factors as a protein family. PMID:27446923

  17. Early-Life Experience, Epigenetics, and the Developing Brain

    PubMed Central

    Kundakovic, Marija; Champagne, Frances A

    2015-01-01

    Development is a dynamic process that involves interplay between genes and the environment. In mammals, the quality of the postnatal environment is shaped by parent–offspring interactions that promote growth and survival and can lead to divergent developmental trajectories with implications for later-life neurobiological and behavioral characteristics. Emerging evidence suggests that epigenetic factors (ie, DNA methylation, posttranslational histone modifications, and small non-coding RNAs) may have a critical role in these parental care effects. Although this evidence is drawn primarily from rodent studies, there is increasing support for these effects in humans. Through these molecular mechanisms, variation in risk of psychopathology may emerge, particularly as a consequence of early-life neglect and abuse. Here we will highlight evidence of dynamic epigenetic changes in the developing brain in response to variation in the quality of postnatal parent–offspring interactions. The recruitment of epigenetic pathways for the biological embedding of early-life experience may also have transgenerational consequences and we will describe and contrast two routes through which this transmission can occur: experience dependent vs germline inheritance. Finally, we will speculate regarding the future directions of epigenetic research and how it can help us gain a better understanding of the developmental origins of psychiatric dysfunction. PMID:24917200

  18. Early Development of the Gut Microbiota and Immune Health

    PubMed Central

    Francino, M. Pilar

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the increase in human microbiome research brought about by the rapidly evolving “omic” technologies has established that the balance among the microbial groups present in the human gut, and their multipronged interactions with the host, are crucial for health. On the other hand, epidemiological and experimental support has also grown for the ‘early programming hypothesis’, according to which factors that act in utero and early in life program the risks for adverse health outcomes later on. The microbiota of the gut develops during infancy, in close interaction with immune development, and with extensive variability across individuals. It follows that the specific process of gut colonization and the microbe-host interactions established in an individual during this period have the potential to represent main determinants of life-long propensity to immune disease. Although much remains to be learnt on the progression of events by which the gut microbiota becomes established and initiates its intimate relationships with the host, and on the long-term repercussions of this process, recent works have advanced significatively in this direction. PMID:25438024

  19. Does bilingual experience affect early visual perceptual development?

    PubMed Central

    Schonberg, Christina; Sandhofer, Catherine M.; Tsang, Tawny; Johnson, Scott P.

    2014-01-01

    Visual attention and perception develop rapidly during the first few months after birth, and these behaviors are critical components in the development of language and cognitive abilities. Here we ask how early bilingual experiences might lead to differences in visual attention and perception. Experiments 1–3 investigated the looking behavior of monolingual and bilingual infants when presented with social (Experiment 1), mixed (Experiment 2), or non-social (Experiment 3) stimuli. In each of these experiments, infants' dwell times (DT) and number of fixations to areas of interest (AOIs) were analyzed, giving a sense of where the infants looked. To examine how the infants looked at the stimuli in a more global sense, Experiment 4 combined and analyzed the saccade data collected in Experiments 1–3. There were no significant differences between monolingual and bilingual infants' DTs, AOI fixations, or saccade characteristics (specifically, frequency, and amplitude) in any of the experiments. These results suggest that monolingual and bilingual infants process their visual environments similarly, supporting the idea that the substantial cognitive differences between monolinguals and bilinguals in early childhood are more related to active vocabulary production than perception of the environment. PMID:25566116

  20. Little chameleons: The development of social mimicry during early childhood.

    PubMed

    van Schaik, Johanna E; Hunnius, Sabine

    2016-07-01

    Adults use behavioral mimicry to blend in with (or stand out from) their social environment. Adopting another's mannerisms and behaviors, or "mimicking", communicates liking and similarity between interaction partners and has been shown to serve as an implicit affiliation mechanism. Given this important social function, it is surprising that so little is known about the development of mimicry. In two studies, we investigated mimicry and its social sensitivity during early childhood. Children of 4 to 6years (Study 1) and 3years (Study 2) first chose a novel group based on their color preference. Following a baseline phase, children observed videos of in-group and out-group models performing behaviors that are typically mimicked in adults. Importantly, the children received neither instructions nor encouragement to copy the behaviors. Both 3-year-olds and 4- to 6-year-olds displayed behavioral mimicry. Furthermore, 4- to 6-year-olds mimicked the in-group model more than the out-group model, and this in-group bias was also evident in their explicit group preferences. Together, these studies present the first evidence for behavioral mimicry and its social sensitivity during early childhood. Placed in the context of social development, the findings provide a necessary contribution to current developmental and psychological theories on mimicry and behavior copying. PMID:27060416

  1. Single cell dissection of early kidney development: multilineage priming.

    PubMed

    Brunskill, Eric W; Park, Joo-Seop; Chung, Eunah; Chen, Feng; Magella, Bliss; Potter, S Steven

    2014-08-01

    We used a single cell RNA-seq strategy to create an atlas of gene expression patterns in the developing kidney. At several stages of kidney development, histologically uniform populations of cells give rise to multiple distinct lineages. We performed single cell RNA-seq analysis of total mouse kidneys at E11.5 and E12.5, as well as the renal vesicles at P4. We define an early stage of progenitor cell induction driven primarily by gene repression. Surprising stochastic expression of marker genes associated with differentiated cell types was observed in E11.5 progenitors. We provide a global view of the polarized gene expression already present in the renal vesicle, the first epithelial precursor of the nephron. We show that Hox gene read-through transcripts can be spliced to produce intergenic homeobox swaps. We also identify a surprising number of genes with partially degraded noncoding RNA. Perhaps most interesting, at early developmental times single cells often expressed genes related to several developmental pathways. This provides powerful evidence that initial organogenesis involves a process of multilineage priming. This is followed by a combination of gene repression, which turns off the genes associated with most possible lineages, and the activation of increasing numbers of genes driving the chosen developmental direction. PMID:25053437

  2. Single cell dissection of early kidney development: multilineage priming

    PubMed Central

    Brunskill, Eric W.; Park, Joo-Seop; Chung, Eunah; Chen, Feng; Magella, Bliss; Potter, S. Steven

    2014-01-01

    We used a single cell RNA-seq strategy to create an atlas of gene expression patterns in the developing kidney. At several stages of kidney development, histologically uniform populations of cells give rise to multiple distinct lineages. We performed single cell RNA-seq analysis of total mouse kidneys at E11.5 and E12.5, as well as the renal vesicles at P4. We define an early stage of progenitor cell induction driven primarily by gene repression. Surprising stochastic expression of marker genes associated with differentiated cell types was observed in E11.5 progenitors. We provide a global view of the polarized gene expression already present in the renal vesicle, the first epithelial precursor of the nephron. We show that Hox gene read-through transcripts can be spliced to produce intergenic homeobox swaps. We also identify a surprising number of genes with partially degraded noncoding RNA. Perhaps most interesting, at early developmental times single cells often expressed genes related to several developmental pathways. This provides powerful evidence that initial organogenesis involves a process of multilineage priming. This is followed by a combination of gene repression, which turns off the genes associated with most possible lineages, and the activation of increasing numbers of genes driving the chosen developmental direction. PMID:25053437

  3. Early lexical development in Spanish-speaking infants and toddlers.

    PubMed

    Jackson-Maldonado, D; Thal, D; Marchman, V; Bates, E; Gutierrez-Clellen, V

    1993-10-01

    This paper describes the early lexical development of a group of 328 normal Spanish-speaking children aged 0;8 to 2;7. First the development and structure of a new parent report instrument, Inventario del Desarollo de Habilidades Communicativas is described. Then five studies carried out with the instrument are presented. In the first study vocabulary development of Spanish-speaking infants and toddlers is compared to that of English-speaking infants and toddlers. The English data were gathered using a comparable parental report, the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories. In the second study the general characteristics of Spanish language acquisition, and the effects of various demographic factors on that process, are examined. Study 3 examines the differential effects of three methods of collecting the data (mail-in, personal interview, and clinic waiting room administration). Studies 4 and 5 document the reliability and validity of the instrument. Results show that the trajectories of development are very similar for Spanish- and English-speaking children in this age range, that children from varying social groups develop similarly, and that mail-in and personal interview administration techniques produce comparable results. Inventories administered in a medical clinic waiting room, on the other hand, produced lower estimates of toddler vocabulary than the other two models. PMID:8300774

  4. Altered Gravity and Early Heart Development in Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiens, Darrell J.; Lwigale, P.; Denning, J.

    1996-01-01

    The macromolecules comprising the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix of cells may be sensitive to gravitation. Since early development of organs depends on dynamic interactions across cell surfaces, altered gravity may disturb development. We investigated this possibility for heart development. Previous studies showed that the extracellular matrix glycoprotein fibronectin (Fn) is necessary for normal heart development. We cultured precardiac tissue explants in a high aspect ratio bioreactor vessel (HARV) to simulate microgravity. We observed tissue morphology, contraction, and Fn distribution by immunolocalization in HARV rotated and control (lxg) explants, cultured 18 hr. We also measured Fn amount by immunoassay. Explants in HARV were rotated at 6 rpm to achieve continuous freefall. Thirty-five of 37 control, but only 1 of 37 matched rotated explants exhibited contractions. Tissue architecture was identical. Immunolocalization of Fn showed remarkable differences which may be related to the development of contractions. The Fn staining in the HARV explants was less intense in all areas. Areas of linear staining along epithelia were present but shorter, and there was less intercellular staining in both mesenchymal tissue and myocardium. Initial immunoassay results of 5 matched pairs of explants showed a 22% reduction in total tissue Fn in the HARV rotated samples. Our results indicate that altered gravity in the HARV reduced the amount and distribution of Fn, as assessed by two independent criteria. This was correlated with a reduction in the development of contractile activity.

  5. Studying MAP Kinase pathways during early development of Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Keren, Aviad; Bengal, Eyal

    2010-01-01

    The following chapter describes several methods involved in the detection of MAPK activities and phosphorylated proteins during early development of Xenopus laevis. The Xenopus embryo provides a powerful platform for biochemical studies. We describe here basic methods of embryo manipulations such as egg fertilization, embryo growth and maintenance, microinjection of capped RNA and antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (AMOs), and isolation of explants. In addition, we describe methods to detect phosphorylated proteins, to analyze kinase activity, and to interfere with signaling pathways. Immunohistochemical staining performed on whole embryos or on tissue sections is an additional method for the detection of phosphorylated proteins in the developing embryo. Approaches to activate or inhibit MAPK activities including the ectopic expression of mutated isoforms of MAPK kinase, or the incubation of embryo explants with pharmacological inhibitors are described. Finally, we describe an in vitro kinase assay specifically designed for the Xenopus embryo. PMID:20811998

  6. Modeling and managing risk early in software development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briand, Lionel C.; Thomas, William M.; Hetmanski, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    In order to improve the quality of the software development process, we need to be able to build empirical multivariate models based on data collectable early in the software process. These models need to be both useful for prediction and easy to interpret, so that remedial actions may be taken in order to control and optimize the development process. We present an automated modeling technique which can be used as an alternative to regression techniques. We show how it can be used to facilitate the identification and aid the interpretation of the significant trends which characterize 'high risk' components in several Ada systems. Finally, we evaluate the effectiveness of our technique based on a comparison with logistic regression based models.

  7. AstroNewt: early development of newt in space.

    PubMed

    Mogami, Y; Imamizo, M; Yamashita, M; Izumi-Kurotani, A; Wiederhold, M L; Koike, H; Asashima, M

    1996-01-01

    AstroNewt experiment explores the effects of earth gravity on the early development of Japanese red-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster. Since female newts keep spermatophore in cloaca, fertilized eggs could be obtained without mating. Fertilization of newt's egg occurs just prior to spawning, so that gonadotrophic cues applied to females in orbit leads to laying eggs fertilized just in space. A property of newt being kept in hibernation at low temperature may be of great help for the space experiment carried out with much limited resources. A general outline of the AstroNewt project is shown here in addition to some technical advances for the development of the project. Experimental schemes of two space experiments (IML-2 in summer 1994 and unmanned SFU at the beginning of 1995) are also shown. PMID:11538624

  8. Multilevel Analysis of Air Pollution and Early Childhood Neurobehavioral Development

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ching-Chun; Yang, Shih-Kuan; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Ho, Wen-Chao; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Shu, Bih-Ching; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association between the ambient air pollution levels during the prenatal and postnatal stages and early childhood neurobehavioral development, our study recruited 533 mother-infant pairs from 11 towns in Taiwan. All study subjects were asked to complete childhood neurobehavioral development scales and questionnaires at 6 and 18 months. Air pollution, including particulate matter ≤10 μm (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and hydrocarbons, was measured at air quality monitoring stations in the towns where the subjects lived. Multilevel analyses were applied to assess the association between air pollution and childhood neurobehavioral development during pregnancy and when the children were 0 to 6 months, 7 to 12 months, and 13 to 18 months old. At 18 months, poor subclinical neurodevelopment in early childhood is associated with the average SO2 exposure of prenatal, during all trimesters of pregnancy and at postnatal ages up to 12 months (first trimester β = −0.083, se = 0.030; second and third trimester β = −0.114, se = 0.045; from birth to 12 months of age β = −0.091, se = 0.034). Furthermore, adverse gross motor below average scores at six months of age were associated with increased average non-methane hydrocarbon, (NMHC) levels during the second and third trimesters (β = −8.742, se = 3.512). Low-level SO2 exposure prenatally and up to twelve months postnatal could cause adverse neurobehavioral effects at 18 months of age. Maternal NMHC exposure during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy would be also associated with poor gross motor development in their children at 6 months of age. PMID:24992486

  9. Multilevel analysis of air pollution and early childhood neurobehavioral development.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Chun; Yang, Shih-Kuan; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Ho, Wen-Chao; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Shu, Bih-Ching; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the association between the ambient air pollution levels during the prenatal and postnatal stages and early childhood neurobehavioral development, our study recruited 533 mother-infant pairs from 11 towns in Taiwan. All study subjects were asked to complete childhood neurobehavioral development scales and questionnaires at 6 and 18 months. Air pollution, including particulate matter ≤10 μm (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and hydrocarbons, was measured at air quality monitoring stations in the towns where the subjects lived. Multilevel analyses were applied to assess the association between air pollution and childhood neurobehavioral development during pregnancy and when the children were 0 to 6 months, 7 to 12 months, and 13 to 18 months old. At 18 months, poor subclinical neurodevelopment in early childhood is associated with the average SO2 exposure of prenatal, during all trimesters of pregnancy and at postnatal ages up to 12 months (first trimester β = -0.083, se = 0.030; second and third trimester β = -0.114, se = 0.045; from birth to 12 months of age β = -0.091, se = 0.034). Furthermore, adverse gross motor below average scores at six months of age were associated with increased average non-methane hydrocarbon, (NMHC) levels during the second and third trimesters (β = -8.742, se = 3.512). Low-level SO2 exposure prenatally and up to twelve months postnatal could cause adverse neurobehavioral effects at 18 months of age. Maternal NMHC exposure during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy would be also associated with poor gross motor development in their children at 6 months of age. PMID:24992486

  10. Brain Development and Early Learning: Research on Brain Development. Quality Matters. Volume 1, Winter 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edie, David; Schmid, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    For decades researchers have been aware of the extraordinary development of a child's brain during the first five years of life. Recent advances in neuroscience have helped crystallize earlier findings, bringing new clarity and understanding to the field of early childhood brain development. Children are born ready to learn. They cultivate 85…

  11. Coaching in the Context of Social-Emotional Development: Implications for Targeted Early Childhood Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkins, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to inform professional development in early childhood education (ECE) by examining the use of coaching to improve teacher performance in the classroom. Professional development programs that include coaching, a relationship-based method of enhancing application of newly acquired knowledge and skills, have received…

  12. Dual effects of fluoxetine on mouse early embryonic development

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Chang-Woon; Choe, Changyong; Kim, Eun-Jin; Lee, Jae-Ik; Yoon, Sook-Young; Cho, Young-Woo; Han, Sunkyu; Tak, Hyun-Min; Han, Jaehee; Kang, Dawon

    2012-11-15

    Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, regulates a variety of physiological processes, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis, in mammalian cells. Little is known about the role of fluoxetine in early embryonic development. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of fluoxetine during mouse early embryonic development. Late two-cell stage embryos (2-cells) were cultured in the presence of various concentrations of fluoxetine (1 to 50 μM) for different durations. When late 2-cells were incubated with 5 μM fluoxetine for 6 h, the percentage that developed into blastocysts increased compared to the control value. However, late 2-cells exposed to fluoxetine (5 μM) over 24 h showed a reduction in blastocyst formation. The addition of fluoxetine (5 μM) together with KN93 or KN62 (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitors) failed to increase blastocyst formation. Fluoxetine treatment inhibited TREK-1 and TREK-2, members of the two-pore domain K{sup +} channel family expressed in mouse embryos, activities, indicating that fluoxetine-induced membrane depolarization in late 2-cells might have resulted from TREK inhibition. In addition, long-term exposure to fluoxetine altered the TREK mRNA expression levels. Furthermore, injection of siRNA targeting TREKs significantly decreased blastocyst formation by ∼ 30% compared to injection of scrambled siRNA. Long-term exposure of fluoxetine had no effect on blastocyst formation of TREK deficient embryos. These results indicate that low-dose and short-term exposures of late 2-cells to fluoxetine probably increase blastocyst formation through activation of CaMKII-dependent signal transduction pathways, whereas long-term exposure decreases mouse early embryonic development through inhibition of TREK channel gating. Highlights: ► Short-term exposure of 2-cells to fluoxetine enhances mouse blastocyst formation. ► The enhancive effect of fluoxetine is resulted from Ca

  13. Deuterostome evolution: early development in the enteropneust hemichordate, Ptychodera flava.

    PubMed

    Henry, J Q; Tagawa, K; Martindale, M Q

    2001-01-01

    Molecular and morphological comparisons indicate that the Echinodermata and Hemichordata represent closely related sister-phyla within the Deuterostomia. Much less is known about the development of the hemichordates compared to other deuterostomes. For the first time, cell lineage analyses have been carried out for an indirect-developing representative of the enteropneust hemichordates, Ptychodera flava. Single blastomeres were iontophoretically labeled with Dil at the 2- through 16-cell stages, and their fates followed through development to the tornaria larval stage. The early cleavage pattern of P. flava is similar to that of the direct-developing hemichordate, Saccoglossus kowalevskii, as well as that displayed by indirect-developing echinoids. The 16-celled embryo contains eight animal "mesomeres," four slightly larger "macromeres," and four somewhat smaller vegetal "micromeres." The first cleavage plane was not found to bear one specific relationship relative to the larval dorsoventral axis. Although individual blastomeres generate discrete clones of cells, the appearance and exact locations of these clones are variable with respect to the embryonic dorsoventral and bilateral axes. The eight animal mesomeres generate anterior (animal) ectoderm of the larva, which includes the apical organ; however, contributions to the apical organ were found to be variable as only a subset of the animal blastomeres end up contributing to its formation and this varies from embryo to embryo. The macromeres generate posterior larval ectoderm, and the vegetal micromeres form all the internal, endomesodermal tissues. These blastomere contributions are similar to those found during development of the only other hemichordate studied, the direct-developing enteropneust, S. kowalevskii. Finally, isolated blastomeres prepared at either the two- or the four-cell stage are capable of forming normal-appearing, miniature tornaria larvae. These findings indicate that the fates of these

  14. Deuterostome evolution: early development in the enteropneust hemichordate, Ptychodera flava

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, J. Q.; Tagawa, K.; Martindale, M. Q.

    2001-01-01

    Molecular and morphological comparisons indicate that the Echinodermata and Hemichordata represent closely related sister-phyla within the Deuterostomia. Much less is known about the development of the hemichordates compared to other deuterostomes. For the first time, cell lineage analyses have been carried out for an indirect-developing representative of the enteropneust hemichordates, Ptychodera flava. Single blastomeres were iontophoretically labeled with Dil at the 2- through 16-cell stages, and their fates followed through development to the tornaria larval stage. The early cleavage pattern of P. flava is similar to that of the direct-developing hemichordate, Saccoglossus kowalevskii, as well as that displayed by indirect-developing echinoids. The 16-celled embryo contains eight animal "mesomeres," four slightly larger "macromeres," and four somewhat smaller vegetal "micromeres." The first cleavage plane was not found to bear one specific relationship relative to the larval dorsoventral axis. Although individual blastomeres generate discrete clones of cells, the appearance and exact locations of these clones are variable with respect to the embryonic dorsoventral and bilateral axes. The eight animal mesomeres generate anterior (animal) ectoderm of the larva, which includes the apical organ; however, contributions to the apical organ were found to be variable as only a subset of the animal blastomeres end up contributing to its formation and this varies from embryo to embryo. The macromeres generate posterior larval ectoderm, and the vegetal micromeres form all the internal, endomesodermal tissues. These blastomere contributions are similar to those found during development of the only other hemichordate studied, the direct-developing enteropneust, S. kowalevskii. Finally, isolated blastomeres prepared at either the two- or the four-cell stage are capable of forming normal-appearing, miniature tornaria larvae. These findings indicate that the fates of these

  15. Early Miocene sequence development across the New Jersey margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monteverde, D.H.; Mountain, Gregory S.; Miller, K.G.

    2008-01-01

    Sequence stratigraphy provides an understanding of the interplay between eustasy, sediment supply and accommodation in the sedimentary construction of passive margins. We used this approach to follow the early to middle Miocene growth of the New Jersey margin and analyse the connection between relative changes of sea level and variable sediment supply. Eleven candidate sequence boundaries were traced in high-resolution multi-channel seismic profiles across the inner margin and matched to geophysical log signatures and lithologic changes in ODP Leg 150X onshore coreholes. Chronologies at these drill sites were then used to assign ages to the intervening seismic sequences. We conclude that the regional and global correlation of early Miocene sequences suggests a dominant role of global sea-level change but margin progradation was controlled by localized sediment contribution and that local conditions played a large role in sequence formation and preservation. Lowstand deposits were regionally restricted and their locations point to both single and multiple sediment sources. The distribution of highstand deposits, by contrast, documents redistribution by along shelf currents. We find no evidence that sea level fell below the elevation of the clinoform rollover, and the existence of extensive lowstand deposits seaward of this inflection point indicates efficient cross-shelf sediment transport mechanisms despite the apparent lack of well-developed fluvial drainage. ?? 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation ?? 2008 Blackwell Publishing.

  16. Engineered metal based nanoparticles and innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Petrarca, Claudia; Clemente, Emanuela; Amato, Valentina; Pedata, Paola; Sabbioni, Enrico; Bernardini, Giovanni; Iavicoli, Ivo; Cortese, Sara; Niu, Qiao; Otsuki, Takemi; Paganelli, Roberto; Di Gioacchino, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Almost all people in developed countries are exposed to metal nanoparticles (MeNPs) that are used in a large number of applications including medical (for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes). Once inside the body, absorbed by inhalation, contact, ingestion and injection, MeNPs can translocate to tissues and, as any foreign substance, are likely to encounter the innate immunity system that represent a non-specific first line of defense against potential threats to the host. In this review, we will discuss the possible effects of MeNPs on various components of the innate immunity (both specific cells and barriers). Most important is that there are no reports of immune diseases induced by MeNPs exposure: we are operating in a safe area. However, in vitro assays show that MeNPs have some effects on innate immunity, the main being toxicity (both cyto- and genotoxicity) and interference with the activity of various cells through modification of membrane receptors, gene expression and cytokine production. Such effects can have both negative and positive relevant impacts on humans. On the one hand, people exposed to high levels of MeNPs, as workers of industries producing or applying MeNPs, should be monitored for possible health effects. On the other hand, understanding the modality of the effects on immune responses is essential to develop medical applications for MeNPs. Indeed, those MeNPs that are able to stimulate immune cells could be used to develop of new vaccines, promote immunity against tumors and suppress autoimmunity. PMID:26180517

  17. Mechanical origins of rightward torsion in early chick brain development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zi; Guo, Qiaohang; Dai, Eric; Taber, Larry

    2015-03-01

    During early development, the neural tube of the chick embryo undergoes a combination of progressive ventral bending and rightward torsion. This torsional deformation is one of the major organ-level left-right asymmetry events in development. Previous studies suggested that bending is mainly due to differential growth, however, the mechanism for torsion remains poorly understood. Since the heart almost always loops rightwards that the brain twists, researchers have speculated that heart looping affects the direction of brain torsion. However, direct evidence is lacking, nor is the mechanical origin of such torsion understood. In our study, experimental perturbations show that the bending and torsional deformations in the brain are coupled and that the vitelline membrane applies an external load necessary for torsion to occur. Moreover, the asymmetry of the looping heart gives rise to the chirality of the twisted brain. A computational model and a 3D printed physical model are employed to help interpret these findings. Our work clarifies the mechanical origins of brain torsion and the associated left-right asymmetry, and further reveals that the asymmetric development in one organ can induce the asymmetry of another developing organ through mechanics, reminiscent of D'Arcy Thompson's view of biological form as ``diagram of forces''. Z.C. is supported by the Society in Science - Branco Weiss fellowship, administered by ETH Zurich. L.A.T acknowledges the support from NIH Grants R01 GM075200 and R01 NS070918.

  18. The development of phonological skills in late and early talkers

    PubMed Central

    KEHOE, Margaret; CHAPLIN, Elisa; MUDRY, Pauline; FRIEND, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between phonological and lexical development in a group of French-speaking children (n=30), aged 29 months. The participants were divided into three sub-groups based on the number of words in their expressive vocabulary : low vocabulary (below the 15th percentile) (<< late-talkers >>) ; average-sized vocabulary (40-60th percentile) (<< middle group >>) and advanced vocabulary (above the 90th percentile) (<< precocious >> or “early talkers”). The phonological abilities (e.g., phonemic inventory, percentage of correct consonants, and phonological processes) of the three groups were compared. The comparison was based on analyses of spontaneous language samples. Most findings were consistent with previous results found in English-speaking children, indicating that the phonological abilities of late talkers are less well developed than those of children with average-sized vocabularies which in turn are less well-developed than those of children with advanced vocabularies. Nevertheless, several phonological measures were not related to vocabulary size, in particular those concerning syllable-final position. These findings differ from those obtained in English. The article finally discusses the clinical implications of the findings for children with delayed language development. PMID:26924855

  19. The Legacy of Early Experiences in Development: Formalizing Alternative Models of How Early Experiences Are Carried Forward over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraley, R. Chris; Roisman, Glenn I.; Haltigan, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Psychologists have long debated the role of early experience in social and cognitive development. However, traditional approaches to studying this issue are not well positioned to address this debate. The authors present simulations that indicate that the associations between early experiences and later outcomes should approach different…

  20. Improving Latino Children's Early Language and Literacy Development: Key Features of Early Childhood Education within Family Literacy Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Youngok; Zuniga, Stephen; Howes, Carollee; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Parrish, Deborah; Quick, Heather; Manship, Karen; Hauser, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Noting the lack of research on how early childhood education (ECE) programmes within family literacy programmes influence Latino children's early language and literacy development, this study examined key features of ECE programmes, specifically teacher-child interactions and child engagement in language and literacy activities and how these…

  1. Concept Innateness, Concept Continuity, and Bootstrapping

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The commentators raised issues relevant to all three important theses of The Origin of Concepts (TOOC). Some questioned the very existence of innate representational primitives, and others questioned my claims about their richness and whether they should be thought of as concepts. Some questioned the existence of conceptual discontinuity in the course of knowledge acquisition and others argued that discontinuity is much more common than portrayed in TOOC. Some raised issues with my characterization of Quinian bootstrapping, and others questioned the dual factor theory of concepts motivated by my picture of conceptual development. PMID:23264705

  2. Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeogene tectonic development of SE Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morley, C. K.

    2012-10-01

    The Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeogene history of the continental core of SE Asia (Sundaland) marks the time prior to collision of India with Asia when SE Asia, from the Tethys in the west to the Palaeo-Pacific in the east, lay in the upper plate of subduction zones. In Myanmar and Sumatra, subduction was interrupted in the Aptian-Albian by a phase of arc accretion (Woyla and Mawgyi arcs) and in Java, eastern Borneo and Western Sulawesi by collision of continental fragments rifted from northern Australia. Subsequent resumption of subduction in the Myanmar-Thailand sector explains: 1) early creation of oceanic crust in the Andaman Sea in a supra-subduction zone setting ~ 95 Ma, 2) the belt of granite plutons of Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeogene age (starting ~ 88 Ma) in western Thailand and central Myanmar, and 3) amphibolite grade metamorphism between 70 and 80 Ma seen in gneissic outcrops in western and central Thailand, and 4) accretionary prism development in the Western Belt of Myanmar, until glancing collision with the NE corner of Greater India promoted ophiolite obduction, deformation and exhumation of marine sediments in the early Palaeogene. The Ranong strike-slip fault and other less well documented faults, were episodically active during the Late Cretaceous-Palaeogene time. N to NW directed subduction of the Palaeo-Pacific ocean below Southern China, Vietnam and Borneo created a major magmatic arc, associated with rift basins, metamorphic core complexes and strike-slip deformation which continued into the Late Cretaceous. The origin and timing of termination of subduction has recently been explained by collision of a large Luconia continental fragment either during the Late Cretaceous or Palaeogene. Evidence for such a collision is absent from the South China Sea well and seismic reflection record and here collision is discounted. Instead relocation of the subducting margin further west, possibly in response of back-arc extension (which created the Proto

  3. Effective Early Learning: Mapping Diversity and Tracking Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascal, Christine

    This paper describes and reviews the Effective Early Learning (EEL) Research Project's approach to quality evaluation and improvement in early childhood settings in the United Kingdom which focuses primarily on enhancing the effectiveness of the early learning experiences of young children. The project began work in May 1993 and is completing its…

  4. Diversity. Early Developments. Volume 8, Number 1, Spring 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manuel, John

    2004-01-01

    What is it about cultural diversity that challenges early childhood programs? One factor is that children enter early childhood and early intervention programs from families with a wide range of values and cultural experiences. Sometimes those values and experiences differ from those of the teachers and caregivers in those programs. Another factor…

  5. Nuclear lamins during gametogenesis, fertilization and early development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, G. G.; Schatten, G.

    1986-01-01

    The distribution of lamins (described by Gerace, 1978, as major proteins of nuclear envelope) during gametogenesis, fertilization, and early development was investigated in germ cells of a mouse (Mus musculus), an echinoderm (Lytechinus variegatus), and the surf clam (Spisula solidissima) was investigated in order to determine whether the differences detected could be correlated with differences in the function of cells in these stages of the germ cells. In order to monitor the behavior of lamins, the gametes and embryos were labeled with antibodies to lamins A, C, and B extracted from autoimmune sera of patients with scleroderma and Lupus erythematosus. Results indicated that lamin B could be identified in nuclear envelopes on only those nuclei where chromatin is attached and where RNA synthesis takes place.

  6. Protective factors in the development of early child conduct problems

    PubMed Central

    Vanderbilt-Adriance, Ella; Shaw, Daniel S.; Brennan, Lauretta M.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2014-01-01

    The present study utilized a resilience model to investigate child, family, and community protective factors in toddlerhood as they relate to low levels of conduct problems at age 5 in a sample of low income children at risk for early disruptive problem behavior. Child, family, and community factors were associated with lower levels of conduct problems at age 5. Child, family, and community protective factors also distinguished between children who remained below and above a clinical threshold for aggressive problems between age 2 and 5. Finally, each domain of protective factors made small but significant unique contributions to lower aggression at age 5. These results emphasize the importance of multivariate analysis of the ecology of development predicting child outcome, and suggest potential areas for intervention with children at high risk for conduct problems. PMID:25774071

  7. Development of an operational coastal flooding early warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doong, D.-J.; Chuang, L. Z.-H.; Wu, L.-C.; Fan, Y.-M.; Kao, C. C.; Wang, J.-H.

    2012-02-01

    Coastal floods are a consistent threat to oceanfront countries, causing major human suffering and substantial economic losses. Climate change is exacerbating the problem. An early warning system is essential to mitigate the loss of life and property from coastal flooding. The purpose of this study is to develop a coastal flooding early warning system (CoFEWs) by integrating existing sea-state monitoring technology, numerical ocean forecasting models, historical database and experiences, as well as computer science. The proposed system has capability of offering data for the past, information for the present and future. The system was developed for the Taiwanese coast due to its frequent threat by typhoons. An operational system without any manual work is the basic requirement of the system. Integration of various data sources is the system kernel. Numerical ocean models play an important role within the system because they provide data for assessment of possible flooding. The regional wave model (SWAN) that nested with the large domain wave model (NWW III) is operationally set up for coastal wave forecasting, in addition to the storm surge predicted by a POM model. Data assimilation technology is incorporated for enhanced accuracy. A warning signal is presented when the storm water level that accumulated from astronomical tide, storm surge, and wave-induced run-up exceeds the alarm sea level. This warning system has been in practical use for coastal flooding damage mitigation in Taiwan for years. An example of the system operation during the Typhoon Haitung which struck Taiwan in 2005 is illustrated in this study.

  8. Early Childhood Counts: A Programming Guide on Early Childhood Care for Development [with CD-ROM]. WBI Learning Resources Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith L.

    Based on the view that the young child offers an entry point for broader social development, this programming guide engages parents and decision makers in constructive social planning and participation as they develop early childhood care for development (ECCD) programs to improve the care and conditions for children in developing countries. The…

  9. Mechanisms and pathways of innate immune activation and regulation in health and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jun; Chen, Yongjun; Wang, Helen Y; Wang, Rong-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Research on innate immune signaling and regulation has recently focused on pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) and their signaling pathways. Members of PRRs sense diverse microbial invasions or danger signals, and initiate innate immune signaling pathways, leading to proinflammatory cytokines production, which, in turn, instructs adaptive immune response development. Despite the diverse functions employed by innate immune signaling to respond to a variety of different pathogens, the innate immune response must be tightly regulated. Otherwise, aberrant, uncontrolled immune responses will lead to harmful, or even fatal, consequences. Therefore, it is essential to better discern innate immune signaling and many regulators, controlling various signaling pathways, have been identified. In this review, we focus on the recent advances in our understanding of the activation and regulation of innate immune signaling in the host response to pathogens and cancer. PMID:25625930

  10. Mechanisms and pathways of innate immune activation and regulation in health and cancer.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jun; Chen, Yongjun; Wang, Helen Y; Wang, Rong-Fu

    2014-01-01

    Research on innate immune signaling and regulation has recently focused on pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) and their signaling pathways. Members of PRRs sense diverse microbial invasions or danger signals, and initiate innate immune signaling pathways, leading to proinflammatory cytokines production, which, in turn, instructs adaptive immune response development. Despite the diverse functions employed by innate immune signaling to respond to a variety of different pathogens, the innate immune response must be tightly regulated. Otherwise, aberrant, uncontrolled immune responses will lead to harmful, or even fatal, consequences. Therefore, it is essential to better discern innate immune signaling and many regulators, controlling various signaling pathways, have been identified. In this review, we focus on the recent advances in our understanding of the activation and regulation of innate immune signaling in the host response to pathogens and cancer. PMID:25625930

  11. Guiding the Innate Constructivist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caine, Geoffrey; Caine, Renate Nummela; McClintic, Carol

    2002-01-01

    Provides two examples of the use of the guided-experience approach to teach the U.S. Civil War to eighth-grade students and a life-science unit to third-graders. Describes four key competencies teachers must master to successfully use this approach: Develop community, use materials creatively, question effectively, and master the subject. (PKP)

  12. Early Childhood Development in Kenya: Empowering Young Mothers, Mobilizing a Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabiru, Margaret; Njenga, Anne; Swadener, Beth Blue

    2003-01-01

    Highlights recent early childhood and community development work in rural Kenyan communities. Presents: (1) a brief history and overview of early childhood care and education; (2) examples from the Mwana Mwende community development project; (3) ways in which early childhood development has mobilized the community; and (4) examples of increasing…

  13. Smart Boards to Chalkboards: Professional Development for Early Childhood Teachers in Rural East Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the teaching strategies of early childhood development teachers in rural East Africa. Teams of early childhood educators from the United States presented professional development conferences for East African Early Childhood Development teachers during the summers of 2007 and 2008. The conferences introduced…

  14. Napping facilitates word learning in early lexical development.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Klára; Myers, Kyle; Foster, Russell; Plunkett, Kim

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about the role that night-time sleep and daytime naps play in early cognitive development. Our aim was to investigate how napping affects word learning in 16-month-olds. Thirty-four typically developing infants were assigned randomly to nap and wake groups. After teaching two novel object-word pairs to infants, we tested their initial performance with an intermodal preferential looking task in which infants are expected to increase their target looking time compared to a distracter after hearing its auditory label. A second test session followed after approximately a 2-h delay. The delay contained sleep for the nap group or no sleep for the wake group. Looking behaviour was measured with an automatic eye-tracker. Vocabulary size was assessed using the Oxford Communicative Development Inventory. A significant interaction between group and session was found in preferential looking towards the target picture. The performance of the nap group increased after the nap, whereas that of the wake group did not change. The gain in performance correlated positively with the expressive vocabulary size in the nap group. These results indicate that daytime napping helps consolidate word learning in infancy. PMID:25950233

  15. The obesogenic effect of high fructose exposure during early development

    PubMed Central

    Goran, Michael I.; Dumke, Kelly; Bouret, Sebastien G.; Kayser, Brandon; Walker, Ryan W.; Blumberg, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Obesogens are compounds that disrupt the function and development of adipose tissue or the normal metabolism of lipids, leading to an increased risk of obesity and associated diseases. Evidence for the adverse effects of industrial and agricultural obesogens, such as tributyltin, bisphenol A and other organic pollutants is well-established. Current evidence suggests that high maternal consumption of fat promotes obesity and increased metabolic risk in offspring, but less is known about the effects of other potential nutrient obesogens. Widespread increase in dietary fructose consumption over the past 30 years is associated with chronic metabolic and endocrine disorders and alterations in feeding behaviour that promote obesity. In this Perspectives, we examine the evidence linking high intakes of fructose with altered metabolism and early obesity. We review the evidence suggesting that high fructose exposure during critical periods of development of the fetus, neonate and infant can act as an obesogen by affecting lifelong neuroendocrine function, appetite control, feeding behaviour, adipogenesis, fat distribution and metabolic systems. These changes ultimately favour the long-term development of obesity and associated metabolic risk. PMID:23732284

  16. The Children Are Waiting. The Report of the Early Childhood Development Task Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early Childhood Development Task Force, New York, NY.

    The Task Force on Early Childhood Development for New York City examined early childhood services and explored the feasibility of establishing an office for early childhood services. This report assesses the effectiveness of early childhood services in meeting the needs of children and their parents and recommends changes in the quantity and…

  17. Expression dynamics of NADPH oxidases during early zebrafish development.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Cory J; Leung, Yuk Fai; Suter, Daniel M

    2016-07-01

    Nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate oxidases (NOX) control various cellular signaling cascades. In the nervous system, there is recent evidence that NOX-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate neurite outgrowth, regeneration, and stem cell proliferation; however, a comprehensive NOX gene expression analysis is missing for all major model systems. Zebrafish embryos provide an excellent model system to study neurodevelopment and regeneration because they develop quickly and are well suited for in vivo imaging and molecular approaches. Although the sequences of five NOX genes (nox1, nox2/cybb, nox4, nox5, and duox) have been identified in the zebrafish genome, nothing is known about their expression pattern. Here, we used quantitative polymerase chain reaction combined with in situ hybridization to develop a catalog of nox1, nox2/cybb, nox5, and duox expression in zebrafish during early nervous system development from 12 to 48 hours post fertilization. We found that expression levels of nox1, nox5, and duox are dynamic during the first 2 days of development, whereas nox2/cybb levels remain remarkably stable. By sectioning in situ hybridized embryos, we found a pattern of broad and overlapping NOX isoform expression at 1 and 1.5 days post fertilization. After 2 days of development, a few brain regions displayed increased NOX expression levels. Collectively, these results represent the first comprehensive analysis of NOX gene expression in the zebrafish and will provide a basis for future studies aimed at determining the functions of NOX enzymes in neurodevelopment and regeneration. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2130-2141, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26662995

  18. Taste Receptors in Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Taste receptors were first identified on the tongue, where they initiate a signaling pathway that communicates information to the brain about the nutrient content or potential toxicity of ingested foods. However, recent research has shown that taste receptors are also expressed in a myriad of other tissues, from the airway and gastrointestinal epithelia to the pancreas and brain. The functions of many of these extraoral taste receptors remain unknown, but emerging evidence suggests that bitter and sweet taste receptors in the airway are important sentinels of innate immunity. This review discusses taste receptor signaling, focusing on the G-protein coupled–receptors that detect bitter, sweet, and savory tastes, followed by an overview of extraoral taste receptors and in-depth discussion of studies demonstrating the roles of taste receptors in airway innate immunity. Future research on extraoral taste receptors has significant potential for identification of novel immune mechanisms and insights into host-pathogen interactions. PMID:25323130

  19. Developing an Early Warning System for Machu Picchu Pueblo, Peru.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulmer, Mark; Farquhar, Tony

    2010-05-01

    The town of Machu Picchu, Peru, is linked to Ollantaytambo and Cusco by rail and serves as the main station for the 400,000+ tourists visiting Machu Picchu. Due to the tourist industry the town grown threefold in population in the past two decades. Today, due to the limited availability of low-lying ground, construction is occurring higher up on the unstable valley slopes. The town is located at 2000 m asl while the surrounding peaks rise to over 4000 m asl. Slopes range from < 10° on the valley floor to > 70° in the surrounding granite mountains. The town has grown on the downstream right bank of the Vilcanota River, at the confluence of the Alcamayo and the Aguas Calientes Rivers. Broadly, a dry winter season runs from May to August with a rainy summer season running from October to March. The rainy months provide around 80% of the annual rainfall average, which ranges from 1,600 to 2,300 mm. Seasonal temperature variations are considered modest. An assessment of the geohazards in and around the town has been undertaken. Those of particular concern to the town are 1) large rocks falling onto the town and/or the rail line, 2) flash flooding by any one of its three rivers, and 3) mudflows and landslides. To improve the existing municipal warning system a prototype early warning system incorporating suitable technologies that could monitor weather, river flow and slope satability was installed along the Aguas Calientes River in 2009. This has a distributed modular construction allowing most components to be installed, maintained, swapped, salvaged, repaired and/or replaced by local technicians. A diverse set of candidate power, communication and sensor technologies was deployed and evaluated. Most of the candidate technologies had never been deployed in similar terrain, altitude or weather. The successful deployment of the prototype proved that it is technically feasible to develop early warning capacity in the town.

  20. Developing Adaptive Systems at Early Stages of Children's Foreign Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espada, Ana Belen Cumbreno; Garcia, Mercedes Rico; Fuentes, Alejandro Curado; Gomez, Eva Ma Dominguez

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the integration of hypermedia adaptive systems for foreign language learners at an early age. Our research project is concerned with exploring the relationship between language learning and information technology according to six different phases: a preliminary study of the plausible adaptive system; the development of lessons…

  1. Preschoolers Know, but How Do They Know? Developing a Framework for Early Epistemology Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsor, Denise L.; Blake, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Two areas that are lacking for the purpose of training high-quality preschool teachers; and constructing developmentally appropriate learning standards and curriculum for preschool children are awareness of early epistemic development (beliefs about knowledge and knowing) and understanding preschoolers' cognitive processes during epistemic…

  2. Origins and early development of human body knowledge.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, Virginia; Heron, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    As a knowable object, the human body is highly complex. Evidence from several converging lines of research, including psychological studies, neuroimaging and clinical neuropsychology, indicates that human body knowledge is widely distributed in the adult brain, and is instantiated in at least three partially independent levels of representation. Sensorimotor body knowledge is responsible for on-line control and movement of one's own body and may also contribute to the perception of others' moving bodies; visuo-spatial body knowledge specifies detailed structural descriptions of the spatial attributes of the human body; and lexical-semantic body knowledge contains language-based knowledge about the human body. In the first chapter of this Monograph, we outline the evidence for these three hypothesized levels of human body knowledge, then review relevant literature on infants' and young children's human body knowledge in terms of the three-level framework. In Chapters II and III, we report two complimentary series of studies that specifically investigate the emergence of visuo-spatial body knowledge in infancy. Our technique is to compare infants'responses to typical and scrambled human bodies, in order to evaluate when and how infants acquire knowledge about the canonical spatial layout of the human body. Data from a series of visual habituation studies indicate that infants first discriminate scrambled from typical human body picture sat 15 to 18 months of age. Data from object examination studies similarly indicate that infants are sensitive to violations of three-dimensional human body stimuli starting at 15-18 months of age. The overall pattern of data supports several conclusions about the early development of human body knowledge: (a) detailed visuo-spatial knowledge about the human body is first evident in the second year of life, (b) visuo-spatial knowledge of human faces and human bodies are at least partially independent in infancy and (c) infants' initial

  3. The Epitranscriptome and Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Mary A.; Mannion, Niamh M.; Keegan, Liam P.

    2015-01-01

    Our knowledge of the variety and abundances of RNA base modifications is rapidly increasing. Modified bases have critical roles in tRNAs, rRNAs, translation, splicing, RNA interference, and other RNA processes, and are now increasingly detected in all types of transcripts. Can new biological principles associated with this diversity of RNA modifications, particularly in mRNAs and long non-coding RNAs, be identified? This review will explore this question by focusing primarily on adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing by the adenine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes that have been intensively studied for the past 20 years and have a wide range of effects. Over 100 million adenosine to inosine editing sites have been identified in the human transcriptome, mostly in embedded Alu sequences that form potentially innate immune-stimulating dsRNA hairpins in transcripts. Recent research has demonstrated that inosine in the epitranscriptome and ADAR1 protein establish innate immune tolerance for host dsRNA formed by endogenous sequences. Innate immune sensors that detect viral nucleic acids are among the readers of epitranscriptome RNA modifications, though this does preclude a wide range of other modification effects. PMID:26658668

  4. Systems integration of innate and adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Zak, Daniel E; Aderem, Alan

    2015-09-29

    The pathogens causing AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis have proven too complex to be overcome by classical approaches to vaccination. The complexities of human immunology and pathogen-induced modulation of the immune system mandate new approaches to vaccine discovery and design. A new field, systems vaccinology, weds holistic analysis of innate and adaptive immunity within a quantitative framework to enable rational design of new vaccines that elicit tailored protective immune responses. A key step in the approach is to discover relationships between the earliest innate inflammatory responses to vaccination and the subsequent vaccine-induced adaptive immune responses and efficacy. Analysis of these responses in clinical studies is complicated by the inaccessibility of relevant tissue compartments (such as the lymph node), necessitating reliance upon peripheral blood responses as surrogates. Blood transcriptomes, although indirect to vaccine mechanisms, have proven very informative in systems vaccinology studies. The approach is most powerful when innate and adaptive immune responses are integrated with vaccine efficacy, which is possible for malaria with the advent of a robust human challenge model. This is more difficult for AIDS and tuberculosis, given that human challenge models are lacking and efficacy observed in clinical trials has been low or highly variable. This challenge can be met by appropriate clinical trial design for partially efficacious vaccines and by analysis of natural infection cohorts. Ultimately, systems vaccinology is an iterative approach in which mechanistic hypotheses-derived from analysis of clinical studies-are evaluated in model systems, and then used to guide the development of new vaccine strategies. In this review, we will illustrate the above facets of the systems vaccinology approach with case studies. PMID:26102534

  5. Discovery and early development of non-suppressed ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fritz, James S; Gjerde, Douglas T

    2010-08-01

    This year marks the 30th anniversary of the publication of Non-Suppressed Ion Chromatography, which is a method for the rapid separation of anions with on-line conductimetric detection. In this method, the separation column is connected directly to the conductimetric detector. This single-column method is a simpler technique than the original suppressed ion chromatography method, which requires a large suppressor column to reduce the background conductance. In the new method, the background signal is reduced to a manageable level simply by using an ion-exchange separation column of low exchange capacity that lowers the eluent concentration needed for separation. The eluent ion used for separation is chosen based on having large, bulky structure, which lowers the equivalent conductance and facilitates detection of the sample anions. This is a personal account of the initial discovery and early development of non-suppressed ion chromatography. The circumstances for the discovery are recounted by the two authors. Methods are described for determination of anions, cations with indirect detection, and techniques for increasing detection sensitivity. A fundamental equation for the prediction of ion chromatography detector response is given, and the development of several types of detection schemes for ion chromatography is discussed. Finally, the impact of non-suppressed ion chromatography is discussed together with comments on the discovery process. PMID:20819275

  6. Involvement of Notch signaling in early chick ovarian follicle development.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Zhao, Dan; Guo, Changquan; Li, Jian; Mi, Yuling; Zhang, Caiqiao

    2016-01-01

    The formation of primordial follicles is a crucial process in the establishment of follicle pools required for the female's reproductive life span. For laying hens, ample follicles are a prerequisite for high laying performance. Notch signaling plays critical roles in germ cell cysts breakdown and in the formation of primordial follicles. Here, we investigated the role of Notch signaling in the ovarian development of post-hatch chicks. Results showed that around post-hatch day 4 (H4), the germ cell cysts broke apart, oocytes became surrounded by squamous pregranulosa cells, and the primordial follicles were then formed. Subsequently, we detected the expression of Notch signaling-related genes including Notch receptors (Notch1, 2), ligands (Jag1, 2 and Dll1, 4), and target genes (Hes1, Hey1). These genes all showed expression at H4 and some of these genes were up-regulated during primordial follicle formation. To evaluate the Notch signaling requirement for early follicular development, we adopted an in vitro ovary culture system. Suppression of Notch signaling by γ-secretase inhibitor induced a decrease of primordial follicles and an increase of germ cells in cysts. Attenuating Notch signaling also inhibited the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B pathways and suppressed cadherin expression. These results suggest that Notch signaling is endowed with an indispensable role in primordial follicle formation in post-hatch chicks. PMID:26289531

  7. Controls on development and diversity of Early Archean stromatolites

    PubMed Central

    Allwood, Abigail C.; Grotzinger, John P.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Burch, Ian W.; Anderson, Mark S.; Coleman, Max L.; Kanik, Isik

    2009-01-01

    The ≈3,450-million-year-old Strelley Pool Formation in Western Australia contains a reef-like assembly of laminated sedimentary accretion structures (stromatolites) that have macroscale characteristics suggestive of biological influence. However, direct microscale evidence of biology—namely, organic microbial remains or biosedimentary fabrics—has to date eluded discovery in the extensively-recrystallized rocks. Recently-identified outcrops with relatively good textural preservation record microscale evidence of primary sedimentary processes, including some that indicate probable microbial mat formation. Furthermore, we find relict fabrics and organic layers that covary with stromatolite morphology, linking morphologic diversity to changes in sedimentation, seafloor mineral precipitation, and inferred microbial mat development. Thus, the most direct and compelling signatures of life in the Strelley Pool Formation are those observed at the microscopic scale. By examining spatiotemporal changes in microscale characteristics it is possible not only to recognize the presence of probable microbial mats during stromatolite development, but also to infer aspects of the biological inputs to stromatolite morphogenesis. The persistence of an inferred biological signal through changing environmental circumstances and stromatolite types indicates that benthic microbial populations adapted to shifting environmental conditions in early oceans. PMID:19515817

  8. Social paediatrics and early child development: Part 1.

    PubMed

    Ford-Jones, Elizabeth Lee; Williams, Robin; Bertrand, Jane

    2008-11-01

    Diseases of modernism, rather than infectious diseases and chronic medical conditions, increasingly cause childhood morbidity and mortality. Thus, the goal of enhancing life outcomes for all children has become imperative. Paediatricans may begin with a renewed interest in social paediatrics - the care of the disadvantaged child in Canada, requiring a focus on all the complex factors that impact families and the community. New paediatricians need the tools to impact both social determinants of health and political policies to support health for all. Such interest is as old as the field of paediatrics (social medicine began with the great pathologist, Virchow, in the 1800s). The new neuroscience of experience-based brain and biological development has caught up with the social epidemiology literature. It is now known from both domains that a child's poor developmental and health outcomes are a product of early and ongoing socioeconomic and psychological experiences. In the era of epigenetics, it is now understood that both nature and nurture control the genome. Future paediatricians need to understand the science of experience-based brain development, and the interventions demonstrated to improve life trajectories. A challenge is to connect the traditional population health approach with traditional primary care responsibilities. New and enhanced collaborative interdisciplinary networks with, for example, public health, primary care, community resources, education and justice systems are required. PMID:19436534

  9. Narrative development in late talkers: early school age.

    PubMed

    Paul, R; Hernandez, R; Taylor, L; Johnson, K

    1996-12-01

    Children with slow expressive language development (SELD) as toddlers and a control group of children with normal language development (NL) were followed to early school age. Children with SELD were, at that point, subdivided into two groups: those who had moved within the normal range of expressive language (the History of Expressive Language Delay [HELD] subgroup); and those who continued to score below the normal range in expressive language at school age (the Expressive Language Delay [ELD] subgroup). During their kindergarten, first, and second grade years, they were administered a narrative generation task. Narratives were analyzed for MLU, lexical diversity, amount of information included, proportion of complete cohesive ties, and overall stage of narrative maturity. In kindergarten, children with normal language history scored significantly higher than those with HELD and ELD on lexical diversity and narrative stage; and higher than those with ELD in proportion of complete cohesive ties. In first grade, children with normal language history again scored significantly higher than those with HELD and ELD on narrative maturity, with no other significant differences. In second grade, there were no significant differences among the groups. PMID:8959614

  10. Structure and Continuity of Intellectual Development in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Blaga, Otilia M.; Shaddy, D. Jill; Anderson, Christa J.; Kannass, Kathleen N.; Little, Todd D.; Colombo, John

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated over 200 participants semiannually from 12 to 48 months of age on measures of intellectual (Bayley Scales, Stanford-Binet Scale) and verbal (MacArthur-Bates Inventory, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test) status. Structural equation modeling and hierarchical linear (growth curve) analyses were applied to address the nature of development and individual differences during this time. Structural analyses showed a strong and robust simplex model from infancy to the preschool period, with no evidence of qualitative reorganizations or discontinuities. Growth-curve modeling revealed significant associations between level factors across the early and later measures of cognition, providing further evidence of continuity; the growth trajectory from the Bayley through 24 months predicted growth in a nonverbal factor, but not in a verbal factor. Altogether, the findings reveal continuous and stable development in intellectual function from late infancy through the preschool years. Additionally, the high level of continuity demonstrated across these ages was observed to be largely independent of growth in vocabulary. PMID:20046219

  11. Coparenting and Early Conscience Development in the Family

    PubMed Central

    Groenendyk, Allison E.; Volling, Brenda L.

    2007-01-01

    The current research examined children’s observed compliance in a family clean-up paradigm and parents’ reports of coparenting to predict young children’s conscience (e.g., affective discomfort and moral regulation) in a sample of 58 families with two parents and at least two children. Results demonstrated relations between parent reports of children’s conscience development and observer-rated compliance in a family clean-up session, in addition to significant correlations between coparenting and conscience development. There were more significant results for younger, 2-year-old siblings than older siblings which may reflect the importance of the period between 2 and 3 for the emergence of conscience. Multiple regressions revealed that younger siblings’ age, observed compliance/noncompliance, and parent reports of coparenting were significant in predicting parents’ reports of affective discomfort and moral regulation. Findings underscore the importance of continuing research on whole-family dynamics when studying young children’s early conscience and moral regulation. PMID:17936972

  12. [Early Intervention and Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study with Psychologically Stressed Mother-Child-Dyad during Early Childhood].

    PubMed

    Zwönitzer, Annabel; Ziegenhain, Ute; Bovenschen, Ina; Pillhofer, Melanie; Spangler, Gottfried; Gerlach, Jennifer; Gabler, Sandra; Kindler, Heinz; Fegert, Jörg M; Künster, Anne Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Early intervention programs aiming at developing parents’ relationship and parenting skills and supporting young families have become increasingly established in Germany throughout the last decade. The present longitudinal study analyzed 53 children and their mothers receiving early intervention due to their psychosocially highly challenging life situations and personal circumstances. The children were examined at birth and at an age of twelve months as well as between ages two and four. The results revealed that the child’s cognitive development could be predicted by both maternal sensitivity and mother’s psychosocial stress. However, the amount, type, and intensity of early intervention did not have any effect on the child’s development. In terms of the effectiveness of early interventions the results implicate that interventions seems to be offered in an unspecific manner and does not contribute to an improvement of the child’s developmental status. PMID:27184790

  13. Eggs ultrastructure and early development of Franciscodoras marmoratus (Pisces: Doradidae).

    PubMed

    Alberto Weber, A; Sato, Y; Enemir Santos, J; Rizzo, E; Bazzoli, N

    2012-06-01

    This study presents, for the first time, information on the eggs and early development of Franciscodoras marmoratus, fish of São Francisco river, Brazil. To analyse the egg ultrastructure and morphological events of embryogenesis, a total of 36 F. marmoratus specimens (18 males and 18 females) were captured and subjected to spawning induction. Gametes were collected by manual extrusion, and fertilization was conducted using the dry method. After fertilization, eggs were kept in incubators with water temperature of 24°C. The embryonic development was monitored using a stereomicroscope until hatching. There was a 67% positive response to hypophysation by the females and the fertilization rate was 73.8 ± 6.2%. The oocytes are discoid, yellow, adhesive and covered by a thick jelly coat. Under the electron scanning microscope, the oocytes presented a surface with pore canals and funnel-shaped micropyle with a smooth vestibule. Recently extruded oocytes had a mean diameter of 1.27 ± 0.4 mm and after hydration was 1.91 ± 0.05 mm. The jelly coat was 0.34 ± 0.03 mm thickness, and the perivitelline space was 0.19 ± 0.04 mm. Eight phases of the embryonic development were identified, and embryogenesis was completed at 47 h after fertilization, at 24°C water temperature. The recently hatched larvae had 2.76 ± 0.57 mm of total length. These results provide useful information for the successful breeding and reproductive strategies of fishes. PMID:22150468

  14. Early, middle, and late Miocene basin development, California

    SciTech Connect

    Bachman, S.B.

    1988-03-01

    Contrary to earlier models of progressive basin development related to northward migration of the Mendocino triple junction, it can now be documented that the major basins of coastal California developed at about the same time in the late Oligocene to early Miocene. This basin development is marked by rapid deepening of basin floors, subsequent changes in depositional facies from nonmarine and shallow marine to deep marine, and widespread volcanism dated at 23-20 Ma. The coastal basins likely formed by rifting and subsidence linked to the proximity of the Farallon-pacific spreading ridge and the subduction of hot young oceanic crust, but cannot be correlated to any existing models of triple junction migration. Indeed, strike-slip restored positions of the coastal basins at their inception indicate that the basins were spread out over about 800 km of the southern coast of California. The Miocene basins were likely larger than the present coastal basins, although their configurations are obscured by late Neogene faulting and erosion. It is likely, however, that paleohighs separated at least some of the margin into proximal and distal basins. With local exceptions, structuring in the Miocene basins was primarily extensional, with widespread strike-slip and thrust tectonics restricted mainly to latest Miocene and younger events. Plate reconstructions suggest several hundred kilometers of transform motion occurred along the California margin during the Miocene, but there is only limited evidence of this movement in the known history of either the basins or the major faults of California. Sedimentation during the Miocene was controlled by both oceanic conditions (biogenic component) and the relative abundance of clastic input. The clastic input was controlled by a combination of proximal vs distal basinal positions, eustatic sea level changes, and local tectonics.

  15. Invariant natural killer T cells: bridging innate and adaptive immunity

    PubMed Central

    Parekh, Vrajesh V.; Wu, Lan

    2013-01-01

    Cells of the innate immune system interact with pathogens via conserved pattern-recognition receptors, whereas cells of the adaptive immune system recognize pathogens through diverse, antigen-specific receptors that are generated by somatic DNA rearrangement. Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are a subset of lymphocytes that bridge the innate and adaptive immune systems. Although iNKT cells express T cell receptors that are generated by somatic DNA rearrangement, these receptors are semi-invariant and interact with a limited set of lipid and glycolipid antigens, thus resembling the pattern-recognition receptors of the innate immune system. Functionally, iNKT cells most closely resemble cells of the innate immune system, as they rapidly elicit their effector functions following activation, and fail to develop immunological memory. iNKT cells can become activated in response to a variety of stimuli and participate in the regulation of various immune responses. Activated iNKT cells produce several cytokines with the capacity to jump-start and modulate an adaptive immune response. A variety of glycolipid antigens that can differentially elicit distinct effector functions in iNKT cells have been identified. These reagents have been employed to test the hypothesis that iNKT cells can be harnessed for therapeutic purposes in human diseases. Here, we review the innate-like properties and functions of iNKT cells and discuss their interactions with other cell types of the immune system. PMID:20734065

  16. Tumor Necrosis Factor Superfamily in Innate Immunity and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Šedý, John; Bekiaris, Vasileios; Ware, Carl F.

    2015-01-01

    The tumor necrosis factor superfamily (TNFSF) and its corresponding receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) form communication pathways required for developmental, homeostatic, and stimulus-responsive processes in vivo. Although this receptor–ligand system operates between many different cell types and organ systems, many of these proteins play specific roles in immune system function. The TNFSF and TNFRSF proteins lymphotoxins, LIGHT (homologous to lymphotoxins, exhibits inducible expression, and competes with HSV glycoprotein D for herpes virus entry mediator [HVEM], a receptor expressed by T lymphocytes), lymphotoxin-β receptor (LT-βR), and HVEM are used by embryonic and adult innate lymphocytes to promote the development and homeostasis of lymphoid organs. Lymphotoxin-expressing innate-acting B cells construct microenvironments in lymphoid organs that restrict pathogen spread and initiate interferon defenses. Recent results illustrate how the communication networks formed among these cytokines and the coreceptors B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) and CD160 both inhibit and activate innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), innate γδ T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. Understanding the role of TNFSF/TNFRSF and interacting proteins in innate cells will likely reveal avenues for future therapeutics for human disease. PMID:25524549

  17. Tumor necrosis factor superfamily in innate immunity and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Šedý, John; Bekiaris, Vasileios; Ware, Carl F

    2015-04-01

    The tumor necrosis factor superfamily (TNFSF) and its corresponding receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) form communication pathways required for developmental, homeostatic, and stimulus-responsive processes in vivo. Although this receptor-ligand system operates between many different cell types and organ systems, many of these proteins play specific roles in immune system function. The TNFSF and TNFRSF proteins lymphotoxins, LIGHT (homologous to lymphotoxins, exhibits inducible expression, and competes with HSV glycoprotein D for herpes virus entry mediator [HVEM], a receptor expressed by T lymphocytes), lymphotoxin-β receptor (LT-βR), and HVEM are used by embryonic and adult innate lymphocytes to promote the development and homeostasis of lymphoid organs. Lymphotoxin-expressing innate-acting B cells construct microenvironments in lymphoid organs that restrict pathogen spread and initiate interferon defenses. Recent results illustrate how the communication networks formed among these cytokines and the coreceptors B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) and CD160 both inhibit and activate innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), innate γδ T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. Understanding the role of TNFSF/TNFRSF and interacting proteins in innate cells will likely reveal avenues for future therapeutics for human disease. PMID:25524549

  18. The Development of Early Childhood Teachers' Language Knowledge in Different Educational Tracks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohmer, Janina; Mischo, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Early childhood teachers should have extensive knowledge about language and language development, because these facets of professional knowledge are considered as important requirements for fostering language development in early childhood education settings. It is assumed that early childhood teachers acquire this knowledge during pre-service…

  19. Feasibility of an Online Professional Development Program for Early Intervention Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyzar, Kathleen B.; Chiu, Caya; Kemp, Peggy; Aldersey, Heather Michelle; Turnbull, Ann P.; Lindeman, David P.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports findings from 2 studies situated within a larger scope of design research on a professional development program, "Early Years," for Part C early intervention practitioners, working with families in home and community settings. Early Years includes online modules and onsite mentor coaching, and its development has…

  20. How Early Child Care Affects Later Development. Science Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study in basic science or clinical research. This brief reports on the study "Are there Long-Term Effects of Early Child Care?" (J. Belsky, D. L. Vandell, M. Burchinal, K. A. Clarke-Stewart, K. McCartney, M. T. Owen, M. T., and The NICHD Early Child Care Research Network).…

  1. Vocational Preferences of Early Adolescents: Their Development in Social Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vondracek, Fred W.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Reitzle, Matthias; Wiesner, Margit

    1999-01-01

    This study compared the timing of early vocational preferences in young adolescents from former East Germany and West Germany. Results suggested that as the memory of the Communist system fades and as younger adolescents have had less exposure to it, East-West differences tend to disappear. The formation of early vocational preferences was…

  2. Building an Early Childhood Professional Development System. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NGA Center for Best Practices, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The knowledge, skills, and practices of early childhood care providers and teachers are critical factors in their delivery of high-quality developmental and educational experiences to young children. However, studies have found that the majority of professionals that make up the current early childhood workforce are not adequately prepared. Recent…

  3. Workforce Development in Early Childhood Education and Care. Research Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretherton, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    The early childhood education and care industry in Australia is undergoing a shift in philosophy. Changes in policy are driving the industry towards a combined early childhood education and care focus, away from one on child care only. This move has implications for the skilling of the child care workforce. This research overview describes the…

  4. Development of Conceptually Focused Early Numeracy Skill Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Methe, Scott A.; Begeny, John C.; Leary, Lemontrel L.

    2011-01-01

    This research was conducted to evaluate the technical properties of a set of early numeracy CBM tests that were designed to operationalize early numeric concepts. Data were collected over the course of a school year from 113 kindergarten and first-grade children using nine separate tests with three alternative forms. In addition, test-retest…

  5. Early stages in the development of stress corrosion cracks

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.H.; Simonen, E.P.

    1993-12-01

    Processes in growth of short cracks and stage I of long stress corrosion cracks were identified and evaluated. There is evidence that electrochemical effects can cause short stress corrosion cracks to grow at rates faster or slower than long cracks. Short cracks can grow at faster rates than long cracks for a salt film dissolution growth mechanism or from reduced oxygen inhibition of hydrolytic acidification. An increasing crack growth rate with increasing crack length could result from a process of increasing crack tip concentration of a critical anion, such as Cl{sup {minus}}, with increasing crack length in a system where the crack velocity is dependent on the Cl{sup {minus}} or some other anion concentration. An increasing potential drop between crack tip and mouth would result in an increased anion concentration at the crack tip and hence an increasing crack velocity. Stage I behavior of long cracks is another early development stage in the life of a stress corrosion crack which is poorly understood. This stage can be described by da/dt = AK{sup m} where da/dt is crack velocity, A is a constant, K is stress intensity and m ranges from 2 to 24 for a variety of materials and environments. Only the salt film dissolution model was found to quantitatively describe this stage; however, the model was only tested on one material and its general applicability is unknown.

  6. Developing seasonal rainfall scenarios for food security early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husak, Gregory J.; Funk, Christopher C.; Michaelsen, Joel; Magadzire, Tamuka; Goldsberry, Kirk P.

    2013-10-01

    Rainfed agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa accounts for 95 % of the local cereal production, impacting hundreds of millions of people. Early identification of poor rainfall conditions is a critical indicator of food security. As such, monitoring accumulated seasonal rainfall gives an important mid-season estimate of final accumulated totals. However, characterizing the remaining uncertainty in a season has largely been ignored by the food security community. This paper presents a new technique describing rainfall conditions over the duration of a crop-growing cycle by combining estimated rainfall-to-date with potential scenarios for the remaining season based on available satellite rainfall estimates, the common tool for rainfall analysis in Africa. The limited historical record provided by satellite rainfall estimates using previous seasons provides only a coarse view of likely seasonal totals. To combat this, scenarios developed by bootstrapping dekadal data to create synthetic seasons allow for a finer understanding of potential seasonal accumulations. Updating this throughout the season shows a narrowing envelope of seasonal totals, converging on the final seasonal result. The resulting scenarios inform the expectations for the final seasonal rainfall accumulation, allowing analysts to quantify and visualize the uncertainty in seasonal totals. Giving decision makers a tool for understanding the likelihood of specific rainfall amounts provides additional time to enact and mobilize efforts to reduce the impact of agricultural drought.

  7. Early embryonic development and transplantation in tree shrews

    PubMed Central

    YAN, Lan-Zhen; SUN, Bin; LYU, Long-Bao; MA, Yu-Hua; CHEN, Jia-Qi; LIN, Qing; ZHENG, Ping; ZHAO, Xu-Dong

    2016-01-01

    As a novel experimental animal model, tree shrews have received increasing attention in recent years. Despite this, little is known in regards to the time phases of their embryonic development. In this study, surveillance systems were used to record the behavior and timing of copulations; embryos at different post-copulation stages were collected and cultured in vitro; and the developmental characteristics of both early-stage and in vitro cultured embryos were determined. A total of 163 females were collected following effective copulation, and 150 were used in either unilateral or bilateral oviduct embryo collections, with 307 embryos from 111 females obtained (conception rate=74%). Among them, 237 embryos were collected from 78 females, bilaterally, i.e., the average embryo number per female was 3.04; 172 fertilized eggs collected from 55 females, bilaterally, were cultured for 24-108 h in vitro for developmental observations; finally, 65 embryos from 23 bilateral cases and 70 embryos from 33 unilateral cases were used in embryo transplantation. PMID:27469257

  8. Basin development, petrology, and paleogeography - Early Permian carbonates, northwestern Bolivia

    SciTech Connect

    Canter, K.L.; Isaacson, P.E. )

    1990-05-01

    Early Permian carbonate rocks of the Yaurichambi Formation in northwestern Bolivia demonstrate in-situ, low-paleolatitude development within a complexly interbedded sequence punctuated by siliciclastics apparently derived from a western source. The Yaurichambi Formation (Copacabana Group) occurs above a regional caliche surface that caps Upper Carboniferous quartzarenites. Lower beds of the formation are characterized by interbedded carbonate and quartz-rich lithologies. This interval is gradationally overlain by a shallowing-upward, carbonate-dominated sequence. Mud-rich wackestones and packstones grade upward to bioclastic packstones and grainstones. Common allochems in bioclastic-rich lithologies include echinoderms, brachiopods, fenestrate bryozoans, intraclasts, and less common corals. Uppermost beds contain abundant siliciclastic interbeds. Where exposed, this carbonate sequence is terminated by the Tiquina Sandstone. Permian rocks were deposited in a northwest-southeast-oriented basin. Siliciclastic flooding from the western and southwestern margin of the basin dominated throughout the Carboniferous and occurred intermittently during the Permian, with apparent shallowing to the south. A low-latitude paleogeographic setting for these rocks is indicated by the carbonate lithologies dominating the Lower Permian sequence. Sedimentary and diagenetic features diagnostic of semi-arid warm-water deposition include penecontemporaneous dolomites, fenestral fabric, and calcretes. Furthermore, the faunas are similar to those found in equivalent strata of the Permian basin area of west Texas, indicating that deposition occurred at relatively low latitudes.

  9. Regulation of protein synthesis during sea urchin early development

    SciTech Connect

    Kelso, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    Fertilization of the sea urchin egg results in a 20-40 fold increase in the rate of protein synthesis. The masked message hypothesis proposes that mRNAs are masked or unavailable for translation in the egg. We devised an in vivo assay to test this hypothesis. Our results show that masked mRNAs limit protein synthesis in the unfertilized egg. In addition, we show that protein synthesis is also regulated at the level of translational machinery. Following fertilization is a period of rapid cell divisions. This period, known as the rapid cleavage stage, is characterized by the transient synthesis of a novel set of proteins. The synthesis of these proteins is programmed by maternal mRNAs stored in the unfertilized egg. To study the behavior of these mRNAs, we prepared a cDNA library from polysomal poly (A+) RNA from 2-hour embryos. ({sup 32}P) labeled probes, prepared from the cDNA library, were used to monitor the levels of individual mRNAs in polysomes at fertilization and during early development.

  10. Data Resource Profile: The Australian Early Development Index (AEDI)

    PubMed Central

    Brinkman, Sally A; Gregory, Tess A; Goldfeld, Sharon; Lynch, John W; Hardy, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Every 3 years, the Australian Government conducts a developmental census across the entire population of children in their first year of full-time schooling (median age 5 years). The first developmental census was conducted in 2009, including 261 147 children, and in 2012 data were collected on 289 973 children—representing 97.5% and 96.5% of the estimated eligible population, respectively. The questionnaire is completed by teachers on the basis of at least 1 month’s knowledge of the child, including aspects of physical, social, emotional, language and cognitive development, as well as data on special needs. Teachers are also asked to include details of the child’s care arrangements and attendance in early education programmes in the years preceding school. Demographic and geographical data are recorded at the individual and area levels. Aggregate data are publicly available and microdata (including data for linkage studies) can be applied for via (www.aedidata.com.au). PMID:24771275

  11. Early experiences in developing and managing the neuroscience gateway

    PubMed Central

    Sivagnanam, Subhashini; Majumdar, Amit; Yoshimoto, Kenneth; Astakhov, Vadim; Bandrowski, Anita; Martone, MaryAnn; Carnevale, Nicholas. T.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The last few decades have seen the emergence of computational neuroscience as a mature field where researchers are interested in modeling complex and large neuronal systems and require access to high performance computing machines and associated cyber infrastructure to manage computational workflow and data. The neuronal simulation tools, used in this research field, are also implemented for parallel computers and suitable for high performance computing machines. But using these tools on complex high performance computing machines remains a challenge because of issues with acquiring computer time on these machines located at national supercomputer centers, dealing with complex user interface of these machines, dealing with data management and retrieval. The Neuroscience Gateway is being developed to alleviate and/or hide these barriers to entry for computational neuroscientists. It hides or eliminates, from the point of view of the users, all the administrative and technical barriers and makes parallel neuronal simulation tools easily available and accessible on complex high performance computing machines. It handles the running of jobs and data management and retrieval. This paper shares the early experiences in bringing up this gateway and describes the software architecture it is based on, how it is implemented, and how users can use this for computational neuroscience research using high performance computing at the back end. We also look at parallel scaling of some publicly available neuronal models and analyze the recent usage data of the neuroscience gateway. PMID:26523124

  12. Innate immunity and the normal microflora.

    PubMed

    Boman, H G

    2000-02-01

    This paper discusses the following ten subtitles with the contents indicated. 1. To meet a microbe: discusses the four alternatives in host-microbe interactions. 2. Receptors and signal transduction giving gene activation: discusses the lipopolysaccharide receptor and the limitations of cell cultures versus use of live animals. 3. Effector molecules--antimicrobial peptides with and without cysteines. A data base exists with over 500 sequences. This paper gives a general overview of five classes of gene-encoded effector molecules, based on the absence or presence of cysteines. These molecules are peptide antibiotics with wide spectra against different microbes. They are synthesized as propeptides and post-translational modifications are common. 4. Effectors of innate immunity--lethal action without host damage: evaluates current opinions about the mode of action of peptide antibiotics and the fact that these effectors do not create host damage. 5. Genes, introns and movable elements. Two cecropin genes containing movable elements and the human cathelicidin gene for proFALL-39/hCAP18 are discussed. 6. The natural microflora. Hippos or frogs as model systems. This section includes the isolation of bacteria from the normal flora of frogs; Aeromonas hydrophila, the bacterium found on all five frog species studied; arguments and selected examples of frog-microbe interactions in vivo and in vitro; and the use of glucocorticoids as control for nuclear factor-kappa B/I kappa B alpha regulation of effector genes. 7. The use of germ-free mice--hard facts from hard work: summarizes new findings which indicate that germ-free mice are born with a set of antibacterial peptides in their small intestine. The intestine of germ-free mice monoinfected with A. hydrophila have peptide patterns that differ depending on a pretreatment with cortisone. 8. Looking back--an evolutionary perspective on innate immunity: arguments for an early evolutionary need for gene-encoded antibacterial

  13. Mouse vocal communication system: are ultrasounds learned or innate?

    PubMed

    Arriaga, Gustavo; Jarvis, Erich D

    2013-01-01

    Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are often used as behavioral readouts of internal states, to measure effects of social and pharmacological manipulations, and for behavioral phenotyping of mouse models for neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. However, little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms of rodent USV production. Here we discuss the available data to assess whether male mouse song behavior and the supporting brain circuits resemble those of known vocal non-learning or vocal learning species. Recent neurobiology studies have demonstrated that the mouse USV brain system includes motor cortex and striatal regions, and that the vocal motor cortex sends a direct sparse projection to the brainstem vocal motor nucleus ambiguous, a projection previously thought be unique to humans among mammals. Recent behavioral studies have reported opposing conclusions on mouse vocal plasticity, including vocal ontogeny changes in USVs over early development that might not be explained by innate maturation processes, evidence for and against a role for auditory feedback in developing and maintaining normal mouse USVs, and evidence for and against limited vocal imitation of song pitch. To reconcile these findings, we suggest that the trait of vocal learning may not be dichotomous but encompass a broad spectrum of behavioral and neural traits we call the continuum hypothesis, and that mice possess some of the traits associated with a capacity for limited vocal learning. PMID:23295209

  14. Mouse vocal communication system: are ultrasounds learned or innate?

    PubMed Central

    Arriaga, Gustavo; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2013-01-01

    Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are often used as behavioral readouts of internal states, to measure effects of social and pharmacological manipulations, and for behavioral phenotyping of mouse models for neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. However, little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms of rodent USV production. Here we discuss the available data to assess whether male mouse song behavior and the supporting brain circuits resemble those of known vocal non-learning or vocal learning species. Recent neurobiology studies have demonstrated that the mouse USV brain system includes motor cortex and striatal regions, and that the vocal motor cortex sends a direct sparse projection to the brainstem vocal motor nucleus ambiguous, a projection thought be unique to humans among mammals. Recent behavioral studies have reported opposing conclusions on mouse vocal plasticity, including vocal ontogeny changes in USVs over early development that might not be explained by innate maturation processes, evidence for and against a role for auditory feedback in developing and maintaining normal mouse USVs, and evidence for and against limited vocal imitation of song pitch. To reconcile these findings, we suggest that the trait of vocal learning may not be dichotomous but encompass a broad set of behavioral and neural traits we call the continuum hypothesis, and that mice possess some of the traits associated with a capacity for limited vocal learning. PMID:23295209

  15. Early Holocene lake ecosystem development in the southern Baltic lowlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Słowiński, Michał; Ott, Florian; Kramkowski, Mateusz; Noryśkiewicz, Agnieszka M.; Zawiska, Izabela; Dräger, Nadine; Theuerkauf, Martin; Hass, Christoph; Obremska, Milena; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Kordowski, Jarosław; Tjallingii, Rik; Rzodkiewicz, Monika; Schwab, Markus; Brauer, Achim

    2016-04-01

    The first millennia of the Holocene are characterized by gradual and rapid environmental changes following the warming at the beginning of the Holocene superimposed by short-term climatic instability. Landscape evolution during this period occurred at different time scales due to specific response times of landscape compartments like vegetation succession, soil formation and permafrost thawing. As a consequence, a spatiotemporally heterogeneous pattern of changes occurred particularly in regions close to the margins of the continental ice sheets like the Baltic region. Regional atmospheric circulation patterns were affected by cold catabatic winds from the remains of the Fennoscandian ice sheet. The ongoing deglaciation further influenced the regional climate through meltwater release and related changes in the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation. Both effects declined with the progressive ice sheet melt down. Additionally, the land-sea distribution in the North Sea changed drastically during the final melting phase of the glacial ice sheets. The Baltic Sea development is even more complex due to the strong glacio-isostatic adjustments effects that resulted in open and closed water stages affecting the entire Baltic realm. Consequently, the early Holocene interval of sediment records from the southern Baltic lowlands are not considered as straightforward palaeoclimate archives but need to be interpreted in a broader context. We present five partly varved lake records from northern Poland all including an intriguing highly organic-rich interval interrupting biochemical calcite precipitation at about the same time between 10.5 and 10.2 cal kyr BP. These sediment records have been correlated by independent age models based on varve counting, AMS 14C dating, biostratigraphy and tephrochronology. We present multi-proxy records of early Holocene sediments and our preliminary interpretation suggests hydrological processes as the main reason for the intriguing shifts

  16. Prenatal PCBs disrupt early neuroendocrine development of the rat hypothalamus

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, Sarah M.; Cunningham, Stephanie L.; Gore, Andrea C.

    2011-04-01

    disrupted sexual differentiation of the POA by prenatal EDC exposures is already evident as early as the day after birth, effects that may change the trajectory of postnatal development and compromise adult reproductive function.

  17. Early estrogen exposure induces abnormal development of Fundulus heteroclitus.

    PubMed

    Urushitani, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Akio; Katsu, Yoshinao; Iguchi, Taisen

    2002-12-01

    Many chemicals released into the environment exhibit estrogenic activity, having the potential to disrupt development and the functioning of the endocrine system. In order to establish a model system to study the effects of such environmental chemicals on aquatic animals, we examined the effects of a natural estrogen, 17 beta-estradiol (E(2)), on early development of Fundulus heteroclitus. Embryos of F. heteroclitus were reared in seawater containing 10(-10), 10(-8), and 10(-6) M E(2) throughout the experiment. Hatching and survival rates decreased in a dose-dependent manner, and fry treated with 10(-6) M E(2) and 10(-8) M E(2) were dead by two weeks and 12 weeks after hatching, respectively. More than 85% of fry treated with 10(-8) M E(2) showed malformations: i.e., eye extrusion, crooked vertebral column, faded lateral-stripe pattern eight weeks after hatching. Body weight and head and body lengths were significantly reduced in E(2)-treated fry when compared to controls. Ossification was not completed in vertebrae, cranial bones, and other bones in fry treated with 10(-8) M E(2) even 12 weeks after hatching. Sex ratio of control fry was 57% male and 43% female, whereas fry treated with 10(-8) M E(2) were 100% female eight weeks after hatching. The present results demonstrate that exogenous estrogen induced death of embryos and fry, malformations, sex reversal, and incomplete ossification of vertebrae and cranial bones, which would result in shorter body and head lengths and in malformed vertebrae leading to a hunchback condition. PMID:12410597

  18. Rad6 is a Potential Early Marker of Melanoma Development

    PubMed Central

    Rosner, Karli; Adsule, Shreelekha; Haynes, Brittany; Kirou, Evangelia; Kato, Ikuko; Mehregan, Darius R.; Shekhar, Malathy P.V.

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma is the leading cause of death from skin cancer in industrialized countries. Several melanoma-related biomarkers and signaling pathways have been identified; however, their relevance to melanoma development/progression or to clinical outcome remains to be established. Aberrant activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway is implicated in various cancers including melanoma. We have previously demonstrated Rad6, an ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, as an important mediator of β-catenin stability in breast cancer cells. Similar to breast cancer, β-catenin-activating mutations are rare in melanomas, and since β-catenin signaling is implicated in melanoma, we examined the relationship between β-catenin levels/activity and expression of β-catenin transcriptional targets Rad6 and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor-M (Mitf-M) in melanoma cell models, and expression of Rad6, β-catenin, and Melan-A in nevi and cutaneous melanoma tissue specimens. Our data show that Rad6 is only weakly expressed in normal human melanocytes but is overexpressed in melanoma lines. Unlike Mitf-M, Rad6 overexpression in melanoma lines is positively associated with high molecular weight β-catenin protein levels and β-catenin transcriptional activity. Double-immunofluorescence staining of Rad6 and Melan-A in melanoma tissue microarray showed that histological diagnosis of melanoma is significantly associated with Rad6/Melan-A dual positivity in the melanoma group compared to the nevi group (P = .0029). In contrast to strong β-catenin expression in normal and tumor areas of superficial spreading malignant melanoma (SSMM), Rad6 expression is undetectable in normal areas and Rad6 expression increases coincide with increased Melan-A in the transformed regions of SSMM. These data suggest a role for Rad6 in melanoma pathogenesis and that Rad6 expression status may serve as an early marker for melanoma development. PMID:24831578

  19. Rad6 is a Potential Early Marker of Melanoma Development.

    PubMed

    Rosner, Karli; Adsule, Shreelekha; Haynes, Brittany; Kirou, Evangelia; Kato, Ikuko; Mehregan, Darius R; Shekhar, Malathy P V

    2014-05-12

    Melanoma is the leading cause of death from skin cancer in industrialized countries. Several melanoma-related biomarkers and signaling pathways have been identified; however, their relevance to melanoma development/progression or to clinical outcome remains to be established. Aberrant activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway is implicated in various cancers including melanoma. We have previously demonstrated Rad6, an ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, as an important mediator of β-catenin stability in breast cancer cells. Similar to breast cancer, β-catenin-activating mutations are rare in melanomas, and since β-catenin signaling is implicated in melanoma, we examined the relationship between β-catenin levels/activity and expression of β-catenin transcriptional targets Rad6 and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor-M (Mitf-M) in melanoma cell models, and expression of Rad6, β-catenin, and Melan-A in nevi and cutaneous melanoma tissue specimens. Our data show that Rad6 is only weakly expressed in normal human melanocytes but is overexpressed in melanoma lines. Unlike Mitf-M, Rad6 overexpression in melanoma lines is positively associated with high molecular weight β-catenin protein levels and β-catenin transcriptional activity. Double-immunofluorescence staining of Rad6 and Melan-A in melanoma tissue microarray showed that histological diagnosis of melanoma is significantly associated with Rad6/Melan-A dual positivity in the melanoma group compared to the nevi group (P=.0029). In contrast to strong β-catenin expression in normal and tumor areas of superficial spreading malignant melanoma (SSMM), Rad6 expression is undetectable in normal areas and Rad6 expression increases coincide with increased Melan-A in the transformed regions of SSMM. These data suggest a role for Rad6 in melanoma pathogenesis and that Rad6 expression status may serve as an early marker for melanoma development. PMID:24831578

  20. Control of innate and adaptive immunity by the inflammasome

    PubMed Central

    Ciraci, Ceren; Janczy, John R.; Sutterwala, Fayyaz S.; Cassel, Suzanne L.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of innate immunity lies not only in directly confronting pathogenic and non-pathogenic insults but also in instructing the development of an efficient adaptive immune response. The Nlrp3 inflammasome provides a platform for the activation of caspase-1 with the subsequent processing and secretion of IL-1 family members. Given the importance of IL-1 in a variety of inflammatory diseases, understanding the role of Nlrp3 inflammasome in the initiation of innate and adaptive immune responses cannot be overstated. This review examines recent advances in inflammasome biology with an emphasis on its roles in sterile inflammation and triggering of adaptive immune responses. PMID:22841804

  1. Innate Lymphoid Cells: The Innate Counterpart to T Helper Cells.

    PubMed

    Padro Dietz, Caroline; Luong, Amber

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a recently discovered subset of innate immune cells that are capable of secreting great amounts of cytokines that have been found to influence effector cell activity. Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) in the absence (CRSsNP) or presence (CRSwNP) of nasal polyps has been characterized as type 1- and type 2-skewed, respectively, based on the presence of cytokines characteristic of type 1 and 2 immune responses. Based on the ability of type 1 ILCs to secrete interferon-x03B3;, a type 1 cytokine found elevated in CRSsNP and type 2 ILCs to secrete IL-5 and IL-13, type 2 cytokines found elevated in CRSwNP, it is essential to examine the role that ILCs may play in the pathogenesis of CRS. This chapter introduces each subset of ILC (type 1-3) and the non-CRS pathologies they have been associated with in both mouse and human models. It will discuss the current research into ILCs in CRS, particularly ILC2s and NK cells in CRSwNP. Finally, the chapter will consider the therapeutic implications of ILC involvement in CRS and highlight the needs for future research into the role that ILCs play in CRS. PMID:27466847

  2. Early development of Moniliophthora perniciosa basidiomata and developmentally regulated genes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    second in basidiomata, confirming their distinctiveness. The number of transcripts of the gene for plerototolysin B increased in reddish-pink mycelium and indicated an activation of the initial basidiomata production even at this culturing stage. Expression of the glucose transporter gene increased in mycelium after the stress, coinciding with a decrease of adenylate cyclase gene transcription. This indicated that nutrient uptake can be an important signal to trigger fruiting in this fungus. Conclusion The identification of genes with increased expression in this phase of the life cycle of M. perniciosa opens up new possibilities of controlling fungus spread as well as of genetic studies of biological processes that lead to basidiomycete fruiting. This is the first comparative morphologic study of the early development both in vivo and in vitro of M. perniciosa basidiomata and the first description of genes expressed at this stage of the fungal life cycle. PMID:19653910

  3. Investing in early human development: timing and economic efficiency.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Orla; Harmon, Colm P; Heckman, James J; Tremblay, Richard E

    2009-03-01

    Policy discussions to ameliorate socioeconomic (SES) inequalities are increasingly focused on investments in early childhood. Yet such interventions are costly to implement, and clear evidence on the optimal time to intervene to yield a high economic and social return in the future is meagre. The majority of successful early childhood interventions start in the preschool years. However socioeconomic gradients in cognitive skills, socio-emotional functioning and health can be observed by age three, suggesting that preventative programmes starting earlier in childhood may be even more effective. We discuss the optimal timing of early childhood intervention with reference to recent research in developmental neuroscience. We motivate the need for early intervention by providing an overview of the impact of adverse risk factors during the antenatal and early childhood periods on outcomes later in life. We provide a brief review of the economic rationale for investing early in life and propose the "antenatal investment hypothesis". We conclude by discussing a suite of new European interventions that will inform this optimal timing debate. PMID:19213617

  4. Investing in Early Human Development: Timing and Economic Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Orla; Harmon, Colm P.; Heckman, James J.; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    Policy discussions to ameliorate socioeconomic (SES) inequalities are increasingly focused on investments in early childhood. Yet such interventions are costly to implement, and clear evidence on the optimal time to intervene to yield a high economic and social return in the future is meagre. The majority of successful early childhood interventions start in the preschool years. However socioeconomic gradients in cognitive skills, socio-emotional functioning and health can be observed by age three, suggesting that preventative programmes starting earlier in childhood may be even more effective. We discuss the optimal timing of early childhood intervention with reference to recent research in developmental neuroscience. We motivate the need for early intervention by providing an overview of the impact of adverse risk factors during the antenatal and early childhood periods on outcomes later in life. We provide a brief review of the economic rationale for investing early in life and propose the “antenatal investment hypothesis”. We conclude by discussing a suite of new European interventions that will inform this optimal timing debate. PMID:19213617

  5. Early physical and motor development of mouse offspring exposed to valproic acid throughout intrauterine development.

    PubMed

    Podgorac, Jelena; Pešić, Vesna; Pavković, Željko; Martać, Ljiljana; Kanazir, Selma; Filipović, Ljupka; Sekulić, Slobodan

    2016-09-15

    Clinical research has identified developmental delay and physical malformations in children prenatally exposed to the antiepileptic drug (AED) valproic acid (VPA). However, the early signs of neurodevelopmental deficits, their evolution during postnatal development and growth, and the dose effects of VPA are not well understood. The present study aimed to examine the influence of maternal exposure to a wide dose range (50, 100, 200 and 400mg/kg/day) of VPA during breeding and gestation on early physical and neuromotor development in mice offspring. Body weight gain, eye opening, the surface righting reflex (SRR) and tail suspension test (TST) were examined in the offspring at postnatal days 5, 10 and 15. We observed that: (1) all tested doses of VPA reduced the body weight of the offspring and the timing of eye opening; (2) offspring exposed to VPA displayed immature forms of righting and required more time to complete the SRR; (3) latency for the first immobilization in the TST is shorter in offspring exposed to higher doses of VPA; however, mice in all groups exposed to VPA exhibited atypical changes in this parameter during the examined period of maturation; (4) irregularities in swinging and curling activities were observed in animals exposed to higher doses of VPA. This study points to delayed somatic development and postponed maturation of the motor system in all of the offspring prenatally exposed to VPA, with stronger effects observed at higher doses. The results implicate that the strategy of continuous monitoring of general health and achievements in motor milestones during the early postnatal development in prenatally VPA-exposed offspring, irrespectively of the dose applied, could help to recognize early developmental irregularities. PMID:27188530

  6. Restriction of Zika Virus by Host Innate Immunity.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xuping; Shan, Chao; Shi, Pei-Yong

    2016-05-11

    Recent epidemics of Zika virus (ZIKV) have brought increasing concerns of heightened disease severity and neurotropism. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Lazear et al. (2016) and Bayer et al. (2016) show that innate immunity can restrict ZIKV infection and disease development. PMID:27173920

  7. [Psychohygienic problems of development in early childhood (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Pechstein, J

    1976-01-01

    For a "social environmental protection" as one of the most urgent problems in infantile psychohygiene, the following conclusions should be taken into consideration: 1. In particular during the first years of life the development of the child is, within certain limits, sensitive to influences from the environment and therefore it can be fostered or disturbed from the outside. Congenital, prenatal, perinatal and postnatal injuries to the brain and sensory organs must be given great attention psychohygienically. 2. The social influences exercised on the child by persons of his environment, their availability, their emotional relationships and the development of a durable link predominate psychohygienically. In addition, the material security of young families and their type of accommodation (e.g. granting of loans to help set up a home) must be considered. 3. The possibilities of exercising a positive educational influence on a mentally and psychically sound development of the child as a person and member of society are greatest at the beginning of life and diminish during childhood. The effectiveness of negative educational and social interference factors is also subject to this rule from which again the necessity of adopting psychohygienic measures for the young child is derived. 4. The phenomenon of increasingly imbalanced behaviour of older children and juveniles which cause concern today, are as a rule symptoms of a chiefly environmentally determined disturbance upsetting the personality, which often originates in early childhood. Psychohygienic measures must be concentrated on this. 5. The inadequate care of young children accounting for one third of the population, a phenomenon which can be read in the statistical records and which has risen sharply during the last few years, makes it possible to forecast a further increase in developmental and behavioral disturbances of both an intellectual and psychological nature as well as in infantile and juvenile

  8. Seismic anisotropy and texture development during early stages of subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Leo, Jeanette; Walker, Andrew; Li, Zhong-Hai; Wookey, James; Ribe, Neil; Kendall, J.-Michael; Tommasi, Andréa

    2014-05-01

    Shear wave splitting measurements are frequently used to infer upper mantle flow trajectory, based on the fact that, under strain, olivine develops lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) textures in the convecting mantle. However, such inferences ought to be made carefully, since the relationship between splitting fast polarisation and olivine LPO depends on several factors, one of them being the deformation history of the volume of mantle in question. This is especially the case in regions such as subduction zones, where complex and time-dependent mantle flow occurs. Here, we present an integrated model to simulate strain-history-dependent LPO development and measure the resulting shear wave splitting in a subduction setting. We do this for a subduction model that approximates the geometry of the double-sided Molucca Sea subduction system in eastern Indonesia. We test a single-sided and a double-sided subduction case, and compare the results to shear wave splitting observations of this region. Since the subduction zone is fairly young, early textures from the slab's descent from the near-surface to the bottom of the mantle transition zone - which we simulate in our models - have not yet been overprinted by subsequent continuous flow. It further allows us to test the significance of the double-sided geometry, i.e., the need for a rear barrier to achieve trench-parallel sub-slab mantle flow. We simulate olivine LPO evolution in polycrystalline aggregates as they move and deform along pathlines extracted from a 3-D mantle flow model. Interactions between crystals are described using the visco-plastic self-consistent (VPSC) approach. Unlike previous studies, we consider the entire subduction history from subduction initiation onwards. After calculating elastic properties associated with LPO textures, we estimate the resulting splitting parameters (fast direction φ, delay time δt) for synthetic SKS phases. Our models demonstrate that complex, backazimuth

  9. Early Childhood Development in the Dixie Bloor Community of Mississauga, Ontario. Understanding the Early Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources Development Canada, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the Early Years (UEY) is a national research initiative. It provides communities with information to enable them to make informed decisions about the best policies and most appropriate programs for Canadian families with young children. This report is based on one of seven communities studied in 2001-2002. Children's outcomes were…

  10. Early Childhood Development in the Montreal Study Area (Quebec). Understanding the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources Development Canada, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the Early Years (UEY) is a national research initiative. It provides communities with information to enable them to make informed decisions about the best policies and most appropriate programs for Canadian families with young children. This report is based on one of seven communities studied in 2001-2002. Children's outcomes were…

  11. Early Childhood Development in Hampton/Sussex, New Brunswick. Understanding the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willms, J. Douglas

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the Early Years (UEY) is a national research initiative. It provides communities with information to enable them to make informed decisions about the best policies and most appropriate programs for Canadian families with young children. This report is based on one of seven communities studied in 2001-2002. Children's outcomes were…

  12. Early Childhood Development in Niagara Falls, Ontario. Understanding the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilms, Douglas J.

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the Early Years (UEY) is a national research initiative. It provides communities with information to enable them to make informed decisions about the best policies and most appropriate programs for Canadian families with young children. This report is based on one of seven communities studied in 2001-2002. Children's outcomes were…

  13. Early Childhood Development in Abbotsford, British Columbia. Understanding the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources Development Canada, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the Early Years (UEY) is a national research initiative. It provides communities with information to enable them to make informed decisions about the best policies and most appropriate programs for Canadian families with young children. This report is based on one of seven communities studied in 2001-2002. Children's outcomes were…

  14. Pathogen Recognition and Inflammatory Signaling in Innate Immune Defenses

    PubMed Central

    Mogensen, Trine H.

    2009-01-01

    Summary: The innate immune system constitutes the first line of defense against invading microbial pathogens and relies on a large family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which detect distinct evolutionarily conserved structures on pathogens, termed pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Among the PRRs, the Toll-like receptors have been studied most extensively. Upon PAMP engagement, PRRs trigger intracellular signaling cascades ultimately culminating in the expression of a variety of proinflammatory molecules, which together orchestrate the early host response to infection, and also is a prerequisite for the subsequent activation and shaping of adaptive immunity. In order to avoid immunopathology, this system is tightly regulated by a number of endogenous molecules that limit the magnitude and duration of the inflammatory response. Moreover, pathogenic microbes have developed sophisticated molecular strategies to subvert host defenses by interfering with molecules involved in inflammatory signaling. This review presents current knowledge on pathogen recognition through different families of PRRs and the increasingly complex signaling pathways responsible for activation of an inflammatory and antimicrobial response. Moreover, medical implications are discussed, including the role of PRRs in primary immunodeficiencies and in the pathogenesis of infectious and autoimmune diseases, as well as the possibilities for translation into clinical and therapeutic applications. PMID:19366914

  15. Bridging innate NK cell functions with adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Marcenaro, Emanuela; Carlomagno, Simona; Pesce, Silvia; Moretta, Alessandro; Sivori, Simona

    2011-01-01

    Killer Ig-like receptors (KIRs) are major human NK receptors displaying either inhibitory or activating functions which recognize allotypic determinants of HLA-class I molecules. Surprisingly, NK cell treatment with CpG-ODN (TLR9 ligands) results in selective down-modulation of KIR3DL2, its co-internalization with CpG-ODN and its translocation to TLR9-rich early endosomes. This novel KIR-associated function may offer clues to better understand the possible role of certain KIRs and also emphasizes the involvement of NK cells in the course of microbial infections. NK cells are involved not only in innate immune responses against viruses and tumors but also participate in the complex network of cell-to cell interaction that leads to the development of adaptive immune responses. In this context the interaction of NK cells with DC appears to play a crucial role in the acquisition of CCR7, a chemokine receptor that enables NK cells to migrate towards lymph nodes in response to CCL19 and/or CCL21. Analysis of NK cell clones revealed that KIR-mismatched but not KIR-matched NK cells acquire CCR7. These data have important implications in haploidentical haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), in which KIR-mismatched NK cells may acquire the ability to migrate to secondary lymphoid compartments (SLCs), where they can kill recipient's antigen presenting cells (APCs) and T cells thus preventing graft versus host (and host vs. graft) reactions. PMID:21842364

  16. Social Deprivation and the HPA Axis in Early Development

    PubMed Central

    Koss, Kalsea J.; Hostinar, Camelia E.; Donzella, Bonny; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that early social deprivation impacts the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Early adverse care in the form of institutional or orphanage care provides a human model for early social deprivation. The present study examined changes in diurnal cortisol during the transition to family care in the first two years post-adoption. Children adopted between 15 and 36 months from institutional care were examined four times during their first two years post-adoption (N=58). Comparison groups included same-aged peers reared in their birth families (N=50) and children adopted during their first year from overseas foster care (N=47). Children provided daily cortisol samples at roughly 2, 9, 17, and 25 months post-adoption. Post-institutionalized and post-foster care children exhibited less steep diurnal cortisol compared to non-adopted same-aged peers; these differences did not diminish across the two year period. For post-institutionalized children, lower social care quality in institutions was associated with less steep cortisol slopes. Lastly, shallower diurnal cortisol was a mediator between adoption status and increased behavioral problems two years post-adoption. Consistent with the non-human primate literature, early social deprivation may contribute to early programming of the HPA axis. PMID:25150507

  17. Linking Play to Early Learning and Development Guidelines: Possibility or Polemic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Sharon Lynn; Scott-Little, Catherine; Frelow, Victoria Stebbins

    2009-01-01

    Early learning and development guidelines have often been regarded as a deterrent to an emphasis on play within early learning settings for infants and toddlers. In examining the context for, and the evolution of, early learning guidelines, the article delineates the need to scrutinize and help reverse this mindset. To that end, the authors…

  18. Developing and Validating a Survey of Korean Early Childhood English Teachers' Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jung In

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to develop and validate a valid measure of the early childhood (EC) English teacher knowledge. Through extensive literature review on second/foreign language (L2/FL) teacher knowledge, early childhood teacher knowledge and early childhood language teacher knowledge, and semi-structured interviews from current…

  19. Applying a Response-to-Intervention Model for Early Literacy Development in Low-Income Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettinger, Maribeth; Stoiber, Karen

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the design and implementation of a program that incorporates a response-to-intervention (RTI) framework for promoting the development of early literacy and language skills among low-income minority children. The early literacy program, called the Exemplary Model of Early Reading Growth and Excellence, or EMERGE, combines…

  20. Development of a Tier 3 Curriculum to Teach Early Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminski, Ruth A.; Powell-Smith, Kelly A.; Hommel, Annie; McMahon, Rose; Aguayo, Katherine Bravo

    2014-01-01

    Children with the lowest oral language and early literacy skills at entry to kindergarten are the most vulnerable to poor literacy outcomes. This article describes the programmatic development of a Tier 3 early literacy intervention for preschool children who are most in need of intensive support to achieve early literacy outcomes. The…

  1. Song discrimination by nestling collared flycatchers during early development.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, S Eryn; Söderberg, Axel; Wheatcroft, David; Qvarnström, Anna

    2016-07-01

    Pre-zygotic isolation is often maintained by species-specific signals and preferences. However, in species where signals are learnt, as in songbirds, learning errors can lead to costly hybridization. Song discrimination expressed during early developmental stages may ensure selective learning later in life but can be difficult to demonstrate before behavioural responses are obvious. Here, we use a novel method, measuring changes in metabolic rate, to detect song perception and discrimination in collared flycatcher embryos and nestlings. We found that nestlings as early as 7 days old respond to song with increased metabolic rate, and, by 9 days old, have increased metabolic rate when listening to conspecific when compared with heterospecific song. This early discrimination between songs probably leads to fewer heterospecific matings, and thus higher fitness of collared flycatchers living in sympatry with closely related species. PMID:27405379

  2. Song discrimination by nestling collared flycatchers during early development

    PubMed Central

    Söderberg, Axel; Wheatcroft, David; Qvarnström, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Pre-zygotic isolation is often maintained by species-specific signals and preferences. However, in species where signals are learnt, as in songbirds, learning errors can lead to costly hybridization. Song discrimination expressed during early developmental stages may ensure selective learning later in life but can be difficult to demonstrate before behavioural responses are obvious. Here, we use a novel method, measuring changes in metabolic rate, to detect song perception and discrimination in collared flycatcher embryos and nestlings. We found that nestlings as early as 7 days old respond to song with increased metabolic rate, and, by 9 days old, have increased metabolic rate when listening to conspecific when compared with heterospecific song. This early discrimination between songs probably leads to fewer heterospecific matings, and thus higher fitness of collared flycatchers living in sympatry with closely related species. PMID:27405379

  3. Heterogeneity and diversity of group 3 innate lymphoid cells: new cells on the block.

    PubMed

    Satoh-Takayama, Naoko

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a newly identified subset of innate cells that play fundamentally crucial roles for early immune defense at mucosal and non-mucosal sites. ILCs consist of ILC1s, ILC2s and ILC3s, which each have distinct transcription factors controlling their development and function. Interestingly, each of the ILC subsets represents the innate counterparts of CD4(+) helper T-cell subsets T(h1), T(h2) and T(h17) on the basis of transcriptional regulation. ILC1s that produce IFN-γ or TNF-α, ILC2s that produce T(h2)-type cytokines mainly such as IL-5 or IL-13 and ILC3s have been recently reported and reviewed in terms of IL-22- or IL-17-producing function and cell development. However, in this relatively new field, it remains likely that additional functional and regulatory mechanisms remain to be explored. More recent findings show that ILC3s are regulated by RORγt, which plays an important role for the mucosal barrier and surface protection against pathogenic bacterial infection. ILC3s might cooperate with other cells (e.g. T cells or dendritic cells) directly or indirectly, and subsequently ILC3s have impact on tissues with prompt regulation. Especially, ILC3s in mucosal site are well known to protect the intestinal surface barrier through inducible anti-microbial peptides via IL-22. Here, I will summarize and discuss the roles, function and heterogeneity of ILC3s in mucosal tissues. PMID:26462712

  4. Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase-1 functions regulate key aspects of the innate immune response.

    PubMed

    Aldhamen, Yasser A; Seregin, Sergey S; Rastall, David P W; Aylsworth, Charles F; Pepelyayeva, Yuliya; Busuito, Christopher J; Godbehere-Roosa, Sarah; Kim, Sungjin; Amalfitano, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase-1 (ERAP1) is a multifunctional, ubiquitously expressed enzyme whose peptide-trimming role during antigen processing for presentation by MHC I molecules is well established, however, a role for ERAP1 in modulating global innate immune responses has not been described to date. Here we demonstrate that, relative to wild type mice, mice lacking ERAP1 exhibit exaggerated innate immune responses early during pathogen recognition, as characterized by increased activation of splenic and hepatic NK and NKT cells and enhanced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL12 and MCP1. Our data also revealed that ERAP1 is playing a critical role in NK cell development and function. We observed higher frequencies of terminally matured NK cells, as well as higher frequencies of licensed NK cells (expressing the Ly49C and Ly49I receptors) in ERAP1-KO mice, results that positively correlated with an enhanced NK activation and IFNγ production by ERAP1-KO mice challenged with pro-inflammatory stimuli. Furthermore, during pathogen recognition, ERAP1 regulates IL12 production by CD11c(+) DCs specifically, with increases in IL12 production positively correlated with an increased phagocytic activity of splenic DCs and macrophages. Collectively, our results demonstrate a previously unrecognized, more central role for the ERAP1 protein in modulating several aspects of both the development of the innate immune system, and its responses during the initial stages of pathogen recognition. Such a role may explain why ERAP1 has been implicated by GWAS in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases that may be precipitated by aberrant responses to pathogen encounters. PMID:23894499

  5. Identification and Validation of Ifit1 as an Important Innate Immune Bottleneck

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, Jason E.; Vartanian, Keri B.; Mitchell, Hugh D.; Stevens, S.L.; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Stenzel-Poore, Mary

    2012-06-20

    The innate immune system plays important roles in a number of disparate processes. Foremost, innate immunity is a first responder to invasion by pathogens and triggers early defensive responses and recruits the adaptive immune system. The innate immune system also responds to endogenous damage signals that arise from tissue injury. Recently it has been found that innate immunity plays an important role in neuroprotection against ischemic stroke through the activation of the primary innate immune receptors, Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Using several large-scale transcriptomic data sets from mouse and mouse macrophage studies we identified targets predicted to be important in controlling innate immune processes initiated by TLR activation. Targets were identified as genes with high betweenness centrality, so-called bottlenecks, in networks inferred from statistical associations between gene expression patterns. A small set of putative bottlenecks were identified in each of the data sets investigated including interferon-stimulated genes (Ifit1, Ifi47, Tgtp and Oasl2) as well as genes uncharacterized in immune responses (Axud1 and Ppp1r15a). We further validated one of these targets, Ifit1, in mouse macrophages by showing that silencing it suppresses induction of predicted downstream genes by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated TLR4 activation through an unknown direct or indirect mechanism. Our study demonstrates the utility of network analysis for identification of interesting targets related to innate immune function, and highlights that Ifit1 can exert a positive regulatory effect on downstream genes.

  6. Infant Brain Development: Making the Research Work for Early Childhood Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Paula

    2000-01-01

    Surveys early brain development research. Discusses the importance of attachment, windows of opportunity, and the importance of quality in care. Suggests 6 ways to promote healthy development, lists 10 things every child needs, and poses 12 questions to ask about early brain development. (DLH)

  7. Rethinking the Relationship between Learning and Development: Teaching for Learning in Early Childhood Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, J. Amos

    2010-01-01

    This article challenges the overemphasis in early childhood education on young children's development and its relative inattention to their learning. The author argues that learning leads cognitive development, and that early childhood educators should be more centered on teaching for learning and less on facilitating development. An alternative…

  8. Brain Development and the Role of Experience in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, Adrienne L.; Nelson, Charles A., III

    2009-01-01

    Research over the past several decades has provided insight into the processes that govern early brain development and how those processes contribute to behavior. In this article, the authors provide an overview of early brain development beginning with a summary of the prenatal period. They then turn to postnatal development and examine how brain…

  9. The Structure and Development of Dispositional Compassion in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bengtsson, Hans; Söderström, Micael; Terjestam, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Compassion may be directed at a broad range of targets. The present study investigated interrelations among other-directed compassion, self-compassion, and environmental compassion in early adolescence (age = 12-14; n = 256) and examined how the different manifestations of compassion related to age and sex during this age period. Dispositional…

  10. Early Development of Graphical Literacy through Knowledge Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gan, Yongcheng; Scardamalia, Marlene; Hong, Huang-Yao; Zhang, Jianwei

    2010-01-01

    This study examined growth in graphical literacy for students contributing to an online, multimedia, communal environment as they advanced their understanding of biology, history and optics. Their science and history studies started early in Grade 3 and continued to the end of Grade 4; students did not receive instruction in graphics production,…

  11. Developing, Implementing, and Assessing an Early Alert System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tampke, Dale R.

    2013-01-01

    Early alert systems offer institutions systematic approaches to identifying and intervening with students exhibiting at-risk behaviors. Many of these systems rely on a common format for student referral to central receiving point. Systems at larger institutions often use web-based technology to allow for a scalable (available campus wide) approach…

  12. Mathematical and Scientific Development in Early Childhood: A Workshop Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Alix

    2005-01-01

    The National Research Council (NRC), through the Center for Education (CFE), wishes to build on the work in early childhood it has already done. In particular, the NRC wishes to focus on research on young children and their learning of mathematical and scientific ideas. The workshop that is the subject of this report, one in a series of workshops…

  13. Early Childhood Professionalism in Serbia: Current Issues and Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bankovic, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    This article explores early childhood professionalism in the Republic of Serbia. The concept of professionalism in this context is examined in light of current international debates about professionalism. More specifically, how the use of specific nomenclature, the existence of multi-professional teams of practitioners and state-regulated but…

  14. Boosting Early Development: The Mixed Effects of Kindergarten Enrollment Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jiahui; Xin, Tao

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of kindergarten enrollment age on four-year-old Chinese children's early cognition and problem behavior using multilevel models. The sample comprised of 1,391 pre-school children (the mean age is 4.58 years old) from 74 kindergartens in six different provinces. The results demonstrated curvilinear…

  15. Discontinuities in Early Development of the Understanding of Physical Causality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aschersleben, Gisa; Henning, Anne; Daum, Moritz M.

    2013-01-01

    Research on early physical reasoning has shown surprising discontinuities in developmental trajectories. Infants possess some skills that seem to disappear and then re-emerge in childhood. It has been suggested that prediction skills required in search tasks might cause these discontinuities (Keen, 2003). We tested 3.5- to 5-year-olds'…

  16. Developing Integrated Programs: A Transdisciplinary Approach for Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coling, Marcia Cain

    This book presents an amalgam of early intervention ideas from the fields of education, occupational therapy, and physical therapy for children with developmental delays. An introductory chapter describes the approach's three theoretical bases: neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT), sensory integration, and Piagetian theory. Chapter 1 considers…

  17. Investing in Kids: Early Childhood Programs and Local Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartik, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood programs, if designed correctly, pay big economic dividends down the road because they increase the skills of their participants. And since many of those participants will remain in the same state or local area as adults, the local economy benefits: more persons with better skills attract business, which provides more and better…

  18. Further Development of Measures of Early Math Performance for Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanDerHeyden, Amanda M.; Broussard, Carmen; Cooley, Amanda

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the progress monitoring and screening accuracy for a set of curriculum-based measures (CBM) of early mathematics skills. Measures included counting objects, selecting numbers, naming numbers, counting, and visual discrimination. Measures were designed to be administered with preschoolers in a short period…

  19. Incremental Validity in the Clinical Assessment of Early Childhood Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xin; Zhou, Xiaobin; Lackaff, Julie

    2013-01-01

    The authors demonstrate the increment of clinical validity in early childhood assessment of physical impairment (PI), developmental delay (DD), and autism (AUT) using multiple standardized developmental screening measures such as performance measures and parent and teacher rating scales. Hierarchical regression and sensitivity/specificity analyses…

  20. Sustaining Care: Cultivating Mindful Practice in Early Years Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taggart, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    The practitioner's own self is a resource in early childhood education and care (ECEC). It is proposed that an experiential training focusing on the "professional self" helps to raise awareness of how psychological dispositions may impair or enhance quality of provision. A key concept in such training is emotional labour, explored with…